Science.gov

Sample records for state-level feed-in tariffs

  1. Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs: Federal Law Constraints and Possible Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hempling, S.; Elefant, C.; Cory, K.; Porter, K.

    2010-01-01

    State legislatures and state utility commissions trying to attract renewable energy projects are considering feed-in tariffs, which obligate retail utilities to purchase electricity from renewable producers under standard arrangements specifying prices, terms, and conditions. The use of feed-in tariffs simplifies the purchase process, provides revenue certainty to generators, and reduces the cost of financing generating projects. However, some argue that federal law--including the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) and the Federal Power Act of 1935 (FPA)--constrain state-level feed-in tariffs. This report seeks to reduce the legal uncertainties for states contemplating feed-in tariffs by explaining the constraints imposed by federal statutes. It describes the federal constraints, identifies transaction categories that are free of those constraints, and offers ways for state and federal policymakers to interpret or modify existing law to remove or reduce these constraints. This report proposes ways to revise these federal statutes. It creates a broad working definition of a state-level feed-in tariff. Given this definition, this report concludes there are paths to non-preempted, state-level feed-in tariffs under current federal law.

  2. Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs. Federal Law Constraints and Possible Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hempling, Scott; Elefant, Carolyn; Cory, Karlynn; Porter, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    This report details how state feed-in tariff (FIT) programs can be legally implemented and how they can comply with federal requirements. The report describes the federal constraints on FIT programs and identifies legal methods that are free of those constrains.

  3. Feed-in Tariff Policy: Design, Implementation, and RPS Policy Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, K.; Couture, T.; Kreycik, C.

    2009-03-01

    Feed-in tariff (FIT) policies are implemented in more than 40 countries around the world and are cited as the primary reason for the success of the German and Spanish renewable energy markets. As a result of that success, FIT policy proposals are starting to gain traction in several U.S. states and municipalities. Experience from Europe is also beginning to demonstrate that properly designed FITs may be more cost-effective than renewable portfolio standards (RPS), which make use of competitive solicitations. This article explores the design and operation of feed-in tariff policies, including a FIT policy definition, payment-structure options, and payment differentiation. The article also touches on the potential interactions between FIT policies and RPS policies at the state level.

  4. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, Claire; Couture, Toby D.; Cory, Karlynn S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent policy used globally to reduce development risks, cut financing costs, and grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control. Using case studies and market-focused analysis, this report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) examines strengths and weaknesses of three cost-containment tools: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report provides useful insights on containing costs for policymakers and regulators in the United States and other areas where FIT policies are in development.

  5. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

  6. A Policymaker's Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, Toby D.; Cory, Karlynn; Kreycik, Claire; Williams, Emily

    2010-07-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most widely used renewable energy policy in the world for driving accelerating renewable energy (RE) deployment, accounting for a greater share of RE development than either tax incentives or renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies. FITs have generated significant RE deployment, helping bring the countries that have implemented them successfully to the forefront of the global RE industry. In the European Union (EU), FIT policies have led to the deployment of more than 15,000 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) power and more than 55,000 MW of wind power between 2000 and the end of 2009. In total, FITs are responsible for approximately 75% of global PV and 45% of global wind deployment. Countries such as Germany, in particular, have demonstrated that FITs can be used as a powerful policy tool to drive RE deployment and help meet combined energy security and emissions reductions objectives. This policymaker’s guide provides a detailed analysis of FIT policy design and implementation and identifies a set of best practices that have been effective at quickly stimulating the deployment of large amounts of RE generation.

  7. Policymaker's Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, T. D.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.; Williams, E.

    2010-07-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most widely used renewable energy policy in the world for driving accelerating renewable energy (RE) deployment, accounting for a greater share of RE development than either tax incentives or renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies. FITs have generated significant RE deployment, helping bring the countries that have implemented them successfully to the forefront of the global RE industry. In the European Union (EU), FIT policies have led to the deployment of more than 15,000 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) power and more than 55,000 MW of wind power between 2000 and the end of 2009. In total, FITs are responsible for approximately 75% of global PV and 45% of global wind deployment. Countries such as Germany, in particular, have demonstrated that FITs can be used as a powerful policy tool to drive RE deployment and help meet combined energy security and emissions reductions objectives. This policymaker's guide provides a detailed analysis of FIT policy design and implementation and identifies a set of best practices that have been effective at quickly stimulating the deployment of large amounts of RE generation. Although the discussion is aimed primarily at decision makers who have decided that a FIT policy best suits their needs, exploration of FIT policies can also help inform a choice among alternative renewable energy policies.

  8. The Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Sari; Porter, Kevin; Rogers, Jennifer

    2010-10-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15–20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

  9. Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.

    2010-10-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

  10. Overall review of feed-in tariff and renewable portfolio standard policy: A perspective of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Q. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Yang, L.; Wang, X.

    2016-08-01

    A major share of China's total carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is from the electric power sector. To solve this problem, Chinese government has implemented many renewable energy policies in the electric power sector. In China, the most popular renewable energy policies are Feed-in tariff (FIT) and renewable portfolio standard (RPS). This paper first introduces the current development of renewable electricity generation. Second the design plan and implement of FIT and RPS in China's thermal electricity generation sector are summarized in this paper. Third this paper establishes a complementary mode of FIT and RPS which can provide a stable environment to make the FIT and RPS work together. Finally, based on the above analysis, this paper proposes relative suggestions for the implementation of FIT and RPS in China making recommendation for the development of electricity generation from renewable energy.

  11. Photovoltaics: reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and changing PV efficiencies and costs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H L; Van Gerven, T; Baeyens, J; Degrève, J

    2014-01-01

    Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i) briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii) describes the developments of PV, (iii) applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57 m² photovoltaic system (Belgium); and finally (iv) predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313 €/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future.

  12. Photovoltaics: Reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and Changing PV Efficiencies and Costs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H. L.; Van Gerven, T.; Baeyens, J.; Degrève, J.

    2014-01-01

    Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i) briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii) describes the developments of PV, (iii) applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57 m² photovoltaic system (Belgium); and finally (iv) predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313 €/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future. PMID:24959614

  13. Are state renewable feed-in tariff initiatives truly throttled by Federal statutes after the FERC California decision?

    SciTech Connect

    Yaffe, David P.

    2010-10-15

    For the last few years, several local and state governments have adopted ''feed-in tariffs'' to promote development of dispersed, small-scale renewable generation through incentive pricing. Most FITs are intended to stimulate development of small solar or renewable energy facilities. In July, FERC issued a decision restating that the Federal Power Act and PURPA 210, not state (or local) legislation, govern the price that local utilities may pay under FITs. (author)

  14. An initial analysis of options for a UK feed-in tariff for photovoltaic energy, from an array owner's viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plater, Steve

    2009-10-01

    The UK government has announced the introduction from April 2010 of a feed-in tariff (FIT) for renewable energy, and initiated a consultation on its design. This paper compares three possible variants of a UK FIT for rooftop photovoltaic (PV) arrays, on the basis of calculated income and array cost payback time, and for three locations (north, central and southern England) and various levels of household electricity consumption. This modelling is based on an FIT rate equivalent to Germany's. It concludes that an FIT which paid only for PV electricity surplus to on-site needs, and exported to the grid, would mean a simple payback time too long to make array purchase appealing. Preferable would be either export to the grid of all PV electricity for FIT payment; or a lower FIT rate for electricity used on-site, plus full FIT for any surplus exported. The latter would involve significantly lower costs in feed-in tariff payments. Finally, the effect of the UK government's illustrative FIT rate for consultation is examined for the same locations and annual consumption levels.

  15. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) Project: An Analysis of Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs in the United States (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, T.; Cory, K.

    2009-06-01

    This report analyzes renewable energy feed-in tariff (FIT) policies and explores the different FIT policies currently implemented in the United States. It also discusses of a few proposed policies, the best practices in FIT policy design, and examines how FITs can be used to target state policy goals. The report covers current and potential future interactions between FITs and other state and federal energy policies while also providing an overview of the impacts FIT policies have in terms of renewable energy deployment, job creation, and economic development.

  16. Quantitative Effectiveness Analysis of Solar Photovoltaic Policies, Introduction of Socio-Feed-in Tariff Mechanism (SocioFIT) and its Implementation in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafaoglu, Mustafa Sinan

    Some of the main energy issues in developing countries are high dependence on non-renewable energy sources, low energy efficiency levels and as a result of this high amount of CO2 emissions. Besides, a common problem of many countries including developing countries is economic inequality problem. In the study, solar photovoltaic policies of Germany, Japan and the USA is analyzed through a quantitative analysis and a new renewable energy support mechanism called Socio Feed-in Tariff Mechanism (SocioFIT) is formed based on the analysis results to address the mentioned issues of developing countries as well as economic inequality problem by using energy savings as a funding source for renewable energy systems. The applicability of the mechanism is solidified by the calculations in case of an implementation of the mechanism in Turkey.

  17. Transforming on-grid renewable energy markets. A review of UNDP-GEF support for feed-in tariffs and related price and market-access instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Glemarec, Yannick; Rickerson, Wilson; Waissbein, Oliver

    2012-11-15

    As a Global Environment Facility (GEF) founding implementing agency, UNDP has worked on over 230 GEF-supported clean energy projects in close to 100 developing countries since 1992. About 100 of these projects in 80 countries have focused on renewable energy, supported by approximately US $ 293 million in GEF funds and leveraging US $1.48 billion in associated co-financing from national governments, international organizations, the private sector and non-governmental organizations. As part of UNDP efforts to codify and share lessons learnt from these initiatives, this report addresses how scarce public resources can be used to catalyze larger private financial flows for renewable energy. It provides an overview of UNDP-GEF’s extensive work supporting development of national renewable energy policies such as feed-in tariffs. In these activities UNDP-GEF assists developing countries to assess key risks and barriers to technology diffusion and then to identify a mix of policy and financial de-risking measures to remove these barriers and drive investment. This approach is illustrated through three case studies in Uruguay, Mauritius and Kazakhstan. This report is complemented by a companion publication presenting an innovative UNDP financial modeling tool to assist policymakers in appraising different public instruments to promote clean energy.

  18. Tariffs Formation on oil transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glyzina, T. S.; Kolbysheva, Yu. V.; Grivtsova, I. S.; Dmitrieva, N. V.

    2016-09-01

    Oil transportation via trunk pipelines is an important part of the oil industry's activity. The main instrument of tariff regulation is the method of tariffs formation. Three methods of tariffs formation such as the method of economically justified costs (the Cost plus method), the method of economically justified return on investment capital (the RAB method), and the method of tariffs indexation were considered.

  19. 46 CFR 520.4 - Tariff contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tariff contents. 520.4 Section 520.4 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.4 Tariff contents. (a) General. Tariffs published pursuant to this part shall: (1) State...

  20. 46 CFR 520.4 - Tariff contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tariff contents. 520.4 Section 520.4 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.4 Tariff contents. (a) General. Tariffs published pursuant to this part shall: (1) State...

  1. 46 CFR 520.4 - Tariff contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tariff contents. 520.4 Section 520.4 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.4 Tariff contents. (a) General. Tariffs published pursuant to this part shall: (1) State...

  2. 18 CFR 154.3 - Effective tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS General Provisions and Conditions § 154.3 Effective tariff. (a) The effective tariff of a natural gas company is the tariff filed... gas company must not directly or indirectly, demand, charge, or collect any rate or charge for, or...

  3. 46 CFR 520.4 - Tariff contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tariff contents. 520.4 Section 520.4 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.4 Tariff contents. (a) General. Tariffs published pursuant to this part shall: (1) State...

  4. Oil gluts and oil tariffs

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    The free market does not provide the level of oil imports that is in the best interest of oil-importing nations. Common sense tells us that the best time to combat the economic power of a cartel is when it is weak, such as during a period of oil glut. The glut conditions still leave us with a large gap between the true cost of oil and the market price. The authors could justify an oil import tariff of 30-40% of the price of oil, or more. Nearly every other consideration, especially the positive effect on the federal budget, reinforces the recommendation for a large import tariff. An analysis in the appendix showing the otpimal tariff at 65-100% suggests that we should impose the largest tariff we can get through the political system. 9 references, 10 tables.

  5. 14 CFR 221.400 - Filing of paper tariffs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Filing of paper tariffs required. 221.400... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.400 Filing of paper tariffs...; and (2) Simultaneously cancel such records from the paper tariff in the manner prescribed by...

  6. 14 CFR 221.63 - Other types of governing tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other types of governing tariffs. 221.63... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Governing Tariffs § 221.63 Other types of governing tariffs. Subject to approval of the Department, carriers may publish other types of governing tariffs not specified...

  7. 14 CFR 221.63 - Other types of governing tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other types of governing tariffs. 221.63... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Governing Tariffs § 221.63 Other types of governing tariffs. Subject to approval of the Department, carriers may publish other types of governing tariffs not specified...

  8. 14 CFR 221.63 - Other types of governing tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other types of governing tariffs. 221.63... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Governing Tariffs § 221.63 Other types of governing tariffs. Subject to approval of the Department, carriers may publish other types of governing tariffs not specified...

  9. 14 CFR 221.63 - Other types of governing tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other types of governing tariffs. 221.63... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Governing Tariffs § 221.63 Other types of governing tariffs. Subject to approval of the Department, carriers may publish other types of governing tariffs not specified...

  10. 14 CFR 221.63 - Other types of governing tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other types of governing tariffs. 221.63... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Governing Tariffs § 221.63 Other types of governing tariffs. Subject to approval of the Department, carriers may publish other types of governing tariffs not specified...

  11. 14 CFR 221.400 - Filing of paper tariffs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing of paper tariffs required. 221.400... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.400 Filing of paper tariffs...; and (2) Simultaneously cancel such records from the paper tariff in the manner prescribed by...

  12. 18 CFR 154.103 - Composition of tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Composition of tariff..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Form and Composition of Tariff § 154.103 Composition of tariff. (a) The tariff must contain sections, in the following order:...

  13. 18 CFR 154.103 - Composition of tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Composition of tariff..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Form and Composition of Tariff § 154.103 Composition of tariff. (a) The tariff must contain sections, in the following order:...

  14. 18 CFR 154.103 - Composition of tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Composition of tariff..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Form and Composition of Tariff § 154.103 Composition of tariff. (a) The tariff must contain sections, in the following order:...

  15. 14 CFR 221.91 - Delivering tariff publications to Department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Delivering tariff publications to... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Filing Tariff Publications With Department § 221.91 Delivering tariff publications to Department. Tariff publications will be received for filing only...

  16. 14 CFR 221.91 - Delivering tariff publications to Department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Delivering tariff publications to... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Filing Tariff Publications With Department § 221.91 Delivering tariff publications to Department. Tariff publications will be received for filing only...

  17. 14 CFR 221.91 - Delivering tariff publications to Department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delivering tariff publications to... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Filing Tariff Publications With Department § 221.91 Delivering tariff publications to Department. Tariff publications will be received for filing only...

  18. 14 CFR 221.91 - Delivering tariff publications to Department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Delivering tariff publications to... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Filing Tariff Publications With Department § 221.91 Delivering tariff publications to Department. Tariff publications will be received for filing only...

  19. 14 CFR 221.400 - Filing of paper tariffs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Filing of paper tariffs required. 221.400... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.400 Filing of paper tariffs...; and (2) Simultaneously cancel such records from the paper tariff in the manner prescribed by...

  20. 14 CFR 221.400 - Filing of paper tariffs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Filing of paper tariffs required. 221.400... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.400 Filing of paper tariffs...; and (2) Simultaneously cancel such records from the paper tariff in the manner prescribed by...

  1. 14 CFR 221.400 - Filing of paper tariffs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Filing of paper tariffs required. 221.400... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.400 Filing of paper tariffs...; and (2) Simultaneously cancel such records from the paper tariff in the manner prescribed by...

  2. 14 CFR 221.94 - Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... changes and new matter in tariffs. 221.94 Section 221.94 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... With Department § 221.94 Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs. When... changed matter and the reasons for the filing, including (if applicable) the basis of rate making...

  3. 14 CFR 221.94 - Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... changes and new matter in tariffs. 221.94 Section 221.94 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... With Department § 221.94 Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs. When... changed matter and the reasons for the filing, including (if applicable) the basis of rate making...

  4. 14 CFR 221.94 - Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... changes and new matter in tariffs. 221.94 Section 221.94 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... With Department § 221.94 Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs. When... changed matter and the reasons for the filing, including (if applicable) the basis of rate making...

  5. 14 CFR 221.94 - Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... changes and new matter in tariffs. 221.94 Section 221.94 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... With Department § 221.94 Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs. When... changed matter and the reasons for the filing, including (if applicable) the basis of rate making...

  6. 14 CFR 221.94 - Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... changes and new matter in tariffs. 221.94 Section 221.94 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... With Department § 221.94 Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs. When... changed matter and the reasons for the filing, including (if applicable) the basis of rate making...

  7. 18 CFR 341.3 - Form of tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and phone number of the individual responsible for compiling the tariff publication. (2) Table of... substitute for any rates named in the tariff or found in any other tariff. Rules may not provide that...

  8. 14 CFR 221.103 - Notice of tariff terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... station, office, or location at which tariffs are required to be posted, a notice printed in large type reading as follows: Public Inspection of Tariffs All the currently effective passenger tariffs to...

  9. 14 CFR 221.103 - Notice of tariff terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... station, office, or location at which tariffs are required to be posted, a notice printed in large type reading as follows: Public Inspection of Tariffs All the currently effective passenger tariffs to...

  10. 14 CFR 221.103 - Notice of tariff terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... station, office, or location at which tariffs are required to be posted, a notice printed in large type reading as follows: Public Inspection of Tariffs All the currently effective passenger tariffs to...

  11. 14 CFR 221.103 - Notice of tariff terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... station, office, or location at which tariffs are required to be posted, a notice printed in large type reading as follows: Public Inspection of Tariffs All the currently effective passenger tariffs to...

  12. 14 CFR 221.103 - Notice of tariff terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... station, office, or location at which tariffs are required to be posted, a notice printed in large type reading as follows: Public Inspection of Tariffs All the currently effective passenger tariffs to...

  13. 47 CFR 61.2 - General tariff requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., all tariff publications must contain clear and explicit explanatory statements regarding the rates and regulations. (b) Tariff publications must be delivered to the Commission free from all charges, including claims of postage. (c) Tariff publications will not be returned....

  14. 47 CFR 61.2 - General tariff requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., all tariff publications must contain clear and explicit explanatory statements regarding the rates and regulations. (b) Tariff publications must be delivered to the Commission free from all charges, including claims of postage. (c) Tariff publications will not be returned....

  15. 47 CFR 61.2 - General tariff requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., all tariff publications must contain clear and explicit explanatory statements regarding the rates and regulations. (b) Tariff publications must be delivered to the Commission free from all charges, including claims of postage. (c) Tariff publications will not be returned....

  16. 47 CFR 61.2 - General tariff requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., all tariff publications must contain clear and explicit explanatory statements regarding the rates and regulations. (b) Tariff publications must be delivered to the Commission free from all charges, including claims of postage. (c) Tariff publications will not be returned....

  17. The Context of State Level Policy Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine; And Others

    Individual members of state legislatures wield the greatest influence in state level policy formation. This was one of the findings of a study that identified the power and influence context of state-level policymaking. Data were gathered from six states (Arizona, California, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Illinois) using an instrument…

  18. Encouraging vehicle-to-grid (V2G) participation through premium tariff rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, David B.

    2013-12-01

    The provision of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services to an electric grid by electric vehicles (EVs) can potentially reduce the cost of vehicle ownership through revenue generation. Recent studies indicate that yearly vehicle profit from V2G may not be sufficient to induce widespread participation. This paper investigates the feasibility of a premium tariff rate for V2G power, similar to current feed-in-tariff (FIT) programs for renewable energy. Using Ontario, Canada as a case study, an hourly time-series model for a fleet of commuter EVs is created. Tariff rates for V2G peak power are calculated based on the same return on investment as the current FIT for renewable energy in Ontario. The tariff rates are competitive with the renewable energy tariffs, especially when EVs are allowed to provide ancillary services to the grid in addition to peak power. Despite the guaranteed rate of return, yearly vehicle profit is low. Two variations are considered to increase vehicle profit, thereby enhancing the attractiveness of V2G. A higher return on investment is favored over direct benefits offered to EV owners. A higher return on investment may be justifiable based on the higher level of risk inherent in V2G when compared to renewable energy.

  19. 75 FR 4689 - Electronic Tariff Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... the public may retrieve and review tariffs. \\1\\ Electronic Tariff Filings, Order No. 714, 73 FR 57515... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Parts 35, 131, 154, 157, 250, 281, 284, 300, 341, 344, 346, 347,...

  20. 46 CFR 520.4 - Tariff contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., “Sodium Chloride,” “Salt, common,” etc. (ii) If a commodity description includes two or more commodities... tariffs, also contain commodity descriptions and tariff rate items. (b) Organization record. Common...., ocean common carrier (VOCC), conference (CONF), non-vessel-operating common carrier (NVOCC) or...

  1. 47 CFR 1.358 - Tariffs as evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tariffs as evidence. 1.358 Section 1.358....358 Tariffs as evidence. In case any matter contained in a tariff schedule on file with the Commission... the matter so offered shall be specified with particularity (tariff and page number) in such manner...

  2. 47 CFR 1.358 - Tariffs as evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tariffs as evidence. 1.358 Section 1.358....358 Tariffs as evidence. In case any matter contained in a tariff schedule on file with the Commission... the matter so offered shall be specified with particularity (tariff and page number) in such manner...

  3. 47 CFR 1.358 - Tariffs as evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tariffs as evidence. 1.358 Section 1.358....358 Tariffs as evidence. In case any matter contained in a tariff schedule on file with the Commission... the matter so offered shall be specified with particularity (tariff and page number) in such manner...

  4. 47 CFR 1.358 - Tariffs as evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tariffs as evidence. 1.358 Section 1.358....358 Tariffs as evidence. In case any matter contained in a tariff schedule on file with the Commission... the matter so offered shall be specified with particularity (tariff and page number) in such manner...

  5. 47 CFR 1.358 - Tariffs as evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tariffs as evidence. 1.358 Section 1.358....358 Tariffs as evidence. In case any matter contained in a tariff schedule on file with the Commission... the matter so offered shall be specified with particularity (tariff and page number) in such manner...

  6. 47 CFR 61.22 - Composition of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Composition of tariffs. 61.22 Section 61.22 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General Rules for Nondominant Carriers § 61.22 Composition of tariffs. (a) The tariff must be submitted on a 31/2 inch (8.89 cm) diskette, or a...

  7. Grantsmanship: Federal Context from State Level Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Bonny

    The purpose of this study was to examine awareness on the part of educational administrators at both state agency and institutional levels as to the importance of following the trends and priorities in legislation and in fund dispersals at both federal and state levels. The study also attempted to provide some limited assistance in approaching an…

  8. 14 CFR 221.202 - The filing of tariffs and amendments to tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The filing of tariffs and amendments to tariffs. 221.202 Section 221.202 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... date if the record has been superseded; (x) Percent of change from previous fares; and (xi)...

  9. 14 CFR 221.202 - The filing of tariffs and amendments to tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Identification Number; and (8) Fares tariff, or proposed changes to the fares tariffs, including: (i) Market; (ii... Routing) shall be considered a number for the purpose of this file; (ix) Effective date and discontinue...: Specific description of fare class, geographic area, type of transportation (one way, round-trip, etc.);...

  10. 14 CFR 221.202 - The filing of tariffs and amendments to tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Identification Number; and (8) Fares tariff, or proposed changes to the fares tariffs, including: (i) Market; (ii... Routing) shall be considered a number for the purpose of this file; (ix) Effective date and discontinue...: Specific description of fare class, geographic area, type of transportation (one way, round-trip, etc.);...

  11. 14 CFR 221.202 - The filing of tariffs and amendments to tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Identification Number; and (8) Fares tariff, or proposed changes to the fares tariffs, including: (i) Market; (ii... Routing) shall be considered a number for the purpose of this file; (ix) Effective date and discontinue...: Specific description of fare class, geographic area, type of transportation (one way, round-trip, etc.);...

  12. The Tariff Analysis Project: A database and analysis platform forelectricity tariffs

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, K.; White, R.; Bolduc, C.; Fisher, D.; Rosenquist, G.

    2006-05-12

    Much of the work done in energy research involves ananalysis of the costs and benefits of energy-saving technologies andother measures from the perspective of the consumer. The economic valuein particular depends on the price of energy (electricity, gas or otherfuel), which varies significantly both for different types of consumers,and for different regions of the country. Ideally, to provide accurateinformation about the economic value of energy savings, prices should becomputed directly from real tariffs as defined by utility companies. Alarge number of utility tariffs are now available freely over the web,but the complexity and diversity of tariff structures presents aconsiderable barrier to using them in practice. The goal of the TariffAnalysis Project (TAP) is to collect andarchive a statistically completesample of real utility tariffs, and build a set of database and web toolsthat make this information relatively easy to use in cost-benefitanalysis. This report presentsa detailed picture of the current TAPdatabase structure and web interface. While TAP has been designed tohandle tariffs for any kind of utility service, the focus here is onelectric utilities withinthe United States. Electricity tariffs can bevery complicated, so the database structures that have been built toaccommodate them are quite flexible and can be easily generalized toother commodities.

  13. 49 CFR 1312.7 - STB tariff designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... tariff designation consisting of: (1) The characters “STB”; (2) The assigned alpha code of the carrier or... tariff 1000-A could be designated 1000-B, etc. (b) Alpha codes. Alpha codes are assigned to carriers...

  14. 49 CFR 1312.7 - STB tariff designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... tariff designation consisting of: (1) The characters “STB”; (2) The assigned alpha code of the carrier or... tariff 1000-A could be designated 1000-B, etc. (b) Alpha codes. Alpha codes are assigned to carriers...

  15. 18 CFR 341.9 - Index of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES... destination points; and (4) Whether the tariff contains rates for transportation by mode other than...

  16. 18 CFR 341.9 - Index of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES... than pipeline. (b) The first section. The first section of a tariff index must contain a list of...

  17. 18 CFR 341.4 - Amendments of tariff filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.4 Amendments of tariff...

  18. 18 CFR 341.9 - Index of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES... than pipeline. (b) The first section. The first section of a tariff index must contain a list of...

  19. 18 CFR 341.9 - Index of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES... than pipeline. (b) The first section. The first section of a tariff index must contain a list of...

  20. 18 CFR 341.9 - Index of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES... than pipeline. (b) The first section. The first section of a tariff index must contain a list of...

  1. A study on real-time pricing electric tariffs

    SciTech Connect

    Mont, J.A.; Turner, W.C.

    1999-10-01

    With deregulation in the electric industry, customers have new opportunities to reduce their electricity cost, one of which consists of using real-time pricing (RTP) tariffs. The authors surveyed electric utilities in the country to investigate how these tariffs are presently implemented to help potential customers understand RTP tariffs. The survey found that the most common type of RTP tariff is a two-part tariff. It consists of a customer baseline load (CBL) charge and an energy charge (or credit) based on usage above (or below) the CBL charged at hourly prices. This type of tariff is explained using Oklahoma Gas and Electric (OG and E)`s day-ahead-pricing (DAP) tariff and calculation examples. This article also investigates the effect of customer flexibility on the charges under the DAP tariff by comparing three different types of customer response.

  2. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  3. 14 CFR 221.300 - Discontinuation of electronic tariff system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discontinuation of electronic tariff system... of electronic tariff system. In the event that the electronic tariff system is discontinued, or the source of the data is changed, or a filer discontinues its business, all electronic data records prior...

  4. 75 FR 82382 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... No. 714, 73 FR 57,515 (Oct. 3, 2008), 124 FERC ] 61,270, FERC Stats. & Regs [Regulations Preambles... Energy Regulatory Commission Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Technical Conference December 22, 2010... to discuss issues relating to the electronic filing of tariff and tariff related materials...

  5. 75 FR 12540 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... electronic tariff filing's data elements is the Type of Filing Code. \\1\\ Electronic Tariff Filings, Order No. 714, 73 FR 57,515 (Oct. 3, 2008), 124 FERC ] 61,270, FERC Stats. & Regs [Regulations Preambles] ] 31... Energy Regulatory Commission Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Technical Conference March 9, 2010....

  6. 14 CFR 221.300 - Discontinuation of electronic tariff system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discontinuation of electronic tariff system... of electronic tariff system. In the event that the electronic tariff system is discontinued, or the source of the data is changed, or a filer discontinues its business, all electronic data records prior...

  7. 48 CFR 252.239-7006 - Tariff information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tariff information. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.239-7006 Tariff information. As prescribed in 239.7411(a), use the following clause: Tariff Information (JUL 1997) (a) The Contractor shall provide to the Contracting Officer—...

  8. 49 CFR 1310.3 - Contents of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents of tariffs. 1310.3 Section 1310.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... CARRIERS § 1310.3 Contents of tariffs. (a) Tariffs prepared under this part must include an...

  9. 49 CFR 1310.6 - Furnishing copies of tariff publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnishing copies of tariff publications. 1310.6... REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.6 Furnishing copies of tariff publications. (a) Copies of... copies of tariff publications to interested persons. If a charge is made, the charge must be...

  10. 18 CFR 154.3 - Effective tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective tariff. 154.3 Section 154.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... gas company must not directly or indirectly, demand, charge, or collect any rate or charge for, or...

  11. 18 CFR 154.3 - Effective tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective tariff. 154.3 Section 154.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... gas company must not directly or indirectly, demand, charge, or collect any rate or charge for, or...

  12. 18 CFR 154.3 - Effective tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective tariff. 154.3 Section 154.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... gas company must not directly or indirectly, demand, charge, or collect any rate or charge for, or...

