Science.gov

Sample records for static friction kinetic

  1. Static and kinetic friction of granite at high normal stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byerlee, J.D.

    1970-01-01

    Frictional sliding on ground surfaces of granite, angle of sliding planes 30?? and 45??, was investigated as a function of confining pressure. Over the normal stress range of 2-12 kb, the static frictional shear stress ??s follows the relationship ??s = 0??5 + 0?? ??n and the kinetic frictional shear stress ??k was calculated to be ??k = 0??25 + 0??47 ??n. ?? 1970.

  2. Static and kinetic friction characteristics of nanowire on different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Joon; Nguyen, Gia Hau; Ky, Dinh Le Cao; Tran, Da Khoa; Jeon, Ki-Joon; Chung, Koo-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    Friction characteristics of nanowires (NWs), which may be used as building blocks for nano-devices, are crucial, especially for cases where contact sliding occurs during the device operation. In this work, the static and kinetic friction characteristics of oxidized Si NWs deposited on thermally grown SiO2 and chemical vapor-deposited single layer graphene were investigated using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Kinetic friction between the oxidized Si NWs and the substrates was directly measured by the AFM. Static friction was also obtained from the most bent state of the NWs using the individually determined elastic moduli of the NWs from kinetic friction experiments based on elastic beam theory. Furthermore, the shear stress between the oxidized Si NWs and the substrates was estimated based on adhesive contact theory. It was found that both static and kinetic friction increased as the radius of the NWs increased. The friction of the oxidized Si NWs on the graphene substrate was found to be smaller than that on the SiO2 substrate, which suggests that chemical vapor-deposited graphene can be used as a lubricant or as a protective layer in nano-devices to reduce friction. The shear stress estimated from the kinetic friction data between the oxidized Si NWs and the SiO2 substrate ranged from 7.5 to 12.3 MPa while that between the oxidized Si NWs and the graphene substrate ranged from 4.7 to 7.0 MPa. The result also indicated that the dependence of shear stress on the radius of the NWs was not significant. These findings may provide insight into the friction characteristics of NWs.

  3. Choose Wisely: Static or Kinetic Friction--The Power of Dimensionless Plots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwigsen, Daniel; Svinarich, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Consider a problem of sliding blocks, one stacked atop the other, resting on a frictionless table. If the bottom block is pulled horizontally, nature makes a choice: if the applied force is small, static friction between the blocks accelerates the blocks together, but with a large force the blocks slide apart. In that case, kinetic friction still…

  4. Static and kinetic friction force and surface roughness of different archwire-bracket sliding contacts.

    PubMed

    Carrion-Vilches, Francisco J; Bermudez, María-Dolores; Fructuoso, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the static and kinetic friction forces of the contact bracket-archwire with different dental material compositions in order to select those materials with lower resistance to sliding. We carried out sliding friction tests by means of a universal testing machine following an experimental procedure as described in ASTM D1894 standard. We determined the static and kinetic friction forces under dry and lubricating conditions using an artificial saliva solution at 36.5ºC. The bracket-archwire pairs studied were: stainless steel-stainless steel; stainless steel-glass fiber composite; stainless steel-Nitinol 60; sapphire-stainless steel; sapphire-glass fiber composite; and sapphire-Nitinol 60. The best performance is obtained for Nitinol 60 archwire sliding against a stainless steel bracket, both under dry and lubricated conditions. These results are in agreement with the low surface roughness of Nitinol 60 with respect to the glass fiber composite archwire. The results described here contribute to establishing selection criteria for materials for dental archwire-brackets.

  5. Size Scaling of Static Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, O. M.; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2013-02-01

    Sliding friction across a thin soft lubricant film typically occurs by stick slip, the lubricant fully solidifying at stick, yielding and flowing at slip. The static friction force per unit area preceding slip is known from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to decrease with increasing contact area. That makes the large-size fate of stick slip unclear and unknown; its possible vanishing is important as it would herald smooth sliding with a dramatic drop of kinetic friction at large size. Here we formulate a scaling law of the static friction force, which for a soft lubricant is predicted to decrease as fm+Δf/Aγ for increasing contact area A, with γ>0. Our main finding is that the value of fm, controlling the survival of stick slip at large size, can be evaluated by simulations of comparably small size. MD simulations of soft lubricant sliding are presented, which verify this theory.

  6. A Model for Static and Dry Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Christopher

    2005-03-01

    It will be shown that the Muser-Robbins (MR) model, consisting of mobile molecules trapped between two incommensurate crystalline solids, exhibits many of the qualitative features of friction between macroscopic solids, such as the result that the static friction is greater than the kinetic friction, stick-slip motion and a force of static friction which increases as a function of the time that the two solids are in contact and stationary. At zero temperature, the kinetic friction is highly sensitive to the direction of sliding, but this sensitivity decreases markedly as the temperature rises. At low temperatures (with the surfaces stationary for a relatively long time), the model gives a static friction approximately 3 times larger than the kinetic friction for sufficiently slow velocities, but this ratio decreases steadily as the temperature is increased.

  7. PEBBLES Simulation of Static Friction and New Static Friction Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Joshua J. Cogliati; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2010-05-01

    Pebble bed reactors contain large numbers of spherical fuel elements arranged randomly. Determining the motion and location of these fuel elements is required for calculating certain parameters of pebble bed reactor operation. This paper documents the PEBBLES static friction model. This model uses a three dimensional differential static friction approximation extended from the two dimensional Cundall and Strack model. The derivation of determining the rotational transformation of pebble to pebble static friction force is provided. A new implementation for a differential rotation method for pebble to container static friction force has been created. Previous published methods are insufficient for pebble bed reactor geometries. A new analytical static friction benchmark is documented that can be used to verify key static friction simulation parameters. This benchmark is based on determining the exact pebble to pebble and pebble to container static friction coefficients required to maintain a stable five sphere pyramid.

  8. Observing the Forces Involved in Static Friction under Static Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Static friction is an important concept in introductory physics. Later in the year students apply their understanding of static friction under more complex conditions of static equilibrium. Traditional lab demonstrations in this case involve exceeding of the maximum level of static friction, resulting in the "onset of motion." (Contains…

  9. The Static Ladder Problem with Two Sources of Friction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jonathan; Mauney, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The problem of a ladder leaning against a wall in static equilibrium is a classic example encountered in introductory mechanics texts. Most discussions of this problem assume that the static frictional force between the ladder and wall can be ignored. A few authors consider the case where the static friction coefficients between ladder/wall…

  10. Determination of the static friction coefficient from circular motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Bolívar, J. A.; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M. A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a physics laboratory exercise for determining the coefficient of static friction between two surfaces. The circular motion of a coin placed on the surface of a rotating turntable has been studied. For this purpose, the motion is recorded with a high-speed digital video camera recording at 240 frames s-1, and the videos are analyzed using Tracker video-analysis software, allowing the students to dynamically model the motion of the coin. The students have to obtain the static friction coefficient by comparing the centripetal and maximum static friction forces. The experiment only requires simple and inexpensive materials. The dynamics of circular motion and static friction forces are difficult for many students to understand. The proposed laboratory exercise addresses these topics, which are relevant to the physics curriculum.

  11. Static friction between rigid fractal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Huang, Pengyu; Hanaor, Dorian A. H.; Flores-Johnson, E. A.; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Gan, Yixiang; Shen, Luming

    2015-09-01

    Using spheropolygon-based simulations and contact slope analysis, we investigate the effects of surface topography and atomic scale friction on the macroscopically observed friction between rigid blocks with fractal surface structures. From our mathematical derivation, the angle of macroscopic friction is the result of the sum of the angle of atomic friction and the slope angle between the contact surfaces. The latter is obtained from the determination of all possible contact slopes between the two surface profiles through an alternative signature function. Our theory is validated through numerical simulations of spheropolygons with fractal Koch surfaces and is applied to the description of frictional properties of Weierstrass-Mandelbrot surfaces. The agreement between simulations and theory suggests that for interpreting macroscopic frictional behavior, the descriptors of surface morphology should be defined from the signature function rather than from the slopes of the contacting surfaces.

  12. Static Friction Unsung Hero of Everyday Introductory Biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beverly, Nancy

    2006-12-01

    The ability of static friction to accelerate systems does not usually get the attention it deserves in introductory physics. Everyday human contexts abound in our grasp of objects to move them, in our being moved as passengers, and in our own locomotion. Student laboratory, classroom and homework activities have been developed which enable students to explore the vital role of static friction in various biomechanical contexts. Examples will be demonstrated.

  13. Slipping and Tipping: Measuring Static Friction with a Straightedge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Eric; Aguilar, Isaac

    2012-01-01

    Following a discussion of forces, torques, and the conditions for static equilibrium, I tell my introductory mechanics class that I will show them how to measure the coefficient of static friction, us, between the surfaces of a block and the front bench using "nothing but a straightedge". After a few seconds of hushed anticipation, I nudge the…

  14. Static friction, differential algebraic systems and numerical stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Schinner, Alexander; Matuttis, Hans-Georg

    We show how Differential Algebraic Systems (Ordinary Differential Equations with algebraic constraints) in mechanics are affected by stability issues and we implement Lubich's projection method to reduce the error to practically zero. Then, we explain how the "numerically exact" implementation for static friction by Differential Algebraic Systems can be stabilized. We conclude by comparing the corresponding steps in the "Contact mechanics" introduced by Moreau.

  15. Determination of the Static Friction Coefficient from Circular Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina-Bolívar, J. A.; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a physics laboratory exercise for determining the coefficient of static friction between two surfaces. The circular motion of a coin placed on the surface of a rotating turntable has been studied. For this purpose, the motion is recorded with a high-speed digital video camera recording at 240 frames s[superscript-1], and the…

  16. Frictional insertion kinetics of bone biopsy needles.

    PubMed

    Heiner, A D; Brown, T D; Rossin, V; Buckwalter, J A

    2001-12-01

    Patients undergoing a percutaneous bone biopsy often complain of pain during needle insertion, despite local anesthesia. Bone biopsy needles are typically inserted with combined axial and twisting motions. These motions could cause pain through frictional heating or direct mechanical irritation. The hypothesis of this study is that the insertion energy of bone biopsy needles can be reduced by modifying the insertion kinetics or by adding a friction-lowering coating to the needles. Jamshidi bone biopsy needles were driven into a bone analog model by an MTS materials testing machine operating under axial and rotational displacement control. The load/torque recordings showed that, to significantly decrease insertion energy and peak resistance to needle insertion, axial velocity and angular frequency had to be decreased to one quarter of the baseline, typical-usage parameters. However the increased insertion time may not be acceptable clinically. The majority of the insertion energy was associated with the needle axial thrust rather than with needle twisting. Overcoming friction against the side of the needle consumed much more of the insertion energy than did the process of cutting per se. None of five needle coatings tested succeeded in appreciably lowering the insertion energy, and none achieved a substantial decrease in peak resisting force.

  17. Static and Dynamic Friction Behavior of Candidate High Temperature Airframe Seal Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, C.; Lukaszewicz, V.; Morris, D. E.; Steinetz, B. M.

    1994-01-01

    The following report describes a series of research tests to evaluate candidate high temperature materials for static to moderately dynamic hypersonic airframe seals. Pin-on-disk reciprocating sliding tests were conducted from 25 to 843 C in air and hydrogen containing inert atmospheres. Friction, both dynamic and static, was monitored and serves as the primary test measurement. In general, soft coatings lead to excessive static friction and temperature affected friction in air environments only.

  18. Static friction of porous bioceramic beta-TCP on intestinal mucus films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Yu; Han, Ying-Chao; Jiang, Xin; Dai, Hong-Lian; Li, Shi-Pu

    2006-09-01

    The static friction behavior between a porous bioceramic material and an intestinal mucus film was investigated in order to develop a new intestine robotic endoscope. Here, the friction couple is porous beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and an artificial intestine mucus film. The effect of pore size of the beta-TCP material on the friction behavior is investigated. The results illustrated that in this friction system there is a relatively small normal force upon the intestinal mucus film of the intestine wall during locomotion. The maximum static friction force in this friction couple varies with the pore size of the porous beta-TCP material.

  19. Universal Aging Mechanism for Static and Sliding Friction of Metallic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, Michael; Dietzel, Dirk; Tekiel, Antoni; Topple, Jessica; Grütter, Peter; Schirmeisen, André

    2016-07-01

    The term "contact aging" refers to the temporal evolution of the interface between a slider and a substrate usually resulting in increasing friction with time. Current phenomenological models for multiasperity contacts anticipate that such aging is not only the driving force behind the transition from static to sliding friction, but at the same time influences the general dynamics of the sliding friction process. To correlate static and sliding friction on the nanoscale, we show experimental evidence of stick-slip friction for nanoparticles sliding on graphite over a wide dynamic range. We can assign defined periods of aging to the stick phases of the particles, which agree with simulations explicitly including contact aging. Additional slide-hold-slide experiments for the same system allow linking the sliding friction results to static friction measurements, where both friction mechanisms can be universally described by a common aging formalism. PMID:27447515

  20. Universal Aging Mechanism for Static and Sliding Friction of Metallic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmann, Michael; Dietzel, Dirk; Tekiel, Antoni; Topple, Jessica; Grütter, Peter; Schirmeisen, André

    2016-07-01

    The term "contact aging" refers to the temporal evolution of the interface between a slider and a substrate usually resulting in increasing friction with time. Current phenomenological models for multiasperity contacts anticipate that such aging is not only the driving force behind the transition from static to sliding friction, but at the same time influences the general dynamics of the sliding friction process. To correlate static and sliding friction on the nanoscale, we show experimental evidence of stick-slip friction for nanoparticles sliding on graphite over a wide dynamic range. We can assign defined periods of aging to the stick phases of the particles, which agree with simulations explicitly including contact aging. Additional slide-hold-slide experiments for the same system allow linking the sliding friction results to static friction measurements, where both friction mechanisms can be universally described by a common aging formalism.

  1. Universal Aging Mechanism for Static and Sliding Friction of Metallic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, Michael; Dietzel, Dirk; Tekiel, Antoni; Topple, Jessica; Grütter, Peter; Schirmeisen, André

    2016-07-01

    The term "contact aging" refers to the temporal evolution of the interface between a slider and a substrate usually resulting in increasing friction with time. Current phenomenological models for multiasperity contacts anticipate that such aging is not only the driving force behind the transition from static to sliding friction, but at the same time influences the general dynamics of the sliding friction process. To correlate static and sliding friction on the nanoscale, we show experimental evidence of stick-slip friction for nanoparticles sliding on graphite over a wide dynamic range. We can assign defined periods of aging to the stick phases of the particles, which agree with simulations explicitly including contact aging. Additional slide-hold-slide experiments for the same system allow linking the sliding friction results to static friction measurements, where both friction mechanisms can be universally described by a common aging formalism.

  2. Dependence of kinetic friction on velocity: master equation approach.

    PubMed

    Braun, O M; Peyrard, M

    2011-04-01

    We investigate the velocity dependence of kinetic friction with a model that makes minimal assumptions on the actual mechanism of friction so that it can be applied at many scales, provided the system involves multicontact friction. Using a recently developed master equation approach, we investigate the influence of two concurrent processes. First, at a nonzero temperature, thermal fluctuations allow an activated breaking of contacts that are still below the threshold. As a result, the friction force monotonically increases with velocity. Second, the aging of contacts leads to a decrease of the friction force with velocity. Aging effects include two aspects: the delay in contact formation and aging of a contact itself, i.e., the change of its characteristics with the duration of stationary contact. All these processes are considered simultaneously with the master equation approach, giving a complete dependence of the kinetic friction force on the driving velocity and system temperature, provided the interface parameters are known.

  3. Kinetics of a Frictional Granular Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, J.; Wildman, R. D.; Viot, P.

    2011-09-01

    Within the framework of a Boltzmann-Lorentz equation, we analyze the dynamics of a granular rotor immersed in a bath of thermalized particles in the presence of a frictional torque on the axis. In numerical simulations of the equation, we observe two scaling regimes at low and high bath temperatures. In the large friction limit, we obtain the exact solution of a model corresponding to asymptotic behavior of the Boltzmann-Lorentz equation. In the limit of large rotor mass and small friction, we derive a Fokker-Planck equation for which the exact solution is also obtained.

  4. Adiabatic molecular-dynamics-simulation-method studies of kinetic friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Sokoloff, J. B.

    2005-06-01

    An adiabatic molecular-dynamics method is developed and used to study the Muser-Robbins model for dry friction (i.e., nonzero kinetic friction in the slow sliding speed limit). In this model, dry friction between two crystalline surfaces rotated with respect to each other is due to mobile molecules (i.e., dirt particles) adsorbed at the interface. Our adiabatic method allows us to quickly locate interface potential-well minima, which become unstable during sliding of the surfaces. Since dissipation due to friction in the slow sliding speed limit results from mobile molecules dropping out of such unstable wells, our method provides a way to calculate dry friction, which agrees extremely well with results found by conventional molecular dynamics for the same system, but our method is more than a factor of 10 faster.

  5. Friction in macroscopic thermodynamics: A kinetic point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizarro, João P. S.

    2015-12-01

    To provide a solid support to a macroscopic framework developed to explicitly account for friction in thermodynamics, a kinetic description of frictional dissipation is developed. Using either a dissipative Fokker-Planck equation for Brownian motion or a Boltzmann equation with a friction-force term added, it is shown that both approaches lead to the emergence of the macroscopic thermodynamic relations that state the first and second laws with friction. The analysis is directly applied to the problem of determining the minimum amount of heating generated by memory erasure, known in computer science as Landauer's bound, and leads to a better understanding of the energetics behind the latter. A generalisation of Boltzmann's H theorem to include friction explicitly is also recovered, and the thermodynamics of granular rotators acted by a frictional torque and of radio-frequency (RF) current drive of fusion plasmas, in which collisional drag is present, are addressed as well. Various physics results are revisited employing the first and second laws with friction that have been derived from the appropriate dissipative kinetic equations, lower bounds for entropy production rates being derived both for granular rotators and for RF current drive.

  6. Comparison of static friction with self-ligating, modified slot design and conventional brackets

    PubMed Central

    CASTRO, Raquel Morais; SMITH NETO, Perrin; HORTA, Martinho Campolina Rebello; PITHON, Matheus Melo; OLIVEIRA, Dauro Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the static frictional forces generated at the bracket/wire interface of stainless steel brackets with different geometries and angulations, combined with orthodontic wires of different diameters. Material and Methods The frictional forces were evaluated with three different types of metal brackets: a passive self-ligating (SmartClipTM, 3M/Unitek, Monrovia, USA), with a modified slot design (Mini Uni TwinTM, 3M/Unitek, Monrovia, USA) and conventional (Kirium, Abzil, São José do Rio Preto, Brazil). The samples were mounted in a testing device with three different angulations and tested with 0.014" and 0.018" stainless steel wires (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA). The static frictional force was measured using a universal testing machine (DL 500, EMIC®, São José dos Pinhais, Brazil) with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test. Results There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in static friction when the three types of brackets were tested with the same wire size. The wire diameter influenced friction only when the brackets had a 10º angulation (p<0.05). The angulation influenced friction (p<0.05) when the brackets were associated with a 0.018" wire. Conclusion Brackets with a modified slot design showed intermediate static frictional force values between the conventional and self-ligating brackets tested. PMID:24037069

  7. Kinetic-energy absorber employs frictional force between mating cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, E. W.

    1964-01-01

    A kinetic energy absorbing device uses a series of coaxial, mating cylindrical surfaces. These surfaces have high frictional resistance to relative motion when axial impact forces are applied. The device is designed for safe deceleration of vehicles impacting on landing surfaces.

  8. A Tactile Sensor Using Piezoresistive Beams for Detection of the Coefficient of Static Friction.

    PubMed

    Okatani, Taiyu; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Noda, Kentaro; Takahata, Tomoyuki; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2016-05-18

    This paper reports on a tactile sensor using piezoresistive beams for detection of the coefficient of static friction merely by pressing the sensor against an object. The sensor chip is composed of three pairs of piezoresistive beams arranged in parallel and embedded in an elastomer; this sensor is able to measure the vertical and lateral strains of the elastomer. The coefficient of static friction is estimated from the ratio of the fractional resistance changes corresponding to the sensing elements of vertical and lateral strains when the sensor is in contact with an object surface. We applied a normal force on the sensor surface through objects with coefficients of static friction ranging from 0.2 to 1.1. The fractional resistance changes corresponding to vertical and lateral strains were proportional to the applied force. Furthermore, the relationship between these responses changed according to the coefficients of static friction. The experimental result indicated the proposed sensor could determine the coefficient of static friction before a global slip occurs.

  9. A Tactile Sensor Using Piezoresistive Beams for Detection of the Coefficient of Static Friction

    PubMed Central

    Okatani, Taiyu; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Noda, Kentaro; Takahata, Tomoyuki; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a tactile sensor using piezoresistive beams for detection of the coefficient of static friction merely by pressing the sensor against an object. The sensor chip is composed of three pairs of piezoresistive beams arranged in parallel and embedded in an elastomer; this sensor is able to measure the vertical and lateral strains of the elastomer. The coefficient of static friction is estimated from the ratio of the fractional resistance changes corresponding to the sensing elements of vertical and lateral strains when the sensor is in contact with an object surface. We applied a normal force on the sensor surface through objects with coefficients of static friction ranging from 0.2 to 1.1. The fractional resistance changes corresponding to vertical and lateral strains were proportional to the applied force. Furthermore, the relationship between these responses changed according to the coefficients of static friction. The experimental result indicated the proposed sensor could determine the coefficient of static friction before a global slip occurs. PMID:27213374

  10. A Tactile Sensor Using Piezoresistive Beams for Detection of the Coefficient of Static Friction.

    PubMed

    Okatani, Taiyu; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Noda, Kentaro; Takahata, Tomoyuki; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a tactile sensor using piezoresistive beams for detection of the coefficient of static friction merely by pressing the sensor against an object. The sensor chip is composed of three pairs of piezoresistive beams arranged in parallel and embedded in an elastomer; this sensor is able to measure the vertical and lateral strains of the elastomer. The coefficient of static friction is estimated from the ratio of the fractional resistance changes corresponding to the sensing elements of vertical and lateral strains when the sensor is in contact with an object surface. We applied a normal force on the sensor surface through objects with coefficients of static friction ranging from 0.2 to 1.1. The fractional resistance changes corresponding to vertical and lateral strains were proportional to the applied force. Furthermore, the relationship between these responses changed according to the coefficients of static friction. The experimental result indicated the proposed sensor could determine the coefficient of static friction before a global slip occurs. PMID:27213374

  11. Techniques for the determination of the static and dynamics internal friction of coefficients of ceramic powder

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, M.A.; Cortes, R.; Sanchez-Galvez, V.; Navarro, C. . Dept. of Materials Science)

    1993-11-01

    This paper discusses different techniques for the experimental estimation of the static and dynamic internal friction coefficients of fragmented ceramics. These were applied to the powders of two ballistic ceramics, SiC and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]. The relationship between the fragment size and the internal friction coefficients of the powders was determined. The results obtained with the different techniques are compared.

  12. Static friction properties between human palmar skin and five grabrail materials.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, D M; Smith, R M

    2001-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the static friction properties between human palmar skin and five grabrail materials (chrome, stainless steel, power-coated steel, textured aluminium and knurled steel) for dry, wet and soapy hands. Thirty subjects (15 female, 15 male) participated in this study, their ages ranging from 19 to 45 years with a mean age of 28 years. The normal force, friction force, and coefficient of static friction were determined by measuring three-dimensional forces while slipping the palm of the hand over the surface of a grabrail. A repeated measures ANOVA indicated that gender, age, hand size and trial effect had no significant influence (p>0.05) on these results. The coefficient of friction (p<0.001) and friction force (p<0.001) were significantly lower when the hand was soapy than when it was dry or wet. The normal force applied when the hand was soapy was significantly greater (p<0.001) than when it was dry or wet. No significant difference was found between dry and wet hands. The two textured materials displayed superior friction properties when the hand was soapy, while the smooth materials performed best when the hand was dry.

  13. Chemical kinetics computer program for static and flow reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, D. A.; Scullin, V. J.

    1972-01-01

    General chemical kinetics computer program for complex gas mixtures has been developed. Program can be used for any homogeneous reaction in either one dimensional flow or static system. It is flexible, accurate, and easy to use. It can be used for any chemical system for which species thermodynamic data and reaction rate constant data are known.

  14. Concurrent parametrization against static and kinetic information leads to more robust coarse-grained force fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudzinski, J. F.; Bereau, T.

    2016-07-01

    The parametrization of coarse-grained (CG) simulation models for molecular systems often aims at reproducing static properties alone. The reduced molecular friction of the CG representation usually results in faster, albeit inconsistent, dynamics. In this work, we rely on Markov state models to simultaneously characterize the static and kinetic properties of two CG peptide force fields—one top-down and one bottom-up. Instead of a rigorous evolution of CG dynamics (e.g., using a generalized Langevin equation), we attempt to improve the description of kinetics by simply altering the existing CG models, which employ standard Langevin dynamics. By varying masses and relevant force-field parameters, we can improve the timescale separation of the slow kinetic processes, achieve a more consistent ratio of mean-first-passage times between metastable states, and refine the relative free-energies between these states. Importantly, we show that the incorporation of kinetic information into a structure-based parametrization improves the description of the helix-coil transition sampled by a minimal CG model. While structure-based models understabilize the helical state, kinetic constraints help identify CG models that improve the ratio of forward/backward timescales by effectively hindering the sampling of spurious conformational intermediate states.

  15. Monte Carlo simulations of the static friction between two grafted polymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Ana C F; Goujon, Florent; Malfreyt, Patrice; Tildesley, Dominic J

    2016-02-17

    A configurational bias Monte Carlo method has been developed to study the static friction between grafted polymers immersed in a good solvent. Simple models using the soft quadratic potential from a dissipative particle dynamics study have been used to model polyzwitterionic brushes at physiological pressures (up to 7.5 MPa). Three models of decreasing rigidity have been used to model the friction between the brushes by calculating the tangential component of the pressure induced by a mismatch in the registry of the two grafting surfaces. The static friction coefficient can be calculated for three model systems and the slip between the layers occurs at a much lower values of shear force for the more flexible polymer layer. A moderate increase in the flexibility of the chains reduces the friction coefficient by a factor of ca. 20. Tilting the layer directors of the brushes also increases the static friction between the layer when the top, tilted layer is displaced in the direction away from the tilt. Non-equilibrium dynamics techniques for the same model were performed using dissipative particle dynamics and the limiting extremes of the Stribeck curve corresponding to the boundary lubrication regime and the hydrodynamic lubrication regime were observed for these flat surfaces. As expected, μk is significantly lower than μs for the same system. The dynamical friction coefficients in the model are in good agreement with those observed in the experiment and the ratio of μk/μs of between 0.11 and 0.5 observed in the simulations is in reasonable agreement with the value of 0.5 normally observed for these seen for these systems. PMID:26847471

  16. Development and assessment of atomistic models for predicting static friction coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangiri, Soran; Heverly-Coulson, Gavin S.; Mosey, Nicholas J.

    2016-08-01

    The friction coefficient relates friction forces to normal loads and plays a key role in fundamental and applied areas of science and technology. Despite its importance, the relationship between the friction coefficient and the properties of the materials forming a sliding contact is poorly understood. We illustrate how simple relationships regarding the changes in energy that occur during slip can be used to develop a quantitative model relating the friction coefficient to atomic-level features of the contact. The slip event is considered as an activated process and the load dependence of the slip energy barrier is approximated with a Taylor series expansion of the corresponding energies with respect to load. The resulting expression for the load-dependent slip energy barrier is incorporated in the Prandtl-Tomlinson (PT) model and a shear-based model to obtain expressions for friction coefficient. The results indicate that the shear-based model reproduces the static friction coefficients μs obtained from first-principles molecular dynamics simulations more accurately than the PT model. The ability of the model to provide atomistic explanations for differences in μs amongst different contacts is also illustrated. As a whole, the model is able to account for fundamental atomic-level features of μs, explain the differences in μs for different materials based on their properties, and might be also used in guiding the development of contacts with desired values of μs.

  17. Static friction threshold effects on hysteresis and frequency spectra in rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Kadish, A.

    1999-06-01

    Static friction in rocks is modeled as a threshold phenomenon. An inverse problem in ground motion is analyzed for propagation in a medium with an arbitrary number of fractures at which static friction thresholds determine the onset of slippage. It is shown that seismic source dynamics inferred from surface motion is unique. This result is used to show that the threshold property of static friction is not a mechanism for hysteresis in rocks. The coda for the surface motion is shown, in the case of a single fracture and a deep source of finite duration, to be either a periodic function in time, or to asymptote in time to such a function, depending on an algebraic relation between ground and fracture parameters. The fundamental period of the coda is independent of the source time series and is equal to four times the signal transit time between the single fracture and ground surface. Only odd harmonics of the fundamental frequency are present in a Fourier series of these periodic functions. {copyright} {ital 1999 Acoustical Society of America.}

  18. Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Yoshihiro; Clarke, Daryl D.; Ozeki, Shinichi

    Friction materials such as disk pads, brake linings, and clutch facings are widely used for automotive applications. Friction materials function during braking due to frictional resistance that transforms kinetic energy into thermal energy. There has been a rudimentary evolution, from materials like leather or wood to asbestos fabric or asbestos fabric saturated with various resins such as asphalt or resin combined with pitch. These efforts were further developed by the use of woven asbestos material saturated by either rubber solution or liquid resin binder and functioned as an internal expanding brake, similar to brake lining system. The role of asbestos continued through the use of chopped asbestos saturated by rubber, but none was entirely successful due to the poor rubber heat resistance required for increased speeds and heavy gearing demands of the automobile industry. The use of phenolic resins as binder for asbestos friction materials provided the necessary thermal resistance and performance characteristics. Thus, the utility of asbestos as the main friction component, for over 100 years, has been significantly reduced in friction materials due to asbestos identity as a carcinogen. Steel and other fibrous components have displaced asbestos in disk pads. Currently, non-asbestos organics are the predominate friction material. Phenolic resins continue to be the preferred binder, and increased amounts are necessary to meet the requirements of highly functional asbestos-free disk pads for the automotive industry. With annual automobile production exceeding 70 million vehicles and additional automobile production occurring in developing countries worldwide and increasing yearly, the amount of phenolic resin for friction material is also increasing (Fig. 14.1). Fig. 14.1 Worldwide commercial vehicle production Reduction in static friction by deposition of a homogeneous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Akaike, Shun; Hayakawa, Tohru; Kobayashi, Daishiro; Aono, Yuko; Hirata, Atsushi; Hiratsuka, Masanori; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    In orthodontics, a reduction in static friction between the brackets and wire is important to enable easy tooth movement. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a homogeneous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on the whole surfaces of slots in stainless steel orthodontic brackets on reducing the static friction between the brackets and the wire. The DLC coating was characterized using Raman spectroscopy, surface roughness and contact angle measurements, and SEM observations. Rectangular stainless steel and titanium-molybdenum alloy wires with two different sizes were employed, and the static friction between the brackets and wire was measured under dry and wet conditions. The DLC coating had a thickness of approximately 1.0 μm and an amorphous structure was identified. The results indicated that the DLC coating always led to a reduction in static friction. PMID:26632239

  19. Investigation of kinetic friction using an iPhone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldock, Clive; Johnson, Roger

    2016-11-01

    The iPhone is particularly suitable for mechanics experiments using the in-built acceleration sensor or accelerometer in-conjunction with the on-board data collection facility and a downloadable so-called ‘app’. In this work the iPhone has been used to investigate the acceleration due to gravity and determine the coefficient of kinetic friction, μ k of the iPhone as an object sliding down an inclined plane. This method is more accurate than that usually employed in the laboratory where the ‘fits and starts’ of the block sliding down the inclined plane potentially invalidate the required assumption that the velocity is constant. In its simplest form the measurement of acceleration is required to be undertaken for only 2 angles.

  1. Static friction of biomimetic surface microstructure of PDMS under wet and dry conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haiwu; Jia, Hongduo; Gong, Ling; Li, Rong; Wang, Caiping; Wang, Xiaojie

    2016-04-01

    Smooth adhesive pad found among arthropods, amphibians, particularly tree frogs, are usually covered with surface microstructure of different shape to enhance the attachment abilities on the smooth substrate. During the last decade, it has gained more attentions in the development of anti-slippery systems by mimicking these unique characteristics. In this paper, we studied a new amphibian species newt by observing their climbing abilities on wet and dry vertical smooth surface, and found that the newts can even hang on the surface with an inclination angle more than 90° without falling. We investigated the toe pad micro-structured surface of the newt by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and found that an array of hexagonal cells with micro-ridges on cell borders exists for the larvae; while an array of hexagonal cells separated by microgrooves is for the adult. Inspired by these features, the biomimetic micro-structured surfaces were fabricated using a soft elastomeric material polydimethysiloxane (PDMS). Four different microstructures were chosen to study their tribological properties with a solid substrate under wet and dry conditions. The patterns of the microstructures include round pillar, hexagonal pillar, round pillars surrounded by a closed hexagonal ridge, and round pillars surrounded by a semi-closed hexagonal ridge. The static friction tests were carried out using the multi-functional surface meter TYPE12. The results showed that the area ratio of the micro pillar plays a major role in enhancing the static friction for both wet and dry conditions, while the numerical density of the micro pillar has less effect on the friction enhancement. Among the four kind specimens, the specimen with hexagonal pillars would increase the static friction more than others at the same test conditions when the pillar area ratio is lower than 40%.

  2. An investigation into the kinetic (sliding) friction of some tablets and capsules.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Bruno C; Mojica, Nestor; St John-Green, Kimberley; Elliott, James A; Bharadwaj, Rahul

    2010-01-15

    The kinetic (or sliding) friction of pharmaceutical tablets and capsules influences how they will behave during the conveying, coating, and packaging operations that are used for drug product manufacturing. In order to logically design equipment for manufacturing and packaging operations, and to simulate manufacturing and packaging performance (for example, using discrete or finite element modeling approaches), it is necessary to quantify the magnitude of the kinetic friction. In this work, the coefficient of kinetic friction of a range of pharmaceutical tablets and capsules has been measured for the first time using a pin-on-disk tribometer. Binary tablet-tablet contacts and the contacts between tablets or capsules and common equipment surfaces were studied. The range of the friction coefficients was large (between 0.00 and 0.74), and the values depended strongly on the identity of both contacting materials. Tablet-tablet contacts generally exhibited lower friction coefficients than tablet-polymer or tablet-metal contacts. Polymeric surfaces were generally less frictional than metal surfaces, even those that were highly polished. Tablet coatings appeared to have a marked effect on the kinetic friction coefficient between tablets and equipment surfaces, with the hardest coatings tending to be the least frictional. The surface roughness of the tablets and contacting surfaces did not contribute to the coefficient of kinetic friction in a consistent manner. The implications of the results for the design of conveying, processing and packaging operations are discussed.

  3. Austenite Static Recrystallization Kinetics in Microalloyed B Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrañaga-Otegui, Ane; Pereda, Beatriz; Jorge-Badiola, Denis; Gutiérrez, Isabel

    2016-06-01

    Boron is added to steels to increase hardenability, substituting of more expensive elements. Moreover, B acts as a recrystallization delaying element when it is in solid solution. However, B can interact with N and/or C to form nitrides and carbides at high temperatures, limiting its effect on both phase transformation and recrystallization. On the other hand, other elements like Nb and Ti are added due to the retarding effect that they exert on the austenite softening processes, which results in pancaked austenite grains and refined room microstructures. In B steels, Nb and Ti are also used to prevent B precipitation. However, the complex interaction between these elements and its effect on the austenite microstructure evolution during hot working has not been investigated in detail. The present work is focused on the effect the B exerts on recrystallization when added to microalloyed steels. Although B on its own leads to retarded static recrystallization kinetics, when Nb is added a large delay in the static recrystallization times is observed in the 1273 K to 1373 K (1000 °C to 1100 °C) temperature range. The effect is larger than that predicted by a model developed for Nb-microalloyed steels, which is attributed to a synergistic effect of both elements. However, this effect is not so prominent for Nb-Ti-B steels. The complex effect of the composition on recrystallization kinetics is explained as a competition between the solute drag and precipitation pinning phenomena. The effect of the microalloying elements is quantified, and a new model for the predictions of recrystallization kinetics that accounts for the B and Nb+B synergetic effects is proposed.

  4. Exploring factors affecting measurements of the static coefficient of friction: An application of fractional factorial experiment design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkerts, Timothy J.

    2004-10-01

    The common undergraduate experiment for determining the static coefficient of friction between a wooden block and a horizontal tabletop often produces inconsistent results. We show how several factors influence the measured magnitude and consistency of the coefficient of friction. We utilize a fractional factorial experimental design, which is a method that has been specifically developed to effectively and efficiently uncover key factors that most strongly influence experimental results.

  5. Using Models at the Mesoscopic Scale in Teaching Physics: Two Experimental Interventions in Solid Friction and Fluid Statics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besson, Ugo; Viennot, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the didactic suitability of introducing models at an intermediate (i.e. mesoscopic) scale in teaching certain subjects, at an early stage. The design and evaluation of two short sequences based on this rationale will be outlined: one bears on propulsion by solid friction, the other on fluid statics in the presence of gravity.…

  6. Experimental Measurement of the Static Coefficient of Friction at the Ti-Ti Taper Connection in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bitter, T; Khan, I; Marriott, T; Schreurs, B W; Verdonschot, N; Janssen, D

    2016-03-01

    The modular taper junction in total hip replacements has been implicated as a possible source of wear. The finite-element (FE) method can be used to study the wear potential at the taper junction. For such simulations it is important to implement representative contact parameters, in order to achieve accurate results. One of the main parameters in FE simulations is the coefficient of friction. However, in current literature, there is quite a wide spread in coefficient of friction values (0.15 - 0.8), which has a significant effect on the outcome of the FE simulations. Therefore, to obtain more accurate results, one should use a coefficient of friction that is determined for the specific material couple being analyzed. In this study, the static coefficient of friction was determined for two types of titanium-on-titanium stem-adaptor couples, using actual cut-outs of the final implants, to ensure that the coefficient of friction was determined consistently for the actual implant material and surface finish characteristics. Two types of tapers were examined, Biomet type-1 and 12/14, where type-1 has a polished surface finish and the 12/14 is a microgrooved system. We found static coefficients of friction of 0.19 and 0.29 for the 12/14 and type-1 stem-adaptor couples, respectively. PMID:26747129

  7. Experimental Measurement of the Static Coefficient of Friction at the Ti-Ti Taper Connection in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bitter, T; Khan, I; Marriott, T; Schreurs, B W; Verdonschot, N; Janssen, D

    2016-03-01

    The modular taper junction in total hip replacements has been implicated as a possible source of wear. The finite-element (FE) method can be used to study the wear potential at the taper junction. For such simulations it is important to implement representative contact parameters, in order to achieve accurate results. One of the main parameters in FE simulations is the coefficient of friction. However, in current literature, there is quite a wide spread in coefficient of friction values (0.15 - 0.8), which has a significant effect on the outcome of the FE simulations. Therefore, to obtain more accurate results, one should use a coefficient of friction that is determined for the specific material couple being analyzed. In this study, the static coefficient of friction was determined for two types of titanium-on-titanium stem-adaptor couples, using actual cut-outs of the final implants, to ensure that the coefficient of friction was determined consistently for the actual implant material and surface finish characteristics. Two types of tapers were examined, Biomet type-1 and 12/14, where type-1 has a polished surface finish and the 12/14 is a microgrooved system. We found static coefficients of friction of 0.19 and 0.29 for the 12/14 and type-1 stem-adaptor couples, respectively.

  8. Influence of contact aging on nanoparticle friction kinetics.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, Michael; Dietzel, Dirk; Fuchs, Harald; Schirmeisen, André

    2014-04-18

    One of the oldest concepts in tribology is stick-slip dynamics, where a disruptive sequence of stick and slip phases determine the overall resistance in sliding friction. While the mechanical energy dissipates in the sudden slip phase, the stick phase has been shown to be characterized by contact strengthening mechanisms, also termed contact aging. We present experiments of sliding nanoparticles, where friction is measured as a function of sliding velocity and interface temperature. The resulting complex interdependence is in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations, in which the energy barrier for contact breaking increases logarithmically with time, at a rate governed by thermal activation.

  9. Kinetic Friction of Non-Coalescing and Non- Wetting Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neitzel, G. paul

    2004-01-01

    This project has focused on the experimental determination of the frictional forces associated with noncoalescing and nonwetting systems. In particular, the focus has been on friction associated with an isothermal nonwetting droplet sliding on a solid surface. The nonwetting phenomenon is driven by the establishment of a thin (of order microns in thickness) layer of lubricating gas that is swept by viscous action into the space between the liquid and solid, preventing them from coming into contact. The mechanism has been described in the review article by Neitzel & Dell'Aversana (2002). The work performed under this NASA GSRP sponsorship extends work done by Dell'Aversana & Neitzel (2004) on the load-carrying capacities of thermocapillary nonwetting droplets for a given relative displacement of the two surfaces in question.

  10. Being Careful with PASCO's Kinetic Friction Experiment: Uncovering Pre-Sliding Displacement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawlor, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    The widely used PASCO laboratory equipment is an excellent way to introduce students to many topics in physics. In one case, PASCO's equipment may be too good! Various experiments exist for calculating the kinetic coefficient of friction by measuring the acceleration of a sliding object under some constant force. With ever more accurate equipment,…

  11. Fluctuations in a kinetic transport model for quantum friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauerschmidt, Roland; de Roeck, Wojciech; Fröhlich, Jürg

    2014-07-01

    We study a linear Boltzmann equation describing the effective dynamics of a quantum particle moving through an ideal Bose gas at zero temperature. The particle emits sound waves into the Bose gas, a process causing it to slow down. This mechanism for friction is akin to one exhibited by a charged particle travelling through an optically dense medium at a speed larger than the speed of light and hence emitting Čerenkov radiation. We study the spatial trajectory of the Markov process corresponding to the Boltzmann equation and prove that this process converges to a multiple of Brownian motion after an exponential rescaling of time. We also show that the asymptotic position of the particle remains finite on average, but that its absolute value diverges logarithmically. Our unusual exponential rescaling of time is appropriate for a description of friction at zero temperature and is distinct from diffusive scaling appropriate at positive temperature. It is also shown that if random fluctuations of the particle position were neglected the latter would turn out to diverge.

  12. The Effects of In-Office Reconditioning on the Slot Dimensions and Static Frictional Resistance of Stainless Steel Brackets

    PubMed Central

    Nellore, Chaitanya; Karnati, Praveen Kumar Reddy; Thalapaneni, Ashok Kumar; Myla, Vijay Bhaskar; Ramyasree, Konda; Prasad, Mandava

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Orthodontists are commonly faced with the decision of what to do with loose brackets, and with inaccurately located brackets that need repositioning during treatment. One solution is to recycle the brackets. The potential effects of reconditioning a bracket are dependent upon many factors which may result in physical changes like alteration in slot tolerance, which may influence sliding mechanics by affecting frictional resistance. Aim To study and compare the dimensional changes in the bracket slot width and depth in reconditioned brackets from unused brackets under scanning electronic microscope and to study and compare any consequent effects on the static frictional resistance of stainless steel brackets after reconditioning and in unused brackets. Materials and Methods Dentarum manufactured 90 stainless steel central incisors edgewise brackets of size 0.22 X 0.030″ inch and 0° tip and 0°angulation were taken. 60 samples for measuring frictional resistance and 30 samples for measuring slot dimensions. Ortho organizers manufactured stainless steel arch wires 0.019 X 0.025″ straight lengths 60 in number were considered for measuring static frictional resistance. Results The mean slot width and depth of new brackets were 0.0251″ and 0.0471″, which exceeded the manufacturers reported nominal size of 0.022″ X 0.030″, by 0.003″ and 0.017″. The reconditioned brackets demonstrated a further increase in mean slot width and depth to 0.028″ and 0.0518″ that is by 0.0035″ and 0.0047″ which is statistically significant (p=0.001, 0.002). The mean static frictional forces of the reconditioned brackets was nearly similar to that of new brackets that is 0.3167N for reconditioned brackets and 0.2613 N for new brackets. Conclusion Although the reconditioning process results in physical changes to bracket structure this does not appear to result in significant effect on ex-vivo static frictional resistance. PMID:26894182

  13. On the limits of quasi-static analysis for a simple Coulomb frictional oscillator in response to harmonic loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papangelo, A.; Ciavarella, M.

    2015-03-01

    Due to the nonlinearity of the Coulomb friction law, even the simplest models of interfaces in contact show a very rich dynamic solution. It is often desirable, especially if the frequency of loading is only a fraction of the first natural frequency of the system, to replace a full dynamic analysis with a quasi-static one, which obviously is much simpler to obtain. In this work, we study a simple Coulomb frictional oscillator with harmonic tangential load, but with constant normal load. It is found that the quasi-static solution (which has only 2 stops) captures approximately the displacement peak as long as the forcing frequency is low enough for the dynamic solution to have 2 or, even better, more than 2 stops. Instead, the velocity peak is not correctly estimated, since the velocity becomes highly irregular due to the stick-slip stops, whose number increases without limit for zero frequency. In this sense, the classical quasi-static solution, obtaining by cancelling inertia terms in the equilibrium equations, does not coincide with the limit of the full dynamic solution at low frequencies. The difference is not eliminated by adding a small amount of viscous damping, as only with critical damping, the dynamic solution is very close to the quasi-static one. Additional discrepancies arise above a limit frequency whose value depends on the ratio of the tangential load to the limit one for sliding, and correspond to when the dynamic solution turns from 2 to 0 stop per cycle.

  14. Nanoscale wear and kinetic friction between atomically smooth surfaces sliding at high speeds

    SciTech Connect

    Rajauria, Sukumar Canchi, Sripathi V. Schreck, Erhard; Marchon, Bruno

    2015-02-23

    The kinetic friction and wear at high sliding speeds is investigated using the head-disk interface of hard disk drives, wherein the head and the disk are less than 10 nm apart and move at sliding speeds of 5–10 m/s relative to each other. While the spacing between the sliding surfaces is of the same order of magnitude as various AFM based fundamental studies on friction, the sliding speed is nearly six orders of magnitude larger, allowing a unique set-up for a systematic study of nanoscale wear at high sliding speeds. In a hard disk drive, the physical contact between the head and the disk leads to friction, wear, and degradation of the head overcoat material (typically diamond like carbon). In this work, strain gauge based friction measurements are performed; the friction coefficient as well as the adhering shear strength at the head-disk interface is extracted; and an experimental set-up for studying friction between high speed sliding surfaces is exemplified.

  15. Constitutive models for granular materials including quasi-static frictional behaviour: Toward a thermodynamic theory of plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, B.; Hutter, K.; Laloui, L.

    This work deals with the thermodynamic formulation of constitutive models for materials whose quasi-static behaviour is governed by internal friction, e.g., dry granular materials. The process of internal friction is represented here phenomenologically with the help of a second-order, symmetric-tensor-valued internal variable. A general class of models for the evolution of this variable is considered, including as special cases a hypoelastic-like form for this relation as well as the hypoplastic form of Kolymbas (1991). The thermodynamic formulation is carried out in the context of the Müller-Liu entropy principle. Among other things, it is shown that for the hypoelastic-type models, a true equilibrium inelastic Cauchy stress exists. On the other hand, such a stress does not exist for the hypoplastic model due to its rate-independence and incremental non-linearity. With the help of a slight generalization of the notion of thermodynamic equilibrium, i.e., to thermodynamic ``quasi-equilibrium,'' however, such a Cauchy stress can be formulated for the hypoplastic model. As it turns out, this quasi-equilibrium for the Cauchy stress represents a thermodynamic generalization of the so-called quasi-static stress postulated for example by Goddard (1986) in the context of his viscoplastic model for a frictional-dissipative, and in particular for granular, materials.

  16. Pleural liquid and kinetic friction coefficient of mesothelium after mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Bodega, Francesca; Sironi, Chiara; Porta, Cristina; Zocchi, Luciano; Agostoni, Emilio

    2015-01-15

    Volume and protein concentration of pleural liquid in anesthetized rabbits after 1 or 3h of mechanical ventilation, with alveolar pressure equal to atmospheric at end expiration, were compared to those occurring after spontaneous breathing. Moreover, coefficient of kinetic friction between samples of visceral and parietal pleura, obtained after spontaneous or mechanical ventilation, sliding in vitro at physiological velocity under physiological load, was determined. Volume of pleural liquid after mechanical ventilation was similar to that previously found during spontaneous ventilation. This finding is contrary to expectation of Moriondo et al. (2005), based on measurement of lymphatic and interstitial pressure. Protein concentration of pleural liquid after mechanical ventilation was also similar to that occurring after spontaneous ventilation. Coefficient of kinetic friction after mechanical ventilation was 0.023±0.001, similar to that obtained after spontaneous breathing.

  17. Nonlinear dynamics of mechanical systems with friction contacts: Coupled static and dynamic Multi-Harmonic Balance Method and multiple solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucca, Stefano; Firrone, Christian Maria

    2014-02-01

    Real applications in structural mechanics where the dynamic behavior is linear are rare. Usually, structures are made of components assembled together by means of joints whose behavior maybe highly nonlinear. Depending on the amount of excitation, joints can dramatically change the dynamic behavior of the whole system, and the modeling of this type of constraint is therefore crucial for a correct prediction of the amount of vibration. The solution of the nonlinear equilibrium equations by means of the Harmonic Balance Method (HBM) is widely accepted as an effective approach to calculate the steady-state forced response in the frequency domain, in spite of Direct Time Integration (DTI). The state-of-the-art contact element used to model the friction forces at the joint interfaces is a node-to-node contact element, where the local contact compliance is modeled by means of linear springs and Coulomb's law is used to govern the friction phenomena. In the literature, when the HBM is applied to vibrating systems with joint interfaces and the state-of-the-art contact model is used, an uncoupled approach is mostly employed: the static governing equations are solved in advance to compute the pre-stress effects and then the dynamic governing equations are solved to predict the vibration amplitude of the system. As a result, the HBM steady-state solution may lead to a poor correlation with the DTI solution, where static and dynamic loads are accounted for simultaneously. In this paper, the HBM performances are investigated by comparing the uncoupled approach to a fully coupled static/dynamic approach. In order to highlight the main differences between the two approaches, a lumped parameter system, characterized by a single friction contact, is considered in order to show the different levels of accuracy that the proposed approaches can provide for different configurations.

  18. Discrete dislocation plasticity analysis of loading rate-dependent static friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, H.; Deshpande, V. S.; Van der Giessen, E.

    2016-08-01

    From a microscopic point of view, the frictional force associated with the relative sliding of rough surfaces originates from deformation of the material in contact, by adhesion in the contact interface or both. We know that plastic deformation at the size scale of micrometres is not only dependent on the size of the contact, but also on the rate of deformation. Moreover, depending on its physical origin, adhesion can also be size and rate dependent, albeit different from plasticity. We present a two-dimensional model that incorporates both discrete dislocation plasticity inside a face-centred cubic crystal and adhesion in the interface to understand the rate dependence of friction caused by micrometre-size asperities. The friction strength is the outcome of the competition between adhesion and discrete dislocation plasticity. As a function of contact size, the friction strength contains two plateaus: at small contact length (≲0.6 μ m), the onset of sliding is fully controlled by adhesion while for large contact length (≳10 μ m), the friction strength approaches the size-independent plastic shear yield strength. The transition regime at intermediate contact size is a result of partial de-cohesion and size-dependent dislocation plasticity, and is determined by dislocation properties, interfacial properties as well as by the loading rate.

  19. Friction in orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Prashant, P. S.; Nandan, Hemant; Gopalakrishnan, Meera

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that resistance to sliding (RS) generated at the wire-bracket interface has a bearing on the force transmitted to the teeth. The relative importance of static and kinetic friction and also the effect of friction on anchorage has been a topic of debate. Lot of research work has been done to evaluate the various factors that affect friction and thus purportedly retards the rate of tooth movement. However, relevancy of these studies is questionable as the methodology used hardly simulates the oral conditions. Lately studies have concluded that more emphasis should be laid on binding and notching of archwires as these are considered to be the primary factors involved in retarding the tooth movement. This article reviews the various components involved in RS and the factors affecting friction. Further, research work should be carried out to provide cost effective alternatives aimed at reducing friction. PMID:26538873

  20. General chemical kinetics computer program for static and flow reactions, with application to combustion and shock-tube kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, D. A.; Scullin, V. J.

    1972-01-01

    A general chemical kinetics program is described for complex, homogeneous ideal-gas reactions in any chemical system. Its main features are flexibility and convenience in treating many different reaction conditions. The program solves numerically the differential equations describing complex reaction in either a static system or one-dimensional inviscid flow. Applications include ignition and combustion, shock wave reactions, and general reactions in a flowing or static system. An implicit numerical solution method is used which works efficiently for the extreme conditions of a very slow or a very fast reaction. The theory is described, and the computer program and users' manual are included.

  1. Constitutive equation of friction based on the subloading-surface concept

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Masami; Kuwayama, Takuya; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Yonemura, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    The subloading-friction model is capable of describing static friction, the smooth transition from static to kinetic friction and the recovery to static friction after sliding stops or sliding velocity decreases. This causes a negative rate sensitivity (i.e. a decrease in friction resistance with increasing sliding velocity). A generalized subloading-friction model is formulated in this article by incorporating the concept of overstress for viscoplastic sliding velocity into the subloading-friction model to describe not only negative rate sensitivity but also positive rate sensitivity (i.e. an increase in friction resistance with increasing sliding velocity) at a general sliding velocity ranging from quasi-static to impact sliding. The validity of the model is verified by numerical experiments and comparisons with test data obtained from friction tests using a lubricated steel specimen. PMID:27493570

  2. A simple criterion for determining the static friction force between nanowires and flat substrates using the most-bent-state method.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lizhen; Wang, Shiliang; Huang, Han

    2015-04-24

    A simple criterion was developed to assess the appropriateness of the currently available models that estimate the static friction force between nanowires and substrates using the 'most-bent-state' method. Our experimental testing of the static friction force between Al2O3 nanowires and Si substrate verified our theoretical analysis, as well as the establishment of the criterion. It was found that the models are valid only for the bent nanowires with the ratio of wire length over the minimum curvature radius [Formula: see text] no greater than 1. For the cases with [Formula: see text] greater than 1, the static friction force was overestimated as it neglected the effect of its tangential component. PMID:25815772

  3. PROPERTIES OF CP: COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION, DECOMPOSITION KINETICS, AND REACTION TO SPARK, FRICTION AND IMPACT

    SciTech Connect

    Weese, R K; Burnham, A K

    2005-09-28

    The properties of pentaamine (5-cyano-2H-tetrazolato-N2) cobalt (III) perchlorate (CP), which was first synthesized in 1968, continues to be of interest for predicting behavior in handling, shipping, aging, and thermal cook-off situations. We report coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values over four specific temperature ranges, decomposition kinetics using linear and isothermal heating, and the reaction to three different types of stimuli: impact, spark, and friction. The CTE was measured using a Thermal Mechanical Analyzer (TMA) for samples that were uniaxially compressed at 10,000 psi and analyzed over a dynamic temperature range of -20 C to 70 C. Differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, was used to monitor CP decomposition at linear heating rates of 1-7 C min{sup -1} in perforated pans and of 0.1-1.0 C min{sup -1} in sealed pans. The kinetic triplet was calculated using the LLNL code Kinetics05, and predictions for 210 and 240 C are compared to isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments. Values are also reported for spark, friction, and impact sensitivity.

  4. Growth kinetics of Al–Fe intermetallic compounds during annealing treatment of friction stir lap welds

    SciTech Connect

    Movahedi, M.; Kokabi, A.H.; Seyed Reihani, S.M.; Najafi, H.; Farzadfar, S.A.; Cheng, W.J.; Wang, C.J.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we explored the growth kinetics of the Al–Fe intermetallic (IM) layer at the joint interface of the St-12/Al-5083 friction stir lap welds during post-weld annealing treatment at 350, 400 and 450 °C for 30 to 180 min. Optical microscope (OM), field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were employed to investigate the structure of the weld zone. The thickness and composition of the IM layers were evaluated using image analysis system and electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD), respectively. Moreover, kernel average misorientation (KAM) analysis was performed to evaluate the level of stored energy in the as-welded state. The results showed that the growth kinetics of the IM layer was not governed by a parabolic diffusion law. Presence of the IM compounds as well as high stored energy near the joint interface of the as-welded sample was recognized to be the origin of the observed deviation from the parabolic diffusion law. - Highlights: • This work provided a new insight into growth kinetics of Al–Fe IM thickness. • The growth kinetics of IM layer was not governed by a parabolic diffusion law. • IM near the joint interface was the origin of deviation from the parabolic law. • High stored energy at joint interface was origin of deviation from parabolic law.

