Science.gov

Sample records for static friction kinetic

  1. Static and kinetic friction of granite at high normal stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byerlee, J.D.

    1970-01-01

    Frictional sliding on ground surfaces of granite, angle of sliding planes 30?? and 45??, was investigated as a function of confining pressure. Over the normal stress range of 2-12 kb, the static frictional shear stress ??s follows the relationship ??s = 0??5 + 0?? ??n and the kinetic frictional shear stress ??k was calculated to be ??k = 0??25 + 0??47 ??n. ?? 1970.

  2. Static and kinetic friction characteristics of nanowire on different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Joon; Nguyen, Gia Hau; Ky, Dinh Le Cao; Tran, Da Khoa; Jeon, Ki-Joon; Chung, Koo-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    Friction characteristics of nanowires (NWs), which may be used as building blocks for nano-devices, are crucial, especially for cases where contact sliding occurs during the device operation. In this work, the static and kinetic friction characteristics of oxidized Si NWs deposited on thermally grown SiO2 and chemical vapor-deposited single layer graphene were investigated using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Kinetic friction between the oxidized Si NWs and the substrates was directly measured by the AFM. Static friction was also obtained from the most bent state of the NWs using the individually determined elastic moduli of the NWs from kinetic friction experiments based on elastic beam theory. Furthermore, the shear stress between the oxidized Si NWs and the substrates was estimated based on adhesive contact theory. It was found that both static and kinetic friction increased as the radius of the NWs increased. The friction of the oxidized Si NWs on the graphene substrate was found to be smaller than that on the SiO2 substrate, which suggests that chemical vapor-deposited graphene can be used as a lubricant or as a protective layer in nano-devices to reduce friction. The shear stress estimated from the kinetic friction data between the oxidized Si NWs and the SiO2 substrate ranged from 7.5 to 12.3 MPa while that between the oxidized Si NWs and the graphene substrate ranged from 4.7 to 7.0 MPa. The result also indicated that the dependence of shear stress on the radius of the NWs was not significant. These findings may provide insight into the friction characteristics of NWs.

  3. Choose Wisely: Static or Kinetic Friction--The Power of Dimensionless Plots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwigsen, Daniel; Svinarich, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Consider a problem of sliding blocks, one stacked atop the other, resting on a frictionless table. If the bottom block is pulled horizontally, nature makes a choice: if the applied force is small, static friction between the blocks accelerates the blocks together, but with a large force the blocks slide apart. In that case, kinetic friction still…

  4. Static and kinetic friction force and surface roughness of different archwire-bracket sliding contacts.

    PubMed

    Carrion-Vilches, Francisco J; Bermudez, María-Dolores; Fructuoso, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the static and kinetic friction forces of the contact bracket-archwire with different dental material compositions in order to select those materials with lower resistance to sliding. We carried out sliding friction tests by means of a universal testing machine following an experimental procedure as described in ASTM D1894 standard. We determined the static and kinetic friction forces under dry and lubricating conditions using an artificial saliva solution at 36.5ºC. The bracket-archwire pairs studied were: stainless steel-stainless steel; stainless steel-glass fiber composite; stainless steel-Nitinol 60; sapphire-stainless steel; sapphire-glass fiber composite; and sapphire-Nitinol 60. The best performance is obtained for Nitinol 60 archwire sliding against a stainless steel bracket, both under dry and lubricated conditions. These results are in agreement with the low surface roughness of Nitinol 60 with respect to the glass fiber composite archwire. The results described here contribute to establishing selection criteria for materials for dental archwire-brackets.

  5. Transient Response Dynamic Module Modifications to Include Static and Kinetic Friction Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misel, J. E.; Nenno, S. B.; Takahashi, D.

    1984-01-01

    A methodology that supports forced transient response dynamic solutions when both static and kinetic friction effects are included in a structural system model is described. Modifications that support this type of nonlinear transient response solution are summarized for the transient response dynamics (TRD) NASTRAN module. An overview of specific modifications for the NASTRAN processing subroutines, INITL, TRD1C, and TRD1D, are described with further details regarding inspection of nonlinear input definitions to define the type of nonlinear solution required, along with additional initialization requirements and specific calculation subroutines to successfully solve the transient response problem. The extension of the basic NASTRAN nonlinear methodology is presented through several stages of development to the point where constraint equations and residual flexibility effects are introduced into the finite difference Newmark-Beta recurrsion formulas. Particular emphasis is placed on cost effective solutions for large finite element models such as the Space Shuttle with friction degrees of freedom between the orbiter and payloads mounted in the cargo bay. An alteration to the dynamic finite difference equations of motion is discussed, which allows one to include friction effects at reasonable cost for large structural systems such as the Space Shuttle. Data are presented to indicate the possible impact of transient friction loads to the payload designer for the Space Shuttle. Transient response solution data are also included, which compare solutions without friction forces and those with friction forces for payloads mounted in the Space Shuttle cargo bay. These data indicate that payload components can be sensitive to friction induced loads.

  6. A Model for Static and Dry Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Christopher

    2005-03-01

    It will be shown that the Muser-Robbins (MR) model, consisting of mobile molecules trapped between two incommensurate crystalline solids, exhibits many of the qualitative features of friction between macroscopic solids, such as the result that the static friction is greater than the kinetic friction, stick-slip motion and a force of static friction which increases as a function of the time that the two solids are in contact and stationary. At zero temperature, the kinetic friction is highly sensitive to the direction of sliding, but this sensitivity decreases markedly as the temperature rises. At low temperatures (with the surfaces stationary for a relatively long time), the model gives a static friction approximately 3 times larger than the kinetic friction for sufficiently slow velocities, but this ratio decreases steadily as the temperature is increased.

  7. PEBBLES Simulation of Static Friction and New Static Friction Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Joshua J. Cogliati; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2010-05-01

    Pebble bed reactors contain large numbers of spherical fuel elements arranged randomly. Determining the motion and location of these fuel elements is required for calculating certain parameters of pebble bed reactor operation. This paper documents the PEBBLES static friction model. This model uses a three dimensional differential static friction approximation extended from the two dimensional Cundall and Strack model. The derivation of determining the rotational transformation of pebble to pebble static friction force is provided. A new implementation for a differential rotation method for pebble to container static friction force has been created. Previous published methods are insufficient for pebble bed reactor geometries. A new analytical static friction benchmark is documented that can be used to verify key static friction simulation parameters. This benchmark is based on determining the exact pebble to pebble and pebble to container static friction coefficients required to maintain a stable five sphere pyramid.

  8. Observing the Forces Involved in Static Friction under Static Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Static friction is an important concept in introductory physics. Later in the year students apply their understanding of static friction under more complex conditions of static equilibrium. Traditional lab demonstrations in this case involve exceeding of the maximum level of static friction, resulting in the "onset of motion." (Contains…

  9. Static and dry friction due to multiscale surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Sokoloff, J B

    2008-09-01

    It is shown on the basis of scaling arguments that a disordered interface between two elastic solids will quite generally exhibit static and dry friction (i.e., kinetic friction which does not vanish as the sliding velocity approaches zero) because of Tomlinson-model instabilities that occur for small-length-scale asperities. This provides a possible explanation for why static and dry friction are virtually always observed, and superlubricity almost never occurs.

  10. Static and dry friction due to multiscale surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoloff, J. B.

    2008-09-01

    It is shown on the basis of scaling arguments that a disordered interface between two elastic solids will quite generally exhibit static and dry friction (i.e., kinetic friction which does not vanish as the sliding velocity approaches zero) because of Tomlinson-model instabilities that occur for small-length-scale asperities. This provides a possible explanation for why static and dry friction are virtually always observed, and superlubricity almost never occurs.

  11. Nanoscale friction: kinetic friction of magnetic flux quanta and charge density waves.

    PubMed

    Maeda, A; Inoue, Y; Kitano, H; Savel'ev, Sergey; Okayasu, S; Tsukada, I; Nori, Franco

    2005-02-25

    In analogy with the standard macroscopic friction, here we present a comparative study of the friction force felt by moving vortices in superconductors and charge density waves. Using experiments and a model for this data, our observations (1) provide a link between friction at the micro- and macroscopic scales, (2) explain the roundness of the static-kinetic friction transition in terms of thermal fluctuations, particle interactions, and system size (critical-phenomena view), and (3) explain the crossing of the kinetic friction F(k) versus velocity V for our pristine (high density of very weak defects) and our irradiated samples (with lower density of deeper pinning defects).

  12. Static friction in graphite under compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Corro, Elena; Taravillo, Mercedes; Baonza, Valentin G.; Abbasi-Perez, David; Marques, Miriam; Menendez, J.; Recio, J.; Otero-de-La-Roza, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    The Raman spectrum of graphite has been studied under different stress conditions, a quantitative comparison of these experiments leads to the unexpected result that in both cases the same pressure slope is observed for the G band, despite this band is originated by an in-plane vibration and therefore only affected by in-plane stress. These results allow us to conclude that when graphite is squeezed between opposed anvils, in-plane stress components appear on the sample. We present a combined experimental and theoretical analysis which allow us to define the main in-plane stress component acting on graphite as the friction forces against sliding, resulting from the confinement of the sample. In our experiments the anvil cell turns into a powerful tool to provide information about the stress dependence of the static friction linked to the relative displacement of the individual graphene layers. Computer simulations in bulk graphite and tri-layer graphene provide boundary values of the static friction coefficient at different relative orientations between the graphene sheets. Our major finding is that the simulated static friction between loaded graphene sheets is comparable to the experimental in-plane stress that yields the blue-shift of the G band.

  13. Static and dynamic friction of hierarchical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costagliola, Gianluca; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-12-01

    Hierarchical structures are very common in nature, but only recently have they been systematically studied in materials science, in order to understand the specific effects they can have on the mechanical properties of various systems. Structural hierarchy provides a way to tune and optimize macroscopic mechanical properties starting from simple base constituents and new materials are nowadays designed exploiting this possibility. This can be true also in the field of tribology. In this paper we study the effect of hierarchical patterned surfaces on the static and dynamic friction coefficients of an elastic material. Our results are obtained by means of numerical simulations using a one-dimensional spring-block model, which has previously been used to investigate various aspects of friction. Despite the simplicity of the model, we highlight some possible mechanisms that explain how hierarchical structures can significantly modify the friction coefficients of a material, providing a means to achieve tunability.

  14. Static and dynamic friction of hierarchical surfaces.

    PubMed

    Costagliola, Gianluca; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M

    2016-12-01

    Hierarchical structures are very common in nature, but only recently have they been systematically studied in materials science, in order to understand the specific effects they can have on the mechanical properties of various systems. Structural hierarchy provides a way to tune and optimize macroscopic mechanical properties starting from simple base constituents and new materials are nowadays designed exploiting this possibility. This can be true also in the field of tribology. In this paper we study the effect of hierarchical patterned surfaces on the static and dynamic friction coefficients of an elastic material. Our results are obtained by means of numerical simulations using a one-dimensional spring-block model, which has previously been used to investigate various aspects of friction. Despite the simplicity of the model, we highlight some possible mechanisms that explain how hierarchical structures can significantly modify the friction coefficients of a material, providing a means to achieve tunability.

  15. The Static Ladder Problem with Two Sources of Friction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jonathan; Mauney, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The problem of a ladder leaning against a wall in static equilibrium is a classic example encountered in introductory mechanics texts. Most discussions of this problem assume that the static frictional force between the ladder and wall can be ignored. A few authors consider the case where the static friction coefficients between ladder/wall…

  16. Novel friction law for the static friction force based on local precursor slipping.

    PubMed

    Katano, Yu; Nakano, Ken; Otsuki, Michio; Matsukawa, Hiroshi

    2014-09-10

    The sliding of a solid object on a solid substrate requires a shear force that is larger than the maximum static friction force. It is commonly believed that the maximum static friction force is proportional to the loading force and does not depend on the apparent contact area. The ratio of the maximum static friction force to the loading force is called the static friction coefficient µM, which is considered to be a constant. Here, we conduct experiments demonstrating that the static friction force of a slider on a substrate follows a novel friction law under certain conditions. The magnitude of µM decreases as the loading force increases or as the apparent contact area decreases. This behavior is caused by the slip of local precursors before the onset of bulk sliding and is consistent with recent theory. The results of this study will develop novel methods for static friction control.

  17. Large scale static and dynamic friction experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bakhtar, K.; Barton, N.

    1984-12-31

    A series of nineteen shear tests were performed on fractures 1 m/sup 2/ in area, generated in blocks of sandstone, granite, tuff, hydrostone and concrete. The tests were conducted under quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. A vertical stress assisted fracturing technique was developed to create the fractures through the large test blocks. Prior to testing, the fractured surface of each block was characterized using the Barton JRC-JCS concept. the results of characterization were used to generate the peak strength envelope for each fractured surface. Attempts were made to model the stress path based on the classical transformation equations which assumes a theoretical plane, elastic isotropic properties, and therefore no slip. However, this approach gave rise to a stress path passing above the strength envelope which is clearly unacceptable. The results of the experimental investigations indicated that actual stress path is affected by the dilatancy due to fracture roughness, as well as by the side friction imposed by the boundary conditions. By introducing the corrections due to the dilation and boundary conditions into the stress transformation equation, the fully corrected stress paths for predicting the strength of fractured blocks were obtained.

  18. Static friction between rigid fractal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Huang, Pengyu; Hanaor, Dorian A H; Flores-Johnson, E A; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Gan, Yixiang; Shen, Luming

    2015-09-01

    Using spheropolygon-based simulations and contact slope analysis, we investigate the effects of surface topography and atomic scale friction on the macroscopically observed friction between rigid blocks with fractal surface structures. From our mathematical derivation, the angle of macroscopic friction is the result of the sum of the angle of atomic friction and the slope angle between the contact surfaces. The latter is obtained from the determination of all possible contact slopes between the two surface profiles through an alternative signature function. Our theory is validated through numerical simulations of spheropolygons with fractal Koch surfaces and is applied to the description of frictional properties of Weierstrass-Mandelbrot surfaces. The agreement between simulations and theory suggests that for interpreting macroscopic frictional behavior, the descriptors of surface morphology should be defined from the signature function rather than from the slopes of the contacting surfaces.

  19. Static friction between rigid fractal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Huang, Pengyu; Hanaor, Dorian A. H.; Flores-Johnson, E. A.; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Gan, Yixiang; Shen, Luming

    2015-09-01

    Using spheropolygon-based simulations and contact slope analysis, we investigate the effects of surface topography and atomic scale friction on the macroscopically observed friction between rigid blocks with fractal surface structures. From our mathematical derivation, the angle of macroscopic friction is the result of the sum of the angle of atomic friction and the slope angle between the contact surfaces. The latter is obtained from the determination of all possible contact slopes between the two surface profiles through an alternative signature function. Our theory is validated through numerical simulations of spheropolygons with fractal Koch surfaces and is applied to the description of frictional properties of Weierstrass-Mandelbrot surfaces. The agreement between simulations and theory suggests that for interpreting macroscopic frictional behavior, the descriptors of surface morphology should be defined from the signature function rather than from the slopes of the contacting surfaces.

  20. Kinetic Friction Coefficient of Ice,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    For the hardest ice tested (xi = 0.33 described by Rabinowicz (1965), where To is inter- mm, H, = 1525 kPa), the calculated values of a preted as...material with a low elastic pressures. The frictional force was measured at modulus ( Rabinowicz 1965). It has been observed the application point of...tion 10, pp. 8-16. Barnes, P. and D. Tabor (1966) Plastic flow and Rabinowicz , E. (1965) Friction and Wear of Mate- pressure melting in the deformation

  1. Slipping and Tipping: Measuring Static Friction with a Straightedge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Eric; Aguilar, Isaac

    2012-01-01

    Following a discussion of forces, torques, and the conditions for static equilibrium, I tell my introductory mechanics class that I will show them how to measure the coefficient of static friction, us, between the surfaces of a block and the front bench using "nothing but a straightedge". After a few seconds of hushed anticipation, I nudge the…

  2. Static friction between silicon nanowires and elastomeric substrates.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qingquan; Zhu, Yong

    2011-09-27

    This paper reports the first direct measurements of static friction force and interfacial shear strength between silicon (Si) nanowires (NWs) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). A micromanipulator is used to manipulate and deform the NWs under a high-magnification optical microscope in real time. The static friction force is measured based on "the most-bent state" of the NWs. The static friction and interface shear strength are found to depend on the ultraviolet/ozone (UVO) treatment of PDMS. The shear strength starts at 0.30 MPa without UVO treatment, increases rapidly up to 10.57 MPa at 60 min of treatment and decreases for longer treatment. Water contact angle measurements suggest that the UVO-induced hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic conversion of PDMS surface is responsible for the increase in the static friction, while the hydrophobic recovery effect contributes to the decrease. The static friction between NWs and PDMS is of critical relevance to many device applications of NWs including NW-based flexible/stretchable electronics, NW assembly and nanocomposites (e.g., supercapacitors). Our results will enable quantitative interface design and control for such applications.

  3. Determination of the Static Friction Coefficient from Circular Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina-Bolívar, J. A.; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a physics laboratory exercise for determining the coefficient of static friction between two surfaces. The circular motion of a coin placed on the surface of a rotating turntable has been studied. For this purpose, the motion is recorded with a high-speed digital video camera recording at 240 frames s[superscript-1], and the…

  4. Static friction, differential algebraic systems and numerical stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Schinner, Alexander; Matuttis, Hans-Georg

    We show how Differential Algebraic Systems (Ordinary Differential Equations with algebraic constraints) in mechanics are affected by stability issues and we implement Lubich's projection method to reduce the error to practically zero. Then, we explain how the "numerically exact" implementation for static friction by Differential Algebraic Systems can be stabilized. We conclude by comparing the corresponding steps in the "Contact mechanics" introduced by Moreau.

  5. Static and dynamic friction in sliding colloidal monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Vanossi, Andrea; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2012-01-01

    In a pioneer experiment, Bohlein et al. realized the controlled sliding of two-dimensional colloidal crystals over laser-generated periodic or quasi-periodic potentials. Here we present realistic simulations and arguments that besides reproducing the main experimentally observed features give a first theoretical demonstration of the potential impact of colloid sliding in nanotribology. The free motion of solitons and antisolitons in the sliding of hard incommensurate crystals is contrasted with the soliton–antisoliton pair nucleation at the large static friction threshold Fs when the two lattices are commensurate and pinned. The frictional work directly extracted from particles’ velocities can be analyzed as a function of classic tribological parameters, including speed, spacing, and amplitude of the periodic potential (representing, respectively, the mismatch of the sliding interface and the corrugation, or “load”). These and other features suggestive of further experiments and insights promote colloid sliding to a unique friction study instrument. PMID:23019582

  6. Single-asperity friction during quasi-static sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Tristan; Pastewka, Lars; Robbins, Mark

    2015-03-01

    The static friction of an asperity is investigated using atomic-scale simulations. We explore scale effects by varying the sphere radius R and the contact radius a from nanometers to micrometers. We first consider commensurate contact between bare lattices with repulsive interactions across the interface. In small contacts, all contacting atoms move coherently and the friction coefficient μ is independent of contact radius and load. In larger contacts, interfacial slip is mediated by localized dislocations, and the static friction coefficient μ ~ (Ra0/a2) 2 / 3 , where a0 is the nearest-neighbor spacing. In very large contacts μ stops decreasing and begins to increase with a, at fixed R. The results are in sharp contrast to Cattaneo-Mindlin continuum theory where μ is independent of contact size. Separate simulations are performed to connect the results to the dislocation-based models of contact-size effects due to Hurtado and Kim, and Gao, which assume adhesive interactions between surfaces and find μ ~ (a0/a)1/2. Simulations for incommensurate contacts show a transition from superlubricity for rigid contacts to a finite friction associated with the Peierls stress in very large contacts. Support from: DMR-1006805; NSF IGERT-0801471; OCI-0963185; CMMI-0923018

  7. Controlling vortex motion and vortex kinetic friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nori, Franco; Savel'ev, Sergey

    2006-05-01

    We summarize some recent results of vortex motion control and vortex kinetic friction. (1) We describe a device [J.E. Villegas, S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, E.M. Gonzalez, J.V. Anguita, R. Garcìa, J.L. Vicent, Science 302 (2003) 1188] that can easily control the motion of flux quanta in a Niobium superconducting film on an array of nanoscale triangular magnets. Even though the input ac current has zero average, the resulting net motion of the vortices can be directed along either one direction, the opposite direction, or producing zero net motion. We also consider layered strongly anisotropic superconductors, with no fixed spatial asymmetry, and show [S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, Nature Materials 1 (2002) 179] how, with asymmetric drives, the ac motion of Josephson and/or pancake vortices can provide a net dc vortex current. (2) In analogy with the standard macroscopic friction, we present [A. Maeda, Y. Inoue, H. Kitano, S. Savel'ev, S. Okayasu, I. Tsukada, F. Nori , Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 077001] a comparative study of the friction force felt by vortices in superconductors and charge density waves.

  8. Static and dynamic friction in sliding colloidal monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanossi, Andrea; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2013-03-01

    In a recent experimental breakthrough, the controlled sliding of 2D colloidal crystals over perfectly regular, laser generated periodic or quasi-periodic `corrugation` potentials has been realized in Bechinger's group. Based on realistic MD simulations which reproduce the main experimentally observed features, we explore the potential impact of colloid monolayer sliding in nanotribology. The free motion of edge-spawned kinks and antikinks in smooth incommensurate sliding is contrasted with the kink-antikink pair nucleation at the large static friction threshold in the commensurate case. The Aubry pinning/depinning transition is also demonstrated, e.g., as a function of the corrugation amplitude. Simulated sliding data allow the extraction of frictional work directly from particles coordinates and velocities as a function of classic friction parameters, primarily speed, and corrugation strength. Analogies with sliding charge-density waves, driven Josephson systems, sliding of rare gas islands, and other novel features suggest further experiments and insights, which promote colloid sliding to a novel friction study instrument. Research partly sponsored by Sinergia Project CRSII2 136287/1.

  9. Static and Dynamic Friction Behavior of Candidate High Temperature Airframe Seal Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, C.; Lukaszewicz, V.; Morris, D. E.; Steinetz, B. M.

    1994-01-01

    The following report describes a series of research tests to evaluate candidate high temperature materials for static to moderately dynamic hypersonic airframe seals. Pin-on-disk reciprocating sliding tests were conducted from 25 to 843 C in air and hydrogen containing inert atmospheres. Friction, both dynamic and static, was monitored and serves as the primary test measurement. In general, soft coatings lead to excessive static friction and temperature affected friction in air environments only.

  10. Static friction of porous bioceramic β-TCP on intestinal mucus films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin-Yu; Han, Ying-Chao; Jiang, Xin; Dai, Hong-Lian; Li, Shi-Pu

    2006-09-01

    The static friction behavior between a porous bioceramic material and an intestinal mucus film was investigated in order to develop a new intestine robotic endoscope. Here, the friction couple is porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and an artificial intestine mucus film. The effect of pore size of the β-TCP material on the friction behavior is investigated. The results illustrated that in this friction system there is a relatively small normal force upon the intestinal mucus film of the intestine wall during locomotion. The maximum static friction force in this friction couple varies with the pore size of the porous β-TCP material.

  11. Universal Aging Mechanism for Static and Sliding Friction of Metallic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, Michael; Dietzel, Dirk; Tekiel, Antoni; Topple, Jessica; Grütter, Peter; Schirmeisen, André

    2016-07-08

    The term "contact aging" refers to the temporal evolution of the interface between a slider and a substrate usually resulting in increasing friction with time. Current phenomenological models for multiasperity contacts anticipate that such aging is not only the driving force behind the transition from static to sliding friction, but at the same time influences the general dynamics of the sliding friction process. To correlate static and sliding friction on the nanoscale, we show experimental evidence of stick-slip friction for nanoparticles sliding on graphite over a wide dynamic range. We can assign defined periods of aging to the stick phases of the particles, which agree with simulations explicitly including contact aging. Additional slide-hold-slide experiments for the same system allow linking the sliding friction results to static friction measurements, where both friction mechanisms can be universally described by a common aging formalism.

  12. Switchable static friction of piezoelectric composite—silicon wafer contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Ende, D. A.; Fischer, H. R.; Groen, W. A.; van der Zwaag, S.

    2013-04-01

    The meso-scale surface roughness of piezoelectric fiber composites can be manipulated by applying an electric field to a piezocomposite with a polished surface. In the absence of an applied voltage, the tips of the embedded piezoelectric ceramic fibers are below the surface of the piezocomposite and a silicon wafer counter surface rests solely on the matrix region of the piezocomposite surface. When actuated, the piezoelectric ceramic fibers protrude from the surface and the wafer rests solely on these protrusions. A threefold decrease in engineering static friction coefficient upon actuation of the piezocomposite was observed: from μ* = 1.65 to μ* = 0.50. These experimental results could be linked to the change in contact surface area and roughness using capillary adhesion theory, which relates the adhesive force to the number and size of the contacting asperities for the different surface states.

  13. An eight-legged tactile sensor to estimate coefficient of static friction.

    PubMed

    Wei Chen; Rodpongpun, Sura; Luo, William; Isaacson, Nathan; Kark, Lauren; Khamis, Heba; Redmond, Stephen J

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that a tangential force larger than the maximum static friction force is required to initiate the sliding motion between two objects, which is governed by a material constant called the coefficient of static friction. Therefore, knowing the coefficient of static friction is of great importance for robot grippers which wish to maintain a stable and precise grip on an object during various manipulation tasks. Importantly, it is most useful if grippers can estimate the coefficient of static friction without having to explicitly explore the object first, such as lifting the object and reducing the grip force until it slips. A novel eight-legged sensor, based on simplified theoretical principles of friction is presented here to estimate the coefficient of static friction between a planar surface and the prototype sensor. Each of the sensor's eight legs are straight and rigid, and oriented at a specified angle with respect to the vertical, allowing it to estimate one of five ranges (5 = 8/2 + 1) that the coefficient of static friction can occupy. The coefficient of friction can be estimated by determining whether the legs have slipped or not when pressed against a surface. The coefficients of static friction between the sensor and five different materials were estimated and compared to a measurement from traditional methods. A least-squares linear fit of the sensor estimated coefficient showed good correlation with the reference coefficient with a gradient close to one and an r(2) value greater than 0.9.

  14. Phenomenological theory of kinetic friction for the solid lubricant film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, O. M.

    2008-07-01

    Molecular dynamics based on the Langevin equations with the coordinate- and velocity-dependent damping coefficients is used to investigate the friction properties of a 'hard' lubricant film confined between two solids, when the lubricant remains in the solid state during sliding. The dependence of the friction force on the temperature and sliding velocity in the smooth sliding regime is studied in detail for all three states of the lubricant: a lubricant with a crystalline structure, when the system exhibits a very low friction (superlubricity), an amorphous lubricant structure, which results in a high friction, and the liquid state of the lubricant film at high temperatures or velocities. A phenomenological theory of the kinetic friction is developed, which allows us to explain the simulation results and predict a variation of the friction properties with model parameters analytically.

  15. Snow avalanche friction relation based on extended kinetic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauter, Matthias; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Fellin, Wolfgang; Kofler, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Rheological models for granular materials play an important role in the numerical simulation of dry dense snow avalanches. This article describes the application of a physically based model from the field of kinetic theory to snow avalanche simulations. The fundamental structure of the so-called extended kinetic theory is outlined and the decisive model behavior for avalanches is identified. A simplified relation, covering the basic features of the extended kinetic theory, is developed and implemented into an operational avalanche simulation software. To test the obtained friction relation, simulation results are compared to velocity and runout observations of avalanches, recorded from different field tests. As reference we utilize a classic phenomenological friction relation, which is commonly applied for hazard estimation. The quantitative comparison is based on the combination of normalized residuals of different observation variables in order to take into account the quality of the simulations in various regards. It is demonstrated that the extended kinetic theory provides a physically based explanation for the structure of phenomenological friction relations. The friction relation derived with the help of the extended kinetic theory shows advantages to the classic phenomenological friction, in particular when different events and various observation variables are investigated.

  16. Adiabatic molecular-dynamics-simulation-method studies of kinetic friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Sokoloff, J. B.

    2005-06-01

    An adiabatic molecular-dynamics method is developed and used to study the Muser-Robbins model for dry friction (i.e., nonzero kinetic friction in the slow sliding speed limit). In this model, dry friction between two crystalline surfaces rotated with respect to each other is due to mobile molecules (i.e., dirt particles) adsorbed at the interface. Our adiabatic method allows us to quickly locate interface potential-well minima, which become unstable during sliding of the surfaces. Since dissipation due to friction in the slow sliding speed limit results from mobile molecules dropping out of such unstable wells, our method provides a way to calculate dry friction, which agrees extremely well with results found by conventional molecular dynamics for the same system, but our method is more than a factor of 10 faster.

  17. Kinetics of the coefficient of friction of elastomers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Dimaki, Andrey; Popov, Mikhail; Psakhie, Sergey G.; Popov, Valentin L.

    2014-01-01

    We study theoretically and numerically the kinetics of the coefficient of friction of an elastomer due to abrupt changes of sliding velocity. Numerical simulations reveal the same qualitative behavior which has been observed experimentally on different classes of materials: the coefficient of friction first jumps and then relaxes to a new stationary value. The elastomer is modeled as a simple Kelvin body and the surface as a self-affine fractal with a Hurst exponent in the range from 0 to 1. Parameters of the jump of the coefficient of friction and the relaxation time are determined as functions of material and loading parameters. Depending on velocity and the Hurst exponent, relaxation of friction with characteristic length or characteristic time is observed. PMID:25069020

  18. Effect of dental tool surface texture and material on static friction with a wet gloved fingertip.

    PubMed

    Laroche, Charles; Barr, Alan; Dong, Hui; Rempel, David

    2007-01-01

    Hand injuries are an important cause of pain and disability among dentists and dental hygienists and may be due to the high pinch forces involved in periodontal work. The pinch forces required to perform scaling may be reduced by increasing the friction between the tool and fingers. The purpose of this study was to determine whether modifying the tool material, surface texture, or glove type altered the coefficient of static friction for a wet gloved finger. Seven tools with varying surface topography were machined from 13 mm diameter stainless steel and Delrin and mounted to a 6-component force plate. The textures tested were a fine, medium and coarse diamond knurled pattern and a medium and fine annular pattern (concentric rings). Thirteen subjects pulled their gloved, wet thumb pad along the long axis of the tool while maintaining a normal force of 40 N. Latex and nitrile gloves were tested. The coefficient of static friction was calculated from the shear force history. The mean coefficients of static friction ranged from 0.20 to 0.65. The coefficient of static friction was higher for a smooth tool of Delrin than one of stainless steel. Differences in the coefficient of static friction were observed between the coarse and medium knurled patterns and the fine knurled and annular patterns. Coefficients of static friction were higher for the nitrile glove than the latex glove for tools with texture. These findings may be applied to the design of hand tools that require fine motor control with a wet, gloved hand.

  19. A Tactile Sensor Using Piezoresistive Beams for Detection of the Coefficient of Static Friction.

    PubMed

    Okatani, Taiyu; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Noda, Kentaro; Takahata, Tomoyuki; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2016-05-18

    This paper reports on a tactile sensor using piezoresistive beams for detection of the coefficient of static friction merely by pressing the sensor against an object. The sensor chip is composed of three pairs of piezoresistive beams arranged in parallel and embedded in an elastomer; this sensor is able to measure the vertical and lateral strains of the elastomer. The coefficient of static friction is estimated from the ratio of the fractional resistance changes corresponding to the sensing elements of vertical and lateral strains when the sensor is in contact with an object surface. We applied a normal force on the sensor surface through objects with coefficients of static friction ranging from 0.2 to 1.1. The fractional resistance changes corresponding to vertical and lateral strains were proportional to the applied force. Furthermore, the relationship between these responses changed according to the coefficients of static friction. The experimental result indicated the proposed sensor could determine the coefficient of static friction before a global slip occurs.

  20. Molecular origin of friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Tao; Hu, Yuanzhong

    2004-01-01

    The wearless friction originating from molecular interactions has been discussed in this paper. We find that the frictional properties are closely related to the structural match of two surfaces in relative motion. For the surfaces with incommensurate structure and week inter-surface interaction, zero static and kinetic friction can be achieved. In a sliding considered as in a quasi-static state, the energy dissipation initiates when interfacial particles move in a discontinuous fashion, which gives rise to a finite kinetic friction. The state of superlubricity is a result of computer simulations, but the prediction will encourage people to look for a technical approach to realizing the state of super low friction.

  1. Control of Reaction Kinetics During Friction Stir Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Shamiparna; Martinez, Nelson Y.; Mishra, Rajiv S.; Grant, Glenn J.; Jana, Saumyadeep

    2017-02-01

    Friction stir processing (FSP) was used to successfully embed galfenol particles into aluminum (AA 1100 Al) matrix uniformly. However, intermetallic layer of Al3Fe was formed around the galfenol particles. Activation energy for Al3Fe formation during FSP was estimated, and attempts were made to minimize the Al3Fe layer thickness. By changing the processing conditions, FSP successfully eliminated the intermetallic layer. Hence, FSP, in addition to microstructural control, can successfully fabricate intermetallic-free embedded regions by controlling the reaction kinetics.

  2. Control of Reaction Kinetics During Friction Stir Processing

    DOE PAGES

    Das, Shamiparna; Martinez, Nelson Y.; Mishra, Rajiv S.; ...

    2017-02-17

    Friction stir processing (FSP) was used to successfully embed galfenol particles into aluminum (AA 1100 Al) matrix uniformly. But, intermetallic layer of Al3Fe was formed around the galfenol particles. We estimated the activation energy for Al3Fe formation during FSP, and attempts were made to minimize the Al3Fe layer thickness. By changing the processing conditions, FSP successfully eliminated the intermetallic layer. Therefore, FSP, in addition to microstructural control, can successfully fabricate intermetallic-free embedded regions by controlling the reaction kinetics.

  3. Concurrent parametrization against static and kinetic information leads to more robust coarse-grained force fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudzinski, J. F.; Bereau, T.

    2016-10-01

    The parametrization of coarse-grained (CG) simulation models for molecular systems often aims at reproducing static properties alone. The reduced molecular friction of the CG representation usually results in faster, albeit inconsistent, dynamics. In this work, we rely on Markov state models to simultaneously characterize the static and kinetic properties of two CG peptide force fields—one top-down and one bottom-up. Instead of a rigorous evolution of CG dynamics (e.g., using a generalized Langevin equation), we attempt to improve the description of kinetics by simply altering the existing CG models, which employ standard Langevin dynamics. By varying masses and relevant force-field parameters, we can improve the timescale separation of the slow kinetic processes, achieve a more consistent ratio of mean-first-passage times between metastable states, and refine the relative free-energies between these states. Importantly, we show that the incorporation of kinetic information into a structure-based parametrization improves the description of the helix-coil transition sampled by a minimal CG model. While structure-based models understabilize the helical state, kinetic constraints help identify CG models that improve the ratio of forward/backward timescales by effectively hindering the sampling of spurious conformational intermediate states.

  4. Chemical kinetics computer program for static and flow reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, D. A.; Scullin, V. J.

    1972-01-01

    General chemical kinetics computer program for complex gas mixtures has been developed. Program can be used for any homogeneous reaction in either one dimensional flow or static system. It is flexible, accurate, and easy to use. It can be used for any chemical system for which species thermodynamic data and reaction rate constant data are known.

  5. Monte Carlo simulations of the static friction between two grafted polymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Ana C F; Goujon, Florent; Malfreyt, Patrice; Tildesley, Dominic J

    2016-02-17

    A configurational bias Monte Carlo method has been developed to study the static friction between grafted polymers immersed in a good solvent. Simple models using the soft quadratic potential from a dissipative particle dynamics study have been used to model polyzwitterionic brushes at physiological pressures (up to 7.5 MPa). Three models of decreasing rigidity have been used to model the friction between the brushes by calculating the tangential component of the pressure induced by a mismatch in the registry of the two grafting surfaces. The static friction coefficient can be calculated for three model systems and the slip between the layers occurs at a much lower values of shear force for the more flexible polymer layer. A moderate increase in the flexibility of the chains reduces the friction coefficient by a factor of ca. 20. Tilting the layer directors of the brushes also increases the static friction between the layer when the top, tilted layer is displaced in the direction away from the tilt. Non-equilibrium dynamics techniques for the same model were performed using dissipative particle dynamics and the limiting extremes of the Stribeck curve corresponding to the boundary lubrication regime and the hydrodynamic lubrication regime were observed for these flat surfaces. As expected, μk is significantly lower than μs for the same system. The dynamical friction coefficients in the model are in good agreement with those observed in the experiment and the ratio of μk/μs of between 0.11 and 0.5 observed in the simulations is in reasonable agreement with the value of 0.5 normally observed for these seen for these systems.

  6. Kinetic friction attributed to enhanced radiation by cyclotron maser instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Wu, C. S.

    1991-01-01

    Along the auroral field lines, a fraction of the energetic electrons injected from the magnetotail is reflected by the earth's convergent geomagnetic field. The reflected loss-cone electrons are unstable with respect to the cyclotron maser instability, resulting in the auroral kilometric radiation. This paper investigates the kinetic friction force exerted on the energetic electrons by the enhanced radiation field. It is found that the enhanced radiation results in a deceleration of reflected electrons, thereby providing an effective resistivity. In addition, the rate of decrease (increase) of effective perpendicular (parallel) kinetic temperatures is also evaluated. The analysis is carried out over various physical parameters such as the degree of loss cone, average particle energy, and the ratio of plasma frequency to cyclotron frequency.

  7. Development and assessment of atomistic models for predicting static friction coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangiri, Soran; Heverly-Coulson, Gavin S.; Mosey, Nicholas J.

    2016-08-01

    The friction coefficient relates friction forces to normal loads and plays a key role in fundamental and applied areas of science and technology. Despite its importance, the relationship between the friction coefficient and the properties of the materials forming a sliding contact is poorly understood. We illustrate how simple relationships regarding the changes in energy that occur during slip can be used to develop a quantitative model relating the friction coefficient to atomic-level features of the contact. The slip event is considered as an activated process and the load dependence of the slip energy barrier is approximated with a Taylor series expansion of the corresponding energies with respect to load. The resulting expression for the load-dependent slip energy barrier is incorporated in the Prandtl-Tomlinson (PT) model and a shear-based model to obtain expressions for friction coefficient. The results indicate that the shear-based model reproduces the static friction coefficients μs obtained from first-principles molecular dynamics simulations more accurately than the PT model. The ability of the model to provide atomistic explanations for differences in μs amongst different contacts is also illustrated. As a whole, the model is able to account for fundamental atomic-level features of μs, explain the differences in μs for different materials based on their properties, and might be also used in guiding the development of contacts with desired values of μs.

  8. Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Yoshihiro; Clarke, Daryl D.; Ozeki, Shinichi

    Friction materials such as disk pads, brake linings, and clutch facings are widely used for automotive applications. Friction materials function during braking due to frictional resistance that transforms kinetic energy into thermal energy. There has been a rudimentary evolution, from materials like leather or wood to asbestos fabric or asbestos fabric saturated with various resins such as asphalt or resin combined with pitch. These efforts were further developed by the use of woven asbestos material saturated by either rubber solution or liquid resin binder and functioned as an internal expanding brake, similar to brake lining system. The role of asbestos continued through the use of chopped asbestos saturated by rubber, but none was entirely successful due to the poor rubber heat resistance required for increased speeds and heavy gearing demands of the automobile industry. The use of phenolic resins as binder for asbestos friction materials provided the necessary thermal resistance and performance characteristics. Thus, the utility of asbestos as the main friction component, for over 100 years, has been significantly reduced in friction materials due to asbestos identity as a carcinogen. Steel and other fibrous components have displaced asbestos in disk pads. Currently, non-asbestos organics are the predominate friction material. Phenolic resins continue to be the preferred binder, and increased amounts are necessary to meet the requirements of highly functional asbestos-free disk pads for the automotive industry. With annual automobile production exceeding 70 million vehicles and additional automobile production occurring in developing countries worldwide and increasing yearly, the amount of phenolic resin for friction material is also increasing (Fig. 14.1). Fig. 14.1 Worldwide commercial vehicle production A comparison of two methods of measuring static coefficient of friction at low normal forces: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Seo, Na Jin; Armstrong, Thomas J; Drinkaus, Philip

    2009-01-01

    This study compares two methods for estimating static friction coefficients for skin. In the first method, referred to as the 'tilt method', a hand supporting a flat object is tilted until the object slides. The friction coefficient is estimated as the tangent of the angle of the object at the slip. The second method estimates the friction coefficient as the pull force required to begin moving a flat object over the surface of the hand, divided by object weight. Both methods were used to estimate friction coefficients for 12 subjects and three materials (cardboard, aluminium, rubber) against a flat hand and against fingertips. No differences in static friction coefficients were found between the two methods, except for that of rubber, where friction coefficient was 11% greater for the tilt method. As with previous studies, the friction coefficients varied with contact force and contact area. Static friction coefficient data are needed for analysis and design of objects that are grasped or manipulated with the hand. The tilt method described in this study can easily be used by ergonomic practitioners to estimate static friction coefficients in the field in a timely manner.

  9. Reduction in static friction by deposition of a homogeneous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Akaike, Shun; Hayakawa, Tohru; Kobayashi, Daishiro; Aono, Yuko; Hirata, Atsushi; Hiratsuka, Masanori; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    In orthodontics, a reduction in static friction between the brackets and wire is important to enable easy tooth movement. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a homogeneous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on the whole surfaces of slots in stainless steel orthodontic brackets on reducing the static friction between the brackets and the wire. The DLC coating was characterized using Raman spectroscopy, surface roughness and contact angle measurements, and SEM observations. Rectangular stainless steel and titanium-molybdenum alloy wires with two different sizes were employed, and the static friction between the brackets and wire was measured under dry and wet conditions. The DLC coating had a thickness of approximately 1.0 μm and an amorphous structure was identified. The results indicated that the DLC coating always led to a reduction in static friction.

  10. Investigation of kinetic friction using an iPhone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldock, Clive; Johnson, Roger

    2016-11-01

    The iPhone is particularly suitable for mechanics experiments using the in-built acceleration sensor or accelerometer in-conjunction with the on-board data collection facility and a downloadable so-called ‘app’. In this work the iPhone has been used to investigate the acceleration due to gravity and determine the coefficient of kinetic friction, μ k of the iPhone as an object sliding down an inclined plane. This method is more accurate than that usually employed in the laboratory where the ‘fits and starts’ of the block sliding down the inclined plane potentially invalidate the required assumption that the velocity is constant. In its simplest form the measurement of acceleration is required to be undertaken for only 2 angles.

  11. Static friction of biomimetic surface microstructure of PDMS under wet and dry conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haiwu; Jia, Hongduo; Gong, Ling; Li, Rong; Wang, Caiping; Wang, Xiaojie

    2016-04-01

    Smooth adhesive pad found among arthropods, amphibians, particularly tree frogs, are usually covered with surface microstructure of different shape to enhance the attachment abilities on the smooth substrate. During the last decade, it has gained more attentions in the development of anti-slippery systems by mimicking these unique characteristics. In this paper, we studied a new amphibian species newt by observing their climbing abilities on wet and dry vertical smooth surface, and found that the newts can even hang on the surface with an inclination angle more than 90° without falling. We investigated the toe pad micro-structured surface of the newt by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and found that an array of hexagonal cells with micro-ridges on cell borders exists for the larvae; while an array of hexagonal cells separated by microgrooves is for the adult. Inspired by these features, the biomimetic micro-structured surfaces were fabricated using a soft elastomeric material polydimethysiloxane (PDMS). Four different microstructures were chosen to study their tribological properties with a solid substrate under wet and dry conditions. The patterns of the microstructures include round pillar, hexagonal pillar, round pillars surrounded by a closed hexagonal ridge, and round pillars surrounded by a semi-closed hexagonal ridge. The static friction tests were carried out using the multi-functional surface meter TYPE12. The results showed that the area ratio of the micro pillar plays a major role in enhancing the static friction for both wet and dry conditions, while the numerical density of the micro pillar has less effect on the friction enhancement. Among the four kind specimens, the specimen with hexagonal pillars would increase the static friction more than others at the same test conditions when the pillar area ratio is lower than 40%.

  12. Simple and Reliable Method to Estimate the Fingertip Static Coefficient of Friction in Precision Grip.

    PubMed

    Barrea, Allan; Bulens, David Cordova; Lefevre, Philippe; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    The static coefficient of friction (µstatic) plays an important role in dexterous object manipulation. Minimal normal force (i.e., grip force) needed to avoid dropping an object is determined by the tangential force at the fingertip-object contact and the frictional properties of the skin-object contact. Although frequently assumed to be constant for all levels of normal force (NF, the force normal to the contact), µ static actually varies nonlinearly with NF and increases at low NF levels. No method is currently available to measure the relationship between µstatic and NF easily. Therefore, we propose a new method allowing the simple and reliable measurement of the fingertip µstatic at different NF levels, as well as an algorithm for determining µstatic from measured forces and torques. Our method is based on active, back-and-forth movements of a subject's finger on the surface of a fixed six-axis force and torque sensor. µstatic is computed as the ratio of the tangential to the normal force at slip onset. A negative power law captures the relationship between µstatic and NF. Our method allows the continuous estimation of µstatic as a function of NF during dexterous manipulation, based on the relationship between µstatic and NF measured before manipulation.