  13. 18 CFR 154.3 - Effective tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective tariff. 154.3 Section 154.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... gas company must not directly or indirectly, demand, charge, or collect any rate or charge for, or...

  14. 76 FR 27658 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2011 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota; The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2011 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United...: Announcement of the quota quantity of tuna in airtight containers for Calendar Year 2011. SUMMARY: Each...

  15. 77 FR 25732 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... International Trade, (202) 325-0009. Correction In notice document, FR Doc. 2012-9131, beginning on page 22796... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...

  16. 77 FR 22796 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United...: Announcement of the quota quantity of tuna in airtight containers for Calendar Year 2012. ] SUMMARY: Each...

  17. State level comprehensive health planning: a retrospect.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, W J

    1976-01-01

    A questionnaire survey of the 50 state CHP agencies and a case study of a single state CHP agency were conducted to contrast the concept of comprehensive health planning with the practice of health planning at the state level. Both the survey and the case study evidenced a substantial disparity between concept and practice. For example, the survey indicated that the following tasks had not been completed by the following percentages of the responding agencies: defining the system of interest (64%), ranking problems (50%), setting targets (74%), thoroughly analyzing intervention alternatives (71%), selecting criteria and procedures for intervention evaluations (57%). The state CHP agencies were found to be lacking in the following areas: (a) technical analyses, (b) explicitness, (c) priority setting, (d) attention to health status indices and preventive interventions, and (e) integration of planning activities. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:1251945

  18. The Value of Distributed Generation under Different TariffStructures

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Ryan; Magnus Maribu, Karl; Marnay, Chris

    2006-05-31

    Distributed generation (DG) may play a key role in a modern energy system because it can improve energy efficiency. Reductions in the energy bill, and therefore DG attractiveness, depend on the electricity tariff structure; a system created before widespread adoption of distributed generation. Tariffs have been designed to recover costs equitably amongst customers with similar consumption patterns. Recently, electric utilities began to question the equity of this electricity pricing structure for standby service. In particular, the utilities do not feel that DG customers are paying their fair share of transmission and distribution costs - traditionally recovered through a volumetric($/kWh) mechanism - under existing tariff structures. In response, new tariff structures with higher fixed costs for DG have been implemented in New York and in California. This work analyzes the effects of different electricity tariff structures on DG adoption. First, the effects of the new standby tariffs in New York are analyzed in different regions. Next generalized tariffs are constructed, and the sensitivity to varying levels of the volumetric and the demand ($/kW, i.e. maximum rate) charge component are analyzed on New York's standard and standby tariff as well as California's standby tariff. As expected, DG profitability is reduced with standby tariffs, but often marginally. The new standby structures tend to promote smaller base load systems. The amount of time-of-day variability of volumetric pricing seems to have little effect on DG economics.

  19. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704... Allotments, Grants, and Use of Funds § 300.704 State-level activities. (a) State administration. (1) For the... under that Part. (b) Other State-level activities. (1) States may reserve a portion of their...

  20. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704... Allotments, Grants, and Use of Funds § 300.704 State-level activities. (a) State administration. (1) For the... under that Part. (b) Other State-level activities. (1) States may reserve a portion of their...

  1. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704... Allotments, Grants, and Use of Funds § 300.704 State-level activities. (a) State administration. (1) For the... under that Part. (b) Other State-level activities. (1) States may reserve a portion of their...

  2. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704... Allotments, Grants, and Use of Funds § 300.704 State-level activities. (a) State administration. (1) For the... under that Part. (b) Other State-level activities. (1) States may reserve a portion of their...

  3. 19 CFR 10.520 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10...-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.520 Filing of claim for tariff preference level... tariff treatment under the SFTA under an applicable tariff preference level (TPL). To make a TPL...

  4. 19 CFR 10.420 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.420 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A... tariff treatment under the US-CFTA under an applicable tariff preference level (TPL). To make a TPL...

  5. 14 CFR 221.500 - Transmission of electronic tariffs to subscribers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to any subscriber to the on-line tariff database, including access to the justification required by... machine-readable data (raw tariff data) of all daily transactions made to its on-line tariff database....

  6. 19 CFR 102.20 - Specific rules by tariff classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Specific rules by tariff classification. 102.20 Section 102.20 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF ORIGIN Rules of Origin § 102.20 Specific rules by tariff classification. The following rules are the rules...

  7. 19 CFR 102.20 - Specific rules by tariff classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Specific rules by tariff classification. 102.20 Section 102.20 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF ORIGIN Rules of Origin § 102.20 Specific rules by tariff classification. The following rules are the rules...

  8. 19 CFR 102.20 - Specific rules by tariff classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Specific rules by tariff classification. 102.20 Section 102.20 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF ORIGIN Rules of Origin § 102.20 Specific rules by tariff classification. The following rules are the rules...

  9. 14 CFR 293.22 - Effectiveness of tariffs on file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 221, and will be canceled by operation of law. (b) One hundred and eighty days after the date... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effectiveness of tariffs on file. 293.22... Effectiveness of tariffs on file. (a) One hundred and eighty days after the date of effectiveness of...

  10. 18 CFR 341.5 - Cancellation of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cancellation of tariffs. 341.5 Section 341.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL...

  11. 18 CFR 341.3 - Form of tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Form of tariff. 341.3 Section 341.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE...

  12. 18 CFR 341.3 - Form of tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form of tariff. 341.3 Section 341.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE...

  13. 18 CFR 341.5 - Cancellation of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cancellation of tariffs. 341.5 Section 341.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL...

  14. 18 CFR 341.5 - Cancellation of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cancellation of tariffs. 341.5 Section 341.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL...

  15. 18 CFR 341.5 - Cancellation of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cancellation of tariffs. 341.5 Section 341.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL...

  16. 18 CFR 341.3 - Form of tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Form of tariff. 341.3 Section 341.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE...

  17. 18 CFR 341.3 - Form of tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... complete street and mailing address of the carrier, and the name and phone number of the individual... the tariff or found in any other tariff. Rules may not provide that traffic of any nature will be... street and mailing address of the carrier, and the name and phone number of the individual...

  18. 18 CFR 154.103 - Composition of tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Composition of tariff. 154.103 Section 154.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Form and Composition...

  19. 18 CFR 154.103 - Composition of tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Composition of tariff. 154.103 Section 154.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Form and Composition...

  20. 46 CFR 520.10 - Integrity of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED... data that appeared in their tariff publication systems for a period of five (5) years from the date... Commission will periodically review published tariff systems and will prohibit the use of any system...

  1. 49 CFR 1312.8 - Identification of tariff publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... THE PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A WATER... carrier or agent; (3) The name of the tariff; and (4) The issue and effective dates of the publication. (b) If the publication contains matter effective on other than the general effective date, the...

  2. 46 CFR 520.9 - Access to tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS... published tariffs, via a personal computer (“PC”), by: (1) Dial-up connection via public switched telephone... terminal emulation access; and (iii) Telephone line quality for data transmission. (2) The modem may...

  3. 19 CFR 102.20 - Specific rules by tariff classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Specific rules by tariff classification. 102.20 Section 102.20 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF ORIGIN Rules of Origin § 102.20 Specific rules by tariff classification. The following rules are the rules...

  4. 49 CFR 1312.13 - Furnishing copies of tariff publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with 49 CFR 1312.13 has been made. (d) Charges. (1) If any charge is made, the charge for copies of... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnishing copies of tariff publications. 1312.13... CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.13 Furnishing copies of tariff publications....

  5. 7 CFR 735.107 - Warehouse charges and tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Warehouse charges and tariffs. 735.107 Section 735.107... AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS FOR WAREHOUSES REGULATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES WAREHOUSE ACT Warehouse Licensing § 735.107 Warehouse charges and tariffs. (a) A warehouse operator must not make any unreasonable...

  6. 49 CFR 1310.2 - Requirement to maintain tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for charitable purposes without charge, carriers subject to the Board's jurisdiction under Chapter 135.... Tariffs shall be published in the English language and rates shall be stated in money of the United States... lading or by other actual notice to individuals whose shipments are subject to the tariff, as provided...

  7. A Comparative Case Study of State-Level Virtual Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Haixia; Morris, Libby V.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the consortial approach to distance education at the state level, with a focus on examining the way three state-level virtual universities engaged colleges and universities in participating in distance education initiatives. Specifically, three research questions guided this study: (1) What structure was…

  8. Maximum-revenue tariff under Bertrand duopoly with unknown costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2009-09-01

    This paper considers an international trade under Bertrand model with differentiated products and with unknown production costs. The home government imposes a specific import tariff per unit of imports from the foreign firm. We prove that this tariff is decreasing in the expected production costs of the foreign firm and increasing in the production costs of the home firm. Furthermore, it is increasing in the degree of product substitutability. We also show that an increase in the tariff results in both firms increasing their prices, an increase in both expected sales and expected profits for the home firm, and a decrease in both expected sales and expected profits for the foreign firm.

  9. 18 CFR 154.603 - Adoption of the tariff by a successor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption of the tariff by a successor. 154.603 Section 154.603 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Other Tariff Changes § 154.603 Adoption of the tariff by a successor. Whenever the tariff or...

  10. 18 CFR 154.603 - Adoption of the tariff by a successor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption of the tariff by a successor. 154.603 Section 154.603 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Other Tariff Changes § 154.603 Adoption of the tariff by a successor. Whenever the tariff or...

  11. 18 CFR 154.603 - Adoption of the tariff by a successor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption of the tariff by a successor. 154.603 Section 154.603 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Other Tariff Changes § 154.603 Adoption of the tariff by a successor. Whenever the tariff or...

  12. 18 CFR 154.603 - Adoption of the tariff by a successor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of the tariff by a successor. 154.603 Section 154.603 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Other Tariff Changes § 154.603 Adoption of the tariff by a successor. Whenever the tariff or...

  13. 19 CFR 10.818 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.818 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A... under the BFTA under an applicable tariff preference level (TPL). To make a TPL claim, the importer...

  14. 19 CFR 10.778 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.778 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A... MFTA under an applicable tariff preference level (TPL). To make a TPL claim, the importer must...

  15. 14 CFR 221.60 - When reference to governing tariffs permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false When reference to governing tariffs... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Governing Tariffs § 221.60 When reference to governing... refer to nor provide that it is governed by any other tariff, document, or publication, or any...

  16. 14 CFR 221.60 - When reference to governing tariffs permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When reference to governing tariffs... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Governing Tariffs § 221.60 When reference to governing... refer to nor provide that it is governed by any other tariff, document, or publication, or any...

  17. 47 CFR 61.28 - International dominant carrier tariff filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International dominant carrier tariff filing... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General Tariff Rules for International Dominant Carriers § 61.28 International dominant carrier tariff filing requirements. (a) Any carrier classified as dominant for...

  18. 18 CFR 385.203 - Content of pleadings and tariff or rate filings (Rule 203).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and tariff or rate filings (Rule 203). 385.203 Section 385.203 Conservation of Power and Water... PROCEDURE Pleadings, Tariff and Rate Filings, Notices of Tariff or Rate Examination, Orders To Show Cause, Intervention, and Summary Disposition § 385.203 Content of pleadings and tariff or rate filings (Rule 203)....

  19. Energy Prices, Tariffs, Taxes and Subsidies in Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd

    2007-04-01

    For many years, electricity, gas and district heating tariffs for residential consumers were very low in Ukraine; until recently, they were even lower than in neighbouring countries such as Russia. The increases in gas and electricity tariffs, implemented in 2006, are an important step toward sustainable pricing levels; however, electricity and natural gas (especially for households) are still priced below the long-run marginal cost. The problem seems even more serious in district heating and nuclear power. According to the Ministry of Construction, district heating tariffs, on average, cover about 80% of costs. Current electricity prices do not fully include the capital costs of power stations, which are particularly high for nuclear power. Although the tariff for nuclear electricity generation includes a small decommissioning charge, it has not been sufficient to accumulate necessary funds for nuclear plants decommissioning.

  20. 18 CFR 341.13 - Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.13 Withdrawal...

  1. 18 CFR 341.13 - Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.13 Withdrawal...

  2. 18 CFR 341.13 - Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.13 Withdrawal...

  3. 18 CFR 341.13 - Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.13 Withdrawal...

  4. 18 CFR 341.13 - Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.13 Withdrawal...

  5. Tariff-based analysis of commercial building electricityprices

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Rosenquist, Greg J.; VanBuskirk, Robert D.; McMahon, James E.

    2008-03-28

    This paper presents the results of a survey and analysis ofelectricity tariffs and marginal electricity prices for commercialbuildings. The tariff data come from a survey of 90 utilities and 250tariffs for non-residential customers collected in 2004 as part of theTariff Analysis Project at LBNL. The goals of this analysis are toprovide useful summary data on the marginal electricity prices commercialcustomers actually see, and insight into the factors that are mostimportant in determining prices under different circumstances. We providea new, empirically-based definition of several marginal prices: theeffective marginal price and energy-only anddemand-only prices, andderive a simple formula that expresses the dependence of the effectivemarginal price on the marginal load factor. The latter is a variable thatcan be used to characterize the load impacts of a particular end-use orefficiency measure. We calculate all these prices for eleven regionswithin the continental U.S.

  6. 14 CFR 399.35 - Special tariff permission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Special tariff permission. (a) Definition. As used in this section, to grant STP means to approve a... or rates are within a statutory or Board-established zone of fare or rate flexibility; and...

  7. Broken promise? Taxes and tariffs on insecticide treated mosquito nets.

    PubMed

    Alilio, Martin; Mwenesi, Halima; Barat, Lawrence M; Payes, Roshelle M; Prysor-Jones, Suzanne; Diara, Malick; McGuire, David; Shaw, Willard

    2007-12-01

    Seven years ago, the removal of taxes and tariffs on insecticide treated nets (ITNs) was considered one of the easiest resolutions for most countries to implement among the targets agreed upon at the African Summit on Roll Back Malaria in Abuja, Nigeria, on April 25, 2000. However, seven years later, 24 of the 39 Abuja signatories continue to impose taxes and tariffs on this life-saving tool. Taxes and tariffs significantly increase the price of an insecticide treated net, reduce affordability, and discourage the commercial sector from importing insecticide treated net products. Consequently, Roll Back Malaria partners are engaged in advocacy efforts to remove taxes and tariffs on insecticide treated nets in malaria-endemic countries of Africa. This viewpoint summarizes key obstacles to the removal of taxes and tariffs that have been identified through a review of country situations. To achieve the goal of producing and supplying more than 160 million insecticide treated nets needed to reach the revised Roll Back Malaria Partnership targets by 2010, tax and tariff reforms are urgently needed. Such reforms must be accompanied by country-specific systems to protect the poor (e.g., through voucher systems for vulnerable groups and other forms of targeted subsidies).

  8. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Preschool Grants for Children with Disabilities § 300.814 Other State-level... process required by section 615(e) of the Act), which may benefit children with disabilities younger than three or older than five as long as those services also benefit children with disabilities aged...

  9. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Preschool Grants for Children with Disabilities § 300.814 Other State-level... process required by section 615(e) of the Act), which may benefit children with disabilities younger than three or older than five as long as those services also benefit children with disabilities aged...

  10. 77 FR 58991 - State-Level Guarantee Fee Pricing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... AGENCY State-Level Guarantee Fee Pricing AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Notice; input... guarantee fees (``g-fees'') that the Enterprises charge for mortgages that finance properties with one to... Enterprises charge g-fees to compensate for the credit risks they undertake when they own or...

  11. STEM: Science Technology Engineering Mathematics. State-Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Melton, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) state-level analysis provides policymakers, educators, state government officials, and others with details on the projections of STEM jobs through 2018. This report delivers a state-by-state snapshot of the demand for STEM jobs, including: (1) The number of forecast net new and…

  12. 19 CFR 10.521 - Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.521 Goods eligible for tariff... assembled in Singapore from fabric or yarn produced or obtained outside the territory of Singapore or...

  13. 19 CFR 10.521 - Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.521 Goods eligible for tariff... assembled in Singapore from fabric or yarn produced or obtained outside the territory of Singapore or...

  14. 19 CFR 10.521 - Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.521 Goods eligible for tariff... assembled in Singapore from fabric or yarn produced or obtained outside the territory of Singapore or...

  15. 19 CFR 10.521 - Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.521 Goods eligible for tariff... assembled in Singapore from fabric or yarn produced or obtained outside the territory of Singapore or...

  16. Counting the uninsured using state-level hospitalization data.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, C; Campbell, E

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the appropriateness of using state-level data on uninsured hospitalizations to estimate the uninsured population. METHODS: The authors used 1992-1996 data on hospitalizations of newborns and of appendectomy and heart attack patients in Florida to estimate the number of people in the state without health insurance coverage. These conditions were selected because they usually require hospitalization and they are common across demographic categories. RESULTS: Adjusted for the gender and ethnic composition of the population, the percentages of uninsured hospitalizations for appendectomies and heart attacks produced estimates of the state's uninsured population 1.6 percentage points lower than those reported for 1996 in the US Census March Current Population Survey. CONCLUSION: Data reported by hospitals to state agencies can be used to monitor trends in health insurance coverage and provides an alternative data source for a state-level analysis of the uninsured population. PMID:10199717

  17. 49 CFR 1312.9 - Statement of tariff application and other title page requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BY OR WITH A WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.9 Statement of tariff application... shall lead with a title page. The title page of each tariff or supplement shall include the expiration..., mode of serving carrier(s), type of rates, and description of tariff content. EXAMPLES: (a) Local...

  18. 14 CFR 221.180 - Requirements for electronic filing of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Transportation, for the maintenance and security of the on-line tariff database. (b) No carrier or... to its on-line tariff database. The filer shall be responsible for the transportation, installation... installation or maintenance. (3) The filer shall provide public access to its on-line tariff database,...

  19. 14 CFR 221.180 - Requirements for electronic filing of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Transportation, for the maintenance and security of the on-line tariff database. (b) No carrier or... to its on-line tariff database. The filer shall be responsible for the transportation, installation... installation or maintenance. (3) The filer shall provide public access to its on-line tariff database,...

  20. 14 CFR 221.180 - Requirements for electronic filing of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Transportation, for the maintenance and security of the on-line tariff database. (b) No carrier or... to its on-line tariff database. The filer shall be responsible for the transportation, installation... installation or maintenance. (3) The filer shall provide public access to its on-line tariff database,...

  1. 22 CFR 91.3 - Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission... CONTROLS § 91.3 Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives. Consular officers shall render all proper assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives abroad to aid them in...

  2. 18 CFR 341.4 - Filing requirements for amendments to tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amendments to tariffs. 341.4 Section 341.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE... requirements for amendments to tariffs. (a) Supplements to tariffs. (1) Supplements are limited to...

  3. 18 CFR 154.112 - Exception to form and composition of tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exception to form and composition of tariff. 154.112 Section 154.112 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... and Composition of Tariff § 154.112 Exception to form and composition of tariff. (a) The...

  4. 18 CFR 154.112 - Exception to form and composition of tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exception to form and composition of tariff. 154.112 Section 154.112 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... and Composition of Tariff § 154.112 Exception to form and composition of tariff. (a) The...

  5. 19 CFR 10.521 - Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.521 Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims. Goods eligible for a TPL claim consist of cotton or man-made fiber apparel...

  6. 19 CFR 10.607 - Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims... Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.607 Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims. Goods eligible for a TPL claim consist of cotton or man-made...

  7. 19 CFR 10.779 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. 10.779 Section 10.779 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.779 Goods eligible for tariff preference claims....

  8. 19 CFR 10.421 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. 10.421 Section 10.421 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.421 Goods eligible for tariff preference claims....

  9. 19 CFR 10.606 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10...-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.606 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A cotton or man-made fiber apparel good of Nicaragua described in § 10.607...

  10. 19 CFR 10.819 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. 10.819 Section 10.819 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.819 Goods eligible for tariff preference claims....

  11. 18 CFR 154.112 - Exception to form and composition of tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exception to form and composition of tariff. 154.112 Section 154.112 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... and Composition of Tariff § 154.112 Exception to form and composition of tariff. (a) The...

  12. 18 CFR 154.112 - Exception to form and composition of tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exception to form and composition of tariff. 154.112 Section 154.112 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... and Composition of Tariff § 154.112 Exception to form and composition of tariff. (a) The...

  13. 18 CFR 154.112 - Exception to form and composition of tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exception to form and composition of tariff. 154.112 Section 154.112 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... and Composition of Tariff § 154.112 Exception to form and composition of tariff. (a) The...

  14. 49 CFR 1312.2 - Requirement to publish and file a tariff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and advertising and promotional material. (d) Effect of filing. The tender of a tariff and its receipt... tariff that is on file with the Board and in effect under this part. (b) Adherence to tariff. The carrier... laws, the Board's regulations, or any decision of the Board or a court, or have any effect on...

  15. 18 CFR 154.208 - Service of tariff filings on customers and other parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Procedures for Changing Tariffs § 154.208 Service of tariff filings on customers and... customers and state regulatory commissions that have made a standing request for such service. (c) Within... section, service upon the designated recipient will be deemed service upon the customer or other party....

  16. Prioritizing Acquisition Pathways in the State Level Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Chantell L.; Budlong-Sylvester, Kory; Pilat, Joseph F.

    2012-06-27

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Department of Safeguards has launched a project to further develop the State-level concept for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of safeguards activities. In order to further evolve the safeguards system an emphasis is placed on integrating inspection-related activities and the State evaluation process to draw safeguards conclusions in the most efficient way. The credible implementation of acquisition pathway analysis is central to the success of the IAEA's State-level concept. NNSA's Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is sponsoring Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to produce a study that will examine the use of acquisition pathway analysis in: (1) Developing a State-specific, State-level approach (SLA) and Annual Implementation Plan (AIP); (2) Maximizing the utility of the physical model; and (3) Supporting resource allocation decisions through a pathway prioritization. To deal with the challenge of developing an effective and efficient SLA, this study looks at: (1) Prioritizing proliferation pathways based on an assessment of a State's capabilities and assumed proliferation strategies; and (2) Relevant State behavior (e.g., transparency, cooperation, etc.) while avoiding subjective judgments about States themselves. The study makes use of case studies and concrete examples in order to illustrate how new concepts and approaches will be implemented, and how they may differ from more traditional safeguards approaches.

  17. 76 FR 61956 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... published at 47 CFR in parts 61 and 64 published at 76 FR 43206, July 20, 2011, are effective November 17... requirements contained in the Commission's Order, FCC 11-92, published at 76 FR 43206, July 20, 2011. The OMB... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 61 and 64 Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS) AGENCY: Federal...

  18. 75 FR 48629 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... support the changed or new matter. (1) For a tariff change the issuing carrier must submit the following... representative 12 month period; (iii) Estimates of the effect of the changed matter on the traffic and revenues from the service to which the changed matter applies, the issuing carrier's other...

  19. 76 FR 43206 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... explanation of the changed or new matter, the reasons for the filing, the basis of ratemaking employed, and economic information to support the changed or new matter. (1) For a tariff change the issuing carrier must... of costs for a representative 12 month period; (iii) Estimates of the effect of the changed matter...

  20. 46 CFR 520.9 - Access to tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... published tariffs, via a personal computer (“PC”), by: (1) Dial-up connection via public switched telephone networks (“PSTN”); or (2) The Internet (Web) by: (i) Web browser; or (ii) Telnet session. (b) Dial-up... terminal emulation access; and (iii) Telephone line quality for data transmission. (2) The modem may...

  1. 18 CFR 281.204 - Tariff filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....204 Tariff filing requirements. (a) General rule. Each interstate pipeline listed in § 281.202 shall... curtailment where additional supplies are required to forestall irreparable injury to life or to property; and (ii) To provide for deliveries of sufficient volumes of natural gas to provide for minimum...

  2. 18 CFR 281.204 - Tariff filing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....204 Tariff filing requirements. (a) General rule. Each interstate pipeline listed in § 281.202 shall... curtailment where additional supplies are required to forestall irreparable injury to life or to property; and (ii) To provide for deliveries of sufficient volumes of natural gas to provide for minimum...

  3. 19 CFR 102.20 - Specific rules by tariff classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF ORIGIN Rules of Origin § 102.20 Specific rules by tariff classification..., provided that a single spice ingredient of foreign origin constitutes no more than 60 percent by weight of... any other heading, provided that no single oil ingredient of foreign origin constitutes more than...

  4. 48 CFR 252.239-7006 - Tariff information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tariff information. 252.239-7006 Section 252.239-7006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text...

  5. 72 FR 16868 - International Air Transport Association Tariff Conference Proceeding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-04-05

    ... Office of the Secretary International Air Transport Association Tariff Conference Proceeding AGENCY...'') agreement, the Provisions for the Conduct of the IATA Traffic Conferences, insofar as that agreement establishes conferences whereby IATA's member carriers discuss and agree upon passenger fares and cargo...

  6. 14 CFR 292.22 - Effectiveness of tariffs on file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... well as under the provisions of 14 CFR Part 221, and they are canceled by operation of law. (b) As of... under 49 USC 41504 and the provisions of 14 CFR part 221, and are cancelled by operation of law. Any... adherence to filed tariffs in 49 USC 41510 and the related provisions of 14 CFR part 221 as of November...

  7. 47 CFR 69.3 - Filing of access service tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... telephone companies involved in a merger or acquisition. (1) Notwithstanding the requirements of § 69.3(e)(9... resulting from the merger or acquisition of telephone properties are to be made effective on the next annual access tariff filing effective date following consummation of the merger or acquisition transaction,...

  8. 47 CFR 61.54 - Composition of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... must be numbered in continuing sequence, and designated as “Original page ____ .” For example, when the... tariff published by any other participating carrier need not be repeated in this list. (i)(1) Symbols... of service to and from which the rates apply. They must be arranged in a simple and systematic...

  9. 47 CFR 61.54 - Composition of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must be numbered in continuing sequence, and designated as “Original page ____ .” For example, when the... tariff published by any other participating carrier need not be repeated in this list. (i)(1) Symbols... of service to and from which the rates apply. They must be arranged in a simple and systematic...

  10. 47 CFR 61.54 - Composition of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must be numbered in continuing sequence, and designated as “Original page ____ .” For example, when the... tariff published by any other participating carrier need not be repeated in this list. (i)(1) Symbols... of service to and from which the rates apply. They must be arranged in a simple and systematic...

  11. 47 CFR 61.54 - Composition of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... must be numbered in continuing sequence, and designated as “Original page ____ .” For example, when the... tariff published by any other participating carrier need not be repeated in this list. (i)(1) Symbols... of service to and from which the rates apply. They must be arranged in a simple and systematic...

  12. 47 CFR 61.54 - Composition of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... must be numbered in continuing sequence, and designated as “Original page ____ .” For example, when the... tariff published by any other participating carrier need not be repeated in this list. (i)(1) Symbols... of service to and from which the rates apply. They must be arranged in a simple and systematic...

  13. 18 CFR 341.5 - Cancellation of tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... 341.5 Section 341.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE... supplement, the supplement must show where the rates will be found thereafter or what rates will...

  14. Framework for State-Level Renewable Energy Market Potential Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, C.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Doris, E.

    2010-01-01

    State-level policymakers are relying on estimates of the market potential for renewable energy resources as they set goals and develop policies to accelerate the development of these resources. Therefore, accuracy of such estimates should be understood and possibly improved to appropriately support these decisions. This document provides a framework and next steps for state officials who require estimates of renewable energy market potential. The report gives insight into how to conduct a market potential study, including what supporting data are needed and what types of assumptions need to be made. The report distinguishes between goal-oriented studies and other types of studies, and explains the benefits of each.

  15. 14 CFR 221.550 - Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public reference room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer... Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.550 Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's... obtained by any user at Departmental Headquarters from the printer or printers placed in Tariff...

  16. 14 CFR 221.550 - Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public reference room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer... Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.550 Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's... obtained by any user at Departmental Headquarters from the printer or printers placed in Tariff...

  17. 14 CFR 221.550 - Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public reference room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer... Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.550 Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's... obtained by any user at Departmental Headquarters from the printer or printers placed in Tariff...

  18. 14 CFR 221.550 - Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public reference room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer... Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.550 Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's... obtained by any user at Departmental Headquarters from the printer or printers placed in Tariff...

  19. 14 CFR 221.550 - Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public reference room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer... Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.550 Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's... obtained by any user at Departmental Headquarters from the printer or printers placed in Tariff...

  20. State-Level Cancer Quality Assessment and Research

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, Joseph; Gillespie, Theresa W.