  5. Numerical analysis of static performance comparison of friction stir welded versus riveted 2024-T3 aluminum alloy stiffened panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qing; He, Yuting; Zhang, Teng; Wu, Liming

    2014-07-01

    Most researches on the static performance of stiffened panel joined by friction stir welding(FSW) mainly focus on the compression stability rather than shear stability. To evaluate the potential of FSW as a replacement for traditional rivet fastening for stiffened panel assembly in aviation application, finite element method(FEM) is applied to compare compression and shear stability performances of FSW stiffened panels with stability performances of riveted stiffened panels. FEMs of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy FSW and riveted stiffened panels are developed and nonlinear static analysis method is applied to obtain buckling pattern, buckling load and load carrying capability of each panel model. The accuracy of each FEM of FSW stiffened panel is evaluated by stability experiment of FSW stiffened panel specimens with identical geometry and boundary condition and the accuracy of each FEM of riveted stiffened panel is evaluated by semi-empirical calculation formulas. It is found that FEMs without considering weld-induced initial imperfections notably overestimate the static strengths of FSW stiffened panels. FEM results show that, buckling patterns of both FSW and riveted compression stiffened panels represent local buckling of plate between stiffeners. The initial buckling waves of FSW stiffened panel emerge uniformly in each plate between stiffeners while those of riveted panel mainly emerge in the mid-plate. Buckling patterns of both FSW and riveted shear stiffened panels represent local buckling of plate close to the loading corner. FEM results indicate that, shear buckling of FSW stiffened panel is less sensitive to the initial imperfections than compression buckling. Load carrying capability of FSW stiffened panel is less sensitive to the initial imperfections than initial buckling. It can be concluded that buckling loads of FSW panels are a bit lower than those of riveted panels whereas carrying capabilities of FSW panels are almost equivalent to those of riveted

  6. Internal friction study of decomposition kinetics of SAF 2507 type duplex stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Smuk, O.; Smuk, S.; Hanninen, H.; Jagodzinski, Yu.; Tarasenko, O.

    1999-01-08

    During the last decade, super duplex stainless steels (DSSs) with increased nitrogen content have been an object of intensive studies. Present work is devoted to the study of the peculiarities of {delta}-ferrite decomposition in SAF 2507 type duplex steel, and redistribution of nitrogen between ferrite and austenite phases in a wide temperature range by means of internal fraction (IF). Unlike local methods of electron microscopy or engineering methods of hardness or impact toughness testing, which give basically information on the formation of brittle intermetallic phases, the internal friction technique allows to study the state of solid solution and kinetics of changes in the relative amounts of ferrite and austenite phases during thermal treatment.

  7. Bioinspired orientation-dependent friction.

    PubMed

    Xue, Longjian; Iturri, Jagoba; Kappl, Michael; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; del Campo, Aránzazu

    2014-09-23

    Spatular terminals on the toe pads of a gecko play an important role in directional adhesion and friction required for reversible attachment. Inspired by the toe pad design of a gecko, we study friction of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars terminated with asymmetric (spatular-shaped) overhangs. Friction forces in the direction of and against the spatular end were evaluated and compared to friction forces on symmetric T-shaped pillars and pillars without overhangs. The shape of friction curves and the values of friction forces on spatula-terminated pillars were orientation-dependent. Kinetic friction forces were enhanced when shearing against the spatular end, while static friction was stronger in the direction toward the spatular end. The overall friction force was higher in the direction against the spatula end. The maximum value was limited by the mechanical stability of the overhangs during shear. The aspect ratio of the pillar had a strong influence on the magnitude of the friction force, and its contribution surpassed and masked that of the spatular tip for aspect ratios of >2.

  8. Investigation of the Maximum Spin-Up Coefficients of Friction Obtained During Tests of a Landing Gear Having a Static-Load Rating of 20,000 Pounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterson, Sidney A.

    1959-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made at the Langley landing loads track to obtain data on the maximum spin-up coefficients of friction developed by a landing gear having a static-load rating of 20,000 pounds. The forward speeds ranged from 0 to approximately 180 feet per second and the sinking speeds, from 2.7 feet per second to 9.4 feet per second. The results indicated the variation of the maximum spin-up coefficient of friction with forward speed and vertical load. Data obtained during this investigation are also compared with some results previously obtained for nonrolling tires to show the effect of forward speed.

  9. A STUDY OF THE PROPERTIES OF CP: COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION, DECOMPOSITION KINETICS AND REACTION TO SPARK, FRICTION AND IMPACT

    SciTech Connect

    Weese, R K; Burnham, A K; Fontes, A T

    2005-03-30

    The properties of pentaamine (5-cyano-2H-tetrazolato-N2) cobalt (III) perchlorate (CP), which was first synthesized in 1968, continues to be of interest for predicting behavior in handling, shipping, aging, and thermal cook-off situations. We report coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values over four specific temperature ranges, decomposition kinetics using linear heating rates, and the reaction to three different types of stimuli: impact, spark, and friction. The CTE was measured using a Thermal Mechanical Analyzer (TMA) for samples that were uniaxially compressed at 10,000 psi and analyzed over a dynamic temperature range of -20 C to 70 C. Using differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, CP was decomposed at linear heating rates of 1, 3, and 7 C/min and the kinetic triplet calculated using the LLNL code Kinetics05. Values are also reported for spark, friction, and impact sensitivity.

  10. Constrain static target kinetic iterative image reconstruction for 4D cardiac CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, Adam M.; La Riviere, Patrick J.

    2011-03-01

    Iterative image reconstruction offers improved signal to noise properties for CT imaging. A primary challenge with iterative methods is the substantial computation time. This computation time is even more prohibitive in 4D imaging applications, such as cardiac gated or dynamic acquisition sequences. In this work, we propose only updating the time-varying elements of a 4D image sequence while constraining the static elements to be fixed or slowly varying in time. We test the method with simulations of 4D acquisitions based on measured cardiac patient data from a) a retrospective cardiac-gated CT acquisition and b) a dynamic perfusion CT acquisition. We target the kinetic elements with one of two methods: 1) position a circular ROI on the heart, assuming area outside ROI is essentially static throughout imaging time; and 2) select varying elements from the coefficient of variation image formed from fast analytic reconstruction of all time frames. Targeted kinetic elements are updated with each iteration, while static elements remain fixed at initial image values formed from the reconstruction of data from all time frames. Results confirm that the computation time is proportional to the number of targeted elements; our simulations suggest that <30% of elements need to be updated in each frame leading to >3 times reductions in reconstruction time. The images reconstructed with the proposed method have matched mean square error with full 4D reconstruction. The proposed method is amenable to most optimization algorithms and offers the potential for significant computation improvements, which could be traded off for more sophisticated system models or penalty terms.

  11. Nonequilibrium fluctuations in a frictional granular motor: experiments and kinetic theory.

    PubMed

    Gnoli, Andrea; Sarracino, Alessandro; Puglisi, Andrea; Petri, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    We report the study of an experimental granular Brownian motor, inspired by the one published in Eshuis et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 248001 (2010)], but different in some ingredients. As in that previous work, the motor is constituted by a rotating blade, the surfaces of which break the rotation-inversion symmetry through alternated patches of different inelasticity, immersed in a gas of granular particles. The main difference of our experimental setup is in the orientation of the main axis, which is parallel to the (vertical) direction of shaking of the granular fluid, guaranteeing an isotropic distribution for the velocities of colliding grains, characterized by a variance v(0)(2). We also keep the granular system diluted, in order to compare with Boltzmann-equation-based kinetic theory. In agreement with theory, we observe the crucial role of Coulomb friction which induces two main regimes: (i) rare collisions, with an average angular velocity <ω>~v(0)(3), and (ii) frequent collisions (FC), with <ω>~v(0). We also study the fluctuations of the angle spanned in a large-time interval Δθ, which in the FC regime is proportional to the work done upon the motor. We observe that the fluctuation relation is satisfied with a slope which weakly depends on the relative collision frequency.

  12. Evaluation of Static Friction of Polycrystalline Ceramic Brackets after Conditioning with Different Powers of Er:YAG Laser

    PubMed Central

    Arash, Valiollah; Javanmard, Saeed; Eftekhari, Zeinab; Rahmati-Kamel, Manouchehr; Bahadoram, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to reduce the friction between the wire and brackets by Er:YAG laser. To measure the friction between the wires and brackets in 0° and 10° of wire angulations, 40 polycrystalline ceramic brackets (Hubit, South Korea) were divided into 8 study groups and irradiated by 100, 200, and 300 mj/s of Er:YAG laser power. Two groups of brackets were not irradiated. The friction between the wires and brackets was measured with universal testing machine (SANTAM) with a segment of .019 × .025 SS wire pulled out of the slot of bracket. ANOVA and t-test were used for analyzing the results. To evaluate the effect of the laser on surface morphology of the bracket, SEM evaluations were carried out. The mean frictional resistances between the brackets and wires with 0° of angulation by increasing the laser power decreased compared with control group, but, in 10° of angulation, the friction increased regardless of the laser power and was comparable to the friction of nonirradiated brackets. Furthermore, with each laser power, frictional resistance of brackets in 10° of angulation was significantly higher than 0° of angulation. These results were explained by SEM images too. PMID:26491447

  13. Kinetics of Static Strain Aging in Polycrystalline NiAl-based Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, M. L.; Kaufman, M. J.; Noebe, R. D.

    1996-01-01

    The kinetics of yield point return have been studied in two NiAl-based alloys as a function of aging time at temperatures between 300 and 700 K. The results indicate that the upper yield stress increment, Delta sigma(sub u) (i.e., stress difference between the upper yield point and the final flow stress achieved during prestraining), in conventional purity (CP-NiAl) and in high purity carbon-doped (NiAl-C) material first increased with a t(exp 2/3) relationship before reaching a plateau. This behavior suggests that a Cottrell locking mechanism is the cause for yield points in NiAl. In addition, positive y-axis intercepts were observed in plots of Delta sigma(sub u) versus t(exp 2/3) suggesting the operation of a Snoek mechanism. Analysis according to the Cottrell Bilby model of atmosphere formation around dislocations yields an activation energy for yield point return in the range 70 to 76 kJ/mol which is comparable to the activation energy for diffusion of interstitial impurities in bcc metals. It is, thus, concluded that the kinetics of static strain aging in NiAl are controlled by the locking of dislocations by Cottrell atmospheres of carbon atoms around dislocations.

  14. Using a Geophysical Model to Estimate the Static Coefficient of Friction and Cohesion on a Central Portion of the North Anatolian Fault East of the Marmara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, B.; McQuarrie, N.

    2012-12-01

    were assigned using this database, which were used to calculate S-wave velocity, shear modulus, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and Lamé's first parameter for potential use in processing the mesh model. We evaluate the range of permissible fault friction coefficients for the regions' recurrence interval by running a simulation for increasing values of static fault friction. Starting from a position of zero-stress, the blocks are pushed at their respective velocities to see how much time passes until the static fault friction is overcome to allow for steady-state slip greater than 1-cm/y. Several iterations were performed with increasing cohesion to determine the change in permissible fault friction coefficients as cohesion increased. Initial simulations allow for static fault friction coefficients between 0.4 and 0.6 at 0-MPa cohesion. Resulting values for static fault friction coefficients and cohesion will be used in experiments to determine the dynamic friction coefficients and slip-weakening parameters along the faults in the research area. This approach allows for a greater understanding of the dynamics controlling the NAF in the highly seismically active study area.

  15. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations on the Nanoscale Kinetic Friction in Ambient Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gueye, Birahima; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yujuan; Chen, Yunfei

    2015-07-01

    The liquid lubrication, thermolubricity and dynamic lubricity due to mechanical oscillations are investigated with an atomic force microscope in ambient environmental conditions with different relative humidity (RH) levels. Experimental results demonstrate that high humidity at low-temperature regime enhances the liquid lubricity while at high-temperature regime it hinders the effect of the thermolubricity due to the formation of liquid bridges. Friction response to the dynamic lubricity in both high- and low-temperature regimes keeps the same trends, namely the friction force decreases with increasing the amplitude of the applied vibration on the tip regardless of the RH levels. An interesting finding is that for the dynamic lubricity at high temperature, high-humidity condition leads to the friction forces higher than that at low-humidity condition while at low temperature the opposite trend is observed. An extended two-dimensional dynamic model accounting for the RH is proposed to interpret the frictional mechanism in ambient conditions.

  16. Modeling of Kashmir Aftershock Decay Based on Static Coulomb Stress Changes and Laboratory-Derived Rate-and-State Dependent Friction Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javed, F.; Hainzl, S.; Aoudia, A.; Qaisar, M.

    2016-05-01

    We model the spatial and temporal evolution of October 8, 2005 Kashmir earthquake's aftershock activity using the rate-and-state dependent friction model incorporating uncertainties in computed coseismic stress perturbations. We estimated the best possible value for frictional resistance " Aσ n", background seismicity rate " r" and coefficient of stress variation "CV" using maximum log-likelihood method. For the whole Kashmir earthquake sequence, we measure a frictional resistance Aσ n ~ 0.0185 MPa, r ~ 20 M3.7+ events/year and CV = 0.94 ± 0.01. The spatial and temporal forecasted seismicity rate of modeled aftershocks fits well with the spatial and temporal distribution of observed aftershocks that occurred in the regions with positive static stress changes as well as in the apparent stress shadow region. To quantify the effect of secondary aftershock triggering, we have re-run the estimations for 100 stochastically declustered catalogs showing that the effect of aftershock-induced secondary stress changes is obviously minor compared to the overall uncertainties, and that the stress variability related to uncertain slip model inversions and receiver mechanisms remains the major factor to provide a reasonable data fit.

  17. A numerical algorithm for stress integration of a fiber-fiber kinetics model with Coulomb friction for connective tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojic, M.; Mijailovic, S.; Zdravkovic, N.

    Complex behaviour of connective tissue can be modeled by a fiber-fiber kinetics material model introduced in Mijailovic (1991), Mijailovic et al. (1993). The model is based on the hypothesis of sliding of elastic fibers with Coulomb and viscous friction. The main characteristics of the model were verified experimentally in Mijailovic (1991), and a numerical procedure for one-dimensional tension was developed considering sliding as a contact problem between bodies. In this paper we propose a new and general numerical procedure for calculation of the stress-strain law of the fiber-fiber kinetics model in case of Coulomb friction. Instead of using a contact algorithm (Mijailovic 1991), which is numerically inefficient and never enough reliable, here the history of sliding along the sliding length is traced numerically through a number of segments along the fiber. The algorithm is simple, efficient and reliable and provides solutions for arbitrary cyclic loading, including tension, shear, and tension and shear simultaneously, giving hysteresis loops typical for soft tissue response. The model is built in the finite element technique, providing the possibility of its application to general and real problems. Solved examples illustrate the main characteristics of the model and of the developed numerical method, as well as its applicability to practical problems. Accuracy of some results, for the simple case of uniaxial loading, is verified by comparison with analytical solutions.

  18. Friction testing of a new ligature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantel, Alison R.

    Objective. To determine if American Orthodontics' (AO) new, experimental ligature demonstrates less friction in vitro when compared to four other ligatures on the market. Methods. Four brackets were mounted on a custom metal fixture allowing an 0.018-in stainless steel wire attached to an opposite fixture with one bracket to be passively centered in the bracket slot. The wire was ligated to the bracket using one of five types of ligatures including the low friction test ligatures (AO), conventional ligatures (AO), Sili-Ties(TM) Silicone Infused Ties (GAC), SynergyRTM Low-Friction Ligatures (RMO), and SuperSlick ligatures (TP Orthodontics). Resistance to sliding was measured over a 7 mm sliding distance using a universal testing machine (Instron) with a 50 Newton load cell and a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. The initial resistance to sliding (static) was determined by the peak force needed to initiate movement and the kinetic resistance to sliding was taken as the force at 5 mm of wire/bracket sliding. Fifteen unique tests were run for each ligature group in both dry and wet (saliva soaked for 24 hours with one drop prior to testing) conditions. Results. In the dry state, the SuperSlick ligature demonstrated more static friction than all of the other ligatures, while SuperSlick and Sili-Ties demonstrated more kinetic friction than the AO conventional, AO experimental and Synergy ligatures. In the wet condition, SuperSlick and the AO experimental ligature demonstrated the least static friction, followed by the AO conventional and Sili-Ties. The most static friction was observed with the Synergy ligatures. In the wet condition, the SuperSlick, AO experimental and AO conventional exhibited less kinetic friction than the Sili-Ties and Synergy ligatures. Conclusions. AO's experimental ligature exhibits less friction in the wet state than conventional ligatures, Sili-Ties and Synergy and is comparable to the SuperSlick ligature. These preliminary results suggest that the

  19. Kinetics of thermolysis of lanthanum nitrate with hexamethylenetetramine: Crystal structure, TG-DSC, impact and friction sensitivity studies, Part-96

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nibha; Baranwal, B. P.; Singh, Gurdip; Singh, C. P.; Daniliuc, Constantin G.; Soni, P. K.; Nath, Yogeshwar

    2014-11-01

    The development of high energetic materials includes process ability and the ability to attain insensitive munitions (IM). This paper investigates the preparation of lanthanum metal nitrate complex of hexamethylenetetramine in water at room temperature. This complex of molecular formulae [La (NO3)2(H2O)6] (2HMTA) (NO3-) (H2O) was characterized by X-ray crystallography. Thermal decomposition was investigated using TG, TG-DSC and ignition delay measurements. Kinetic analysis of isothermal TG data has been investigated using model fitting methods as well as model free isoconversional methods. The sensitivity measurements towards mechanical destructive stimuli such as impact and friction were carried out and the complex was found to be insensitive. In order to identify the end product of thermolysis, X-ray diffraction patterns of end product was carried out which proves the formation of La2O3.

  20. A hybrid computer program for rapidly solving flowing or static chemical kinetic problems involving many chemical species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclain, A. G.; Rao, C. S. R.

    1976-01-01

    A hybrid chemical kinetic computer program was assembled which provides a rapid solution to problems involving flowing or static, chemically reacting, gas mixtures. The computer program uses existing subroutines for problem setup, initialization, and preliminary calculations and incorporates a stiff ordinary differential equation solution technique. A number of check cases were recomputed with the hybrid program and the results were almost identical to those previously obtained. The computational time saving was demonstrated with a propane-oxygen-argon shock tube combustion problem involving 31 chemical species and 64 reactions. Information is presented to enable potential users to prepare an input data deck for the calculation of a problem.

  1. Time-lapse nanoscopy of friction in the non-Amontons and non-Coulomb regime.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Tadashi; Sato, Takaaki; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Oguma, Masatsugu; Itamura, Noriaki; Goda, Keisuke; Sasaki, Naruo; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-11

    Originally discovered by Leonard da Vinci in the 15th century, the force of friction is directly proportional to the applied load (known as Amontons' first law of friction). Furthermore, kinetic friction is independent of the sliding speed (known as Coulomb's law of friction). These empirical laws break down at high normal pressure (due to plastic deformation) and low sliding speed (in the transition regime between static friction and kinetic friction). An important example of this phenomenon is friction between the asperities of tectonic plates on the Earth. Despite its significance, little is known about the detailed mechanism of friction in this regime due to the lack of experimental methods. Here we demonstrate in situ time-lapse nanoscopy of friction between asperities sliding at ultralow speed (∼0.01 nm/s) under high normal pressure (∼GPa). This is made possible by compressing and rubbing a pair of nanometer-scale crystalline silicon anvils with electrostatic microactuators and monitoring its dynamical evolution with a transmission electron microscope. Our analysis of the time-lapse movie indicates that superplastic behavior is induced by decrystallization, plastic deformation, and atomic diffusion at the asperity-asperity interface. The results hold great promise for a better understanding of quasi-static friction under high pressure for geoscience, materials science, and nanotechnology.

  2. Time-lapse nanoscopy of friction in the non-Amontons and non-Coulomb regime.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Tadashi; Sato, Takaaki; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Oguma, Masatsugu; Itamura, Noriaki; Goda, Keisuke; Sasaki, Naruo; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-11

    Originally discovered by Leonard da Vinci in the 15th century, the force of friction is directly proportional to the applied load (known as Amontons' first law of friction). Furthermore, kinetic friction is independent of the sliding speed (known as Coulomb's law of friction). These empirical laws break down at high normal pressure (due to plastic deformation) and low sliding speed (in the transition regime between static friction and kinetic friction). An important example of this phenomenon is friction between the asperities of tectonic plates on the Earth. Despite its significance, little is known about the detailed mechanism of friction in this regime due to the lack of experimental methods. Here we demonstrate in situ time-lapse nanoscopy of friction between asperities sliding at ultralow speed (∼0.01 nm/s) under high normal pressure (∼GPa). This is made possible by compressing and rubbing a pair of nanometer-scale crystalline silicon anvils with electrostatic microactuators and monitoring its dynamical evolution with a transmission electron microscope. Our analysis of the time-lapse movie indicates that superplastic behavior is induced by decrystallization, plastic deformation, and atomic diffusion at the asperity-asperity interface. The results hold great promise for a better understanding of quasi-static friction under high pressure for geoscience, materials science, and nanotechnology. PMID:25330166

  3. Friction of ice on ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulson, Erland M.; Fortt, Andrew L.

    2012-12-01

    New measurements have been made of the friction coefficient of freshwater polycrystalline ice sliding slowly (5 × 10-8 to 1 × 10-3 m s-1) upon itself at temperatures from 98 to 263 K under low normal stresses (≤98 kPa). Sliding obeys Coulomb's law: the shear stress is directly proportional to the normal stress across the interface, while cohesion offers little contribution to frictional resistance. The coefficient of kinetic friction of smooth surfaces varies from μk = 0.15 to 0.76 and, at elevated temperatures (≥223 K), exhibits both velocity strengthening at lower velocities (<10-5 to 10-4 m s-1) and velocity weakening at higher velocities. Strengthening and weakening are attributed to creep deformation of asperities and localized melting, respectively. At intermediate temperatures of 173 and 133 K, the kinetic coefficient appears to not exhibit significant dependence upon velocity. However, at the low temperature of 98 K the coefficient of kinetic friction exhibits moderate velocity strengthening at both the lowest and the highest velocities but velocity independence over the range of intermediate velocities. No effect was detected of either grain size or texture. Over the range of roughness 0.4 × 10-6 m ≤ Ra ≤ 12 × 10-6 m, a moderate effect was detected, where μk ∝ Ra0.08. Slide-hold-slide experiments revealed that the coefficient of static friction increases by an amount that scales logarithmically with holding time. Implications of the results are discussed in relation to shearing across "tiger stripe" faults within the icy crust of Saturn's Enceladus, sliding of the arctic sea ice cover and brittle compressive failure of cold ice.

  4. Geometric specification of dynamics: learning to visually perceive kinetic quantities from static images.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Claire F; Romaniak-Gross, Carissa A

    2012-01-01

    In a single experiment, perceivers viewed computer-generated hammer-like objects and estimated a kinetic property. Each hammer comprised a cylinder of some diameter and height, attached to a handle-a second cylinder of fixed diameter and variable length. On 5 blocks of trials, three groups of perceivers reported a property reflecting mass, torque, or moment of inertia. Blocks 2-4 were training blocks on which numerical feedback was given. On blocks 6 and 7, perceivers were asked to report the kinetic properties not reported on blocks 1-5. We were interested in how geometrical object properties affected the perception of kinetic properties, and how that perception changed with experience. To determine how geometrical object properties informed reports of kinetics, a continuous information space of head diameter and height, and handle length was created, and perceivers' loci within that space were determined. Perceivers began at various distances from the optimum for the to-be-reported property and were closer to the optimum after training. On blocks 6 and 7, performance did not reflect transfer from training on another property. The results were interpreted in the context of the theory of direct learning. PMID:22611666

  5. Statistics of Frictional Families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tianqi; Papanikolaou, Stefanos; O'Hern, Corey S.; Shattuck, Mark D.

    2014-09-01

    We develop a theoretical description for mechanically stable frictional packings in terms of the difference between the total number of contacts required for isostatic packings of frictionless disks and the number of contacts in frictional packings, m=Nc0-Nc. The saddle order m represents the number of unconstrained degrees of freedom that a static packing would possess if friction were removed. Using a novel numerical method that allows us to enumerate disk packings for each m, we show that the probability to obtain a packing with saddle order m at a given static friction coefficient μ, Pm(μ), can be expressed as a power series in μ. Using this form for Pm(μ), we quantitatively describe the dependence of the average contact number on the friction coefficient for static disk packings obtained from direct simulations of the Cundall-Strack model for all μ and N.

  6. Some aspects of the damage kinetics at static loading of a heterogeneous solid under the conditions of constrained deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leksovskii, A. M.; Baskin, B. L.; Yakushev, P. N.

    2015-12-01

    The damaging kinetics of a composite system subjected to static loading, which simulates an inhomogeneous body with microductility, and of D16T-B(43%) composite simulating a quasi-brittle solid is analyzed with the acoustic emission method. By using laser interferometry, it is shown on a model sample that mesocracking may cause a short-term change in the plastic strain rate, which two or more orders of magnitude exceeds the change in the creep rate during the usual supramolecular structure reconfiguration. Whether the object will remain functional or acquire damage of the next scale after being subjected to such local "impact" loading depends on the ability of its immediate environment to absorb released energy.

  7. Nuclear reactor transient analysis via a quasi-static kinetics Monte Carlo method

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, YuGwon; Cho, Bumhee; Cho, Nam Zin

    2015-12-31

    The predictor-corrector quasi-static (PCQS) method is applied to the Monte Carlo (MC) calculation for reactor transient analysis. To solve the transient fixed-source problem of the PCQS method, fission source iteration is used and a linear approximation of fission source distributions during a macro-time step is introduced to provide delayed neutron source. The conventional particle-tracking procedure is modified to solve the transient fixed-source problem via MC calculation. The PCQS method with MC calculation is compared with the direct time-dependent method of characteristics (MOC) on a TWIGL two-group problem for verification of the computer code. Then, the results on a continuous-energy problem are presented.

  8. Nuclear reactor transient analysis via a quasi-static kinetics Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, YuGwon; Cho, Bumhee; Cho, Nam Zin

    2015-12-01

    The predictor-corrector quasi-static (PCQS) method is applied to the Monte Carlo (MC) calculation for reactor transient analysis. To solve the transient fixed-source problem of the PCQS method, fission source iteration is used and a linear approximation of fission source distributions during a macro-time step is introduced to provide delayed neutron source. The conventional particle-tracking procedure is modified to solve the transient fixed-source problem via MC calculation. The PCQS method with MC calculation is compared with the direct time-dependent method of characteristics (MOC) on a TWIGL two-group problem for verification of the computer code. Then, the results on a continuous-energy problem are presented.

  9. Showing Area Matters: A Work of Friction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Domelen, David

    2010-01-01

    Typically, we teach the simplified friction equation of the form F[subscript s] = [mu][subscript s]N for static friction, where F[subscript s] is the maximum static friction, [mu][subscript s] is the coefficient of static friction, and "N" is the normal force pressing the surfaces together. However, this is a bit too simplified, and doesn't work…

  10. Radiochemical study of hydroxide films. V. Effect of carbonate ion on statics and kinetics of sorption of microamounts of uranium by thin-layer titanium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Nedobukh, T.A.; Kaftailov, V.V.; Betenekov, N.D.

    1988-07-01

    The effect of carbonate ion on the statics and kinetics of sorption of microamounts of uranium from artificial seawater has been studied. It was found experimentally that with increase of carbonate concentration in the solution the distribution coefficient diminishes due to formation of uranyltricarbonate complex not amenable to sorption by titanium hydroxide. It has been shown that dissociation of the tricarbonate form of uranyl is the limiting stage of sorption. The principal kinetic parameters of the process have been determined.

  11. A model for the kinetics of homotypic cellular aggregation under static conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neelamegham, S.; Munn, L. L.; Zygourakis, K.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    We present the formulation and testing of a mathematical model for the kinetics of homotypic cellular aggregation. The model considers cellular aggregation under no-flow conditions as a two-step process. Individual cells and cell aggregates 1) move on the tissue culture surface and 2) collide with other cells (or aggregates). These collisions lead to the formation of intercellular bonds. The aggregation kinetics are described by a system of coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations, and the collision frequency kernel is derived by extending Smoluchowski's colloidal flocculation theory to cell migration and aggregation on a two-dimensional surface. Our results indicate that aggregation rates strongly depend upon the motility of cells and cell aggregates, the frequency of cell-cell collisions, and the strength of intercellular bonds. Model predictions agree well with data from homotypic lymphocyte aggregation experiments using Jurkat cells activated by 33B6, an antibody to the beta 1 integrin. Since cell migration speeds and all the other model parameters can be independently measured, the aggregation model provides a quantitative methodology by which we can accurately evaluate the adhesivity and aggregation behavior of cells.

  12. Comparison of quasi-static and dynamic squats: a three-dimensional kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic study of the lower limbs.

    PubMed

    Clément, Julien; Hagemeister, Nicola; Aissaoui, Rachid; de Guise, Jacques A

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have described 3D kinematics, 3D kinetics and electromyography (EMG) of the lower limbs during quasi-static or dynamic squatting activities. One study compared these two squatting conditions but only at low speed on healthy subjects, and provided no information on kinetics and EMG of the lower limbs. The purpose of the present study was to contrast simultaneous recordings of 3D kinematics, 3D kinetics and EMG of the lower limbs during quasi-stat ic and fast-dynamic squats in healthy and pathological subjects. Ten subjects were recruited: five healthy and five osteoarthritis subjects. A motion-capture system, force plate, and surface electrodes respectively recorded 3D kinematics, 3D kinetics and EMG of the lower limbs. Each subject performed a quasi-static squat and several fast-dynamic squats from 0° to 70° of knee flexion. The two squatting conditions were compared for positions where quasi-static and fast-dynamic knee flexion-extension angles were similar. Mean differences between quasi-static and fast-dynamic squats were 1.5° for rotations, 1.9 mm for translations, 2.1% of subjects' body weight for ground reaction forces, 6.6 Nm for torques, 11.2 mm for center of pressure, and 6.3% of maximum fast-dynamic electromyographic activities for EMG. Some significant differences (p<0.05) were found in internal rotation, anterior translation, vertical force and EMG. All differences between quasi-static and fast-dynamic squats were small. 69.5% of compared data were equivalent. In conclusion, this study showed that quasi-static and fast-dynamic squatting activities are comparable in terms of 3D kinematics, 3D kinetics and EMG, although some reservations still remain.

  13. Micromachine friction test apparatus

    DOEpatents

    deBoer, Maarten P.; Redmond, James M.; Michalske, Terry A.

    2002-01-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) friction test apparatus is disclosed for determining static or dynamic friction in MEM devices. The friction test apparatus, formed by surface micromachining, is based on a friction pad supported at one end of a cantilevered beam, with the friction pad overlying a contact pad formed on the substrate. A first electrostatic actuator can be used to bring a lower surface of the friction pad into contact with an upper surface of the contact pad with a controlled and adjustable force of contact. A second electrostatic actuator can then be used to bend the cantilevered beam, thereby shortening its length and generating a relative motion between the two contacting surfaces. The displacement of the cantilevered beam can be measured optically and used to determine the static or dynamic friction, including frictional losses and the coefficient of friction between the surfaces. The test apparatus can also be used to assess the reliability of rubbing surfaces in MEM devices by producing and measuring wear of those surfaces. Finally, the friction test apparatus, which is small in size, can be used as an in situ process quality tool for improving the fabrication of MEM devices.

  14. Comparison of frictional forces between aesthetic orthodontic coated wires and self-ligation brackets

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yunmi; Cha, Jung-Yul; Hwang, Chung-Ju; Tahk, Seon Gun

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of polymer- and rhodium-coated wires compared to uncoated wires by measuring the frictional forces using self-ligation brackets. Methods 0.016-inch nickel titanium (NiTi) wires and 0.017 × 0.025-inch stainless steel (SS) wires were used, and the angulations between the brackets and wires were set to 0°, 5°, and 10°. Upper maxillary premolar brackets (Clippy-C®) with a 0.022-inch slot were selected for the study and a tensile test was performed with a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. The maximum static frictional forces and kinetic frictional forces were recorded and compared. Results The maximum static frictional forces and the kinetic frictional forces of coated wires were equal to or higher than those of the uncoated wires (p < 0.05). The maximum static frictional forces of rhodium-coated wires were significantly higher than those of polymer-coated wires when the angulations between the brackets and wires were set to (i) 5° in the 0.016-inch NiTi wires and (ii) all angulations in the 0.017 × 0.025-inch SS wires (p < 0.05). The kinetic frictional forces of rhodium-coated wires were higher than those of polymer-coated wires, except when the angulations were set to 0° in the 0.016-inch NiTi wires (p < 0.05). Conclusions Although the frictional forces of the coated wires with regards to aesthetics were equal to or greater than those of the uncoated wires, a study under similar conditions regarding the oral cavity is needed in order to establish the clinical implications. PMID:25133130

  15. Engineering mechanics: statics and dynamics. [Textbook

    SciTech Connect

    Sandor, B.I.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this textbook is to provide engineering students with basic learning material about statics and dynamics which are fundamental engineering subjects. The chapters contain information on: an introduction to engineering mechanics; forces on particles, rigid bodies, and structures; kinetics of particles, particle systems, and rigid bodies in motion; kinematics; mechanical vibrations; and friction, work, moments of inertia, and potential energy. Each chapter contains introductory material, the development of the essential equations, worked-out example problems, homework problems, and, finally, summaries of the essential methods and equations, graphically illustrated where appropriate. (LCL)

  16. Reducing Sliding Friction with Liquid-Impregnated Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Mohammad; Collier, C. Patrick; Boreyko, Jonathan; Nature Inspired Fluids; Interfaces Team; CenterNanophase Materials Sciences Team

    2015-11-01

    Liquid-impregnated surfaces are fabricated by infusing a lubricating liquid into the micro/nano roughness of a textured substrate, such that the surface is slippery for any deposited liquid immiscible with the lubricant. To date, liquid-impregnated surfaces have almost exclusively focused on repelling liquids by minimizing the contact angle hysteresis. Here, we demonstrate that liquid-impregnated surfaces are also capable of reducing sliding friction for solid objects. Ordered arrays of silicon micropillars were infused with lubricating liquids varying in viscosity by two orders of magnitude. Five test surfaces were used: two different micropillared surfaces with and without liquid infusion and a smooth, dry control surface. The static and kinetic coefficients of friction were measured using a polished aluminum cube as the sliding object. Compared to the smooth control surface, the sliding friction was reduced by at least a factor of two on the liquid-impregnated surfaces.

  17. The influence of imposed normal vibrations on the frictional sliding along the fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachevtseva, Iuliia; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Sliding over discontinuities (faults, fractures) in the stable state is prevented by friction. However, the faults are continuously subjected to variations in normal stress and can produce sliding over initially stable fractures/interfaces. In the Earth's crust the normal oscillations can be produced by tidal stresses or by the seismic waves generated by other seismic events. This is associated with the earthquake triggering and leading to a stick-slip sliding. It is conventionally assumed that the mechanism of stick-slip over geomaterials lies in intermittent change between static and kinetic friction and the rate dependence of the friction coefficient. The formulation of the friction law on geological faults is the key element in the modelling of earthquakes. We investigate the effects of imposed normal vibrations on steady sliding and stick-slip regimes and analyse the dynamics of system with different friction modelling. For this purpose we consider a simple spring-block model introduced by Burridge and Knopoff. The results show that a model exhibits different behaviour in the frictional sliding with constant and nonlinear friction. It is important to note, that a block-spring model can produce oscillations in the velocity of sliding that is the stick-slip like behaviour even when the friction coefficient is constant. The effect of force reduction is observed under the influence of harmonic vertical vibrations. The rate-dependent friction creates more complex pattern of oscillations.

  18. A three-dimensional continuum model incorporating static and kinetic effects for granular flows with applications to collapse of a two-dimensional granular column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheng-Hsien; Huang, Zhenhua; Chiew, Yee-Meng

    2015-11-01

    This work extends a one-dimensional continuum model for granular flows down inclined planes [C. H. Lee and C. J. Huang, "Kinetic-theory-based model of dense granular flows down inclined planes," Phys. Fluids 24, 073303 (2012)] to solve three-dimensional problems involving both static and flow states. The new model decomposes the shear stress and pressure into enduring-contact and kinetic components. One novelty of the present model is the determination of the enduring-contact component of pressure, which is a composition of a pressure depending only on the volume fraction and a pressure derived from the dilatancy law together with the equation of state from the kinetic theory. Another novelty of this study is a new numerical scheme that can avoid numerical instability caused by large volume fractions. To demonstrate its capability, the present model is applied to simulate the collapse of a granular column with various aspect ratios. The evolution of the column shape, the flow field, the final height, and the run-out predicted by the present model agree well with those provided by discrete element methods and experiments.

  19. Statics and kinetics of oxygen ordering in the oxide superconductor YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub z

    SciTech Connect

    McCormack, R.; de Fontaine, D. ); Ceder, G. ); Salomons, E. )

    1992-03-01

    Oxygen ordering in the high-temperature superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub z} is well described by a two-dimensional Ising model with anisotropic next-nearest neighbor effective pair interactions, repulsive along the a direction, attractive along b. Monte Carlo simulation shows that this marked anisotropy gives rise, particularly at stoichiometric index z close to 7, to large deviations from unity of the ratio D{sub 11}{sup *}/D{sub 22}{sup *} of tracer diffusion tensor components in the a and b directions. Oxygen ordering kinetics are shown to evolve in a manner which parallels those of the experimentally observed increase with aging time of the superconducting transition temperature of z<7.

  20. Static load bearing exercises of individuals with transfemoral amputation fitted with an osseointegrated implant: reliability of kinetic data.

    PubMed

    Vertriest, Sofie; Coorevits, Pascal; Hagberg, Kerstin; Brånemark, Rickard; Häggström, Eva; Vanderstraeten, Guy; Frossard, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at presenting the intra-tester reliability of the static load bearing exercises (LBEs) performed by individuals with transfemoral amputation (TFA) fitted with an osseointegrated implant to stimulate the bone remodeling process. There is a need for a better understanding of the implementation of these exercises particularly the reliability. The intra-tester reliability is discussed with a particular emphasis on inter-load prescribed, inter-axis and inter-component reliabilities as well as the effect of body weight normalization. Eleven unilateral TFAs fitted with an OPRA implant performed five trials in four loading conditions. The forces and moments on the three axes of the implant were measured directly with an instrumented pylon including a six-channel transducer. Reliability of loading variables was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and percentage standard error of measurement values ( %SEMs ). The ICCs of all variables were above 0.9 and the %SEM values ranged between 0 and 87%. This study showed a high between-participants' variance highlighting the lack of loading consistency typical of symptomatic population as well as a high reliability between the loading sessions indicating a plausible correct repetition of the LBE by the participants. However, these outcomes must be understood within the framework of the proposed experimental protocol.

  1. Friction and anchorage loading revisited.

    PubMed

    Dholakia, Kartik D

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary concepts of sliding mechanics explain that friction is inevitable. To overcome this frictional resistance, excess force is required to retract the tooth along the archwire (ie, individual retraction of canines, en masse retraction of anterior teeth), in addition to the amount of force required for tooth movement. The anterior tooth retraction force, in addition to excess force (to overcome friction), produces reciprocal protraction force on molars, thereby leading to increased anchorage loading. However, this traditional concept was challenged in recent literature, which was based on the finite element model, but did not bear correlation to the clinical scenario. This article will reinforce the fact that clinically, friction increases anchorage loading in all three planes of space, considering the fact that tooth movement is a quasistatic process rather than a purely continuous or static one, and that conventional ways of determining the effects of static or dynamic friction on anchorage load cannot be applied to clinical situations (which consist of anatomical resistance units and a complex muscular force system). The article does not aim to quantify friction and its effect on the amount of anchorage load. Rather, a new perspective regarding the role of various additional factors (which is not explained by contemporary concept) that may influence friction and anchorage loading is provided..

  2. A study on the kinetic behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in ice cream stored under static and dynamic chilling and freezing conditions.

    PubMed

    Gougouli, M; Angelidis, A S; Koutsoumanis, K

    2008-02-01

    The kinetic behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in 2 commercial ice cream products (A and B) that were inoculated and stored under static chilling (4 to 16 degrees C), static freezing (-5 to -33 degrees C), dynamic chilling, and dynamic chilling-freezing conditions was studied, simulating conditions of the aging process and of normal or abuse conditions during distribution and storage. The ice cream products A and B had different compositions but similar pH (6.50 and 6.67, respectively) and water activity (0.957 and 0.965, respectively) values. For both chilling and freezing conditions, the kinetic behavior of the pathogen was similar in the 2 products, indicating that the pH and water activity, together with temperature, were the main factors controlling growth. Under chilling conditions, L. monocytogenes grew well at all temperatures tested. Under freezing conditions, no significant changes in the population of the pathogen were observed throughout a 90-d storage period for either of the inoculum levels tested (10(3) and 10(6) cfu/g). Growth data from chilled storage conditions were fitted to a mathematical model, and the calculated maximum specific growth rate was modeled as a function of temperature by using a square root model. The model was further validated under dynamic chilling and dynamic chilling-freezing conditions by using 4 different storage temperature scenarios. Under dynamic chilling conditions, the model accurately predicted the growth of the pathogen in both products, with 99.5% of the predictions lying within the +/- 20% relative error zone. The results from the chilling-freezing storage experiments showed that the pathogen was able to initiate growth within a very short time after a temperature upshift from freezing to chilling temperatures. This indicates that the freezing conditions did not cause a severe stress in L. monocytogenes cells capable of leading to a significant "additional" lag phase during the subsequent growth of the pathogen at

  3. Required coefficient of friction during turning at self-selected slow, normal, and fast walking speeds.

    PubMed

    Fino, Peter; Lockhart, Thurmon E

    2014-04-11

    This study investigated the relationship of required coefficient of friction to gait speed, obstacle height, and turning strategy as participants walked around obstacles of various heights. Ten healthy, young adults performed 90° turns around corner pylons of four different heights at their self selected normal, slow, and fast walking speeds using both step and spin turning strategies. Kinetic data was captured using force plates. Results showed peak required coefficient of friction (RCOF) at push off increased with increased speed (slow μ=0.38, normal μ=0.45, and fast μ=0.54). Obstacle height had no effect on RCOF values. The average peak RCOF for fast turning exceeded the OSHA safety guideline for static COF of μ>0.50, suggesting further research is needed into the minimum static COF to prevent slips and falls, especially around corners.

  4. The stretching of single poly-ubiquitin molecules: Static versus dynamic disorder in the non-exponential kinetics of chain unfolding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Debarati; Cherayil, Binny J.

    2011-04-01

    Static disorder has recently been implicated in the non-exponential kinetics of the unfolding of single molecules of poly-ubiquitin under a constant force [Kuo, Garcia-Manyes, Li, Barel, Lu, Berne, Urbakh, Klafter, and Fernández, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 11336 (2010), 10.1073/pnas.1006517107]. In the present paper, it is suggested that dynamic disorder may provide a plausible, alternative description of the experimental observations. This suggestion is made on the basis of a model in which the barrier to chain unfolding is assumed to be modulated by a control parameter r that evolves in a parabolic potential under the action of fractional Gaussian noise according to a generalized Langevin equation. The treatment of dynamic disorder within this model is pursued using Zwanzig's indirect approach to noise averaging [Acc. Chem. Res. 23, 148 (1990)]. In conjunction with a self-consistent closure scheme developed by Wilemski and Fixman [J. Chem. Phys. 58, 4009 (1973), 10.1063/1.1679757; ibid. 60, 866 (1974), 10.1063/1.1681162], this approach eventually leads to an expression for the chain unfolding probability that can be made to fit the corresponding experimental data very closely.

  5. General theory of frictional heating with application to rubber friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunato, G.; Ciaravola, V.; Furno, A.; Lorenz, B.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2015-05-01

    The energy dissipation in the contact regions between solids in sliding contact can result in high local temperatures which may strongly effect friction and wear. This is the case for rubber sliding on road surfaces at speeds above 1 mm s-1. We derive equations which describe the frictional heating for solids with arbitrary thermal properties. The theory is applied to rubber friction on road surfaces and we take into account that the frictional energy is partly produced inside the rubber due to the internal friction of rubber and in a thin (nanometer) interfacial layer at the rubber-road contact region. The heat transfer between the rubber and the road surface is described by a heat transfer coefficient which depends on the sliding speed. Numerical results are presented and compared to experimental data. We find that frictional heating results in a kinetic friction force which depends on the orientation of the sliding block, thus violating one of the two basic Leonardo da Vinci ‘laws’ of friction.

  6. General theory of frictional heating with application to rubber friction.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, G; Ciaravola, V; Furno, A; Lorenz, B; Persson, B N J

    2015-05-01

    The energy dissipation in the contact regions between solids in sliding contact can result in high local temperatures which may strongly effect friction and wear. This is the case for rubber sliding on road surfaces at speeds above 1 mm s(-1). We derive equations which describe the frictional heating for solids with arbitrary thermal properties. The theory is applied to rubber friction on road surfaces and we take into account that the frictional energy is partly produced inside the rubber due to the internal friction of rubber and in a thin (nanometer) interfacial layer at the rubber-road contact region. The heat transfer between the rubber and the road surface is described by a heat transfer coefficient which depends on the sliding speed. Numerical results are presented and compared to experimental data. We find that frictional heating results in a kinetic friction force which depends on the orientation of the sliding block, thus violating one of the two basic Leonardo da Vinci 'laws' of friction.

  7. Internal rotor friction instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1990-01-01

    The analytical developments and experimental investigations performed in assessing the effect of internal friction on rotor systems dynamic performance are documented. Analytical component models for axial splines, Curvic splines, and interference fit joints commonly found in modern high speed turbomachinery were developed. Rotor systems operating above a bending critical speed were shown to exhibit unstable subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. The effect of speed, bearing stiffness, joint stiffness, external damping, torque, and coefficient of friction, was evaluated. Testing included material coefficient of friction evaluations, component joint quantity and form of damping determinations, and rotordynamic stability assessments. Under conditions similar to those in the SSME turbopumps, material interfaces experienced a coefficient of friction of approx. 0.2 for lubricated and 0.8 for unlubricated conditions. The damping observed in the component joints displayed nearly linear behavior with increasing amplitude. Thus, the measured damping, as a function of amplitude, is not represented by either linear or Coulomb friction damper models. Rotordynamic testing of an axial spline joint under 5000 in.-lb of static torque, demonstrated the presence of an extremely severe instability when the rotor was operated above its first flexible natural frequency. The presence of this instability was predicted by nonlinear rotordynamic time-transient analysis using the nonlinear component model developed under this program. Corresponding rotordynamic testing of a shaft with an interference fit joint demonstrated the presence of subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. While subsynchronous vibrations were observed, they were bounded and significantly lower in amplitude than the synchronous vibrations.

  8. Rate-dependent frictional adhesion in natural and synthetic gecko setae.

    PubMed

    Gravish, Nick; Wilkinson, Matt; Sponberg, Simon; Parness, Aaron; Esparza, Noe; Soto, Daniel; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Broide, Michael; Cutkosky, Mark; Creton, Costantino; Autumn, Kellar

    2010-02-01

    Geckos owe their remarkable stickiness to millions of dry, hard setae on their toes. In this study, we discovered that gecko setae stick more strongly the faster they slide, and do not wear out after 30,000 cycles. This is surprising because friction between dry, hard, macroscopic materials typically decreases at the onset of sliding, and as velocity increases, friction continues to decrease because of a reduction in the number of interfacial contacts, due in part to wear. Gecko setae did not exhibit the decrease in adhesion or friction characteristic of a transition from static to kinetic contact mechanics. Instead, friction and adhesion forces increased at the onset of sliding and continued to increase with shear speed from 500 nm s(-1) to 158 mm s(-1). To explain how apparently fluid-like, wear-free dynamic friction and adhesion occur macroscopically in a dry, hard solid, we proposed a model based on a population of nanoscopic stick-slip events. In the model, contact elements are either in static contact or in the process of slipping to a new static contact. If stick-slip events are uncorrelated, the model further predicted that contact forces should increase to a critical velocity (V*) and then decrease at velocities greater than V*. We hypothesized that, like natural gecko setae, but unlike any conventional adhesive, gecko-like synthetic adhesives (GSAs) could adhere while sliding. To test the generality of our results and the validity of our model, we fabricated a GSA using a hard silicone polymer. While sliding, the GSA exhibited steady-state adhesion and velocity dependence similar to that of gecko setae. Observations at the interface indicated that macroscopically smooth sliding of the GSA emerged from randomly occurring stick-slip events in the population of flexible fibrils, confirming our model predictions.

  9. Friction microprobe investigation of particle layer effects on sliding friction

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Interfacial particles (third-bodies), resulting from wear or external contamination, can alter and even dominate the frictional behavior of solid-solid sliding in the absence of effective particle removal processes (e.g., lubricant flow). A unique friction microprobe, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was used to conduct fine- scale friction studies using 1.0 mm diameter stainless steel spheres sliding on several sizes of loose layers of fine aluminum oxide powders on both aluminum and alumina surfaces. Conventional, pin-on-disk experiments were conducted to compare behavior with the friction microprobe results. The behavior of the relatively thick particle layers was found to be independent of the nature of underlying substrate, substantiating previous work by other investigators. The time-dependent behavior of friction, for a spherical macrocontact starting from rest, could generally be represented by a series of five rather distinct phases involving static compression, slider breakaway, transition to steady state, and dynamic layer instability. A friction model for the steady state condition, which incorporates lamellar powder layer behavior, is described.

  10. Measurement of the friction between single polystyrene nanospheres and silicon surface using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dan; Li, Jingnan; Chang, Li; Luo, Jianbin

    2013-06-11

    In the present work, the individual nanoparticles have been manipulated on a silicon surface, using atomic force microscope (AFM) techniques. As a model system, near-spherical polystyrene nanoparticles with radii from 28.85 nm to 228.2 nm were deposited on a nanosmooth silicon wafer. Experiments demonstrated that when the normal force is above a threshold load, nanoparticles could steadily be pushed by the tip of the AFM along the defined pathway. The tests allow us to quantitatively study the interfacial friction between the nanoparticle and the surface. It was found that the friction could be affected by various factors such as the load, the particle size, and the surface treatment. The results showed that the friction between particles and substrate is proportional to the two-third power of the radius, which is in agreement with the Hertzian theory. It can also be seen that the ratio between the kinetic and the static friction was slightly changed from 0.3 to 0.6, depending on the size of the particles. However, the value of the ratio was little affected by other factors such as the particles' location, the tip normal force and the surface modification. The results provided new insights into the intriguing friction phenomenon on the nanoscale.

  11. Thermodynamics of a Block Sliding across a Frictional Surface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2007-01-01

    The following idealized problem is intended to illustrate some basic thermodynamic concepts involved in kinetic friction. A block of mass m is sliding on top of a frictional, flat-topped table of mass M. The table is magnetically levitated, so that it can move without thermal contact and friction across a horizontal floor. The table is initially…

  12. Effect of friction on shear jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Bares, Jonathan; Dijksman, Joshua; Ren, Jie; Zheng, Hu; Behringer, Robert

    Shear jamming of granular materials was first found for systems of frictional disks, with a static friction coefficient μ ~ 0 . 6 (Bi et al. Nature (2011)). Jamming by shear is obtained by starting from a zero-stress state with a packing fraction ϕ between ϕJ (isotropic jamming) and a lowest ϕS for shear jamming. This phenomenon is associated with strong anisotropy in stress and the contact network in the form of force chains, which are stabilized and/or enhanced by the presence of friction. Whether shear jamming occurs for frictionless particles is under debate. The issue we address experimentally is how changing friction affects shear jamming. By applying a homogeneous simple shear, we study the effect of friction by using photoelastic disks either wrapped with Teflon to reduce friction or with fine teeth on the edge to increase friction. Shear jamming is still observed; however, the difference ϕJ -ϕS is smaller with lower friction. We also observe larger fluctuations due to initial configurations both at the lowest and the highest friction systems studied. Ongoing work is to use particles made of gelatin to reduce the friction coefficient to the order of 0.01. We acknowledge support from NSF Grant DMR1206351, NASA Grant NNX15AD38G and the William M. Keck Foundation.

  13. Effect of friction on shear jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Bares, Jonathan; Dijksman, Joshua; Ren, Jie; Zheng, Hu; Behringer, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Shear jamming of granular materials was first found for systems of frictional disks, with a static friction coefficient μ ~ 0 . 6. Jamming by shear is obtained by starting from a zero-stress state with a packing fraction ϕ between ϕJ (isotropic jamming) and a lowest ϕS for shear jamming. This phenomenon is associated with strong anisotropy in stress and the contact network in the form of force chains, which are stabilized and/or enhanced by the presence of friction. Whether shear jamming occurs for frictionless particles is under debate. The issue we address experimentally is how changing friction affects shear jamming. By applying a homogeneous simple shear, we study the effect of friction by using photoelastic disks either wrapped with Teflon to reduce friction or with fine teeth on the edge to increase friction. Shear jamming is still observed; however, the difference ϕJ -ϕS is smaller with lower friction. We also observe larger fluctuations due to initial configurations both at the lowest and the highest friction systems studied. Ongoing work is to characterize response from different friction systems under shear with information at local scale. We acknowledge support from NSF-DMR1206351, NASA NNX15AD38G and W.M. Keck Foundation.

  14. Structure and friction of stearic acid and oleic acid films adsorbed on iron oxide surfaces in squalane.

    PubMed

    Doig, Michael; Warrens, Chris P; Camp, Philip J

    2014-01-14

    The structure and friction of fatty acid surfactant films adsorbed on iron oxide surfaces lubricated by squalane are examined using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. The structures of stearic acid and oleic acid films under static and shear conditions, and at various surface coverages, are described in detail, and the effects of unsaturation in the tail group are highlighted. At high surface coverage, the measured properties of stearic acid and oleic acid films are seen to be very similar. At low and intermediate surface coverages, the presence of a double bond, as in oleic acid, is seen to give rise to less penetration of lubricant in to the surfactant film and less layering of the lubricant near to the film. The kinetic friction coefficient is measured as a function of shear rate within the hydrodynamic (high shear rate) lubrication regime. Lubricant penetration and layering are observed to be correlated with friction coefficient. The friction coefficient with oleic acid depends only weakly on surface coverage, while stearic acid admits more lubricant penetration, and its friction coefficient increases significantly with decreasing surface coverage. Connections between film structure and friction are discussed.

  15. Laser surface texturing for high friction contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, A.; Wlodarczyk, K. L.; Carstensen, J. V.; Hansen, E. B.; Gabzdyl, J.; Harrison, P. M.; Shephard, J. D.; Hand, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    A pulsed, nanosecond fibre laser with wavelength of 1064 nm was used to texture grade 316 stainless steel and 'low alloy' carbon steel in order to generate contacts with high static friction coefficients. High friction contacts have applications in reducing the tightening force required in joints or to easily secure precision fittings, particularly for larger components where standard methods are difficult and expensive. Friction tests performed at normal pressures of 100 MPa and 50 MPa have shown that very high static friction coefficients greater than 1.25, an increase of 346% over untextured samples at 100 MPa, can be easily achieved by single pass laser texturing of both contacting surfaces with the use of low pulse separations. The high static friction coefficients, obtained at 100 MPa normal pressure with textures with up to 62.5 μm pulse separation (processing speed ∼0.67 cm2/s), were found to be associated with a significant amount of plastic deformation caused by the high normal pressures. As a result, higher normal pressures were found to result in higher friction coefficients.

  16. The Load and Time Dependence of Chemical Bonding-Induced Frictional Ageing of Silica at the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, K.; Gosvami, N. N.; Goldsby, D. L.; Carpick, R. W.

