Science.gov

Sample records for state-level feed-in tariffs

  1. Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs: Federal Law Constraints and Possible Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hempling, S.; Elefant, C.; Cory, K.; Porter, K.

    2010-01-01

    State legislatures and state utility commissions trying to attract renewable energy projects are considering feed-in tariffs, which obligate retail utilities to purchase electricity from renewable producers under standard arrangements specifying prices, terms, and conditions. The use of feed-in tariffs simplifies the purchase process, provides revenue certainty to generators, and reduces the cost of financing generating projects. However, some argue that federal law--including the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) and the Federal Power Act of 1935 (FPA)--constrain state-level feed-in tariffs. This report seeks to reduce the legal uncertainties for states contemplating feed-in tariffs by explaining the constraints imposed by federal statutes. It describes the federal constraints, identifies transaction categories that are free of those constraints, and offers ways for state and federal policymakers to interpret or modify existing law to remove or reduce these constraints. This report proposes ways to revise these federal statutes. It creates a broad working definition of a state-level feed-in tariff. Given this definition, this report concludes there are paths to non-preempted, state-level feed-in tariffs under current federal law.

  2. Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs. Federal Law Constraints and Possible Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hempling, Scott; Elefant, Carolyn; Cory, Karlynn; Porter, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    This report details how state feed-in tariff (FIT) programs can be legally implemented and how they can comply with federal requirements. The report describes the federal constraints on FIT programs and identifies legal methods that are free of those constrains.

  3. Feed-in Tariffs: Good Practices and Design Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Sadie; Esterly, Sean

    2016-01-02

    In recent years, feed-in tariff (FIT) activity has focused primarily on revisions to current policies, underscoring the need for stable and predictable, yet flexible, policy environments. This policy brief provides a primer on key FIT design elements, lessons from country experience, and support resources to enable more detailed and country-specific FIT policy design.

  4. Feed-in Tariff Policy: Design, Implementation, and RPS Policy Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, K.; Couture, T.; Kreycik, C.

    2009-03-01

    Feed-in tariff (FIT) policies are implemented in more than 40 countries around the world and are cited as the primary reason for the success of the German and Spanish renewable energy markets. As a result of that success, FIT policy proposals are starting to gain traction in several U.S. states and municipalities. Experience from Europe is also beginning to demonstrate that properly designed FITs may be more cost-effective than renewable portfolio standards (RPS), which make use of competitive solicitations. This article explores the design and operation of feed-in tariff policies, including a FIT policy definition, payment-structure options, and payment differentiation. The article also touches on the potential interactions between FIT policies and RPS policies at the state level.

  5. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, Claire; Couture, Toby D.; Cory, Karlynn S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent policy used globally to reduce development risks, cut financing costs, and grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control. Using case studies and market-focused analysis, this report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) examines strengths and weaknesses of three cost-containment tools: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report provides useful insights on containing costs for policymakers and regulators in the United States and other areas where FIT policies are in development.

  6. Proposal Of A Spanish CPV Feed-in Tariff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Higueras, P.; Muñoz, E.; Almonacid, G.; Vidal, P. G.; Banda, P.; Luque-Heredia, I.; Valera, P.; Cabrerizo, M.

    2010-10-01

    The recent research and field experiences in CPV systems have proved that this technology has present and potential advantages when compared with other sources of energy. Despite of that, if this technology wants to initiate its learning curve with the increment of the production and the consequent price reduction, it is necessary an institutional support that allows this technology to compete against other sources of energy through the creation of a favourable and attractive economic environment for potential investors to get interested in this new technology. Nowadays, Spain is a world CPV referent. The research developed by some of its organism and the industrial experience obtained in the past years through the installation of thousands of MW, is a guarantee of its scientific and industrial potential. The intention of this report is to justify the reasons to set aside a power cap of 10 MW in the Spanish PV regulatory framework dedicated exclusively to CPV systems, and the increment of the feed-in tariff in 10.2 c€/kWh over the present tariff and to reduce progressively this support in a 13% annual until it reaches the flat PV tariff.

  7. Supporting Effective Feed-in Tariff Development in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    2016-04-01

    Since 2011, Malaysia's overarching policy framework for clean energy development, the New Energy Policy, has led to significant deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Building on the New Energy Policy, Malaysia mandated adoption of a renewable energy feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism under the 2011 Renewable Energy Act. In 2013, Malaysia's Sustainable Energy Development Authority partnered with the Clean Energy Solutions Center and the Clean Energy Regulators Initiative (CERI), via the Ask an Expert service, to implement FiT policies and expand renewable energy development. Through collaboration between the government of Malaysia and the Clean Energy Solutions Center, concrete policy action was supported and implemented, building a strong framework to expand and catalyze clean energy development.

  8. A Policymaker's Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, Toby D.; Cory, Karlynn; Kreycik, Claire; Williams, Emily

    2010-07-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most widely used renewable energy policy in the world for driving accelerating renewable energy (RE) deployment, accounting for a greater share of RE development than either tax incentives or renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies. FITs have generated significant RE deployment, helping bring the countries that have implemented them successfully to the forefront of the global RE industry. In the European Union (EU), FIT policies have led to the deployment of more than 15,000 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) power and more than 55,000 MW of wind power between 2000 and the end of 2009. In total, FITs are responsible for approximately 75% of global PV and 45% of global wind deployment. Countries such as Germany, in particular, have demonstrated that FITs can be used as a powerful policy tool to drive RE deployment and help meet combined energy security and emissions reductions objectives. This policymaker’s guide provides a detailed analysis of FIT policy design and implementation and identifies a set of best practices that have been effective at quickly stimulating the deployment of large amounts of RE generation.

  9. Policymaker's Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, T. D.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.; Williams, E.

    2010-07-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most widely used renewable energy policy in the world for driving accelerating renewable energy (RE) deployment, accounting for a greater share of RE development than either tax incentives or renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies. FITs have generated significant RE deployment, helping bring the countries that have implemented them successfully to the forefront of the global RE industry. In the European Union (EU), FIT policies have led to the deployment of more than 15,000 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) power and more than 55,000 MW of wind power between 2000 and the end of 2009. In total, FITs are responsible for approximately 75% of global PV and 45% of global wind deployment. Countries such as Germany, in particular, have demonstrated that FITs can be used as a powerful policy tool to drive RE deployment and help meet combined energy security and emissions reductions objectives. This policymaker's guide provides a detailed analysis of FIT policy design and implementation and identifies a set of best practices that have been effective at quickly stimulating the deployment of large amounts of RE generation. Although the discussion is aimed primarily at decision makers who have decided that a FIT policy best suits their needs, exploration of FIT policies can also help inform a choice among alternative renewable energy policies.

  10. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

  11. Feed-in tariffs: misfits in the Federal and state regulatory regime?

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, Teresa E.; Peabody, Jeffrey M.

    2010-10-15

    While some states seeking to develop energy policies that promote fuel diversity and greater use of renewable resources have responded by enacting renewable portfolio standards, others, like California, have sought to capture some of the success demonstrated from the use of feed-in tariffs in countries such as Germany. Yet, as the California Public Utilities Commission's FIT Order makes clear, states are greatly limited in their ability to adopt feed-in tariffs. (author)

  12. Overall review of feed-in tariff and renewable portfolio standard policy: A perspective of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Q. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Yang, L.; Wang, X.

    2016-08-01

    A major share of China's total carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is from the electric power sector. To solve this problem, Chinese government has implemented many renewable energy policies in the electric power sector. In China, the most popular renewable energy policies are Feed-in tariff (FIT) and renewable portfolio standard (RPS). This paper first introduces the current development of renewable electricity generation. Second the design plan and implement of FIT and RPS in China's thermal electricity generation sector are summarized in this paper. Third this paper establishes a complementary mode of FIT and RPS which can provide a stable environment to make the FIT and RPS work together. Finally, based on the above analysis, this paper proposes relative suggestions for the implementation of FIT and RPS in China making recommendation for the development of electricity generation from renewable energy.

  13. Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.

    2010-10-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

  14. The Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Sari; Porter, Kevin; Rogers, Jennifer

    2010-10-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15–20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

  15. Photovoltaics: reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and changing PV efficiencies and costs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H L; Van Gerven, T; Baeyens, J; Degrève, J

    2014-01-01

    Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i) briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii) describes the developments of PV, (iii) applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57 m² photovoltaic system (Belgium); and finally (iv) predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313 €/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future.

  16. Photovoltaics: Reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and Changing PV Efficiencies and Costs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H. L.; Van Gerven, T.; Baeyens, J.; Degrève, J.

    2014-01-01

    Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i) briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii) describes the developments of PV, (iii) applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57 m² photovoltaic system (Belgium); and finally (iv) predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313 €/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future. PMID:24959614

  17. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) Project: An Analysis of Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs in the United States (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, T.; Cory, K.

    2009-06-01

    This report analyzes renewable energy feed-in tariff (FIT) policies and explores the different FIT policies currently implemented in the United States. It also discusses of a few proposed policies, the best practices in FIT policy design, and examines how FITs can be used to target state policy goals. The report covers current and potential future interactions between FITs and other state and federal energy policies while also providing an overview of the impacts FIT policies have in terms of renewable energy deployment, job creation, and economic development.

  18. Quantitative Effectiveness Analysis of Solar Photovoltaic Policies, Introduction of Socio-Feed-in Tariff Mechanism (SocioFIT) and its Implementation in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafaoglu, Mustafa Sinan

    Some of the main energy issues in developing countries are high dependence on non-renewable energy sources, low energy efficiency levels and as a result of this high amount of CO2 emissions. Besides, a common problem of many countries including developing countries is economic inequality problem. In the study, solar photovoltaic policies of Germany, Japan and the USA is analyzed through a quantitative analysis and a new renewable energy support mechanism called Socio Feed-in Tariff Mechanism (SocioFIT) is formed based on the analysis results to address the mentioned issues of developing countries as well as economic inequality problem by using energy savings as a funding source for renewable energy systems. The applicability of the mechanism is solidified by the calculations in case of an implementation of the mechanism in Turkey.

  19. Transforming on-grid renewable energy markets. A review of UNDP-GEF support for feed-in tariffs and related price and market-access instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Glemarec, Yannick; Rickerson, Wilson; Waissbein, Oliver

    2012-11-15

    As a Global Environment Facility (GEF) founding implementing agency, UNDP has worked on over 230 GEF-supported clean energy projects in close to 100 developing countries since 1992. About 100 of these projects in 80 countries have focused on renewable energy, supported by approximately US $ 293 million in GEF funds and leveraging US $1.48 billion in associated co-financing from national governments, international organizations, the private sector and non-governmental organizations. As part of UNDP efforts to codify and share lessons learnt from these initiatives, this report addresses how scarce public resources can be used to catalyze larger private financial flows for renewable energy. It provides an overview of UNDP-GEF’s extensive work supporting development of national renewable energy policies such as feed-in tariffs. In these activities UNDP-GEF assists developing countries to assess key risks and barriers to technology diffusion and then to identify a mix of policy and financial de-risking measures to remove these barriers and drive investment. This approach is illustrated through three case studies in Uruguay, Mauritius and Kazakhstan. This report is complemented by a companion publication presenting an innovative UNDP financial modeling tool to assist policymakers in appraising different public instruments to promote clean energy.

  20. Tariffs Formation on oil transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glyzina, T. S.; Kolbysheva, Yu. V.; Grivtsova, I. S.; Dmitrieva, N. V.

    2016-09-01

    Oil transportation via trunk pipelines is an important part of the oil industry's activity. The main instrument of tariff regulation is the method of tariffs formation. Three methods of tariffs formation such as the method of economically justified costs (the Cost plus method), the method of economically justified return on investment capital (the RAB method), and the method of tariffs indexation were considered.

  1. 14 CFR 221.123 - Re-use of Special Tariff Permission when tariff is rejected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Re-use of Special Tariff Permission when... Statutory Notice § 221.123 Re-use of Special Tariff Permission when tariff is rejected. If a tariff... be used in a tariff issued in lieu of such rejected tariff provided that such re-use is not...

  2. 46 CFR 520.4 - Tariff contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tariff contents. 520.4 Section 520.4 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.4 Tariff contents. (a) General. Tariffs published pursuant to this part shall: (1) State the places between which cargo will be carried;...

  3. 46 CFR 520.4 - Tariff contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tariff contents. 520.4 Section 520.4 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.4 Tariff contents. (a) General. Tariffs published pursuant to this part shall: (1) State the places between which cargo will be carried;...

  4. 46 CFR 520.4 - Tariff contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tariff contents. 520.4 Section 520.4 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.4 Tariff contents. (a) General. Tariffs published pursuant to this part shall: (1) State the places between which cargo will be carried;...

  5. 46 CFR 520.4 - Tariff contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tariff contents. 520.4 Section 520.4 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.4 Tariff contents. (a) General. Tariffs published pursuant to this part shall: (1) State the places between which cargo will be carried;...

  6. 18 CFR 154.3 - Effective tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... connection with, the transportation or sale of natural gas subject to the jurisdiction of the Commission, or... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS General Provisions and Conditions § 154.3 Effective tariff. (a) The effective tariff of a natural gas company is the tariff...

  7. 14 CFR 221.400 - Filing of paper tariffs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing of paper tariffs required. 221.400... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.400 Filing of paper tariffs...; and (2) Simultaneously cancel such records from the paper tariff in the manner prescribed by...

  8. 14 CFR 221.400 - Filing of paper tariffs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Filing of paper tariffs required. 221.400... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.400 Filing of paper tariffs...; and (2) Simultaneously cancel such records from the paper tariff in the manner prescribed by...

  9. 14 CFR 221.400 - Filing of paper tariffs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Filing of paper tariffs required. 221.400... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.400 Filing of paper tariffs...; and (2) Simultaneously cancel such records from the paper tariff in the manner prescribed by...

  10. 14 CFR 221.400 - Filing of paper tariffs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Filing of paper tariffs required. 221.400... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.400 Filing of paper tariffs...; and (2) Simultaneously cancel such records from the paper tariff in the manner prescribed by...

  11. 14 CFR 221.400 - Filing of paper tariffs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Filing of paper tariffs required. 221.400... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.400 Filing of paper tariffs...; and (2) Simultaneously cancel such records from the paper tariff in the manner prescribed by...

  12. 14 CFR 221.212 - Special tariff permission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) When a filer submits an electronic tariff or an amendment to an electronic tariff for which authority is sought to effect changes on less than bilateral/statutory notice, and no related tariff material... notice. (b) When a filer submits an electronic tariff or an amendment to the electronic tariff for...

  13. 75 FR 82382 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... FERC staff of lessons learn since the implementation of eTariff. \\1\\ Electronic Tariff Filings, Order...'s eLibrary Description for eTariff filings; (2) an explanation and discussion of the eTariff Viewer... referencing during the conference on the eTariff Web site to make them accessible to those using the...

  14. 18 CFR 341.3 - Form of tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES... commodity to which the tariff applies, e.g., crude, petroleum product, or jet fuel; (iv) Governing tariffs... tariff publication that cancels a previous tariff publication does not include points of origin...

  15. 18 CFR 341.3 - Form of tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES... commodity to which the tariff applies, e.g., crude, petroleum product, or jet fuel; (iv) Governing tariffs... tariff publication that cancels a previous tariff publication does not include points of origin...

  16. 18 CFR 341.3 - Form of tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES... commodity to which the tariff applies, e.g., crude, petroleum product, or jet fuel; (iv) Governing tariffs... tariff publication that cancels a previous tariff publication does not include points of origin...

  17. 14 CFR 221.94 - Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable to the balance of the system, such matter, insofar as it applies over the balance of the system... changes and new matter in tariffs. 221.94 Section 221.94 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... With Department § 221.94 Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs....

  18. 47 CFR 64.709 - Informational tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Informational tariffs. 64.709 Section 64.709... Bell Operating Companies; Telephone Operator Services § 64.709 Informational tariffs. (a) Informational... cents for each interstate operator service of the carrier and shall also contain applicable per...

  19. A Classroom Tariff-Setting Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Niven

    2006-01-01

    The author outlines a classroom tariff-setting game that allows students to explore the consequences of import tariffs imposed by large countries (countries able to influence world prices). Groups of students represent countries, which are organized into trading pairs. Each group's objective is to maximize welfare by choosing an appropriate ad…

  20. 46 CFR 520.5 - Standard tariff terminology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard tariff terminology. 520.5 Section 520.5... AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.5 Standard tariff terminology. (a) Approved codes. The Standard Terminology Appendix.... They are intended to provide a standard terminology baseline for tariffs to facilitate...

  1. 14 CFR 292.22 - Effectiveness of tariffs on file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effectiveness of tariffs on file. 292.22... Effectiveness of tariffs on file. (a) Cargo rate tariffs on file with the Department, including related classification and/or applicability rules, cease to be effective as tariffs under 49 U.S.C. 41504 and 41510,...

  2. 75 FR 12540 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Technical Conference March 9, 2010. As... electronic tariff filing's data elements is the Type of Filing Code. \\1\\ Electronic Tariff Filings, Order No... addressed the tariff filing definitions used for electronic filings and the attachments that are...

  3. The Context of State Level Policy Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine; And Others

    Individual members of state legislatures wield the greatest influence in state level policy formation. This was one of the findings of a study that identified the power and influence context of state-level policymaking. Data were gathered from six states (Arizona, California, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Illinois) using an instrument…

  4. 14 CFR 221.202 - The filing of tariffs and amendments to tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Identification Number; and (8) Fares tariff, or proposed changes to the fares tariffs, including: (i) Market; (ii... include: (1) Market; (2) Fare code; (3) One-way/roundtrip (O/R); (4) Fare amount; (5) Currency; (6...); (15) Any other fare data which is essential; and (16) Any necessary cross reference to the...

  5. The Tariff Analysis Project: A database and analysis platform forelectricity tariffs

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, K.; White, R.; Bolduc, C.; Fisher, D.; Rosenquist, G.

    2006-05-12

    Much of the work done in energy research involves ananalysis of the costs and benefits of energy-saving technologies andother measures from the perspective of the consumer. The economic valuein particular depends on the price of energy (electricity, gas or otherfuel), which varies significantly both for different types of consumers,and for different regions of the country. Ideally, to provide accurateinformation about the economic value of energy savings, prices should becomputed directly from real tariffs as defined by utility companies. Alarge number of utility tariffs are now available freely over the web,but the complexity and diversity of tariff structures presents aconsiderable barrier to using them in practice. The goal of the TariffAnalysis Project (TAP) is to collect andarchive a statistically completesample of real utility tariffs, and build a set of database and web toolsthat make this information relatively easy to use in cost-benefitanalysis. This report presentsa detailed picture of the current TAPdatabase structure and web interface. While TAP has been designed tohandle tariffs for any kind of utility service, the focus here is onelectric utilities withinthe United States. Electricity tariffs can bevery complicated, so the database structures that have been built toaccommodate them are quite flexible and can be easily generalized toother commodities.

  6. 49 CFR 1312.8 - Identification of tariff publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... THE PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A WATER... carrier or agent; (3) The name of the tariff; and (4) The issue and effective dates of the publication....

  7. 18 CFR 341.9 - Index of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES... than pipeline. (b) The first section. The first section of a tariff index must contain a list of all... issue date....

  8. 18 CFR 341.9 - Index of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES... than pipeline. (b) The first section. The first section of a tariff index must contain a list of all... issue date....

  9. 49 CFR 1312.8 - Identification of tariff publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... THE PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A WATER... carrier or agent; (3) The name of the tariff; and (4) The issue and effective dates of the publication....

  10. 49 CFR 1312.8 - Identification of tariff publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... THE PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A WATER... carrier or agent; (3) The name of the tariff; and (4) The issue and effective dates of the publication....

  11. 49 CFR 1312.7 - STB tariff designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.7 STB tariff designation. (a) Format. Every tariff shall show an authorized... processing costs. (d) Code listing. A list of the assigned alphabetical codes, and the names of the...

  12. 49 CFR 1312.7 - STB tariff designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.7 STB tariff designation. (a) Format. Every tariff shall show an authorized... processing costs. (d) Code listing. A list of the assigned alphabetical codes, and the names of the...

  13. 47 CFR 61.22 - Composition of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... numbered in a series separate from non-contract-based tariffs. Numbers must be in the form of “CT No... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Composition of tariffs. 61.22 Section 61.22 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS...

  14. 47 CFR 61.22 - Composition of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... numbered in a series separate from non-contract-based tariffs. Numbers must be in the form of “CT No... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Composition of tariffs. 61.22 Section 61.22 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS...

  15. 49 CFR 1310.3 - Contents of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents of tariffs. 1310.3 Section 1310.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS TARIFF REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.3 Contents of tariffs....

  16. 14 CFR 293.22 - Effectiveness of tariffs on file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effectiveness of tariffs on file. 293.22... Effectiveness of tariffs on file. (a) One hundred and eighty days after the date of effectiveness of the... exemption will cease to be effective as tariffs under 49 U.S.C. 41504 and 41510, and the provisions of...

  17. 49 CFR 1310.3 - Contents of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contents of tariffs. 1310.3 Section 1310.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS TARIFF REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.3 Contents of tariffs....

  18. 14 CFR 221.300 - Discontinuation of electronic tariff system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discontinuation of electronic tariff system... of electronic tariff system. In the event that the electronic tariff system is discontinued, or the source of the data is changed, or a filer discontinues its business, all electronic data records prior...

  19. 49 CFR 1312.8 - Identification of tariff publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Identification of tariff publication. 1312.8... THE PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.8 Identification of tariff publication. (a) Every...

  20. 46 CFR 520.5 - Standard tariff terminology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Geographic names. Tariffs should employ locations (points) that are published in the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (“NIMA”) gazetteer or the Geographic Names Information System (“GNIS”) developed by the U.S... also be used in tariffs. Tariff publishers may use geographic names that are currently in use and...

  1. 46 CFR 520.5 - Standard tariff terminology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Geographic names. Tariffs should employ locations (points) that are published in the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (“NIMA”) gazetteer or the Geographic Names Information System (“GNIS”) developed by the U.S... also be used in tariffs. Tariff publishers may use geographic names that are currently in use and...

  2. 46 CFR 520.5 - Standard tariff terminology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Geographic names. Tariffs should employ locations (points) that are published in the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (“NIMA”) gazetteer or the Geographic Names Information System (“GNIS”) developed by the U.S... also be used in tariffs. Tariff publishers may use geographic names that are currently in use and...

  3. 77 FR 66601 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Change to eTariff Type of Filing Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Change to eTariff Type of Filing Codes Take notice that, effective November 18, 2012, the list of available eTariff Type of Filing Codes (TOFC... 1220: ``Rate Extensions''. This code will permit PMAs to file for extensions of rates consistent...

  4. 77 FR 25732 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar.... ACTION: Announcement of the quota quantity of tuna in airtight containers for Calendar Year 2012..., 2012, a document concerning tariff rates for tuna in airtight containers for Calendar Year...

  5. 75 FR 4689 - Electronic Tariff Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... format developed through the collaborative process relies upon the use of metadata (or information) about... in favor of the Type of Filing code.\\5\\ Because the Commission is using the electronic metadata to... metadata. 6. Similarly, the Commission will be using the Tariff Record Proposed Effective Date code...

  6. The Value of Distributed Generation under Different TariffStructures

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Ryan; Magnus Maribu, Karl; Marnay, Chris

    2006-05-31

    Distributed generation (DG) may play a key role in a modern energy system because it can improve energy efficiency. Reductions in the energy bill, and therefore DG attractiveness, depend on the electricity tariff structure; a system created before widespread adoption of distributed generation. Tariffs have been designed to recover costs equitably amongst customers with similar consumption patterns. Recently, electric utilities began to question the equity of this electricity pricing structure for standby service. In particular, the utilities do not feel that DG customers are paying their fair share of transmission and distribution costs - traditionally recovered through a volumetric($/kWh) mechanism - under existing tariff structures. In response, new tariff structures with higher fixed costs for DG have been implemented in New York and in California. This work analyzes the effects of different electricity tariff structures on DG adoption. First, the effects of the new standby tariffs in New York are analyzed in different regions. Next generalized tariffs are constructed, and the sensitivity to varying levels of the volumetric and the demand ($/kW, i.e. maximum rate) charge component are analyzed on New York's standard and standby tariff as well as California's standby tariff. As expected, DG profitability is reduced with standby tariffs, but often marginally. The new standby structures tend to promote smaller base load systems. The amount of time-of-day variability of volumetric pricing seems to have little effect on DG economics.

  7. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  8. 19 CFR 10.420 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.420 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A... tariff treatment under the US-CFTA under an applicable tariff preference level (TPL). To make a TPL...

  9. 14 CFR 221.500 - Transmission of electronic tariffs to subscribers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transmission of electronic tariffs to... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.500 Transmission of electronic tariffs to subscribers. (a) Each filer that files an electronic tariff under...

  10. 14 CFR 221.500 - Transmission of electronic tariffs to subscribers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transmission of electronic tariffs to... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.500 Transmission of electronic tariffs to subscribers. (a) Each filer that files an electronic tariff under...

  11. 19 CFR 10.520 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10...-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.520 Filing of claim for tariff preference level... tariff treatment under the SFTA under an applicable tariff preference level (TPL). To make a TPL...

  12. 19 CFR 10.520 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10...-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.520 Filing of claim for tariff preference level... tariff treatment under the SFTA under an applicable tariff preference level (TPL). To make a TPL...

  13. 18 CFR 154.102 - Requirements for filing rate schedules and tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rate schedules and tariffs. 154.102 Section 154.102 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... TARIFFS Form and Composition of Tariff § 154.102 Requirements for filing rate schedules and tariffs. (a) All rates schedules, tariffs, and service agreements may be filed either by dividing the rate...

  14. 18 CFR 154.102 - Requirements for filing rate schedules and tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rate schedules and tariffs. 154.102 Section 154.102 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... TARIFFS Form and Composition of Tariff § 154.102 Requirements for filing rate schedules and tariffs. (a) All rates schedules, tariffs, and service agreements may be filed either by dividing the rate...

  15. 49 CFR 1312.3 - Tariff contents and standards; Essential criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... THE PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A WATER... a given shipment need not be contained in a single tariff, but if multiple tariffs are used...

  16. 49 CFR 1312.3 - Tariff contents and standards; Essential criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... THE PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A WATER... a given shipment need not be contained in a single tariff, but if multiple tariffs are used...

  17. 19 CFR 102.20 - Specific rules by tariff classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Specific rules by tariff classification. 102.20 Section 102.20 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF ORIGIN Rules of Origin § 102.20 Specific rules by tariff classification. The following rules are the rules...

  18. 19 CFR 102.20 - Specific rules by tariff classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Specific rules by tariff classification. 102.20 Section 102.20 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF ORIGIN Rules of Origin § 102.20 Specific rules by tariff classification. The following rules are the rules...

  19. 19 CFR 102.20 - Specific rules by tariff classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Specific rules by tariff classification. 102.20 Section 102.20 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF ORIGIN Rules of Origin § 102.20 Specific rules by tariff classification. The following rules are the rules...

  20. 19 CFR 102.20 - Specific rules by tariff classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specific rules by tariff classification. 102.20 Section 102.20 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF ORIGIN Rules of Origin § 102.20 Specific rules by tariff classification. The following rules are the rules...

  1. 7 CFR 735.107 - Warehouse charges and tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Warehouse charges and tariffs. 735.107 Section 735.107... AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS FOR WAREHOUSES REGULATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES WAREHOUSE ACT Warehouse Licensing § 735.107 Warehouse charges and tariffs. (a) A warehouse operator must not make any unreasonable...

  2. 18 CFR 341.9 - Index of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 341.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES... effective tariffs arranged in numerical order. (e) Supplements. The index must be kept current...

  3. 18 CFR 341.3 - Form of tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES... to which the tariff is issued; (vi) The issue date, which must be shown on the lower left side, and... title page of the issue, or at the top of each page, as appropriate. For example: “All rates in...

  4. 18 CFR 341.3 - Form of tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES... any; (v) The specific Commission order pursuant to which the tariff is issued; (vi) The issue date... the top of the title page of the issue, or at the top of each page, as appropriate. For example:...

  5. 46 CFR 532.4 - NVOCC rules tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false NVOCC rules tariff. 532.4 Section 532.4 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE NVOCC NEGOTIATED RATE... entering into NRAs under this Part, an NVOCC must provide electronic access to its rules tariffs to...

  6. 77 FR 22796 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United..., the tariff-rate quota for tuna described in subheading 1604.14.22, HTSUS, is based on the apparent... subheading 1604.14.22, HTSUS. Any such tuna which is entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for...

  7. 76 FR 27658 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2011 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... Year 2011 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United... the tariff-rate quota for tuna described in subheading 1604.14.22, HTSUS, is based on the apparent... 1604.14.22, HTSUS. Any such tuna which is entered or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption...

  8. 78 FR 24430 - Tuna-Tariff Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2013 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... 2013 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States... tariff-rate quota for tuna described in subheading 1604.14.22, HTSUS, is based on the apparent United... subheading 1604.14.22, HTSUS. Any such tuna which is entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for...

  9. A Tariff for Reactive Power - IEEE

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, John D; Tufon, Christopher; Isemonger, Alan; Kirby, Brendan J

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes a suggested tariff or payment for the local supply of reactive power from distributed energy resources. The authors consider four sample customers, and estimate the cost of supply of reactive power for each customer. The power system savings from the local supply of reactive power are also estimated for a hypothetical circuit. It is found that reactive power for local voltage regulation could be supplied to the distribution system economically by customers when new inverters are installed. The inverter would be supplied with a power factor of 0.8, and would be capable of local voltage regulation to a schedule supplied by the utility. Inverters are now installed with photovoltaic systems, fuel cells and microturbines, and adjustable-speed motor drives.

  10. 18 CFR 154.112 - Exception to form and composition of tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... composition of tariff. 154.112 Section 154.112 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Form and Composition of Tariff § 154.112 Exception to form and composition of tariff. (a) The...

  11. 19 CFR 10.881 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.881 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A... originating good under § 10.873 of this subpart may nevertheless be entitled to preferential tariff...

  12. 19 CFR 10.818 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.818 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A... originating good under § 10.810 of this subpart may nevertheless be entitled to preferential tariff...

  13. 19 CFR 10.778 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.778 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A... under § 10.770 of this subpart may nevertheless be entitled to preferential tariff treatment under...

  14. 19 CFR 10.818 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.818 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A... originating good under § 10.810 of this subpart may nevertheless be entitled to preferential tariff...

  15. 18 CFR 154.603 - Adoption of the tariff by a successor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption of the tariff by a successor. 154.603 Section 154.603 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Other Tariff Changes § 154.603 Adoption of the tariff by a successor. Whenever the tariff or...

  16. 18 CFR 154.603 - Adoption of the tariff by a successor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption of the tariff by a successor. 154.603 Section 154.603 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Other Tariff Changes § 154.603 Adoption of the tariff by a successor. Whenever the tariff or...

  17. 18 CFR 154.603 - Adoption of the tariff by a successor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption of the tariff by a successor. 154.603 Section 154.603 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Other Tariff Changes § 154.603 Adoption of the tariff by a successor. Whenever the tariff or...

  18. 18 CFR 154.603 - Adoption of the tariff by a successor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of the tariff by a successor. 154.603 Section 154.603 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Other Tariff Changes § 154.603 Adoption of the tariff by a successor. Whenever the tariff or...

  19. 18 CFR 154.603 - Adoption of the tariff by a successor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of the tariff by a successor. 154.603 Section 154.603 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Other Tariff Changes § 154.603 Adoption of the tariff by a successor. Whenever the tariff or...

  20. 18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... jurisdictional transmission tariff reciprocity conditions. (b) Definitions—(1) Requirements service agreement... procedures for tariff reciprocity compliance. (1) A non-public utility may submit a transmission tariff and a... or part of the reciprocity conditions contained in a public utility open access tariff, for...

  1. 46 CFR 520.10 - Integrity of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... such information is superseded, canceled or withdrawn, and shall provide on-line access to such data... specific date for the retrieval of tariff data, so that only data in effect on that date would be...

  2. Energy Prices, Tariffs, Taxes and Subsidies in Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd

    2007-04-01

    For many years, electricity, gas and district heating tariffs for residential consumers were very low in Ukraine; until recently, they were even lower than in neighbouring countries such as Russia. The increases in gas and electricity tariffs, implemented in 2006, are an important step toward sustainable pricing levels; however, electricity and natural gas (especially for households) are still priced below the long-run marginal cost. The problem seems even more serious in district heating and nuclear power. According to the Ministry of Construction, district heating tariffs, on average, cover about 80% of costs. Current electricity prices do not fully include the capital costs of power stations, which are particularly high for nuclear power. Although the tariff for nuclear electricity generation includes a small decommissioning charge, it has not been sufficient to accumulate necessary funds for nuclear plants decommissioning.

  3. Tariff-based analysis of commercial building electricityprices

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Rosenquist, Greg J.; VanBuskirk, Robert D.; McMahon, James E.

    2008-03-28

    This paper presents the results of a survey and analysis ofelectricity tariffs and marginal electricity prices for commercialbuildings. The tariff data come from a survey of 90 utilities and 250tariffs for non-residential customers collected in 2004 as part of theTariff Analysis Project at LBNL. The goals of this analysis are toprovide useful summary data on the marginal electricity prices commercialcustomers actually see, and insight into the factors that are mostimportant in determining prices under different circumstances. We providea new, empirically-based definition of several marginal prices: theeffective marginal price and energy-only anddemand-only prices, andderive a simple formula that expresses the dependence of the effectivemarginal price on the marginal load factor. The latter is a variable thatcan be used to characterize the load impacts of a particular end-use orefficiency measure. We calculate all these prices for eleven regionswithin the continental U.S.

  4. 49 CFR 1310.2 - Requirement to maintain tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Tariffs shall be published in the English language and rates shall be stated in money of the United States... be provided to the Board promptly and free of charge, upon request, by mail or other delivery...

  5. 49 CFR 1310.2 - Requirement to maintain tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Tariffs shall be published in the English language and rates shall be stated in money of the United States... be provided to the Board promptly and free of charge, upon request, by mail or other delivery...

  6. 49 CFR 1312.13 - Furnishing copies of tariff publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... tariffs and amendments affecting those portions. (c) Certification. The letter of transmittal accompanying...) No charge may be made (even for the cost of sending the publication) for any publication that...

  7. 46 CFR 520.9 - Access to tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... published tariffs, via a personal computer (“PC”), by: (1) Dial-up connection via public switched telephone... provided at the expense of the publishers. Any recurring connection fees, hardware rental fees, usage...

  8. 19 CFR 10.521 - Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.521 Goods eligible for tariff... assembled in Singapore from fabric or yarn produced or obtained outside the territory of Singapore or...

  9. 19 CFR 10.521 - Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.521 Goods eligible for tariff... assembled in Singapore from fabric or yarn produced or obtained outside the territory of Singapore or...

  10. 19 CFR 10.521 - Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.521 Goods eligible for tariff... assembled in Singapore from fabric or yarn produced or obtained outside the territory of Singapore or...

  11. 19 CFR 10.521 - Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.521 Goods eligible for tariff... assembled in Singapore from fabric or yarn produced or obtained outside the territory of Singapore or...

  12. 19 CFR 10.521 - Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.521 Goods eligible for tariff... assembled in Singapore from fabric or yarn produced or obtained outside the territory of Singapore or...

  13. 18 CFR 35.12 - Filing of initial rate schedules and tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... schedules and tariffs. 35.12 Section 35.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... AND TARIFFS Documents To Be Submitted With a Filing § 35.12 Filing of initial rate schedules and tariffs. (a) The letter of a public utility transmitting to the Commission for filing an initial...

  14. 19 CFR 10.606 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10...-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.606 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. Apparel goods of a Party described in § 10.607 of this subpart that do...

  15. 19 CFR 10.237 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... preferential tariff treatment. 10.237 Section 10.237 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... RATE, ETC. United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act Non-Textile Articles Under the United... preferential tariff treatment. (a) Verification by Customs. A claim for preferential tariff treatment...

  16. 19 CFR 10.606 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10...-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.606 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A cotton or man-made fiber apparel good of Nicaragua described in § 10.607...

  17. 18 CFR 281.212 - Draft tariff and index of entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Draft tariff and index... Rule § 281.212 Draft tariff and index of entitlements. (a) Each interstate pipeline shall prepare draft tariff sheets or sections and a draft index of entitlements in accordance with this subpart. (b)...

  18. 18 CFR 281.212 - Draft tariff and index of entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Draft tariff and index... Rule § 281.212 Draft tariff and index of entitlements. (a) Each interstate pipeline shall prepare draft tariff sheets or sections and a draft index of entitlements in accordance with this subpart. (b)...

  19. 18 CFR 35.10 - Form and style of rate schedules, tariffs and service agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form and style of rate schedules, tariffs and service agreements. 35.10 Section 35.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Application § 35.10 Form and style of rate schedules, tariffs...

  20. 18 CFR 154.208 - Service of tariff filings on customers and other parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Procedures for Changing Tariffs § 154.208 Service of tariff filings on customers and... customers and state regulatory commissions that have made a standing request for such service. (c) Within... section, service upon the designated recipient will be deemed service upon the customer or other party....

  1. 18 CFR 154.208 - Service of tariff filings on customers and other parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Procedures for Changing Tariffs § 154.208 Service of tariff filings on customers and... customers and state regulatory commissions that have made a standing request for such service. (c) Within... section, service upon the designated recipient will be deemed service upon the customer or other party....