  13. Austenite Static Recrystallization Kinetics in Microalloyed B Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrañaga-Otegui, Ane; Pereda, Beatriz; Jorge-Badiola, Denis; Gutiérrez, Isabel

    2016-06-01

    Boron is added to steels to increase hardenability, substituting of more expensive elements. Moreover, B acts as a recrystallization delaying element when it is in solid solution. However, B can interact with N and/or C to form nitrides and carbides at high temperatures, limiting its effect on both phase transformation and recrystallization. On the other hand, other elements like Nb and Ti are added due to the retarding effect that they exert on the austenite softening processes, which results in pancaked austenite grains and refined room microstructures. In B steels, Nb and Ti are also used to prevent B precipitation. However, the complex interaction between these elements and its effect on the austenite microstructure evolution during hot working has not been investigated in detail. The present work is focused on the effect the B exerts on recrystallization when added to microalloyed steels. Although B on its own leads to retarded static recrystallization kinetics, when Nb is added a large delay in the static recrystallization times is observed in the 1273 K to 1373 K (1000 °C to 1100 °C) temperature range. The effect is larger than that predicted by a model developed for Nb-microalloyed steels, which is attributed to a synergistic effect of both elements. However, this effect is not so prominent for Nb-Ti-B steels. The complex effect of the composition on recrystallization kinetics is explained as a competition between the solute drag and precipitation pinning phenomena. The effect of the microalloying elements is quantified, and a new model for the predictions of recrystallization kinetics that accounts for the B and Nb+B synergetic effects is proposed.

  14. Verification of the friction coefficients determining method for Froude pendulum self-excited vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatkowski, Tomasz; Wolski, Miroslaw

    2017-03-01

    The article presents the numerical verification of the method for the static and kinetic coefficients determination of dry friction for kinematic pairs in the conditions of self-excited vibrations occurring in the Froude pendulum. In this method, the kinetic friction coefficient should be determined first, and used later when calculating the coefficient of static friction. The friction coefficients are determined by measuring the amplitude of self-excited vibrations of the pendulum. The amplitude measurement for calculation of the kinetic friction coefficient should be carried out when the sliding friction conditions exists, and the static one - when the stick-slip phenomenon appears. The proposed method was verified in the Adams environment.

  15. Analysis of the behavior of a wiper blade around the reversal in consideration of dynamic and static friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unno, M.; Shibata, A.; Yabuno, H.; Yanagisawa, D.; Nakano, T.

    2017-04-01

    Reducing noise generated by automobile windshield wipers during reversals is a desirable feature. For this purpose, details of the behavior of the wiper blade need to be ascertained. In this study, we present theoretical and experimental clarification of this behavior during reversals. Using simulation algorithms to consider exactly the effects of dynamic and static friction, we determined theoretical predictions for the vibrational response caused by friction and the response frequency and compared these results with experimental ones obtained from a mock-up incorporating an actual wiper blade. We introduce an analytical link model with two degrees of freedom and consider two types of states at the blade tip. In the stick and the slip states, static friction and dynamic friction, respectively, act on the blade tip. In the theoretical approach, the static friction is expressed by a set-valued function. The transition between the two states is repeated and an evaluation of an exact transition time leads to an accurate prediction of the behavior of the wiper system. In the analysis, the slack variable method is used to find the exact transition time. Assuming low blade speeds during reversal, a parameter study indicates that the blade tip transitions between slip and stick states and the frequency of the vibration caused by this transitions is close to the natural frequency of the neck of the wiper blade. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with experimental observations.

  16. Using Models at the Mesoscopic Scale in Teaching Physics: Two Experimental Interventions in Solid Friction and Fluid Statics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besson, Ugo; Viennot, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the didactic suitability of introducing models at an intermediate (i.e. mesoscopic) scale in teaching certain subjects, at an early stage. The design and evaluation of two short sequences based on this rationale will be outlined: one bears on propulsion by solid friction, the other on fluid statics in the presence of gravity.…

  17. Experimental Measurement of the Static Coefficient of Friction at the Ti-Ti Taper Connection in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bitter, T; Khan, I; Marriott, T; Schreurs, B W; Verdonschot, N; Janssen, D

    2016-03-01

    The modular taper junction in total hip replacements has been implicated as a possible source of wear. The finite-element (FE) method can be used to study the wear potential at the taper junction. For such simulations it is important to implement representative contact parameters, in order to achieve accurate results. One of the main parameters in FE simulations is the coefficient of friction. However, in current literature, there is quite a wide spread in coefficient of friction values (0.15 - 0.8), which has a significant effect on the outcome of the FE simulations. Therefore, to obtain more accurate results, one should use a coefficient of friction that is determined for the specific material couple being analyzed. In this study, the static coefficient of friction was determined for two types of titanium-on-titanium stem-adaptor couples, using actual cut-outs of the final implants, to ensure that the coefficient of friction was determined consistently for the actual implant material and surface finish characteristics. Two types of tapers were examined, Biomet type-1 and 12/14, where type-1 has a polished surface finish and the 12/14 is a microgrooved system. We found static coefficients of friction of 0.19 and 0.29 for the 12/14 and type-1 stem-adaptor couples, respectively.

  18. Influence of contact aging on nanoparticle friction kinetics.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, Michael; Dietzel, Dirk; Fuchs, Harald; Schirmeisen, André

    2014-04-18

    One of the oldest concepts in tribology is stick-slip dynamics, where a disruptive sequence of stick and slip phases determine the overall resistance in sliding friction. While the mechanical energy dissipates in the sudden slip phase, the stick phase has been shown to be characterized by contact strengthening mechanisms, also termed contact aging. We present experiments of sliding nanoparticles, where friction is measured as a function of sliding velocity and interface temperature. The resulting complex interdependence is in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations, in which the energy barrier for contact breaking increases logarithmically with time, at a rate governed by thermal activation.

  19. Kinetic Friction of Non-Coalescing and Non- Wetting Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neitzel, G. paul

    2004-01-01

    This project has focused on the experimental determination of the frictional forces associated with noncoalescing and nonwetting systems. In particular, the focus has been on friction associated with an isothermal nonwetting droplet sliding on a solid surface. The nonwetting phenomenon is driven by the establishment of a thin (of order microns in thickness) layer of lubricating gas that is swept by viscous action into the space between the liquid and solid, preventing them from coming into contact. The mechanism has been described in the review article by Neitzel & Dell'Aversana (2002). The work performed under this NASA GSRP sponsorship extends work done by Dell'Aversana & Neitzel (2004) on the load-carrying capacities of thermocapillary nonwetting droplets for a given relative displacement of the two surfaces in question.

  1. Physiologic statokinetic dissociation is eliminated by equating static and kinetic perimetry testing procedures.

    PubMed

    Phu, Jack; Al-Saleem, Noha; Kalloniatis, Michael; Khuu, Sieu K

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, we measured the extent of statokinetic dissociation (SKD) in normal observers and then equated the psychophysical tasks into a two-interval forced choice (2IFC) procedure. In Experiment 1, we used the Humphrey visual field analyzer in static perimetry and automated kinetic perimetry modes to measure contrast sensitivity thresholds and the Goldmann manual kinetic perimeter to measure isopters. This was carried out using a Goldmann size II target. Goldmann kinetic perimetry was performed manually with both inward (peripheral to center) and outward (center to periphery) directions of movement to deduce an "average" isopter. This revealed the presence of SKD when superimposed upon the map of static contrast threshold results. There was no evidence of any contribution of examiner technique or instrument-specific differences to SKD. In Experiment 2, we determined the psychometric curves plotting proportion seen as a function of stimulus eccentricity with static and kinetic stimuli with a 2IFC procedure and method of constant stimuli. In an additional experiment, we also showed that subjects were able to reliably discriminate whether a stimulus was static, moving inward, or moving outward, and hence, comparisons could be made between static and kinetic perimetry tasks. Overall, by making the task objective and reducing criterion bias, eccentricity thresholds were equated across static and kinetic perimetry methods; hence, no evidence of SKD was seen. We suggest SKD is inherent to the differences in methodology of threshold measurement in conventional static and kinetic perimetry and individual criterion bias.

  2. Being Careful with PASCO's Kinetic Friction Experiment: Uncovering Pre-Sliding Displacement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawlor, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    The widely used PASCO laboratory equipment is an excellent way to introduce students to many topics in physics. In one case, PASCO's equipment may be too good! Various experiments exist for calculating the kinetic coefficient of friction by measuring the acceleration of a sliding object under some constant force. With ever more accurate equipment,…

  3. Static-kinetic reactions of man under conditions of brief weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolosov, I. A.

    1975-01-01

    Physical characteristics of human responses to weightlessness simulation during parabolic flights establish body immobilization and visual illusions as the most manifest causes of sensory distrubances. Repeated brief weightlessness exposures gradually decreased expressions of static-kinetic disorders.

  4. Atomistics of friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, M.

    2006-03-01

    When two solid bodies contact and slide against each other, a frictional phenomenon occurs. There have been two models for the origin of the friction forces: the surface roughness model and Tomlinson's model. The surface roughness model explains the origin of the static friction force; contacting solid surfaces are so rough that surface asperities are mechanically locked against the gravitational force. From an atomistic point of view, Tomlinson explained a mechanism of the energy dissipation for the origin of the dynamic friction force. The atomistic mechanisms are described for the origin of the static and the dynamic friction forces, based on the theoretical conclusion that Tomlinson's mechanism is unlikely to occur in realistic frictional systems. The mechanism for the origin of the static friction force resembles the mechanical locking mechanism in a surface roughness model. The origin of the dynamic friction force is formulated as a problem of how the given translational kinetic energy dissipates into the internal relative motions of constituent atoms of bodies during sliding. From studying the available phase space volume of the translational motion becomes negligibly small for a large system size, compared with that of the internal motions, it is concluded that the energy dissipation occurs irreversibly from the translational motion to the internal motions. The comparison of the atomistic mechanisms with the surface roughness model and Tomlinson's model is discussed. A phenomenon of superlubricity, where two solid bodies move relatively with no resistance, is discussed.

  5. The Effects of In-Office Reconditioning on the Slot Dimensions and Static Frictional Resistance of Stainless Steel Brackets

    PubMed Central

    Nellore, Chaitanya; Karnati, Praveen Kumar Reddy; Thalapaneni, Ashok Kumar; Myla, Vijay Bhaskar; Ramyasree, Konda; Prasad, Mandava

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Orthodontists are commonly faced with the decision of what to do with loose brackets, and with inaccurately located brackets that need repositioning during treatment. One solution is to recycle the brackets. The potential effects of reconditioning a bracket are dependent upon many factors which may result in physical changes like alteration in slot tolerance, which may influence sliding mechanics by affecting frictional resistance. Aim To study and compare the dimensional changes in the bracket slot width and depth in reconditioned brackets from unused brackets under scanning electronic microscope and to study and compare any consequent effects on the static frictional resistance of stainless steel brackets after reconditioning and in unused brackets. Materials and Methods Dentarum manufactured 90 stainless steel central incisors edgewise brackets of size 0.22 X 0.030″ inch and 0° tip and 0°angulation were taken. 60 samples for measuring frictional resistance and 30 samples for measuring slot dimensions. Ortho organizers manufactured stainless steel arch wires 0.019 X 0.025″ straight lengths 60 in number were considered for measuring static frictional resistance. Results The mean slot width and depth of new brackets were 0.0251″ and 0.0471″, which exceeded the manufacturers reported nominal size of 0.022″ X 0.030″, by 0.003″ and 0.017″. The reconditioned brackets demonstrated a further increase in mean slot width and depth to 0.028″ and 0.0518″ that is by 0.0035″ and 0.0047″ which is statistically significant (p=0.001, 0.002). The mean static frictional forces of the reconditioned brackets was nearly similar to that of new brackets that is 0.3167N for reconditioned brackets and 0.2613 N for new brackets. Conclusion Although the reconditioning process results in physical changes to bracket structure this does not appear to result in significant effect on ex-vivo static frictional resistance. PMID:26894182

  6. Nanoscale wear and kinetic friction between atomically smooth surfaces sliding at high speeds

    SciTech Connect

    Rajauria, Sukumar Canchi, Sripathi V. Schreck, Erhard; Marchon, Bruno

    2015-02-23

    The kinetic friction and wear at high sliding speeds is investigated using the head-disk interface of hard disk drives, wherein the head and the disk are less than 10 nm apart and move at sliding speeds of 5–10 m/s relative to each other. While the spacing between the sliding surfaces is of the same order of magnitude as various AFM based fundamental studies on friction, the sliding speed is nearly six orders of magnitude larger, allowing a unique set-up for a systematic study of nanoscale wear at high sliding speeds. In a hard disk drive, the physical contact between the head and the disk leads to friction, wear, and degradation of the head overcoat material (typically diamond like carbon). In this work, strain gauge based friction measurements are performed; the friction coefficient as well as the adhering shear strength at the head-disk interface is extracted; and an experimental set-up for studying friction between high speed sliding surfaces is exemplified.

  7. Pleural liquid and kinetic friction coefficient of mesothelium after mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Bodega, Francesca; Sironi, Chiara; Porta, Cristina; Zocchi, Luciano; Agostoni, Emilio

    2015-01-15

    Volume and protein concentration of pleural liquid in anesthetized rabbits after 1 or 3h of mechanical ventilation, with alveolar pressure equal to atmospheric at end expiration, were compared to those occurring after spontaneous breathing. Moreover, coefficient of kinetic friction between samples of visceral and parietal pleura, obtained after spontaneous or mechanical ventilation, sliding in vitro at physiological velocity under physiological load, was determined. Volume of pleural liquid after mechanical ventilation was similar to that previously found during spontaneous ventilation. This finding is contrary to expectation of Moriondo et al. (2005), based on measurement of lymphatic and interstitial pressure. Protein concentration of pleural liquid after mechanical ventilation was also similar to that occurring after spontaneous ventilation. Coefficient of kinetic friction after mechanical ventilation was 0.023±0.001, similar to that obtained after spontaneous breathing.

  8. Coulomb frictional contact by explicit projection in the cone for finite displacement quasi-static problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areias, P.; Rabczuk, T.; de Melo, F. J. M. Queirós; de Sá, J. César

    2015-01-01

    We propose, in this paper, a distinct perspective on the solution of the Coulomb frictional contact problem. By combining the prediction/correction method for the contact force vector with the correction step being a cone projection and writing the friction cone surface in the quadratic form, we directly calculate the contact force. The distance along the friction cone normal is determined by solving a nonlinear problem in closed form. Numerical advantages of this projection are apparent for large values of friction coefficient. Six problems previously indicated as difficult to solve by the node-to-segment discretization and the operator split algorithm are here solved with the new projection algorithm. Discretization follows node-to segment and node-to-face derivations with gap vector defined in a global frame (without tangential and normal decomposition). In addition, we provide source codes for the 2D and 3D contact cases.

  9. Computational Methods for Nonlinear Dynamic Problems in Solid and Structural Mechanics: Progress in the Theory and Modeling of Friction and in the Control of Dynamical Systems with Frictional Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    Background ....... ........................ 8 2.2 Time Dependence or Rate Dependence of the Coefficient of Static Friction ............................ 13...2.3 The Steady-State Coefficient of Kinetic Friction ............... 16 2.4 The Coefficient of Kinetic Firction During the Slip Phase of Stick-Slip...the Coefficient of Friction ................ 130 2.6 Dynamic Interlocking of Imperfections ..... ................ 130 3. General Presentation and

  10. Discrete dislocation plasticity analysis of loading rate-dependent static friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, H.; Deshpande, V. S.; Van der Giessen, E.

    2016-08-01

    From a microscopic point of view, the frictional force associated with the relative sliding of rough surfaces originates from deformation of the material in contact, by adhesion in the contact interface or both. We know that plastic deformation at the size scale of micrometres is not only dependent on the size of the contact, but also on the rate of deformation. Moreover, depending on its physical origin, adhesion can also be size and rate dependent, albeit different from plasticity. We present a two-dimensional model that incorporates both discrete dislocation plasticity inside a face-centred cubic crystal and adhesion in the interface to understand the rate dependence of friction caused by micrometre-size asperities. The friction strength is the outcome of the competition between adhesion and discrete dislocation plasticity. As a function of contact size, the friction strength contains two plateaus: at small contact length (≲0.6 μ m), the onset of sliding is fully controlled by adhesion while for large contact length (≳10 μ m), the friction strength approaches the size-independent plastic shear yield strength. The transition regime at intermediate contact size is a result of partial de-cohesion and size-dependent dislocation plasticity, and is determined by dislocation properties, interfacial properties as well as by the loading rate.

  11. Constitutive equation of friction based on the subloading-surface concept

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Masami; Kuwayama, Takuya; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Yonemura, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    The subloading-friction model is capable of describing static friction, the smooth transition from static to kinetic friction and the recovery to static friction after sliding stops or sliding velocity decreases. This causes a negative rate sensitivity (i.e. a decrease in friction resistance with increasing sliding velocity). A generalized subloading-friction model is formulated in this article by incorporating the concept of overstress for viscoplastic sliding velocity into the subloading-friction model to describe not only negative rate sensitivity but also positive rate sensitivity (i.e. an increase in friction resistance with increasing sliding velocity) at a general sliding velocity ranging from quasi-static to impact sliding. The validity of the model is verified by numerical experiments and comparisons with test data obtained from friction tests using a lubricated steel specimen. PMID:27493570

  12. Velocity dependence of kinetic friction in the Prandtl-Tomlinson model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müser, Martin H.

    2011-09-01

    The Prandtl-Tomlinson model for friction has been used extensively for the interpretation of atomic force microscopy data during the past decade. Up to this point, the kinetic friction Fk has nevertheless not been studied in a range of velocities v that would be sufficiently broad to cover the crossover from the high-velocity logarithmic to the low-velocity linear Fk(v) dependence. This gap will be closed here through a combination of an asymptotic analysis and direct simulations of the relevant Langevin equation. The simulations span three decades in temperature T and up to six decades in v. All numerical data can be fit quite accurately with a Fk=a(T)arsinh[v/vc(T)] law, where the prefactor a(T) scales with T2/3. Correction terms proportional to odd powers of arsinh(v/vc), only need to be included at v≫vc. Reasons are given as to why it is difficult to confirm meticulously the (lnv)2/3 dependence of kinetic friction predicted by recent rate theories, although they can be easily modified to produce the correct prefactor to the a(T)∝T2/3 law.

  13. Kinetics of plasma electrons in static and rf fields

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Y.A.; Lebedev, Y.A.; Polak, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of the frequency of the field producing a plasma on the isotropic part of the electron energy distribution is analyzed. Analytic solutions of the Boltzmann equation are derived for high-energy tail of the electron energy distribution for static and rf fields. The results show that the shape of the tail of the distribution can be effectively controlled by changing the ratio of the field frequency to the effective frequency with which electrons collide with heavy particles and by choosing the appropriate dependence of the cross section for elastic scattering of electrons by heavy particles on the electron energy (by appropriate choice of the gas from which the plasma is formed). These results agree with experimental results in the literature.

  14. General chemical kinetics computer program for static and flow reactions, with application to combustion and shock-tube kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, D. A.; Scullin, V. J.

    1972-01-01

    A general chemical kinetics program is described for complex, homogeneous ideal-gas reactions in any chemical system. Its main features are flexibility and convenience in treating many different reaction conditions. The program solves numerically the differential equations describing complex reaction in either a static system or one-dimensional inviscid flow. Applications include ignition and combustion, shock wave reactions, and general reactions in a flowing or static system. An implicit numerical solution method is used which works efficiently for the extreme conditions of a very slow or a very fast reaction. The theory is described, and the computer program and users' manual are included.

  15. A simple criterion for determining the static friction force between nanowires and flat substrates using the most-bent-state method.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lizhen; Wang, Shiliang; Huang, Han

    2015-04-24

    A simple criterion was developed to assess the appropriateness of the currently available models that estimate the static friction force between nanowires and substrates using the 'most-bent-state' method. Our experimental testing of the static friction force between Al2O3 nanowires and Si substrate verified our theoretical analysis, as well as the establishment of the criterion. It was found that the models are valid only for the bent nanowires with the ratio of wire length over the minimum curvature radius [Formula: see text] no greater than 1. For the cases with [Formula: see text] greater than 1, the static friction force was overestimated as it neglected the effect of its tangential component.

  16. PROPERTIES OF CP: COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION, DECOMPOSITION KINETICS, AND REACTION TO SPARK, FRICTION AND IMPACT

    SciTech Connect

    Weese, R K; Burnham, A K

    2005-09-28

    The properties of pentaamine (5-cyano-2H-tetrazolato-N2) cobalt (III) perchlorate (CP), which was first synthesized in 1968, continues to be of interest for predicting behavior in handling, shipping, aging, and thermal cook-off situations. We report coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values over four specific temperature ranges, decomposition kinetics using linear and isothermal heating, and the reaction to three different types of stimuli: impact, spark, and friction. The CTE was measured using a Thermal Mechanical Analyzer (TMA) for samples that were uniaxially compressed at 10,000 psi and analyzed over a dynamic temperature range of -20 C to 70 C. Differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, was used to monitor CP decomposition at linear heating rates of 1-7 C min{sup -1} in perforated pans and of 0.1-1.0 C min{sup -1} in sealed pans. The kinetic triplet was calculated using the LLNL code Kinetics05, and predictions for 210 and 240 C are compared to isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments. Values are also reported for spark, friction, and impact sensitivity.

  17. Using models at the mesoscopic scale in teaching physics: two experimental interventions in solid friction and fluid statics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besson, Ugo; Viennot, Laurence

    2004-09-01

    This article examines the didactic suitability of introducing models at an intermediate (i.e. mesoscopic) scale in teaching certain subjects, at an early stage. The design and evaluation of two short sequences based on this rationale will be outlined: one bears on propulsion by solid friction, the other on fluid statics in the presence of gravity. Both concern students in the first university year and were designed with common conceptions of students on these topics as a guide. The common points and the differences of the two sequences are discussed, and particularly the characteristics of the mesoscopic approach. The evaluation is made by analysing the recordings of class discussions and comparing the results of control groups via written questionnaires. Teachers' reactions have also been documented. These elements show that the proposed mesoscopic models encourage a more articulated reasoning on the physical situation, helping students to reconcile a global description with the analysis of local interactions.

  18. Detection of Visual Field Loss in Pituitary Disease: Peripheral Kinetic Versus Central Static.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Fiona J; Cheyne, Christopher P; García-Fiñana, Marta; Noonan, Carmel P; Howard, Claire; Smith, Jayne; Adeoye, Joanne

    2015-06-01

    Visual field assessment is an important clinical evaluation for eye disease and neurological injury. We evaluated Octopus semi-automated kinetic peripheral perimetry (SKP) and Humphrey static automated central perimetry for detection of neurological visual field loss in patients with pituitary disease. We carried out a prospective cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study comparing Humphrey central 30-2 SITA threshold programme with a screening protocol for SKP on Octopus perimetry. Humphrey 24-2 data were extracted from 30-2 results. Results were independently graded for presence/absence of field defect plus severity of defect. Fifty patients (100 eyes) were recruited (25 males and 25 females), with mean age of 52.4 years (SD = 15.7). Order of perimeter assessment (Humphrey/Octopus first) and order of eye tested (right/left first) were randomised. The 30-2 programme detected visual field loss in 85%, the 24-2 programme in 80%, and the Octopus combined kinetic/static strategy in 100% of eyes. Peripheral visual field loss was missed by central threshold assessment. Qualitative comparison of type of visual field defect demonstrated a match between Humphrey and Octopus results in 58%, with a match for severity of defect in 50%. Tests duration was 9.34 minutes (SD = 2.02) for Humphrey 30-2 versus 10.79 minutes (SD = 4.06) for Octopus perimetry. Octopus semi-automated kinetic perimetry was found to be superior to central static testing for detection of pituitary disease-related visual field loss. Where reliant on Humphrey central static perimetry, the 30-2 programme is recommended over the 24-2 programme. Where kinetic perimetry is available, this is preferable to central static programmes for increased detection of peripheral visual field loss.

  19. Brownian particle-kinetics in a superparamagnetic ferrofluid subjected to static magnetic-field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trisnanto, Suko Bagus; Kitamoto, Yoshitaka

    2017-01-01

    The stochastic Brownian particle-kinetics in a superparamagnetic ferrofluid at room temperature is of significance in nullifying total magnetization vectors of the suspended particles. Correspondingly, the apparent magnetization response observed under static magnetic field shows no hysteresis loop, but being linear at a given finite field-difference. Owing to this superparamagnetism, we propose a differential magnetometry to analyze the static field-induced particle-kinetics and further to identify the effective field-strength in reorienting particle-moments toward the applied field direction. A polydispersive ferrofluid containing iron-oxide nanoparticles, in practice, is subjected to a very-low oscillatory-field, immediately after applying the static-field. For a given frequency, we confirm a decreasing ac susceptibility as dc field-strength increases, which suggests a statistically less fluctuating magnetization-vectors. Via numerical integration of ac susceptibility recorded, we furthermore estimate the nonlinear quasi-static magnetization at various measurement frequencies. The resulting nonlinearity is attributable to the contributing relaxation dynamics of the particles. More importantly, the difference between dc and ac susceptibilities is found to be field-strength and frequency-dependent. Its value is further maximized at an effective field-strength, from which we identified the coexisting energy-barriers.

  20. Characterising the nanoscale kinetic friction using force-equilibrium and energy-conservation models with optical manipulation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hongtao; Wang, Shiliang; Huang, Han

    2016-02-12

    SiC nanowires were manipulated under an optic microscope to investigate the nanoscale friction between nanowires and a flat substrate. The deflection of the nanowires was modeled as that of an Euler-Bernoulli beam subjected to a uniformly distributed load. A simple formula was developed to calculate the kinetic friction from the normalized deflections at the two ends of a nanowire. The frictional force per unit area determined ranges from 0.18-0.51 MPa. Both experimental and simulated results demonstrated that the proposed approach was reliable. The results were also compared with those estimated using an energy-conservation model, which produced a frictional force ranging from 0.21-0.62 MPa. The results obtained from the two different methods are in excellent agreement.

  1. Numerical analysis of static performance comparison of friction stir welded versus riveted 2024-T3 aluminum alloy stiffened panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qing; He, Yuting; Zhang, Teng; Wu, Liming

    2014-07-01

    Most researches on the static performance of stiffened panel joined by friction stir welding(FSW) mainly focus on the compression stability rather than shear stability. To evaluate the potential of FSW as a replacement for traditional rivet fastening for stiffened panel assembly in aviation application, finite element method(FEM) is applied to compare compression and shear stability performances of FSW stiffened panels with stability performances of riveted stiffened panels. FEMs of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy FSW and riveted stiffened panels are developed and nonlinear static analysis method is applied to obtain buckling pattern, buckling load and load carrying capability of each panel model. The accuracy of each FEM of FSW stiffened panel is evaluated by stability experiment of FSW stiffened panel specimens with identical geometry and boundary condition and the accuracy of each FEM of riveted stiffened panel is evaluated by semi-empirical calculation formulas. It is found that FEMs without considering weld-induced initial imperfections notably overestimate the static strengths of FSW stiffened panels. FEM results show that, buckling patterns of both FSW and riveted compression stiffened panels represent local buckling of plate between stiffeners. The initial buckling waves of FSW stiffened panel emerge uniformly in each plate between stiffeners while those of riveted panel mainly emerge in the mid-plate. Buckling patterns of both FSW and riveted shear stiffened panels represent local buckling of plate close to the loading corner. FEM results indicate that, shear buckling of FSW stiffened panel is less sensitive to the initial imperfections than compression buckling. Load carrying capability of FSW stiffened panel is less sensitive to the initial imperfections than initial buckling. It can be concluded that buckling loads of FSW panels are a bit lower than those of riveted panels whereas carrying capabilities of FSW panels are almost equivalent to those of riveted

  2. A STUDY OF THE PROPERTIES OF CP: COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION, DECOMPOSITION KINETICS AND REACTION TO SPARK, FRICTION AND IMPACT

    SciTech Connect

    Weese, R K; Burnham, A K; Fontes, A T

    2005-03-30

    The properties of pentaamine (5-cyano-2H-tetrazolato-N2) cobalt (III) perchlorate (CP), which was first synthesized in 1968, continues to be of interest for predicting behavior in handling, shipping, aging, and thermal cook-off situations. We report coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values over four specific temperature ranges, decomposition kinetics using linear heating rates, and the reaction to three different types of stimuli: impact, spark, and friction. The CTE was measured using a Thermal Mechanical Analyzer (TMA) for samples that were uniaxially compressed at 10,000 psi and analyzed over a dynamic temperature range of -20 C to 70 C. Using differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, CP was decomposed at linear heating rates of 1, 3, and 7 C/min and the kinetic triplet calculated using the LLNL code Kinetics05. Values are also reported for spark, friction, and impact sensitivity.

  3. Role of deformation twins in static recrystallization kinetics of high-purity alpha titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Jong Woo; Lee, Taekyung; Hong, Seong-Gu; Lee, Yongmoon; Lee, Jeong Hun; Lee, Chong Soo

    2016-11-01

    The importance of deformation twins in static recrystallization kinetics of high-purity alpha titanium was investigated by carrying out thermal annealing tests of deformed materials in combination with electron-backscatterdiffraction- based microstructural analysis. Prior to thermal annealing, the material was compressed to a true strain of 0.22 along three directions to introduce different twinning characteristics. Our results showed that deformation twins substantially promoted the static recrystallization process by deepening the microstructural inhomogeneity induced by the formation of twin boundaries and twinning-induced crystallographic lattice reorientation. Twin morphology was also observed to be important because it influenced the extent of microstructural inhomogeneity. Intersecting twin morphology, caused by the activation of multiple twin variants, was more effective than parallel twin morphology, caused by the activation of a single twin variant (or a twin variant pair), because it gave rise to more twin boundaries, more twin boundary junctions (intersections, triple junctions, etc.), and greater in-grain crystallographic orientation spread.

  4. Nonequilibrium fluctuations in a frictional granular motor: experiments and kinetic theory.

    PubMed

    Gnoli, Andrea; Sarracino, Alessandro; Puglisi, Andrea; Petri, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    We report the study of an experimental granular Brownian motor, inspired by the one published in Eshuis et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 248001 (2010)], but different in some ingredients. As in that previous work, the motor is constituted by a rotating blade, the surfaces of which break the rotation-inversion symmetry through alternated patches of different inelasticity, immersed in a gas of granular particles. The main difference of our experimental setup is in the orientation of the main axis, which is parallel to the (vertical) direction of shaking of the granular fluid, guaranteeing an isotropic distribution for the velocities of colliding grains, characterized by a variance v(0)(2). We also keep the granular system diluted, in order to compare with Boltzmann-equation-based kinetic theory. In agreement with theory, we observe the crucial role of Coulomb friction which induces two main regimes: (i) rare collisions, with an average angular velocity <ω>~v(0)(3), and (ii) frequent collisions (FC), with <ω>~v(0). We also study the fluctuations of the angle spanned in a large-time interval Δθ, which in the FC regime is proportional to the work done upon the motor. We observe that the fluctuation relation is satisfied with a slope which weakly depends on the relative collision frequency.

  5. Friction experiments with a capstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    The force of static friction on a cord wrapped through an angle θ around a rough-surfaced cylinder increases exponentially with θ. A small tension T1 at one end of the cord, maintaining contact between cord and cylinder, provides the condition for a substantially larger tension, of maximum value T2=T1 exp(μsθ), at the other end. The validity of this relationship is studied for the kinetic friction case. The suitability of this system for an undergraduate experiment is discussed, together with practical applications—the donkey engine and the capstan—with a digression on sea chanties.

  6. Study of the effect of static/dynamic Coulomb friction variation at the tape-head interface of a spacecraft tape recorder by non-linear time response simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, A. K.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of six simulation cases investigating the effect of the variation of static-dynamic Coulomb friction on servo system stability/performance. The upper and lower levels of dynamic Coulomb friction which allowed operation within requirements were determined roughly to be three times and 50% respectively of nominal values considered in a table. A useful application for the nonlinear time response simulation is the sensitivity analysis of final hardware design with respect to such system parameters as cannot be varied realistically or easily in the actual hardware. Parameters of the static/dynamic Coulomb friction fall in this category.

  7. Evaluation of Static Friction of Polycrystalline Ceramic Brackets after Conditioning with Different Powers of Er:YAG Laser

    PubMed Central

    Arash, Valiollah; Javanmard, Saeed; Eftekhari, Zeinab; Rahmati-Kamel, Manouchehr; Bahadoram, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to reduce the friction between the wire and brackets by Er:YAG laser. To measure the friction between the wires and brackets in 0° and 10° of wire angulations, 40 polycrystalline ceramic brackets (Hubit, South Korea) were divided into 8 study groups and irradiated by 100, 200, and 300 mj/s of Er:YAG laser power. Two groups of brackets were not irradiated. The friction between the wires and brackets was measured with universal testing machine (SANTAM) with a segment of .019 × .025 SS wire pulled out of the slot of bracket. ANOVA and t-test were used for analyzing the results. To evaluate the effect of the laser on surface morphology of the bracket, SEM evaluations were carried out. The mean frictional resistances between the brackets and wires with 0° of angulation by increasing the laser power decreased compared with control group, but, in 10° of angulation, the friction increased regardless of the laser power and was comparable to the friction of nonirradiated brackets. Furthermore, with each laser power, frictional resistance of brackets in 10° of angulation was significantly higher than 0° of angulation. These results were explained by SEM images too. PMID:26491447

  8. Kinetics of Static Strain Aging in Polycrystalline NiAl-based Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, M. L.; Kaufman, M. J.; Noebe, R. D.

    1996-01-01

    The kinetics of yield point return have been studied in two NiAl-based alloys as a function of aging time at temperatures between 300 and 700 K. The results indicate that the upper yield stress increment, Delta sigma(sub u) (i.e., stress difference between the upper yield point and the final flow stress achieved during prestraining), in conventional purity (CP-NiAl) and in high purity carbon-doped (NiAl-C) material first increased with a t(exp 2/3) relationship before reaching a plateau. This behavior suggests that a Cottrell locking mechanism is the cause for yield points in NiAl. In addition, positive y-axis intercepts were observed in plots of Delta sigma(sub u) versus t(exp 2/3) suggesting the operation of a Snoek mechanism. Analysis according to the Cottrell Bilby model of atmosphere formation around dislocations yields an activation energy for yield point return in the range 70 to 76 kJ/mol which is comparable to the activation energy for diffusion of interstitial impurities in bcc metals. It is, thus, concluded that the kinetics of static strain aging in NiAl are controlled by the locking of dislocations by Cottrell atmospheres of carbon atoms around dislocations.

  9. The effect of surface texture on the kinetic friction of a nanowire on a substrate

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hongtao; Mead, James; Wang, Shiliang; Huang, Han

    2017-01-01

    The friction between Al2O3 nanowires and silicon substrates of different surface textures was characterised by use of optical manipulation. It was found that surface textures had significant effect on both the friction and the effective contact area between a nanowire and a substrate. A genetic algorithm was developed to determine the effective contact area between the nanowire and the textured substrate. The frictional force was found to be nearly proportional to the effective contact area, regardless of width, depth, spacing and orientation of the surface textures. Interlocking caused by textured grooves was not observed in this study. PMID:28322351

  10. The effect of surface texture on the kinetic friction of a nanowire on a substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hongtao; Mead, James; Wang, Shiliang; Huang, Han

    2017-03-01

    The friction between Al2O3 nanowires and silicon substrates of different surface textures was characterised by use of optical manipulation. It was found that surface textures had significant effect on both the friction and the effective contact area between a nanowire and a substrate. A genetic algorithm was developed to determine the effective contact area between the nanowire and the textured substrate. The frictional force was found to be nearly proportional to the effective contact area, regardless of width, depth, spacing and orientation of the surface textures. Interlocking caused by textured grooves was not observed in this study.

  11. The effect of surface texture on the kinetic friction of a nanowire on a substrate.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hongtao; Mead, James; Wang, Shiliang; Huang, Han

    2017-03-21

    The friction between Al2O3 nanowires and silicon substrates of different surface textures was characterised by use of optical manipulation. It was found that surface textures had significant effect on both the friction and the effective contact area between a nanowire and a substrate. A genetic algorithm was developed to determine the effective contact area between the nanowire and the textured substrate. The frictional force was found to be nearly proportional to the effective contact area, regardless of width, depth, spacing and orientation of the surface textures. Interlocking caused by textured grooves was not observed in this study.

  12. Earthquake friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Laboratory friction slip experiments on rocks provide firm evidence that the static friction coefficient μ has values ∼0.7. This would imply large amounts of heat produced by seismically active faults, but no heat flow anomaly is observed, and mineralogic evidence of frictional heating is virtually absent. This stands for lower μ values ∼0.2, as also required by the observed orientation of faults with respect to the maximum compressive stress. We show that accounting for the thermal and mechanical energy balance of the system removes this inconsistence, implying a multi-stage strain release process. The first stage consists of a small and slow aseismic slip at high friction on pre-existent stress concentrators within the fault volume but angled with the main fault as Riedel cracks. This introduces a second stage dominated by frictional temperature increase inducing local pressurization of pore fluids around the slip patches, which is in turn followed by a third stage in which thermal diffusion extends the frictionally heated zones making them coalesce into a connected pressurized region oriented as the fault plane. Then, the system enters a state of equivalent low static friction in which it can undergo the fast elastic radiation slip prescribed by dislocation earthquake models.

  13. Showing Area Matters: A Work of Friction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Domelen, David

    2010-01-01

    Typically, we teach the simplified friction equation of the form F[subscript s] = [mu][subscript s]N for static friction, where F[subscript s] is the maximum static friction, [mu][subscript s] is the coefficient of static friction, and "N" is the normal force pressing the surfaces together. However, this is a bit too simplified, and…

  14. Friction testing of a new ligature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantel, Alison R.

    Objective. To determine if American Orthodontics' (AO) new, experimental ligature demonstrates less friction in vitro when compared to four other ligatures on the market. Methods. Four brackets were mounted on a custom metal fixture allowing an 0.018-in stainless steel wire attached to an opposite fixture with one bracket to be passively centered in the bracket slot. The wire was ligated to the bracket using one of five types of ligatures including the low friction test ligatures (AO), conventional ligatures (AO), Sili-Ties(TM) Silicone Infused Ties (GAC), SynergyRTM Low-Friction Ligatures (RMO), and SuperSlick ligatures (TP Orthodontics). Resistance to sliding was measured over a 7 mm sliding distance using a universal testing machine (Instron) with a 50 Newton load cell and a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. The initial resistance to sliding (static) was determined by the peak force needed to initiate movement and the kinetic resistance to sliding was taken as the force at 5 mm of wire/bracket sliding. Fifteen unique tests were run for each ligature group in both dry and wet (saliva soaked for 24 hours with one drop prior to testing) conditions. Results. In the dry state, the SuperSlick ligature demonstrated more static friction than all of the other ligatures, while SuperSlick and Sili-Ties demonstrated more kinetic friction than the AO conventional, AO experimental and Synergy ligatures. In the wet condition, SuperSlick and the AO experimental ligature demonstrated the least static friction, followed by the AO conventional and Sili-Ties. The most static friction was observed with the Synergy ligatures. In the wet condition, the SuperSlick, AO experimental and AO conventional exhibited less kinetic friction than the Sili-Ties and Synergy ligatures. Conclusions. AO's experimental ligature exhibits less friction in the wet state than conventional ligatures, Sili-Ties and Synergy and is comparable to the SuperSlick ligature. These preliminary results suggest that the

  15. Kinetic Comparison of Static Balance Performance of Nonhandicapped and Learning Disabled Male Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folsom-Meek, Sherry

    This study investigated the static balance performance of 20 nonhandicapped and 20 learning disabled male children in Texas by comparing mean distances of center of pressure displacement as measured by a forceplate. Specifically, mean displacements in the medial-lateral plane during five static balance tests were measured from a neutral starting…

  16. Kinetics of thermolysis of lanthanum nitrate with hexamethylenetetramine: Crystal structure, TG-DSC, impact and friction sensitivity studies, Part-96

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nibha; Baranwal, B. P.; Singh, Gurdip; Singh, C. P.; Daniliuc, Constantin G.; Soni, P. K.; Nath, Yogeshwar

    2014-11-01

    The development of high energetic materials includes process ability and the ability to attain insensitive munitions (IM). This paper investigates the preparation of lanthanum metal nitrate complex of hexamethylenetetramine in water at room temperature. This complex of molecular formulae [La (NO3)2(H2O)6] (2HMTA) (NO3-) (H2O) was characterized by X-ray crystallography. Thermal decomposition was investigated using TG, TG-DSC and ignition delay measurements. Kinetic analysis of isothermal TG data has been investigated using model fitting methods as well as model free isoconversional methods. The sensitivity measurements towards mechanical destructive stimuli such as impact and friction were carried out and the complex was found to be insensitive. In order to identify the end product of thermolysis, X-ray diffraction patterns of end product was carried out which proves the formation of La2O3.

  17. Time-lapse nanoscopy of friction in the non-Amontons and non-Coulomb regime.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Tadashi; Sato, Takaaki; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Oguma, Masatsugu; Itamura, Noriaki; Goda, Keisuke; Sasaki, Naruo; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-11

    Originally discovered by Leonard da Vinci in the 15th century, the force of friction is directly proportional to the applied load (known as Amontons' first law of friction). Furthermore, kinetic friction is independent of the sliding speed (known as Coulomb's law of friction). These empirical laws break down at high normal pressure (due to plastic deformation) and low sliding speed (in the transition regime between static friction and kinetic friction). An important example of this phenomenon is friction between the asperities of tectonic plates on the Earth. Despite its significance, little is known about the detailed mechanism of friction in this regime due to the lack of experimental methods. Here we demonstrate in situ time-lapse nanoscopy of friction between asperities sliding at ultralow speed (∼0.01 nm/s) under high normal pressure (∼GPa). This is made possible by compressing and rubbing a pair of nanometer-scale crystalline silicon anvils with electrostatic microactuators and monitoring its dynamical evolution with a transmission electron microscope. Our analysis of the time-lapse movie indicates that superplastic behavior is induced by decrystallization, plastic deformation, and atomic diffusion at the asperity-asperity interface. The results hold great promise for a better understanding of quasi-static friction under high pressure for geoscience, materials science, and nanotechnology.

  18. A hybrid computer program for rapidly solving flowing or static chemical kinetic problems involving many chemical species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclain, A. G.; Rao, C. S. R.

    1976-01-01

    A hybrid chemical kinetic computer program was assembled which provides a rapid solution to problems involving flowing or static, chemically reacting, gas mixtures. The computer program uses existing subroutines for problem setup, initialization, and preliminary calculations and incorporates a stiff ordinary differential equation solution technique. A number of check cases were recomputed with the hybrid program and the results were almost identical to those previously obtained. The computational time saving was demonstrated with a propane-oxygen-argon shock tube combustion problem involving 31 chemical species and 64 reactions. Information is presented to enable potential users to prepare an input data deck for the calculation of a problem.

  19. Combination Of Static And Dynami,C Stereophotogrammetry For The Kinetic Analysis Of Human Locomotion: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaer, Alex R.; Sheffer, Daniel B.; Jones, D.; Meier, G.; Baumann, Juerg U.

    1989-04-01

    For a deeper understanding of the complexity of human walking movement not only a kinematic analysis , but also a comprehensive three-dimensional biomechanical model of the human body is required to detail the kinetic activities. This research combined static stereophotogrammetric determination of body segment mass parameters with three-dimensional gait analysis by cinephotography, direct linear transformation and two force plates. A method of combining the two independent analyses by defining the anatomical axes of each segment is shown. Practical problems arising in dynamic and stereometric analysis are demonstrated. Power spectra of a normal and a matched subject with spastic diplegia were calculated for a proper design of the kinematic analysis.

  20. Kinetic versus Static Visuals for Facilitating College Students' Understanding of Organic Reaction Mechanisms in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldahmash, Abdulwali H.; Abraham, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Using animated computer-generated graphics to assist instruction has recently attracted the attention of educators and educational researchers. The specific focus of this study is to compare the influence of animated visuals with static visuals on college students' understanding of organic reaction mechanisms in chemistry. This study also focuses…

  1. Steady and transient sliding under rate-and-state friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putelat, Thibaut; Dawes, Jonathan H. P.