    2015-12-01

    Rate and state friction (RSF) laws are empirical relationships that describe the frictional behavior of rocks and other materials in experiments, and reproduce a variety of observed natural behavior when employed in earthquake models. A pervasive observation from rock friction experiments is the linear increase of static friction with the log of contact time, or 'ageing'. Ageing is usually attributed to an increase in real area of contact associated with asperity creep. However, recent atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments demonstrate that ageing of nanoscale silica-silica contacts is due to progressive formation of interfacial chemical bonds in the absence of plastic deformation, in a manner consistent with the multi-contact ageing behavior of rocks [Li et al., 2011]. To further investigate chemical bonding-induced ageing, we explored the influence of normal load (and thus contact normal stress) and contact time on ageing. Experiments that mimic slide-hold-slide rock friction experiments were conducted in the AFM for contact loads and hold times ranging from 23 to 393 nN and 0.1 to 100 s, respectively, all in humid air (~50% RH) at room temperature. Experiments were conducted by sequentially sliding the AFM tip on the sample at a velocity V of 0.5 μm/s, setting V to zero and holding the tip stationary for a given time, and finally resuming sliding at 0.5 μm/s to yield a peak value of friction followed by a drop to the sliding friction value. Chemical bonding-induced ageing, as measured by the peak friction minus the sliding friction, increases approximately linearly with the product of normal load and the log of the hold time. Theoretical studies of the roles of reaction energy barriers in nanoscale ageing indicate that frictional ageing depends on the total number of reaction sites and the hold time [Liu & Szlufarska, 2012]. We combine chemical kinetics analyses with contact mechanics models to explain our results, and develop a new approach for curve

  17. Static penetration resistance of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durgunoglu, H. T.; Mitchell, J. K.

    1973-01-01

    Model test results were used to define the failure mechanism associated with the static penetration resistance of cohesionless and low-cohesion soils. Knowledge of this mechanism has permitted the development of a new analytical method for calculating the ultimate penetration resistance which explicitly accounts for penetrometer base apex angle and roughness, soil friction angle, and the ratio of penetration depth to base width. Curves relating the bearing capacity factors to the soil friction angle are presented for failure in general shear. Strength parameters and penetrometer interaction properties of a fine sand were determined and used as the basis for prediction of the penetration resistance encountered by wedge, cone, and flat-ended penetrometers of different surface roughness using the proposed analytical method. Because of the close agreement between predicted values and values measured in laboratory tests, it appears possible to deduce in-situ soil strength parameters and their variation with depth from the results of static penetration tests.

  18. Friction of orthodontic elastomeric ligatures with different dimensions.

    PubMed

    Chimenti, Claudio; Franchi, Lorenzo; Di Giuseppe, Maria Grazia; Lucci, Maria

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of variations in the size of elastomeric ligatures on the static frictional resistance generated by orthodontic sliding mechanics under dry condition. Frictional forces generated by elastomeric ligatures treated with a lubricating material (silicone) were analyzed as well. An Instron testing machine was used to assess the static frictional forces of a 0.019 x 0.025-inch stainless steel rectangular wire that was ligated to a molar convertible tube and to three stainless steel 0.022-inch pre-adjusted brackets with elastomeric ligatures with different dimensions: small, medium, and large. The static friction produced by two prototypes of silicone-lubricated elastomeric ligatures was also measured. The small and medium elastomeric ligatures produced significantly less friction than the large ligatures. No statistically significant difference was found between small and medium ligatures. The decrease in frictional forces of small and medium modules had to be ascribed mainly to the smaller thickness of both ligatures with respect to large ligatures. The lubricated elastomeric ligatures generated significantly smaller frictional forces than nonlubricated elastomeric ligatures with different dimensions. The variation in the dimensions of the elastomeric ligatures is able to influence the static frictional resistance generated by orthodontic sliding mechanics in the buccal segments. The use of small and medium elastomeric ligatures determines a 13-17% decrease in static friction compared with large ligatures. Silicone-lubricated modules can reduce static friction by 23-34% with respect to the small and medium nonlubricated elastomeric ligatures and by 36-43% compared with nonlubricated large ligatures.

  19. Kalker's algorithm Fastsim solves tangential contact problems with slip-dependent friction and friction anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, J.

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents two extensions of Kalker's algorithm Fastsim of the simplified theory of rolling contact. The first extension is for solving tangential contact problems with the coefficient of friction depending on slip velocity. Two friction laws have been considered: with and without recuperation of the static friction. According to the tribological hypothesis for metallic bodies shear failure, the friction law without recuperation of static friction is more suitable for wheel and rail than the other one. Sample results present local quantities inside the contact area (division to slip and adhesion, traction) as well as global ones (creep forces as functions of creepages and rolling velocity). For the coefficient of friction diminishing with slip, the creep forces decay after reaching the maximum and they depend on the rolling velocity. The second extension is for solving tangential contact problems with friction anisotropy characterised by a convex set of the permissible tangential tractions. The effect of the anisotropy has been shown on examples of rolling without spin and in the presence of pure spin for the elliptical set. The friction anisotropy influences tangential tractions and creep forces. Sample results present local and global quantities. Both extensions have been described with the same language of formulation and they may be merged into one, joint algorithm.

  20. Friction of different monolayer lubricants in MEMs interfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Carpick, Robert W. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Street, Mark D.; Ashurst, William Robert; Corwin, Alex David

    2006-01-01

    This report details results from our last year of work (FY2005) on friction in MEMS as funded by the Campaign 6 program for the Microscale Friction project. We have applied different monolayers to a sensitive MEMS friction tester called the nanotractor. The nanotractor is also a useful actuator that can travel {+-}100 {micro}m in 40 nm steps, and is being considered for several MEMS applications. With this tester, we can find static and dynamic coefficients of friction. We can also quantify deviations from Amontons' and Coulomb's friction laws. Because of the huge surface-to-volume ratio at the microscale, surface properties such as adhesion and friction can dominate device performance, and therefore such deviations are important to quantify and understand. We find that static and dynamic friction depend on the monolayer lubricant applied. The friction data can be modeled with a non-zero adhesion force, which represents a deviation from Amontons' Law. Further, we show preliminary data indicating that the adhesion force depends not only on the monolayer, but also on the normal load applied. Finally, we also observe slip deflections before the transition from static to dynamic friction, and find that they depend on the monolayer.

  1. The role of friction in the measurement of slipperiness, Part 1: friction mechanisms and definition of test conditions.

    PubMed

    Chang, W R; Grönqvist, R; Leclercq, S; Myung, R; Makkonen, L; Strandberg, L; Brungraber, R J; Mattke, U; Thorpe, S C

    2001-10-20

    Friction has been widely used as a measure of slipperiness. However, controversies around friction measurements remain. The purposes of this paper are to summarize understanding about friction measurement related to slipperiness assessment of shoe and floor interface and to define test conditions based on biomechanical observations. In addition, friction mechanisms at shoe and floor interface on dry, liquid and solid contaminated, and on icy surfaces are discussed. It is concluded that static friction measurement, by the traditional use of a drag-type device, is only suitable for dry and clean surfaces, and dynamic and transition friction methods are needed to properly estimate the potential risk on contaminated surfaces. Furthermore, at least some of the conditions at the shoe/floor interface during actual slip accidents should be replicated as test conditions for friction measurements, such as sliding speed, contact pressure and normal force build-up rate.

  2. Permeability equipment for porous friction surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Standiford, D. L.; Graul, R. A.; Lenke, L. R.

    1985-04-01

    Hydroplaning is the loss of traction between tires and pavement due to the presence of a layer of water. This loss of traction can result in loss of vehicle control. A porous friction surface (PFS) applied over an existing pavement permits the water to drain laterally and vertically away from the tire path, effectively lowering hydroplaning potential. Equipment used to measure pavement drainage (permeability) is discussed with respect to usage on porous friction surface. Background information on hydroplaning, flow theory, and PFS field performance as they are affected by permeability are also presented. Two dynamic test devices and four static devices are considered for measuring PFS permeability. Permeability tests are recommended to measure PFS permeability for maintenance purposes and construction control. Dynamic devices cited could possibly estimate hydroplaning potential; further research must be done to determine this. Permeability devices cannot be used to accurately estimate friction of a pavement surface, however, decreased permeability of a pavement infers a decrease in friction.

  3. On the dependency of friction on load: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, O. M.; Steenwyk, B.; Warhadpande, A.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2016-03-01

    In rubber friction studies it is often observed that the kinetic friction coefficient depends on the nominal contact pressure. This is usually due to frictional heating, which softens the rubber, increases the area of contact, and (in most cases) reduces the viscoelastic contribution to the friction. In this paper we present experimental results showing that the rubber friction also depends on the nominal contact pressure at such low sliding speed that frictional heating is negligible. This effect has important implications for rubber sliding dynamics, e.g., in the context of the tire-road grip. We attribute this effect to the viscoelastic coupling between the macroasperity contact regions, and present a simple earthquakelike model and numerical simulations supporting this picture. The mechanism for the dependency of the friction coefficient on the load considered is very general, and is relevant for non-rubber materials as well.

  4. Formation and rupture of capillary bridges in atomic scale friction.

    PubMed

    Barel, Itay; Filippov, Aleksander E; Urbakh, M

    2012-10-28

    While formation of capillary bridges significantly contributes to the adhesion and friction at micro- and nanoscales, many key aspects of dynamics of capillary condensation and its effect on friction forces are still not well understood. Here, by analytical model and numerical simulations, we address the origin of reduction of friction force with velocity and increase of friction with temperature, which have been experimentally observed under humid ambient conditions. These observations differ significantly from the results of friction experiments carried out under ultrahigh vacuum, and disagree with predictions of thermal Prandtl-Tomlinson model of friction. Our calculations demonstrate what information on the kinetics of capillary condensation can be extracted from measurements of friction forces and suggest optimal conditions for obtaining this information.

  5. Statics and kinetics of oxygen ordering in the oxide superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub z}

    SciTech Connect

    McCormack, R.; de Fontaine, D.; Ceder, G.; Salomons, E.

    1992-03-01

    Oxygen ordering in the high-temperature superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub z} is well described by a two-dimensional Ising model with anisotropic next-nearest neighbor effective pair interactions, repulsive along the a direction, attractive along b. Monte Carlo simulation shows that this marked anisotropy gives rise, particularly at stoichiometric index z close to 7, to large deviations from unity of the ratio D{sub 11}{sup *}/D{sub 22}{sup *} of tracer diffusion tensor components in the a and b directions. Oxygen ordering kinetics are shown to evolve in a manner which parallels those of the experimentally observed increase with aging time of the superconducting transition temperature of z<7.

  6. Frictional Resistance of Three Types of Ceramic Brackets

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Claire L

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To investigate the static frictional resistance at the bracket/archwire interface in two recently introduced bracket systems and compare them to conventional ceramic and conventional metal bracket systems. Three variables were considered including the bracket system, archwire type and archwire angulation. Material and Methods Four bracket systems were tested in vitro: Self ligating ceramic, ceramic with metal slot and module, conventional ceramic with module and conventional metal with module. A specially constructed jig and an Instron testing machine were used to measure the static frictional resistance for 0.014 inches round and 0.018 x 0.025 inches rectangular stainless steel wires at 0° and 7° angulations. Main outcome measures: static frictional force at the bracket/archwire interface; recorded and measured in units of force (Newtons). Results Self ligating ceramic and metal slot ceramic bracket systems generated significantly less static frictional resistance than conventional ceramic bracket systems with the wire at both angulations (P < 0.05). Changing the wire from 0.014 round to 0.018 x 0.025 rectangular wire significantly increased frictional forces for metal slot ceramic and conventional metal bracket systems (P < 0.01). Increasing wire angulation significantly increased frictional resistance at the bracket/archwire interface for all four types of bracket systems tested (P < 0.001). Conclusions Compared to conventional ceramic, self ligating ceramic and metal slot ceramic bracket systems should give improved clinical performance, matching that of conventional metal brackets. PMID:24478913

  7. Onset of frictional sliding of rubber–glass contact under dry and lubricated conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tuononen, Ari J.

    2016-01-01

    Rubber friction is critical in many applications ranging from automotive tyres to cylinder seals. The process where a static rubber sample transitions to frictional sliding is particularly poorly understood. The experimental and simulation results in this paper show a completely different detachment process from the static situation to sliding motion under dry and lubricated conditions. The results underline the contribution of the rubber bulk properties to the static friction force. In fact, simple Amontons’ law is sufficient as a local friction law to produce the correct detachment pattern when the rubber material and loading conditions are modelled properly. Simulations show that micro-sliding due to vertical loading can release initial shear stresses and lead to a high static/dynamic friction coefficient ratio, as observed in the measurements. PMID:27291939

  8. Onset of frictional sliding of rubber–glass contact under dry and lubricated conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuononen, Ari J.

    2016-06-01

    Rubber friction is critical in many applications ranging from automotive tyres to cylinder seals. The process where a static rubber sample transitions to frictional sliding is particularly poorly understood. The experimental and simulation results in this paper show a completely different detachment process from the static situation to sliding motion under dry and lubricated conditions. The results underline the contribution of the rubber bulk properties to the static friction force. In fact, simple Amontons’ law is sufficient as a local friction law to produce the correct detachment pattern when the rubber material and loading conditions are modelled properly. Simulations show that micro-sliding due to vertical loading can release initial shear stresses and lead to a high static/dynamic friction coefficient ratio, as observed in the measurements.

  9. Onset of frictional sliding of rubber-glass contact under dry and lubricated conditions.

    PubMed

    Tuononen, Ari J

    2016-01-01

    Rubber friction is critical in many applications ranging from automotive tyres to cylinder seals. The process where a static rubber sample transitions to frictional sliding is particularly poorly understood. The experimental and simulation results in this paper show a completely different detachment process from the static situation to sliding motion under dry and lubricated conditions. The results underline the contribution of the rubber bulk properties to the static friction force. In fact, simple Amontons' law is sufficient as a local friction law to produce the correct detachment pattern when the rubber material and loading conditions are modelled properly. Simulations show that micro-sliding due to vertical loading can release initial shear stresses and lead to a high static/dynamic friction coefficient ratio, as observed in the measurements. PMID:27291939

  10. Onset of frictional sliding of rubber-glass contact under dry and lubricated conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuononen, Ari J.

    2016-06-01

    Rubber friction is critical in many applications ranging from automotive tyres to cylinder seals. The process where a static rubber sample transitions to frictional sliding is particularly poorly understood. The experimental and simulation results in this paper show a completely different detachment process from the static situation to sliding motion under dry and lubricated conditions. The results underline the contribution of the rubber bulk properties to the static friction force. In fact, simple Amontons’ law is sufficient as a local friction law to produce the correct detachment pattern when the rubber material and loading conditions are modelled properly. Simulations show that micro-sliding due to vertical loading can release initial shear stresses and lead to a high static/dynamic friction coefficient ratio, as observed in the measurements.

  11. Emergent friction in two-dimensional Frenkel-Kontorova models.

    PubMed

    Norell, Jesper; Fasolino, Annalisa; de Wijn, Astrid S

    2016-08-01

    Simple models for friction are typically one-dimensional, but real interfaces are two-dimensional. We investigate the effects of the second dimension on static and dynamic friction by using the Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model. We study the two most straightforward extensions of the FK model to two dimensions and simulate both the static and dynamic properties. We show that the behavior of the static friction is robust and remains similar in two dimensions for physically reasonable parameter values. The dynamic friction, however, is strongly influenced by the second dimension and the accompanying additional dynamics and parameters introduced into the models. We discuss our results in terms of the thermal equilibration and phonon dispersion relations of the lattices, establishing a physically realistic and suitable two-dimensional extension of the FK model. We find that the presence of additional dissipation channels can increase the friction and produces significantly different temperature dependence when compared to the one-dimensional case. We also briefly study the anisotropy of the dynamic friction and show highly nontrivial effects, including that the friction anisotropy can lead to motion in different directions depending on the value of the initial velocity. PMID:27627382

  12. Emergent friction in two-dimensional Frenkel-Kontorova models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norell, Jesper; Fasolino, Annalisa; de Wijn, Astrid S.

    2016-08-01

    Simple models for friction are typically one-dimensional, but real interfaces are two-dimensional. We investigate the effects of the second dimension on static and dynamic friction by using the Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model. We study the two most straightforward extensions of the FK model to two dimensions and simulate both the static and dynamic properties. We show that the behavior of the static friction is robust and remains similar in two dimensions for physically reasonable parameter values. The dynamic friction, however, is strongly influenced by the second dimension and the accompanying additional dynamics and parameters introduced into the models. We discuss our results in terms of the thermal equilibration and phonon dispersion relations of the lattices, establishing a physically realistic and suitable two-dimensional extension of the FK model. We find that the presence of additional dissipation channels can increase the friction and produces significantly different temperature dependence when compared to the one-dimensional case. We also briefly study the anisotropy of the dynamic friction and show highly nontrivial effects, including that the friction anisotropy can lead to motion in different directions depending on the value of the initial velocity.

  13. A mechanism of stick-slip fault sliding without friction rate dependence and supersonic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachevtseva, Iuliia; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Stick-slip sliding is often observed at various scales and in particular in fault sliding and the accompanied seismic events. Stick-slip is conventionally associated with rate-dependent friction, in particular the intermittent change between static and kinetic friction. However the accumulation of elastic energy in the sliding plates on both sides of the fault can produce oscillations in the velocity of sliding even if the friction coefficient is constant. This manifests itself in terms of oscillations in the sliding velocity somewhat resembling the stick-slip movement. Furthermore, over long faults the sliding exhibits wave-like propagation. We present a model that shows that the zones of non-zero sliding velocities propagate along the fault with the velocity of p-wave. The mechanism of such fast wave propagation is the normal (tensile/compressive) stresses in the neighbouring elements (normal stresses on the planes normal to the fault surface). The strains associated with these stresses are controlled by the Young's modulus rather than shear modulus resulting in the p-wave velocity of propagation of the sliding zone. This manifests itself as a supersonic (with respect to the s-waves) propagation of an apparent shear rupture.

  14. Nanotribology and Nanoscale Friction

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yi; Qu, Zhihua; Braiman, Yehuda; Zhang, Zhenyu; Barhen, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Tribology is the science and technology of contacting solid surfaces in relative motion, including the study of lubricants, lubrication, friction, wear, and bearings. It is estimated that friction and wear cost the U.S. economy 6% of the gross national product (Persson, 2000). For example, 5% of the total energy generated in an automobile engine is lost to frictional resistance. The study of nanoscale friction has a technological impact in reducing energy loss in machines, in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and in the development of durable, low-friction surfaces and ultra-thin lubrication films.

  15. Dynamic measurements of gear tooth friction and load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebbechi, Brian; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a program to study fundamental mechanisms of gear noise, static and dynamic gear tooth strain measurements were made on the NASA gear-noise rig. Tooth-fillet strains from low-contact ratio-spur gears were recorded for 28 operating conditions. A method is introduced whereby strain gage measurements taken from both the tension and compression sides of a gear tooth can be transformed into the normal and frictional loads on the tooth. This technique was applied to both the static and dynamic strain data. The static case results showed close agreement with expected results. For the dynamic case, the normal-force computation produced very good results, but the friction results, although promising, were not as accurate. Tooth sliding friction strongly affected the signal from the strain gage on the tensionside of the tooth. The compression gage was affected by friction to a much lesser degree. The potential of the method to measure friction force was demonstrated, but further refinement will be required before this technique can be used to measure friction forces dynamically with an acceptable degree of accuracy.

  16. A hinged-pad test structure for sliding friction measurement in micromachining

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, M.P. de; Redmond, J.M.; Michalske, T.A.

    1998-08-01

    The authors describe the design, modeling, fabrication and initial testing of a new test structure for friction measurement in MEMS. The device consists of a cantilevered forked beam and a friction pad attached via a hinge. Compared to previous test structures, the proposed structure can measure friction over much larger pressure ranges, yet occupies one hundred times less area. The placement of the hinge is crucial to obtaining a well-known and constant pressure distribution in the device. Static deflections on the device were measured and modeled numerically, Preliminary results indicate that friction pad slip is sensitive to friction pad normal force.

  17. Major and minor slip-events in frictional stick-slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsekenis, Georgios; Tatar, Demet; Rubinstein, Shmuel; Weitz, David; Aziz, Michael; Spaepen, Frans

    Several universal phenomena characterize friction that are independent of the materials involved such as the logarithmic aging of the static friction coefficient and the logarithmic velocity weakening of the dynamic friction coefficient. We study dry friction between rough surfaces with programmed statistical profiles. By measuring the displacement field at the frictional interface we observe stick-slip behavior which reveals two kinds of slip: major events that tend to grow large and unbounded and minor events that usually stay small and bounded. Research supported by Harvard MRSEC Program under NSF contracts DMR-0820484, DMR-1420570.

  18. Temperature dependence of nanoscale friction for Fe on YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altfeder, Igor; Krim, Jacqueline

    2012-05-01

    A magnetic probe microscopy study of levitation and atomic-scale friction is reported for Fe on YBCO (Tc = 92.5 K) in the temperature range 65-293 K. Below Tc, the friction coefficient is constant and exhibits no correlation with the strength of superconducting levitation forces. Above Tc, the friction coefficient increases progressively, and nearly doubles between Tc and room temperature. The results are discussed within the context of the underlying atomic-scale electronic and phononic mechanisms that give rise to friction, and it is concluded that contact electrification and static electricity may play a significant role in the non-superconducting phase. Given that the properties of YBCO can be finely tuned, the results point the way to a variety of interesting studies of friction and superconductors.

  19. Enhanced friction of elastomer microfiber adhesives with spatulate tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seok; Aksak, Burak; Sitti, Metin

    2007-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that gecko foot-hair inspired elastomer microfibers with spatulate tips have significant adhesion enhancement compared to the flat elastomer surface. In this study, we report the friction enhancement of these highly adhesive fibers and analyze the relation between adhesion and friction of elastomer microfiber arrays with spatulate tips. Fabricated polyurethane fiber arrays with spatulate tips demonstrate macroscale static friction pressures up to 41N/cm2 for a preload pressure of 1.5N/cm2 on a 6mm diameter smooth glass hemisphere.

  20. A comparative study of frictional force in self-ligating brackets according to the bracket-archwire angulation, bracket material, and wire type

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Souk Min

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to compare the frictional force (FR) in self-ligating brackets among different bracket-archwire angles, bracket materials, and archwire types. Methods Passive and active metal self-ligating brackets and active ceramic self-ligating brackets were included as experimental groups, while conventional twin metal brackets served as a control group. All brackets were maxillary premolar brackets with 0.022 inch [in] slots and a -7° torque. The orthodontic wires used included 0.018 round and 0.019 × 0.025 in rectangular stainless steel wires. The FR was measured at 0°, 5°, and 10° angulations as the wire was drawn through the bracket slots after attaching brackets from each group to the universal testing machine. Static and kinetic FRs were also measured. Results The passive self-ligating brackets generated a lower FR than all the other brackets. Static and kinetic FRs generally increased with an increase in the bracket-archwire angulation, and the rectangular wire caused significantly higher static and kinetic FRs than the round wire (p < 0.001). The metal passive self-ligating brackets exhibited the lowest static FR at the 0° angulation and a lower increase in static and kinetic FRs with an increase in bracket-archwire angulation than the other brackets, while the conventional twin brackets showed a greater increase than all three experimental brackets. Conclusions The passive self-ligating brackets showed the lowest FR in this study. Self-ligating brackets can generate varying FRs in vitro according to the wire size, surface characteristics, and bracket-archwire angulation. PMID:25667913

  1. The friction and wear of TPS fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bascom, W. D.; Wong, S.

    1987-01-01

    The sliding friction behavior of single filaments of SiO2, SiC, and an aluminoborosilicate has been determined. These fibers are used in thermal protection systems (TPS) and are subject to damage during weaving and aero-maneuvering. All fibers exhibited stick-slip friction indicating the successive formation and rupture of strong junctions between the contacting filaments. The static frictional resistance of the sized SiC filament was 4X greater than for the same filament after heat cleaning. This result suggests that the sizing is an organic polymer with a high shear yield strength. Heat cleaning exposes the SiC surface and/or leaves an inorganic residue so that the adhesional contact between filaments has a low fracture energy and frictional sliding occurs by brittle fracture. The frictional resistances of the sized and heat cleaned SiO2 and glass filaments were all comparable to that of the heat cleaned SiC. It would appear that the sizings as well as the heat cleaned surfaces of the silica and glass have low fracture energies so that the sliding resistance is determined by brittle fracture.

  2. Generation and propagation of stick-slip waves over a fault with rate-independent friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachevtseva, Iuliia; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Earthquakes generated at faults are either produced by rapid (sometimes supersonic) propagation of shear cracks/ruptures along the fault or originated in the stick-slip sliding over the fault. In some cases, supersonic (faster than the shear wave velocity) propagation of earthquake-generating shear ruptures or sliding is observed. This gave rise to the concept of supersonic shear crack propagation, much researched in the literature. Here we consider another mechanisms of supersonic sliding propagation. We concentrate on the stick-slip sliding as the earthquake mechanism. It is conventionally assumed that the mechanism of stick-slip lies in intermittent change between static and kinetic friction and the rate dependence of the friction coefficient. However the accumulation of elastic energy in the sliding plates on both sides of the fault can produce oscillations in the velocity of sliding even if the friction coefficient is constant. These oscillations resemble stick-slip movement, but they manifest themselves in terms of sliding velocity rather than displacement. Furthermore, over long faults the sliding exhibits wave-like propagation. We developed a model that shows that the zones of non-zero sliding velocities propagate along the fault with the velocity of p-wave. The mechanism of such fast movement is in the fact that sliding of every element of the rock at the fault surface creates normal (tensile/compressive) stresses in the neighbouring elements (normal stresses on the planes normal to the fault surface). The strains associated with these stresses are controlled by the Young's modulus rather than shear modulus resulting in the p-wave velocity of propagation of the sliding zone. This results in the observed supersonic (with respect to the s-waves) propagation of the apparent shear rupture. Keywords: Stick-slip, Rate-independent friction, Supersonic propagation.

  3. The statics of the wedge-shaped jar opener

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donolato, C.

    2015-11-01

    This paper analyzes the static equilibrium of a simple jar opener on the basis of rigid-body mechanics with friction. The opener-lid system is described as a disk lying inside a wedge, where only one side has friction; the disk is assumed to be acted upon by a wedging force and a torque. The resulting equilibrium equations have an exact solution that yields the non-sliding conditions for the disk as functions of applied forces and system parameters.

  4. Preventing Friction Induced Chondrocyte Apoptosis: A Comparison of Human Synovial Fluid and Hylan G-F 20

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Kimberly A; Zhang, Ling X; Fleming, Braden C; Jay, Gregory D

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) is a common painful disease with limited treatment options. A rising number of OA patients have been treated with intraarticular injections of hyaluronic acid, including the high molecular weight hylan G-F 20, which is injected following arthrocentesis. This study investigated the effectiveness of hylan G-F 20 to lower coefficient of friction (COF) and prevent chondrocyte apoptosis in vitro. Methods A disc-on-disc bovine cartilage bearing was used to measure the static and kinetic COF when lubricated with hylan G-F 20, human synovial fluid (HSF) and phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Following friction testing, we stained paraffin embedded sections of these cartilage bearings for activated caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis. Results Bearings lubricated with hylan G-F 20 had kinetic COF values that were similar to bearings lubricated with PBS, but significantly higher than those lubricated with HSF. There were no significant differences in static COF values in bearings lubricated with hylan G-F 20 as compared to PBS or HSF. However, bearings lubricated with HSF had a significantly lower static COF values compared to bearings lubricated with PBS. The mean percentage of caspase-3 positive chondrocytes in the superficial and upper intermediate zones of bearings lubricated with hylan G-F 20 were significantly higher when compared to bearings lubricated with HSF or unloaded controls, but significantly lower than those lubricated with PBS. Conclusion These findings indicate that joint lubrication may prevent chondrocyte apoptosis by lowering the COF. Furthermore, removal of synovial fluid prior to hylan G-F 20 injection may be detrimental to cartilage health. PMID:22660808

  5. Friction and nonlinear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manini, N.; Braun, O. M.; Tosatti, E.; Guerra, R.; Vanossi, A.

    2016-07-01

    The nonlinear dynamics associated with sliding friction forms a broad interdisciplinary research field that involves complex dynamical processes and patterns covering a broad range of time and length scales. Progress in experimental techniques and computational resources has stimulated the development of more refined and accurate mathematical and numerical models, capable of capturing many of the essentially nonlinear phenomena involved in friction.

  6. The effect of ligation method on friction in sliding mechanics.

    PubMed

    Hain, Max; Dhopatkar, Ashish; Rock, Peter

    2003-04-01

    During orthodontic tooth movement with the preadjusted edgewise system, friction generated at the bracket/archwire interface tends to impede the desired movement. The method of ligation is an important contributor to this frictional force. This in vitro study investigated the effect of ligation method on friction and evaluated the efficacy of the new slick elastomeric modules from TP Orthodontics (La Porte, Ind), which are claimed to reduce friction at the module/wire interface. Slick modules were compared with regular nonslick modules, stainless steel ligatures, and the SPEED self-ligating bracket system (Strite Industries, Cambridge, Ontario, Canada). The effect of using slick modules with metal-reinforced ceramic (Clarity, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) and miniature brackets (Minitwin, 3M Unitek) was also examined. Results showed that, when considering tooth movement along a 0.019 x 0.025-in stainless steel archwire, saliva-lubricated slick modules can reduce static friction at the module/archwire interface by up to 60%, regardless of the bracket system. The SPEED brackets produced the lowest friction compared with the 3 other tested bracket systems when regular modules were used. The use of slick modules, however, with all of the ligated bracket types tested significantly reduced friction to below the values recorded in the SPEED groups. Loosely tied stainless steel ligatures were found to generate the least friction. PMID:12695769

  7. The effect of ligation method on friction in sliding mechanics.

    PubMed

    Hain, Max; Dhopatkar, Ashish; Rock, Peter

    2003-04-01

    During orthodontic tooth movement with the preadjusted edgewise system, friction generated at the bracket/archwire interface tends to impede the desired movement. The method of ligation is an important contributor to this frictional force. This in vitro study investigated the effect of ligation method on friction and evaluated the efficacy of the new slick elastomeric modules from TP Orthodontics (La Porte, Ind), which are claimed to reduce friction at the module/wire interface. Slick modules were compared with regular nonslick modules, stainless steel ligatures, and the SPEED self-ligating bracket system (Strite Industries, Cambridge, Ontario, Canada). The effect of using slick modules with metal-reinforced ceramic (Clarity, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) and miniature brackets (Minitwin, 3M Unitek) was also examined. Results showed that, when considering tooth movement along a 0.019 x 0.025-in stainless steel archwire, saliva-lubricated slick modules can reduce static friction at the module/archwire interface by up to 60%, regardless of the bracket system. The SPEED brackets produced the lowest friction compared with the 3 other tested bracket systems when regular modules were used. The use of slick modules, however, with all of the ligated bracket types tested significantly reduced friction to below the values recorded in the SPEED groups. Loosely tied stainless steel ligatures were found to generate the least friction.

  8. Confinement-dependent friction in peptide bundles.

    PubMed

    Erbaş, Aykut; Netz, Roland R

    2013-03-19

    Friction within globular proteins or between adhering macromolecules crucially determines the kinetics of protein folding, the formation, and the relaxation of self-assembled molecular systems. One fundamental question is how these friction effects depend on the local environment and in particular on the presence of water. In this model study, we use fully atomistic MD simulations with explicit water to obtain friction forces as a single polyglycine peptide chain is pulled out of a bundle of k adhering parallel polyglycine peptide chains. The whole system is periodically replicated along the peptide axes, so a stationary state at prescribed mean sliding velocity V is achieved. The aggregation number is varied between k = 2 (two peptide chains adhering to each other with plenty of water present at the adhesion sites) and k = 7 (one peptide chain pulled out from a close-packed cylindrical array of six neighboring peptide chains with no water inside the bundle). The friction coefficient per hydrogen bond, extrapolated to the viscous limit of vanishing pulling velocity V → 0, exhibits an increase by five orders of magnitude when going from k = 2 to k = 7. This dramatic confinement-induced friction enhancement we argue to be due to a combination of water depletion and increased hydrogen-bond cooperativity.

  9. Friction and Surface Damage of Several Corrosion-resistant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Marshall B; Johnson, Robert L

    1952-01-01

    Friction and surface damage of several materials that are resistant to corrosion due to liquid metals was studied in air. The values of kinetic friction coefficient at low sliding velocities and photomicrographs of surface damage were obtained. Appreciable surface damage was evident for all materials tested. The friction coefficients for the combinations of steel, stainless steel, and monel sliding against steel, stainless steel, nickel, Iconel, and Nichrome ranged from 0.55 for the monel-Inconel combination to 0.97 for the stainless-steel-nickel combination; for steel, stainless steel, monel, and tungsten carbide against zirconium, the friction coefficient was approximately 0.47. Lower coefficients of friction (0.20 to 0.60) and negligible surface failure at light loads were obtained with tungsten carbide when used in combination with various plate materials.

  10. Is frictional healing slip-dependent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, P.; Rubin, A. M.; Ryan, K. L.; Riviere, J. V.; Marone, C.

    2015-12-01

    Frictional re-strengthening of bare rock surfaces at very low stresses and near zero slip rate, as observed in the laboratory, is traditionally interpreted as showing support for purely time-dependent healing as embodied in the Aging law. However, while slide-hold-slide experiments on bare surfaces do show an apparent (purely) time-dependent increase in the static friction upon reslide, we show that the stress minima attained during the preceding holds show a strong slip-dependence which contradict the Aging law. A velocity strengthening Slip law explains such data much better. We also show that, large velocity step decreases, which drive the system far below steady state just like long holds, clearly support the slip-dependent response of the Slip law over the time-dependent healing contained in the Aging law. But, while time-dependent healing has an intuitive physical picture in terms of growth of the 'real contact area' with time, it is more difficult to ascribe one to slip-dependent healing. Here, we explore the possibility that the slip-dependence arises out of an interplay between contact `quality' and `quantity' at the scale of the asperity contacts. First, to further study the slip-dependence of healing, we carry out large velocity step decreases and sequences of long slide-hold-slides on both bare rock and gouge. Secondly, to probe the micro-mechanical origins of healing, we complement our mechanical data with amplitudes and travel time data of ultrasonic P- and S- waves transmitted across the sliding interface. While ultrasonic P-wave transmissivity has been used as a proxy for 'real contact area' in friction experiments by Nagata et al. (2012, 2014) before, the simultaneous use of P- and S-phases in our experiments is designed specifically to probe contact rheology. Initial results show strong correlations between changes in friction, transmitted wave amplitudes and travel times in response to changes in slip rate. We also observe important differences

  11. Friction on ice: stick and slip.

    PubMed

    Blackford, Jane R; Skouvaklis, Gerasimos; Purser, Marc; Koutsos, Vasileios

    2012-01-01

    Faraday made investigations into behaviour of ice and snow. He was ahead of his time. Our paper briefly describes the current state of knowledge in ice friction and adhesion and its historical development. Important aspects of these phenomena in engineering, winter sports and the natural environment are considered. We report new results for static and dynamic friction of a metal (steel) and a polymer (PMMA) on ice over a range of temperatures (-3 to -13 degrees C), and interpret the behaviour by considering processes that operate at the interface and in the bulk of the materials. Clearly the chemical and thermomechanical properties of steel, PMMA and ice differ. The thermomechanical properties of ice itself also vary within the temperature range examined. We find higher static friction with increasing time, and a curious difference in the behaviour of the metal and polymer with temperature. We explain the results by considering the materials' stiffness, plastic deformation and creep, the ductile/brittle transition in ice, thermal properties, physicochemical properties of the surfaces and the real area of contact. PMID:23285632

  12. Iliotibial band friction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Ronald

    2010-07-20

    Published articles on iliotibial band friction syndrome have been reviewed. These articles cover the epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, pathology, prevention, and treatment of the condition. This article describes (1) the various etiological models that have been proposed to explain iliotibial band friction syndrome; (2) some of the imaging methods, research studies, and clinical experiences that support or call into question these various models; (3) commonly proposed treatment methods for iliotibial band friction syndrome; and (4) the rationale behind these methods and the clinical outcome studies that support their efficacy.

  13. Iliotibial band friction syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Published articles on iliotibial band friction syndrome have been reviewed. These articles cover the epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, pathology, prevention, and treatment of the condition. This article describes (1) the various etiological models that have been proposed to explain iliotibial band friction syndrome; (2) some of the imaging methods, research studies, and clinical experiences that support or call into question these various models; (3) commonly proposed treatment methods for iliotibial band friction syndrome; and (4) the rationale behind these methods and the clinical outcome studies that support their efficacy. PMID:21063495

  14. Scalar model for frictional precursors dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Taloni, Alessandro; Benassi, Andrea; Sandfeld, Stefan; Zapperi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments indicate that frictional sliding occurs by nucleation of detachment fronts at the contact interface that may appear well before the onset of global sliding. This intriguing precursory activity is not accounted for by traditional friction theories but is extremely important for friction dominated geophysical phenomena as earthquakes, landslides or avalanches. Here we simulate the onset of slip of a three dimensional elastic body resting on a surface and show that experimentally observed frictional precursors depend in a complex non-universal way on the sample geometry and loading conditions. Our model satisfies Archard's law and Amontons' first and second laws, reproducing with remarkable precision the real contact area dynamics, the precursors' envelope dynamics prior to sliding, and the normal and shear internal stress distributions close to the interfacial surface. Moreover, it allows to assess which features can be attributed to the elastic equilibrium, and which are attributed to the out-of-equilibrium dynamics, suggesting that precursory activity is an intrinsically quasi-static physical process. A direct calculation of the evolution of the Coulomb stress before and during precursors nucleation shows large variations across the sample, explaining why earthquake forecasting methods based only on accumulated slip and Coulomb stress monitoring are often ineffective. PMID:25640079

  15. Scalar model for frictional precursors dynamics.

    PubMed

    Taloni, Alessandro; Benassi, Andrea; Sandfeld, Stefan; Zapperi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments indicate that frictional sliding occurs by nucleation of detachment fronts at the contact interface that may appear well before the onset of global sliding. This intriguing precursory activity is not accounted for by traditional friction theories but is extremely important for friction dominated geophysical phenomena as earthquakes, landslides or avalanches. Here we simulate the onset of slip of a three dimensional elastic body resting on a surface and show that experimentally observed frictional precursors depend in a complex non-universal way on the sample geometry and loading conditions. Our model satisfies Archard's law and Amontons' first and second laws, reproducing with remarkable precision the real contact area dynamics, the precursors' envelope dynamics prior to sliding, and the normal and shear internal stress distributions close to the interfacial surface. Moreover, it allows to assess which features can be attributed to the elastic equilibrium, and which are attributed to the out-of-equilibrium dynamics, suggesting that precursory activity is an intrinsically quasi-static physical process. A direct calculation of the evolution of the Coulomb stress before and during precursors nucleation shows large variations across the sample, explaining why earthquake forecasting methods based only on accumulated slip and Coulomb stress monitoring are often ineffective. PMID:25640079

  16. Science 101: What Causes Friction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Defining friction and asking what causes it might seem like a trivial question. Friction seems simple enough to understand. Friction is a force between surfaces that pushes against things that are moving or tending to move, and the rougher the surfaces, the greater the friction. Bill Robertson answers this by saying, "Well, not exactly".…

  17. Friction and wear in threaded surfaces of rotary drill collars

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, H.R. ); Bailey, E.I. ); Williamson, J.S. )

    1993-03-01

    Two surfaces, under high normal stress, in sliding contact provide the basis for friction and wear studies within rotary drill collars. Flat and ring specimens, considering three different contact areas, were rotated to determine the effect of surface finish, coatings, lubricants and normal stress on friction and wear. The 4145 steel specimens were heat-treated to a yield strength of 124,000 lb/in[sup 2] (855 MPa) and a R[sub c] hardness of 28. The torque required to rotate the ring specimen was measured as a function of the rotation angle. The friction coefficient was calculated. Seizure and galling were common for metal-to-metal contact. Rust and phosphate coatings break down under the high normal stress. Metal-filled lubricants produce static coefficients of friction between 0.03 and 0.25 and dynamic coefficients between 0.04 and 0.26. Seizure and galling were not observed.

  18. Bioinspired, peg-studded hexagonal patterns for wetting and friction.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Huang, Wei; Wang, Xiaolei

    2015-09-04

    Inspired by peg-studded hexagonal epidermal cells found in biological pad interfaces, biomimic hierarchical surface patterns with different degrees of wettability were fabricated using a new method involving photolithography and wet etching. In order to understand the effects of the peg-studded structures on wettability and frictional properties, varying patterns were studied and compared. Experimental results show that the hierarchical patterns led to a significant increase in wettability and sliding friction forces on hydrophilic surfaces, whereas they resulted in higher apparent static contact angles and lower sliding friction forces on hydrophobic surfaces. This indicates that the hydrophilic hierarchical structure on smooth toe-pads is favorable for keeping the surface moist and increasing the interfacial friction force when climbing in wet conditions.

  19. Friction loss in straight pipes of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, T; Ojima, J

    1996-01-01

    In order to design proper ductwork for a local exhaust system, airflow characteristics were investigated in straight pipes of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). A linear decrease in static pressure was observed downstream at points from the opening of the VU pipes (JIS K 6741) located at distances greater than 10 times the pipe diameter, for velocities ranging between 10.18-36.91 m/s. Roughness inside pipes with small diameters was found to be 0.0042-0.0056 mm and the friction factor was calculated on the basis of Colebrook's equation for an airflow transition zone. An extended friction chart was then constructed on the basis of the roughness value and the friction factor. This chart can be applied when designing a local exhaust system with the ducts of diameters ranging from 40 to 900 mm. The friction loss of the PVC pipe was found to be approximately 2/3 of that of a galvanized steel pipe. PMID:8768669

  20. Friction loss in straight pipes of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, T; Ojima, J

    1996-01-01

    In order to design proper ductwork for a local exhaust system, airflow characteristics were investigated in straight pipes of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). A linear decrease in static pressure was observed downstream at points from the opening of the VU pipes (JIS K 6741) located at distances greater than 10 times the pipe diameter, for velocities ranging between 10.18-36.91 m/s. Roughness inside pipes with small diameters was found to be 0.0042-0.0056 mm and the friction factor was calculated on the basis of Colebrook's equation for an airflow transition zone. An extended friction chart was then constructed on the basis of the roughness value and the friction factor. This chart can be applied when designing a local exhaust system with the ducts of diameters ranging from 40 to 900 mm. The friction loss of the PVC pipe was found to be approximately 2/3 of that of a galvanized steel pipe.

  1. Bioinspired, peg-studded hexagonal patterns for wetting and friction.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Huang, Wei; Wang, Xiaolei

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by peg-studded hexagonal epidermal cells found in biological pad interfaces, biomimic hierarchical surface patterns with different degrees of wettability were fabricated using a new method involving photolithography and wet etching. In order to understand the effects of the peg-studded structures on wettability and frictional properties, varying patterns were studied and compared. Experimental results show that the hierarchical patterns led to a significant increase in wettability and sliding friction forces on hydrophilic surfaces, whereas they resulted in higher apparent static contact angles and lower sliding friction forces on hydrophobic surfaces. This indicates that the hydrophilic hierarchical structure on smooth toe-pads is favorable for keeping the surface moist and increasing the interfacial friction force when climbing in wet conditions. PMID:26340927

  2. Friction stir welding tool

    DOEpatents

    Tolle; Charles R. , Clark; Denis E. , Barnes; Timothy A.

    2008-04-15

    A friction stir welding tool is described and which includes a shank portion; a shoulder portion which is releasably engageable with the shank portion; and a pin which is releasably engageable with the shoulder portion.

  3. Friction Stir Weld Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Payton, Lewis N. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A friction stir weld tool sleeve is supported by an underlying support pin. The pin material is preferably selected for toughness and fracture characteristics. The pin sleeve preferably has a geometry which employs the use of an interrupted thread, a plurality of flutes and/or eccentric path to provide greater flow through. Paddles have been found to assist in imparting friction and directing plastic metal during the welding process.

  4. Friction stir weld tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Payton, Lewis N. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A friction stir weld tool sleeve is supported by an underlying support pin. The pin material is preferably selected for toughness and fracture characteristics. The pin sleeve preferably has a geometry which employs the use of an interrupted thread, a plurality of flutes and/or eccentric path to provide greater flow through. Paddles have been found to assist in imparting friction and directing plastic metal during the welding process.

  5. Friction in volcanic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lavallée, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic landscapes are amongst the most dynamic on Earth and, as such, are particularly susceptible to failure and frictional processes. In rocks, damage accumulation is frequently accompanied by the release of seismic energy, which has been shown to accelerate in the approach to failure on both a field and laboratory scale. The point at which failure occurs is highly dependent upon strain-rate, which also dictates the slip-zone properties that pertain beyond failure, in scenarios such as sector collapse and pyroclastic flows as well as the ascent of viscous magma. High-velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments have provided new opportunities to overcome the grand challenge of understanding faulting processes during volcanic phenomena. Work on granular ash material demonstrates that at ambient temperatures, ash gouge behaves according to Byerlee's rule at low slip velocities, but is slip-weakening, becoming increasingly lubricating as slip ensues. In absence of ash along a slip plane, rock-rock friction induces cataclasis and heating which, if sufficient, may induce melting (producing pseudotachylyte) and importantly, vesiculation. The viscosity of the melt, so generated, controls the subsequent lubrication or resistance to slip along the fault plane thanks to non-Newtonian suspension rheology. The shear-thinning behaviour and viscoelasticity of frictional melts yield a tendency for extremely unstable slip, and occurrence of frictional melt fragmentation. This velocity-dependence acts as an important feedback mechanism on the slip plane, in addition to the bulk composition, mineralogy and glass content of the magma, that all influence frictional behaviour. During sector collapse events and in pyroclastic density currents it is the frictional properties of the rocks and ash that, in-part, control the run-out distance and associated risk. In addition, friction plays an important role in the eruption of viscous magmas: In the conduit, the rheology of magma is integral

  6. Inductively Modeling Parallel, Normal, and Frictional Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrembeck, Edward P.

    2005-02-01

    This year, instead of resolving the weight mg of an object resting on an incline into force components parallel and perpendicular to the surface of the incline, I asked my students to actually measure these forces at various angles of inclination and graph the data. I wanted my students to inductively discover mg sin θ and mg cos θ, and to use these graphs to confront the passive nature of the static frictional force. I believe the graphs themselves are very powerful conceptual tools that are often never discovered and used by students who only learn to use equations at specific angles to solve specific quantitative problems.

  7. Friction and lubrication of pleural tissues.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Edgardo; Loring, Stephen H; Gioia, Magda E; Pecchiari, Matteo; Moscheni, Claudia

    2004-08-20

    The frictional behaviour of rabbit's visceral pleura sliding against parietal pleura was assessed in vitro while oscillating at physiological velocities and amplitudes under physiological normal forces. For sliding velocities up to 3 cm s(-1) and normal compressive loads up to 12 cm H2O, the average value of the coefficient of kinetic friction (mu) was constant at 0.019 +/- 0.002 (S.E.) with pleural liquid as lubricant. With Ringer-bicarbonate solution, mu was still constant, but significantly increased (Deltamu = 0.008 +/- 0.001; P < 0.001). Under these conditions, no damage of the sliding pleural surfaces was found on light and electron microscopy. Additional measurements, performed also on peritoneum, showed that changes in nominal contact area or strain of the mesothelia, temperature in the range 19-39 degrees C, and prolonged sliding did not affect mu. Gentle application of filter paper increased mu approximately 10-fold and irreversibly, suggesting alteration of the mesothelia. With packed the red blood cells (RBC) between the sliding mesothelia, mu increased appreciably but reversibly on removal of RBC suspension, whilst no ruptures of RBC occurred. In conclusion, the results indicate a low value of sliding friction in pleural tissues, partly related to the characteristics of the pleural liquid, and show that friction is independent of velocity, normal load, and nominal contact area, consistent with boundary lubrication.

  8. Frictional Force Behavior in the Elastic Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, P. J.; Hammerberg, J. E.

    2005-07-01

    The friction force between materials in explosively driven events is an important constitutive relationship, even though defining the friction coefficient in the presence of large bulk deformations is difficult. Measuring the force at an interface near deformations, without significantly modifying the interface in the process, proves difficult as well. Few studies (the pressure-shear plate experiments originally performed by Clifton et al. being one) have investigated the nature of the friction force at the small time-scales and the very high sliding speeds and pressures involved in explosive events. In order to approach the study of such combinations, we have developed a novel experimental apparatus (the rotating barrel gas gun, or RBGG) that gives us independent control of sliding speed and pressure at the interface while keeping the impact elastic, allowing us to make measurements away from the interface and to interpret the results without resorting to a simulation. We measure the axial and torsional strain in an annular target rod produced by the impact of a spinning, translating annular projectile. Experiments performed using Cu/Cu, Cu/Stainless and Cu/Al tribopairs provide some insight into the kinetic coefficient of friction behavior at various sliding speeds and loads.

  9. Solvent fluctuations in hydrophobic cavity–ligand binding kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Setny, Piotr; Baron, Riccardo; Michael Kekenes-Huskey, Peter; McCammon, J. Andrew; Dzubiella, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Water plays a crucial part in virtually all protein–ligand binding processes in and out of equilibrium. Here, we investigate the role of water in the binding kinetics of a ligand to a prototypical hydrophobic pocket by explicit-water molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and implicit diffusional approaches. The concave pocket in the unbound state exhibits wet/dry hydration oscillations whose magnitude and time scale are significantly amplified by the approaching ligand. In turn, the ligand’s stochastic motion intimately couples to the slow hydration fluctuations, leading to a sixfold-enhanced friction in the vicinity of the pocket entrance. The increased friction considerably decelerates association in the otherwise barrierless system, indicating the importance of molecular-scale hydrodynamic effects in cavity–ligand binding arising due to capillary fluctuations. We derive and analyze the diffusivity profile and show that the mean first passage time distribution from the MD simulation can be accurately reproduced by a standard Brownian dynamics simulation if the appropriate position-dependent friction profile is included. However, long-time decays in the water–ligand (random) force autocorrelation demonstrate violation of the Markovian assumption, challenging standard diffusive approaches for rate prediction. Remarkably, the static friction profile derived from the force correlations strongly resembles the profile derived on the Markovian assumption apart from a simple shift in space, which can be rationalized by a time–space retardation in the ligand’s downhill dynamics toward the pocket. The observed spatiotemporal hydrodynamic coupling may be of biological importance providing the time needed for conformational receptor–ligand adjustments, typical of the induced-fit paradigm. PMID:23297241

  10. Friction of Aviation Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, S W; Thorne, M A

    1928-01-01

    The first portion of this report discusses measurements of friction made in the altitude laboratory of the Bureau of Standards between 1920 and 1926 under research authorization of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. These are discussed with reference to the influence of speed, barometric pressure, jacket-water temperature, and throttle opening upon the friction of aviation engines. The second section of the report deals with measurements of the friction of a group of pistons differing from each other in a single respect, such as length, clearance, area of thrust face, location of thrust face, etc. Results obtained with each type of piston are discussed and attention is directed particularly to the fact that the friction chargeable to piston rings depends upon piston design as well as upon ring design. This is attributed to the effect of the rings upon the thickness and distribution of the oil film which in turn affects the friction of the piston to an extent which depends upon its design.

  11. Laboratory manual for static pressure drop experiments in LMFBR wire wrapped rod bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.J.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-07-01

    Purpose of this experiment is to determine both interior and edge subchannel axial pressure drops for a range of Reynolds numbers. The subchannel static pressure drop is used to calculate subchannel and bundle average friction factors, which can be used to verify existing friction factor correlations. The correlations for subchannel friction factors are used as input to computer codes which solve the coupled energy, continuity, and momentum equations, and are also used to develop flow split correlations which are needed as input to codes which solve only the energy equation. The bundle average friction factor is used to calculate the overall bundle pressure drop, which determines the required pumping power.

  12. Fragility and hysteretic creep in frictional granular jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandi, M. M.; Rivera, M. K.; Krzakala, F.; Ecke, R. E.

    2013-04-01

    The granular jamming transition is experimentally investigated in a two-dimensional system of frictional, bidispersed disks subject to quasistatic, uniaxial compression without vibrational disturbances (zero granular temperature). Three primary results are presented in this experimental study. First, using disks with different static friction coefficients (μ), we experimentally verify numerical results that predict jamming onset at progressively lower packing fractions with increasing friction. Second, we show that the first compression cycle measurably differs from subsequent cycles. The first cycle is fragile—a metastable configuration with simultaneous jammed and unjammed clusters—over a small packing fraction interval (ϕ1<ϕ<ϕ2) and exhibits simultaneous exponential rise in pressure and exponential decrease in disk displacements over the same packing fraction interval. This fragile behavior is explained through a percolation mechanism of stressed contacts where cluster growth exhibits spatial correlation with disk displacements and contributes to recent results emphasizing fragility in frictional jamming. Control experiments show that the fragile state results from the experimental incompatibility between the requirements for zero friction and zero granular temperature. Measurements with several disk materials of varying elastic moduli E and friction coefficients μ show that friction directly controls the start of the fragile state but indirectly controls the exponential pressure rise. Finally, under repetitive loading (compression) and unloading (decompression), we find the system exhibits pressure hysteresis, and the critical packing fraction ϕc increases slowly with repetition number. This friction-induced hysteretic creep is interpreted as the granular pack's evolution from a metastable to an eventual structurally stable configuration. It is shown to depend on the quasistatic step size Δϕ, which provides the only perturbative mechanism in the

  13. Skin friction balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ping, Tcheng (Inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

  14. Method of generating and measuring static small force using down-slope component of gravity.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yusaku

    2007-06-01

    A method of generating and measuring static small forces at the micro-Newton level is proposed. In the method, the down-slope component of gravity acting on a mass on an inclined plane is used as a static force. To realize a linear motion of the mass with a small friction, an aerostatic linear bearing is used. The forces acting on the mass, such as the down-slope component of gravity and the dynamic frictional force, are determined by the levitation mass method. In an experiment, a static small force of approximately 183 microN is generated and measured with a standard uncertainty of approximately 2 microN.

  15. Systematic breakdown of Amontons' law of friction for an elastic object locally obeying Amontons' law.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Michio; Matsukawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In many sliding systems consisting of solid object on a solid substrate under dry condition, the friction force does not depend on the apparent contact area and is proportional to the loading force. This behaviour is called Amontons' law and indicates that the friction coefficient, or the ratio of the friction force to the loading force, is constant. Here, however, using numerical and analytical methods, we show that Amontons' law breaks down systematically under certain conditions for an elastic object experiencing a friction force that locally obeys Amontons' law. The macroscopic static friction coefficient, which corresponds to the onset of bulk sliding of the object, decreases as pressure or system length increases. This decrease results from precursor slips before the onset of bulk sliding, and is consistent with the results of certain previous experiments. The mechanisms for these behaviours are clarified. These results will provide new insight into controlling friction.

  16. Friction and morphology of pleural mesothelia.

    PubMed

    Pecchiari, Matteo; Sartori, Patrizia; Conte, Vincenzo; D'Angelo, Edgardo; Moscheni, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    To verify the hypothesis that by enmeshing lubricants, microvilli reduce the coefficient of kinetic friction (μ) of pleural mesothelium, μ was measured during reciprocating sliding of rabbit's visceral against parietal pleura before and after addition of hyaluronan, and related to the morphological features of the microvillar network. Because no relation was found between μ or μ changes after hyaluronan and microvillar characteristics, the latter are not determinants of the frictional forces which oppose sliding of normal mesothelial surfaces under physiological conditions, nor of the effects of hyaluronan. Addition of hyaluronan increased μ slightly but significantly in normal specimens, probably by altering the physiological mix of lubricants, but decreased μ of damaged mesothelia, suggesting protective, anti-abrasion properties. Indeed, while sliding of an injured against a normal pleura heavily damaged the latter and increased μ when Ringer was interposed between the surfaces, both effects were limited or prevented when hyaluronan was interposed between the injured and normal pleura before onset of sliding.

  17. Lubricated friction in Frenkel-Kontorova model between incommensurate surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Cang-Long; Duan, Wen-Shan; Chen, Jian-Min; Yang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    We study the superlubricity in the generalized Frenkel-Kontorova model. Each particle of the top layer is driven by external dc driving force Fext . When the ratios of the three inherent length scales of the system are chosen to be the Golden Mean (a / b = 233 / 144, c / a = 144 / 89), we find that there exists a critical interparticle interaction strength above which the static friction force Fsu of the top layer is zero. And Fsu could easily flow into the low friction with existing the lubricant layer.

  18. Earthquake triggering by transient and static deformations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Beeler, N.M.; Blanpied, M.L.; Bodin, P.