  2. 18 CFR 154.208 - Service of tariff filings on customers and other parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Procedures for Changing Tariffs § 154.208 Service of tariff filings on customers and... customers and state regulatory commissions that have made a standing request for such service. (c) Within... section, service upon the designated recipient will be deemed service upon the customer or other party....

  3. 18 CFR 154.208 - Service of tariff filings on customers and other parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Procedures for Changing Tariffs § 154.208 Service of tariff filings on customers and... customers and state regulatory commissions that have made a standing request for such service. (c) Within... section, service upon the designated recipient will be deemed service upon the customer or other party....

  4. 18 CFR 154.208 - Service of tariff filings on customers and other parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Procedures for Changing Tariffs § 154.208 Service of tariff filings on customers and... customers and state regulatory commissions that have made a standing request for such service. (c) Within... section, service upon the designated recipient will be deemed service upon the customer or other party....

  5. 22 CFR 91.3 - Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission... CONTROLS § 91.3 Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives. Consular officers shall render all proper assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives abroad to aid them in...

  6. 18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... voluntary compliance with jurisdictional transmission tariff reciprocity conditions. (b) Definitions—(1... otherwise have to comply with the requirement. (e) Non-public utility procedures for tariff reciprocity... reciprocity conditions contained in a public utility open access tariff, for good cause shown. An...

  7. 75 FR 57293 - Certain Festive Articles: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... COMMISSION Certain Festive Articles: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the.... 1205-9, Certain Festive Articles: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the... of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) relating to certain utilitarian...

  8. 18 CFR 341.4 - Filing requirements for amendments to tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amendments to tariffs. 341.4 Section 341.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE... requirements for amendments to tariffs. (a) Supplements to tariffs. (1) Supplements are limited to...

  9. 19 CFR 132.15 - Export certificate for beef subject to tariff-rate quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export certificate for beef subject to tariff-rate... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY QUOTAS Administration of Quotas § 132.15 Export certificate for beef subject to tariff-rate quota. (a) Requirement. In order to claim the in-quota tariff rate of duty on...

  10. 7 CFR Appendices 1, 2 and 3 to... - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing 1, Appendices... Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Supersedure of Import Regulation 1, Revision 7. Appendices 1, 2 and 3 to Subpart—Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Articles Subject to: Appendix 1,...

  11. 18 CFR 341.1 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials. (a) General rule. Filings of tariff publications and... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials. 341.1 Section 341.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...

  12. 18 CFR 154.4 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TARIFFS General Provisions and Conditions § 154.4 Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials. (a... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials. 154.4 Section 154.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...

  13. 18 CFR 154.205 - Withdrawals and amendments of tariff filings and executed service agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Procedures for Changing Tariffs § 154.205 Withdrawals and...) of the Natural Gas Act in the absence of Commission action making the rate schedule or tariff filing... thereof. A natural gas company may not, within the period of suspension, file any change in a...

  14. 49 CFR 1312.2 - Requirement to publish and file a tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., and advertising and promotional material. (d) Effect of filing. The tender of a tariff and its receipt... tariff that is on file with the Board and in effect under this part. (b) Adherence to tariff. The carrier... laws, the Board's regulations, or any decision of the Board or a court, or have any effect on...

  15. 14 CFR 221.180 - Requirements for electronic filing of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for electronic filing of... Requirements for electronic filing of tariffs. (a) No carrier or filing agent shall file an electronic tariff... agent shall file an electronic tariff unless, prior to filing, it has submitted to the...

  16. 14 CFR 221.180 - Requirements for electronic filing of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Transportation, for the maintenance and security of the on-line tariff database. (b) No carrier or... to its on-line tariff database. The filer shall be responsible for the transportation, installation... installation or maintenance. (3) The filer shall provide public access to its on-line tariff database,...

  17. 7 CFR 735.107 - Warehouse charges and tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Warehouse charges and tariffs. 735.107 Section 735.107 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS FOR WAREHOUSES REGULATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES WAREHOUSE ACT Warehouse...

  18. 7 CFR 735.107 - Warehouse charges and tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Warehouse charges and tariffs. 735.107 Section 735.107 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS FOR WAREHOUSES REGULATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES WAREHOUSE ACT Warehouse...

  19. 47 CFR 69.3 - Filing of access service tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... tariff filings shall be limited to changes in the Price Cap Indexes, rate level changes (with corresponding adjustments to the affected Actual Price Indexes and Service Band Indexes), and the incorporation of new services into the affected indexes as required by § 61.49 of this chapter. (i) The...

  20. 76 FR 43206 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    .... (2) All statistical studies must be submitted and supported in the form prescribed in Sec. 1.363 of... lines in a given study area that are described as subset 3 carriers in Sec. 69.602 of this chapter may submit Access Tariff filings for that study area pursuant to either this section or Sec. 61.39....

  1. 19 CFR 10.100 - Entry, examination, and tariff status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions United States Government Importations § 10.100 Entry, examination, and tariff status. Except as otherwise..., importations made by or for the account of any agency or office of the United States Government are subject...

  2. 18 CFR 341.5 - Cancellation of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... 341.5 Section 341.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE... supplement, the supplement must show where the rates will be found thereafter or what rates will...

  3. 46 CFR 520.9 - Access to tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS... terminal emulation access; and (iii) Telephone line quality for data transmission. (2) The modem may be... Internet. (2) Carriers or conferences shall ensure that their Internet service providers provide...

  4. 46 CFR 520.9 - Access to tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS... terminal emulation access; and (iii) Telephone line quality for data transmission. (2) The modem may be... Internet. (2) Carriers or conferences shall ensure that their Internet service providers provide...

  5. 18 CFR 154.103 - Composition of tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... 154.103 Section 154.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Form and Composition of... of rate schedules, general terms and conditions, form of service agreement, and an index of...

  6. The state-level approach: moving beyond integrated safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Tape, James W

    2008-01-01

    The concept of a State-Level Approach (SLA) for international safeguards planning, implementation, and evaluation was contained in the Conceptual Framework for Integrated Safeguards (IS) agreed in 2002. This paper describes briefly the key elements of the SLA, including State-level factors and high-level safeguards objectives, and considers different cases in which application of the SLA methodology could address safeguards for 'suspect' States, 'good' States, and Nuclear Weapons States hosting fuel cycle centers. The continued use and further development of the SLA to customize safeguards for each State, including for States already under IS, is seen as central to effective and efficient safeguards for an expanding nuclear world.

  7. 77 FR 58991 - State-Level Guarantee Fee Pricing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... AGENCY State-Level Guarantee Fee Pricing AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Notice; input... guarantee fees (``g-fees'') that the Enterprises charge for mortgages that finance properties with one to... Enterprises charge g-fees to compensate for the credit risks they undertake when they own or...

  8. Typology of State-Level Community College Governance Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jeffrey A.; Friedel, Janice Nahra

    2017-01-01

    Despite having a well-documented history about community colleges across the United States, relatively few discussions have covered state-level governance structures. To understand the typology of state community college governance structures, it must first be recognized that community college governance is characterized as a complex web of…

  9. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other State-level activities. 300.814 Section 300.814 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  10. STEM: Science Technology Engineering Mathematics. State-Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Melton, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) state-level analysis provides policymakers, educators, state government officials, and others with details on the projections of STEM jobs through 2018. This report delivers a state-by-state snapshot of the demand for STEM jobs, including: (1) The number of forecast net new and…

  11. 14 CFR 221.201 - Statement of filing with foreign governments to be shown in air carrier's tariff filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... governments to be shown in air carrier's tariff filings. 221.201 Section 221.201 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE... Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.201 Statement of filing with foreign governments to be shown in air carrier's tariff filings. (a) Every electronic tariff filed by or on behalf of an air carrier that contains...

  12. If the shoe FITs: using feed-in tariffs to meet U.S. Renewable electricity targets

    SciTech Connect

    Rickerson, Wilson H.; Sawin, Janet L.; Grace, Robert C.

    2007-05-15

    Experiences in Europe have demonstrated that well-designed FITs can drive rapid and dramatic growth in renewable electricity markets, promote strong manufacturing industries, and create thousands of new jobs in a cost-effective manner. If properly structured, FIT-inspired mechanisms in the U.S. have the potential to jumpstart rapid renewable energy market growth that could reshape the country's energy landscape. (author)

  13. Prioritizing Acquisition Pathways in the State Level Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Chantell L.; Budlong-Sylvester, Kory; Pilat, Joseph F.

    2012-06-27

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Department of Safeguards has launched a project to further develop the State-level concept for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of safeguards activities. In order to further evolve the safeguards system an emphasis is placed on integrating inspection-related activities and the State evaluation process to draw safeguards conclusions in the most efficient way. The credible implementation of acquisition pathway analysis is central to the success of the IAEA's State-level concept. NNSA's Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is sponsoring Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to produce a study that will examine the use of acquisition pathway analysis in: (1) Developing a State-specific, State-level approach (SLA) and Annual Implementation Plan (AIP); (2) Maximizing the utility of the physical model; and (3) Supporting resource allocation decisions through a pathway prioritization. To deal with the challenge of developing an effective and efficient SLA, this study looks at: (1) Prioritizing proliferation pathways based on an assessment of a State's capabilities and assumed proliferation strategies; and (2) Relevant State behavior (e.g., transparency, cooperation, etc.) while avoiding subjective judgments about States themselves. The study makes use of case studies and concrete examples in order to illustrate how new concepts and approaches will be implemented, and how they may differ from more traditional safeguards approaches.

  14. Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under VariousElectricity Tariffs

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2007-05-01

    The on-site generation of electricity can offer buildingowners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits suchas reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reducedgreenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP), or cogeneration,systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heatingneeds. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult todetermine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty inCHP equipment availability, energy prices, and system loads. Typically,CHP systems use simple heuristic control strategies. This paper describesa method of determining optimal control in real-time and applies it to alight industrial site in San Diego, California, to examine: 1) the addedbenefit of optimal over heuristic controls, 2) the price elasticity ofthe system, and 3) the site-attributable greenhouse gas emissions, allunder three different tariff structures. Results suggest that heuristiccontrols are adequate under the current tariff structure and relativelyhigh electricity prices, capturing 97 percent of the value of thedistributed generation system. Even more value could be captured bysimply not running the CHP system during times of unusually high naturalgas prices. Under hypothetical real-time pricing of electricity,heuristic controls would capture only 70 percent of the value ofdistributed generation.

  15. District Heating Systems Performance Analyses. Heat Energy Tariff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemele, Jelena; Vigants, Girts; Vitolins, Valdis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2014-12-01

    The paper addresses an important element of the European energy sector: the evaluation of district heating (DH) system operations from the standpoint of increasing energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy resources. This has been done by developing a new methodology for the evaluation of the heat tariff. The paper presents an algorithm of this methodology, which includes not only a data base and calculation equation systems, but also an integrated multi-criteria analysis module using MADM/MCDM (Multi-Attribute Decision Making / Multi-Criteria Decision Making) based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The results of the multi-criteria analysis are used to set the tariff benchmarks. The evaluation methodology has been tested for Latvian heat tariffs, and the obtained results show that only half of heating companies reach a benchmark value equal to 0.5 for the efficiency closeness to the ideal solution indicator. This means that the proposed evaluation methodology would not only allow companies to determine how they perform with regard to the proposed benchmark, but also to identify their need to restructure so that they may reach the level of a low-carbon business.

  16. Framework for State-Level Renewable Energy Market Potential Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, C.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Doris, E.

    2010-01-01

    State-level policymakers are relying on estimates of the market potential for renewable energy resources as they set goals and develop policies to accelerate the development of these resources. Therefore, accuracy of such estimates should be understood and possibly improved to appropriately support these decisions. This document provides a framework and next steps for state officials who require estimates of renewable energy market potential. The report gives insight into how to conduct a market potential study, including what supporting data are needed and what types of assumptions need to be made. The report distinguishes between goal-oriented studies and other types of studies, and explains the benefits of each.

  17. State-Level Cancer Quality Assessment and Research

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, Joseph; Gillespie, Theresa W.

    2016-01-01

    Over a decade ago, the Institute of Medicine called for a national cancer data system in the United States to support quality-of-care assessment and improvement, including research on effective interventions. Although considerable progress has been achieved in cancer quality measurement and effectiveness research, the nation still lacks a population-based data infrastructure for accurately identifying cancer patients and tracking services and outcomes over time. For compelling reasons, the most effective pathway forward may be the development of state-level cancer data systems, in which central registry data are linked to multiple public and private secondary sources. These would include administrative/claims files from Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurers. Moreover, such a state-level system would promote rapid learning by encouraging adoption of near-real-time reporting and feedback systems, such as the Commission on Cancer’s new Rapid Quality Reporting System. The groundwork for such a system is being laid in the state of Georgia, and similar work is advancing in other states. The pace of progress depends on the successful resolution of issues related to the application of information technology, financing, and governance. PMID:21799333

  18. Environmental and international tariffs in a mixed duopoly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of environmental and trade policies in an international mixed duopoly serving two markets, in which the public firm maximizes the sum of consumer surplus and its profit. We also analyse the effects of privatization. The model has two stages. In the first stage, governments choose environmental taxes and import tariffs, simultaneously. Then, the firms engage in a Cournot competition, choosing output levels for the domestic market and to export. We compare the results obtained in the three different ways of moving on the decision make of the firms.

  19. Emissions reductions from expanding state-level renewable portfolio standards.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremiah X; Novacheck, Joshua

    2015-05-05

    In the United States, state-level Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) have served as key drivers for the development of new renewable energy. This research presents a method to evaluate emissions reductions and costs attributable to new or expanded RPS programs by integrating a comprehensive economic dispatch model and a renewable project selection model. The latter model minimizes incremental RPS costs, accounting for renewable power purchase agreements (PPAs), displaced generation and capacity costs, and net changes to a state's imports and exports. We test this method on potential expansions to Michigan's RPS, evaluating target renewable penetrations of 10% (business as usual or BAU), 20%, 25%, and 40%, with varying times to completion. Relative to the BAU case, these expanded RPS policies reduce the CO2 intensity of generation by 13%, 18%, and 33% by 2035, respectively. SO2 emissions intensity decreased by 13%, 20%, and 34% for each of the three scenarios, while NOx reductions totaled 12%, 17%, and 31%, relative to the BAU case. For CO2 and NOx, absolute reductions in emissions intensity were not as large due to an increasing trend in emissions intensity in the BAU case driven by load growth. Over the study period (2015 to 2035), the absolute CO2 emissions intensity increased by 1% in the 20% RPS case and decreased by 6% and 22% for the 25% and 40% cases, respectively. Between 26% and 31% of the CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions reductions attributable to the expanded RPS occur in neighboring states, underscoring the challenges quantifying local emissions reductions from state-level energy policies with an interconnected grid. Without federal subsidies, the cost of CO2 mitigation using an RPS in Michigan is between $28 and $34/t CO2 when RPS targets are met. The optimal renewable build plan is sensitive to the capacity credit for solar but insensitive to the value for wind power.

  20. 49 CFR 1312.10 - Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of tariff changes and nature of... WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.10 Notification of tariff changes and nature of... changes and their nature (whether an increase or decrease in service, rates or transportation charges)....

  1. 78 FR 13011 - Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier Negotiated Rate Arrangements; Tariff Publication Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... authority, is to exempt non-vessel-operating common carriers (NVOCCs) from the tariff rate publication and... 46 CFR Parts 515, 520, and 532 RIN 3072-AC51 Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier Negotiated Rate Arrangements; Tariff Publication Exemption AGENCY: Federal Maritime Commission. ACTION: Notice of...

  2. 76 FR 80866 - Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carriers Negotiated Rate Arrangements; Tariff Filing Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... 46 CFR Part 532 Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carriers Negotiated Rate Arrangements; Tariff Filing... Commission is issuing this Notice of Inquiry seeking comments on ways to make the tariff filing exemption provided to licensed non-vessel-operating common carriers in its regulations more useful, including...

  3. 19 CFR 10.235 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment... States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act Non-Textile Articles Under the United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act § 10.235 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment. (a) Declaration....

  4. 49 CFR 1312.10 - Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notification of tariff changes and nature of... WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.10 Notification of tariff changes and nature of... changes and their nature (whether an increase or decrease in service, rates or transportation charges)....

  5. 49 CFR 1312.10 - Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notification of tariff changes and nature of... WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.10 Notification of tariff changes and nature of... changes and their nature (whether an increase or decrease in service, rates or transportation charges)....

  6. 49 CFR 1312.10 - Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notification of tariff changes and nature of... WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.10 Notification of tariff changes and nature of... changes and their nature (whether an increase or decrease in service, rates or transportation charges)....

  7. 49 CFR 1312.10 - Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notification of tariff changes and nature of... WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.10 Notification of tariff changes and nature of... changes and their nature (whether an increase or decrease in service, rates or transportation charges)....

  8. 47 CFR 1.773 - Petitions for suspension or rejection of new tariff filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Bureau; and the Chief, Pricing Policy Division. Petitions seeking investigation, suspension, or rejection... tariff filings. 1.773 Section 1.773 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE... investigation, suspension, or rejection of a new or revised tariff filing or any provision thereof shall...

  9. 75 FR 63468 - Notice of Revocation of Market-Based Rate Tariff

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Revocation of Market-Based Rate Tariff October 7, 2010. Electric... On September 22, 2010, the Commission issued an order announcing its intent to revoke the market... overdue Electric Quarterly Reports or face revocation of their market-based rate tariffs. \\1\\...

  10. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption of tariff by a successor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of tariff by a successor. 341.6 Section 341.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption of tariff by...

  11. 29 CFR 4.118 - Contracts for carriage subject to published tariff rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., railway line or oil or gas pipeline where published tariff rates are in effect”. In order for this... contract for transportation service does not come within this exemption unless the service contracted for... body a tariff rate applicable to the transportation involved, and the transportation contract...

  12. 76 FR 61074 - USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar AGENCY... increase in the fiscal year (FY) 2011 refined sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) of 136,078 metric tons raw... MTRV for sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred to as refined sugar) described...

  13. 76 FR 61472 - Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar AGENCY... the fiscal year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported refined sugar... imports of refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C....

  14. 76 FR 27657 - Notice of Domestic Interested Party Petitioner's Desire To Contest the Tariff Classification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... Contest the Tariff Classification Determination of Wickless Wax Objects AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... regarding the tariff classification of imported wickless wax objects identified in entry documents as ``wax... Protection's (``CBP's'') classification of wickless wax objects under heading 9602, of the Harmonized...

  15. 78 FR 8434 - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service 7 CFR Part 6 RIN 0551-AA82 Dairy Tariff-Rate Import... rulemaking. SUMMARY: Request for public comment on the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program..., Agricultural Marketing Specialist, Sugar and Dairy Branch, Import Programs and Export Reporting...

  16. Sugar feeding in adult stable flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult stable flies, (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)), are known to feed readily on sugars in the laboratory. However, little is known concerning the extent of stable fly sugar feeding in wild populations. We examined the frequency of sugar feeding in stable flies in rural and urban environments. In additi...

  17. 75 FR 8300 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non-Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non- Tariff Trade... of increasing exports is to reduce trade barriers and non-tariff measures. OEEI works closely with... maintain a current, up-to-date list of non-tariff measures that create trade barriers for U.S. exports...

  18. 78 FR 14770 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non-Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non- Tariff Trade.... One aspect of increasing exports is to reduce trade barriers and non-tariff measures. OEEI works... maintain a current, up-to- date list of non-tariff measures that create trade barriers for U.S. exports...

  19. 14 CFR 221.550 - Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public reference room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public reference room. 221.550 Section 221.550 Aeronautics and Space... Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.550 Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in...

  20. 14 CFR 221.550 - Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public reference room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public reference room. 221.550 Section 221.550 Aeronautics and Space... Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.550 Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in...

  1. 78 FR 5775 - Notice of Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas (TRQ) on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... International Trade Administration Notice of Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas (TRQ) on the Import of Certain... Commerce. ACTION: Notice of allocation of 2013 worsted wool fabric tariff rate quota. SUMMARY: The... certain worsted wool fabrics under tariff rate quotas established by Title V of the Trade and...

  2. 76 FR 46267 - Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... Office of the Secretary Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses; and Extension of Entry Period for the Fiscal Year 2012 Raw Sugar Tariff- Rate Quota...

  3. Regional and State Level Water Scarcity Report: Northeast United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoletti, C. K.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Mohammed, I. N.

    2010-12-01

    There are an abundance of large-scale, coarse resolution global water scarcity studies, but the existing literature fails to address regional and state specific scarcity measures. Moreover, while environmental water requirements are an integral factor in the development and implementation of sustainable water management practices, only recently has this notion been introduced to water scarcity research. In this paper, we argue that developing a preliminary measure of water scarcity, at the regional and state levels, will allow for more informed policy development. The goal of this study is to generate a more comprehensive understanding of water scarcity in the Northeast, by gathering fine scale data, applying a consistent methodology to the calculation of a scarcity index, and analyzing the results to see relative trends in spatio-temporal water scarcity. Public supply, irrigation, rural, industrial and thermo-power withdrawals have been compiled from USGS state water use publications from 1950 to 1985. Using the WBMplus water model runoff data, state specific in-stream environmental water requirements were calculated using the accepted hydro-ecological methodology. Water scarcity was then calculated as a ratio of water withdrawals to total available water minus environmental flow requirements for the system. In so doing, this study generates a spatially explicit and temporally varying water scarcity indicator (WSI) for the Northeastern United States between 1950 and 2000 at the regional and state levels at a five-year time interval. Calculation of a spatial and temporal water scarcity indicator enabled us to identify regions and specific states that were: slightly exploited (WSI < 0.3), moderately exploited (0.31.0). The minimum environmental water requirements to maintain in-stream aquatic and riparian ecosystems for the Northeastern states ranged between 27.5 to 36.3 percent of the mean annual

  4. Advancements in Distributed Generation Issues: Interconnection, Modeling, and Tariffs

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, H.; Kroposki, B.; Basso, T.; Treanton, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    The California Energy Commission is cost-sharing research with the Department of Energy through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to address distributed energy resources (DER) topics. These efforts include developing interconnection and power management technologies, modeling the impacts of interconnecting DER with an area electric power system, and evaluating possible modifications to rate policies and tariffs. As a result, a DER interconnection device has been developed and tested. A workshop reviewed the status and issues of advanced power electronic devices. Software simulations used validated models of distribution circuits that incorporated DER, and tests and measurements of actual circuits with and without DER systems are being conducted to validate these models. Current policies affecting DER were reviewed and rate making policies to support deployment of DER through public utility rates and policies were identified. These advancements are expected to support the continued and expanded use of DER systems.

  5. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy tube feeding in children.

    PubMed

    El-Matary, Wael

    2011-02-01

    Managing infants and children with difficult feeding problems, such as intractable vomiting and dysmotility, can be challenging. Maintaining sufficient enteral feeding is the ultimate goal. However, the options for establishing this goal may be limited. One option is gastrojejunostomy tube feeding, a technique developed in 1984. This review discusses indications and limitations of gastrojejunostomy tube feeding in children. It also discusses alternative options for gastrojejunostomy tube feeding in view of the available evidence.

  6. 75 FR 41891 - Certain Footwear: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Footwear: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Change in date for transmitting... Commission offices, including the Commission's hearing rooms, are located in the United States...

  7. 78 FR 69660 - Association of Businesses Advocating Tariff Equity, Coalition of Miso Transmission Customers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Transmission Customers, Illinois Industrial Energy Consumers, Indiana Industrial Energy Consumers, Inc... & Electric Company; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on November 12, 2013, pursuant to section 206 of the... Tariff Equity, Coalition of Miso Transmission Customers, Illinois Industrial Energy Consumers,...

  8. 76 FR 15340 - Certain Festive Articles: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Festive Articles: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Change in date...

  9. 75 FR 75185 - Certain Festive Articles: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Festive Articles: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Change in date...

  10. 75 FR 18882 - Certain Footwear: Recommendations For Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) relating to certain footwear featuring outer soles of rubber... HTSUS relating to certain footwear featuring outer soles of rubber or plastics to which a layer...

  11. Open Access Transmission Tariff: Effective December 18, 1998 (Revised June 16, 1999).

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-06-16

    Bonneville will provide Network Integration Transmission Service pursuant to the terms and conditions contained in this Tariff and Service Agreement. The service that Bonneville will provide under this Tariff allows a Transmission Customer to integrate, economically dispatch and regulate its current and planned Network Resources to serve its Network Load. Network Integration Transmission Service also may be used by the Transmission Customer to deliver nonfirm energy purchases to its Network Load without additional charge. To the extent that the transmission path for moving power from a Network Resource to a Network Load includes the Eastern and Southern Interties, the terms and conditions for service over such intertie facilities are provided under Part 2 of this Tariff. Also, transmission service for third-party sales which are not designated as Network Load will be provided under Bonneville's Point-to-Point Transmission Service (Part 2 of this Tariff).

  12. 18 CFR 154.112 - Exception to form and composition of tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contain a table of contents which is incorporated as a sheet or section in the open access transmission... referenced in the open access transmission tariff. [Order 582, 60 FR 52996, Oct. 11, 1995, as amended...

  13. Valuation-Based Framework for Considering Distributed Generation Photovoltaic Tariff Design: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Zinaman, O. R.; Darghouth, N. R.

    2015-02-01

    While an export tariff is only one element of a larger regulatory framework for distributed generation, we choose to focus on tariff design because of the significant impact this program design component has on the various flows of value among power sector stakeholders. In that context, this paper is organized into a series of steps that can be taken during the design of a DGPV export tariff design. To that end this paper outlines a holistic, high-level approach to the complex undertaking of DGPV tariff design, the crux of which is an iterative cost-benefit analysis process. We propose a multi-step progression that aims to promote transparent, focused, and informed dialogue on CBA study methodologies and assumptions. When studies are completed, the long-run marginal avoided cost of the DGPV program should be compared against the costs imposed on utilities and non-participating customers, recognizing that these can be defined differently depending on program objectives. The results of this comparison can then be weighed against other program objectives to formulate tariff options. Potential changes to tariff structures can be iteratively fed back into established analytical tools to inform further discussions.

  14. How will the reduction of tariffs and taxes on insecticide- treated bednets affect household purchases?

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Jonathon L.; Larson, Bruce A.; Zusman, Alexander; Rosen, Sydney

    2002-01-01

    One of the steps called for in the fight against malaria is the removal of tariffs and taxes on insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs), netting materials, and insecticides, with a view to reducing the retail prices of ITNs and thus increasing utilization. In this paper we develop an approach for analysing the extent to which reform of tariff and tax policy can be expected to increase ITN purchases. We consider the following questions: (1). How much does the retail price of ITNs change if tariffs and taxes are reduced or eliminated? (2). How responsive is consumer demand to changes in the retail price of ITNs? Data on the price elasticity of demand for ITNs are very limited. Nevertheless, they suggest that ITN demand is not highly responsive to lower prices if household preferences are held constant. The reduction in retail prices associated with the removal of tariffs and taxes depends on the structure of the market in individual countries. In Nigeria, reducing the tariff on insecticides from 42% to zero and the tariff on netting materials from 40% to 5% is expected to increase ITN purchases by 9-27%, depending on the elasticity used. Country-specific information about market structure and cost conditions is needed if predictions are to be made as to how a specific policy change will affect ITN purchases. PMID:12481212

  15. Performance of the Tariff Method: validation of a simple additive algorithm for analysis of verbal autopsies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsies provide valuable information for studying mortality patterns in populations that lack reliable vital registration data. Methods for transforming verbal autopsy results into meaningful information for health workers and policymakers, however, are often costly or complicated to use. We present a simple additive algorithm, the Tariff Method (termed Tariff), which can be used for assigning individual cause of death and for determining cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) from verbal autopsy data. Methods Tariff calculates a score, or "tariff," for each cause, for each sign/symptom, across a pool of validated verbal autopsy data. The tariffs are summed for a given response pattern in a verbal autopsy, and this sum (score) provides the basis for predicting the cause of death in a dataset. We implemented this algorithm and evaluated the method's predictive ability, both in terms of chance-corrected concordance at the individual cause assignment level and in terms of CSMF accuracy at the population level. The analysis was conducted separately for adult, child, and neonatal verbal autopsies across 500 pairs of train-test validation verbal autopsy data. Results Tariff is capable of outperforming physician-certified verbal autopsy in most cases. In terms of chance-corrected concordance, the method achieves 44.5% in adults, 39% in children, and 23.9% in neonates. CSMF accuracy was 0.745 in adults, 0.709 in children, and 0.679 in neonates. Conclusions Verbal autopsies can be an efficient means of obtaining cause of death data, and Tariff provides an intuitive, reliable method for generating individual cause assignment and CSMFs. The method is transparent and flexible and can be readily implemented by users without training in statistics or computer science. PMID:21816107

  16. Performance Funding at the State Level: Trends and Prospects. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layzell, Daniel T.; Caruthers, J. Kent

    This paper reviews the concept of performance funding (PF) in governmental and higher education budgeting at the state level, reports the results of a recent national study of state-level PF for higher education, and assesses the likelihood that PF will become a permanent fixture in most states' approaches to budgeting for higher education. The…

  17. Cancelled Procedures in the English NHS: Evidence from the 2010 Tariff Reform.

    PubMed

    Cookson, Graham; Jones, Simon; Laliotis, Ioannis

    2017-02-16

    This paper explores the role of incentives in the English National Health Service. Until financial year 2009/2010, elective procedures that were cancelled after admission received a fixed reimbursement associated with a specific healthcare resource group code. We investigate whether this induced trusts to admit and then cancel, rather than cancel before admission and/or to cancel low fee over high fee work. As the tariff was ended in April 2010, we conduct an interrupted time series analysis to examine if their behaviour was affected after the tariff removal. The results indicate a small, yet statistically significant, decline in the probability of a last minute cancellation in the post-tariff period, especially for certain types of patients and diagnoses. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Water supply development and tariffs in Tanzania: From free water policy towards cost recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashauri, Damas A.; Katko, Tapio S.

    1993-01-01

    The article describes the historical development of water tariff policy in Tanzania from the colonial times to present. After gaining independence, the country introduced “free” water policy in its rural areas. Criticism against this policy was expressed already in the 1970s, but it was not until the late 1980s that change became unavoidable. All the while urban water tariffs continued to decline in real terms. In rural and periurban areas of Tanzania consumers often have to pay substantial amounts of money for water to resellers and vendors since the public utilities are unable to provide operative service. Besides, only a part of the water bills are actually collected. Now that the free water supply policy has been officially abandoned, the development of water tariffs and the institutions in general are a great challenge for the country.

  19. Effects of reducing the deficit with an oil-import tariff

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, R.H.; Dunstan, R.H.

    1985-09-01

    Reducing the federal budget deficit with an oil import tariff would be more detrimental to the economy than would other commonly used tax policies. Although most taxes reduce economic growth by raising prices or lowering income, the magnitudes of the induced distortions are different for different tax policies. Simulations reveal that a broader-based tax that raises identical revenue, such as an income tax surcharge, has smaller adverse effects on GNP and inflation than does an oil import tariff. The simulations also show that an import tariff would provide short-term protection to the energy industry by raising energy prices, but the gains in the energy sector are dwarfed by the losses in the rest of the economy. 12 references, 4 figures.

  20. 47 CFR 61.39 - Optional supporting information to be submitted with letters of transmittal for Access Tariff...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with letters of transmittal for Access Tariff filings effective on or after April 1, 1989, by local... after April 1, 1989, by local exchange carriers serving 50,000 or fewer access lines in a given study..., which elects to issue its own Access Tariff for a period commencing on or after April 1, 1989, and...

  1. 75 FR 22418 - The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2010 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Year 2010 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United... the tariff-rate quota for tuna described in subheading 1604.14.22, HTSUS, is based on the apparent... 1604.14.22, HTSUS. Any such tuna which is entered or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption...

  2. 75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round...

  3. 19 CFR 132.17 - Export certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Export certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota. 132.17 Section 132.17 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota. (a) Requirement. For...

  4. 19 CFR 132.17 - Export certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota. 132.17 Section 132.17 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota. (a) Requirement. For...

  5. 76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 15, 2011. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or...

  6. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 300,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ)...

  7. 77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 26, 2012. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or...

  8. 19 CFR 132.17 - Export certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota. 132.17 Section 132.17 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota. (a) Requirement. For...

  9. 19 CFR 132.17 - Export certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Export certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota. 132.17 Section 132.17 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota. (a) Requirement. For...

  10. 19 CFR 132.17 - Export certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Export certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota. 132.17 Section 132.17 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota. (a) Requirement. For...

  11. 78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative...) in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imported raw cane sugar, refined sugar...

  12. 76 FR 63538 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2011... sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the... dairy product import licenses permanently surrendered by licensees or revoked by the Licensing...

  13. 78 FR 46565 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2014 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the... dairy articles, which are subject to tariff-rate quotas set forth in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS..., Dairy Import Licensing Program, Import Policies and Export Reporting Division, STOP 1021,...

  14. 75 FR 53565 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2010... sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the... dairy product import licenses permanently surrendered by licensees or revoked by the Licensing...

  15. 78 FR 46491 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2013...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for...: This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing... for certain dairy product import licenses permanently surrendered by licensees or revoked by...

  16. 77 FR 51681 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2012...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for...: This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing... for certain dairy product import licenses permanently surrendered by licensees or revoked by...

  17. Effect of A-Level Subject Choice and Entry Tariff on Final Degree and Level 1 Performance in Biosciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Nicola C.; Aves, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Following the publication of the higher education white paper increasing entry tariff and widening participation have become even more important issues for universities. This report examines the relationship between entry tariff and undergraduate achievement in Biosciences at the University of Exeter. We show that, whilst there is a significant…

  18. Assessing the associations among trait and state levels of deliberate and spontaneous mind wandering.

    PubMed

    Seli, Paul; Risko, Evan F; Smilek, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that mind wandering can be subdivided into spontaneous and deliberate types, and this distinction has been found to hold at both the trait and state levels. However, to date, no attempts have been made to link trait-level spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering with state-level assessments of these two subtypes of mind wandering. Here we evaluated whether trait-level deliberate and spontaneous mind wandering map onto state levels of these subtypes of mind wandering. Results showed correspondence between trait-level reports of spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering and their state-level counterparts, indicating that people's reports on the intentionality of their mind wandering in the laboratory correspond to their reports of the intentionality of mind wandering in everyday life. Thus, the trait- and state-level scales of mind wandering were found to validate each other: Whereas the state-level measures provided some construct validity for the trait-level measures, the trait-level measures indicated that the state-level measures may be generalizable to everyday situations.

  19. 23 CFR 630.1008 - State-level processes and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sustain their respective work zone safety and mobility policies. State-level processes and procedures... addressing and managing the safety and mobility impacts of work zones. (b) Work zone assessment...

  20. State-level Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for Electricity Generation, Updated 2002

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    This report documents the preparation of updated state-level electricity coefficients for carbon dioxide (CO ), methane (CH ), and nitrous oxide (NO), which represent a three-year weighted average for 1998-2000.

  1. 78 FR 42886 - Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier Negotiated Rate Arrangements; Tariff Publication Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... States or which makes a significant contribution to the U.S. economy through payment of taxes or use of... group or association of ocean transportation intermediaries which provide financial coverage for the... ocean transportation intermediary's, or group's, address published in its tariff, a copy of...

  2. 77 FR 33971 - Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carriers Negotiated Rate Arrangements; Tariff Filing Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... 46 CFR Part 532 RIN 3072-AC38 Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carriers Negotiated Rate Arrangements; Tariff Filing Exemption AGENCY: Federal Maritime Commission. ACTION: Direct final rule; request for...., Washington, DC 20573-0001, or email non-confidential comments to: Secretary@fmc.gov (email comments...

  3. 75 FR 75695 - Certain Footwear: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... States AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Issuing an Addendum to an... the United States Trade Representative (USTR) on November 8, 2010, the Commission has decided to issue... Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, for the purpose of making certain further recommendations...

  4. 19 CFR 10.778 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.778 Section 10.778 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  5. 19 CFR 10.803 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. 10.803 Section 10.803 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT... the method specified for equivalent reporting via an authorized electronic data interchange system....

  6. 19 CFR 10.703 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment. 10.703 Section 10.703 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... authorized electronic data interchange system....

  7. 19 CFR 10.763 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. 10.763 Section 10.763 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT... the method specified for equivalent reporting via an authorized electronic data interchange system....

  8. 19 CFR 10.778 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.778 Section 10.778 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  9. 19 CFR 10.778 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.778 Section 10.778 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  10. 19 CFR 10.778 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.778 Section 10.778 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  11. 78 FR 17394 - Filing via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings; Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Filing via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings; Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that on April 16, 2013,...

  12. 19 CFR 181.52 - Subsequent claims for preferential tariff treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Subsequent claims for preferential tariff treatment. 181.52 Section 181.52 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... claim for a refund of duties is allowed by the Canadian or Mexican customs administration under...

  13. 19 CFR 181.52 - Subsequent claims for preferential tariff treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Subsequent claims for preferential tariff treatment. 181.52 Section 181.52 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... claim for a refund of duties is allowed by the Canadian or Mexican customs administration under...

  14. 19 CFR 181.52 - Subsequent claims for preferential tariff treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Subsequent claims for preferential tariff treatment. 181.52 Section 181.52 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... claim for a refund of duties is allowed by the Canadian or Mexican customs administration under...

  15. 19 CFR 181.52 - Subsequent claims for preferential tariff treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subsequent claims for preferential tariff treatment. 181.52 Section 181.52 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... claim for a refund of duties is allowed by the Canadian or Mexican customs administration under...

  16. 19 CFR 181.52 - Subsequent claims for preferential tariff treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Subsequent claims for preferential tariff treatment. 181.52 Section 181.52 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... claim for a refund of duties is allowed by the Canadian or Mexican customs administration under...