    2015-05-01

    The physics of dry friction is often modelled by assuming that static and kinetic frictional forces can be represented by a pair of coefficients usually referred to as μs and μk, respectively. In this paper we re-examine this discontinuous dichotomy and relate it quantitatively to the more general, and smooth, framework of rate-and-state friction. This is important because it enables us to link the ideas behind the widely used static and dynamic coefficients to the more complex concepts that lie behind the rate-and-state framework. Further, we introduce a generic framework for rate-and-state friction that unifies different approaches found in the literature. We consider specific dynamical models for the motion of a rigid block sliding on an inclined surface. In the Coulomb model with constant dynamic friction coefficient, sliding at constant velocity is not possible. In the rate-and-state formalism steady sliding states exist, and analysing their existence and stability enables us to show that the static friction coefficient μs should be interpreted as the local maximum at very small slip rates of the steady state rate-and-state friction law. Next, we revisit the often-cited experiments of Rabinowicz (J. Appl. Phys., 22:1373-1379, 1951). Rabinowicz further developed the idea of static and kinetic friction by proposing that the friction coefficient maintains its higher and static value μs over a persistence length before dropping to the value μk. We show that there is a natural identification of the persistence length with the distance that the block slips as measured along the stable manifold of the saddle point equilibrium in the phase space of the rate-and-state dynamics. This enables us explicitly to define μs in terms of the rate-and-state variables and hence link Rabinowicz's ideas to rate-and-state friction laws. This stable manifold naturally separates two basins of attraction in the phase space: initial conditions in the first one lead to the block

  2. Effects of antimony trisulfide (Sb2S3) on sliding friction of automotive brake friction materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wan Kyu; Rhee, Tae Hee; Kim, Hyun Seong; Jang, Ho

    2013-09-01

    The effect of antimony trisulfide (Sb2S3) on the tribological properties of automotive brake friction materials was investigated using a Krauss type tribometer and a 1/5 scale dynamometer with a rigid caliper. Results showed that Sb2S3 improved fade resistance by developing transfer films on the disc surface at elevated temperatures. On the other hand, the rubbing surfaces of the friction material exhibited contact plateaus with a broader height distribution when it contained Sb2S3, indicating fewer contact junctions compared to the friction material with graphite. The friction material with Sb2S3 also exhibited a lower stick-slip propensity than the friction material with graphite. The improved fade resistance with Sb2S3 is attributed to its lubricating capability sustained at high temperatures, while the lower stick-slip propensity of the friction material with Sb2S3 is associated with the slight difference between its static and kinetic coefficients of friction and high normal stiffness.

  3. The effect of sustained static kneeling on kinetic and kinematic knee joint gait parameters.

    PubMed

    Kajaks, Tara; Costigan, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Despite epidemiological evidence for kneeling as an occupational risk factor for knee osteoarthritis, biomechanical evidence is lacking. Gait knee joint mechanics, a common measure used to study knee osteoarthritis initiation, were used in the present study to investigate the effect of sustained static kneeling on the knee. Ten healthy male subjects (24.1 years ± 3.5) performed ten baseline walking trials, followed by a 30-min kneeling protocol and a second set of walking trials. Knee joint moments and angles were calculated during the stance phase. Within-subject root mean squared differences were compared within and between the pre- and post-kneeling gait trials. Differences were observed between the pre-kneeling and post-kneeling walking trails for flexion and adduction knee moments (0.12 Nm/kg ± 0.03, 0.07 Nm/kg ± 0.02) and angles (3.18° ± 1.22 and 1.64° ± 1.15), indicating that sustained static deep-knee flexion kneeling does acutely alter knee joint gait parameters.

  4. Lorentz approach to static magnetic field effects on bound-ion dynamics and binding kinetics: Thermal noise considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Muehsam, D.J.; Pilla, A.A.

    1996-05-01

    The present study characterizes an ion-binding site, a molecular cleft in a signaling molecule such as calmodulin or troponin C, as a damped linear isotropic oscillator potential for small displacements about the origin. Quantitative assessments of the effects of thermal noise and exogenous static magnetic fields are made through a statistical mechanical treatment of the Lorentz-Langevin equation for an ion bound in a molecular cleft. Thermal noise causes a bound ion to e ejected from the site after a bound life-time dependent upon the thermal noise spectral density. It is shown that the Lorentz-Langevin model requires values of the viscous damping parameter many orders of magnitude below those for bulk water in order to characterize the binding site and to obtain realistic lifetimes for a bound ion. The model predicts that milliTesla-range magnetic fields are required for static field effects on dissociation kinetics. The Lorentz equation also yields a classic coherent solution describing precession of the bound-ion oscillator orientation at the Larmor frequency. The bound-ion dynamics described by this coherent solution are sensitive to microTesla-range static magnetic fields in the presence of thermal noise. Numerical integration of the contribution of thermal noise forces to these dynamics is in good agreement with the results of statistical mechanical analysis, also producing realistic bound lifetimes for only very low viscous damping values. The mechanisms by which modulation of precessional motion might enable a signaling molecule such as calmodulin to detect an exogenous magnetic field are presently unclear.

  5. Micromachine friction test apparatus

    DOEpatents

    deBoer, Maarten P.; Redmond, James M.; Michalske, Terry A.

    2002-01-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) friction test apparatus is disclosed for determining static or dynamic friction in MEM devices. The friction test apparatus, formed by surface micromachining, is based on a friction pad supported at one end of a cantilevered beam, with the friction pad overlying a contact pad formed on the substrate. A first electrostatic actuator can be used to bring a lower surface of the friction pad into contact with an upper surface of the contact pad with a controlled and adjustable force of contact. A second electrostatic actuator can then be used to bend the cantilevered beam, thereby shortening its length and generating a relative motion between the two contacting surfaces. The displacement of the cantilevered beam can be measured optically and used to determine the static or dynamic friction, including frictional losses and the coefficient of friction between the surfaces. The test apparatus can also be used to assess the reliability of rubbing surfaces in MEM devices by producing and measuring wear of those surfaces. Finally, the friction test apparatus, which is small in size, can be used as an in situ process quality tool for improving the fabrication of MEM devices.

  6. Nuclear reactor transient analysis via a quasi-static kinetics Monte Carlo method

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, YuGwon; Cho, Bumhee; Cho, Nam Zin

    2015-12-31

    The predictor-corrector quasi-static (PCQS) method is applied to the Monte Carlo (MC) calculation for reactor transient analysis. To solve the transient fixed-source problem of the PCQS method, fission source iteration is used and a linear approximation of fission source distributions during a macro-time step is introduced to provide delayed neutron source. The conventional particle-tracking procedure is modified to solve the transient fixed-source problem via MC calculation. The PCQS method with MC calculation is compared with the direct time-dependent method of characteristics (MOC) on a TWIGL two-group problem for verification of the computer code. Then, the results on a continuous-energy problem are presented.

  7. Comparison of quasi-static and dynamic squats: a three-dimensional kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic study of the lower limbs.

    PubMed

    Clément, Julien; Hagemeister, Nicola; Aissaoui, Rachid; de Guise, Jacques A

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have described 3D kinematics, 3D kinetics and electromyography (EMG) of the lower limbs during quasi-static or dynamic squatting activities. One study compared these two squatting conditions but only at low speed on healthy subjects, and provided no information on kinetics and EMG of the lower limbs. The purpose of the present study was to contrast simultaneous recordings of 3D kinematics, 3D kinetics and EMG of the lower limbs during quasi-stat ic and fast-dynamic squats in healthy and pathological subjects. Ten subjects were recruited: five healthy and five osteoarthritis subjects. A motion-capture system, force plate, and surface electrodes respectively recorded 3D kinematics, 3D kinetics and EMG of the lower limbs. Each subject performed a quasi-static squat and several fast-dynamic squats from 0° to 70° of knee flexion. The two squatting conditions were compared for positions where quasi-static and fast-dynamic knee flexion-extension angles were similar. Mean differences between quasi-static and fast-dynamic squats were 1.5° for rotations, 1.9 mm for translations, 2.1% of subjects' body weight for ground reaction forces, 6.6 Nm for torques, 11.2 mm for center of pressure, and 6.3% of maximum fast-dynamic electromyographic activities for EMG. Some significant differences (p<0.05) were found in internal rotation, anterior translation, vertical force and EMG. All differences between quasi-static and fast-dynamic squats were small. 69.5% of compared data were equivalent. In conclusion, this study showed that quasi-static and fast-dynamic squatting activities are comparable in terms of 3D kinematics, 3D kinetics and EMG, although some reservations still remain.

  8. A model for the kinetics of homotypic cellular aggregation under static conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neelamegham, S.; Munn, L. L.; Zygourakis, K.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    We present the formulation and testing of a mathematical model for the kinetics of homotypic cellular aggregation. The model considers cellular aggregation under no-flow conditions as a two-step process. Individual cells and cell aggregates 1) move on the tissue culture surface and 2) collide with other cells (or aggregates). These collisions lead to the formation of intercellular bonds. The aggregation kinetics are described by a system of coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations, and the collision frequency kernel is derived by extending Smoluchowski's colloidal flocculation theory to cell migration and aggregation on a two-dimensional surface. Our results indicate that aggregation rates strongly depend upon the motility of cells and cell aggregates, the frequency of cell-cell collisions, and the strength of intercellular bonds. Model predictions agree well with data from homotypic lymphocyte aggregation experiments using Jurkat cells activated by 33B6, an antibody to the beta 1 integrin. Since cell migration speeds and all the other model parameters can be independently measured, the aggregation model provides a quantitative methodology by which we can accurately evaluate the adhesivity and aggregation behavior of cells.

  9. The influence of fault geometry and frictional contact properties on slip surface behavior and off-fault damage: insights from quasi-static modeling of small strike-slip faults from the Sierra Nevada, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritz, E.; Pollard, D. D.

    2011-12-01

    Geological and geophysical investigations demonstrate that faults are geometrically complex structures, and that the nature and intensity of off-fault damage is spatially correlated with geometric irregularities of the slip surfaces. Geologic observations of exhumed meter-scale strike-slip faults in the Bear Creek drainage, central Sierra Nevada, CA, provide insight into the relationship between non-planar fault geometry and frictional slip at depth. We investigate natural fault geometries in an otherwise homogeneous and isotropic elastic material with a two-dimensional displacement discontinuity method (DDM). Although the DDM is a powerful tool, frictional contact problems are beyond the scope of the elementary implementation because it allows interpenetration of the crack surfaces. By incorporating a complementarity algorithm, we are able to enforce appropriate contact boundary conditions along the model faults and include variable friction and frictional strength. This tool allows us to model quasi-static slip on non-planar faults and the resulting deformation of the surrounding rock. Both field observations and numerical investigations indicate that sliding along geometrically discontinuous or irregular faults may lead to opening of the fault and the formation of new fractures, affecting permeability in the nearby rock mass and consequently impacting pore fluid pressure. Numerical simulations of natural fault geometries provide local stress fields that are correlated to the style and spatial distribution of off-fault damage. We also show how varying the friction and frictional strength along the model faults affects slip surface behavior and consequently influences the stress distributions in the adjacent material.

  10. Contact-line friction of liquid drops on self-assembled monolayers: chain-length effects.

    PubMed

    Voué, M; Rioboo, R; Adao, M H; Conti, J; Bondar, A I; Ivanov, D A; Blake, T D; De Coninck, J

    2007-04-24

    The static and dynamic wetting properties of self-assembled alkanethiol monolayers of increasing chain length were studied. The molecular-kinetic theory of wetting was used to interpret the dynamic contact angle data and evaluate the contact-line friction on the microscopic scale. Although the surfaces had a similar static wettability, the coefficient of contact-line friction zeta0 increased linearly with alkyl chain length. This result supports the hypothesis of energy dissipation due to a local deformation of the nanometer-thick layer at the contact line.

  11. The dissociation kinetics of NO on Rh(111) as studied by temperature programmed static secondary ion mass spectrometry and desorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, H. J.; Reijerse, J. F. C.-J. M.; van Santen, R. A.; Niemantsverdriet, J. W.

    1994-12-01

    Temperature programmed static secondary ion mass spectrometry (TPSSIMS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) have been used to study the kinetics of adsorption, dissociation, and desorption of NO on Rh(111). At 100 K, NO adsorption is molecular and proceeds via mobile precursor state kinetics with a high initial sticking probability. SSIMS indicates the presence of two distinct NO adsorption states, indicative of threefold adsorption at low coverage, and occupation of bridge sites at higher coverages. Three characteristic coverage regimes appear with respect to NO dissociation. At low coverages θNO<0.25 ML, NO dissociates completely at temperatures between 275 and 340 K. If we neglect lateral interactions and assume pure first order dissociation kinetics, we find effective values for the activation barrier and preexponential factor of 40±6 kJ/mol and 106±1 s-1 for the dissociation of 0.15-0.20 ML NO. However, if we assume that a NO molecule needs an ensemble of three to four vacant sites in order to dissociate, the preexponential factor and activation energy are ˜1011 s-1 and 65 kJ/mol, in better agreement with transition state theory expectations. The Nads and Oads dissociation products desorb as N2 and O2, respectively, with desorption parameters Edes=118±10 kJ/mol and νdes=1010.1±1.0 s-1 for N2 in the zero coverage limit. At higher coverages, the desorption kinetics of N2 is strongly influenced by the presence of coadsorbed oxygen. In the medium coverage range 0.25<θNO<0.50 ML, part of the NO desorbs molecularly, with an estimated desorption barrier of 113±10 kJ/mol and a preexponential of 1013.5±1.0 s-1. Dissociation of NO becomes progressively inhibited due to site blocking, the onset shifting from 275 K at 0.25 ML to 400 K, coinciding with the NO desorption temperature, at a coverage of 0.50 ML. The accumulation of nitrogen and oxygen atoms on the highly covered surface causes a destabilization of the nitrogen atoms, which results in an

  12. Dynamic and static effects of pressure: Spin transition kinetics and zero-field splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei

    1998-10-01

    The first chapter of this thesis is on the spin relaxation kinetics of Fe(II) coordination compounds in crystals under applied external pressure. The ligand- field strength of these complexes is such that the high- spin 5T 2g state is close in energy but above the low-spin 1A 1g state. The high- spin to low-spin relaxation process in these compounds deviates from Arrhenius behavior at low temperatures and is associated with a large change of the Fe-ligand bond length. The relaxation can be treated as a nuclear tunneling process along the Fe-ligand totally symmetric stretching normal coordinate. The tunneling rates of three octahedral Fe(II) complexes doped in their Zn and Mn analogs are measured as a function of pressure. A large increase of the tunneling rates with pressure was observed, including a nine orders of magnitude increase over 27 kbar for (Fe(mepy)3tren) (PF6)2. The key to the acceleration of the rates is the shift of the relative position of the potential energy surfaces under pressure. The data are well described with a rate law derived from Fermi's Golden Rule and modified by the Gruneisen approximation. In the second chapter addresses the effect of pressure on the pressure on the zero-field splitting of monocyclic aromatic diazines. The zero-field splitting parameters D and E of the lowest triplet states of pyrimidine, pyrazine, and s-tetramethylpyrazine in various hosts are measured as a function of pressure using the optically- detected magnetic resonance technique. The value of D decreases with pressure for most of the systems, with the largest decrease for s-tetramethylpyrazine, The value of E either increases or is fairly constant. For pyrimidine in benzene system, the parameters changed abruptly due to a phase transition of benzene at 14 kbar. The results for these systems are compared with the results of another aza-aromatic molecule, quinoxaline, and a system exhibiting vibronic coupling, p-benzoquinone. The data are explained in terms of

  13. Is internal friction friction?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Byerlee, J.D.; Lockner, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Mogi [1974] proposed a simple model of the incipient rupture surface to explain the Coulomb failure criterion. We show here that this model can plausibly be extended to explain the Mohr failure criterion. In Mogi's model the incipient rupture surface immediately before fracture consists of areas across which material integrity is maintained (intact areas) and areas across which it is not (cracks). The strength of the incipient rupture surface is made up of the inherent strength of the intact areas plus the frictional resistance to sliding offered by the cracked areas. Although the coefficient of internal friction (slope of the strength versus normal stress curve) depends upon both the frictional and inherent strengths, the phenomenon of internal friction can be identified with the frictional part. The curvature of the Mohr failure envelope is interpreted as a consequence of differences in damage (cracking) accumulated in prefailure loading at different confining pressures.

  14. Engineering mechanics: statics and dynamics. [Textbook

    SciTech Connect

    Sandor, B.I.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this textbook is to provide engineering students with basic learning material about statics and dynamics which are fundamental engineering subjects. The chapters contain information on: an introduction to engineering mechanics; forces on particles, rigid bodies, and structures; kinetics of particles, particle systems, and rigid bodies in motion; kinematics; mechanical vibrations; and friction, work, moments of inertia, and potential energy. Each chapter contains introductory material, the development of the essential equations, worked-out example problems, homework problems, and, finally, summaries of the essential methods and equations, graphically illustrated where appropriate. (LCL)

  15. Reducing Sliding Friction with Liquid-Impregnated Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Mohammad; Collier, C. Patrick; Boreyko, Jonathan; Nature Inspired Fluids; Interfaces Team; CenterNanophase Materials Sciences Team

    2015-11-01

    Liquid-impregnated surfaces are fabricated by infusing a lubricating liquid into the micro/nano roughness of a textured substrate, such that the surface is slippery for any deposited liquid immiscible with the lubricant. To date, liquid-impregnated surfaces have almost exclusively focused on repelling liquids by minimizing the contact angle hysteresis. Here, we demonstrate that liquid-impregnated surfaces are also capable of reducing sliding friction for solid objects. Ordered arrays of silicon micropillars were infused with lubricating liquids varying in viscosity by two orders of magnitude. Five test surfaces were used: two different micropillared surfaces with and without liquid infusion and a smooth, dry control surface. The static and kinetic coefficients of friction were measured using a polished aluminum cube as the sliding object. Compared to the smooth control surface, the sliding friction was reduced by at least a factor of two on the liquid-impregnated surfaces.

  16. Preface: Friction at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusc, Claudio; Smith, Roger; Urbakh, Michael; Vanossi, Andrea

    2008-09-01

    Interfacial friction is one of the oldest problems in physics and chemistry, and certainly one of the most important from a practical point of view. Everyday operations on a broad range of scales, from nanometer and up, depend upon the smooth and satisfactory functioning of countless tribological systems. Friction imposes serious constraints and limitations on the performance and lifetime of micro-machines and, undoubtedly, will impose even more severe constraints on the emerging technology of nano-machines. Standard lubrication techniques used for large objects are expected to be less effective in the nano-world. Novel methods for control and manipulation are therefore needed. What has been missing is a molecular level understanding of processes occurring between and close to interacting surfaces to help understand, and later manipulate friction. Friction is intimately related to both adhesion and wear, and all three require an understanding of highly non-equilibrium processes occurring at the molecular level to determine what happens at the macroscopic level. Due to its practical importance and the relevance to basic scientific questions there has been major increase in activity in the study of interfacial friction on the microscopic level during the last decade. Intriguing structural and dynamical features have been observed experimentally. These observations have motivated theoretical efforts, both numerical and analytical. This special issue focusses primarily on discussion of microscopic mechanisms of friction and adhesion at the nanoscale level. The contributions cover many important aspects of frictional behaviour, including the origin of stick-slip motion, the dependence of measured forces on the material properties, effects of thermal fluctuations, surface roughness and instabilities in boundary lubricants on both static and kinetic friction. An important problem that has been raised in this issue, and which has still to be resolved, concerns the

  17. Perception and Haptic Rendering of Friction Moments.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, H; Ohtuka, Y; Koide, S; Mouri, T

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers moments due to friction forces on the human fingertip. A computational technique called the friction moment arc method is presented. The method computes the static and/or dynamic friction moment independent of a friction force calculation. In addition, a new finger holder to display friction moment is presented. This device incorporates a small brushless motor and disk, and connects the human's finger to an interface finger of the five-fingered haptic interface robot HIRO II. Subjects' perception of friction moment while wearing the finger holder, as well as perceptions during object manipulation in a virtual reality environment, were evaluated experimentally.

  18. Friction and fracture.

    PubMed

    Gerde, E; Marder, M

    2001-09-20

    Consider a block placed on a table and pushed sideways until it begins to slide. Amontons and Coulomb found that the force required to initiate sliding is proportional to the weight of the block (the constant of proportionality being the static coefficient of friction), but independent of the area of contact. This is commonly explained by asserting that, owing to the presence of asperities on the two surfaces, the actual area in physical contact is much smaller than it seems, and grows in proportion to the applied compressive force. Here we present an alternative picture of the static friction coefficient, which starts with an atomic description of surfaces in contact and then employs a multiscale analysis technique to describe how sliding occurs for large objects. We demonstrate the existence of self-healing cracks that have been postulated to solve geophysical paradoxes about heat generated by earthquakes, and we show that, when such cracks are present at the atomic scale, they result in solids that slip in accord with Coulomb's law of friction. We expect that this mechanism for friction will be found to operate at many length scales, and that our approach for connecting atomic and continuum descriptions will enable more realistic first-principles calculations of friction coefficients.

  19. Organic thermal maturity as a proxy for frictional fault heating: Experimental constraints on methylphenanthrene kinetics at earthquake timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Rachel E.; Polissar, Pratigya J.; Savage, Heather M.

    2015-02-01

    Biomarker thermal maturity is widely used to study burial heating of sediments over millions of years. Heating over short timescales such as during earthquakes should also result in measurable increases in biomarker thermal maturity. However, the sensitivity of biomarker thermal maturity reactions to short, higher-temperature heating has not been established. We report on hydrous pyrolysis experiments that determine the kinetic parameters of methylphenanthrene maturation at timescales and temperatures relevant to earthquake heating. Samples of Woodford Shale were heated at temperatures up to 343 °C over 15-150 min. The thermal maturity of the samples as measured by the methylphenanthrene index-1 (MPI-1) increased with heating time and temperature. We find that MPI-1 increases with time and temperature consistent with a first-order kinetic model and Arrhenius temperature relationship. Over the timescales tested here, MPI-1 is strongly affected by maximum temperature and less sensitive to heating duration. Production of new phenanthrene isomers and expulsion of a liquid pyrolyzate also occurred. Differential expulsion of methylphenanthrene isomers affected the apparent maturity of the rock at lower temperatures and may need to be considered for organic-rich fault rocks. Our results demonstrate that the overall MPI-1 reaction extent in both the rock and pyrolyzate are a useful measure of thermal maturity and reflect temperature history during rapid heating.

  20. Basic Equations in Statics and Kinetics of Protein Polymerization and the Mechanism of the Formation and Dissociation of Amyloid Fibrils Revealed by Pressure Perturbation.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the pressure-dissociation of several amyloid or amyloid-like fibrils have shown that the fibril state is considerably voluminous. Quantitative characterization of the protein fibrillation reaction with respect to volumetric parameters is necessary to elucidate mechanisms of amyloid fibrillation in molecular terms such as protein cavity and hydration. Here we discuss, firstly, basic equations in statics and kinetics of protein polymerization as employed to obtain thermodynamic, volumetric, and kinetic parameters. Equilibrium treatment of the reactions with the scheme such as one-step polymerization, linear-association polymerization, or nucleation-dependent polymerization, and kinetic treatment of seeded linear-polymerization or spontaneous nucleation-elongation polymerization are described. In particular we will detail kinetics of the dissociation of fibrils which have been produced under the linear-association mechanism and therefore the length-distribution of which conforms to a geometric sequence in the degree of polymerization with a common ratio r, which is less than, and usually very close to, unity. In this case, an observed macroscopic rate of dissociation is shown to be a product of the microscopic elementary dissociation rate constant and a factor (1-r), extremely reduced compared with the intrinsic elementary rate. Secondly, we discuss protein conformational states in fibrillogenesis with molecular and volumetric observations reported, such as the unfolded state responsible for the association with seeds and the extension of amyloid fibrils, the transition state in which protein cavity formation and dehydration occur to intermediate levels, and the fibril state in which they occur to final respective levels which, in some cases, depend on the maturity of the fibril.

  1. Static Recrystallization Kinetics and Crystallographic Texture of Nb-Stabilized Ferritic Stainless Steel Based on Orientation Imaging Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malta, Paula Oliveira; Alves, Davi Silva; Ferreira, Aline Oliveira Vasconcelos; Moutinho, Iane Dutra; Dias, Carolina Arriel Pedroso; Santos, Dagoberto Brandão

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, Nb-stabilized ferritic stainless steel was prepared with annealing (430-A) and without annealing (430-NA) annealing, and the microstructure of the resulting samples was examined. The steel was then subjected to cold rolling and isothermal annealing in order to analyze its recrystallization kinetics and texture evolution. Microstructural characterization was performed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Recrystallization kinetics were evaluated by measuring the microhardness of the samples, and analyzing their kernel average misorientation and grain orientation spread via electron backscatter diffraction. The Avrami exponent data revealed that one-dimensional grain growth occurred owing to the migration of high-angle grain boundaries. The mean activation energies for recrystallization for 430-NA and 430-A was found to be 365 and 419 kJ mol-1, respectively. The recrystallization texture was influenced by oriented nucleation and selected growth mechanisms, as well as by the Nb carbonitride distribution and grain boundary energy. The recrystallized and growing grains with the {554}<225> orientation showed a dimensional advantage over the other recrystallized components. The coincident site lattice boundaries were attributed to the progression of recrystallization since the CSL numeric fraction increased as the temperature increased. The {554}<225> component was associated with the ∑19a boundary, which exerted a significant control on the selective growth during the recrystallization.

  2. Static Recrystallization Kinetics and Crystallographic Texture of Nb-Stabilized Ferritic Stainless Steel Based on Orientation Imaging Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malta, Paula Oliveira; Alves, Davi Silva; Ferreira, Aline Oliveira Vasconcelos; Moutinho, Iane Dutra; Dias, Carolina Arriel Pedroso; Santos, Dagoberto Brandão

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, Nb-stabilized ferritic stainless steel was prepared with annealing (430-A) and without annealing (430-NA) annealing, and the microstructure of the resulting samples was examined. The steel was then subjected to cold rolling and isothermal annealing in order to analyze its recrystallization kinetics and texture evolution. Microstructural characterization was performed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Recrystallization kinetics were evaluated by measuring the microhardness of the samples, and analyzing their kernel average misorientation and grain orientation spread via electron backscatter diffraction. The Avrami exponent data revealed that one-dimensional grain growth occurred owing to the migration of high-angle grain boundaries. The mean activation energies for recrystallization for 430-NA and 430-A was found to be 365 and 419 kJ mol-1, respectively. The recrystallization texture was influenced by oriented nucleation and selected growth mechanisms, as well as by the Nb carbonitride distribution and grain boundary energy. The recrystallized and growing grains with the {554}<225> orientation showed a dimensional advantage over the other recrystallized components. The coincident site lattice boundaries were attributed to the progression of recrystallization since the CSL numeric fraction increased as the temperature increased. The {554}<225> component was associated with the ∑19a boundary, which exerted a significant control on the selective growth during the recrystallization.

  3. Tribological properties of the disc brake friction couple materials in the range of small and very small speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, N. A.; Petrescu, A. M.; Tudor, A.; Predescu, A.

    2017-02-01

    The tribological properties of the friction couple materials have a major influence on the brake system operation and its failure. One of the main phenomena associated as a symptom of failure in the brake system are the noises and vibrations produced during braking. The stick-slip phenomenon is attributed as the cause of these noises and vibrations. The stick-slip phenomenon usually appears at low and very low sliding speeds and is described as intermittences in the friction process caused by the differences between the values of the kinetic and the static friction coefficients. The present paper addresses an investigation about the influence of the static and kinetic friction on the occurrence of above mentioned noises and vibrations in the disc brake system. For this, extensive experimental work was performed on a laboratory tribometer in the form of pin-on-disc tests, where the pin was manufactured out of an automotive brake pad and the disc was manufactured out of an automotive grey cast iron brake disc. The results highlight the effects of the sliding speed and contact pressure on the friction coefficient and its influence on the brake noises and vibrations caused by the stick-slip phenomenon.

  4. Theory and simulation of diffusion-controlled Michaelis-Menten kinetics for a static enzyme in solution.

    PubMed

    Park, Soohyung; Agmon, Noam

    2008-05-15

    We develop a uniform theory for the many-particle diffusion-control effects on the Michaelis-Menten scheme in solution, based on the Gopich-Szabo relaxation-time approximation (Gopich, I. V.; Szabo, A. J. Chem. Phys. 2002, 117, 507). We extend the many-particle simulation algorithm to the Michaelis-Menten case by utilizing the Green function previously derived for excited-state reversible geminate recombination with different lifetimes (Gopich, I. V.; Agmon, N. J. Chem. Phys. 2000, 110, 10433). Running the simulation for representative parameter sets in the time domain and under steady-state conditions, we find poor agreement with classical kinetics but excellent agreement with some of the modern theories for bimolecular diffusion-influenced reactions. Our simulation algorithm can be readily extended to the biologically interesting case of dense patches of membrane-bound enzymes.

  5. Associative phase separation of beta-lactoglobulin/pectin solutions: a kinetic study by small angle static light scattering.

    PubMed

    Girard, Maude; Sanchez, Christian; Laneuville, Sandra I; Turgeon, Sylvie L; Gauthier, Sylvie F

    2004-05-01

    Interpolymer complexation between beta-lactoglobulin (beta-lg) and pectin led to phase separation. Small angle static light scattering and phase contrast microscopy were used to monitor the phase separation of beta-lg/low-methoxyl or high-methoxyl-pectin (LM- or HM-pectin) dispersions as they were slowly acidified from pH 7 to 4 with glucono-delta-lactone (GDL). The monotonic decrease in scattered light intensity with the wave vector was associated with a nucleation and growth phase separation mechanism. Microscopic observations and turbidity measurements showed the increase of complex amounts with lower pH and at higher beta-lg/pectin ratios. The formation of intrapolymer complexes was initiated at pH 6.4 with the LM-pectin and at pH 5.0 with the HM-pectin. Local ordering with increasing amounts of small complexes was observed as scattered light intensity increased at intermediate q values. The beta-lg/LM-pectin complexes at the 5:1 and the 2:1 weight ratios and the beta-lg/HM-pectin complexes at 5:1 weight ratio have fractal structures. The formation of large amounts of small assemblies and sedimentation would be responsible for the decrease in the number and volume mean diameters and fractal dimension of beta-lg/LM-pectin complexes over time.

  6. The effect of strain rate sensitivity on dynamic friction of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Brechet, Y. . Lab. de Thermodynamique et Physico-Chimie Metallurgique); Estrin, Y. . Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering)

    1994-06-01

    A simple model relating the plastic constitutive equation to the static and the dynamic coefficient of friction has been developed. It can describe the time dependent effects in static solid friction, as well as predict some special features of the dynamic friction coefficient which may be of relevance for stick-slip phenomena in solid friction. In particular, the model highlights the effect of the intrinsic material characteristic, viz. the strain rate sensitivity of the flow stress, on the friction properties.

  7. Frictional and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon-coated orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Muguruma, Takeshi; Iijima, Masahiro; Brantley, William A; Nakagaki, Susumu; Endo, Kazuhiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on frictional and mechanical properties of orthodontic brackets. DLC films were deposited on stainless steel brackets using the plasma-based ion implantation/deposition (PBIID) method under two different atmospheric conditions. As-received metal brackets served as the control. Two sizes of stainless steel archwires, 0.018 inch diameter and 0.017 × 0.025 inch cross-section dimensions, were used for measuring static and kinetic friction by drawing the archwires through the bracket slots, using a mechanical testing machine (n = 10). The DLC-coated brackets were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Values of hardness and elastic modulus were obtained by nanoindentation testing (n = 10). Friction forces were compared by one-way analysis of variance and the Scheffé test. The hardness and elastic modulus of the brackets were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. SEM photomicrographs showed DLC layers on the bracket surfaces with thickness of approximately 5-7 μm. DLC-coated brackets deposited under condition 2 showed significantly less static frictional force for the stainless steel wire with 0.017 × 0.025 inch cross-section dimensions than as-received brackets and DLC-coated brackets deposited under condition 1, although both DLC-coated brackets showed significantly less kinetic frictional force than as-received brackets. The hardness of the DLC layers was much higher than that of the as-received bracket surfaces. In conclusion, the surfaces of metal brackets can be successfully modified by the PBIID method to create a DLC layer, and the DLC-coating process significantly reduces frictional forces.

  8. A study on the kinetic behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in ice cream stored under static and dynamic chilling and freezing conditions.

    PubMed

    Gougouli, M; Angelidis, A S; Koutsoumanis, K

    2008-02-01

    The kinetic behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in 2 commercial ice cream products (A and B) that were inoculated and stored under static chilling (4 to 16 degrees C), static freezing (-5 to -33 degrees C), dynamic chilling, and dynamic chilling-freezing conditions was studied, simulating conditions of the aging process and of normal or abuse conditions during distribution and storage. The ice cream products A and B had different compositions but similar pH (6.50 and 6.67, respectively) and water activity (0.957 and 0.965, respectively) values. For both chilling and freezing conditions, the kinetic behavior of the pathogen was similar in the 2 products, indicating that the pH and water activity, together with temperature, were the main factors controlling growth. Under chilling conditions, L. monocytogenes grew well at all temperatures tested. Under freezing conditions, no significant changes in the population of the pathogen were observed throughout a 90-d storage period for either of the inoculum levels tested (10(3) and 10(6) cfu/g). Growth data from chilled storage conditions were fitted to a mathematical model, and the calculated maximum specific growth rate was modeled as a function of temperature by using a square root model. The model was further validated under dynamic chilling and dynamic chilling-freezing conditions by using 4 different storage temperature scenarios. Under dynamic chilling conditions, the model accurately predicted the growth of the pathogen in both products, with 99.5% of the predictions lying within the +/- 20% relative error zone. The results from the chilling-freezing storage experiments showed that the pathogen was able to initiate growth within a very short time after a temperature upshift from freezing to chilling temperatures. This indicates that the freezing conditions did not cause a severe stress in L. monocytogenes cells capable of leading to a significant "additional" lag phase during the subsequent growth of the pathogen at

  9. Load and Time Dependence of Interfacial Chemical Bond-Induced Friction at the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Kaiwen; Gosvami, Nitya N.; Goldsby, David L.; Liu, Yun; Szlufarska, Izabela; Carpick, Robert W.

    2017-02-01

    Rate and state friction (RSF) laws are widely used empirical relationships that describe the macroscale frictional behavior of a broad range of materials, including rocks found in the seismogenic zone of Earth's crust. A fundamental aspect of the RSF laws is frictional "aging," where friction increases with the time of stationary contact due to asperity creep and/or interfacial strengthening. Recent atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments and simulations found that nanoscale silica contacts exhibit aging due to the progressive formation of interfacial chemical bonds. The role of normal load (and, thus, normal stress) on this interfacial chemical bond-induced (ICBI) friction is predicted to be significant but has not been examined experimentally. Here, we show using AFM that, for nanoscale ICBI friction of silica-silica interfaces, aging (the difference between the maximum static friction and the kinetic friction) increases approximately linearly with the product of the normal load and the log of the hold time. This behavior is attributed to the approximately linear dependence of the contact area on the load in the positive load regime before significant wear occurs, as inferred from sliding friction measurements. This implies that the average pressure, and thus the average bond formation rate, is load independent within the accessible load range. We also consider a more accurate nonlinear model for the contact area, from which we extract the activation volume and the average stress-free energy barrier to the aging process. Our work provides an approach for studying the load and time dependence of contact aging at the nanoscale and further establishes RSF laws for nanoscale asperity contacts.

  10. General theory of frictional heating with application to rubber friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunato, G.; Ciaravola, V.; Furno, A.; Lorenz, B.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2015-05-01

    The energy dissipation in the contact regions between solids in sliding contact can result in high local temperatures which may strongly effect friction and wear. This is the case for rubber sliding on road surfaces at speeds above 1 mm s-1. We derive equations which describe the frictional heating for solids with arbitrary thermal properties. The theory is applied to rubber friction on road surfaces and we take into account that the frictional energy is partly produced inside the rubber due to the internal friction of rubber and in a thin (nanometer) interfacial layer at the rubber-road contact region. The heat transfer between the rubber and the road surface is described by a heat transfer coefficient which depends on the sliding speed. Numerical results are presented and compared to experimental data. We find that frictional heating results in a kinetic friction force which depends on the orientation of the sliding block, thus violating one of the two basic Leonardo da Vinci ‘laws’ of friction.

  11. Influence of surface charge on wetting kinetics.

    PubMed

    Puah, Lee San; Sedev, Rossen; Fornasiero, Daniel; Ralston, John; Blake, Terry

    2010-11-16

    The wettability of a titania surface, partially covered with octadecyltrihydrosilane, has been investigated as a function of solution pH. The results show that surface charge affects both static wettability and wetting kinetics. The static contact angle decreases above and below the point of zero charge of the titania surface in a Lippman-like manner as the pH is altered. The dependence of dynamic contact angle on velocity is also affected by pH. The molecular-kinetic theory (MKT) is used to interpret the dynamic contact angle data. The frequency of molecular displacement κ(0) strongly varies with surface charge, whereas the mean molecular displacement length λ is essentially unaffected. There is an exponential dependence of contact-line friction upon work of adhesion, which is varied simply by altering the pH.

  12. Internal rotor friction instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1990-01-01

    The analytical developments and experimental investigations performed in assessing the effect of internal friction on rotor systems dynamic performance are documented. Analytical component models for axial splines, Curvic splines, and interference fit joints commonly found in modern high speed turbomachinery were developed. Rotor systems operating above a bending critical speed were shown to exhibit unstable subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. The effect of speed, bearing stiffness, joint stiffness, external damping, torque, and coefficient of friction, was evaluated. Testing included material coefficient of friction evaluations, component joint quantity and form of damping determinations, and rotordynamic stability assessments. Under conditions similar to those in the SSME turbopumps, material interfaces experienced a coefficient of friction of approx. 0.2 for lubricated and 0.8 for unlubricated conditions. The damping observed in the component joints displayed nearly linear behavior with increasing amplitude. Thus, the measured damping, as a function of amplitude, is not represented by either linear or Coulomb friction damper models. Rotordynamic testing of an axial spline joint under 5000 in.-lb of static torque, demonstrated the presence of an extremely severe instability when the rotor was operated above its first flexible natural frequency. The presence of this instability was predicted by nonlinear rotordynamic time-transient analysis using the nonlinear component model developed under this program. Corresponding rotordynamic testing of a shaft with an interference fit joint demonstrated the presence of subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. While subsynchronous vibrations were observed, they were bounded and significantly lower in amplitude than the synchronous vibrations.

  13. Comparison of friction forces between stainless orthodontic steel brackets and TiNi wires in wet and dry conditions.

    PubMed

    Phukaoluan, Aphinan; Khantachawana, Anak; Kaewtatip, Pongpan; Dechkunakorn, Surachai; Anuwongnukroh, Niwat; Santiwong, Peerapong; Kajornchaiyakul, Julathep

    2017-03-01

    In sliding mechanics, frictional force is an important counter-balancing element to orthodontic tooth movement, which must be controlled in order to allow application of light continuous forces. The purpose of this study was to compare the frictional forces between a stainless steel bracket and five different wire alloys under dry and wet (artificial saliva) conditions. TiNi, TiNiCu, TiNiCo, commercial wires A and commercial wires B with equal dimensions of 0.016×0.022'' were tested in this experiment. The stainless steel bracket was chosen with a slot dimension of 0.022''. Micro-hardness of the wires was measured by the Vickers micro-hardness test. Surface topography of wires was measured by an optical microscope and quantified using surface roughness testing. Static and kinetic friction forces were measured using a custom-designed apparatus, with a 3-mm stretch of wire alloy at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. The static and dynamic frictions in the wet condition tended to decrease more slowly than those in the dry condition. Therefore, the friction of TiNiCu and commercial wires B would increase. Moreover, these results were associated with scarred surfaces, i.e. the increase in friction would result in a larger bracket microfracture. From the results, it is seen that copper addition resulted in an increase in friction under both wet and dry conditions. However, the friction in the wet condition was less than that in dry condition due to the lubricating effect of artificial saliva.

  14. Internal friction in solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wert, C. A.

    1986-09-01

    Study of the damping of vibrations in solids has developed into an acoustical spectroscopy which can elucidate many geometrical, thermodynamic, and kinetic characteristics of solids. In a relatively brief 15 years, between 1935 and 1950, Clarence Zener contributed physical insight, analytical procedures, and suggestions for important topics which persist even today. This review traces development of ideas and techniques from that period to the present. It uses chiefly as examples the flow of heat across vibrating reeds (and the corollary Gorsky effect), the Snoek effect in interstitial alloys, and the Zener effect in substitutional alloys. Internal friction of molecular reorientation in polymeric solids is described. Finally, the joint use of internal friction and dielectric loss is demonstrated to provide additional insight into molecular configurations in solids which are both mechanical and electric dipoles.

  15. Rate-dependent frictional adhesion in natural and synthetic gecko setae.

    PubMed

    Gravish, Nick; Wilkinson, Matt; Sponberg, Simon; Parness, Aaron; Esparza, Noe; Soto, Daniel; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Broide, Michael; Cutkosky, Mark; Creton, Costantino; Autumn, Kellar

    2010-02-06

    Geckos owe their remarkable stickiness to millions of dry, hard setae on their toes. In this study, we discovered that gecko setae stick more strongly the faster they slide, and do not wear out after 30,000 cycles. This is surprising because friction between dry, hard, macroscopic materials typically decreases at the onset of sliding, and as velocity increases, friction continues to decrease because of a reduction in the number of interfacial contacts, due in part to wear. Gecko setae did not exhibit the decrease in adhesion or friction characteristic of a transition from static to kinetic contact mechanics. Instead, friction and adhesion forces increased at the onset of sliding and continued to increase with shear speed from 500 nm s(-1) to 158 mm s(-1). To explain how apparently fluid-like, wear-free dynamic friction and adhesion occur macroscopically in a dry, hard solid, we proposed a model based on a population of nanoscopic stick-slip events. In the model, contact elements are either in static contact or in the process of slipping to a new static contact. If stick-slip events are uncorrelated, the model further predicted that contact forces should increase to a critical velocity (V*) and then decrease at velocities greater than V*. We hypothesized that, like natural gecko setae, but unlike any conventional adhesive, gecko-like synthetic adhesives (GSAs) could adhere while sliding. To test the generality of our results and the validity of our model, we fabricated a GSA using a hard silicone polymer. While sliding, the GSA exhibited steady-state adhesion and velocity dependence similar to that of gecko setae. Observations at the interface indicated that macroscopically smooth sliding of the GSA emerged from randomly occurring stick-slip events in the population of flexible fibrils, confirming our model predictions.

  16. Thermodynamics of a Block Sliding across a Frictional Surface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2007-01-01

    The following idealized problem is intended to illustrate some basic thermodynamic concepts involved in kinetic friction. A block of mass m is sliding on top of a frictional, flat-topped table of mass M. The table is magnetically levitated, so that it can move without thermal contact and friction across a horizontal floor. The table is initially…

  17. Dynamics for Robot Control: Friction Modeling and Ensuring Excitation During Parameter Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    73], very short break-away distances [ Rabinowicz 51], much longer break-away distances [Dahl 77], the presence of a static friction component [Bowden...and Tabor 73; Rabinowicz 511, and the absence of a static friction component [Dahl 77]. Among control experimentalists who attempt to model friction...predictive model is predicated upon repeatability. Tribologists have studied the variance of friction forces in carefully controlled situations [ Rabinowicz

  18. THE FRICTION OF QUARTZ IN HIGH VACUUM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    the effects of surface cleanliness . Ultra-high vacuums (to 10 to the minus 10th power torr) and high temperatures (to 350 deg C) were combined with...chemical cleaning and careful handling techniques to produce the maximum surface cleanliness . The coefficient of static friction under varying...on 30-40 mesh glass balls. The coefficient of friction of smooth quartz was found to vary from 0.1 to 1.0 depending on the surface cleanliness . The

  19. Friction of ice measured using lateral force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bluhm, Hendrik; Inoue, Takahito; Salmeron, Miquel

    2000-03-15

    The friction of nanometer thin ice films grown on mica substrates is investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Friction was found to be of similar magnitude as the static friction of ice reported in macroscopic experiments. The possible existence of a lubricating film of water due to pressure melting, frictional heating, and surface premelting is discussed based on the experimental results using noncontact, contact, and lateral force microscopy. We conclude that AFM measures the dry friction of ice due to the low scan speed and the squeezing out of the water layer between the sharp AFM tip and the ice surface. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  20. The Load and Time Dependence of Chemical Bonding-Induced Frictional Ageing of Silica at the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, K.; Gosvami, N. N.; Goldsby, D. L.; Carpick, R. W.