    1998-01-01

    Observational evidence for both static and transient near-field and far-field triggered seismicity are explained in terms of a frictional instability model, based on a single degree of freedom spring-slider system and rate- and state-dependent frictional constitutive equations. In this study a triggered earthquake is one whose failure time has been advanced by ??t (clock advance) due to a stress perturbation. Triggering stress perturbations considered include square-wave transients and step functions, analogous to seismic waves and coseismic static stress changes, respectively. Perturbations are superimposed on a constant background stressing rate which represents the tectonic stressing rate. The normal stress is assumed to be constant. Approximate, closed-form solutions of the rate-and-state equations are derived for these triggering and background loads, building on the work of Dieterich [1992, 1994]. These solutions can be used to simulate the effects of static and transient stresses as a function of amplitude, onset time t0, and in the case of square waves, duration. The accuracies of the approximate closed-form solutions are also evaluated with respect to the full numerical solution and t0. The approximate solutions underpredict the full solutions, although the difference decreases as t0, approaches the end of the earthquake cycle. The relationship between ??t and t0 differs for transient and static loads: a static stress step imposed late in the cycle causes less clock advance than an equal step imposed earlier, whereas a later applied transient causes greater clock advance than an equal one imposed earlier. For equal ??t, transient amplitudes must be greater than static loads by factors of several tens to hundreds depending on t0. We show that the rate-and-state model requires that the total slip at failure is a constant, regardless of the loading history. Thus a static load applied early in the cycle, or a transient applied at any time, reduces the stress

  19. Effect of fluoride on friction between bracket and wire

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Shiva; Farahi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background: Friction is usually encountered during sliding technique for orthodontic space closure. This study aims to investigate the effect of fluoride on frictional resistance between stainless steel orthodontic brackets and steel and NiTi arch wires. Materials and Methods: A total of 144 standard 022 stainless steel brackets were used in this experimental study. 0.016 and 0.019 × 0.025 inch steel and NiTi arch wires were tested. The frictional resistance between wires and brackets immersed in the following three solutions were measured: Sultan fluoride gel containing 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride at pH 3.5 for 4 minutes, aquafresh mouth wash containing 0.05% sodium fluoride at pH of 5.1 for 1 minute twice a day for 8 weeks and physiologic serum (pH=7) as the control group. Static and dynamic frictional forces were measured using Testometric machine. Surface topography of wires and brackets was qualitatively assessed using electron microscopy. Three-way and two-way variance analysis and complementary Tuckey analysis were applied to compare the groups for any significant differences (P<0.05). Results: The average static and dynamic frictional forces for all bracket-wire combinations immersed in Sultan fluoride gel were higher than those immersed in NAF and control groups (P<0.001).The forces measured for rectangular wires were higher than round wires (P<0.001). Frictional resistance of 0.016 inch NiTi wire was more than that of the steel one but the difference between steel and NiTi 0.019 × 0.25 arch wires was not significant. Conclusion: Friction between steel brackets and nickel titanium and steel wires is affected by prophylactic agents containing high doses of fluoride and acidity. PMID:23372594

  20. LLNL small-scale static spark machine: static spark sensitivity test

    SciTech Connect

    Foltz, M F; Simpson, L R

    1999-08-23

    Small-scale safety testing of explosives and other energetic materials is done in order to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli, such as friction, static spark, and impact. Typically this testing is done to discover potential handling problems that may exist for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior, or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing ''Static Spark Test Apparatus'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), as well as the method used to evaluate the relative static spark sensitivity of energetic materials. The basic design, originally developed by the Picatinny Arsenal in New Jersey, is discussed. The accumulated data for the materials tested to date is not included here, with the exception of specific examples that have yielded interesting or unusual results during the tests.

  1. Crossover from creep to inertial motion in friction dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumberger, T.; Heslot, F.; Perrin, B.

    1994-02-01

    FRICTION between dry surfaces plays a role in solid dynamics over a wide range of length scales, from the mechanics of micromachines to earthquakes. Some common features of frictional dynamics have been observed for rather different materials, such as rock sliding on rock or metal on metal1,2. But there is still relatively little understanding of the way in which frictional motion varies generically with mechanical parameters. Here we present the results of experiments on frictional sliding of Bristol board, which show how the characteristics of frictional sliding depend on mass, driving velocity and stiffness of the driving spring constant. In general, there is a bifurcation from stick-slip to steady sliding with increasing velocity. The character of the frictional motion and of the associated bifurcation changes with velocity: at low speeds creep is dominant, which can be ascribed a characteristic length, whereas at high speeds the motion can be described as inertial, with a characteristic timescale. The kinetic friction coefficient decreases with increasing velocity in the former case, and increases with velocity in the latter. We anticipate that these results are likely to be generic.

  2. Magnetic Low-Friction Track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetkau, Mark; Bahniwal, Manpreet; Gamblen, James

    2008-05-01

    The standard low-friction tracks used to test Newton's laws are the air track and the low-friction cart track. Both are commercially available and provide low-friction environments to test various physics concepts. At a recent science fair, one of the authors (JG) presented a magnetically levitated cart and track. A literature search found no previous testing of magnetically levitated carts. This paper compares a magnetically levitated cart against the two standard low-friction tracks.

  3. Quantum theory of friction

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Stephen M.; Cresser, James D.

    2005-08-15

    We present a Markovian quantum theory of friction. Our approach is based on the idea that collisions between a Brownian particle and single molecules of the surrounding medium constitute, as far as the particle is concerned, instantaneous simultaneous measurements of its position and momentum.

  4. Intelligent Flow Friction Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Brkić, Dejan; Ćojbašić, Žarko

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the Colebrook equation is used as a mostly accepted relation for the calculation of fluid flow friction factor. However, the Colebrook equation is implicit with respect to the friction factor (λ). In the present study, a noniterative approach using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was developed to calculate the friction factor. To configure the ANN model, the input parameters of the Reynolds Number (Re) and the relative roughness of pipe (ε/D) were transformed to logarithmic scales. The 90,000 sets of data were fed to the ANN model involving three layers: input, hidden, and output layers with, 2, 50, and 1 neurons, respectively. This configuration was capable of predicting the values of friction factor in the Colebrook equation for any given values of the Reynolds number (Re) and the relative roughness (ε/D) ranging between 5000 and 108 and between 10−7 and 0.1, respectively. The proposed ANN demonstrates the relative error up to 0.07% which had the high accuracy compared with the vast majority of the precise explicit approximations of the Colebrook equation. PMID:27127498

  5. Intelligent Flow Friction Estimation.

    PubMed

    Brkić, Dejan; Ćojbašić, Žarko

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the Colebrook equation is used as a mostly accepted relation for the calculation of fluid flow friction factor. However, the Colebrook equation is implicit with respect to the friction factor (λ). In the present study, a noniterative approach using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was developed to calculate the friction factor. To configure the ANN model, the input parameters of the Reynolds Number (Re) and the relative roughness of pipe (ε/D) were transformed to logarithmic scales. The 90,000 sets of data were fed to the ANN model involving three layers: input, hidden, and output layers with, 2, 50, and 1 neurons, respectively. This configuration was capable of predicting the values of friction factor in the Colebrook equation for any given values of the Reynolds number (Re) and the relative roughness (ε/D) ranging between 5000 and 10(8) and between 10(-7) and 0.1, respectively. The proposed ANN demonstrates the relative error up to 0.07% which had the high accuracy compared with the vast majority of the precise explicit approximations of the Colebrook equation.

  6. Intelligent Flow Friction Estimation.

    PubMed

    Brkić, Dejan; Ćojbašić, Žarko

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the Colebrook equation is used as a mostly accepted relation for the calculation of fluid flow friction factor. However, the Colebrook equation is implicit with respect to the friction factor (λ). In the present study, a noniterative approach using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was developed to calculate the friction factor. To configure the ANN model, the input parameters of the Reynolds Number (Re) and the relative roughness of pipe (ε/D) were transformed to logarithmic scales. The 90,000 sets of data were fed to the ANN model involving three layers: input, hidden, and output layers with, 2, 50, and 1 neurons, respectively. This configuration was capable of predicting the values of friction factor in the Colebrook equation for any given values of the Reynolds number (Re) and the relative roughness (ε/D) ranging between 5000 and 10(8) and between 10(-7) and 0.1, respectively. The proposed ANN demonstrates the relative error up to 0.07% which had the high accuracy compared with the vast majority of the precise explicit approximations of the Colebrook equation. PMID:27127498

  7. Friction in modern total hip arthroplasty bearings: Effect of material, design, and test methodology.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Laura; Longaray, Jason; Raja, Lokesh; Lee, Reginald; Faizan, Ahmad; Herrera, Lizeth; Thakore, Mayur; Nevelos, Jim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of a group of variables on frictional torque generated by acetabular components as well as to understand the influence of test model. Three separate test models, which had been previously used in the literature, were used to understand the effect of polyethylene material, bearing design, head size, and material combinations. Each test model differed by the way it simulated rotation of the head, the type of frictional torque value it reported (static vs. dynamic), and the type of motion simulated (oscillating motion vs. continuous motion). It was determined that not only test model may impact product ranking of fictional torque generated but also static frictional torque may be significantly larger than a dynamic frictional torque. In addition to test model differences, it was discovered that the frictional torque values for conventional and highly cross-linked polyethylenes were not statistically significantly different in the more physiologically relevant test models. With respect to bearing design, the frictional torque values for mobile bearing designs were similar to the 28-mm diameter inner bearing rather than the large diameter outer liner. Testing with a more physiologically relevant rotation showed that frictional torque increased with bearing diameter for the metal on polyethylene and ceramic on polyethylene bearings but remained constant for ceramic on ceramic bearings. Finally, ceramic on ceramic bearings produced smaller frictional torque values when compared to metal on polyethylene and ceramic on polyethylene groups.

  8. Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Michael J.; Johnson, Simon A.; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick–slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function. PMID:23256185

  9. Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael J; Johnson, Simon A; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-03-01

    Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick-slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function.

  10. Four great challenges confronting our understanding and modeling of sliding friction

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.

    1997-08-01

    This paper addresses four challenges whose solutions may together enable significant progress in the predication and control of friction for energy conservation. Posed as questions these are: (1) how can materials with greatly different properties and compositions produce similar kinetic friction coefficients when tested under comparable conditions; (2) how is it possible that the kinetic friction coefficient for the same materials pair can differ greatly when it is slid in different tribosystems; (3) how can frictional phenomena at different size scales be reconciled; and (4) how can the effects of the machine, the materials (including lubricants) and the environment be successfully incorporated into quantitative and predictive friction models? Examples related to these four challenges are provided, as are possible approaches for attacking them in future research efforts.

  11. LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

    1996-06-01

    Small-scale safety testing of explosives, propellants and other energetic materials, is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. Testing is done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior, or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing {open_quotes}BAM{close_quotes} Small-Scale Friction Test, and the methods used to determine the friction sensitivity pertinent to handling energetic materials. The accumulated data for the materials tested is not listed here - that information is in a database. Included is, however, a short list of (1) materials that had an unusual response, and (2), a few {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} materials representing the range of typical responses usually seen.

  12. Analytical comparison of effects of solid-friction and viscous structural damping on panel flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, H. J.

    1976-01-01

    A Galerkin modal analysis is presented that accounts for the effects of both solid friction and viscous structural damping on panel flutter, based on unsteady aerodynamic forces from supersonic potential flow. The eigensolutions are made by complex eigenvalue computer routines. Markedly different effects on the flutter boundary of the two types of structural damping are obtained. This result establishes that there is not, in general, an "equivalent viscous" damping for solid-friction damping. For the limiting case of the static-aerodynamic approximation, a substantially different flutter dynamic pressure is obtained for solid friction identically zero compared with solid friction approaching zero as a limit. Use of the quasi-static aerodynamic approximation eliminates that difference.

  13. Friction at small displacement.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. E.; Aronstein, J.

    1972-01-01

    Low contact resistance between metal surfaces is often observed in spite of interposed lubricant and/or oxide films. To study this effect an apparatus is used with which normal force and tangential microdisplacement are applied between a small lead rider and a gold flat with various surface film conditions. Under nonoxidized and nonlubricated conditions, and with either oxide or stearic acid lubricant film alone, friction is high and contact resistance is low. With oxide and lubricant together, friction is much lower and slide is smooth, but contact resistance remains low and Ohm's law is obeyed. The results are consistent with Greenwood's theory of contact resistance for a cluster of minute metallic contact spots within the load-supporting area. The contact resistance of such a cluster is indistinguishable, for practical purposes, from that given by complete metallic contact.

  14. Friction-reducing device

    SciTech Connect

    Dollison, W.W.

    1990-04-24

    This patent describes a sucker rod coupling adapted to reduce friction within production tubing in a well bore. It comprises: a substantially cylindrical body member and roller assemblies; the body member comprising means at each end thereof for attaching the coupling to a sucker rod, and axially and circumferentially spaced recesses, each recess containing a roller guide connected to the body, and each recess being further adapted to receive and support a roller assembly around the roller guide in such manner that the roller assembly can revolve around the roller guide; the roller assemblies each comprising rollers rotatably mounted on and linked by a chain, the rollers being adapted to reduce frictional contact between the body member and the tubing by rotating between the roller guide and the tubing while the chain revolves around the roller guide.

  15. Friction and Wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pomey, Jacques

    1952-01-01

    From the practical point of view, this analysis shows that each problem of friction or wear requires its particular solution. There is no universal solution; one or other of the factors predominates and defines the choice of the solution. In certain cases, copper alloys of great thermal conductivity are preferred; in others, plastics abundantly supplied with water. Sometimes, soft antifriction metals are desirable to distribute the load; at other times, hard metals with high resistance to abrasion or heat.

  16. Friction in rail guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of friction is included in the present equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun. These equations, which have their basis in an empirical formulation, are applied to results from two different experiments. Only an approximate physical description of the problem is attempted, in view of the complexity of details in the interaction among forces of this magnitude over time periods of the order of milisecs.

  17. A Theoretical Investigation of Longitudinal Stability of Airplanes with Free Controls Including Effect of Friction in Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Harry; Sternfield, Leonard

    1944-01-01

    The relation between the elevator hinge moment parameters and the control forces for changes in forward speed and in maneuvers is shown for several values of static stability and elevator mass balance. The stability of the short period oscillations is shown as a series of boundaries giving the limits of the stable regions in terms of the elevator hinge moment parameters. The effects of static stability, elevator moment of inertia, elevator mass unbalance, and airplane density are also considered. Dynamic instability is likely to occur if there is mass unbalance of the elevator control system combined with a small restoring tendency (high aerodynamic balance). This instability can be prevented by a rearrangement of the unbalancing weights which, however, involves an increase of the amount of weight necessary. It can also be prevented by the addition of viscous friction to the elevator control system provided the airplane center of gravity is not behind a certain critical position. For high values of the density parameter, which correspond to high altitudes of flight, the addition of moderate amounts of viscous friction may be destabilizing even when the airplane is statically stable. In this case, increasing the viscous friction makes the oscillation stable again. The condition in which viscous friction causes dynamic instability of a statically stable airplane is limited to a definite range of hinge moment parameters. It is shown that, when viscous friction causes increasing oscillations, solid friction will produce steady oscillations having an amplitude proportional to the amount of friction.

  18. High Speed Ice Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour-Pierce, Alexandra; Sammonds, Peter; Lishman, Ben

    2014-05-01

    Many different tribological experiments have been run to determine the frictional behaviour of ice at high speeds, ostensibly with the intention of applying results to everyday fields such as winter tyres and sports. However, experiments have only been conducted up to linear speeds of several metres a second, with few additional subject specific studies reaching speeds comparable to these applications. Experiments were conducted in the cold rooms of the Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory, UCL, on a custom built rotational tribometer based on previous literature designs. Preliminary results from experiments run at 2m/s for ice temperatures of 271 and 263K indicate that colder ice has a higher coefficient of friction, in accordance with the literature. These results will be presented, along with data from further experiments conducted at temperatures between 259-273K (in order to cover a wide range of the temperature dependent behaviour of ice) and speeds of 2-15m/s to produce a temperature-velocity-friction map for ice. The effect of temperature, speed and slider geometry on the deformation of ice will also be investigated. These speeds are approaching those exhibited by sports such as the luge (where athletes slide downhill on an icy track), placing the tribological work in context.

  19. Influence of molecular weight on friction force microscopy of polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) films: correlation between coefficient of friction and chain entanglement.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Tracie J; Leggett, Graham J

    2009-02-17

    The frictional properties of spun-cast films of polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) have been characterized using friction force microscopy (FFM). In air, the friction-load relationship was found to obey Johnson-Kendall-Roberts mechanics, but under ethanol, it was found to fit Amontons' Law. The coefficient of friction measured under ethanol was found to increase with increasing molecular weight, up to a molecular weight close to the bulk critical molecular weight for entanglement. At greater values than this, the coefficient of friction changed comparatively little with molecular weight. It is suggested that at molecular weights below Mc, the frictional interaction is dominated by plowing of the tip between polymer molecules; as molecular weight increases, so the viscosity of the film increases and the coefficient of friction increases. After the onset of entanglement, the mechanism of energy dissipation changes to one in which the tip sticks in loops of polymer between entanglements, extending the chains until at a critical stress, the contact is broken. The frictional interaction is thus comparatively invariant with molecular weight. FFM was also used to investigate the kinetics of the UV-induced modification of PMMA. A progressive decrease in the coefficient of friction was observed as a function of the time that the film was exposed to UV light, a result which was correlated to a gradual reduction in the molecular weight of the polymer and, hence, the entanglement density of the system.

  20. Static and dynamic theoretical analyses of a scanning tip on suspended graphene surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yan-Zi; Guo, Jian-Gang

    2016-08-01

    Recent research progress shows that graphene exhibits distinct adhesion and friction behaviors. In the paper, the static and dynamic analyses of a diamond tip sliding on suspended graphene surface are conducted via theoretical and numerical research methods, and the adhesion and friction properties between them are investigated. The analytical expression of interaction potential between a diamond tip and graphene surface is derived based on the interatomic pairwise potential, and then, the lateral and normal interaction forces are calculated. The equilibrium heights and adhesion energy of the diamond tip are calculated on three particular sites of graphene surface. The influence of vertical distance between the tip and graphene surface is studied on the maximum static frictional force and initial velocity of tip. What is more, the influence of scanning velocity and damping are also analyzed on the frictional force and dynamic behaviors of the scanning tip, and the "stick-slip" phenomenon is observed and discussed by the numerical calculation.

  1. Strongly Modulated Friction of a Film-Terminated Ridge-Channel Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhenping; Hui, Chung-Yuen; Levrard, Benjamin; Bai, Ying; Jagota, Anand

    2016-05-01

    Natural contacting surfaces have remarkable surface mechanical properties, which has led to the development of bioinspired surface structures using rubbery materials with strongly enhanced adhesion and static friction. However, sliding friction of structured rubbery surfaces is almost always significantly lower than that of a flat control, often due to significant loss of contact. Here we show that a film-terminated ridge-channel structure can strongly enhance sliding friction. We show that with properly chosen materials and geometrical parameters the near surface structure undergoes mechanical instabilities along with complex folding and sliding of internal interfaces, which is responsible for the enhancement of sliding friction. Because this structure shows no enhancement of adhesion under normal indentation by a sphere, it breaks the connection between energy loss during normal and shear loading. This makes it potentially interesting in many applications, for instance in tires, where one wishes to minimize rolling resistance (normal loading) while maximizing sliding friction (shear loading).

  2. Strongly Modulated Friction of a Film-Terminated Ridge-Channel Structure

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhenping; Hui, Chung-Yuen; Levrard, Benjamin; Bai, Ying; Jagota, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Natural contacting surfaces have remarkable surface mechanical properties, which has led to the development of bioinspired surface structures using rubbery materials with strongly enhanced adhesion and static friction. However, sliding friction of structured rubbery surfaces is almost always significantly lower than that of a flat control, often due to significant loss of contact. Here we show that a film-terminated ridge-channel structure can strongly enhance sliding friction. We show that with properly chosen materials and geometrical parameters the near surface structure undergoes mechanical instabilities along with complex folding and sliding of internal interfaces, which is responsible for the enhancement of sliding friction. Because this structure shows no enhancement of adhesion under normal indentation by a sphere, it breaks the connection between energy loss during normal and shear loading. This makes it potentially interesting in many applications, for instance in tires, where one wishes to minimize rolling resistance (normal loading) while maximizing sliding friction (shear loading). PMID:27226233

  3. Electronic friction at the atomic scale: Conduction, electrostatic and magnetic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krim, Jacqueline; Altfeder, Igor

    2013-03-01

    We have performed a magnetic probe microscopy study of levitation and atomic-scale friction for Fe on YBCO (Tc = 92.5K) in the temperature range 65 - 293 K, to explore electronic contributions to friction at the atomic scale. The samples were prepared with oxygen-depleted surfaces, with thin semiconducting surface layers present atop the bulk. Below Tc, the friction coefficient was observed to be constant at 0.19 and exhibited no correlation with the strength of superconducting levitation forces observed below Tc. The friction coefficient exhibited a change in slope within experimental error of Tc that increased progressively above Tc and reached 0.33 by room temperature. The results were analyzed within the context of underlying atomic-scale electronic and phononic mechanisms that give rise to friction we conclude that contact electrification and static electricity play a significant role above Tc. Supported by NSF and AFOSR.

  4. Magnetized static black Saturn

    SciTech Connect

    Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.

    2008-06-15

    We present a new static solution to the 5D Einstein-Maxwell equations describing a static black hole surrounded by a nonrotating dipole black ring. The configuration is kept in equilibrium by an external magnetic field interacting with the dipole charge of the black ring. The properties of the black Saturn-like configuration are studied and the basic physical quantities are calculated. The solution demonstrates 2-fold continuous nonuniqueness of the 5D magnetized static neutral black objects for fixed total mass and Melvin background.

  5. Static conversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewell, R.; Mondt, J.

    Historically, all space power systems that have actually flown in space have relied on static energy conversion technology. Thus, static conversion is being considered for space nuclear power systems as well. There are four potential static conversion technologies which should be considered. These include: the alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC), the thermionic converter, the thermoelectric converter, and the thermophotovoltaic converter (TPV). These four conversion technologies will be described in brief detail along with their current status and development needs. In addition, the systems implications of using each of these conversion technologies with a space nuclear reactor power system will be evaluated and some comparisons made.

  6. Rectifier cabinet static breaker

    SciTech Connect

    Costantino, R.A.; Gliebe, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    A rectifier cabinet static breaker replaces a blocking diode pair with an SCR and the installation of a power transistor in parallel with the latch contactor to commutate the SCR to the off state. The SCR serves as a static breaker with fast turnoff capability providing an alternative way of achieving reactor scram in addition to performing the function of the replaced blocking diodes. The control circuitry for the rectifier cabinet static breaker includes on-line test capability and an LED indicator light to denote successful test completion. Current limit circuitry provides high-speed protection in the event of overload.

  7. Rectifier cabinet static breaker

    DOEpatents

    Costantino, Jr, Roger A.; Gliebe, Ronald J.

    1992-09-01

    A rectifier cabinet static breaker replaces a blocking diode pair with an SCR and the installation of a power transistor in parallel with the latch contactor to commutate the SCR to the off state. The SCR serves as a static breaker with fast turnoff capability providing an alternative way of achieving reactor scram in addition to performing the function of the replaced blocking diodes. The control circuitry for the rectifier cabinet static breaker includes on-line test capability and an LED indicator light to denote successful test completion. Current limit circuitry provides high-speed protection in the event of overload.

  8. ORPHEE 3D: Static and dynamic tridimensional BHA computer models

    SciTech Connect

    Birades, M.

    1986-01-01

    Elf Aquitaine, within an ARTEP research project granted by EEC, has developed two three-dimensional mathematical models to predict the directional behavior of bottom hole assemblies (BHAs). Both models simulate BHAs by finite element methods. The first model describes dynamically their transient behavior step by step during short time intervals which are continuously adjusted to attain the required precision. Displacements and lateral forces, computed for each step, integrate friction against the borehole wall through a sophisticated shock algorithm. The second model computes a static equilibrium of the BHA while assuming simplified friction forces at the contact points between the wellbore and the BHA. The lateral forces and displacements are found to be an average of the highly varying ones computed by the dynamic model and the static computer run is much faster.

  9. Rotational friction of dipolar colloids measured by driven torsional oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Steinbach, Gabi; Gemming, Sibylle; Erbe, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Despite its prominent role in the dynamics of soft materials, rotational friction remains a quantity that is difficult to determine for many micron-sized objects. Here, we demonstrate how the Stokes coefficient of rotational friction can be obtained from the driven torsional oscillations of single particles in a highly viscous environment. The idea is that the oscillation amplitude of a dipolar particle under combined static and oscillating fields provides a measure for the Stokes friction. From numerical studies we derive a semi-empirical analytic expression for the amplitude of the oscillation, which cannot be calculated analytically from the equation of motion. We additionally demonstrate that this expression can be used to experimentally determine the rotational friction coefficient of single particles. Here, we record the amplitudes of a field-driven dipolar Janus microsphere with optical microscopy. The presented method distinguishes itself in its experimental and conceptual simplicity. The magnetic torque leaves the local environment unchanged, which contrasts with other approaches where, for example, additional mechanical (frictional) or thermal contributions have to be regarded. PMID:27680399

  10. Rotational friction of dipolar colloids measured by driven torsional oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbach, Gabi; Gemming, Sibylle; Erbe, Artur

    2016-09-01

    Despite its prominent role in the dynamics of soft materials, rotational friction remains a quantity that is difficult to determine for many micron-sized objects. Here, we demonstrate how the Stokes coefficient of rotational friction can be obtained from the driven torsional oscillations of single particles in a highly viscous environment. The idea is that the oscillation amplitude of a dipolar particle under combined static and oscillating fields provides a measure for the Stokes friction. From numerical studies we derive a semi-empirical analytic expression for the amplitude of the oscillation, which cannot be calculated analytically from the equation of motion. We additionally demonstrate that this expression can be used to experimentally determine the rotational friction coefficient of single particles. Here, we record the amplitudes of a field-driven dipolar Janus microsphere with optical microscopy. The presented method distinguishes itself in its experimental and conceptual simplicity. The magnetic torque leaves the local environment unchanged, which contrasts with other approaches where, for example, additional mechanical (frictional) or thermal contributions have to be regarded.

  11. Friction laws for lubricated nanocontacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzio, R.; Boragno, C.; Valbusa, U.

    2006-09-01

    We have used friction force microscopy to probe friction laws for nanoasperities sliding on atomically flat substrates under controlled atmosphere and liquid environment, respectively. A power law relates friction force and normal load in dry air, whereas a linear relationship, i.e., Amontons' law, is observed for junctions fully immersed in model lubricants, namely, octamethylciclotetrasiloxane and squalane. Lubricated contacts display a remarkable friction reduction, with liquid and substrate specific friction coefficients. Comparison with molecular dynamics simulations suggests that load-bearing boundary layers at junction entrance cause the appearance of Amontons' law and impart atomic-scale character to the sliding process; continuum friction models are on the contrary of limited predictive power when applied to lubrication effects. An attempt is done to define general working conditions leading to the manifestation of nanoscale lubricity due to adsorbed boundary layers.

  12. Solid friction between soft filaments.

    PubMed

    Ward, Andrew; Hilitski, Feodor; Schwenger, Walter; Welch, David; Lau, A W C; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Mahadevan, L; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2015-06-01

    Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments' overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes's drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament's elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the properties of fibrous composite materials.

  13. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid; Ram, G.D. Janaki; Reddy, G. Madhusudhan; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2012-08-15

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  14. The Friction of Piston Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischbein, Hans W

    1945-01-01

    The coefficient of friction between piston ring and cylinder liner was measured in relation to gliding acceleration, pressure, temperature, quantity of oil and quality of oil. Comparing former lubrication-technical tests, conclusions were drawn as to the state of friction. The coefficients of friction as figured out according to the hydrodynamic theory were compared with those measured by tests. Special tests were made on "oiliness." The highest permissible pressure was measured and the ratio of pressure discussed.

  15. What Thai students Think about Directions and Types of Frictional Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasitpong, Singha; Chitaree, Ratchapak

    2010-07-01

    The frictional force is one of the obstacles to learning in physics. By itself, this topic consists of complicated ideas. In this study, we have investigated Thai students' ideas about directions and types of frictional forces by using open-ended questions and interviews. For example, these students believed that the direction of the frictional force always opposes to that of the motion or that of the external force exerted to such object. Moreover, most students thought that the frictional forces are resistant forces involving the object movement. They did not realize that sometimes the frictional force causes the object to move; has the same direction of the motion as well. About the kinetic friction, most students thought that if an object moves, it will always have the kinetic friction at the contact areas. From what we have found, we suggest that important steps for improving students' understanding of frictional forces is to teach students to draw free body diagrams, which can help students to visualize all forces acting on a single object.

  16. Improved Skin Friction Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, R. V.; Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    An improved system for measuring aerodynamic skin friction which uses a dual-laser-beam oil-film interferometer was developed. Improvements in the optical hardware provided equal signal characteristics for each beam and reduced the cost and complexity of the system by replacing polarization rotation by a mirrored prism for separation of the two signals. An automated, objective, data-reduction procedure was implemented to eliminate tedious manual manipulation of the interferometry data records. The present system was intended for use in two-dimensional, incompressible flows over a smooth, level surface without pressure gradient, but the improvements discussed are not limited to this application.

  17. Iliotibial band friction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kirk, K L; Kuklo, T; Klemme, W

    2000-11-01

    Overuse knee injuries are common, but ITBFS is often overlooked as a cause of lateral knee pain in an active population. Iliotibial band friction syndrome is an overuse injury usually seen in long distance runners, cyclists, and military personnel. The exact incidence of the syndrome has been estimated to range from 1.6%-52% depending on the population studied. The diagnosis is often made from a thorough history and clinical examination with an infrequent need for additional studies. Treatment is mostly conservative consisting of rest and anti-inflammatory agents, with only the refractory cases requiring surgical resection of the impinging portion of the ITB.

  18. Frictional granular mechanics: A variational approach

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzman, R.; Silin, D.B.; Patzek, T.W.

    2009-10-16

    The mechanical properties of a cohesionless granular material are evaluated from grain-scale simulations. Intergranular interactions, including friction and sliding, are modeled by a set of contact rules based on the theories of Hertz, Mindlin, and Deresiewicz. A computer generated, three-dimensional, irregular pack of spherical grains is loaded by incremental displacement of its boundaries. Deformation is described by a sequence of static equilibrium configurations of the pack. A variational approach is employed to find the equilibrium configurations by minimizing the total work against the intergranular loads. Effective elastic moduli are evaluated from the intergranular forces and the deformation of the pack. Good agreement between the computed and measured moduli, achieved with no adjustment of material parameters, establishes the physical soundness of the proposed model.

  19. The Schroedinger equation with friction from the quantum trajectory perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Garashchuk, Sophya; Dixit, Vaibhav; Gu Bing; Mazzuca, James

    2013-02-07

    Similarity of equations of motion for the classical and quantum trajectories is used to introduce a friction term dependent on the wavefunction phase into the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The term describes irreversible energy loss by the quantum system. The force of friction is proportional to the velocity of a quantum trajectory. The resulting Schroedinger equation is nonlinear, conserves wavefunction normalization, and evolves an arbitrary wavefunction into the ground state of the system (of appropriate symmetry if applicable). Decrease in energy is proportional to the average kinetic energy of the quantum trajectory ensemble. Dynamics in the high friction regime is suitable for simple models of reactions proceeding with energy transfer from the system to the environment. Examples of dynamics are given for single and symmetric and asymmetric double well potentials.

  20. Tidal friction in rotating turbulent convectivestellar and planetary regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, S.; Auclair-Desrotour, P.; Guenel, M.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.

    2014-12-01

    Turbulent friction in stellar and planetary convection zones is one of the key physical mechanisms that drive the dissipation of the kinetic energy of tidal flows in stars and planets hosting companions. This friction acting both on the equilibrium tide and on tidal inertial waves thus deeply impacts the dynamics of the spin of the host star/planet and the orbital architecture of the surrounding system. It is thus very important to obtain robust prescription for this friction. In the current state-of-the-art, it is modeled by a turbulent viscosity coefficient using mixing-length theory. However, none of the existing prescriptions take into account the action of the possibly rapid rotation that strongly affects convective flows. In this work, we propose such a new prescription that takes into account rotation and discuss the possible implication for tidal dissipation in rotating stars and planets.

  1. Slow frictional waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, Koushik; Sundaram, Narayan; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan

    Stick-slip, manifest as intermittent tangential motion between two dry solid surfaces, is a friction instability that governs diverse phenomena from automobile brake squeals to earthquakes. We show, using high-speed in situ imaging of an adhesive polymer interface, that low velocity stick-slip is fundamentally of three kinds, corresponding to passage of three different surface waves -- separation pulses, slip pulses and the well-known Schallamach waves. These waves, traveling much slower than elastic waves, have clear distinguishing properties. Separation pulses and Schallamach waves involve local interface separation, and propagate in opposite directions while slip pulses are characterized by a sharp stress front and do not display any interface detachment. A change in the stick-slip mode from separation to slip pulse is effected simply by increasing the normal force. Together, these three waves constitute all possible stick-slip modes in adhesive friction and are shown to have direct analogues in muscular locomotory waves in soft bodied invertebrates. A theory for slow wave propagation is also presented which is capable of explaining the attendant interface displacements, velocities and stresses.

  2. Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process invented in 1991 at The Welding Institute in the United Kingdom. A weld is made in the FSW process by translating a rotating pin along a weld seam so as to stir the sides of the seam together. FSW avoids deleterious effects inherent in melting and promises to be an important welding process for any industries where welds of optimal quality are demanded. This article provides an introduction to the FSW process. The chief concern is the physical effect of the tool on the weld metal: how weld seam bonding takes place, what kind of weld structure is generated, potential problems, possible defects for example, and implications for process parameters and tool design. Weld properties are determined by structure, and the structure of friction stir welds is determined by the weld metal flow field in the vicinity of the weld tool. Metal flow in the vicinity of the weld tool is explained through a simple kinematic flow model that decomposes the flow field into three basic component flows: a uniform translation, a rotating solid cylinder, and a ring vortex encircling the tool. The flow components, superposed to construct the flow model, can be related to particular aspects of weld process parameters and tool design; they provide a bridge to an understanding of a complex-at-first-glance weld structure. Torques and forces are also discussed. Some simple mathematical models of structural aspects, torques, and forces are included.

  3. Elastic model of dry friction

    SciTech Connect

    Larkin, A. I.; Khmelnitskii, D. E.

    2013-09-15

    Friction of elastic bodies is connected with the passing through the metastable states that arise at the contact of surfaces rubbing against each other. Three models are considered that give rise to the metastable states. Friction forces and their dependence on the pressure are calculated. In Appendix A, the contact problem of elasticity theory is solved with adhesion taken into account.

  4. Corrosion effects on friction factors

    SciTech Connect

    Magleby, H.L.; Shaffer, S.J.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents the results of NRC-sponsored material specimen tests that were performed to determine if corrosion increases the friction factors of sliding surfaces of motor-operated gate valves, which could require higher forces to close and open safety-related valves when subjected to their design basis differential pressures. Friction tests were performed with uncorroded specimens and specimens subjected to accelerated corrosion. Preliminary tests at ambient conditions showed that corrosion increased the friction factors, indicating the need for additional tests duplicating valve operating parameters at hot conditions. The additional tests showed friction factors of corroded specimens were 0.1 to 0.2 higher than for uncorroded specimens, and that the friction factors of the corroded specimens were not very dependent on contact stress or corrosion film thickness. The measured values of friction factors for the three corrosion films tested (simulating three operating times) were in the range of 0.3 to 0.4. The friction factor for even the shortest simulated operating time was essentially the same as the others, indicating that the friction factors appear to reach a plateau and that the plateau is reached quickly.

  5. Theoretical analysis of the dynamic behavior of presliding rolling friction via skeleton technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahjowidodo, T.

    2012-05-01

    Depending on the application, friction in mechanical systems can be a desirable or an undesirable thing. In order to optimally utilize or compensate for the frictional effect in the system, characterization of the frictional behavior is a crucial task. Unfortunately, friction force exhibits strong (hysteretic) nonlinear relationship with sliding velocity, displacement and time, which makes the characterization to become a difficult task to fulfill. The classical Coulomb friction has been widely used, especially in the field of control engineering to compensate for the static force in a system. However, despite its simplicity, the effectiveness of the Coulomb model in capturing the frictional behavior of friction in the presliding regime is very low. This paper deals with the derivation of equivalent modal parameters, namely the stiffness and damping elements, to represent the hysteresis friction element on mechanical systems. The analysis is carried out using the skeleton technique, which employs the instantaneous amplitude and frequency of the excitation input and the response of the system. Subsequently, the dynamic analysis is performed on the equivalent system and the result is compared to that of the original system. The results show good agreement between the equivalent system and the original system for wide range of excitation.

  6. Fundamental deformation processes controlling nanoscale friction and wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotsmann, Bernd

    2010-03-01

    Thermally activated processes are often responsible for the kinetics of deformation and can control tribological performance. In this contribution two such processes are discussed in combination with nanoscale tribology experiments using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The first process describes single asperity wear as an atom-by-atom loss process driven by frictional shear stresses an interface. The wear rate is described by a thermally activated bond breaking process in which the energy barrier is reduced by the frictional shear stress. This leads to dramatic deviations from Archard's wear law which is commonly used to described macroscopic wear. Experimental confirmation of an atom-by-atom wear process is given by AFM wear experiments using different material combinations of tips sliding on surfaces [1]. The second process relates fundamental rearranging processes in polymers to friction. As an example, data of sliding friction between a silicon tip and a highly cross-linked polyaryletherketone film using friction force microscopy are presented. Energy dissipation into so-called molecular relaxations (alpha and beta relaxations) is identified as distinctive maxima of the friction force as a function of temperature between 150 and 500 K. A strong shift of such peak temperatures as a function of applied load is observed. Again, a model with an Arrhenius activation modulated by the applied shear stress describes experimental results quantitatively. The effect of the stress-shifted relaxation on friction-versus-load experiments is discussed [2]. Both processes will be discussed in the context of technological applications. [4pt] [1] B. Gotsmann and M. A. Lantz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 125501 (2008) [0pt] [2] L. Jansen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 236101 (2009)

  7. Friction between Archwire of Different Sizes, Cross Section, Alloy and Brackets Ligated with Different Brands of Low Friction Elastic Ligatures- An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Bhushan; Patil, Neeraj Suresh; Kerudi, Veerendra Virupaxappa; Chitko, Shrikant Shrinivas; Maheshwari, Amit Ratanlal; Pekhale, Nikhita Popatrao; Tekale, Pawankumar Dnyandeo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Friction in orthodontic treatment does exist and is thought to reduce the efficiency of orthodontic appliances during sliding mechanics. During sliding mechanics, a friction force is produced at the bracket archwire-ligature unit which tends to counteract the applied force and in turn resists the desired movement. Aim The aim of this invitro study was to determine the friction between archwire of different sizes, cross section, alloy and brackets ligated with different brands of low friction elastic ligatures. Materials and Methods An 0.022-in slot, 10 stainless steel brackets and various orthodontic archwires which were ligated with low-friction ligatures and subjected to evaluate frictional resistance i.e. static friction and dynamic friction. The archwires of 0.014″ and 0.016″ nickel titanium (NiTi), 0.016 × 0.022″ stainless steel (SS), 0.017 × 0.025″ NiTi, 0.017 × 0.025″ SS, 0.017 × 0.025″ titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA), 0.019 × 0.025″ SS were used. Each bracket/archwire combination was evaluated 10 times at room temperature of 27 ± 2°C. The study groups included Group I of conventional round shape module with reduced friction coating i.e. super slick and synergy and Group II contained figure of “8” shape module i.e. Octavia ties and Slide ligature. Result The mean static friction force and dynamic friction force for all 7 types of wires was lower in Group II (C, D) combined compared to Group I (A, B) and the difference was statistically very highly significant (p<0.001). Conclusion Super slick and synergy can be used in the initial and final phase of treatment when full engagement of archwire in the bracket slot is necessary for proper tip and torque expression. Slide and Octavia ties modules can be used in the premolar brackets during en mass retraction when using friction mechanics. PMID:27190944

  8. Friction between a surrogate skin (Lorica Soft) and nonwoven fabrics used in hygiene products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falloon, Sabrina S.; Cottenden, Alan

    2016-09-01

    Incontinence pad wearers often suffer from sore skin, and a better understanding of friction between pads and skin is needed to inform the development of less damaging materials. This work investigated friction between a skin surrogate (Lorica Soft) and 13 nonwoven fabrics representing those currently used against the skin in commercial pads. All fabrics were found to behave consistently with Amontons’ law: coefficients of friction did not differ systematically when measured under two different loads. Although the 13 fabrics varied considerably in composition and structure, their coefficients of friction (static and dynamic) against Lorica Soft were remarkably similar, especially for the ten fabrics comprising just polypropylene (PP) fibres. The coefficients of friction for one PP fabric never differed by more than 15.7% from those of any other, suggesting that the ranges of fibre decitex (2.0-6.5), fabric area density (13-30 g m-2) and bonding area (11%-25%) they exhibited had only limited impact on their friction properties. It is likely that differences were largely attributable to variability in properties between multiple samples of a given fabric. Of the remaining fabrics, the one comprising polyester fibres had significantly higher coefficients of friction than the highest friction PP fabric (p < 0.005), while the one comprising PP fibres with a polyethylene sheath had significantly lower coefficients of friction than the lowest friction PP fabric (p < 10-8). However, fabrics differed in too many other ways to confidently attribute these differences in friction properties just to the choice of base polymer.

  9. Rolling friction robot fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A low friction, object guidance, and gripping finger device for a robotic end effector on a robotic arm is disclosed, having a pair of robotic fingers each having a finger shaft slideably located on a gripper housing attached to the end effector. Each of the robotic fingers has a roller housing attached to the finger shaft. The roller housing has a ball bearing mounted centering roller located at the center, and a pair of ball bearing mounted clamping rollers located on either side of the centering roller. The object has a recess to engage the centering roller and a number of seating ramps for engaging the clamping rollers. The centering roller acts to position and hold the object symmetrically about the centering roller with respect to the X axis and the clamping rollers act to position and hold the object with respect to the Y and Z axis.

  10. Development and validation of a new method for measuring friction between skin and nonwoven materials.

    PubMed

    Cottenden, A M; Wong, W K; Cottenden, D J; Farbrot, A

    2008-07-01

    A new method for measuring the coefficient of friction between nonwoven materials and the curved surface of the volar forearm has been developed and validated. The method was used to measure the coefficient of static friction for three different nonwoven materials on the normal (dry) and over-hydrated volar forearms of five female volunteers (ages 18-44). The method proved simple to run and had good repeatability: the coefficient of variation (standard deviation expressed as a percentage of the mean) for triplets of repeat measurements was usually (80 per cent of the time) less than 10 per cent. Measurements involving the geometrically simpler configuration of pulling a weighted fabric sample horizontally across a quasi-planar area of volar forearm skin proved experimentally more difficult and had poorer repeatability. However, correlations between values of coefficient of static friction derived using the two methods were good (R = 0.81 for normal (dry) skin, and 0.91 for over-hydrated skin). Measurements of the coefficient of static friction for the three nonwovens for normal (dry) and for over-hydrated skin varied in the ranges of about 0.3-0.5 and 0.9-1.3, respectively. In agreement with Amontons' law, coefficients of friction were invariant with normal pressure over the entire experimental range (0.1-8.2 kPa).

  11. Eliminating friction with friction: 2D Janssen effect in a friction-driven system.

    PubMed

    Karim, M Yasinul; Corwin, Eric I

    2014-05-01

    The Janssen effect is a unique property of confined granular materials experiencing gravitational compaction in which the pressure at the bottom saturates with an increasing filling height due to frictional interactions with side walls. In this Letter, we replace gravitational compaction with frictional compaction. We study friction-compacted 2D granular materials confined within fixed boundaries on a horizontal conveyor belt. We find that even with high-friction side walls the Janssen effect completely vanishes. Our results demonstrate that gravity-compacted granular systems are inherently different from friction-compacted systems in at least one important way: vibrations induced by sliding friction with the driving surface relax away tangential forces on the walls. Remarkably, we find that the Janssen effect can be recovered by replacing the straight side walls with a sawtooth pattern. The mechanical force introduced by varying the sawtooth angle θ can be viewed as equivalent to a tunable friction force. By construction, this mechanical friction force cannot be relaxed away by vibrations in the system. PMID:24856724

  12. Dynamic instabilities of frictional sliding at a bimaterial interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brener, Efim A.; Weikamp, Marc; Spatschek, Robert; Bar-Sinai, Yohai; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2016-04-01

    obtained in the quasi-static regime appear relevant only within a narrow region of the parameter space. Finally, we show that a finite-time regularized response to normal stress variations, within the framework of generalized rate-and-state friction models, tends to promote stability. The relevance of our results to the rupture of bi-material interfaces is briefly discussed.

  13. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surfacemore » contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.« less

  14. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surface contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.

  15. Singular Elasto-Static Field Near a Fault Kink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Rodrigo; Madariaga, Raúl; Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar

    2011-12-01

    We study singular elastic solutions at an angular corner left by a crack that has kinked. We have in mind a geophysical context where the faults on either side of the kink are under compression and are ready to slip, or have already slipped, under the control of Coulomb friction. We find separable static singular solutions that are matched across the sides of the corner by applying appropriate boundary conditions. In our more general solution we assume that one of the sides of the corner is about to slide, i.e. it is just contained by friction, and the other may be less pressured. Our solutions display power law behaviour with real exponents that depend continuously on the angle of the corner, the coefficient of static friction and the difference of shear load on both sides of the corner. When friction is the same on both sides of the kink, the solutions split into a symmetric and an antisymmetric solution. The antisymmetric solution corresponds to the simple shear case; while the symmetric solution appears when the kink is loaded by uniaxial stress along the bisector of the kink. The antisymmetric solution is ruled out under this model with contact since the faults cannot sustain tension. When one side of the corner is less pressured one can also distinguish modes with contact overall from others that must open up on one side. These solutions provide an insight into the stress distributions near fault kinks, they can also be used as tools for improving the numerical calculation of kinks under static or dynamic loads.

  16. I.1. Statics.

    PubMed

    Verkerke, Gijsbertus J; Lee, T Clive

    2010-01-01

    The forces that act on an object determine its dynamic behaviour and defromation. Analysis of all forces and moments is essential. A free-body diagram summarizes all forces and moments that act on an object. To calculate the magnitude of the forces we can use the static equilibrium of forces and moments. PMID:20407182

  17. Why Static Clings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naab, Laurie; Henry, David

    2009-01-01

    Using Wiggins and McTighe's (1998) concept of Big Ideas, the authors planned and designed an electricity investigation to address common student misconceptions about static electricity. With Styrofoam plates and transparent tape, elementary students investigated many properties of electrically charged and uncharged objects in a 5E learning cycle…

  18. Static cylindrical matter shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arık, Metin; Delice, Özgür

    2005-08-01

    Static cylindrical shells composed of massive particles arising from matching of two different Levi-Civita space-times are studied for the shell satisfying either an isotropic or an anisotropic equation of state. We find that these solutions satisfy the energy conditions for certain ranges of the parameters.

  19. Flow Friction or Spontaneous Ignition?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Gallus, Timothy D.; Sparks, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    "Flow friction," a proposed ignition mechanism in oxygen systems, has proved elusive in attempts at experimental verification. In this paper, the literature regarding flow friction is reviewed and the experimental verification attempts are briefly discussed. Another ignition mechanism, a form of spontaneous combustion, is proposed as an explanation for at least some of the fire events that have been attributed to flow friction in the literature. In addition, the results of a failure analysis performed at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility are presented, and the observations indicate that spontaneous combustion was the most likely cause of the fire in this 2000 psig (14 MPa) oxygen-enriched system.

  20. REDUCED ENGINE FRICTION AND WEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Ron Matthews

    2005-05-01

    This Final Technical Report discusses the progress was made on the experimental and numerical tasks over the duration of this project regarding a new technique for decreasing engine friction and wear via liner rotation. The experimental subtasks involved quantifying the reduction in engine friction for a prototype rotating liner engine relative to a comparable baseline engine. Both engine were single cylinder conversions of nominally identical production four-cylinder engines. Hot motoring tests were conducted initially and revealed that liner rotation decreased engine friction by 20% under motoring conditions. A well-established model was used to estimate that liner rotation should decrease the friction of a four-cylinder engine by 40% under hot motoring conditions. Hot motoring tear-down tests revealed that the crankshaft and valve train frictional losses were essentially the same for the two engines, as expected. However, the rotating liner engine had much lower (>70%) piston assembly friction compared to the conventional engine. Finally, we used the Instantaneous IMEP method to compare the crank-angle resolved piston assembly friction for the two engines. Under hot motoring conditions, these measurements revealed a significant reduction in piston assembly friction, especially in the vicinity of compression TDC when the lubrication regime transitions from hydrodynamic through mixed and into boundary friction. We have some remaining problems with these measurements that we expect to solve during the next few weeks. We will then perform these measurements under firing conditions. We also proposed to improve the state-of-the-art of numerical modeling of piston assembly friction for conventional engines and then to extend this model to rotating liner engines. Our research team first modeled a single ring in the Purdue ring-liner test rig. Our model showed good agreement with the test rig data for a range of speeds and loads. We then modeled a complete piston

  1. On laminar and turbulent friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Karman, TH

    1946-01-01

    Report deals, first with the theory of the laminar friction flow, where the basic concepts of Prandtl's boundary layer theory are represented from mathematical and physical points of view, and a method is indicated by means of which even more complicated cases can be treated with simple mathematical means, at least approximately. An attempt is also made to secure a basis for the computation of the turbulent friction by means of formulas through which the empirical laws of the turbulent pipe resistance can be applied to other problems on friction drag. (author)

  2. Friction and adhesion mediated by supramolecular host-guest complexes.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Roberto; Benassi, Andrea; Vanossi, Andrea; Ma, Ming; Urbakh, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The adhesive and frictional response of an AFM tip connected to a substrate through supramolecular host-guest complexes is investigated by dynamic Monte Carlo simulations. Here, the variation of the pull-off force with the unloading rate recently observed in experiments is unraveled by evidencing simultaneous (progressive) breaking of the bonds at fast (slow) rates. The model reveals the origin of the observed plateaus in the retraction force as a function of the tip-surface distance, showing that they result from the tip geometrical features. In lateral sliding, the model exhibits a wide range of dynamic behaviors ranging from smooth sliding to stick-slip at different velocities, with the average friction force determined by the characteristic formation/rupture rates of the complexes. In particular, it is shown that for some molecular complexes friction can become almost constant over a wide range of velocities. Also, we show the possibility of exploiting the ageing effect through slide-hold-slide experiments, in order to infer the characteristic formation rate. Finally, our model predicts a novel "anti-ageing" effect which is characterized by a decrease of the static friction force with the hold time. Such an effect is explained in terms of enhancement of adhesion during sliding, especially observed at high driving velocities. PMID:26975343

  3. Friction force reduction triggers feet grooming behaviour in beetles.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Naoe; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2011-06-01

    In insects, cleaning (grooming) of tarsal attachment devices is essential for maintaining their adhesive ability, necessary for walking on a complex terrain of plant surfaces. How insects obtain information on the degree of contamination of their feet has remained, until recently, unclear. We carried out friction force measurements on walking beetles Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and counted grooming occurrence on stiff polymer substrata with different degrees of nanoroughness (root mean square: 28-288 nm). Since nanoscopically, rough surfaces strongly reduced friction and adhesion without contaminating feet, we were able to demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, that friction force between tarsal attachment pads and the substrate provides an insect with information on the degree of contamination of its attachment structures. We have shown that foot grooming occurrence correlates not only with the degree of contamination but also with the decrease of friction force. This result indicates that insects obtain information about the degree of contamination, not statically but rather dynamically and, presumably, use mechanoreceptors monitoring either tensile/compressive forces in the cuticle or tensile forces between leg segments.

  4. Multimodal Friction Ignition Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Eddie; Howard, Bill; Herald, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The multimodal friction ignition tester (MFIT) is a testbed for experiments on the thermal and mechanical effects of friction on material specimens in pressurized, oxygen-rich atmospheres. In simplest terms, a test involves recording sensory data while rubbing two specimens against each other at a controlled normal force, with either a random stroke or a sinusoidal stroke having controlled amplitude and frequency. The term multimodal in the full name of the apparatus refers to a capability for imposing any combination of widely ranging values of the atmospheric pressure, atmospheric oxygen content, stroke length, stroke frequency, and normal force. The MFIT was designed especially for studying the tendency toward heating and combustion of nonmetallic composite materials and the fretting of metals subjected to dynamic (vibrational) friction forces in the presence of liquid oxygen or pressurized gaseous oxygen test conditions approximating conditions expected to be encountered in proposed composite material oxygen tanks aboard aircraft and spacecraft in flight. The MFIT includes a stainless-steel pressure vessel capable of retaining the required test atmosphere. Mounted atop the vessel is a pneumatic cylinder containing a piston for exerting the specified normal force between the two specimens. Through a shaft seal, the piston shaft extends downward into the vessel. One of the specimens is mounted on a block, denoted the pressure block, at the lower end of the piston shaft. This specimen is pressed down against the other specimen, which is mounted in a recess in another block, denoted the slip block, that can be moved horizontally but not vertically. The slip block is driven in reciprocating horizontal motion by an electrodynamic vibration exciter outside the pressure vessel. The armature of the electrodynamic exciter is connected to the slip block via a horizontal shaft that extends into the pressure vessel via a second shaft seal. The reciprocating horizontal

  5. Force fluctuations while pressing and moving against high- and low-friction touch screen surfaces.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Mukta N; Keenan, Kevin G

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of a high- and low-friction surface on the ability to maintain a steady downward force during an index finger pressing and moving task. Fifteen right-handed subjects (24-48 years) performed a static force pressing task and a hybrid pressing and moving task on the surface of an iPad mini while holding a steady 2-N force on high- and low-friction surfaces. Variability of force was quantified as the standard deviation (SD) of normal force (F z) and shear force (F xy) across friction conditions and tasks. The SD of F z was 227 % greater during the hybrid task as compared to the static task (p < .001) and was 19 % greater for the high- versus low-friction condition (p = .033). There were positive correlations between SD of F z and F xy during the hybrid force/motion tasks on the high- and low-friction conditions (r (2) = 0.5 and 0.86, respectively), suggesting significant associations between normal and shear forces for this hybrid task. The correlation between the SD of F z for static and hybrid tasks was r (2) = 0.44, indicating that the common practice of examining the control of static tasks may not sufficiently explain performance during hybrid tasks, at least for the young subjects tested in the current study. As activities of daily living frequently require hybrid force/motion tasks (e.g., writing, doing the dishes, and cleaning counters), the results of this study emphasize the need to study motor performance during hybrid tasks in addition to static force tasks. PMID:26898313

  6. Force fluctuations while pressing and moving against high- and low-friction touch screen surfaces.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Mukta N; Keenan, Kevin G

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of a high- and low-friction surface on the ability to maintain a steady downward force during an index finger pressing and moving task. Fifteen right-handed subjects (24-48 years) performed a static force pressing task and a hybrid pressing and moving task on the surface of an iPad mini while holding a steady 2-N force on high- and low-friction surfaces. Variability of force was quantified as the standard deviation (SD) of normal force (F z) and shear force (F xy) across friction conditions and tasks. The SD of F z was 227 % greater during the hybrid task as compared to the static task (p < .001) and was 19 % greater for the high- versus low-friction condition (p = .033). There were positive correlations between SD of F z and F xy during the hybrid force/motion tasks on the high- and low-friction conditions (r (2) = 0.5 and 0.86, respectively), suggesting significant associations between normal and shear forces for this hybrid task. The correlation between the SD of F z for static and hybrid tasks was r (2) = 0.44, indicating that the common practice of examining the control of static tasks may not sufficiently explain performance during hybrid tasks, at least for the young subjects tested in the current study. As activities of daily living frequently require hybrid force/motion tasks (e.g., writing, doing the dishes, and cleaning counters), the results of this study emphasize the need to study motor performance during hybrid tasks in addition to static force tasks.

  7. Entrance and exit region friction factor models for annular seal analysis. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, David Alan

    1988-01-01

    The Mach number definition and boundary conditions in Nelson's nominally-centered, annular gas seal analysis are revised. A method is described for determining the wall shear stress characteristics of an annular gas seal experimentally. Two friction factor models are developed for annular seal analysis; one model is based on flat-plate flow theory; the other uses empirical entrance and exit region friction factors. The friction factor predictions of the models are compared to experimental results. Each friction model is used in an annular gas seal analysis. The seal characteristics predicted by the two seal analyses are compared to experimental results and to the predictions of Nelson's analysis. The comparisons are for smooth-rotor seals with smooth and honeycomb stators. The comparisons show that the analysis which uses empirical entrance and exit region shear stress models predicts the static and stability characteristics of annular gas seals better than the other analyses. The analyses predict direct stiffness poorly.