  17. 78 FR 45597 - Modification of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States for Certain Cheeses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... Romania acceded to the European Union (EU), and the EU customs union of 25 member countries (``EU-25'') was enlarged to a customs union of 27 member countries (``EU-27''). At that time, Bulgaria and Romania... tariff of the EU-25 to imports into the EU-27. To recognize the membership of Bulgaria and Romania in...

  18. 18 CFR 341.1 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic filing of... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT §...

  19. 29 CFR 4.118 - Contracts for carriage subject to published tariff rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contracts for carriage subject to published tariff rates. 4.118 Section 4.118 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Specific Exclusions § 4.118 Contracts for...

  20. 78 FR 71724 - Recordations, Water Carrier Tariffs, and Agricultural Contract Summaries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Surface Transportation Board Recordations, Water Carrier Tariffs, and Agricultural Contract Summaries... these approvals will expire if not renewed. (1) Recordations, Control Number 2140-0025 (2) Water Carrier... 31, 2016. The display of a currently valid OMB control number for this collection is required by...

  1. 18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ,supplemental reserves, reactive power and voltage control, or regulation and frequency response ancillary...) through (g)(5) of this section before beginning operations. (7) Frequency regulation compensation in... organization that has a tariff that provides for the compensation for frequency regulation service must...

  2. 18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., or regulation and frequency response ancillary services (or its functional equivalent in the... paragraphs (g)(1) through (g)(5) of this section before beginning operations. (8) Frequency regulation... transmission organization that has a tariff that provides for the compensation for frequency regulation...

  3. 18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., or regulation and frequency response ancillary services (or its functional equivalent in the... paragraphs (g)(1) through (g)(5) of this section before beginning operations. (8) Frequency regulation... transmission organization that has a tariff that provides for the compensation for frequency regulation...

  4. 19 CFR 10.420 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.420 Section 10.420 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  5. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians.

  6. Political Factors Affecting the Enactment of State-Level Clean Indoor Air Laws

    PubMed Central

    Vernick, Jon S.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Webster, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effects of key political institutional factors on the advancement of state-level clean indoor air laws. Methods. We performed an observational study of state-level clean indoor air law enactment among all 50 US states from 1993 to 2010 by using extended Cox hazard models to assess risk of enacting a relevant law. Results. During the 18-year period from 1993 to 2010, 28 states passed a law covering workplaces, 33 states passed a law covering restaurants, 29 states passed a law covering bars, and 16 states passed a law covering gaming facilities. States with term limits had a 2.15 times greater hazard (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27, 3.65; P = .005) of enacting clean indoor air laws. The presence of state-level preemption of local clean indoor air laws was associated with a 3.26 times greater hazard (95% CI = 1.11, 9.53; P = .031) of state-level policy enactment. In the presence of preemption, increased legislative professionalism was strongly associated (hazard ratio = 3.28; 95% CI = 1.10, 9.75; P = .033) with clean indoor air law enactment. Conclusions. Political institutional factors do influence state-level clean indoor air law enactment and may be relevant to other public health policy areas. PMID:24825239

  7. Cue-Based Feeding in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Whetten, Cynthia H

    In NICU settings, caring for neonates born as early as 23 weeks gestation presents unique challenges for caregivers. Traditionally, preterm infants who are learning to orally feed take a predetermined volume of breast milk or formula at scheduled intervals, regardless of their individual ability to coordinate each feeding. Evidence suggests that this volume-driven feeding model should be replaced with a more individualized, developmentally appropriate practice. Evidence from the literature suggests that preterm infants fed via cue-based feeding reach full oral feeding status faster than their volume-feeding counterparts and have shorter lengths of stay in the hospital. Changing practice to infant-driven or cue-based feedings in the hospital setting requires staff education, documentation, and team-based communication.

  8. Development of a Composite Measure of State-Level Malpractice Environment

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jeanette W; Sohn, Min-Woong; Merkow, Ryan P; Oh, Elissa H; Minami, Christina; Black, Bernard S; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a composite measure of state-level malpractice environment. Data Sources Public use data from the National Practitioner Data Bank, Medical Liability Monitor, the National Conference of State Legislatures, and the American Bar Association. Study Design Principal component analysis of state-level indicators (paid claims rate, malpractice premiums, lawyers per capita, average award size, and malpractice laws), with indirect validation of the composite using receiver-operating characteristic curves to determine how accurately the composite could identify states with high-tort activity and costs. Principal Findings A single composite accounted for over 73 percent of total variance in the seven indicators and demonstrated reasonable criterion validity. Conclusion An empirical composite measure of state-level malpractice risk may offer advantages over single indicators in measuring overall risk and may facilitate cross-state comparisons of malpractice environments. PMID:24117397

  9. Validating HRSA's nurse supply and demand models: a state-level perspective.

    PubMed

    Nooney, Jennifer G; Lacey, Linda M

    2007-01-01

    In addition to federal initiatives, solutions to the nursing shortage must also be devised at the state level. Understanding the timing and severity of the nursing shortage in a particular state is paramount to devising appropriate solutions In 2005, the Health Resources and Services Administration released new versions of the Nurse Supply Model and Nurse Demand Model designed to project the supply of RNs and demand for RNs, LPNs, and nurse aides in the United States through the year 2020. The process used by two state-level analysts to project nurse supply and demand in North Carolina using the HRSA models is described. The authors conclude that the models work well for state-level forecasting but that users should carefully assess the default data provided with the model against independent data sources specific to their states.

  10. Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India

    SciTech Connect

    Abhyankar, Nikit; Phadke, Amol

    2011-01-20

    Large-scale EE programs would modestly increase tariffs but reduce consumers' electricity bills significantly. However, the primary benefit of EE programs is a significant reduction in power shortages, which might make these programs politically acceptable even if tariffs increase. To increase political support, utilities could pursue programs that would result in minimal tariff increases. This can be achieved in four ways: (a) focus only on low-cost programs (such as replacing electric water heaters with gas water heaters); (b) sell power conserved through the EE program to the market at a price higher than the cost of peak power purchase; (c) focus on programs where a partial utility subsidy of incremental capital cost might work and (d) increase the number of participant consumers by offering a basket of EE programs to fit all consumer subcategories and tariff tiers. Large scale EE programs can result in consistently negative cash flows and significantly erode the utility's overall profitability. In case the utility is facing shortages, the cash flow is very sensitive to the marginal tariff of the unmet demand. This will have an important bearing on the choice of EE programs in Indian states where low-paying rural and agricultural consumers form the majority of the unmet demand. These findings clearly call for a flexible, sustainable solution to the cash-flow management issue. One option is to include a mechanism like FAC in the utility incentive mechanism. Another sustainable solution might be to have the net program cost and revenue loss built into utility's revenue requirement and thus into consumer tariffs up front. However, the latter approach requires institutionalization of EE as a resource. The utility incentive mechanisms would be able to address the utility disincentive of forgone long-run return but have a minor impact on consumer benefits. Fundamentally, providing incentives for EE programs to make them comparable to supply-side investments is a way

  11. Effects of state-level public spending on health on the mortality probability in India.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Mansour; Subramanian, S V; Canning, David

    2010-11-01

    This study uses the second National Family Health Survey of India to estimate the effect of state-level public health spending on mortality across all age groups, controlling for individual, household, and state-level covariates. We use a state's gross fiscal deficit as an instrument for its health spending. Our study shows a 10% increase in public spending on health in India decreases the average probability of death by about 2%, with effects mainly on the young, the elderly, and women. Other major factors affecting mortality are rural residence, household poverty, and access to toilet facilities.

  12. 77 FR 45599 - CED Rock Springs, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market-Based Rate Tariff Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...-2546-000; ER02-2546-001] CED Rock Springs, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market- Based Rate... above-referenced proceeding of CED Rock Springs, Inc.'s tariff revision filing, noting that such...

  13. Putting Civics to the Test: The Impact of State-Level Civics Assessments on Civic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, David E.

    2014-01-01

    There is a continuing national debate over the efficacy of state-level exams and whether assessments in civics enhances democratic education. This paper uses a large 2012 national survey of 18-24-year-olds to examine the potential effect of civics assessments on civic outcomes. In doing so, it attempts to answer three questions: (1) Do civics…

  14. Approaches to CETA Vocational Education Coordination at the District and State Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Thomas J.

    Both district and state-level programs have been implemented in the state of California to facilitate the coordination between CETA (Comprehensive Employment and Training Act) and vocational education. The Grossmont Union High School District established the Director of Grants and Contracts/School Improvement position to develop an internal…

  15. Systemic High School Reform in Two States: The Serendipity of State-Level Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Edmund T.

    2005-01-01

    Maine and Vermont have been national leaders in state-level coordination of high school reform. Both recently developed almost interchangeable, new, voluntary, statewide frameworks that describe multiple ways high schools should change. Both frameworks--Promising Futures (Maine Commission on Secondary Education 1998) and High Schools on the Move…

  16. EPA State-level Summaries of FracFocus 1 Hydraulic Fracturing Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA developed state-level summaries of chemical and water use using the project database developed from FracFocus 1.0 disclosures with some limited background information on oil and gas production, geology, and regulations for the state.

  17. Surrogate Parents and Children with Disabilities: State-Level Approaches. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve

    2009-01-01

    Based on a survey of states, this document summarizes state-level approaches to using surrogate parents in order to meet the needs of children with disabilities. Most respondents noted that their states had issued policy or formal guidance pertaining to surrogate parents and children with disabilities, and most also described efforts to ensure…

  18. State-Level Academic Program Review in Higher Education. Report No. 107.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Robert J.; Berdahl, Robert O.

    The state of the art of state-level academic program review is presented. The growth of state agency reviews and three types of state coordinating agencies are discussed. The relation of program review to budget review and planning is outlined, and a description is provided of what programs are reviewed, the criteria for reviewing new programs,…

  19. Facilities Planning Conference for Community-Junior College State-Level Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. of Higher Education.

    This report on planning and developing facilities for community-junior colleges includes papers presented at a conference for state-level facility planners. The meeting covered the following areas: (1) development of physical facilities responsive to educational programs and community needs; (2) efficient use of existing facilities through…

  20. Map of the Field--Higher Education Research at the State Level. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Patricia H.; Adams, Charles S.

    A map of the field of higher education at the state level is presented that defines theoretical and conceptual frameworks, approaches to analysis, research designs, and methodologies that have been used in the study of the relationships between state governments and institutions of higher education or of state policy structures and processes.…

  1. Educational Funding and Student Outcomes: The Relationship as Evidenced by State-Level Data. Research Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ted

    2014-01-01

    This report shows the impact of various school funding measures on student outcomes measured by NAEP, ACT, and SAT scores, the four-year cohort graduation rate, and percent of the population ages 18-24 with at least a high school diploma. State-level data for the United States from 2005 through 2014 as available is utilized to establish the nature…

  2. Developing a Successful State-Level Environmental Education Organization: A Nationwide Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaldone, David; Dey, Shannon E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a nationwide assessment of state-level environmental education (EE) organizations to determine the components that are essential to the establishment and success of these organizations. E-mail surveys were used to collect data from North American Association for Environmental Education state affiliates, and…

  3. The Role of State Higher Education Governance Structures in State-Level Higher Education Lobbying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkum, Kurt Richard

    2009-01-01

    Lobbying and lobbyists are integral components of federal and state public policymaking for higher education at the federal and state levels. While the actions and goals of lobbyists appear to be straightforward, the lobbying tactics selected by lobbyists vary for different situations and in different contexts (Browne, 1985; Cook, 1998; Gladieux &…

  4. Comparing Dropout Predictors for Two State-Level Panels Using Grade 6 and Grade 8 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Bobby J.; Trouard, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of dropout predictors across time. Two state-level high school graduation panels were selected to begin with the seventh and ninth grades but end at the same time. The first panel (seventh grade) contained 29,554 students and used sixth grade predictors. The second panel (ninth grade)…

  5. State-Level Variability of Educational Outcomes of Students with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the educational environment placement and educational outcomes of students identified as having an emotional disturbance (ED). The sample was drawn from special education enrollment data for students aged 6-21 years in the 50 states and Washington, DC in 2010. Additional economic and demographic state-level variables were…

  6. NATIONAL- AND STATE-LEVEL EMISSIONS ESTIMATES OF RADIATIVELY IMPORTANT TRACE GASES (RITGS) FROM ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the development of national- and state- level emissions estimates of radiatively important trace gases (RlTGs). Emissions estimates are presented for the principal anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and o...

  7. Involvement of Youth with Disabilities in State-Level Decision Making. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve

    2007-01-01

    During the National Association of State Directors of Special Education's (NASDSE) 2005 annual meeting, a panel of youth representatives challenged states to do a better job of including youth with disabilities in state-level decision making (e.g., as members of state advisory panels [SAPs] and/or transition councils). State directors of special…

  8. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2014

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    This analysis examines some of the factors that influence state-level carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels. These factors include: the fuel mix — especially in the generation of electricity; the state climate; the population density of the state; the industrial makeup of the state and whether the state is a net exporter or importer of electricity.

  9. Measures for the Final Common Core of Constructs. The Project on State-Level Child Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Project on State-Level Child Outcomes, a federal project designed to improve the measurement of child outcomes in state welfare evaluations and in other state data systems. This document provides measures for the common core of constructs that state representatives developed at the second national-level meeting of the Project's planning phase.…

  10. A Descriptive Study of the Intent of State Level Textbook Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulley, Michael A.

    In an effort to better understand the intents of those policies that prescribe state-level textbook adoption, a study collected and analyzed data from (1) the textbook adoption statutes of each of the 22 "state adoption" states, (2) documents and policy manuals produced by the state departments of education of each of these 22 states,…

  11. The Purpose of State Level Textbook Adoption: What Does the Legislation Reveal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulley, Michael A.; Farr, Roger

    1985-01-01

    A content analysis of textbook adoption statutes of 22 states was undertaken to gain insight into the reasons behind state textbook adoption. Findings indicate the intent of state-level textbook adoption may be to control marketing practices of the publishing industry. (DF)

  12. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity.

  13. The Way Ahead for Finnish Comprehensive School? Examining State-Level School Administrators' Theory of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salonen-Hakomäki, Sanna-Mari; Soini, Tiina; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    A significant body of evidence shows that the goals of educational reforms are seldom fully achieved. Some research suggests that the problem lies in state-level curriculum reform work that lacks a sufficient understanding of the educational reality. However, views and perceptions among the central architects of the reforms have not been…

  14. Women's status and child well-being: a state-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Koenen, Karestan C; Lincoln, Alisa; Appleton, Allison

    2006-12-01

    We conducted an ecologic analysis of the relation between women's status and child well-being in the 50 United States. State-level women's status was assessed via four composite indices: women's political participation, economic autonomy, employment and earnings, and reproductive rights. Child well-being was measured via five outcomes: percentage of low birthweight babies, infant mortality, teen mortality, high school dropout rate, and teen birth rate. Higher state-level women's status on all indicators was associated with significantly better state-level child well-being in unadjusted analyses. Several associations remained significant after adjusting for income inequality and state racial composition. Women's political participation was associated with a significantly lower percentage of low birthweight babies (p<.001) and lower teen birth rates (p<.05). Women's employment and earnings was associated with lower infant mortality (p<.05) and teen birth rates (p<.05). More economic and social autonomy for women was associated with better child outcomes on all measures (p<.01 all). Greater reproductive rights were associated with significantly lower infant mortality (p<.01). We conclude that child well-being is worse in states where women have lower political, economic, and social status. Women's status is an important aspect of children's social context which may impact their well-being. Multi-level analyses of the association between state-level women's status and child well-being are needed.

  15. National- and State-Level High School Graduation Rates for English Learners. Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topic for this report on English Learners (ELs) are national- and state-level high school graduation rates for English Learners. The following data are presented: (1)…

  16. Predictors of Placement Stability at the State Level: The Use of Logistic Regression to Inform Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Jon R.; Prophet, Retta

    2011-01-01

    Placement instability is often associated with a number of negative outcomes for children. To gain state level contextual knowledge of factors associated with placement stability/instability, logistic regression was applied to selected variables from the New Mexico Adoption and Foster Care Administrative Reporting System dataset. Predictors…

  17. 19 CFR 10.421 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. 10.421 Section 10.421 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., 5807.10.2010, 5807.10.2020, 5807.90.05, 5807.90.2010, 5807.90.2020, 5808.10.40, 5808.10.70,...

  18. ARN Integrated Retail Module (IRM) System at Ft. Bliss - Central Issue Facility (CIF) Local Tariff

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-14

    Number SP0103-02-D-0018 / Delivery Order 0014 ARN Integrated Retail Module (IRM) System at Ft. Bliss Prepared for: Defense Logistics Agency March...February 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ARN Integrated Retail Module (IRM) System at Ft. Bliss - Central Issue Facility (CIF) Local Tariff 5. FUNDING...Visibility System (AAVS) and other databases over the Internet, and AdvanTech established ARN Integrated Retail Module (IRM) at Ft. Bliss, TX Page

  19. A new proxy measure for state-level gun ownership in studies of firearm injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-06-01

    Since many states are considering gun control laws, researchers need reliable data on rates of gun ownership at the state level. Survey measures of gun ownership in all 50 states, however, are only available for 3 years, and no state-level data have been collected since 2004. Consequently, the National Research Council has declared the development of a valid proxy that can be constructed from accessible, annual, state-level data to be a priority. While such a proxy does exist (the proportion of suicides in a state committed using a gun (FS/S), its correlation with state estimates of gun ownership in recent years is only 0.80. Using state-level data for the years 2001, 2002 and 2004, we developed an improved proxy for state-level gun ownership that uses FS/S (firearm suicides divided by all suicides) and also the per capita number of hunting licenses. We validated this measure using data from surveys of gun ownership conducted in 48 states during 1996 and 1999, and in 21 states during 1995-1998. Adding per capita hunting licenses to the proxy increased its correlation with survey-measured gun ownership from 0.80 to 0.95. The correlations of the new proxy with gun ownership in the two validation studies were 0.95 and 0.97. We conclude that the combination of FS/S and per capita hunting licenses improves substantially upon FS/S alone. This new proxy is easily computed from data that are available annually by state and may be useful for investigating the effect of gun prevalence on firearm-related morbidity and mortality.

  20. Enteral nutrition by tube feeding in adults.

    PubMed

    Mohandas, K M; Shastri, Y M; Shirodkar, M

    2001-01-01

    Patients who cannot eat enough require alternatives to oral feeding. Tube feeding is one such method for patients with a functioning gut. The techniques for the placement of feeding tubes and diets for tube feeding have improved during the past 20 years. Comfortable thin-bore polyurethane tubes are replacing the thicker vinyl tubes. Long term access routes such as gastrostomy and jejunostomy are being done by endoscopic or radiological techniques. Pre-defined formula feeds have reduced the effort and labour involved in the preparation, storage and administration of blenderized tube feeds. However, the use of soft feeding tubes and commercial formulae will increase the cost of nutrition therapy in India. The ultimate cost-effectiveness of tube feeding will depend on whether it is used appropriately during an illness with adequate delivery of feeds, and whether attention is given to small details by a dedicated nutritional support team. A strong commitment to the scientific use of nutritional support is necessary for getting the best results from tube feeding in everyday practice.

  1. Availability Based Tariff and its impact On different Industry Players-A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmukhe, R. M.; Pawar, Yogini; Desai, R. S.; Hasarmani, T. S.

    2010-10-01

    ABT is a performance-based tariff for the supply of electricity by generators owned and controlled by the central government. It is also a new system of scheduling and dispatch, which requires both generators and beneficiaries to commit to day-ahead schedules. It is a system of rewards and penalties seeking to enforce day ahead pre-committed schedules, though variations are permitted if notified One and one half hours in advance. The order emphasizes prompt payment of dues. ABT (Availability Based Tariff) along with the Electricity Act of 2003 is perhaps the most significant and definitive step taken in the Indian power sector so far to bring more efficiency and focus to this vital infrastructure. The ABT mechanism is based on financial principles. ABT scheme is for unscheduled interchange of power. The paper reviews ABT issues, its components, clauses, mechanism, benefits and the impact of grid on different players like generation utilities, grid operator, consumers involved in power generation, transmission and distribution. While the proposed tariff structure has wide implications for each player, this deals exclusively with the technology challenges/opportunities thrown up by ABT.

  2. Reducing US oil-import dependence: A tariff, subsidy, or gasoline tax

    SciTech Connect

    Yuecel, M.K. ); Dahl, C. )

    1990-05-01

    Low oil prices and rising oil imports have caused growing concern about U.S. vulnerability to oil-supply shocks. The authors devise a measure of vulnerability and use it to compare three policies that have been proposed to reduce U.S. vulnerability to oil-supply disruptions: a 25% oil-import tariff, a $5-per-barrel subsidy to domestic oil producers, and an increase in the gasoline tax from 9 cents to 25 cents per gallon. They find that the tariff would make the United States less vulnerable to disruptions. By increasing both consumer and producer prices, the tariff lowers consumption while encouraging domestic production. The increased gasoline tax could either lower or raise vulnerability. If domestic supply is not very responsive to price changes, the gasoline tax increases vulnerability. If domestic supply is responsive to price changes, the gasoline tax reduces vulnerability. The subsidy encourages increased consumption and production, leading to a faster depletion of the resource base. Hence, the subsidy would make the United States more vulnerable to oil-supply shocks. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. From Classroom to Capitol: Building Advocacy Capacity Through State-Level Advocacy Experiences.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Lydia; Starry, Bethany; Gangi, Catherine; Lube, Lauren M; Cedergren, Anders; Whitney, Emily; Rees, Keely

    2016-11-01

    This commentary provides insight from Community Health Education and Master of Public Health students on the benefits of participating in a state-level Advocacy Experience and provides a theoretical framework for increased advocacy intention among students as a result of participating in a state-level Advocacy Experience. Providing students the opportunity to translate what they learn about advocacy in the classroom into advocacy in action with policy makers is vital to the career development of our future health education professionals and is key to increasing advocacy capacity within our profession. This article builds on previous work from emerging public health professionals highlighting the role of policy advocacy in professional development and provides additional perspectives from the next generation of health education specialists.

  4. Do state characteristics matter? State level factors related to tobacco cessation quitlines

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Paula A; Koss, Kalsea J; Baker, Timothy B; Bailey, Linda A; Fiore, Michael C

    2007-01-01

    Background Quitline services are an effective population‐wide tobacco cessation strategy adopted widely in the United States as part of state comprehensive tobacco control efforts. Despite widespread evidence supporting quitlines' effectiveness, many states lack sufficient financial resources to adequately fund and promote this service. Efforts to augment state tobacco control efforts might be fostered by greater knowledge of state level factors associated with the funding and implementation of those efforts. Methods We analysed data from the 2004 North American Quitline Consortium survey and from publicly available sources to identify state level factors related to quitline implementation and funding. Factors included in the analyses were state demographic characteristics, tobacco use variables, state tobacco control spending, and economic and political climate variables. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted. Results The best fitting multivariate model that significantly predicted the presence or absence of a state quitline included only cigarette excise tax rate (p = 0.020). In terms of funding levels, states with high rates of cigarette consumption (p = 0.047) and with higher per capita expenditures for tobacco control programmes (p = 0 .0.004) were most likely to spend more on per capita operations budget for quitlines. Conclusion State level factors appear to play a part in whether states had established quitlines by mid‐2004 and the amount of per capita quitline funding. PMID:18048637

  5. A comparison of state-level estimation techniques for utility atmospheric emission factors

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, D.; Baechler, M.

    1995-10-01

    Atmospheric emission factors provide a link between the electricity saved in buildings and the associated decrease in fossil fuel use in the electric supply sector. Understanding this link is important to meet the requirements of Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy act of 1992, which established the voluntary program for reporting reductions in greenhouse gases. As part of the development process for Section 1605(b), several national workshops were held by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Workshop participants expressed the need for DOE to supply default atmospheric emission facets. Based upon the response from the workshop participants, it was decided that emission factors would be aggregated to the state level (e.g., California, Connecticut, etc.). Emission factors for electricity generation are generally quantified as a quantity of impact to an amount of fuel used to produce the emission. In the electric supply sector, factors are often expressed in units of pounds or tons of emission per megawatt-hours (MWh) of electricity produced. In this paper, the authors examine and compare the estimates from three methodologies for developing state-level emission facets. In addition, they compare the results to those obtained using emissions data calculated by the EIA. Although the examples presented in this paper depict the development of state-level factors, the same methodologies can be applied by an individual utility to generate utility-specific atmospheric emission factors.

  6. Utterance Verification Using State-Level Log-Likelihood Ratio with Frame and State Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Suk-Bong; Kim, Hoirin

    This paper suggests utterance verification system using state-level log-likelihood ratio with frame and state selection. We use hidden Markov models for speech recognition and utterance verification as acoustic models and anti-phone models. The hidden Markov models have three states and each state represents different characteristics of a phone. Thus we propose an algorithm to compute state-level log-likelihood ratio and give weights on states for obtaining more reliable confidence measure of recognized phones. Additionally, we propose a frame selection algorithm to compute confidence measure on frames including proper speech in the input speech. In general, phone segmentation information obtained from speaker-independent speech recognition system is not accurate because triphone-based acoustic models are difficult to effectively train for covering diverse pronunciation and coarticulation effect. So, it is more difficult to find the right matched states when obtaining state segmentation information. A state selection algorithm is suggested for finding valid states. The proposed method using state-level log-likelihood ratio with frame and state selection shows that the relative reduction in equal error rate is 18.1% compared to the baseline system using simple phone-level log-likelihood ratios.

  7. Understanding and Informing the Policy Environment: State-Level Renewable Fuels Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.; Cory, K.; Arent, D.

    2007-01-01

    Renewable fuels standard (RFS) policies are becoming a popular public policy mechanism for developing the market for renewable fuels in the transportation sector. During the past decade, U.S. states and several countries began implementing these more market-based (less command and control) policies to support increased biofuels production and use. This paper presents an overview of current and proposed U.S. state-level policies, as well as selected electric sector policies and international fuel standard policies. Current U.S. state-level renewable fuel policies list drivers including an improved economy and environment, as well as fuel self-sufficiency. Best practices and experience from an evaluation of renewable portfolio standards (RPS) in the United States and international RFS policies can inform U.S. state-level policy by illustrating the importance of policy flexibility, binding targets, effective cost caps, and tradable permits. Understanding and building on the experiences from these previous policies can improve the policy mechanism and further develop a market for renewable fuels to meet the goals of improved economy, environment, and fuel self-sufficiency.

  8. Cooperation between SSACs/RSACs and the IAEA Under the State-Level Concept:

    SciTech Connect

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia; Johnson, Jaclyn M

    2012-01-01

    The role of State and Regional Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials (SSACs/RSACs) will increase within the framework of the state-level concept that is being implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In order to effectively implement the concept and further establish a state-level approach, which is sought to tailor safeguards activities in a specific state accordingly, collaboration between SSACs/RSACs and the IAEA is very important. Nevertheless, the implementation of such concept is not simple. Optimal relationship between operators and national/governmental authorities and between SSACs/RSACs and the IAEA is an evolving process. Benefits of such an approach as well as roles and responsibilities must be made clear to all parties involved. Acknowledging the uniqueness and diversity of SSACs/RSACs is a first step, followed by the implementation of confidence-building measures that result from an efficient communication process, and culminating with a transparent technical cooperation program. This paper analyses various aspects of the complex relationship among all parties involved in the implementation of the state-level concept: operators, national authorities, government agencies, SSACs/RSACs, and the IAEA. The author analyses the intricate network of possibilities to improve cooperation and discusses issues involving the provision of additional and voluntary information by SSACs/RSACs to the IAEA.

  9. The difference between energy consumption and energy cost: Modelling energy tariff structures for water resource recovery facilities.

    PubMed

    Aymerich, I; Rieger, L; Sobhani, R; Rosso, D; Corominas, Ll

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of incorporating more realistic energy cost models (based on current energy tariff structures) into existing water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) process models when evaluating technologies and cost-saving control strategies. In this paper, we first introduce a systematic framework to model energy usage at WRRFs and a generalized structure to describe energy tariffs including the most common billing terms. Secondly, this paper introduces a detailed energy cost model based on a Spanish energy tariff structure coupled with a WRRF process model to evaluate several control strategies and provide insights into the selection of the contracted power structure. The results for a 1-year evaluation on a 115,000 population-equivalent WRRF showed monthly cost differences ranging from 7 to 30% when comparing the detailed energy cost model to an average energy price. The evaluation of different aeration control strategies also showed that using average energy prices and neglecting energy tariff structures may lead to biased conclusions when selecting operating strategies or comparing technologies or equipment. The proposed framework demonstrated that for cost minimization, control strategies should be paired with a specific optimal contracted power. Hence, the design of operational and control strategies must take into account the local energy tariff.

  10. Economic Burden of Disease-Associated Malnutrition at the State Level

    PubMed Central

    Goates, Scott; Du, Kristy; Braunschweig, Carol A.; Arensberg, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    Background Disease-associated malnutrition has been identified as a prevalent condition, particularly for the elderly, which has often been overlooked in the U.S. healthcare system. The state-level burden of community-based disease-associated malnutrition is unknown and there have been limited efforts by state policy makers to identify, quantify, and address malnutrition. The objective of this study was to examine and quantify the state-level economic burden of disease-associated malnutrition. Methods Direct medical costs of disease-associated malnutrition were calculated for 8 diseases: Stroke, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Coronary Heart Failure, Breast Cancer, Dementia, Musculoskeletal Disorders, Depression, and Colorectal Cancer. National disease and malnutrition prevalence rates were estimated for subgroups defined by age, race, and sex using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the National Health Interview Survey. State prevalence of disease-associated malnutrition was estimated by combining national prevalence estimates with states’ demographic data from the U.S. Census. Direct medical cost for each state was estimated as the increased expenditures incurred as a result of malnutrition. Principal Findings Direct medical costs attributable to disease-associated malnutrition vary among states from an annual cost of $36 per capita in Utah to $65 per capita in Washington, D.C. Nationally the annual cost of disease-associated malnutrition is over $15.5 billion. The elderly bear a disproportionate share of this cost on both the state and national level. Conclusions Additional action is needed to reduce the economic impact of disease-associated malnutrition, particularly at the state level. Nutrition may be a cost-effective way to help address high health care costs. PMID:27655372

  11. Methods for analysis of photosynthetic pigments and steady-state levels of intermediates of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Czarnecki, Olaf; Peter, Enrico; Grimm, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Tetrapyrroles and carotenoids are required for many indispensable functions in photosynthesis. Tetrapyrroles are essential metabolites for photosynthesis, redox reaction, and detoxification of reactive oxygen species and xenobiotics, while carotenoids function as accessory pigments, in photoprotection and in attraction to animals. Their branched metabolic pathways of synthesis and degradation are tightly controlled to provide adequate amounts of each metabolite (carotenoids/tetrapyrroles) and to prevent accumulation of photoreactive intermediates (tetrapyrroles). Many Arabidopsis mutants and transgenic plants have been reported to show variations in steady-state levels of tetrapyrrole intermediates and contents of different carotenoid species. It is a challenging task to determine the minute amounts of these metabolites to assess the metabolic flow and the activities of both pigment-synthesising and degrading pathways, to unravel limiting enzymatic steps of these biosynthetic pathways, and to characterise mutants with accumulating intermediates. In this chapter, we present a series of methods to qualify and quantify anabolic and catabolic intermediates of Arabidopsis tetrapyrrole metabolism, and describe a common method for quantification of different plant carotenoid species. Additionally, we introduce two methods for quantification of non-covalently bound haem. The approach of analysing steady-state levels of tetrapyrrole intermediates in plants, when applied in combination with analyses of transcripts, proteins, and enzyme activities, enables the biochemical and genetic elucidation of the tetrapyrrole pathway in wild-type plants, varieties, and mutants. Steady-state levels of tetrapyrrole intermediates are only up to 1/1,000 of the amounts of the accumulating end-products, chlorophyll, and haem. Although present in very low amounts, the accumulation and availability of tetrapyrrole intermediates have major consequences on the physiology and activity of

  12. Opportunities for state-level action to reduce firearm violence: proceeding from the evidence.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J; Braga, Anthony A

    2011-09-01

    Firearm violence remains an important problem, and a large body of evidence shows that guns used in crime follow generally predictable paths from manufacturer to criminal end user. Policy initiatives based on that evidence have been shown to be effective. A recently published study conducted by a leading policy organization presents new evidence and makes specific recommendations for action by state-level policymakers. Unfortunately, the study's analysis is overly simplified, and the recommendations are therefore misleading. We suggest alternatives that are evidence based.

  13. A state-level analysis of life expectancy in Mexico (1990-2006).

    PubMed

    Peláez, Oscar; Guijarro, Marta; Arias, Mercedes

    2010-11-01

    Using a methodology similar to that proposed by Barro & Sala-i-Martin (1995), it is found that, in the period 1990-2006, there was strong convergence among state-level life expectancy series, but a distancing in life expectancy in the Mexican Republic compared with more developed countries, especially during the new millennium. The interior convergence had taken place at the expense of the exterior; that is, not so much as a result of an improvement in living conditions in the poorer states, but more due to the low performance of the richer states. The causes of this situation are explained using the concept of 'epidemiological transition'.

  14. Cigarette quitlines, taxes, and other tobacco control policies: a state-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Henry Shelton; Karson, Steve

    2013-06-01

    This paper estimates monthly quitline calls using panel data at the state level from January 2005 to June 2010. Calls to state quitline numbers (or 1-800-QUITNOW) were measured per million adult smokers in each state. The policies considered include excise taxes, workplace and public smoking bans, and a Peter Jennings television-based program warning of the health risks of smoking. We found that people anticipating increases in prices begin attempting to quit by calling quitlines. Finally, the Peter Jennings media campaign was highly correlated with quitline calls.

  15. Building Energy Use Modeling at the U.S. State Level Under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Eom, J.; Clarke, L.; Kyle, P.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change plays an important role in building energy use for heating and cooling. As global building energy use accounts for as much as about 32% of global final energy consumption in 2005, the impact of climate change on greenhouse gas emissions may also be significant. As long-term socioeconomic transformation and energy service expansion show large spatial heterogeneity, advanced understanding of climate impact on building energy use at the sub-national level will offer useful insights into regional energy system planning. In this study, we have developed a detailed building energy model with U.S. 50-state representation, embedded in an integrated assessment framework (Global Change Assessment Model). The climate change impact on heating and cooling demand is measured through estimating heating and cooling degree days (HDD/CDDs) derived from MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) climate data and linking the estimates to the building energy model. Having the model calibrated against historical data at the U.S. state level, we estimated the building energy use in the 21st century at the U.S. state level and analyzed its spatial pattern. We have found that the total building energy use (heating and cooling) in U.S. states is over- or under-estimated without having climate feedback taken into account, and that the difference with and without climate feedback at the state level varies from -25% to 25% in reference scenario and -15% to 10% in climate mitigation scenario. The result not only confirms earlier finding that global warming leads to increased cooling and decreased heating energy use, it also indicates that climate change has a different impact on total building energy use at national and state level, exhibiting large spatial heterogeneity across states (Figure 1). The scale impact in building energy use modeling emphasizes the importance of developing a building energy model that represents socioeconomic development, energy service expansion, and

  16. Focus on the Customer: A New Approach to State-Level Accountability Reporting and Processes for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruppert, Sandra S.

    This paper outlines the dimensions of a customer-focused system of accountability and describes approaches taken at the state level to respond to the information needs of a broader client base for higher education. Section 1 traces current trends in the development and implementation of state-level accountability policy for higher education. It…

  17. 19 CFR 113.74 - Bond conditions to indemnify a complainant under section 337 of Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond conditions to indemnify a complainant under section 337 of Tariff Act of 1930, as amended. 113.74 Section 113.74 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... Conditions § 113.74 Bond conditions to indemnify a complainant under section 337 of Tariff Act of 1930,...

  18. State-level cancer quality assessment and research: building and sustaining the data infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, Joseph; Gillespie, Theresa W

    2011-01-01

    Over a decade ago, the Institute of Medicine called for a national cancer data system in the United States to support quality-of-care assessment and improvement, including research on effective interventions. Although considerable progress has been achieved in cancer quality measurement and effectiveness research, the nation still lacks a population-based data infrastructure for accurately identifying cancer patients and tracking services and outcomes over time. For compelling reasons, the most effective pathway forward may be the development of state-level cancer data systems, in which central registry data are linked to multiple public and private secondary sources. These would include administrative/claims files from Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurers. Moreover, such a state-level system would promote rapid learning by encouraging adoption of near-real-time reporting and feedback systems, such as the Commission on Cancer's new Rapid Quality Reporting System. The groundwork for such a system is being laid in the state of Georgia, and similar work is advancing in other states. The pace of progress depends on the successful resolution of issues related to the application of information technology, financing, and governance.