    2015-12-01

    Rate and state friction (RSF) laws are empirical relationships that describe the frictional behavior of rocks and other materials in experiments, and reproduce a variety of observed natural behavior when employed in earthquake models. A pervasive observation from rock friction experiments is the linear increase of static friction with the log of contact time, or 'ageing'. Ageing is usually attributed to an increase in real area of contact associated with asperity creep. However, recent atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments demonstrate that ageing of nanoscale silica-silica contacts is due to progressive formation of interfacial chemical bonds in the absence of plastic deformation, in a manner consistent with the multi-contact ageing behavior of rocks [Li et al., 2011]. To further investigate chemical bonding-induced ageing, we explored the influence of normal load (and thus contact normal stress) and contact time on ageing. Experiments that mimic slide-hold-slide rock friction experiments were conducted in the AFM for contact loads and hold times ranging from 23 to 393 nN and 0.1 to 100 s, respectively, all in humid air (~50% RH) at room temperature. Experiments were conducted by sequentially sliding the AFM tip on the sample at a velocity V of 0.5 μm/s, setting V to zero and holding the tip stationary for a given time, and finally resuming sliding at 0.5 μm/s to yield a peak value of friction followed by a drop to the sliding friction value. Chemical bonding-induced ageing, as measured by the peak friction minus the sliding friction, increases approximately linearly with the product of normal load and the log of the hold time. Theoretical studies of the roles of reaction energy barriers in nanoscale ageing indicate that frictional ageing depends on the total number of reaction sites and the hold time [Liu & Szlufarska, 2012]. We combine chemical kinetics analyses with contact mechanics models to explain our results, and develop a new approach for curve

  1. Static penetration resistance of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durgunoglu, H. T.; Mitchell, J. K.

    1973-01-01

    Model test results were used to define the failure mechanism associated with the static penetration resistance of cohesionless and low-cohesion soils. Knowledge of this mechanism has permitted the development of a new analytical method for calculating the ultimate penetration resistance which explicitly accounts for penetrometer base apex angle and roughness, soil friction angle, and the ratio of penetration depth to base width. Curves relating the bearing capacity factors to the soil friction angle are presented for failure in general shear. Strength parameters and penetrometer interaction properties of a fine sand were determined and used as the basis for prediction of the penetration resistance encountered by wedge, cone, and flat-ended penetrometers of different surface roughness using the proposed analytical method. Because of the close agreement between predicted values and values measured in laboratory tests, it appears possible to deduce in-situ soil strength parameters and their variation with depth from the results of static penetration tests.

  2. Friction of different monolayer lubricants in MEMs interfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Carpick, Robert W. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Street, Mark D.; Ashurst, William Robert; Corwin, Alex David

    2006-01-01

    This report details results from our last year of work (FY2005) on friction in MEMS as funded by the Campaign 6 program for the Microscale Friction project. We have applied different monolayers to a sensitive MEMS friction tester called the nanotractor. The nanotractor is also a useful actuator that can travel {+-}100 {micro}m in 40 nm steps, and is being considered for several MEMS applications. With this tester, we can find static and dynamic coefficients of friction. We can also quantify deviations from Amontons' and Coulomb's friction laws. Because of the huge surface-to-volume ratio at the microscale, surface properties such as adhesion and friction can dominate device performance, and therefore such deviations are important to quantify and understand. We find that static and dynamic friction depend on the monolayer lubricant applied. The friction data can be modeled with a non-zero adhesion force, which represents a deviation from Amontons' Law. Further, we show preliminary data indicating that the adhesion force depends not only on the monolayer, but also on the normal load applied. Finally, we also observe slip deflections before the transition from static to dynamic friction, and find that they depend on the monolayer.

  3. Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    by gravity, and a vehicle (such as a car or bicycle ) accelerating along a level road is driven by a motor or by pedalling. In such cases, static...continuously roll. Consider a cart of mass m that is free rolling up an incline, as sketched in figure 1. The total frictional force f on the cart

  4. Intrinsic Friction Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Daniel; Overney, Rene

    2008-03-01

    A novel scanning probe methodology based on lateral force microscopy is presented wherein kinetic friction measurements, obtained as a function of velocity for various temperatures, are used to deduce apparent Arrhenius-type activation energies for surface and subsurface molecular mobilities. Depending on the coupling strength (cooperativity) between molecular mobilities involved the dissipation energy can carry a significant entropic energy contribution, accounting for the majority of the apparent Arrhenius activation energy. The intrinsic friction methodology also provides a means of directly separating enthalpic energy contributions from entropic ones by employing absolute rate theory. As such, the degree of cooperativity in the system is readily apparent. This methodology is illustrated with nanoscale tribological experiments on two systems, (1) monodisperse, atactic polystyrene and (2) self assembling molecular glassy chromophores. In polystyrene, dissipation was found to be a discrete function of loading, where the γ-relaxation (phenyl group rotation) was recovered for ultra low loads and the β-relaxation (local backbone translation) for higher loads in the same temperature range, indicating sensitivity to surface and subsurface mobilities. For self assembling glassy chromophores, the degree of intermolecular cooperativity was deduced using the methodology, resulting in an increased understanding of the interactions between self assembling molecules.

  5. Active Dynamic Frictional Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steimel, Joshua; Aragones, Juan; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2015-03-01

    In biological systems there are a myriad of interactions occurring instantaneously and these interactions can vary drastically in the strength of the interaction, the speed at which this interaction occurs, and the duration of the interaction. When multiple interactions occur any of these factors can determine which particular interaction is dominant. However, currently it is extremely difficult to measure binding affinity, Kon, and Koff rates in a relatively high throughput manner. Here we propose a novel and versatile system that will be able to detect differences in binding affinity of wide range of transient interactions and will be able to extract the relevant time scales of these interactions. Our system will utilize ferromagnetic particles that can be easily functionalized with a receptor of interest and the substrate will be coated in the corresponding ligand. A rotating magnetic field will cause particles, henceforth referred to as rollers, to rotate and this rotational motion will be converted into translational motion via the effective frictional force induced by interaction that is being probed. By measuring the translation of the rollers to a baseline, where only hydrodynamic friction occurs, we can measure the relative strength of the interactions. We can also potentially measure kinetic information by changing the frequency at which the magnetic field rotates, since changing the frequency at which the bead rotates is akin to changing the time allowed for bond formation. We will measure a wide range of interaction including ionic, metal-ion coordination, IgG-Protein A complex, and biotin-streptavidin complex.

  6. The role of friction in the measurement of slipperiness, Part 1: friction mechanisms and definition of test conditions.

    PubMed

    Chang, W R; Grönqvist, R; Leclercq, S; Myung, R; Makkonen, L; Strandberg, L; Brungraber, R J; Mattke, U; Thorpe, S C

    2001-10-20

    Friction has been widely used as a measure of slipperiness. However, controversies around friction measurements remain. The purposes of this paper are to summarize understanding about friction measurement related to slipperiness assessment of shoe and floor interface and to define test conditions based on biomechanical observations. In addition, friction mechanisms at shoe and floor interface on dry, liquid and solid contaminated, and on icy surfaces are discussed. It is concluded that static friction measurement, by the traditional use of a drag-type device, is only suitable for dry and clean surfaces, and dynamic and transition friction methods are needed to properly estimate the potential risk on contaminated surfaces. Furthermore, at least some of the conditions at the shoe/floor interface during actual slip accidents should be replicated as test conditions for friction measurements, such as sliding speed, contact pressure and normal force build-up rate.

  7. Adjustments to local friction in multifinger prehension.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Tomoko; Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2007-07-01

    The authors studied the effects of surface friction at the digit-object interface on digit forces and moments when 12 participants statically held an object in a 5-digit grasp. The authors changed low-friction contact (LFC) with rayon and high-friction contact (HFC) with sandpaper independently for each digit in all 32 possible combinations. Normal forces of the thumb and virtual finger (VF), an imagined finger with a mechanical effect equal to that of the 4 fingers, increased with the thumb at LFC or with an increase in the number of fingers at LFC. When the thumb was at LFC, the thumb tangential force decreased. The VF tangential force decreased when the number of fingers at LFC increased. The interaction of the local responses to friction and the synergic responses necessary to maintain the equilibrium explain the coordination of individual digit forces.

  8. Adjustments to Local Friction in Multifinger Prehension

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Tomoko; Latash, Mark L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of surface friction at the digit–object interface on digit forces and moments when 12 participants statically held an object in a 5-digit grasp. The authors changed low-friction contact (LFC) with rayon and high-friction contact (HFC) with sandpaper independently for each digit in all 32 possible combinations. Normal forces of the thumb and virtual finger (VF), an imagined finger with a mechanical effect equal to that of the 4 fingers, increased with the thumb at LFC or with an increase in the number of fingers at LFC. When the thumb was at LFC, the thumb tangential force decreased. The VF tangential force decreased when the number of fingers at LFC increased. The interaction of the local responses to friction and the synergic responses necessary to maintain the equilibrium explain the coordination of individual digit forces. PMID:17664170

  9. Formation and rupture of capillary bridges in atomic scale friction.

    PubMed

    Barel, Itay; Filippov, Aleksander E; Urbakh, M

    2012-10-28

    While formation of capillary bridges significantly contributes to the adhesion and friction at micro- and nanoscales, many key aspects of dynamics of capillary condensation and its effect on friction forces are still not well understood. Here, by analytical model and numerical simulations, we address the origin of reduction of friction force with velocity and increase of friction with temperature, which have been experimentally observed under humid ambient conditions. These observations differ significantly from the results of friction experiments carried out under ultrahigh vacuum, and disagree with predictions of thermal Prandtl-Tomlinson model of friction. Our calculations demonstrate what information on the kinetics of capillary condensation can be extracted from measurements of friction forces and suggest optimal conditions for obtaining this information.

  10. Formation and rupture of capillary bridges in atomic scale friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barel, Itay; Filippov, Aleksander E.; Urbakh, M.

    2012-10-01

    While formation of capillary bridges significantly contributes to the adhesion and friction at micro- and nanoscales, many key aspects of dynamics of capillary condensation and its effect on friction forces are still not well understood. Here, by analytical model and numerical simulations, we address the origin of reduction of friction force with velocity and increase of friction with temperature, which have been experimentally observed under humid ambient conditions. These observations differ significantly from the results of friction experiments carried out under ultrahigh vacuum, and disagree with predictions of thermal Prandtl-Tomlinson model of friction. Our calculations demonstrate what information on the kinetics of capillary condensation can be extracted from measurements of friction forces and suggest optimal conditions for obtaining this information.

  11. On the dependency of friction on load: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, O. M.; Steenwyk, B.; Warhadpande, A.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2016-03-01

    In rubber friction studies it is often observed that the kinetic friction coefficient depends on the nominal contact pressure. This is usually due to frictional heating, which softens the rubber, increases the area of contact, and (in most cases) reduces the viscoelastic contribution to the friction. In this paper we present experimental results showing that the rubber friction also depends on the nominal contact pressure at such low sliding speed that frictional heating is negligible. This effect has important implications for rubber sliding dynamics, e.g., in the context of the tire-road grip. We attribute this effect to the viscoelastic coupling between the macroasperity contact regions, and present a simple earthquakelike model and numerical simulations supporting this picture. The mechanism for the dependency of the friction coefficient on the load considered is very general, and is relevant for non-rubber materials as well.

  12. Onset of frictional sliding of rubber–glass contact under dry and lubricated conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tuononen, Ari J.

    2016-01-01

    Rubber friction is critical in many applications ranging from automotive tyres to cylinder seals. The process where a static rubber sample transitions to frictional sliding is particularly poorly understood. The experimental and simulation results in this paper show a completely different detachment process from the static situation to sliding motion under dry and lubricated conditions. The results underline the contribution of the rubber bulk properties to the static friction force. In fact, simple Amontons’ law is sufficient as a local friction law to produce the correct detachment pattern when the rubber material and loading conditions are modelled properly. Simulations show that micro-sliding due to vertical loading can release initial shear stresses and lead to a high static/dynamic friction coefficient ratio, as observed in the measurements. PMID:27291939

  13. A mechanism of stick-slip fault sliding without friction rate dependence and supersonic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachevtseva, Iuliia; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Stick-slip sliding is often observed at various scales and in particular in fault sliding and the accompanied seismic events. Stick-slip is conventionally associated with rate-dependent friction, in particular the intermittent change between static and kinetic friction. However the accumulation of elastic energy in the sliding plates on both sides of the fault can produce oscillations in the velocity of sliding even if the friction coefficient is constant. This manifests itself in terms of oscillations in the sliding velocity somewhat resembling the stick-slip movement. Furthermore, over long faults the sliding exhibits wave-like propagation. We present a model that shows that the zones of non-zero sliding velocities propagate along the fault with the velocity of p-wave. The mechanism of such fast wave propagation is the normal (tensile/compressive) stresses in the neighbouring elements (normal stresses on the planes normal to the fault surface). The strains associated with these stresses are controlled by the Young's modulus rather than shear modulus resulting in the p-wave velocity of propagation of the sliding zone. This manifests itself as a supersonic (with respect to the s-waves) propagation of an apparent shear rupture.

  14. High-vacuum adhesion and friction properties of sliding contact-mode micromachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, H.; Komvopoulos, K.

    2013-07-01

    The evolution of adhesion and friction in contact-mode micromachines operated in high vacuum was studied by tracking changes in the adhesive pressure, interfacial shear strength, and static coefficient of friction with accumulating sliding cycles. Low adhesion and high static friction observed during the initial stage of sliding were followed by monotonically intensifying adhesion and decreasing friction until reaching an equilibrium stage at steady-state sliding. This trend revealed the existence of two friction regimes in which asperity deformation and adhesion were the dominant friction mechanisms. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy observations indicated that sliding resulted in physical and chemical surface changes. The evolution of the adhesion and friction properties with sliding cycles is attributed to the increase of both the real contact area and the work of adhesion due to nanoscale surface smoothening and the removal of contaminant adsorbents, respectively.

  15. Nanotribology and Nanoscale Friction

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yi; Qu, Zhihua; Braiman, Yehuda; Zhang, Zhenyu; Barhen, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Tribology is the science and technology of contacting solid surfaces in relative motion, including the study of lubricants, lubrication, friction, wear, and bearings. It is estimated that friction and wear cost the U.S. economy 6% of the gross national product (Persson, 2000). For example, 5% of the total energy generated in an automobile engine is lost to frictional resistance. The study of nanoscale friction has a technological impact in reducing energy loss in machines, in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and in the development of durable, low-friction surfaces and ultra-thin lubrication films.

  16. Static and turnover kinetic measurement of protein biomarkers involved in triglyceride metabolism including apoB48 and apoA5 by LC/MS/MS[S

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yi; Zhou, Haihong; Mahsut, Ablatt; Rohm, Rory J.; Berejnaia, Olga; Price, Olga; Chen, Ying; Castro-Perez, Jose; Lassman, Michael E.; McLaren, David; Conway, James; Jensen, Kristian K.; Thomas, Tiffany; Reyes-Soffer, Gissette; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Gutstein, David E.; Cleary, Michele; Previs, Stephen F.; Roddy, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    LC/MS quantification of multiple plasma proteins that differ by several orders of magnitude in concentration from a single sample is challenging. We present a strategy that allows the simultaneous determination of the concentration and turnover kinetics of higher and lower abundant proteins from a single digestion mixture. Our attention was directed at a cluster of proteins that interact to affect the absorption and interorgan lipid trafficking. We demonstrate that apos involved in TG metabolism such as apoC2, C3, E, and A4 (micromolar concentration), and apoB48 and apoA5 (single-digit nanomolar concentration) can be quantified from a single digestion mixture. A high degree of correlation between LC/MS and immunobased measurements for apoC2, C3, E, and B48 was observed. Moreover, apoA5 fractional synthesis rate was measured in humans for the first time. Finally, the method can be directly applied to studies involving nonhuman primates because peptide sequences used in the method are conserved between humans and nonhuman primates. PMID:24694356

  17. Dynamic measurements of gear tooth friction and load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebbechi, Brian; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a program to study fundamental mechanisms of gear noise, static and dynamic gear tooth strain measurements were made on the NASA gear-noise rig. Tooth-fillet strains from low-contact ratio-spur gears were recorded for 28 operating conditions. A method is introduced whereby strain gage measurements taken from both the tension and compression sides of a gear tooth can be transformed into the normal and frictional loads on the tooth. This technique was applied to both the static and dynamic strain data. The static case results showed close agreement with expected results. For the dynamic case, the normal-force computation produced very good results, but the friction results, although promising, were not as accurate. Tooth sliding friction strongly affected the signal from the strain gage on the tensionside of the tooth. The compression gage was affected by friction to a much lesser degree. The potential of the method to measure friction force was demonstrated, but further refinement will be required before this technique can be used to measure friction forces dynamically with an acceptable degree of accuracy.

  18. A hinged-pad test structure for sliding friction measurement in micromachining

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, M.P. de; Redmond, J.M.; Michalske, T.A.

    1998-08-01

    The authors describe the design, modeling, fabrication and initial testing of a new test structure for friction measurement in MEMS. The device consists of a cantilevered forked beam and a friction pad attached via a hinge. Compared to previous test structures, the proposed structure can measure friction over much larger pressure ranges, yet occupies one hundred times less area. The placement of the hinge is crucial to obtaining a well-known and constant pressure distribution in the device. Static deflections on the device were measured and modeled numerically, Preliminary results indicate that friction pad slip is sensitive to friction pad normal force.

  19. Major and minor slip-events in frictional stick-slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsekenis, Georgios; Tatar, Demet; Rubinstein, Shmuel; Weitz, David; Aziz, Michael; Spaepen, Frans

    Several universal phenomena characterize friction that are independent of the materials involved such as the logarithmic aging of the static friction coefficient and the logarithmic velocity weakening of the dynamic friction coefficient. We study dry friction between rough surfaces with programmed statistical profiles. By measuring the displacement field at the frictional interface we observe stick-slip behavior which reveals two kinds of slip: major events that tend to grow large and unbounded and minor events that usually stay small and bounded. Research supported by Harvard MRSEC Program under NSF contracts DMR-0820484, DMR-1420570.

  20. Method for Investigation of Frictional Properties at Impact Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundin, K. G.; Åhrström, B. O.

    1999-05-01

    In the assessment of lubricant performance and also in various other contact applications it is of importance to know the frictional qualities of a surface. Under quasi-static conditions, normal and frictional forces are measured using force transducers but the task is more difficult when loads are transient. The experimental method presented in this paper is based on the analysis of propagating waves in a beam, due to an impact on the end surface. The impact is oblique and therefore a transverse as well as a normal force is generated. The normal force history is measured from the axial non-dispersive wave using strain gauges. Transverse force and bending moment both generate dispersive flexural waves. From the FFT of two transverse acceleration histories, the frictional force at the end of the rod is evaluated using beam theory. The relation between normal and frictional force histories displays the frictional properties at the impact. Preliminary results are presented.

  1. Enhanced friction of elastomer microfiber adhesives with spatulate tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seok; Aksak, Burak; Sitti, Metin

    2007-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that gecko foot-hair inspired elastomer microfibers with spatulate tips have significant adhesion enhancement compared to the flat elastomer surface. In this study, we report the friction enhancement of these highly adhesive fibers and analyze the relation between adhesion and friction of elastomer microfiber arrays with spatulate tips. Fabricated polyurethane fiber arrays with spatulate tips demonstrate macroscale static friction pressures up to 41N/cm2 for a preload pressure of 1.5N/cm2 on a 6mm diameter smooth glass hemisphere.

  2. The friction and wear of TPS fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bascom, W. D.; Wong, S.

    1987-01-01

    The sliding friction behavior of single filaments of SiO2, SiC, and an aluminoborosilicate has been determined. These fibers are used in thermal protection systems (TPS) and are subject to damage during weaving and aero-maneuvering. All fibers exhibited stick-slip friction indicating the successive formation and rupture of strong junctions between the contacting filaments. The static frictional resistance of the sized SiC filament was 4X greater than for the same filament after heat cleaning. This result suggests that the sizing is an organic polymer with a high shear yield strength. Heat cleaning exposes the SiC surface and/or leaves an inorganic residue so that the adhesional contact between filaments has a low fracture energy and frictional sliding occurs by brittle fracture. The frictional resistances of the sized and heat cleaned SiO2 and glass filaments were all comparable to that of the heat cleaned SiC. It would appear that the sizings as well as the heat cleaned surfaces of the silica and glass have low fracture energies so that the sliding resistance is determined by brittle fracture.

  3. A study of frictional property of the human fingertip using three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroaki; Tada, Mitsunori; Mochimaru, Masaaki

    2011-03-01

    Since the tactile perception detects skin deformation due to the contact of an object, it is important to understand contact mechanics, especially, frictional behavior of the human fingertip. The coefficient of friction is recently modeled as a function of the applied normal load in which case the traditional Coulomb's law does not provide a description for the skin surface. When a surface is a rubber-like material, the frictional behavior follows the frictional law of the rubber-like material. Therefore, we developed a three-dimensional Finite Element model of the fingertip and analyzed frictional behavior based on the frictional law of rubber-like material. We proposed a combined technique using both experimental and Finite Element analyses in order to investigate the frictional property of the fingertip. A three-dimensional Finite Element model of the fingertip was developed using MRI images. We hypothesized a frictional equation of the critical shear stress. Squared differences between equivalent coefficient of friction of the FE analysis and the coefficient of kinetic friction of the experiment while sliding was decreased and the Finite Element analysis iterated until the error was minimized, and thus the frictional equation was determined. We obtained the equation of the critical shear stress and simulated kinetic friction of the fingertip while sliding under arbitrary normal loading condition by using the Finite Element analysis. We think this study is an appropriate method for understanding the frictional property of the human fingertip using the Finite Element analysis.

  4. Dependence of friction on roughness, velocity, and temperature.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yi; Dubé, Martin; Grant, Martin

    2008-03-01

    We study the dependence of friction on surface roughness, sliding velocity, and temperature. Expanding on the classic treatment of Greenwood and Williamson, we show that the fractal nature of a surface has little influence on the real area of contact and the static friction coefficient. A simple scaling argument shows that the static friction exhibits a weak anomaly mu ~ A(0)(-chi/4), where A0 is the apparent area and chi is the roughness exponent of the surface. We then develop a method to calculate atomic-scale friction between a microscopic asperity, such as the tip of a friction force microscope (FFM) and a solid substrate. This method, based on the thermal activation of the FFM tip, allows a quantitative extraction of all the relevant microscopic parameters and reveals a universal scaling behavior of atomic friction on velocity and temperature. This method is extended to include a soft atomic substrate in order to simulate FFM scans more realistically. The tip is connected with the support of the cantilever by an ideal spring and the substrate is simulated with a ball-spring model. The tip and substrate are coupled with repulsive potentials. Simulations are done at different temperatures and scanning velocities on substrates with different elastic moduli. Stick-slip motion of the tip is observed, and the numerical results of the friction force and distribution of force maxima match the theoretical framework.

  5. Friction-Stir Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    fatigue results for friction stir welded 2219 aluminum in the following conditions: 1) milled, 2) milled + LPB, 3) milled + 100 hours in a salt...same alloy following friction stir processing. Increased fatigue life in 5083-H321 aluminum fusion welds It will not be possible to friction...fine grain and weld defects near the surface will be eliminated. Potential benefits include both increased corrosion resistance and fatigue life

  6. Friction of rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byerlee, J.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental results in the published literature show that at low normal stress the shear stress required to slide one rock over another varies widely between experiments. This is because at low stress rock friction is strongly dependent on surface roughness. At high normal stress that effect is diminished and the friction is nearly independent of rock type. If the sliding surfaces are separated by gouge composed of Montmorillonite or vermiculite the friction can be very low. ?? 1978 Birkha??user Verlag.

  7. Rubber friction directional asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, A.; Dorogin, L.; Steenwyk, B.; Warhadpande, A.; Motamedi, M.; Fortunato, G.; Ciaravola, V.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2016-12-01

    In rubber friction studies it is usually assumed that the friction force does not depend on the sliding direction, unless the substrate has anisotropic properties, like a steel surface grinded in one direction. Here we will present experimental results for rubber friction, where we observe a strong asymmetry between forward and backward sliding, where forward and backward refer to the run-in direction of the rubber block. The observed effect could be very important in tire applications, where directional properties of the rubber friction could be induced during braking.

  8. Generation and propagation of stick-slip waves over a fault with rate-independent friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachevtseva, Iuliia; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Earthquakes generated at faults are either produced by rapid (sometimes supersonic) propagation of shear cracks/ruptures along the fault or originated in the stick-slip sliding over the fault. In some cases, supersonic (faster than the shear wave velocity) propagation of earthquake-generating shear ruptures or sliding is observed. This gave rise to the concept of supersonic shear crack propagation, much researched in the literature. Here we consider another mechanisms of supersonic sliding propagation. We concentrate on the stick-slip sliding as the earthquake mechanism. It is conventionally assumed that the mechanism of stick-slip lies in intermittent change between static and kinetic friction and the rate dependence of the friction coefficient. However the accumulation of elastic energy in the sliding plates on both sides of the fault can produce oscillations in the velocity of sliding even if the friction coefficient is constant. These oscillations resemble stick-slip movement, but they manifest themselves in terms of sliding velocity rather than displacement. Furthermore, over long faults the sliding exhibits wave-like propagation. We developed a model that shows that the zones of non-zero sliding velocities propagate along the fault with the velocity of p-wave. The mechanism of such fast movement is in the fact that sliding of every element of the rock at the fault surface creates normal (tensile/compressive) stresses in the neighbouring elements (normal stresses on the planes normal to the fault surface). The strains associated with these stresses are controlled by the Young's modulus rather than shear modulus resulting in the p-wave velocity of propagation of the sliding zone. This results in the observed supersonic (with respect to the s-waves) propagation of the apparent shear rupture. Keywords: Stick-slip, Rate-independent friction, Supersonic propagation.

  9. Friction induced rail vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralov, Ivan; Sinapov, Petko; Nedelchev, Krasimir; Ignatov, Ignat

    2012-11-01

    A model of rail, considered as multiple supported beam, subjected on friction induced vibration is studied in this work using FEM. The model is presented as continuous system and the mass and elastic properties of a real object are taken into account. The friction forces are nonlinear functions of the relative velocity during slipping. The problem is solved using Matlab Simulink.

  10. Friction plug welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeshita, Riki (Inventor); Hibbard, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Friction plug welding (FPW) usage is advantageous for friction stir welding (FSW) hole close-outs and weld repairs in 2195 Al--Cu--Li fusion or friction stir welds. Current fusion welding methods of Al--Cu--Li have produced welds containing varied defects. These areas are found by non-destructive examination both after welding and after proof testing. Current techniques for repairing typically small (<0.25) defects weaken the weldment, rely heavily on welders' skill, and are costly. Friction plug welding repairs increase strength, ductility and resistance to cracking over initial weld quality, without requiring much time or operator skill. Friction plug welding while pulling the plug is advantageous because all hardware for performing the weld can be placed on one side of the workpiece.

  11. Subjective scaling of smooth surface friction.

    PubMed

    Smith, A M; Scott, S H

    1996-05-01

    1. Six men and four women, 30-51 yr of age, were asked to use the tip of the washed and dried index finger to stroke six different featureless, flat surfaces mounted on a three-dimensional force platform. The six surfaces were rosin-coated glass, glass, satin-finished aluminum, poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) plastic, Teflon, and nyloprint (polyamide plastic). The subjects were requested to indicate where the sensation produced by each surface should be placed on an unidimensional scale represented by an 18cm line labeled at one end by the words "most slippery" and at the other end by the words "most sticky." The coefficients of friction for each surface and for each subject were subsequently assessed by asking each subject to stroke the surfaces as if they were assessing its slipperiness for 5 s. 2. The finger forces normal and tangential to the stroked surfaces were digitized at 250 Hz and stored on a laboratory computer. The ratio of the mean tangential force to the mean perpendicular force during stroking was used to calculate the mean coefficient of kinetic friction. The mean friction for all subjects ranged from 0.43 for the nyloprint surface to 2.79 for the rosin-coated glass. Correlation coefficients calculated between the subjective estimates of friction and the measured coefficients of friction for each subject individually resulted in a mean correlation of 0.85 (n = 10, P < 0.001). 3. These data indicate that subjects can accurately scale relative differences in the friction of macroscopically smooth, flat surfaces, by modulating the tangential force applied to the finger while keeping the normal force relatively constant. The fact that subjects maintained a relatively constant normal force and instead varied the tangential force across different surfaces suggests that receptors sensitive to these tangential forces are important in the perception of smooth surface friction.

  12. Confinement-Dependent Friction in Peptide Bundles

    PubMed Central

    Erbaş, Aykut; Netz, Roland R.

    2013-01-01

    Friction within globular proteins or between adhering macromolecules crucially determines the kinetics of protein folding, the formation, and the relaxation of self-assembled molecular systems. One fundamental question is how these friction effects depend on the local environment and in particular on the presence of water. In this model study, we use fully atomistic MD simulations with explicit water to obtain friction forces as a single polyglycine peptide chain is pulled out of a bundle of k adhering parallel polyglycine peptide chains. The whole system is periodically replicated along the peptide axes, so a stationary state at prescribed mean sliding velocity V is achieved. The aggregation number is varied between k = 2 (two peptide chains adhering to each other with plenty of water present at the adhesion sites) and k = 7 (one peptide chain pulled out from a close-packed cylindrical array of six neighboring peptide chains with no water inside the bundle). The friction coefficient per hydrogen bond, extrapolated to the viscous limit of vanishing pulling velocity V → 0, exhibits an increase by five orders of magnitude when going from k = 2 to k = 7. This dramatic confinement-induced friction enhancement we argue to be due to a combination of water depletion and increased hydrogen-bond cooperativity. PMID:23528088

  13. Experimental investigation of the link between static and dynamic wetting by forced wetting of nylon filament.

    PubMed

    Vega, M J; Gouttière, C; Seveno, D; Blake, T D; Voué, M; De Coninck, J; Clarke, A

    2007-10-09

    Forced wetting experiments with various liquids were conducted to study the dynamic wetting properties of nylon filament. The molecular-kinetic theory of wetting (MKT) was used to interpret the dynamic contact angle data and evaluate the contact-line friction zeta0 at the microscopic scale. By taking account of the viscosity of the liquid, zeta0 could be related exponentially to the reversible work of adhesion. This clearly establishes an experimental link between the static and dynamic wetting properties of the material. Moreover, statistical analysis of the equilibrium molecular displacement frequency K0 and the length of the displacements lambda reveals that these two fundamental parameters of the MKT are strongly correlated, not only in the linearized form of the theory (valid close to equilibrium) but also when the nonlinear form of the equations has to be considered at higher wetting speeds.

  14. Effect of friction on dense suspension flows of hard particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trulsson, M.; DeGiuli, E.; Wyart, M.

    2017-01-01

    We use numerical simulations to study the effect of particle friction on suspension flows of non-Brownian hard particles. By systematically varying the microscopic friction coefficient μp and the viscous number J , we build a phase diagram that identifies three regimes of flow: frictionless, frictional sliding, and rolling. Using energy balance in flow, we predict relations between kinetic observables, confirmed by numerical simulations. For realistic friction coefficients and small viscous numbers (below J ˜10-3 ), we show that the dominating dissipative mechanism is sliding of frictional contacts, and we characterize asymptotic behaviors as jamming is approached. Outside this regime, our observations support the idea that flow belongs to the universality class of frictionless particles. We discuss recent experiments in the context of our phase diagram.

  15. Iliotibial band friction syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Published articles on iliotibial band friction syndrome have been reviewed. These articles cover the epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, pathology, prevention, and treatment of the condition. This article describes (1) the various etiological models that have been proposed to explain iliotibial band friction syndrome; (2) some of the imaging methods, research studies, and clinical experiences that support or call into question these various models; (3) commonly proposed treatment methods for iliotibial band friction syndrome; and (4) the rationale behind these methods and the clinical outcome studies that support their efficacy. PMID:21063495

  16. Scalar model for frictional precursors dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Taloni, Alessandro; Benassi, Andrea; Sandfeld, Stefan; Zapperi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments indicate that frictional sliding occurs by nucleation of detachment fronts at the contact interface that may appear well before the onset of global sliding. This intriguing precursory activity is not accounted for by traditional friction theories but is extremely important for friction dominated geophysical phenomena as earthquakes, landslides or avalanches. Here we simulate the onset of slip of a three dimensional elastic body resting on a surface and show that experimentally observed frictional precursors depend in a complex non-universal way on the sample geometry and loading conditions. Our model satisfies Archard's law and Amontons' first and second laws, reproducing with remarkable precision the real contact area dynamics, the precursors' envelope dynamics prior to sliding, and the normal and shear internal stress distributions close to the interfacial surface. Moreover, it allows to assess which features can be attributed to the elastic equilibrium, and which are attributed to the out-of-equilibrium dynamics, suggesting that precursory activity is an intrinsically quasi-static physical process. A direct calculation of the evolution of the Coulomb stress before and during precursors nucleation shows large variations across the sample, explaining why earthquake forecasting methods based only on accumulated slip and Coulomb stress monitoring are often ineffective. PMID:25640079

  17. Scalar model for frictional precursors dynamics.

    PubMed

    Taloni, Alessandro; Benassi, Andrea; Sandfeld, Stefan; Zapperi, Stefano

    2015-02-02

    Recent experiments indicate that frictional sliding occurs by nucleation of detachment fronts at the contact interface that may appear well before the onset of global sliding. This intriguing precursory activity is not accounted for by traditional friction theories but is extremely important for friction dominated geophysical phenomena as earthquakes, landslides or avalanches. Here we simulate the onset of slip of a three dimensional elastic body resting on a surface and show that experimentally observed frictional precursors depend in a complex non-universal way on the sample geometry and loading conditions. Our model satisfies Archard's law and Amontons' first and second laws, reproducing with remarkable precision the real contact area dynamics, the precursors' envelope dynamics prior to sliding, and the normal and shear internal stress distributions close to the interfacial surface. Moreover, it allows to assess which features can be attributed to the elastic equilibrium, and which are attributed to the out-of-equilibrium dynamics, suggesting that precursory activity is an intrinsically quasi-static physical process. A direct calculation of the evolution of the Coulomb stress before and during precursors nucleation shows large variations across the sample, explaining why earthquake forecasting methods based only on accumulated slip and Coulomb stress monitoring are often ineffective.

  18. Physical analysis of the state- and rate-dependent friction law. II. Dynamic friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumberger, T.; Berthoud, P.; Caroli, C.

    1999-08-01

    We report an extensive study of dynamic friction at nonlubricated multicontact interfaces between nominally flat bodies, rough on the micrometer scale, made of identical polymer glasses. This work, which complements a previous study of static friction on the same systems, has been performed at temperatures ranging from 20 °C to close below the glass transitions. The data are analyzed within the framework of the Rice-Ruina state- and rate-dependent friction model. We show that this phenomenology is equivalent to a generalized Tabor decomposition of the friction force into the product of an age-dependent load-bearing area and of a velocity-strengthening interfacial shear stress. Quantitative analysis of this latter term leads to associate velocity strengthening with thermal activation of basic dynamical units of nanometer dimensions. We interpret our results with the help of a model due to Persson, in which shear is localized in a nanometer-thick interfacial adhesive layer, pinned elastically at a low shear level. Sliding proceeds via uncorrelated depinning of ``nanoblocks'' which constitute the layer. It is the competition between the drive-induced loading of these blocks up to their depinning stress and the thermally activated premature depinning events which leads to the velocity-strengthening contribution to the interfacial strength. In our interpretation, friction therefore appears as the localized elastoplastic response of a confined amorphous interfacial layer.

  19. Science 101: What Causes Friction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Defining friction and asking what causes it might seem like a trivial question. Friction seems simple enough to understand. Friction is a force between surfaces that pushes against things that are moving or tending to move, and the rougher the surfaces, the greater the friction. Bill Robertson answers this by saying, "Well, not exactly".…

  20. Effect of Initial Microstructure on the Microstructural Evolution and Joint Efficiency of a WE43 Alloy During Friction Stir Welding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    microstructure during friction stir welding ( FSW ). The overall kinetics of microstructural evolution is location sensitive and the effect of the...determining the spatial and temporal evolution of the microstructure during friction stir welding ( FSW ). The overall kinetics of microstructural...strength, contributing factors and evolution path as a function of alloy chemistry during FSW . The thermal stability of the precipitates strongly

  1. Friction stir welding tool

    DOEpatents

    Tolle; Charles R. , Clark; Denis E. , Barnes; Timothy A.

    2008-04-15

    A friction stir welding tool is described and which includes a shank portion; a shoulder portion which is releasably engageable with the shank portion; and a pin which is releasably engageable with the shoulder portion.

  2. Friction loss in straight pipes of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, T; Ojima, J

    1996-01-01

    In order to design proper ductwork for a local exhaust system, airflow characteristics were investigated in straight pipes of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). A linear decrease in static pressure was observed downstream at points from the opening of the VU pipes (JIS K 6741) located at distances greater than 10 times the pipe diameter, for velocities ranging between 10.18-36.91 m/s. Roughness inside pipes with small diameters was found to be 0.0042-0.0056 mm and the friction factor was calculated on the basis of Colebrook's equation for an airflow transition zone. An extended friction chart was then constructed on the basis of the roughness value and the friction factor. This chart can be applied when designing a local exhaust system with the ducts of diameters ranging from 40 to 900 mm. The friction loss of the PVC pipe was found to be approximately 2/3 of that of a galvanized steel pipe.

  3. The dynamics of the onset of frictional slip.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Oded; Cohen, Gil; Fineberg, Jay

    2010-10-08

    The way in which a frictional interface fails is critical to our fundamental understanding of failure processes in fields ranging from engineering to the study of earthquakes. Frictional motion is initiated by rupture fronts that propagate within the thin interface that separates two sheared bodies. By measuring the shear and normal stresses along the interface, together with the subsequent rapid real-contact-area dynamics, we find that the ratio of shear stress to normal stress can locally far exceed the static-friction coefficient without precipitating slip. Moreover, different modes of rupture selected by the system correspond to distinct regimes of the local stress ratio. These results indicate the key role of nonuniformity to frictional stability and dynamics with implications for the prediction, selection, and arrest of different modes of earthquakes.

  4. Talc as friction reducing additive to lubricating oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, Pavlo; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2013-07-01

    Reduction of friction and wear by colloidal suspensions of ceramic powders in lubricating oils is an approach that can allow to formulate environment friendly energy saving lubricants. Commercial talc powder was evaluated as an extreme pressure additive to a lubricating oil under different temperatures and concentrations. The best lubricity was achieved at the temperature of 100 °C and the concentration of 0.15 wt% when dynamic and static friction coefficients were reduced by over 30% in comparison to reference lubricating oil alone. At high temperature, talc forms transfer film on metal surface, which reduce both friction and wear behavior in mating surfaces. However, at room temperature, film formation was not observed. Results are explained using pressure and temperature induced lamellar dehydration mechanism when products of dehydration form oxide transfer films on the friction surface.

  5. Friction Stir Weld Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Payton, Lewis N. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A friction stir weld tool sleeve is supported by an underlying support pin. The pin material is preferably selected for toughness and fracture characteristics. The pin sleeve preferably has a geometry which employs the use of an interrupted thread, a plurality of flutes and/or eccentric path to provide greater flow through. Paddles have been found to assist in imparting friction and directing plastic metal during the welding process.

  6. Friction stir weld tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Payton, Lewis N. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A friction stir weld tool sleeve is supported by an underlying support pin. The pin material is preferably selected for toughness and fracture characteristics. The pin sleeve preferably has a geometry which employs the use of an interrupted thread, a plurality of flutes and/or eccentric path to provide greater flow through. Paddles have been found to assist in imparting friction and directing plastic metal during the welding process.

  7. Friction Stir Welding Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romine, Peter L.

    1998-01-01

    The research of this summer was a continuation of work started during the previous summer faculty fellowship period. The Friction Stir Welding process (FSW) patented by The Welding Institute (TWI), in Great Britain, has become a popular topic at the Marshall Space Flight Center over the past year. Last year it was considered a novel approach to welding but few people took it very seriously as a near term solution. However, due to continued problems with cracks in the new aluminum-lithium space shuttle external tank (ET), the friction stir process is being mobilized at full speed in an effort to mature this process for the potential manufacture of flight hardware. It is now the goal of NASA and Lockheed-Martin Corporation (LMC) to demonstrate a full-scale friction stir welding system capable of welding ET size barrel sections. The objectives this summer were: (1) Implementation and validation of the rotating dynamometer on the MSFC FSW system; (2) Collection of data for FSW process modeling efforts; (3) Specification development for FSW implementation on the vertical weld tool; (4) Controls and user interface development for the adjustable pin tool; and (5) Development of an instrumentation system for the planishing process. The projects started this summer will lead to a full scale friction stir welding system that is expected to produce a friction stir welded shuttle external tank type barrel section. The success of this could lead to the implementation of the friction stir process for manufacturing future shuttle external tanks.

  8. The evolving quality of frictional contact with graphene.

    PubMed

    Li, Suzhi; Li, Qunyang; Carpick, Robert W; Gumbsch, Peter; Liu, Xin Z; Ding, Xiangdong; Sun, Jun; Li, Ju

    2016-11-24

    Graphite and other lamellar materials are used as dry lubricants for macroscale metallic sliding components and high-pressure contacts. It has been shown experimentally that monolayer graphene exhibits higher friction than multilayer graphene and graphite, and that this friction increases with continued sliding, but the mechanism behind this remains subject to debate. It has long been conjectured that the true contact area between two rough bodies controls interfacial friction. The true contact area, defined for example by the number of atoms within the range of interatomic forces, is difficult to visualize directly but characterizes the quantity of contact. However, there is emerging evidence that, for a given pair of materials, the quality of the contact can change, and that this can also strongly affect interfacial friction. Recently, it has been found that the frictional behaviour of two-dimensional materials exhibits traits unlike those of conventional bulk materials. This includes the abovementioned finding that for few-layer two-dimensional materials the static friction force gradually strengthens for a few initial atomic periods before reaching a constant value. Such transient behaviour, and the associated enhancement of steady-state friction, diminishes as the number of two-dimensional layers increases, and was observed only when the two-dimensional material was loosely adhering to a substrate. This layer-dependent transient phenomenon has not been captured by any simulations. Here, using atomistic simulations, we reproduce the experimental observations of layer-dependent friction and transient frictional strengthening on graphene. Atomic force analysis reveals that the evolution of static friction is a manifestation of the natural tendency for thinner and less-constrained graphene to re-adjust its configuration as a direct consequence of its greater flexibility. That is, the tip atoms become more strongly pinned, and show greater synchrony in their stick

  9. Friction in volcanic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lavallée, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic landscapes are amongst the most dynamic on Earth and, as such, are particularly susceptible to failure and frictional processes. In rocks, damage accumulation is frequently accompanied by the release of seismic energy, which has been shown to accelerate in the approach to failure on both a field and laboratory scale. The point at which failure occurs is highly dependent upon strain-rate, which also dictates the slip-zone properties that pertain beyond failure, in scenarios such as sector collapse and pyroclastic flows as well as the ascent of viscous magma. High-velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments have provided new opportunities to overcome the grand challenge of understanding faulting processes during volcanic phenomena. Work on granular ash material demonstrates that at ambient temperatures, ash gouge behaves according to Byerlee's rule at low slip velocities, but is slip-weakening, becoming increasingly lubricating as slip ensues. In absence of ash along a slip plane, rock-rock friction induces cataclasis and heating which, if sufficient, may induce melting (producing pseudotachylyte) and importantly, vesiculation. The viscosity of the melt, so generated, controls the subsequent lubrication or resistance to slip along the fault plane thanks to non-Newtonian suspension rheology. The shear-thinning behaviour and viscoelasticity of frictional melts yield a tendency for extremely unstable slip, and occurrence of frictional melt fragmentation. This velocity-dependence acts as an important feedback mechanism on the slip plane, in addition to the bulk composition, mineralogy and glass content of the magma, that all influence frictional behaviour. During sector collapse events and in pyroclastic density currents it is the frictional properties of the rocks and ash that, in-part, control the run-out distance and associated risk. In addition, friction plays an important role in the eruption of viscous magmas: In the conduit, the rheology of magma is integral

  10. Static coefficient test method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haehner, C. L.; Tarpley, J. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The static coefficient of friction between contacting surfaces of a plurality of bodies is determined by applying a load to the bodies in a direction normal to the contacting surfaces. Opposite ends of a flexible filament are connected to a load cell and the first of the bodies. A motor continuously moves the second of the bodies away from the load cell at constant velocity at right angles to the force of the normal load so that the first body moves intermittently relative to the second body across a contact surface between them. The load on the surfaces, the nature of the surfaces, and the speed of the first body relative to the load cell are such that the filament is alternately and cyclically tensioned and relaxed as the movement occurs. The maximum tension occurs at the incipient stages of movement of the first body relative to the second body. The load cell derives a series of measurements which are coupled to an x-y recorder, from which the maximum forces of the filament are determined to enable the static coefficient of friction to be determined. From the maximum forces and the normal force, the coefficient is determined. For determining coefficients of friction where there are large compression loads, the normal load is applied with a calibrated compression spring that is deflected by a predetermined amount determined by a spring load vs. deflection calibration curve.