    2016-01-01

    Over a decade ago, the Institute of Medicine called for a national cancer data system in the United States to support quality-of-care assessment and improvement, including research on effective interventions. Although considerable progress has been achieved in cancer quality measurement and effectiveness research, the nation still lacks a population-based data infrastructure for accurately identifying cancer patients and tracking services and outcomes over time. For compelling reasons, the most effective pathway forward may be the development of state-level cancer data systems, in which central registry data are linked to multiple public and private secondary sources. These would include administrative/claims files from Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurers. Moreover, such a state-level system would promote rapid learning by encouraging adoption of near-real-time reporting and feedback systems, such as the Commission on Cancer’s new Rapid Quality Reporting System. The groundwork for such a system is being laid in the state of Georgia, and similar work is advancing in other states. The pace of progress depends on the successful resolution of issues related to the application of information technology, financing, and governance. PMID:21799333

  1. Emissions reductions from expanding state-level renewable portfolio standards.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremiah X; Novacheck, Joshua

    2015-05-01

    In the United States, state-level Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) have served as key drivers for the development of new renewable energy. This research presents a method to evaluate emissions reductions and costs attributable to new or expanded RPS programs by integrating a comprehensive economic dispatch model and a renewable project selection model. The latter model minimizes incremental RPS costs, accounting for renewable power purchase agreements (PPAs), displaced generation and capacity costs, and net changes to a state's imports and exports. We test this method on potential expansions to Michigan's RPS, evaluating target renewable penetrations of 10% (business as usual or BAU), 20%, 25%, and 40%, with varying times to completion. Relative to the BAU case, these expanded RPS policies reduce the CO2 intensity of generation by 13%, 18%, and 33% by 2035, respectively. SO2 emissions intensity decreased by 13%, 20%, and 34% for each of the three scenarios, while NOx reductions totaled 12%, 17%, and 31%, relative to the BAU case. For CO2 and NOx, absolute reductions in emissions intensity were not as large due to an increasing trend in emissions intensity in the BAU case driven by load growth. Over the study period (2015 to 2035), the absolute CO2 emissions intensity increased by 1% in the 20% RPS case and decreased by 6% and 22% for the 25% and 40% cases, respectively. Between 26% and 31% of the CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions reductions attributable to the expanded RPS occur in neighboring states, underscoring the challenges quantifying local emissions reductions from state-level energy policies with an interconnected grid. Without federal subsidies, the cost of CO2 mitigation using an RPS in Michigan is between $28 and $34/t CO2 when RPS targets are met. The optimal renewable build plan is sensitive to the capacity credit for solar but insensitive to the value for wind power. PMID:25884101

  2. Emissions reductions from expanding state-level renewable portfolio standards.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremiah X; Novacheck, Joshua

    2015-05-01

    In the United States, state-level Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) have served as key drivers for the development of new renewable energy. This research presents a method to evaluate emissions reductions and costs attributable to new or expanded RPS programs by integrating a comprehensive economic dispatch model and a renewable project selection model. The latter model minimizes incremental RPS costs, accounting for renewable power purchase agreements (PPAs), displaced generation and capacity costs, and net changes to a state's imports and exports. We test this method on potential expansions to Michigan's RPS, evaluating target renewable penetrations of 10% (business as usual or BAU), 20%, 25%, and 40%, with varying times to completion. Relative to the BAU case, these expanded RPS policies reduce the CO2 intensity of generation by 13%, 18%, and 33% by 2035, respectively. SO2 emissions intensity decreased by 13%, 20%, and 34% for each of the three scenarios, while NOx reductions totaled 12%, 17%, and 31%, relative to the BAU case. For CO2 and NOx, absolute reductions in emissions intensity were not as large due to an increasing trend in emissions intensity in the BAU case driven by load growth. Over the study period (2015 to 2035), the absolute CO2 emissions intensity increased by 1% in the 20% RPS case and decreased by 6% and 22% for the 25% and 40% cases, respectively. Between 26% and 31% of the CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions reductions attributable to the expanded RPS occur in neighboring states, underscoring the challenges quantifying local emissions reductions from state-level energy policies with an interconnected grid. Without federal subsidies, the cost of CO2 mitigation using an RPS in Michigan is between $28 and $34/t CO2 when RPS targets are met. The optimal renewable build plan is sensitive to the capacity credit for solar but insensitive to the value for wind power.

  3. District Heating Systems Performance Analyses. Heat Energy Tariff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemele, Jelena; Vigants, Girts; Vitolins, Valdis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2014-12-01

    The paper addresses an important element of the European energy sector: the evaluation of district heating (DH) system operations from the standpoint of increasing energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy resources. This has been done by developing a new methodology for the evaluation of the heat tariff. The paper presents an algorithm of this methodology, which includes not only a data base and calculation equation systems, but also an integrated multi-criteria analysis module using MADM/MCDM (Multi-Attribute Decision Making / Multi-Criteria Decision Making) based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The results of the multi-criteria analysis are used to set the tariff benchmarks. The evaluation methodology has been tested for Latvian heat tariffs, and the obtained results show that only half of heating companies reach a benchmark value equal to 0.5 for the efficiency closeness to the ideal solution indicator. This means that the proposed evaluation methodology would not only allow companies to determine how they perform with regard to the proposed benchmark, but also to identify their need to restructure so that they may reach the level of a low-carbon business.

  4. Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under VariousElectricity Tariffs

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2007-05-01

    The on-site generation of electricity can offer buildingowners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits suchas reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reducedgreenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP), or cogeneration,systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heatingneeds. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult todetermine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty inCHP equipment availability, energy prices, and system loads. Typically,CHP systems use simple heuristic control strategies. This paper describesa method of determining optimal control in real-time and applies it to alight industrial site in San Diego, California, to examine: 1) the addedbenefit of optimal over heuristic controls, 2) the price elasticity ofthe system, and 3) the site-attributable greenhouse gas emissions, allunder three different tariff structures. Results suggest that heuristiccontrols are adequate under the current tariff structure and relativelyhigh electricity prices, capturing 97 percent of the value of thedistributed generation system. Even more value could be captured bysimply not running the CHP system during times of unusually high naturalgas prices. Under hypothetical real-time pricing of electricity,heuristic controls would capture only 70 percent of the value ofdistributed generation.

  5. State-Level Moderation of Genetic Tendencies to Smoke

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. I examined genetic influences on smoking among adolescents and differences in the heritability of smoking across states in the United States. Methods. With data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (participants aged 12–21 years), I used a multilevel twin- and sibling-pair (N = 2060 pairs) regression model. Results. Daily smoking (hereditability estimate [h2] = 0.54) and smoking onset (h2 = 0.42) were both highly heritable. Whereas the genetic influences on smoking onset were consistent across states, there was significant variation in these influences on daily smoking. Genetic influences on daily smoking were lower in states with relatively high taxes on cigarettes and in those with greater controls on the vending machines and cigarette advertising. Genetic influences were also negatively associated with rates of smoking among youths. Conclusions. At the state level, gene–environment interaction models are best characterized by the model of social control. State policies may influence genetic tendencies to smoke regularly, but they have not affected the genetic contributions to cigarette onset or experimentation. Future tobacco-control policies may emphasize the heritable endophenotypes that increase the likelihood that adolescents will initiate smoking. PMID:19150910

  6. A reassessment of state-level covariates of militia groups.

    PubMed

    Freilich, Joshua D; Pridemore, William Alex

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated state-level variation in the number of right-wing militia groups. We built on prior quantitative examinations by more carefully operationalizing theoretical concepts and testing alternative hypotheses offered to account for the etiology of social movements generally and of militias specifically. Using negative binomial regression, we found that, consistent with previous research, states with higher levels of farm job loss had more militia groups. However, in contrast to prior studies, we did not find gun culture, hospitable political climate, female empowerment, or general economic deprivation to be associated with the number of militia groups. We also found no relationship between the number of militia groups and levels of fundamentalist religious culture and minority empowerment. Our study was the first to test the effects of social disorganization on the number of militias in a state, and we found the two to be positively and significantly associated. We situate our results in the theoretical and empirical literature and outline two challenges for future research. First, scholars must operationalize variables carefully since different measures of the same theoretical concept may result in diverging conclusions. Second, since one major factor (i.e., social disorganization) found in this study to be associated with the number of militia groups in a state was examined here for the first time, it is important for researchers to continue to investigate new hypotheses.

  7. 18 CFR 341.1 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT §...

  8. 18 CFR 341.11 - Rejection of tariff publications and other filed materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT §...

  9. 18 CFR 341.1 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT §...

  10. 18 CFR 341.11 - Rejection of tariff publications and other filed materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT §...

  11. 18 CFR 341.11 - Rejection of tariff publications and other filed materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT §...

  12. 18 CFR 341.1 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT §...

  13. 18 CFR 341.1 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT §...

  14. 18 CFR 341.11 - Rejection of tariff publications and other filed materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT §...

  15. 18 CFR 341.1 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT §...

  16. 18 CFR 341.11 - Rejection of tariff publications and other filed materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT §...

  17. Environmental and international tariffs in a mixed duopoly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of environmental and trade policies in an international mixed duopoly serving two markets, in which the public firm maximizes the sum of consumer surplus and its profit. We also analyse the effects of privatization. The model has two stages. In the first stage, governments choose environmental taxes and import tariffs, simultaneously. Then, the firms engage in a Cournot competition, choosing output levels for the domestic market and to export. We compare the results obtained in the three different ways of moving on the decision make of the firms.

  18. 7 CFR Appendices 1-3 to Subpart - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing 1 Appendices 1-3 to Subpart Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Dairy...-3 Appendices 1-3 to Subpart—Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Articles Subject To: Appendix...

  19. 7 CFR Appendices 1-3 to Subpart - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing 1 Appendices 1-3 to Subpart Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Dairy...-3 Appendices 1-3 to Subpart—Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Articles Subject to: Appendix...

  20. 7 CFR Appendices 1-3 to Subpart - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing 1 Appendices 1-3 to Subpart Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Dairy...-3 Appendices 1-3 to Subpart—Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Articles Subject to: Appendix...

  1. 7 CFR Appendices 1-3 to Subpart - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing 1 Appendices 1-3 to Subpart Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Dairy...-3 Appendices 1-3 to Subpart—Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Articles Subject to: Appendix...

  2. 78 FR 8434 - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service 7 CFR Part 6 RIN 0551-AA82 Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA. ACTION: Advance notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: Request for public comment on the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing...

  3. 76 FR 61472 - Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On August 5, 2010, the Secretary of Agriculture established the FY 2011... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar AGENCY... the fiscal year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported refined...

  4. 76 FR 61074 - USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar AGENCY... increase in the fiscal year (FY) 2011 refined sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) of 136,078 metric tons raw... MTRV for sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred to as refined sugar) described...

  5. 19 CFR 10.583 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED... § 10.583 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. (a) Basis of claim....

  6. 19 CFR 10.583 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED... § 10.583 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. (a) Basis of claim....

  7. 19 CFR 10.583 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED... § 10.583 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. (a) Basis of claim....

  8. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption of tariff by a successor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of tariff by a successor. 341.6 Section 341.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption of tariff by...

  9. 18 CFR 385.203 - Content of pleadings and tariff or rate filings (Rule 203).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Content of pleadings and tariff or rate filings (Rule 203). 385.203 Section 385.203 Conservation of Power and Water... of any relevant tariff, rate, schedule, contract, application, rule, or similar matter or...

  10. 47 CFR 1.773 - Petitions for suspension or rejection of new tariff filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petitions for suspension or rejection of new... Petitions for suspension or rejection of new tariff filings. (a) Petition—(1) Content. Petitions seeking investigation, suspension, or rejection of a new or revised tariff filing or any provision thereof shall...

  11. 47 CFR 1.773 - Petitions for suspension or rejection of new tariff filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Petitions for suspension or rejection of new... Petitions for suspension or rejection of new tariff filings. (a) Petition—(1) Content. Petitions seeking investigation, suspension, or rejection of a new or revised tariff filing or any provision thereof shall...

  12. 49 CFR 1312.10 - Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notification of tariff changes and nature of... WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.10 Notification of tariff changes and nature of... changes and their nature (whether an increase or decrease in service, rates or transportation charges)....

  13. 49 CFR 1312.10 - Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notification of tariff changes and nature of... WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.10 Notification of tariff changes and nature of... changes and their nature (whether an increase or decrease in service, rates or transportation charges)....

  14. 49 CFR 1312.10 - Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notification of tariff changes and nature of... WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.10 Notification of tariff changes and nature of... changes and their nature (whether an increase or decrease in service, rates or transportation charges)....

  15. 49 CFR 1312.10 - Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notification of tariff changes and nature of... WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.10 Notification of tariff changes and nature of... changes and their nature (whether an increase or decrease in service, rates or transportation charges)....

  16. 78 FR 71724 - Recordations, Water Carrier Tariffs, and Agricultural Contract Summaries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Surface Transportation Board Recordations, Water Carrier Tariffs, and Agricultural Contract Summaries... these approvals will expire if not renewed. (1) Recordations, Control Number 2140-0025 (2) Water Carrier Tariffs, Control Number 2140-26 (3) Agricultural Contract Summaries, Control Number 2140-0024 See 78...

  17. 75 FR 30017 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Posting Regarding Filing Procedures for Electronically Filed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Posting Regarding Filing Procedures for Electronically Filed Tariffs May 21, 2010. Take Notice that the attached document ``Filing Procedures...

  18. 14 CFR 372.25 - Tariffs to be filed for charter trips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 372.25 Tariffs to be filed for charter trips. Effective October 1, 1972, a charter operator shall not operate or sell or offer to sell, solicit or advertise, any charter trips unless such operator shall have on file with the Department a currently effective tariff showing all rates, fares, and charges...

  19. 76 FR 27657 - Notice of Domestic Interested Party Petitioner's Desire To Contest the Tariff Classification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 420). The notice invited written ] comments on the petition from interested... Contest the Tariff Classification Determination of Wickless Wax Objects AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... regarding the tariff classification of imported wickless wax objects identified in entry documents as...

  20. 49 CFR 1312.10 - Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of tariff changes and nature of... WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.10 Notification of tariff changes and nature of... changes and their nature (whether an increase or decrease in service, rates or transportation charges)....

  1. 75 FR 22418 - The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2010 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection; Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2010 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United...: Announcement of the quota quantity of tuna in airtight containers for Calendar Year 2010. SUMMARY: Each...

  2. 76 FR 46267 - Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... Office of the Secretary Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses; and Extension of Entry Period for the Fiscal Year 2012 Raw Sugar Tariff- Rate Quota...

  3. 77 FR 63813 - Tesoro High Plains Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Request for Temporary Waiver of Tariff Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... Waiver of Tariff Filing and Reporting Requirements On October 9, 2012 Tesoro High Plains Pipeline Company, LLC (THPP) filed a Request for a Temporary Waiver of Tariff Filing and Reporting Requirements. THPP requests that the Commission grant a temporary waiver from the tariff filing and reporting requirements...

  4. Advancements in Distributed Generation Issues: Interconnection, Modeling, and Tariffs

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, H.; Kroposki, B.; Basso, T.; Treanton, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    The California Energy Commission is cost-sharing research with the Department of Energy through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to address distributed energy resources (DER) topics. These efforts include developing interconnection and power management technologies, modeling the impacts of interconnecting DER with an area electric power system, and evaluating possible modifications to rate policies and tariffs. As a result, a DER interconnection device has been developed and tested. A workshop reviewed the status and issues of advanced power electronic devices. Software simulations used validated models of distribution circuits that incorporated DER, and tests and measurements of actual circuits with and without DER systems are being conducted to validate these models. Current policies affecting DER were reviewed and rate making policies to support deployment of DER through public utility rates and policies were identified. These advancements are expected to support the continued and expanded use of DER systems.

  5. 49 CFR 1310.4 - Incorporation of tariff provisions by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... request. (i) Limits on the carrier's liability for loss, damage, or delay of goods, including fragile or... preempt any State requirements on the same subject, for tariff terms that are incorporated by...

  6. 18 CFR 341.4 - Filing requirements for amendments to tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.4...

  7. 18 CFR 341.4 - Filing requirements for amendments to tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.4...

  8. 18 CFR 341.4 - Filing requirements for amendments to tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.4...

  9. 49 CFR 1310.4 - Incorporation of tariff provisions by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (i.e., without stating their full text) into the bill of lading or other document embodying the... tariffs; and the carrier must make the full text of incorporated terms readily available for inspection...

  10. Open Access Transmission Tariff: Effective December 18, 1998 (Revised June 16, 1999).

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-06-16

    Bonneville will provide Network Integration Transmission Service pursuant to the terms and conditions contained in this Tariff and Service Agreement. The service that Bonneville will provide under this Tariff allows a Transmission Customer to integrate, economically dispatch and regulate its current and planned Network Resources to serve its Network Load. Network Integration Transmission Service also may be used by the Transmission Customer to deliver nonfirm energy purchases to its Network Load without additional charge. To the extent that the transmission path for moving power from a Network Resource to a Network Load includes the Eastern and Southern Interties, the terms and conditions for service over such intertie facilities are provided under Part 2 of this Tariff. Also, transmission service for third-party sales which are not designated as Network Load will be provided under Bonneville's Point-to-Point Transmission Service (Part 2 of this Tariff).

  11. 23 CFR 630.1008 - State-level processes and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OPERATIONS PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Work Zone Safety and Mobility § 630.1008 State-level processes and... sustain their respective work zone safety and mobility policies. State-level processes and procedures... addressing and managing the safety and mobility impacts of work zones. (b) Work zone assessment...

  12. How will the reduction of tariffs and taxes on insecticide- treated bednets affect household purchases?

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Jonathon L.; Larson, Bruce A.; Zusman, Alexander; Rosen, Sydney

    2002-01-01

    One of the steps called for in the fight against malaria is the removal of tariffs and taxes on insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs), netting materials, and insecticides, with a view to reducing the retail prices of ITNs and thus increasing utilization. In this paper we develop an approach for analysing the extent to which reform of tariff and tax policy can be expected to increase ITN purchases. We consider the following questions: (1). How much does the retail price of ITNs change if tariffs and taxes are reduced or eliminated? (2). How responsive is consumer demand to changes in the retail price of ITNs? Data on the price elasticity of demand for ITNs are very limited. Nevertheless, they suggest that ITN demand is not highly responsive to lower prices if household preferences are held constant. The reduction in retail prices associated with the removal of tariffs and taxes depends on the structure of the market in individual countries. In Nigeria, reducing the tariff on insecticides from 42% to zero and the tariff on netting materials from 40% to 5% is expected to increase ITN purchases by 9-27%, depending on the elasticity used. Country-specific information about market structure and cost conditions is needed if predictions are to be made as to how a specific policy change will affect ITN purchases. PMID:12481212

  13. Valuation-Based Framework for Considering Distributed Generation Photovoltaic Tariff Design: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Zinaman, O. R.; Darghouth, N. R.

    2015-02-01

    While an export tariff is only one element of a larger regulatory framework for distributed generation, we choose to focus on tariff design because of the significant impact this program design component has on the various flows of value among power sector stakeholders. In that context, this paper is organized into a series of steps that can be taken during the design of a DGPV export tariff design. To that end this paper outlines a holistic, high-level approach to the complex undertaking of DGPV tariff design, the crux of which is an iterative cost-benefit analysis process. We propose a multi-step progression that aims to promote transparent, focused, and informed dialogue on CBA study methodologies and assumptions. When studies are completed, the long-run marginal avoided cost of the DGPV program should be compared against the costs imposed on utilities and non-participating customers, recognizing that these can be defined differently depending on program objectives. The results of this comparison can then be weighed against other program objectives to formulate tariff options. Potential changes to tariff structures can be iteratively fed back into established analytical tools to inform further discussions.

  14. Assessing the associations among trait and state levels of deliberate and spontaneous mind wandering.

    PubMed

    Seli, Paul; Risko, Evan F; Smilek, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that mind wandering can be subdivided into spontaneous and deliberate types, and this distinction has been found to hold at both the trait and state levels. However, to date, no attempts have been made to link trait-level spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering with state-level assessments of these two subtypes of mind wandering. Here we evaluated whether trait-level deliberate and spontaneous mind wandering map onto state levels of these subtypes of mind wandering. Results showed correspondence between trait-level reports of spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering and their state-level counterparts, indicating that people's reports on the intentionality of their mind wandering in the laboratory correspond to their reports of the intentionality of mind wandering in everyday life. Thus, the trait- and state-level scales of mind wandering were found to validate each other: Whereas the state-level measures provided some construct validity for the trait-level measures, the trait-level measures indicated that the state-level measures may be generalizable to everyday situations.

  15. Refugee Resettlement Patterns and State-Level Health Care Insurance Access in the United States.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Pooja; Venkatesh, Arjun Krishna

    2016-04-01

    We sought to evaluate the relationship between state-level implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) and resettlement patterns among refugees. We linked federal refugee resettlement data to ACA expansion data and found that refugee resettlement rates are not significantly different according to state-level insurance expansion or cost. Forty percent of refugees have resettled to states without Medicaid expansion. The wide state-level variability in implementation of the ACA should be considered by federal agencies seeking to optimize access to health insurance coverage among refugees who have resettled to the United States. PMID:26890186

  16. Performance of the Tariff Method: validation of a simple additive algorithm for analysis of verbal autopsies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsies provide valuable information for studying mortality patterns in populations that lack reliable vital registration data. Methods for transforming verbal autopsy results into meaningful information for health workers and policymakers, however, are often costly or complicated to use. We present a simple additive algorithm, the Tariff Method (termed Tariff), which can be used for assigning individual cause of death and for determining cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) from verbal autopsy data. Methods Tariff calculates a score, or "tariff," for each cause, for each sign/symptom, across a pool of validated verbal autopsy data. The tariffs are summed for a given response pattern in a verbal autopsy, and this sum (score) provides the basis for predicting the cause of death in a dataset. We implemented this algorithm and evaluated the method's predictive ability, both in terms of chance-corrected concordance at the individual cause assignment level and in terms of CSMF accuracy at the population level. The analysis was conducted separately for adult, child, and neonatal verbal autopsies across 500 pairs of train-test validation verbal autopsy data. Results Tariff is capable of outperforming physician-certified verbal autopsy in most cases. In terms of chance-corrected concordance, the method achieves 44.5% in adults, 39% in children, and 23.9% in neonates. CSMF accuracy was 0.745 in adults, 0.709 in children, and 0.679 in neonates. Conclusions Verbal autopsies can be an efficient means of obtaining cause of death data, and Tariff provides an intuitive, reliable method for generating individual cause assignment and CSMFs. The method is transparent and flexible and can be readily implemented by users without training in statistics or computer science. PMID:21816107

  17. State-level Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for Electricity Generation, Updated 2002

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    This report documents the preparation of updated state-level electricity coefficients for carbon dioxide (CO ), methane (CH ), and nitrous oxide (NO), which represent a three-year weighted average for 1998-2000.

  18. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians.

  19. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians. PMID:22927194

  20. Cost-Causation-Based Tariffs for Wind Ancillary Service Impacts: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Wan, Y.

    2006-06-01

    Conference paper discussing the integration cost of wind. Although specific tariffs for wind generation for ancillary services are uncommon, we anticipate that balancing authorities (control areas) and other entities will move toward such tariffs. Tariffs for regulation and imbalance services should be cost-based, recognize the relevant time scales that correspond with utility operational cycles, and properly allocate those costs to those entities that cause the balancing authority to incur the costs. In this paper, we present methods for separating wind's impact into regulation and load following (imbalance) time scales. We show that approximating these impacts with simpler methods can significantly distort cost causation and even cause confusion between the relevant time scales. We present results from NREL's wind data collection program to illustrate the dangers of linearly scaling wind resource data from small wind plants to approximate the wind resource data from large wind plants. Finally, we provide a framework for developing regulation and imbalance tariffs, we outline methods to begin examining contingency reserve requirements for wind plants, we provide guidance on the important characteristics to consider, and we provide hypothetical cases that the tariff can be tested against to determine whether the results are desired.

  1. Cardiovascular inflammation in healthy women: multilevel associations with state-level prosperity, productivity and income inequality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular inflammation is a key contributor to the development of atherosclerosis and the prediction of cardiovascular events among healthy women. An emerging literature suggests biomarkers of inflammation vary by geography of residence at the state-level, and are associated with individual-level socioeconomic status. Associations between cardiovascular inflammation and state-level socioeconomic conditions have not been evaluated. The study objective is to estimate whether there are independent associations between state-level socioeconomic conditions and individual-level biomarkers of inflammation, in excess of individual-level income and clinical covariates among healthy women. Methods The authors examined cross-sectional multilevel associations among state-level socioeconomic conditions, individual-level income, and biomarkers of inflammation among women (n = 26,029) in the Women's Health Study, a nation-wide cohort of healthy women free of cardiovascular diseases at enrollment. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and fibrinogen were measured between 1993 and 1996. Biomarker levels were examined among women within quartiles of state-level socioeconomic conditions and within categories of individual-level income. Results The authors found that favorable state-level socioeconomic conditions were correlated with lower hsCRP, in excess of individual-level income (e.g. state-level real per capital gross domestic product fixed effect standardized Βeta coefficient [Std B] -0.03, 95% CI -0.05, -0.004). Individual-level income was more closely associated with sICAM-1 (Std B -0.04, 95% CI -0.06, -0.03) and fibrinogen (Std B -0.05, 95% CI -0.06, -0.03) than state-level conditions. Conclusions We found associations between state-level socioeconomic conditions and hsCRP among healthy women. Personal household income was more closely associated with sICAM-1 and fibrinogen than state-level

  2. Water supply development and tariffs in Tanzania: From free water policy towards cost recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashauri, Damas A.; Katko, Tapio S.

    1993-01-01

    The article describes the historical development of water tariff policy in Tanzania from the colonial times to present. After gaining independence, the country introduced “free” water policy in its rural areas. Criticism against this policy was expressed already in the 1970s, but it was not until the late 1980s that change became unavoidable. All the while urban water tariffs continued to decline in real terms. In rural and periurban areas of Tanzania consumers often have to pay substantial amounts of money for water to resellers and vendors since the public utilities are unable to provide operative service. Besides, only a part of the water bills are actually collected. Now that the free water supply policy has been officially abandoned, the development of water tariffs and the institutions in general are a great challenge for the country.

  3. 77 FR 51681 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2012...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for...: This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing... for certain dairy product import licenses permanently surrendered by licensees or revoked by...

  4. 78 FR 46565 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2014 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the... dairy articles, which are subject to tariff-rate quotas set forth in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS..., Dairy Import Licensing Program, Import Policies and Export Reporting Division, STOP 1021,...

  5. 76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... 6763 (60 FR 1007). On April 11, 2011, The Secretary of Agriculture announced an additional in-quota... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and...

  6. 75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... United States Trade Representative under Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On September 29... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar....

  7. 77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Representative under Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On April 19, 2012, the Secretary of Agriculture... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and...

  8. 78 FR 18334 - New York Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Motion for Tariff Waiver and Expedited Action

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission New York Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Motion for Tariff... motion for limited tariff waivers of section 5.16.4 and, to the extent necessary, section 5.16.3 of...

  9. Effect of A-Level Subject Choice and Entry Tariff on Final Degree and Level 1 Performance in Biosciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Nicola C.; Aves, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Following the publication of the higher education white paper increasing entry tariff and widening participation have become even more important issues for universities. This report examines the relationship between entry tariff and undergraduate achievement in Biosciences at the University of Exeter. We show that, whilst there is a significant…

  10. 47 CFR 61.49 - Supporting information to be submitted with letters of transmittal for tariffs of carriers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General... tariff that introduces a system of density pricing zones, as described in § 69.123 of this chapter,...

  11. 78 FR 14770 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non-Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Barriers to the U.S. Environmental Industry AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION.... One aspect of increasing exports is to reduce trade barriers and non-tariff measures. OEEI works... maintain a current, up-to- date list of non-tariff measures that create trade barriers for U.S. exports...

  12. 75 FR 8300 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non-Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Barriers to the U.S. Environmental Industry AGENCY: International Trade Administration. ACTION: Notice... of increasing exports is to reduce trade barriers and non-tariff measures. OEEI works closely with... maintain a current, up-to-date list of non-tariff measures that create trade barriers for U.S. exports...

  13. 3 CFR 8742 - Proclamation 8742 of October 31, 2011. To Modify the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including but not limited to... Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States 8742 Proclamation 8742 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8742 of October 31, 2011 Proc. 8742 To Modify the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of......

  14. Development of a Composite Measure of State-Level Malpractice Environment

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jeanette W; Sohn, Min-Woong; Merkow, Ryan P; Oh, Elissa H; Minami, Christina; Black, Bernard S; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a composite measure of state-level malpractice environment. Data Sources Public use data from the National Practitioner Data Bank, Medical Liability Monitor, the National Conference of State Legislatures, and the American Bar Association. Study Design Principal component analysis of state-level indicators (paid claims rate, malpractice premiums, lawyers per capita, average award size, and malpractice laws), with indirect validation of the composite using receiver-operating characteristic curves to determine how accurately the composite could identify states with high-tort activity and costs. Principal Findings A single composite accounted for over 73 percent of total variance in the seven indicators and demonstrated reasonable criterion validity. Conclusion An empirical composite measure of state-level malpractice risk may offer advantages over single indicators in measuring overall risk and may facilitate cross-state comparisons of malpractice environments. PMID:24117397

  15. Involvement of Youth with Disabilities in State-Level Decision Making. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve

    2007-01-01

    During the National Association of State Directors of Special Education's (NASDSE) 2005 annual meeting, a panel of youth representatives challenged states to do a better job of including youth with disabilities in state-level decision making (e.g., as members of state advisory panels [SAPs] and/or transition councils). State directors of special…

  16. Developing a Successful State-Level Environmental Education Organization: A Nationwide Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaldone, David; Dey, Shannon E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a nationwide assessment of state-level environmental education (EE) organizations to determine the components that are essential to the establishment and success of these organizations. E-mail surveys were used to collect data from North American Association for Environmental Education state affiliates, and…

  17. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    This analysis examines some of the factors that influence state-level carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels. These factors include: the fuel mix — especially in the generation of electricity; the state climate; the population density of the state; the industrial makeup of the state and whether the state is a net exporter or importer of electricity.

  18. State Level Collaborative Planning. Community Education Proven Practices II. Bulletin No. 2431.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Community Education Unit.

    A study examined state-level collaborative planning strategies that have been developed in Wisconsin to coordinate the efforts of the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction and the state's higher educational institutions with respect to the development of community education in the state. During the study the following areas were explored: the…

  19. State-Level Variability of Educational Outcomes of Students with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the educational environment placement and educational outcomes of students identified as having an emotional disturbance (ED). The sample was drawn from special education enrollment data for students aged 6-21 years in the 50 states and Washington, DC in 2010. Additional economic and demographic state-level variables were…

  20. Facilities Planning Conference for Community-Junior College State-Level Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. of Higher Education.

    This report on planning and developing facilities for community-junior colleges includes papers presented at a conference for state-level facility planners. The meeting covered the following areas: (1) development of physical facilities responsive to educational programs and community needs; (2) efficient use of existing facilities through…

  1. Map of the Field--Higher Education Research at the State Level. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Patricia H.; Adams, Charles S.