  8. Non-monotonic dependence of the friction coefficient on heterogeneous stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Giacco, F.; Ciamarra, M. Pica; Saggese, L.; de Arcangelis, L.; Lippiello, E.

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of the frictional dynamics at the microscopic scale makes difficult to identify all of its controlling parameters. Indeed, experiments on sheared elastic bodies have shown that the static friction coefficient depends on loading conditions, the real area of contact along the interfaces and the confining pressure. Here we show, by means of numerical simulations of a 2D Burridge-Knopoff model with a simple local friction law, that the macroscopic friction coefficient depends non-monotonically on the bulk elasticity of the system. This occurs because elastic constants control the geometrical features of the rupture fronts during the stick-slip dynamics, leading to four different ordering regimes characterized by different orientations of the rupture fronts with respect to the external shear direction. We rationalize these results by means of an energetic balance argument. PMID:25345800

  9. An asymmetric dimer in a periodic potential: a minimal model for friction of graphene flakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hens, Remco; Fasolino, Annalisa

    2016-07-01

    We discuss the friction and motion of a model of a dimer with asymmetric interactions with a substrate potential. Starting from the consideration that a rigid dimer with spacing equal to half of the period of the potential has exactly zero static friction like the infinite incommensurate Frenkel Kontorova model, we show how stick-slip behaviour and friction arise as a function of asymmetry. We argue that this model can yield a simple yet insightful description of the frictional behaviour of graphene flakes on graphite and of superlubricity. The results can also be of interest for diatomic molecules on surfaces. Supplementary material in the form of three mp4 files available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-70273-5

  10. Influence of ligation method on friction resistance of lingual brackets with different second-order angulations: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Graziane Olímpio; Gimenez, Carla Maria Melleiro; Prieto, Lucas; Prieto, Marcos Gabriel do Lago; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate stainless steel archwire static friction in active and passive self-ligating lingual and conventional brackets with second-order angulations. Methods: Two conventional lingual brackets for canines (STb light/Ormco; PSWb/Tecnident), and two self-ligating brackets, one active (In-Ovation L/GAC) and the other passive (3D/ Forestadent), were evaluated. A stainless steel archwire was used at 0°, 3° and 5° angulations. Metal ligatures, conventional elastic ligatures, and low friction elastic ligatures were also tested. A universal testing machine applied friction between brackets and wires, simulating sliding mechanics, to produce 2-mm sliding at 3 mm/minute speed. Results: Two-way analysis of variance demonstrated a significant effect of the interaction between brackets and angulations (p < 0.001). Tukey test indicated that the highest frictional resistance values were observed at 5° angulation for In-Ovation L, PSWb bracket with non conventional ligature, and STb bracket with metal ligature. As for 3D, PSWb with conventional or metal ligatures, and STb brackets with non conventional ligature, showed significantly lower static frictional resistance with 0° angulation. At 0° angulation, STb brackets with metal ties, In-Ovation L brackets and 3D brackets had the lowest frictional resistance. Conclusions: As the angulation increased from 0° to 3°, static friction resistance increased. When angulation increased from 3° to 5°, static friction resistance increased or remained the same. Self-ligating 3D and In-Ovation L brackets, as well as conventional STb brackets, seem to be the best option when sliding mechanics is used to perform lingual orthodontic treatment. PMID:27653262

  11. Radiation friction versus ponderomotive effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotov, A. M.; Elkina, N. V.; Gelfer, E. G.; Narozhny, N. B.; Ruhl, H.

    2014-11-01

    The concept of ponderomotive potential is upgraded to a regime in which radiation friction becomes dominant. The radiation friction manifests itself in long-term capturing of the particles released at the focus and impenetrability of the focus from the exterior. We apply time scale separation to the Landau-Lifshitz equation splitting the particle motion into quivering and slow drift of a guiding center. The drift equation is deduced by averaging over fast motion.

  12. Tire/runway friction interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of NASA Langley's tire/runway pavement interface studies. The National Tire Modeling Program, evaluation of new tire and landing gear designs, tire wear and friction tests, and tire hydroplaning studies are examined. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility is described along with some ground friction measuring vehicles. The major goals and scope of several joint FAA/NASA programs are identified together with current status and plans.

  13. Extended kinetic theory applied to snow avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauter, Matthias; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Fellin, Wolfgang; Kofler, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In this work we apply the extended kinetic theory, a three-dimensional rheological model for rapid granular flows, to the two-dimensional, depth-averaged shallow water framework, used in snow avalanche simulations. Usually, empirical relations are used to determine the basal friction, which represents the material behavior in the avalanche. Here we present an energy equivalent basal friction relation which accounts for energy dissipating processes in the avalanche body as predicted by the extended kinetic theory. The obtained relation is compared to traditional basal friction relations, e.g. the Voellmy model by conducting numerical simulations with both approaches. As reference, field measurements of runout, affected area and velocity are compared to the simulation results. Two avalanche events, that occurred at the Vallée de la Sionne and Ryggfonn test sites, are evaluated with this method. It is shown that the kinetic theory delivers a physically based explanation for the structure of phenomenological friction relations. However, the new form of the frictional terms explicitly takes the flow depth into account. As consequence, improvements in finding unified parameter sets for various observation variables and events of different sizes could be achieved.

  14. Characterization of Friction Joints Subjected to High Levels of Random Vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deSantos, Omar; MacNeal, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the test program in detail including test sample description, test procedures, and vibration test results of multiple test samples. The material pairs used in the experiment were Aluminum-Aluminum, Aluminum- Dicronite coated Aluminum, and Aluminum-Plasmadize coated Aluminum. Levels of vibration for each set of twelve samples of each material pairing were gradually increased until all samples experienced substantial displacement. Data was collected on 1) acceleration in all three axes, 2) relative static displacement between vibration runs utilizing photogrammetry techniques, and 3) surface galling and contaminant generation. This data was used to estimate the values of static friction during random vibratory motion when "stick-slip" occurs and compare these to static friction coefficients measured before and after vibration testing.

  15. Axial static mixer

    DOEpatents

    Sandrock, H.E.

    1982-05-06

    Static axial mixing apparatus includes a plurality of channels, forming flow paths of different dimensions. The axial mixer includes a flow adjusting device for adjustable selective control of flow resistance of various flow paths in order to provide substantially identical flows through the various channels, thereby reducing nonuniform coating of interior surfaces of the channels. The flow adjusting device may include diaphragm valves, and may further include a pressure regulating system therefor.

  16. Static cylindrically symmetric spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fjällborg, Mikael

    2007-05-01

    We prove the existence of static solutions to the cylindrically symmetric Einstein Vlasov system, and we show that the matter cylinder has finite extension in two of the three spatial dimensions. The same results are also proved for a quite general class of equations of state for perfect fluids coupled to the Einstein equations, extending the class of equations of state considered by Bicak et al (2004 Class. Quantum Grav.21 1583). We also obtain this result for the Vlasov Poisson system.

  17. History-dependent friction and slow slip from time-dependent microscopic junction laws studied in a statistical framework.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen, Kjetil; Trømborg, Jørgen Kjoshagen; Sveinsson, Henrik Andersen; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Scheibert, Julien

    2014-05-01

    To study how macroscopic friction phenomena originate from microscopic junction laws, we introduce a general statistical framework describing the collective behavior of a large number of individual microjunctions forming a macroscopic frictional interface. Each microjunction can switch in time between two states: a pinned state characterized by a displacement-dependent force and a slipping state characterized by a time-dependent force. Instead of tracking each microjunction individually, the state of the interface is described by two coupled distributions for (i) the stretching of pinned junctions and (ii) the time spent in the slipping state. This framework allows for a whole family of microjunction behavior laws, and we show how it represents an overarching structure for many existing models found in the friction literature. We then use this framework to pinpoint the effects of the time scale that controls the duration of the slipping state. First, we show that the model reproduces a series of friction phenomena already observed experimentally. The macroscopic steady-state friction force is velocity dependent, either monotonic (strengthening or weakening) or nonmonotonic (weakening-strengthening), depending on the microscopic behavior of individual junctions. In addition, slow slip, which has been reported in a wide variety of systems, spontaneously occurs in the model if the friction contribution from junctions in the slipping state is time weakening. Next, we show that the model predicts a nontrivial history dependence of the macroscopic static friction force. In particular, the static friction coefficient at the onset of sliding is shown to increase with increasing deceleration during the final phases of the preceding sliding event. We suggest that this form of history dependence of static friction should be investigated in experiments, and we provide the acceleration range in which this effect is expected to be experimentally observable.

  18. Dynamics of translational friction in needle-tissue interaction during needle insertion.

    PubMed

    Asadian, Ali; Patel, Rajni V; Kermani, Mehrdad R

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a distributed approach to account for dynamic friction during needle insertion in soft tissue is presented. As is well known, friction is a complex nonlinear phenomenon. It appears that classical or static models are unable to capture some of the observations made in systems subjected to significant frictional effects. In needle insertion, translational friction would be a matter of importance when the needle is very flexible, or a stop-and-rotate motion profile at low insertion velocities is implemented, and thus, the system is repeatedly transitioned from a pre-sliding to a sliding mode and vice versa. In order to characterize friction components, a distributed version of the LuGre model in the state-space representation is adopted. This method also facilitates estimating cutting force in an intra-operative manner. To evaluate the performance of the proposed family of friction models, experiments were conducted on homogeneous artificial phantoms and animal tissue. The results illustrate that our approach enables us to represent the main features of friction which is a major force component in needle-tissue interaction during needle-based interventions.

  19. In-Flight Capability for Evaluating Skin-Friction Gages and Other Near-Wall Flow Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong T.; Pipitone, Brett J.; Krake, Keith L.; Richwine, Dave (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    An 8-in.-square boundary-layer sensor panel has been developed for in-flight evaluation of skin-friction gages and other near-wall flow sensors on the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center F-15B/Flight Test Fixture (FTF). Instrumentation on the sensor panel includes a boundary-layer rake, temperature sensors, static pressure taps, and a Preston tube. Space is also available for skin-friction gages or other near-wall flow sensors. Pretest analysis of previous F-15B/FTF flight data has identified flight conditions suitable for evaluating skin-friction gages. At subsonic Mach numbers, the boundary layer over the sensor panel closely approximates the two-dimensional (2D), law-of-the-wall turbulent boundary layer, and skin-friction estimates from the Preston tube and the rake (using the Clauser plot method) can be used to evaluate skin-friction gages. At supersonic Mach numbers, the boundary layer over the sensor panel becomes complex, and other means of measuring skin friction are needed to evaluate the accuracy of new skin-friction gages. Results from the flight test of a new rubber-damped skin-friction gage confirm that at subsonic Mach numbers, nearly 2D, law-of-the-wall turbulent boundary layers exist over the sensor panel. Sensor panel data also show that this new skin-friction gage prototype does not work in flight.

  20. Rheological aging and rejuvenation in solid friction contacts.

    PubMed

    Bureau, L; Baumberger, T; Caroli, C

    2002-06-01

    We study the low-velocity (0.1-100 microm s(-1)) frictional properties of interfaces between a rough glassy polymer and smooth silanized glass, a configuration which gives direct access to the rheology of the adhesive joints in which shear localizes. We show that these joints exhibit the full phenomenology expected for confined quasi-2D soft glasses: they strengthen logarithmically when aging at rest, and weaken (rejuvenate) when sliding. Rejuvenation is found to saturate at large velocities. Moreover, aging at rest is shown to be strongly accelerated when waiting under finite stress below the static threshold.

  1. Frictional Heterogeneities Along Carbonate Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collettini, C.; Carpenter, B. M.; Scuderi, M.; Tesei, T.

    2014-12-01

    The understanding of fault-slip behaviour in carbonates has an important societal impact as a) a significant number of earthquakes nucleate within or propagate through these rocks, and b) half of the known petroleum reserves occur within carbonate reservoirs, which likely contain faults that experience fluid pressure fluctuations. Field studies on carbonate-bearing faults that are exhumed analogues of currently active structures of the seismogenic crust, show that fault rock types are systematically controlled by the lithology of the faulted protolith: localization associated with cataclasis, thermal decomposition and plastic deformation commonly affect fault rocks in massive limestone, whereas distributed deformation, pressure-solution and frictional sliding along phyllosilicates are observed in marly rocks. In addition, hydraulic fractures, indicating cyclic fluid pressure build-ups during the fault activity, are widespread. Standard double direct friction experiments on fault rocks from massive limestones show high friction, velocity neutral/weakening behaviour and significant re-strengthening during hold periods, on the contrary, phyllosilicate-rich shear zones are characterized by low friction, significant velocity strengthening behavior and no healing. We are currently running friction experiments on large rock samples (20x20 cm) in order to reproduce and characterize the interaction of fault rock frictional heterogeneities observed in the field. In addition we have been performing experiments at near lithostatic fluid pressure in the double direct shear configuration within a pressure vessel to test the Rate and State friction stability under these conditions. Our combination of structural observations and mechanical data have been revealing the processes and structures that are at the base of the broad spectrum of fault slip behaviors recently documented by high-resolution geodetic and seismological data.

  2. The role of friction in the mechanism of retaining the partial removable dentures with double crown system.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowa, Tomasz; Dobrowolska, Anna; Wieleba, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Cylindrical telescopic crowns belong to bolt dentures, because their adhesion strength is based on the friction force. The magnitude of static and slide friction forces depends on the strain within the contact area and properties of materials employed. Friction force value between telescope elements declines in the first phase of wearing period and, subsequently, maintains particular constant value of 8 to 10 N. In the telescopic technique, homo and heterogenic joints are used. The following prosthodontic materials have been examined: goldbase alloys (Degudent Kiss, Degulor M), cobalt-base alloy (Brealloy 270), ceramics (Zircon Oxide, Zirconia) during tribological investigations on FGP composite resin. The cooperating surfaces were moistened with synthetic saliva. The research confirmed the dependence of the static friction coefficient on the contact pressure for the analyzed pairs of materials used in prosthodontics. The biggest effect of the contact pressure on the coefficient of friction value occurs when the ceramic rubs on FGP composite resin. The most stable friction coefficient in the context of contact pressure changes as well as life has been found in the case of the cobalt alloy Brealloy 270. An interesting material is a gold alloy Degulor M, for which the coefficient of friction varies only slightly with pressure in the range of 0.6 to 0.9 MPa.

  3. A simple approach for calculating pile skin friction in clays

    SciTech Connect

    Mirza, U.A.A.

    1995-12-31

    A simple method is presented for calculating static shaft resistance of a pile driven into clay. The method is based on correlations established for North Sea clays between index properties and strengths. Application of the method to half a dozen full scale pile load tests which are part of the API RP2A`s data base and include a wide range of plasticity properties, overconsolidation ratios and strengths, is described. Except for short piles in very stiff to hard clays, the predictions agree very well with the measurements. The correlations presented allows an assessment of residual skin friction and indicate the importance of the liquidity index of the clay in static capacity calculations.

  4. Instantaneous engine frictional torque, its components and piston assembly friction

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, F.A. ); Henein, N.A. . Center for Automotive Research)

    1992-05-01

    The overall goal of this report is to document the work done to determine the instantaneous frictional torque of internal combustion engine by using a new approach known as (P-[omega]) method developed at Wayne State University. The emphasis has been to improve the accuracy of the method, and apply it to both diesel and gasoline engines under different operating conditions. Also work included an investigation to determine the effect of using advanced materials and techniques to coat the piston rings on the instantaneous engine frictional torque and the piston assembly friction. The errors in measuring the angular velocity, [omega], have been determined and found to be caused by variations in the divisions within one encoder, encoder-to-encoder variations, misalignment within the encoder itself and misalignment between the encoder and crankshaft. The errors in measuring the cylinder gas pressure, P, have been determined and found to be caused by transducer-to-transducer variations, zero drift, thermal stresses and lack of linearity. The ability of the (P-[omega]) method in determining the frictional torque of many engine components has been demonstrated. These components include valve train, fuel injection pump with and without fuel injection, and piston with and without different ring combinations. The emphasis in this part of the research program has been on the piston-ring assembly friction. The effects of load and other operating variables on IFT have been determined. The motoring test, which is widely used in industry to measure engine friction has been found to be inaccurate. The errors have been determined at different loads.

  5. Versatile Friction Stir Welding/Friction Plug Welding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A proposed system of tooling, machinery, and control equipment would be capable of performing any of several friction stir welding (FSW) and friction plug welding (FPW) operations. These operations would include the following: Basic FSW; FSW with automated manipulation of the length of the pin tool in real time [the so-called auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability]; Self-reacting FSW (SRFSW); SR-FSW with APT capability and/or real-time adjustment of the distance between the front and back shoulders; and Friction plug welding (FPW) [more specifically, friction push plug welding] or friction pull plug welding (FPPW) to close out the keyhole of, or to repair, an FSW or SR-FSW weld. Prior FSW and FPW systems have been capable of performing one or two of these operations, but none has thus far been capable of performing all of them. The proposed system would include a common tool that would have APT capability for both basic FSW and SR-FSW. Such a tool was described in Tool for Two Types of Friction Stir Welding (MFS- 31647-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 10 (October 2006), page 70. Going beyond what was reported in the cited previous article, the common tool could be used in conjunction with a plug welding head to perform FPW or FPPW. Alternatively, the plug welding head could be integrated, along with the common tool, into a FSW head that would be capable of all of the aforementioned FSW and FPW operations. Any FSW or FPW operation could be performed under any combination of position and/or force control.

  6. Mesh Size Control of Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitenis, Angela; Uruena, Juan Manuel; Schulze, Kyle D.; Cooper, Andrew C.; Angelini, Thomas E.; Sawyer, W. Gregory

    Soft, permeable sliding interfaces in aqueous environments are ubiquitous in nature but their ability to maintain high lubricity in a poor lubricant (water) has not been well understood. Hydrogels are excellent materials for fundamental soft matter and biotribology studies due to their high water content. While mesh size controls the material and transport properties of a hydrogel, its effects on friction were only recently explored. Polyacrylamide hydrogels slid in a Gemini (self-mated) interface produced low friction under low speeds, low pressures, macroscopic contact areas, and room temperature aqueous environments. The friction coefficients at these interfaces are lowest at low speeds and are speed-independent. This behavior is due to thermal fluctuations at the interface separating the surfaces, with water shearing in this region being the main source of dissipation. We found that mesh size had an inverse correlation with friction. We further investigated a transition from this behavior at higher speeds, and found that the transition speed correlated with the mesh size and relaxation time of the polymer network. Very soft and correspondingly large mesh size Gemini hydrogels show superlubricity under specific conditions with friction being less than 0.005.

  7. Slow rupture of frictional interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar Sinai, Yohai; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2012-02-01

    The failure of frictional interfaces and the spatiotemporal structures that accompany it are central to a wide range of geophysical, physical and engineering systems. Recent geophysical and laboratory observations indicated that interfacial failure can be mediated by slow slip rupture phenomena which are distinct from ordinary, earthquake-like, fast rupture. These discoveries have influenced the way we think about frictional motion, yet the nature and properties of slow rupture are not completely understood. We show that slow rupture is an intrinsic and robust property of simple non-monotonic rate-and-state friction laws. It is associated with a new velocity scale cmin, determined by the friction law, below which steady state rupture cannot propagate. We further show that rupture can occur in a continuum of states, spanning a wide range of velocities from cmin to elastic wave-speeds, and predict different properties for slow rupture and ordinary fast rupture. Our results are qualitatively consistent with recent high-resolution laboratory experiments and may provide a theoretical framework for understanding slow rupture phenomena along frictional interfaces.

  8. Effect of passive self-ligating bracket placement on the posterior teeth on reduction of frictional force in sliding mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyu-Ry

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the static (SFF) and kinetic frictional forces (KFF) in sliding mechanics of hybrid bracket systems that involve placing a conventional bracket (CB) or active self-ligating bracket (ASLB) on the maxillary anterior teeth (MXAT) and a passive SLB (PSLB) on the maxillary posterior teeth (MXPT). Methods The samples consisted of two thoroughbred types (group 1, anterior-CB + posterior-CB; group 2, anterior-ASLB + posterior-ASLB) and four hybrid types (group 3, anterior-CB + posterior-PSLB-type 1; group 4, anterior-CB + posterior-PSLB-type 2; group 5, anterior-ASLB + posterior-PSLB-type 1; group 6, anterior-ASLB + posterior-PSLB-type 2) (n = 13 per group). After maxillary dentition alignment and maxillary first premolars removal in the stereolithographically-made typodont system, a 0.019 × 0.025-inch stainless steel wire was drawn through the right quadrant of the maxillary arch at 0.5 mm/min for 5 min. The SFF and KFF were measured with a mechanical testing machine and statistical analyses were performed. Results Four different categories of SFF and KFF were observed among all groups (all p < 0.001). Group 1 demonstrated the highest SFF and KFF; groups 4 and 3 were second and third highest, respectively. The fourth category included groups 2, 5, and 6. Placing PSLBs on the MXPT resulted in significant SFF and KFF reductions in cases with CBs on the MXAT, but not in cases with ASLBs on the MXAT. Conclusions These data might aid in the development of a hybrid bracket system that enables low-friction sliding of an archwire through the MXPT. PMID:27019821

  9. The effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles deposition for friction reduction on orthodontic wires

    PubMed Central

    Kachoei, Mojghan; Eskandarinejad, Faranak; Divband, Baharak; Khatamian, Masumeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the sliding technique, the reduced frictional forces are associated with rapid tooth movements and better control of the anchorage. Recently, wire coating with different nanoparticles has been proposed to decrease frictional forces. This in vitro study was carried out to coat stainless steel (SS) wires with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in order to determine the effect of this coating on friction between wires and orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: Eighty 0.016 inch and 0.019 inch × 0.025 inch SS wires with and without ZnO nanoparticles were used in 80 orthodontic brackets (0.018 and 0.022 systems). The coated wires were analyzed by SEM and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) observations. Kinetic friction between the wires and orthodontic brackets were calculated using a universal testing machine. Frictional forces were statistically analyzed using three-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, Student's t-test and Tukey multiple comparison tests. Results: Coating with ZnO nanoparticles significantly influenced frictional force values (P < 0.0001). In 0.019 inch × 0.025 inch wires, the frictional forces were 1.6912 ± 0.18868 and 3.4485 ± 0.32389 N in the coated and uncoated wires respectively, (51% reductions). In the 0.016 inch wires, the friction values were estimated to be 1.5668 ± 0.10703 and 2.56 ± 0.34008 N in the coated and uncoated conditions, respectively, (39% reductions). Conclusion: Due to the positive effects of ZnO nanoparticle coating on decreasing frictional forces, these nanoparticles might offer a novel opportunity to significantly reduce friction during tooth movement. PMID:24130586

  10. Static Scale Conversion (SSC)

    2007-01-19

    The Static Scale Conversion (SSC) software is a unique enhancement to the AIMVEE system. It enables a SSC to weigh and measure vehicles and cargo dynamically (i.e., as they pass over the large scale. Included in the software is the AIMVEE computer code base. The SSC and AIMVEE computer system electronically continue to retrieve deployment information, identify vehicle automatically and determine total weight, individual axle weights, axle spacing and center-of-balance for any wheeled vehicle inmore » motion. The AIMVEE computer code system can also perform these functions statically for both wheel vehicles and cargo with information. The AIMVEE computer code system incorporates digital images and applies cubing algorithms to determine length, width, height for cubic dimensions of both vehicle and cargo. Once all this information is stored, it electronically links to data collection and dissemination systems to provide “actual” weight and measurement information for planning, deployment, and in-transit visibility.« less

  11. Static Scale Conversion (SSC)

    SciTech Connect

    2007-01-19

    The Static Scale Conversion (SSC) software is a unique enhancement to the AIMVEE system. It enables a SSC to weigh and measure vehicles and cargo dynamically (i.e., as they pass over the large scale. Included in the software is the AIMVEE computer code base. The SSC and AIMVEE computer system electronically continue to retrieve deployment information, identify vehicle automatically and determine total weight, individual axle weights, axle spacing and center-of-balance for any wheeled vehicle in motion. The AIMVEE computer code system can also perform these functions statically for both wheel vehicles and cargo with information. The AIMVEE computer code system incorporates digital images and applies cubing algorithms to determine length, width, height for cubic dimensions of both vehicle and cargo. Once all this information is stored, it electronically links to data collection and dissemination systems to provide “actual” weight and measurement information for planning, deployment, and in-transit visibility.

  12. Direct Measurements of Skin Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhawan, Satish

    1953-01-01

    A device has been developed to measure local skin friction on a flat plate by measuring the force exerted upon a very small movable part of the surface of the flat plate. These forces, which range from about 1 milligram to about 100 milligrams, are measured by means of a reactance device. The apparatus was first applied to measurements in the low-speed range, both for laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The measured skin-friction coefficients show excellent agreement with Blasius' and Von Karman's results. The device was then applied to high-speed subsonic flow and the turbulent-skin-friction coefficients were determined up to a Mach number of about 0.8. A few measurements in supersonic flow were also made. This paper describes the design and construction of the device and the results of the measurements.

  13. Advanced friction simulation of standardized friction tests: a numerical and experimental demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hol, J.; Wiebenga, J. H.; Hörning, M.; Dietrich, F.; Dane, C.

    2016-08-01

    For the characterization of friction conditions under sheet metal forming process conditions, different friction test set-ups are being used in industry. However, different friction tests and test set-ups are known to result in scattering friction results. In this work, the TriboForm software is utilized to numerically model the frictional behavior. The simulated coefficients of friction are experimentally validated using friction results from a standardized strip drawing friction test set-up. The experimental and simulation results of the friction behavior show a good overall agreement. This demonstrates that the TriboForm software enables simulating friction conditions for varying tribology conditions, i.e. resulting in a generally applicable approach for friction characterization under industrial sheet metal forming process conditions.

  14. Kinetic Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David B.

    1981-01-01

    Surveys the research of scientists like Joule, Kelvin, Maxwell, Clausius, and Boltzmann as it comments on the basic conceptual issues involved in the development of a more precise kinetic theory and the idea of a kinetic atom. (Author/SK)

  15. Rolling Friction in Loose Media and its Role in Mechanics Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klishin, S. V.; Revuzhenko, A. F.; Kazantsev, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    Rolling friction between particles is to be set in problems of granular material mechanics alongside with sliding friction. A classical problem of material passive lateral pressure on the retaining wall is submitted as a case in point. 3D method of discrete elements was employed for numerical analysis. Material is a universe of spherical particles with specified size distribution. Viscose-elastic properties of the material and surface friction are included, when choosing contact forces. Particles' resistance to rolling relative to other particles and to the boundary is set into the model. Kinetic patterns of medium deformations are given. It has been proved that rolling friction can significantly affect magnitude and nature of passive lateral pressure on the retaining wall.

  16. Friction and Adhesion Forces of Bacillus thuringiensis Spores on Planar Surfaces in Atmospheric Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kweon, Hyojin; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The kinetic friction force and the adhesion force of Bacillus thuringiensis spores on planar surfaces in atmospheric systems were studied using atomic force microscopy. The influence of relative humidity (RH) on these forces varied for different surface properties including hydrophobicity, roughness, and surface charge. The friction force of the spore was greater on a rougher surface than on mica, which is atomically flat. As RH increases, the friction force of the spores decreases on mica whereas it increases on rough surfaces. The influence of RH on the interaction forces between hydrophobic surfaces is not as strong as for hydrophilic surfaces. The friction force of the spore is linear to the sum of the adhesion force and normal load on the hydrophobic surface. The poorly defined surface structure of the spore and the adsorption of contaminants from the surrounding atmosphere are believed to cause a discrepancy between the calculated and measured adhesion forces.

  17. A Study Of High Speed Friction Behavior Under Elastic Loading Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, P. J.; Hammerberg, J. E.

    2005-03-01

    The role of interfacial dynamics under high strain-rate conditions is an important constitutive relationship in modern modeling and simulation studies of dynamic events (<100 μs in length). The frictional behavior occurring at the interface between two metal surfaces under high elastic loading and sliding speed conditions is studied using the Rotating Barrel Gas Gun (RBGG) facility. The RBGG utilizes a low-pressure gas gun to propel a rotating annular projectile towards an annular target rod. Upon striking the target, the projectile imparts both an axial and a torsional impulse into the target. Resulting elastic waves are measured using strain gauges attached to the target rod. The kinetic coefficient of friction is obtained through an analysis of the resulting strain wave data. Experiments performed using Cu/Cu, Cu/Stainless steel and Cu/Al interfaces provide some insight into the kinetic coefficient of friction behavior at varying sliding speeds and impact loads.

  18. Enzyme Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Owen; Cornelius, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Conveys an appreciation of enzyme kinetic analysis by using a practical and intuitive approach. Discusses enzyme assays, kinetic models and rate laws, the kinetic constants (V, velocity, and Km, Michaels constant), evaluation of V and Km from experimental data, and enzyme inhibition. (CW)

  19. Granular friction: Triggering large events with small vibrations

    PubMed Central

    Lastakowski, Henri; Géminard, Jean-Christophe; Vidal, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Triggering large-scale motion by imposing vibrations to a system can be encountered in many situations, from daily-life shaking of saltcellar to silo unclogging or dynamic earthquakes triggering. In the well-known situation of solid or granular friction, the acceleration of imposed vibrations has often been proposed as the governing parameter for the transition between stick-slip motion and continuous sliding. The threshold acceleration for the onset of continuous slip motion or system unjamming is usually found of the order of the gravitational acceleration. These conclusions are mostly drawn from numerical studies. Here, we investigate, in the laboratory, granular friction by shearing a layer of grains subjected to horizontal vibrations. We show that, in contrast with previous results, the quantity that controls the frictional properties is the characteristic velocity, and not the acceleration, of the imposed mechanical vibrations. Thus, when the system is statically loaded, the typical acceleration of the vibrations which trigger large slip events is much smaller than the gravitational acceleration. These results may be relevant to understand dynamic earthquake triggering by small ground perturbations. PMID:26334133

  20. Effects of rectangular microchannel aspect ratio on laminar friction constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papautsky, Ian; Gale, Bruce K.; Mohanty, Swomitra K.; Ameel, Timothy A.; Frazier, A. Bruno

    1999-08-01

    In this paper, the effects of rectangular microchannel aspect ratio on laminar friction constant are described. The behavior of fluids was studied using surface micromachined rectangular metallic pipette arrays. Each array consisted of 5 or 7 pipettes with widths varying from 150 micrometers to 600 micrometers and heights ranging from 22.71 micrometers to 26.35 micrometers . A downstream port for static pressure measurement was used to eliminate entrance effects. A controllable syringe pump was used to provide flow while a differential pressure transducer was used to record the pressure drop. The experimental data obtained for water for flows at Reynolds numbers below 10 showed an approximate 20% increase in the friction constant for a specified driving potential when compared to macroscale predictions from the classical Navier-Stokes theory. When the experimental data are studied as a function of aspect ratio, a 20% increase in the friction constant is evident at low aspect ratios. A similar increase is shown by the currently available experimental data for low Reynolds number (< 100) flows of water.

  1. Glassy dynamics of Brownian particles with velocity-dependent friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdi, Anoosheh; Sperl, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    We consider a two-dimensional model system of Brownian particles in which slow particles are accelerated while fast particles are damped. The motion of the individual particles is described by a Langevin equation with Rayleigh-Helmholtz velocity-dependent friction. In the case of noninteracting particles, the time evolution equations lead to a non-Gaussian velocity distribution. The velocity-dependent friction allows negative values of the friction or energy intakes by slow particles, which we consider active motion, and also causes breaking of the fluctuation dissipation relation. Defining the effective temperature proportional to the second moment of velocity, it is shown that for a constant effective temperature the higher the noise strength, the lower the number of active particles in the system. Using the Mori-Zwanzig formalism and the mode-coupling approximation, the equations of motion for the density autocorrelation function are derived. The equations are solved using the equilibrium structure factors. The integration-through-transients approach is used to derive a relation between the structure factor in the stationary state considering the interacting forces, and the conventional equilibrium static structure factor.

  2. Static intervortex forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speight, J. M.

    1997-03-01

    A point particle approximation to the classical dynamics of well-separated vortices of the Abelian Higgs model is developed. A static vortex is asymptotically identical to a solution of the linearized field theory (a Klein-Gordon-Proca theory) in the presence of a singular point source at the vortex center. It is shown that this source is a composite scalar monopole and magnetic dipole, and the respective charges are determined numerically for various values of the coupling constant. The interaction potential of two well-separated vortices is computed by calculating the interaction Lagrangian of two such point sources in the linear theory. The potential is used to model type II vortex scattering.

  3. Static electricity: A literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, Rita M.

    1991-11-01

    The major concern with static electricity is its discharging in a flammable atmosphere which can explode and cause a fire. Textile materials can have their electrical resistivity decreased by the addition of antistatic finishes, imbedding conductive particles into the fibres or by adding metal fibers to the yarns. The test methods used in the studies of static electricity include measuring the static properties of materials, of clothed persons, and of the ignition energy of flammable gases. Surveys have shown that there is sparse evidence for fires definitively being caused by static electricity. However, the 'worst-case' philosophy has been adopted and a static electricity safety code is described, including correct grounding procedures and the wearing of anti-static clothing and footwear.

  4. Joint Winter Runway Friction Program Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Wambold, James C.; Henry, John J.; Andresen, Arild; Bastian, Matthew

    2002-01-01

    The major program objectives are: (1) harmonize ground vehicle friction measurements to report consistent friction value or index for similar contaminated runway conditions, for example, compacted snow, and (2) establish reliable correlation between ground vehicle friction measurements and aircraft braking performance. Accomplishing these objectives would give airport operators better procedures for evaluating runway friction and maintaining acceptable operating conditions, providing pilots information to base go/no go decisions, and would contribute to reducing traction-related aircraft accidents.

  5. Low-Friction Joint for Robot Fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanical linkage allows adjacent parts to move relative to each other with low friction and with no chatter, slipping, or backlash. Low-friction joint of two surfaces in rolling contact, held in alinement by taut flexible bands. No sliding friction or "stick-slip" motion: Only rolling-contact and bending friction within bands. Proposed linkage intended for finger joints in mechanical hands for robots and manipulators.

  6. Turbine blade friction damping study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominic, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A lumped parameter method, implemented on a VAX 11/780 computer shows that the primary parameters affecting the performance of the friction damper of the first stage turbine of the SSME high pressure fuel pump are: the damper-blade coefficient of friction; the normal force applied to the friction interface; the amplitude of the periodic forcing function; the relative phase angle of the forcing functions for adjacent blades bridged by a damper (effectively, the engine order of the forcing function); and the amount of hysteretic damping that acts to limit the vibration amplitude of the blade in its resonance modes. The low order flexural resonance vibration modes of HPFTP blades without dampers, with production dampers, and with two types of lightweight experimental dampers were evaluated in high speed spin pit tests. Results agree with those of the analytical study in that blades fitted with production friction dampers experienced the airfoil-alone flexural resonance mode, while those without dampers or with lighter weight dampers did not. No blades fitted with dampers experienced the whole blade flexural resonance mode during high speed tests, while those without dampers did.

  7. Deformation During Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Henry J.

    2002-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process that exhibits characteristics similar to traditional metal cutting processes. The plastic deformation that occurs during friction stir welding is due to the superposition of three flow fields: a primary rotation of a radially symmetric solid plug of metal surrounding the pin tool, a secondary uniform translation, and a tertiary ring vortex flow (smoke rings) surrounding the tool. If the metal sticks to the tool, the plug surface extends down into the metal from the outer edge of the tool shoulder, decreases in diameter like a funnel, and closes up beneath the pin. Since its invention, ten years have gone by and still very little is known about the physics of the friction stir welding process. In this experiment, an H13 steel weld tool (shoulder diameter, 0.797 in; pin diameter, 0.312 in; and pin length, 0.2506 in) was used to weld three 0.255 in thick plates. The deformation behavior during friction stir welding was investigated by metallographically preparing a plan view sections of the weldment and taking Vickers hardness test in the key-hole region.

  8. Dynamical friction in cuspy galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Arca-Sedda, M.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.

    2014-04-10

    In this paper, we treat the problem of the dynamical friction decay of a massive object moving in an elliptical galaxy with a cuspidal inner distribution of the mass density. We present results obtained by both self-consistent, direct summation, N-body simulations, as well as by a new semi-analytical treatment of dynamical friction valid in such cuspy central regions of galaxies. A comparison of these results indicates that the proposed semi-analytical approximation is the only reliable one in cuspy galactic central regions, where the standard Chandrasekhar's local approximation fails and also gives estimates of decay times that are correct at 1% with respect to those given by N-body simulations. The efficiency of dynamical friction in cuspy galaxies is found definitively higher than in core galaxies, especially on more radially elongated satellite orbits. As another relevant result, we find a proportionality of the dynamical friction decay time to the –0.67 power of the satellite mass, M, shallower than the standardly adopted M {sup –1} dependence.

  9. Improved Coulomb-Friction Damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    Equal damping provided on forward and reverse strokes. Improved damper has springs and wedge rings symmetrically placed on both ends of piston wedge, so friction force same in both directions of travel. Unlike conventional automotive shock absorbers, they resemble on outside, both versions require no viscous liquid and operate over wide temperature range.

  10. Systematic assessment of the static stress triggering hypothesis using interearthquake time statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandan, Shyam; Ouillon, Guy; Woessner, Jochen; Sornette, Didier; Wiemer, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    A likely source of earthquake clustering is static stress transfer between individual events. Previous attempts to quantify the role of static stress for earthquake triggering generally considered only the stress changes caused by large events and often discarded data uncertainties. We conducted a robust twofold empirical test of the static stress change hypothesis by accounting for all events of magnitude M ≥ 2.5 and their location and focal mechanism uncertainties provided by catalogs for Southern California between 1981 and 2010, first after resolving the focal plane ambiguity and second after randomly choosing one of the two nodal planes. For both cases, we find compelling evidence supporting the static triggering with stronger evidence after resolving the focal plane ambiguity above significantly small (about 10 Pa) but consistently observed stress thresholds. The evidence for the static triggering hypothesis is robust with respect to the choice of the friction coefficient, Skempton's coefficient, and magnitude threshold. Weak correlations between the Coulomb index (fraction of earthquakes that received positive Coulomb stress change) and the coefficient of friction indicate that the role of normal stress in triggering is rather limited. Last but not the least, we determined that the characteristic time for the loss of the stress change memory of a single event is nearly independent of the amplitude of the Coulomb stress change and varies between ~95 and ~180 days implying that forecasts based on static stress changes will have poor predictive skills beyond times that are larger than a few hundred days on average.

  11. Consistent description of quantum Brownian motors operating at strong friction.

    PubMed

    Machura, L; Kostur, M; Hänggi, P; Talkner, P; Luczka, J

    2004-09-01

    A quantum Smoluchowski equation is put forward that consistently describes thermal quantum states. In particular, it notably does not induce a violation of the second law of thermodynamics. This so modified kinetic equation is applied to study analytically directed quantum transport at strong friction in arbitrarily shaped ratchet potentials that are driven by nonthermal two-state noise. Depending on the mutual interplay of quantum tunneling and quantum reflection these quantum corrections can induce both, a sizable enhancement or a suppression of transport. Moreover, the threshold for current reversals becomes markedly shifted due to such quantum fluctuations.

  12. Pressure and Friction Injuries in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Shawn; Seiverling, Elizabeth; Silvis, Matthew

    2015-12-01

    Pressure and friction injuries are common throughout the lifespan. A detailed history of the onset and progression of friction and pressure injuries is key to aiding clinicians in determining the underlying mechanism behind the development of the injury. Modifying or removing the forces that are creating pressure or friction is the key to both prevention and healing of these injuries. Proper care of pressure and friction injuries to the skin is important to prevent the development of infection. Patient education on positioning and ergonomics can help to prevent recurrence of pressure and friction injuries.

  13. Piston ring designs for reduced friction

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, S.H.; Newman, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    To reduce parasitic losses, a project was initiated to design, develop and bring to production a piston ring set which reduces engine friction while maintaining ring performance. In this paper, theoretical considerations affecting piston ring friction, and their implication in ring design, are discussed. An estimate of friction reduction and fuel economy improvement which can be achieved is calculated. Features of the resulting designs are reviewed, and friction, dynamometer, and vehicle test results are presented. Future ring design changes for reduced friction are reviewed.

  14. Apparatus for measuring internal friction Q factors in brittle materials. [applied to lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tittmann, B. R.; Curnow, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    A flexural analog of the torsion pendulum for measuring the Young's modulus and the internal friction Q factor of brittle materials has been developed for Q greater than 10 to the 3rd measurements at a zero static stress and at 10 to the -7th strains of brittle materials in the Hz frequency range. The present design was motivated by the desire to measure Q in fragile lunar return samples at zero static stress to shed light on the anomalously low attenuation of seismic waves on the moon. The use of the apparatus is demonstrated with data on fused silica and on a terrestrial analog of lunar basalt.

  15. Viscosity calculated in simulations of strongly coupled dusty plasmas with gas friction

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Yan; Goree, J.; Liu Bin

    2011-05-15

    A two-dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasma is modeled using Langevin and frictionless molecular dynamical simulations. The static viscosity {eta} and the wave-number-dependent viscosity {eta}(k) are calculated from the microscopic shear in the random motion of particles. A recently developed method of calculating the wave-number-dependent viscosity {eta}(k) is validated by comparing the results of {eta}(k) from the two simulations. It is also verified that the Green-Kubo relation can still yield an accurate measure of the static viscosity {eta} in the presence of a modest level of friction as in dusty plasma experiments.

  16. Semiconductor ac static power switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrancik, J.

    1968-01-01

    Semiconductor ac static power switch has long life and high reliability, contains no moving parts, and operates satisfactorily in severe environments, including high vibration and shock conditions. Due to their resistance to shock and vibration, static switches are used where accidental switching caused by mechanical vibration or shock cannot be tolerated.

  17. Frictional constraints on crustal faulting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boatwright, J.; Cocco, M.

    1996-01-01

    We consider how variations in fault frictional properties affect the phenomenology of earthquake faulting. In particular, we propose that lateral variations in fault friction produce the marked heterogeneity of slip observed in large earthquakes. We model these variations using a rate- and state-dependent friction law, where we differentiate velocity-weakening behavior into two fields: the strong seismic field is very velocity weakening and the weak seismic field is slightly velocity weakening. Similarly, we differentiate velocity-strengthening behavior into two fields: the compliant field is slightly velocity strengthening and the viscous field is very velocity strengthening. The strong seismic field comprises the seismic slip concentrations, or asperities. The two "intermediate" fields, weak seismic and compliant, have frictional velocity dependences that are close to velocity neutral: these fields modulate both the tectonic loading and the dynamic rupture process. During the interseismic period, the weak seismic and compliant regions slip aseismically, while the strong seismic regions remain locked, evolving into stress concentrations that fail only in main shocks. The weak seismic areas exhibit most of the interseismic activity and aftershocks but can also creep seismically. This "mixed" frictional behavior can be obtained from a sufficiently heterogenous distribution of the critical slip distance. The model also provides a mechanism for rupture arrest: dynamic rupture fronts decelerate as they penetrate into unloaded complaint or weak seismic areas, producing broad areas of accelerated afterslip. Aftershocks occur on both the weak seismic and compliant areas around a fault, but most of the stress is diffused through aseismic slip. Rapid afterslip on these peripheral areas can also produce aftershocks within the main shock rupture area by reloading weak fault areas that slipped in the main shock and then healed. We test this frictional model by comparing the

  18. Quantum Otto cycle with inner friction: finite-time and disorder effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alecce, A.; Galve, F.; Lo Gullo, N.; Dell'Anna, L.; Plastina, F.; Zambrini, R.

    2015-07-01

    The concept of inner friction, by which a quantum heat engine is unable to follow adiabatically its strokes and thus dissipates useful energy, is illustrated in an exact physical model where the working substance consists of an ensemble of misaligned spins interacting with a magnetic field and performing the Otto cycle. The effect of this static disorder under a finite-time cycle gives a new perspective of the concept of inner friction under realistic settings. We investigate the efficiency and power of this engine and relate its performance to the amount of friction from misalignment and to the temperature difference between heat baths. Finally we propose an alternative experimental implementation of the cycle where the spin is encoded in the degree of polarization of photons.

  19. Friction in debris flows: inferences from large-scale flume experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Richard M.; LaHusen, Richard G.; ,

    1993-01-01

    A recently constructed flume, 95 m long and 2 m wide, permits systematic experimentation with unsteady, nonuniform flows of poorly sorted geological debris. Preliminary experiments with water-saturated mixtures of sand and gravel show that they flow in a manner consistent with Coulomb frictional behavior. The Coulomb flow model of Savage and Hutter (1989, 1991), modified to include quasi-static pore-pressure effects, predicts flow-front velocities and flow depths reasonably well. Moreover, simple scaling analyses show that grain friction, rather than liquid viscosity or grain collisions, probably dominates shear resistance and momentum transport in the experimental flows. The same scaling indicates that grain friction is also important in many natural debris flows.

  20. Rolling-element bearings. [contact sliding friction study of solid bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.

    1980-01-01

    In contrast to hydrodynamic bearings, which depend for low-friction characteristics on a fluid film between the journal and the bearing surfaces, roller-element bearings employ a number of balls or rollers that roll in an annular space. The paper briefly outlines the advantages and disadvantages of roller-element bearings as compared to hydrodynamic bearings. The discussion covers bearing types, rolling friction, friction losses in rolling bearings, contact stresses, deformations, kinematics (normal and high speeds), bearing dynamics including elastohydrodynamics, load distribution, lubrication (grease, solid oil, oil-air mist), specific dynamic capacity and life, specific static capacity, and fatigue or wearout (elastohydrodynamics, wear). Rolling bearing wear factor as a function of operating environment is plotted and discussed.

  1. Computational Methods for Frictional Contact With Applications to the Space Shuttle Orbiter Nose-Gear Tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A computational procedure is presented for the solution of frictional contact problems for aircraft tires. A Space Shuttle nose-gear tire is modeled using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory which includes the effects of variations in material and geometric parameters, transverse-shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities. Contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the stress resultants, the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with both contact and friction conditions. The contact-friction algorithm is based on a modified Coulomb friction law. A modified two-field, mixed-variational principle is used to obtain elemental arrays. This modification consists of augmenting the functional of that principle by two terms: the Lagrange multiplier vector associated with normal and tangential node contact-load intensities and a regularization term that is quadratic in the Lagrange multiplier vector. These capabilities and computational features are incorporated into an in-house computer code. Experimental measurements were taken to define the response of the Space Shuttle nose-gear tire to inflation-pressure loads and to inflation-pressure loads combined with normal static loads against a rigid flat plate. These experimental results describe the meridional growth of the tire cross section caused by inflation loading, the static load-deflection characteristics of the tire, the geometry of the tire footprint under static loading conditions, and the normal and tangential load-intensity distributions in the tire footprint for the various static vertical loading conditions. Numerical results were obtained for the Space Shuttle nose-gear tire subjected to inflation pressure loads and combined inflation pressure and contact loads against a rigid flat plate. The experimental measurements and the numerical results are compared.

  2. Collective behavior of asperities as a model for friction and adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulikal, Srivatsan

    Understanding friction and adhesion in static and sliding contact of surfaces is important in numerous physical phenomena and technological applications. Most surfaces are rough at the microscale, and thus the real area of contact is only a fraction of the nominal area. The macroscopic frictional and adhesive response is determined by the collective behavior of the population of evolving and interacting microscopic contacts. This collective behavior can be very different from the behavior of individual contacts. It is thus important to understand how the macroscopic response emerges from the microscopic one. In this thesis, we develop a theoretical and computational framework to study the collective behavior. Our philosophy is to assume a simple behavior of a single asperity and study the collective response of an ensemble. Our work bridges the existing well-developed studies of single asperities with phenomenological laws that describe macroscopic rate-and-state behavior of frictional interfaces. We find that many aspects of the macroscopic behavior are robust with respect to the microscopic response. This explains why qualitatively similar frictional features are seen for a diverse range of materials. We first show that the collective response of an ensemble of one-dimensional independent viscoelastic elements interacting through a mean field reproduces many qualitative features of static and sliding friction evolution. The resulting macroscopic behavior is different from the microscopic one: for example, even if each contact is velocity-strengthening, the macroscopic behavior can be velocity-weakening. The framework is then extended to incorporate three-dimensional rough surfaces, long- range elastic interactions between contacts, and time-dependent material behaviors such as viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity. Interestingly, the mean field behavior dominates and the elastic interactions, though important from a quantitative perspective, do not change the

  3. Fault rheology beyond frictional melting.

    PubMed

    Lavallée, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; Kendrick, Jackie E; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B

    2015-07-28

    During earthquakes, comminution and frictional heating both contribute to the dissipation of stored energy. With sufficient dissipative heating, melting processes can ensue, yielding the production of frictional melts or "pseudotachylytes." It is commonly assumed that the Newtonian viscosities of such melts control subsequent fault slip resistance. Rock melts, however, are viscoelastic bodies, and, at high strain rates, they exhibit evidence of a glass transition. Here, we present the results of high-velocity friction experiments on a well-characterized melt that demonstrate how slip in melt-bearing faults can be governed by brittle fragmentation phenomena encountered at the glass transition. Slip analysis using models that incorporate viscoelastic responses indicates that even in the presence of melt, slip persists in the solid state until sufficient heat is generated to reduce the viscosity and allow remobilization in the liquid state. Where a rock is present next to the melt, we note that wear of the crystalline wall rock by liquid fragmentation and agglutination also contributes to the brittle component of these experimentally generated pseudotachylytes. We conclude that in the case of pseudotachylyte generation during an earthquake, slip even beyond the onset of frictional melting is not controlled merely by viscosity but rather by an interplay of viscoelastic forces around the glass transition, which involves a response in the brittle/solid regime of these rock melts. We warn of the inadequacy of simple Newtonian viscous analyses and call for the application of more realistic rheological interpretation of pseudotachylyte-bearing fault systems in the evaluation and prediction of their slip dynamics. PMID:26124123

  4. Fault rheology beyond frictional melting

    PubMed Central

    Lavallée, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; Kendrick, Jackie E.; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    During earthquakes, comminution and frictional heating both contribute to the dissipation of stored energy. With sufficient dissipative heating, melting processes can ensue, yielding the production of frictional melts or “pseudotachylytes.” It is commonly assumed that the Newtonian viscosities of such melts control subsequent fault slip resistance. Rock melts, however, are viscoelastic bodies, and, at high strain rates, they exhibit evidence of a glass transition. Here, we present the results of high-velocity friction experiments on a well-characterized melt that demonstrate how slip in melt-bearing faults can be governed by brittle fragmentation phenomena encountered at the glass transition. Slip analysis using models that incorporate viscoelastic responses indicates that even in the presence of melt, slip persists in the solid state until sufficient heat is generated to reduce the viscosity and allow remobilization in the liquid state. Where a rock is present next to the melt, we note that wear of the crystalline wall rock by liquid fragmentation and agglutination also contributes to the brittle component of these experimentally generated pseudotachylytes. We conclude that in the case of pseudotachylyte generation during an earthquake, slip even beyond the onset of frictional melting is not controlled merely by viscosity but rather by an interplay of viscoelastic forces around the glass transition, which involves a response in the brittle/solid regime of these rock melts. We warn of the inadequacy of simple Newtonian viscous analyses and call for the application of more realistic rheological interpretation of pseudotachylyte-bearing fault systems in the evaluation and prediction of their slip dynamics. PMID:26124123

  5. Fault rheology beyond frictional melting.

    PubMed

    Lavallée, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; Kendrick, Jackie E; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B

    2015-07-28

    During earthquakes, comminution and frictional heating both contribute to the dissipation of stored energy. With sufficient dissipative heating, melting processes can ensue, yielding the production of frictional melts or "pseudotachylytes." It is commonly assumed that the Newtonian viscosities of such melts control subsequent fault slip resistance. Rock melts, however, are viscoelastic bodies, and, at high strain rates, they exhibit evidence of a glass transition. Here, we present the results of high-velocity friction experiments on a well-characterized melt that demonstrate how slip in melt-bearing faults can be governed by brittle fragmentation phenomena encountered at the glass transition. Slip analysis using models that incorporate viscoelastic responses indicates that even in the presence of melt, slip persists in the solid state until sufficient heat is generated to reduce the viscosity and allow remobilization in the liquid state. Where a rock is present next to the melt, we note that wear of the crystalline wall rock by liquid fragmentation and agglutination also contributes to the brittle component of these experimentally generated pseudotachylytes. We conclude that in the case of pseudotachylyte generation during an earthquake, slip even beyond the onset of frictional melting is not controlled merely by viscosity but rather by an interplay of viscoelastic forces around the glass transition, which involves a response in the brittle/solid regime of these rock melts. We warn of the inadequacy of simple Newtonian viscous analyses and call for the application of more realistic rheological interpretation of pseudotachylyte-bearing fault systems in the evaluation and prediction of their slip dynamics.

  6. Friction Stir Process Mapping Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kooney, Alex; Bjorkman, Gerry; Russell, Carolyn; Smelser, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In FSW (friction stir welding), the weld process performance for a given weld joint configuration and tool setup is summarized on a 2-D plot of RPM vs. IPM. A process envelope is drawn within the map to identify the range of acceptable welds. The sweet spot is selected as the nominal weld schedule. The nominal weld schedule is characterized in the expected manufacturing environment. The nominal weld schedule in conjunction with process control ensures a consistent and predictable weld performance.

  7. Oxidation Effects on the Friction of Lubricants and Self-Lubricating Materials in the Enduring Stockpile

    SciTech Connect

    Dugger, M.T.; Peebles, D.E.; Ohlhausen, J.A.; Robinson, J.A.; Sorroche, E.H.; Fanska, J.

    1999-03-18

    Predictive models of solid lubricant performance are needed to determine the dynamic behavior of electromechanical devices after long periods of storage. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to determine the kinetics of oxidation and sulfate formation for solid lubricants and self-lubricating materials containing MoS{sub 2}, exposed to a variety of oxidation conditions. The frictional performance of the lubricant has then been determined as a fi.mction of its surface chemistry and the ambient environment in which sliding takes place. Results indicate that surface sulfate formation governs the initial or start-up friction coefficient of MoS{sub 2}-containing films, while the composition of the ambient gas determines the steady-state friction coefficient. The dependence of the steady-state friction coefficient on the environment in which sliding takes place has been examined, and the results show that dynamic oxidation of surfaces having exposed metal has a major impact on friction. Surface oxidation is also shown to influence the frictional behavior of a self-lubricating composite material containing MoS{sub 2}.

  8. Effect of adsorbed films on friction of Al2O3-metal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, S. V.

    1976-01-01

    The kinetic friction of polycrystalline Al2O3 sliding on Cu, Ni, and Fe in ultrahigh vacuum was studied as a function of the surface chemistry of the metal. Clean metal surfaces were exposed to O2, Cl2, C2H4, and C2H3Cl, and the change in friction due to the adsorbed species was observed. Auger electron spectroscopy assessed the elemental composition of the metal surface. It was found that the systems exposed to Cl2 exhibited low friction, interpreted as the van der Waals force between the Al2O3 and metal chloride. The generation of metal oxide by oxygen exposures resulted in an increase in friction, interpreted as due to strong interfacial bonds established by reaction of metal oxide with Al2O3 to form the complex oxide (spinel). The only effect of C2H4 was to increase the friction of the Fe system, but C2H3Cl exposures decreases friction in both Ni and Fe systems, indicating the dominance of the chlorine over the ethylene complex on the surface

  9. Comparison of frictional resistance of esthetic and semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, M. S.; Murali, R. V.; Kishorekumar, S.; Gnanashanmugam, K.; Jayanth, V.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The frictional resistance encountered during sliding mechanics has been well established in the orthodontic literature, and it consists of complex interactions between the bracket, archwire, and method of ligation the claim of reduced friction with self-ligating brackets is often cited as a primary advantage over conventional brackets. This study was done to compare and evaluate the frictional forces generated between fully esthetic brackets and semi-aesthetic self-ligating brackets, which are of passive form and SEM (scanning electron microscope) study of the Brackets after Frictional evaluation. Materials and Methods: Two types of self-ligating esthetic brackets, Damon clear (Ormco) made of fully ceramic and Opal (Ultradent Products, USA) and, Two types of self-ligating semi-esthetic brackets, Clarity SL (3M Unitek) and Damon 3 (Ormco) both of which are made of ceramic with metal slot. Arch wires with different dimensions and quality 17 × 25, 19 × 25 Titanium Molybdenum Alloy (TMA) and 17 × 25, 19 × 25 stainless steel that came from plain strands of wire were used for frictional comparison test. The brackets used in this study had 0.022 × 0.028 inch slot. Results: The statistical tests showed significantly smaller amount of kinetic frictional forces is generated by Damon 3 (semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets). For each wire used, Damon 3 displayed significantly lower frictional forces (P ≤ 0.05) than any of the self-ligating system, followed by Opal (fully esthetic self-ligating brackets) which generated smaller amount of frictional forces but relatively on the higher side when compared with Damon 3. Damon clear (fully esthetic self-ligating brackets) generated the maximum amount of kinetic forces with all types of wire dimensions and properties when compared to the other three types of self-ligating system. Clarity SL (semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets) generated smaller amount of frictional forces when compared with Damon clear and relatively

  10. A quasi-static model of wheel-tissue interaction for surgical robotics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Sliker, Levin J; Qi, H Jerry; Rentschler, Mark E

    2013-09-01

    Wheel-driven mobile in vivo robotic devices can provide an unconstrained platform for visualization and task performance. Careful understanding of the wheel-tissue interaction is necessary to predict in vivo performance of medical mobility systems. Here, an analytical study of the friction involving rolling contact of a surgical wheel, moving at constant velocities over soft tissue, is presented and verified. A quasi-static frictionless solution is first derived from existing theory, and newly developed theory considering frictional effects is later introduced. In this analysis, the effect of friction on wheel mobility over a viscoelastic substrate is analyzed with wheel velocity as the only changing variable. The analytical model is later verified by experiments and Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations. A simple application of this model to help design a surgical robot is also presented. Additional results indicate that the resistance force, which arises from the tissue viscosity, approaches zero for small and very large wheel velocities.