  19. Modeling Per Capita State Health Expenditure Variation: State-Level Characteristics Matter

    PubMed Central

    Cuckler, Gigi; Sisko, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Objective In this paper, we describe the methods underlying the econometric model developed by the Office of the Actuary in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, to explain differences in per capita total personal health care spending by state, as described in Cuckler, et al. (2011). Additionally, we discuss many alternative model specifications to provide additional insights for valid interpretation of the model. Data Source We study per capita personal health care spending as measured by the State Health Expenditures, by State of Residence for 1991–2009, produced by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Office of the Actuary. State-level demographic, health status, economic, and health economy characteristics were gathered from a variety of U.S. government sources, such as the Census Bureau, Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Centers for Disease Control, the American Hospital Association, and HealthLeaders-InterStudy. Principal Findings State-specific factors, such as income, health care capacity, and the share of elderly residents, are important factors in explaining the level of per capita personal health care spending variation among states over time. However, the slow-moving nature of health spending per capita and close relationships among state-level factors create inefficiencies in modeling this variation, likely resulting in incorrectly estimated standard errors. In addition, we find that both pooled and fixed effects models primarily capture cross-sectional variation rather than period-specific variation. PMID:24834363

  20. The precautionary principle and other non-tariff barriers to free and fair international food trade.

    PubMed

    Lupien, John R

    2002-07-01

    International food trade and world population are growing rapidly. National legislation has been enacted and implemented in many countries to assure good quality and safe foods to meet increased demand. No country is fully self-sufficient in domestic food production to meet population demands, and all require some food imports. Current international food trade agreements call for free and fair food trade between all countries, developed and developing. National food legislation and food production, processing and marketing systems have evolved in most countries to ensure better quality and safer foods. At the international level the work of the FAO/ WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) and the World Trade Organization Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and related Uruguay Round agreements have been agreed to by over 140 countries with the aim to promoting the free and fair trade of good quality and safe foods between all countries. The SPS and TBT agreements rely on science-based Codex standards, guidelines, and recommendations as benchmarks for judging international food trade disputes. A number of non-tariff barriers to trade, often related to agricultural subsidies and other food trade payments in developed countries, continue to give rise to complaints to WTO. They also continue to prevent free and fair trade, particularly for developing countries in international food trade. A number of these non-tariff barriers to trade are briefly examined, along with other domestic and international food trade problems, and recommendations for improvements are made.

  1. The effect of the water tariff structures on the water consumption in Mallorcan hotels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyà-Tortella, Bartolomé; Garcia, Celso; Nilsson, William; Tirado, Dolores

    2016-08-01

    Tourism increases water demand, especially in coastal areas and on islands, and can also cause water shortages during the dry season and the degradation of the water supply. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of water price structures on hotel water consumption on the island of Mallorca (Spain). All tourist municipalities on the island use different pricing structures, such as flat or block rates, and different tariffs. This exogenous variation is used to evaluate the effect of prices on water consumption for a sample of 134 hotels. The discontinuity of the water tariff structure and the fixed rate, which depends on the number of hotel beds, generate endogeneity problems. We propose an econometric model, an instrumental variable quantile regression for within artificial blocks transformed data, to solve both problems. The coefficients corresponding to the price variables are not found to be significantly different from zero. The sign of the effect is negative, but the magnitude is negligible: a 1% increase in all prices would reduce consumption by an average of only 0.024%. This result is probably due to the small share of water costs with respect to the total hotel operational costs (around 4%). Our regression model concludes that the introduction of water-saving initiatives constitutes an effective way to reduce consumption.

  2. Incarceration and Black-White inequality in Homeownership: A state-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Daniel; Turney, Kristin

    2015-09-01

    Rising incarceration rates in the United States, as well as the concentration of incarceration among already marginalized individuals, has led some scholars to suggest that incarceration increases economic inequality among American men. But little is known about the consequences of incarceration for wealth, about incarceration's contribution to Black-White disparities in wealth, or about the broader effects of incarceration on communities. In this article, we use state-level panel data (from 1985 to 2005) to examine the relationship between incarceration rates and the Black-White gap in homeownership, a distinct and important measure of wealth. Results, which are robust to an array of model specifications and robustness checks, show that incarceration rates diminish homeownership rates among Blacks and, in doing so, widen Black-White inequalities in homeownership. Therefore, the findings suggest that the consequences of incarceration extend beyond the offender and may increase inequality in household wealth.

  3. Improving adolescent health policy: incorporating a framework for assessing state-level policies.

    PubMed

    Brindis, Claire D; Moore, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Many US policies that affect health are made at the state, not the federal, level. Identifying state-level policies and data to analyze how different policies affect outcomes may help policy makers ascertain the usefulness of their public policies and funding decisions in improving the health of adolescent populations. A framework for describing and assessing the role of federal and state policies on adolescent health and well-being is proposed; an example of how the framework might be applied to the issue of teen childbearing is included. Such a framework can also help inform analyses of whether and how state and federal policies contribute to the variation across states in meeting adolescent health needs. A database on state policies, contextual variables, and health outcomes data can further enable researchers and policy makers to examine how these factors are associated with behaviors they aim to impact.

  4. The Use of Performance Metrics for the Assessment of Safeguards Effectiveness at the State Level

    SciTech Connect

    Bachner K. M.; George Anzelon, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA Yana Feldman, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA Mark Goodman,Department of State, Washington, DC Dunbar Lockwood, National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington, DC Jonathan B. Sanborn, JBS Consulting, LLC, Arlington, VA.

    2016-07-24

    In the ongoing evolution of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at the state level, many safeguards implementation principles have been emphasized: effectiveness, efficiency, non-discrimination, transparency, focus on sensitive materials, centrality of material accountancy for detecting diversion, independence, objectivity, and grounding in technical considerations, among others. These principles are subject to differing interpretations and prioritizations and sometimes conflict. This paper is an attempt to develop metrics and address some of the potential tradeoffs inherent in choices about how various safeguards policy principles are implemented. The paper carefully defines effective safeguards, including in the context of safeguards approaches that take account of the range of state-specific factors described by the IAEA Secretariat and taken note of by the Board in September 2014, and (2) makes use of performance metrics to help document, and to make transparent, how safeguards implementation would meet such effectiveness requirements.

  5. Retrospective on the construction and practice of a state-level emergency medical rescue team.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhang; Haitao, Guo; Xin, Wang; Yundou, Wang

    2014-10-01

    For the past few years, disasters like earthquakes, landslides, mudslides, tsunamis, and traffic accidents have occurred with an ever-growing frequency, coverage, and intensity greatly beyond the expectation of the public. In order to respond effectively to disasters and to reduce casualties and property damage, countries around the world have invested more efforts in the theoretical study of emergency medicine and the construction of emergency medical rescue forces. Consequently, emergency medical rescue teams of all scales and types have come into being and have played significant roles in disaster response work. As the only state-level emergency medical rescue force from the Chinese People's Armed Police Forces, the force described here has developed, through continuous learning and practice, a characteristic mode in terms of grouping methods, equipment system construction, and training.

  6. Big five personality and residential mobility: a state-level analysis of the USA.

    PubMed

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2015-01-01

    Relations of the state-aggregated Big Five personality scores of 619,397 residents to four 2005 state-level residential mobility criteria were examined with the 50 states as cases. Multiple regression controlling for five state demographic variables showed (a) higher state neuroticism was strongly associated with lower mobility, lower same-county mobility, and lower between-county mobility; (b) higher state extraversion was associated with lower mobility and lower same-county mobility, but only with neuroticism and/or conscientiousness controlled; and (c) conscientiousness was related to same-residence, same-county, and different-county mobility, but only without demographic variables controlled. Discussion is grounded in the dangers of cross-level speculation and the potential of a basic assumption of geographical psychology that an area's aggregate position on a dispositional variable is associated there with behavioral and psychological tendencies related to that variable.

  7. Climate uncertainty and implications for U.S. state-level risk assessment through 2050.

    SciTech Connect

    Loose, Verne W.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Kelic, Andjelka; Backus, George A.; Warren, Drake E.; Zagonel, Aldo A.; Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Klise, Geoffrey T.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2009-10-01

    Decisions for climate policy will need to take place in advance of climate science resolving all relevant uncertainties. Further, if the concern of policy is to reduce risk, then the best-estimate of climate change impacts may not be so important as the currently understood uncertainty associated with realizable conditions having high consequence. This study focuses on one of the most uncertain aspects of future climate change - precipitation - to understand the implications of uncertainty on risk and the near-term justification for interventions to mitigate the course of climate change. We show that the mean risk of damage to the economy from climate change, at the national level, is on the order of one trillion dollars over the next 40 years, with employment impacts of nearly 7 million labor-years. At a 1% exceedance-probability, the impact is over twice the mean-risk value. Impacts at the level of individual U.S. states are then typically in the multiple tens of billions dollar range with employment losses exceeding hundreds of thousands of labor-years. We used results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report 4 (AR4) climate-model ensemble as the referent for climate uncertainty over the next 40 years, mapped the simulated weather hydrologically to the county level for determining the physical consequence to economic activity at the state level, and then performed a detailed, seventy-industry, analysis of economic impact among the interacting lower-48 states. We determined industry GDP and employment impacts at the state level, as well as interstate population migration, effect on personal income, and the consequences for the U.S. trade balance.

  8. Predicting later life health status and mortality using state-level socioeconomic characteristics in early life.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H; Kuan, Kai Y; Cullen, Mark R

    2016-12-01

    Studies extending across multiple life stages promote an understanding of factors influencing health across the life span. Existing work has largely focused on individual-level rather than area-level early life determinants of health. In this study, we linked multiple data sets to examine whether early life state-level characteristics were predictive of health and mortality decades later. The sample included 143,755 U.S. employees, for whom work life claims and administrative data were linked with early life state-of-residence and mortality. We first created a "state health risk score" (SHRS) and "state mortality risk score" (SMRS) by modeling state-level contextual characteristics with health status and mortality in a randomly selected 30% of the sample (the "training set"). We then examined the association of these scores with objective health status and mortality in later life in the remaining 70% of the sample (the "test set") using multivariate linear and Cox regressions, respectively. The association between the SHRS and adult health status was β=0.14 (95%CI: 0.084, 0.20), while the hazard ratio for the SMRS was 0.96 (95%CI: 0.93, 1.00). The association between the SHRS and health was not statistically significant in older age groups at a p-level of 0.05, and there was a statistically significantly different association for health status among movers compared to stayers. This study uses a life course perspective and supports the idea of "sensitive periods" in early life that have enduring impacts on health. It adds to the literature examining populations in the U.S. where large linked data sets are infrequently available.

  9. 47 CFR 101.307 - Tariffs, reports, and other material required to be submitted to the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tariffs, reports, and other material required to be submitted to the Commission. 101.307 Section 101.307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous...

  10. 47 CFR 101.307 - Tariffs, reports, and other material required to be submitted to the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tariffs, reports, and other material required to be submitted to the Commission. 101.307 Section 101.307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous...

  11. 47 CFR 101.307 - Tariffs, reports, and other material required to be submitted to the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tariffs, reports, and other material required to be submitted to the Commission. 101.307 Section 101.307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous...

  12. 75 FR 39613 - Request for Proposals To Accelerate Tariff Elimination and Modify the Rules of Origin Under the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... respective tariff schedules. Section 201(b) of the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Implementation... consult the resources provided on the Web site by clicking on the ``Help'' link at the top of the home... information must be clearly marked ``BUSINESS CONFIDENTIAL'' on the top of that page. Filers of...

  13. 77 FR 24198 - Notice of Revocation of Market-Based Rate Authority and Termination of Market-Based Rate Tariffs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Revocation of Market-Based Rate Authority and Termination of Market-Based Rate Tariffs Docket Nos. Aleph One, Inc ER04-686-000 Alpha Domestic Power Trading, LLC... market-based rate authority of the public utilities listed in the caption of that order, which had...

  14. 77 FR 21763 - ReEnergy Stratton LLC; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market-Based Rate Tariff Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ReEnergy Stratton LLC; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market- Based Rate... above-referenced proceeding of ReEnergy Stratton LLC's tariff revision filing, noting that such...

  15. 77 FR 21763 - ReEnergy Ashland LLC; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market-Based Rate Tariff Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ReEnergy Ashland LLC; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market- Based Rate... above-referenced proceeding of ReEnergy Ashland LLC's tariff revision filing, noting that such...

  16. 19 CFR 132.18 - License for certain worsted wool fabric subject to tariff-rate quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... consumption (Customs Form 7501, column 34), or its electronic equivalent (see paragraph (c)(1) of this section... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false License for certain worsted wool fabric subject to tariff-rate quota. 132.18 Section 132.18 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT...

  17. 47 CFR 61.49 - Supporting information to be submitted with letters of transmittal for tariffs of carriers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... explanations of the bases for the estimates. (i) A study containing a projection of costs for a representative.... (2) Working papers and statistical data. (i) Concurrently with the filing of any tariff change or... a clear explanation of how the working papers relate to that information. (ii) All...

  18. 47 CFR 61.49 - Supporting information to be submitted with letters of transmittal for tariffs of carriers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... explanations of the bases for the estimates. (i) A study containing a projection of costs for a representative.... (2) Working papers and statistical data. (i) Concurrently with the filing of any tariff change or... a clear explanation of how the working papers relate to that information. (ii) All...

  19. 47 CFR 61.49 - Supporting information to be submitted with letters of transmittal for tariffs of carriers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... explanations of the bases for the estimates. (i) A study containing a projection of costs for a representative.... (2) Working papers and statistical data. (i) Concurrently with the filing of any tariff change or... a clear explanation of how the working papers relate to that information. (ii) All...

  20. 47 CFR 61.49 - Supporting information to be submitted with letters of transmittal for tariffs of carriers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... explanations of the bases for the estimates. (i) A study containing a projection of costs for a representative.... (2) Working papers and statistical data. (i) Concurrently with the filing of any tariff change or... a clear explanation of how the working papers relate to that information. (ii) All...

  1. 76 FR 72696 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Changes to Etariff Refund Report Type of Filing Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... of Filing Codes Take notice that, effective November 27, 2011, the list of available eTariff Type of Filing Codes (TOFC) will be modified as follows: (1) The addition of a new TOFC 1190: ``Refund Report''. This code is applicable to public utilities registered with the Commission under the market based...

  2. 75 FR 38805 - Filing Via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings Notice of Display of Time on Commission's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 128 (Tuesday, July 6, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 38805] [FR Doc No: 2010-16284] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RM07-16-000; RM01-5-000] Filing Via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings Notice of Display of Time on...

  3. 3 CFR 8771 - Proclamation 8771 of December 29, 2011. To Modify the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... America A Proclamation 1. Section 1205(a) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (the “1988 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 3005(a)) directs the United States International Trade Commission (the “Commission”) to keep the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) under continuous review...

  4. 77 FR 24759 - Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement will be administered using certificates of quota eligibility. DATES..., the United States entered into the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (the...

  5. 77 FR 65439 - Implementation of United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Implementation of United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota... Trade Promotion Agreement will be administered using certificates. DATES: Effective Date: October 31... United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement (the ``Agreement''). Congress approved the Agreement...

  6. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products....

  7. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar-containing products....

  8. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic...

  9. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ) as required under the U.S. World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments. The FY 2011 raw cane sugar TRQ is established at 1,117,195...

  10. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising...

  11. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice... raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES: Effective...

  12. 77 FR 51751 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2013 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2013 Tariff- Rate Import... person or firm by the Department of Agriculture authorizing the importation of certain dairy articles... States. DATES: August 27, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Abdelsalam El-Farra, Dairy...

  13. 75 FR 53271 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2011 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the... importation of certain dairy articles, which are subject to tariff-rate quotas set forth in the Harmonized... CONTACT: Abdelsalam El-Farra, Dairy Import Licensing Program, Import Policies and Export...

  14. 76 FR 60801 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2012 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2012 Tariff- Rate Import... person or firm by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) authorizing the importation of certain dairy..., Dairy Import Licensing Program, Import Policies and Export Reporting Division, U.S. Department...

  15. 47 CFR 101.307 - Tariffs, reports, and other material required to be submitted to the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tariffs, reports, and other material required to be submitted to the Commission. 101.307 Section 101.307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous...

  16. 47 CFR 101.307 - Tariffs, reports, and other material required to be submitted to the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tariffs, reports, and other material required to be submitted to the Commission. 101.307 Section 101.307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous...

  17. 77 FR 36481 - Methodological Change for Implementation of Section 772(c)(2)(B) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... Tariff Act of 1930, as Amended, In Certain Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings AGENCY: Import... non-market economy (``NME'') antidumping proceedings by the amount of export ] tax, duty, or other... declined to find such transfers to be subsidies given the nature of a {NME{time} . Such an economy...

  18. An analysis of Renewable Portfolio Standard policy formulation and its influence on state level energy prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollester, Peter Colin

    Over the past two decades, environmental concern has crept to the forefront of the world policy agenda. This concern has manifested itself differently throughout the world. In the United States, this has come in the form of Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) which have become one of the primary policy tools which states use to encourage renewable energy generation. The advent of RPS has spurred intense debate at a federal and state level, centering on the economic merits of promoting renewable energy generation. Detractors argue that RPS will raise electricity rates, since generation from renewable sources is typically costlier than energy generated from fossil fuels. At this point, evidence to the relationship between RPS on electricity prices remains unclear. Researchers have attempted to understand this relationship through a variety of means. The most common being regression based models, which utilize readily available United States Energy Information Agency (US EIA) data, and have uncovered a number of important independent variables which are incorporated into the model in this study. Examples include personal income, state population, and deregulation of an energy market. In addition to empirical studies, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has created complex mathematical models which generate scenario projections based on a number of assumptions. While interesting, these are forward looking tools and as such have not yielded a tremendous amount of insight into the underlying policy mechanics of RPS. A challenge of addressing this topic which is worth noting is that much of the research available which analyzes the merits of RPS caters to distinct political or private sector agendas. The research gathered for this study is comprehensive, and attempts to avoid studies with any clear political, ideological, or financial motivation. Using the insights from previous researchers this study develops a rigorous fixed effects regression model to

  19. STATE-LEVEL DIETARY DIVERSITY AS A CONTEXTUAL DETERMINANT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHILDREN IN INDIA: A MULTILEVEL APPROACH.

    PubMed

    Borkotoky, Kakoli; Unisa, Sayeed; Gupta, Ashish Kumar

    2017-02-20

    This study aimed to identify the determinants of nutritional status of children in India with a special focus on dietary diversity at the state level. Household-level consumption data from three rounds of the Consumer Expenditure Survey of the National Sample Survey Organization (1993-2012) were used. Information on the nutritional status of children was taken from the National Family Health Survey (2005-06). Dietary diversity indices were constructed at the state level to examine diversity in quantity of food consumed and food expenditure. Multilevel regression analysis was applied to examine the association of state-level dietary diversity and other socioeconomic factors with the nutritional status of children. It was observed that significant variation in childhood stunting, wasting and underweight could be explained by community- and state-level factors. The results indicate that dietary diversity has increased in India over time, and that dietary diversity at the state level is significantly associated with the nutritional status of children. Moreover, percentage of households with a regular salaried income in a state, percentage of educated mothers and mothers receiving antenatal care in a community are important factors for improving the nutritional status of children. Diversity in complementary child feeding is another significant determinant of nutritional status of children. The study thus concludes that increasing dietary diversity at the state level is an effective measure to reduce childhood malnutrition in India.

  20. State-Level Unemployment and the Utilization of Preventive Medical Services

    PubMed Central

    Tefft, Nathan; Kageleiry, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo study the association between macroeconomic conditions and preventive medical service utilization. Data Sources/Study SettingSecondary data collection of a survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of adults (age 18 and older) in the United States between 1987 and 2010. Study DesignRegression analyses that adjust for individual-level demographic and socioeconomic determinants, state and time-fixed effects, and state-specific time trends. Data Collection/Extraction MethodsState health departments, with technological and methodological assistance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, conducted a cross-sectional yearly telephone survey using a standardized questionnaire. Principal FindingsThe use of preventive medical services is procyclical: a 1 percentage point increase in the state-level unemployment rate is associated with a 1.58 percent decrease in the quantity of distinct preventive care services utilized. Women and economically disadvantaged populations are shown to be especially sensitive to macroeconomic fluctuations. ConclusionsPolicy makers should be aware of cyclical changes in preventive care use, particularly among disadvantaged populations, when making challenging budgetary decisions during economic downturns. As physician recommendations can have a strong impact on patients’ use, health care providers could increase efforts to persuade patients to seek screening exams and necessary vaccinations during periods of high unemployment. PMID:23855636

  1. Effectiveness of State-Level Policies on Solar Market Development in Different State Contexts

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, D.; Doris, E.; Krasko, V.; Hillman, D.

    2014-02-01

    In response to public interest in customer-sited distributed solar photovoltaics (PV), state and local policymakers have implemented policy initiatives with the goal of encouraging private investment and building a robust PV market. Policymakers face challenges, including limited budgets and incomplete information about the effectiveness of the various policy options in their specific situation, in crafting and executing policy that supports market development goals. Recent work investigated the effect of the order in which policies are implemented (referred to as 'policy stacking') and the presence of low-cost enabling policies, such as interconnection standards and net metering, can have on the success of states in promoting PV markets. Findings indicate that implementation of interconnection standards and policy related to the valuation of excess electricity (e.g., net metering), along with indicators of long term government support for a solar PV market (e.g., RPS) and a non-policy determinant (population), explain about 70% of the variation among states in new PV capacity. This paper builds on that research to determine the most effective policy strategies for different types of states, as determined by their physical, demographic and macroeconomic context. A number of researchers have investigated the effectiveness of state-level policy using various statistical methods to determine relationships between installed solar PV projects and policy initiatives. In this study, the grouping of states by non-policy factors adds dimension to these analyses by identifying how policies function in different non-policy environments.

  2. Longitudinal review of state-level accident statistics for carriers of interstate freight

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C.; Kvitek, T.

    1994-03-01

    State-level accident rates by mode of freight transport have been developed and refined for application to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) environmental mitigation program, which may involve large-quantity shipments of hazardous and mixed wastes from DOE facilities. These rates reflect multi-year data for interstate-registered highway earners, American Association of Railroads member carriers, and coastal and internal waterway barge traffic. Adjustments have been made to account for the share of highway combination-truck traffic actually attributable to interstate-registered carriers and for duplicate or otherwise inaccurate entries in the public-use accident data files used. State-to-state variation in rates is discussed, as is the stability of rates over time. Computed highway rates have been verified with actual carriers of high- and low-level nuclear materials, and the most recent truck accident data have been used, to ensure that the results are of the correct order of magnitude. Study conclusions suggest that DOE use the computed rates for the three modes until (1) improved estimation techniques for highway combination-truck miles by state become available; (2) continued evolution of the railroad industry significantly increases the consolidation of interstate rail traffic onto fewer high-capacity trunk lines; or (3) a large-scale off-site waste shipment campaign is imminent.

  3. The state of domestic affairs: Housework, gender and state-level institutional logics.

    PubMed

    Ruppanner, Leah; Maume, David J

    2016-11-01

    Multi-level cross-national research consistently shows individual housework arrangements are structured by broader contexts of equality. Across this body of research, the United States is treated as a single entity. Yet, individual-level housework time may vary by state-to-state differences in institutional market, family and legislative logics. To test these relationships, we pair individual-level data from the American Time Use Survey (2003-2012; aged 18 to 64 n = 106,190) with three state-level indices - female labor force empowerment, family traditionalism and state government liberalism. For market institutional logics, we find wives and husbands spend more but mothers less time in housework in states where women have more labor market power. For family logics, we find mothers spend more and husbands less time in housework in more traditional states. For legislative logics, we find women and husbands spend more time in housework in more liberal states. Our results highlight the importance of state-to-state institutional logics on individuals' housework time.

  4. State-Level Lifetime Medical and Work-Loss Costs of Fatal Injuries - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Luo, Feijun; Florence, Curtis

    2017-01-13

    Injury-associated deaths have substantial economic consequences in the United States. The total estimated lifetime medical and work-loss costs associated with fatal injuries in 2013 were $214 billion (1). In 2014, unintentional injury, suicide, and homicide (the fourth, tenth, and seventeenth leading causes of death, respectively) accounted for 194,635 deaths in the United States (2). In 2014, a total of 199,756 fatal injuries occurred in the United States, and the associated lifetime medical and work-loss costs were $227 billion (3). This report examines the state-level economic burdens of fatal injuries by extending a previous national-level study (1). Numbers and rates of fatal injuries, lifetime costs, and lifetime costs per capita were calculated for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and for four injury intent categories (all intents, unintentional, suicide, and homicide). During 2014, injury mortality rates and economic burdens varied widely among the states and DC. Among fatal injuries of all intents, the mortality rate and lifetime costs per capita ranged from 101.9 per 100,000 and $1,233, respectively (New Mexico) to 40.2 per 100,000 and $491 (New York). States can engage more effectively and efficiently in injury prevention if they are aware of the economic burden of injuries, identify areas for immediate improvement, and devote necessary resources to those areas.

  5. Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, K. Sydny

    2011-06-23

    of outdated appliances, in California rental housing. Appliances in rental housing are on average older than those in owner occupied housing. More importantly, a substantial proportion of very old appliances are in rental housing. Having established that a very old stock of appliances exists in California rental housing, I discuss tariff financing as a policy option to reduce the impact of the remaining market and behavioral barriers. In a tariff financing program, the utility pays the initial cost of an appliance, and is repaid through subsequent utility bills. By eliminating upfront costs, tying repayment to the gas or electric meter, requiring a detailed energy audit, and relying upon utility bill payment history rather than credit score in determining participant eligibility, tariff financing largely overcomes many barriers to energy efficiency. Using California as a case study, I evaluate the feasibility of implementing tariff financing. For water heaters in particular, this appears to be a cost-effective strategy. Tariff financing from utilities is particularly valuable because it improves the ability of low-income renters to lower their utility bills, without burdening landlords with unrecoverable capital costs. To implement tariff financing country-wide, regulations in many states defining private loan-making institutions or the allowable use of public benefit funds may need to be modified. Tariff financing is relatively new and in most locations is only available as a pilot program or has only recently exited pilot phase. This preliminary evaluation suggests that tariff financing is a valuable future addition to the toolkit of policymakers who aim to increase the diffusion of efficient appliances. While regulatory approval is necessary in states that wish to pursue tariff financing, at this point, the major barrier to further implementation appears to be the newness of the financing mechanism.

  6. Designing virtual environments to measure behavioral correlates of state-level body satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Clare K; Jones, Megan; Bailey, Jakki; Bailenson, Jeremy; Taylor, C Barr

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) offers a unique method for eliciting state-variable fluctuations in body satisfaction and associated behaviors by allowing near-perfect control over environmental factors. Greater variability in momentary body satisfaction is associated with more problematic eating behavior and cognitive styles predictive of eating disorders. The field currently lacks a model for understanding environmental variables and everyday events that tend to influence fluctuations in state body satisfaction. This study proposes a model of state-level body satisfaction and presents a method for measuring changes as they occur. We aim to investigate body comparison, selective attention and body checking behaviors in relation to self-report levels of state body satisfaction. We additionally assess interpersonal correlates of state body satisfaction using VR to measure personal distance between subjects and avatars of varying body sizes. 80 female college students with varying levels of weight and shape concerns will be exposed to five virtual environments designed to elicit varying levels of body dissatisfaction: (a) an empty room; (b) an empty beach; (c) a beach populated with avatars; (d) an empty party scene; (e) a party scene populated with avatars. Self-report body satisfaction was measured immediately following each exposure. A tracking system automatically tracked subjects' head orientation and body translation to measure visual gaze and personal space behavior relative to each virtual human within the environment. Data collection is currently underway and expected to be completed by May 2013. Preliminary data and development of the VR model for state-variable assessment will be presented.

  7. Land carbon sequestration within the conterminous United States: Regional- and state-level analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaoliang; Kicklighter, David W.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Reilly, John M.; Xu, Liyi

    2015-02-01

    A quantitative understanding of the rate at which land ecosystems are sequestering or losing carbon at national-, regional-, and state-level scales is needed to develop policies to mitigate climate change. In this study, a new improved historical land use and land cover change data set is developed and combined with a process-based ecosystem model to estimate carbon sources and sinks in land ecosystems of the conterminous United States for the contemporary period of 2001-2005 and over the last three centuries. We estimate that land ecosystems in the conterminous United States sequestered 323 Tg C yr-1 at the beginning of the 21st century with forests accounting for 97% of this sink. This land carbon sink varied substantially across the conterminous United States, with the largest sinks occurring in the Southeast. Land sinks are large enough to completely compensate fossil fuel emissions in Maine and Mississippi, but nationally, carbon sinks compensate for only 20% of U.S. fossil fuel emissions. We find that regions that are currently large carbon sinks (e.g., Southeast) tend to have been large carbon sources over the longer historical period. Both the land use history and fate of harvested products can be important in determining a region's overall impact on the atmospheric carbon budget. While there are numerous options for reducing fossil fuels (e.g., increase efficiency and displacement by renewable resources), new land management opportunities for sequestering carbon need to be explored. Opportunities include reforestation and managing forest age structure. These opportunities will vary from state to state and over time across the United States.

  8. Methodological developments in US state-level Genuine Progress Indicators: toward GPI 2.0

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Berik, Günseli; Gaddis, Erica J. Brown

    2014-01-01

    The Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) has emerged as an important monetary measure of economic well-being. Unlike mainstream economic indicators, primarily Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the GPI accounts for both the benefits and costs of economic production across diverse economic, social, and environmental domains in a more comprehensive manner. Recently, the GPI has gained traction in subnational policy in the United States, with GPI studies being conducted in a number of states and with their formal adoption by several state governments. As the GPI is applied in different locations, new methods are developed, different data sources are available, and new issues of policy relevance are addressed using its component indicators. This has led to a divergence in methods, reducing comparability between studies and yielding results that are of varying methodological sophistication. In this study, we review the “state of the art” in recent US state-level GPI studies, focusing on those from Hawaii, Maryland, Ohio, Utah, and Vermont. Through adoption of a consistent approach, these and future GPI studies could utilize a framework that supports more uniform, comparable, and accurate measurements of progress. We also identify longer-term issues, particularly related to treatment of nonrenewable resource depletion, government spending, income inequality, and ecosystem services. As these issues are successfully addressed and disseminated, a “GPI 2.0” will emerge that better measures economic well-being and has greater accuracy and policy relevance than past GPI measurements. As the GPI expands further into mainstream policy analysis, a more formal process by which methods could be updated, standardized, and applied is needed.

  9. The microeconomics of residential photovoltaics: Tariffs, network operation and maintenance, and ancillary services in distribution-level electricity markets

    DOE PAGES

    Boero, Riccardo; Backhaus, Scott N.; Edwards, Brian K.

    2016-11-12

    Here, we develop a microeconomic model of a distribution-level electricity market that takes explicit account of residential photovoltaics (PV) adoption. The model allows us to study the consequences of most tariffs on PV adoption and the consequences of increased residential PV adoption under the assumption of economic sustainability for electric utilities. We also validated the model using U.S. data and extend it to consider different pricing schemes for operation and maintenance costs of the distribution network and for ancillary services. Results show that net metering promotes more environmental benefits and social welfare than other tariffs. But, if costs to operatemore » the distribution network increase, net metering will amplify the unequal distribution of surplus among households. In conclusion, maintaining the economic sustainability of electric utilities under net metering may become extremely difficult unless the uneven distribution of surplus is legitimated by environmental benefits.« less

  10. The microeconomics of residential photovoltaics: Tariffs, network operation and maintenance, and ancillary services in distribution-level electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Boero, Riccardo; Backhaus, Scott N.; Edwards, Brian K.

    2016-11-12

    Here, we develop a microeconomic model of a distribution-level electricity market that takes explicit account of residential photovoltaics (PV) adoption. The model allows us to study the consequences of most tariffs on PV adoption and the consequences of increased residential PV adoption under the assumption of economic sustainability for electric utilities. We also validated the model using U.S. data and extend it to consider different pricing schemes for operation and maintenance costs of the distribution network and for ancillary services. Results show that net metering promotes more environmental benefits and social welfare than other tariffs. But, if costs to operate the distribution network increase, net metering will amplify the unequal distribution of surplus among households. In conclusion, maintaining the economic sustainability of electric utilities under net metering may become extremely difficult unless the uneven distribution of surplus is legitimated by environmental benefits.

  11. "Extreme" or tariff sports: their injuries and their prevention (with particular reference to diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating).

    PubMed

    Foley, E C; Bird, H A

    2013-04-01

    The interface between sports medicine and performing arts medicine is closest for "tariff" sports, where the sportsperson can select their own programme of varying difficulty with the more complex skills carrying potential for higher marks. Inevitably, some performers over-reach themselves. Examples of injuries and prevention strategies to avoid such injuries are discussed in a preliminary analysis of four sports: diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating.

  12. The analysis of Taiwan's residential electricity demand under the electricity tariff policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Jui

    In October 2013, the Taiwan Power Company (Taipower), the monopolized state utility service in Taiwan, implemented an electricity tariff adjustment policy to reduce residential electricity demand. Using bi-monthly billing data from 6,932 electricity consumers, this study examine how consumers respond to an increase in electricity prices. This study employs an empirical approach that takes advantage of quasi-random variation over a period of time when household bills were affected by a change in electricity price. The study found that this price increase caused a 1.78% decline in residential electricity consumption, implying a price elasticity of -0.19 for summer-season months and -0.15 for non-summer-season months. The demand for electricity is therefore relatively inelastic, likely because it is hard for people to change their electricity consumption behavior in the short-term. The results of this study highlight that demand-side management cannot be the only lever used to address Taiwan's forecasted decrease in electricity supply.

  13. Issues and Consequences for State-Level Minimum Competency Testing Programs. State Assessment Series. Wyoming Report 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Scott F.; Sheinker, Alan

    This report reviews the current status, empirical findings, theoretical issues, and practical considerations related to state-level minimum competency testing programs. It finds that, although two-thirds of current testing programs now use direct writing prompts to assess writing achievement, essentially all programs rely on multiple choice tests…

  14. Partners or Adversaries: A Comparative Case Study of Higher-Education Systems and State-Level Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toman, Janelle Krause; Card, Karen Aldred

    2010-01-01

    The accountability focus in higher education historically has been directed at the institutional level. The purpose of this comparative case study, however, was to look at state-level accountability. The research focused on the processes used in Tennessee, Minnesota, and South Dakota. Interviews were conducted with higher education administrators…

  15. Design and Development of an Emerging Issues Tracking System for State-Level Educational Policy- and Decisionmakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Joyce S.; Rood, Magdalena M.

    This paper discusses the design, development, and results of a one-year pilot implementation of an emerging issues tracking system by the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL) for state-level educational policymakers and decision makers known as SEDL-SCAN. SEDL-SCAN offers policy-makers lead time on crises by flagging emerging…

  16. Warm-Up Activities of Middle and High School Band Directors Participating in State-Level Concert Band Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Justin P.; Hancock, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the warm-ups chosen by concert band directors participating in state-level performance assessments. We observed 29 middle and high school bands and coded the frequency and duration of warm-up activities and behaviors. Results indicated that most bands rehearsed music and played scales, long tones, and…

  17. Measuring History: Cases of State-Level Testing across the United States. Research in Curriculum and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, S. G., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Measuring History complements the cases presented in Wise Social Studies Practices (Yeager & Davis, 2005). Yeager and Davis highlight the rich and ambitious teaching that can occur in the broad context of state-level testing. In this book, the chapter authors and I bring the particular state history tests more to the fore and examine how…

  18. Serving Students with Disabilities in State-Level Virtual K-12 Public School Programs. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve

    2009-01-01

    Because the virtual public school landscape is relatively new--and changing and expanding at such a rapid rate--very little is known about how these schools are currently serving students with disabilities. The purpose of this document is to describe how state-level virtual public school programs are serving students with disabilities and to…

  19. The Early Childhood and Elementary Education Continuum: Constructing an Understanding of P-3 as State-Level Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauerz, Kristie Anne

    2009-01-01

    State-level policy attention to young children's early learning opportunities burgeons; a sense of urgency exists to identify reform agendas that are both effective and sustainable. "P-3" often is used as the term for the first level of a seamless P-20 system that stretches from early childhood through post-secondary education. While it…

  20. Selected Laws, Rules and State-Level Activities in Wisconsin Related to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Information Memorandum 87-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Richard

    This information memorandum describes the selected laws, rules, and state-level activities in Wisconsin related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and tests for antibodies to the virus (HIV) that causes AIDS. A section on current state laws on AIDS and HIV antibody testing describes laws related to informed consent for testing,…

  1. Colorado Special Education Administrative Decisions 1993: Impartial Hearing Officer Decisions, State Level Review Decisions, Federal Complaint Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Special Education Services Unit.