    A map of the field of higher education at the state level is presented that defines theoretical and conceptual frameworks, approaches to analysis, research designs, and methodologies that have been used in the study of the relationships between state governments and institutions of higher education or of state policy structures and processes.…

  2. Surrogate Parents and Children with Disabilities: State-Level Approaches. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve

    2009-01-01

    Based on a survey of states, this document summarizes state-level approaches to using surrogate parents in order to meet the needs of children with disabilities. Most respondents noted that their states had issued policy or formal guidance pertaining to surrogate parents and children with disabilities, and most also described efforts to ensure…

  3. The Role of State Higher Education Governance Structures in State-Level Higher Education Lobbying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkum, Kurt Richard

    2009-01-01

    Lobbying and lobbyists are integral components of federal and state public policymaking for higher education at the federal and state levels. While the actions and goals of lobbyists appear to be straightforward, the lobbying tactics selected by lobbyists vary for different situations and in different contexts (Browne, 1985; Cook, 1998; Gladieux &…

  4. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity.

  5. Measures for the Final Common Core of Constructs. The Project on State-Level Child Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Project on State-Level Child Outcomes, a federal project designed to improve the measurement of child outcomes in state welfare evaluations and in other state data systems. This document provides measures for the common core of constructs that state representatives developed at the second national-level meeting of the Project's planning phase.…

  6. Adult Participation in Undergraduate Education: The Effect of State-Level Structural Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jong-Chul; Cervero, Ronald M.; Valentine, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Composite state-level data from four national sets were used to compare 1991 and 1997 higher education participation of adults over 24. Variations in state structural factors significantly affected participation variance. Factors at one point in time substantially affected future participation. State policymakers had an influence on access and…

  7. Educational Funding and Student Outcomes: The Relationship as Evidenced by State-Level Data. Research Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ted

    2014-01-01

    This report shows the impact of various school funding measures on student outcomes measured by NAEP, ACT, and SAT scores, the four-year cohort graduation rate, and percent of the population ages 18-24 with at least a high school diploma. State-level data for the United States from 2005 through 2014 as available is utilized to establish the nature…

  8. The Way Ahead for Finnish Comprehensive School? Examining State-Level School Administrators' Theory of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salonen-Hakomäki, Sanna-Mari; Soini, Tiina; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    A significant body of evidence shows that the goals of educational reforms are seldom fully achieved. Some research suggests that the problem lies in state-level curriculum reform work that lacks a sufficient understanding of the educational reality. However, views and perceptions among the central architects of the reforms have not been…

  9. Systemic High School Reform in Two States: The Serendipity of State-Level Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Edmund T.

    2005-01-01

    Maine and Vermont have been national leaders in state-level coordination of high school reform. Both recently developed almost interchangeable, new, voluntary, statewide frameworks that describe multiple ways high schools should change. Both frameworks--Promising Futures (Maine Commission on Secondary Education 1998) and High Schools on the Move…

  10. Putting Civics to the Test: The Impact of State-Level Civics Assessments on Civic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, David E.

    2014-01-01

    There is a continuing national debate over the efficacy of state-level exams and whether assessments in civics enhances democratic education. This paper uses a large 2012 national survey of 18-24-year-olds to examine the potential effect of civics assessments on civic outcomes. In doing so, it attempts to answer three questions: (1) Do civics…

  11. Predictors of Placement Stability at the State Level: The Use of Logistic Regression to Inform Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Jon R.; Prophet, Retta

    2011-01-01

    Placement instability is often associated with a number of negative outcomes for children. To gain state level contextual knowledge of factors associated with placement stability/instability, logistic regression was applied to selected variables from the New Mexico Adoption and Foster Care Administrative Reporting System dataset. Predictors…

  12. Colorado Special Education Administrative Decisions: Impartial Hearing Officer Decisions; State Level Review Decisions; Federal Complaint Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This volume of Colorado special education administrative decisions contains all Impartial Hearing Officer Decisions, State Level Review Decisions, and Complaint Findings issued since 1988. The full text of each decision or finding is preceded by a case summary which includes a listing of key topics, a statement of the issues, the decision, and…

  13. Altering State Policy: Interest Group Effectiveness among State-Level Advocacy Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoefer, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Because social policy making continues to devolve to the state level, social workers should understand how advocacy and policy making occur at that level. Interest groups active in the human services arena were surveyed and data were used to test a model of interest group effectiveness in four states. The independent variables were amount of…

  14. 19 CFR 10.778 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.778 Section 10.778 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  15. 19 CFR 10.778 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.778 Section 10.778 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  16. 19 CFR 10.778 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.778 Section 10.778 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  17. 19 CFR 10.778 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.778 Section 10.778 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  18. 76 FR 15340 - Certain Festive Articles: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... published in the Federal Register of December 2, 2010 (75 FR 75185)). This notice is being issued as an... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Festive Articles: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of...

  19. 75 FR 75185 - Certain Festive Articles: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... September 20, 2010 (75 FR 57293). The period for filing written submissions closed on October 22, 2010... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Festive Articles: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of...

  20. 75 FR 63468 - Notice of Revocation of Market-Based Rate Tariff

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Filing Requirements, Order No. 2001, 67 FR 31,043, FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,127, reh'g denied, Order No... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Revocation of Market-Based Rate Tariff October 7, 2010. Electric... On September 22, 2010, the Commission issued an order announcing its intent to revoke the...

  1. 19 CFR 10.510 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... preferential tariff treatment, including an exemption from the merchandise processing fee, based on the importer's knowledge or information in the importer's possession that the good qualifies as an originating... method specified for equivalent reporting via an authorized electronic data interchange system. For...

  2. 19 CFR 10.606 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.606 Section 10.606 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  3. 19 CFR 10.606 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.606 Section 10.606 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  4. 19 CFR 10.606 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.606 Section 10.606 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  5. 19 CFR 10.606 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.606 Section 10.606 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  6. 18 CFR 35.47 - Tariff provisions regarding credit practices in organized wholesale electric markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tariff provisions regarding credit practices in organized wholesale electric markets. 35.47 Section 35.47 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS...

  7. 19 CFR 10.616 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Verification and justification of claim for..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED... and Determinations § 10.616 Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff...

  8. 19 CFR 10.616 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Verification and justification of claim for..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED... and Determinations § 10.616 Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff...

  9. 19 CFR 10.616 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Verification and justification of claim for..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED... and Determinations § 10.616 Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff...

  10. 14 CFR 221.163 - Agents' and other carriers' tariffs shall reflect adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reflect adoption. 221.163 Section 221.163 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change... shall reflect adoption. If the former carrier is shown as a participating carrier under concurrence...

  11. 78 FR 17394 - Filing via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings; Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    .... 770, 77 FR 71288 (Nov. 30, 2012), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,338 (cross-referenced at 141 FERC ] 61,120... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Filing via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings; Revisions to...

  12. 19 CFR 10.235 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United..., the importer must within 30 calendar days after the date of discovery of the error make a...

  13. 19 CFR 181.71 - Denial of preferential tariff treatment dependent on origin verification and determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... on origin verification and determination. 181.71 Section 181.71 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Origin Verifications and Determinations § 181.71 Denial of preferential tariff treatment dependent on origin verification and determination. Except where a Certificate of Origin either...

  14. 18 CFR 35.12 - Filing of initial rate schedules and tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... schedules and tariffs. 35.12 Section 35.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES... schedules of rates for emergency energy, spinning reserve or economy energy or in cases of coordination...

  15. 18 CFR 35.12 - Filing of initial rate schedules and tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... schedules and tariffs. 35.12 Section 35.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES... schedules of rates for emergency energy, spinning reserve or economy energy or in cases of coordination...

  16. 18 CFR 35.12 - Filing of initial rate schedules and tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... schedules and tariffs. 35.12 Section 35.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES... schedules of rates for emergency energy, spinning reserve or economy energy or in cases of coordination...

  17. 18 CFR 35.12 - Filing of initial rate schedules and tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... schedules and tariffs. 35.12 Section 35.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES... schedules of rates for emergency energy, spinning reserve or economy energy or in cases of coordination...

  18. 19 CFR 162.73 - Penalties under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penalties under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended. 162.73 Section 162.73 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Special Procedures for Certain Violations § 162.73...

  19. 19 CFR 141.90 - Notation of tariff classification and value on invoice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notation of tariff classification and value on invoice. 141.90 Section 141.90 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Invoices § 141.90 Notation of...

  20. 78 FR 45597 - Modification of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States for Certain Cheeses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... Romania acceded to the European Union (EU), and the EU customs union of 25 member countries (``EU-25'') was enlarged to a customs union of 27 member countries (``EU-27''). At that time, Bulgaria and Romania... tariff of the EU-25 to imports into the EU-27. To recognize the membership of Bulgaria and Romania in...

  1. 19 CFR 141.90 - Notation of tariff classification and value on invoice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... invoice. 141.90 Section 141.90 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Invoices § 141.90 Notation of tariff classification and value on invoice. (a) (b) Classification and rate of duty. The importer or customs broker...

  2. 19 CFR 141.90 - Notation of tariff classification and value on invoice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... invoice. 141.90 Section 141.90 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Invoices § 141.90 Notation of tariff classification and value on invoice. (a) (b) Classification and rate of duty. The importer or customs broker...

  3. 19 CFR 141.90 - Notation of tariff classification and value on invoice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... invoice. 141.90 Section 141.90 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Invoices § 141.90 Notation of tariff classification and value on invoice. (a) (b) Classification and rate of duty. The importer or customs broker...

  4. 19 CFR 141.90 - Notation of tariff classification and value on invoice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... invoice. 141.90 Section 141.90 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Invoices § 141.90 Notation of tariff classification and value on invoice. (a) (b) Classification and rate of duty. The importer or customs broker...

  5. 18 CFR 35.12 - Filing of initial rate schedules and tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... classes of service, customers, and delivery points and shall show all billing determinants, e.g., kw, kwh... or more added customers under an established rate of the utility for a particular class of service... schedule or tariff shall list the documents submitted with the filing; give the date on which the...

  6. 22 CFR 91.1 - Answering inquiries regarding tariff acts and customs regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Answering inquiries regarding tariff acts and customs regulations. 91.1 Section 91.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES... matters upon which hey are not competent to pass....

  7. A new proxy measure for state-level gun ownership in studies of firearm injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-06-01

    Since many states are considering gun control laws, researchers need reliable data on rates of gun ownership at the state level. Survey measures of gun ownership in all 50 states, however, are only available for 3 years, and no state-level data have been collected since 2004. Consequently, the National Research Council has declared the development of a valid proxy that can be constructed from accessible, annual, state-level data to be a priority. While such a proxy does exist (the proportion of suicides in a state committed using a gun (FS/S), its correlation with state estimates of gun ownership in recent years is only 0.80. Using state-level data for the years 2001, 2002 and 2004, we developed an improved proxy for state-level gun ownership that uses FS/S (firearm suicides divided by all suicides) and also the per capita number of hunting licenses. We validated this measure using data from surveys of gun ownership conducted in 48 states during 1996 and 1999, and in 21 states during 1995-1998. Adding per capita hunting licenses to the proxy increased its correlation with survey-measured gun ownership from 0.80 to 0.95. The correlations of the new proxy with gun ownership in the two validation studies were 0.95 and 0.97. We conclude that the combination of FS/S and per capita hunting licenses improves substantially upon FS/S alone. This new proxy is easily computed from data that are available annually by state and may be useful for investigating the effect of gun prevalence on firearm-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:23956369

  8. A new proxy measure for state-level gun ownership in studies of firearm injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-06-01

    Since many states are considering gun control laws, researchers need reliable data on rates of gun ownership at the state level. Survey measures of gun ownership in all 50 states, however, are only available for 3 years, and no state-level data have been collected since 2004. Consequently, the National Research Council has declared the development of a valid proxy that can be constructed from accessible, annual, state-level data to be a priority. While such a proxy does exist (the proportion of suicides in a state committed using a gun (FS/S), its correlation with state estimates of gun ownership in recent years is only 0.80. Using state-level data for the years 2001, 2002 and 2004, we developed an improved proxy for state-level gun ownership that uses FS/S (firearm suicides divided by all suicides) and also the per capita number of hunting licenses. We validated this measure using data from surveys of gun ownership conducted in 48 states during 1996 and 1999, and in 21 states during 1995-1998. Adding per capita hunting licenses to the proxy increased its correlation with survey-measured gun ownership from 0.80 to 0.95. The correlations of the new proxy with gun ownership in the two validation studies were 0.95 and 0.97. We conclude that the combination of FS/S and per capita hunting licenses improves substantially upon FS/S alone. This new proxy is easily computed from data that are available annually by state and may be useful for investigating the effect of gun prevalence on firearm-related morbidity and mortality.

  9. Examining the Lag Time Between State-Level Income Inequality and Individual Disabilities: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme

    2008-01-01

    State-level income inequality has been found to have an effect on individual health outcomes, even when controlled for important individual-level variables such as income, education, age, and gender. The effect of income inequality on health may not be immediate and may, in fact, have a substantial lag time between exposure to inequality and eventual health outcome. We used the 2006 American Community Survey to examine the association of state-level income inequality and 2 types of physical disabilities. We used 6 different lag times, ranging between 0 and 25 years, on the total sample and on those who resided in their state of birth. Income inequality in 1986 had the strongest correlation with 2006 disability levels. Odds ratios were consistently 10% higher for those born in the same state compared withthe total population. PMID:18923110

  10. Examining the lag time between state-level income inequality and individual disabilities: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Gadalla, Tahany M; Fuller-Thomson, Esme

    2008-12-01

    State-level income inequality has been found to have an effect on individual health outcomes, even when controlled for important individual-level variables such as income, education, age, and gender. The effect of income inequality on health may not be immediate and may, in fact, have a substantial lag time between exposure to inequality and eventual health outcome. We used the 2006 American Community Survey to examine the association of state-level income inequality and 2 types of physical disabilities. We used 6 different lag times, ranging between 0 and 25 years, on the total sample and on those who resided in their state of birth. Income inequality in 1986 had the strongest correlation with 2006 disability levels. Odds ratios were consistently 10% higher for those born in the same state compared with the total population.

  11. State-level social capital and suicide mortality in the 50 U.S. states.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nathan Daniel Lucia; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated whether state levels of social capital are associated with rates of completed suicides in the fifty U.S. states. To do this we regressed state-level suicide rates on an index of social capital, along with other variables known to influence suicide rates such as gun ownership, income inequality, alcohol abuse and dependence, drug abuse and dependence, serious mental illness, unemployment, percent of population living in urban areas, poverty, population instability, and living in a "suicide belt" state. Suicide rates were aggregated from 1999 to 2002, and examined separately by sex and different race/ethnic groups. The results showed that White men and women in states with higher levels of social capital had significantly lower rates of suicide when controlling for the other influential variables. When we examined sub-dimensions of social capital, we found that community organizations (for White women) and group membership (for White men) were particularly strongly associated with lower suicide risk.

  12. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity. PMID:25732188

  13. Metabolic consequences of timed feeding in mice.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Nurulaini Abu; Salkeld, Mark David; Rattanatray, Leewen; Voultsios, Athena; Varcoe, Tamara Jayne; Boden, Michael James; Kennaway, David John

    2014-04-10

    The time of day at which meals are consumed is known to impact on behaviour as well as physiological systems. In this study we investigated the behavioural and physiological effects of restricting access to food to the light or dark period in mice maintained on either long or short photoperiods. In both photoperiods, wheel running commenced upon the onset of darkness and was generally confined to the period of darkness. Provision of food during light provoked an anticipatory burst of activity several hours before feeding in both photoperiods. After 28 days on the feeding schedule, body weight was unaffected by either photoperiod or feeding time. Plasma insulin was increased and glucose and triglycerides tended to be lower in mice fed during the light period and sampled 2 h after lights off compared to the dark fed mice. Mice fed during the light while on long day length had improved glucose tolerance and whole body insulin tolerance when tested 2 h after lights on. This was not evident in mice kept on the short photoperiod. Because these observations were confounded by the time since their last meal, we undertook a study of glucose tolerance across 24 h in mice on the long photoperiod after a 2 hour food withdrawal. A clear rhythm of glucose tolerance was observed in mice fed during the light period with maximal glucose tolerance just prior to the expected presentation of food and minimal tolerance 2 h before lights off. By contrast, no rhythm in glucose tolerance was observed in the dark fed mice, but maximal glucose tolerance occurred 2 h before lights off. To investigate the evolution of the physiological adaptations, mice on this feeding/photoperiod regime were studied after 7 or 35 days. After 7 days the corticosterone rhythm was not different between light and dark fed mice, but by 35 days peak corticosterone secretion occurred a few hours before food presentation in both groups representing an 8 hour shift. The rhythm of expression of liver Bmal1 mRNA was

  14. Efficiency of health care system at the sub-state level in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Brijesh C

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts a sub-state-level analysis of health system for a low-income Indian state, namely, Madhya Pradesh. The objective of our study is to establish efficiency parameters that may help health policy makers to improve district-level and thus state-level health system performance. It provides an idealized yardstick to evaluate the performance of the health sector by using stochastic frontier technique. The study was carried out in two stages of estimation, and our results suggest that life expectancy in the Indian state could be enhanced considerably by correcting the factors that are adversely influencing sub-state-level health system efficiency. Our results indicate that main factors within the health system for discrepancy in interdistrict performance are inequitable distribution of supplies, availability of skilled attention at birth, and inadequate staffing relative to patient load of rural population at primary health centers. Overcoming these factors through additional resources in the deficient districts, mobilized partly from grants in aid and partly from patient welfare societies, may help the state to improve life expectancy speedily and more equitably. Besides the direct inputs from the health sector, a more conducive environment for gender development, reducing inequality in opportunities for women in health, education and other rights may provide the necessary impetus towards reducing maternal morbidity and mortality and add to overall life expectancy in the state. PMID:20391252

  15. Understanding and Informing the Policy Environment: State-Level Renewable Fuels Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.; Cory, K.; Arent, D.

    2007-01-01

    Renewable fuels standard (RFS) policies are becoming a popular public policy mechanism for developing the market for renewable fuels in the transportation sector. During the past decade, U.S. states and several countries began implementing these more market-based (less command and control) policies to support increased biofuels production and use. This paper presents an overview of current and proposed U.S. state-level policies, as well as selected electric sector policies and international fuel standard policies. Current U.S. state-level renewable fuel policies list drivers including an improved economy and environment, as well as fuel self-sufficiency. Best practices and experience from an evaluation of renewable portfolio standards (RPS) in the United States and international RFS policies can inform U.S. state-level policy by illustrating the importance of policy flexibility, binding targets, effective cost caps, and tradable permits. Understanding and building on the experiences from these previous policies can improve the policy mechanism and further develop a market for renewable fuels to meet the goals of improved economy, environment, and fuel self-sufficiency.

  16. A comparison of state-level estimation techniques for utility atmospheric emission factors

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, D.; Baechler, M.

    1995-10-01

    Atmospheric emission factors provide a link between the electricity saved in buildings and the associated decrease in fossil fuel use in the electric supply sector. Understanding this link is important to meet the requirements of Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy act of 1992, which established the voluntary program for reporting reductions in greenhouse gases. As part of the development process for Section 1605(b), several national workshops were held by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Workshop participants expressed the need for DOE to supply default atmospheric emission facets. Based upon the response from the workshop participants, it was decided that emission factors would be aggregated to the state level (e.g., California, Connecticut, etc.). Emission factors for electricity generation are generally quantified as a quantity of impact to an amount of fuel used to produce the emission. In the electric supply sector, factors are often expressed in units of pounds or tons of emission per megawatt-hours (MWh) of electricity produced. In this paper, the authors examine and compare the estimates from three methodologies for developing state-level emission facets. In addition, they compare the results to those obtained using emissions data calculated by the EIA. Although the examples presented in this paper depict the development of state-level factors, the same methodologies can be applied by an individual utility to generate utility-specific atmospheric emission factors.

  17. Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India

    SciTech Connect

    Abhyankar, Nikit; Phadke, Amol

    2011-01-20

    Large-scale EE programs would modestly increase tariffs but reduce consumers' electricity bills significantly. However, the primary benefit of EE programs is a significant reduction in power shortages, which might make these programs politically acceptable even if tariffs increase. To increase political support, utilities could pursue programs that would result in minimal tariff increases. This can be achieved in four ways: (a) focus only on low-cost programs (such as replacing electric water heaters with gas water heaters); (b) sell power conserved through the EE program to the market at a price higher than the cost of peak power purchase; (c) focus on programs where a partial utility subsidy of incremental capital cost might work and (d) increase the number of participant consumers by offering a basket of EE programs to fit all consumer subcategories and tariff tiers. Large scale EE programs can result in consistently negative cash flows and significantly erode the utility's overall profitability. In case the utility is facing shortages, the cash flow is very sensitive to the marginal tariff of the unmet demand. This will have an important bearing on the choice of EE programs in Indian states where low-paying rural and agricultural consumers form the majority of the unmet demand. These findings clearly call for a flexible, sustainable solution to the cash-flow management issue. One option is to include a mechanism like FAC in the utility incentive mechanism. Another sustainable solution might be to have the net program cost and revenue loss built into utility's revenue requirement and thus into consumer tariffs up front. However, the latter approach requires institutionalization of EE as a resource. The utility incentive mechanisms would be able to address the utility disincentive of forgone long-run return but have a minor impact on consumer benefits. Fundamentally, providing incentives for EE programs to make them comparable to supply-side investments is a way

  18. [Payment of out-patient dental service according to tariffs in obligatory insurance system].

    PubMed

    Boikov, M I; Butova, V G

    2016-01-01

    Cost price of dental services in system of obligatory medical insurance is higher two fold than officially determined tariffs. Costs of the same services in medical organizations of the same federal region in Russia tend to varyMeasures directed at the stimulation of reduction of expenses connected with the keep of those medical organizations that have increased expenses (compared to other medical organizations) should be considered.

  19. [Payment of out-patient dental service according to tariffs in obligatory insurance system].

    PubMed

    Boikov, M I; Butova, V G

    2016-01-01

    Cost price of dental services in system of obligatory medical insurance is higher two fold than officially determined tariffs. Costs of the same services in medical organizations of the same federal region in Russia tend to varyMeasures directed at the stimulation of reduction of expenses connected with the keep of those medical organizations that have increased expenses (compared to other medical organizations) should be considered. PMID:27636755

  20. 19 CFR 10.421 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. 10.421 Section 10.421 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., 5807.10.2010, 5807.10.2020, 5807.90.05, 5807.90.2010, 5807.90.2020, 5808.10.40, 5808.10.70,...

  1. 19 CFR 10.421 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. 10.421 Section 10.421 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., 5807.10.2010, 5807.10.2020, 5807.90.05, 5807.90.2010, 5807.90.2020, 5808.10.40, 5808.10.70,...

  2. 19 CFR 10.421 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. 10.421 Section 10.421 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., 5807.10.2010, 5807.10.2020, 5807.90.05, 5807.90.2010, 5807.90.2020, 5808.10.40, 5808.10.70,...

  3. 19 CFR 10.421 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. 10.421 Section 10.421 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., 5807.10.2010, 5807.10.2020, 5807.90.05, 5807.90.2010, 5807.90.2020, 5808.10.40, 5808.10.70,...

  4. The Payment by Results (PbR) national tariff severely penalises efficiency and early hospital discharge.

    PubMed

    Alam, Syed Munawer; Brown, Alex; Moreea, Sulleman

    2009-01-01

    The system of Payment by Results (PbR) was instituted in 2005 to reimburse secondary care for its activity. One of the features of PbR is the short stay tariff (SST), in which only 20-50% of the national tariff is paid if patients have a length of stay (LoS) of less than 2 days in hospital for certain Healthcare Resource Groups (HRGs) - or conditions. We analysed the admissions under Acute Medicine at Bradford Teaching Hospitals over a period of one year and identified the HRGs to which the SST applied. We used the 2007 PbR national tariff to calculate the additional income that would have been generated if these patients were kept in hospital for at least 2 days in order to avoid SST. We calculated an extra theoretical income of approximately £5 million if all these patients had a length of stay (LoS) more than 2 days to avoid the SST. Sixteen additional beds (assuming 85% occupancy) would have been required at a cost of around £1million per year to accommodate these patients. We show that the current PbR system is flawed and penalises hospitals with a higher turnover of patients.

  5. Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) plausibility checks; (2) inlier calculation; and (3) the "one hospital" approach. The assessment is based on the two main goals of G-DRG introduction: improving transparency and efficiency. A further empirical assessment attests high costing quality. The G-DRG cost accounting scheme shows high system quality in resource allocation at hospital level, with limitations concerning a managerially relevant full cost approach and limitations in terms of advanced activity-based costing at patient-level. However, the scheme has serious flaws in national tariff calculation: inlier calculation is normative, and the "one hospital" model causes cost bias, adjustment and representativeness issues. The G-DRG system was designed for reimbursement calculation, but developed to a standard with strategic management implications, generalized by the idea of adapting a hospital's cost structures to DRG revenues. This combination causes problems in actual hospital financing, although resource allocation is advanced at hospital level. PMID:22935314

  6. Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Matthias

    2012-08-30

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) plausibility checks; (2) inlier calculation; and (3) the "one hospital" approach. The assessment is based on the two main goals of G-DRG introduction: improving transparency and efficiency. A further empirical assessment attests high costing quality. The G-DRG cost accounting scheme shows high system quality in resource allocation at hospital level, with limitations concerning a managerially relevant full cost approach and limitations in terms of advanced activity-based costing at patient-level. However, the scheme has serious flaws in national tariff calculation: inlier calculation is normative, and the "one hospital" model causes cost bias, adjustment and representativeness issues. The G-DRG system was designed for reimbursement calculation, but developed to a standard with strategic management implications, generalized by the idea of adapting a hospital's cost structures to DRG revenues. This combination causes problems in actual hospital financing, although resource allocation is advanced at hospital level.

  7. Availability Based Tariff and its impact On different Industry Players-A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmukhe, R. M.; Pawar, Yogini; Desai, R. S.; Hasarmani, T. S.

    2010-10-01

    ABT is a performance-based tariff for the supply of electricity by generators owned and controlled by the central government. It is also a new system of scheduling and dispatch, which requires both generators and beneficiaries to commit to day-ahead schedules. It is a system of rewards and penalties seeking to enforce day ahead pre-committed schedules, though variations are permitted if notified One and one half hours in advance. The order emphasizes prompt payment of dues. ABT (Availability Based Tariff) along with the Electricity Act of 2003 is perhaps the most significant and definitive step taken in the Indian power sector so far to bring more efficiency and focus to this vital infrastructure. The ABT mechanism is based on financial principles. ABT scheme is for unscheduled interchange of power. The paper reviews ABT issues, its components, clauses, mechanism, benefits and the impact of grid on different players like generation utilities, grid operator, consumers involved in power generation, transmission and distribution. While the proposed tariff structure has wide implications for each player, this deals exclusively with the technology challenges/opportunities thrown up by ABT.

  8. Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) plausibility checks; (2) inlier calculation; and (3) the “one hospital” approach. The assessment is based on the two main goals of G-DRG introduction: improving transparency and efficiency. A further empirical assessment attests high costing quality. The G-DRG cost accounting scheme shows high system quality in resource allocation at hospital level, with limitations concerning a managerially relevant full cost approach and limitations in terms of advanced activity-based costing at patient-level. However, the scheme has serious flaws in national tariff calculation: inlier calculation is normative, and the “one hospital” model causes cost bias, adjustment and representativeness issues. The G-DRG system was designed for reimbursement calculation, but developed to a standard with strategic management implications, generalized by the idea of adapting a hospital’s cost structures to DRG revenues. This combination causes problems in actual hospital financing, although resource allocation is advanced at hospital level. PMID:22935314

  9. Methods for analysis of photosynthetic pigments and steady-state levels of intermediates of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Czarnecki, Olaf; Peter, Enrico; Grimm, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Tetrapyrroles and carotenoids are required for many indispensable functions in photosynthesis. Tetrapyrroles are essential metabolites for photosynthesis, redox reaction, and detoxification of reactive oxygen species and xenobiotics, while carotenoids function as accessory pigments, in photoprotection and in attraction to animals. Their branched metabolic pathways of synthesis and degradation are tightly controlled to provide adequate amounts of each metabolite (carotenoids/tetrapyrroles) and to prevent accumulation of photoreactive intermediates (tetrapyrroles). Many Arabidopsis mutants and transgenic plants have been reported to show variations in steady-state levels of tetrapyrrole intermediates and contents of different carotenoid species. It is a challenging task to determine the minute amounts of these metabolites to assess the metabolic flow and the activities of both pigment-synthesising and degrading pathways, to unravel limiting enzymatic steps of these biosynthetic pathways, and to characterise mutants with accumulating intermediates. In this chapter, we present a series of methods to qualify and quantify anabolic and catabolic intermediates of Arabidopsis tetrapyrrole metabolism, and describe a common method for quantification of different plant carotenoid species. Additionally, we introduce two methods for quantification of non-covalently bound haem. The approach of analysing steady-state levels of tetrapyrrole intermediates in plants, when applied in combination with analyses of transcripts, proteins, and enzyme activities, enables the biochemical and genetic elucidation of the tetrapyrrole pathway in wild-type plants, varieties, and mutants. Steady-state levels of tetrapyrrole intermediates are only up to 1/1,000 of the amounts of the accumulating end-products, chlorophyll, and haem. Although present in very low amounts, the accumulation and availability of tetrapyrrole intermediates have major consequences on the physiology and activity of

  10. Economic Burden of Disease-Associated Malnutrition at the State Level

    PubMed Central

    Goates, Scott; Du, Kristy; Braunschweig, Carol A.; Arensberg, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    Background Disease-associated malnutrition has been identified as a prevalent condition, particularly for the elderly, which has often been overlooked in the U.S. healthcare system. The state-level burden of community-based disease-associated malnutrition is unknown and there have been limited efforts by state policy makers to identify, quantify, and address malnutrition. The objective of this study was to examine and quantify the state-level economic burden of disease-associated malnutrition. Methods Direct medical costs of disease-associated malnutrition were calculated for 8 diseases: Stroke, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Coronary Heart Failure, Breast Cancer, Dementia, Musculoskeletal Disorders, Depression, and Colorectal Cancer. National disease and malnutrition prevalence rates were estimated for subgroups defined by age, race, and sex using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the National Health Interview Survey. State prevalence of disease-associated malnutrition was estimated by combining national prevalence estimates with states’ demographic data from the U.S. Census. Direct medical cost for each state was estimated as the increased expenditures incurred as a result of malnutrition. Principal Findings Direct medical costs attributable to disease-associated malnutrition vary among states from an annual cost of $36 per capita in Utah to $65 per capita in Washington, D.C. Nationally the annual cost of disease-associated malnutrition is over $15.5 billion. The elderly bear a disproportionate share of this cost on both the state and national level. Conclusions Additional action is needed to reduce the economic impact of disease-associated malnutrition, particularly at the state level. Nutrition may be a cost-effective way to help address high health care costs. PMID:27655372

  11. A state-level analysis of life expectancy in Mexico (1990-2006).

    PubMed

    Peláez, Oscar; Guijarro, Marta; Arias, Mercedes

    2010-11-01

    Using a methodology similar to that proposed by Barro & Sala-i-Martin (1995), it is found that, in the period 1990-2006, there was strong convergence among state-level life expectancy series, but a distancing in life expectancy in the Mexican Republic compared with more developed countries, especially during the new millennium. The interior convergence had taken place at the expense of the exterior; that is, not so much as a result of an improvement in living conditions in the poorer states, but more due to the low performance of the richer states. The causes of this situation are explained using the concept of 'epidemiological transition'.