  11. A quasi-static model of wheel-tissue interaction for surgical robotics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Sliker, Levin J; Qi, H Jerry; Rentschler, Mark E

    2013-09-01

    Wheel-driven mobile in vivo robotic devices can provide an unconstrained platform for visualization and task performance. Careful understanding of the wheel-tissue interaction is necessary to predict in vivo performance of medical mobility systems. Here, an analytical study of the friction involving rolling contact of a surgical wheel, moving at constant velocities over soft tissue, is presented and verified. A quasi-static frictionless solution is first derived from existing theory, and newly developed theory considering frictional effects is later introduced. In this analysis, the effect of friction on wheel mobility over a viscoelastic substrate is analyzed with wheel velocity as the only changing variable. The analytical model is later verified by experiments and Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations. A simple application of this model to help design a surgical robot is also presented. Additional results indicate that the resistance force, which arises from the tissue viscosity, approaches zero for small and very large wheel velocities. PMID:23582337

  12. Static and dynamic light scattering on solutions of precrystalline β-galactosidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auersch, Achim; Littke, Walter; Lang, Peter; Burchard, Walther

    1991-03-01

    A concentration dependent association of β-galactosidase in aqueous buffer solution is demonstrated by static and dynamic light scattering. A procedure is suggested which allows the calculation of the true molar mass of the aggregates from the apparent data measured in a good solvent. The associating system exhibits typical critical behavior with a critical exponent of γ=1.77±0.11 which is characteristic of percolation. The system behaves like a randomly associating ensemble. Evaluation of the curves on the basis of the Flory-Stockmayer (Bethe) theory allowed an estimation of the association number of f=6-7. The measured translational diffusion coefficient is separated in a thermodynamic and a frictional interaction part. Molar mass and friction increase in the same manner up to about a 10% protein solution. Then the friction increases much stronger.

  13. SRM propellant, friction/ESD testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    Following the Pershing 2 incident in 1985 and the Peacekeeper ignition during core removal in 1987, it was found that propellant can be much more sensitive to Electrostatic Discharges (ESD) than ever before realized. As a result of the Peacekeeper motor near miss incident, a friction machine was designed and fabricated, and used to determine friction hazards during core removal. Friction testing with and electrical charge being applied across the friction plates resulted in propellant ignitions at low friction pressures and extremely low ESD levels. The objective of this test series was to determine the sensitivity of solid rocket propellant to combined friction pressure and electrostatic stimuli and to compare the sensitivity of the SRM propellant to Peacekeeper propellant. The tests are fully discussed, summarized and conclusions drawn.

  14. Friction Anisotropy with Respect to Topographic Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chengjiao; Wang, Q. Jane

    2012-01-01

    Friction characteristics with respect to surface topographic orientation were investigated using surfaces of different materials and fabricated with grooves of different scales. Scratching friction tests were conducted using a nano-indentation-scratching system with the tip motion parallel or perpendicular to the groove orientation. Similar friction anisotropy trends were observed for all the surfaces studied, which are (1) under a light load and for surfaces with narrow grooves, the tip motion parallel to the grooves offers higher friction coefficients than does that perpendicular to them, (2) otherwise, equal or lower friction coefficients are found under this motion. The influences of groove size relative to the diameter of the mating tip (as a representative asperity), surface contact stiffness, contact area, and the characteristic stiction length are discussed. The appearance of this friction anisotropy is independent of material; however, the boundary and the point of trend transition depend on material properties. PMID:23248751

  15. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging

    PubMed Central

    Burgo, Thiago A. L.; Silva, Cristiane A.; Balestrin, Lia B. S.; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers. PMID:23934227

  16. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging.

    PubMed

    Burgo, Thiago A L; Silva, Cristiane A; Balestrin, Lia B S; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers.

  17. Friction anisotropy with respect to topographic orientation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chengjiao; Wang, Q Jane

    2012-01-01

    Friction characteristics with respect to surface topographic orientation were investigated using surfaces of different materials and fabricated with grooves of different scales. Scratching friction tests were conducted using a nano-indentation-scratching system with the tip motion parallel or perpendicular to the groove orientation. Similar friction anisotropy trends were observed for all the surfaces studied, which are (1) under a light load and for surfaces with narrow grooves, the tip motion parallel to the grooves offers higher friction coefficients than does that perpendicular to them, (2) otherwise, equal or lower friction coefficients are found under this motion. The influences of groove size relative to the diameter of the mating tip (as a representative asperity), surface contact stiffness, contact area, and the characteristic stiction length are discussed. The appearance of this friction anisotropy is independent of material; however, the boundary and the point of trend transition depend on material properties.

  18. Static and Dynamic Traversable Wormholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamiak, Jaroslaw P.

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this work is to discuss the effects found in static and dynamic wormholes that occur as a solution of Einstein equations in general relativity. The ground is prepared by presentation of faster than light effects, then the focus is narrowed to Morris-Thorne framework for a static spherically symmetric wormhole. Two types of dynamic worm-holes, evolving and rotating, are considered.

  19. Friction coefficient of faults inferred from earthquake focal mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, Alfio; Ranalli, Giorgio; Andreis, Daniele; Martin, Silvana; Rigon, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    In earthquake mechanics and structural geology the static friction coefficient is usually assumed to have the laboratory value (μ = 0.6-0.8) according to the Coulomb-Byerlee's law. Estimates from deep boreholes and/or natural faults generally confirm this hypothesis but in some cases friction coefficients can be significantly lower, suggesting the existence of weak faults able to be activated by lower effective stress than theoretically expected. We apply a modified version of the method proposed by Yin and Ranalli (1995, Journal of Structural Geology, vol. 17, pp. 1327-1335), where the average friction coefficient of a set of n faults is estimated. This method is based on minimization of the sum of squares of the misfit ratios, where the misfit ratio of each fault is given dividing the misfit stress difference (i.e. the misfit between normalized stress difference and average normalized stress difference) by the average normalized stress difference. The normalized stress difference is defined as the critical stress difference divided by the effective overburden pressure, while the average stress difference is obtained considering the entire fault dataset. Input data are (i) the orientation of faults, (ii) the stress field orientation, and (iii) the stress ratio. The latter two must be independently estimated. A uniform stress field and a similar normalized critical stress difference for the fault dataset are assumed. The procedure has been extended to apply to fault plane solutions by considering both nodal planes of a set of n focal mechanisms and estimating the range of acceptable average friction coefficients from all possible combination of planes (2n number of combinations). The amount of calculation can be considerably reduced if independent information makes it possible to select which one of the nodal planes of each focal mechanism is the true fault plane (for example when aftershocks delineate the fault geometry at depth), resulting in only n combinations

  20. Modelling cohesive, frictional and viscoplastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alehossein, Habib; Qin, Zongyi

    2016-06-01

    Most materials in mining and civil engineering construction are not only viscoplastic, but also cohesive frictional. Fresh concrete, fly ash and mining slurries are all granular-frictional-visco-plastic fluids, although solid concrete is normally considered as a cohesive frictional material. Presented here is both a formulation of the pipe and disc flow rates as a function of pressure and pressure gradient and the CFD application to fresh concrete flow in L-Box tests.

  1. Investigation of squeal noise under positive friction characteristics condition provided by friction modifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaogang; Meehan, Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Field application of friction modifiers on the top of rail has been shown to effectively curb squeal and reduce lateral forces, but performance can be variable, according to other relevant research. Up to now, most investigations of friction modifiers were conducted in the field, where it is difficult to control or measure important parameters such as angle of attack, rolling speed, adhesion ratio etc. In the present investigation, the effect of different friction modifiers on the occurrence of squeal was investigated on a rolling contact two disk test rig. In particular, friction-creep curves and squeal sound pressure levels were measured under different rolling speeds and friction modifiers. The results show friction modifiers can eliminate or reduce the negative slope of friction-creep curves, but squeal noise still exists. Theoretical modelling of instantaneous creep behaviours reveals a possible reason why wheel squeal still exists after the application of friction modifiers.

  2. A microphysical model explains rate-and-state friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianye; Spiers, Christopher J.

    2015-04-01

    The rate-and-state friction (RSF) laws were originally developed as a phenomenological description of the frictional behavior observed in lab experiments. In previous studies, the empirical RSF laws have been extensively and quite successfully applied to fault mechanisms. However, these laws can not readily be envisioned in terms of the underlying physics. There are several critical discrepancies between seismological constraints on RSF behavior associated with earthquakes and lab-derived RSF parameters, in particular regarding the static stress drop and characteristic slip distance associated with seismic events. Moreover, lab friction studies can address only limited fault topographies, displacements, experimental durations and P-T conditions, which means that scale issues, and especially processes like dilatation and fluid-rock interaction, cannot be fully taken into account. Without a physical basis accounting for such effects, extrapolation of lab-derived RSF data to nature involves significant, often unknown uncertainties. In order to more reliably apply experimental results to natural fault zones, and notably to extrapolate lab data beyond laboratory pressure, temperature and velocity conditions, an understanding of the microphysical mechanisms governing fault frictional behavior is required. Here, following some pioneering efforts (e.g. Niemeijer and Spiers, 2007; Den Hartog and Spiers, 2014), a mechanism-based microphysical model is developed for describing the frictional behavior of carbonate fault gouge, assuming that the frictional behavior seen in lab experiments is controlled by competing processes of intergranular slip versus contact creep by pressure solution. The model basically consists of two governing equations derived from energy/entropy balance considerations and the kinematic relations that apply to a granular fault gouge undergoing shear and dilation/compaction. These two equations can be written as ˙τ/K = Vimp- Lt[λ˙γsbps +(1-

  3. How to teach friction: Experiments and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besson, Ugo; Borghi, Lidia; De Ambrosis, Anna; Mascheretti, Paolo

    2007-12-01

    Students generally have difficulty understanding friction and its associated phenomena. High school and introductory college-level physics courses usually do not give the topic the attention it deserves. We have designed a sequence for teaching about friction between solids based on a didactic reconstruction of the relevant physics, as well as research findings about student conceptions. The sequence begins with demonstrations that illustrate different types of friction. Experiments are subsequently performed to motivate students to obtain quantitative relations in the form of phenomenological laws. To help students understand the mechanisms producing friction, models illustrating the processes taking place on the surface of bodies in contact are proposed.

  4. Friction measurement in a hip wear simulator.

    PubMed

    Saikko, Vesa

    2016-05-01

    A torque measurement system was added to a widely used hip wear simulator, the biaxial rocking motion device. With the rotary transducer, the frictional torque about the drive axis of the biaxial rocking motion mechanism was measured. The principle of measuring the torque about the vertical axis above the prosthetic joint, used earlier in commercial biaxial rocking motion simulators, was shown to sense only a minor part of the total frictional torque. With the present method, the total frictional torque of the prosthetic hip was measured. This was shown to consist of the torques about the vertical axis above the joint and about the leaning axis. Femoral heads made from different materials were run against conventional and crosslinked polyethylene acetabular cups in serum lubrication. Regarding the femoral head material and the type of polyethylene, there were no categorical differences in frictional torque with the exception of zirconia heads, with which the lowest values were obtained. Diamond-like carbon coating of the CoCr femoral head did not reduce friction. The friction factor was found to always decrease with increasing load. High wear could increase the frictional torque by 75%. With the present system, friction can be continuously recorded during long wear tests, so the effect of wear on friction with different prosthetic hips can be evaluated.

  5. Effect of grafted oligopeptides on friction.

    PubMed

    Iarikov, Dmitri D; Ducker, William A

    2013-05-14

    Frictional and normal forces in aqueous solution at 25 °C were measured between a glass particle and oligopeptide films grafted from a glass plate. Homopeptide molecules consisting of 11 monomers of either glutamine, leucine, glutamic acid, lysine, or phenylalanine and one heteropolymer were each "grafted from" an oxidized silicon wafer using microwave-assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis. The peptide films were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Frictional force measurements showed that the oligopeptides increased the magnitude of friction compared to that on a bare hydrophilic silicon wafer but that the friction was a strong function of the nature of the monomer unit. Overall we find that the friction is lower for more hydrophilic films. For example, the most hydrophobic monomer, leucine, exhibited the highest friction whereas the hydrophilic monomer, polyglutamic acid, exhibited the lowest friction at zero load. When the two surfaces had opposite charges, there was a strong attraction, adhesion, and high friction between the surfaces. Friction for all polymers was lower in phosphate-buffered saline than in pure water, which was attributed to lubrication via hydrated salt ions.

  6. Measurement of Gear Tooth Dynamic Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebbechi, Brian; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of dynamic friction forces at the gear tooth contact were undertaken using strain gages at the root fillets of two successive teeth. Results are presented from two gear sets over a range of speeds and loads. The results demonstrate that the friction coefficient does not appear to be significantly influenced by the sliding reversal at the pitch point, and that the friction coefficient values found are in accord with those in general use. The friction coefficient was found to increase at low sliding speeds. This agrees with the results of disc machine testing.

  7. Frictional melt and seismic slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S.; di Toro, G.; Hirose, T.; Shimamoto, T.

    2008-01-01

    Frictional melt is implied in a variety of processes such as seismic slip, ice skating, and meteorite combustion. A steady state can be reached when melt is continuously produced and extruded from the sliding interface, as shown recently in a number of laboratory rock friction experiments. A thin, low-viscosity, high-temperature melt layer is formed resulting in low shear resistance. A theoretical solution describing the coupling of shear heating, thermal diffusion, and extrusion is obtained, without imposing a priori the melt thickness. The steady state shear traction can be approximated at high slip rates by the theoretical form τss = σn1/4 (A/?) ? under a normal stress σn, slip rate V, radius of contact area R (A is a dimensional normalizing factor and W is a characteristic rate). Although the model offers a rather simplified view of a complex process, the predictions are compatible with experimental observations. In particular, we consider laboratory simulations of seismic slip on earthquake faults. A series of high-velocity rotary shear experiments on rocks, performed for σn in the range 1-20 MPa and slip rates in the range 0.5-2 m s-1, is confronted to the theoretical model. The behavior is reasonably well reproduced, though the effect of radiation loss taking place in the experiment somewhat alters the data. The scaling of friction with σn, R, and V in the presence of melt suggests that extrapolation of laboratory measures to real Earth is a highly nonlinear, nontrivial exercise.

  8. Kinetics of atoms in a bichromatic field

    SciTech Connect

    Prudnikov, O. N.; Baklanov, A. S.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Tumaikin, A. M.; Yudin, V. I.

    2013-08-15

    The kinetics of atoms in a bichromatic field is considered. Analytic solutions are obtained for the force, friction coefficient, and diffusion coefficient in the model of a two-level atom without limitations imposed on the intensity of light fields. This effect is observed in the domain of global minima and maxima of the optical potential (i.e., at points where the relative phase of two standing waves is Greek-Phi-Symbol = 0, {pi}/2.

  9. Hydrodynamic skin-friction reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Jason C. (Inventor); Bushnell, Dennis M. (Inventor); Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A process for reducing skin friction, inhibiting the effects of liquid turbulence, and decreasing heat transfer in a system involving flow of a liquid along a surface of a body includes applying a substantially integral sheet of a gas, e.g., air, immediately adjacent to the surface of the body, e.g., a marine vehicle, which has a longitudinally grooved surface in proximity with the liquid and with a surface material having high contact angle between the liquid and said wall to reduce interaction of the liquid, e.g., water, with the surface of the body, e.g., the hull of the marine vehicle.

  10. Fractional trajectories: Decorrelation versus friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenkeson, A.; Beig, M. T.; Turalska, M.; West, B. J.; Grigolini, P.

    2013-11-01

    The fundamental connection between fractional calculus and subordination processes is explored and affords a physical interpretation of a fractional trajectory, that being an average over an ensemble of stochastic trajectories. Heretofore what has been interpreted as intrinsic friction, a form of non-Markovian dissipation that automatically arises from adopting the fractional calculus, is shown to be a manifestation of decorrelations between trajectories. We apply the general theory developed herein to the Lotka-Volterra ecological model, providing new insight into the final equilibrium state. The relaxation time to achieve this state is also considered.

  11. Inverse Kinetics

    2000-03-20

    Given the space-independent, one energy group reactor kinetics equations and the initial conditions, this prgram determines the time variation of reactivity required to produce the given input of flux-time data.

  12. Modeling of Instabilities and Self-organization at the Frictional Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, Vahid

    frictional surface to exhibit "self-protection" and "self-healing" properties. Hence, this research is dealing with the fundamental concepts that allow the possibility of the development of a new generation of tribosystem and materials that reinforce such properties. In chapter 2, we investigate instabilities due to the temperature-dependency of the coefficient of friction. The temperature-dependency of the coefficient of friction can have a significant effect on the frictional sliding stability, by leading to the formation of "hot" and "cold" spots on the contacting surfaces. We formulate a stability criterion and perform a case study of a brake disk. In chapter 3, we study frictional running-in. Running-in is a transient period on the onset of the frictional sliding, in which friction and wear decrease to their stationary values. In this research, running-in is interpreted as friction-induced self-organization process. We introduce a theoretical model of running-in and investigate rough profile evolution assuming that its kinetics is driven by two opposite processes or events, i.e., smoothening which is typical for the deformation-driven friction and wear, and roughening which is typical for the adhesion-driven friction and wear. In chapter 4, we investigate the possibility of the so-called Turing-type pattern formation during friction. Turing or reaction-diffusion systems describe variations of spatial concentrations of chemical components with time due to local chemical reactions coupled with diffusion. During friction, the patterns can form at the sliding interface due to the mass transfer (diffusion), heat transfer, various tribochemical reactions, and wear. In chapter 5, we investigate how interfacial patterns including propagating trains of stick and slip zones form due to dynamic sliding instabilities. These can be categorized as self-organized patterns. We treat stick and slip as two phases at the interface, and study the effects related to phase transitions. Our

  13. Frictional Fluid Dynamics and Plug Formation in Multiphase Millifluidic Flow.

    PubMed

    Dumazer, Guillaume; Sandnes, Bjørnar; Ayaz, Monem; Måløy, Knut Jørgen; Flekkøy, Eirik Grude

    2016-07-01

    We study experimentally the flow and patterning of a granular suspension displaced by air inside a narrow tube. The invading air-liquid interface accumulates a plug of granular material that clogs the tube due to friction with the confining walls. The gas percolates through the static plug once the gas pressure exceeds the pore capillary entry pressure of the packed grains, and a moving accumulation front is reestablished at the far side of the plug. The process repeats, such that the advancing interface leaves a trail of plugs in its wake. Further, we show that the system undergoes a fluidization transition-and complete evacuation of the granular suspension-when the liquid withdrawal rate increases beyond a critical value. An analytical model of the stability condition for the granular accumulation predicts the flow regime. PMID:27447527

  14. Frictional Fluid Dynamics and Plug Formation in Multiphase Millifluidic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumazer, Guillaume; Sandnes, Bjørnar; Ayaz, Monem; Mâløy, Knut Jørgen; Flekkøy, Eirik Grude

    2016-07-01

    We study experimentally the flow and patterning of a granular suspension displaced by air inside a narrow tube. The invading air-liquid interface accumulates a plug of granular material that clogs the tube due to friction with the confining walls. The gas percolates through the static plug once the gas pressure exceeds the pore capillary entry pressure of the packed grains, and a moving accumulation front is reestablished at the far side of the plug. The process repeats, such that the advancing interface leaves a trail of plugs in its wake. Further, we show that the system undergoes a fluidization transition—and complete evacuation of the granular suspension—when the liquid withdrawal rate increases beyond a critical value. An analytical model of the stability condition for the granular accumulation predicts the flow regime.

  15. Frictional property comparisons of conventional and self-ligating lingual brackets according to tooth displacement during initial leveling and alignment: an in vitro mechanical study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Yoon; Lim, Bum-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the effects of tooth displacement on frictional force when conventional ligating lingual brackets (CL-LBs), CL-LBs with a narrow bracket width, and self-ligating lingual brackets (SL-LBs) were used with initial leveling and alignment wires. Methods CL-LBs (7th Generation), CL-LBs with a narrow bracket width (STb), and SL-LBs (In-Ovation L) were tested under three tooth displacement conditions: no displacement (control); a 2-mm palatal displacement (PD) of the maxillary right lateral incisor (MXLI); and a 2-mm gingival displacement (GD) of the maxillary right canine (MXC) (nine groups, n = 7 per group). A stereolithographic typodont system and artificial saliva were used. Static and kinetic frictional forces (SFF and KFF, respectively) were measured while drawing a 0.013-inch copper-nickel-titanium archwire through brackets at 0.5 mm/min for 5 minutes at 36.5℃. Results The In-Ovation L exhibited lower SFF under control conditions and lower KFF under all displacement conditions than the 7th Generation and STb (all p < 0.001). No significant difference in SFF existed between the In-Ovation L and STb for a 2-mm GD of the MXC and 2-mm PD of the MXLI. A 2-mm GD of the MXC produced higher SFF and KFF than a 2-mm PD of the MXLI in all brackets (all p < 0.001). Conclusions CL-LBs with narrow bracket widths exhibited higher KFF than SL-LBs under tooth displacement conditions. CL-LBs and ligation methods should be developed to produce SFF and KFF as low as those in SL-LBs during the initial and leveling stage. PMID:27019823

  16. A comparison of Coulomb and pseudo-Coulomb friction implementations: Application to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M I; Hiley, M J; Yeadon, M R

    2011-10-13

    In the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting both dynamic and static friction act. The purpose of this study was to develop a method of simulating Coulomb friction that incorporated both dynamic and static phases and to compare the results with those obtained using a pseudo-Coulomb implementation of friction when applied to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting. Kinematic data were obtained from an elite level gymnast performing handspring straight somersault vaults using a Vicon optoelectronic motion capture system. An angle-driven computer model of vaulting that simulated the interaction between a seven segment gymnast and a single segment vaulting table during the table contact phase of the vault was developed. Both dynamic and static friction were incorporated within the model by switching between two implementations of the tangential frictional force. Two vaulting trials were used to determine the model parameters using a genetic algorithm to match simulations to recorded performances. A third independent trial was used to evaluate the model and close agreement was found between the simulation and the recorded performance with an overall difference of 13.5%. The two-state simulation model was found to be capable of replicating performance at take-off and also of replicating key contact phase features such as the normal and tangential motion of the hands. The results of the two-state model were compared to those using a pseudo-Coulomb friction implementation within the simulation model. The two-state model achieved similar overall results to those of the pseudo-Coulomb model but obtained solutions more rapidly. PMID:21889150

  17. Applicability of Macroscopic Wear and Friction Laws on the Atomic Length Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, S. J.; Feldbauer, G.; Bianchi, D.; Cihak-Bayr, U.; Betz, G.; Vernes, A.

    2015-07-01

    Using molecular dynamics, we simulate the abrasion process of an atomically rough Fe surface with multiple hard abrasive particles. By quantifying the nanoscopic wear depth in a time-resolved fashion, we show that Barwell's macroscopic wear law can be applied at the atomic scale. We find that in this multiasperity contact system, the Bowden-Tabor term, which describes the friction force as a function of the real nanoscopic contact area, can predict the kinetic friction even when wear is involved. From this the Derjaguin-Amontons-Coulomb friction law can be recovered, since we observe a linear dependence of the contact area on the applied load in accordance with Greenwood-Williamson contact mechanics.

  18. A frictional population model of seismicity rate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Reasenberg, P.; Cocco, M.; Belardinelli, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    We study models of seismicity rate changes caused by the application of a static stress perturbation to a population of faults and discuss our results with respect to the model proposed by Dieterich (1994). These models assume distribution of nucleation sites (e.g., faults) obeying rate-state frictional relations that fail at constant rate under tectonic loading alone, and predicts a positive static stress step at time to will cause an immediate increased seismicity rate that decays according to Omori's law. We show one way in which the Dieterich model may be constructed from simple general idead, illustratted using numerically computed synthetic seismicity and mathematical formulation. We show that seismicity rate change predicted by these models (1) depend on the particular relationship between the clock-advanced failure and fault maturity, (2) are largest for the faults closest to failure at to, (3) depend strongly on which state evolution law faults obey, and (4) are insensitive to some types of population hetrogeneity. We also find that if individual faults fail repeatedly and populations are finite, at timescales much longer than typical aftershock durations, quiescence follows at seismicity rate increase regardless of the specific frictional relations. For the examined models the quiescence duration is comparable to the ratio of stress change to stressing rate ????/??,which occurs after a time comparable to the average recurrence interval of the individual faults in the population and repeats in the absence of any new load may pertubations; this simple model may partly explain observations of repeated clustering of earthquakes. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Frictional behavior of large displacement experimental faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, N.M.; Tullis, T.E.; Blanpied, M.L.; Weeks, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The coefficient of friction and velocity dependence of friction of initially bare surfaces and 1-mm-thick simulated fault gouges (400 mm at 25??C and 25 MPa normal stress. Steady state negative friction velocity dependence and a steady state fault zone microstructure are achieved after ???18 mm displacement, and an approximately constant strength is reached after a few tens of millimeters of sliding on initially bare surfaces. Simulated fault gouges show a large but systematic variation of friction, velocity dependence of friction, dilatancy, and degree of localization with displacement. At short displacement (<10 mm), simulated gouge is strong, velocity strengthening and changes in sliding velocity are accompanied by relatively large changes in dilatancy rate. With continued displacement, simulated gouges become progressively weaker and less velocity strengthening, the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate decreases, and deformation becomes localized into a narrow basal shear which at its most localized is observed to be velocity weakening. With subsequent displacement, the fault restrengthens, returns to velocity strengthening, or to velocity neutral, the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate becomes larger, and deformation becomes distributed. Correlation of friction, velocity dependence of friction and of dilatancy rate, and degree of localization at all displacements in simulated gouge suggest that all quantities are interrelated. The observations do not distinguish the independent variables but suggest that the degree of localization is controlled by the fault strength, not by the friction velocity dependence. The friction velocity dependence and velocity dependence of dilatancy rate can be used as qualitative measures of the degree of localization in simulated gouge, in agreement with previous studies. Theory equating the friction velocity dependence of simulated gouge to the sum of the friction velocity dependence of bare surfaces and the velocity

  20. Kozai Cycles and Tidal Friction

    SciTech Connect

    L, K; P.P., E

    2009-07-17

    Several studies in the last three years indicate that close binaries, i.e. those with periods of {approx}< 3 d, are very commonly found to have a third body in attendance. We argue that this proves that the third body is necessary in order to make the inner period so short, and further argue that the only reasonable explanation is that the third body causes shrinkage of the inner period, from perhaps a week or more to the current short period, by means of the combination of Kozai cycles and tidal friction (KCTF). In addition, once KCTF has produced a rather close binary, magnetic braking also combined with tidal friction (MBTF) can decrease the inner orbit further, to the formation of a contact binary or even a merged single star. Some of the products of KCTF that have been suggested, either by others or by us, are W UMa binaries, Blue Stragglers, X-ray active BY Dra stars, and short-period Algols. We also argue that some components of wide binaries are actually merged remnants of former close inner pairs. This may include such objects as rapidly rotating dwarfs (AB Dor, BO Mic) and some (but not all) Be stars.

  1. Comparison of Frictional Heating Models

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, Nicholas R; Blau, Peter Julian

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare the predicted temperature rises using four well-known models for frictional heating under a few selected conditions in which similar variable inputs are provided to each model. Classic papers by Archard, Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, Lim and Ashby, and Rabinowicz have been examined, and a spreadsheet (Excel ) was developed to facilitate the calculations. This report may be used in conjunction with that spreadsheet. It explains the background, assumptions, and rationale used for the calculations. Calculated flash temperatures for selected material combinations, under a range of applied loads and sliding speeds, are tabulated. The materials include AISI 52100 bearing steel, CDA 932 bronze, NBD 200 silicon nitride, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and carbon-graphite material. Due to the assumptions made by the different models, and the direct way in which certain assumed quantities, like heat sink distances or asperity dimensions, enter into the calculations, frictional hearing results may differ significantly; however, they can be similar in certain cases in light of certain assumptions that are shared between the models.

  2. "Frictional processes" in carbonate-bearing rocks at seismic deformation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Toro, G.; Spagnuolo, E.; Violay, M.; Rempe, M.; Smith, S. A. F.; Nielsen, S. B.; Fondriest, M.; Plumper, O.

    2015-12-01

    Moderate to large earthquakes often rupture and propagate along faults in carbonate-bearing rocks (dolostones, limestones, marbles, etc.). Compared to silicate-bearing rocks, which melt, weaken and wear when sheared at seismic slip rates (ca. 1 m/s), carbonate-bearing rocks do not melt, the minimum friction coefficient can be much lower (down to 5% of static friction) and the wear rate is negligible at seismic slip rates. In cohesive carbonate-bearing rocks, experiments simulating seismic deformation conditions and stopped at slip initiation (< 5 mm) suggest that initial frictional decay down to 50% of static friction is associated with CO2 emission plus formation of nanograins and amorphous carbon. Experiments stopped at larger slips (< 5 mm) show that the slipping zone consists of a foam-like sintered surface overlying a microporous fabric made of calcite and lime (plus periclase in the case of dolomite) nanograins. In non-cohesive rocks (e.g. gouges) a similar evolution is observed after an initial period of strengthening and strain localization. Experiments with pressurized H2O show that the contribution of thermal and thermochemical pressurization is negligible in cohesive and questionable in non-cohesive carbonate-bearing rocks. We propose that initial frictional weakening is due to the formation of patches of amorphous carbon (solid lubricant) at asperity contacts. With progressive slip and bulk temperature increase, nanograins accommodate large strain rates (ca. 104 s-1) by grain boundary sliding as suggested by several authors. The presence of a microporous fabric boosts pore-controlled diffusive process propelled by CO2 gas exhaust due to decarbonation. Enhanced pore-controlled diffusive processes allow (1) efficient mass transfer during grain boundary sliding and (2) sintering of the nanograins into a foam-like slip surface at the end of the experiment.

  3. Sensitivities of Tropical Cyclones to Surface Friction and the Coriolis Parameter in a 2-D Cloud-Resolving Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivities to surface friction and the Coriolis parameter in tropical cyclogenesis are studied using an axisymmetric version of the Goddard cloud ensemble model. Our experiments demonstrate that tropical cyclogenesis can still occur without surface friction. However, the resulting tropical cyclone has very unrealistic structure. Surface friction plays an important role of giving the tropical cyclones their observed smaller size and diminished intensity. Sensitivity of the cyclogenesis process to surface friction. in terms of kinetic energy growth, has different signs in different phases of the tropical cyclone. Contrary to the notion of Ekman pumping efficiency, which implies a preference for the highest Coriolis parameter in the growth rate if all other parameters are unchanged, our experiments show no such preference.

  4. Internally architectured materials with directionally asymmetric friction

    PubMed Central

    Bafekrpour, Ehsan; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena; Molotnikov, Andrey; Estrin, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Internally Architectured Materials (IAMs) that exhibit different friction forces for sliding in the opposite directions are proposed. This is achieved by translating deformation normal to the sliding plane into a tangential force in a manner that is akin to a toothbrush with inclined bristles. Friction asymmetry is attained by employing a layered material or a structure with parallel ‘ribs’ inclined to the direction of sliding. A theory of directionally asymmetric friction is presented, along with prototype IAMs designed, fabricated and tested. The friction anisotropy (the ξ-coefficient) is characterised by the ratio of the friction forces for two opposite directions of sliding. It is further demonstrated that IAM can possess very high levels of friction anisotropy, with ξ of the order of 10. Further increase in ξ is attained by modifying the shape of the ribs to provide them with directionally dependent bending stiffness. Prototype IAMs produced by 3D printing exhibit truly giant friction asymmetry, with ξ in excess of 20. A novel mechanical rectifier, which can convert oscillatory movement into unidirectional movement by virtue of directionally asymmetric friction, is proposed. Possible applications include locomotion in a constrained environment and energy harvesting from oscillatory noise and vibrations. PMID:26040634

  5. ANALYSIS OF THE MAGNETIZED FRICTION FORCE.

    SciTech Connect

    FEDOTOV, A.V.; BRUHWILER, D.L.; SIDORIN, A.O.

    2006-05-29

    A comprehensive examination of theoretical models for the friction force, in use by the electron cooling community, was performed. Here, they present their insights about the models gained as a result of comparison between the friction force formulas and direct numerical simulations, as well as studies of the cooling process as a whole.

  6. Magnetic Viscous Drag for Friction Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Chris; Catching, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The typical friction lab performed in introductory mechanics courses is usually not the favorite of either the student or the instructor. The measurements are not all that easy to make, and reproducibility is usually a troublesome issue. This paper describes the augmentation of such a friction lab with a study of the viscous drag on a magnet…

  7. Studying the Frictional Force Directions via Bristles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasitpong, S.; Chitaree, R.; Rakkapao, S.

    2010-01-01

    We present simple apparatus designed to help Thai high school students visualize the directions of frictional forces. Bristles of toothbrushes, paintbrushes and scrubbing brushes are used to demonstrate the frictional forces acting in a variety of situations. These demonstrations, when followed by discussion of free-body diagrams, were found to be…

  8. ABL and BAM Friction Analysis Comparison

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Warner, Kirstin F.; Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Remmers, Daniel L.; Phillips, Jason J.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; Hsu, Peter C.; Reynolds, John G.

    2014-12-29

    Here, the Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program has conducted a proficiency study for Small-Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here is a comparison of the Alleghany Ballistic Laboratory (ABL) friction data and Bundesanstalt fur Materialforschung und -prufung (BAM) friction data for 19 HEM and military standard explosives.

  9. Gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Lawless, Kirby G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool includes a pin and first and second annular shoulders coupled to the pin. At least one of the annular shoulders is coupled to the pin for gimbaled motion with respect thereto as the tool is rotated by a friction stir welding apparatus.

  10. Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of…

  11. Friction, wear, and lubrication in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    A review of studies and observations on the friction, wear, and lubrication behavior of materials in a vacuum environment is presented. The factors that determine and influence friction and wear are discussed. They include topographical, physical, mechanical, and the chemical nature of the surface. The effects of bulk properties such as deformation characteristics, fracture behavior, and structure are included.

  12. On a model of frictional sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrin, Y.; Bréchet, Y.

    1996-10-01

    A model of frictional sliding with an N-shaped curve for the sliding velocity dependence of the coefficient of friction is considered. This type of friction law is shown to be related to dynamic i.e., velocity dependent ‘ageing’ of asperity junctions. Mechanisms of ‘ageing’ for ductile (Bowden-Tabor) and brittle (Byerlee) materials, though different in nature, lead to qualitatively similar N-shaped velocity dependencies of the coefficient of friction. Estimates for the velocities limiting the range of negative velocity sensitivity of the coefficient of friction are obtained for the ductile case and—albeit with a lesser degree of reliability—for the brittle one. It is shown by linear stability analysis that discontinuous sliding (stick-slip) is associated with the descending portion of the N-shaped curve. An instability criterion is obtained. An expression for the period of the attendant relaxation oscillations of the sliding velocity is given in terms of the calculated velocity dependence of the coefficient of friction. It is suggested that the micromechanically motivated friction law proposed should be used in models of earthquakes due to discontinuous frictional sliding on a crustal fault.

  13. Internal Friction within the Earth and Seismic Attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, I. B.

    2012-12-01

    The existing theory of internal friction within the Earth uses viscosity for its fluids and "viscoelastic quality factor" (Q) for solids. Despite its broad acceptance, it is rarely noticed that this model also faces serious theoretical and practical difficulties. Such difficulties arise in cases of heterogeneous media, which are most important in seismology. For example, for a long-period Love wave, the viscoelastic model violates the energy balance and overestimates the attenuation by ~ 5-12 %. In all existing Q models, fluid layers such as the outer core unrealistically contribute zero dissipation of free oscillations, seismic waves, and tides. For fluids, internal friction (Q-1) is directly proportional to viscosity, whereas from comparing seismic observations with geodynamics, this empirical correlation is opposite for the upper mantle. The viscoelastic model also produces nonphysical solutions and incorrect phases of acoustic impedances in heterogeneous media. These problems need to be addressed in order o understand the meaning of Q shown in many attenuation models. Fortunately, an alternate approach to internal friction is well known in continuum mechanics and thermodynamics. This approach is free from the above problems. Instead of Q and "material memory", it considers several specific mechanisms of energy dissipation: 1) viscosity for both solids or fluids, which can be Newtonian or non-Newtonian, 2) thermoelasticity, 3) scattering and variations of geometric spreading, and 4) kinetic transformations within the material. Here, we apply this approach to field and lab observations of seismic attenuation. As an example, we invert the Love-wave QL observed on the surface at 20-200-s periods for physical parameters 1)-3) above. With the exception of thermoelasticity on small heterogeneities, each of these mechanisms explains the observed frequency dependence of QL very closely. For several mechanisms, Love-wave attenuation is dominated by mantle layers at ~70

  14. Static heterogeneities in liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. Eugene; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Giovambattista, Nicolas

    2004-10-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of water seems to be closely related to static heterogeneities. These static heterogeneities are related to the local structure of water molecules, and when properly characterized, may offer an economical explanation of thermodynamic data. The key feature of liquid water is not so much that the existence of hydrogen bonds, first pointed out by Linus Pauling, but rather the local geometry of the liquid molecules is not spherical or oblong but tetrahedral. In the consideration of static heterogeneities, this local geometry is critical. Recent experiments suggested more than one phase of amorphous solid water, while simulations suggest that one of these phases is metastable with respect to another, so that in fact there are only two stable phases.

  15. Impact comminution of solids due to local kinetic energy of high shear strain rate: I. Continuum theory and turbulence analogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bažant, Zdeněk P.; Caner, Ferhun C.

    2014-03-01

    The modeling of high velocity impact into brittle or quasibrittle solids is hampered by the unavailability of a constitutive model capturing the effects of material comminution into very fine particles. The present objective is to develop such a model, usable in finite element programs. The comminution at very high strain rates can dissipate a large portion of the kinetic energy of an impacting missile. The spatial derivative of the energy dissipated by comminution gives a force resisting the penetration, which is superposed on the nodal forces obtained from the static constitutive model in a finite element program. The present theory is inspired partly by Grady's model for expansive comminution due to explosion inside a hollow sphere, and partly by analogy with turbulence. In high velocity turbulent flow, the energy dissipation rate gets enhanced by the formation of micro-vortices (eddies) which dissipate energy by viscous shear stress. Similarly, here it is assumed that the energy dissipation at fast deformation of a confined solid gets enhanced by the release of kinetic energy of the motion associated with a high-rate shear strain of forming particles. For simplicity, the shape of these particles in the plane of maximum shear rate is considered to be regular hexagons. The particle sizes are assumed to be distributed according to the Schuhmann power law. The condition that the rate of release of the local kinetic energy must be equal to the interface fracture energy yields a relation between the particle size, the shear strain rate, the fracture energy and the mass density. As one experimental justification, the present theory agrees with Grady's empirical observation that, in impact events, the average particle size is proportional to the (-2/3) power of the shear strain rate. The main characteristic of the comminution process is a dimensionless number Ba (Eq. (37)) representing the ratio of the local kinetic energy of shear strain rate to the maximum possible

  16. Frictional microscopy of polymers and nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotomin, S. V.; Ezhov, A. A.; Sollogoub, C.; Yarikov, D.

    2014-05-01

    The mechanical and frictional properties of polystyrene, polymethylmethacrylate and nanocomposites with montmorillonite were studied by using the microindentation technique and frictional microscopy. The micromechanical tests revealed a decrease in the modulus and microhardness of the composite compared with those of a neat polystyrene, with a minimum of their values at 1-3 wt.% of the filler, but a local maximum of the tensile modulus of the filled polymer arose and increased at the same filler concentration. The frictional microscopy revealed anisotropy of the friction coefficient of the nanocomposite and to its noticeable dependence on the content of the filler. The maximum value of the friction coefficient was also reached at 1-3 wt.% of the filler and corresponds to the greatest degree of interplanar distance in the layered silicate and to minimum microhardness and elastic modulus of the composite surface.

  17. Large Friction Anisotropy of a Polydiacetylene Monolayer

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, A.R.; Carpick, R.W.; Sasaki, D.Y.

    1999-05-11

    Friction force microscopy measurements of a polydiacetylene monolayer film reveal a 300% friction anisotropy that is correlated with the film structure. The film consists of a monolayer of the red form of N-(2-ethanol)- 10,12 pentacosadiynamide, prepared on a Langmuir trough and deposited on a mica substrate. As confirmed by atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, the monolayer consists of domains of linearly oriented conjugated backbones with pendant hydrocarbon side chains above and below the backbones. Maximum friction occurs when the sliding direction is perpendicular to the backbone. We propose that the backbones impose anisotropic packing of the hydrocarbon side chains which leads to the observed friction anisotropy. Friction anisotropy is therefore a sensitive, optically-independent indicator of polymer backbone direction and monolayer structural properties.

  18. Friction forces on phase transition fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Mégevand, Ariel

    2013-07-01

    In cosmological first-order phase transitions, the microscopic interaction of the phase transition fronts with non-equilibrium plasma particles manifests itself macroscopically as friction forces. In general, it is a nontrivial problem to compute these forces, and only two limits have been studied, namely, that of very slow walls and, more recently, ultra-relativistic walls which run away. In this paper we consider ultra-relativistic velocities and show that stationary solutions still exist when the parameters allow the existence of runaway walls. Hence, we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the fronts to actually run away. We also propose a phenomenological model for the friction, which interpolates between the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic values. Thus, the friction depends on two friction coefficients which can be calculated for specific models. We then study the velocity of phase transition fronts as a function of the friction parameters, the thermodynamic parameters, and the amount of supercooling.

  19. Static Fourier transform infrared spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Schardt, Michael; Murr, Patrik J; Rauscher, Markus S; Tremmel, Anton J; Wiesent, Benjamin R; Koch, Alexander W

    2016-04-01

    Fourier transform spectroscopy has established itself as the standard method for spectral analysis of infrared light. Here we present a robust and compact novel static Fourier transform spectrometer design without any moving parts. The design is well suited for measurements in the infrared as it works with extended light sources independent of their size. The design is experimentally evaluated in the mid-infrared wavelength region between 7.2 μm and 16 μm. Due to its large etendue, its low internal light loss, and its static design it enables high speed spectral analysis in the mid-infrared.

  20. Voltage Sensors Monitor Harmful Static

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    A tiny sensor, small enough to be worn on clothing, now monitors voltage changes near sensitive instruments after being created to alert Agency workers to dangerous static buildup near fuel operations and avionics. San Diego s Quasar Federal Systems received a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center to develop its remote voltage sensor (RVS), a dime-sized electrometer designed to measure triboelectric changes in the environment. One of the unique qualities of the RVS is that it can detect static at greater distances than previous devices, measuring voltage changes from a few centimeters to a few meters away, due to its much-improved sensitivity.

  1. A microphysical interpretation of rate- and state-dependent friction for fault gouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikari, Matt J.; Carpenter, Brett M.; Marone, Chris

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of fault strength during the seismic cycle plays a key role in the mode of fault slip, nature of earthquake stress drop, and earthquake nucleation. Laboratory-based rate- and state-dependent friction (RSF) laws can describe changes in fault strength during slip, but the connections between fault strength and the mechanisms that dictate the mode of failure, from aseismic creep to earthquake rupture, remain poorly understood. The empirical nature of RSF laws remains a drawback to their application in nature. Here we analyze an extensive data set of friction constitutive parameters with the goal of illuminating the microphysical processes controlling RSF. We document robust relationships between: (1) the initial value of sliding (or kinetic) friction, (2) RSF parameters, and (3) the time rates of frictional strengthening (aging). We derive a microphysical model based on asperity contact mechanics and show that these relationships are dictated by: (1) an activation energy that controls the rate of asperity growth by plastic creep, and (2) an inverse relationship between material hardness and the activation volume of plastic deformation. Collectively, our results illuminate the physics expressed by the RSF parameters, and which describe the absolute value of frictional strength and its dependence on time and slip rate. Moreover, we demonstrate that seismogenic fault behavior may be dictated by the interplay between grain properties and ambient conditions controlling the local shear strength of grain-scale asperity contacts.

  2. Macrostructure of Friction Stir Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aloor, S.; Nowak, B.; Vargas, R.; McClure, J. C.; Murr, L. E.; Nunes, A. C.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper will discuss two of the well know large scale features of friction stir welds: the "onion rings" seen in transverse sections, and the striations on the surface of the work piece. It will be shown that the surface features (sometimes called "tool marks") are the result of irregularities on the rotating shoulder of the pin tool and disappear when the shoulder is polished. The "onion ring" structure seen in transverse cross sections is formed by parts of the "carousel", the zone of material adjacent to and rotating with the pin tool, that are shed off in each rotation. The relation between the carousel and the "ring vortex", a rotational flow extending both in and out of the carousel and resembling a smoke-ring with the hole centered on the pin tool, will be discussed.

  3. Reflection type skin friction meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R. (Inventor); Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A housing block is provided having an upper surface conforming to the test surface of a model or aircraft. An oil film is supplied upstream of a transparent wedge window located in this upper surface by an oil pump system located external to the housing block. A light source located within the housing block supplies a light beam which passes through this transparent window and is reflected back through the transparent window by the upper surface of the oil film to a photo-sensitive position sensor located within the housing. This position sensor allows the slope history of the oil film caused by and aerodynamic flow to be determined. The skin friction is determined from this slope history. Internally located mirrors augment and sensitize the reflected beam as necessary before reaching the position sensor. In addition, a filter may be provided before this sensor to filter the beam.

  4. Friction Stir Welding and Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hovanski, Yuri; Carsley, John; Clarke, Kester D.; Krajewski, Paul E.

    2015-05-01

    With nearly twenty years of international research and collaboration in friction stir welding (FSW) and processing industrial applications have spread into nearly every feasible market. Currently applications exist in aerospace, railway, automotive, personal computers, technology, marine, cutlery, construction, as well as several other markets. Implementation of FSW has demonstrated diverse opportunities ranging from enabling new materials to reducing the production costs of current welding technologies by enabling condensed packaging solutions for traditional fabrication and assembly. TMS has sponsored focused instruction and communication in this technology area for more than fifteen years, with leadership from the Shaping and Forming Committee, which organizes a biannual symposium each odd year at the annual meeting. A focused publication produced from each of these symposia now comprises eight volumes detailing the primary research and development activities in this area over the last two decades. The articles assembled herein focus on both recent developments and technology reviews of several key markets from international experts in this area.

  5. Static and dynamic characteristics of parallel-grooved seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwatsubo, Takuzo; Yang, Bo-Suk; Ibaraki, Ryuji

    1987-01-01

    Presented is an analytical method to determine static and dynamic characteristics of annular parallel-grooved seals. The governing equations were derived by using the turbulent lubrication theory based on the law of fluid friction. Linear zero- and first-order perturbation equations of the governing equations were developed, and these equations were analytically investigated to obtain the reaction force of the seals. An analysis is presented that calculates the leakage flow rate, the torque loss, and the rotordynamic coefficients for parallel-grooved seals. To demonstrate this analysis, we show the effect of changing number of stages, land and groove width, and inlet swirl on stability of the boiler feed water pump seals. Generally, as the number of stages increased or the grooves became wider, the leakage flow rate and rotor-dynamic coefficients decreased and the torque loss increased.

  6. Modeling energy dissipation induced by quasi-static compaction of granular HMX

    SciTech Connect

    Gonthier, K.A.; Menikoff, R.; Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W.

    1997-11-01

    A simple extension of a conventional two-phase (inert gas and reactive solid) continuum model of Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) in energetic granular material is given to account for energy dissipation induced by quasi-static compaction. To this end, the conventional model equations,, valid in the limit of negligible gas phase effects, are supplemented by a relaxation equation governing irreversible changes in solid volume fraction due to intergranular friction, plastic deformation of granules, and granule fracture. The proposed model constitutes a non-strictly hyperbolic system of equations, and is consistent with the Second Law of Thermodynamics for a two-phase mixture. The model predicts stress relaxation and substantial dissipation induced by quasi-static compaction; such phenomena are commonly observed in quasi-static compaction experiments for granular HMX. Predicted intergranular stress histories compare well with experimental data.

  7. Particle Dynamics Simulations of Rate and State Dependent Frictional Sliding of Granular Fault Gouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, J. K.

    2002-12-01

    Particle dynamics methods (PDM) have proven very valuable in the study of fault processes, fault mechanics, and associated deformation. Such discrete numerical techniques capture the heterogeneity and discontinuous nature of earth materials, and can reproduce many behaviors and geometries observed in natural and experimentally-generated shear zones. These include strain localization and delocalization, stick-slip sliding, and characteristic fracture arrays. However, several fundamental experimental results thought to be important in the earthquake generation process, have not been well represented by PDM models: 2D simulations conducted on idealized assemblages of particles using simple elastic-frictional contact laws, generally yield friction values much lower than natural materials, and lack second-order time- and velocity-dependent changes in strength that influence dynamic fault slip. In efforts to reconcile these differences between experimental and numerical friction, new simulations using the discrete element method (DEM) have been carried out using more realistic particle motions conditions and interparticle contact laws: (a) particle rotations are restricted as a proxy for grain roughness, interlocking, and out-of-plane contacts that resist rolling, and (b) time-dependent contact healing is introduced to capture temporal strengthening of granular assemblages. The resulting mechanical behavior qualitatively reproduces the scale and phenomenology of empirically based rate and state constitutive laws for friction. Frictional strength is increased, and in the absence of interparticle rolling, can attain values comparable to those observed in the lab. Even though interparticle contact strength depends only on time of static contact in these models, the bulk assemblage shows velocity- and slip-dependent behavior associated with changes in deformation mechanism, particle configuration and packing, and contact orientation. These results demonstrate the complexity

  8. Incorporation of experimentally derived friction laws in numerical simulations of earthquake generated tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Shane; Spagnuolo, Elena; Lorito, Stefano; Di Toro, Giulio; Scala, Antonio; Festa, Gaetano; Nielsen, Stefan; Piatanesi, Alessio; Romano, Fabrizio; Aretusini, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Seismological, tsunami and geodetic observations have shown that subduction zones are complex systems where the properties of earthquake rupture vary with depth. For example nucleation and high frequency radiation generally occur at depth but low frequency radiation and large tsunami-genic slip appear to occur in the shallow crustal depth. Numerical simulations used to describe these features predominantly use standardised theoretical equations or experimental observations often assuming that their validity extends to all slip-rates, lithologies and tectonic environments. However recent rotary-shear experiments performed on a range of diverse materials and experimental conditions highlighted the large variability of the evolution of friction during slipping pointing to a more complex relationship between material type, slip rate and normal stress. Simulating dynamic rupture using a 2D spectral element methodology on a Tohoku like fault, we apply experimentally derived friction laws (i.e. thermal slip distance friction law, Di Toro et al. 2011) Choice of parameters for the friction law are based on expected material type (e.g. cohesive and non-cohesive clay rich material representative of an accretionary wedge), the normal stress which is controlled by the interaction between the regional stress field and the fault geometry. The shear stress distribution on the fault plane is fractal with the yield stress dependent on the static coefficient of friction and the normal stress, parameters that are dependent on the material type and geometry. We use metrics such as the slip distribution, ground motion and fracture energy to explore the effect of frictional behaviour, fault geometry and stress perturbations and its potential role in tsunami generation. Preliminary results will be presented. This research is funded by the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603839 (Project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy and Risk Reduction

  9. Notes on static cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicák, J.; Zofka, M.

    2002-07-01

    Static cylindrical shells made of various types of matter are studied as sources of the vacuum Levi-Civita metrics. Their internal physical properties are related to the two essential parameters of the metrics outside. The total mass per unit length of the cylinders is always less than ¼. The results are illustrated by a number of figures.

  10. FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merwarth, P.

    1982-01-01

    FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer program (SAP) automatically gathers and reports statistics on occurrences of statements and structures within FORTRAN program. Provisions are made for weighting each statistic, providing user with overall figure of complexity. Statistics, as well as figures of complexity, are gathered on module-by-module basis. Overall summed statistics are accumulated for complete input source file.

  11. FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merwarth, P.

    1984-01-01

    FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer program, SAP (DEC VAX version), automatically gathers statistics on occurrences of statements and structures within FORTRAN program and provides reports of those statistics. Provisions made for weighting each statistic and provide an overall figure of complexity.

  12. Enhanced nanoscale friction on fluorinated graphene.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sangku; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Jeon, Ki-Joon; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Park, Jeong Young

    2012-12-12

    Atomically thin graphene is an ideal model system for studying nanoscale friction due to its intrinsic two-dimensional (2D) anisotropy. Furthermore, modulating its tribological properties could be an important milestone for graphene-based micro- and nanomechanical devices. Here, we report unexpectedly enhanced nanoscale friction on chemically modified graphene and a relevant theoretical analysis associated with flexural phonons. Ultrahigh vacuum friction force microscopy measurements show that nanoscale friction on the graphene surface increases by a factor of 6 after fluorination of the surface, while the adhesion force is slightly reduced. Density functional theory calculations show that the out-of-plane bending stiffness of graphene increases up to 4-fold after fluorination. Thus, the less compliant F-graphene exhibits more friction. This indicates that the mechanics of tip-to-graphene nanoscale friction would be characteristically different from that of conventional solid-on-solid contact and would be dominated by the out-of-plane bending stiffness of the chemically modified graphene. We propose that damping via flexural phonons could be a main source for frictional energy dissipation in 2D systems such as graphene. PMID:22720882

  13. Load-Dependent Friction Hysteresis on Graphene.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhijiang; Egberts, Philip; Han, Gang Hee; Johnson, A T Charlie; Carpick, Robert W; Martini, Ashlie

    2016-05-24

    Nanoscale friction often exhibits hysteresis when load is increased (loading) and then decreased (unloading) and is manifested as larger friction measured during unloading compared to loading for a given load. In this work, the origins of load-dependent friction hysteresis were explored through atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments of a silicon tip sliding on chemical vapor deposited graphene in air, and molecular dynamics simulations of a model AFM tip on graphene, mimicking both vacuum and humid air environmental conditions. It was found that only simulations with water at the tip-graphene contact reproduced the experimentally observed hysteresis. The mechanisms underlying this friction hysteresis were then investigated in the simulations by varying the graphene-water interaction strength. The size of the water-graphene interface exhibited hysteresis trends consistent with the friction, while measures of other previously proposed mechanisms, such as out-of-plane deformation of the graphene film and irreversible reorganization of the water molecules at the shearing interface, were less correlated to the friction hysteresis. The relationship between the size of the sliding interface and friction observed in the simulations was explained in terms of the varying contact angles in front of and behind the sliding tip, which were larger during loading than unloading.

  14. Multiscale physics of rubber-ice friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuononen, Ari J.; Kriston, András; Persson, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Ice friction plays an important role in many engineering applications, e.g., tires on icy roads, ice breaker ship motion, or winter sports equipment. Although numerous experiments have already been performed to understand the effect of various conditions on ice friction, to reveal the fundamental frictional mechanisms is still a challenging task. This study uses in situ white light interferometry to analyze ice surface topography during linear friction testing with a rubber slider. The method helps to provide an understanding of the link between changes in the surface topography and the friction coefficient through direct visualization and quantitative measurement of the morphologies of the ice surface at different length scales. Besides surface polishing and scratching, it was found that ice melts locally even after one sweep showing the refrozen droplets. A multi-scale rubber friction theory was also applied to study the contribution of viscoelasticity to the total friction coefficient, which showed a significant level with respect to the smoothness of the ice; furthermore, the theory also confirmed the possibility of local ice melting.