    This document contains all Impartial Hearing Officer Decisions, State Level Review Decisions, and Complaint Findings issued in Colorado in 1993 and is intended as a resource tool for assuring the provision of a free appropriate public education to children with disabilities. The full text of each decision or finding is preceded by a case summary…

  2. State - Level Regulation's Effectiveness in Addressing Global Climate Change and Promoting Solar Energy Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterman, Carla Joy

    subsequent high cost to ratepayers; policymakers' expectations that price declines accrue to consumers; and market structure characteristics that might contribute to incomplete pass-through. This analysis shows that incentive passthrough in the California residential solar PV programs was incomplete. Consumer prices declined 54 cents for every additional dollar of incentive received. A large share of the incentive is captured by the solar PV contractor or other actors in the solar PV supply chain. The finding of incomplete pass-through is persistent across specifications. The analysis also identifies a lower degree of incentive pass-through for consumers in the highest income zip codes. Whether expectations of incentives' pass-through align with reality is critically important in the beginning years of emerging clean energy technology programs since this can affect the likelihood of future government investments and public support. Given the often-held policy assumption that consumer prices are declining in response to incentives, it is useful for policymakers to understand the circumstances under which such an assumption may not hold. Paper 3, Testing the Boundaries of the Solar Photovoltaic Learning System, tests how the choice of experience curves' geographic and technology assumptions affect solar PV experience curve results. Historically, solar PV experience curves have assumed one experience curve represents both module and non-module learning and that this learning happens at a global scale. These assumptions may be inaccurate for solar PV since the learning system, and technology and geographic boundaries, are likely different between PV modules and non-module components. Using 2004 to 2008 PV system price data from 13 states, and a longer time series of PV price data for California, some evidence is found that cumulative capacity at the state level is a better predictor of non-module costs than U.S. or global capacity. This paper explores, but is unable to

  3. Neuropeptides associated with the regulation of feeding in insects.

    PubMed

    Audsley, N; Weaver, R J

    2009-05-15

    The stomatogastric nervous system plays a pivotal role in feeding behaviour. Central to this system is the frontal ganglion, which is responsible for foregut motor activity, and hence the passage of food through the gut. Many insect peptides, which exhibit myoactivity on the visceral muscles of the gut in vitro, have been detected in the stomatogastric nervous system by immunochemical or mass spectrometric techniques. This localisation of myoactive peptides, particularly in the frontal ganglion, implies roles for these peptides in the neural control and modulation of feeding in insects. Insect sulfakinins, tachykinins, allatotropin and proctolin have all been shown to stimulate the foregut muscles, whereas myosuppressins, myoinhibitory peptides and allatostatins all inhibited spontaneous contractions of the foregut in a variety of insects. Some of these peptides, when injected, inhibited feeding in vivo. Both the A-type and B-type allatostatins suppressed feeding activity when injected into the cockroach, Blattella germanica and the Manduca sexta C-type allatostatin and allatotropin inhibited feeding when injected into the larvae of two noctuid moths, Lacanobia oleracea and Spodoptera frugiperda, respectively. Injection of sulfakinins into the fly Phormia regina, the locust Schistocera gregaria and the cockroach B. germanica also suppressed feeding, whereas silencing the sulfakinin gene through the injection of double stranded RNA resulted in an increase in food consumption in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. The regulation of feeding in insects is clearly very complex, and involves the interaction of a number of mechanisms, one of which is the release, either centrally or locally, of neuropeptides. However, the role of neuropeptides, their mechanisms of action, interactions with each other, and their release are still poorly understood. It is also unclear why insects possess such a number of different peptides, some with multiples copies or homologues, which

  4. Capillary ratchet: Hydrodynamics of capillary feeding in shorebirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Manu; Quere, David; Bush, John

    2008-03-01

    Bill morphologies are highly specialized to particular foraging strategies in birds, as is apparent from the large diversity of beak shapes observed in nature. Here we present an experimental and analytical study of capillary feeding in shorebirds. We highlight the critical role of contact angle hysteresis in capillary feeding. Our study provides a simple physical rationalization for the observation of multiple mandibular spreading cycles in feeding, necessary to overcome contact line resistance. We also find a unique geometrical optima in beak opening and closing angles for the most efficient drop transport. This capillary ratchet mechanism may also find applications in micro scale fluid transport, such as valveless pumping of fluid drops.

  5. State-level evaluations of the Weatherization Assistance Program in 1990-1996: a metaevaluation that estimates national savings

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, L.

    1997-01-01

    The DOE Weatherization Assistance Program is one of the largest energy conservation programs in the nation. To obtain an updated estimate of national Program savings, an approach of metaevaluation was selected, which involved locating, assembling, and summarizing the results of all state-level evaluations of the Program that have become available since 1990. All of the savings estimates that are presented in this report are for dwellings that heat primarily with natural gas.This review of the state-level evaluations conducted since 1990 concluded that Program performance has improved significantly in the last seven years. The finding that savings are increasing are supported by a literature review, within-state comparisons of savings over time, and regression modeling results.

  6. State-level income inequality and family burden of U.S. families raising children with special health care needs.

    PubMed

    Parish, Susan L; Rose, Roderick A; Dababnah, Sarah; Yoo, Joan; Cassiman, Shawn A

    2012-02-01

    Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that income inequality within a nation influences health outcomes net of the effect of any given household's absolute income. We tested the hypothesis that state-level income inequality in the United States is associated with increased family burden for care and health-related expenditures for low-income families of children with special health care needs. We analyzed the 2005-06 wave of the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, a probability sample of approximately 750 children with special health care needs in each state and the District of Columbia in the US Our measure of state-level income inequality was the Gini coefficient. Dependent measures of family caregiving burden included whether the parent received help arranging or coordinating the child's care and whether the parent stopped working due to the child's health. Dependent measures of family financial burden included absolute burden (spending in past 12 months for child's health care needs) and relative burden (spending as a proportion of total family income). After controlling for a host of child, family, and state factors, including family income and measures of the severity of a child's impairments, state-level income inequality has a significant and independent association with family burden related to the health care of their children with special health care needs. Families of children with special health care needs living in states with greater levels of income inequality report higher rates of absolute and relative financial burden.

  7. Education, gender, and state-level disparities in the health of older Indians: Evidence from biomarker data.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinkook; McGovern, Mark E; Bloom, David E; Arokiasamy, P; Risbud, Arun; O'Brien, Jennifer; Kale, Varsha; Hu, Peifeng

    2015-12-01

    Using new biomarker data from the 2010 pilot round of the Longitudinal Aging Study in India (LASI), we investigate education, gender, and state-level disparities in health. We find that hemoglobin level, a marker for anemia, is lower for respondents with no schooling (0.7g/dL less in the adjusted model) compared to those with some formal education and is also lower for females than for males (2.0g/dL less in the adjusted model). In addition, we find that about one third of respondents in our sample aged 45 or older have high C-reaction protein (CRP) levels (>3mg/L), an indicator of inflammation and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We find no evidence of educational or gender differences in CRP, but there are significant state-level disparities, with Kerala residents exhibiting the lowest CRP levels (a mean of 1.96mg/L compared to 3.28mg/L in Rajasthan, the state with the highest CRP). We use the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition approach to explain group-level differences, and find that state-level disparities in CRP are mainly due to heterogeneity in the association of the observed characteristics of respondents with CRP, rather than differences in the distribution of endowments across the sampled state populations.

  8. Education, Gender, and State-Level Disparities in the Health of Older Indians: Evidence from Biomarker Data

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinkook; McGovern, Mark E.; Bloom, David E.; Arokiasamy, P.; Risbud, Arun; O’Brien, Jennifer; Kale, Varsha; Hu, Peifeng

    2015-01-01

    Using new biomarker data from the 2010 pilot round of the Longitudinal Aging Study in India (LASI), we investigate education, gender, and state-level disparities in health. We find that hemoglobin level, a marker for anemia, is lower for respondents with no schooling (0.7 g/dL less in the adjusted model) compared to those with some formal education and is also lower for females than for males (2.0 g/dL less in the adjusted model). In addition, we find that about one third of respondents in our sample aged 45 or older have high C-reaction protein (CRP) levels (>3 mg/L), an indicator of inflammation and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We find no evidence of educational or gender differences in CRP, but there are significant state-level disparities, with Kerala residents exhibiting the lowest CRP levels (a mean of 1.96 mg/L compared to 3.28 mg/L in Rajasthan, the state with the highest CRP). We use the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition approach to explain group-level differences, and find that state-level disparities in CRP are mainly due to heterogeneity in the association of the observed characteristics of respondents with CRP, rather than differences in the distribution of endowments across the sampled state populations. PMID:26398850

  9. Roseate Spoonbill feeds in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, a roseate spoonbill searches the water for food. The birds, named for their brilliant pink color and paddle-shaped bill, feed in shallow water by swinging their bill back and forth, scooping up small fish and crustaceans. They typically inhabit mangroves on the coasts of southern Florida, Louisiana and Texas. The 92,000-acre refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center, is a habitat for more than 330 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  10. Oral motor patterns during feeding in severely physically disabled children.

    PubMed

    Yokochi, K

    1997-12-01

    Oral motor patterns during feeding were investigated in 58 patients with severe physical disability. Five patients showed a pattern resembling sucking. Twenty-nine exhibited an up-and-down movement of the jaw and protrusion of the tongue. Among these, the mouth opened when the food entered and the lips closed before swallowing in 20 patients; the mouth was constantly open in nine. Eight had an up-and-down movement of the jaw without protrusion of the tongue. These patterns were frequently seen in patients with spastic tetraplegia caused by neonatal asphyxia and compensated for oral motor impairment. Sixteen patients showed lateral movement of the jaw at some time during feeding; in these patients the texture of the food was more coarse than in those with other patterns.

  11. Does achieving the best practice tariff improve outcomes in hip fracture patients? An observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, B; Nightingale, J; Moran, CG; Moppett, IK

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine if the introduction of the best practice tariff (BPT) has improved survival of the elderly hip fracture population, or if achieving BPT results in improved survival for an individual. Setting A single university-affiliated teaching hospital. Participants 2541 patients aged over 60 admitted with a neck of femur fracture between 2008 and 2010 and from 2012 to 2014 were included, to create two cohorts of patients, before and after the introduction of BPT. The post-BPT cohort was divided into two groups, those who achieved the criteria and those who did not. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes of interest were differences in mortality across cohorts. Secondary analysis was performed to identify associations between individual BPT criteria and mortality. Results The introduction of BPT did not significantly alter overall 30-mortality in the hip fracture population (8.3% pre-BPT vs 10.0% post-BPT; p=0.128). Neither was there a significant reduction in length of stay (15 days (IQR 9–21) pre-BPT vs 14 days (IQR 11–22); p=0.236). However, the introduction of BPT was associated with a reduction in the time from admission to theatre (median 44 hours pre-BPT (IQR 24–44) vs 23 hours post-BPT (IQR 17–30); p<0.005). 30-day mortality in those who achieved BPT was significantly lower (6.0% vs 21.0% in those who did not achieve-BPT; p<0.005). There was a survival benefit at 1 year for those who achieved BPT (28.6% vs 42.0% did not achieve-BPT; p<0.005). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that of the BPT criteria, AMT monitoring and expedited surgery were the only BPT criteria that significantly influenced survival. Conclusions The introduction of the BPT has not led to a demonstrable improvement in outcomes at organisational level, though other factors may have confounded any benefits. However, patients where BPT criteria are met appear to have improved outcomes. PMID:28167748

  12. Observed Temperature Effects on Hourly Residential Electric LoadReduction in Response to an Experimental Critical Peak PricingTariff

    SciTech Connect

    Herter, Karen B.; McAuliffe, Patrick K.; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

    2005-11-14

    The goal of this investigation was to characterize themanual and automated response of residential customers to high-price"critical" events dispatched under critical peak pricing tariffs testedin the 2003-2004 California Statewide Pricing Pilot. The 15-monthexperimental tariff gave customers a discounted two-price time-of-userate on 430 days in exchange for 27 critical days, during which the peakperiod price (2 p.m. to 7 p.m.) was increased to about three times thenormal time-of-use peak price. We calculated response by five-degreetemperature bins as the difference between peak usage on normal andcritical weekdays. Results indicatedthat manual response to criticalperiods reached -0.23 kW per home (-13 percent) in hot weather(95-104.9oF), -0.03 kW per home (-4 percent) in mild weather (60-94.9oF),and -0.07 kW per home (-9 percent) during cold weather (50-59.9oF).Separately, we analyzed response enhanced by programmable communicatingthermostats in high-use homes with air-conditioning. Between 90oF and94.9oF, the response of this group reached -0.56 kW per home (-25percent) for five-hour critical periods and -0.89 kW/home (-41 percent)for two-hour critical periods.

  13. Overburdened Systems and Dealing With Disaster: Nursing Administrators' Experiences and Nursing Leadership Recommendations From a State-Level Perspective.

    PubMed

    Millet, Clair P; Porche, Demetrius J

    Hurricane Katrina made landfall on the Louisiana coast on August 29, 2005. Since 2005, there has been a dramatic increase in natural, infectious, and man-made disasters. It is more evident that nursing leaders and administrators need to be prepared for all hazards. The purpose of this article is to provide nursing administrators with a perspective of state-level leadership during a natural disaster and to suggest recommendations based on lessons learned during Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Gustav, and Ike in 2005. These come from a state governmental public health and a state nursing school within an academic health sciences center.

  14. Terrestrial feeding in aquatic turtles: environment-dependent feeding behavior modulation and the evolution of terrestrial feeding in Emydidae.

    PubMed

    Stayton, Charles Tristan

    2011-12-15

    Evolutionary transitions between aquatic and terrestrial environments are common in vertebrate evolution. These transitions require major changes in most physiological functions, including feeding. Emydid turtles are ancestrally aquatic, with most species naturally feeding only in water, but some terrestrial species can modulate their feeding behavior appropriately for both media. In addition, many aquatic species can be induced to feed terrestrially. A comparison of feeding in both aquatic and terrestrial environments presents an excellent opportunity to investigate the evolution of terrestrial feeding from aquatic feeding, as well as a system within which to develop methods for studying major evolutionary transitions between environments. Individuals from eight species of emydid turtles (six aquatic, two terrestrial) were filmed while feeding underwater and on land. Bite kinematics were analyzed to determine whether aquatic turtles modulated their feeding behavior in a consistent and appropriate manner between environments. Aquatic turtles showed consistent changes between environments, taking longer bites and using more extensive motions of the jaw and hyoid when feeding on land. However, these motions differ from those shown by species that naturally feed in both environments and mostly do not seem to be appropriate for terrestrial feeding. For example, more extensive motions of the hyoid are only effective during underwater suction feeding. Emydids evolving to feed on land probably would have needed to evolve or learn to overcome many, but not all, aspects of the intrinsic emydid response to terrestrial feeding. Studies that investigate major evolutionary transitions must determine what responses to the new environment are shown by naïve individuals in order to fully understand the evolutionary patterns and processes associated with these transitions.

  15. Planar Laser Imaging of Scattering and Fluorescence of Zooplankton Feeding in Layers of Phytoplankton in situ

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    Planar Laser Imaging of Scattering and Fluorescence of Zooplankton Feeding in Layers of Phytoplankton in situ Peter J.S. Franks Scripps...herbivorous copepod feeding in the laboratory, and 2) to apply these methods in the field to observe the dynamics of copepod feeding in situ. In...particular we intend to test the “ feeding sorties” hypothesis vs. the “in situ feeding ” hypothesis regarding the location and timing of copepod feeding

  16. Wind energy development in the United States: Can state-level policies promote efficient development of wind energy capacity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Blair S.

    In the absence of strong U.S. federal renewable energy policies, state governments have taken the lead in passing legislation to promote wind energy. Studies have shown that many of these policies, including Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), have aided in the development of wind energy capacity nationwide. This paper seeks to analyze whether these state-level policies have led to an efficient development of U.S. wind energy. For the purposes of this paper, wind energy development is considered efficient if competitive markets enable wind capacity to be built in the most cost effective manner, allowing states to trade wind energy between high wind potential states and low wind potential states. This concept is operationalized by analyzing how state policies that incentivize the in-state development of wind energy impact where wind capacity is developed. A multivariate regression model examining wind capacity in the 48 contiguous United States that had some wind capacity between 1999 and 2008 found these in-state policies are associated with increased wind capacity, controlling for states' wind potential. The results suggest that state-level policies are distorting where wind is developed. These findings support the enactment of a more comprehensive federal energy policy, such as a national RPS, a cap-and-trade program, or a targeted federal transmission policy. These federal policies could spur national markets that would result in the more efficient development of U.S. wind energy.

  17. Hypocalcemia increases and hypercalcemia decreases the steady-state level of parathyroid hormone messenger RNA in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, M; Igarashi, T; Muramatsu, M; Fukagawa, M; Motokura, T; Ogata, E

    1989-01-01

    To examine the effects of serum calcium concentrations on PTH biosynthesis, rats were made hyper- (serum total calcium, approximately 3.5 mM) or hypocalcemic (approximately 1.25 mM) and steady-state levels of PTH mRNA in parathyroid cells were measured by the primer extension method using a 32P-labeled synthetic oligomer. PTH mRNA levels increased about twofold in the rats made slightly hypocalcemic by infusion of calcium-free solution and decreased slightly in those made hypercalcemic by CaCl2 infusion (120-150 mumol/h) compared with the levels present in nonfasting control rats. Infusion of calcitonin (0.5 U/h) or EGTA (90 mumol/h) with calcium-free solution increased PTH mRNA levels further (two- to sevenfold) above the levels present in animals infused with calcium-free solution alone. These changes in PTH mRNA levels were observed after 48- but not 24-h infusion, and there was an inverse correlation between PTH mRNA levels and serum calcium concentrations. The results suggest that changes in serum calcium concentrations in the near physiological range regulate the biosynthesis of PTH by affecting steady-state levels of PTH mRNA when hypercalcemia or hypocalcemia continues for a relatively long period. Images PMID:2493484

  18. Oral Motor Intervention Improved the Oral Feeding in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xu; Yi, Li-Juan; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Ma, Li; Ou, Yang-Xiang; Shuai, Ting; Zeng, Zi; Song, Guo-Min

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oral feeding for preterm infants has been a thorny problem worldwide. To improve the efficacy of oral feeding in preterm infants, oral motor intervention (OMI), which consists of nonnutritive sucking, oral stimulation, and oral support, was developed. Published studies demonstrated that OMI may be as an alternative treatment to solve this problem; however, these results remain controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis (TSA) to objectively evaluate the potential of OMI for improving the current status of oral feeding in preterm infants. A search of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure was performed to capture relevant citations until at the end of October, 2014. Lists of references of eligible studies and reviews were also hand-checked to include any latent studies. Two independent investigators screened literature, extracted data, and assessed the methodology, and then a meta-analysis and TSA was performed by using Reviewer Manager (RevMan) 5.3 and TSA 0.9 beta, respectively. A total of 11 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which included 855 participants, were incorporated into our meta-analysis. The meta-analyses suggested that OMI is associated with the reduced transition time (ie, the time needed from tube feeding to totally oral feeding) (mean difference [MD], −4.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], −5.22 to −2.84), shorten hospital stays (MD, −3.64; 95% CI, −5.57 to −1.71), increased feeding efficiency (MD, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.36–1.27), and intake of milk (MD, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.06–0.21) rather than weight gain. Results of TSA for each outcomes of interest confirmed these pooled results. With present evidences, OMI can be as an alternative to improve the condition of transition time, length of hospital stays, feeding efficiency, and intake of milk in preterm infants. However, the pooled results may be impaired due to low quality included, and thus

  19. Toxic Effect of Blood Feeding in Male Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Nikbakhtzadeh, Mahmood R.; Buss, Garrison K.; Leal, Walter S.

    2016-01-01

    Blood- and sugar feeding of female mosquitoes has been frequently observed in the laboratory and in the field, but only sugar feeding of males has been reported. Here, we describe for the first time that Culex quinquefasciatus males feed on blood as well. Blood feeding easily happened on a blood-soaked cotton roll and, to a lesser extent, through a thin artificial layer. Mating history of a male specimen does not affect his blood feeding behavior. Male mosquitoes feed on blood even when they have a readily available sugar source. Nevertheless, feeding on blood reduces the survival rate of males to just a few days, as compared to more than a month for mosquitoes fed only on sugar. Comparing survival of male mosquitoes fed on blood only, sugar only, and a combination of both clearly demonstrated that mortality is not affected by malnutrition (reduced sugar levels), but rather due to ingested blood. On average male mosquitoes ingested ca. 0.5 μl of blood, i.e., about 10% of the amount of blood ingested by an engorged female. Although this unexpected observation of blood feeding in the laboratory by male mosquitoes is interesting, structural impairment prevents male feeding on vertebrate blood. In agreement with the literature, male and female proboscises and stylets were in general of similar size, but male mandibles were significantly shorter than female counterparts, thus explaining their inability to pierce through skin layers. PMID:26858651

  20. Immune enhancement during chronic ethanol feeding in mice - Autoimmune phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Honchel, R.; Rhoads, C.A.; Fitzpatrick, E.A.; McClain, C.J.; Kaplan, A.M.; Cohen, D.A. )

    1991-03-11

    Chronic alcohol abuse in humans is often associated with diminished immune reactivity and enhanced susceptibility to infections. However, many alcohol-dependent individuals display signs of autoimmunity, which has been implicated in alcohol-associated liver damage. This study demonstrates that C57Bl/6 mice placed on the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet for up to 9 weeks displayed augmented immune reactivity as compared to mice placed on an isocaloric control diet. Spleen cells were significantly more responsive to the mitogens, LPS and ConA, as early as 3 weeks after initiation of EtOH feeding and this hyperresponsiveness persisted throughout the 9 week feeding period. Similar enhancement of the mixed lymphocyte response was also seen in EtOH fed mice. The enhancement of immune responsiveness was not related to a change in the numbers or percentages of B cells, T cells, or in the CD4/CD8 T cell ratios as determined by flow cytometry. These studies indicate that under certain conditions of ethanol feeding in mice, enhancement rather than suppression of the immune system may occur. This system may be a model to evaluate possible induction of autoimmune responses during chronic ethanol abuse. Studies are underway to measure the presence of auto-antibodies in the sera of these ethanol fed mice.

  1. Swimming muscles power suction feeding in largemouth bass.

    PubMed

    Camp, Ariel L; Roberts, Thomas J; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2015-07-14

    Most aquatic vertebrates use suction to capture food, relying on rapid expansion of the mouth cavity to accelerate water and food into the mouth. In ray-finned fishes, mouth expansion is both fast and forceful, and therefore requires considerable power. However, the cranial muscles of these fishes are relatively small and may not be able to produce enough power for suction expansion. The axial swimming muscles of these fishes also attach to the feeding apparatus and have the potential to generate mouth expansion. Because of their large size, these axial muscles could contribute substantial power to suction feeding. To determine whether suction feeding is powered primarily by axial muscles, we measured the power required for suction expansion in largemouth bass and compared it to the power capacities of the axial and cranial muscles. Using X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), we generated 3D animations of the mouth skeleton and created a dynamic digital endocast to measure the rate of mouth volume expansion. This time-resolved expansion rate was combined with intraoral pressure recordings to calculate the instantaneous power required for suction feeding. Peak expansion powers for all but the weakest strikes far exceeded the maximum power capacity of the cranial muscles. The axial muscles did not merely contribute but were the primary source of suction expansion power and generated up to 95% of peak expansion power. The recruitment of axial muscle power may have been crucial for the evolution of high-power suction feeding in ray-finned fishes.

  2. [Main sociocultural aspects related to breast feeding in Malinalco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gil Romo, S E; Rueda Arroniz, F; Ysunza Ogazón, A; Andrade Contreras, M D

    1991-06-01

    The present paper discusses data related to some sociocultural aspects on breast-feeding behavior among a group of women from a rural community in Mexico called Malinalco. A sample of 225 mothers with children aged less than 60 months, was selected. Several home visits were done in order to fill up a questionnaire, as well as to follow direct interviews according to some selected variables to the deepened, such as: schooling, occupation, place of children deliveries, breast-feeding behavior beliefs on breast-feeding abandonment, weaning practices, etc. The results showed that there is no relation between breast-feeding practices, income and school years; nevertheless, there is a certain tendency on early abandonment of breast-feeding in women with higher level of schooling. Some local beliefs about breast-milk production were detected, as well as some remedies to stimulate milk production and to cure certain breast-feeding problems. Data on weaning age and the commonest weaning food products are presented. The importance that cultural dimension has on breast-feeding studies is discussed, as well as the relevance of recognizing "the changes of concepts" within the process of cultural development itself, in order to understand them better and to propose solutions to the generated problems.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix K to Subpart A of... - Commodity Codes From the Harmonized Tariff Schedule for Controlled Substances and Used Controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commodity Codes From the Harmonized Tariff Schedule for Controlled Substances and Used Controlled Substances K Appendix K to Subpart A of...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. K Appendix K...

  4. 78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Tariff- Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the...-quota aggregate quantity of raw cane sugar at 1,117,195 metric tons raw value (MTRV). The Secretary also announces the establishment of the FY 2014 in-quota aggregate quantity of certain sugars, syrups,...

  5. A call for further research on the impact of state-level immigration policies on public health.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Lisa J; Getrich, Christina M; Quezada, Julio C; Guay, Amanda; Michalowski, Raymond J; Henley, Eric

    2012-07-01

    Arizona's Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act, signed into law in April 2010, is already adversely affecting public health in the state. Our findings from a study on childhood obesity in Flagstaff suggest that the law changed health-seeking behaviors of residents of a predominantly Latino neighborhood by increasing fear, limiting residents' mobility, and diminishing trust of officials. These changes could exacerbate barriers to healthy living, limit access to care, and affect the overall safety of the neighborhood. Documentation of the on-the-ground impact of Arizona's law and similar state-level immigration policies is urgently needed. To inform effective policymaking, such research must be community engaged and include safety measures beyond the usual protocols.

  6. Participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and breastfeeding: national, regional, and state level analyses.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Elizabeth

    2012-04-01

    This research builds on literature that suggests a negative association between participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and breastfeeding. Variation in results at the national, regional, and state level has important policy implications for breastfeeding promotion through WIC. Using the 2007 National Immunization Survey dataset, Chi-square, ANOVA, and adjusted regression modeling techniques assess the relationship between WIC participation and breastfeeding initiation and duration. Adjusted regression models suggest a negative association between WIC participation and breastfeeding initiation rates (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.72). Of those who initiated breastfeeding, WIC participation was associated with a mean breastfeeding duration decrease of 0.63 months (95% CI: -0.86, -0.39). At the regional level, 3 of 7 regions showed a negative association between WIC participation and breastfeeding initiation. All of the regions indicated a negative association between WIC participation and breastfeeding duration. Out of 50 states, 13 had a statistically significant reduction in odds of initiation of breastfeeding and 10 had reduced duration of breastfeeding among participants of WIC when compared to non-participants. No state showed a positive association between WIC participation and breastfeeding. Regional and state differences in breastfeeding rates suggest that further research is needed to understand the role of national, regional, and state level policies which may undermine WIC's breastfeeding promotion efforts. Although WIC revised the food packages to create a stronger incentive for breastfeeding, a disincentive for breastfeeding may exist given the higher market value of the formula packages.

  7. Drug price regulation under consumer moral hazard. Two-part tariffs, uniform price or third-degree price discrimination?

    PubMed

    Felder, Stefan

    2004-12-01

    Drug price differences across national markets as they exist in the EU are often justified by the concept of Ramsey prices: with fixed costs for R&D, the optimal mark-ups on marginal costs are inversely related to the price elasticity in the individual markets. This well-known result prevails if consumer moral hazard is taken into account. Contrary to the situation without moral hazard, the uniform price does not necessarily dominate discriminatory pricing in welfare terms. The two-part tariff is a better alternative as it allows governments to address moral hazard. A uniform price combined with lump-payments reflecting differences in the willingness to pay and the moral hazard in member states appears to be an attractive option for a common EU drug market.

  8. New Insights into Muscle Function during Pivot Feeding in Seahorses

    PubMed Central

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Dries, Billy; Herrel, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Seahorses, pipefish and their syngnathiform relatives are considered unique amongst fishes in using elastic recoil of post-cranial tendons to pivot the head extremely quickly towards small crustacean prey. It is known that pipefish activate the epaxial muscles for a considerable time before striking, at which rotations of the head and the hyoid are temporarily prevented to allow energy storage in the epaxial tendons. Here, we studied the motor control of this system in seahorses using electromyographic recordings of the epaxial muscles and the sternohyoideus-hypaxial muscles with simultaneous high-speed video recordings of prey capture. In addition we present the results from a stimulation experiment including the muscle hypothesised to be responsible for the locking and triggering of pivot feeding in seahorses (m. adductor arcus palatini). Our data confirmed that the epaxial pre-activation pattern observed previously for pipefish also occurs in seahorses. Similar to the epaxials, the sternohyoideus-hypaxial muscle complex shows prolonged anticipatory activity. Although a considerable variation in displacements of the mouth via head rotation could be observed, it could not be demonstrated that seahorses have control over strike distance. In addition, we could not identify the source of the kinematic variability in the activation patterns of the associated muscles. Finally, the stimulation experiment supported the previously hypothesized role of the m. adductor arcus palatini as the trigger in this elastic recoil system. Our results show that pre-stressing of both the head elevators and the hyoid retractors is taking place. As pre-activation of the main muscles involved in pivot feeding has now been demonstrated for both seahorses and pipefish, this is probably a generalized trait of Syngnathidae. PMID:25271759

  9. Gastrostomy feeding in cerebral palsy: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sleigh, G; Brocklehurst, P

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To determine benefits and risks for gastrostomy or jejunostomy feeding compared with oral feeding for children with cerebral palsy. Methods: Systematic review. Search strategy: electronic databases—Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Lilacs, databases of theses, grey literature. Included: relevant systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials, observational studies, case reports. Excluded: non-systematic reviews and qualitative research. Participants: children with cerebral palsy. Intervention: use of gastrostomy or jejunostomy tube to provide nutrition. Outcome: evaluated outcome measures included death, growth, gastro-oesophageal reflux, other complications, psychosocial aspects, and caregiver wellbeing. Results: No relevant systematic reviews or randomised controlled trials were found. Two cohort studies, 15 case series, and eight case reports met the inclusion criteria. Eight studies specifically described percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy as the intervention. Weight gain resulted from gastrostomy feeding in most cases. There was an approximately fourfold increased risk of death reported in one cohort study for the gastrostomy fed children. Many complications were reported, including potential for increased gastro-oesophageal reflux and fluid aspiration into the lungs. Conclusions: Benefits associated with gastrostomy or jejunostomy feeding are difficult to assess from the available evidence. Risks of gastrostomy, particularly in relation to surgical complications, have been described but the size of the risk could not be quantified. The finding of a higher death rate for children fed by gastrostomy may merely reflect the greater disability of these compared with orally fed children. Lack of available evidence and the substantial risk of bias in observational studies suggests that a well conducted randomised controlled trial of sufficient size will be needed to answer these problems. PMID:15155398

  10. Child- and state-level characteristics associated with preventive dental care access among U.S. children 5-17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei; Sappenfield, William; Hernandez, Leticia; Clark, Cheryl; Liu, Jihong; Collins, Jennifer; Carle, Adam C

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study is to identify factors associated with lack of preventive dental care among U.S. children and state-level factors that explain variation in preventive dental care access across states. We performed bivariate analyses and multilevel regression analyses among 68,350 children aged 5-17 years using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health data and relevant state-level data. Odds ratios (ORs) for child- and state-level variables were calculated to estimate associations with preventive dental care. We calculated interval odds ratios (IOR), median odds ratios (MOR), and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) to quantify variation in preventive dental care across states. Lack of preventive dental care was associated with various child-level factors. For state-level factors, a higher odds of lack of preventive dental care was associated with a higher percentage of Medicaid-enrolled children not receiving dental services (OR = 1.30, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.15-1.47); higher percentage of children uninsured (OR = 1.48, 95 % CI: 1.29-1.69); lower dentist-to-population ratio (OR = 1.36, 95 % CI: 1.03-1.80); and lower percentage of dentists submitting Medicaid/State Children's Health Insurance Program claims (OR = 1.04, 95 % CI: 1.01-1.06). IORs for the first three state-level factors did not contain one, indicating that these state-level characteristics were important in understanding variation across states. Lack of preventive dental care varied by state (MOR = 1.40). The state-level variation (ICC = 3.66 %) accounted for a small percentage of child- and state-level variation combined. Child- and state-level characteristics were associated with preventive dental care access among U.S. children aged 5-17 years. State-level factors contribute to variation in dental care access across states and need to be considered in state-level planning.

  11. Do biofuel blending mandates reduce gasoline consumption? Implications of state-level renewable fuel standards for energy security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Shinling

    In an effort to keep America's addiction to oil under control, federal and state governments have implemented a variety of policy measures including those that determine the composition of motor gasoline sold at the pump. Biofuel blending mandates known as Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS) are designed to reduce the amount of foreign crude oil needed to be imported as well as to boost the local ethanol and corn industry. Yet beyond looking at changes in gasoline prices associated with increased ethanol production, there have been no empirical studies that examine effects of state-level RFS implementation on gasoline consumption. I estimate a Generalized Least Squares model for the gasoline demand for the 1993 to 2010 period with state and time fixed effects controlling for RFS. States with active RFS are Minnesota, Hawaii, Missouri, Florida, Washington, and Oregon. I find that, despite the onset of federal biofuel mandates across states in 2007 and the lower energy content of blended gasoline, being in a state that has implemented RFS is associated with 1.5% decrease in gasoline consumption (including blended gasoline). This is encouraging evidence for efforts to lessen dependence on gasoline and has positive implications for energy security.

  12. State-level renewable portfolio standards: Evaluating their effectiveness in increasing renewable electricity generation and reducing carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denneny, Matthew J.

    The renewable portfolio standard (RPS) is a key state-level policy instrument meant to encourage renewable energy development and address climate change by mandating increased electricity generation from low-carbon renewable sources. In analyzing the effectiveness of RPS policies, I hypothesize that these policies should increase renewable electricity generation and reduce carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation. Additionally, I hypothesize that more stringent RPS policies should allow for greater increases in renewable energy generation and larger declines in CO2 emissions. To test these hypotheses, I use pooled and fixed effects models to examine how RPS policies play a role in affecting renewable electricity generation and CO 2 emissions. My results suggest that these policies increase electricity generation from renewable sources and that the stringency of these policies matters. However, the results are mixed in regard to their effectiveness in reducing CO2 emissions. These findings suggest that RPS policies as they are now may not be the best way to reduce CO2 emissions. Other policies that more directly target emissions may be necessary for states to see the emissions reductions they desire.

  13. Lagged Associations of Metropolitan Statistical Area- and State-Level Income Inequality with Cognitive Function: The Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Griffin, Beth Ann; Kabeto, Mohammed; Escarce, José; Langa, Kenneth M.; Shih, Regina A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Much variation in individual-level cognitive function in late life remains unexplained, with little exploration of area-level/contextual factors to date. Income inequality is a contextual factor that may plausibly influence cognitive function. Methods In a nationally-representative cohort of older Americans from the Health and Retirement Study, we examined state- and metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level income inequality as predictors of individual-level cognitive function measured by the 27-point Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) scale. We modeled latency periods of 8–20 years, and controlled for state-/metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level and individual-level factors. Results Higher MSA-level income inequality predicted lower cognitive function 16–18 years later. Using a 16-year lag, living in a MSA in the highest income inequality quartile predicted a 0.9-point lower TICS-m score (β = -0.86; 95% CI = -1.41, -0.31), roughly equivalent to the magnitude associated with five years of aging. We observed no associations for state-level income inequality. The findings were robust to sensitivity analyses using propensity score methods. Conclusions Among older Americans, MSA-level income inequality appears to influence cognitive function nearly two decades later. Policies reducing income inequality levels within cities may help address the growing burden of declining cognitive function among older populations within the United States. PMID:27332986

  14. Burden of Outdoor Air Pollution in Kerala, India—A First Health Risk Assessment at State Level.

    PubMed

    Tobollik, Myriam; Razum, Oliver; Wintermeyer, Dirk; Plass, Dietrich

    2015-08-28

    Ambient air pollution causes a considerable disease burden, particularly in South Asia. The objective of the study is to test the feasibility of applying the environmental burden of disease method at state level in India and to quantify a first set of disease burden estimates due to ambient air pollution in Kerala. Particulate Matter (PM) was used as an indicator for ambient air pollution. The disease burden was quantified in Years of Life Lost (YLL) for the population (30 + years) living in urban areas of Kerala. Scenario analyses were performed to account for uncertainties in the input parameters. 6108 (confidence interval (95% CI): 4150-7791) of 81,636 total natural deaths can be attributed to PM, resulting in 96,359 (95% CI: 65,479-122,917) YLLs due to premature mortality (base case scenario, average for 2008-2011). Depending on the underlying assumptions the results vary between 69,582 and 377,195 YLLs. Around half of the total burden is related to cardiovascular deaths. Scenario analyses show that a decrease of 10% in PM concentrations would save 15,904 (95% CI: 11,090-19,806) life years. The results can be used to raise awareness about air quality standards at a local level and to support decision-making processes aiming at cleaner and healthier environments.

  15. Unbuckling the Bible Belt: A State-Level Analysis of Religious Factors and Google Searches for Porn.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Andrew L; Perry, Samuel L

    2017-02-14

    While the link between individual religious characteristics and pornography consumption is well established, relatively little research has considered how the wider religious context may influence pornography use. Exceptions in the literature to date have relied on relatively broad, subjective measures of religious commitment, largely ignoring issues of religious belonging, belief, or practice. This study moves the conversation forward by examining how a variety of state-level religious factors predict Google searches for the term porn, net of relevant sociodemog raphic and ideological controls. Our multivariate findings indicate that higher percentages of Evangelical Protestants, theists, and biblical literalists in a state predict higher frequencies of searching for porn, as do higher church attendance rates. Conversely, higher percentages of religiously unaffiliated persons in a state predict lower frequencies of searching for porn. Higher percentages of total religious adherents, Catholics, or mainline Protestants in a state are unrelated to searching for porn with controls in place. Contrary to recent research, our analyses also show that higher percentages of political conservatives in a state predicted lower frequencies of porn searches. Our findings support theories that more salient, traditional religious influences in a state may influence residents-whether religious or not-toward more covert sexual experiences.