  12. Cigarette quitlines, taxes, and other tobacco control policies: a state-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Henry Shelton; Karson, Steve

    2013-06-01

    This paper estimates monthly quitline calls using panel data at the state level from January 2005 to June 2010. Calls to state quitline numbers (or 1-800-QUITNOW) were measured per million adult smokers in each state. The policies considered include excise taxes, workplace and public smoking bans, and a Peter Jennings television-based program warning of the health risks of smoking. We found that people anticipating increases in prices begin attempting to quit by calling quitlines. Finally, the Peter Jennings media campaign was highly correlated with quitline calls.

  13. Building Energy Use Modeling at the U.S. State Level Under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Eom, J.; Clarke, L.; Kyle, P.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change plays an important role in building energy use for heating and cooling. As global building energy use accounts for as much as about 32% of global final energy consumption in 2005, the impact of climate change on greenhouse gas emissions may also be significant. As long-term socioeconomic transformation and energy service expansion show large spatial heterogeneity, advanced understanding of climate impact on building energy use at the sub-national level will offer useful insights into regional energy system planning. In this study, we have developed a detailed building energy model with U.S. 50-state representation, embedded in an integrated assessment framework (Global Change Assessment Model). The climate change impact on heating and cooling demand is measured through estimating heating and cooling degree days (HDD/CDDs) derived from MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) climate data and linking the estimates to the building energy model. Having the model calibrated against historical data at the U.S. state level, we estimated the building energy use in the 21st century at the U.S. state level and analyzed its spatial pattern. We have found that the total building energy use (heating and cooling) in U.S. states is over- or under-estimated without having climate feedback taken into account, and that the difference with and without climate feedback at the state level varies from -25% to 25% in reference scenario and -15% to 10% in climate mitigation scenario. The result not only confirms earlier finding that global warming leads to increased cooling and decreased heating energy use, it also indicates that climate change has a different impact on total building energy use at national and state level, exhibiting large spatial heterogeneity across states (Figure 1). The scale impact in building energy use modeling emphasizes the importance of developing a building energy model that represents socioeconomic development, energy service expansion, and

  14. State-level clustering of safety measures and its relationship to injury mortality.

    PubMed

    Brown, P; Bell, N; Conrad, P; Howland, J; Lang, M

    1997-01-01

    This article proposes a social model of investigating injury mortality. The authors hypothesize that (1) state-level laws and regulations on safety cluster together in one or more groupings; (2) groupings of safety measures play a significant role in injury mortality; and (3) injury mortality is very highly associated with social structural variables. There is a clustering of safety policies, with five factors explaining 67 percent of variance, although no "master factor" was discovered. The strongest factor, explaining 21 percent of variance, includes three gun laws and low speed limits before the 1973 federal law. One factor is the most global in that it taps three distinct areas, including helmet laws, minor blood alcohol levels, and smoke detectors, though it only explains 7.5 percent of variance. The only factor that remains in a regression for injury mortality is one that includes strong seat belt laws and strong enforcement of those laws, though in the direction opposite to that hypothesized. This factor, along with percentage rural and environmental spending per capita, is significant for both motor vehicle and non-motor vehicle mortality. For motor vehicle mortality alone, deaths are higher in states with higher percentages of Hispanics and fewer people receiving food stamps and AFDC. Many factors that usually predict individual injury mortality do not hold at the state level, suggesting the usefulness of looking at social factors for new insights into injury mortality and prevention. PMID:9142606

  15. Costs of Chronic Diseases at the State Level: The Chronic Disease Cost Calculator

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Louise B.; Khavjou, Olga A.; Li, Rui; Maylahn, Christopher M.; Tangka, Florence K.; Nurmagambetov, Tursynbek A.; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Nwaise, Isaac; Chapman, Daniel P.; Orenstein, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many studies have estimated national chronic disease costs, but state-level estimates are limited. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Chronic Disease Cost Calculator (CDCC), which estimates state-level costs for arthritis, asthma, cancer, congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, hypertension, stroke, other heart diseases, depression, and diabetes. Methods Using publicly available and restricted secondary data from multiple national data sets from 2004 through 2008, disease-attributable annual per-person medical and absenteeism costs were estimated. Total state medical and absenteeism costs were derived by multiplying per person costs from regressions by the number of people in the state treated for each disease. Medical costs were estimated for all payers and separately for Medicaid, Medicare, and private insurers. Projected medical costs for all payers (2010 through 2020) were calculated using medical costs and projected state population counts. Results Median state-specific medical costs ranged from $410 million (asthma) to $1.8 billion (diabetes); median absenteeism costs ranged from $5 million (congestive heart failure) to $217 million (arthritis). Conclusion CDCC provides methodologically rigorous chronic disease cost estimates. These estimates highlight possible areas of cost savings achievable through targeted prevention efforts or research into new interventions and treatments. PMID:26334712

  16. Modeling Per Capita State Health Expenditure Variation: State-Level Characteristics Matter

    PubMed Central

    Cuckler, Gigi; Sisko, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Objective In this paper, we describe the methods underlying the econometric model developed by the Office of the Actuary in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, to explain differences in per capita total personal health care spending by state, as described in Cuckler, et al. (2011). Additionally, we discuss many alternative model specifications to provide additional insights for valid interpretation of the model. Data Source We study per capita personal health care spending as measured by the State Health Expenditures, by State of Residence for 1991–2009, produced by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Office of the Actuary. State-level demographic, health status, economic, and health economy characteristics were gathered from a variety of U.S. government sources, such as the Census Bureau, Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Centers for Disease Control, the American Hospital Association, and HealthLeaders-InterStudy. Principal Findings State-specific factors, such as income, health care capacity, and the share of elderly residents, are important factors in explaining the level of per capita personal health care spending variation among states over time. However, the slow-moving nature of health spending per capita and close relationships among state-level factors create inefficiencies in modeling this variation, likely resulting in incorrectly estimated standard errors. In addition, we find that both pooled and fixed effects models primarily capture cross-sectional variation rather than period-specific variation. PMID:24834363

  17. State-Level Tobacco Control Policies and Youth Smoking Cessation Measures

    PubMed Central

    Tworek, Cindy; Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Kloska, Deborah D.; Emery, Sherry; Barker, Dianne; Giovino, Gary A.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Research on the effects of state-level tobacco control policies targeted at youth has been mixed, with little on the effects of these policies and youth smoking cessation. This study explored the association between state-level tobacco control policies and youth smoking cessation behaviors from 1991–2006. Methods The study design was a population-based, nested survey of students within states. Study participants were 8th, 10th, and 12th graders who reported smoking “regularly in the past” or “regularly now” from the Monitoring the Future study. Main cessation outcome measures were: any quit attempt; want to quit; non-continuation of smoking; and discontinuation of smoking. Results Results showed that cigarette price was positively associated with a majority of cessation-related measures among high school smokers. Strength of sales to minors’ laws was also associated with adolescent non-continuation of smoking among 10th and 12th graders. Conclusions Findings suggest that increasing cigarette price can encourage cessation-related behaviors among high school smokers. Evidence-based policy, such as tax increases on tobacco products, should be included as an important part of comprehensive tobacco control policy, which can have a positive effect on decreasing smoking prevalence and increasing smoking cessation among youth. PMID:20483500

  18. Latest ACEP national, state-level report cards cite ample room for improvement.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    In its latest round of report cards on the emergency care environment, the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) gave the nation an overall ranking of D+, a slight decline from the rankings unveiled in 2009. Overall state-level rankings were also unveiled, as well as individual rankings for access, quality and safety, medical liability environment, public health and injury prevention, and disaster preparedness. Leaders at ACEP urge providers to use the rankings to advocate for change in their states; however, there is concern that the report cards are already being misinterpreted as being a reflection of care quality rather than the emergency care environment. * Notably, on the national report card, access to emergency care received an overall grade of D-, and it accounted for 30% of the overall grade. * Among the state-level rankings, Washington, DC, Massachusetts, Maine, and Nebraska were the top performers, earning an overall grade of B-. * At the other end of the spectrum, Wyoming received an overall grade of F, Arizona received a D-, and Montana, New Mexico, and Kentucky each received a grade of D. PMID:24640288

  19. Big five personality and residential mobility: a state-level analysis of the USA.

    PubMed

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2015-01-01

    Relations of the state-aggregated Big Five personality scores of 619,397 residents to four 2005 state-level residential mobility criteria were examined with the 50 states as cases. Multiple regression controlling for five state demographic variables showed (a) higher state neuroticism was strongly associated with lower mobility, lower same-county mobility, and lower between-county mobility; (b) higher state extraversion was associated with lower mobility and lower same-county mobility, but only with neuroticism and/or conscientiousness controlled; and (c) conscientiousness was related to same-residence, same-county, and different-county mobility, but only without demographic variables controlled. Discussion is grounded in the dangers of cross-level speculation and the potential of a basic assumption of geographical psychology that an area's aggregate position on a dispositional variable is associated there with behavioral and psychological tendencies related to that variable.

  20. Retrospective on the construction and practice of a state-level emergency medical rescue team.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhang; Haitao, Guo; Xin, Wang; Yundou, Wang

    2014-10-01

    For the past few years, disasters like earthquakes, landslides, mudslides, tsunamis, and traffic accidents have occurred with an ever-growing frequency, coverage, and intensity greatly beyond the expectation of the public. In order to respond effectively to disasters and to reduce casualties and property damage, countries around the world have invested more efforts in the theoretical study of emergency medicine and the construction of emergency medical rescue forces. Consequently, emergency medical rescue teams of all scales and types have come into being and have played significant roles in disaster response work. As the only state-level emergency medical rescue force from the Chinese People's Armed Police Forces, the force described here has developed, through continuous learning and practice, a characteristic mode in terms of grouping methods, equipment system construction, and training. PMID:25397657

  1. Trends in state-level freight accident rates: An enhancement of risk factor development for RADTRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C.; Kvitek, T.

    1991-01-01

    Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is concerned with understanding and managing risk as it applies to the shipment of spent commercial nuclear reactor fuel. Understanding risk in relation to mode and geography may provide opportunities to minimize radiological and non-radiological risks of transportation. To enhance such an understanding, a set of state-or waterway-specific accident, fatality, and injury rates (expressed as rates per shipment kilometer) by transportation mode and highway administrative class was developed, using publicly-available data bases. Adjustments made to accommodate miscoded or incomplete information in accident data are described, as well as the procedures for estimating state-level flow data. Results indicate that the shipping conditions under which spent fuel is likely to be transported should be less subject to accidents than the average'' shipment within mode. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Improving adolescent health policy: incorporating a framework for assessing state-level policies.

    PubMed

    Brindis, Claire D; Moore, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Many US policies that affect health are made at the state, not the federal, level. Identifying state-level policies and data to analyze how different policies affect outcomes may help policy makers ascertain the usefulness of their public policies and funding decisions in improving the health of adolescent populations. A framework for describing and assessing the role of federal and state policies on adolescent health and well-being is proposed; an example of how the framework might be applied to the issue of teen childbearing is included. Such a framework can also help inform analyses of whether and how state and federal policies contribute to the variation across states in meeting adolescent health needs. A database on state policies, contextual variables, and health outcomes data can further enable researchers and policy makers to examine how these factors are associated with behaviors they aim to impact.

  3. Climate uncertainty and implications for U.S. state-level risk assessment through 2050.

    SciTech Connect

    Loose, Verne W.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Kelic, Andjelka; Backus, George A.; Warren, Drake E.; Zagonel, Aldo A.; Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Klise, Geoffrey T.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2009-10-01

    Decisions for climate policy will need to take place in advance of climate science resolving all relevant uncertainties. Further, if the concern of policy is to reduce risk, then the best-estimate of climate change impacts may not be so important as the currently understood uncertainty associated with realizable conditions having high consequence. This study focuses on one of the most uncertain aspects of future climate change - precipitation - to understand the implications of uncertainty on risk and the near-term justification for interventions to mitigate the course of climate change. We show that the mean risk of damage to the economy from climate change, at the national level, is on the order of one trillion dollars over the next 40 years, with employment impacts of nearly 7 million labor-years. At a 1% exceedance-probability, the impact is over twice the mean-risk value. Impacts at the level of individual U.S. states are then typically in the multiple tens of billions dollar range with employment losses exceeding hundreds of thousands of labor-years. We used results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report 4 (AR4) climate-model ensemble as the referent for climate uncertainty over the next 40 years, mapped the simulated weather hydrologically to the county level for determining the physical consequence to economic activity at the state level, and then performed a detailed, seventy-industry, analysis of economic impact among the interacting lower-48 states. We determined industry GDP and employment impacts at the state level, as well as interstate population migration, effect on personal income, and the consequences for the U.S. trade balance.

  4. Correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage: A state-level analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Jennifer L.; Reiter, Paul L.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2014-01-01

    Background We tested the hypothesis that states with higher rates of cancers associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) would have lower HPV vaccine coverage. Methods We gathered state-level data on HPV-related cancer rates and HPV vaccine initiation coverage for girls and boys, separately, and HPV vaccine follow-through (i.e., receipt of 3 doses among those initiating the series) for girls only. In addition, we gathered state-level data on demographic composition and contact with the healthcare system. We calculated Pearson correlations for these ecological relationships. Results HPV vaccine initiation among girls was lower in states with higher levels of cervical cancer incidence and mortality (r=−.29 and −.46, respectively). In addition, vaccine follow-through among girls was lower in states with higher levels of cervical cancer mortality (r=−.30). Other cancer rates were associated with HPV vaccine initiation and follow-through among girls, but not among boys. HPV vaccine initiation among girls was lower in states with higher proportions of non-Hispanic black residents and lower proportions of higher income residents. HPV vaccine follow-through was higher in states with greater levels of adolescents' contact with the healthcare system. Conclusions HPV vaccine coverage for girls was lower in states with higher HPV-related cancer rates. Public health efforts should concentrate on geographic areas with higher cancer rates. Strengthening adolescent preventive healthcare use may be particularly important to increase vaccine follow-through. Cost-effectiveness analyses may overestimate the benefits of current vaccination coverage and underestimate the benefits of increasing coverage. PMID:25585064

  5. The difference between energy consumption and energy cost: Modelling energy tariff structures for water resource recovery facilities.

    PubMed

    Aymerich, I; Rieger, L; Sobhani, R; Rosso, D; Corominas, Ll

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of incorporating more realistic energy cost models (based on current energy tariff structures) into existing water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) process models when evaluating technologies and cost-saving control strategies. In this paper, we first introduce a systematic framework to model energy usage at WRRFs and a generalized structure to describe energy tariffs including the most common billing terms. Secondly, this paper introduces a detailed energy cost model based on a Spanish energy tariff structure coupled with a WRRF process model to evaluate several control strategies and provide insights into the selection of the contracted power structure. The results for a 1-year evaluation on a 115,000 population-equivalent WRRF showed monthly cost differences ranging from 7 to 30% when comparing the detailed energy cost model to an average energy price. The evaluation of different aeration control strategies also showed that using average energy prices and neglecting energy tariff structures may lead to biased conclusions when selecting operating strategies or comparing technologies or equipment. The proposed framework demonstrated that for cost minimization, control strategies should be paired with a specific optimal contracted power. Hence, the design of operational and control strategies must take into account the local energy tariff.

  6. The difference between energy consumption and energy cost: Modelling energy tariff structures for water resource recovery facilities.

    PubMed

    Aymerich, I; Rieger, L; Sobhani, R; Rosso, D; Corominas, Ll

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of incorporating more realistic energy cost models (based on current energy tariff structures) into existing water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) process models when evaluating technologies and cost-saving control strategies. In this paper, we first introduce a systematic framework to model energy usage at WRRFs and a generalized structure to describe energy tariffs including the most common billing terms. Secondly, this paper introduces a detailed energy cost model based on a Spanish energy tariff structure coupled with a WRRF process model to evaluate several control strategies and provide insights into the selection of the contracted power structure. The results for a 1-year evaluation on a 115,000 population-equivalent WRRF showed monthly cost differences ranging from 7 to 30% when comparing the detailed energy cost model to an average energy price. The evaluation of different aeration control strategies also showed that using average energy prices and neglecting energy tariff structures may lead to biased conclusions when selecting operating strategies or comparing technologies or equipment. The proposed framework demonstrated that for cost minimization, control strategies should be paired with a specific optimal contracted power. Hence, the design of operational and control strategies must take into account the local energy tariff. PMID:26048700

  7. An analysis of Renewable Portfolio Standard policy formulation and its influence on state level energy prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollester, Peter Colin

    Over the past two decades, environmental concern has crept to the forefront of the world policy agenda. This concern has manifested itself differently throughout the world. In the United States, this has come in the form of Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) which have become one of the primary policy tools which states use to encourage renewable energy generation. The advent of RPS has spurred intense debate at a federal and state level, centering on the economic merits of promoting renewable energy generation. Detractors argue that RPS will raise electricity rates, since generation from renewable sources is typically costlier than energy generated from fossil fuels. At this point, evidence to the relationship between RPS on electricity prices remains unclear. Researchers have attempted to understand this relationship through a variety of means. The most common being regression based models, which utilize readily available United States Energy Information Agency (US EIA) data, and have uncovered a number of important independent variables which are incorporated into the model in this study. Examples include personal income, state population, and deregulation of an energy market. In addition to empirical studies, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has created complex mathematical models which generate scenario projections based on a number of assumptions. While interesting, these are forward looking tools and as such have not yielded a tremendous amount of insight into the underlying policy mechanics of RPS. A challenge of addressing this topic which is worth noting is that much of the research available which analyzes the merits of RPS caters to distinct political or private sector agendas. The research gathered for this study is comprehensive, and attempts to avoid studies with any clear political, ideological, or financial motivation. Using the insights from previous researchers this study develops a rigorous fixed effects regression model to

  8. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to Tariff or Quoting Error No. Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q of Part 502 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME... of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error Federal Maritime Commission Special Docket No... on the date the intended rate would have become effective and ending on the day before the...

  9. Effectiveness of State-Level Policies on Solar Market Development in Different State Contexts

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, D.; Doris, E.; Krasko, V.; Hillman, D.

    2014-02-01

    In response to public interest in customer-sited distributed solar photovoltaics (PV), state and local policymakers have implemented policy initiatives with the goal of encouraging private investment and building a robust PV market. Policymakers face challenges, including limited budgets and incomplete information about the effectiveness of the various policy options in their specific situation, in crafting and executing policy that supports market development goals. Recent work investigated the effect of the order in which policies are implemented (referred to as 'policy stacking') and the presence of low-cost enabling policies, such as interconnection standards and net metering, can have on the success of states in promoting PV markets. Findings indicate that implementation of interconnection standards and policy related to the valuation of excess electricity (e.g., net metering), along with indicators of long term government support for a solar PV market (e.g., RPS) and a non-policy determinant (population), explain about 70% of the variation among states in new PV capacity. This paper builds on that research to determine the most effective policy strategies for different types of states, as determined by their physical, demographic and macroeconomic context. A number of researchers have investigated the effectiveness of state-level policy using various statistical methods to determine relationships between installed solar PV projects and policy initiatives. In this study, the grouping of states by non-policy factors adds dimension to these analyses by identifying how policies function in different non-policy environments.

  10. An analysis of consanguineous marriage in the Muslim population of India at regional and state levels.

    PubMed

    Bittles, A H; Hussain, R

    2000-01-01

    Consanguineous marriage is widely favoured in a large majority of the world's Islamic populations. According to recent estimates, the resident Muslim population of India is over 100 million. However, apart from a few numerically small or geographically defined surveys, little is known about their patterns of marriage preferences since partition of the Indian Subcontinent in 1947. This study seeks to determine the prevalence and patterns of consanguineous marriages contracted among Indian Muslims at regional and state levels during the last two generations. Data from the 1992/93 Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS) were used in the analysis. The NFHS was a nationally-representative survey of ever-married women aged 13-49 years, conducted across 25 states of India. Of the initial 9845 respondents, 8436 were included in the final weighted analysis sample. Overall, 22.0% of marriages were found to be contracted between spouses related as second cousins or closer, ranging from 15.9% in the eastern states to 32.9% in the western states of India. In all parts of the country first cousin marriages were the preferred form of consanguineous union, and in four of the five regions paternal first cousin marriages predominated. Despite predictions to the contrary, there was no evidence of a significant change in the prevalence of consanguineous unions over the course of the study period, which extended from the late 1950s to the early 1990s.

  11. An analysis of consanguineous marriage in the Muslim population of India at regional and state levels.

    PubMed

    Bittles, A H; Hussain, R

    2000-01-01

    Consanguineous marriage is widely favoured in a large majority of the world's Islamic populations. According to recent estimates, the resident Muslim population of India is over 100 million. However, apart from a few numerically small or geographically defined surveys, little is known about their patterns of marriage preferences since partition of the Indian Subcontinent in 1947. This study seeks to determine the prevalence and patterns of consanguineous marriages contracted among Indian Muslims at regional and state levels during the last two generations. Data from the 1992/93 Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS) were used in the analysis. The NFHS was a nationally-representative survey of ever-married women aged 13-49 years, conducted across 25 states of India. Of the initial 9845 respondents, 8436 were included in the final weighted analysis sample. Overall, 22.0% of marriages were found to be contracted between spouses related as second cousins or closer, ranging from 15.9% in the eastern states to 32.9% in the western states of India. In all parts of the country first cousin marriages were the preferred form of consanguineous union, and in four of the five regions paternal first cousin marriages predominated. Despite predictions to the contrary, there was no evidence of a significant change in the prevalence of consanguineous unions over the course of the study period, which extended from the late 1950s to the early 1990s. PMID:10768421

  12. State-level estimates of the economic costs of alcohol and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Wickizer, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    Substance abuse (SA) imposes a substantial economic burden on society. This burden arises largely from indirect costs associated with lost productivity (morbidity), premature mortality, and crime. The economic impact of SA has been estimated on a national level, but state-level estimates, needed for resource allocation and policy development, are lacking. I used standard cost-of-illness methods to quantify the economic cost of SA for Washington State for 2005. The cost of SA was estimated at $5.21 billion, $832 per non-institutionalized person in the state. Translated into 2012 dollars, these costs would be $6.12 billion and $977, respectively. Categories accounting for the greatest costs were mortality ($2.03 billion), crime ($1.09 billion), morbidity ($1.03 billion), and health care ($791 million). There were 3,224 deaths (7 percent of all deaths), 89,000 years of productive life lost, and 29,000 hospital discharges in 2005 in Washington State associated with SA. Continued attention should be directed at developing effective approaches to prevent and treat SA. If successful, these efforts should reduce the future economic burden of SA. PMID:23614269

  13. Longitudinal review of state-level accident statistics for carriers of interstate freight

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C.; Kvitek, T.

    1994-03-01

    State-level accident rates by mode of freight transport have been developed and refined for application to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) environmental mitigation program, which may involve large-quantity shipments of hazardous and mixed wastes from DOE facilities. These rates reflect multi-year data for interstate-registered highway earners, American Association of Railroads member carriers, and coastal and internal waterway barge traffic. Adjustments have been made to account for the share of highway combination-truck traffic actually attributable to interstate-registered carriers and for duplicate or otherwise inaccurate entries in the public-use accident data files used. State-to-state variation in rates is discussed, as is the stability of rates over time. Computed highway rates have been verified with actual carriers of high- and low-level nuclear materials, and the most recent truck accident data have been used, to ensure that the results are of the correct order of magnitude. Study conclusions suggest that DOE use the computed rates for the three modes until (1) improved estimation techniques for highway combination-truck miles by state become available; (2) continued evolution of the railroad industry significantly increases the consolidation of interstate rail traffic onto fewer high-capacity trunk lines; or (3) a large-scale off-site waste shipment campaign is imminent.

  14. Scoring the Icecap-a capability instrument. Estimation of a UK general population tariff.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Terry N; Huynh, Elisabeth; Peters, Tim J; Al-Janabi, Hareth; Clemens, Sam; Moody, Alison; Coast, Joanna

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a best-worst scaling (BWS) study to value the Investigating Choice Experiments Capability Measure for Adults (ICECAP-A), a new capability measure among adults, in a UK setting. A main effects plan plus its foldover was used to estimate weights for each of the four levels of all five attributes. The BWS study was administered to 413 randomly sampled individuals, together with sociodemographic and other questions. Scale-adjusted latent class analyses identified two preference and two (variance) scale classes. Ability to characterize preference and scale heterogeneity was limited, but data quality was good, and the final model exhibited a high pseudo-r-squared. After adjusting for heterogeneity, a population tariff was estimated. This showed that 'attachment' and 'stability' each account for around 22% of the space, and 'autonomy', 'achievement' and 'enjoyment' account for around 18% each. Across all attributes, greater value was placed on the difference between the lowest levels of capability than between the highest. This tariff will enable ICECAP-A to be used in economic evaluation both within the field of health and across public policy generally.

  15. Methodological developments in US state-level Genuine Progress Indicators: toward GPI 2.0

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Berik, Günseli; Gaddis, Erica J. Brown

    2014-01-01

    The Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) has emerged as an important monetary measure of economic well-being. Unlike mainstream economic indicators, primarily Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the GPI accounts for both the benefits and costs of economic production across diverse economic, social, and environmental domains in a more comprehensive manner. Recently, the GPI has gained traction in subnational policy in the United States, with GPI studies being conducted in a number of states and with their formal adoption by several state governments. As the GPI is applied in different locations, new methods are developed, different data sources are available, and new issues of policy relevance are addressed using its component indicators. This has led to a divergence in methods, reducing comparability between studies and yielding results that are of varying methodological sophistication. In this study, we review the “state of the art” in recent US state-level GPI studies, focusing on those from Hawaii, Maryland, Ohio, Utah, and Vermont. Through adoption of a consistent approach, these and future GPI studies could utilize a framework that supports more uniform, comparable, and accurate measurements of progress. We also identify longer-term issues, particularly related to treatment of nonrenewable resource depletion, government spending, income inequality, and ecosystem services. As these issues are successfully addressed and disseminated, a “GPI 2.0” will emerge that better measures economic well-being and has greater accuracy and policy relevance than past GPI measurements. As the GPI expands further into mainstream policy analysis, a more formal process by which methods could be updated, standardized, and applied is needed.

  16. Land carbon sequestration within the conterminous United States: Regional- and state-level analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaoliang; Kicklighter, David W.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Reilly, John M.; Xu, Liyi

    2015-02-01

    A quantitative understanding of the rate at which land ecosystems are sequestering or losing carbon at national-, regional-, and state-level scales is needed to develop policies to mitigate climate change. In this study, a new improved historical land use and land cover change data set is developed and combined with a process-based ecosystem model to estimate carbon sources and sinks in land ecosystems of the conterminous United States for the contemporary period of 2001-2005 and over the last three centuries. We estimate that land ecosystems in the conterminous United States sequestered 323 Tg C yr-1 at the beginning of the 21st century with forests accounting for 97% of this sink. This land carbon sink varied substantially across the conterminous United States, with the largest sinks occurring in the Southeast. Land sinks are large enough to completely compensate fossil fuel emissions in Maine and Mississippi, but nationally, carbon sinks compensate for only 20% of U.S. fossil fuel emissions. We find that regions that are currently large carbon sinks (e.g., Southeast) tend to have been large carbon sources over the longer historical period. Both the land use history and fate of harvested products can be important in determining a region's overall impact on the atmospheric carbon budget. While there are numerous options for reducing fossil fuels (e.g., increase efficiency and displacement by renewable resources), new land management opportunities for sequestering carbon need to be explored. Opportunities include reforestation and managing forest age structure. These opportunities will vary from state to state and over time across the United States.

  17. 75 FR 53271 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2011 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the... importation of certain dairy articles, which are subject to tariff-rate quotas set forth in the Harmonized... CONTACT: Abdelsalam El-Farra, Dairy Import Licensing Program, Import Policies and Export...