  15. The friction of explanted hip prostheses.

    PubMed

    Hall, R M; Unsworth, A; Wroblewski, B M; Siney, P; Powell, N J

    1997-01-01

    Charnley prostheses, retrieved at revision surgery, were studied to assess the effects of friction on the total hip replacement procedure. Frictional resistance was measured using the Durham hip function simulator under both dry and lubricated conditions. The friction factor values (f) for the explanted prostheses were found to have a non-Gaussian distribution with medians of 0.13 [inter-quartile range (IQR) 0.10-0.16] and 0.06 (IQR 0.005-0.08) for dry and lubricated (n = 0.01 Pa s) regimes, respectively. New Charnley prostheses had values of f equal to 0.11 +/- 0.025 and 0.04 +/- 0.01 under the same conditions, and showed no large deviation from a Gaussian distribution. There was found to be a statistically significant difference in the medians of the friction factors for new and retrieved prostheses in the lubricated regime. Ingression of cement into the worn region of the cup was found to increase the friction factor significantly under dry conditions. There was no evidence of an increase in the friction factor or torque for those joints that had a loose socket with respect to those that were fixed at revision. A decrease in the frictional torque against number of cycles undergone by the joint in vivo may indicate that a fatigue-type process may have a role in the loosening of the socket. However, this relationship was found not to be significant for friction measured under lubricated conditions and it seems unlikely that the frictional torque generated in this type of prosthesis will contribute significantly to the long-term loosening of the socket.

  16. Friction and shear fracture of an adhesive contact under torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chateauminois, Antoine; Fretigny, Christian; Olanier, Ludovic

    2010-02-01

    The shear failure or stiction of an adhesive contact between a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) rubber and a glass lens has been investigated using a torsional contact configuration. As compared to linear sliding, torsion presents the advantage of inducing a shear failure under a pure mode III condition, while preserving the cylindrical symmetry of the contact. The surface of the transparent PDMS substrate was marked using a network of dots in order to monitor continuously the in-plane surface displacements during the stiction process. Using a previously developed inversion procedure (A. Chateauminois and C. Fretigny, Eur. Phys. J. E 27, 221 (2008)), the corresponding surface shear stress distributions were obtained from the displacement fields. Stiction was found to involve the progressive shrinkage of a central adhesive zone surrounded by an annular microslip region. Adhesion effects were especially evidenced from a stress overshoot at the boundary of the adhesive zone. The experimental data were analysis using an extension to torsional contact of the Maugis-Dugdale approach’s to adhesive contacts which takes into account frictional effects. This model allowed to extract an effective adhesion energy in the presence of friction, which dependence on kinetics effect is briefly discussed.

  17. The mystery of Coulomb friction in sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pähtz, Thomas; Duran, Orencio

    Nearly all analytical models of sediment transport in Newtonian fluid (e.g., air or water) are based on Bagnold's assumption of a constant Coulomb friction coefficient (particle-shear-pressure-ratio, μ) at the interface (zb) between sediment bed and transport layer. In fact, this assumption is the main reason why these models predict the sediment load (and subsequently the sediment transport rate) to be proportional to the excess shear stress (τ -τt), a scaling which has been confirmed in many wind-tunnel and flume experiments. Attempts to explain why μ (zb) is constant have usually been based on the sliding-friction analogy or rheology arguments. However, here we analytically derive μ (zs) √{ 3} - 1 , where zs is the location at which the production rate of particle fluctuation energy is maximal. Our derivation is based on the assumption that the rate of collisional transfer of horizontal into vertical kinetic energy is typically much larger than the rate of energy dissipation. Using state-of-the-art numerical simulations of sediment transport in Newtonian fluid, we validate all assumptions and approximation involved in our derivation. Interestingly, the location zs can significantly deviate from zb depending on the simulated conditions. We acknowledge support from grants National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 1151101041 and 41376095) and Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (No. LR16E090001).

  18. NASA tire/runway friction projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews several aspects of NASA Langley Research Center's tire/runway friction evaluations directed towards improving the safety and economy of aircraft ground operations. The facilities and test equipment used in implementing different aircraft tire friction studies and other related aircraft ground performance investigations are described together with recent workshop activities at NASA Wallops Flight Facility. An overview of the pending Joint NASA/Transport Canada/FM Winter Runway Friction Program is given. Other NASA ongoing studies and on-site field tests are discussed including tire wear performance and new surface treatments. The paper concludes with a description of future research plans.

  19. Internal Friction And Instabilities Of Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes study of effects of internal friction on dynamics of rotors prompted by concern over instabilities in rotors of turbomachines. Theoretical and experimental studies described. Theoretical involved development of nonlinear mathematical models of internal friction in three joints found in turbomachinery - axial splines, Curvic(TM) splines, and interference fits between smooth cylindrical surfaces. Experimental included traction tests to determine the coefficients of friction of rotor alloys at various temperatures, bending-mode-vibration tests of shafts equipped with various joints and rotordynamic tests of shafts with axial-spline and interference-fit joints.

  20. Frictional effects near a metal surface.

    PubMed

    Dou, Wenjie; Nitzan, Abraham; Subotnik, Joseph E

    2015-08-01

    When a classical master equation (CME) is used to describe the nonadiabatic dynamics of a molecule at metal surfaces, we show that in the regime of reasonably strong molecule-metal couplings, the CME can be reduced to a Fokker-Planck equation with an explicit form of electronic friction. For a single metal substrate at thermal equilibrium, the electronic friction and random force satisfy the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. When we investigate the time scale for an electron transfer (ET) event between the molecule and metal surface, we find that the ET rates show a turnover effect (just as in Kramer's theory) as a function of frictional damping. PMID:26254638

  1. Entropy production in irreversible processes with friction.

    PubMed

    Bizarro, João P S

    2008-08-01

    Established expressions for entropy production in irreversible processes are generalized to include friction explicitly, as a source of irreversibility in the interaction between a system and its surroundings. The net amount of heat delivered to the system does not come now only from the reservoir, but may have an additional component coming from the work done against friction forces and dissipated as heat. To avoid ambiguities in interpreting the different contributions to entropy increase, the latter is also written in terms of the heat directly exchanged between the system and surroundings and of the fraction of frictional work that is lost in the system. PMID:18850816

  2. Quantized friction across ionic liquid thin films.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alexander M; Lovelock, Kevin R J; Gosvami, Nitya Nand; Welton, Tom; Perkin, Susan

    2013-10-01

    Ionic liquids - salts in the liquid state under ambient conditions - are of great interest as precision lubricants. Ionic liquids form layered structures at surfaces, yet it is not clear how this nano-structure relates to their lubrication properties. We measured the friction force between atomically smooth solid surfaces across ionic liquid films of controlled thickness in terms of the number of ion layers. Multiple friction-load regimes emerge, each corresponding to a different number of ion layers in the film. In contrast to molecular liquids, the friction coefficients differ for each layer due to their varying composition. PMID:23942943

  3. Frictional effects near a metal surface

    SciTech Connect

    Dou, Wenjie; Subotnik, Joseph E.; Nitzan, Abraham

    2015-08-07

    When a classical master equation (CME) is used to describe the nonadiabatic dynamics of a molecule at metal surfaces, we show that in the regime of reasonably strong molecule-metal couplings, the CME can be reduced to a Fokker-Planck equation with an explicit form of electronic friction. For a single metal substrate at thermal equilibrium, the electronic friction and random force satisfy the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. When we investigate the time scale for an electron transfer (ET) event between the molecule and metal surface, we find that the ET rates show a turnover effect (just as in Kramer’s theory) as a function of frictional damping.

  4. Skin friction drag measurements by LDV.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, M K; Wanchoo, S; McLeod, P C; Ballard, G S; Mozumdar, S; Caraballo, N

    1981-08-15

    A laser Doppler velocimeter employing a microscope objective as the receiving lens has been developed for measuring fluid velocity inside the boundary layer flow field with a spatial resolution of 40 microm. The method was applied for direct measurement of aerodynamic skin friction drag from the measured velocity gradient at the wall. Experimental results obtained on skin friction and on velocity components in a turbulent boundary layer on a low speed wind tunnel showed good agreement with previously reported data using conventional instruments such as hot-wire anemometers and Preston tubes. The method thus provides a tool for measurement and control of skin friction on aerodynamic bodies without perturbing the flow field.

  5. Coordinated Water Under Confinement Eases Sliding Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defante, Adrian; Dhopotkar, Nishad; Dhinojwala, Ali

    Water is essential to a number of interfacial phenomena such as the lubrication of knee joints, protein folding, mass transport, and adsorption processes. We have used a biaxial friction cell to quantify underwater friction between a hydrophobic elastomeric lens and a hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer in the presence of surfactant solutions. To gain an understanding of the role of water in these processes we have coupled this measurement with surface sensitive sum frequency generation to directly probe the molecular constitution of the confined contact interface. We observe that role of confined coordinated water between two hydrophobic substrates covered with surfactants is the key to obtaining a low coefficient of friction.

  6. Study of nonlinear behaviors and modal reductions for friction destabilized systems. Application to an elastic layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyer, A.; Sinou, J.-J.; Chiello, O.; Lorang, X.

    2012-02-01

    As noise reduction tends to be part of environmental directives, predicting squeal noise generated by disc brakes is an important industrial issue. It involves both the transient and stationary nonlinear dynamics of self-excited systems with frictional contact. Time simulation of the phenomenon is an attractive option for reducing experiment costs. However, since such computations using full finite element models of industrial disc brake systems is time-consuming, model reduction has to be performed. In this paper, both the transient and stationary nonlinear behaviors of the friction destabilized system and the effect of dynamical reduction on the nonlinear response of a simple friction destabilized system are carried out. The first part provides a description of the general modeling retained for friction destabilized systems. Then, discretization and solving processes for the stability analysis and the temporal evolution are presented. The third part presents an analysis of a sliding elastic layer for different operating conditions, in order to better understand the nonlinear behavior of such systems. Finally, spatial model reduction is performed with different kinds of reduction bases in order to analyze the different effects of modal reductions. This clearly shows the necessity of including static modes in the reduction basis and that nonlinear interactions between unstable modes are very difficult to represent with reduced bases. Finally, the proposed model and the associated studies are intended to be the benchmark cases for future comparison.

  7. Heat transfer and friction factors in the ribbed square convergent and divergent channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. S.; Ahn, S. W.

    2016-06-01

    Heat transfer and friction factors are reported for the measurements of turbulent flows in the convergent and divergent square channels with one-sided ribbed wall as well as two opposite in-line ribbed walls. The study covers three different hydraulic diameter ratios between inlet and exit at the test section such as Dho/Dhi = 0.75, 1.0, and 1.33 and Reynolds numbers in the range of 25,000-79,000. The channels, composing of ten isolated copper sections in the length of test section of 1 m, have the hydraulic diameter of 87.5 mm for the straight channel (Dho/Dhi = 1.0); the rib height-to-hydraulic diameter is 0.114; the rib pitch-to-height ratio equals 10. On the contrary to public opinion that the friction factor depends on the portion of the ribbed area, the total friction factor in the two opposite ribbed walls are lower than in the one-sided ribbed wall in the divergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 1.33 because the total pressure, summing positive dynamic and negative static pressures, is acted. The results show that the two opposite ribbed divergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 1.33 provides the best heat transfer enhancement and the two opposite ribbed convergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 0.75 provides the worst friction factor enhancement, and the ribbed divergent channels are generally recommended.

  8. Analysis of Periodically Varying Gear Mesh Systems with Coulomb Friction Using Floquet Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VAISHYA, M.; SINGH, R.

    2001-06-01

    This article presents a new analytical model of a gear pair with time varying mesh stiffness, viscous damping and sliding friction parameters. Unlike previous models, the excitation consists of three separate terms, namely the unloaded transmission error, time-invariant external torque and the periodically varying sliding friction force. A Coulomb friction model is considered using first a quasi-static mean transmitted load that is represented by the Meissner equation. Then, a truly dynamic force between gear teeth is described that leads to a triangular function, and after appropriate substitutions, this assumes the form of the Bessel equation of the one-third order. For the damped Meissner equation, the forced vibration response is found with the application of Floquet theory. Exact integrals are calculated for the state transition matrix in a piecewise manner, instead of using the Fourier series expansion, thus eliminating the mode truncation errors. From the state transition matrix, unstable zones are identified and the actual forced response of the system is found in terms of dynamic transmission error for these zones. With the aid of an example, the significance of sliding friction on system response and stability is examined. Finally, key advantages and the need for analytical methods are demonstrated for such systems.

  9. Ultralow friction induced by tribochemical reactions: a novel mechanism of lubrication on steel surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Amann, Tobias; Walter, Michael; Moseler, Michael; Kailer, Andreas; Rühe, Jürgen

    2013-04-30

    The tribological properties of two steel surfaces rubbing against each other are measured while they are in contact with 1,3-diketones of varying structure. Such systems show after a short running-in period ultralow friction properties with a coefficient of friction of as low as μ = 0.005. It is suggested that the extremely favorable friction properties are caused by a tribochemical reaction between the 1,3-diketones and the steel surfaces, leading to formation of a chelated iron-diketo complex. The influence of temperature and the molecular structure of the 1,3 diketo-lubricants onto the friction properties of the system is elucidated under both static and dynamic conditions. With progression of the tribochemical reaction, the sliding surfaces become very conformal and smooth, so that the pressure is greatly reduced and further wear is strongly reduced. All iron particles potentially generated by wear during the initial running-in period are completely dissolved through complex formation. It is proposed that the tribochemical polishing reaction causes a transition from boundary lubrication to fluid lubrication.

  10. Eigenmodes of quasi-static magnetic islands in current sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yi; Cai Xiaohui; Chai Lihui; Wang Shui; Zheng Huinan; Shen Chao

    2011-12-15

    As observation have shown, magnetic islands often appear before and/or after the onset of magnetic reconnections in the current sheets, and they also appear in the current sheets in the solar corona, Earth's magnetotail, and Earth's magnetopause. Thus, the existence of magnetic islands can affect the initial conditions in magnetic reconnection. In this paper, we propose a model of quasi-static magnetic island eigenmodes in the current sheet. This model analytically describes the magnetic field structures in the quasi-static case, which will provide a possible approach to reconstructing the magnetic structures in the current sheet via observation data. This model is self-consistent in the kinetic theory. Also, the distribution function of charged particles in the magnetic island can be calculated.

  11. General static spherically symmetric solutions in Horava gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Capasso, Dario; Polychronakos, Alexios P.

    2010-04-15

    We derive the equations describing a general static spherically symmetric configuration for the softly broken Horava gravity introduced by A. Kehagias and K. Sfetsos with nonzero shift field and no-projectability condition. These represent 'hedgehog' versions of black holes with radial 'hair' arising from the shift field. For the case of the standard de Witt kinetic term ({lambda}=1) there is an infinity of solutions that exhibit a deformed version of reparametrization invariance away from the general relativistic limit. Special solutions also arise in the anisotropic conformal point {lambda}=(1/3). Moreover we obtain an implicit general expression for the solutions with N{sub r}=0 and generic {lambda}. In this context we study the presence of horizons for standard matter and the related Hawking temperature, generalizing the corresponding relations in the usual static spherically symmetric case.

  12. Vitrinite reflectance and Raman spectra of carbonaceous material as indicators of frictional heating on faults: Constraints from friction experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuichi, Hiroyuki; Ujiie, Kohtaro; Kouketsu, Yui; Saito, Tsubasa; Tsutsumi, Akito; Wallis, Simon

    2015-08-01

    Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) and Raman spectra of carbonaceous material (RSCM) are both widely used as indicators of the maximum attained temperatures in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. However, the potential of these methods to estimate temperature increases associated with fault slip has not been closely studied. To examine this issue, friction experiments were conducted on a mixture of powdered clay-rich fault material and carbonaceous material (CM) at slip rates of 0.15 mm/s and 1.3 m/s in nitrogen (N2) gas with or without distilled water. After the experiments, we measured Ro and RSCM and compared to those in starting material. The results indicate that when fault material suffers rapid heating at >500 °C in ∼9 s at 1.3 m/s, Ro and the intensity ratio of D1 and D2 Raman bands of CM (ID2/ID1) markedly increase. Comminution with very small temperature rise in ∼32 min at 0.15 mm/s is responsible for very limited changes in Ro and ID2/ID1. Our results demonstrate that Ro and RSCM could be useful for the detection of frictional heating on faults when the power density is ≥0.52 MW/m2. However, the conventionally used Ro and RSCM geothermometers are inadequate for the estimation of peak temperature during seismic fault slip. The reaction kinetics incorporating the effects of rapid heating at high slip rates and studies of the original microtexture and composition of CM are required to establish a reliable thermometer for frictional heating on faults.

  13. Note: A rigid piezo motor with large output force and an effective method to reduce sliding friction force

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Ying; Lu, Qingyou; Hou, Yubin

    2014-05-15

    We present a completely practical TunaDrive piezo motor. It consists of a central piezo stack sandwiched by two arm piezo stacks and two leg piezo stacks, respectively, which is then sandwiched and spring-clamped by a pair of parallel polished sapphire rods. It works by alternatively fast expanding and contracting the arm/leg stacks while slowly expanding/contracting the central stack simultaneously. The key point is that sufficiently fast expanding and contracting a limb stack can make its two sliding friction forces well cancel, resulting in the total sliding friction force is <10% of the total static friction force, which can help increase output force greatly. The piezo motor's high compactness, precision, and output force make it perfect in building a high-quality harsh-condition (vibration resistant) atomic resolution scanning probe microscope.

  14. Note: A rigid piezo motor with large output force and an effective method to reduce sliding friction force.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Hou, Yubin; Lu, Qingyou

    2014-05-01

    We present a completely practical TunaDrive piezo motor. It consists of a central piezo stack sandwiched by two arm piezo stacks and two leg piezo stacks, respectively, which is then sandwiched and spring-clamped by a pair of parallel polished sapphire rods. It works by alternatively fast expanding and contracting the arm/leg stacks while slowly expanding/contracting the central stack simultaneously. The key point is that sufficiently fast expanding and contracting a limb stack can make its two sliding friction forces well cancel, resulting in the total sliding friction force is <10% of the total static friction force, which can help increase output force greatly. The piezo motor's high compactness, precision, and output force make it perfect in building a high-quality harsh-condition (vibration resistant) atomic resolution scanning probe microscope.

  15. Friction and wear characteristics of carbon steels in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verkin, B. I.; Lyubarskiy, I. M.; Udovenko, V. F.; Guslyakov, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    The nature of carbon steel friction and wear under vacuum conditions is described within the framework of general friction and wear theory. Friction is considered a dynamic process and wear is considered to be the result of a continuous sequence of transitions of the friction surface material from one state into another.

  16. Role of interfacial friction for flow instabilities in a thin polar-ordered active fluid layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Niladri; Basu, Abhik

    2015-11-01

    We construct a generic coarse-grained dynamics of a thin inflexible planar layer of polar-ordered suspension of active particles that is frictionally coupled to an embedding isotropic passive fluid medium with a friction coefficient Γ . Being controlled by Γ , our model provides a unified framework to describe the long-wavelength behavior of a variety of thin polar-ordered systems, ranging from wet to dry active matter and free-standing active films. Investigations of the linear instabilities around a chosen orientationally ordered uniform reference state reveal generic moving and static instabilities in the system that can depend sensitively on Γ . Based on our results, we discuss estimation of bounds on Γ in experimentally accessible systems.

  17. Water cooled static pressure probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas T. (Inventor); Eves, John W. (Inventor); Reece, Garland D. (Inventor); Geissinger, Steve L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved static pressure probe containing a water cooling mechanism is disclosed. This probe has a hollow interior containing a central coolant tube and multiple individual pressure measurement tubes connected to holes placed on the exterior. Coolant from the central tube symmetrically immerses the interior of the probe, allowing it to sustain high temperature (in the region of 2500 F) supersonic jet flow indefinitely, while still recording accurate pressure data. The coolant exits the probe body by way of a reservoir attached to the aft of the probe. The pressure measurement tubes are joined to a single, larger manifold in the reservoir. This manifold is attached to a pressure transducer that records the average static pressure.

  18. Static Detection of Disassembly Errors

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, Nithya; Debray, Saumya; Fligg, Alan K

    2009-10-13

    Static disassembly is a crucial first step in reverse engineering executable files, and there is a consider- able body of work in reverse-engineering of binaries, as well as areas such as semantics-based security anal- ysis, that assumes that the input executable has been correctly disassembled. However, disassembly errors, e.g., arising from binary obfuscations, can render this assumption invalid. This work describes a machine- learning-based approach, using decision trees, for stat- ically identifying possible errors in a static disassem- bly; such potential errors may then be examined more closely, e.g., using dynamic analyses. Experimental re- sults using a variety of input executables indicate that our approach performs well, correctly identifying most disassembly errors with relatively few false positives.

  19. Rheological effects on friction in elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trachman, E. G.; Cheng, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation is presented of the friction in a rolling and sliding elastohydrodynamic lubricated contact. The rheological behavior of the lubricant is described in terms of two viscoelastic models. These models represent the separate effects of non-Newtonian behavior and the transient response of the fluid. A unified description of the non-Newtonian shear rate dependence of the viscosity is presented as a new hyperbolic liquid model. The transient response of viscosity, following the rapid pressure rise encountered in the contact, is described by a compressional viscoelastic model of the volume response of a liquid to an applied pressure step. The resulting momentum and energy equations are solved by an iterative numerical technique, and a friction coefficient is calculated. The experimental study was performed, with two synthetic paraffinic lubricants, to verify the friction predictions of the analysis. The values of friction coefficient from theory and experiment are in close agreement.

  20. Surface defects and temperature on atomic friction.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, O Y; Mazo, J J

    2011-09-01

    We present a theoretical study of the effect of surface defects on atomic friction in the stick-slip dynamical regime of a minimalistic model. We focus on how the presence of defects and temperature change the average properties of the system. We have identified two main mechanisms which modify the mean friction force of the system when defects are considered. As expected, defects change the potential profile locally and thus affect the friction force. But the presence of defects also changes the probability distribution function of the tip slip length and thus the mean friction force. We corroborated both effects for different values of temperature, external load, dragging velocity and damping. We also show a comparison of the effects of surface defects and surface disorder on the dynamics of the system. PMID:21846940

  1. Suppression of friction by mechanical vibrations.

    PubMed

    Capozza, Rosario; Vanossi, Andrea; Vezzani, Alessandro; Zapperi, Stefano

    2009-08-21

    Mechanical vibrations are known to affect frictional sliding and the associated stick-slip patterns causing sometimes a drastic reduction of the friction force. This issue is relevant for applications in nanotribology and to understand earthquake triggering by small dynamic perturbations. We study the dynamics of repulsive particles confined between a horizontally driven top plate and a vertically oscillating bottom plate. Our numerical results show a suppression of the high dissipative stick-slip regime in a well-defined range of frequencies that depends on the vibrating amplitude, the normal applied load, the system inertia and the damping constant. We propose a theoretical explanation of the numerical results and derive a phase diagram indicating the region of parameter space where friction is suppressed. Our results allow to define better strategies for the mechanical control of friction. PMID:19792738

  2. Sliding friction on wet and dry sand.

    PubMed

    Fall, A; Weber, B; Pakpour, M; Lenoir, N; Shahidzadeh, N; Fiscina, J; Wagner, C; Bonn, D

    2014-05-01

    We show experimentally that the sliding friction on sand is greatly reduced by the addition of some-but not too much-water. The formation of capillary water bridges increases the shear modulus of the sand, which facilitates the sliding. Too much water, on the other hand, makes the capillary bridges coalesce, resulting in a decrease of the modulus; in this case, we observe that the friction coefficient increases again. Our results, therefore, show that the friction coefficient is directly related to the shear modulus; this has important repercussions for the transport of granular materials. In addition, the polydispersity of the sand is shown to also have a large effect on the friction coefficient. PMID:24836256

  3. Friction does not increase anchorage loading.

    PubMed

    Southard, Thomas E; Marshall, Steve D; Grosland, Nicole M

    2007-03-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that orthodontists must apply added force to overcome friction during canine retraction (sliding mechanics), the result of which can be increased anchorage loading and anchorage loss. However, for a frictional force to be exerted mesially by the archwire against a canine during retraction, the archwire must be compressed between the canine and the anchor molar, and an equal but opposite force must be applied distally against the molar by the archwire. In other words, the frictional force that reduces the force of retraction on the canine must also reduce the protraction force on the molar. Emphasis on employing reduced-friction (eg, self-ligating) brackets during sliding mechanics to prevent added posterior anchorage loading is unwarranted and based more on bracket salesmanship than on orthodontic biomechanics. PMID:17346599

  4. Special cases of friction and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Coy, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Two techniques for reducing friction forces are presented. The techniques are applied to the generalized problem of reducing the friction between kinematic pairs which connect a moveable link to a frame. The basic principles are: (1) Let the moveable link be supported by two bearings where the relative velocities of the link with respect to each bearing are of opposite directions. Thus the resultant force (torque) of friction acting on the link due to the bearings is approximately zero. Then, additional perturbation of motion parallel to the main motion of the moveable link will require only a very small force; (2) Let the perturbation in motion be perpendicular to the main motion. Equations are developed which explain these two methods. The results are discussed in relation to friction in geared couplings, gyroscope gimbal bearings and a rotary conveyor system. Design examples are presented.

  5. Lubricant composition of improved friction reducing properties

    SciTech Connect

    Malec, R.E.

    1980-05-06

    Lubricating oil is disclosed for use as a crankcase lubricant in internal combustion engines containing a friction-reducing amount of a sulfurized fatty acid amide, ester or ester-amide of an oxyalkylated amine.

  6. Extended ion pumped vacuum friction test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammel, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    Boundary layer friction data under ion pumped vacuum was taken for sixteen material couples. The test series was an extension of a previous study of the effects of modified ion pumped environments. Sliding distances imposed in the present effort greatly exceeded any studied in the previous contiguous, flight or ground tests. Wear out of specific couples, in particular, thin film lubricants was noted. The behavior of the test hardware including wear out of the mechanisms was noted. As a result, the impact of test interruption was observed for several test couples. Recovery of the friction upon re-establishing sliding in vacuum was generally rapid. The results of the extended sliding study reinforce the previous conclusion that sliding distance (mechanical history) is the primary factor in establishing the force limiting boundary layer friction. General friction value under the extended sliding confirm those observed in previous orbital and the related ground test studies.

  7. Friction and Wear on the Atomic Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnecco, Enrico; Bennewitz, Roland; Pfeiffer, Oliver; Socoliuc, Anisoara; Meyer, Ernst

    Friction is an old subject of research: the empirical da Vinci-Amontons laws are common knowledge. Macroscopic experiments systematically performed by the school of Bowden and Tabor have revealed that macroscopic friction can be related to the collective action of small asperities. During the last 15 years, experiments performed with the atomic force microscope gave new insight into the physics of single asperities sliding over surfaces. This development, together with complementary experiments by means of surface force apparatus and quartz microbalance, established the new field of nanotribology. At the same time, increasing computing power allowed for the simulation of the processes in sliding contacts consisting of several hundred atoms. It became clear that atomic processes cannot be neglected in the interpretation of nanotribology experiments. Experiments on even well-defined surfaces directly revealed atomic structures in friction forces. This chapter will describe friction force microscopy experiments that reveal, more or less directly, atomic processes in the sliding contact.

  8. Influence of dynamic load on friction behavior of human articular cartilage, stainless steel and polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel as artificial cartilage.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Su, Yonglin; Wang, Jianping; Wu, Gang; Wang, Chengtao

    2010-01-01

    Many biomaterials are being developed to be used for cartilage substitution and hemiarthroplasty implants. The lubrication property is a key feature of the artificial cartilage. The frictional behavior of human articular cartilage, stainless steel and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel were investigated under cartilage-on-PVA hydrogel contact, cartilage-on-cartilage contact and cartilage-on-stainless steel contact using pin-on-plate method. Tests under static load, cyclic load and 1 min load change were used to evaluate friction variations in reciprocating motion. The results showed that the lubrication property of cartilage-on-PVA hydrogel contact and cartilage-on-stainless steel contact were restored in both 1 min load change and cyclic load tests. The friction coefficient of PVA hydrogel decreased from 0.178 to 0.076 in 60 min, which was almost one-third of the value under static load in continuous sliding tests. In each test, the friction coefficient of cartilage-on-cartilage contact maintained far lower value than other contacts. It is indicated that a key feature of artificial cartilage is the biphasic lubrication properties.

  9. A review of dynamics modelling of friction wedge suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qing; Cole, Colin; Spiryagin, Maksym; Sun, Yan Quan

    2014-11-01

    Three-piece bogies with friction wedge suspensions are the most widely used bogies in heavy haul trains. Fiction wedge suspensions play a key role in these wagon systems. This article reviews current techniques in dynamic modelling of friction wedge suspension with various motivations: to improve dynamic models of friction wedge suspensions so as to improve general wagon dynamics simulations; to seek better friction wedge suspension models for wagon stability assessments in complex train systems; to improve the modelling of other friction devices, such as friction draft gear. Relevant theories and friction wedge suspension models developed by using commercial simulation packages and in-house simulation packages are reviewed.

  10. Flexible Friction Stir Joining Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Zhili; Lim, Yong Chae; Mahoney, Murray; Sanderson, Samuel; Larsen, Steve; Steel, Russel; Fleck, Dale; Fairchild, Doug P; Wasson, Andrew J; Babb, Jon; Higgins, Paul

    2015-07-23

    Reported herein is the final report on a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) project with industry cost-share that was jointly carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company (ExxonMobil), and MegaStir Technologies (MegaStir). The project was aimed to advance the state of the art of friction stir welding (FSW) technology, a highly energy-efficient solid-state joining process, for field deployable, on-site fabrications of large, complex and thick-sectioned structures of high-performance and high-temperature materials. The technology innovations developed herein attempted to address two fundamental shortcomings of FSW: 1) the inability for on-site welding and 2) the inability to weld thick section steels, both of which have impeded widespread use of FSW in manufacturing. Through this work, major advance has been made toward transforming FSW technology from a “specialty” process to a mainstream materials joining technology to realize its pervasive energy, environmental, and economic benefits across industry.

  11. REDUCED ENGINE FRICTION AND WEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Ron Matthews

    2003-07-08

    Progress was made on experimental and numerical subtasks during the second 6-month period of this project. One of the experimental subtasks scheduled for completion during the first 6 months was delayed due to a delay in receiving the prototype RLE face seal from the vendor. This component was acquired and testing was completed during the second 6 months. The test results indicate that this face seal fulfills the engineering objectives. The other experimental subtask scheduled for completion during the second 6-month period was final assembly of the prototype rotating liner engine. This subtask was completed on schedule. No results from this subtask were scheduled for this reporting period. One numerical subtask, development of the governing equations, was scheduled for completion during the first 6-month period but was completed during the second 6 months. However, we expect to re-explore these as we learn more throughout the course of the project. Two other numerical subtasks were scheduled to begin during the second 6 months: formulating the numerical equations governing piston assembly friction and coding/testing the resulting model. These subtasks were not scheduled for completion during this reporting period. Satisfactory progress was made.

  12. Experimental research on the friction of pivots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaquerod, A; Defossez, L; Mugeli, H

    1930-01-01

    In horology the friction between solids is of the greatest importance; one limited, however, to the application of the laws of Coulomb which, do not at all correspond with reality. This report presents a review of the subject and some general conclusions. The choice of lubricant is discussed as well as the pressure between frictional surfaces. The gears in a watch are used extensively as examples.

  13. EXPERIMENTAL BENCHMARKING OF THE MAGNETIZED FRICTION FORCE.

    SciTech Connect

    FEDOTOV, A.V.; GALNANDER, B.; LITVINENKO, V.N.; LOFNES, T.; SIDORIN, A.O.; SMIRNOV, A.V.; ZIEMANN, V.

    2005-09-18

    High-energy electron cooling, presently considered as essential tool for several applications in high-energy and nuclear physics, requires accurate description of the friction force. A series of measurements were performed at CELSIUS with the goal to provide accurate data needed for the benchmarking of theories and simulations. Some results of accurate comparison of experimental data with the friction force formulas are presented.

  14. Friction of Materials for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2013-01-01

    This brief overview of friction-related issues in materials for automobiles is invited for a special issue on automotive materials in the ASM journal AM&P. It describes a range of areas in a ground vehicle in which friction must be controlled or minimized. Applications range from piston rings to tires, and from brakes to fuel injector components. A perspective on new materials and lubricants, and the need for validation testing is presented.

  15. Interfacial Friction of PDMS Network Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landherr, Lucas J. T.; Cohen, Claude; Archer, Lynden A.

    2008-07-01

    This study focuses on developing a surface-attached lubricant that would significantly decrease friction and wear. Vinyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane chains are spincoated with a crosslinking agent and platinum catalyst onto silicon wafers covered with a self-assembling monolayer. Atomic force microscopy is used to analyze the coefficient of friction (COF) of the PDMS-SAM surface tethered network. Model networks with microscale thicknesses have COFs approximately three times larger than the thinner networks.

  16. Frictional behavior of talc-calcite mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgetti, C.; Carpenter, B. M.; Collettini, C.

    2015-09-01

    Faults involving phyllosilicates appear weak when compared to the laboratory-derived strength of most crustal rocks. Among phyllosilicates, talc, with very low friction, is one of the weakest minerals involved in various tectonic settings. As the presence of talc has been recently documented in carbonate faults, we performed laboratory friction experiments to better constrain how various amounts of talc could alter these fault's frictional properties. We used a biaxial apparatus to systematically shear different mixtures of talc and calcite as powdered gouge at room temperature, normal stresses up to 50 MPa and under different pore fluid saturated conditions, i.e., CaCO3-equilibrated water and silicone oil. We performed slide-hold-slide tests, 1-3000 s, to measure the amount of frictional healing and velocity-stepping tests, 0.1-1000 µm/s, to evaluate frictional stability. We then analyzed microstructures developed during our experiments. Our results show that with the addition of 20% talc the calcite gouge undergoes a 70% reduction in steady state frictional strength, a complete reduction of frictional healing and a transition from velocity-weakening to velocity-strengthening behavior. Microstructural analysis shows that with increasing talc content, deformation mechanisms evolve from distributed cataclastic flow of the granular calcite to localized sliding along talc-rich shear planes, resulting in a fully interconnected network of talc lamellae from 20% talc onward. Our observations indicate that in faults where talc and calcite are present, a low concentration of talc is enough to strongly modify the gouge's frictional properties and specifically to weaken the fault, reduce its ability to sustain future stress drops, and stabilize slip.

  17. Artefacts due to static electricity in a dental school.

    PubMed

    Sewerin, I P

    1995-05-01

    The diagnostic usefulness of radiographs is diminished by errors of film handling, and retakes mean increased radiation doses. Avoiding artefacts due to static electricity is part of a quality assurance programme. The number of types of artefacts originating from static electricity in the Department of Radiology, School of Dentistry, Copenhagen, were recorded over a five-week period with low temperatures and low air humidity. During the period 3137 intra-oral and 638 extra-oral films were processed by seven assistants and a number of trainees. A total of 48 artefacts on 47 extra-oral films was observed. The artefacts were classified into four types. Only one case of classical 'lightning' was found, while nine were of a hitherto undescribed type ('animals' or 'cactus flowers'). The most common type appeared as dots arranged in straight lines; their origin was obscure, but it was suspected that they were caused by the processing machine. The one typical 'lightning' case occurred on a Status-X film, consistent with the theory that friction may be a causative factor. Although individual frequencies varied, all the radiography assistants and trainees were associated with the artefacts recorded.

  18. Parameter tuning method for dither compensation of a pneumatic proportional valve with friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Song, Yang; Huang, Leisheng; Fan, Wei

    2016-05-01

    In the practical application of pneumatic control devices, the nonlinearity of a pneumatic control valve become the main factor affecting the control effect, which comes mainly from the dynamic friction force. The dynamic friction inside the valve may cause hysteresis and a dead zone. In this paper, a dither compensation mechanism is proposed to reduce negative effects on the basis of analyzing the mechanism of friction force. The specific dither signal (using a sinusoidal signal) was superimposed on the control signal of the valve. Based on the relationship between the parameters of the dither signal and the inherent characteristics of the proportional servo valve, a parameter tuning method was proposed, which uses a displacement sensor to measure the maximum static friction inside the valve. According to the experimental results, the proper amplitude ranges are determined for different pressures. In order to get the optimal parameters of the dither signal, some dither compensation experiments have been carried out on different signal amplitude and gas pressure conditions. Optimal parameters are determined under two kinds of pressure conditions. Using tuning parameters the valve spool displacement experiment has been taken. From the experiment results, hysteresis of the proportional servo valve is significantly reduced. And through simulation and experiments, the cut-off frequency of the proportional valve has also been widened. Therefore after adding the dither signal, the static and dynamic characteristics of the proportional valve are both improved to a certain degree. This research proposes a parameter tuning method of dither signal, and the validity of the method is verified experimentally.

  19. Friction in Forming of UD Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, U.; Haanappel, S. P.; Akkerman, R.; Thije, R. H. W. ten; Rooij, M. B. de

    2011-05-04

    Inter-ply and tool/ply friction play a dominant role in hot stamp forming of UD fiber-reinforced thermoplastic laminates. This research treats friction measurements of a PEEK-AS4 composite system. To this end, an in-house developed friction tester is utilized to pull a laminate through two heat controlled clamping platens. The friction coefficient is determined by relating the clamp force to the pull force. The geometry of the gap between the clamping platens is monitored with micrometer accuracy. A first approach to describe the relation between the geometry and frictional behavior is undertaken by applying a standard thin-film theory for hydrodynamic lubrication. Experimental measurements showed that the thin-film theory does not entirely cover the underlying physics. Thus a second model is utilized, which employs a Leonov-model to describe the shear deformation of the matrix material, while its viscosity is described with a multi-mode Maxwell model. The combination of both models shows the potential to capture the complete frictional behavior.

  20. Friction in Forming of UD Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, U.; Akkerman, R.; Haanappel, S. P.; ten Thije, R. H. W.; de Rooij, M. B.

    2011-05-01

    Inter-ply and tool/ply friction play a dominant role in hot stamp forming of UD fiber-reinforced thermoplastic laminates. This research treats friction measurements of a PEEK-AS4 composite system. To this end, an in-house developed friction tester is utilized to pull a laminate through two heat controlled clamping platens. The friction coefficient is determined by relating the clamp force to the pull force. The geometry of the gap between the clamping platens is monitored with micrometer accuracy. A first approach to describe the relation between the geometry and frictional behavior is undertaken by applying a standard thin-film theory for hydrodynamic lubrication. Experimental measurements showed that the thin-film theory does not entirely cover the underlying physics. Thus a second model is utilized, which employs a Leonov-model to describe the shear deformation of the matrix material, while its viscosity is described with a multi-mode Maxwell model. The combination of both models shows the potential to capture the complete frictional behavior.

  1. What causes frictional behavior in fluid-mediated sediment transport?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pähtz, Thomas; Duran, Orencio

    2016-04-01

    Bagnoldian analytical models of sediment transport in Newtonian fluid (e.g., air or water) are based on Bagnold's assumption of a constant friction coefficient (particle-shear-pressure ratio, μ) at the interface (z = zb) between sediment bed and transport layer. In fact, this assumption is the main reason why these models predict the sediment load (which is the ratio between sediment transport rate and average particle velocity) to be proportional to the excess shear stress (τ ‑ τt), a scaling that has been confirmed in many wind-tunnel and flume experiments. Here, using numerical simulations with the coupled DEM/RANS model of sediment transport in Newtonian fluid by Duran et al. (POF, 103306, 2012), we investigate the physical reasons for this frictional behavior. In the case of subaqueous transport, we find that a local rheology μ(I), where I is the viscous number, can explain most of the simulation data. However, this rheology breaks down for aeolian transport. In an attempt to unify these transport regimes, we propose a novel characterization of frictional behavior through the dimensionless parameter ζ = ⟨Fxcvx ‑ Fzcvz⟩/⟨Fzcvx ‑ Fxcvz⟩, where Fc is the contact force, v the particle velocity, and ⟨ṡ⟩ a local ensemble average. We analytically derive ζ ≈√3 ‑ 1 for locations within the transport layer and slightly within the particle bed, where each derivation step and the final result are consistent with our numerical simulations throughout all simulated conditions. Our derivation is mainly based on the assumption that the conversion of horizontal kinetic particle energy into vertical kinetic particle energy in low-angle particle-bed impacts is the predominant collisional energy transformation process occurring in sediment transport. We then show that ζ(zs) ≈ μ(zs), where zs is the location at which the local production rate of particle fluctuation energy is maximal, and thus μ(zs) ≈√3- ‑ 1. This final result, which

  2. Three Inexpensive Static-Electricity Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Gordon R.; Gregg, William R.

    1992-01-01

    Describes demonstrations to (1) construct an inexpensive static electricity detector; (2) obtain an abundant supply of either negative or positive charge using household items; and (3) create static electricity using a Tesla coil or Van de Graaff generator. (MDH)

  3. Structure-property relationships of dissimilar friction stir welded aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinones, Rogie Irwin Rodriguez

    In this work, the relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar friction stir welded AA6061-to-AA7050 aluminum alloys were evaluated. Experimental results from this study revealed that static strength increased with the tool rotational speed and was correlated with the material intermixing. Fully-reversed low cycle fatigue experimental results showed an increase in the strain hardening properties as well as the number of cycles-to-failure as the tool rotational speed was increased. Furthermore, under both static and cyclic loading, fracture of the joint was dominated by the AA6061 alloy side of the weld. In addition, inspection of the fatigue surfaces revealed that cracks initiated from intermetallic particles located near the surface. In order to determine the corrosion resistance of the dissimilar joint, corrosion defects were produced on the crown surface of the weld by static immersion in 3.5% NaCl for various exposure times. Results revealed localized corrosion damage in the thermo-mechanically affected and heat affected zones. Results demonstrated a decrease in the fatigue life, with evidence of crack initiation at the corrosion defects; however, the fatigue life was nearly independent of the exposure time. This can be attributed to total fatigue life dominated by incubation time. Furthermore, two types of failure were observed: fatigue crack initiation in the AA6061 side at high strain amplitudes (>0.3%); and fatigue crack initiation in the AA7050 side at low strain amplitudes (<0.2%). Lastly, a microstructure-sensitive model based on a multi-stage fatigue damage concept was extended to the dissimilar friction stir welded joints in order to capture the crack initiation and propagation in as-welded and pre-corroded conditions. Good correlation between experimental fatigue results and the model was achieved based on the variation in the initial defect size, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the dissimilar friction stir

  4. Comparative Tests of Pitot-static Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Kenneth G; Spaulding, Ellis R

    1935-01-01

    Comparative tests were made on seven conventional Pitot-static tubes to determine their static, dynamic, and resultant errors. The effect of varying the dynamic opening, static opening, wall thickness, and inner-tube diameter was investigated. Pressure-distribution measurements showing stem and tip effects were also made. A tentative design for a standard Pitot-static tube for use in measuring air velocity is submitted.

  5. Ice friction: Role of non-uniform frictional heating and ice premelting.

    PubMed

    Persson, B N J

    2015-12-14

    The low friction of ice is usually attributed to the formation of a thin water film due to melting of ice by frictional heating. Melting of ice is a first order phase transition where physical quantities like mass density, the elastic modulus or the shear strength changes abruptly at the transition temperature. Thus, one may expect the friction coefficient to change abruptly at some characteristic sliding speed, when the melt water film is produced. We show that taking into account that, due to non-uniform frictional heating, melting does not occur simultaneously in all the ice contact regions, the transition is not abrupt but still more rapid (as a function of sliding speed) than observed experimentally. The slower than expected drop in the friction with increasing sliding speed may be a consequence of the following paradoxical phenomena: before the melt-water film is formed, the friction of ice is high and a large frictional heating occur which may result in the melting of the ice. If a thin (nanometer) water film would form, the friction becomes low which results in small frictional heating and the freezing of the water film. This suggests a region in sliding speed where a thin (nanometer) surface layer of the ice may be in a mixed state with small ice-like and water-like domains, which fluctuate rapidly in space and time. Alternatively, and more likely, heat-softening of the ice may occur resulting in a thin, statistically homogeneous (in the lateral direction) layer of disordered ice, with a shear strength which decreases continuously as the ice surface temperature approaches the bulk melting temperature. This layer could be related to surface premelting of ice. Using a phenomenological expression for the frictional shear stress, I show that the calculated ice friction is in good agreement with experimental observations.

  6. 30 CFR 18.26 - Static electricity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Static electricity. 18.26 Section 18.26 Mineral... § 18.26 Static electricity. Nonmetallic rotating parts, such as belts and fans, shall be provided with a means to prevent an accumulation of static electricity....

  7. 30 CFR 18.26 - Static electricity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Static electricity. 18.26 Section 18.26 Mineral... § 18.26 Static electricity. Nonmetallic rotating parts, such as belts and fans, shall be provided with a means to prevent an accumulation of static electricity....

  8. 30 CFR 18.26 - Static electricity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Static electricity. 18.26 Section 18.26 Mineral... § 18.26 Static electricity. Nonmetallic rotating parts, such as belts and fans, shall be provided with a means to prevent an accumulation of static electricity....

  9. In-Flight Pitot-Static Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John V. (Inventor); Cunningham, Kevin (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A GPS-based pitot-static calibration system uses global output-error optimization. High data rate measurements of static and total pressure, ambient air conditions, and GPS-based ground speed measurements are used to compute pitot-static pressure errors over a range of airspeed. System identification methods rapidly compute optimal pressure error models with defined confidence intervals.

  10. Friction Stir Processing for Efficient Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Mr. Christopher B. Smith; Dr. Oyelayo Ajayi

    2012-01-31

    Friction at contacting surfaces in relative motion is a major source of parasitic energy loss in machine systems and manufacturing processes. Consequently, friction reduction usually translates to efficiency gain and reduction in energy consumption. Furthermore, friction at surfaces eventually leads to wear and failure of the components thereby compromising reliability and durability. In order to reduce friction and wear in tribological components, material surfaces are often hardened by a variety of methods, including conventional heat treatment, laser surface hardening, and thin-film coatings. While these surface treatments are effective when used in conjunction with lubrication to prevent failure, they are all energy intensive and could potentially add significant cost. A new concept for surface hardening of metallic materials and components is Friction Stir Processing (FSP). Compared to the current surface hardening technologies, FSP is more energy efficient has no emission or waste by products and may result in better tribological performance. FSP involves plunging a rotating tool to a predetermined depth (case layer thickness) and translating the FSP tool along the area to be processed. This action of the tool produces heating and severe plastic deformation of the processed area. For steel the temperature is high enough to cause phase transformation, ultimately forming hard martensitic phase. Indeed, FSP has been used for surface modification of several metals and alloys so as to homogenize the microstructure and refine the grain size, both of which led to improved fatigue and corrosion resistance. Based on the effect of FSP on near-surface layer material, it was expected to have beneficial effects on friction and wear performance of metallic materials. However, little or no knowledge existed on the impact of FSP concerning friction and wear performance the subject of the this project and final report. Specifically for steel, which is the most dominant

  11. The bi-potential method applied to the modeling of dynamic problems with friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Z.-Q.; Joli, P.; Cros, J.-M.; Magnain, B.

    2005-10-01

    The bi-potential method has been successfully applied to the modeling of frictional contact problems in static cases. This paper presents an extension of this method for dynamic analysis of impact problems with deformable bodies. A first order algorithm is applied to the numerical integration of the time-discretized equation of motion. Using the Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) techniques in C++ and OpenGL graphical support, a finite element code including pre/postprocessor FER/Impact is developed. The numerical results show that, at the present stage of development, this approach is robust and efficient in terms of numerical stability and precision compared with the penalty method.

  12. The obstacle block as a device to measure turbulent skin friction in compressible flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfstrom, G. M.; Kostopoulos, C.; Peake, D. J.; Fisher, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    The obstacle block, developed as an alternative to the Preston tube for indirectly measuring skin friction on smooth surfaces in incompressible flows, is examined as a device for compressible flows as well. The block, which is congruent with a surface static pressure orifice, has a geometry which is easily specified and thus has a universal calibration. Data from two independent studies are used to establish such a calibration using 'wall' variables, valid for Mach numbers up to about 3. Various aspects concerning practical application of the device are examined, such as sensitivity to yaw and the minimum permissible axial spacing between blocks. Several examples showing the utility of the device are given.

  13. Determination of friction and pulling forces during a weighted sled pull.

    PubMed

    Andre, Matthew J; Fry, Andrew C; Bradford, Luke A; Buhr, Kevin W

    2013-05-01

    Pulling or pushing weighted sleds has been included in various exercise programs. Coaches and researchers may wish to calculate work performed or estimate forces during these exercises, which would involve calculating coefficients of friction: static friction coefficient (μs) and dynamic friction coefficient (μd). The purpose of this study was to establish a reliable method for determining μs, μd, and pulling forces while pulling a weighted sled with different loads to quantify horizontal forces and work performed for training, assessment, and/or research. A nylon tether was attached to a sled-mounted force transducer, and a winch was used to pull the tethered sled at a constant velocity for 20 seconds. Three different loads were pulled: 44.8 kg (the unloaded weight of the sled), 90.0 kg (44.8 kg sled with an additional load of 45.2 kg), and 136.2 kg (44.8 kg sled with an additional load of 91.4 kg). Each load was pulled 10 times using the winch for a total of 30 trials. The static friction coefficient (mean ± SD) was 0.47 ± 0.01 (coefficient of variation [CV] = 2.2%), 0.42 ± 0.01 (CV = 3.0%), and 0.39 ± 0.01 (CV = 2.7%), whereas dynamic friction coefficient (mean ± SD) was 0.35 ± 0.01 (CV = 1.6%), 0.33 ± 0.01 (CV = 3.7%), 0.31 ± 0.00 (CV = 1.0%) for 44.8, 90.0, and 136.2 kg, respectively (p < 0.01). When all trials and loads were combined, μs = 0.43 ± 0.04 and μd = 0.33 ± 0.02 with CV of 8.3 and 5.6%, respectively. The friction coefficients determined in this study were very repeatable, as indicated by the low CV. Coaches, athletes, and researchers who wish to determine μs and μd for their own specific equipment and surfaces can use the methods described here to do so.

  14. Investigation of the effect of wall friction on the flow rate in 2D and 3D Granular Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carballo-Ramirez, Brenda; Pleau, Mollie; Easwar, Nalini; Birwa, Sumit; Shah, Neil; Tewari, Shubha

    We have measured the mass flow rate of spherical steel spheres under gravity in vertical, straight-walled 2 and 3-dimensional hoppers, where the flow velocity is controlled by the opening size. Our measurements focus on the role of friction and its placement along the walls of the hopper. In the 2D case, an increase in the coefficient of static friction from μ = 0.2 to 0.6 is seen to decrease the flow rate significantly. We have changed the placement of frictional boundaries/regions from the front and back walls of the 2D hopper to the side walls and floor to investigate the relative importance of the different regions in determining the flow rate. Fits to the Beverloo equation show significant departure from the expected exponent of 1.5 in the case of 2D flow. In contrast, 3D flow rates do not show much dependence on wall friction and its placement. We compare the experimental data to numerical simulations of gravity driven hopper granular flow with varying frictional walls constructed using LAMMPS*. *http://lammps.sandia.gov Supported by NSF MRSEC DMR 0820506.

  15. Gimballed Shoulders for Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert; Lawless, Kirby

    2008-01-01

    In a proposed improvement of tooling for friction stir welding, gimballed shoulders would supplant shoulders that, heretofore, have been fixedly aligned with pins. The proposal is especially relevant to self-reacting friction stir welding. Some definitions of terms, recapitulated from related prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, are prerequisite to a meaningful description of the proposed improvement. In friction stir welding, one uses a tool that includes (1) a rotating shoulder on top (or front) of the workpiece and (2) a pin that rotates with the shoulder and protrudes from the shoulder into the depth of the workpiece. In conventional friction stir welding, the main axial force exerted by the tool on the workpiece is reacted through a ridged backing anvil under (behind) the workpiece. When conventional friction stir welding is augmented with an auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability, the depth of penetration of the pin into the workpiece is varied in real time by a position- or forcecontrol system that extends or retracts the pin as needed to obtain the desired effect. In self-reacting (also known as self-reacted) friction stir welding as practiced heretofore, there are two shoulders: one on top (or front) and one on the bottom (or back) of the workpiece. In this case, a threaded shaft protrudes from the tip of the pin to beyond the back surface of the workpiece. The back shoulder is held axially in place against tension by a nut on the threaded shaft. Both shoulders rotate with the pin and remain aligned coaxially with the pin. The main axial force exerted on the workpiece by the tool and front shoulder is reacted through the back shoulder and the threaded shaft into the friction-stir-welding machine head, so that a backing anvil is no longer needed. A key transmits torque between the bottom shoulder and the threaded shaft, so that the bottom shoulder rotates with the shaft. This concludes the prerequisite definitions of terms.

  16. Mechanisms of friction in diamondlike nanocomposite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharf, T. W.; Ohlhausen, J. A.; Tallant, D. R.; Prasad, S. V.

    2007-03-01

    Diamondlike nanocomposite (DLN) coatings (C:H:Si:O) processed from siloxane precursors by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition are well known for their low friction and wear behaviors. In the current study, we have investigated the fundamental mechanisms of friction and interfacial shear strength in DLN coatings and the roles of contact stress and environment on their tribological behavior. Friction and wear measurements were performed from 0.25to0.6GPa contact pressures in three environments: dry (<1% RH) nitrogen, dry (<1% RH) air, and humid (50% RH) air, with precise control of dew point and oxygen content. At 0.3GPa contact stress, the coefficient of friction (COF) in dry nitrogen was extremely low, ˜0.02, whereas in humid air it increased to ˜0.2, with minimal amount of wear in both environments. The coatings also exhibited non-Amontonian friction behavior, with COF decreasing with an increase in Hertzian contact stress. The main mechanism responsible for low friction and wear under varying contact stresses and environments is governed by the interfacial sliding between the DLN coating and the friction-induced transfer film adhered to the ball counterface. This interfacial shear strength, computed from COF-inverse Hertzian contact stress plots, was found to be 9MPa in dry nitrogen and 78MPa in humid air. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis of the interfaces (wear tracks and transfer films) was used to explain the tribochemical effects in both environments. The transfer films generated in humid air were found to be enriched with SiO2 containing fragments, whereas those formed in dry nitrogen had hydrogenated and long range ordered carbons with practically no SiO2 fragments, ultimately resulting in much lower interfacial shear strength and COF.

  17. Mechanisms of friction in diamondlike nanocomposite coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, T. W.; Ohlhausen, J. A.; Tallant, D. R.; Prasad, S. V.

    2007-03-15

    Diamondlike nanocomposite (DLN) coatings (C:H:Si:O) processed from siloxane precursors by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition are well known for their low friction and wear behaviors. In the current study, we have investigated the fundamental mechanisms of friction and interfacial shear strength in DLN coatings and the roles of contact stress and environment on their tribological behavior. Friction and wear measurements were performed from 0.25 to 0.6 GPa contact pressures in three environments: dry (<1% RH) nitrogen, dry (<1% RH) air, and humid (50% RH) air, with precise control of dew point and oxygen content. At 0.3 GPa contact stress, the coefficient of friction (COF) in dry nitrogen was extremely low, {approx}0.02, whereas in humid air it increased to {approx}0.2, with minimal amount of wear in both environments. The coatings also exhibited non-Amontonian friction behavior, with COF decreasing with an increase in Hertzian contact stress. The main mechanism responsible for low friction and wear under varying contact stresses and environments is governed by the interfacial sliding between the DLN coating and the friction-induced transfer film adhered to the ball counterface. This interfacial shear strength, computed from COF-inverse Hertzian contact stress plots, was found to be 9 MPa in dry nitrogen and 78 MPa in humid air. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis of the interfaces (wear tracks and transfer films) was used to explain the tribochemical effects in both environments. The transfer films generated in humid air were found to be enriched with SiO{sub 2} containing fragments, whereas those formed in dry nitrogen had hydrogenated and long range ordered carbons with practically no SiO{sub 2} fragments, ultimately resulting in much lower interfacial shear strength and COF.