  16. Free Trade and Tariffs: Level III, Unit 2, Lesson 1; Capitalism, Communism, Socialism: Lesson 2; Nationalism vs. Internationalism: Lesson 3. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Free Trade and Tariffs; Capitalism, Communism, Socialism; and Nationalism vs. Internationalism. Each of the lessons concludes with a Mastery Test to be completed by the student. (DB)

  17. Determinants of Mexico-U.S. Outward and Return Migration Flows: A State-Level Panel Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chort, Isabelle; de la Rupelle, Maëlys

    2016-10-01

    Using a unique panel data set of state-to-state outward and return migration flows between Mexico and the United States from 1995 to 2012, this study is the first to analyze Mexico-U.S. migration at the state level and explore simultaneously the effect of economic, environmental, and social factors in Mexico over two decades. Pairing origin and destination states and controlling for a rich structure of fixed effects, we find that income positively impacts migration outflows, especially for Mexican states of origin with a recent migration history and for low-educated migrant flows, suggesting the existence of credit constraints. We find evidence that drought causes more out-migration, while other climatic shocks have no effect. Violence is found to increase out-migration flows from border states and to decrease migration from other Mexican states, especially where violence is directed at migrants. Last, return flows are larger when income growth at destination is lower, consistent with the accumulation of savings as a primary motivation of migrants. Exploring the impact of the crisis, we find evidence of significant changes in the geography of migration flows. Traditional flows are drying up, and new migration corridors are rising, with implications on the composition of the Mexican population in the United States. Although the effect of income on flows in both directions is unchanged by the crisis, the negative effect of violence on out-migration tends to reverse at the end of the period. Overall, this study emphasizes the interest of analyzing disaggregated flows at the infra-country level.

  18. The Protein-disulfide Isomerase ERp57 Regulates the Steady-state Levels of the Prion Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Mauricio; Medinas, Danilo B.; Matamala, José Manuel; Woehlbier, Ute; Cornejo, Víctor Hugo; Solda, Tatiana; Andreu, Catherine; Rozas, Pablo; Matus, Soledad; Muñoz, Natalia; Vergara, Carmen; Cartier, Luis; Soto, Claudio; Molinari, Maurizio; Hetz, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Although the accumulation of a misfolded and protease-resistant form of the prion protein (PrP) is a key event in prion pathogenesis, the cellular factors involved in its folding and quality control are poorly understood. PrP is a glycosylated and disulfide-bonded protein synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The ER foldase ERp57 (also known as Grp58) is highly expressed in the brain of sporadic and infectious forms of prion-related disorders. ERp57 is a disulfide isomerase involved in the folding of a subset of glycoproteins in the ER as part of the calnexin/calreticulin cycle. Here, we show that levels of ERp57 increase mainly in neurons of Creutzfeldt-Jacob patients. Using gain- and loss-of-function approaches in cell culture, we demonstrate that ERp57 expression controls the maturation and total levels of wild-type PrP and mutant forms associated with human disease. In addition, we found that PrP physically interacts with ERp57, and also with the closest family member PDIA1, but not ERp72. Furthermore, we generated a conditional knock-out mouse for ERp57 in the nervous system and detected a reduction in the steady-state levels of the mono- and nonglycosylated forms of PrP in the brain. In contrast, ERp57 transgenic mice showed increased levels of endogenous PrP. Unexpectedly, ERp57 expression did not affect the susceptibility of cells to ER stress in vitro and in vivo. This study identifies ERp57 as a new modulator of PrP levels and may help with understanding the consequences of ERp57 up-regulation observed in human disease. PMID:26170458

  19. Planar Laser Imaging of Scattering and Fluorescence of Zooplankton Feeding in Layers of Phytoplankton in situ

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    planktonic ecosystems. OBJECTIVES Our objectives in this work are to 1) visualize and quantify herbivorous copepod feeding in the laboratory...and 2) to apply these methods in the field to observe the dynamics of copepod feeding in situ. In particular we intend to test the “feeding sorties...hypothesis vs. the “in situ feeding” hypothesis regarding the location and timing of copepod feeding and vertical migration. APPROACH Previous

  20. Use of a programmable calculator to determine steady-state levels of drugs eliminated by parallel first-order and Michaelis-Menten kinetics.

    PubMed

    Crow, J W; Levy, G

    1978-09-01

    A programmable calculator procedure for the determination of steady-state levels of drugs eliminated by one or more apparent first-order plus one or two Michaelis-Menten processes in parallel is described. The differential expression for this pharmacokinetic system was converted to a reduced cubic equation suitable for calculators with trigonometric functions. A detailed program description and user instructions are presented. Steady-state levels of salicylic acid as a function of dosing rate were calculated to illustrate use of the program in clinical pharmacokinetics. The calculator program provides a facile and rapid means of determining the effect of changes in dosing rate, bioavailability and elimination constants on steady-state levels of salicylic acid and certain other drugs with nonlinear elimination characteristics.

  1. Social Sector Expenditure and Child Mortality in India: A State-Level Analysis from 1997 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Makela, Susanna M.; Dandona, Rakhi; Dilip, T. R.; Dandona, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    Background India is unlikely to meet the Millennium Development Goal for child mortality. As public policy impacts child mortality, we assessed the association of social sector expenditure with child mortality in India. Methods and Findings Mixed-effects regression models were used to assess the relationship of state-level overall social sector expenditure and its major components (health, health-related, education, and other) with mortality by sex among infants and children aged 1–4 years from 1997 to 2009, adjusting for potential confounders. Counterfactual models were constructed to estimate deaths averted due to overall social sector increases since 1997. Increases in per capita overall social sector expenditure were slightly higher in less developed than in more developed states from 1997 to 2009 (2.4-fold versus 2-fold), but the level of expenditure remained 36% lower in the former in 2009. Increase in public expenditure on health was not significantly associated with mortality reduction in infants or at ages 1–4 years, but a 10% increase in health-related public expenditure was associated with a 3.6% mortality reduction (95% confidence interval 0.2–6.9%) in 1–4 years old boys. A 10% increase in overall social sector expenditure was associated with a mortality reduction in both boys (6.8%, 3.5–10.0%) and girls (4.1%, 0.8–7.5%) aged 1–4 years. We estimated 119,807 (95% uncertainty interval 53,409 – 214,662) averted deaths in boys aged 1–4 years and 94,037 (14,725 – 206,684) in girls in India in 2009 that could be attributed to increases in overall social sector expenditure since 1997. Conclusions Further reduction in child mortality in India would be facilitated if policymakers give high priority to the social sector as a whole for resource allocation in the country’s 5-year plan for 2012–2017, as public expenditure on health alone has not had major impact on reducing child mortality. PMID:23409166

  2. Examining the relationship between the prevalence of guns and homicide rates in the USA using a new and improved state-level gun ownership proxy.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-12-01

    Determining the relationship between gun ownership levels and firearm homicide rates is critical to inform public health policy. Previous research has shown that state-level gun ownership, as measured by a widely used proxy, is positively associated with firearm homicide rates. A newly developed proxy measure that incorporates the hunting license rate in addition to the proportion of firearm suicides correlates more highly with state-level gun ownership. To corroborate previous research, we used this new proxy to estimate the association of state-level gun ownership with total, firearm, and non-firearm homicides. Using state-specific data for the years 1981-2010, we modelled these rates as a function of gun ownership level, controlling for potential confounding factors. We used a negative binomial regression model and accounted for clustering of observations among states. We found that state-level gun ownership as measured by the new proxy, is significantly associated with firearm and total homicides but not with non-firearm homicides.

  3. Incorporating Air Pollutant Emission Factors and State-Level Controls and Energy Policies within the GCAM-USA Integrated Assessment Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) is an integrated assessment model that links representations of the economy, energy sector, land use, and climate within an integrated modeling environment. GCAM-USA, which is an extension of GCAM, provides U.S. state-level resolution wit...

  4. Farm-to-School Programmes in the USA: An Examination of State-Level Enacted, Pending and Vetoed or Dead Bills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Olivia M.; Ghelardini, Lauren; Keene, Kristin L.; Stewart, Kendra B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to determine the prevalence and distribution of state-level legislation regulating farm-to-school programmes throughout the United States of America (USA). The research is timely given national goals put forth by the Let's Move Campaign and the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act to reduce childhood obesity prevalence and…

  5. Brokering Power at the State Level for Child Health Care. Workbook Series for Providing Services to Children with Handicaps and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Steve A.

    The workbook is intended as a primer for public and private sector state level advocates for children with disabilities and chronic illnesses. It is designed to give practical guidance on how to intervene effectively in the legislative and executive appropriation and budget processes. The first section examines the role of the partners-in-power:…

  6. Schools and Libraries Program: Update on State-Level Funding by Category of Service. Report to the Honorable John D. Rockefeller IV, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerwinski, Stanley J.

    This report provides state-level data on the amount of funds committed to the following three categories of eligible services for each of the first three years of the Federal Communications Commission's e-rate program for schools and libraries: (1) telecommunications service, such as local, long-distance, and international telephone service, as…

  7. Nontraditional Education: State-Level Issues and Concerns. A Conference Held at Harvard University Graduate School of Education (May 16-18, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    Articles from a conference on nontraditional education and state-level issues are presented. The first article by Frederic Jacobs and George B. Weathersby summarizes some of the major trends and policy issues regarding nontraditional education. Next Samuel B. Gould considers why states should support nontraditional education and what strategies…

  8. Evaluating Change in Interagency Collaboration of a State-Level Interagency Education Team: A Social Network Approach within a Utilization-Focused Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Patricia; Gaumer Erickson, Amy; McCall, Zach; Frey, Bruce B.; Zheng, Chunmei

    2014-01-01

    Improving collaboration among organizations is a goal of interagency educational teams, but collaboration is typically thought of as an ambiguous concept that cannot be quantified. To assess the collaborative strength of a state-level interagency team in a Midwestern state, team members completed the Levels of Collaboration Scale (Frey et al.,…

  9. Does state-level context matter for individuals' knowledge about abortion, legality and health? Challenging the 'red states v. blue states' hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bessett, Danielle; Gerdts, Caitlin; Littman, Lisa L; Kavanaugh, Megan L; Norris, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the hypothesis that state-level political context influences individuals' cultural values--the 'red states v. blue states' hypothesis--has been invoked to explain the hyper-polarisation of politics in the USA. To test this hypothesis, we examined individuals' knowledge about abortion in relation to the political context of their current state of residence. Drawing from an internet-survey of 586 reproductive-age individuals in the USA, we assessed two types of abortion knowledge: health-related and legality. We found that state-level conservatism does not modify the existing relationships between individual predictors and each of the two types of abortion knowledge. Hence, our findings do not support the 'red states' versus 'blue states' hypothesis. Additionally, we find that knowledge about abortion's health effects in the USA is low: 7% of our sample thought abortion before 12 weeks gestation was illegal.

  10. Leucine pulses enhance skeletal muscle protein synthesis during continuous feeding in neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infants unable to maintain oral feeding can be nourished by orogastric tube. We have shown that orogastric continuous feeding restricts muscle protein synthesis compared with intermittent bolus feeding in neonatal pigs. To determine whether leucine leu infusion can be used to enhance protein synthes...

  11. Evaluation of potential factors predicting attainment of full gavage feedings in preterm infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The clinical measures of gastric residuals and abdominal distention are often used to guide feeding in preterm infants, but there are few data demonstrating their usefulness. Similarly, techniques are now available to investigate gastrointestinal (GI) function noninvasively and safely, but their abi...

  12. Enteral feeding in prostaglandin-dependent neonates: is it a safe practice?

    PubMed

    Willis, Lisa; Thureen, Patti; Kaufman, Jonathan; Wymore, Erica; Skillman, Heather; da Cruz, Eduardo

    2008-12-01

    In many centers presurgical term neonates with prostaglandin-dependent cardiac lesions experience nutritional deficiency because of postponed enteral feeds. We recently adopted early enteral feeding in these infants. This retrospective study demonstrates feeding tolerance in 33 of 34 neonates fed enterally while receiving prostaglandin, suggesting the safety of this practice.

  13. Evaluation of paladai cup feeding in breast-fed preterm infants compared with bottle feeding.

    PubMed

    Aloysius, A; Hickson, M

    2007-09-01

    This pilot study developed an appropriate procedure to evaluate the paladai cup compared to bottle feeding in preterm infants, using weighed napkins and video analysis to assess amount of spillage, volume consumed, time taken and physiological stability. Paladai results demonstrated increased spillage, increased feed times with more stress cues.

  14. Modeling the effect of climate change on U.S. state-level buildings energy demands in an integrated assessment framework

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon E.; Eom, Jiyong; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.; Kim, Son H.; Dirks, James A.; Jensen, Erik A.; Liu, Ying; Rice, Jennie S.; Schmidt, Laurel C.; Seiple, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    As long-term socioeconomic transformation and energy service expansion show large spatial heterogeneity, advanced understanding of climate impact on building energy use at the sub-national level will offer useful insights into climate policy and regional energy system planning. In this study, we presented a detailed building energy model with a U.S. state-level representation, nested in the GCAM integrated assessment framework. We projected state-level building energy demand and its spatial pattern over the century, considering the impact of climate change based on the estimates of heating and cooling degree days derived from downscaled USGS CASCaDE temperature data. The result indicates that climate change has a large impact on heating and cooling building energy and fuel use at the state level, exhibiting large spatial heterogeneity across states (ranges from -10% to +10%). The sensitivity analysis reveals that the building energy demand is subject to multiple key factors, such as the magnitude of climate change, the choice of climate models, and the growth of population and GDP, and that their relative contributions vary greatly across the space. The scale impact in building energy use modeling highlights the importance of constructing a building energy model with the spatially-explicit representation of socioeconomics, energy system development, and climate change. These findings will help the climate-based policy decision and energy system, especially utility planning related to building sector at the U.S. state and regional level facing the potential climate change.

  15. Changes to the Design of the National Health Interview Survey to Support Enhanced Monitoring of Health Reform Impacts at the State Level

    PubMed Central

    Blewett, Lynn A.; Dahlen, Heather M.; Spencer, Donna; Rivera Drew, Julia A.; Lukanen, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Since 1957, the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)’s National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), has been the primary source of information for monitoring health and health care use of the U.S. population at the national level. The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010 generated new needs for data to monitor its implementation and evaluate its effectiveness. In response, the NCHS has taken steps to enhance the content of the NHIS in several key areas and positioned the NHIS as a source of population health information at the national and state levels. This paper reviews recent changes to the NHIS that support enhanced health reform monitoring, including new questions and response categories, sampling design changes to improve state-level analysis, and enhanced dissemination activities. We conclude with a discussion about the importance of the NHIS, the continued need for state-level analysis, and suggestions for future consideration. PMID:27631739

  16. The rich get richer and the poor get poorer: Country- and state-level income inequality moderates the job insecurity-burnout relationship.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lixin; Probst, Tahira M

    2017-04-01

    Despite the prevalence of income inequality in today's society, research on the implications of income inequality for organizational research is scant. This study takes the first step to explore the contextual role of national- and state- level income inequality as a moderator in the relationship between individual-level job insecurity (JI) and burnout. Drawing from conservation of resource (COR) theory, we argue that income inequality at the country-level and state-level threatens one's obtainment of object (i.e., material coping) and condition (i.e., nonmaterial coping) resources, thus serving as an environmental stressor exacerbating one's burnout reactions to JI. The predicted cross-level interaction effect of income inequality was tested in 2 studies. Study 1 consisting of 23,778 individuals nested in 30 countries explored the moderating effect of country-level income inequality on the relationship between individual JI and exhaustion. Study 2 collected data from 402 employees residing in 48 states in the United States, and tested the moderating effect of state-level income inequality on the relationship between JI and burnout (i.e., emotional exhaustion and cynicism). Results of both studies converge to support the exacerbating role of higher-level income inequality on the JI -burnout relationship. Our findings contribute to the literature on psychological health disparities by exploring the contextual role of income inequality as a predictor of differential reactions to JI. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. 76 FR 60378 - Tariffs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... 69, revised as of October 1, 2010, on page 189, in Sec. 61.3, redesignate paragraphs (aa) through (zz) as paragraphs (bb) through (aaa), and reinstate old paragraph (z) as paragraph (aa) to read as follows: Sec. 61.3 Definitions. * * * * * (aa) Other participating carrier. A carrier subject to the...

  18. Implementing the Common Core of Constructs: Measurement and Interviewer Training. The Project on State-Level Child Outcomes. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Operational Phase of the Project on State-Level Child Outcome (1st, Washington, DC, December 9, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Project on State-Level Child Outcomes is designed to assist states and other groups to improve the measurement of child outcomes in state welfare evaluations and in other state data systems. This report summarizes the first meeting of the five states (Connecticut, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota) that participated in the operational phase of…

  19. A behavioural framework for the evolution of feeding in predatory aquatic mammals.

    PubMed

    Hocking, David P; Marx, Felix G; Park, Travis; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Evans, Alistair R

    2017-03-15

    Extant aquatic mammals are a key component of aquatic ecosystems. Their morphology, ecological role and behaviour are, to a large extent, shaped by their feeding ecology. Nevertheless, the nature of this crucial aspect of their biology is often oversimplified and, consequently, misinterpreted. Here, we introduce a new framework that categorizes the feeding cycle of predatory aquatic mammals into four distinct functional stages (prey capture, manipulation and processing, water removal and swallowing), and details the feeding behaviours that can be employed at each stage. Based on this comprehensive scheme, we propose that the feeding strategies of living aquatic mammals form an evolutionary sequence that recalls the land-to-water transition of their ancestors. Our new conception helps to explain and predict the origin of particular feeding styles, such as baleen-assisted filter feeding in whales and raptorial 'pierce' feeding in pinnipeds, and informs the structure of present and past ecosystems.

  20. A behavioural framework for the evolution of feeding in predatory aquatic mammals

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Evans, Alistair R.

    2017-01-01

    Extant aquatic mammals are a key component of aquatic ecosystems. Their morphology, ecological role and behaviour are, to a large extent, shaped by their feeding ecology. Nevertheless, the nature of this crucial aspect of their biology is often oversimplified and, consequently, misinterpreted. Here, we introduce a new framework that categorizes the feeding cycle of predatory aquatic mammals into four distinct functional stages (prey capture, manipulation and processing, water removal and swallowing), and details the feeding behaviours that can be employed at each stage. Based on this comprehensive scheme, we propose that the feeding strategies of living aquatic mammals form an evolutionary sequence that recalls the land-to-water transition of their ancestors. Our new conception helps to explain and predict the origin of particular feeding styles, such as baleen-assisted filter feeding in whales and raptorial ‘pierce’ feeding in pinnipeds, and informs the structure of present and past ecosystems. PMID:28250183

  1. [Menstrual blood and human milk. Reflections and new proposals on breast-feeding in ancient Greece].

    PubMed

    Pedrucci, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    Within a larger study on breast-feeding in ancient Greece, we dwelt on four subjects (the superstitions concerning menstrual blood, milk and dairy products consumption by the Athenians, different kinds of milk and beliefs related to the transmission of hereditary characteristics through human milk, the connection between milk, breast and madness) on which we have identified a certain number of neglected sources. Starting from these, we can gain not only some mosaic tiles of the overall fragmentary view on habits and beliefs about breast-feeding, but also, more generally, helpful hints on some aspects of the Greek world and mentality that we barely know. In attempting to reach some general conclusions, we have also considered the iconographic sources, trying to explain, in part at least, the reason for the almost complete absence of scenes of breast-feeding in the archaic and classical art.

  2. Significant applications of ERTS-1 data to resource management activities at the state level in Ohio. [strip mining and land use mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, D. C.; Pincura, P. G.; Meier, C. J.; Garrett, G. B.; Herd, L.; Wukelic, G. E.; Stephan, J. G.; Smail, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    Described are techniques utilized and the progress made in applying ERTS-1 data to (1) detecting, inventorying, and monitoring surface mining activities, particularly in relation to recently passed strip mine legislation in Ohio; (2) updating current land use maps at various scales for multiagency usage, and (3) solving other real-time problems existing throughout the various Ohio governmental agencies. General conclusions regarding current user views as to the opportunities and limitations of operationally using ERTS-1 data at the state level are also noted.

  3. The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (Japanese translation)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

    2004-10-15

    The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a

  4. Simulation of long term renewable energy feed-in for European power system studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev; Späth, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Renewable energies already play a remarkable role in Europe as of today. It is expected that wind and solar amongst other renewables will contribute strongly to the future European energy generation. However, wind and solar generation facilities have due to the weather dependent nature of their resources highly fluctuating feed-in profiles. To overcome the mismatch between energy demand and generation it is important to study and understand the generation patterns and balancing potentials. The goal of the current work is to investigate how the feed-in time series from different renewable sources like on- and offshore wind, photovoltaic, solar thermal, wave, hydro, geothermal and biomass power and combination of them look like in an European power supply system . The work is part of the RESTORE 2050 project (BMU) that investigates the requirements for cross-country grid extensions, usage of storage technologies and capacities, the development of new balancing technologies and the conceptual design of the future energy market which is suitable for high generation percentages of solar and wind. High temporally and spatially resolved long term weather data from COSMO-EU, MERRA and Meteosat (MFG/MSG) satellite data has been used to simulate feed-in from several types of renewable energy sources on a 7 x 7 km grid covering Europe. For wind speeds MERRA reanalysis data has been statistically downscaled to account for orography. Generation was aggregated on the country level and production patterns and their variations in time of different resources were investigated for the years ranging from 2002 to 2012. In a first step the quality of the simulated feed in time series has been investigated by comparison to real observations of wind power and PV generation. Furthermore, some sensitivity studies with respect to underlying assumptions like spatial distribution of wind and PV capacities, the chosen hub-height and wind power curve have been done and will be presented. While

  5. State-level spending on health care and social services for people living with HIV/AIDS in the USA: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Talbert-Slagle, Kristina; Ahmed, Shirin; Brewster, Amanda; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2015-01-01

    Every year for the past decade, approximately 50,000 people have been diagnosed with HIV or AIDS in the USA, and the incidence of HIV/AIDS varies considerably from state to state. Studies have shown that health care services, most notably treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy, can help people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) live healthier, longer lives, and prevent the spread of HIV from person to person. In addition, social services, such as housing support and provision of meals, have also shown to be important for helping PLWHA adhere to antiretroviral treatment and maintain contact with health care providers for improved health outcomes. Although spending on health care and social services for PLWHA varies across the USA, the relationship between state-level spending on these services and HIV/AIDS-related outcomes is not clear. We therefore conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature to identify studies that explore state-level spending on health care services and/or social services for PLWHA and HIV/AIDS-related health outcomes in the USA.

  6. The role of a state-level prevention support system in promoting high-quality implementation and sustainability of evidence-based programs.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, Brittany L; Bumbarger, Brian K; Moore, Julia E

    2012-12-01

    Although numerous evidence-based programs (EBPs) have been proven effective in research trials and are being widely promoted through federal, state, and philanthropic dollars, few have been "scaled up" in a manner likely to have a measurable impact on today's critical social problems. The Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation (ISF) explicates three systems that are critical in addressing the barriers that prevent these programs from having their intended public health impact. In this article we describe the relevance of these systems in a real-world context with a specific focus on the Prevention Support System (PSS). We expand on the ISF model by presenting funders and policy-makers as active and engaged stakeholders, and demonstrate how a state-level PSS has used empirical evidence to inform general and program-specific capacity-building and support interactions among researchers, funders, and practitioners in Pennsylvania. By embracing this expanded ISF framework as a conceptual model for the wide-scale dissemination and support of EBPs, and recognizing the need for a distinct state-level PSS, Pennsylvania has created an infrastructure to effectively address the primary barriers to moving from lists of EBPs to achieving population-level public health improvement.

  7. State-Level Trends and Correlates for Cross-Sector Collaboration on School Nutrition and Physical Education Activities, 2000–2012

    PubMed Central

    Laska, Melissa N.; MacLehose, Richard; Nelson, Toben F.; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cross-sector collaboration on child obesity prevention is common, yet little research has examined the context of collaboration at the state level. This study describes secular trends in collaboration between state agency staff responsible for school nutrition and physical education activities and other organizations from 2000 to 2012. Methods Data from the School Health Policies and Practices Study were used to describe collaboration between state agency staff and 13 types of public, private, and nonprofit organizations. Breadth of collaboration in 2012 was examined across political, social, and economic conditions. Results Collaboration between state agency staff and other organization types increased from 2000 to 2006 and decreased or stabilized from 2006 to 2012. Breadth of collaboration was greater in states with a physical education coordinator, higher levels of poverty, higher prevalence of childhood obesity, and more public health funding. Breadth was similar across states by census region, political party of governor, majority party in state legislature, percentage non-Hispanic white population, high school graduation rate, and unemployment rate. Conclusion Cross-sector collaboration on school nutrition and physical education was widespread and did not vary substantially across most political, social, and economic measures. Expanded monitoring and surveillance of state-level collaboration would assist efforts to understand how state agencies work across sectors and whether this collaboration affects the support they provide to schools. PMID:27442994

  8. DUSP11 activity on triphosphorylated transcripts promotes Argonaute association with noncanonical viral microRNAs and regulates steady-state levels of cellular noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Burke, James M.; Kincaid, Rodney P.; Nottingham, Ryan M.; Lambowitz, Alan M.; Sullivan, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    RNA silencing is a conserved eukaryotic gene expression regulatory mechanism mediated by small RNAs. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the accumulation of a distinct class of siRNAs synthesized by an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) requires the PIR-1 phosphatase. However, the function of PIR-1 in RNAi has remained unclear. Since mammals lack an analogous siRNA biogenesis pathway, an RNA silencing role for the mammalian PIR-1 homolog (dual specificity phosphatase 11 [DUSP11]) was unexpected. Here, we show that the RNA triphosphatase activity of DUSP11 promotes the RNA silencing activity of viral microRNAs (miRNAs) derived from RNA polymerase III (RNAP III) transcribed precursors. Our results demonstrate that DUSP11 converts the 5′ triphosphate of miRNA precursors to a 5′ monophosphate, promoting loading of derivative 5p miRNAs into Argonaute proteins via a Dicer-coupled 5′ monophosphate-dependent strand selection mechanism. This mechanistic insight supports a likely shared function for PIR-1 in C. elegans. Furthermore, we show that DUSP11 modulates the 5′ end phosphate group and/or steady-state level of several host RNAP III transcripts, including vault RNAs and Alu transcripts. This study shows that steady-state levels of select noncoding RNAs are regulated by DUSP11 and defines a previously unknown portal for small RNA-mediated silencing in mammals, revealing that DUSP11-dependent RNA silencing activities are shared among diverse metazoans. PMID:27798849

  9. An integrated assessment of energy-water nexus at the state level in the United States: Projections and analyses under different scenarios through 2095

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Patel, P. L.; Hejazi, M. I.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E. G.; Zhou, Y.; Clarke, L.; Edmonds, J.

    2013-12-01

    Water withdrawals for thermoelectric power plants account for approximately half of the total water use in the United States. With growing electricity demands in the future and limited water supplies in many water-scarce states in the U.S., grasping the trade-off between energy and water requires an integrated modeling approach that can capture the interactions among energy, water availability, climate, technology, and economic factors at various scales. In this study, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a technologically-detailed integrated model of the economy, energy, agriculture and land use, water, and climate systems, with 14 geopolitical regions that are further dissaggregated into up to 18 agro-ecological zones, was extended to model the electricity and water systems at the state level in the U.S. More specifically, GCAM was employed to estimate future state-level electricity generation and demands, and the associated water withdrawals and consumptions under a set of six scenarios with extensive levels of details on generation fuel portfolio, cooling technology mix, and water use intensities. The state-level estimates were compared against available inventories where good agreement was achieved on national and regional levels. We then explored the electric-sector water use up to 2095, focusing on implications from: 1) socioeconomics and growing demands, 2) the adoption of climate mitigation policy (e.g., RCP4.5 W/m2 vs. a reference scenario), 3) the transition of cooling systems, 4) constraints on electricity trading across states (full trading vs. limited trading), and 5) the adoption of water saving technologies. Overall, the fast retirement of once-through cooling, together with the gradual transition from fossil fuels dominant to a mixture of different fuels, accelerate the decline of water withdrawals and correspondingly compensate consumptive water use. Results reveal that U.S. electricity generation expands significantly as population grows

  10. A longitudinal, multilevel analysis of homicide against children aged 0-9 years using state-level characteristics: 1979-2007.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Emily; Vanderminden, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Annually, over a thousand children are the victims of homicide in the United States Homicide among younger children, 0-9 years of age, is usually perpetrated by parents and caregivers. Researchers neither have tracked changes in the homicide rate among young children over time nor have they used theory to understand what factors may drive these changes. In this analysis of state-level data, we used longitudinal growth modeling and ecological theory to examine changes in homicide rate against children aged 0-9 years from 1979 to 2007. Our results indicate that states are relatively consistent, over time, in their homicide rates. Furthermore, a cultural context of criminal and risky behavior is positively associated with homicide against children. We discuss implications for future research and prevention.

  11. [Risk and prophylaxis acute pancreatitis while enteral tube feeding in patients operated for destructive cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Zhurikhina, A V; Kitiashvili, I Z; Kutukov, V V; Kondrashova, Iu V

    2011-01-01

    Determined by risk and method of prophylaxis of acute pancreatitis in the postoperative enteral tube feeding in patients with destructive cholecystitis, analyzed levels of a-amylase in blood serum and clinical manifestations of acute pancreatitis in 135 operated patients. It was established that the use of nasoduodenal access is more likely to cause the elevated level of serum amylase (p<0,05) and more incidence of sings of acute pancreatitis in contrast to nasoduodenal tube placement. For the prevention of acute pancreatitis with enteral tube feeding is preferred mode designed using nasoduodenal access.

  12. Evidence-based policies on school nutrition and physical education: Associations with state-level collaboration, obesity, and socio-economic indicators.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Jennifer E; Laska, Melissa N; MacLehose, Richard; Nelson, Toben F; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2017-02-13

    Despite calls for more cross-sector collaboration on obesity prevention, little is known about the role of collaborative partnerships, or groups of organizations from different sectors working together toward a shared goal, in state policy activities. This study examined associations between competitive food/beverage and physical education policies and state-level collaboration and state characteristics (obesity, socioeconomic indicators, public health funding levels) for all 50 states and the District of Columbia, USA, in 2012. We examined cross-sectional associations between evidence-based competitive food/beverage and physical education policies from the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students and state characteristics from the School Health Policies and Practices Study and other national data sources using prevalence ratios and generalized linear models. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Cross-sector collaboration (i.e., state staff reports of working together on school nutrition or physical education activities) between state-level nutrition and physical education staff and ten types of organizations was not significantly associated with having state policies. Childhood obesity (RR=1.78, 95% CI[1.11,2.85]), high-school non-completion (RR=2.35, 95% CI[1.36,4.06]), poverty (RR=1.89, 95% CI[1.16,3.09]) and proportion non-white or Hispanic residents (RR=1.75, 95% CI[1.07, 2.85]) were positively associated with the presence of elementary school competitive food/beverage policies. Fewer indicators were associated with policies for middle and high schools. The large investment of time and resources required for cross-sector collaboration demands greater research evidence on how to structure and manage collaborative partnerships for the greatest impact.

  13. E3 ligase FLRF (Rnf41) regulates differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors by governing steady-state levels of cytokine and retinoic acid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Xin; Infante, Jorge; Nachtman, Ronald G.; Jurecic, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Objective FLRF (Rnf41) gene was identified through screening of subtracted cDNA libraries form murine hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors. Subsequent work has revealed that FLRF acts as E3 ubiquitin ligase, and that it regulates steady-state levels of neuregulin receptor ErbB3, and participates in degradation of IAP protein BRUCE and parkin. The objective of this study was to start exploring the role of FLRF during hematopoiesis. Methods FLRF was over-expressed in a murine multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cell line EML, which can differentiate into almost all blood cell lineages, and in pro-B progenitor cell line BaF3. The impact of FLRF over-expression on EML cell differentiation into myelo-erythroid lineages was studied using hematopoietic colony-forming assays. The interaction of FLRF with cytokine receptors and receptor levels in control cells and EML and BaF3 cells over-expressing FLRF were examined with Western and immunoprecipitation. Results Remarkably, over-expression of FLRF significantly attenuated erythroid and myeloid differentiation of EML cells in response to cytokines Epo and IL-3, and retinoic acid (RA), and resulted in significant and constitutive decrease of steady-state levels of IL-3, Epo and RA receptor RARα in EML and BaF3 cells. Immunoprecipitation has revealed that FLRF interacts with IL-3, Epo and RARα receptors in EML and BaF3 cells, and that FLRF-mediated down-regulation of these receptors is ligand binding-independent. Conclusions The results of this study have revealed new FLRF-mediated pathway for ligand-independent receptor level regulation, and support the notion that through maintaining basal levels of cytokine receptors, FLRF is involved in the control of hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation into myelo-erythroid lineages. PMID:18495327

  14. Suspension feeding in adult Nephrops norvegicus (L.) and Homarus gammarus (L.) (decapoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loo, Lars-Ove; Pihl Baden, Susanne; Ulmestrand, Mats

    Suspension feeding in adults of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (40-74 g) and the European lobster Homarus gammarus (280-350 g) was tested in experiments offering planktonic food items of different sizes from 200 to 600 μm and measuring the clearing capacity. Both lobster species were found to effectively clear water of food particles comprising nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina of about 600 μm in size. These were reduced to 50% of the initial concentration within 5 h and to 90% within 12 h. When N. norvegicus was offered food particles averaging 200 μm, a significant reduction in average size occurred, indicating that the minimum retention size is around 200 μm. Fluorescently dyed Artemia salina were recovered in the stomach and intestine of lobsters proving that the filtered particles are passed to the digestive tract. Results from other experiments, using the blood pigment (haemocyanin) concentration as an index of nutritional state, indicated that the lobsters can get some nutritional advantage from suspension feeding. Suspension feeding in larger decapods has not been described previously, so the significance of this finding is discussed with respect to changes in behavioural and ecological role.

  15. Cambrian cinctan echinoderms shed light on feeding in the ancestral deuterostome

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Imran A.; Zamora, Samuel; Falkingham, Peter L.; Phillips, Jeremy C.

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructing the feeding mode of the latest common ancestor of deuterostomes is key to elucidating the early evolution of feeding in chordates and allied phyla; however, it is debated whether the ancestral deuterostome was a tentaculate feeder or a pharyngeal filter feeder. To address this, we evaluated the hydrodynamics of feeding in a group of fossil stem-group echinoderms (cinctans) using computational fluid dynamics. We simulated water flow past three-dimensional digital models of a Cambrian fossil cinctan in a range of possible life positions, adopting both passive tentacular feeding and active pharyngeal filter feeding. The results demonstrate that an orientation with the mouth facing downstream of the current was optimal for drag and lift reduction. Moreover, they show that there was almost no flow to the mouth and associated marginal groove under simulations of passive feeding, whereas considerable flow towards the animal was observed for active feeding, which would have enhanced the transport of suspended particles to the mouth. This strongly suggests that cinctans were active pharyngeal filter feeders, like modern enteropneust hemichordates and urochordates, indicating that the ancestral deuterostome employed a similar feeding strategy. PMID:26511049

  16. Supplementary feeding in the care of the wasted HIV infected patient.

    PubMed

    Manary, Mark; Ndekhat, MacDonald; van Oosterhout, Joep J

    2010-06-01

    Wasting and food insecurity are commonly seen in patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia, and supplementary feeding is often offered in conjunction with ART. Evidence for the effectiveness of such supplementary feeding is scant. A randomised, investigator-blinded, controlled clinical trial of two types of supplementary food, corn/soy blended flour and a ready-to-use peanut butter-based lipid paste, in wasted adults in Blantyre, Malawi is described and the results summarised. A historical control group who did not receive supplementary food is described as well. Provision of about half of the daily energy requirement as a supplementary food for 14 weeks resulted in more rapid restoration of a normal BMI; and the energy-dense, ready-to-use paste was associated with more rapid weight gain than the blended flour. Survival was similar among the 3 groups. The strong association between lower BMI and survival indirectly suggests that there may well be clinical benefit from supplementary feeding in this population. No differences were seen in ART adherence or quality of life with more rapid restoration of BMI. Further research is urgently needed concerning the widespread practice of supplementary feeding in HIV/AIDS care to most effectively utilize this intervention.

  17. Promotion of breast-feeding in a Chinese community in Montreal.

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Yip, A. M.; Kramer, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    Following a prospective survey that showed a very low rate of breast-feeding (10%) in 1977-79 among Chinese women in Montreal, a culturally targeted program, which included individual prenatal counselling and a community-wide promotion and education campaign, was developed to improve the rates. The study group consisted of all Chinese women delivering in 1980 and 1981 who had taken their infants to one pediatrician for continuing care. The rates of breast-feeding in the 88 women who had received prenatal counselling and the 93 women who had not were compared. Although the rates were substantially increased for both groups over the 1977-79 rate (54% and 34% in 1980 and 65% and 55% in 1981 respectively), the 2-year rate was significantly higher for the counselled group compared with the uncounselled group in the later study (59% v. 43%). The greatest effect of counselling was seen in young, primiparous women of higher socioeconomic status who spoke French or English in addition to Chinese. However, 33% of the counselled women who had started breast-feeding had stopped by 1 month, compared with only 15% of the uncounselled women. Thus, although the rates of breast-feeding in ethnic groups can be increased with the use of a language- and culture-specific approach, more support and encouragement must be given to women who start breast-feeding so that they will continue longer. PMID:6671183

  18. Genetically modified feeds in poultry diet: safety, performance, and product quality.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, V; Selvaggi, M; Dario, C; Laudadio, V

    2015-01-01

    Concerns have been expressed regarding the safety of using biotechnology derived feeds in diets of livestock animals and in regard to human consumption of products from species fed transgenic crops. As a consequence, a large number of poultry nutrition studies have been conducted to evaluate the wholesomeness of transgenic crops by examining performances of animals during growth or egg laying. Studies also evaluated whether foreign DNA and proteins could be detected in meat, egg, and tissue samples from broiler chickens and laying hens fed diets containing transgenic feeds. In all studies, the conclusions were in agreement that the transgenic crops provided comparable performance, carcass and egg yields, and meat and egg composition, when compared with conventional grains. Moreover, it was demonstrated that transgenic proteins and DNA present in livestock feeds are not detectable in food products derived from these animals, using the most sensitive detection methods available, confirming that they are rapidly degraded by normal digestive processes. The lack of significant differences were a result of the similarity in nutrient composition of the genetically modified feeds and lack of differences in intake and digestibility, while there were no evidences that the differences reported for performance response variables and carcass measurements between treatment groups were attributable to the presence of the transgenic gene and protein in the biotechnology derived plants. Results demonstrated that genetically modified feeds are substantially equivalent and they result as safe as existing conventional feeds.