  11. Friction and Phase Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braiman, Y.; Protopopescu, V.; Family, F.; Hentschel, H. G. E.

    2000-03-01

    Spatiotemporal fluctuations in small discrete nonlinear arrays affect the dynamics of the center of mass. We derive the equations describing the dynamics of the center of mass and the spatial fluctuations for each coherent mode of the array. Analysis of these equations indicates that depending on array stiffness, size, and the external forcing - quantized jumps occur in the minimum friction (maximum velocity) of the array. We propose an analytical formalism to determine the occurrences of these jumps. We present numerical evidence indicating that phase synchronization is related to the frictional properties of sliding objects at the atomic scale and discuss mechanisms of tuning and controlling nanoscale friction. Y. Braiman, F. Family, H. G. E. Hentschel, C. Mak, and J. Krim, Phys. Rev. E 59, R4737 (1999). H. G. E. Hentschel, F. Family, and Y. Braiman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 104 (1999).

  12. Skin friction balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ping, Tcheng (Inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

  13. Modifying atomic-scale friction between two graphene sheets: A molecular-force-field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yufeng; Guo, Wanlin; Chen, Changfeng

    2007-10-01

    Recently discovered ultralow friction (superlubricity) between incommensurate graphitic layers has raised great interest in understanding the interlayer interaction between graphene sheets under various physical conditions. In this work, we have studied the effects of interlayer distance change and in-sheet defects in modifying the interlayer friction in graphene sheets by extensive molecular-force-field statics calculations. The interlayer friction between graphene sheets with commensurate or incommensurate interlayer stacking increases with decreasing interlayer distance, but in the case of incommensurate stacking, ultralow friction can exist in a significantly expanded range of interlayer distance. The ultralow interlayer friction in the incommensurate stacking sheets is insensitive to the in-sheet defect of vacancy at a certain orientation. These results provide knowledge for possibly controlling friction between graphene sheets and offer insight into their applications.

  14. Dither Helps Compensate For Friction In Reaction Wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, John B., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Dither control and generator unit incorporated into reaction-wheel attitude-control system to help compensate for error caused by friction in reaction-wheel bearings at and near zero speed of wheel. Reaction-wheel attitude-control system designed primarily to maintain desired orientation of spacecraft but also useful in maintaining desired orientation of terrestrial antenna, optical instrument, or other device on aircraft, ship, land vehicle, or other moving platform. Alternating torque sufficient to overcome static friction applied at low speed.

  15. Lubricated friction in Frenkel-Kontorova model between incommensurate surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Cang-Long; Duan, Wen-Shan; Chen, Jian-Min; Yang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    We study the superlubricity in the generalized Frenkel-Kontorova model. Each particle of the top layer is driven by external dc driving force Fext . When the ratios of the three inherent length scales of the system are chosen to be the Golden Mean (a / b = 233 / 144, c / a = 144 / 89), we find that there exists a critical interparticle interaction strength above which the static friction force Fsu of the top layer is zero. And Fsu could easily flow into the low friction with existing the lubricant layer.

  16. Laboratory manual for static pressure drop experiments in LMFBR wire wrapped rod bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.J.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-07-01

    Purpose of this experiment is to determine both interior and edge subchannel axial pressure drops for a range of Reynolds numbers. The subchannel static pressure drop is used to calculate subchannel and bundle average friction factors, which can be used to verify existing friction factor correlations. The correlations for subchannel friction factors are used as input to computer codes which solve the coupled energy, continuity, and momentum equations, and are also used to develop flow split correlations which are needed as input to codes which solve only the energy equation. The bundle average friction factor is used to calculate the overall bundle pressure drop, which determines the required pumping power.

  17. Computational Methods for Nonlinear Dynamics Problems in Solid and Structural Mechanics: Models of Dynamic Frictional Phenomena in Metallic Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-31

    generation, and the resulting thermomechanical response. Examine role of thermomechanical effects in damage processes such as fatigue and wear. 4.) Conduct...deformations, rotations, large strains, and thermomechanical inter- actions, with due consideration of frictional resistance. 2.) Conduct preliminary...studies of simple quasi-static problems with the characteristics listed above. 3.) Investigate dynamic friction mechanisms, their role in heat

  18. Influence of snow properties on dense avalanche friction parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Naaim

    2013-04-01

    The values of the Voellmy friction parameters of 735 historical avalanches that occurred along 26 paths in the Chamonix valley since 1958 are back-analysed with a depth-averaged hydraulic model including sub models for erosion, entrainment and deposition. For each path, the longitudinal and crosswise topographic profiles were derived from a high resolution digital elevation model acquired by laser scanning. The initial snow depth and snow cohesion, as well as various physical properties of snow, were computed from numerical simulations of the detailed snowpack model Crocus fed by the SAFRAN meteorological analysis. For each event, the full ranges of the two friction parameters were scanned and the pairs of friction parameters for which the run-out altitude is found close enough to the observed one (with an uncertainty of 5m), were retained. Statistical class analysis was used to investigate the correlation between the obtained friction coefficients and the snow physical properties. Concerning the inertial friction coefficient, no evident trend with the snow parameters was found. For the static friction coefficient, an increasing trend with the temperature and the density was observed, as well as a decreasing trend with the liquid water content and the initial snow depth.

  19. Intelligent Flow Friction Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Brkić, Dejan; Ćojbašić, Žarko

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the Colebrook equation is used as a mostly accepted relation for the calculation of fluid flow friction factor. However, the Colebrook equation is implicit with respect to the friction factor (λ). In the present study, a noniterative approach using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was developed to calculate the friction factor. To configure the ANN model, the input parameters of the Reynolds Number (Re) and the relative roughness of pipe (ε/D) were transformed to logarithmic scales. The 90,000 sets of data were fed to the ANN model involving three layers: input, hidden, and output layers with, 2, 50, and 1 neurons, respectively. This configuration was capable of predicting the values of friction factor in the Colebrook equation for any given values of the Reynolds number (Re) and the relative roughness (ε/D) ranging between 5000 and 108 and between 10−7 and 0.1, respectively. The proposed ANN demonstrates the relative error up to 0.07% which had the high accuracy compared with the vast majority of the precise explicit approximations of the Colebrook equation. PMID:27127498

  20. Intelligent Flow Friction Estimation.

    PubMed

    Brkić, Dejan; Ćojbašić, Žarko

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the Colebrook equation is used as a mostly accepted relation for the calculation of fluid flow friction factor. However, the Colebrook equation is implicit with respect to the friction factor (λ). In the present study, a noniterative approach using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was developed to calculate the friction factor. To configure the ANN model, the input parameters of the Reynolds Number (Re) and the relative roughness of pipe (ε/D) were transformed to logarithmic scales. The 90,000 sets of data were fed to the ANN model involving three layers: input, hidden, and output layers with, 2, 50, and 1 neurons, respectively. This configuration was capable of predicting the values of friction factor in the Colebrook equation for any given values of the Reynolds number (Re) and the relative roughness (ε/D) ranging between 5000 and 10(8) and between 10(-7) and 0.1, respectively. The proposed ANN demonstrates the relative error up to 0.07% which had the high accuracy compared with the vast majority of the precise explicit approximations of the Colebrook equation.

  1. Gravitomagnetic dynamical friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashen, Benjamin; Aker, Adam; Kesden, Michael

    2017-03-01

    A supermassive black hole moving through a field of stars will gravitationally scatter the stars, inducing a backreaction force on the black hole known as dynamical friction. In Newtonian gravity, the axisymmetry of the system about the black hole's velocity v implies that the dynamical friction must be antiparallel to v . However, in general relativity the black hole's spin S need not be parallel to v , breaking the axisymmetry of the system and generating a new component of dynamical friction similar to the Lorentz force F =q v ×B experienced by a particle with charge q moving in a magnetic field B . We call this new force gravitomagnetic dynamical friction and calculate its magnitude for a spinning black hole moving through a field of stars with Maxwellian velocity dispersion σ , assuming that both v and σ are much less than the speed of light c . We use post-Newtonian equations of motion accurate to O (v3/c3) needed to capture the effect of spin-orbit coupling and also include direct stellar capture by the black hole's event horizon. Gravitomagnetic dynamical friction will cause a black hole with uniform speed to spiral about the direction of its spin, similar to a charged particle spiraling about a magnetic field line, and will exert a torque on a supermassive black hole orbiting a galactic center, causing the angular momentum of this orbit to slowly precess about the black hole spin. As this effect is suppressed by a factor (σ /c )2 in nonrelativistic systems, we expect it to be negligible in most astrophysical contexts but provide this calculation for its theoretical interest and potential application to relativistic systems.

  2. The non-separability of ``dielectric'' and ``mechanical'' friction in molecular systems: A simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P. V.; Maroncelli, M.

    2000-03-01

    Simulations of the time-dependent friction controlling rotational, translational, and vibrational motions of dipolar diatomic solutes in acetonitrile and methanol have been used to examine the nature of "dielectric" friction. The way in which electrical interactions increase the friction beyond that present in nonpolar systems is found to be rather different than what is anticipated by most theories of dielectric friction. Long-range electrostatic forces do not simply add an independent contribution to the friction due to short-ranged or "mechanical" sources (modeled here in terms of Lennard-Jones forces). Rather, the electrical and Lennard-Jones contributions are found to be strongly anticorrelated and not separable in any useful way. For some purposes, the mechanism by which electrical interactions increase friction is better viewed as a static electrostriction effect: electrical forces cause a subtle increase in atomic density in the solute's first solvation shell, which increases the amplitude of the force fluctuations derived from the Lennard-Jones interactions, i.e., the mechanical friction. However, electrical interactions also modify the dynamics of the friction, typically adding a long-time tail, which significantly increases the integral friction. Both of these effects must be included in a correct description of friction in the presence of polar interactions.

  3. Earthquake triggering by transient and static deformations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Beeler, N.M.; Blanpied, M.L.; Bodin, P.

    1998-01-01

    Observational evidence for both static and transient near-field and far-field triggered seismicity are explained in terms of a frictional instability model, based on a single degree of freedom spring-slider system and rate- and state-dependent frictional constitutive equations. In this study a triggered earthquake is one whose failure time has been advanced by ??t (clock advance) due to a stress perturbation. Triggering stress perturbations considered include square-wave transients and step functions, analogous to seismic waves and coseismic static stress changes, respectively. Perturbations are superimposed on a constant background stressing rate which represents the tectonic stressing rate. The normal stress is assumed to be constant. Approximate, closed-form solutions of the rate-and-state equations are derived for these triggering and background loads, building on the work of Dieterich [1992, 1994]. These solutions can be used to simulate the effects of static and transient stresses as a function of amplitude, onset time t0, and in the case of square waves, duration. The accuracies of the approximate closed-form solutions are also evaluated with respect to the full numerical solution and t0. The approximate solutions underpredict the full solutions, although the difference decreases as t0, approaches the end of the earthquake cycle. The relationship between ??t and t0 differs for transient and static loads: a static stress step imposed late in the cycle causes less clock advance than an equal step imposed earlier, whereas a later applied transient causes greater clock advance than an equal one imposed earlier. For equal ??t, transient amplitudes must be greater than static loads by factors of several tens to hundreds depending on t0. We show that the rate-and-state model requires that the total slip at failure is a constant, regardless of the loading history. Thus a static load applied early in the cycle, or a transient applied at any time, reduces the stress

  4. LLNL small-scale static spark machine: static spark sensitivity test

    SciTech Connect

    Foltz, M F; Simpson, L R

    1999-08-23

    Small-scale safety testing of explosives and other energetic materials is done in order to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli, such as friction, static spark, and impact. Typically this testing is done to discover potential handling problems that may exist for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior, or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing ''Static Spark Test Apparatus'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), as well as the method used to evaluate the relative static spark sensitivity of energetic materials. The basic design, originally developed by the Picatinny Arsenal in New Jersey, is discussed. The accumulated data for the materials tested to date is not included here, with the exception of specific examples that have yielded interesting or unusual results during the tests.

  5. Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael J; Johnson, Simon A; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-03-06

    Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick-slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function.

  6. Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Michael J.; Johnson, Simon A.; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick–slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function. PMID:23256185

  7. LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

    1996-06-01

    Small-scale safety testing of explosives, propellants and other energetic materials, is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. Testing is done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior, or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing {open_quotes}BAM{close_quotes} Small-Scale Friction Test, and the methods used to determine the friction sensitivity pertinent to handling energetic materials. The accumulated data for the materials tested is not listed here - that information is in a database. Included is, however, a short list of (1) materials that had an unusual response, and (2), a few {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} materials representing the range of typical responses usually seen.

  8. Friction at small displacement.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. E.; Aronstein, J.

    1972-01-01

    Low contact resistance between metal surfaces is often observed in spite of interposed lubricant and/or oxide films. To study this effect an apparatus is used with which normal force and tangential microdisplacement are applied between a small lead rider and a gold flat with various surface film conditions. Under nonoxidized and nonlubricated conditions, and with either oxide or stearic acid lubricant film alone, friction is high and contact resistance is low. With oxide and lubricant together, friction is much lower and slide is smooth, but contact resistance remains low and Ohm's law is obeyed. The results are consistent with Greenwood's theory of contact resistance for a cluster of minute metallic contact spots within the load-supporting area. The contact resistance of such a cluster is indistinguishable, for practical purposes, from that given by complete metallic contact.

  9. Superlow friction behavior of diamond-like carbon coatings: Time and speed effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimberg, J. A.; Wahl, K. J.; Singer, I. L.; Erdemir, A.

    2001-04-01

    The friction behavior of a diamond-like carbon coating was studied in reciprocating sliding contact at speeds from 0.01 to 5 mm/s, in dry nitrogen. "Superlow" friction coefficients of 0.003-0.008 were obtained in continuous sliding at the higher speeds (>1 mm/s). However, friction coefficients rose to values typical of diamond-like carbon in dry and ambient air (0.01-0.1) at lower speeds (<0.5 mm/s) as well as in time-delayed, higher speed tests. The rise of the friction coefficients in both speed and time-delay tests was in good quantitative agreement with gas adsorption kinetics predicted by the Elovich equation for adsorption onto carbon. More generally, superlow friction could be sustained, suppressed, and recovered as a function of exposure time, demonstrating that duty cycle cannot be ignored when predicting performance of superlow friction coatings in devices.

  10. Noncontact Friction and Force Fluctuations between Closely Spaced Bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Stipe, B. C.; Mamin, H. J.; Stowe, T. D.; Kenny, T. W.; Rugar, D.

    2001-08-27

    Noncontact friction between a Au(111) surface and an ultrasensitive gold-coated cantilever was measured as a function of tip-sample spacing, temperature, and bias voltage using observations of cantilever damping and Brownian motion. The importance of the inhomogeneous contact potential is discussed and comparison is made to measurements over dielectric surfaces. Using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, the force fluctuations are interpreted in terms of near-surface fluctuating electric fields interacting with static surface charge.

  11. Friction in rail guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of friction is included in the present equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun. These equations, which have their basis in an empirical formulation, are applied to results from two different experiments. Only an approximate physical description of the problem is attempted, in view of the complexity of details in the interaction among forces of this magnitude over time periods of the order of milisecs.

  12. Friction and Wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pomey, Jacques

    1952-01-01

    From the practical point of view, this analysis shows that each problem of friction or wear requires its particular solution. There is no universal solution; one or other of the factors predominates and defines the choice of the solution. In certain cases, copper alloys of great thermal conductivity are preferred; in others, plastics abundantly supplied with water. Sometimes, soft antifriction metals are desirable to distribute the load; at other times, hard metals with high resistance to abrasion or heat.

  13. A continuous measure of fingertip friction during precision grip.

    PubMed

    André, Thibaut; Lefèvre, Philippe; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2009-05-15

    When humans manipulate an object, the minimal grip force (GF) required to avoid slipping depends on the frictional properties between the fingers and the object. As a consequence, fingertip skin friction plays a critical role during object manipulation. Here, the effects of the normal force and moisture content on the skin's static coefficient of friction (CF) for human fingertips were studied. Ten subjects were asked to pinch an object with a given normal force. Slippage of the object on the fingertips was generated for different ranges of normal force using a linear translation stage. The exerted forces and moisture of the fingertips were then measured, and the static coefficient of friction was calculated as the ratio between the tangential force and normal force at slippage. These results demonstrate that the effects of the normal force and moisture content on the CF exhibit a complex interaction. For a given moisture condition, the CF varies as a power function of the normal force; in contrast, for a given normal force, the CF is described by a "bell-shaped" function of moisture. A global expression of the CF as a function of the normal force and moisture content is derived, and a method is proposed for a continuous measure of the CF. This new method shall be of particular interest in investigating dexterous manipulation.

  14. High Speed Ice Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour-Pierce, Alexandra; Sammonds, Peter; Lishman, Ben

    2014-05-01

    Many different tribological experiments have been run to determine the frictional behaviour of ice at high speeds, ostensibly with the intention of applying results to everyday fields such as winter tyres and sports. However, experiments have only been conducted up to linear speeds of several metres a second, with few additional subject specific studies reaching speeds comparable to these applications. Experiments were conducted in the cold rooms of the Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory, UCL, on a custom built rotational tribometer based on previous literature designs. Preliminary results from experiments run at 2m/s for ice temperatures of 271 and 263K indicate that colder ice has a higher coefficient of friction, in accordance with the literature. These results will be presented, along with data from further experiments conducted at temperatures between 259-273K (in order to cover a wide range of the temperature dependent behaviour of ice) and speeds of 2-15m/s to produce a temperature-velocity-friction map for ice. The effect of temperature, speed and slider geometry on the deformation of ice will also be investigated. These speeds are approaching those exhibited by sports such as the luge (where athletes slide downhill on an icy track), placing the tribological work in context.

  15. Nonlinear shear wave interaction at a frictional interface: energy dissipation and generation of harmonics.

    PubMed

    Meziane, A; Norris, A N; Shuvalov, A L

    2011-10-01

    Analytical and numerical modeling of the nonlinear interaction of shear wave with a frictional interface is presented. The system studied is composed of two homogeneous and isotropic elastic solids, brought into frictional contact by remote normal compression. A shear wave, either time harmonic or a narrow band pulse, is incident normal to the interface and propagates through the contact. Two friction laws are considered and the influence on interface behavior is investigated: Coulomb's law with a constant friction coefficient and a slip-weakening friction law which involves static and dynamic friction coefficients. The relationship between the nonlinear harmonics and the dissipated energy, and the dependence on the contact dynamics (friction law, sliding, and tangential stress) and on the normal contact stress are examined in detail. The analytical and numerical results indicate universal type laws for the amplitude of the higher harmonics and for the dissipated energy, properly non-dimensionalized in terms of the pre-stress, the friction coefficient and the incident amplitude. The results suggest that measurements of higher harmonics can be used to quantify friction and dissipation effects of a sliding interface.

  16. Strongly Modulated Friction of a Film-Terminated Ridge-Channel Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhenping; Hui, Chung-Yuen; Levrard, Benjamin; Bai, Ying; Jagota, Anand

    2016-05-01

    Natural contacting surfaces have remarkable surface mechanical properties, which has led to the development of bioinspired surface structures using rubbery materials with strongly enhanced adhesion and static friction. However, sliding friction of structured rubbery surfaces is almost always significantly lower than that of a flat control, often due to significant loss of contact. Here we show that a film-terminated ridge-channel structure can strongly enhance sliding friction. We show that with properly chosen materials and geometrical parameters the near surface structure undergoes mechanical instabilities along with complex folding and sliding of internal interfaces, which is responsible for the enhancement of sliding friction. Because this structure shows no enhancement of adhesion under normal indentation by a sphere, it breaks the connection between energy loss during normal and shear loading. This makes it potentially interesting in many applications, for instance in tires, where one wishes to minimize rolling resistance (normal loading) while maximizing sliding friction (shear loading).

  17. Strongly Modulated Friction of a Film-Terminated Ridge-Channel Structure

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhenping; Hui, Chung-Yuen; Levrard, Benjamin; Bai, Ying; Jagota, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Natural contacting surfaces have remarkable surface mechanical properties, which has led to the development of bioinspired surface structures using rubbery materials with strongly enhanced adhesion and static friction. However, sliding friction of structured rubbery surfaces is almost always significantly lower than that of a flat control, often due to significant loss of contact. Here we show that a film-terminated ridge-channel structure can strongly enhance sliding friction. We show that with properly chosen materials and geometrical parameters the near surface structure undergoes mechanical instabilities along with complex folding and sliding of internal interfaces, which is responsible for the enhancement of sliding friction. Because this structure shows no enhancement of adhesion under normal indentation by a sphere, it breaks the connection between energy loss during normal and shear loading. This makes it potentially interesting in many applications, for instance in tires, where one wishes to minimize rolling resistance (normal loading) while maximizing sliding friction (shear loading). PMID:27226233

  18. Solid friction between soft filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Andrew; Hilitski, Feodor; Schwenger, Walter; Welch, David; Lau, A. W. C.; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Mahadevan, L.; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2015-06-01

    Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments’ overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes’s drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament’s elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the properties of fibrous composite materials.

  19. Solid friction between soft filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Andrew; Hilitski, Feodor; Schwenger, Walter; Welch, David; Lau, A. W. C.; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Mahadevan, L.; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2015-03-02

    Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments’ overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes’s drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate how altering a filament’s elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the properties of fibrous composite materials.

  20. Solid friction between soft filaments.

    PubMed

    Ward, Andrew; Hilitski, Feodor; Schwenger, Walter; Welch, David; Lau, A W C; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Mahadevan, L; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2015-06-01

    Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments' overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes's drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament's elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the properties of fibrous composite materials.

  1. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid; Ram, G.D. Janaki; Reddy, G. Madhusudhan; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2012-08-15

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  2. Rotational friction of dipolar colloids measured by driven torsional oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Steinbach, Gabi; Gemming, Sibylle; Erbe, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Despite its prominent role in the dynamics of soft materials, rotational friction remains a quantity that is difficult to determine for many micron-sized objects. Here, we demonstrate how the Stokes coefficient of rotational friction can be obtained from the driven torsional oscillations of single particles in a highly viscous environment. The idea is that the oscillation amplitude of a dipolar particle under combined static and oscillating fields provides a measure for the Stokes friction. From numerical studies we derive a semi-empirical analytic expression for the amplitude of the oscillation, which cannot be calculated analytically from the equation of motion. We additionally demonstrate that this expression can be used to experimentally determine the rotational friction coefficient of single particles. Here, we record the amplitudes of a field-driven dipolar Janus microsphere with optical microscopy. The presented method distinguishes itself in its experimental and conceptual simplicity. The magnetic torque leaves the local environment unchanged, which contrasts with other approaches where, for example, additional mechanical (frictional) or thermal contributions have to be regarded. PMID:27680399

  3. The Friction of Piston Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischbein, Hans W

    1945-01-01

    The coefficient of friction between piston ring and cylinder liner was measured in relation to gliding acceleration, pressure, temperature, quantity of oil and quality of oil. Comparing former lubrication-technical tests, conclusions were drawn as to the state of friction. The coefficients of friction as figured out according to the hydrodynamic theory were compared with those measured by tests. Special tests were made on "oiliness." The highest permissible pressure was measured and the ratio of pressure discussed.

  4. The acoustic mechanics of stick slip friction in the California spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus).

    PubMed

    Patek, S N; Baio, J E

    2007-10-01

    The dynamic interplay between static and sliding friction is fundamental to many animal movements. One interesting example of stick-slip friction is found in the sound-producing apparatus of many spiny lobster species (Palinuridae). The acoustic movements of the spiny lobster's plectrum over the file are generated by stick-slip friction between the two surfaces. We examined the microscopic anatomy, kinematics, acoustics and frictional properties of the California spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) toward the goal of quantitatively characterizing the frictional and acoustic mechanics of this system. Using synchronous high-speed video and sound recordings, we tested whether plectrum kinematics are correlated with acoustic signal features and found that plectrum velocity is positively correlated with acoustic amplitude. To characterize the frictional mechanics of the system, we measured frictional forces during sound production using excised plectrums and files. Similar to rubber materials sliding against hard surfaces, the static coefficient of friction in this system was on average 1.7. The change in the coefficient of friction across each stick-slip cycle varied substantially with an average change of 1.1. Although driven at a constant speed, the plectrum slipped at velocities that were positively correlated with the normal force between the two surfaces. Studies of friction in biological systems have focused primarily on adhesion and movement, while studies of stick-slip acoustics have remained under the purview of musical acoustics and engineering design. The present study offers an integrative analysis of an unusual bioacoustic mechanism and contrasts its physical parameters with other biological and engineered systems.

  5. Static and dynamic theoretical analyses of a scanning tip on suspended graphene surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yan-Zi; Guo, Jian-Gang

    2016-08-01

    Recent research progress shows that graphene exhibits distinct adhesion and friction behaviors. In the paper, the static and dynamic analyses of a diamond tip sliding on suspended graphene surface are conducted via theoretical and numerical research methods, and the adhesion and friction properties between them are investigated. The analytical expression of interaction potential between a diamond tip and graphene surface is derived based on the interatomic pairwise potential, and then, the lateral and normal interaction forces are calculated. The equilibrium heights and adhesion energy of the diamond tip are calculated on three particular sites of graphene surface. The influence of vertical distance between the tip and graphene surface is studied on the maximum static frictional force and initial velocity of tip. What is more, the influence of scanning velocity and damping are also analyzed on the frictional force and dynamic behaviors of the scanning tip, and the "stick-slip" phenomenon is observed and discussed by the numerical calculation.

  6. Frictional granular mechanics: A variational approach

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzman, R.; Silin, D.B.; Patzek, T.W.

    2009-10-16

    The mechanical properties of a cohesionless granular material are evaluated from grain-scale simulations. Intergranular interactions, including friction and sliding, are modeled by a set of contact rules based on the theories of Hertz, Mindlin, and Deresiewicz. A computer generated, three-dimensional, irregular pack of spherical grains is loaded by incremental displacement of its boundaries. Deformation is described by a sequence of static equilibrium configurations of the pack. A variational approach is employed to find the equilibrium configurations by minimizing the total work against the intergranular loads. Effective elastic moduli are evaluated from the intergranular forces and the deformation of the pack. Good agreement between the computed and measured moduli, achieved with no adjustment of material parameters, establishes the physical soundness of the proposed model.

  7. The Schroedinger equation with friction from the quantum trajectory perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Garashchuk, Sophya; Dixit, Vaibhav; Gu Bing; Mazzuca, James

    2013-02-07

    Similarity of equations of motion for the classical and quantum trajectories is used to introduce a friction term dependent on the wavefunction phase into the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The term describes irreversible energy loss by the quantum system. The force of friction is proportional to the velocity of a quantum trajectory. The resulting Schroedinger equation is nonlinear, conserves wavefunction normalization, and evolves an arbitrary wavefunction into the ground state of the system (of appropriate symmetry if applicable). Decrease in energy is proportional to the average kinetic energy of the quantum trajectory ensemble. Dynamics in the high friction regime is suitable for simple models of reactions proceeding with energy transfer from the system to the environment. Examples of dynamics are given for single and symmetric and asymmetric double well potentials.

  8. Crossover between the classical friction and the nano-scale friction investigated by the transient dynamics of vortices in La2-xSrxCuO4 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, D.; Kitamura, S.; Maeda, A.

    2009-03-01

    We investigated the dynamics of driven vortices in high-Tc superconductor from the viewpoint of the physics of friction. First of all, for all samples, we found the obvious waiting-time dependence of the maximum static friction force which is proportional to the critical current density, below the glass-liquid transition line. This indicates that the dynamics of vortices is like the nano-scale(microscopic) friction, where the relaxation occurs frequently. As temperature decreased, the waiting-time dependence dissapeared, impling that the vortex dynamics became that of classical(macroscopic) friction, where the relaxation rarely occurs. The crossover line of the relaxation phenomena depended on the bridge size. From the results obtained in this paper, we propose a universal parameter which discriminates the macroscopic friction from the microscopic friction.

  9. Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process invented in 1991 at The Welding Institute in the United Kingdom. A weld is made in the FSW process by translating a rotating pin along a weld seam so as to stir the sides of the seam together. FSW avoids deleterious effects inherent in melting and promises to be an important welding process for any industries where welds of optimal quality are demanded. This article provides an introduction to the FSW process. The chief concern is the physical effect of the tool on the weld metal: how weld seam bonding takes place, what kind of weld structure is generated, potential problems, possible defects for example, and implications for process parameters and tool design. Weld properties are determined by structure, and the structure of friction stir welds is determined by the weld metal flow field in the vicinity of the weld tool. Metal flow in the vicinity of the weld tool is explained through a simple kinematic flow model that decomposes the flow field into three basic component flows: a uniform translation, a rotating solid cylinder, and a ring vortex encircling the tool. The flow components, superposed to construct the flow model, can be related to particular aspects of weld process parameters and tool design; they provide a bridge to an understanding of a complex-at-first-glance weld structure. Torques and forces are also discussed. Some simple mathematical models of structural aspects, torques, and forces are included.

  10. Slow frictional waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, Koushik; Sundaram, Narayan; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan

    Stick-slip, manifest as intermittent tangential motion between two dry solid surfaces, is a friction instability that governs diverse phenomena from automobile brake squeals to earthquakes. We show, using high-speed in situ imaging of an adhesive polymer interface, that low velocity stick-slip is fundamentally of three kinds, corresponding to passage of three different surface waves -- separation pulses, slip pulses and the well-known Schallamach waves. These waves, traveling much slower than elastic waves, have clear distinguishing properties. Separation pulses and Schallamach waves involve local interface separation, and propagate in opposite directions while slip pulses are characterized by a sharp stress front and do not display any interface detachment. A change in the stick-slip mode from separation to slip pulse is effected simply by increasing the normal force. Together, these three waves constitute all possible stick-slip modes in adhesive friction and are shown to have direct analogues in muscular locomotory waves in soft bodied invertebrates. A theory for slow wave propagation is also presented which is capable of explaining the attendant interface displacements, velocities and stresses.

  11. Slip versus Friction : Modifying the Navier condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsalis, Evangelos; Walther, Jens; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2006-03-01

    The modeling of fluid-solid interfaces remains one of the key challenges in fluid mechanics. The prevailing model, attributed to Navier, defines the fluid ``slip'' velocity as proportional to the wall shear and a parameter defined as the slip length. Several works have in turn proposed models for this slip length but no universal model for the slip velocity has been accepted. We present results from large scale molecular dynamics simulations of canonical flow problems, indicating, that the inadequacy of this classic model, stems from not properly accounting for the pressure field. We propose and validate a new model, based on the fundamental observation that the finite ``slip'' velocity is a result of an imbalance between fluid and solid intermolecular forces. An excess force on the fluid elements will lead to their acceleration which in turn may result in a slip velocity at the interface. We formulate the slip velocity in terms of fluid-solid friction Ff and propose a generalized boundary condition: Ff= Fs+ Fp= λuus+ λpp where p denotes the pressure, and λuand λp the viscous and static friction coefficients, for which universal constants are presented. We demonstrate that the present model can overcome difficulties encountered by the classical slip model in canonical flow configurations.

  12. Rectifier cabinet static breaker

    DOEpatents

    Costantino, Jr, Roger A.; Gliebe, Ronald J.

    1992-09-01

    A rectifier cabinet static breaker replaces a blocking diode pair with an SCR and the installation of a power transistor in parallel with the latch contactor to commutate the SCR to the off state. The SCR serves as a static breaker with fast turnoff capability providing an alternative way of achieving reactor scram in addition to performing the function of the replaced blocking diodes. The control circuitry for the rectifier cabinet static breaker includes on-line test capability and an LED indicator light to denote successful test completion. Current limit circuitry provides high-speed protection in the event of overload.

  13. Corrosion effects on friction factors

    SciTech Connect

    Magleby, H.L.; Shaffer, S.J.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents the results of NRC-sponsored material specimen tests that were performed to determine if corrosion increases the friction factors of sliding surfaces of motor-operated gate valves, which could require higher forces to close and open safety-related valves when subjected to their design basis differential pressures. Friction tests were performed with uncorroded specimens and specimens subjected to accelerated corrosion. Preliminary tests at ambient conditions showed that corrosion increased the friction factors, indicating the need for additional tests duplicating valve operating parameters at hot conditions. The additional tests showed friction factors of corroded specimens were 0.1 to 0.2 higher than for uncorroded specimens, and that the friction factors of the corroded specimens were not very dependent on contact stress or corrosion film thickness. The measured values of friction factors for the three corrosion films tested (simulating three operating times) were in the range of 0.3 to 0.4. The friction factor for even the shortest simulated operating time was essentially the same as the others, indicating that the friction factors appear to reach a plateau and that the plateau is reached quickly.

  14. Friction laws at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Mo, Yifei; Turner, Kevin T; Szlufarska, Izabela

    2009-02-26

    Macroscopic laws of friction do not generally apply to nanoscale contacts. Although continuum mechanics models have been predicted to break down at the nanoscale, they continue to be applied for lack of a better theory. An understanding of how friction force depends on applied load and contact area at these scales is essential for the design of miniaturized devices with optimal mechanical performance. Here we use large-scale molecular dynamics simulations with realistic force fields to establish friction laws in dry nanoscale contacts. We show that friction force depends linearly on the number of atoms that chemically interact across the contact. By defining the contact area as being proportional to this number of interacting atoms, we show that the macroscopically observed linear relationship between friction force and contact area can be extended to the nanoscale. Our model predicts that as the adhesion between the contacting surfaces is reduced, a transition takes place from nonlinear to linear dependence of friction force on load. This transition is consistent with the results of several nanoscale friction experiments. We demonstrate that the breakdown of continuum mechanics can be understood as a result of the rough (multi-asperity) nature of the contact, and show that roughness theories of friction can be applied at the nanoscale.

  15. Friction in a Moving Car

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Fred M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an out-of-doors, partially unstructured experiment to determine the coefficient of friction for a moving car. Presents the equation which relates the coefficient of friction to initial velocity, distance, and time and gives sample computed values as a function of initial speed and tire pressure. (GS)

  16. Nanotribology: The renaissance of friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbakh, Michael; Meyer, Ernst

    2010-01-01

    500 years after the first studies on friction, the concepts of superlubricity, wearless sliding and friction control are being realized in laboratories and have become predictable by adequate modelling. The challenge now is to bridge the gap between what is known about these processes on the microscopic and macroscopic scales.

  17. Friction in surface micromachined microengines

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.L.; Sniegowski, J.J.; LaVigne, G.; McWhorter, P.J.

    1996-03-01

    Understanding the frictional properties of advanced Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is essential in order to develop optimized designs and fabrication processes, as well as to qualify devices for commercial applications. We develop and demonstrate a method to experimentally measure the forces associated with sliding friction of devices rotating on a hub. The method is demonstrated on the rotating output gear of the microengine recently developed at Sandia National Laboratories. In-situ measurements of an engine running at 18300 rpm give a coefficient of friction of 0.5 for radial (normal) forces less than 4 {mu}N. For larger forces the effective coefficient of friction abruptly increases, suggesting a fundamental change in the basic nature of the interaction between the gear and hub. The experimental approach we have developed to measure the frictional forces associated with the microengine is generically applicable to other MEMS devices.

  18. Rolling friction robot fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A low friction, object guidance, and gripping finger device for a robotic end effector on a robotic arm is disclosed, having a pair of robotic fingers each having a finger shaft slideably located on a gripper housing attached to the end effector. Each of the robotic fingers has a roller housing attached to the finger shaft. The roller housing has a ball bearing mounted centering roller located at the center, and a pair of ball bearing mounted clamping rollers located on either side of the centering roller. The object has a recess to engage the centering roller and a number of seating ramps for engaging the clamping rollers. The centering roller acts to position and hold the object symmetrically about the centering roller with respect to the X axis and the clamping rollers act to position and hold the object with respect to the Y and Z axis.

  19. Friction between a surrogate skin (Lorica Soft) and nonwoven fabrics used in hygiene products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falloon, Sabrina S.; Cottenden, Alan

    2016-09-01

    Incontinence pad wearers often suffer from sore skin, and a better understanding of friction between pads and skin is needed to inform the development of less damaging materials. This work investigated friction between a skin surrogate (Lorica Soft) and 13 nonwoven fabrics representing those currently used against the skin in commercial pads. All fabrics were found to behave consistently with Amontons’ law: coefficients of friction did not differ systematically when measured under two different loads. Although the 13 fabrics varied considerably in composition and structure, their coefficients of friction (static and dynamic) against Lorica Soft were remarkably similar, especially for the ten fabrics comprising just polypropylene (PP) fibres. The coefficients of friction for one PP fabric never differed by more than 15.7% from those of any other, suggesting that the ranges of fibre decitex (2.0-6.5), fabric area density (13-30 g m-2) and bonding area (11%-25%) they exhibited had only limited impact on their friction properties. It is likely that differences were largely attributable to variability in properties between multiple samples of a given fabric. Of the remaining fabrics, the one comprising polyester fibres had significantly higher coefficients of friction than the highest friction PP fabric (p < 0.005), while the one comprising PP fibres with a polyethylene sheath had significantly lower coefficients of friction than the lowest friction PP fabric (p < 10-8). However, fabrics differed in too many other ways to confidently attribute these differences in friction properties just to the choice of base polymer.

  20. Friction and wear of tin and tin alloys from minus 100 C to 150 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with an iron (110) single-crystal pin sliding on single and polycrystalline tin and tin alloys. Specimens were examined at various ambient temperatures from -100 to 150 C. Applied loads varied from 1 to 50 grams, and sliding velocity was constant at 0.7 mm/min. Results indicate that the crystal transformation of tin influences the friction coefficient. Friction was higher for the diamond structure (gray tin) than it was for the body-centered tetragonal structure (white tin). Bismuth arrested the crystal transformation, which resulted in constant friction over the temperature range -100 to 150 C. Both copper and aluminum enhanced the kinetics of transformation, with aluminum producing a nearly twofold change in friction with the crystal transformation.

  1. Development and validation of a new method for measuring friction between skin and nonwoven materials.

    PubMed

    Cottenden, A M; Wong, W K; Cottenden, D J; Farbrot, A

    2008-07-01

    A new method for measuring the coefficient of friction between nonwoven materials and the curved surface of the volar forearm has been developed and validated. The method was used to measure the coefficient of static friction for three different nonwoven materials on the normal (dry) and over-hydrated volar forearms of five female volunteers (ages 18-44). The method proved simple to run and had good repeatability: the coefficient of variation (standard deviation expressed as a percentage of the mean) for triplets of repeat measurements was usually (80 per cent of the time) less than 10 per cent. Measurements involving the geometrically simpler configuration of pulling a weighted fabric sample horizontally across a quasi-planar area of volar forearm skin proved experimentally more difficult and had poorer repeatability. However, correlations between values of coefficient of static friction derived using the two methods were good (R = 0.81 for normal (dry) skin, and 0.91 for over-hydrated skin). Measurements of the coefficient of static friction for the three nonwovens for normal (dry) and for over-hydrated skin varied in the ranges of about 0.3-0.5 and 0.9-1.3, respectively. In agreement with Amontons' law, coefficients of friction were invariant with normal pressure over the entire experimental range (0.1-8.2 kPa).

  2. Friction and wear of Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ ceramic/metal couples in dynamic contact

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne, S.F.; Buljan, S.T.

    1988-01-01

    The tribological behavior of Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ in sliding contact with itself, nodular cast iron, 316 stainless steel, and Inconel 718 is examined. The role of the environment and of the tribological characteristics breakaway friction, kinetic friction, and wear are measured in vacuum and air. The tribological behavior is shown to be strongly influenced by interactions with metallic alloys, which can lead to metal transfer, high friction, and ceramic wear. Surface oxide and adsorbed films from an air environment can stabilize the metal surfaces and reduce friction and wear. 26 references.

  3. Peptide chain dynamics in light and heavy water: zooming in on internal friction.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Julius C F; Schmidt, Lennart; Best, Robert B; Dzubiella, Joachim; Netz, Roland R

    2012-04-11

    Frictional effects due to the chain itself, rather than the solvent, may have a significant effect on protein dynamics. Experimentally, such "internal friction" has been investigated by studying folding or binding kinetics at varying solvent viscosity; however, the molecular origin of these effects is hard to pinpoint. We consider the kinetics of disordered glycine-serine and α-helix forming alanine peptides and a coarse-grained protein folding model in explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations. By varying the solvent mass over more than two orders of magnitude, we alter only the solvent viscosity and not the folding free energy. Folding dynamics at the near-vanishing solvent viscosities accessible by this approach suggests that solvent and internal friction effects are intrinsically entangled. This finding is rationalized by calculation of the polymer end-to-end distance dynamics from a Rouse model that includes internal friction. An analysis of the friction profile along different reaction coordinates, extracted from the simulation data, demonstrates that internal as well as solvent friction varies substantially along the folding pathways and furthermore suggests a connection between friction and the formation of hydrogen bonds upon folding.

  4. Flow Friction or Spontaneous Ignition?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Gallus, Timothy D.; Sparks, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    "Flow friction," a proposed ignition mechanism in oxygen systems, has proved elusive in attempts at experimental verification. In this paper, the literature regarding flow friction is reviewed and the experimental verification attempts are briefly discussed. Another ignition mechanism, a form of spontaneous combustion, is proposed as an explanation for at least some of the fire events that have been attributed to flow friction in the literature. In addition, the results of a failure analysis performed at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility are presented, and the observations indicate that spontaneous combustion was the most likely cause of the fire in this 2000 psig (14 MPa) oxygen-enriched system.

  5. REDUCED ENGINE FRICTION AND WEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Ron Matthews

    2005-05-01

    This Final Technical Report discusses the progress was made on the experimental and numerical tasks over the duration of this project regarding a new technique for decreasing engine friction and wear via liner rotation. The experimental subtasks involved quantifying the reduction in engine friction for a prototype rotating liner engine relative to a comparable baseline engine. Both engine were single cylinder conversions of nominally identical production four-cylinder engines. Hot motoring tests were conducted initially and revealed that liner rotation decreased engine friction by 20% under motoring conditions. A well-established model was used to estimate that liner rotation should decrease the friction of a four-cylinder engine by 40% under hot motoring conditions. Hot motoring tear-down tests revealed that the crankshaft and valve train frictional losses were essentially the same for the two engines, as expected. However, the rotating liner engine had much lower (>70%) piston assembly friction compared to the conventional engine. Finally, we used the Instantaneous IMEP method to compare the crank-angle resolved piston assembly friction for the two engines. Under hot motoring conditions, these measurements revealed a significant reduction in piston assembly friction, especially in the vicinity of compression TDC when the lubrication regime transitions from hydrodynamic through mixed and into boundary friction. We have some remaining problems with these measurements that we expect to solve during the next few weeks. We will then perform these measurements under firing conditions. We also proposed to improve the state-of-the-art of numerical modeling of piston assembly friction for conventional engines and then to extend this model to rotating liner engines. Our research team first modeled a single ring in the Purdue ring-liner test rig. Our model showed good agreement with the test rig data for a range of speeds and loads. We then modeled a complete piston

  6. On laminar and turbulent friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Karman, TH

    1946-01-01

    Report deals, first with the theory of the laminar friction flow, where the basic concepts of Prandtl's boundary layer theory are represented from mathematical and physical points of view, and a method is indicated by means of which even more complicated cases can be treated with simple mathematical means, at least approximately. An attempt is also made to secure a basis for the computation of the turbulent friction by means of formulas through which the empirical laws of the turbulent pipe resistance can be applied to other problems on friction drag. (author)

  7. Flexure Bearing Reduces Startup Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clingman, W. Dean

    1991-01-01

    Design concept for ball bearing incorporates small pieces of shim stock, wire spokes like those in bicycle wheels, or other flexing elements to reduce both stiction and friction slope. In flexure bearing, flexing elements placed between outer race of ball bearing and outer ring. Elements flex when ball bearings encounter small frictional-torque "bumps" or even larger ones when bearing balls encounter buildups of grease on inner or outer race. Flexure of elements reduce high friction slopes of "bumps", helping to keep torque between outer ring and inner race low and more nearly constant. Concept intended for bearings in gimbals on laser and/or antenna mirrors.

  8. Molecular friction in an actomyosin molecular machine.

    PubMed

    Suda, H

    1990-10-07

    In muscle contraction, it has been widely recognized that a binding state exists between myosin and actin in the presence of Mg-ATP. To estimate the magnitude of binding strength, I introduce a concept of frictional phenomena which occurs between two sliding bodies in contact each other. In such cases, the sliding speed can be formulated as a function of the actin-myosin bond strength. In order to validate this, the present theory is applied for the two movement assay systems with no external load; one movement assay of Phalloidin Rhodamine bound F-actin on a myosin coated hydrophobic cover glass and another assay of myosin coated beads along actin cables of Nitella. If a coefficient of 0.005 is applied to the kinetic friction, 1pN for the sliding force per cross-bridge and 10 microns sec-1 for the sliding speed, it is found that the bond strength between actin and one myosin head is about 200 pN in the contracting state.