  18. Ultralow Friction in a Superconducting Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bornemann, Hans J.; Siegel, Michael; Zaitsev, Oleg; Bareiss, Martin; Laschuetza, Helmut

    1996-01-01

    Passive levitation by superconducting magnetic bearings can be utilized in flywheels for energy storage. Basic design criteria of such a bearing are high levitation force, sufficient vertical and horizontal stability and low friction. A test facility was built for the measurement and evaluation of friction in a superconducting magnetic bearing as a function of operating temperature and pressure in the vacuum vessel. The bearing consists of a commercial disk shaped magnet levitated above single grain, melt-textured YBCO high-temperature superconductor material. The superconductor was conduction cooled by an integrated AEG tactical cryocooler. The temperature could be varied from 50 K to 80 K. The pressure in the vacuum chamber was varied from 1 bar to 10(exp -5) mbar. At the lowest pressure setting, the drag torque shows a linear frequency dependence over the entire range investigated (0 less than f less than 40 Hz). Magnetic friction, the frequency independent contribution, is very low. The frequency dependent drag torque is generated by molecular friction from molecule-surface collisions and by eddy currents. Given the specific geometry of the set-up and gas pressure, the molecular drag torque can be estimated. At a speed of 40 Hz, the coefficient of friction (drag-to-lift ratio) was measured to be mu = 1.6 x 10(exp -7) at 10(exp -5) mbar and T = 60 K. This is equivalent to a drag torque of 7.6 x 10(exp -10) Nm. Magnetic friction causes approx. 1% of the total losses. Molecular friction accounts for about 13% of the frequency dependent drag torque, the remaining 87% being due to eddy currents and losses from rotor unbalance. The specific energy loss is only 0.3% per hour.

  19. Status of Stellite 6 friction testing

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, J.C.; DeWall, K.G.; Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1998-06-01

    For the past several years, researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, have been investigating the performance of motor-operated valves subjected to design basis flow and pressure loads. Part of this research addresses the friction that occurs at the interface between the valve disc and the valve body seats during operation of a gate valve. In most gate valves, these surfaces are hardfaced with Stellite 6, a cobalt-based alloy. Analytical methods exist for predicting the thrust needed to operate these valves at specific pressure conditions. To produce accurate valve thrust predictions, the analyst must have a reasonably accurate, though conservative, estimate of the coefficient of friction at the disc-to-seat interface. One of the questions that remains to be answered is whether, and to what extent, aging of the disc and seat surfaces effects the disc-to-seat coefficient of friction. Specifically, does the environment in a nuclear plants piping system cause the accumulation of an oxide film on these surfaces that increases the coefficient of friction; and if so, how great is the increase? This paper presents results of specimen tests addressing this issue, with emphasis on the following: (1) the characteristics and thickness of the oxide film that develops on Stellite 6 as it ages; (2) the change in the friction coefficient of Stellite 6 as it ages, including the question of whether the friction coefficient eventually reaches a plateau; and (3) the effect in-service cycling has on the characteristics and thickness of the oxide film and on the friction coefficient.

  20. Static and transient modeling of fast moving ball actuator as a display device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongmo; Yoon, Ho Won; Hong, MunPyo; Jhun, Chul Gyu; Bae, Byung Seong; Han, Seungoh

    2016-04-01

    FMBA(Fast Moving Ball Actuator), developed as novel electronic-paper display, has already proven its operability and functionality. However, optimization issues related with low operating voltage, high refresh rate, fine pixel and higher display resolution, etc. are still remaining to be improved for a successful commercialization. In order to optimize such issues effectively, static and transient model were developed and verified by comparing the calculated results to the measured. The static model is based on the force balancing equation between the driving and the holding forces while the transient model is developed from Newton's 2nd law by adding the inertia as well as the resistive damping forces caused by the surroundings. With the simplified static model, driving voltage of 30.71 V was obtained, which is reasonably matched to the measured voltage of 40 V. Based on the transient model, also, the transient response of the device can be estimated within reasonable margin. Considering the absence of reliable key parameters of surface roughness, static and dynamic frictional coefficient, and refractive indices, the developed static and transient models account well the experimental results and thus they are expected to contribute further improvements in FMBA.

  1. The role of large-scale eddies in the climate equilibrium. Part 2: Variable static stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Shuntai; Stone, Peter H.

    1993-01-01

    Lorenz's two-level model on a sphere is used to investigate how the results of Part 1 are modified when the interaction of the vertical eddy heat flux and static stability is included. In general, the climate state does not depend very much on whether or not this interaction is included, because the poleward eddy heat transport dominates the eddy forcing of mean temperature and wind fields. However, the climatic sensitivity is significantly affected. Compared to two-level model results with fixed static stability, the poleward eddy heat flux is less sensitive to the meridional temperature gradient and the gradient is more sensitive to the forcing. For example, the logarithmic derivative of the eddy flux with respect to the gradient has a slope that is reduced from approximately 15 on a beta-plane with fixed static stability and approximately 6 on a sphere with fixed static stability, to approximately 3 to 4 in the present model. This last result is more in line with analyses from observations. The present model also has a stronger baroclinic adjustment than that in Part 1, more like that in two-level beta-plane models with fixed static stability, that is, the midlatitude isentropic slope is very insensitive to the forcing, the diabatic heating, and the friction, unless the forcing is very weak.

  2. Static feed water electrolysis module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced static feed water electrolysis module (SFWEM) and associated instrumentation for generating breathable O2 was developed. The system also generates a H2 byproduct for use in an air revitalization system for O2 recovery from metabolic CO2. Special attention was given to: (1) eliminating water feed compartment degassing, (2) eliminating need for zero gravity condenser/separators, (3) increasing current density capability, and (4) providing a self contained module so that operation is independent of laboratory instrumentation and complicated startup/shutdown procedures.

  3. Low-Temperature Friction-Stir Welding of 2024 Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benavides, S.; Li, Y.; Murr, L. E.; Brown, D.; McClure, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    Solid state friction-stir welding (FSW) has been demonstrated to involve dynamic recrystallization producing ultra-fine, equiaxed grain structures to facilitate superplastic deformation as the welding or joining mechanism. However, the average residual, equiaxed, grain size in the weld zone has ranged from roughly 0.5 micron to slightly more than 10 micron, and the larger weld zone grain sizes have been characterized as residual or static grain growth as a consequence of the temperatures in the weld zone (where center-line temperatures in the FSW of 6061 Al have been shown to be as high as 480C or -0.8 T(sub M) where T(sub M) is the absolute melting temperature)). In addition, the average residual weld zone grain size has been observed to increase near the top of the weld, and to decrease with distance on either side of the weld-zone centerline, an d this corresponds roughly to temperature variations within the weld zone. The residual grain size also generally decreases with decreasing FSW tool rotation speed. These observations are consistent with the general rules for recrystallization where the recrystallized grain size decreases with increasing strain (or deformation) at constant strain rate, or with increasing strain-rate, or with increasing strain rate at constant strain; especially at lower ambient temperatures, (or annealing temperatures). Since the recrystallization temperature also decreases with increasing strain rate, the FSW process is somewhat complicated because the ambient temperature, the frictional heating fraction, and the adiabatic heating fraction )proportional to the product of strain and strain-rate) will all influence both the recrystallization and growth within the FSW zone. Significantly reducing the ambient temperature of the base metal or work pieces to be welded would be expected to reduce the residual weld-zone grain size. The practical consequences of this temperature reduction would be the achievement of low temperature welding. This

  4. Mixing and bottom friction: parametrization and application to the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennis, A.-C.; Dumas, F.; Ardhuin, F.; Blanke, B.; Lepesqueur, J.

    2012-04-01

    Wave breaking has been observed to impact the bottom boundary layer in surf zones, with potential impacts on bottom friction. Observations in the inner surf zone have also shown a tendency to an underestimation of the wave-induced set-up when using usual model parameterizations. The present study investigates the possible impact of wave breaking on bottom friction and set-up using a recently proposed parameterization of the wave-induced turbulent kinetic energy in the vertical mixing parameterization of the wave-averaged flow. This parametrization proposed by Mellor (2002) allows us to take account the oscillations of the bottom boundary layer with the wave phases thanks to some additional turbulent source terms. First, the behavior of this parameterization, is investigated by comparing phase-resolving and phase-averaged solutions. The hydrodynamical model MARS (Lazure et Dumas, 2008) is used for this, using a modified k-epsilon model to take account the Mellor (2002) parametrization. It is shown that the phase averaged solution strongly overestimates the turbulent kinetic energy, which is similar to the situation of the air flow over waves (Miles 1996). The waves inhibits the turbulence and the wave-averaged parametrization is not able to reproduce correctly this phenomenom. Cases with wave breaking at the surface are simulated in order to study the influence of surface wave breaking on the bottom boundary layer. This parametrization is applied in the surf zone for two differents cases, one for a planar beach and one other for a barred beach with rip currents. The coupled model MARS-WAVEWATCH III is used for this (Bennis et al, 2011) and for a realistic planar beach, the mixing parameterization has only a limited impact on the bottom friction and the wave set-up, unless the bottom roughness is greatly enhanced in very shallow water, or for a spatially varying roughness. The use of the mixing parametrization requires an adjustement of the bottom roughness to fit

  5. Measurement of static pressure on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracey, William

    1958-01-01

    Existing data on the errors involved in the measurement of static pressure by means of static-pressure tubes and fuselage vents are presented. The errors associated with the various design features of static-pressure tubes are discussed for the condition of zero angle of attack and for the case where the tube is inclined to flow. Errors which result from variations in the configuration of static-pressure vents are also presented. Errors due to the position of a static-pressure tube in the flow field of the airplane are given for locations ahead of the fuselage nose, ahead of the wing tip, and ahead of the vertical tail fin. The errors of static-pressure vents on the fuselage of an airplane are also presented. Various methods of calibrating static-pressure installations in flight are briefly discussed.

  6. Micro Surface Texturing for Friction Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashwan, Ola

    Recently, surface texturing has gained momentum as a way to control the friction which is involved in various applications and systems, such as components of internal combustion engines, dies and punches of the metal forming processes and Micro-electrical-mechanical Systems (MEMS). This dissertation demonstrates that under dry sliding, there is a specific significant surface texturing parameter at which the coefficient of friction should be at a minimum. This dissertation met this objective through an extensive study of the relevant literature on surface texturing and friction, analysing the friction mechanisms involved in dry sliding, and highlighting the key factors that control friction as the real area of contact and material properties. An analytical proof is derived demonstrating that a minimum friction force exists if the two components of the friction force, adhesion and mechanical deformation, are differentiated with respect to the real contact area. In addition, numerical simulations and experimental work were performed to test this hypothesis. In the two and three dimensional finite element models, normal and sliding contact between a rigid indenter and elastic-plastic surfaces, which are textured by circular and hexagonal dimples of different sizes and densities, are simulated and analysed. Circular craters of different sizes and densities, are fabricated using laser ablation on hardened tool steel samples, while the hexagonal dimples are fabricated using photo-lithography. The dimples are arranged in adjacent equilateral triangles layout. Coefficients of friction were measured using a scratch tester under dry sliding conditions and constant load. In addition, adhesion forces were estimated using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The adhesion force is found to be exponentially decreasing with the increase of the spatial texture density. The dimensionless quantity, spatial texture density (D/L) was identified as the most significant texturing parameter

  7. Microblowing Technique Demonstrated to Reduce Skin Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Danny P.; Biesiadny, Tom J.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most challenging areas of research in aerodynamics is the reduction of skin friction, especially for turbulent flow. Reduced skin friction means less drag. For aircraft, less drag can lead to less fuel burned or to a greater flight range for a fixed amount of fuel. Many techniques and methods have been tried; however, none of them has significantly reduced skin friction in the flight environment. An innovative skin-friction reduction technique, the Microblowing Technique (MBT), was invented in 1993. This is a unique concept in which an extremely small amount of air is blown vertically at a surface through very small holes. It can be used for aircraft or marine vehicles, such as submarines (where water is blown through the holes instead of air). As shown in the figure, the outer layer, which controls vertical flow, is a plate with high-vertical holes. The inner layer, which produces evenly distributed flow, is a low-permeability porous plate. Microblowing reduces the surface roughness and changes the flow velocity profile on the surface, thereby reducing skin friction.

  8. Time dependent friction in a free gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, Cristiano; Sisti, Francesco; Stagno, Gabriele V.

    2016-03-01

    We consider a body moving in a perfect gas, described by the mean-field approximation and interacting elastically with the body, we study the friction exerted by the gas on the body fixed at constant velocities. The time evolution of the body in this setting was studied in Caprino et al. [Math. Phys. 264, 167-189 (2006)], Caprino et al. [Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci. 17, 1369-1403 (2007)], and Cavallaro [Rend. Mat. Appl. 27, 123-145 (2007)] for object with simple shape; the first study where a simple kind of concavity was considered was in Sisti and Ricciuti [SIAM J. Math. Anal. 46, 3759-3611 (2014)], showing new features in the dynamic but not in the friction term. The case of more general shape of the body was left out for further difficulties, and we believe indeed that there are actually non-trivial issues to be faced for these more general cases. To show this and in the spirit of getting a more realistic perspective in the study of friction problems, in this paper, we focused our attention on the friction term itself, studying its behavior on a body with a more general kind of concavity and fixed at constant velocities. We derive the expression of the friction term for constant velocities, we show how it is time dependent, and we give its exact estimate in time. Finally, we use this result to show the absence of a constant velocity in the actual dynamic of such a body.

  9. Friction characteristics of trocars in laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Alazmani, Ali; Roshan, Rupesh; Jayne, David G; Neville, Anne; Culmer, Peter

    2015-04-01

    This article investigates the friction characteristics of the instrument-trocar interface in laparoscopic surgery for varying linear instrument velocities, trocar seal design and material, and trocar tilt. Furthermore, the effect of applying lubrication at the instrument-trocar seal interface on friction was studied. A friction testing apparatus was designed and built to characterise the resistance force at the instrument-trocar interface as a function of the instrument's linear movement in the 12-mm trocar (at constant velocity) for different design, seal material, and angle of tilt. The resistance force depended on the trocar seal design and material properties, specifically surface roughness, elasticity, hardness, the direction of movement, and the instrument linear velocity, and varied between 0.25 and 8 N. Lubricating the shaft with silicone oil reduced the peak resistance force by 75% for all trocars and eliminated the stick-slip phenomenon evident in non-lubricated cases. The magnitude of fluctuation in resistance force depends on the trocar design and is attributed to stick-slip of the sealing mechanism and is generally higher during retraction in comparison to insertion. Trocars that have an inlet seal made of rubber/polyurethane showed higher resistance forces during retraction. Use of a lubricant significantly reduced frictional effects. Comparisons of the investigated trocars indicate that a low friction port, providing the surgeon with improved haptic feedback, can be designed by improving the tribological properties of the trocar seal interface.

  10. Assessing the clarity of friction ridge impressions.

    PubMed

    Hicklin, R Austin; Buscaglia, JoAnn; Roberts, Maria Antonia

    2013-03-10

    The ability of friction ridge examiners to correctly discern and make use of the ridges and associated features in finger or palm impressions is limited by clarity. The clarity of an impression relates to the examiner's confidence that the presence, absence, and attributes of features can be correctly discerned. Despite the importance of clarity in the examination process, there have not previously been standard methods for assessing clarity in friction ridge impressions. We introduce a process for annotation, analysis, and interchange of friction ridge clarity information that can be applied to latent or exemplar impressions. This paper: (1) describes a method for evaluating the clarity of friction ridge impressions by using color-coded annotations that can be used by examiners or automated systems; (2) discusses algorithms for overall clarity metrics based on manual or automated clarity annotation; and (3) defines a method of quantifying the correspondence of clarity when comparing a pair of friction ridge images, based on clarity annotation and resulting metrics. Different uses of this approach include examiner interchange of data, quality assurance, metrics, and as an aid in automated fingerprint matching. PMID:23313600

  11. Friction and Wear on the Atomic Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnecco, Enrico; Bennewitz, Roland; Pfeiffer, Oliver; Socoliuc, Anisoara; Meyer, Ernst

    Friction has long been the subject of research: the empirical da Vinci-Amontons friction laws have been common knowledge for centuries. Macroscopic experiments performed by the school of Bowden and Tabor revealed that macroscopic friction can be related to the collective action of small asperities. Over the last 15 years, experiments performed with the atomic force microscope have provided new insights into the physics of single asperities sliding over surfaces. This development, together with the results from complementary experiments using surface force apparatus and the quartz microbalance, have led to the new field of nanotribology. At the same time, increasing computing power has permitted the simulation of processes that occur during sliding contact involving several hundreds of atoms. It has become clear that atomic processes cannot be neglected when interpreting nanotribology experiments. Even on well-defined surfaces, experiments have revealed that atomic structure is directly linked to friction force. This chapter will describe friction force microscopy experiments that reveal, more or less directly, atomic processes during sliding contact.

  12. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply non-linear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatio-temporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to occur in the ground, it is not pertinent to the geometrical description of the spatio-temporal patterns of induced seismicity. The proposed model is equivalent to the static stress model for tectonic foreshocks generated by the Non-Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory. This study hence verifies the explanatory power of this theory outside of its original scope and provides an alternative physical approach to poroelasticity for the modelling of induced seismicity. The applicability of the proposed geometrical approach is illustrated for the case of the 2006, Basel enhanced geothermal system stimulation experiment. Applicability to more problematic cases where the stress field may be spatially heterogeneous is also discussed.

  13. Are there reliable constitutive laws for dynamic friction?

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Jim; Putelat, Thibaut; McKay, Andrew

    2015-09-28

    Structural vibration controlled by interfacial friction is widespread, ranging from friction dampers in gas turbines to the motion of violin strings. To predict, control or prevent such vibration, a constitutive description of frictional interactions is inevitably required. A variety of friction models are discussed to assess their scope and validity, in the light of constraints provided by different experimental observations. Three contrasting case studies are used to illustrate how predicted behaviour can be extremely sensitive to the choice of frictional constitutive model, and to explore possible experimental paths to discriminate between and calibrate dynamic friction models over the full parameter range needed for real applications.

  14. Are there reliable constitutive laws for dynamic friction?

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Jim; Putelat, Thibaut; McKay, Andrew

    2015-09-28

    Structural vibration controlled by interfacial friction is widespread, ranging from friction dampers in gas turbines to the motion of violin strings. To predict, control or prevent such vibration, a constitutive description of frictional interactions is inevitably required. A variety of friction models are discussed to assess their scope and validity, in the light of constraints provided by different experimental observations. Three contrasting case studies are used to illustrate how predicted behaviour can be extremely sensitive to the choice of frictional constitutive model, and to explore possible experimental paths to discriminate between and calibrate dynamic friction models over the full parameter range needed for real applications. PMID:26303920

  15. Kinetic buffers.

    PubMed

    Alibrandi, Giuseppe; Fabbrizzi, Luigi; Licchelli, Maurizio; Puglisi, Antonio

    2015-01-12

    This paper proposes a new type of molecular device that is able to act as an inverse proton sponge to slowly decrease the pH inside a reaction vessel. This makes the automatic monitoring of the concentration of pH-sensitive systems possible. The device is a composite formed of an alkyl chloride, which kinetically produces acidity, and a buffer that thermodynamically modulates the variation in pH value. Profiles of pH versus time (pH-t plots) have been generated under various experimental conditions by computer simulation, and the device has been tested by carrying out automatic spectrophotometric titrations, without using an autoburette. To underline the wide variety of possible applications, this new system has been used to realize and monitor HCl uptake by a di-copper(II) bistren complex in a single run, in a completely automatic experiment.

  16. Frictional strength of wet- and dry- talc gouge in high-velocity shear experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Reches, Z.; Elwood Madden, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    The strength of the creeping segment of the San Andres fault may be controlled by the distinct weakness and stability of talc (Moore & Rymer, 2007). We analyze talc frictional strength at high slip-velocity of 0.002 - 0.66 m/s, long slip-distances of 0.01 m to 33 m, and normal stresses up to 4.1 MPa. This analysis bridges the gap between nucleation stage of low velocity/distance, and the frictional behavior during large earthquakes. We tested wet and dry samples of pure talc gouge in a confined rotary cell, and continuously monitored the slip-velocity, stresses, dilation and temperature. We run 29 experiments of single and stepped velocities to obtain 243 values of quasi-static frictional coefficients. Dry talc gouge showed distinct slip-strengthening: friction coefficient of µ ~0.4 at short slip-distances of D < 0.1 m, and it increased systematically to µ ~0.8 at slip-distances of D = 0.1- 1 m; at D > 1 m, the frictional strength saturated at µ= 0.8 - 1 level. Wet talc gouge (16-20% water) displayed low frictional strength of µ= 0.1-0.3, in agreement with published triaxial tests. The stepped-velocity runs revealed a consistent velocity-strengthening trend. For a velocity jump from V1 to V2, we used VD = (µ2 -µ1)/ln (V2/V1), and found that on average VD = 0.06 and 0.03 for dry and wet talc, respectively, and for slip distances shorter than 1 m. Microstructural analysis of post-shearing wet talc gouge revealed extreme slip localization to a principal-slip-zone of a few microns, and significant shear compaction of 10-30%. In contrast, dry talc gouge exhibited distributed shear in a wide zone and systematic shear dilation (10-50%). We propose slip along weak interlayer talc plates and thermal-pressurization as the possible weakening mechanisms for wet talc. The development of distributed secondary fault network along with substantial grain crushing is responsible for slip-strengthening in dry condition. Fig. 1. Friction maps of talc gouge as function of slip

  17. Investigations of Earthquake Source Processes Based on Fault Models with Variable Friction Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Yoshihiro

    Ample experimental and observational evidence suggests that friction properties on natural faults vary spatially. In the lab, rock friction depends on temperature and confining pressure and it can be either velocity weakening or velocity strengthening, leading to either unstable or stable slip. Such variations in friction rheology can explain patterns of seismic and aseismic fault slip inferred from field observations. This thesis studies earthquake source processes using models with relatively simple but conceptually important patterns of velocity-weakening and velocity-strengthening friction that can arise on natural faults. Based on numerical and analytical modeling, we explore the consequences of such patterns for earthquake sequences, interseismic coupling, earthquake nucleation processes, aftershock occurrence, peak ground motion in the vicinity of active faults, and seismic slip budget at shallow depths. The velocity-dependence of friction is embedded into the framework of logarithmic rate and state friction laws. In addition to using existing boundary integral methods, which are accurate and efficient in simulating slip on planar faults embedded in homogeneous elastic media, the thesis develops spectral element methods to consider single dynamic ruptures and long-term histories of seismic and aseismic slip in models with layered bulk properties. The results of this thesis help to understand a number of observed fault slip phenomena, such as variability in earthquake patterns and its relation to interseismic coupling, seismic quiescence following decay of aftershocks at inferred rheological transitions, instances of poor correlation between static stress changes and aftershock occurrence, the lack of universally observed supershear rupture near the free surface, and coseismic slip deficit of large strike-slip earthquakes at shallow depths. The models, approaches, and numerical methods developed in the thesis motivate and enable consideration of many other

  18. Frictional Ignition Testing of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peralta, Steve; Rosales, Keisa; Robinson, Michael J.; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The space flight community has been investigating lightweight composite materials for use in propellant tanks for both liquid and gaseous oxygen for space flight vehicles. The use of these materials presents some risks pertaining to ignition and burning hazards in the presence of oxygen. Through hazard analysis process, some ignition mechanisms have been identified as being potentially credible. One of the ignition mechanisms was reciprocal friction; however, test data do not exist that could be used to clear or fail these types of materials as "oxygen compatible" for the reciprocal friction ignition mechanism. Therefore, testing was performed at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) to provide data to evaluate this ignition mechanism. This paper presents the test system, approach, data results, and findings of the reciprocal friction testing performed on composite sample materials being considered for propellant tanks.

  19. Patterns and flow in frictional fluid dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sandnes, B.; Flekkøy, E.G.; Knudsen, H.A.; Måløy, K.J.; See, H.

    2011-01-01

    Pattern-forming processes in simple fluids and suspensions have been studied extensively, and the basic displacement structures, similar to viscous fingers and fractals in capillary dominated flows, have been identified. However, the fundamental displacement morphologies in frictional fluids and granular mixtures have not been mapped out. Here we consider Coulomb friction and compressibility in the fluid dynamics, and discover surprising responses including highly intermittent flow and a transition to quasi-continuodynamics. Moreover, by varying the injection rate over several orders of magnitude, we characterize new dynamic modes ranging from stick-slip bubbles at low rate to destabilized viscous fingers at high rate. We classify the fluid dynamics into frictional and viscous regimes, and present a unified description of emerging morphologies in granular mixtures in the form of extended phase diagrams. PMID:21505444

  20. [Brackets and friction in orthodontics: experimental study].

    PubMed

    Ben Rejeb Jdir, Saloua; Tobji, Samir; Turki, Wiem; Dallel, Ines; Khedher, Nedra; Ben Amor, Adel

    2015-09-01

    Many authors have been involved in developing brackets in order to improve the quality, stability, speed and efficiency of orthodontic treatment. In order to reduce friction between bracket and archwire, new therapeutic approaches have been devised based on novel technologies. Among these innovative techniques, self-ligating brackets are increasingly popular. SLBs can be classified into several categories according to their mode of action and their materials. We performed an experimental study to compare the friction forces generated during the sliding of orthodontic archwires made from various alloys through conventional and self-ligating brackets. Results show the favorable influence of SLBs, compared to conventional systems using elastomeric or metal ligatures, on the level of friction, particularly when shape-memory Ni-Ti archwires are used. PMID:26370596

  1. Adhesion, friction and micromechanical properties of ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion, friction, and micromechanical properties of ceramics, both in monolithic and coating form, are reviewed. Ceramics are examined in contact with themselves, other harder materials, and metals. For the simplicity of discussion, the tribological properties of concern in the processes are separated into two parts. The first part discusses the pull-off force (adhesion) and the shear force required to break the interfacial junctions between contacting surfaces. The role of chemical bonding in adhesion and friction, and the effects of surface contaminant films and temperature on tribological response with respect to adhesion and friction are discussed. The second part deals with abrasion of ceramics. Elastic, plastic, and fracture behavior of ceramics in solid state contact is discussed. The scratch technique of determining the critical load needed to fracture interfacial adhesive bonds of ceramic deposited on substrates is also addressed.

  2. CAM/LIFTER forces and friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbey, D. J.; Lee, J.; Patterson, D. J.

    1992-02-01

    This report details the procedures used to measure the cam/lifter forces and friction. The present effort employed a Cummins LTA-10, and focuses on measurements and dynamic modeling of the injector train. The program was sponsored by the US Department of Energy in support of advanced diesel engine technology. The injector train was instrumented to record the instantaneous roller speed, roller pin friction torque, pushrod force, injector link force, and cam speed. These measurements, together with lift profiles for pushrod and injector link displacement, enabled the friction work loss in the injector train to be determined. Other significant design criteria such as camshaft roller follower slippage and maximum loads on components were also determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the dynamic model, with tests run as required for correlation.

  3. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Intravaia, Francesco; Mkrtchian, Vanik E.; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Scheel, Stefan; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Henkel, Carsten

    2015-05-12

    The aim of this study is to revisit the calculation of atom–surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton (2010 New J. Phys. 12 113045). We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contribution to the frictional power which goes as v4. These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v3.

  4. Friction enhancement in concertina locomotion of snakes.

    PubMed

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Hu, David L

    2012-11-01

    Narrow crevices are challenging terrain for most organisms and biomimetic robots. Snakes move through crevices using sequential folding and unfolding of their bodies in the manner of an accordion or concertina. In this combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we elucidate this effective means of moving through channels. We measure the frictional properties of corn snakes, their body kinematics and the transverse forces they apply to channels of varying width and inclination. To climb channels inclined at 60°, we find snakes use a combination of ingenious friction-enhancing techniques, including digging their ventral scales to double their frictional coefficient and pushing channel walls transversely with up to nine times body weight. Theoretical modelling of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler is used to calculate the transverse force factor of safety: we find snakes push up to four times more than required to prevent sliding backwards, presumably trading metabolic energy for an assurance of wall stability.

  5. Tunable Friction Behavior of Photochromic Fibrillar Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nanni, Gabriele; Ceseracciu, Luca; Oropesa-Nuñez, Reinier; Canale, Claudio; Salvatore, Princia; Fragouli, Despina; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2015-06-01

    Grasslike compliant micro/nano crystals made of diarylethene (DAE) photochromic molecules are spontaneously formed on elastomer films after dipping them in a solution containing the photochromic molecules. The frictional forces of such micro- and nanofibrillar surfaces are reversibly tuned upon ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and dark storage cycles. This behavior is attributed to the Young's modulus variation of the single fibrils due to the photoisomerization process of the DAE molecules, as measured by advanced atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. In fact, a significant yet reversible decrease of the stiffness of the outer part of the fibrils in response to the UV light irradiation is demonstrated. The modification of the molecular structure of the fibrils influences their mechanical properties and affects the frictional behavior of the overall fibrillar surfaces. These findings provide the possibility to develop a system that controllably and accurately generates both low and high friction forces.

  6. Friction Stir Welding of Steel Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The friction stir welding process has been developed primarily for the welding of aluminum alloys. Other higher melting allows such, as steels are much more difficult to join. Special attention must be given to pin tool material selection and welding techniques. This paper addresses the joining of steels and other high melting point materials using the friction stir welding process. Pin tool material and welding parameters will be presented. Mechanical properties of weldments will also be presented. Significance: There are many applications for the friction stir welding process other than low melting aluminum alloys. The FSW process can be expanded for use with high melting alloys in the pressure vessel, railroad and ship building industries.

  7. Laser Peening Effects on Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatamleh, Omar

    2011-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a welding technique that uses frictional heating combined with forging pressure to produce high strength bonds. It is attractive for aerospace applications. Although residual stresses in FSW are generally lower when compared to conventional fusion welds, recent work has shown that significant tensile residual stresses can be present in the weld after fabrication. Therefore, laser shock peening was investigated as a means of moderating the tensile residual stresses produced during welding. This slide presentation reviews the effect of Laser Peening on the weld, in tensile strength, strain, surface roughness, microhardness, surface wear/friction, and fatigue crack growth rates. The study concluded that the laser peening process can result in considerable improvement to crack initiaion, propagation and mechanical properties in FSW.

  8. Method and device for frictional welding

    DOEpatents

    Peacock, H.B.

    1991-01-01

    A method for friction welding that produces a seal having essentially no gas porosity, comprises two rotationally symmetric, generally cylindrical members, spaced apart and coaxially aligned, that are rotated with respect to each other and brought together under high pressure. One member is preferably a generally cylindrical cannister that stores uranium within its hollow walls. The other member is preferably a generally cylindrical, hollow weld ring. An annular channel formed in the weld ring functions as an internal flash trap and is uniquely designed so that substantially all of the welding flash generated from the friction welding is directed into the channel`s recessed bottom. Also, the channel design limits distortion of the two members during the friction welding, process, further contributing to the complete seal that is obtained.

  9. Method and device for frictional welding

    DOEpatents

    Peacock, H.B.

    1992-10-13

    A method is described for friction welding that produces a seal having essentially no gas porosity, comprises two rotationally symmetric, generally cylindrical members, spaced apart and coaxially aligned, that are rotated with respect to each other and brought together under high pressure. One member is preferably a generally cylindrical canister that stores uranium within its hollow walls. The other member is preferably a generally cylindrical, hollow weld ring. An annular channel formed in the weld ring functions as an internal flash trap and is uniquely designed so that substantially all of the welding flash generated from the friction welding is directed into the channel's recessed bottom. Also, the channel design limits distortion of the two members during the friction welding process, further contributing to the complete seal that is obtained. 5 figs.

  10. Method and device for frictional welding

    DOEpatents

    Peacock, Harold B.

    1992-01-01

    A method for friction welding that produces a seal having essentially no gas porosity, comprises two rotationally symmetric, generally cylindrical members, spaced apart and coaxially aligned, that are rotated with respect to each other and brought together under high pressure. One member is preferably a generally cylindrical cannister that stores uranium within its hollow walls. The other member is preferably a generally cylindrical, hollow weld ring. An annular channel formed in the weld ring functions as an internal flash trap and is uniquely designed so that substantially all of the welding flash generated from the friction welding is directed into the channel's recessed bottom. Also, the channel design limits distortion of the two members during the friction welding process, further contributing to the complete seal that is obtained.

  11. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives.

    PubMed

    Matyáš, Robert; Šelešovský, Jakub; Musil, Tomáš

    2012-04-30

    The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature.

  12. [Brackets and friction in orthodontics: experimental study].

    PubMed

    Ben Rejeb Jdir, Saloua; Tobji, Samir; Turki, Wiem; Dallel, Ines; Khedher, Nedra; Ben Amor, Adel

    2015-09-01

    Many authors have been involved in developing brackets in order to improve the quality, stability, speed and efficiency of orthodontic treatment. In order to reduce friction between bracket and archwire, new therapeutic approaches have been devised based on novel technologies. Among these innovative techniques, self-ligating brackets are increasingly popular. SLBs can be classified into several categories according to their mode of action and their materials. We performed an experimental study to compare the friction forces generated during the sliding of orthodontic archwires made from various alloys through conventional and self-ligating brackets. Results show the favorable influence of SLBs, compared to conventional systems using elastomeric or metal ligatures, on the level of friction, particularly when shape-memory Ni-Ti archwires are used.

  13. An integrated approach for friction damper design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, T. M.; Griffin, J. H.; Hoosac, T. M.; Kielb, R. E.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure is outlined for determining the optimal design of friction dampers for high speed turbomachinery blading. The procedure includes: an integration of bench test results with finite element analysis and a single mode blade model to ensure accuracy of the analytical model and improve reliability of the friction damper design; an extension of the single mode blade model to predict the engine behavior of friction dampers; and a new way of viewing analytical and experimental results to determine optimal design parameters when the levels of excitation and damping in the system are unknown. Analysis and experiments are performed on a test disk in order to demonstrate and verify the accuracy of the design procedure.

  14. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Intravaia, Francesco; Mkrtchian, Vanik E.; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Scheel, Stefan; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Henkel, Carsten

    2015-05-12

    The aim of this study is to revisit the calculation of atom–surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton (2010 New J. Phys. 12 113045). We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contributionmore » to the frictional power which goes as v4. These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v3.« less

  15. Hyperstaticity and loops in frictional granular packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Lam, Edward; Metzger, Philip T.

    2009-06-01

    The hyperstatic nature of granular packings of perfectly rigid disks is analyzed algebraically and through numerical simulation. The elementary loops of grains emerge as a fundamental element in addressing hyperstaticity. Loops consisting of an odd number of grains behave differently than those with an even number. For odd loops, the latent stresses are exterior and are characterized by the sum of frictional forces around each loop. For even loops, the latent stresses are interior and are characterized by the alternating sum of frictional forces around each loop. The statistics of these two types of loop sums are found to be Gibbsian with a "temperature" that is linear with the friction coefficient μ when μ<1.

  16. Adhesion and friction of thin metal films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted in vacuum with thin films of titanium, chromium, iron, and platinum sputter deposited on quartz or mica substrates. A single crystal hemispherically tipped gold slider was used in contact with the films at loads of 1.0 to 30.0 and at a sliding velocity of 0.7 mm/min at 23 C. Test results indicate that the friction coefficient is dependent on the adhesion of two interfaces, that between the film and its substrate and the slider and the film. There exists a relationship between the percent d bond character of metals in bulk and in thin film form and the friction coefficient. Oxygen can increase adhesive bonding of a metal film (platinum) to a substrate.

  17. Friction of soft elastomeric wrinkled surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, Charles J.; Crosby, Alfred J.

    2009-09-01

    We evaluate the sliding of a rigid spherical lens over a surface-wrinkled, elastomeric substrate. Sliding is conducted both parallel and perpendicular to the aligned surface wrinkles, and the sliding force is compared to the required sliding forces on nonwrinkled surfaces. We evaluate the effects of wrinkle dimensions and applied normal force on the sliding resistance. A simple Bowden-Tabor friction model can describe the dependence of the sliding force on normal load, with different coefficients of friction associated with the nonwrinkled and wrinkled surfaces both perpendicular and parallel. The aspect ratio of the wrinkles has a secondary effect on the sliding force. We associate the changes in friction to changes in the tangential stiffness and fracture angle caused by the surface wrinkles.

  18. Friction enhancement in concertina locomotion of snakes

    PubMed Central

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Hu, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Narrow crevices are challenging terrain for most organisms and biomimetic robots. Snakes move through crevices using sequential folding and unfolding of their bodies in the manner of an accordion or concertina. In this combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we elucidate this effective means of moving through channels. We measure the frictional properties of corn snakes, their body kinematics and the transverse forces they apply to channels of varying width and inclination. To climb channels inclined at 60°, we find snakes use a combination of ingenious friction-enhancing techniques, including digging their ventral scales to double their frictional coefficient and pushing channel walls transversely with up to nine times body weight. Theoretical modelling of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler is used to calculate the transverse force factor of safety: we find snakes push up to four times more than required to prevent sliding backwards, presumably trading metabolic energy for an assurance of wall stability. PMID:22728386

  19. Evaluation of the friction coefficient, the radial stress, and the damage work during needle insertions into agarose gels.

    PubMed

    Urrea, Fabián A; Casanova, Fernando; Orozco, Gustavo A; García, José J

    2016-03-01

    Agarose hydrogels have been extensively used as a phantom material to mimic the mechanical behavior of soft biological tissues, e.g. in studies aimed to analyze needle insertions into the organs producing tissue damage. To better predict the radial stress and damage during needle insertions, this study was aimed to determine the friction coefficient between the material of commercial catheters and hydrogels. The friction coefficient, the tissue damage and the radial stress were evaluated at 0.2, 1.8, and 10mm/s velocities for 28, 30, and 32 gauge needles of outer diameters equal to 0.36, 0.31, and 0.23mm, respectively. Force measurements during needle insertions and retractions on agarose gel samples were used to analyze damage and radial stress. The static friction coefficient (0.295±0.056) was significantly higher than the dynamic (0.255±0.086). The static and dynamic friction coefficients were significantly smaller for the 0.2mm/s velocity compared to those for the other two velocities, and there was no significant difference between the friction coefficients for 1.8 and 10mm/s. Radial stress averages were 131.2±54.1, 248.3±64.2, and 804.9±164.3Pa for the insertion velocity of 0.2, 1.8, and 10mm/s, respectively. The radial stress presented a tendency to increase at higher insertion velocities and needle size, which is consistent with other studies. However, the damage work did not show to be a good predictor of tissue damage, which appears to be due to simplifications in the analytical model. Differently to other approaches, the method proposed here based on radial stress may be extended in future studies to quantity tissue damage in vivo along the entire needle track.

  20. Evaluation of the friction coefficient, the radial stress, and the damage work during needle insertions into agarose gels.

    PubMed

    Urrea, Fabián A; Casanova, Fernando; Orozco, Gustavo A; García, José J

    2016-03-01

    Agarose hydrogels have been extensively used as a phantom material to mimic the mechanical behavior of soft biological tissues, e.g. in studies aimed to analyze needle insertions into the organs producing tissue damage. To better predict the radial stress and damage during needle insertions, this study was aimed to determine the friction coefficient between the material of commercial catheters and hydrogels. The friction coefficient, the tissue damage and the radial stress were evaluated at 0.2, 1.8, and 10mm/s velocities for 28, 30, and 32 gauge needles of outer diameters equal to 0.36, 0.31, and 0.23mm, respectively. Force measurements during needle insertions and retractions on agarose gel samples were used to analyze damage and radial stress. The static friction coefficient (0.295±0.056) was significantly higher than the dynamic (0.255±0.086). The static and dynamic friction coefficients were significantly smaller for the 0.2mm/s velocity compared to those for the other two velocities, and there was no significant difference between the friction coefficients for 1.8 and 10mm/s. Radial stress averages were 131.2±54.1, 248.3±64.2, and 804.9±164.3Pa for the insertion velocity of 0.2, 1.8, and 10mm/s, respectively. The radial stress presented a tendency to increase at higher insertion velocities and needle size, which is consistent with other studies. However, the damage work did not show to be a good predictor of tissue damage, which appears to be due to simplifications in the analytical model. Differently to other approaches, the method proposed here based on radial stress may be extended in future studies to quantity tissue damage in vivo along the entire needle track. PMID:26700572

  1. Active nematic materials with substrate friction.

    PubMed

    Thampi, Sumesh P; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M

    2014-12-01

    Active turbulence in dense active systems is characterized by high vorticity on a length scale that is large compared to that of individual entities. We describe the properties of active turbulence as momentum propagation is screened by frictional damping. As friction is increased, the spacing between the walls in the nematic director field decreases as a consequence of the more rapid velocity decays. This leads to, first, a regime with more walls and an increased number of topological defects, and then to a jammed state in which the walls deliminate bands of opposing flow, analogous to the shear bands observed in passive complex fluids. PMID:25615093

  2. Friction Drilling of Stainless Steels Pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, A.; Lopez de Lacalle, L. N.; Lamikiz, A.

    2011-01-17

    This work describes the experimental study of the friction drilling process in stainless steel by means of an optimization of the machining conditions. For such purpose austenitic stainless steel with different thicknesses were analyzed through controlled tests at different rotation speeds and feed rates. On one hand, the torque and the thrust force were computed and monitorized. On the other hand, the dimensional tolerances of the holes were evaluated, mainly the accuracy of the hole diameter and the burr thickness at different depths. Another topic of interest inherent to this special technique is the temperature level reached during the friction process which is crucial when it comes to development of microstructural transformations.

  3. Magnetic Viscous Drag for Friction Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, Chris; Catching, Adam

    2016-09-01

    The typical friction lab performed in introductory mechanics courses is usually not the favorite of either the student or the instructor. The measurements are not all that easy to make, and reproducibility is usually a troublesome issue. This paper describes the augmentation of such a friction lab with a study of the viscous drag on a magnet sliding down a conducting ramp, e.g., an aluminum ramp (Fig. 1). The measurements are simple and quite reproducible, and it appears to readily catch the interest of students.

  4. Dynamical friction in a relativistic plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, O. J.; Rose, S. J.

    2014-05-01

    The work of Spitzer on dynamical friction in a plasma [L. Spitzer, Jr., Physics of Fully Ionized Gases, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1962), Chap. 5] is extended to relativistic systems. We derive the force of dynamical friction, diffusion tensor, and test particle relaxation rates for a Maxwellian background in the same form as Trubnikov [B. A. Trubnikov, in Reviews of Plasma Physics, edited by M. A. Leontovich (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1965), Vol. 1, p. 105], enabling high-temperature laboratory and astrophysical plasmas to be modeled in a consistent manner.

  5. High fidelity frictional models for MEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    Carpick, Robert W.; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Bitsie, Fernando; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Corwin, Alex David; Ashurst, William Robert; Jones, Reese E.; Subhash, Ghatu S.; Street, Mark D.; Sumali, Anton Hartono; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Starr, Michael James; Redmond, James Michael; Flater, Erin E.

    2004-10-01

    The primary goals of the present study are to: (1) determine how and why MEMS-scale friction differs from friction on the macro-scale, and (2) to begin to develop a capability to perform finite element simulations of MEMS materials and components that accurately predicts response in the presence of adhesion and friction. Regarding the first goal, a newly developed nanotractor actuator was used to measure friction between molecular monolayer-coated, polysilicon surfaces. Amontons law does indeed apply over a wide range of forces. However, at low loads, which are of relevance to MEMS, there is an important adhesive contribution to the normal load that cannot be neglected. More importantly, we found that at short sliding distances, the concept of a coefficient of friction is not relevant; rather, one must invoke the notion of 'pre-sliding tangential deflections' (PSTD). Results of a simple 2-D model suggests that PSTD is a cascade of small-scale slips with a roughly constant number of contacts equilibrating the applied normal load. Regarding the second goal, an Adhesion Model and a Junction Model have been implemented in PRESTO, Sandia's transient dynamics, finite element code to enable asperity-level simulations. The Junction Model includes a tangential shear traction that opposes the relative tangential motion of contacting surfaces. An atomic force microscope (AFM)-based method was used to measure nano-scale, single asperity friction forces as a function of normal force. This data is used to determine Junction Model parameters. An illustrative simulation demonstrates the use of the Junction Model in conjunction with a mesh generated directly from an atomic force microscope (AFM) image to directly predict frictional response of a sliding asperity. Also with regards to the second goal, grid-level, homogenized models were studied. One would like to perform a finite element analysis of a MEMS component assuming nominally flat surfaces and to include the effect of

  6. Influence of friction on granular segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Stephan; Schröter, Matthias; Swinney, Harry L.

    2007-10-01

    Vertical shaking of a mixture of small and large beads can lead to segregation where the large beads either accumulate at the top of the sample, the so-called Brazil nut effect (BNE), or at the bottom, the reverse Brazil nut effect (RBNE). Here we demonstrate experimentally a sharp transition from the RBNE to the BNE when the particle coefficient of friction increases due to aging of the particles. This result can be explained by the two competing mechanisms of buoyancy and sidewall-driven convection, where the latter is assumed to grow in strength with increasing friction.

  7. Brownian friction coefficient of Kr/graphite.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutchko, R.

    1998-03-01

    Calculations of the Brownian friction coefficient of fluid Kr/graphite are described. The phonon frequencies and polarization vectors are calculated for a thick graphite slab using the Benedek-Onida bond charge model(G. Benedek and G. Onida, Phys. Rev. B 47), 16471 (1993). The fluctuating forces on the adatom from the substrate are expressed in terms of the graphite fluctuation spectrum. The friction coefficient is expressed in terms of a spectral density to be derived from the slab calculations. The relation of the results to diffusive processes in monolayer fluids(F. Y. Hansen, L. W. Bruch, and H. Taub, Phys. Rev. B 54), 14077 (1996). is discussed.

  8. Increase in friction force with sliding speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2005-09-01

    A block sliding down an inclined plane normally accelerates. However, if the friction force increases with speed, then the block can slide at a constant terminal speed in a manner similar to the fall of an object through a fluid. Measurements of the increase in the coefficient of friction for tennis ball cloth sliding on a smooth surface are described over speeds varying by a factor of 9000. For the low speed measurements, the ball cloth was attached to the bottom of a weighted box and pulled along a horizontal surface by a constant horizontal force. Results at higher speeds were obtained by bouncing a tennis ball off the surface.

  9. Static latching arrangement and method

    DOEpatents

    Morrison, Larry

    1988-01-01

    A latching assembly for use in latching a cable to and unlatching it from a given object in order to move an object from one location to another is disclosed herein. This assembly includes a weighted sphere mounted to one end of a cable so as to rotate about a specific diameter of the sphere. The assembly also includes a static latch adapted for connection with the object to be moved. This latch includes an internal latching cavity for containing the sphere in a latching condition and a series of surfaces and openings which cooperate with the sphere in order to move the sphere into and out of the latching cavity and thereby connect the cable to and disconnect it from the latch without using any moving parts on the latch itself.

  10. Static mixer improves desalting efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    An in-line static mixer has increased salt removal from crude oil at a large West Coast refinery, says the mixer supplier, Komax Systems Inc. The mixer was installed at a 150,000 b/d crude distillation unit's desalter. Crude at this refinery is a mixture of local production and imports from Indonesia and Alaska. In the past, the refiner used a typical globe-type mix valve to mix fresh water with crude at the desalters. The crude is heated to 300/sup 0/F., mixed with 5% fresh water, and then fed to the desalters. Chemical and electrostatic treatment is used in the desalters to remove salt and water from the crude.

  11. Ares I Static Tests Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, William; Lindemuth, Kathleen; Mich, John; White, K. Preston; Parker, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic engineering design enhances safety and reduces costs by incorporating risk assessment directly into the design process. In this paper, we assess the format of the quantitative metrics for the vehicle which will replace the Space Shuttle, the Ares I rocket. Specifically, we address the metrics for in-flight measurement error in the vector position of the motor nozzle, dictated by limits on guidance, navigation, and control systems. Analyses include the propagation of error from measured to derived parameters, the time-series of dwell points for the duty cycle during static tests, and commanded versus achieved yaw angle during tests. Based on these analyses, we recommend a probabilistic template for specifying the maximum error in angular displacement and radial offset for the nozzle-position vector. Criteria for evaluating individual tests and risky decisions also are developed.

  12. The asymptotics of the solutions of the Signorini problem without friction or with small friction

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, S.A.

    1994-12-25

    We find the first few terms of the asymptotic expansion of a regular solution of the two-dimensional Signorini problem with a small coefficient of friction. As the fundamental approximation we take the solution of the limiting problem without friction. This solution is assumed to be known, and it is assumed that the region of contact consists of a finite number of arcs, on each of which one boundary condition or another is realized. We study the asymptotics of the solution of the Signorini problem without friction under small load variation.

  13. Modeling energy dissipation induced by quasi-static compaction of granular HMX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonthier, K. A.; Menikoff, R.; Son, S. F.; Asay, B. W.

    1998-07-01

    A simple extension of a conventional two-phase continuum model of Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) in energetic granular material is given to account for energy dissipation induced by quasi-static compaction. To this end, the conventional model equations are supplemented by a relaxation equation that accounts for irreversible changes in solid volume fraction due to intergranular friction, plastic deformation of granules, and granule fracture. The proposed model, which is consistent with the Second Law of Thermodynamics for a two-phase mixture, is demonstrated by applying it to the quasi-static compaction of granular HMX. The model predicts results commensurate with experimental data including stress relaxation and substantial dissipation; such phenomena have not been previously accounted for by two-phase DDT models.

  14. Modeling energy dissipation induced by quasi-static compaction of granular HMX

    SciTech Connect

    Gonthier, K.A.; Menikoff, R.; Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W.

    1998-07-01

    A simple extension of a conventional two-phase continuum model of Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) in energetic granular material is given to account for energy dissipation induced by quasi-static compaction. To this end, the conventional model equations are supplemented by a relaxation equation that accounts for irreversible changes in solid volume fraction due to intergranular friction, plastic deformation of granules, and granule fracture. The proposed model, which is consistent with the Second Law of Thermodynamics for a two-phase mixture, is demonstrated by applying it to the quasi-static compaction of granular HMX. The model predicts results commensurate with experimental data including stress relaxation and substantial dissipation; such phenomena have not been previously accounted for by two-phase DDT models. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Tyre friction behaviour under abrupt wheel torque transients on slippery road surfaces: experimental analysis and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanović, Vladimir; Deur, Joško; Kostelac, Milan; Pentek, Tibor; Hrovat, Davor

    2011-10-01

    The paper shows that, during abrupt wheel torque transients for ice surface and low vehicle speeds, the tyre can develop significantly larger longitudinal force than the peak value of the tyre static curve. This so-called dynamic tyre friction potential (DTFP) effect has many influencing factors such as the rate of change of the wheel torque, the vehicle speed, and the tyre dwell time. The paper presents a detailed analysis of the DTFP behaviour based on the experimental data collected by using an in-wheel motor-based tyre test vehicle. The analysis results and an insight into the brush structure of a tyre model lead to the hypothesis that the different influencing factors may be predominantly explained by the bristle dwell time (BDT) effect. Following this hypothesis, the LuGre model of the tyre friction dynamics is extended with a physical BDT sub-model. The experimental validation results show that the proposed model can accurately capture the low-speed tyre-ice friction behaviour during abrupt wheel torque transients.

  16. Velocity-dependent frictional behavior and slip magnitude of a fault affected by fluid injection activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urpi, L.; Rinaldi, A. P.; Spiers, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Fluid injection is performed or planned for various activities, such as CO2 sequestration, gas storage, waste water disposal, and engineered geothermal system. Static stress and pressure perturbation due to the fluid injection may cause different scale earthquake phenomena, from instrumental recorded micro-seismicity to triggering of human-felt events. With this study we present a sensitivity analysis of the slip magnitude for the fluid injection in a reservoir-like structure. The reservoir, confined within impervious rock units, is composed by a porous rock mass laterally bounded by a fault. The fault is hydraulically connected to the fluid hosting unit. The numerical analysis is based on fully explicit sequential coupling between a multiphase fluid flow and a hydromechanical finite element calculation code. When the system conditions approaches failure, the simulation is performed in a fully dynamic mode. The coupling allows simulating change in permeability due to stress/strain change, as well as the slip on the fault due to overpressure and associated stress changes. Interface elements have been used to include the constitutive law characterizing the frictional behaviour of the fault. The change in friction with different slip velocities has been derived from laboratory results. Velocity- and strain-dependent frictional behavior of different patches of the fault influence the system evolution, resulting in larger or smaller slip length for the same injected volume.

  17. Friction-factor characteristics for narrow channels with honeycomb surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, T. W.; Morrison, G. L.; Childs, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental determination of friction-factors for the flow of air in a narrow channel lined with various honeycomb geometries has been carried out. Test results show that, generally, the friction-factor is nearly constant or slightly decreases as the Reynolds number increases, a characteristic common to turbulent flow in pipes. However, in some test geometries this trend is remarkably different. The friction factor dramatically drops and then rises as the Reynolds number increases. This phenomenon can be characterized as a 'friction-factor jump'. Further investigations of the acoustic spectrum and friction-factor measurements for a broad range of Reynolds numbers indicate that the 'friction-factor jump' phenomenon is accompanied by an onset of a normal mode resonance excited coherent flow fluctuation structure, which occurs at Reynolds number of the order of 10,000. The purpose of this paper is to explain the friction-factor-jump phenomenon and friction-factor characteristics.

  18. Turbulence and skin friction modification in channel flow with streamwise-aligned superhydrophobic surface texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelly, T. O.; Jung, S. Y.; Zaki, T. A.

    2014-09-01

    Direct numerical simulations of turbulent flow in a channel with superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS) were performed, and the effects of the surface texture on the turbulence and skin-friction coefficient were examined. The SHS is modeled as a planar boundary comprised of spanwise-alternating regions of no-slip and free-slip boundary conditions. Relative to the reference no-slip channel flow at the same bulk Reynolds number, the overall mean skin-friction coefficient is reduced by 21.6%. A detailed analysis of the turbulence kinetic energy budget demonstrates a reduction in production over the no-slip phases, which is explained by aid of quadrant analysis of the Reynolds shear stresses and statistical analysis of the turbulence structures. The results demonstrate a significant reduction in the strength of streamwise vortical structures in the presence of the SHS texture and a decrease in the Reynolds shear-stress component ⟨R12⟩ which has a favorable influence on drag over the no-slip phases. A secondary flow which is set up at the edges of the texture also effects a beneficial change in drag. Nonetheless, the skin-friction coefficient on the no-slip features is higher than the reference levels in a simple no-slip channel flow. The increase in the skin-friction coefficient is attributed to two factors. First, spanwise diffusion of the mean momentum from free-slip to no-slip regions increases the local skin-friction coefficient on the edges of the no-slip features. Second, the drag-reducing capacity of the SHS is further reduced due to additional Reynolds stresses, ⟨R13⟩.

  19. Bonded joint strength - Static versus fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Mall, S.

    1984-01-01

    Adhesives are commonly characterized only by their static strength even though they are used in structural joints that are subjected to fatigue loads. This paper reviews the relationship between static and fatigue strength for four different specimen types: single-lap-shear, edge-delamination, double cantilever beam, and cracked-lap-shear. It was found that the ratio of static strength to fatigue strength varied from 2.3 to 4.7, depending on the adhesive and specimen configuration.

  20. In vitro investigation of friction at the interface between bone and a surgical instrument.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Jugal; Shepherd, Duncan E T; Hukins, David W L; Hingley, Carl; Maffulli, Nicola

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the friction between surgical instruments and bone to aid improvements to instrument design. The bases of orthopaedic surgical instruments are usually made of metal, especially stainless steel. Silicone elastomer was chosen as an alternate biocompatible material, which would be compliant on the bone surface when used as the base of an instrument. The coefficient of static friction was calculated at the bone/material interface in the presence of a synthetic solution that had a comparable viscosity to that of blood, to assess the friction provided by each base material. Three types of silicone elastomers with different hardnesses (Shore A hardness 23, 50 and 77) and three distinct stainless steel surfaces (obtained by spark erosion, sand blasting and surface grinding) were used to assess the friction provided by the materials on slippery bone. The bone specimens were taken from the flattest region of the femoral shaft of a bovine femur; the outer surfaces of the specimens were kept intact. In general, the stainless steel surfaces exhibited higher values of coefficient of static friction, compared to the silicone elastomer samples. The stainless steel surface finished by spark erosion (surface roughness Ra  = 8.9 ± 1.6 µm) had the highest coefficient value of 0.74 ± 0.04. The coefficient values for the silicone elastomer sample with the highest hardness (Dow Corning Silastic Q7-4780, Shore A hardness 77) was not significantly different to values provided by the stainless steel surface finished by sand blasting (surface roughness Ra  = 2.2 ± 0.1 µm) or surface grinding (surface roughness Ra  = 0.1 ± 0.0 µm). Based on the results of this study, it is concluded that silicone could be a potentially useful material for the design of bases of orthopaedic instruments that interface with bone.