  19. Cambrian cinctan echinoderms shed light on feeding in the ancestral deuterostome.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Imran A; Zamora, Samuel; Falkingham, Peter L; Phillips, Jeremy C

    2015-11-07

    Reconstructing the feeding mode of the latest common ancestor of deuterostomes is key to elucidating the early evolution of feeding in chordates and allied phyla; however, it is debated whether the ancestral deuterostome was a tentaculate feeder or a pharyngeal filter feeder. To address this, we evaluated the hydrodynamics of feeding in a group of fossil stem-group echinoderms (cinctans) using computational fluid dynamics. We simulated water flow past three-dimensional digital models of a Cambrian fossil cinctan in a range of possible life positions, adopting both passive tentacular feeding and active pharyngeal filter feeding. The results demonstrate that an orientation with the mouth facing downstream of the current was optimal for drag and lift reduction. Moreover, they show that there was almost no flow to the mouth and associated marginal groove under simulations of passive feeding, whereas considerable flow towards the animal was observed for active feeding, which would have enhanced the transport of suspended particles to the mouth. This strongly suggests that cinctans were active pharyngeal filter feeders, like modern enteropneust hemichordates and urochordates, indicating that the ancestral deuterostome employed a similar feeding strategy.

  20. Predictors of Success in Implementing HIV Prevention in Rural America: A State-Level Structural Factor Analysis of HIV Prevention Targeting Men who have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    Relatively few studies have examined the impact of modifying structural factors on HIV prevention efforts in the United States despite their high potential for lowering HIV prevalence rates. The aim of this study was to identify state-level characteristics of successful HIV prevention implementation. Structured interviews with 73 key informants in 13 rural states identified ‘more successful’ and ‘less successful’ states in HIV prevention. States were compared on demographic, religious, gay community, and funding variables. The 7 more successful states had both a wider variety and more MSM-targeted interventions. Overall funding, degree of epidemic, and “ruralness” were not significantly associated with success. Rather, successful states had less religious and Evangelical Protestant adherents and more ‘gay community’ infrastructure. They also spent a greater proportion of funds contracting community-based organizations and on MSMtargeted programming. Success in HIV prevention varies across rural states. Key demographic, social and economic indicators distinguish success in HIV prevention. PMID:17440806

  1. Summertime state-level source-receptor relationships between nitrogen oxides emissions and surface ozone concentrations over the continental United States.

    PubMed

    Tong, Daniel Q; Mauzerall, Denise L

    2008-11-01

    Interstate transport of ozone (O3) and its precursors can contribute substantially to state-level surface o3 concentrations, making it difficult for some states to meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for O3 by limiting only their own emissions. We analyze the effect of interstate transport on surface O3 in each continental U.S. state in July 1996 using the community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model. By examining the difference between a baseline simulation and perturbation simulations in which each state's nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions are removed, we establish for the first time a summertime source-receptor matrix for all 48 continental states. We find that for 16 (20) states at least one neighboring state's NOx emissions are responsible for a larger increase in monthly mean peak 8 h (all-hour) O3 concentrations than the state's own emissions. For over 80% of the contiguous states, interstate transport is more importantthan local emissions for summertime peak O3 concentrations. Our source-receptor matrices indicate that the geographic range of the clean air interstate rule (CAIR) was sufficient to address interstate transport of O3 in most of the states included in the program. However, the exclusion of Texas, which has particularly large NOx emissions, from the CAIR O3 program left emission sources uncontrolled that contribute more than 1 ppbv to the July mean of peak 8 h O3 concentrations in over a dozen states.

  2. State-Level Legal Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies in the U.S.: A Network Analysis of State Laws and Regulations

    PubMed Central

    Ferrell Bjerke, Elizabeth; Galvan, Jared; Sweeney, Patricia; Potter, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study explored if and to what extent the laws of U.S. states mirrored the U.S. federal laws for responding to nuclear-radiological emergencies (NREs). Methods Emergency laws from a 12-state sample and the federal government were retrieved and translated into numeric codes representing acting agents, their partner agents, and the purposes of activity in terms of preparedness, response, and recovery. We used network analysis to explore the relationships among agents in terms of legally directed NRE activities. Results States' legal networks for NREs appear as not highly inclusive, involving an average of 28% of agents among those specified in the federal laws. Certain agents are highly central in NRE networks, so that their capacity and effectiveness might strongly influence an NRE response. Conclusions State-level lawmakers and planners might consider whether or not greater inclusion of agents, modeled on the federal government laws, would enhance their NRE laws and if more agents should be engaged in planning and policy-making for NRE incidents. Further research should explore if and to what extent legislated NRE directives impose constraints on practical response activities including emergency planning. PMID:25355987

  3. Relations Among Home- and Community-Based Services Investment and Nursing Home Rates of Use for Working-Age and Older Adults: A State-Level Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. I examined state-level rates of nursing home use for the period from 2000 to 2007. Methods. I used multivariate fixed-effects models to examine associations between state sociodemographic, economic, supply, and programmatic characteristics and rates of use. Results. Nursing home use declined among older adults (aged ≥65 years) in more than two thirds of states and the District of Columbia but increased among older working-age adults (aged 31–64 years) in all but 2 states. State characteristics associated with these trends differed by age group. Although relatively greater state investment in Medicaid home- and community-based services coupled with reduced nursing home capacity was associated with reduced rates of nursing home care for adults aged 65 years and older, neither characteristic was associated with use among older working-age adults. Their use was associated with state sociodemographic characteristics, as well as chronic disease prevalence. Conclusions. Policy efforts to expand home- and community-based services and to reduce nursing facility capacity appear warranted. To more fully extend the Supreme Court's Olmstead decision's promise to older working-age adults, additional efforts to understand factors driving their increasing use are required. PMID:21778497

  4. Steady-state levels of G-protein beta-subunit expression are regulated by treatment of cells with bacterial toxins

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, D.C.; Northup, J.K.; Malbon, C.C.

    1987-05-01

    Cultures of 3T3-L1 cells were incubated with either 10 ng/ml cholera toxin or 10 ng/ml pertussis toxin from 4 days prior to the initiation of differentiation and throughout the subsequent incubation. Toxin concentrations were sufficient to completely prevent the labelling of alpha-subunits with (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ and pertussis toxin and to prevent by more than 90% the labelling with (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ and cholera toxin in membranes prepared from these cells. Neither toxin prevented the differentiation to the adipocyte phenotype. Neither toxin prevented the increases in the relative amounts of G-proteins which occur upon differentiation. Both toxins dramatically decreased the amount of beta-subunits. As measured by quantitative immunoblotting with antisera specific for both the 35 kDa and 36 kDa beta-subunits, levels of beta-subunit were decreased by more than 50% of steady-state level of control cells. Thus, bacterial toxins which modifies G-protein alpha-subunits are capable of modulating the levels of beta-subunits in vivo. The basis for the regulation of G-protein subunit expression by bacterial toxins is under study.

  5. Extracellular norepinephrine in the medial hypothalamus increases during feeding in chicks: a microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, T; Utimura, D; Kato, H; Kubo, T; Sugahara, K

    2000-11-01

    Norepinephrinergic function in the medial hypothalamus is important for the regulation of feeding behavior in chicks as well as in rats. This study was conducted to clarify the variation of extracellular norepinephrine (NE) in the medial hypothalamus, including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN), during feeding behavior of layer-type chicks. To measure extracellular NE and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol (MHPG), a major metabolite of NE, we used microdialysis and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection. After the collection of baseline samples, food-deprived animals were allowed access to the food for 3 h. Extracellular NE significantly increased during the first hour of access to food, and then returned to baseline levels. MHPG also increased during the feeding, but its increase continued throughout the remainder of the experiment. This study suggests that the variation of NE in the medial hypothalamus may be involved in the control of feeding in layer-type chicks.

  6. The role of breast-feeding in the development of allergies and asthma.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Noah J; Zeiger, Robert S

    2005-06-01

    Breast-feeding is the preferred method of infant nutrition for numerous reasons. However, its role in the prevention of allergic disease remains controversial. Reasons for this controversy include methodological differences and flaws in the studies performed to date, the immunologic complexity of breast milk itself and, possibly, genetic differences among patients that would affect whether breast-feeding is protective against the development of allergies or is in fact sensitizing. The preponderance of evidence does suggest, however, that there would be much to lose by not recommending breast-feeding. In general, studies reveal that infants fed formulas of intact cow's milk or soy protein compared with breast milk have a higher incidence of atopic dermatitis and wheezing illnesses in early childhood. Consistent with these findings, exclusive breast-feeding should be encouraged for at least 4 to 6 months in infants at both high and low risk of atopy and irrespective of a history of maternal asthma.

  7. Distribution of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi in commercial poultry feed in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ezekiel, C N; Atehnkeng, J; Odebode, A C; Bandyopadhyay, R

    2014-10-17

    The distribution and aflatoxigenicity of Aspergillus section Flavi isolates in 58 commercial poultry feed samples obtained from 17 states in five agro-ecological zones (AEZs) in Nigeria were determined in order to assess the safety of the feeds with respect to aflatoxin-producing fungi. Correlation was also performed for incidence of species, aflatoxin-producing ability of isolates in vitro, and aflatoxin (AFB1) concentrations in the feed. A total of 1006 Aspergillus section Flavi isolates were obtained from 87.9% of the feed samples and identified as Aspergillus flavus, unnamed taxon SBG, Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus tamarii. A. flavus was the most prevalent (91.8%) of the isolates obtained from the feed in the AEZs while A. parasiticus had the lowest incidence (0.1%) and was isolated only from a layer mash sample collected from the DS zone. About 29% of the Aspergillus isolates produced aflatoxins in maize grains at concentrations up to 440,500μg/kg B and 341,000μg/kgG aflatoxins. The incidence of toxigenic isolates was highest (44.4%) in chick mash and lowest (19.9%) in grower mash. The population of A. flavus in the feed had positive (r=0.50) but non significant (p>0.05) correlations with proportion of toxigenic isolates obtained from the feed while SBG had significant (p<0.001) positive (r=0.99) influence on AFB1 concentrations in the feed. Poultry feed in Nigerian markets are therefore highly contaminated with aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species and consequently, aflatoxins. This is a potential threat to the poultry industry and requires urgent intervention.

  8. Leucine pulses enhance skeletal muscle protein synthesis during continuous feeding in neonatal pigs

    PubMed Central

    Boutry, Claire; El-Kadi, Samer W.; Suryawan, Agus; Wheatley, Scott M.; Orellana, Renán A.; Kimball, Scot R.; Nguyen, Hanh V.

    2013-01-01

    Infants unable to maintain oral feeding can be nourished by orogastric tube. We have shown that orogastric continuous feeding restricts muscle protein synthesis compared with intermittent bolus feeding in neonatal pigs. To determine whether leucine infusion can be used to enhance protein synthesis during continuous feeding, neonatal piglets received the same amount of formula enterally by orogastric tube for 25.25 h continuously (CON) with or without LEU or intermittently by bolus every 4 h (BOL). For the CON+LEU group, leucine pulses were administered parenterally (800 μmol·kg−1·h−1) every 4 h. Insulin and glucose concentrations increased after the BOL meal and were unchanged in groups fed continuously. LEU infusion during CON feeding increased plasma leucine after the leucine pulse and decreased essential amino acids compared with CON feeding. Protein synthesis in longissimus dorsi (LD), gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles, but not liver or heart, were greater in CON+LEU and BOL than in the CON group. BOL feeding increased protein synthesis in the small intestine. Muscle S6K1 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and active eIF4E·eIF4G complex formation were higher in CON+LEU and BOL than in CON but AMPKα, eIF2α, and eEF2 phosphorylation were unchanged. LC3-II-to-total LC3 ratio was lower in CON+LEU and BOL than in CON, but there were no differences in atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 abundance and FoxO3 phosphorylation. In conclusion, administration of leucine pulses during continuous orogastric feeding in neonates increases muscle protein synthesis by stimulating translation initiation and may reduce protein degradation via the autophagy-lysosome, but not the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. PMID:23839523

  9. Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings:Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, andTechnology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

    2005-12-31

    Rapidly growing electricity demand brings into question theability of traditional grids to expand correspondingly while providingreliable service. An alternative path is the wider application ofdistributed energy resource (DER) that apply combined heat and power(CHP). It can potentially shave peak loads and satiate its growing thirstfor electricity demand, improve overall energy efficiency, and lowercarbon and other pollutant emissions. This research investigates a methodof choosing economically optimal DER, expanding on prior studies at theBerkeley Lab using the DER design optimization program, the DistributedEnergy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM finds theoptimal combination of installed equipment from available DERtechnologies, given prevailing utility tariffs, site electrical andthermal loads, and a menu of available equipment. It provides a globaloptimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the site energy loads canbe served at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-sitegeneration, heat recovery, and cooling. Utility electricity and gastariffs are key factors determining the economic benefit of a CHPinstallation, however often be neglected. This paper describespreliminary analysis on CHP investment climate in the U.S. and Japan. DERtechnologies, energy prices, and incentive measures has beeninvestigated.

  10. Financial analysis of revision knee surgery based on NHS tariffs and hospital costs: does it pay to provide a revision service?

    PubMed

    Kallala, R F; Vanhegan, I S; Ibrahim, M S; Sarmah, S; Haddad, F S

    2015-02-01

    Revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a complex procedure which carries both a greater risk for patients and greater cost for the treating hospital than does a primary TKA. As well as the increased cost of peri-operative investigations, blood transfusions, surgical instrumentation, implants and operating time, there is a well-documented increased length of stay which accounts for most of the actual costs associated with surgery. We compared revision surgery for infection with revision for other causes (pain, instability, aseptic loosening and fracture). Complete clinical, demographic and economic data were obtained for 168 consecutive revision TKAs performed at a tertiary referral centre between 2005 and 2012. Revision surgery for infection was associated with a mean length of stay more than double that of aseptic cases (21.5 vs 9.5 days, p < 0.0001). The mean cost of a revision for infection was more than three times that of an aseptic revision (£30 011 (sd 4514) vs £9655 (sd 599.7), p < 0.0001). Current NHS tariffs do not fully reimburse the increased costs of providing a revision knee surgery service. Moreover, especially as greater costs are incurred for infected cases. These losses may adversely affect the provision of revision surgery in the NHS.

  11. The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (English Version)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

    2004-10-15

    The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a

  12. 'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM) was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT), which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy towards it by member country governments and how the CACM process impacted upon BAT's operations. Methods The study analysed internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation in the US and available from the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/. Documents were retrieved by searching the BAT collection using key terms in an iterative process. Analysis was based on an interpretive approach involving a process of attempting to understand the meanings of individual documents and relating these to other documents in the set, identifying the central themes of documents and clusters of documents, contextualising the documentary data, and choosing representative material in order to present findings. Results Utilising its multinational character, BAT was able to act in a coordinated way across the member countries of the CACM to influence tariffs and taxes to its advantage. Documents demonstrate a high degree of access to governments and officials. The company conducted a coordinated, and largely successful, attempt to keep external tariff rates for cigarettes high and to reduce external tariffs for key inputs, whilst also influencing the harmonisation of excise taxes between countries. Protected by these high external tariffs, it reorganised its own operations to take advantage of regional economies of scale. In direct contradiction to arguments presented to CACM governments that affording the tobacco industry protection via high

  13. The political economy of farmers’ suicides in India: indebted cash-crop farmers with marginal landholdings explain state-level variation in suicide rates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A recent Lancet article reported the first reliable estimates of suicide rates in India. National-level suicide rates are among the highest in the world, but suicide rates vary sharply between states and the causes of these differences are disputed. We test whether differences in the structure of agricultural production explain inter-state variation in suicides rates. This hypothesis is supported by a large number of qualitative studies, which argue that the liberalization of the agricultural sector in the early-1990s led to an agrarian crisis and that consequently farmers with certain socioeconomic characteristics–cash crops cultivators, with marginal landholdings, and debts–are at particular risk of committing suicide. The recent Lancet study, however, contends that there is no evidence to support this hypothesis. Methods We report scatter diagrams and linear regression models that combine the new state-level suicide rate estimates and the proportion of marginal farmers, cash crop cultivation, and indebted farmers. Results When we include all variables in the regression equation there is a significant positive relationship between the percentage of marginal farmers, cash crop production, and indebted farmers, and suicide rates. This model accounts for almost 75% of inter-state variation in suicide rates. If the proportion of marginal farmers, cash crops, or indebted farmers were reduced by 1%, the suicide rate–suicides per 100,000 per year–would fall by 0 · 437, 0 · 518 or 0 · 549 respectively, when all other variables are held constant. Conclusions Even if the Indian state is unable to enact land reforms due to the power of local elites, interventions to stabilize the price of cash crops and relieve indebted farmers may be effective at reducing suicide rates. PMID:24669945

  14. Repression of formate dehydrogenase in Solanum tuberosum increases steady-state levels of formate and accelerates the accumulation of proline in response to osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Ambard-Bretteville, Françoise; Sorin, Céline; Rébeillé, Fabrice; Hourton-Cabassa, Cécile; Colas des Francs-Small, Catherine

    2003-08-01

    Formate dehydrogenase (FDH, EC 1.2.1.2.) is a soluble mitochondrial enzyme capable of oxidizing formate into CO2 in the presence of NAD+. It is abundant in non-green tissues and scarce in photosynthetic tissues. Under stress, FDH transcripts (and protein) accumulate in leaves, and leaf mitochondria acquire the ability to use formate as a respiratory substrate. In this paper, we describe the analysis of transgenic potato plants under-expressing FDH, obtained in order to understand the physiological function of FDH. Plants expressing low FDH activities were selected and the study was focused on a line (AS23) showing no detectable FDH activity. AS23 plants were morphologically indistinguishable from control plants, and grew normally under standard conditions. However, mitochondria isolated from AS23 tubers could not use formate as a respiratory substrate. Steady-state levels of formate were higher in AS23 leaves and tubers than in control plants. Tubers of untransformed plants oxidized 14C formate into 14CO2 but AS23 tubers accumulated it. In order to reveal a possible phenotype under stress conditions, control and AS23 plants were submitted to drought and cold. These treatments dramatically induced FDH transcripts in control plants but, whatever the growth conditions, no 1.4 kb FDH transcripts were detected in leaves of AS23 plants. Amongst various biochemical and molecular differences between stressed AS23 and control plants, the most striking was a dramatically faster accumulation of proline in the leaves of drought-stressed plants under-expressing FDH.

  15. The Supply of Physicians Waivered to Prescribe Buprenorphine for Opioid Use Disorders in the United States: A State-Level Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Hannah K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s approval of buprenorphine in 2002 expanded options for treating opioid use disorder (OUD). Physicians who intend to treat OUD patients with buprenorphine must seek a waiver to prescribe it, which may contribute to state-by-state variation in the supply of waivered physicians. Method: This study integrates data extracted from the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency’s database of waivered physicians with state-level indicators of the macro environment, health-related resources, and treatment demand. Results: In December 2013, the average state had 8.0 waivered physicians per 100,000 residents (SD = 5.2). Large regional differences between states in the Northeast relative to states in the Midwest, South, and West were observed. The percentage of residents covered by Medicaid as well as the population-adjusted availability of opioid treatment programs and substance use disorder treatment facilities were positively associated with buprenorphine physician supply. Buprenorphine physician supply was positively correlated with states’ rates of overdose deaths, suggesting that physicians may seek the waiver in response to the magnitude of the opioid problem in their state. Conclusions: States with greater health-related resources, particularly in terms of the supply of opioid treatment programs and substance use disorder treatment programs, had more waivered physicians in 2013. The finding regarding Medicaid coverage suggests that states implementing Medicaid expansion under health reform may experience additional growth in buprenorphine physician supply. However, large regional disparities in the supply of waivered physicians may impede access to care for many Americans with OUD. PMID:26098042

  16. Critical analysis of the factors associated with enteral feeding in preventing VAP: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Chih

    2009-04-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common cause of morbidity in critically ill patients. Appropriate enteral feeding is the most important factor associated with the prevention of VAP. However, the standardization of enteral feeding methods needs clarification. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the factors associated with enteral feeding in order to prevent VAP and to describe the characteristics of these factors. A comprehensive search was undertaken involving all major databases from their inception to September 2008 using medical subject heading terms associated with enteral feeding in relation to VAP. The overall reference list of identified studies was audited, and eligible studies included randomized controlled trials, controlled before-and-after (pre-post) studies and meta-analyses. To generate the characteristics of the factors associated with VAP, the reported components of these trials were pinpointed and categorized. A total of 14 papers were found that had investigated the factors linking enteral feeding and VAP. For these, 11 were randomized controlled trials, 1 was a meta-analysis and 2 were case-controlled analyses. Twelve of these 14 studies were conducted at a single institute and 2 were conducted at multiple institutes. The sample sizes varied from 10 to 2,528 subjects. Three major issues were identified based on the purpose of study interventions, and these were the effects of feeding method (continuous vs. intermittent), feeding site on aspiration (gastric vs. small bowel), and the timing of enteral feeding (early vs. late). The evidence suggests that a correct choice of enteral feeding method can effectively reduce complications due to aspiration. Furthermore, intermittent enteral feeding and with a small residual volume feed can reduce gastroesophageal reflux, and increased total intake volume and early feeding can reduce ICU mortality. Nonetheless, the effects of these choices on preventing VAP still need further

  17. The alkaline tide and ammonia excretion after voluntary feeding in freshwater rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Bucking, Carol; Wood, Chris M

    2008-08-01

    We investigated the potential acid-base and nitrogenous waste excretion challenges created by voluntary feeding in freshwater rainbow trout, with particular focus on the possible occurrence of an alkaline tide (a metabolic alkalosis created by gastric HCl secretion during digestion). Plasma metabolites (glucose, urea and ammonia) were measured at various time points before and after voluntary feeding to satiation (approximately 5% body mass meal of dry commercial pellets), as was the net flux of ammonia and titratable alkalinity to the water from unfed and fed fish. Arterial blood, sampled by indwelling catheter, was examined for post-prandial effects on pH, plasma bicarbonate and plasma CO2 tension. There was no significant change in plasma glucose or urea concentrations following feeding, whereas plasma ammonia transiently increased, peaking at threefold above resting values at 12 h after the meal and remaining elevated for 24 h. The increased plasma ammonia was correlated with an increase in net ammonia excretion to the water, with fed fish significantly elevating their net ammonia excretion two- to threefold between 12 and 48 h post feeding. These parameters did not change in unfed control fish. Fed fish likewise increased the net titratable base flux to the water by approximately threefold, which resulted in a transition from a small net acid flux seen in unfed fish to a large net base flux in fed fish. Over 48 h, this resulted in a net excretion of 13 867 micromol kg(-1) more base to the external water than in unfed fish. The arterial blood exhibited a corresponding rise in pH (between 6 and 12 h) and plasma bicarbonate (between 3 and 12 h) following feeding; however, no respiratory compensation was observed, as PaCO2 remained constant. Overall, there was evidence of numerous challenges created by feeding in a freshwater teleost fish, including the occurrence of an alkaline tide, and its compensation by excretion of base to the external water. The possible

  18. Reducing out-of-pocket expenditures to reduce poverty: a disaggregated analysis at rural-urban and state level in India.

    PubMed

    Garg, Charu C; Karan, Anup K

    2009-03-01

    Out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure on health care has significant implications for poverty in many developing countries. This paper aims to assess the differential impact of OOP expenditure and its components, such as expenditure on inpatient care, outpatient care and on drugs, across different income quintiles, between developed and less developed regions in India. It also attempts to measure poverty at disaggregated rural-urban and state levels. Based on Consumer Expenditure Survey (CES) data from the National Sample Survey (NSS), conducted in 1999-2000, the share of households' expenditure on health services and drugs was calculated. The number of individuals below the state-specific rural and urban poverty line in 17 major states, with and without netting out OOP expenditure, was determined. This also enabled the calculation of the poverty gap or poverty deepening in each region. Estimates show that OOP expenditure is about 5% of total household expenditure (ranging from about 2% in Assam to almost 7% in Kerala) with a higher proportion being recorded in rural areas and affluent states. Purchase of drugs constitutes 70% of the total OOP expenditure. Approximately 32.5 million persons fell below the poverty line in 1999-2000 through OOP payments, implying that the overall poverty increase after accounting for OOP expenditure is 3.2% (as against a rise of 2.2% shown in earlier literature). Also, the poverty headcount increase and poverty deepening is much higher in poorer states and rural areas compared with affluent states and urban areas, except in the case of Maharashtra. High OOP payment share in total health expenditures did not always imply a high poverty headcount; state-specific economic and social factors played a role. The paper argues for better methods of capturing drugs expenditure in household surveys and recommends that special attention be paid to expenditures on drugs, in particular for the poor. Targeted policies in just five poor states to reduce

  19. The Impact of State Level Graduated Driver Licensing Programs on Rates of Passenger Restraint Use and Unlicensed Driving in Fatal Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jonathan; Anderson, Craig L.; Dziura, James D.; Crowley, Michael J.; Vaca, Federico E.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1996, states have been implementing and enhancing their graduated driver licensing (GDL) programs. Increased licensing restrictions could steer new drivers to bypass training and licensing altogether. Unlicensed driving is associated with increased fatal crashes and high-risk behaviors that have been shown to adversely affect passenger safety behaviors like restraint use. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of varying state level GDL programs on rates of unlicensed driving and on passenger restraint use. De-identified data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s Fatality Analysis Reporting System from years 1996–2010 was analyzed. Fatal crashes involving drivers (15–24 yrs) and their passengers (15–24 yrs) were included. Using a validated system, each state’s GDL laws at a given month were rated as poor, marginal, fair, or good. The association between GDL strength and unlicensed driving was analyzed graphically and by chi-square test. Multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations were undertaken to assess the relationship between GDL strength and passenger restraint use. From January 1996 to December 2010, 26,504 (23.4%) passengers were involved in fatal crashes taking place in states with GDL programs rated poor, 21,366(18.9%) marginal, 33,603 (29.6%) fair, and 31,903 (28.1%) good. Rates of unlicensed driving ranged from 16.4% in state-months rated marginal versus 21.5% in state-months rated good (p<0.001). In the multivariate model, compared to states with poor GDL ratings, each additional rating boost was associated with an increased odds of passenger safety restraint use (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.13–1.18). Our findings suggest that stronger GDL law can mitigate passenger risk in fatal crashes by encouraging passenger restraint use. Our study provides evidence that stronger legislation in these states may reduce overall risk to young drivers and their passengers. PMID:24406949

  20. The impact of changes in health and social care on enteral feeding in the community.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Omorogieva

    2012-11-13

    This paper examines the impact of the changes to health and social care on enteral feeding in the community, outlines implications for practice and offers recommendations to ameliorate the challenges. It is now clear that there have been significant changes especially in the last 10 years in health and social care provisions in the UK with an overarching effect on enteral nutrition in the community. Advances in technology, increasing demand and treatment costs, the need for improvement in quality, economic challenges, market forces, political influences and more choices for patients are some of the factors driving the change. Government’s vision of a modern system of health and social care is based on initiatives such as clinically led commissioning, establishment of Monitor, shifting care from acute hospitals to community settings, integrating health and social care provisions, Quality, Innovation, Productivity and Prevention (QIPP) program and the concept of “Big Society”. These strategies which are encapsulated in various guidelines, policies and legislation, including the health and social care Act, 2012 are clarified. The future challenges and opportunities brought on by these changes for healthcare professionals and patients who access enteral nutrition in the community are discussed and recommendations to improve practice are outlined.

  1. Early initiation of breast-feeding in Ghana: barriers and facilitators.

    PubMed

    Tawiah-Agyemang, C; Kirkwood, B R; Edmond, K; Bazzano, A; Hill, Z

    2008-12-01

    To explore why women in Ghana initiate breast-feeding early or late, who gives advice about initiation and what foods or fluids are given to babies when breast-feeding initiation is late. Qualitative data were collected through 52 semistructured interviews with recent mothers, 8 focus group discussions with women of child-bearing age and 13 semistructured interviews with health workers, policy makers and implementers. The major reasons for delaying initiation of breast-feeding were the perception of a lack of breast milk, performing postbirth activities such as bathing, perception that the mother and the baby need rest after birth and the baby not crying for milk. Facilitating factors for early initiation included delivery in a health facility, where the staff encouraged early breast-feeding, and the belief in some ethnic groups that putting the baby to the breast encourages the milk. Policy makers tended to focus on exclusive breast-feeding rather than early initiation. Most activities for the promotion of early initiation of breast-feeding were focused on health facilities with very few community activities. It is important to raise awareness about early initiation of breast-feeding in communities and in the policy arena. Interventions should focus on addressing barriers to early initiation and should include a community component.

  2. Postural strategies employed by orangutans (Pongo abelii) during feeding in the terminal branch niche.

    PubMed

    Myatt, J P; Thorpe, S K S

    2011-09-01

    Obtaining food in an arboreal habitat is complex due to the irregular and flexible nature of the supports available. As the largest predominantly arboreal primate, orangutans are expected to have developed particular postural strategies to enable them to feed successfully. In particular, they need to be able to cope within the terminal branch niche (TBN) as this is where the smallest, most compliant supports are, and also where the majority of the fruit and leaves are situated. We recorded feeding posture, along with a number of ecological and behavioral variables from different age-sex classes to enable analysis of the interactions between these and the compliance of the supports (as estimated from stiffness score). Suspensory postures with a pronograde orientation were used on the most compliant supports for all age-sex classes and appeared to play a particular role in facilitating safe use of the TBN by distributing body weight and using limbs for balance across multiple supports. This contradicts the idea that orthograde suspension evolved in response to the demands of feeding in the TBN. Adult males appear to use the same postures and feeding zones as the other age-sex classes, but appear to use stiffer supports where possible due to their larger body mass. Feeding method differed between the age-sex classes in relation to support stiffness, with larger adult males taking fewer risks due to their larger size, compared to infants and juveniles.

  3. Lactation and stress: protective effects of breast-feeding in humans.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, Markus; Neumann, Inga; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2002-09-01

    Whilst most research on breast-feeding has been designed to assess its importance for infant health or to find a human nutrient replacement for infant formula, the effects of breast-feeding on maternal health have received little scientific attention. In several animal studies lactation has been shown to be associated with a marked blunting of physiological and behavioral responses to physical and psychological stress. However, the literature on the effects of lactation on stress in humans remains limited. This review focuses primarily on recent findings on the effects of breast-feeding on neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to acute stress exposure in lactating women. The available data suggest that breast-feeding suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to physical and psychosocial stress. However, lactation in women, in contrast to lactating rats, does not seem to result in a general restraint of the endocrine stress response during the whole period of lactation. Recent data strongly suggest that the blunted HPA axis response to stress in women seems to be counterbalanced if the acute stressor, at least when of a psychosocial nature, occurs later than 1 h after suckling. Further elucidation of the underlying psychobiological mechanisms involved in suppressed stress responses during lactation will no doubt lead to new insights into improved health sequelae of breast-feeding in women and to a better understanding of the psychobiology of human stress protection in general.

  4. The Impact of Changes in Health and Social Care on Enteral Feeding in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Omorogieva

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the changes to health and social care on enteral feeding in the community, outlines implications for practice and offers recommendations to ameliorate the challenges. It is now clear that there have been significant changes especially in the last 10 years in health and social care provisions in the UK with an overarching effect on enteral nutrition in the community. Advances in technology, increasing demand and treatment costs, the need for improvement in quality, economic challenges, market forces, political influences and more choices for patients are some of the factors driving the change. Government’s vision of a modern system of health and social care is based on initiatives such as clinically led commissioning, establishment of Monitor, shifting care from acute hospitals to community settings, integrating health and social care provisions, Quality, Innovation, Productivity and Prevention (QIPP) program and the concept of “Big Society”. These strategies which are encapsulated in various guidelines, policies and legislation, including the health and social care Act, 2012 are clarified. The future challenges and opportunities brought on by these changes for healthcare professionals and patients who access enteral nutrition in the community are discussed and recommendations to improve practice are outlined. PMID:23201842

  5. Model studies on the detectability of genetically modified feeds in milk.

    PubMed

    Poms, R E; Hochsteiner, W; Luger, K; Glössl, J; Foissy, H

    2003-02-01

    Detecting the use of genetically modified feeds in milk has become important, because the voluntary labeling of milk and dairy products as "GMO free" or as "organically grown" prohibits the employment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The aim of this work was to investigate whether a DNA transfer from foodstuffs like soya and maize was analytically detectable in cow's milk after digestion and transportation via the bloodstream of dairy cows and, thus, whether milk could report for the employment of transgene feeds. Blood, milk, urine, and feces of dairy cows were examined, and foreign DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction by specifically amplifying a 226-bp fragment of the maize invertase gene and a 118-bp fragment of the soya lectin gene. An intravenous application of purified plant DNA showed a fast elimination of marker DNA in blood or its reduction below the detection limit. With feeding experiments, it could be demonstrated that a specific DNA transfer from feeds into milk was not detectable. Therefore, foreign DNA in milk cannot serve as an indicator for the employment of transgene feeds unless milk is directly contaminated with feed components or airborne feed particles.

  6. Safety and Efficacy of Oral Feeding in Infants with BPD on nasal CPAP

    PubMed Central

    Hanin, Melissa; Nuthakki, Sushma; Malkar, Manish B.; Jadcherla, Sudarshan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Safety and efficacy of oral feeding was examined in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). We hypothesized that repetitive oral feeding enhances aerodigestive outcomes and reduces resource utilization. Methods Data from infants with BPD (37–42 weeks post menstrual age) that were orally fed while on NCPAP (n=26) were compared with those that were exclusively gavage fed on NCPAP (n=27). Subject assignment was random and physician practice based. Specifically, we compared the differences in aero-digestive milestones, resource utilization and safety metrics. Results Demographic characteristics such as gender distribution, gestational age and birth weight, clinical characteristics such as frequency of intraventricular hemorrhage and patent ductus arteriosus needing surgical ligation were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). Characteristics of respiratory support and airway milestones were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). However, infants in NCPAP-oral fed group had earlier acquisition of full oral feeding milestone by 17 days (median) vs. infants who were not orally fed during NCPAP (p < 0.05). Discharge weights and the frequency of gastrostomy tube placement were also similar in both groups (p > 0.05). There were no tracheostomies in either group. There was no incidence of clinically significant aspiration pneumonia in infants during the period of the oral feeding while on NCPAP. Conclusion Controlled introduction of oral feedings in infants with BPD during NCPAP is safe and may accelerate the acquisition of oral feeding milestones. PMID:25380678

  7. Ethnic Variation in Breastfeeding and Complimentary Feeding in the Republic of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez Castro, Patricia; Layte, Richard; Kearney, John

    2014-01-01

    Early nutrition plays a pivotal role in long-term health. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life, with the gradual introduction of solids after this period. However, studies in the Republic of Ireland (ROI) have shown poor compliance with guidelines. The ROI continues to have one of the lowest breastfeeding rates worldwide. Our objective was to analyse differences in breastfeeding and complimentary feeding behaviours between Irish and non-Irish mothers residing in the ROI, as well as the role of acculturation on these behaviours, using the national longitudinal study, Growing Up in Ireland (GUI). Mothers (n = 11,134) residing in the ROI were interviewed when their infants were nine months of age. The percentage of Irish mothers who initiated breastfeeding was 49.5%, as opposed to 88.1% among the non-Irish cohort (p < 0.001). Breastfeeding initiation reduced from 89.4% of non-Irish mothers who had arrived within the last year to five years ago to 67.5% for those who had arrived 11 to >20 years ago (p < 0.001). Our results indicate that cultural differences are an important factor in shaping patterns of infant feeding in the ROI. Reviewing existing support and education policies for parents is required to achieve the implementation of desirable infant feeding practices. PMID:24796512

  8. Promoting breast-feeding in a deprived area: the influence of a peer support initiative.

    PubMed

    Raine, Pamela

    2003-11-01

    The present article describes a qualitative study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a peer-support intervention to promote breast-feeding in a deprived area. The aims of the study were to: explore stakeholders' experiences of the intervention; explore the development of a 'culture' of breast-feeding; and consider the potential of the initiative for building community capacity. The methods used in the research were in-depth interviews, diaries and direct observation. The findings describe the social and cultural barriers to breast-feeding experienced by women, and the ways in which professional and lay participants in the peer-support project attempt to reduce them. The advantages of partnership working between health professionals and lay volunteers are then explored. These include: sharing the workload; providing an informal tier of support to mothers; and importantly, offering support and advice stemming from personal experience. For lay supporters, the benefits of taking part in the project range from personal satisfaction at being recognised as skilled, to gains in confidence which potentially open up further educational and training opportunities. In conclusion, it is suggested that the 'success' of such interventions is unlikely to be captured solely by monitoring breast-feeding rates, but needs to take into account the wider context of community development.