  9. The acceleration of a neutron in a static electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappelletti, R. L.

    2012-06-01

    We show that when a non-relativistic neutron travels in a static electric field, the acceleration vector operator is perpendicular to the velocity operator. Kinetic energy is conserved. A spin-dependent field term in the canonical momentum gives rise to a non-dispersive contribution to the quantum mechanical (Aharonov-Casher) phase. This motion differs from that in a static magnetic field which has no field term in the canonical momentum and no conservation of kinetic energy. For the geometry of the Aharonov-Casher effect, there is no acceleration, while in Mott-Schwinger scattering, the acceleration causes a spin-dependent change in neutron direction.

  10. Multimodal Friction Ignition Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Eddie; Howard, Bill; Herald, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The multimodal friction ignition tester (MFIT) is a testbed for experiments on the thermal and mechanical effects of friction on material specimens in pressurized, oxygen-rich atmospheres. In simplest terms, a test involves recording sensory data while rubbing two specimens against each other at a controlled normal force, with either a random stroke or a sinusoidal stroke having controlled amplitude and frequency. The term multimodal in the full name of the apparatus refers to a capability for imposing any combination of widely ranging values of the atmospheric pressure, atmospheric oxygen content, stroke length, stroke frequency, and normal force. The MFIT was designed especially for studying the tendency toward heating and combustion of nonmetallic composite materials and the fretting of metals subjected to dynamic (vibrational) friction forces in the presence of liquid oxygen or pressurized gaseous oxygen test conditions approximating conditions expected to be encountered in proposed composite material oxygen tanks aboard aircraft and spacecraft in flight. The MFIT includes a stainless-steel pressure vessel capable of retaining the required test atmosphere. Mounted atop the vessel is a pneumatic cylinder containing a piston for exerting the specified normal force between the two specimens. Through a shaft seal, the piston shaft extends downward into the vessel. One of the specimens is mounted on a block, denoted the pressure block, at the lower end of the piston shaft. This specimen is pressed down against the other specimen, which is mounted in a recess in another block, denoted the slip block, that can be moved horizontally but not vertically. The slip block is driven in reciprocating horizontal motion by an electrodynamic vibration exciter outside the pressure vessel. The armature of the electrodynamic exciter is connected to the slip block via a horizontal shaft that extends into the pressure vessel via a second shaft seal. The reciprocating horizontal

  11. Rubber friction and tire dynamics.

    PubMed

    Persson, B N J

    2011-01-12

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  12. Force fluctuations while pressing and moving against high- and low-friction touch screen surfaces.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Mukta N; Keenan, Kevin G

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of a high- and low-friction surface on the ability to maintain a steady downward force during an index finger pressing and moving task. Fifteen right-handed subjects (24-48 years) performed a static force pressing task and a hybrid pressing and moving task on the surface of an iPad mini while holding a steady 2-N force on high- and low-friction surfaces. Variability of force was quantified as the standard deviation (SD) of normal force (F z) and shear force (F xy) across friction conditions and tasks. The SD of F z was 227 % greater during the hybrid task as compared to the static task (p < .001) and was 19 % greater for the high- versus low-friction condition (p = .033). There were positive correlations between SD of F z and F xy during the hybrid force/motion tasks on the high- and low-friction conditions (r (2) = 0.5 and 0.86, respectively), suggesting significant associations between normal and shear forces for this hybrid task. The correlation between the SD of F z for static and hybrid tasks was r (2) = 0.44, indicating that the common practice of examining the control of static tasks may not sufficiently explain performance during hybrid tasks, at least for the young subjects tested in the current study. As activities of daily living frequently require hybrid force/motion tasks (e.g., writing, doing the dishes, and cleaning counters), the results of this study emphasize the need to study motor performance during hybrid tasks in addition to static force tasks.

  13. Entrance and exit region friction factor models for annular seal analysis. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, David Alan

    1988-01-01

    The Mach number definition and boundary conditions in Nelson's nominally-centered, annular gas seal analysis are revised. A method is described for determining the wall shear stress characteristics of an annular gas seal experimentally. Two friction factor models are developed for annular seal analysis; one model is based on flat-plate flow theory; the other uses empirical entrance and exit region friction factors. The friction factor predictions of the models are compared to experimental results. Each friction model is used in an annular gas seal analysis. The seal characteristics predicted by the two seal analyses are compared to experimental results and to the predictions of Nelson's analysis. The comparisons are for smooth-rotor seals with smooth and honeycomb stators. The comparisons show that the analysis which uses empirical entrance and exit region shear stress models predicts the static and stability characteristics of annular gas seals better than the other analyses. The analyses predict direct stiffness poorly.

  14. An asymmetric dimer in a periodic potential: a minimal model for friction of graphene flakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hens, Remco; Fasolino, Annalisa

    2016-07-01

    We discuss the friction and motion of a model of a dimer with asymmetric interactions with a substrate potential. Starting from the consideration that a rigid dimer with spacing equal to half of the period of the potential has exactly zero static friction like the infinite incommensurate Frenkel Kontorova model, we show how stick-slip behaviour and friction arise as a function of asymmetry. We argue that this model can yield a simple yet insightful description of the frictional behaviour of graphene flakes on graphite and of superlubricity. The results can also be of interest for diatomic molecules on surfaces. Supplementary material in the form of three mp4 files available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-70273-5

  15. Friction Boosted by Equilibrium Misalignment of Incommensurate Two-Dimensional Colloid Monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelli, Davide; Vanossi, Andrea; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2015-03-01

    Colloidal two-dimensional monolayers sliding in an optical lattice are of recent importance as a frictional system. In the general case when the monolayer and optical lattices are incommensurate, we predict two important novelties, one in the static equilibrium structure, the other in the frictional behavior under sliding. Structurally, realistic simulations show that the colloid layer should possess in full equilibrium a small misalignment rotation angle relative to the optical lattice, an effect so far unnoticed but visible in some published experimental moiré patterns. Under sliding, this misalignment has the effect of boosting the colloid monolayer friction by a considerable factor over the hypothetical aligned case discussed so far. A frictional increase of similar origin must generally affect other incommensurate adsorbed monolayers and contacts, to be sought out case by case.

  16. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surface contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.

  17. Hydraulic friction heat generator

    SciTech Connect

    McMurtry, R.V.

    1987-08-11

    A hydraulic friction heat generator filled with hydraulic heat transfer fluid is described which consists of: a cylindrical housing with a central axis through its interior and with end plates generally normal to the central axis, the generator having an inlet conduit means and an outlet conduit means located at opposite ends of the cylindrical housing thereof; a drive shaft bearingly mounted in each of the end plates in coaxial alignment with the central axis and passing through one of the end plates to extend outwardly therefrom; an external power source joined to the extended shaft for rotating the shaft; and smooth-surfaced thin discs with outer generally annular peripheral edges closely-spaced from the inner wall of the cylindrical housing, the discs being fixedly mounted in axially spaced relationship on the drive shaft to be rotated thereby in a single direction, with no stationary elements interposed between the discs, each disc having at least two radially-oriented slits partially transecting the disc to extend inward from the disc peripheral edges, and the discs having a portion of each disc on one side of the slit feathered outward from the plane of the disc to form a vane for turbulently forcing the hydraulic fluid axially toward the outlet conduit means.

  18. Rolling-Friction Robotic Gripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Robotic gripper using rolling-friction fingers closes in on object with interface designed to mate with rollers somewhat misaligned initially, aligns object with respect to itself, then holds object securely in uniquely determined position and orientation. Operation of gripper causes minimal wear and burring of gripper and object. Exerts minimal friction forces on object when grasping and releasing. Releases object easily and reliably even when side forces and torques are between itself and object.

  19. Tire/runway friction interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of NASA Langley's tire/runway pavement interface studies. The National Tire Modeling Program, evaluation of new tire and landing gear designs, tire wear and friction tests, and tire hydroplaning studies are examined. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility is described along with some ground friction measuring vehicles. The major goals and scope of several joint FAA/NASA programs are identified together with current status and plans.

  20. Influence of ligation method on friction resistance of lingual brackets with different second-order angulations: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Graziane Olímpio; Gimenez, Carla Maria Melleiro; Prieto, Lucas; Prieto, Marcos Gabriel do Lago; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate stainless steel archwire static friction in active and passive self-ligating lingual and conventional brackets with second-order angulations. Methods: Two conventional lingual brackets for canines (STb light/Ormco; PSWb/Tecnident), and two self-ligating brackets, one active (In-Ovation L/GAC) and the other passive (3D/ Forestadent), were evaluated. A stainless steel archwire was used at 0°, 3° and 5° angulations. Metal ligatures, conventional elastic ligatures, and low friction elastic ligatures were also tested. A universal testing machine applied friction between brackets and wires, simulating sliding mechanics, to produce 2-mm sliding at 3 mm/minute speed. Results: Two-way analysis of variance demonstrated a significant effect of the interaction between brackets and angulations (p < 0.001). Tukey test indicated that the highest frictional resistance values were observed at 5° angulation for In-Ovation L, PSWb bracket with non conventional ligature, and STb bracket with metal ligature. As for 3D, PSWb with conventional or metal ligatures, and STb brackets with non conventional ligature, showed significantly lower static frictional resistance with 0° angulation. At 0° angulation, STb brackets with metal ties, In-Ovation L brackets and 3D brackets had the lowest frictional resistance. Conclusions: As the angulation increased from 0° to 3°, static friction resistance increased. When angulation increased from 3° to 5°, static friction resistance increased or remained the same. Self-ligating 3D and In-Ovation L brackets, as well as conventional STb brackets, seem to be the best option when sliding mechanics is used to perform lingual orthodontic treatment. PMID:27653262

  1. Concerted dihedral rotations give rise to internal friction in unfolded proteins.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Ignacia; Makarov, Dmitrii E; Papoian, Garegin A

    2014-06-18

    Protein chains undergo conformational diffusion during folding and dynamics, experiencing both thermal kicks and viscous drag. Recent experiments have shown that the corresponding friction can be separated into wet friction, which is determined by the solvent viscosity, and dry friction, where frictional effects arise due to the interactions within the protein chain. Despite important advances, the molecular origins underlying dry friction in proteins have remained unclear. To address this problem, we studied the dynamics of the unfolded cold-shock protein at different solvent viscosities and denaturant concentrations. Using extensive all-atom molecular dynamics simulations we estimated the internal friction time scales and found them to agree well with the corresponding experimental measurements (Soranno et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2012, 109, 17800-17806). Analysis of the reconfiguration dynamics of the unfolded chain further revealed that hops in the dihedral space provide the dominant mechanism of internal friction. Furthermore, the increased number of concerted dihedral moves at physiological conditions suggest that, in such conditions, the concerted motions result in higher frictional forces. These findings have important implications for understanding the folding kinetics of proteins as well as the dynamics of intrinsically disordered proteins.

  2. Solid friction between soft filaments

    DOE PAGES

    Ward, Andrew; Hilitski, Feodor; Schwenger, Walter; ...

    2015-03-02

    Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments’ overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes’s drag,more » can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate how altering a filament’s elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the properties of fibrous composite materials.« less

  3. Local friction in polyolefin blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta

    2005-07-01

    Processes on different length scales affect the dynamics of chain molecules. The friction experienced by a short chain segment depends on both small-scale chain properties and on the local environment of the segment. As a consequence, the (monomeric) friction coefficients of the two components of a binary polymer blend will, in general, differ from each other and from the friction coefficients of the corresponding melts. In this work, we investigate local friction in polyolefin blends with the aid of a small-scale simulation approach. The polymer chains, in united atom representation, are assumed to occupy the sites of a partially filled simple cubic lattice. The simulation focuses on short chain sections with straight backbones and enumerates all possible binary contacts and relative movements of such sections. By evaluating the exact enumeration results in conjunction with equations of state for the blends, we are able to make predictions about the variation of the friction coefficients with local chain architecture and thermodynamic state (temperature, pressure, and composition). We calculate relative values of friction coefficients at temperatures well above the glass transition for blends of PEP, an alternating copolymer of polyethylene and polypropylene, with polyethylene and polyisobutylene and for blends of polyethylene and atactic polypropylene. We also investigate a blend of PEP with head-to-head polypropylene and compare our results with experimental data.

  4. Solid friction between soft filaments

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Andrew; Hilitski, Feodor; Schwenger, Walter; Welch, David; Lau, A.W. C.; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Mahadevan, L.; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments1,2. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments’ overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes’s drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament’s elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the properties of fibrous composite materials. PMID:25730393

  5. Spine growth mechanisms: friction and seismicity at Mt. Unzen, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornby, Adrian; Kendrick, Jackie; Hirose, Takehiro; Henton De Angelis, Sarah; De Angelis, Silvio; Umakoshi, Kodo; Miwa, Takahiro; Wadsworth, Fabian; Dingwell, Don; Lavallee, Yan

    2014-05-01

    The final episode of dome growth during the 1991-1995 eruption of Mt. Unzen was characterised by spine extrusion accompanied by repetitive seismicity. This type of cyclic activity has been observed at several dome-building volcanoes and recent work suggests a source mechanism of brittle failure of magma in the conduit. Spine growth may proceed by densification and closure of permeable pathways within the uppermost conduit magma, leading to sealing of the dome and inflation of the edifice. Amplified stresses on the wall rock and plug cause brittle failure near the conduit wall once static friction forces are overcome, and during spine growth these fractures may propagate to the dome surface. The preservation of these features is rare, and the conduit is typically inaccessible; therefore spines, the extruded manifestation of upper conduit material, provide the opportunity to study direct evidence of brittle processes in the conduit. At Mt. Unzen the spine retains evidence for brittle deformation and slip, however mechanical constraints on the formation of these features and their potential impact on eruption dynamics have not been well constrained. Here, we conduct an investigation into the process of episodic spine growth using high velocity friction apparatus at variable shear slip rate (0.4-1.5 m.s-1) and normal stress (0.4-3.5 MPa) on dome rock from Mt. Unzen, generating frictional melt at velocity >0.4 m.s-1 and normal stress >0.7 MPa. Our results show that the presence of frictional melt causes a deviation from Byerlee's frictional rule for rock friction. Melt generation is a disequilibrium process: initial amphibole breakdown leads to melt formation, followed by chemical homogenization of the melt layer. Ultimately, the experimentally generated frictional melts have a similar final chemistry, thickness and comminuted clast size distribution, thereby facilitating the extrapolation of a single viscoelastic model to describe melt-lubricated slip events at Mt

  6. Characterization of Friction Joints Subjected to High Levels of Random Vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deSantos, Omar; MacNeal, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the test program in detail including test sample description, test procedures, and vibration test results of multiple test samples. The material pairs used in the experiment were Aluminum-Aluminum, Aluminum- Dicronite coated Aluminum, and Aluminum-Plasmadize coated Aluminum. Levels of vibration for each set of twelve samples of each material pairing were gradually increased until all samples experienced substantial displacement. Data was collected on 1) acceleration in all three axes, 2) relative static displacement between vibration runs utilizing photogrammetry techniques, and 3) surface galling and contaminant generation. This data was used to estimate the values of static friction during random vibratory motion when "stick-slip" occurs and compare these to static friction coefficients measured before and after vibration testing.

  7. The Effect of Friction on Penetration in Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Steve

    2002-01-01

    "Friction stir butt welding," as it was originally termed by Wayne Thomas and Christopher Dawes, in the early 1990s, but now commonly called "friction stir welding," has made great progress as a new welding technique. Marshall Space Flight Center has been investigating the use of FSW for assembly of the Shuttle's external fuel tank since the late 1990s and hopes to have the process in use by the summer of 2002. In FSW, a cylindrical pin tool of hardened steel, is rotated and plunged into the abutting edges of the parts to be joined. The tool is plunged into the weldment to within about .050 in of the bottom to assure full penetration. As the tool moves along the joint, the tool shoulder helps produce frictional heating, causing the material to plasticize. The metal of the two abutting plates flows from the front of the tool to the back where it cools and coalesces to form a weld in the solid phase. One quarter inch thick plates of aluminum alloy 2219 were used in this study. Two samples, each consisting of two 4 in x 12 in plates, were friction stir welded. The anvil for one sample was coated with molybdenum sulfide, while for the other sample a sheet of roughened stainless steel was placed between the anvil and the sample. The retractable pin tool was used so that the depth of the pin tool penetration could be varied. As welding proceeded, the length of the pin tool was gradually increased from the starting point. The purpose of this investigation is to find out at what point, in the down ramp, penetration occurs. Differences in root structure of the friction stir weld due to differences in anvil friction will be observed. These observations will be analyzed using friction stir weld theory.

  8. Why Static Clings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naab, Laurie; Henry, David

    2009-01-01

    Using Wiggins and McTighe's (1998) concept of Big Ideas, the authors planned and designed an electricity investigation to address common student misconceptions about static electricity. With Styrofoam plates and transparent tape, elementary students investigated many properties of electrically charged and uncharged objects in a 5E learning cycle…

  9. CAI Applications in Statics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Clayton C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes a statics course developed at Texas A&M University in the engineering curriculum which utilizes computer-assisted instruction. Discusses the organization and management of the team that developed the course, the selection of the hardware and software used, and the implementation model and lesson prototype developed for the course.…

  10. The influence of resting periods on friction in the artificial hip.

    PubMed

    Nassutt, Roman; Wimmer, Markus A; Schneider, Erich; Morlock, Michael M

    2003-02-01

    Insufficient tribologic performance of total joint components is a major cause of prostheses failure. Wear has been studied intensively using testing machines that apply continuous motions. Human locomotion, however, is not well represented by continuous motions alone. Singular events and resting periods are a substantial part of daily activities. Resting does influence adhesion in the artificial joint with possible effects on friction, wear, and loosening. The current study evaluated the effects of resting on the frictional properties of hip prosthesis components. The activity measurements of 32 patients with artificial hip replacements were analyzed for resting durations of the hip. A pin-on-ball screening device was used to determine friction after characteristic resting periods and during continuous oscillating motion. All common articulation pairings were investigated. Prolonged and frequent resting periods of the hip were found for the patients. Initial friction increased with increasing resting duration for all tested materials (between 41% and 191%). The metal-on-metal articulations showed the highest friction level (0.098 for sliding) and the highest increase (191%) in friction with resting duration (0.285 after resting periods of 60 seconds). A high static frictional moment after resting periods might present a risk for aseptic implant loosening. Therefore, large head diameters of metal-on-metal joints should be used with caution, especially when additional unfavorable risk factors such as obesity, weak bone-implant interface, or high activity level are present.

  11. Characterization of friction in the 3.6m Devasthal optical telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, T. S.; Bastin, Christian; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present the work on characterization of friction in the 3.6 m Devasthal optical telescope axes. The telescope azimuth axis is supported on a hydrostatic bearing while the altitude and rotator axes are supported on hydrodynamic bearings. Both altitude and azimuth axes are driven directly by high power BLDC motors and the rotator is driven by BLDC motor via a gearbox. This system is designed by AMOS, Belgium and tuned to achieve a tracking accuracy better than 0.1 arcsec RMS. Friction poses control related problems at such low speeds hence it is important to periodically characterize the behaviour at each axes. Compensation is necessary if the friction behaviour changes over the time and starts dominating the overall system response. For identifying friction each axis of telescope is rotated at different constant speeds and speed versus torque maps are generated. The LuGre model for friction is employed and nonlinear optimization is performed to identify the four static parameters of friction. The behaviour of friction for each axis is presented and the results are discussed.

  12. Prehension synergies in the grasps with complex friction patterns: local versus synergic effects and the template control.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xun; Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2007-07-01

    We studied adjustments of digit forces to changes in the friction. The subjects held a handle statically in a three-digit grasp. The friction under each digit was either high or low, resulting in eight three-element friction sets (such grasps were coined the grasps with complex friction pattern). The total load was also manipulated. It was found that digit forces were adjusted not only to the supported load and local friction, but also to friction at other digits (synergic effects). When friction under a digit was low, its tangential force decreased and the normal force increased (local effects). The synergic effects were directed to maintain the equilibrium of the handle. The relation between the individual digit forces and loads agreed with the triple-product model: f(i)(n) = k(i)((2))k(i)((1))L, where f(i)(n) is normal force of digit i, L is the load (newtons), k(i)((1)) is a dimensionless coefficient representing sharing the total tangential force among the digits (summation operator k(i)((1)) = 1.0), and k(i)((2)) is a coefficient representing the relation between the tangential and normal forces of digit i (the overall friction equivalent, OFE). At each friction set, the central controller selected the grasping template -- a three-element array of k(i)((2))k(i)((1)) products -- and then scaled the template with the load magnitude.

  13. In-Flight Capability for Evaluating Skin-Friction Gages and Other Near-Wall Flow Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong T.; Pipitone, Brett J.; Krake, Keith L.; Richwine, Dave (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    An 8-in.-square boundary-layer sensor panel has been developed for in-flight evaluation of skin-friction gages and other near-wall flow sensors on the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center F-15B/Flight Test Fixture (FTF). Instrumentation on the sensor panel includes a boundary-layer rake, temperature sensors, static pressure taps, and a Preston tube. Space is also available for skin-friction gages or other near-wall flow sensors. Pretest analysis of previous F-15B/FTF flight data has identified flight conditions suitable for evaluating skin-friction gages. At subsonic Mach numbers, the boundary layer over the sensor panel closely approximates the two-dimensional (2D), law-of-the-wall turbulent boundary layer, and skin-friction estimates from the Preston tube and the rake (using the Clauser plot method) can be used to evaluate skin-friction gages. At supersonic Mach numbers, the boundary layer over the sensor panel becomes complex, and other means of measuring skin friction are needed to evaluate the accuracy of new skin-friction gages. Results from the flight test of a new rubber-damped skin-friction gage confirm that at subsonic Mach numbers, nearly 2D, law-of-the-wall turbulent boundary layers exist over the sensor panel. Sensor panel data also show that this new skin-friction gage prototype does not work in flight.

  14. Frictional Heterogeneities Along Carbonate Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collettini, C.; Carpenter, B. M.; Scuderi, M.; Tesei, T.

    2014-12-01

    The understanding of fault-slip behaviour in carbonates has an important societal impact as a) a significant number of earthquakes nucleate within or propagate through these rocks, and b) half of the known petroleum reserves occur within carbonate reservoirs, which likely contain faults that experience fluid pressure fluctuations. Field studies on carbonate-bearing faults that are exhumed analogues of currently active structures of the seismogenic crust, show that fault rock types are systematically controlled by the lithology of the faulted protolith: localization associated with cataclasis, thermal decomposition and plastic deformation commonly affect fault rocks in massive limestone, whereas distributed deformation, pressure-solution and frictional sliding along phyllosilicates are observed in marly rocks. In addition, hydraulic fractures, indicating cyclic fluid pressure build-ups during the fault activity, are widespread. Standard double direct friction experiments on fault rocks from massive limestones show high friction, velocity neutral/weakening behaviour and significant re-strengthening during hold periods, on the contrary, phyllosilicate-rich shear zones are characterized by low friction, significant velocity strengthening behavior and no healing. We are currently running friction experiments on large rock samples (20x20 cm) in order to reproduce and characterize the interaction of fault rock frictional heterogeneities observed in the field. In addition we have been performing experiments at near lithostatic fluid pressure in the double direct shear configuration within a pressure vessel to test the Rate and State friction stability under these conditions. Our combination of structural observations and mechanical data have been revealing the processes and structures that are at the base of the broad spectrum of fault slip behaviors recently documented by high-resolution geodetic and seismological data.

  15. A simple approach for calculating pile skin friction in clays

    SciTech Connect

    Mirza, U.A.A.

    1995-12-31

    A simple method is presented for calculating static shaft resistance of a pile driven into clay. The method is based on correlations established for North Sea clays between index properties and strengths. Application of the method to half a dozen full scale pile load tests which are part of the API RP2A`s data base and include a wide range of plasticity properties, overconsolidation ratios and strengths, is described. Except for short piles in very stiff to hard clays, the predictions agree very well with the measurements. The correlations presented allows an assessment of residual skin friction and indicate the importance of the liquidity index of the clay in static capacity calculations.

  16. Versatile Friction Stir Welding/Friction Plug Welding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A proposed system of tooling, machinery, and control equipment would be capable of performing any of several friction stir welding (FSW) and friction plug welding (FPW) operations. These operations would include the following: Basic FSW; FSW with automated manipulation of the length of the pin tool in real time [the so-called auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability]; Self-reacting FSW (SRFSW); SR-FSW with APT capability and/or real-time adjustment of the distance between the front and back shoulders; and Friction plug welding (FPW) [more specifically, friction push plug welding] or friction pull plug welding (FPPW) to close out the keyhole of, or to repair, an FSW or SR-FSW weld. Prior FSW and FPW systems have been capable of performing one or two of these operations, but none has thus far been capable of performing all of them. The proposed system would include a common tool that would have APT capability for both basic FSW and SR-FSW. Such a tool was described in Tool for Two Types of Friction Stir Welding (MFS- 31647-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 10 (October 2006), page 70. Going beyond what was reported in the cited previous article, the common tool could be used in conjunction with a plug welding head to perform FPW or FPPW. Alternatively, the plug welding head could be integrated, along with the common tool, into a FSW head that would be capable of all of the aforementioned FSW and FPW operations. Any FSW or FPW operation could be performed under any combination of position and/or force control.

  17. Instantaneous engine frictional torque, its components and piston assembly friction

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, F.A. ); Henein, N.A. . Center for Automotive Research)

    1992-05-01

    The overall goal of this report is to document the work done to determine the instantaneous frictional torque of internal combustion engine by using a new approach known as (P-[omega]) method developed at Wayne State University. The emphasis has been to improve the accuracy of the method, and apply it to both diesel and gasoline engines under different operating conditions. Also work included an investigation to determine the effect of using advanced materials and techniques to coat the piston rings on the instantaneous engine frictional torque and the piston assembly friction. The errors in measuring the angular velocity, [omega], have been determined and found to be caused by variations in the divisions within one encoder, encoder-to-encoder variations, misalignment within the encoder itself and misalignment between the encoder and crankshaft. The errors in measuring the cylinder gas pressure, P, have been determined and found to be caused by transducer-to-transducer variations, zero drift, thermal stresses and lack of linearity. The ability of the (P-[omega]) method in determining the frictional torque of many engine components has been demonstrated. These components include valve train, fuel injection pump with and without fuel injection, and piston with and without different ring combinations. The emphasis in this part of the research program has been on the piston-ring assembly friction. The effects of load and other operating variables on IFT have been determined. The motoring test, which is widely used in industry to measure engine friction has been found to be inaccurate. The errors have been determined at different loads.

  18. Frictional ignition with coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews recent U.S. Bureau of Mine studies of frictional ignition of a methane-air environment by coal mining bits cutting into sandstone and the effectiveness of remedial techniques to reduce the likelihood of frictional ignition. Frictional ignition with a minim bit always involves a worn bit having a wear flat on the tip of the bit. The worn bit forms hot spots on the surface of the sandstone because of frictional abrasion. The hot spots then can ignite the methane-air environment. A small wear flat forms a small hot spot, which does not give ignition, while a large wear flat forms a large hot spot, which gives ignition. The likelihood of frictional ignition can be somewhat reduced by using a mushroom-shaped tungsten-carbide bit tip on the mining bit and by increasing the bit clearance angle; it can be significantly reduced by using a water spray nozzle in back of each bit, which is carefully oriented to direct the water spray onto the sandstone surface directly behind the bit and thereby cool the hot spots formed by the worn bit. A bit replacement schedule must be used to avoid the formation of a dangerously worn bit.

  19. Mesh Size Control of Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitenis, Angela; Uruena, Juan Manuel; Schulze, Kyle D.; Cooper, Andrew C.; Angelini, Thomas E.; Sawyer, W. Gregory

    Soft, permeable sliding interfaces in aqueous environments are ubiquitous in nature but their ability to maintain high lubricity in a poor lubricant (water) has not been well understood. Hydrogels are excellent materials for fundamental soft matter and biotribology studies due to their high water content. While mesh size controls the material and transport properties of a hydrogel, its effects on friction were only recently explored. Polyacrylamide hydrogels slid in a Gemini (self-mated) interface produced low friction under low speeds, low pressures, macroscopic contact areas, and room temperature aqueous environments. The friction coefficients at these interfaces are lowest at low speeds and are speed-independent. This behavior is due to thermal fluctuations at the interface separating the surfaces, with water shearing in this region being the main source of dissipation. We found that mesh size had an inverse correlation with friction. We further investigated a transition from this behavior at higher speeds, and found that the transition speed correlated with the mesh size and relaxation time of the polymer network. Very soft and correspondingly large mesh size Gemini hydrogels show superlubricity under specific conditions with friction being less than 0.005.

  20. Axial static mixer

    DOEpatents

    Sandrock, H.E.

    1982-05-06

    Static axial mixing apparatus includes a plurality of channels, forming flow paths of different dimensions. The axial mixer includes a flow adjusting device for adjustable selective control of flow resistance of various flow paths in order to provide substantially identical flows through the various channels, thereby reducing nonuniform coating of interior surfaces of the channels. The flow adjusting device may include diaphragm valves, and may further include a pressure regulating system therefor.

  1. Static cylindrically symmetric spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fjällborg, Mikael

    2007-05-01

    We prove the existence of static solutions to the cylindrically symmetric Einstein Vlasov system, and we show that the matter cylinder has finite extension in two of the three spatial dimensions. The same results are also proved for a quite general class of equations of state for perfect fluids coupled to the Einstein equations, extending the class of equations of state considered by Bicak et al (2004 Class. Quantum Grav.21 1583). We also obtain this result for the Vlasov Poisson system.

  2. Nonlinear friction model for servo press simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ninshu; Sugitomo, Nobuhiko; Kyuno, Takunori; Tamura, Shintaro; Naka, Tetsuo

    2013-12-01

    The friction coefficient was measured under an idealized condition for a pulse servo motion. The measured friction coefficient and its changing with both sliding distance and a pulse motion showed that the friction resistance can be reduced due to the re-lubrication during unloading process of the pulse servo motion. Based on the measured friction coefficient and its changes with sliding distance and re-lubrication of oil, a nonlinear friction model was developed. Using the newly developed the nonlinear friction model, a deep draw simulation was performed and the formability was evaluated. The results were compared with experimental ones and the effectiveness was verified.

  3. Effect of passive self-ligating bracket placement on the posterior teeth on reduction of frictional force in sliding mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyu-Ry

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the static (SFF) and kinetic frictional forces (KFF) in sliding mechanics of hybrid bracket systems that involve placing a conventional bracket (CB) or active self-ligating bracket (ASLB) on the maxillary anterior teeth (MXAT) and a passive SLB (PSLB) on the maxillary posterior teeth (MXPT). Methods The samples consisted of two thoroughbred types (group 1, anterior-CB + posterior-CB; group 2, anterior-ASLB + posterior-ASLB) and four hybrid types (group 3, anterior-CB + posterior-PSLB-type 1; group 4, anterior-CB + posterior-PSLB-type 2; group 5, anterior-ASLB + posterior-PSLB-type 1; group 6, anterior-ASLB + posterior-PSLB-type 2) (n = 13 per group). After maxillary dentition alignment and maxillary first premolars removal in the stereolithographically-made typodont system, a 0.019 × 0.025-inch stainless steel wire was drawn through the right quadrant of the maxillary arch at 0.5 mm/min for 5 min. The SFF and KFF were measured with a mechanical testing machine and statistical analyses were performed. Results Four different categories of SFF and KFF were observed among all groups (all p < 0.001). Group 1 demonstrated the highest SFF and KFF; groups 4 and 3 were second and third highest, respectively. The fourth category included groups 2, 5, and 6. Placing PSLBs on the MXPT resulted in significant SFF and KFF reductions in cases with CBs on the MXAT, but not in cases with ASLBs on the MXAT. Conclusions These data might aid in the development of a hybrid bracket system that enables low-friction sliding of an archwire through the MXPT. PMID:27019821

  4. The effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles deposition for friction reduction on orthodontic wires

    PubMed Central

    Kachoei, Mojghan; Eskandarinejad, Faranak; Divband, Baharak; Khatamian, Masumeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the sliding technique, the reduced frictional forces are associated with rapid tooth movements and better control of the anchorage. Recently, wire coating with different nanoparticles has been proposed to decrease frictional forces. This in vitro study was carried out to coat stainless steel (SS) wires with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in order to determine the effect of this coating on friction between wires and orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: Eighty 0.016 inch and 0.019 inch × 0.025 inch SS wires with and without ZnO nanoparticles were used in 80 orthodontic brackets (0.018 and 0.022 systems). The coated wires were analyzed by SEM and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) observations. Kinetic friction between the wires and orthodontic brackets were calculated using a universal testing machine. Frictional forces were statistically analyzed using three-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, Student's t-test and Tukey multiple comparison tests. Results: Coating with ZnO nanoparticles significantly influenced frictional force values (P < 0.0001). In 0.019 inch × 0.025 inch wires, the frictional forces were 1.6912 ± 0.18868 and 3.4485 ± 0.32389 N in the coated and uncoated wires respectively, (51% reductions). In the 0.016 inch wires, the friction values were estimated to be 1.5668 ± 0.10703 and 2.56 ± 0.34008 N in the coated and uncoated conditions, respectively, (39% reductions). Conclusion: Due to the positive effects of ZnO nanoparticle coating on decreasing frictional forces, these nanoparticles might offer a novel opportunity to significantly reduce friction during tooth movement. PMID:24130586

  5. Track-train dynamic analysis and test program. Barber S-2 static test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, P. W.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a static test of a Barber S-2 freight truck conducted to measure the stiffness and friction parameters of the modes of deformation which are being used in various mathematical models in the railroad industry were presented. Some difficulty was first experienced with the truck hardware since it was in an essentially new condition with many high spots causing interference. No difficulty was experienced once the interference was removed. The characteristics of the Barber S-2 are very similar to the ASF ride control truck. The major difference between the two trucks is the amount of friction between the bolster and side frames in both the vertical and lateral directions. The Barber S-2 has approximately twice the friction the ASF ride control truck has in the fully loaded condition. This does not necessarily imply that all trucks will have this same ratio of friction.

  6. Parameters influencing the behavior of a new friction damper device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mualla, Imad H.

    2000-04-01

    This work presents a study on the parameters that govern the performance of a new Friction Damper Device (FDD) The device was designed to dissipate seismic input energy and protect buildings from structural and nonstructural damage during moderate and severe earthquakes. The device consists of 3 steel plates that rotate against each other in different directions, and in between these plates, friction pad material discs are inserted. The damper is attached to structures by using inverted Chevron bracing system and in this work pre- stress bars were used as bracing members. The clamping force in the pretensioned bolt controls the frictional moment at the onset of sliding. The device has been tested intensively in order to verify its performance. The experimental program included two phases: (1) Testing the damper alone with Instron machine, examining three different friction-pad materials. (2) Testing a scaled steel frame model with inserted damper device. In both phases the following parameters were tested: forcing frequencies, normal forces, displacement amplitudes, pre-stressing forces and degradation under long-term cyclic excitation. The tests proved that the damper performance is: (1) Independent of forcing frequency within the range of 2 - 7 Hz; (2) Linearly dependent on displacement amplitudes; (3) Linearly dependent on normal forces; (4) Very stable over many cycles. The new device is characterized by the use of special friction pad material, which has been tested for up to 400 and 500 cycles without showing degradation of friction forces more than 5%. Besides, the steel plates were not damaged or scratched so that they can be used for many times. The comparison of results obtained from the experimental and numerical models showed a good agreement. The parameters influencing the frame with FDD were identified in advance by studying the frame's response to static and dynamic loading. The numerical studies demonstrated that the overall frame response was

  7. Quantum friction between graphene sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farias, M. Belén; Fosco, César D.; Lombardo, Fernando C.; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.

    2017-03-01

    We study the Casimir friction phenomenon in a system consisting of two flat, infinite, and parallel graphene sheets, which are coupled to the vacuum electromagnetic (EM) field. Those couplings are implemented, in the description we use, by means of specific terms in the effective action for the EM field. They incorporate the distinctive properties of graphene, as well as the relative sliding motion of the sheets. Based on this description, we evaluate two observables due to the same physical effect: the probability of vacuum decay and the frictional force. The system exhibits a threshold for frictional effects; namely, they only exist if the speed of the sliding motion is larger than the Fermi velocity of the charge carriers in graphene.

  8. Direct Measurements of Skin Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhawan, Satish

    1953-01-01

    A device has been developed to measure local skin friction on a flat plate by measuring the force exerted upon a very small movable part of the surface of the flat plate. These forces, which range from about 1 milligram to about 100 milligrams, are measured by means of a reactance device. The apparatus was first applied to measurements in the low-speed range, both for laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The measured skin-friction coefficients show excellent agreement with Blasius' and Von Karman's results. The device was then applied to high-speed subsonic flow and the turbulent-skin-friction coefficients were determined up to a Mach number of about 0.8. A few measurements in supersonic flow were also made. This paper describes the design and construction of the device and the results of the measurements.

  9. Vacuum Friction in Rotating Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Manjavacas, A.; Garcia de Abajo, F. J.

    2010-09-10

    We study the frictional torque acting on particles rotating in empty space. At zero temperature, vacuum friction transforms mechanical energy into light emission and produces particle heating. However, particle cooling relative to the environment occurs at finite temperatures and low rotation velocities. Radiation emission is boosted and its spectrum significantly departed from a hot-body emission profile as the velocity increases. Stopping times ranging from hours to billions of years are predicted for materials, particle sizes, and temperatures accessible to experiment. Implications for the behavior of cosmic dust are discussed.

  10. National Runway Friction Measurement Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    wet Mu values less than 50. Of the 122 runways with low segments, 64 runways (52.5%) had wet Mu values less than 50 for less than 1000 feet. Other data...friction enhancement due to grooving is greater in areas of rubber accumulation than in uncontaminated areas for most pavement types. 4. For low -use...friction, as identified 4n Fiqure 9, should be considered in the planning and design of rpw -unway surfaces, particularly for low -use runways. 2. The

  11. Friction and Adhesion Forces of Bacillus thuringiensis Spores on Planar Surfaces in Atmospheric Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kweon, Hyojin; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The kinetic friction force and the adhesion force of Bacillus thuringiensis spores on planar surfaces in atmospheric systems were studied using atomic force microscopy. The influence of relative humidity (RH) on these forces varied for different surface properties including hydrophobicity, roughness, and surface charge. The friction force of the spore was greater on a rougher surface than on mica, which is atomically flat. As RH increases, the friction force of the spores decreases on mica whereas it increases on rough surfaces. The influence of RH on the interaction forces between hydrophobic surfaces is not as strong as for hydrophilic surfaces. The friction force of the spore is linear to the sum of the adhesion force and normal load on the hydrophobic surface. The poorly defined surface structure of the spore and the adsorption of contaminants from the surrounding atmosphere are believed to cause a discrepancy between the calculated and measured adhesion forces.

  12. Frictional properties of different hand skin areas and grasping techniques.

    PubMed

    Uygur, Mehmet; de Freitas, Paulo B; Jaric, Slobodan

    2010-06-01

    High friction is crucially important in manipulation activities for reducing the hand grip forces and improving control of manipulative tasks. The aim of this study was to assess the coefficient of friction (COF) of various areas of hand skin. Static COF of nine different grasping techniques applied against two object coatings was assessed by means of the 'slip point' method in 16 participants. COF measures proved to be both highly reliable and considerably variable across participants (coefficients of variation ranging from 25 to 75%, depending on the applied grasp). COF was also higher in 'specialised' than in 'non-specialised' skin areas for grasping, as well as in palms, than in the tips of the fingers. The observed findings are of importance for optimisation of object manipulations and also emphasise the importance of measuring individual COF in ergonomic, biomechanics and motor control studies. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The results reveal prominent differences in skin friction not only across various areas of the hand, but also across participants. While the former finding is relevant for optimisation of manipulation activities, the latter emphasises the importance of assessment of individual COF in studies of hand function.

  13. Low-Friction Joint for Robot Fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanical linkage allows adjacent parts to move relative to each other with low friction and with no chatter, slipping, or backlash. Low-friction joint of two surfaces in rolling contact, held in alinement by taut flexible bands. No sliding friction or "stick-slip" motion: Only rolling-contact and bending friction within bands. Proposed linkage intended for finger joints in mechanical hands for robots and manipulators.

  14. Joint Winter Runway Friction Program Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Wambold, James C.; Henry, John J.; Andresen, Arild; Bastian, Matthew

    2002-01-01

    The major program objectives are: (1) harmonize ground vehicle friction measurements to report consistent friction value or index for similar contaminated runway conditions, for example, compacted snow, and (2) establish reliable correlation between ground vehicle friction measurements and aircraft braking performance. Accomplishing these objectives would give airport operators better procedures for evaluating runway friction and maintaining acceptable operating conditions, providing pilots information to base go/no go decisions, and would contribute to reducing traction-related aircraft accidents.

  15. Localizing internal friction along the reaction coordinate of protein folding by combining ensemble and single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Borgia, Alessandro; Wensley, Beth G; Soranno, Andrea; Nettels, Daniel; Borgia, Madeleine B; Hoffmann, Armin; Pfeil, Shawn H; Lipman, Everett A; Clarke, Jane; Schuler, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Theory, simulations and experimental results have suggested an important role of internal friction in the kinetics of protein folding. Recent experiments on spectrin domains provided the first evidence for a pronounced contribution of internal friction in proteins that fold on the millisecond timescale. However, it has remained unclear how this contribution is distributed along the reaction and what influence it has on the folding dynamics. Here we use a combination of single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer, nanosecond fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, microfluidic mixing and denaturant- and viscosity-dependent protein-folding kinetics to probe internal friction in the unfolded state and at the early and late transition states of slow- and fast-folding spectrin domains. We find that the internal friction affecting the folding rates of spectrin domains is highly localized to the early transition state, suggesting an important role of rather specific interactions in the rate-limiting conformational changes.

  16. Static Properties of Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, Gregory S.

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * CHIRAL FIELD THEORY * The Skyrme Lagrangian * Topological Solitons * Symmetries and Currents * THE SKYRMION * The Hedgehog * The Shape Function * The Rotating Soliton * QUANTIZATION * Quantization and Wave Functions * Matrix Elements * STATIC PROPERTIES * Masses * Sizes and Magnetic Moments * Electric and Magnetic Transition Elements * Axial Coupling and the Goldberger-Treiman Relation * More Results and Predictions * DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS * APPENDIX A: NOTATION * APPENDIX B: PAULI MATRIX ALGEBRA * APPENDIX C: THE ADJOINT REPRESENTATION OF SU(2) * APPENDIX D: A FEW USEFUL FACTS * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  17. Kinetic Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David B.

    1981-01-01

    Surveys the research of scientists like Joule, Kelvin, Maxwell, Clausius, and Boltzmann as it comments on the basic conceptual issues involved in the development of a more precise kinetic theory and the idea of a kinetic atom. (Author/SK)

  18. Deformation During Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Henry J.

    2002-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process that exhibits characteristics similar to traditional metal cutting processes. The plastic deformation that occurs during friction stir welding is due to the superposition of three flow fields: a primary rotation of a radially symmetric solid plug of metal surrounding the pin tool, a secondary uniform translation, and a tertiary ring vortex flow (smoke rings) surrounding the tool. If the metal sticks to the tool, the plug surface extends down into the metal from the outer edge of the tool shoulder, decreases in diameter like a funnel, and closes up beneath the pin. Since its invention, ten years have gone by and still very little is known about the physics of the friction stir welding process. In this experiment, an H13 steel weld tool (shoulder diameter, 0.797 in; pin diameter, 0.312 in; and pin length, 0.2506 in) was used to weld three 0.255 in thick plates. The deformation behavior during friction stir welding was investigated by metallographically preparing a plan view sections of the weldment and taking Vickers hardness test in the key-hole region.

  19. Measuring Adhesion And Friction Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1991-01-01

    Cavendish balance adapted to new purpose. Apparatus developed which measures forces of adhesion and friction between specimens of solid materials in vacuum at temperatures from ambient to 900 degrees C. Intended primarily for use in studying adhesion properties of ceramics and metals, including silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, and iron-base amorphous alloys.

  20. Friction of atomically stepped surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikken, R. J.; Thijsse, B. J.; Nicola, L.