  18. 76 FR 60801 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2012 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2012 Tariff- Rate Import... person or firm by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) authorizing the importation of certain dairy..., Dairy Import Licensing Program, Import Policies and Export Reporting Division, U.S. Department...

  19. 77 FR 51751 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2013 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2013 Tariff- Rate Import... person or firm by the Department of Agriculture authorizing the importation of certain dairy articles... States. DATES: August 27, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Abdelsalam El-Farra, Dairy...

  20. 18 CFR 385.209 - Notices of tariff or rate examination and orders to show cause (Rule 209).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notices of tariff or... Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF... which is demanded, observed, charged, or collected, the Commission will initiate a proceeding by...

  1. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ) as required under the U.S. World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments. The FY 2011 raw cane sugar TRQ is established at 1,117,195...

  2. 77 FR 24759 - Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Quota for Imports of Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: USTR is providing notice that the tariff-rate quota for sugar established by the United States... quota for imports of sugar from Colombia. USTR is providing notice that the United States,...

  3. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising...

  4. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... Trade Representative in Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On September 10, 2012, the... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

  5. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... United States Trade Representative under Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On July 30, 2010... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...

  6. 77 FR 65439 - Implementation of United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... for Imports of Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: USTR is providing notice that the tariff-rate quotas for sugar established by the United States-Panama... imports of sugar from Panama. USTR is providing notice that the United States, consistent with Note...

  7. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic...

  8. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic...

  9. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... under Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On August 1, 2011, the Secretary of Agriculture... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...

  10. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic...

  11. 78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... United States Trade Representative in Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On September 13, 2013... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...

  12. 77 FR 55451 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses; and the Fiscal Year 2013 Overall Allotment Quantity Under the Sugar Marketing Allotment Program AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... quantity of the raw, as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ). The FY 2013 raw...

  13. 47 CFR 101.307 - Tariffs, reports, and other material required to be submitted to the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tariffs, reports, and other material required to be submitted to the Commission. 101.307 Section 101.307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous...

  14. 47 CFR 101.307 - Tariffs, reports, and other material required to be submitted to the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tariffs, reports, and other material required to be submitted to the Commission. 101.307 Section 101.307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous...

  15. 47 CFR 101.307 - Tariffs, reports, and other material required to be submitted to the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tariffs, reports, and other material required to be submitted to the Commission. 101.307 Section 101.307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous...

  16. 47 CFR 101.307 - Tariffs, reports, and other material required to be submitted to the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tariffs, reports, and other material required to be submitted to the Commission. 101.307 Section 101.307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous...

  17. 47 CFR 101.307 - Tariffs, reports, and other material required to be submitted to the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tariffs, reports, and other material required to be submitted to the Commission. 101.307 Section 101.307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous...

  18. 75 FR 38805 - Filing Via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings Notice of Display of Time on Commission's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Filing Via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings Notice of Display of Time on Commission's Electronic Filing System June 28, 2010. Take notice that the Commission will...

  19. 47 CFR 61.49 - Supporting information to be submitted with letters of transmittal for tariffs of carriers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 61.49, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General... system of density pricing zones, as described in § 69.123 of this chapter, the carrier must,...

  20. 47 CFR 61.49 - Supporting information to be submitted with letters of transmittal for tariffs of carriers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 61.49, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General... system of density pricing zones, as described in § 69.123 of this chapter, the carrier must,...

  1. 47 CFR 61.49 - Supporting information to be submitted with letters of transmittal for tariffs of carriers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 61.49, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General... system of density pricing zones, as described in § 69.123 of this chapter, the carrier must,...

  2. 77 FR 76300 - Recommendations To Modify Chapters 29, 30, 37, and 85 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-27

    ... COMMISSION Recommendations To Modify Chapters 29, 30, 37, and 85 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the... recommendations to the President with respect to modifying provisions of chapters 29, 30, 37, and 85 of the... two categories. The first category concerns modifications to two HTS chapters inadvertently...

  3. 18 CFR 385.209 - Notices of tariff or rate examination and orders to show cause (Rule 209).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notices of tariff or rate examination and orders to show cause (Rule 209). 385.209 Section 385.209 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES...

  4. 77 FR 58525 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas on the Import of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics to Persons Who Weave Such Fabrics in the United States... wool fabric to persons who weave such fabrics in the United States. SUMMARY: The Department hereby... worsted wool fabrics in the United States for an allocation of the 2013 tariff rate quotas on...

  5. 75 FR 54599 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas on the Import of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics to Persons Who Weave Such Fabrics in the United States... wool fabric to persons who weave such fabrics in the United States. SUMMARY: The Department hereby... worsted wool fabrics in the United States for an allocation of the 2011 tariff rate quotas on...

  6. 47 CFR 61.49 - Supporting information to be submitted with letters of transmittal for tariffs of carriers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 61.49, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... system of density pricing zones, as described in § 69.123 of this chapter, the carrier must, before filing its tariff, submit a density pricing zone plan including, inter alia, documentation sufficient...

  7. 47 CFR 61.39 - Optional supporting information to be submitted with letters of transmittal for Access Tariff...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... month period with related demand for the same period. (ii) For subsequent filings, a cost of service... filing, with related demand for the same period. (2) For a tariff change, the local exchange company that... line charges shall be based on cost and demand data for the same period. Carrier common line...

  8. 77 FR 45599 - CED Rock Springs, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market-Based Rate Tariff Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission CED Rock Springs, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market- Based Rate... above-referenced proceeding of CED Rock Springs, Inc.'s tariff revision filing, noting that such...

  9. Unintended consequences of increasing block tariffs pricing policy in urban water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahan, Momi; Nisan, Udi

    2007-03-01

    We exploit a unique data set to estimate the degree of economies of scale in water consumption, controlling for the standard demand factors. We found a linear Engel curve in water consumption: each additional household member consumes the same water quantity regardless of household size, except for a single-person household. Our evidence suggests that the increasing block tariffs (IBT) structure, which is indifferent to household size, has unintended consequences. Large households, which are also likely to be poor given the negative correlation between income and household size, are charged a higher price for water. The degree of economies of scale found here erodes the effectiveness of IBT price structure as a way to introduce an equity consideration. This implication is important in view of the global trend toward the use of IBT.

  10. Assessing Unmet and Latent Demand for Pharmacists at the State Level

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Prachi; Mott, David A.; Chui, Michelle A.; Kreling, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Past reports suggest that a near balance has been reached in the supply and demand for pharmacists in the US. Although data on the level of supply of pharmacists is available, there is no continuous and systematic tracking of the level of demand (unmet and latent) for pharmacists at state level. Unmet demand, an established construct in pharmacy workforce, is important to measure the number of vacancies and assess pharmacist shortage consistently over time. Latent demand or potential demand is a novel construct and has never been measured in pharmacy workforce. With the increase in supply, it is important to measure the potential demand that could be budgeted in pharmacies in the near future. Objective The objective of this study was to measure the unmet and latent demand for pharmacists and explore the association between latent demand and workload characteristics in community and hospital pharmacies in Wisconsin in 2011-12. Methods The study used a cross-sectional, descriptive survey design. A sample of community pharmacies (n=1,064) and hospital pharmacies (n=126) licensed in Wisconsin in 2011-12 was identified. Key informants (managers/owners) of sampled pharmacies were sent a one-page cover letter explaining the purpose of the study and requesting participation and a three page survey form. The main outcome measures of the study were total number of FTE pharmacist positions vacant, presence of adequate staff size, additional number of FTE pharmacist positions needed to attain adequate staff size, prescription volume, daily census, hospital size and number of hours prescription department is open. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all the pharmacies collectively, then separately for community and hospital pharmacies. Pharmacy setting, vacancies and workload characteristics of pharmacies with and without latent demand were compared using chi-squared test of independence and/or t-test. Sample weights were calculated and used in all the

  11. Services Provided to JTPA by National and State Level Vocational and Technical Educational Curriculum Centers. Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Rebecca S.

    A national network of six regional curriculum centers and at least 40 state-level curriculum materials centers are designed to identify and provide job training materials. These centers are supported with funds from federal and state legislation for vocational and technical education. The extent to which services of these centers are currently…

  12. Serving Students with Disabilities in State-Level Virtual K-12 Public School Programs. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve

    2009-01-01

    Because the virtual public school landscape is relatively new--and changing and expanding at such a rapid rate--very little is known about how these schools are currently serving students with disabilities. The purpose of this document is to describe how state-level virtual public school programs are serving students with disabilities and to…

  13. Measuring History: Cases of State-Level Testing across the United States. Research in Curriculum and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, S. G., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Measuring History complements the cases presented in Wise Social Studies Practices (Yeager & Davis, 2005). Yeager and Davis highlight the rich and ambitious teaching that can occur in the broad context of state-level testing. In this book, the chapter authors and I bring the particular state history tests more to the fore and examine how teachers…

  14. State-level tobacco environments and sexual orientation disparities in tobacco use and dependence in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Keyes, Katherine M; Hamilton, Ava; Hasin, Deborah S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe relationships between tobacco-related environments and disparities in smoking by sexual orientation. Methods We examined three aspects of state-level tobacco environments, which were derived from the ImpacTeen State Level Tobacco Control Policy and Prevalence Database: (1) tobacco price and tax data and tobacco control funding; (2) tobacco control policies and (3) tobacco prevalence and norms data. This information was linked to individual-level data on sexual orientation, tobacco use and nicotine dependence in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N=34 653; 577 LGB respondents), a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey of adults in the USA. Results Lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adults in states with more restrictive tobacco environments were less likely to have ever smoked (AOR=0.78, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.00) and to currently smoke (AOR=0.77, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.99) than LGB adults in more permissive tobacco environments. Further, sexual orientation disparities in past and current smoking, as well as in current nicotine dependence, were lower in states with the most restrictive tobacco environments. Results were robust to adjustment for confounders at the individual and state levels. Conclusions Restrictive state-level tobacco environments are correlates of smoking behaviours among LGB adults in the USA; such environments could potentially reduce social inequalities in smoking based on sexual orientation. PMID:24570099

  15. Issues and Consequences for State-Level Minimum Competency Testing Programs. State Assessment Series. Wyoming Report 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Scott F.; Sheinker, Alan

    This report reviews the current status, empirical findings, theoretical issues, and practical considerations related to state-level minimum competency testing programs. It finds that, although two-thirds of current testing programs now use direct writing prompts to assess writing achievement, essentially all programs rely on multiple choice tests…

  16. Selected Laws, Rules and State-Level Activities in Wisconsin Related to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Information Memorandum 87-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Richard

    This information memorandum describes the selected laws, rules, and state-level activities in Wisconsin related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and tests for antibodies to the virus (HIV) that causes AIDS. A section on current state laws on AIDS and HIV antibody testing describes laws related to informed consent for testing,…

  17. A Report of Perceptions of Censorship of IMC Materials in 1982-83 from a State-Level Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Dianne McAfee

    A survey was conducted in August and September 1983 to ascertain the perceptions of state leaders regarding censorship of K-12 instructional media center (IMC) materials during the 1982-83 school year. Of the 53 surveys sent to persons involved with state-level library media programs, 42 responses representing 41 states and one territory were…

  18. The Early Childhood and Elementary Education Continuum: Constructing an Understanding of P-3 as State-Level Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauerz, Kristie Anne

    2009-01-01

    State-level policy attention to young children's early learning opportunities burgeons; a sense of urgency exists to identify reform agendas that are both effective and sustainable. "P-3" often is used as the term for the first level of a seamless P-20 system that stretches from early childhood through post-secondary education. While it is…

  19. Warm-Up Activities of Middle and High School Band Directors Participating in State-Level Concert Band Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Justin P.; Hancock, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the warm-ups chosen by concert band directors participating in state-level performance assessments. We observed 29 middle and high school bands and coded the frequency and duration of warm-up activities and behaviors. Results indicated that most bands rehearsed music and played scales, long tones, and…

  20. Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, K. Sydny

    2011-06-23

    of outdated appliances, in California rental housing. Appliances in rental housing are on average older than those in owner occupied housing. More importantly, a substantial proportion of very old appliances are in rental housing. Having established that a very old stock of appliances exists in California rental housing, I discuss tariff financing as a policy option to reduce the impact of the remaining market and behavioral barriers. In a tariff financing program, the utility pays the initial cost of an appliance, and is repaid through subsequent utility bills. By eliminating upfront costs, tying repayment to the gas or electric meter, requiring a detailed energy audit, and relying upon utility bill payment history rather than credit score in determining participant eligibility, tariff financing largely overcomes many barriers to energy efficiency. Using California as a case study, I evaluate the feasibility of implementing tariff financing. For water heaters in particular, this appears to be a cost-effective strategy. Tariff financing from utilities is particularly valuable because it improves the ability of low-income renters to lower their utility bills, without burdening landlords with unrecoverable capital costs. To implement tariff financing country-wide, regulations in many states defining private loan-making institutions or the allowable use of public benefit funds may need to be modified. Tariff financing is relatively new and in most locations is only available as a pilot program or has only recently exited pilot phase. This preliminary evaluation suggests that tariff financing is a valuable future addition to the toolkit of policymakers who aim to increase the diffusion of efficient appliances. While regulatory approval is necessary in states that wish to pursue tariff financing, at this point, the major barrier to further implementation appears to be the newness of the financing mechanism.

  1. Vigilance patterns of Bald Eagles feeding in groups

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, Susan K.; Knight, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Patterns of vigilant behavior of wintering Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) feeding on spawned salmon were examined in 1983-1984 on the Nooksack River in north-western Washington. Vigilance in feeding birds has, in general, been attributed to predator detection; however, we proposed an additional function of vigilance in socially feeding birds that are vulnerable to food robbery and possible injury by conspecifics. We tested predictions of two nonexclusive hypotheses: (1) eagles look up while feeding to detect danger from humans, and (2) eagles look up while feeding to detect pirating attempts or avoid injury by conspecifics. Results suggest that the function of vigilance varies, depending on the size of the feeding group. Vigilance patterns of eagles feeding in small groups (1-4 eagles) and medium groups (5-7) eagles are consistent with hypothesis 1, whereas those of eagles feeding in large groups (8-14 eagles) are consistent with hypothesis 2. Eagles in small groups were more vigilant (measured as scanning time and rate of head raising) when feeding near potential danger (riverbank cover) than when far from danger. Adult eagles feeding in areas of intense human activity were more vigilant than immatures feeding at the same site and were more vigilant than both adults and immatures feeding at secluded sites. Vigilance declined as group size increased from 1 to 4 eagles, and increased as group size ranged from 8 to 14 eagles. Feedings eagles that were looking up at the time of a pirating attempt were more successful in keeping their food than eagles with their heads down. In feeding areas where human activity was minimal, eagles formed larger groups than at a more disturbed site.

  2. Capillary ratchet: Hydrodynamics of capillary feeding in shorebirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Manu; Quere, David; Bush, John

    2008-03-01

    Bill morphologies are highly specialized to particular foraging strategies in birds, as is apparent from the large diversity of beak shapes observed in nature. Here we present an experimental and analytical study of capillary feeding in shorebirds. We highlight the critical role of contact angle hysteresis in capillary feeding. Our study provides a simple physical rationalization for the observation of multiple mandibular spreading cycles in feeding, necessary to overcome contact line resistance. We also find a unique geometrical optima in beak opening and closing angles for the most efficient drop transport. This capillary ratchet mechanism may also find applications in micro scale fluid transport, such as valveless pumping of fluid drops.

  3. State-level evaluations of the Weatherization Assistance Program in 1990-1996: a metaevaluation that estimates national savings

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, L.

    1997-01-01

    The DOE Weatherization Assistance Program is one of the largest energy conservation programs in the nation. To obtain an updated estimate of national Program savings, an approach of metaevaluation was selected, which involved locating, assembling, and summarizing the results of all state-level evaluations of the Program that have become available since 1990. All of the savings estimates that are presented in this report are for dwellings that heat primarily with natural gas.This review of the state-level evaluations conducted since 1990 concluded that Program performance has improved significantly in the last seven years. The finding that savings are increasing are supported by a literature review, within-state comparisons of savings over time, and regression modeling results.

  4. Identifying state-level policy and provision domains for physical education and physical activity in high school

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is important to quickly and efficiently identify policies that are effective at changing behavior; therefore, we must be able to quantify and evaluate the effect of those policies and of changes to those policies. The purpose of this study was to develop state-level physical education (PE) and physical activity (PA) policy domain scores at the high-school level. Policy domain scores were developed with a focus on measuring policy change. Methods Exploratory factor analysis was used to group items from the state-level School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) into policy domains. Items that related to PA or PE at the High School level were identified from the 7 SHPPS health program surveys. Data from 2000 and 2006 were used in the factor analysis. RESULTS: From the 98 items identified, 17 policy domains were extracted. Average policy domain change scores were positive for 12 policy domains, with the largest increases for “Discouraging PA as Punishment”, “Collaboration”, and “Staff Development Opportunities”. On average, states increased scores in 4.94 ± 2.76 policy domains, decreased in 3.53 ± 2.03, and had no change in 7.69 ± 2.09 policy domains. Significant correlations were found between several policy domain scores. Conclusions Quantifying policy change and its impact is integral to the policy making and revision process. Our results build on previous research offering a way to examine changes in state-level policies related to PE and PA of high-school students and the faculty and staff who serve them. This work provides methods for combining state-level policies relevant to PE or PA in youth for studies of their impact. PMID:23815860

  5. "Extreme" or tariff sports: their injuries and their prevention (with particular reference to diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating).

    PubMed

    Foley, E C; Bird, H A

    2013-04-01

    The interface between sports medicine and performing arts medicine is closest for "tariff" sports, where the sportsperson can select their own programme of varying difficulty with the more complex skills carrying potential for higher marks. Inevitably, some performers over-reach themselves. Examples of injuries and prevention strategies to avoid such injuries are discussed in a preliminary analysis of four sports: diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating. PMID:23417345

  6. 19 CFR Appendix B to Part 113 - Bond To Indemnify Complainant Under Section 337, Tariff Act of 1930, as Amended

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provisions contained in §§ 12.39(b)(2) and 113.74 of the Customs Regulations (19 CFR Chapter I) and § 210.50(d) of the U.S. International Trade Commission Regulations (19 CFR Chapter II) apply. Bond Toto..., Tariff Act of 1930, as Amended B Appendix B to Part 113 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER...

  7. 19 CFR Appendix B to Part 113 - Bond To Indemnify Complainant Under Section 337, Tariff Act of 1930, as Amended

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... provisions contained in §§ 12.39(b)(2) and 113.74 of the Customs Regulations (19 CFR Chapter I) and § 210.50(d) of the U.S. International Trade Commission Regulations (19 CFR Chapter II) apply. Bond Toto..., Tariff Act of 1930, as Amended B Appendix B to Part 113 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER...

  8. 19 CFR Appendix B to Part 113 - Bond To Indemnify Complainant Under Section 337, Tariff Act of 1930, as Amended

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provisions contained in §§ 12.39(b)(2) and 113.74 of the Customs Regulations (19 CFR Chapter I) and § 210.50(d) of the U.S. International Trade Commission Regulations (19 CFR Chapter II) apply. Bond Toto..., Tariff Act of 1930, as Amended B Appendix B to Part 113 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER...

  9. 19 CFR Appendix B to Part 113 - Bond To Indemnify Complainant Under Section 337, Tariff Act of 1930, as Amended

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... provisions contained in §§ 12.39(b)(2) and 113.74 of the Customs Regulations (19 CFR Chapter I) and § 210.50(d) of the U.S. International Trade Commission Regulations (19 CFR Chapter II) apply. Bond Toto..., Tariff Act of 1930, as Amended B Appendix B to Part 113 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER...

  10. Promoting healthy food consumption: a review of state-level policies to improve access to fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Hood, Carlyn; Martinez-Donate, Ana; Meinen, Amy

    2012-12-01

    Research indicates poor nutrition is a leading determinant of the development of chronic disease, and increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is one method for decreasing obesity. Many policies have focused on increasing the demand for fruits and vegetables through price reductions and coupons. However, without ensuring a stable supply, increased demand can continue to raise prices, crowding out individuals who may otherwise have purchased fruits and vegetables and ultimately leading to continued disparities in access. This paper presents a review of selected state-level policy options recently proposed or implemented in states across the United States, and provides an evidence-based lens through which food access policy can be shaped in the Midwest. This review and potential framework uses Wisconsin to illustrate the feasibility of different state-level decisions and their potential impact on particular populations. Future supply-side policies to consider include expanding Electronic Benefit Transfer to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC),program and farmers markets, incentivizing the purchase of locally grown produce, assisting local specialty farmers directly, and/or establishing a state-level food policy council. This review reveals that a food policy council would create a more sustainable policy analysis process to better ensure future policy adoption is truly comprehensive, encompassing the production, distribution and purchase of locally grown fruits and vegetables.

  11. State-level income inequality and family burden of U.S. families raising children with special health care needs.

    PubMed

    Parish, Susan L; Rose, Roderick A; Dababnah, Sarah; Yoo, Joan; Cassiman, Shawn A

    2012-02-01

    Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that income inequality within a nation influences health outcomes net of the effect of any given household's absolute income. We tested the hypothesis that state-level income inequality in the United States is associated with increased family burden for care and health-related expenditures for low-income families of children with special health care needs. We analyzed the 2005-06 wave of the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, a probability sample of approximately 750 children with special health care needs in each state and the District of Columbia in the US Our measure of state-level income inequality was the Gini coefficient. Dependent measures of family caregiving burden included whether the parent received help arranging or coordinating the child's care and whether the parent stopped working due to the child's health. Dependent measures of family financial burden included absolute burden (spending in past 12 months for child's health care needs) and relative burden (spending as a proportion of total family income). After controlling for a host of child, family, and state factors, including family income and measures of the severity of a child's impairments, state-level income inequality has a significant and independent association with family burden related to the health care of their children with special health care needs. Families of children with special health care needs living in states with greater levels of income inequality report higher rates of absolute and relative financial burden.

  12. Promoting healthy food consumption: a review of state-level policies to improve access to fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Hood, Carlyn; Martinez-Donate, Ana; Meinen, Amy

    2012-12-01

    Research indicates poor nutrition is a leading determinant of the development of chronic disease, and increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is one method for decreasing obesity. Many policies have focused on increasing the demand for fruits and vegetables through price reductions and coupons. However, without ensuring a stable supply, increased demand can continue to raise prices, crowding out individuals who may otherwise have purchased fruits and vegetables and ultimately leading to continued disparities in access. This paper presents a review of selected state-level policy options recently proposed or implemented in states across the United States, and provides an evidence-based lens through which food access policy can be shaped in the Midwest. This review and potential framework uses Wisconsin to illustrate the feasibility of different state-level decisions and their potential impact on particular populations. Future supply-side policies to consider include expanding Electronic Benefit Transfer to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC),program and farmers markets, incentivizing the purchase of locally grown produce, assisting local specialty farmers directly, and/or establishing a state-level food policy council. This review reveals that a food policy council would create a more sustainable policy analysis process to better ensure future policy adoption is truly comprehensive, encompassing the production, distribution and purchase of locally grown fruits and vegetables. PMID:23362705

  13. Education, gender, and state-level disparities in the health of older Indians: Evidence from biomarker data.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinkook; McGovern, Mark E; Bloom, David E; Arokiasamy, P; Risbud, Arun; O'Brien, Jennifer; Kale, Varsha; Hu, Peifeng

    2015-12-01

    Using new biomarker data from the 2010 pilot round of the Longitudinal Aging Study in India (LASI), we investigate education, gender, and state-level disparities in health. We find that hemoglobin level, a marker for anemia, is lower for respondents with no schooling (0.7g/dL less in the adjusted model) compared to those with some formal education and is also lower for females than for males (2.0g/dL less in the adjusted model). In addition, we find that about one third of respondents in our sample aged 45 or older have high C-reaction protein (CRP) levels (>3mg/L), an indicator of inflammation and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We find no evidence of educational or gender differences in CRP, but there are significant state-level disparities, with Kerala residents exhibiting the lowest CRP levels (a mean of 1.96mg/L compared to 3.28mg/L in Rajasthan, the state with the highest CRP). We use the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition approach to explain group-level differences, and find that state-level disparities in CRP are mainly due to heterogeneity in the association of the observed characteristics of respondents with CRP, rather than differences in the distribution of endowments across the sampled state populations.

  14. The analysis of Taiwan's residential electricity demand under the electricity tariff policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Jui

    In October 2013, the Taiwan Power Company (Taipower), the monopolized state utility service in Taiwan, implemented an electricity tariff adjustment policy to reduce residential electricity demand. Using bi-monthly billing data from 6,932 electricity consumers, this study examine how consumers respond to an increase in electricity prices. This study employs an empirical approach that takes advantage of quasi-random variation over a period of time when household bills were affected by a change in electricity price. The study found that this price increase caused a 1.78% decline in residential electricity consumption, implying a price elasticity of -0.19 for summer-season months and -0.15 for non-summer-season months. The demand for electricity is therefore relatively inelastic, likely because it is hard for people to change their electricity consumption behavior in the short-term. The results of this study highlight that demand-side management cannot be the only lever used to address Taiwan's forecasted decrease in electricity supply.

  15. Roseate Spoonbill feeds in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, a roseate spoonbill searches the water for food. The birds, named for their brilliant pink color and paddle-shaped bill, feed in shallow water by swinging their bill back and forth, scooping up small fish and crustaceans. They typically inhabit mangroves on the coasts of southern Florida, Louisiana and Texas. The 92,000-acre refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center, is a habitat for more than 330 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  16. US State-level income inequality and risks of heart attack and coronary risk behaviors: longitudinal findings

    PubMed Central

    Kawachi, Ichiro; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine prospectively the association between US state income inequality and incidence of heart attack. Methods We used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 34,445). Respondents completed interviews at baseline (2001–2002) and follow-up (2004–2005). Weighted multilevel modeling was used to determine if US state-level income inequality (measured by the Gini coefficient) at baseline was a predictor of heart attack during follow-up, controlling for individual-level and state-level covariates. Results In comparison to residents of US states in the lowest quartile of income inequality, those living in the second [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) =1.71, 95 % CI 1.16–2.53)], third (AOR = 1.81, 95 % CI 1.28–2.57), and fourth (AOR = 2.04, 95 % CI 1.26–3.29) quartiles were more likely to have a heart attack. Similar findings were obtained when we excluded those who had a heart attack prior to baseline. Conclusions This study is one of the first to empirically show the longitudinal relationship between income inequality and coronary heart disease. Living in a state with higher income inequality increases the risk for heart attack among US adults. PMID:25981210

  17. State-level variations in income-related inequality in health and health achievement in the US.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke Tom

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine state-level variations in income-related inequality in health and overall health achievement in the US. Data that were representative of the US and each state in 2001 were extracted from the Current Population Survey 2001. Income-related inequality in health and health achievement were measured by Health Concentration and Health Achievement Indices, respectively. Significant variations were found across states in income-related inequality in health and health achievement. In particular, states in the south and east regions, on average, experienced a higher degree of health inequality and lower health achievement. About 80% of the state-level variation in health achievement could be explained by demographics, economic structure and performance, and state and local government spending and burden. In contrast, medical care resource indicators were not found to contribute to health achievement in states. States with better health achievement were more urbanized, had lower proportions of minority groups, females and the elderly, fewer individuals below the poverty line, larger primary industry, and lower unemployment rates. Also, per capita state and local government spending, particularly the proportion spent on public health, was positively associated with better health achievement. Because of the direct implications of health level and distribution in resource allocation and social norms, states with a lower level of health achievement need to prioritize efforts in increasing and reallocating resources to diminish health inequality and to improve population health.

  18. Wind energy development in the United States: Can state-level policies promote efficient development of wind energy capacity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Blair S.

    In the absence of strong U.S. federal renewable energy policies, state governments have taken the lead in passing legislation to promote wind energy. Studies have shown that many of these policies, including Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), have aided in the development of wind energy capacity nationwide. This paper seeks to analyze whether these state-level policies have led to an efficient development of U.S. wind energy. For the purposes of this paper, wind energy development is considered efficient if competitive markets enable wind capacity to be built in the most cost effective manner, allowing states to trade wind energy between high wind potential states and low wind potential states. This concept is operationalized by analyzing how state policies that incentivize the in-state development of wind energy impact where wind capacity is developed. A multivariate regression model examining wind capacity in the 48 contiguous United States that had some wind capacity between 1999 and 2008 found these in-state policies are associated with increased wind capacity, controlling for states' wind potential. The results suggest that state-level policies are distorting where wind is developed. These findings support the enactment of a more comprehensive federal energy policy, such as a national RPS, a cap-and-trade program, or a targeted federal transmission policy. These federal policies could spur national markets that would result in the more efficient development of U.S. wind energy.