  9. Microbial and nutritional aspects on the production of live feeds in a fish farming industry.

    PubMed

    De Donno, A; Lugoli, F; Bagordo, F; Vilella, S; Campa, A; Grassi, T; Guido, M

    2010-03-01

    Aquaculture is an enterprise in constant development, in particular relating to its effect on the environment and also the quality of its products. It represents a valid alternative to traditional fishing, facing the increasing demand for fish products. To guarantee to the consumer a product of high nutritional, organoleptic and hygienic quality, it is fundamental to monitor every phase of the fish farming industry, isolating the potential risk points. For this reason there has been a rapid evolution of productive technique, particularly in the technology, artificial reproduction and feed sectors. The aim of this research has been the monitoring of the evolution of certain microbial and nutritional quality indexes (total microbial counts and lipid analysis on suspensions of Rotifers and Artemia, used as live feed) in the larval phase of the productive cycle of the farm raised fish, in an intensive system. The study has shown an increment in the total microbial counts in the fish farming industry within the production of Rotifers and Artemia, more evident in the suspensions of Rotifers. In addition the study has demonstrated that the maintenance phase, in the enrichment protocol, can reduce the EPA and DHA content. The results confirm the importance of microbial and nutritional control of the live feeds before they get supplied to fish larvae.

  10. Novel modulators for body weight changes induced by fasting and re-feeding in mice.

    PubMed

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Ohba, Yukie; Sumii, Makiko; Wakameda, Mamoru; Tamari, Tomohiro

    2009-01-09

    Catch-up weight gain after malnutrition is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Here we show that social isolation enhanced fasting-induced weight loss and suppressed weight gain induced by re-feeding for 6 days following a 24-h fast in prepubertal wild-type mice. These effects of social isolation on weight gain were not associated with significant changes in daily average food consumption. Under the same housing condition, genetic deletion of beta-endorphin reduced the fasting-induced weight loss and enhanced the re-feeding-induced weight gain in prepubertal mice. These effects of social isolation or genetic deletion of beta-endorphin on these weight changes were attenuated and reversed in postpubertal mice. Moreover, genetic deletion of beta-endorphin attenuated these effects of social isolation on the catch-up weight gain in prepubertal mice and reversed them in postpubertal mice. Thus, social isolation, endogenous beta-endorphin, and age can be novel modulators for body weight changes induced by fasting and re-feeding in mice.

  11. Impacts of wearing complete dentures on bolus transport during feeding in elderly edentulous.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Furuya, J; Tamada, Y; Kondo, H

    2013-12-01

    Prosthetic treatment with dentures is often required for the elderly who have reduced swallowing function. Therefore, it is important to understand the relationship between denture-wearing and feeding function from the perspective of swallowing. To clarify changes in bolus transport during feeding in elderly edentulous patients with or without complete dentures. Subjects were 15 elderly edentulous volunteers who were treated with maxillary and mandibular complete dentures. The test food was 10 g of minced agar jelly containing barium sulphate with a particle diameter of 4·0-5·6 mm. Lateral videofluoroscopy was performed to assess the position of the leading edge of the bolus, the bolus volume in each area at swallow onset, bolus transit time and the mandibular position during pharyngeal swallowing. There were significant changes between the bolus transport with and without dentures. Without dentures, the leading edge of the bolus at swallow onset fell from the valleculae area to the hypopharynx, and the bolus volume in the hypopharynx increased. Bolus transit time increased in the oral cavity, valleculae and hypopharynx. The mandibular position shifted anterosuperior direction. The results arose owing to anatomical changes in the oral and pharyngeal structure and the following functional changes: poor food manipulation, poor bolus formation and delayed swallowing reflex. Removing dentures in elderly edentulous individuals influences bolus transport during feeding, resulting in the exacerbation of the reduced swallowing reserve capacity that accompanies ageing, and may increase the risk of dysphagia.

  12. Living where the flow is right: How flow affects feeding in bryozoans.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Marney C

    2008-12-01

    Bryozoans are suspension feeding colonial animals that remain attached to the substratum or other surfaces. How well a bryozoan can feed in a particular flow regime could help determine the distribution and abundance of that bryozoan. I tested how velocity of flow affects feeding rate in four species of bryozoans in the laboratory and how these species perform in different flow regimes in the field. I found that one species, Membranipora membranacea, had a higher ingestion rate than did the other three species at all velocities of flow tested. Membranipora also had a higher rate of ingestion at intermediate velocities, while velocity did not have as strong an effect on ingestion rate in the other three species. As predicted from the feeding experiments, all four species generally had greater abundance, attained a larger size, grew faster, and survived longer in flow regimes in which feeding is higher. Also as predicted, Membranipora had greater abundance, attained a larger size, grew faster, and survived longer than did the other three species both in slower and faster flow regimes in the field. Understanding how flow affects feeding can help predict the distribution and abundance of bryozoans in the field. Because especially efficient filterers like Membranipora can grow faster and have higher survival under a wide range of conditions of flow, this species may be able to outcompete many other species or take advantage of ephemeral habitats, thereby becoming a potentially effective invasive species as has been seen in the Gulf of Maine.

  13. Feeding in extinct jawless heterostracan fishes and testing scenarios of early vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    Purnell, Mark A

    2002-01-07

    How long-extinct jawless fishes fed is poorly understood, yet interpretations of feeding are an important component of many hypotheses concerning the origin and early evolution of vertebrates. Heterostracans were the most diverse clade of armoured jawless vertebrates (stem gnathostomes), and the structure of the mouth and its use in feeding are the subjects of long-standing and heated controversy. I present here evidence that heterostracan feeding structures exhibit recurrent patterns of in vivo wear, are covered internally by microscopic oral denticles, and that the mouth may have been less flexible than has been thought. These data, particularly the absence of wear at the tips of oral plates, and the evidence that the mouth was lined with delicate outwardly directed denticles, effectively falsify all but one hypothesis of feeding in heterostracans: heterostracans were microphagous suspension feeders. This has a direct bearing on hypotheses that address ecological aspects of early vertebrate diversity and evolution, contradicting the widespread view that the pattern of early vertebrate evolution reflects a long-term trend towards increasingly active and predatory habits.

  14. Factors Associated with the Early Introduction of Complementary Feeding in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alzaheb, Riyadh A

    2016-07-12

    Mothers' instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs) between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants' socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study's infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early.

  15. Deer response to exclusion from stored cattle feed in Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Michael J; Henry, Campa Iii; LeDoux, Kyle; Ryan, Patrick J; Fischer, Justin W; Pepin, Kim M; Blass, Chad R; Glow, Michael P; Hygnstrom, Scott E; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-09-01

    Disease and damage from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) continually threaten the livelihood of agricultural producers and the economy in the United States, as well as challenge state and federal wildlife managers. Threats can be partially addressed by excluding free-ranging deer from livestock-related resources. Throughout the year, use of stored livestock feed by deer in northern Lower Michigan (MI), USA fluctuates, though their presence is relatively consistent. Since 2008, use of livestock areas and resources by deer has been reduced through intensive efforts by livestock producers in cooperation with state and federal agencies. These efforts focused on excluding deer from stored cattle feed in areas where deer were abundant. We monitored deer activity from Jan 2012 to June 2013 on 6 cattle farms in northern MI using GPS collars to evaluate behavioral effects of excluding deer from stored feed. We characterized areas deer occupied before and after installing 2361 m of fences and gates to exclude deer from stored cattle feed. Following fence installation, 9 deer previously accessing stored feed shifted to patterns of habitat use similar to 5 deer that did not use stored feed. However, continued attempts to regain access to stored feed were made at low frequencies, emphasizing the need to maintain the integrity of fences and keep gates closed for damage prevention and biosecurity.

  16. Muscle function and power output during suction feeding in largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Andrew M; Wainwright, Peter C

    2006-03-01

    Muscle power output is thought to limit suction feeding performance, yet muscle power output during suction feeding has never been directly measured. In this study, epaxial activation and strain, hyoid depression, and intra-oral pressure were simultaneously measured during suction feeding in the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). A mechanical model of muscle force transmission between the neurocranium and oral cavity was used to estimate muscle stress, work, and power. The epaxials shortened from rest an average of 9% of their length, with the highest efforts producing greater than 20% strain. Onset of shortening was simultaneous with or shortly after (< 10 ms) onset of activation. Maximal net power for individual fish ranged from 17 to 137 W kg(-1). Muscle power was significantly correlated with rectified EMG area (r = 0.80; p < 0.0001). The power required for cranial expansion was significantly correlated with epaxial power (r = 0.81; p < 0.0001), and the power exponent of this relationship ( approximately 1 for 3 of the 4 fish) implies that epaxial power accounts for most of the power of cranial expansion. The limitations imposed by the kinematic requirements and loading environment of suction feeding (short delay between activation and strain, maximal stress occurring after shortening, operation at lengths shorter than resting length) may prevent maximal muscular power production.

  17. Shrinking the Public Safety Net or Helping the Poor Play by the Rules? The Changes in the State-Level Policies That Affected Low-Income Families with Children in the Welfare Reform Era: 1994-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aratani, Yumiko; Lu, Hsien-Hen; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Despite the claimed success of the 1996 Welfare Reform, little research using multivariate regression has examined changes in multiple public safety-net programs. Thus, we still do not know whether public safety-net programs for the poor have shrunk or increased nationwide, along with the sharp declines in cash assistance. Using state-level data…

  18. Changes in blood pancreatic polypeptide and ghrelin concentrations in response to feeding in sheep.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Kurose, Y; Suzuki, Y; Kojima, M; Yamaguchi, T; Yoshida, Y; Azuma, Y; Sugino, T; Kojima, M; Kangawa, K; Hasegawa, Y; Kobayashi, S

    2010-06-01

    The roles of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) have not been determined in ruminant animals. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of PP in the regulation of ghrelin secretion in sheep. Two experiments were conducted using four 2-yr-old Suffolk wethers fed a maintenance diet of alfalfa hay cubes. In Exp. 1, the effects of feeding on blood ghrelin and PP concentrations were examined in scheduled-fed sheep. Blood samples were collected every 10 min from 30 min before to 360 min after feeding. Plasma PP concentrations were transiently increased from the preprandial average value to the values from 30 to 60 min after feeding and gradually decreased (P < 0.05) to stable values from 150 to 180 min. The values from 30 to 60 min were greater (P < 0.05) than those from 150 to 360 min. In contrast, plasma ghrelin concentrations were gradually decreased (P < 0.01) by feeding. The values from 60 to 360 min were less (P < 0.01) than the preprandial average value. In Exp. 2, the effects of continuous PP infusion on ghrelin secretion were examined in feed-deprived sheep. The animals were deprived of feed for 48 h before PP infusion. The PP-treated group intravenously received synthetic bovine PP at a rate of 10 pmol.kg(-1 )of BW.min(-1) for 180 min. Blood samples were collected every 10 min from 30 min before to 180 min after the commencement of PP infusion. Plasma PP concentrations reached a plateau within 30 min after the commencement of PP infusion. Plasma ghrelin concentrations were decreased (P = 0.002, 0.016, 0.007) by PP infusion at 160, 170, and 180 min, respectively. In conclusion, plasma ghrelin and PP concentrations were decreased and increased, respectively, in response to feeding in ruminant animals. Furthermore, PP could depress ghrelin secretion.

  19. Energetics of byssus attachment and feeding in the green-lipped mussel Perna canaliculus.

    PubMed

    Lurman, Glenn J; Hilton, Zoë; Ragg, Norman L C

    2013-04-01

    In most animals, significant increases in metabolic rate are due to activity and to feeding (known as apparent specific dynamic action). We determined the energetic costs of activity and feeding in adult green-lipped mussels (Perna canaliculus). Maximal metabolic rate was determined, using closed-chamber respirometry, during byssus re-attachment, during specific dynamic action after 16 h of feeding with Isochrysis galbana, and for the two activities combined, in 23 mussels. Metabolic rate was significantly elevated above rest by about 1.9-fold during byssus attachment (17.1 ± 1.53 μg O(2) h(-1) g(-1) whole mussel wet weight at rest, increased to 27.9 ± 0.91 μg O(2) h(-1) g(-1)), and by 2.2-fold after feeding (31.4 ± 1.20 μg O(2) h(-1) g(-1)). Combined feeding and byssus attachment led to a still higher metabolic rate (34.0 ± 1.23 μg O(2) h(-1) g(-1)). Behavior was also significantly altered, with mussels being almost continuously open during attachment and after feeding (90%-99% of the time); however, the time spent open during the day decreased, reaching a minimum of 52% ± 9% 3 days after feeding, and remained low (67%-82%) for the following 45-day starvation period. Significant diurnal differences were observed, with mussels continuously (92%-100%) open at night. The key findings from this study are that green-lipped mussels (1) have an aerobic scope of approximately 2-fold; (2) reach a higher metabolic rate during feeding than during activity, and the two combined can raise the metabolic rate higher still; (3) display a marked diurnal behavior.

  20. The evolution of aquatic feeding in seals: insights from Enaliarctos (Carnivora: Pinnipedimorpha), the oldest known seal.

    PubMed

    Churchill, M; Clementz, M T

    2016-02-01

    The development of pierce-feeding and loss of oral processing represented major adaptations for underwater feeding in marine mammals. We examined the evolution of pierce-feeding and its association with changes in tooth spacing and tooth size to determine whether pierce-feeding was practiced by the earliest known pinnipeds. Data on crown size and spacing in postcanine dentition were collected and 1) analysed by principal components analysis (PCA) to determine the tooth morphospace of arctoid carnivores, 2) analysed by least squares (LS) regression and phylogenetic independent contrasts (PIC) to determine what morphological variables were associated with increases in tooth spacing, and 3) used to reconstruct the evolution of feeding related traits within a phylogenetic context. The PCA analysis revealed that within arctoid carnivores, the greatest differences in morphospace were associated with pierce-feeding, and the early-diverging seal Enaliarctos was placed within the pinniped morphospace. Increased tooth spacing within Pinnipedia is a result of decreased postcanine crown size. When the evolution of dental characters is reconstructed, 'enaliarctines' were found to represent an intermediate stage in evolution between 'fissiped' and pinniped carnivores. They retained the limited tooth spacing of terrestrial carnivores, possessed postcanine crown lengths intermediate in size between pinnipeds and fissipeds, and possessed reduced heterodonty characteristic of crown pinnipeds. Our study indicated that pierce-feeding evolved early within pinnipeds. This suggested either that pierce-feeding evolved prior to the loss of mastication, or that pierce-feeding evolved at the same time as loss of mastication, and well before simplification of the dentition was completed.

  1. Disruption of the jejunal migrating motor complex by gastric distension and feeding in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Bull, J S; Grundy, D; Scratcherd, T

    1987-01-01

    1. The jejunal motor response to gastric distension has been quantified in the conscious dog and compared with that of feeding in order to determine the role of the physical bulk of a meal in the conversion from fasted to fed motor activity. 2. In six dogs gastric distension abolished the cyclical migrating motor complex (m.m.c.) and evoked a pattern of continuous irregular jejunal motility similar to that seen postprandially, but only after a latency of 21.5 +/- 2.7 min compared to that of 7.1 +/- 1.2 min for the response to feeding. Computer analysis of distension and fed jejunal motility revealed similar distributions of intervals between contractions and contraction amplitudes with comparable mean values for both. 3. In two dogs with antrum and corpus surgically divided distension of the corpus had a similar effect on jejunal motility although the latency to both distension and feeding were considerably less. 4. By varying the period of distension it has been possible to control accurately the duration of the jejunal motor response and so assess its effectiveness in disrupting the timing of the m.m.c. The return to m.m.c. cycling following deflation was independent of preceding complexes. The occurrence of the post-distension activity front was closely related to the act of deflation itself (R = 0.94) following a latency of 26.2 +/- 2.1 min (n = 39). 5. It is concluded that the bulk of a meal contributes significantly to the early part of postprandial motility and is capable of disrupting the timing of subsequent migrating motor complexes. PMID:3443971

  2. Discovery of a sensory organ that coordinates lunge feeding in rorqual whales.

    PubMed

    Pyenson, Nicholas D; Goldbogen, Jeremy A; Vogl, A Wayne; Szathmary, Gabor; Drake, Richard L; Shadwick, Robert E

    2012-05-23

    Top ocean predators have evolved multiple solutions to the challenges of feeding in the water. At the largest scale, rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae) engulf and filter prey-laden water by lunge feeding, a strategy that is unique among vertebrates. Lunge feeding is facilitated by several morphological specializations, including bilaterally separate jaws that loosely articulate with the skull, hyper-expandable throat pleats, or ventral groove blubber, and a rigid y-shaped fibrocartilage structure branching from the chin into the ventral groove blubber. The linkages and functional coordination among these features, however, remain poorly understood. Here we report the discovery of a sensory organ embedded within the fibrous symphysis between the unfused jaws that is present in several rorqual species, at both fetal and adult stages. Vascular and nervous tissue derived from the ancestral, anterior-most tooth socket insert into this organ, which contains connective tissue and papillae suspended in a gel-like matrix. These papillae show the hallmarks of a mechanoreceptor, containing nerves and encapsulated nerve termini. Histological, anatomical and kinematic evidence indicate that this sensory organ responds to both the dynamic rotation of the jaws during mouth opening and closure, and ventral groove blubber expansion through direct mechanical linkage with the y-shaped fibrocartilage structure. Along with vibrissae on the chin, providing tactile prey sensation, this organ provides the necessary input to the brain for coordinating the initiation, modulation and end stages of engulfment, a paradigm that is consistent with unsteady hydrodynamic models and tag data from lunge-feeding rorquals. Despite the antiquity of unfused jaws in baleen whales since the late Oligocene (∼23-28 million years ago), this organ represents an evolutionary novelty for rorquals, based on its absence in all other lineages of extant baleen whales. This innovation has a fundamental role in one

  3. Functional morphology and kinematics of terrestrial feeding in the largescale foureyes (Anableps anableps).

    PubMed

    Michel, Krijn B; Aerts, Peter; Gibb, Alice C; Van Wassenbergh, Sam

    2015-09-01

    A major challenge for aquatic vertebrates that invade land is feeding in the terrestrial realm. The capacity of the gape to become parallel with the ground has been shown to be a key factor to allow fishes to feed on prey lying on a terrestrial surface. To do so, two strategies have been identified that involve a nose-down tilting of the head: (1) by pivoting on the pectoral fins as observed in mudskippers, and (2) curling of the anterior part of the body supported by a long and flexible eel-like body as shown in eel-catfish. Although Anableps anableps successfully feeds on land, it does not possess an eel-like body or pectoral fins to support or lift the anterior part of the body. We identified the mechanism of terrestrial prey capture in A. anableps by studying kinematics and functional morphology of the cranial structures, using high-speed video and graphical 3D reconstructions from computed tomography scans. In contrast to the previously described mechanisms, A. anableps relies solely on upper and lower jaw movement for re-orientation of the gape towards the ground. The premaxilla is protruded anteroventrally, and the lower jaw is depressed to a right angle with the substrate. Both the lower and upper jaws are selectively positioned onto the prey. Anableps anableps thereby uses the jaw protrusion mechanism previously described for other cyprinodontiforms to allow a continued protrusion of the premaxilla even while closing the jaws. Several structural adaptations appear to allow more controlled movements and increased amplitude of anterior and ventral protrusion of the upper jaw compared with other cyprinodontiforms.

  4. Dissociation of consummatory and vocal components of feeding in squirrel monkeys treated with benzodiazepines and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Weerts, E M; Macey, D J; Miczek, K A

    1998-09-01

    The primary aim of the current experiments was to develop methods that engender vocalizations associated with positive social situations comprising affiliative behavior and feeding that could be quantified under controlled laboratory conditions and were sensitive to anxiolytic drugs. Classical conditioning procedures were used to elicit vocalizations during presentation of stimulus lights (i.e., CS condition) previously paired with either preferred foods (e.g., grapes, peanuts, bananas) or standard foods (e.g., monkey chow) as well as during presentation of both food types (i.e., UCS condition). When compared to the period before stimulus light presentation (i.e., Pre-CS condition), the rate, duration and number of elemental units of food-related "twitter" vocalizations were increased during the CS conditions regardless of food type. Monkeys spent significantly more time oriented toward the food box during the light stimulus that preceded preferred food than for the light stimulus that preceded standard food. However, twitter vocalizations were higher for standard food regardless of the stimulus conditions (i.e., Pre-CS, CS and UCS). Administration of the benzodiazepine full agonist chlordiazepoxide (CDP, 1-10 mg/kg), the partial agonist bretazenil (BRZ, 1-10 mg/kg), the antagonist flumazenil (FLZ, 1-10 mg/kg) and ethyl alcohol (EtOH, 0.1-1.0 g/kg) differentially altered vocalizations. Although CDP and BRZ increased feeding of standard food, twitters were reduced across stimulus conditions. CDP and BRZ did not alter other social contact calls (i.e., "peeps"). FLZ also reduced twitters without altering peeps, but did not increase feeding. In contrast, EtOH did not increase feeding or peeps, but did increase food-related twitters. These results indicate that there is a dissociation between food-related behaviors, such as food consumption and orientation towards the food source, and vocal behaviors associated with group communication during feeding.

  5. Concentrations of viable oil-degrading microorganisms are increased in feces from Calanus finmarchicus feeding in petroleum oil dispersions.

    PubMed

    Størdal, Ingvild Fladvad; Olsen, Anders Johny; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Netzer, Roman; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar

    2015-09-15

    Zooplankton are suggested to be biotic contributors to the transport and weathering of oil in marine environments due to their ingestion of oil. In the present experiment, feeding activity and microbial communities in feces from Calanus finmarchicus feeding in oil dispersions were characterized. Feeding activity was significantly reduced in oil dispersions. The microbial communities in clean and oil-containing copepod feces were dominated by Rhodobacteraceae family bacteria (Lesingera, Phaeobacter, Rugeria, and Sulfitobacter), which were suggested to be indigenous to copepod feces. The results also indicated that these bacteria were metabolizing oil compounds, as a significant increase in the concentrations of viable oil degrading microorganisms was observed in oil-containing feces. This study shows that bacteria in feces from copepods feeding in dilute oil dispersions have capacity for degradation of oil. Zooplankton may therefore contribute to weathering of oil by excreting feces with microbial communities already adapted to degradation of oil.

  6. Maternal behavior and infant physiology during feeding in premature and term infants over the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Weber, Ashley M; Harrison, Tondi M

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the relationship between maternal behavior and the stability of premature infants' physiologic responses during feeding. In a secondary data analysis, we examined relationships between quality of maternal behavior and cardiorespiratory physiology during feeding in 61 premature and 53 term infants at four times over the first year of life. Measures included heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and oxygen saturation; Child Feeding Skills Checklist; and Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment. Birthweight, gestational age, and neurodevelopmental risk were covariates. Quality of maternal behavior did not predict infants' physiologic response to feeding. However, birthweight was related to infant feeding physiology among all infants over the first year of life. Stress during fetal life, which may lead to impaired intrauterine growth and low birthweight, may have longitudinal effects on cardiorespiratory functioning of premature infants. Research is needed to further investigate the biological pathways by which maternal-infant interaction supports behavioral and physiologic feeding outcomes of premature infants.

  7. Development of ileal cytokine and immunoglobulin expression levels in response to early feeding in broilers and layers.

    PubMed

    Simon, K; de Vries Reilingh, G; Kemp, B; Lammers, A

    2014-12-01

    Provision of feed in the immediate posthatch period may influence interaction between intestinal microbiota and immune system, and consequently immunological development of the chick. This study addressed ileal immune development in response to early feeding in 2 chicken breeds selected for different production traits: broilers and layers. Chicks of both breeds either received feed and water immediately posthatch or were subjected to a 72-h feed and water delay. Ileal cytokine and immunoglobulin mRNA expression levels were determined at different time points. Effects of early feeding were limited, but breeds differed strikingly regarding cytokine and immunoglobulin expression levels. Cytokine expression levels in broilers were low compared with layers and showed a transient drop in the second to third week of life. In contrast, broilers showed considerably higher expression levels of IgA, IgM, and IgY. These findings indicate that the 2 breeds use different immune strategies, at least on the ileal level.

  8. HIV and infant feeding in resource-rich settings: considering the clinical significance of a complicated dilemma.

    PubMed

    Yudin, Mark H; Kennedy, V Logan; MacGillivray, S Jay

    2016-08-01

    With advances in the care of HIV-positive pregnant women, the likelihood of perinatal transmission is now less than 1%. In resource-rich settings women are instructed to abstain from breastfeeding, as studies have shown that breastfeeding increases the likelihood of infant acquisition of HIV. As practitioners caring for HIV-positive parents, we are now facing growing tension about the complex issues that inform decisions about infant feeding. In the face of changing guidelines and global immigration patterns, simply telling women that breastfeeding is contraindicated may no longer be good enough. We must fully open the lines of communication regarding this important and evolving issue. This commentary will review the clinical, social and cultural considerations that impact decisions regarding infant feeding in the context of HIV.

  9. Site-specific economic and ecological analysis of enhanced production, upgrade and feed-in of biomethane from organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Lindorfer, J; Schwarz, M M

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyses the cost structure and ecological performance of biomethane production and feed-in from organic wastes and manure in a site-specific approach for Upper Austria. The theoretically available quantities of biowaste and manure can feed representative biogas plant capacities resulting in relatively high biomethane full costs in the natural gas grid of at least 9.0 €-cents/kWh, which shows strong economies of scale when feed-in flows of methane from 30 to 120 Nm(3)/h are considered. From the ecological point of view small plant capacities are to be preferred since the environmental effect, i.e. the global warming potential (up to -22% of CO(2eq)), is lower in comparison to higher capacities as a consequence of reduced transport in the evaluated scenarios. To enforce the combined energetic use of the biowaste fraction, co-operation between compost facility, gas grid and biogas plant operators is necessary to use existing infrastructure, logistics and knowledge to promote the production, upgrade and feed-in of biomethane from biowastes at attractive locations in Upper Austria and in the whole of Europe.

  10. A Tariff for Reactive Power

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Li, Fangxing; Tufon, Christopher; Isemonger, Alan

    2008-07-01

    Two kinds of power are required to operate an electric power system: real power, measured in watts, and reactive power, measured in volt-amperes reactive or VARs. Reactive power supply is one of a class of power system reliability services collectively known as ancillary services, and is essential for the reliable operation of the bulk power system. Reactive power flows when current leads or lags behind voltage. Typically, the current in a distribution system lags behind voltage because of inductive loads such as motors. Reactive power flow wastes energy and capacity and causes voltage droop. To correct lagging power flow, leading reactive power (current leading voltage) is supplied to bring the current into phase with voltage. When the current is in phase with voltage, there is a reduction in system losses, an increase in system capacity, and a rise in voltage. Reactive power can be supplied from either static or dynamic VAR sources. Static sources are typically transmission and distribution equipment, such as capacitors at substations, and their cost has historically been included in the revenue requirement of the transmission operator (TO), and recovered through cost-of-service rates. By contrast, dynamic sources are typically generators capable of producing variable levels of reactive power by automatically controlling the generator to regulate voltage. Transmission system devices such as synchronous condensers can also provide dynamic reactive power. A class of solid state devices (called flexible AC transmission system devices or FACTs) can provide dynamic reactive power. One specific device has the unfortunate name of static VAR compensator (SVC), where 'static' refers to the solid state nature of the device (it does not include rotating equipment) and not to the production of static reactive power. Dynamic sources at the distribution level, while more costly would be very useful in helping to regulate local voltage. Local voltage regulation would reduce system losses, increase circuit capacity, increase reliability, and improve efficiency. Reactive power is theoretically available from any inverter-based equipment such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, fuel cells, microturbines, and adjustable-speed drives. However, the installation is usually only economical if reactive power supply is considered during the design and construction phase. In this report, we find that if the inverters of PV systems or the generators of combined heat and power (CHP) systems were designed with capability to supply dynamic reactive power, they could do this quite economically. In fact, on an annualized basis, these inverters and generators may be able to supply dynamic reactive power for about $5 or $6 per kVAR. The savings from the local supply of dynamic reactive power would be in reduced losses, increased capacity, and decreased transmission congestion. The net savings are estimated to be about $7 per kVAR on an annualized basis for a hypothetical circuit. Thus the distribution company could economically purchase a dynamic reactive power service from customers for perhaps $6/kVAR. This practice would provide for better voltage regulation in the distribution system and would provide an alternate revenue source to help amortize the cost of PV and CHP installations. As distribution and transmission systems are operated under rising levels of stress, the value of local dynamic reactive supply is expected to grow. Also, large power inverters, in the range of 500 kW to 1 MW, are expected to decrease in cost as they become mass produced. This report provides one data point which shows that the local supply of dynamic reactive power is marginally profitable at present for a hypothetical circuit. We expect that the trends of growing power flow on the existing system and mass production of inverters for distributed energy devices will make the dynamic supply of reactive power from customers an integral component of economical and reliable system operation in the future.

  11. An evidence-based approach to nipple feeding in a level III NICU: nurse autonomy, developmental care, and teamwork.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Catherine S; Woida, Amy Marie Werner

    2007-01-01

    Historically, nipple feeding in the NICU has been initiated and advanced by physician order based on nursing observation and suggestions. The growing evidence base regarding nipple feeding readiness and progression, contingent caregiving, and nurse autonomy in decision making prompted our Level III NICU to reconsider our process. A literature review and discussions resulted in new protocols for initiating and advancing nipple feedings for three distinct groups: healthy preterm infants, preterm infants with complicated medical courses, and sick term or posttcrm infants. Through incorporating contingent earegiving, greater autonomy for the bedside nurse, developmental support, and collaboration, we expect to improve outcomes, comnuinication, and problem solving.

  12. Investigation of balancing effects in long term renewable energy feed-in with respect to the transmission grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kies, A.; Nag, K.; von Bremen, L.; Lorenz, E.; Heinemann, D.

    2015-05-01

    A European power system mainly based on renewable sources will have dominant contributions from wind and solar power. However, wind and solar generation facilities have, due to the weather dependent nature of their resources, highly fluctuating feed-in profiles. To overcome the mismatch between power consumption and generation it is important to study and understand the generation patterns and balancing potentials. High temporally and spatially resolved long term weather data was used to simulate the feed-in from wind and photovoltaics for European countries for the years 2003 to 2012. We investigate storage energy and capacity needs in Europe in dependency of the generation mix from wind onshore, wind offshore and photovoltaics and the share of renewables. Furthermore we compute the storage energy and capacity needs for different transmission scenarios. We show that for unlimited transmission storage needs are reduced mostly by high wind offshore shares. We also show that higher shares above 100% of renewables can decrease the required storage capacity to a higher extent than the required storage energy.

  13. Thioperamide, a histamine H3 receptor antagonist, suppresses NPY-but not dynorphin A-induced feeding in rats.

    PubMed

    Itoh, E; Fujimiya, M; Inui, A

    1998-09-25

    Whether or not neuropeptide Y (NPY)-induced feeding in rats is influenced by the histaminergic system in the brain was investigated by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of a selective histamine H3 receptor antagonist prior to i.c.v. administration of NPY. NPY (10 microg/10 microl) strongly induced feeding in sated rats during the light phase of the day. Dynorphin A1-17 (10 microg/10 microl), a kappa-opioid agonist, and rat pancreatic polypeptide (rPP, 30 microg/10 microl) also stimulated ingestive behavior in sated rats, but food intake in both cases was less than that induced by NPY. Thioperamide maleate, a specific histamine H3 receptor antagonist (408.5 microg/10 microl) reduced the feeding response to NPY by 52% (P < 0.0001), but not to dynorphin A1-17 and rPP. Thioperamide at i.c.v. doses of 40.8-408.5 microg/10 microl had no effect on food intake in sated rats. These results suggest that the thioperamide may have a specific effect on NPY receptor-mediated neuronal systems related to feeding.

  14. Influence of intrinsic signals and environmental cues on the endocrine control of feeding in fish: potential application in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Volkoff, Hélène; Hoskins, Leah J; Tuziak, Sarah M

    2010-07-01

    Optimization of food consumption and ultimately growth are major concerns for aquaculture. In fish, food intake is regulated by several hormones produced by both brain and peripheral tissues. Changes in feeding behavior and appetite usually occur through the modulation of the gene expression and/or action of these appetite-regulating hormones and can be due not only to variations in intrinsic factors such as nutritional/metabolic or reproductive status, but also to changes in environmental factors, such as temperature and photoperiod. In addition, the gene expression and/or plasma levels of appetite-regulating hormones might also display daily as well as circannual (seasonal) rhythms. Despite recent advances, our current understanding of the regulation of feeding in fish is still limited. We give here a brief overview of our current knowledge of the endocrine regulation of feeding in fish and describe how a better understanding of appetite-related hormones in fish might lead to the development of sustainable aquaculture.

  15. State Level Intelligence Doctrine: Bridging the Gap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    theories continues, Ratcliffe believes the term 20 C. Beck and C. McCue, “Predictive Policing: What Can We Learn from Wal-Mart and Amazon about...problems) establishes refuge for a structure during rain or drought . The building materials (strategies) attached to the foundation could be different...Policing: What Can We Learn from Wal-Mart and Amazon about Fighting Crime in a Recession?” Police Chief 76, no. 11 (2009): 6. Bellavita

  16. Developing behavior analysis at the state level

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, J. M.; Shook, Gerald L.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, behavior analysts in Florida have worked together to develop the discipline with a multifaceted system of contingencies. Basing their effort in the area of retardation and with the cooperation of the state's Developmental Services Program Office, they have gradually developed a regulatory manual of programming policy and procedures, a hierarchical system of responsibilities for programming approval and monitoring, a state-sponsored certification program, a professional association, and an active university community. These components are described and discussed in terms of suggested principles for developing the field of behavior analysis within a state. PMID:22477979

  17. Breast-Feeding in the Developing World: Current Patterns and Implications for Future Trends. Reports on the World Fertility Survey 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Mary Mederios

    This report uses World Fertility Survey data obtained between 1974 and 1978 to investigate the initiation and duration of breast-feeding in 19 developing countries, ten of which are in Asia, eight in Latin America and the Caribbean, and one in sub-Saharan Africa (Kenya). Respondents were asked whether they had fed either their most recently born…

  18. Behavioral and Psychophysiological Responsiveness During Child Feeding in Mothers with Histories of Eating Disorders: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R; Hodges, Eric A; Propper, Cathi; Postage, Pamela L; Zipkin, Elana C; Bentley, Margaret E; Ward, Dianne S; Hamer, Robert M; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this pilot project was to describe maternal responsiveness during child feeding in mothers with eating disorder histories through the combined use of observational, self-report, and physiologic methods. For this non-randomized cohort pilot study, 25 mothers with histories of eating disorders and 25 mothers with no history of an eating disorder with children ages 6-36 months were selected such that the groups were similar based on child age group (within 6 months) and child sex. Maternal behavioral responsiveness to child cues was assessed by video-recording and behavioral coding of both a free-play and feeding episode. Physiologic engagement was assessed through measurement of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during free-play and feeding episodes. No differences were detected in observed behavioral responsiveness during feeding or free-play in mothers with eating disorder histories compared with controls. Mothers with eating disorder histories did report more parenting stress, increased anxiety, and exhibited a blunted physiologic stress response (less RSA reactivity) during both feeding and free-play interactions with their children. These results support future larger-scale investigations of RSA reactivity in mothers with eating disorders.

  19. Terrestrial-style feeding in a very early aquatic tetrapod is supported by evidence from experimental analysis of suture morphology

    PubMed Central

    Markey, Molly J.; Marshall, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    There is no consensus on when in the fish-tetrapod transition suction feeding, the primary method of prey capture in the aquatic realm, evolved into the direct biting on prey typical of terrestrial animals. Here, we show that differences in the morphology of selected cranial sutures between species that span the fish–tetrapod transition (the Devonian osteolepiform fish Eusthenopteron, the aquatic Devonian tetrapod Acanthostega, and the Permian terrestrial tetrapod Phonerpeton) can be used to infer when terrestrial feeding first appeared. Our approach consists of defining a sutural morphospace, assigning functional fields to that morphospace based on our previous measurements of suture function made during feeding in the living fish Polypterus, inferring the functions of the fossil sutures based on where they fall in the morphospace, and then using the correlation between feeding mode and the patterns of inferred suture function across the skull roof in taxa where feeding mode is unambiguous to infer the feeding mode practiced by Acanthostega. Using this procedure, we find that the suture morphologies of Acanthostega are inconsistent with the hypothesis that it captured prey primarily by means of suction, which suggests that it may have bitten directly on prey at or near the water's edge. Thus, our data strongly support the hypothesis that the terrestrial mode of feeding first emerged in aquatic taxa. PMID:17438285

  20. The alkaline tide goes out and the nitrogen stays in after feeding in the dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias.

    PubMed

    Wood, Chris M; Bucking, Carol; Fitzpatrick, John; Nadella, Sunita

    2007-11-15

    In light of previous work showing a marked metabolic alkalosis ("alkaline tide") in the bloodstream after feeding in the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias), we evaluated whether there was a corresponding net base excretion to the water at this time. In the 48 h after a natural voluntary meal (teleost tissue, averaging 5.5% of body weight), dogfish excreted 10,470 micromol kg(-1) more base (i.e. HCO3- equivalents) than the fasted control animals (which exhibited a negative base excretion of -2160 micromol kg(-1)). This large activation of branchial base excretion after feeding thereby prevented a potentially fatal alkalinization of the body fluids by the alkaline tide. The rate peaked at 330 micromol kg(-1) h(-1) at 12.5-24 h after the meal. Despite a prolonged 1.7-fold elevation in MO2 after feeding ("specific dynamic action"), urea-N excretion decreased by 39% in the same 48 h period relative to fasted controls. In contrast, ammonia-N excretion did not change appreciably. The N/O2 ratio declined from 0.51 in fasted animals to 0.19 in fed sharks, indicating a stimulation of N-anabolic processes at this time. These results, which differ greatly from those in teleost fish, are interpreted in terms of the fundamentally different ureotelic osmoregulatory strategy of elasmobranchs, and recent discoveries on base excretion and urea-retention mechanisms in elasmobranch gills.