    2017-03-01

    The friction behavior of atomically stepped metal surfaces under contact loading is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. While real rough metal surfaces involve roughness at multiple length scales, the focus of this paper is on understanding friction of the smallest scale of roughness: atomic steps. To this end, periodic stepped Al surfaces with different step geometry are brought into contact and sheared at room temperature. Contact stress that continuously tries to build up during loading, is released with fluctuating stress drops during sliding, according to the typical stick-slip behavior. Stress release occurs not only through local slip, but also by means of step motion. The steps move along the contact, concurrently resulting in normal migration of the contact. The direction of migration depends on the sign of the step, i.e., its orientation with respect to the shearing direction. If the steps are of equal sign, there is a net migration of the entire contact accompanied by significant vacancy generation at room temperature. The stick-slip behavior of the stepped contacts is found to have all the characteristic of a self-organized critical state, with statistics dictated by step density. For the studied step geometries, frictional sliding is found to involve significant atomic rearrangement through which the contact roughness is drastically changed. This leads for certain step configurations to a marked transition from jerky sliding motion to smooth sliding, making the final friction stress approximately similar to that of a flat contact.

  1. Friction Sensitivity of Primary Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    potassium dinitrobenzofuroxan none tetrazene 407913 tetrazene 7902454 The mixes which were tested are: NOL 130 (basic lead styphnate , barium nitrate, lead...azide, tetrazene, and antimony sulfide); PA 100 (normal lead styphnate , barium nitrate, tetrazene, lead dioxide, calcium silicide, and antimony...styuhnate, basic lead styphnate , potassium dinitrobenzofuroxan, and tetrazene were tested to determine the- 10% and 50% probability of friction

  2. Turbine blade friction damping study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominic, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A lumped parameter method, implemented on a VAX 11/780 computer shows that the primary parameters affecting the performance of the friction damper of the first stage turbine of the SSME high pressure fuel pump are: the damper-blade coefficient of friction; the normal force applied to the friction interface; the amplitude of the periodic forcing function; the relative phase angle of the forcing functions for adjacent blades bridged by a damper (effectively, the engine order of the forcing function); and the amount of hysteretic damping that acts to limit the vibration amplitude of the blade in its resonance modes. The low order flexural resonance vibration modes of HPFTP blades without dampers, with production dampers, and with two types of lightweight experimental dampers were evaluated in high speed spin pit tests. Results agree with those of the analytical study in that blades fitted with production friction dampers experienced the airfoil-alone flexural resonance mode, while those without dampers or with lighter weight dampers did not. No blades fitted with dampers experienced the whole blade flexural resonance mode during high speed tests, while those without dampers did.

  3. Critical Length Limiting Superlow Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ming; Benassi, Andrea; Vanossi, Andrea; Urbakh, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Since the demonstration of superlow friction (superlubricity) in graphite at nanoscale, one of the main challenges in the field of nano- and micromechanics was to scale this phenomenon up. A key question to be addressed is to what extent superlubricity could persist, and what mechanisms could lead to its failure. Here, using an edge-driven Frenkel-Kontorova model, we establish a connection between the critical length above which superlubricity disappears and both intrinsic material properties and experimental parameters. A striking boost in dissipated energy with chain length emerges abruptly due to a high-friction stick-slip mechanism caused by deformation of the slider leading to a local commensuration with the substrate lattice. We derived a parameter-free analytical model for the critical length that is in excellent agreement with our numerical simulations. Our results provide a new perspective on friction and nanomanipulation and can serve as a theoretical basis for designing nanodevices with superlow friction, such as carbon nanotubes.

  4. Critical length limiting superlow friction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming; Benassi, Andrea; Vanossi, Andrea; Urbakh, Michael

    2015-02-06

    Since the demonstration of superlow friction (superlubricity) in graphite at nanoscale, one of the main challenges in the field of nano- and micromechanics was to scale this phenomenon up. A key question to be addressed is to what extent superlubricity could persist, and what mechanisms could lead to its failure. Here, using an edge-driven Frenkel-Kontorova model, we establish a connection between the critical length above which superlubricity disappears and both intrinsic material properties and experimental parameters. A striking boost in dissipated energy with chain length emerges abruptly due to a high-friction stick-slip mechanism caused by deformation of the slider leading to a local commensuration with the substrate lattice. We derived a parameter-free analytical model for the critical length that is in excellent agreement with our numerical simulations. Our results provide a new perspective on friction and nanomanipulation and can serve as a theoretical basis for designing nanodevices with superlow friction, such as carbon nanotubes.

  5. Friction Plug Weld Repair Geometric Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coletta, Edmond R.; Cantrell, Mark A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines the fundamentals of friction plug welding. A process overview is given for friction push plug welding, including different uses and strengths of push plug welding. Details are given for friction pull plug welding, including welding parameters, details on observed defects, expected benefits, and test results.

  6. Enzyme Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Owen; Cornelius, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Conveys an appreciation of enzyme kinetic analysis by using a practical and intuitive approach. Discusses enzyme assays, kinetic models and rate laws, the kinetic constants (V, velocity, and Km, Michaels constant), evaluation of V and Km from experimental data, and enzyme inhibition. (CW)

  7. Dynamic and static moduli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C. H.; Johnston, David H.

    1981-01-01

    Static and dynamic bulk moduli (Ks and Kd) are measured as continuous functions of pressure from zero to 2-3 kilobars for two sandstones, a tuff, limestone, granite, and oil shale. Results for the sandstones and granite are in good agreement with previously reported data with Ks/Kd varying from about 0.5 at atmospheric pressure to close to unity at pressures 2 kilobars and above. For rocks behaving elastically under static loading, the Ks/Kd ratio is inversely related to the microcrack density. For the limestone, time dependent deformation associated with pore collapse results in Ks/Kd ratios approaching 0.1 at high pressure. Upon unloading, while initially high ( ˜ 1.0) at high pressures, Ks/Kd becomes lower than values obtained during loading at low pressures ( < 1 kilobar) due to opening of microcracks generated during pore collapse. For the oil shale, in which few microcracks exist, Ks/Kd remains relatively constant with pressure at a value of about 0.7.

  8. Pressure and Friction Injuries in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Shawn; Seiverling, Elizabeth; Silvis, Matthew

    2015-12-01

    Pressure and friction injuries are common throughout the lifespan. A detailed history of the onset and progression of friction and pressure injuries is key to aiding clinicians in determining the underlying mechanism behind the development of the injury. Modifying or removing the forces that are creating pressure or friction is the key to both prevention and healing of these injuries. Proper care of pressure and friction injuries to the skin is important to prevent the development of infection. Patient education on positioning and ergonomics can help to prevent recurrence of pressure and friction injuries.

  9. Friction phenomena in a two-dimensional Frenkel-Kontorova model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Mai-Mai; Duan, Wen-Shan; Chen, Jian-Min

    2010-02-01

    By using the molecular dynamic simulation method with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm, a two-dimensional dc- and ac-driven Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model with a square symmetry substrate potential for a square lattice layer has been investigated in this paper. For this system, the effects of many different parameters on the average velocity and the static friction force have been studied. It is found that not only the amplitude and frequency of ac-driven force, but also the direction of the external driving force and the misfit angle between two layers have some strong influences on the static friction force. It can be concluded that the superlubricity phenomenon appears easily with a larger ac amplitude and lower ac frequency for some special direction of the external force and misfit angle.

  10. Rolling-element bearings. [contact sliding friction study of solid bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.

    1980-01-01

    In contrast to hydrodynamic bearings, which depend for low-friction characteristics on a fluid film between the journal and the bearing surfaces, roller-element bearings employ a number of balls or rollers that roll in an annular space. The paper briefly outlines the advantages and disadvantages of roller-element bearings as compared to hydrodynamic bearings. The discussion covers bearing types, rolling friction, friction losses in rolling bearings, contact stresses, deformations, kinematics (normal and high speeds), bearing dynamics including elastohydrodynamics, load distribution, lubrication (grease, solid oil, oil-air mist), specific dynamic capacity and life, specific static capacity, and fatigue or wearout (elastohydrodynamics, wear). Rolling bearing wear factor as a function of operating environment is plotted and discussed.

  11. Friction in debris flows: inferences from large-scale flume experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Richard M.; LaHusen, Richard G.; ,

    1993-01-01

    A recently constructed flume, 95 m long and 2 m wide, permits systematic experimentation with unsteady, nonuniform flows of poorly sorted geological debris. Preliminary experiments with water-saturated mixtures of sand and gravel show that they flow in a manner consistent with Coulomb frictional behavior. The Coulomb flow model of Savage and Hutter (1989, 1991), modified to include quasi-static pore-pressure effects, predicts flow-front velocities and flow depths reasonably well. Moreover, simple scaling analyses show that grain friction, rather than liquid viscosity or grain collisions, probably dominates shear resistance and momentum transport in the experimental flows. The same scaling indicates that grain friction is also important in many natural debris flows.

  12. New inequality and functional for contact with friction - The implicit standard material approach

    SciTech Connect

    De saxce, G.; Feng, Z.Q. Compiegne, Universite de Technologie )

    1991-09-01

    The paper is devoted to the analysis of the 2D or 3D elastic contact problem with Coulomb friction, quasi-static equilibrium, and small displacements. The classical approach is based on two minimum principles, or variational inequalities: the first for unilateral contact and the second for friction. In practical applications involve an algorithm of alternately solving the two problems until convergence is achieved. A coupled approach using one principle or one inequality only is presented. The approach, based on a model of material called implicit standard, allows for extension of the notion of a normality law to dissipative behavior with a nonassociated flow rule, such as surface friction. For numerical time integration of the laws, Moreau's implicit method is considered. Nondifferentiable potentials are regularized by means of the augmented Lagrangian technique. 41 refs.

  13. Quantum Otto cycle with inner friction: finite-time and disorder effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alecce, A.; Galve, F.; Lo Gullo, N.; Dell'Anna, L.; Plastina, F.; Zambrini, R.

    2015-07-01

    The concept of inner friction, by which a quantum heat engine is unable to follow adiabatically its strokes and thus dissipates useful energy, is illustrated in an exact physical model where the working substance consists of an ensemble of misaligned spins interacting with a magnetic field and performing the Otto cycle. The effect of this static disorder under a finite-time cycle gives a new perspective of the concept of inner friction under realistic settings. We investigate the efficiency and power of this engine and relate its performance to the amount of friction from misalignment and to the temperature difference between heat baths. Finally we propose an alternative experimental implementation of the cycle where the spin is encoded in the degree of polarization of photons.

  14. Observation of Aubry-type transition in finite atom chains via friction.

    PubMed

    Bylinskii, Alexei; Gangloff, Dorian; Counts, Ian; Vuletić, Vladan

    2016-07-01

    The highly nonlinear many-body physics of a chain of mutually interacting atoms in contact with a periodic substrate gives rise to complex static and dynamical phenomena, such as structural phase transitions and friction. In the limit of an infinite chain incommensurate with the substrate, Aubry predicted a transition with increasing substrate potential, from the chain's intrinsic arrangement free to slide on the substrate, to a pinned arrangement favouring the substrate pattern. So far, the Aubry transition has not been observed. Here, using spatially resolved position and friction measurements of cold trapped ions in an optical lattice, we observed a finite version of the Aubry transition and the onset of its hallmark fractal atomic arrangement. Notably, the observed critical lattice depth for few-ion chains agrees well with the infinite-chain prediction. Our results elucidate the connection between competing ordering patterns and superlubricity in nanocontacts-the elementary building blocks of friction.

  15. Pyrometamorphism of Fault Zone Rocks Induced by Frictional Heating in High-velocity Friction Tests: Reliable Records of Seismic Slip?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ree, J.; Ando, J.; Kim, J.; Han, R.; Shimamoto, T.

    2008-12-01

    calcite gouge layer adjacent to the principal slip zone consisting of nano- scale lime particles. In the gouge layer, fine-grained calcite grains (2-5 μm in size) show a foam texture resulting from static annealing during cooling after frictional heating with seismic slip. The foam texture of gouge adjacent to the principal slip zone may be a reliable indicator of seismic slip since the foam texture is a stable microstructure. The question is can we find seismic records in natural fault zones equivalent to our experimental results?

  16. High temperature skin friction measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Holmes, Harlan K.; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Skin friction measurement in the NASA Langley hypersonic propulsion facility is described. The sensor configuration utilized an existing balance, modified to provide thermal isolation and an increased standoff distance. For test run times of about 20 sec and ambient-air cooling of the test section and balance, the modified balance performed satisfactorily, even when it was subjected to acoustic and structural vibration. The balance is an inertially balanced closed-loop servo system where the current to a moving-coil motor needed to restore or null the output from the position sensor is a measure of the force or skin friction tending to displace the moving element. The accuracy of the sensor is directly affected by the position sensor in the feedback loop, in this case a linear-variable differential transformer which has proven to be influenced by temperature gradients.

  17. Computational Methods for Frictional Contact With Applications to the Space Shuttle Orbiter Nose-Gear Tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A computational procedure is presented for the solution of frictional contact problems for aircraft tires. A Space Shuttle nose-gear tire is modeled using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory which includes the effects of variations in material and geometric parameters, transverse-shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities. Contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the stress resultants, the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with both contact and friction conditions. The contact-friction algorithm is based on a modified Coulomb friction law. A modified two-field, mixed-variational principle is used to obtain elemental arrays. This modification consists of augmenting the functional of that principle by two terms: the Lagrange multiplier vector associated with normal and tangential node contact-load intensities and a regularization term that is quadratic in the Lagrange multiplier vector. These capabilities and computational features are incorporated into an in-house computer code. Experimental measurements were taken to define the response of the Space Shuttle nose-gear tire to inflation-pressure loads and to inflation-pressure loads combined with normal static loads against a rigid flat plate. These experimental results describe the meridional growth of the tire cross section caused by inflation loading, the static load-deflection characteristics of the tire, the geometry of the tire footprint under static loading conditions, and the normal and tangential load-intensity distributions in the tire footprint for the various static vertical loading conditions. Numerical results were obtained for the Space Shuttle nose-gear tire subjected to inflation pressure loads and combined inflation pressure and contact loads against a rigid flat plate. The experimental measurements and the numerical results are compared.

  18. Frictional aging, de-aging, and re-aging in a monolayer-coated micromachined interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, Alex D.; de Boer, Maarten P.

    2010-05-01

    Measurements on monolayer-coated polycrystalline silicon surfaces have shown that the static friction coefficient μs strongly depends on loading parameters including hold time and normal hold force by Corwin and de Boer [J. Microelectromech. Syst. 18, 250 (2009)]. In that work, μs was measured by keeping the tangential force constant and lowering normal force until motion occurred. Results indicated that μs also depends strongly on normal force ramp-down rate. Here, we postulate that if the normal load is lowered instantaneously, the time for the block to begin moving, the “release time” tr , will be greater than the inertial response time, which is on the order of 5μs . We measure the release time and find that it spans nearly six decades from less than 100μs to almost 50 s. Release time depends on the loading and unloading history through all three of the parameters varied: hold time, hold force, and release force. An empirical model incorporating all three of these parameters fits the release time data over the full range. Release time decreases after the contacting surfaces are held together at increasing hold force levels and this qualitatively explains a previous observation that static friction aging is suppressed with increasing normal force at a fixed tangential load in this interfacial system. We further quantitatively relate the previous μs loading dependence on all three parameters to the release time model established here by introducing a “re-aging” parameter. This work firmly establishes that release time is a more fundamental parameter than the static friction coefficient and is the origin of static friction coefficient dependencies in this micromachined interface.

  19. Collective behavior of asperities as a model for friction and adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulikal, Srivatsan

    Understanding friction and adhesion in static and sliding contact of surfaces is important in numerous physical phenomena and technological applications. Most surfaces are rough at the microscale, and thus the real area of contact is only a fraction of the nominal area. The macroscopic frictional and adhesive response is determined by the collective behavior of the population of evolving and interacting microscopic contacts. This collective behavior can be very different from the behavior of individual contacts. It is thus important to understand how the macroscopic response emerges from the microscopic one. In this thesis, we develop a theoretical and computational framework to study the collective behavior. Our philosophy is to assume a simple behavior of a single asperity and study the collective response of an ensemble. Our work bridges the existing well-developed studies of single asperities with phenomenological laws that describe macroscopic rate-and-state behavior of frictional interfaces. We find that many aspects of the macroscopic behavior are robust with respect to the microscopic response. This explains why qualitatively similar frictional features are seen for a diverse range of materials. We first show that the collective response of an ensemble of one-dimensional independent viscoelastic elements interacting through a mean field reproduces many qualitative features of static and sliding friction evolution. The resulting macroscopic behavior is different from the microscopic one: for example, even if each contact is velocity-strengthening, the macroscopic behavior can be velocity-weakening. The framework is then extended to incorporate three-dimensional rough surfaces, long- range elastic interactions between contacts, and time-dependent material behaviors such as viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity. Interestingly, the mean field behavior dominates and the elastic interactions, though important from a quantitative perspective, do not change the

  20. Friction Stir Process Mapping Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kooney, Alex; Bjorkman, Gerry; Russell, Carolyn; Smelser, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In FSW (friction stir welding), the weld process performance for a given weld joint configuration and tool setup is summarized on a 2-D plot of RPM vs. IPM. A process envelope is drawn within the map to identify the range of acceptable welds. The sweet spot is selected as the nominal weld schedule. The nominal weld schedule is characterized in the expected manufacturing environment. The nominal weld schedule in conjunction with process control ensures a consistent and predictable weld performance.

  1. Friction and Airpower During WWI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Oxford University Press , 1941), pp. 24-25, 28, 31-32, and 67. 12 creasing the enemy’s friction which had a secondary...Falls, Cyril. The Nature of Modern Warfare. New York: Oxford University Press , 1941. Greer, Thomas H. The Development of Air Doctrine in the Army Air...James A. Mowbray. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University, 1971. Sun Tzu. The Art of War. Translated by Samuel B. Griffith. New York: Oxford University Press , 1963. 15

  2. Fault rheology beyond frictional melting

    PubMed Central

    Lavallée, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; Kendrick, Jackie E.; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    During earthquakes, comminution and frictional heating both contribute to the dissipation of stored energy. With sufficient dissipative heating, melting processes can ensue, yielding the production of frictional melts or “pseudotachylytes.” It is commonly assumed that the Newtonian viscosities of such melts control subsequent fault slip resistance. Rock melts, however, are viscoelastic bodies, and, at high strain rates, they exhibit evidence of a glass transition. Here, we present the results of high-velocity friction experiments on a well-characterized melt that demonstrate how slip in melt-bearing faults can be governed by brittle fragmentation phenomena encountered at the glass transition. Slip analysis using models that incorporate viscoelastic responses indicates that even in the presence of melt, slip persists in the solid state until sufficient heat is generated to reduce the viscosity and allow remobilization in the liquid state. Where a rock is present next to the melt, we note that wear of the crystalline wall rock by liquid fragmentation and agglutination also contributes to the brittle component of these experimentally generated pseudotachylytes. We conclude that in the case of pseudotachylyte generation during an earthquake, slip even beyond the onset of frictional melting is not controlled merely by viscosity but rather by an interplay of viscoelastic forces around the glass transition, which involves a response in the brittle/solid regime of these rock melts. We warn of the inadequacy of simple Newtonian viscous analyses and call for the application of more realistic rheological interpretation of pseudotachylyte-bearing fault systems in the evaluation and prediction of their slip dynamics. PMID:26124123

  3. Fault rheology beyond frictional melting.

    PubMed

    Lavallée, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; Kendrick, Jackie E; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B

    2015-07-28

    During earthquakes, comminution and frictional heating both contribute to the dissipation of stored energy. With sufficient dissipative heating, melting processes can ensue, yielding the production of frictional melts or "pseudotachylytes." It is commonly assumed that the Newtonian viscosities of such melts control subsequent fault slip resistance. Rock melts, however, are viscoelastic bodies, and, at high strain rates, they exhibit evidence of a glass transition. Here, we present the results of high-velocity friction experiments on a well-characterized melt that demonstrate how slip in melt-bearing faults can be governed by brittle fragmentation phenomena encountered at the glass transition. Slip analysis using models that incorporate viscoelastic responses indicates that even in the presence of melt, slip persists in the solid state until sufficient heat is generated to reduce the viscosity and allow remobilization in the liquid state. Where a rock is present next to the melt, we note that wear of the crystalline wall rock by liquid fragmentation and agglutination also contributes to the brittle component of these experimentally generated pseudotachylytes. We conclude that in the case of pseudotachylyte generation during an earthquake, slip even beyond the onset of frictional melting is not controlled merely by viscosity but rather by an interplay of viscoelastic forces around the glass transition, which involves a response in the brittle/solid regime of these rock melts. We warn of the inadequacy of simple Newtonian viscous analyses and call for the application of more realistic rheological interpretation of pseudotachylyte-bearing fault systems in the evaluation and prediction of their slip dynamics.

  4. Modeling the frictional interaction in the tendon-pulley system of the human finger for use in robotics.

    PubMed

    Dermitzakis, Konstantinos; Morales, Marco Roberto; Schweizer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Physiological studies of the human finger indicate that friction in the tendon-pulley system accounts for a considerable fraction of the total output force (9-12%) in a high-load static posteccentric configuration. Such a phenomenon can be exploited for robotic and prosthetic applications, as it can result in (1) an increase of output force or (2) a reduction of energy consumption and actuator weight. In this study, a simple frictional, two-link, one-degree-of-freedom model of a human finger was created. The model is validated against in vitro human finger data, and its behavior is examined with respect to select physiological parameters. The results point to clear benefits of incorporating friction in tendon-driven robotic fingers for actuator mass and output force. If it is indeed the case that the majority of high-load hand grasps are posteccentric, there is a clear benefit of incorporating friction in tendon-driven prosthetic hand replacements.

  5. Effect of adsorbed films on friction of Al2O3-metal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, S. V.

    1976-01-01

    The kinetic friction of polycrystalline Al2O3 sliding on Cu, Ni, and Fe in ultrahigh vacuum was studied as a function of the surface chemistry of the metal. Clean metal surfaces were exposed to O2, Cl2, C2H4, and C2H3Cl, and the change in friction due to the adsorbed species was observed. Auger electron spectroscopy assessed the elemental composition of the metal surface. It was found that the systems exposed to Cl2 exhibited low friction, interpreted as the van der Waals force between the Al2O3 and metal chloride. The generation of metal oxide by oxygen exposures resulted in an increase in friction, interpreted as due to strong interfacial bonds established by reaction of metal oxide with Al2O3 to form the complex oxide (spinel). The only effect of C2H4 was to increase the friction of the Fe system, but C2H3Cl exposures decreases friction in both Ni and Fe systems, indicating the dominance of the chlorine over the ethylene complex on the surface

  6. The effect of friction in coulombian damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahad, H. S.; Tudor, A.; Vlase, M.; Cerbu, N.; Subhi, K. A.

    2017-02-01

    The study aimed to analyze the damping phenomenon in a system with variable friction, Stribeck type. Shock absorbers with limit and dry friction, is called coulombian shock-absorbers. The physical damping vibration phenomenon, in equipment, is based on friction between the cushioning gasket and the output regulator of the shock-absorber. Friction between them can be dry, limit, mixture or fluid. The friction is depending on the contact pressure and lubricant presence. It is defined dimensionless form for the Striebeck curve (µ friction coefficient - sliding speed v). The friction may damp a vibratory movement or can maintain it (self-vibration), depending on the µ with v (it can increase / decrease or it can be relative constant). The solutions of differential equation of movement are obtained for some work condition of one damper for automatic washing machine. The friction force can transfer partial or total energy or generates excitation energy in damper. The damping efficiency is defined and is determined analytical for the constant friction coefficient and for the parabolic friction coefficient.

  7. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgo, Thiago A. L.; Silva, Cristiane A.; Balestrin, Lia B. S.; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-08-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers.

  8. Friction Anisotropy with Respect to Topographic Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chengjiao; Wang, Q. Jane

    2012-01-01

    Friction characteristics with respect to surface topographic orientation were investigated using surfaces of different materials and fabricated with grooves of different scales. Scratching friction tests were conducted using a nano-indentation-scratching system with the tip motion parallel or perpendicular to the groove orientation. Similar friction anisotropy trends were observed for all the surfaces studied, which are (1) under a light load and for surfaces with narrow grooves, the tip motion parallel to the grooves offers higher friction coefficients than does that perpendicular to them, (2) otherwise, equal or lower friction coefficients are found under this motion. The influences of groove size relative to the diameter of the mating tip (as a representative asperity), surface contact stiffness, contact area, and the characteristic stiction length are discussed. The appearance of this friction anisotropy is independent of material; however, the boundary and the point of trend transition depend on material properties. PMID:23248751

  9. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging.

    PubMed

    Burgo, Thiago A L; Silva, Cristiane A; Balestrin, Lia B S; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers.

  10. Low friction wear resistant graphene films

    DOEpatents

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Berman, Diana; Erdemir, Ali

    2017-02-07

    A low friction wear surface with a coefficient of friction in the superlubric regime including graphene and nanoparticles on the wear surface is provided, and methods of producing the low friction wear surface are also provided. A long lifetime wear resistant surface including graphene exposed to hydrogen is provided, including methods of increasing the lifetime of graphene containing wear surfaces by providing hydrogen to the wear surface.

  11. Modelling cohesive, frictional and viscoplastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alehossein, Habib; Qin, Zongyi

    2016-06-01

    Most materials in mining and civil engineering construction are not only viscoplastic, but also cohesive frictional. Fresh concrete, fly ash and mining slurries are all granular-frictional-visco-plastic fluids, although solid concrete is normally considered as a cohesive frictional material. Presented here is both a formulation of the pipe and disc flow rates as a function of pressure and pressure gradient and the CFD application to fresh concrete flow in L-Box tests.

  12. Temperature dependence of frictional healing of Westerly granite: Experimental observations and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, E. K.; Fialko, Y.; Brown, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    Temperature is believed to have an important control on frictional properties of rocks, yet the amount of experimental observations of time-dependent rock friction at high temperatures is rather limited. In this study, we investigated frictional healing of Westerly granite in a series of slide-hold-slide experiments using a direct shear apparatus at ambient temperatures between 20°C and 550°C. We observed that at room temperature coefficient of friction increases in proportion to the logarithm of hold time at a rate consistent with findings of previous studies. For a given hold time, the coefficient of friction linearly increases with temperature, but temperature has little effect on the rate of change in static friction with hold time. We used a numerical model to investigate whether time-dependent increases in real contact area between rough surfaces could account for the observed frictional healing. The model incorporates fractal geometry and temperature-dependent viscoelasoplastic rheology. We explored several candidate rheologies that have been proposed for steady state creep of rocks at high stresses and temperatures. None of the tested laws could provide an agreement between the observed and modeled healing behavior given material properties reported in the bulk creep experiments. An acceptable fit to the experimental data could be achieved with modified parameters. In particular, for the power-law rheology to provide a reasonable fit to the data, the stress exponent needs to be greater than 40. Alternative mechanisms include time-dependent gouge compaction and increases in bond strength between contacting asperities.

  13. A microphysical model explains rate-and-state friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianye; Spiers, Christopher J.

    2015-04-01

    The rate-and-state friction (RSF) laws were originally developed as a phenomenological description of the frictional behavior observed in lab experiments. In previous studies, the empirical RSF laws have been extensively and quite successfully applied to fault mechanisms. However, these laws can not readily be envisioned in terms of the underlying physics. There are several critical discrepancies between seismological constraints on RSF behavior associated with earthquakes and lab-derived RSF parameters, in particular regarding the static stress drop and characteristic slip distance associated with seismic events. Moreover, lab friction studies can address only limited fault topographies, displacements, experimental durations and P-T conditions, which means that scale issues, and especially processes like dilatation and fluid-rock interaction, cannot be fully taken into account. Without a physical basis accounting for such effects, extrapolation of lab-derived RSF data to nature involves significant, often unknown uncertainties. In order to more reliably apply experimental results to natural fault zones, and notably to extrapolate lab data beyond laboratory pressure, temperature and velocity conditions, an understanding of the microphysical mechanisms governing fault frictional behavior is required. Here, following some pioneering efforts (e.g. Niemeijer and Spiers, 2007; Den Hartog and Spiers, 2014), a mechanism-based microphysical model is developed for describing the frictional behavior of carbonate fault gouge, assuming that the frictional behavior seen in lab experiments is controlled by competing processes of intergranular slip versus contact creep by pressure solution. The model basically consists of two governing equations derived from energy/entropy balance considerations and the kinematic relations that apply to a granular fault gouge undergoing shear and dilation/compaction. These two equations can be written as ˙τ/K = Vimp- Lt[λ˙γsbps +(1-

  14. Measurement of Gear Tooth Dynamic Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebbechi, Brian; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of dynamic friction forces at the gear tooth contact were undertaken using strain gages at the root fillets of two successive teeth. Results are presented from two gear sets over a range of speeds and loads. The results demonstrate that the friction coefficient does not appear to be significantly influenced by the sliding reversal at the pitch point, and that the friction coefficient values found are in accord with those in general use. The friction coefficient was found to increase at low sliding speeds. This agrees with the results of disc machine testing.

  15. Friction and wear characteristics of polymer-matrix friction materials reinforced by brass fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Jia; Xiaomei, Ling

    2004-10-01

    This study is an investigation of friction materials reinforced by brass fibers, and the influence of the organic adhesion agent, cast-iron debris, brass fiber, and graphite powder on the friction-wear characteristics. Friction and wear testing was performed on a block-on-ring tribometer (MM200). The friction pair consisted of the friction materials and gray cast iron (HT200). The worn surface layers formed by sliding dry friction were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray energy-dispersive analysis (EDX), and differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TAG). The experimental results showed that the friction coefficient and the wear loss of the friction materials increased with the increase of cast-iron debris, but decreased with the increase of graphite powder content. The friction coefficient and wear loss also increased slightly when the mass fraction of brass fibers was over 19%. When the mass fraction of organic adhesion agent was about 10 11%, the friction materials had excellent friction-wear performance. Surface heating from friction pyrolyzes the organic ingredient in the worn surface layer of the friction materials, with the pyrolysis depth being about 0.5 mm. The surface layers were rich in iron but poor in copper, and they were formed on the worn surface of the friction material. When the mass fraction of brass fibers was about 16 20%, the friction materials possessed better wear resistance and a copper transfer film formed on the friction surface of counterpart. Fatigue cracks were also found in the worn surface of the gray cast-iron counterpart, with fatigue wear being the prevailing wear mechanism.

  16. Friction of Plastic Rotating Bands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    for speeds eve ., the rdnge: 10 - 300 cm/s. Overwhelming evidence was presented to support a melt phenomena. Melt depth of: polymer, pins on a glass disk...Polymers," Proc. Roy. Soc., (London),. A291 (1966), p. 186. 24. Rabinowicz , S., et al., "The Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure on the Shear Yield Behavior of...34 Proc. Roy.,Soc., (London), A269. (19620 p. 368. 51. Carignan, F. J., and Rabinowicz , E., "Friction and Wear at ligh Sliding Speeds," ASLE Trans., 24

  17. Hydrodynamic skin-friction reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Jason C. (Inventor); Bushnell, Dennis M. (Inventor); Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A process for reducing skin friction, inhibiting the effects of liquid turbulence, and decreasing heat transfer in a system involving flow of a liquid along a surface of a body includes applying a substantially integral sheet of a gas, e.g., air, immediately adjacent to the surface of the body, e.g., a marine vehicle, which has a longitudinally grooved surface in proximity with the liquid and with a surface material having high contact angle between the liquid and said wall to reduce interaction of the liquid, e.g., water, with the surface of the body, e.g., the hull of the marine vehicle.

  18. Friction Coefficients of Synthetic Ropes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    vertical segments of the steel cable. "**Arithmetic averagL of test data . + Data disregarded in averaging process because of concern for validity. From the...gauge W •’ T1 "• ~ steel Ui=U floor •Figure 12 . Modified apparatus for high-tension rope tests (or bitts). ! { From equations 25 and 26, the friction... data . Example A 12 -inch-perimeter nylon line is wrapped several turns around a bitt barrel (figure 19). The high tension acting on the line varies

  19. Modeling of Instabilities and Self-organization at the Frictional Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, Vahid

    frictional surface to exhibit "self-protection" and "self-healing" properties. Hence, this research is dealing with the fundamental concepts that allow the possibility of the development of a new generation of tribosystem and materials that reinforce such properties. In chapter 2, we investigate instabilities due to the temperature-dependency of the coefficient of friction. The temperature-dependency of the coefficient of friction can have a significant effect on the frictional sliding stability, by leading to the formation of "hot" and "cold" spots on the contacting surfaces. We formulate a stability criterion and perform a case study of a brake disk. In chapter 3, we study frictional running-in. Running-in is a transient period on the onset of the frictional sliding, in which friction and wear decrease to their stationary values. In this research, running-in is interpreted as friction-induced self-organization process. We introduce a theoretical model of running-in and investigate rough profile evolution assuming that its kinetics is driven by two opposite processes or events, i.e., smoothening which is typical for the deformation-driven friction and wear, and roughening which is typical for the adhesion-driven friction and wear. In chapter 4, we investigate the possibility of the so-called Turing-type pattern formation during friction. Turing or reaction-diffusion systems describe variations of spatial concentrations of chemical components with time due to local chemical reactions coupled with diffusion. During friction, the patterns can form at the sliding interface due to the mass transfer (diffusion), heat transfer, various tribochemical reactions, and wear. In chapter 5, we investigate how interfacial patterns including propagating trains of stick and slip zones form due to dynamic sliding instabilities. These can be categorized as self-organized patterns. We treat stick and slip as two phases at the interface, and study the effects related to phase transitions. Our

  20. Frictional Fluid Dynamics and Plug Formation in Multiphase Millifluidic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumazer, Guillaume; Sandnes, Bjørnar; Ayaz, Monem; Mâløy, Knut Jørgen; Flekkøy, Eirik Grude

    2016-07-01

    We study experimentally the flow and patterning of a granular suspension displaced by air inside a narrow tube. The invading air-liquid interface accumulates a plug of granular material that clogs the tube due to friction with the confining walls. The gas percolates through the static plug once the gas pressure exceeds the pore capillary entry pressure of the packed grains, and a moving accumulation front is reestablished at the far side of the plug. The process repeats, such that the advancing interface leaves a trail of plugs in its wake. Further, we show that the system undergoes a fluidization transition—and complete evacuation of the granular suspension—when the liquid withdrawal rate increases beyond a critical value. An analytical model of the stability condition for the granular accumulation predicts the flow regime.

  1. Frictional property comparisons of conventional and self-ligating lingual brackets according to tooth displacement during initial leveling and alignment: an in vitro mechanical study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Yoon; Lim, Bum-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the effects of tooth displacement on frictional force when conventional ligating lingual brackets (CL-LBs), CL-LBs with a narrow bracket width, and self-ligating lingual brackets (SL-LBs) were used with initial leveling and alignment wires. Methods CL-LBs (7th Generation), CL-LBs with a narrow bracket width (STb), and SL-LBs (In-Ovation L) were tested under three tooth displacement conditions: no displacement (control); a 2-mm palatal displacement (PD) of the maxillary right lateral incisor (MXLI); and a 2-mm gingival displacement (GD) of the maxillary right canine (MXC) (nine groups, n = 7 per group). A stereolithographic typodont system and artificial saliva were used. Static and kinetic frictional forces (SFF and KFF, respectively) were measured while drawing a 0.013-inch copper-nickel-titanium archwire through brackets at 0.5 mm/min for 5 minutes at 36.5℃. Results The In-Ovation L exhibited lower SFF under control conditions and lower KFF under all displacement conditions than the 7th Generation and STb (all p < 0.001). No significant difference in SFF existed between the In-Ovation L and STb for a 2-mm GD of the MXC and 2-mm PD of the MXLI. A 2-mm GD of the MXC produced higher SFF and KFF than a 2-mm PD of the MXLI in all brackets (all p < 0.001). Conclusions CL-LBs with narrow bracket widths exhibited higher KFF than SL-LBs under tooth displacement conditions. CL-LBs and ligation methods should be developed to produce SFF and KFF as low as those in SL-LBs during the initial and leveling stage. PMID:27019823

  2. The Schrödinger equation with friction from the quantum trajectory perspective.

    PubMed

    Garashchuk, Sophya; Dixit, Vaibhav; Gu, Bing; Mazzuca, James

    2013-02-07

    Similarity of equations of motion for the classical and quantum trajectories is used to introduce a friction term dependent on the wavefunction phase into the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The term describes irreversible energy loss by the quantum system. The force of friction is proportional to the velocity of a quantum trajectory. The resulting Schrödinger equation is nonlinear, conserves wavefunction normalization, and evolves an arbitrary wavefunction into the ground state of the system (of appropriate symmetry if applicable). Decrease in energy is proportional to the average kinetic energy of the quantum trajectory ensemble. Dynamics in the high friction regime is suitable for simple models of reactions proceeding with energy transfer from the system to the environment. Examples of dynamics are given for single and symmetric and asymmetric double well potentials.

  3. A comparison of Coulomb and pseudo-Coulomb friction implementations: Application to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M I; Hiley, M J; Yeadon, M R

    2011-10-13

    In the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting both dynamic and static friction act. The purpose of this study was to develop a method of simulating Coulomb friction that incorporated both dynamic and static phases and to compare the results with those obtained using a pseudo-Coulomb implementation of friction when applied to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting. Kinematic data were obtained from an elite level gymnast performing handspring straight somersault vaults using a Vicon optoelectronic motion capture system. An angle-driven computer model of vaulting that simulated the interaction between a seven segment gymnast and a single segment vaulting table during the table contact phase of the vault was developed. Both dynamic and static friction were incorporated within the model by switching between two implementations of the tangential frictional force. Two vaulting trials were used to determine the model parameters using a genetic algorithm to match simulations to recorded performances. A third independent trial was used to evaluate the model and close agreement was found between the simulation and the recorded performance with an overall difference of 13.5%. The two-state simulation model was found to be capable of replicating performance at take-off and also of replicating key contact phase features such as the normal and tangential motion of the hands. The results of the two-state model were compared to those using a pseudo-Coulomb friction implementation within the simulation model. The two-state model achieved similar overall results to those of the pseudo-Coulomb model but obtained solutions more rapidly.

  4. The frictional properties of faults at shallow depths: implications for rupture propagation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paola, N.; Bullock, R. J.; Holdsworth, R.

    2015-12-01

    Following the surge of great earthquakes from 2004-2014, revised synoptic models have been proposed, where 2D spatial heterogeneity in frictional properties of continental and subduction fault zones is invoked to explain earthquake behaviours. However, none of the proposed models accounts for the changes in frictional properties that past ruptures may have caused on the rupture zones of recent events. We performed velocity step friction experiments at sub-seismic slip rates (10-100 mm/s) on dry, water- and brine-saturated granite and calcite rocks (continental crust) showing that velocity strengthening behaviour evolves to velocity-neutral/-weakening behaviour after critical displacements of a few tens to hundreds of mm. Dry, water- and brine-saturated gabbros (oceanic crust) show velocity-weakening behaviour and slip localization for any applied displacement and normal stress. Dry, water- and brine-saturated phyllosilicate-rich gouges (typical of subduction zones and continental sedimentary deposits) show velocity-strengthening behaviour for any applied displacements and normal loads. Cyclic slide-hold-slide experiments show that, after sliding at sub-seismic slip rates, static friction increases with time according to a logarithmic relationship (fault healing) for almost all tested materials under dry, water- and brine-saturated conditions. The only exceptions are organic-rich black shales, which show a decrease in static fault friction with time (negative fault healing). The positive and negative healing rates tend to increase under water- and brine-saturated conditions, respectively. After sliding at seismic velocities (1 m/s), granite, calcite and phyllosilicate-rich gouges show an evolution toward less velocity strengthening to velocity-weakening behaviour, as opposed to grabbros gouges showing an evolution towards velocity strengthening behaviour. Our experimental results suggest that patches of small and large seismic slip of past events are critical in

  5. A frictional population model of seismicity rate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Reasenberg, P.; Cocco, M.; Belardinelli, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    We study models of seismicity rate changes caused by the application of a static stress perturbation to a population of faults and discuss our results with respect to the model proposed by Dieterich (1994). These models assume distribution of nucleation sites (e.g., faults) obeying rate-state frictional relations that fail at constant rate under tectonic loading alone, and predicts a positive static stress step at time to will cause an immediate increased seismicity rate that decays according to Omori's law. We show one way in which the Dieterich model may be constructed from simple general idead, illustratted using numerically computed synthetic seismicity and mathematical formulation. We show that seismicity rate change predicted by these models (1) depend on the particular relationship between the clock-advanced failure and fault maturity, (2) are largest for the faults closest to failure at to, (3) depend strongly on which state evolution law faults obey, and (4) are insensitive to some types of population hetrogeneity. We also find that if individual faults fail repeatedly and populations are finite, at timescales much longer than typical aftershock durations, quiescence follows at seismicity rate increase regardless of the specific frictional relations. For the examined models the quiescence duration is comparable to the ratio of stress change to stressing rate ????/??,which occurs after a time comparable to the average recurrence interval of the individual faults in the population and repeats in the absence of any new load may pertubations; this simple model may partly explain observations of repeated clustering of earthquakes. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Frictional behavior of large displacement experimental faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, N.M.; Tullis, T.E.; Blanpied, M.L.; Weeks, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The coefficient of friction and velocity dependence of friction of initially bare surfaces and 1-mm-thick simulated fault gouges (400 mm at 25??C and 25 MPa normal stress. Steady state negative friction velocity dependence and a steady state fault zone microstructure are achieved after ???18 mm displacement, and an approximately constant strength is reached after a few tens of millimeters of sliding on initially bare surfaces. Simulated fault gouges show a large but systematic variation of friction, velocity dependence of friction, dilatancy, and degree of localization with displacement. At short displacement (<10 mm), simulated gouge is strong, velocity strengthening and changes in sliding velocity are accompanied by relatively large changes in dilatancy rate. With continued displacement, simulated gouges become progressively weaker and less velocity strengthening, the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate decreases, and deformation becomes localized into a narrow basal shear which at its most localized is observed to be velocity weakening. With subsequent displacement, the fault restrengthens, returns to velocity strengthening, or to velocity neutral, the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate becomes larger, and deformation becomes distributed. Correlation of friction, velocity dependence of friction and of dilatancy rate, and degree of localization at all displacements in simulated gouge suggest that all quantities are interrelated. The observations do not distinguish the independent variables but suggest that the degree of localization is controlled by the fault strength, not by the friction velocity dependence. The friction velocity dependence and velocity dependence of dilatancy rate can be used as qualitative measures of the degree of localization in simulated gouge, in agreement with previous studies. Theory equating the friction velocity dependence of simulated gouge to the sum of the friction velocity dependence of bare surfaces and the velocity

  7. Speed of fast and slow rupture fronts along frictional interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trømborg, Jørgen Kjoshagen; Sveinsson, Henrik Andersen; Thøgersen, Kjetil; Scheibert, Julien; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders

    2015-07-01

    The transition from stick to slip at a dry frictional interface occurs through the breaking of microjunctions between the two contacting surfaces. Typically, interactions between junctions through the bulk lead to rupture fronts propagating from weak and/or highly stressed regions, whose junctions break first. Experiments find rupture fronts ranging from quasistatic fronts, via fronts much slower than elastic wave speeds, to fronts faster than the shear wave speed. The mechanisms behind and selection between these fronts are still imperfectly understood. Here we perform simulations in an elastic two-dimensional spring-block model where the frictional interaction between each interfacial block and the substrate arises from a set of junctions modeled explicitly. We find that material slip speed and rupture front speed are proportional across the full range of front speeds we observe. We revisit a mechanism for slow slip in the model and demonstrate that fast slip and fast fronts have a different, inertial origin. We highlight the long transients in front speed even along homogeneous interfaces, and we study how both the local shear to normal stress ratio and the local strength are involved in the selection of front type and front speed. Last, we introduce an experimentally accessible integrated measure of block slip history, the Gini coefficient, and demonstrate that in the model it is a good predictor of the history-dependent local static friction coefficient of the interface. These results will contribute both to building a physically based classification of the various types of fronts and to identifying the important mechanisms involved in the selection of their propagation speed.

  8. Kozai Cycles and Tidal Friction

    SciTech Connect

    L, K; P.P., E

    2009-07-17

    Several studies in the last three years indicate that close binaries, i.e. those with periods of {approx}< 3 d, are very commonly found to have a third body in attendance. We argue that this proves that the third body is necessary in order to make the inner period so short, and further argue that the only reasonable explanation is that the third body causes shrinkage of the inner period, from perhaps a week or more to the current short period, by means of the combination of Kozai cycles and tidal friction (KCTF). In addition, once KCTF has produced a rather close binary, magnetic braking also combined with tidal friction (MBTF) can decrease the inner orbit further, to the formation of a contact binary or even a merged single star. Some of the products of KCTF that have been suggested, either by others or by us, are W UMa binaries, Blue Stragglers, X-ray active BY Dra stars, and short-period Algols. We also argue that some components of wide binaries are actually merged remnants of former close inner pairs. This may include such objects as rapidly rotating dwarfs (AB Dor, BO Mic) and some (but not all) Be stars.