  19. Hospital-Acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Related to Medicare Antibiotic Prescriptions: A State-Level Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sumida, Wesley K; Taira, Deborah A; Davis, James W; Seto, Todd B

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) results in almost half of all deaths caused by antibiotic resistant organisms. Current evidence suggests that MRSA infections are associated with antibiotic use. This study examined state-level data to determine whether outpatient antibiotic use was associated with hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) infections. The 2013 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Healthcare-Associated Infections Progress Report was used to obtain HA-MRSA infection rates. Data on the number of antibiotic prescriptions with activity towards methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) at the state level were obtained from the 2013 Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data: Part D Prescriber Public Use File. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to analyze the relationship between the number of antibiotic prescriptions and HA-MRSA infection rates. The average number of HA-MRSA infections was 0.026 per 1000 persons with the highest rates concentrated in Southeastern and Northeastern states. The average number of outpatient prescriptions per capita was 0.74 with the highest rates in Southeastern states. A significant correlation (ρ = 0.64, P <.001) between infections and prescriptions was observed, even after adjusting for non-reporting hospitals. This association provides evidence of the importance of appropriate antibiotic prescribing. Prescriber and heat map data may be useful for targeting antimicrobial stewardship programs in an effort to manage appropriate antibiotic use to help stop antibiotic resistance. PMID:27738564

  20. Immune enhancement during chronic ethanol feeding in mice - Autoimmune phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Honchel, R.; Rhoads, C.A.; Fitzpatrick, E.A.; McClain, C.J.; Kaplan, A.M.; Cohen, D.A. )

    1991-03-11

    Chronic alcohol abuse in humans is often associated with diminished immune reactivity and enhanced susceptibility to infections. However, many alcohol-dependent individuals display signs of autoimmunity, which has been implicated in alcohol-associated liver damage. This study demonstrates that C57Bl/6 mice placed on the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet for up to 9 weeks displayed augmented immune reactivity as compared to mice placed on an isocaloric control diet. Spleen cells were significantly more responsive to the mitogens, LPS and ConA, as early as 3 weeks after initiation of EtOH feeding and this hyperresponsiveness persisted throughout the 9 week feeding period. Similar enhancement of the mixed lymphocyte response was also seen in EtOH fed mice. The enhancement of immune responsiveness was not related to a change in the numbers or percentages of B cells, T cells, or in the CD4/CD8 T cell ratios as determined by flow cytometry. These studies indicate that under certain conditions of ethanol feeding in mice, enhancement rather than suppression of the immune system may occur. This system may be a model to evaluate possible induction of autoimmune responses during chronic ethanol abuse. Studies are underway to measure the presence of auto-antibodies in the sera of these ethanol fed mice.

  1. Toxic Effect of Blood Feeding in Male Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Nikbakhtzadeh, Mahmood R.; Buss, Garrison K.; Leal, Walter S.

    2016-01-01

    Blood- and sugar feeding of female mosquitoes has been frequently observed in the laboratory and in the field, but only sugar feeding of males has been reported. Here, we describe for the first time that Culex quinquefasciatus males feed on blood as well. Blood feeding easily happened on a blood-soaked cotton roll and, to a lesser extent, through a thin artificial layer. Mating history of a male specimen does not affect his blood feeding behavior. Male mosquitoes feed on blood even when they have a readily available sugar source. Nevertheless, feeding on blood reduces the survival rate of males to just a few days, as compared to more than a month for mosquitoes fed only on sugar. Comparing survival of male mosquitoes fed on blood only, sugar only, and a combination of both clearly demonstrated that mortality is not affected by malnutrition (reduced sugar levels), but rather due to ingested blood. On average male mosquitoes ingested ca. 0.5 μl of blood, i.e., about 10% of the amount of blood ingested by an engorged female. Although this unexpected observation of blood feeding in the laboratory by male mosquitoes is interesting, structural impairment prevents male feeding on vertebrate blood. In agreement with the literature, male and female proboscises and stylets were in general of similar size, but male mandibles were significantly shorter than female counterparts, thus explaining their inability to pierce through skin layers. PMID:26858651

  2. Swimming muscles power suction feeding in largemouth bass.

    PubMed

    Camp, Ariel L; Roberts, Thomas J; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2015-07-14

    Most aquatic vertebrates use suction to capture food, relying on rapid expansion of the mouth cavity to accelerate water and food into the mouth. In ray-finned fishes, mouth expansion is both fast and forceful, and therefore requires considerable power. However, the cranial muscles of these fishes are relatively small and may not be able to produce enough power for suction expansion. The axial swimming muscles of these fishes also attach to the feeding apparatus and have the potential to generate mouth expansion. Because of their large size, these axial muscles could contribute substantial power to suction feeding. To determine whether suction feeding is powered primarily by axial muscles, we measured the power required for suction expansion in largemouth bass and compared it to the power capacities of the axial and cranial muscles. Using X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), we generated 3D animations of the mouth skeleton and created a dynamic digital endocast to measure the rate of mouth volume expansion. This time-resolved expansion rate was combined with intraoral pressure recordings to calculate the instantaneous power required for suction feeding. Peak expansion powers for all but the weakest strikes far exceeded the maximum power capacity of the cranial muscles. The axial muscles did not merely contribute but were the primary source of suction expansion power and generated up to 95% of peak expansion power. The recruitment of axial muscle power may have been crucial for the evolution of high-power suction feeding in ray-finned fishes.

  3. Swimming muscles power suction feeding in largemouth bass.

    PubMed

    Camp, Ariel L; Roberts, Thomas J; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2015-07-14

    Most aquatic vertebrates use suction to capture food, relying on rapid expansion of the mouth cavity to accelerate water and food into the mouth. In ray-finned fishes, mouth expansion is both fast and forceful, and therefore requires considerable power. However, the cranial muscles of these fishes are relatively small and may not be able to produce enough power for suction expansion. The axial swimming muscles of these fishes also attach to the feeding apparatus and have the potential to generate mouth expansion. Because of their large size, these axial muscles could contribute substantial power to suction feeding. To determine whether suction feeding is powered primarily by axial muscles, we measured the power required for suction expansion in largemouth bass and compared it to the power capacities of the axial and cranial muscles. Using X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), we generated 3D animations of the mouth skeleton and created a dynamic digital endocast to measure the rate of mouth volume expansion. This time-resolved expansion rate was combined with intraoral pressure recordings to calculate the instantaneous power required for suction feeding. Peak expansion powers for all but the weakest strikes far exceeded the maximum power capacity of the cranial muscles. The axial muscles did not merely contribute but were the primary source of suction expansion power and generated up to 95% of peak expansion power. The recruitment of axial muscle power may have been crucial for the evolution of high-power suction feeding in ray-finned fishes. PMID:26100863

  4. Swimming muscles power suction feeding in largemouth bass

    PubMed Central

    Camp, Ariel L.; Roberts, Thomas J.; Brainerd, Elizabeth L.

    2015-01-01

    Most aquatic vertebrates use suction to capture food, relying on rapid expansion of the mouth cavity to accelerate water and food into the mouth. In ray-finned fishes, mouth expansion is both fast and forceful, and therefore requires considerable power. However, the cranial muscles of these fishes are relatively small and may not be able to produce enough power for suction expansion. The axial swimming muscles of these fishes also attach to the feeding apparatus and have the potential to generate mouth expansion. Because of their large size, these axial muscles could contribute substantial power to suction feeding. To determine whether suction feeding is powered primarily by axial muscles, we measured the power required for suction expansion in largemouth bass and compared it to the power capacities of the axial and cranial muscles. Using X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), we generated 3D animations of the mouth skeleton and created a dynamic digital endocast to measure the rate of mouth volume expansion. This time-resolved expansion rate was combined with intraoral pressure recordings to calculate the instantaneous power required for suction feeding. Peak expansion powers for all but the weakest strikes far exceeded the maximum power capacity of the cranial muscles. The axial muscles did not merely contribute but were the primary source of suction expansion power and generated up to 95% of peak expansion power. The recruitment of axial muscle power may have been crucial for the evolution of high-power suction feeding in ray-finned fishes. PMID:26100863

  5. New Insights into Muscle Function during Pivot Feeding in Seahorses

    PubMed Central

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Dries, Billy; Herrel, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Seahorses, pipefish and their syngnathiform relatives are considered unique amongst fishes in using elastic recoil of post-cranial tendons to pivot the head extremely quickly towards small crustacean prey. It is known that pipefish activate the epaxial muscles for a considerable time before striking, at which rotations of the head and the hyoid are temporarily prevented to allow energy storage in the epaxial tendons. Here, we studied the motor control of this system in seahorses using electromyographic recordings of the epaxial muscles and the sternohyoideus-hypaxial muscles with simultaneous high-speed video recordings of prey capture. In addition we present the results from a stimulation experiment including the muscle hypothesised to be responsible for the locking and triggering of pivot feeding in seahorses (m. adductor arcus palatini). Our data confirmed that the epaxial pre-activation pattern observed previously for pipefish also occurs in seahorses. Similar to the epaxials, the sternohyoideus-hypaxial muscle complex shows prolonged anticipatory activity. Although a considerable variation in displacements of the mouth via head rotation could be observed, it could not be demonstrated that seahorses have control over strike distance. In addition, we could not identify the source of the kinematic variability in the activation patterns of the associated muscles. Finally, the stimulation experiment supported the previously hypothesized role of the m. adductor arcus palatini as the trigger in this elastic recoil system. Our results show that pre-stressing of both the head elevators and the hyoid retractors is taking place. As pre-activation of the main muscles involved in pivot feeding has now been demonstrated for both seahorses and pipefish, this is probably a generalized trait of Syngnathidae. PMID:25271759

  6. Gastrostomy feeding in cerebral palsy: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sleigh, G; Brocklehurst, P

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To determine benefits and risks for gastrostomy or jejunostomy feeding compared with oral feeding for children with cerebral palsy. Methods: Systematic review. Search strategy: electronic databases—Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Lilacs, databases of theses, grey literature. Included: relevant systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials, observational studies, case reports. Excluded: non-systematic reviews and qualitative research. Participants: children with cerebral palsy. Intervention: use of gastrostomy or jejunostomy tube to provide nutrition. Outcome: evaluated outcome measures included death, growth, gastro-oesophageal reflux, other complications, psychosocial aspects, and caregiver wellbeing. Results: No relevant systematic reviews or randomised controlled trials were found. Two cohort studies, 15 case series, and eight case reports met the inclusion criteria. Eight studies specifically described percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy as the intervention. Weight gain resulted from gastrostomy feeding in most cases. There was an approximately fourfold increased risk of death reported in one cohort study for the gastrostomy fed children. Many complications were reported, including potential for increased gastro-oesophageal reflux and fluid aspiration into the lungs. Conclusions: Benefits associated with gastrostomy or jejunostomy feeding are difficult to assess from the available evidence. Risks of gastrostomy, particularly in relation to surgical complications, have been described but the size of the risk could not be quantified. The finding of a higher death rate for children fed by gastrostomy may merely reflect the greater disability of these compared with orally fed children. Lack of available evidence and the substantial risk of bias in observational studies suggests that a well conducted randomised controlled trial of sufficient size will be needed to answer these problems. PMID:15155398

  7. A Call for Further Research on the Impact of State-Level Immigration Policies on Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Getrich, Christina M.; Quezada, Julio C.; Guay, Amanda; Michalowski, Raymond J.; Henley, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Arizona’s Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act, signed into law in April 2010, is already adversely affecting public health in the state. Our findings from a study on childhood obesity in Flagstaff suggest that the law changed health-seeking behaviors of residents of a predominantly Latino neighborhood by increasing fear, limiting residents’ mobility, and diminishing trust of officials. These changes could exacerbate barriers to healthy living, limit access to care, and affect the overall safety of the neighborhood. Documentation of the on-the-ground impact of Arizona's law and similar state-level immigration policies is urgently needed. To inform effective policymaking, such research must be community engaged and include safety measures beyond the usual protocols. PMID:22594736

  8. Do economic equality and generalized trust inhibit academic dishonesty? Evidence from state-level search-engine queries.

    PubMed

    Neville, Lukas

    2012-04-01

    What effect does economic inequality have on academic integrity? Using data from search-engine queries made between 2003 and 2011 on Google and state-level measures of income inequality and generalized trust, I found that academically dishonest searches (queries seeking term-paper mills and help with cheating) were more likely to come from states with higher income inequality and lower levels of generalized trust. These relations persisted even when controlling for contextual variables, such as average income and the number of colleges per capita. The relation between income inequality and academic dishonesty was fully mediated by generalized trust. When there is higher economic inequality, people are less likely to view one another as trustworthy. This lower generalized trust, in turn, is associated with a greater prevalence of academic dishonesty. These results might explain previous findings on the effectiveness of honor codes.

  9. Impact of country-specific EQ-5D-3L tariffs on the economic value of systemic therapies used in the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lien, K.; Tam, V.C.; Ko, Y.J.; Mittmann, N.; Cheung, M.C.; Chan, K.K.W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous Canadian cost-effectiveness analyses in cancer based on the EQ-5D-3L (EuroQoL, Rotterdam, Netherlands) have commonly used U.K. or U.S. tariffs because the Canadian equivalent only just recently became available. The implications of using non-Canadian tariffs to inform decision-making are unclear. We aimed to reevaluate an earlier cost-effectiveness analysis of therapies for metastatic pancreatic cancer (originally performed using U.S. tariffs) with tariffs from Canada and various other countries to determine the impact of using non-country-specific tariffs. Methods We used tariffs from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, and Spain to derive EQ-5D-3L utilities for the 10 health states in the pancreatic cancer model. Quality-adjusted life years (qalys) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (icers) were generated, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (psas) were performed. Results Canadian utilities are generally lower than the corresponding U.S. utilities and higher than those for the United Kingdom. Compared with the Canadian-valued scenarios, U.S. and U.K. estimates were statistically different for 3 and 9 scenarios respectively. Overall, 35% of the non-Canadian utilities (28 of 80) were significantly different, clinically, from the Canadian values. Canadian qalys were 6% lower than those for the United States and 6% higher than those for the United Kingdom. When comparing the qalys of each treatment with those of gemcitabine alone, the average percent change was +6.8% for a U.S. scenario and −7.5% for a U.K. scenario compared with a Canadian scenario. Consequently, Canadian icers were approximately 5.4% greater than those for the United States and 8.6% lower than those for the United Kingdom. Based on the psas and compared with the Canadian threshold value, the minimum willingness-to-pay threshold at which the combination chemotherapy regimen of gemcitabine–capecitabine is

  10. Observed Temperature Effects on Hourly Residential Electric LoadReduction in Response to an Experimental Critical Peak PricingTariff

    SciTech Connect

    Herter, Karen B.; McAuliffe, Patrick K.; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

    2005-11-14

    The goal of this investigation was to characterize themanual and automated response of residential customers to high-price"critical" events dispatched under critical peak pricing tariffs testedin the 2003-2004 California Statewide Pricing Pilot. The 15-monthexperimental tariff gave customers a discounted two-price time-of-userate on 430 days in exchange for 27 critical days, during which the peakperiod price (2 p.m. to 7 p.m.) was increased to about three times thenormal time-of-use peak price. We calculated response by five-degreetemperature bins as the difference between peak usage on normal andcritical weekdays. Results indicatedthat manual response to criticalperiods reached -0.23 kW per home (-13 percent) in hot weather(95-104.9oF), -0.03 kW per home (-4 percent) in mild weather (60-94.9oF),and -0.07 kW per home (-9 percent) during cold weather (50-59.9oF).Separately, we analyzed response enhanced by programmable communicatingthermostats in high-use homes with air-conditioning. Between 90oF and94.9oF, the response of this group reached -0.56 kW per home (-25percent) for five-hour critical periods and -0.89 kW/home (-41 percent)for two-hour critical periods.

  11. Child- and state-level characteristics associated with preventive dental care access among U.S. children 5-17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei; Sappenfield, William; Hernandez, Leticia; Clark, Cheryl; Liu, Jihong; Collins, Jennifer; Carle, Adam C

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study is to identify factors associated with lack of preventive dental care among U.S. children and state-level factors that explain variation in preventive dental care access across states. We performed bivariate analyses and multilevel regression analyses among 68,350 children aged 5-17 years using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health data and relevant state-level data. Odds ratios (ORs) for child- and state-level variables were calculated to estimate associations with preventive dental care. We calculated interval odds ratios (IOR), median odds ratios (MOR), and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) to quantify variation in preventive dental care across states. Lack of preventive dental care was associated with various child-level factors. For state-level factors, a higher odds of lack of preventive dental care was associated with a higher percentage of Medicaid-enrolled children not receiving dental services (OR = 1.30, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.15-1.47); higher percentage of children uninsured (OR = 1.48, 95 % CI: 1.29-1.69); lower dentist-to-population ratio (OR = 1.36, 95 % CI: 1.03-1.80); and lower percentage of dentists submitting Medicaid/State Children's Health Insurance Program claims (OR = 1.04, 95 % CI: 1.01-1.06). IORs for the first three state-level factors did not contain one, indicating that these state-level characteristics were important in understanding variation across states. Lack of preventive dental care varied by state (MOR = 1.40). The state-level variation (ICC = 3.66 %) accounted for a small percentage of child- and state-level variation combined. Child- and state-level characteristics were associated with preventive dental care access among U.S. children aged 5-17 years. State-level factors contribute to variation in dental care access across states and need to be considered in state-level planning.

  12. State-level school competitive food and beverage laws are associated with children’s weight status

    PubMed Central

    Oh, April; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Mâsse, Louise C.; Moser, Richard P.; Perna, Frank

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study attempted to determine whether state laws regulating low nutrient, high energy-dense foods and beverages sold outside of the reimbursable school meals program (referred to as ‘competitive foods’) are associated with children’s weight status. METHODS We use the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (CLASS) database of state codified law(s) relevant to school nutrition. States were classified as having strong, weak, or no competitive food laws in 2005 based on strength and comprehensiveness. Parent-reported height and weight along with demographic, behavioral, family, and household characteristics were obtained from the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses estimated the association between states’ competitive food laws and children’s overweight and obesity status (BMI-for-age ≥ 85th percentile). Children (n=16271) between the ages of 11–14 years with a BMI for age ≥ 5th percentile who attended public school were included. RESULTS Children living in states with weak competitive food laws for middle schools had over a 20% higher odds of being overweight or obese than children living in states with either no or strong school competitive food laws. CONCLUSION State-level school competitive food and beverage laws merit attention with efforts to address the childhood obesity epidemic. Attention to the specificity and requirements of these laws should also be considered. PMID:25117896

  13. Burden of Outdoor Air Pollution in Kerala, India—A First Health Risk Assessment at State Level.

    PubMed

    Tobollik, Myriam; Razum, Oliver; Wintermeyer, Dirk; Plass, Dietrich

    2015-08-28

    Ambient air pollution causes a considerable disease burden, particularly in South Asia. The objective of the study is to test the feasibility of applying the environmental burden of disease method at state level in India and to quantify a first set of disease burden estimates due to ambient air pollution in Kerala. Particulate Matter (PM) was used as an indicator for ambient air pollution. The disease burden was quantified in Years of Life Lost (YLL) for the population (30 + years) living in urban areas of Kerala. Scenario analyses were performed to account for uncertainties in the input parameters. 6108 (confidence interval (95% CI): 4150-7791) of 81,636 total natural deaths can be attributed to PM, resulting in 96,359 (95% CI: 65,479-122,917) YLLs due to premature mortality (base case scenario, average for 2008-2011). Depending on the underlying assumptions the results vary between 69,582 and 377,195 YLLs. Around half of the total burden is related to cardiovascular deaths. Scenario analyses show that a decrease of 10% in PM concentrations would save 15,904 (95% CI: 11,090-19,806) life years. The results can be used to raise awareness about air quality standards at a local level and to support decision-making processes aiming at cleaner and healthier environments.

  14. Burden of Outdoor Air Pollution in Kerala, India—A First Health Risk Assessment at State Level

    PubMed Central

    Tobollik, Myriam; Razum, Oliver; Wintermeyer, Dirk; Plass, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Ambient air pollution causes a considerable disease burden, particularly in South Asia. The objective of the study is to test the feasibility of applying the environmental burden of disease method at state level in India and to quantify a first set of disease burden estimates due to ambient air pollution in Kerala. Particulate Matter (PM) was used as an indicator for ambient air pollution. The disease burden was quantified in Years of Life Lost (YLL) for the population (30 + years) living in urban areas of Kerala. Scenario analyses were performed to account for uncertainties in the input parameters. 6108 (confidence interval (95% CI): 4150–7791) of 81,636 total natural deaths can be attributed to PM, resulting in 96,359 (95% CI: 65,479–122,917) YLLs due to premature mortality (base case scenario, average for 2008–2011). Depending on the underlying assumptions the results vary between 69,582 and 377,195 YLLs. Around half of the total burden is related to cardiovascular deaths. Scenario analyses show that a decrease of 10% in PM concentrations would save 15,904 (95% CI: 11,090–19,806) life years. The results can be used to raise awareness about air quality standards at a local level and to support decision-making processes aiming at cleaner and healthier environments. PMID:26343701

  15. Lagged Associations of Metropolitan Statistical Area- and State-Level Income Inequality with Cognitive Function: The Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Griffin, Beth Ann; Kabeto, Mohammed; Escarce, José; Langa, Kenneth M.; Shih, Regina A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Much variation in individual-level cognitive function in late life remains unexplained, with little exploration of area-level/contextual factors to date. Income inequality is a contextual factor that may plausibly influence cognitive function. Methods In a nationally-representative cohort of older Americans from the Health and Retirement Study, we examined state- and metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level income inequality as predictors of individual-level cognitive function measured by the 27-point Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) scale. We modeled latency periods of 8–20 years, and controlled for state-/metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level and individual-level factors. Results Higher MSA-level income inequality predicted lower cognitive function 16–18 years later. Using a 16-year lag, living in a MSA in the highest income inequality quartile predicted a 0.9-point lower TICS-m score (β = -0.86; 95% CI = -1.41, -0.31), roughly equivalent to the magnitude associated with five years of aging. We observed no associations for state-level income inequality. The findings were robust to sensitivity analyses using propensity score methods. Conclusions Among older Americans, MSA-level income inequality appears to influence cognitive function nearly two decades later. Policies reducing income inequality levels within cities may help address the growing burden of declining cognitive function among older populations within the United States. PMID:27332986

  16. Explaining the Growth in US Health Care Spending Using State-Level Variation in Income, Insurance, and Provider Market Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Herring, Bradley; Trish, Erin

    2015-01-01

    The slowed growth in national health care spending over the past decade has led analysts to question the extent to which this recent slowdown can be explained by predictable factors such as the Great Recession or must be driven by some unpredictable structural change in the health care sector. To help address this question, we first estimate a regression model for state personal health care spending for 1991-2009, with an emphasis on the explanatory power of income, insurance, and provider market characteristics. We then use the results from this simple predictive model to produce state-level projections of health care spending for 2010-2013 to subsequently compare those average projected state values with actual national spending for 2010-2013, finding that at least 70% of the recent slowdown in health care spending can likely be explained by long-standing patterns. We also use the results from this predictive model to both examine the Great Recession's likely reduction in health care spending and project the Affordable Care Act's insurance expansion's likely increase in health care spending. PMID:26655685

  17. State-level renewable portfolio standards: Evaluating their effectiveness in increasing renewable electricity generation and reducing carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denneny, Matthew J.

    The renewable portfolio standard (RPS) is a key state-level policy instrument meant to encourage renewable energy development and address climate change by mandating increased electricity generation from low-carbon renewable sources. In analyzing the effectiveness of RPS policies, I hypothesize that these policies should increase renewable electricity generation and reduce carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation. Additionally, I hypothesize that more stringent RPS policies should allow for greater increases in renewable energy generation and larger declines in CO2 emissions. To test these hypotheses, I use pooled and fixed effects models to examine how RPS policies play a role in affecting renewable electricity generation and CO 2 emissions. My results suggest that these policies increase electricity generation from renewable sources and that the stringency of these policies matters. However, the results are mixed in regard to their effectiveness in reducing CO2 emissions. These findings suggest that RPS policies as they are now may not be the best way to reduce CO2 emissions. Other policies that more directly target emissions may be necessary for states to see the emissions reductions they desire.

  18. Explaining the Growth in US Health Care Spending Using State-Level Variation in Income, Insurance, and Provider Market Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Herring, Bradley; Trish, Erin

    2015-01-01

    The slowed growth in national health care spending over the past decade has led analysts to question the extent to which this recent slowdown can be explained by predictable factors such as the Great Recession or must be driven by some unpredictable structural change in the health care sector. To help address this question, we first estimate a regression model for state personal health care spending for 1991-2009, with an emphasis on the explanatory power of income, insurance, and provider market characteristics. We then use the results from this simple predictive model to produce state-level projections of health care spending for 2010-2013 to subsequently compare those average projected state values with actual national spending for 2010-2013, finding that at least 70% of the recent slowdown in health care spending can likely be explained by long-standing patterns. We also use the results from this predictive model to both examine the Great Recession's likely reduction in health care spending and project the Affordable Care Act's insurance expansion's likely increase in health care spending.

  19. Do biofuel blending mandates reduce gasoline consumption? Implications of state-level renewable fuel standards for energy security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Shinling

    In an effort to keep America's addiction to oil under control, federal and state governments have implemented a variety of policy measures including those that determine the composition of motor gasoline sold at the pump. Biofuel blending mandates known as Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS) are designed to reduce the amount of foreign crude oil needed to be imported as well as to boost the local ethanol and corn industry. Yet beyond looking at changes in gasoline prices associated with increased ethanol production, there have been no empirical studies that examine effects of state-level RFS implementation on gasoline consumption. I estimate a Generalized Least Squares model for the gasoline demand for the 1993 to 2010 period with state and time fixed effects controlling for RFS. States with active RFS are Minnesota, Hawaii, Missouri, Florida, Washington, and Oregon. I find that, despite the onset of federal biofuel mandates across states in 2007 and the lower energy content of blended gasoline, being in a state that has implemented RFS is associated with 1.5% decrease in gasoline consumption (including blended gasoline). This is encouraging evidence for efforts to lessen dependence on gasoline and has positive implications for energy security.

  20. 78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Tariff- Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the...-quota aggregate quantity of raw cane sugar at 1,117,195 metric tons raw value (MTRV). The Secretary also announces the establishment of the FY 2014 in-quota aggregate quantity of certain sugars, syrups,...

  1. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., (iv) who is responsible for payment if different, and (v) date(s) of collection. (k) Rate and tariff... circumstances surrounding such misquote along with any other supporting documentary evidence available. 4... read this application and know its contents, and that they are true. Subscribed and sworn to before...

  2. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., (iv) who is responsible for payment if different, and (v) date(s) of collection. (k) Rate and tariff... circumstances surrounding such misquote along with any other supporting documentary evidence available. 4... read this application and know its contents, and that they are true. Subscribed and sworn to before...

  3. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., (iv) who is responsible for payment if different, and (v) date(s) of collection. (k) Rate and tariff... circumstances surrounding such misquote along with any other supporting documentary evidence available. 4... read this application and know its contents, and that they are true. Subscribed and sworn to before...

  4. 19 CFR 162.23 - Seizure under section 596(c), Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1595a(c)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seizure under section 596(c), Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1595a(c)). 162.23 Section 162.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH,...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix K to Subpart A of... - Commodity Codes From the Harmonized Tariff Schedule for Controlled Substances and Used Controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commodity Codes From the Harmonized Tariff Schedule for Controlled Substances and Used Controlled Substances K Appendix K to Subpart A of...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. K Appendix K...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix K to Subpart A of... - Commodity Codes From the Harmonized Tariff Schedule for Controlled Substances and Used Controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commodity Codes From the Harmonized Tariff Schedule for Controlled Substances and Used Controlled Substances K Appendix K to Subpart A of...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. K Appendix K...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix K to Subpart A of... - Commodity Codes From the Harmonized Tariff Schedule for Controlled Substances and Used Controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commodity Codes From the Harmonized Tariff Schedule for Controlled Substances and Used Controlled Substances K Appendix K To Subpart A Of...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. K Appendix K...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix K to Subpart A of... - Commodity Codes From the Harmonized Tariff Schedule for Controlled Substances and Used Controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commodity Codes From the Harmonized Tariff Schedule for Controlled Substances and Used Controlled Substances K Appendix K to Subpart A of...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. K Appendix K...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix K to Subpart A of... - Commodity Codes From the Harmonized Tariff Schedule for Controlled Substances and Used Controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commodity Codes From the Harmonized Tariff Schedule for Controlled Substances and Used Controlled Substances K Appendix K to Subpart A of...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. K Appendix K...

  10. "Hearing from all sides" How legislative testimony influences state level policy-makers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Barbero, Colleen; Andersen, Stephanie; Geary, Nora; Dodson, Elizabeth A.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper investigates whether state legislators find testimony influential, to what extent testimony influences policy-makers’ decisions, and defines the features of testimony important in affecting policy-makers’ decisions. Methods: We used a mixed method approach to analyze responses from 862 state-level legislators in the United States (U.S.). Data were collected via a phone survey from January-October, 2012. Qualitative data were analyzed using a general inductive approach and codes were designed to capture the most prevalent themes. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were also completed on thematic and demographic data to identify additional themes. Results: Most legislators, regardless of political party and other common demographics, find testimony influential, albeit with various definitions of influence. While legislators reported that testimony influenced their awareness or encouraged them to take action like conducting additional research, only 6% reported that testimony changes their vote. Among those legislators who found testimony influential, characteristics of the presenter (e.g., credibility, knowledge of the subject) were the most important aspects of testimony. Legislators also noted several characteristics of testimony content as important, including use of credible, unbiased information and data. Conclusion: Findings from this study can be used by health advocates, researchers, and individuals to fine tune the delivery of materials and messages to influence policy-makers during legislative testimony. Increasing the likelihood that information from scholars will be used by policy-makers may lead to the adoption of more health policies that are informed by scientific and practice-based evidence. PMID:25674572

  11. Cytochrome redox states and respiratory control in mouse and beef heart mitochondria at steady-state levels of hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Harrison, David K; Fasching, Mario; Fontana-Ayoub, Mona; Gnaiger, Erich

    2015-11-15

    Mitochondrial control of cellular redox states is a fundamental component of cell signaling in the coordination of core energy metabolism and homeostasis during normoxia and hypoxia. We investigated the relationship between cytochrome redox states and mitochondrial oxygen consumption at steady-state levels of hypoxia in mitochondria isolated from beef and mouse heart (BHImt, MHImt), comparing two species with different cardiac dynamics and local oxygen demands. A low-noise, rapid spectrophotometric system using visible light for the measurement of cytochrome redox states was combined with high-resolution respirometry. Monophasic hyperbolic relationships were observed between oxygen consumption, JO2, and oxygen partial pressure, Po2, within the range <1.1 kPa (8.3 mmHg; 13 μM). P50j (Po2 at 0.5·Jmax) was 0.015 ± 0.0004 and 0.021 ± 0.003 kPa (0.11 and 0.16 mmHg) for BHImt and MHImt, respectively. Maximum oxygen consumption, Jmax, was measured at saturating ADP levels (OXPHOS capacity) with Complex I-linked substrate supply. Redox states of cytochromes aa3 and c were biphasic hyperbolic functions of Po2. The relationship between cytochrome oxidation state and oxygen consumption revealed a separation of distinct phases from mild to severe and deep hypoxia. When cytochrome c oxidation increased from fully reduced to 45% oxidized at 0.1 Jmax, Po2 was as low as 0.002 kPa (0.02 μM), and trace amounts of oxygen are sufficient to partially oxidize the cytochromes. At higher Po2 under severe hypoxia, respiration increases steeply, whereas redox changes are small. Under mild hypoxia, the steep slope of oxidation of cytochrome c when flux remains more stable represents a cushioning mechanism that helps to maintain respiration high at the onset of hypoxia.

  12. U.S. commitments and responsibilities to reduce global warmings: Contributions of state-level policies and programs

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, C.A.; Feldman, D.L.

    1995-12-01

    Global warming is one of the most contentious and complex environmental issues confronting scientists and public policy makers. The scope and potential impacts of global warming are immense, affecting virtually all natural processes at many levels, including coastal zone erosion, estuarine habitat, forests, and agriculture. We hypothesize that managing the natural and societal impacts of global warming, including the costs of its management, abatement, and adaptation, requires not only the cooperation of international agencies and national government, but of individual states and provinces as well. There has been a considerable increase in state-level activity to reduce global warming in the United States, but there has been little assessment of its extent or state motivations. This paper will provide an overview of possible U.S. states` commitments and responsibilities under international treaties and agreements, as well as national policy decrees such as the Clinton Administrations` Climate Change Action Plan. A review of current states` activities with brief case studies of the more progressive state programs (Connecticut, Iowa, California, Missouri, Oregon), their achievements, and their significance. We focus upon federally-mandated global change activities imposed upon states (e.g., national regulations to conserve energy or reduce emissions) and state-motivated policies not required by any national regulation (e.g., land use, transportation, regional planning policies with impacts on global change.) The latter policies may be aimed specifically at global warming prevention or mitigation or they may be incidental, beneficial by-products of policies intended for other purposes--so called `no regrets` policies. We compare the performance of state policies in these two categories in order to ascertain their relative effectiveness and promise for addressing climate change problems.

  13. Social Sector Expenditure and Child Mortality in India: A State-Level Analysis from 1997 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Makela, Susanna M.; Dandona, Rakhi; Dilip, T. R.; Dandona, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    Background India is unlikely to meet the Millennium Development Goal for child mortality. As public policy impacts child mortality, we assessed the association of social sector expenditure with child mortality in India. Methods and Findings Mixed-effects regression models were used to assess the relationship of state-level overall social sector expenditure and its major components (health, health-related, education, and other) with mortality by sex among infants and children aged 1–4 years from 1997 to 2009, adjusting for potential confounders. Counterfactual models were constructed to estimate deaths averted due to overall social sector increases since 1997. Increases in per capita overall social sector expenditure were slightly higher in less developed than in more developed states from 1997 to 2009 (2.4-fold versus 2-fold), but the level of expenditure remained 36% lower in the former in 2009. Increase in public expenditure on health was not significantly associated with mortality reduction in infants or at ages 1–4 years, but a 10% increase in health-related public expenditure was associated with a 3.6% mortality reduction (95% confidence interval 0.2–6.9%) in 1–4 years old boys. A 10% increase in overall social sector expenditure was associated with a mortality reduction in both boys (6.8%, 3.5–10.0%) and girls (4.1%, 0.8–7.5%) aged 1–4 years. We estimated 119,807 (95% uncertainty interval 53,409 – 214,662) averted deaths in boys aged 1–4 years and 94,037 (14,725 – 206,684) in girls in India in 2009 that could be attributed to increases in overall social sector expenditure since 1997. Conclusions Further reduction in child mortality in India would be facilitated if policymakers give high priority to the social sector as a whole for resource allocation in the country’s 5-year plan for 2012–2017, as public expenditure on health alone has not had major impact on reducing child mortality. PMID:23409166

  14. The Status of State-Level Response to Intervention Policies and Procedures in the West Region States and Five Other States. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 077

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harr-Robins, Jenifer J.; Shambaugh, Larisa S.; Parrish, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Response to intervention (RTI) can be both a system for providing early interventions to struggling students and a special education diagnostic tool for evaluating and identifying students with specific learning disabilities. Contributing to the very limited literature on state-level approaches, this report describes how nine states define and…

  15. Evaluating Change in Interagency Collaboration of a State-Level Interagency Education Team: A Social Network Approach within a Utilization-Focused Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Patricia; Gaumer Erickson, Amy; McCall, Zach; Frey, Bruce B.; Zheng, Chunmei

    2014-01-01

    Improving collaboration among organizations is a goal of interagency educational teams, but collaboration is typically thought of as an ambiguous concept that cannot be quantified. To assess the collaborative strength of a state-level interagency team in a Midwestern state, team members completed the Levels of Collaboration Scale (Frey et al.,…

  16. Examining the relationship between the prevalence of guns and homicide rates in the USA using a new and improved state-level gun ownership proxy.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-12-01

    Determining the relationship between gun ownership levels and firearm homicide rates is critical to inform public health policy. Previous research has shown that state-level gun ownership, as measured by a widely used proxy, is positively associated with firearm homicide rates. A newly developed proxy measure that incorporates the hunting license rate in addition to the proportion of firearm suicides correlates more highly with state-level gun ownership. To corroborate previous research, we used this new proxy to estimate the association of state-level gun ownership with total, firearm, and non-firearm homicides. Using state-specific data for the years 1981-2010, we modelled these rates as a function of gun ownership level, controlling for potential confounding factors. We used a negative binomial regression model and accounted for clustering of observations among states. We found that state-level gun ownership as measured by the new proxy, is significantly associated with firearm and total homicides but not with non-firearm homicides. PMID:24740937

  17. A Case Study of the Impact of a State-Level Policy Designed To Improve Rural Schools in the State of Vermont. Occasional Paper No. 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Robert V.

    This case study examines how rural K-12 single-unit schools in Vermont have responded to the twin pressures of higher state-level standards, required under the 1984 Public School Approval (PSA) policy, and limited fiscal resources. Chapter 1 provides background information on the study population, economic and educational conditions in Vermont,…

  18. Examining the relationship between the prevalence of guns and homicide rates in the USA using a new and improved state-level gun ownership proxy.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-12-01

    Determining the relationship between gun ownership levels and firearm homicide rates is critical to inform public health policy. Previous research has shown that state-level gun ownership, as measured by a widely used proxy, is positively associated with firearm homicide rates. A newly developed proxy measure that incorporates the hunting license rate in addition to the proportion of firearm suicides correlates more highly with state-level gun ownership. To corroborate previous research, we used this new proxy to estimate the association of state-level gun ownership with total, firearm, and non-firearm homicides. Using state-specific data for the years 1981-2010, we modelled these rates as a function of gun ownership level, controlling for potential confounding factors. We used a negative binomial regression model and accounted for clustering of observations among states. We found that state-level gun ownership as measured by the new proxy, is significantly associated with firearm and total homicides but not with non-firearm homicides.

  19. Farm-to-School Programmes in the USA: An Examination of State-Level Enacted, Pending and Vetoed or Dead Bills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Olivia M.; Ghelardini, Lauren; Keene, Kristin L.; Stewart, Kendra B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to determine the prevalence and distribution of state-level legislation regulating farm-to-school programmes throughout the United States of America (USA). The research is timely given national goals put forth by the Let's Move Campaign and the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act to reduce childhood obesity prevalence and…

  20. A Cost Analysis of a State-Level, Multi-Option Procedure for the Acquisition of Competency-Based Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Romeo M.

    To assist the Division of Vocational Education (DVE) of the Florida State Department of Education, the author conducted a cost analysis of state-level models for acquiring competency-based instructional materials in vocational education. Two DVE-developed models of materials acquisition were examined: a centralized, single-option model in which…

  1. Leucine pulses enhance skeletal muscle protein synthesis during continuous feeding in neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infants unable to maintain oral feeding can be nourished by orogastric tube. We have shown that orogastric continuous feeding restricts muscle protein synthesis compared with intermittent bolus feeding in neonatal pigs. To determine whether leucine leu infusion can be used to enhance protein synthes...

  2. Does state-level context matter for individuals' knowledge about abortion, legality and health? Challenging the 'red states v. blue states' hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bessett, Danielle; Gerdts, Caitlin; Littman, Lisa L; Kavanaugh, Megan L; Norris, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the hypothesis that state-level political context influences individuals' cultural values--the 'red states v. blue states' hypothesis--has been invoked to explain the hyper-polarisation of politics in the USA. To test this hypothesis, we examined individuals' knowledge about abortion in relation to the political context of their current state of residence. Drawing from an internet-survey of 586 reproductive-age individuals in the USA, we assessed two types of abortion knowledge: health-related and legality. We found that state-level conservatism does not modify the existing relationships between individual predictors and each of the two types of abortion knowledge. Hence, our findings do not support the 'red states' versus 'blue states' hypothesis. Additionally, we find that knowledge about abortion's health effects in the USA is low: 7% of our sample thought abortion before 12 weeks gestation was illegal. PMID:25622191

  3. Low Income Families' Utilization of the Federal "Safety Net": Individual and State-Level Predictors of TANF and Food Stamp Receipt.

    PubMed

    Purtell, Kelly M; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Aber, J Lawrence

    2012-04-01

    Two of the primary programs through which the federal government provides benefits to low income families are the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program and the Food Stamp program. However, many eligible low income families do not actually receive these benefits. We combined state-level policy data with rich data on a national sample of low income families to investigate family and state-level predictors of TANF and Food Stamp receipt. Our findings indicate: 1) families experiencing more economic hardship and health challenges are more likely to receive benefits, and 2) states' coverage is associated with families' receipt of TANF, but not Food Stamps. Implications for policy and research are discussed.

  4. Modeling the effect of climate change on U.S. state-level buildings energy demands in an integrated assessment framework

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon E.; Eom, Jiyong; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.; Kim, Son H.; Dirks, James A.; Jensen, Erik A.; Liu, Ying; Rice, Jennie S.; Schmidt, Laurel C.; Seiple, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    As long-term socioeconomic transformation and energy service expansion show large spatial heterogeneity, advanced understanding of climate impact on building energy use at the sub-national level will offer useful insights into climate policy and regional energy system planning. In this study, we presented a detailed building energy model with a U.S. state-level representation, nested in the GCAM integrated assessment framework. We projected state-level building energy demand and its spatial pattern over the century, considering the impact of climate change based on the estimates of heating and cooling degree days derived from downscaled USGS CASCaDE temperature data. The result indicates that climate change has a large impact on heating and cooling building energy and fuel use at the state level, exhibiting large spatial heterogeneity across states (ranges from -10% to +10%). The sensitivity analysis reveals that the building energy demand is subject to multiple key factors, such as the magnitude of climate change, the choice of climate models, and the growth of population and GDP, and that their relative contributions vary greatly across the space. The scale impact in building energy use modeling highlights the importance of constructing a building energy model with the spatially-explicit representation of socioeconomics, energy system development, and climate change. These findings will help the climate-based policy decision and energy system, especially utility planning related to building sector at the U.S. state and regional level facing the potential climate change.

  5. Changes to the Design of the National Health Interview Survey to Support Enhanced Monitoring of Health Reform Impacts at the State Level

    PubMed Central

    Blewett, Lynn A.; Dahlen, Heather M.; Spencer, Donna; Rivera Drew, Julia A.; Lukanen, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Since 1957, the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)’s National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), has been the primary source of information for monitoring health and health care use of the U.S. population at the national level. The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010 generated new needs for data to monitor its implementation and evaluate its effectiveness. In response, the NCHS has taken steps to enhance the content of the NHIS in several key areas and positioned the NHIS as a source of population health information at the national and state levels. This paper reviews recent changes to the NHIS that support enhanced health reform monitoring, including new questions and response categories, sampling design changes to improve state-level analysis, and enhanced dissemination activities. We conclude with a discussion about the importance of the NHIS, the continued need for state-level analysis, and suggestions for future consideration. PMID:27631739

  6. Influence of erythromycin on establishment of feeding in preterm infants: observations from a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Stenson, B.; Middlemist, L.; Lyon, A.

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To determine the effect of erythromycin on the establishment of enteral feeding in ventilated infants <31 weeks gestation.
METHODS—Erythromycin was randomly allocated as an antimicrobial treatment for the first 7 days of life in 76 infants: 35 received erythromycin and 41 acted as controls. Feed toleration, time taken to establish full enteral feeding, vomiting, prescription of glycerine suppositories and occurrence of necrotising enterocolitis were recorded.
RESULTS—There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the outcomes. The infants treated with erythromycin reached full feeding at a median (quartile) age of 8 (5-12) days compared with 9 (6-14) days for controls.
CONCLUSIONS—Intravenous erythromycin in antimicrobial doses is unlikely to benefit the introduction of feeding in preterm infants.

 PMID:10194995

  7. Comparison of the Ministry of Health’s tariffs with the cost of radiology services using the activity-based costing method

    PubMed Central

    Kalhor, Rohollah; Amini, Saeed; Emami, Majid; Kakasoltani, Keivan; Rhamani, Nasim; Kalhor, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Efficient use of resources in organizations is one of the most important duties of managers. Appropriate allocation of resources can help managers to do this well. The aim of this study was to determine the cost of radiology services and to compare it with governmental tariffs (introduced by the Ministry of Health in Iran). Methods This was a descriptive and applied study that was conducted using the retrospective approach. First, activity centers were identified on the basis of five main groups of hospital activities. Then, resources and resource drivers, activities, and hospital activity drivers were identified. At the next step, the activities related to the delivery of radiology process were identified. Last, through allocation of activities cost to the cost objects, the cost price of 66 services that were delivered in the radiology department were calculated. The data were collected by making checklists, using the hospital’s information system, observations, and interviews. Finally, the data were analyzed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon test, Microsoft Excel, and SPSS software, version 18. Results The findings showed that from the total cost of wages, materials, and overhead obtained, the unit cost of the 66 cost objects (delivered services) in the Radiology Department were calculated using the ABC method (Price of each unit of Nephrostogram obtained $15.8 and Cystogram obtained $18.4). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test indicated that the distribution of data of cost price using the ABC method was not normal (p = 0.000). The Wilcoxon test showed that there was a significant difference between the cost of services and the tariff of radiology services (p = 0.000). Conclusions The cost of delivered services in radiology departments was significantly higher than approved tariffs of the Ministry of Health, which can have a negative impact on the quality of services. PMID:27054013

  8. Early cessation of breast milk feeding in very low birthweight infants.

    PubMed

    Killersreiter, B; Grimmer, I; Bührer, C; Dudenhausen, J W; Obladen, M

    2001-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to comparatively assess the duration of breast milk feeding and to analyze risk factors for early cessation of breast milk feeding in term and very preterm infants. A cohort study was performed in 89 consecutive very low birthweight (VLBW) infants (<1500 g) who survived for at least for one week, and 177 term infants with birthweights >2500 g born in the same hospital matched for gender and multiplicity. Median duration of breast milk feeding, as determined from charts and questionnaires mailed to the mothers at 6 and 12 months corrected age, was 36 days in VLBW infants, compared to 112 days in control infants (P<0.0001). In both VLBW and control infants, smoking during pregnancy, low maternal and low paternal school education were each significantly associated with short duration of breast milk feeding. In VLBW infants, multiple pregnancy and gestational age <29 weeks were each associated with prolonged breast milk feeding, as were maternal age >35 years and spontaneous pregnancy (as opposed to pregnancy following infertility treatment) in term infants. Multivariate analysis revealed that VLBW, smoking and low parental school education were independent negative predictors of breast milk feeding. While these results emphasize the need for special support of VLBW infant mothers promoting lactation, the relationships between smoking, school education and breast milk feeding in both strata show that efforts to increase breast milk feeding require a public health perspective.

  9. Significant applications of ERTS-1 data to resource management activities at the state level in Ohio. [strip mining and land use mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, D. C.; Pincura, P. G.; Meier, C. J.; Garrett, G. B.; Herd, L.; Wukelic, G. E.; Stephan, J. G.; Smail, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    Described are techniques utilized and the progress made in applying ERTS-1 data to (1) detecting, inventorying, and monitoring surface mining activities, particularly in relation to recently passed strip mine legislation in Ohio; (2) updating current land use maps at various scales for multiagency usage, and (3) solving other real-time problems existing throughout the various Ohio governmental agencies. General conclusions regarding current user views as to the opportunities and limitations of operationally using ERTS-1 data at the state level are also noted.

  10. Simulation of long term renewable energy feed-in for European power system studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev; Späth, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Renewable energies already play a remarkable role in Europe as of today. It is expected that wind and solar amongst other renewables will contribute strongly to the future European energy generation. However, wind and solar generation facilities have due to the weather dependent nature of their resources highly fluctuating feed-in profiles. To overcome the mismatch between energy demand and generation it is important to study and understand the generation patterns and balancing potentials. The goal of the current work is to investigate how the feed-in time series from different renewable sources like on- and offshore wind, photovoltaic, solar thermal, wave, hydro, geothermal and biomass power and combination of them look like in an European power supply system . The work is part of the RESTORE 2050 project (BMU) that investigates the requirements for cross-country grid extensions, usage of storage technologies and capacities, the development of new balancing technologies and the conceptual design of the future energy market which is suitable for high generation percentages of solar and wind. High temporally and spatially resolved long term weather data from COSMO-EU, MERRA and Meteosat (MFG/MSG) satellite data has been used to simulate feed-in from several types of renewable energy sources on a 7 x 7 km grid covering Europe. For wind speeds MERRA reanalysis data has been statistically downscaled to account for orography. Generation was aggregated on the country level and production patterns and their variations in time of different resources were investigated for the years ranging from 2002 to 2012. In a first step the quality of the simulated feed in time series has been investigated by comparison to real observations of wind power and PV generation. Furthermore, some sensitivity studies with respect to underlying assumptions like spatial distribution of wind and PV capacities, the chosen hub-height and wind power curve have been done and will be presented. While

  11. State-Level Trends and Correlates for Cross-Sector Collaboration on School Nutrition and Physical Education Activities, 2000–2012

    PubMed Central

    Laska, Melissa N.; MacLehose, Richard; Nelson, Toben F.; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cross-sector collaboration on child obesity prevention is common, yet little research has examined the context of collaboration at the state level. This study describes secular trends in collaboration between state agency staff responsible for school nutrition and physical education activities and other organizations from 2000 to 2012. Methods Data from the School Health Policies and Practices Study were used to describe collaboration between state agency staff and 13 types of public, private, and nonprofit organizations. Breadth of collaboration in 2012 was examined across political, social, and economic conditions. Results Collaboration between state agency staff and other organization types increased from 2000 to 2006 and decreased or stabilized from 2006 to 2012. Breadth of collaboration was greater in states with a physical education coordinator, higher levels of poverty, higher prevalence of childhood obesity, and more public health funding. Breadth was similar across states by census region, political party of governor, majority party in state legislature, percentage non-Hispanic white population, high school graduation rate, and unemployment rate. Conclusion Cross-sector collaboration on school nutrition and physical education was widespread and did not vary substantially across most political, social, and economic measures. Expanded monitoring and surveillance of state-level collaboration would assist efforts to understand how state agencies work across sectors and whether this collaboration affects the support they provide to schools. PMID:27442994

  12. 76 FR 60378 - Tariffs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... 69, revised as of October 1, 2010, on page 189, in Sec. 61.3, redesignate paragraphs (aa) through (zz) as paragraphs (bb) through (aaa), and reinstate old paragraph (z) as paragraph (aa) to read as follows: Sec. 61.3 Definitions. * * * * * (aa) Other participating carrier. A carrier subject to the...

  13. Review of policies and guidelines on infant feeding in emergencies: common ground and gaps.

    PubMed

    Seal, A; Taylor, A; Gostelow, L; McGrath, M

    2001-06-01

    Recent crises in regions where exclusive breastfeeding is not the norm have highlighted the importance of effective policies and guidelines on infant feeding in emergencies. In 1993, UNICEF compiled a collection of policy and guideline documents relating to the feeding of infants in emergency situations. In June 2000 Save the Children, UK, UNICEF and the Institute of Child Health undertook a review of those documents, updating the list and identifying the common ground that exists among the different policies. The review also analysed the consistency of the policy framework, and highlighted important areas where guidelines are missing or unclear. This article is an attempt to share more widely the main issues arising from this review. The key conclusions were that, in general, there is consensus on what constitutes best practice in infant feeding, however, the lack of clarity in the respective responsibilities of key UN agencies (in particular UNICEF, UNHCR and WFP) over issues relating to co-ordination of activities which affect infant-feeding interventions constrains the implementation of systems to support best practice. Furthermore, the weak evidence base on effective and appropriate intervention strategies for supporting optimal infant feeding in emergencies means that there is poor understanding of the practical tasks needed to support mothers and minimise infant morbidity and mortality. We, therefore, have two key recommendations: first that the operational UN agencies, primarily UNICEF, examine the options for improving co-ordination on a range of activities to uphold best practice of infant feeding in emergencies; second, that urgent attention be given to developing and supporting operational research on the promotion of optimal infant-feeding interventions.

  14. An integrated assessment of energy-water nexus at the state level in the United States: Projections and analyses under different scenarios through 2095

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Patel, P. L.; Hejazi, M. I.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E. G.; Zhou, Y.; Clarke, L.; Edmonds, J.

    2013-12-01

    Water withdrawals for thermoelectric power plants account for approximately half of the total water use in the United States. With growing electricity demands in the future and limited water supplies in many water-scarce states in the U.S., grasping the trade-off between energy and water requires an integrated modeling approach that can capture the interactions among energy, water availability, climate, technology, and economic factors at various scales. In this study, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a technologically-detailed integrated model of the economy, energy, agriculture and land use, water, and climate systems, with 14 geopolitical regions that are further dissaggregated into up to 18 agro-ecological zones, was extended to model the electricity and water systems at the state level in the U.S. More specifically, GCAM was employed to estimate future state-level electricity generation and demands, and the associated water withdrawals and consumptions under a set of six scenarios with extensive levels of details on generation fuel portfolio, cooling technology mix, and water use intensities. The state-level estimates were compared against available inventories where good agreement was achieved on national and regional levels. We then explored the electric-sector water use up to 2095, focusing on implications from: 1) socioeconomics and growing demands, 2) the adoption of climate mitigation policy (e.g., RCP4.5 W/m2 vs. a reference scenario), 3) the transition of cooling systems, 4) constraints on electricity trading across states (full trading vs. limited trading), and 5) the adoption of water saving technologies. Overall, the fast retirement of once-through cooling, together with the gradual transition from fossil fuels dominant to a mixture of different fuels, accelerate the decline of water withdrawals and correspondingly compensate consumptive water use. Results reveal that U.S. electricity generation expands significantly as population grows

  15. A longitudinal, multilevel analysis of homicide against children aged 0-9 years using state-level characteristics: 1979-2007.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Emily; Vanderminden, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Annually, over a thousand children are the victims of homicide in the United States Homicide among younger children, 0-9 years of age, is usually perpetrated by parents and caregivers. Researchers neither have tracked changes in the homicide rate among young children over time nor have they used theory to understand what factors may drive these changes. In this analysis of state-level data, we used longitudinal growth modeling and ecological theory to examine changes in homicide rate against children aged 0-9 years from 1979 to 2007. Our results indicate that states are relatively consistent, over time, in their homicide rates. Furthermore, a cultural context of criminal and risky behavior is positively associated with homicide against children. We discuss implications for future research and prevention.

  16. Stakeholder involvement in agri-environmental policy making--learning from a local- and a state-level approach in Germany.

    PubMed

    Prager, Katrin; Freese, Jan

    2009-02-01

    Recent European regulations for rural development emphasise the requirement to involve stakeholder groups and other appropriate bodies in the policy-making process. This paper presents two cases involving stakeholder participation in agri-environmental development and policy making, targeted at different policy-making levels. One study was undertaken in Lower Saxony where a local partnership developed and tested an agri-environmental prescription, which was later included in the state's menu of agri-environmental schemes. In Sachsen-Anhalt, state-facilitated stakeholder workshops including a mathematical model were used to optimise the programme planning and budget allocation at the state level. Both studies aimed at improving the acceptance of agri-environmental schemes. The authors gauge the effectiveness of the two approaches and discuss what lessons can be learned. The experience suggests that the approaches can complement one another and could also be applied to rural policy making. PMID:18632199

  17. Genetically modified feeds in poultry diet: safety, performance, and product quality.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, V; Selvaggi, M; Dario, C; Laudadio, V

    2015-01-01

    Concerns have been expressed regarding the safety of using biotechnology derived feeds in diets of livestock animals and in regard to human consumption of products from species fed transgenic crops. As a consequence, a large number of poultry nutrition studies have been conducted to evaluate the wholesomeness of transgenic crops by examining performances of animals during growth or egg laying. Studies also evaluated whether foreign DNA and proteins could be detected in meat, egg, and tissue samples from broiler chickens and laying hens fed diets containing transgenic feeds. In all studies, the conclusions were in agreement that the transgenic crops provided comparable performance, carcass and egg yields, and meat and egg composition, when compared with conventional grains. Moreover, it was demonstrated that transgenic proteins and DNA present in livestock feeds are not detectable in food products derived from these animals, using the most sensitive detection methods available, confirming that they are rapidly degraded by normal digestive processes. The lack of significant differences were a result of the similarity in nutrient composition of the genetically modified feeds and lack of differences in intake and digestibility, while there were no evidences that the differences reported for performance response variables and carcass measurements between treatment groups were attributable to the presence of the transgenic gene and protein in the biotechnology derived plants. Results demonstrated that genetically modified feeds are substantially equivalent and they result as safe as existing conventional feeds.

  18. Promotion of breast-feeding in a Chinese community in Montreal.

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Yip, A. M.; Kramer, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    Following a prospective survey that showed a very low rate of breast-feeding (10%) in 1977-79 among Chinese women in Montreal, a culturally targeted program, which included individual prenatal counselling and a community-wide promotion and education campaign, was developed to improve the rates. The study group consisted of all Chinese women delivering in 1980 and 1981 who had taken their infants to one pediatrician for continuing care. The rates of breast-feeding in the 88 women who had received prenatal counselling and the 93 women who had not were compared. Although the rates were substantially increased for both groups over the 1977-79 rate (54% and 34% in 1980 and 65% and 55% in 1981 respectively), the 2-year rate was significantly higher for the counselled group compared with the uncounselled group in the later study (59% v. 43%). The greatest effect of counselling was seen in young, primiparous women of higher socioeconomic status who spoke French or English in addition to Chinese. However, 33% of the counselled women who had started breast-feeding had stopped by 1 month, compared with only 15% of the uncounselled women. Thus, although the rates of breast-feeding in ethnic groups can be increased with the use of a language- and culture-specific approach, more support and encouragement must be given to women who start breast-feeding so that they will continue longer. PMID:6671183

  19. Cambrian cinctan echinoderms shed light on feeding in the ancestral deuterostome.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Imran A; Zamora, Samuel; Falkingham, Peter L; Phillips, Jeremy C

    2015-11-01

    Reconstructing the feeding mode of the latest common ancestor of deuterostomes is key to elucidating the early evolution of feeding in chordates and allied phyla; however, it is debated whether the ancestral deuterostome was a tentaculate feeder or a pharyngeal filter feeder. To address this, we evaluated the hydrodynamics of feeding in a group of fossil stem-group echinoderms (cinctans) using computational fluid dynamics. We simulated water flow past three-dimensional digital models of a Cambrian fossil cinctan in a range of possible life positions, adopting both passive tentacular feeding and active pharyngeal filter feeding. The results demonstrate that an orientation with the mouth facing downstream of the current was optimal for drag and lift reduction. Moreover, they show that there was almost no flow to the mouth and associated marginal groove under simulations of passive feeding, whereas considerable flow towards the animal was observed for active feeding, which would have enhanced the transport of suspended particles to the mouth. This strongly suggests that cinctans were active pharyngeal filter feeders, like modern enteropneust hemichordates and urochordates, indicating that the ancestral deuterostome employed a similar feeding strategy.

  20. Suspension feeding in adult Nephrops norvegicus (L.) and Homarus gammarus (L.) (decapoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loo, Lars-Ove; Pihl Baden, Susanne; Ulmestrand, Mats

    Suspension feeding in adults of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (40-74 g) and the European lobster Homarus gammarus (280-350 g) was tested in experiments offering planktonic food items of different sizes from 200 to 600 μm and measuring the clearing capacity. Both lobster species were found to effectively clear water of food particles comprising nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina of about 600 μm in size. These were reduced to 50% of the initial concentration within 5 h and to 90% within 12 h. When N. norvegicus was offered food particles averaging 200 μm, a significant reduction in average size occurred, indicating that the minimum retention size is around 200 μm. Fluorescently dyed Artemia salina were recovered in the stomach and intestine of lobsters proving that the filtered particles are passed to the digestive tract. Results from other experiments, using the blood pigment (haemocyanin) concentration as an index of nutritional state, indicated that the lobsters can get some nutritional advantage from suspension feeding. Suspension feeding in larger decapods has not been described previously, so the significance of this finding is discussed with respect to changes in behavioural and ecological role.