  9. Comparison of Frictional Heating Models

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, Nicholas R; Blau, Peter Julian

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare the predicted temperature rises using four well-known models for frictional heating under a few selected conditions in which similar variable inputs are provided to each model. Classic papers by Archard, Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, Lim and Ashby, and Rabinowicz have been examined, and a spreadsheet (Excel ) was developed to facilitate the calculations. This report may be used in conjunction with that spreadsheet. It explains the background, assumptions, and rationale used for the calculations. Calculated flash temperatures for selected material combinations, under a range of applied loads and sliding speeds, are tabulated. The materials include AISI 52100 bearing steel, CDA 932 bronze, NBD 200 silicon nitride, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and carbon-graphite material. Due to the assumptions made by the different models, and the direct way in which certain assumed quantities, like heat sink distances or asperity dimensions, enter into the calculations, frictional hearing results may differ significantly; however, they can be similar in certain cases in light of certain assumptions that are shared between the models.

  10. Multiscale physics-based modeling of friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriten, Melih

    Frictional contacts between solids exist in nature and in a wide range of engineering applications. Friction causes energy loss, and it is the main source of wear and surface degradation which limits the lifetime of mechanical systems. Yet, friction is needed to walk, run, accelerate, slow down or stop moving systems. Whether desirable or not, friction is a very complex physical phenomenon. The behavior of systems with friction is nonlinear, and the physical mechanisms governing friction behavior span a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. A thorough study of friction should employ experimentalists and theoreticians in chemistry, materials science, tribology, mechanics, dynamics, and structural engineering. High spatial and temporal resolutions are required to capture and model essential physics of a frictional contact. However, such a detailed model is impractical in large-scale structural dynamics simulations; especially since frictional contacts can be numerous in a given application. Reduced-order models (ROMs) achieve broader applicability by compromising several aspects and accounting for the important physics. Hence, rather simple Coulomb friction is still the most ubiquitous model in the modeling and simulation literature. As an alternative, a reduced-order friction model built-up from micromechanics of surfaces is proposed in this work. Continuum-scale formulation of pre-sliding friction behavior is combined with material-strength-based friction coefficients to develop a physics-based friction model at asperity-scale. Then, the statistical summation technique is utilized to build a multiscale modeling framework. A novel joint fretting setup is designed for friction experiments in a practical setting, and the developed models are tested. Both asperity and rough surface friction models show good agreement with experimental data. The influences of materials, surface roughness and contact contamination on the friction are also studied. Finally, the

  11. "Frictional processes" in carbonate-bearing rocks at seismic deformation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Toro, G.; Spagnuolo, E.; Violay, M.; Rempe, M.; Smith, S. A. F.; Nielsen, S. B.; Fondriest, M.; Plumper, O.

    2015-12-01

    Moderate to large earthquakes often rupture and propagate along faults in carbonate-bearing rocks (dolostones, limestones, marbles, etc.). Compared to silicate-bearing rocks, which melt, weaken and wear when sheared at seismic slip rates (ca. 1 m/s), carbonate-bearing rocks do not melt, the minimum friction coefficient can be much lower (down to 5% of static friction) and the wear rate is negligible at seismic slip rates. In cohesive carbonate-bearing rocks, experiments simulating seismic deformation conditions and stopped at slip initiation (< 5 mm) suggest that initial frictional decay down to 50% of static friction is associated with CO2 emission plus formation of nanograins and amorphous carbon. Experiments stopped at larger slips (< 5 mm) show that the slipping zone consists of a foam-like sintered surface overlying a microporous fabric made of calcite and lime (plus periclase in the case of dolomite) nanograins. In non-cohesive rocks (e.g. gouges) a similar evolution is observed after an initial period of strengthening and strain localization. Experiments with pressurized H2O show that the contribution of thermal and thermochemical pressurization is negligible in cohesive and questionable in non-cohesive carbonate-bearing rocks. We propose that initial frictional weakening is due to the formation of patches of amorphous carbon (solid lubricant) at asperity contacts. With progressive slip and bulk temperature increase, nanograins accommodate large strain rates (ca. 104 s-1) by grain boundary sliding as suggested by several authors. The presence of a microporous fabric boosts pore-controlled diffusive process propelled by CO2 gas exhaust due to decarbonation. Enhanced pore-controlled diffusive processes allow (1) efficient mass transfer during grain boundary sliding and (2) sintering of the nanograins into a foam-like slip surface at the end of the experiment.

  12. Sensitivities of Tropical Cyclones to Surface Friction and the Coriolis Parameter in a 2-D Cloud-Resolving Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivities to surface friction and the Coriolis parameter in tropical cyclogenesis are studied using an axisymmetric version of the Goddard cloud ensemble model. Our experiments demonstrate that tropical cyclogenesis can still occur without surface friction. However, the resulting tropical cyclone has very unrealistic structure. Surface friction plays an important role of giving the tropical cyclones their observed smaller size and diminished intensity. Sensitivity of the cyclogenesis process to surface friction. in terms of kinetic energy growth, has different signs in different phases of the tropical cyclone. Contrary to the notion of Ekman pumping efficiency, which implies a preference for the highest Coriolis parameter in the growth rate if all other parameters are unchanged, our experiments show no such preference.

  13. Studying the Frictional Force Directions via Bristles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasitpong, S.; Chitaree, R.; Rakkapao, S.

    2010-01-01

    We present simple apparatus designed to help Thai high school students visualize the directions of frictional forces. Bristles of toothbrushes, paintbrushes and scrubbing brushes are used to demonstrate the frictional forces acting in a variety of situations. These demonstrations, when followed by discussion of free-body diagrams, were found to be…

  14. Internally architectured materials with directionally asymmetric friction.

    PubMed

    Bafekrpour, Ehsan; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena; Molotnikov, Andrey; Estrin, Yuri

    2015-06-04

    Internally Architectured Materials (IAMs) that exhibit different friction forces for sliding in the opposite directions are proposed. This is achieved by translating deformation normal to the sliding plane into a tangential force in a manner that is akin to a toothbrush with inclined bristles. Friction asymmetry is attained by employing a layered material or a structure with parallel 'ribs' inclined to the direction of sliding. A theory of directionally asymmetric friction is presented, along with prototype IAMs designed, fabricated and tested. The friction anisotropy (the ξ-coefficient) is characterised by the ratio of the friction forces for two opposite directions of sliding. It is further demonstrated that IAM can possess very high levels of friction anisotropy, with ξ of the order of 10. Further increase in ξ is attained by modifying the shape of the ribs to provide them with directionally dependent bending stiffness. Prototype IAMs produced by 3D printing exhibit truly giant friction asymmetry, with ξ in excess of 20. A novel mechanical rectifier, which can convert oscillatory movement into unidirectional movement by virtue of directionally asymmetric friction, is proposed. Possible applications include locomotion in a constrained environment and energy harvesting from oscillatory noise and vibrations.

  15. Internally architectured materials with directionally asymmetric friction

    PubMed Central

    Bafekrpour, Ehsan; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena; Molotnikov, Andrey; Estrin, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Internally Architectured Materials (IAMs) that exhibit different friction forces for sliding in the opposite directions are proposed. This is achieved by translating deformation normal to the sliding plane into a tangential force in a manner that is akin to a toothbrush with inclined bristles. Friction asymmetry is attained by employing a layered material or a structure with parallel ‘ribs’ inclined to the direction of sliding. A theory of directionally asymmetric friction is presented, along with prototype IAMs designed, fabricated and tested. The friction anisotropy (the ξ-coefficient) is characterised by the ratio of the friction forces for two opposite directions of sliding. It is further demonstrated that IAM can possess very high levels of friction anisotropy, with ξ of the order of 10. Further increase in ξ is attained by modifying the shape of the ribs to provide them with directionally dependent bending stiffness. Prototype IAMs produced by 3D printing exhibit truly giant friction asymmetry, with ξ in excess of 20. A novel mechanical rectifier, which can convert oscillatory movement into unidirectional movement by virtue of directionally asymmetric friction, is proposed. Possible applications include locomotion in a constrained environment and energy harvesting from oscillatory noise and vibrations. PMID:26040634

  16. Shaft Coupler With Friction and Spline Clutches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thebert, Glenn W.

    1987-01-01

    Coupling, developed for rotor of lift/cruise aircraft, employs two clutches for smooth transmission of power from gas-turbine engine to rotor. Prior to ascent, coupling applies friction-type transition clutch that accelerates rotor shaft to speeds matching those of engine shaft. Once shafts synchronized, spline coupling engaged and friction clutch released to provide positive mechanical drive.

  17. Wiping Metal Transfer in Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Much evidence suggests that as the friction stir pin-tool moves along a weld seam the displacement of metal takes place by a wiping action at the surface of a plug of metal that rotates with the tool. The wiping model is explained and some consequences for the friction stir welding process are drawn.

  18. Magnetic Viscous Drag for Friction Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Chris; Catching, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The typical friction lab performed in introductory mechanics courses is usually not the favorite of either the student or the instructor. The measurements are not all that easy to make, and reproducibility is usually a troublesome issue. This paper describes the augmentation of such a friction lab with a study of the viscous drag on a magnet…

  19. Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of…

  20. Gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Lawless, Kirby G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool includes a pin and first and second annular shoulders coupled to the pin. At least one of the annular shoulders is coupled to the pin for gimbaled motion with respect thereto as the tool is rotated by a friction stir welding apparatus.

  1. ABL and BAM Friction Analysis Comparison

    DOE PAGES

    Warner, Kirstin F.; Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; ...

    2014-12-29

    Here, the Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program has conducted a proficiency study for Small-Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here is a comparison of the Alleghany Ballistic Laboratory (ABL) friction data and Bundesanstalt fur Materialforschung und -prufung (BAM) friction data for 19 HEM and military standard explosives.

  2. FACTORS INFLUENCING FRICTION OF PHOSPHATE COATINGS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    surface roughness, crystalline structure , and velocity. The coefficients of friction for manganese phosphate coatings did not differ to any practical...The coefficient of friction was independent of the applied load. Velocity during dynamic testing, surface finish, and crystalline structure influenced

  3. Frictional properties of jointed welded tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Teufel, L.W.

    1981-07-01

    The results of the experiments on simulated joints in welded tuff from the Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range Tuff warrant the following conclusions: (1) The coefficient of friction of the joints is independent of normal stress at a given sliding velocity. (2) The coefficient of friction increases with both increasing time of stationary contact and decreasing sliding velocity. (3) Time and velocity dependence of friction is due to an increase in the real area of contact on the sliding surface, caused by asperity creep. (4) Joints in water-saturated tuff show a greater time and velocity dependence of friction than those in dehydrated tuff. (5) The enhanced time and velocity dependence of friction with water saturation is a result of increased creep at asperity contacts, which is in turn due to a reduction in the surface indentation hardness by hydrolytic weakening and/or stress corrosion cracking.

  4. Friction forces on phase transition fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Mégevand, Ariel

    2013-07-01

    In cosmological first-order phase transitions, the microscopic interaction of the phase transition fronts with non-equilibrium plasma particles manifests itself macroscopically as friction forces. In general, it is a nontrivial problem to compute these forces, and only two limits have been studied, namely, that of very slow walls and, more recently, ultra-relativistic walls which run away. In this paper we consider ultra-relativistic velocities and show that stationary solutions still exist when the parameters allow the existence of runaway walls. Hence, we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the fronts to actually run away. We also propose a phenomenological model for the friction, which interpolates between the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic values. Thus, the friction depends on two friction coefficients which can be calculated for specific models. We then study the velocity of phase transition fronts as a function of the friction parameters, the thermodynamic parameters, and the amount of supercooling.

  5. Macrostructure of Friction Stir Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aloor, S.; Nowak, B.; Vargas, R.; McClure, J. C.; Murr, L. E.; Nunes, A. C.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper will discuss two of the well know large scale features of friction stir welds: the "onion rings" seen in transverse sections, and the striations on the surface of the work piece. It will be shown that the surface features (sometimes called "tool marks") are the result of irregularities on the rotating shoulder of the pin tool and disappear when the shoulder is polished. The "onion ring" structure seen in transverse cross sections is formed by parts of the "carousel", the zone of material adjacent to and rotating with the pin tool, that are shed off in each rotation. The relation between the carousel and the "ring vortex", a rotational flow extending both in and out of the carousel and resembling a smoke-ring with the hole centered on the pin tool, will be discussed.

  6. Reflection type skin friction meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R. (Inventor); Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A housing block is provided having an upper surface conforming to the test surface of a model or aircraft. An oil film is supplied upstream of a transparent wedge window located in this upper surface by an oil pump system located external to the housing block. A light source located within the housing block supplies a light beam which passes through this transparent window and is reflected back through the transparent window by the upper surface of the oil film to a photo-sensitive position sensor located within the housing. This position sensor allows the slope history of the oil film caused by and aerodynamic flow to be determined. The skin friction is determined from this slope history. Internally located mirrors augment and sensitize the reflected beam as necessary before reaching the position sensor. In addition, a filter may be provided before this sensor to filter the beam.

  7. Friction Stir Welding and Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hovanski, Yuri; Carsley, John; Clarke, Kester D.; Krajewski, Paul E.

    2015-05-01

    With nearly twenty years of international research and collaboration in friction stir welding (FSW) and processing industrial applications have spread into nearly every feasible market. Currently applications exist in aerospace, railway, automotive, personal computers, technology, marine, cutlery, construction, as well as several other markets. Implementation of FSW has demonstrated diverse opportunities ranging from enabling new materials to reducing the production costs of current welding technologies by enabling condensed packaging solutions for traditional fabrication and assembly. TMS has sponsored focused instruction and communication in this technology area for more than fifteen years, with leadership from the Shaping and Forming Committee, which organizes a biannual symposium each odd year at the annual meeting. A focused publication produced from each of these symposia now comprises eight volumes detailing the primary research and development activities in this area over the last two decades. The articles assembled herein focus on both recent developments and technology reviews of several key markets from international experts in this area.

  8. Mapping Instabilities in Polymer Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, Charles; Crosby, Alfred

    2005-03-01

    Schallamach waves are instabilities that occur as interfaces between a soft elastomer and rigid surface slide past each other.(1) The presence of Schallamach waves can lead to drastic changes in frictional properties. Although the occurrence of Schallamach waves has been studied for the past several decades, a general map relating fundamental material properties, geometry, and operating conditions (i.e. speed and temperature) has not been established. Using a combinatorial approach, we illustrate the role of modulus, testing velocity and surface energetics of crosslinked poly(dimethyl siloxane) on the generation Schallamach waves. This knowledge will be used with polymer patterning processes to fabricate responsive coatings for applications such as anti-fouling coatings. (1)Schallamach, A.;Wear 1971,17, 301-312.

  9. Measurements of Form and Frictional Drags over a Rough Topographic Bank

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    pressure measurements and profiles of velocity and turbulent kinetic dissipation rates. The EFGB is a coral bank about 6 km wide and 10km long located...portions over the corals . The measured form drag over the bank showed multiple time-scale variability. Diurnal tides and lowfrequency motions with periods...drag. The form drag is an important flow retardation mechanism even in the presence of the large frictional drag associated with coral reefs and

  10. Load-Dependent Friction Hysteresis on Graphene.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhijiang; Egberts, Philip; Han, Gang Hee; Johnson, A T Charlie; Carpick, Robert W; Martini, Ashlie

    2016-05-24

    Nanoscale friction often exhibits hysteresis when load is increased (loading) and then decreased (unloading) and is manifested as larger friction measured during unloading compared to loading for a given load. In this work, the origins of load-dependent friction hysteresis were explored through atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments of a silicon tip sliding on chemical vapor deposited graphene in air, and molecular dynamics simulations of a model AFM tip on graphene, mimicking both vacuum and humid air environmental conditions. It was found that only simulations with water at the tip-graphene contact reproduced the experimentally observed hysteresis. The mechanisms underlying this friction hysteresis were then investigated in the simulations by varying the graphene-water interaction strength. The size of the water-graphene interface exhibited hysteresis trends consistent with the friction, while measures of other previously proposed mechanisms, such as out-of-plane deformation of the graphene film and irreversible reorganization of the water molecules at the shearing interface, were less correlated to the friction hysteresis. The relationship between the size of the sliding interface and friction observed in the simulations was explained in terms of the varying contact angles in front of and behind the sliding tip, which were larger during loading than unloading.

  11. Multiscale physics of rubber-ice friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuononen, Ari J.; Kriston, András; Persson, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Ice friction plays an important role in many engineering applications, e.g., tires on icy roads, ice breaker ship motion, or winter sports equipment. Although numerous experiments have already been performed to understand the effect of various conditions on ice friction, to reveal the fundamental frictional mechanisms is still a challenging task. This study uses in situ white light interferometry to analyze ice surface topography during linear friction testing with a rubber slider. The method helps to provide an understanding of the link between changes in the surface topography and the friction coefficient through direct visualization and quantitative measurement of the morphologies of the ice surface at different length scales. Besides surface polishing and scratching, it was found that ice melts locally even after one sweep showing the refrozen droplets. A multi-scale rubber friction theory was also applied to study the contribution of viscoelasticity to the total friction coefficient, which showed a significant level with respect to the smoothness of the ice; furthermore, the theory also confirmed the possibility of local ice melting.

  12. Improved Quasi-Static Method: IQS Method Implementation for CFEM Diffusion in Rattlesnake

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, Zachary M.; Ragusa, Jean C.; Wang, Yaqi

    2016-02-29

    The improved quasi-static (IQS) method is a transient spatial kinetics method that involves factorizing flux into space- and time-dependent components. These components include the flux’s power and shape. Power is time-dependent, while the shape is both space- and time-dependent. However, the impetus of the method is the assumption that the shape is only weakly dependent on time; therefore, the shape may not require computation at every time step, invoking the quasi-static nature. This paper describes the implementation and testing of IQS as an alternative kinetics solver within Rattlesnake to provide improved time performance with minimal reduction in accuracy.

  13. Static heterogeneities in liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. Eugene; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Giovambattista, Nicolas

    2004-10-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of water seems to be closely related to static heterogeneities. These static heterogeneities are related to the local structure of water molecules, and when properly characterized, may offer an economical explanation of thermodynamic data. The key feature of liquid water is not so much that the existence of hydrogen bonds, first pointed out by Linus Pauling, but rather the local geometry of the liquid molecules is not spherical or oblong but tetrahedral. In the consideration of static heterogeneities, this local geometry is critical. Recent experiments suggested more than one phase of amorphous solid water, while simulations suggest that one of these phases is metastable with respect to another, so that in fact there are only two stable phases.

  14. Giant enhancement of noncontact friction between closely spaced bodies by dielectric films and two-dimensional systems

    SciTech Connect

    Volokitin, A. I. Persson, B. N. J.; Ueba, H.

    2007-02-15

    The effect of an external bias voltage and spatial variations of the surface potential on the damping of cantilever vibrations in an atomic force microscope (AFM) is considered. The damping is due to an electrostatic friction that arises due to dissipation of the energy of an electromagnetic field generated in the sample by oscillating static charges induced on the surface of the AFM probe tip by the bias voltage or spatial variations of the surface potential. A similar effect appears when the tip is oscillating in an electrostatic field created by charged defects present in the dielectric sample. The electrostatic friction is compared to the van der Waals (vdW) friction between closely spaced bodies, which is caused by a fluctuating electromagnetic field related to the quantum and thermal fluctuations of current density inside the bodies. It is shown that the electrostatic friction and the vdW friction can be strongly enhanced in the presence of dielectric films or two-dimensional (2D) structures-such as a 2D electron system or an incommensurate layer of adsorbed ions exhibiting acoustic oscillations-on the probe tip and sample surfaces. It is also shown that the damping of cantilever oscillations caused by the electrostatic friction in the presence of such 2D structures can have the same order of magnitude and the same dependence on the distance as observed in experiment by Stipe et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 096801 (2001)]. At small distances, the vdW friction can be large enough to be measured in experiment. In interpreting the experimental data that obey a quadratic dependence on the bias voltage, one can reject a phonon mechanism according to which the friction depends on the fourth power of the voltage.

  15. NASA tire/runway friction projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews several aspects of NASA Langley Research Center's tire/runway friction evaluations directed towards improving the safety and economy of aircraft ground operations. The facilities and test equipment used in implementing different aircraft tire friction studies and other related aircraft ground performance investigations are described together with recent workshop activities at NASA Wallops Flight Facility. An overview of the pending Joint NASA/Transport Canada/FM Winter Runway Friction Program is given. Other NASA ongoing studies and on-site field tests are discussed including tire wear performance and new surface treatments. The paper concludes with a description of future research plans.

  16. Skin friction measuring device for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, L. C.; Bellman, D. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A skin friction measuring device for measuring the resistance of an aerodynamic surface to an airstream is described. It was adapted to be mounted on an aircraft and is characterized by a friction plate adapted to be disposed in a flush relationship with the external surface of the aircraft and be displaced in response to skin friction drag. As an airstream is caused to flow over the surface, a potentiometer connected to the plate for providing an electrical output indicates the magnitude of the drag.

  17. Internal Friction And Instabilities Of Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes study of effects of internal friction on dynamics of rotors prompted by concern over instabilities in rotors of turbomachines. Theoretical and experimental studies described. Theoretical involved development of nonlinear mathematical models of internal friction in three joints found in turbomachinery - axial splines, Curvic(TM) splines, and interference fits between smooth cylindrical surfaces. Experimental included traction tests to determine the coefficients of friction of rotor alloys at various temperatures, bending-mode-vibration tests of shafts equipped with various joints and rotordynamic tests of shafts with axial-spline and interference-fit joints.

  18. Skin friction drag measurements by LDV.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, M K; Wanchoo, S; McLeod, P C; Ballard, G S; Mozumdar, S; Caraballo, N

    1981-08-15

    A laser Doppler velocimeter employing a microscope objective as the receiving lens has been developed for measuring fluid velocity inside the boundary layer flow field with a spatial resolution of 40 microm. The method was applied for direct measurement of aerodynamic skin friction drag from the measured velocity gradient at the wall. Experimental results obtained on skin friction and on velocity components in a turbulent boundary layer on a low speed wind tunnel showed good agreement with previously reported data using conventional instruments such as hot-wire anemometers and Preston tubes. The method thus provides a tool for measurement and control of skin friction on aerodynamic bodies without perturbing the flow field.

  19. Quantized friction across ionic liquid thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alexander M.; Lovelock, Kevin R. J.; Gosvami, Nitya Nand; Welton, Tom; Perkin, Susan

    Ionic liquids, salts in the liquid state under ambient conditions, are of great interest as precision lubricants. Ionic liquids form layered structures at surfaces, yet it is not clear how this nano-structure relates to their lubrication properties. We measured the friction force between atomically smooth solid surfaces across ionic liquid films of controlled thickness in terms of the number of ion layers. Multiple friction-load regimes emerge, each corresponding to a different number of ion layers in the film. In contrast to molecular liquids, the friction coefficients differ for each layer due to their varying composition.

  20. Frictional effects near a metal surface

    SciTech Connect

    Dou, Wenjie; Subotnik, Joseph E.; Nitzan, Abraham

    2015-08-07

    When a classical master equation (CME) is used to describe the nonadiabatic dynamics of a molecule at metal surfaces, we show that in the regime of reasonably strong molecule-metal couplings, the CME can be reduced to a Fokker-Planck equation with an explicit form of electronic friction. For a single metal substrate at thermal equilibrium, the electronic friction and random force satisfy the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. When we investigate the time scale for an electron transfer (ET) event between the molecule and metal surface, we find that the ET rates show a turnover effect (just as in Kramer’s theory) as a function of frictional damping.

  1. Quantized friction across ionic liquid thin films.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alexander M; Lovelock, Kevin R J; Gosvami, Nitya Nand; Welton, Tom; Perkin, Susan

    2013-10-07

    Ionic liquids - salts in the liquid state under ambient conditions - are of great interest as precision lubricants. Ionic liquids form layered structures at surfaces, yet it is not clear how this nano-structure relates to their lubrication properties. We measured the friction force between atomically smooth solid surfaces across ionic liquid films of controlled thickness in terms of the number of ion layers. Multiple friction-load regimes emerge, each corresponding to a different number of ion layers in the film. In contrast to molecular liquids, the friction coefficients differ for each layer due to their varying composition.

  2. Coordinated Water Under Confinement Eases Sliding Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defante, Adrian; Dhopotkar, Nishad; Dhinojwala, Ali

    Water is essential to a number of interfacial phenomena such as the lubrication of knee joints, protein folding, mass transport, and adsorption processes. We have used a biaxial friction cell to quantify underwater friction between a hydrophobic elastomeric lens and a hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer in the presence of surfactant solutions. To gain an understanding of the role of water in these processes we have coupled this measurement with surface sensitive sum frequency generation to directly probe the molecular constitution of the confined contact interface. We observe that role of confined coordinated water between two hydrophobic substrates covered with surfactants is the key to obtaining a low coefficient of friction.

  3. Forming of aluminium alloy friction stir welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The present paper aims at investigating, through analytical models, numerical models and experiments, the effect of the warm deformation phase, realised with an in temperature upsetting, on the weld previously performed by friction stir lap welding on aluminium alloy blanks. The investigation allows to show the deformation zones after upsetting that determine the homogenisation of the weld section. The analytical model allows to relate the friction factor with the upsetting load. The presence on the weld of not elevated friction factor values determines the deformation and localisation levels very useful for the weld. Such methodology allows to improve the weld itself with the forming phase.

  4. Friction and shear fracture of an adhesive contact under torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chateauminois, Antoine; Fretigny, Christian; Olanier, Ludovic

    2010-02-01

    The shear failure or stiction of an adhesive contact between a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) rubber and a glass lens has been investigated using a torsional contact configuration. As compared to linear sliding, torsion presents the advantage of inducing a shear failure under a pure mode III condition, while preserving the cylindrical symmetry of the contact. The surface of the transparent PDMS substrate was marked using a network of dots in order to monitor continuously the in-plane surface displacements during the stiction process. Using a previously developed inversion procedure (A. Chateauminois and C. Fretigny, Eur. Phys. J. E 27, 221 (2008)), the corresponding surface shear stress distributions were obtained from the displacement fields. Stiction was found to involve the progressive shrinkage of a central adhesive zone surrounded by an annular microslip region. Adhesion effects were especially evidenced from a stress overshoot at the boundary of the adhesive zone. The experimental data were analysis using an extension to torsional contact of the Maugis-Dugdale approach’s to adhesive contacts which takes into account frictional effects. This model allowed to extract an effective adhesion energy in the presence of friction, which dependence on kinetics effect is briefly discussed.

  5. The mystery of Coulomb friction in sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pähtz, Thomas; Duran, Orencio

    Nearly all analytical models of sediment transport in Newtonian fluid (e.g., air or water) are based on Bagnold's assumption of a constant Coulomb friction coefficient (particle-shear-pressure-ratio, μ) at the interface (zb) between sediment bed and transport layer. In fact, this assumption is the main reason why these models predict the sediment load (and subsequently the sediment transport rate) to be proportional to the excess shear stress (τ -τt), a scaling which has been confirmed in many wind-tunnel and flume experiments. Attempts to explain why μ (zb) is constant have usually been based on the sliding-friction analogy or rheology arguments. However, here we analytically derive μ (zs) √{ 3} - 1 , where zs is the location at which the production rate of particle fluctuation energy is maximal. Our derivation is based on the assumption that the rate of collisional transfer of horizontal into vertical kinetic energy is typically much larger than the rate of energy dissipation. Using state-of-the-art numerical simulations of sediment transport in Newtonian fluid, we validate all assumptions and approximation involved in our derivation. Interestingly, the location zs can significantly deviate from zb depending on the simulated conditions. We acknowledge support from grants National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 1151101041 and 41376095) and Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (No. LR16E090001).

  6. Modeling and experimental investigation of a novel arc-surfaced frictional damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gongxian; Wang, Yangyang; Yuan, Jianming; Yang, Yi; Wang, Dong

    2017-02-01

    In this investigation, an innovative type of frictional damper called Arc-surfaced Frictional Damper (AFD) is introduced. The damping force of such damper is secured by pre-compression of Polyurethane Elastomer (PUE). The major advantage of AFD is that its frictional surfaces are curved so that the damping force varies with displacement. The mathematical model for AFD is established to predict its hysteretic behavior and analyze its mechanism. Then the hysteretic behavior of AFD was studied by experimental means. Experiment program included tests with various pre-compressions at quasi-static loading and dynamic loading with various frequencies was conducted. The results show a saddle-shaped behavior in the force-displacement relation. Furthermore, it is verified that AFD does have the hysteretic property of variable frictional force and the proposed mathematical model can be used to predict the hysteretic behavior of AFD. Hysteretic characteristics of AFD such as slip load, energy dissipation capacity, the effective stiffness and damping per cycle of loading are calculated.

  7. Study of nonlinear behaviors and modal reductions for friction destabilized systems. Application to an elastic layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyer, A.; Sinou, J.-J.; Chiello, O.; Lorang, X.

    2012-02-01

    As noise reduction tends to be part of environmental directives, predicting squeal noise generated by disc brakes is an important industrial issue. It involves both the transient and stationary nonlinear dynamics of self-excited systems with frictional contact. Time simulation of the phenomenon is an attractive option for reducing experiment costs. However, since such computations using full finite element models of industrial disc brake systems is time-consuming, model reduction has to be performed. In this paper, both the transient and stationary nonlinear behaviors of the friction destabilized system and the effect of dynamical reduction on the nonlinear response of a simple friction destabilized system are carried out. The first part provides a description of the general modeling retained for friction destabilized systems. Then, discretization and solving processes for the stability analysis and the temporal evolution are presented. The third part presents an analysis of a sliding elastic layer for different operating conditions, in order to better understand the nonlinear behavior of such systems. Finally, spatial model reduction is performed with different kinds of reduction bases in order to analyze the different effects of modal reductions. This clearly shows the necessity of including static modes in the reduction basis and that nonlinear interactions between unstable modes are very difficult to represent with reduced bases. Finally, the proposed model and the associated studies are intended to be the benchmark cases for future comparison.

  8. Analysis of Periodically Varying Gear Mesh Systems with Coulomb Friction Using Floquet Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VAISHYA, M.; SINGH, R.

    2001-06-01

    This article presents a new analytical model of a gear pair with time varying mesh stiffness, viscous damping and sliding friction parameters. Unlike previous models, the excitation consists of three separate terms, namely the unloaded transmission error, time-invariant external torque and the periodically varying sliding friction force. A Coulomb friction model is considered using first a quasi-static mean transmitted load that is represented by the Meissner equation. Then, a truly dynamic force between gear teeth is described that leads to a triangular function, and after appropriate substitutions, this assumes the form of the Bessel equation of the one-third order. For the damped Meissner equation, the forced vibration response is found with the application of Floquet theory. Exact integrals are calculated for the state transition matrix in a piecewise manner, instead of using the Fourier series expansion, thus eliminating the mode truncation errors. From the state transition matrix, unstable zones are identified and the actual forced response of the system is found in terms of dynamic transmission error for these zones. With the aid of an example, the significance of sliding friction on system response and stability is examined. Finally, key advantages and the need for analytical methods are demonstrated for such systems.

  9. Voltage Sensors Monitor Harmful Static

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    A tiny sensor, small enough to be worn on clothing, now monitors voltage changes near sensitive instruments after being created to alert Agency workers to dangerous static buildup near fuel operations and avionics. San Diego s Quasar Federal Systems received a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center to develop its remote voltage sensor (RVS), a dime-sized electrometer designed to measure triboelectric changes in the environment. One of the unique qualities of the RVS is that it can detect static at greater distances than previous devices, measuring voltage changes from a few centimeters to a few meters away, due to its much-improved sensitivity.

  10. Static and dynamic characteristics of parallel-grooved seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwatsubo, Takuzo; Yang, Bo-Suk; Ibaraki, Ryuji

    1987-01-01

    Presented is an analytical method to determine static and dynamic characteristics of annular parallel-grooved seals. The governing equations were derived by using the turbulent lubrication theory based on the law of fluid friction. Linear zero- and first-order perturbation equations of the governing equations were developed, and these equations were analytically investigated to obtain the reaction force of the seals. An analysis is presented that calculates the leakage flow rate, the torque loss, and the rotordynamic coefficients for parallel-grooved seals. To demonstrate this analysis, we show the effect of changing number of stages, land and groove width, and inlet swirl on stability of the boiler feed water pump seals. Generally, as the number of stages increased or the grooves became wider, the leakage flow rate and rotor-dynamic coefficients decreased and the torque loss increased.

  11. Note: A rigid piezo motor with large output force and an effective method to reduce sliding friction force

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Ying; Lu, Qingyou; Hou, Yubin

    2014-05-15

    We present a completely practical TunaDrive piezo motor. It consists of a central piezo stack sandwiched by two arm piezo stacks and two leg piezo stacks, respectively, which is then sandwiched and spring-clamped by a pair of parallel polished sapphire rods. It works by alternatively fast expanding and contracting the arm/leg stacks while slowly expanding/contracting the central stack simultaneously. The key point is that sufficiently fast expanding and contracting a limb stack can make its two sliding friction forces well cancel, resulting in the total sliding friction force is <10% of the total static friction force, which can help increase output force greatly. The piezo motor's high compactness, precision, and output force make it perfect in building a high-quality harsh-condition (vibration resistant) atomic resolution scanning probe microscope.

  12. Triboelectric-thermoelectric hybrid nanogenerator for harvesting frictional energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Myoung-Soo; Jo, Sung-Eun; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2016-12-01

    The triboelectric nanogenerator, an energy harvesting device that converts external kinetic energy into electrical energy through using a nano-structured triboelectric material, is well known as an energy harvester with a simple structure and high output voltage. However, triboelectric nanogenerators also inevitably generate heat resulting from the friction that arises from their inherent sliding motions. In this paper, we present a hybrid nanogenerator, which integrates a triboelectric generator and a thermoelectric generator (TEG) for harvesting both the kinetic friction energy and the heat energy that would otherwise be wasted. The triboelectric part consists of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film with nano-structures and a movable aluminum panel. The thermoelectric part is attached to the bottom of the PTFE film by an adhesive phase change material layer. We confirmed that the hybrid nanogenerator can generate an output power that is higher than that generated by a single triboelectric nanogenerator or a TEG. The hybrid nanogenerator was capable of producing a power density of 14.98 mW cm-2. The output power, produced from a sliding motion of 12 cm s-1, was capable of instantaneously lighting up 100 commercial LED bulbs. The hybrid nanogenerator can charge a 47 μF capacitor at a charging rate of 7.0 mV s-1, which is 13.3% faster than a single triboelectric generator. Furthermore, the efficiency of the device was significantly improved by the addition of a heat source. This hybrid energy harvester does not require any difficult fabrication steps, relative to existing triboelectric nanogenerators. The present study addresses a method for increasing the efficiency while solving other problems associated with triboelectric nanogenerators.

  13. An Improved Modeling of Friction for Extrusion Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Karadogan, Celalettin; Tong, Longchang; Hora, Pavel

    2007-04-07

    Realistic representation of friction is important in extrusion simulations. Purposefully designed multi-hole die aluminum extrusion experiments showed that the conventional friction models, like the Coulomb and the shear friction models, are deficient to represent the boundary phenomena that occur during aluminum extrusion. Based on the observations, phenomenological and implementational improvements are made in the friction modeling.

  14. A global strategy for the stability analysis of friction induced vibration problem with parameter variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, H. Q.; Massa, F.; Tison, T.; Lallemand, B.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a numerical strategy to reanalyze the modified frequency stability analysis of friction induced vibration problem. The stability analysis of a mechanical system relies on several coupling steps, namely a non-linear static analysis followed by linear and complex eigenvalue problems. We thus propose a numerical strategy to perform more rapidly multiple complex eigenvalue analyses. This strategy couples three methods namely, Fuzzy Logic Controllers to manage frictional contact problem, homotopy developments and projection techniques to reanalyze the projection matrices and component mode synthesis to calculate the modified eigensolutions. A numerical application is performed to highlight the efficiency of the strategy and a discussion is proposed in terms of precision and computational time.

  15. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 229 - Static Noise Test Protocols-In-Cab Static

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Static Noise Test Protocols-In-Cab Static H... Appendix H to Part 229—Static Noise Test Protocols—In-Cab Static This appendix prescribes the procedures for the in-cab static measurements of locomotives. I. Measurement Instrumentation The...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 229 - Static Noise Test Protocols-In-Cab Static

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Static Noise Test Protocols-In-Cab Static H... Appendix H to Part 229—Static Noise Test Protocols—In-Cab Static This appendix prescribes the procedures for the in-cab static measurements of locomotives. I. Measurement Instrumentation The...

  17. Laser surface conditioning of semimetallic friction materials

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    Surface conditioning is one way of reducing the duration and magnitude of the initial transients occurring in friction materials. In developing a laser searing system for semimetallic materials the changes occurring on the surface were characterized as a function of the power density. Excessive power melted the surface of the lining and produced an undesirable microstructure, while too little power did not produce the changes desired. The changes produced by laser searing were found to be similar to the changes produced by other types of surface conditioning. The friction and wear performance was studied for linings seared with different power densities. Laser searing primarily increased the low speed, low temperature, pre-burnish friction level. The amount of increase was proportional to the amount of searing. After burnishing the searing did not effect the friction level of the lining. Excessive power densities produced undesirable surface microstructures and persistent rotor scoring.

  18. Rheological effects on friction in elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trachman, E. G.; Cheng, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation is presented of the friction in a rolling and sliding elastohydrodynamic lubricated contact. The rheological behavior of the lubricant is described in terms of two viscoelastic models. These models represent the separate effects of non-Newtonian behavior and the transient response of the fluid. A unified description of the non-Newtonian shear rate dependence of the viscosity is presented as a new hyperbolic liquid model. The transient response of viscosity, following the rapid pressure rise encountered in the contact, is described by a compressional viscoelastic model of the volume response of a liquid to an applied pressure step. The resulting momentum and energy equations are solved by an iterative numerical technique, and a friction coefficient is calculated. The experimental study was performed, with two synthetic paraffinic lubricants, to verify the friction predictions of the analysis. The values of friction coefficient from theory and experiment are in close agreement.

  19. Special cases of friction and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Coy, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Two techniques for reducing friction forces are presented. The techniques are applied to the generalized problem of reducing the friction between kinematic pairs which connect a moveable link to a frame. The basic principles are: (1) Let the moveable link be supported by two bearings where the relative velocities of the link with respect to each bearing are of opposite directions. Thus the resultant force (torque) of friction acting on the link due to the bearings is approximately zero. Then, additional perturbation of motion parallel to the main motion of the moveable link will require only a very small force; (2) Let the perturbation in motion be perpendicular to the main motion. Equations are developed which explain these two methods. The results are discussed in relation to friction in geared couplings, gyroscope gimbal bearings and a rotary conveyor system. Design examples are presented.

  20. Experimental studies of the magnetized friction force

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A. V.; Litvinenko, V. N.; Gaalnander, B.; Lofnes, T.; Ziemann, V.; Sidorin, A.; Smirnov, A.

    2006-06-15

    High-energy electron cooling, presently considered as an essential tool for several applications in high-energy and nuclear physics, requires an accurate description of the friction force which ions experience by passing through an electron beam. Present low-energy electron coolers can be used for a detailed study of the friction force. In addition, parameters of a low-energy cooler can be chosen in a manner to reproduce regimes expected in future high-energy operation. Here, we report a set of dedicated experiments in CELSIUS aimed at a detailed study of the magnetized friction force. Some results of the accurate comparison of experimental data with the friction force formulas are presented.

  1. Friction Reduction Using Self-Assembled Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackel, Michael J.; Kornfield, Julia A.

    2007-03-01

    Friction of agarose-based hydrogels against bare glass is examined as a function of added linear polyelectrolyte using a stress rheometer to measure the angular velocity of a clean glass plate against the hydrogel surface as a function of applied torque and normal force. Incorporating linear dextran sulfate into 2 weight percent agarose hydrogel reduces friction on the hydrogel surface. The reduction of friction is a nonmonotonic function of dextran sulfate concentration: a 2 percent doping of dextran sulfate shows the minimum friction. Lubricity enhancement on the agarose doped with 2 percent dextran sulfate occurs at all normal forces examined (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 N) and is more pronounced at larger angular velocities. Rheological studies of agarose hydrogels doped with dextran sulfate suggest that the dextran sulfate does not interfere with the porous structure of the hydrogel when present in concentrations of 2 weight percent or less.

  2. Nuclear Fuel Plate Fabrication Employing Friction Welding

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas E. Burkes; Neil P. Hallinan; Curtis R. Clark

    2008-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of the friction bonding process, a novel modification of the more conventional friction stir welding process. The process has been modified to enable the fabrication of plate-type nuclear fuels for the conversion of research and test reactors currently operating using highly enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium. Discussions related to the specific modifications of the friction bonding process have been provided, in addition to challenges associated with these modifications. Progression of the process and solutions to the challenges are provided so that users of the friction stir welding process and those investigating fabrication of other laminar composites, where joining of one or more layers is essential, might draw from the authors’ experiences discussed in this paper.

  3. Extended ion pumped vacuum friction test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammel, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    Boundary layer friction data under ion pumped vacuum was taken for sixteen material couples. The test series was an extension of a previous study of the effects of modified ion pumped environments. Sliding distances imposed in the present effort greatly exceeded any studied in the previous contiguous, flight or ground tests. Wear out of specific couples, in particular, thin film lubricants was noted. The behavior of the test hardware including wear out of the mechanisms was noted. As a result, the impact of test interruption was observed for several test couples. Recovery of the friction upon re-establishing sliding in vacuum was generally rapid. The results of the extended sliding study reinforce the previous conclusion that sliding distance (mechanical history) is the primary factor in establishing the force limiting boundary layer friction. General friction value under the extended sliding confirm those observed in previous orbital and the related ground test studies.

  4. Energy Partition During In-plane Dynamic Rupture on a Frictional Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needleman, A.; Shi, Z.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2007-12-01

    We study properties of dynamic ruptures and the partition of energy between radiation and dissipative mechanisms using two-dimensional in-plane calculations with the finite element method. The model consists of two identical isotropic elastic media separated by an interface governed by rate- and state-dependent friction. Rupture is initiated by gradually overstressing a localized nucleation zone. Our simulations with model parameters representative of Homalite-100 indicate that different values of parameters controlling the velocity dependence of friction, the strength excess parameter and the length of the nucleation zone, can lead to the following four rupture modes: supershear crack-like rupture, subshear crack-like rupture, subshear single pulse and supershear train of pulses. High initial shear stress and weak velocity dependence of friction favor crack-like ruptures, while the opposite conditions favor the pulse mode. The rupture mode can switch from a subshear single pulse to a supershear train of pulses when the width of the nucleation zone increases. The elastic strain energy released over the same propagation distance by the different rupture modes has the following order: supershear crack, subshear crack, supershear train of pulses and subshear single pulse. The same order applies also to the ratio of kinetic energy (radiation) to total change of elastic energy for the different rupture modes. Decreasing the dynamic coefficient of friction increases the fraction of stored energy that is converted to kinetic energy. In the current study we use model parameters representative of rocks instead of Homalite-100, by modeling recent results of Kilgore et al. (2007) who measured and estimated various energy components in laboratory friction experiments with granite. We are also incorporating into the code ingredients that will allow us to study rupture properties and energy partition for cases with a bimaterial interface and dynamic generation of plastic strain

  5. Rotational dynamics of coumarin 153: Time-dependent friction, dielectric friction, and other nonhydrodynamic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Horng, M.L.; Gardecki, J.A.; Maroncelli, M.

    1997-02-06

    Subpicosecond fluorescence anisotropy measurements are used to characterize the rotational dynamics of coumarin 153 (C153) in 35 common solvents and eight solvent mixtures at room temperature. The rotational anisotropy decays of C153 are generally nonexponential as a result of the non-Markovian nature of the friction on its rotational motion. Rotational correlation times are observed to be larger in polar solvents than in nonpolar solvents of the same viscosity. This difference is examined in the context of theories of dielectric friction, which relate the extra friction in polar solute/solvent systems to long-range dipole-dipole interactions. The present data provide a unique opportunity to test general concepts of dielectric friction. Contrary to expectations, the departures from simple hydrodynamic behavior cannot be modeled using only theories of rotational dielectric friction. More important than dielectric friction is the role that the relative solute/solvent size plays in determining the extent of solute-solvent coupling. Once this size dependence is approximately accounted for, the remaining departures from simple hydrodynamic behavior are relatively small in all solvents. In polar aprotic solvents, solvation data indicate that dielectric friction effects should be rather modest (10-20% of the total friction). In these solvents no clear correlation is found between dielectric friction predictions and the observed solute-solvent coupling. 103 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Friction and friction-generated temperature at a polymer-metal interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, H. L.; Burks, H. D.

    1974-01-01

    Results of friction and thermal tests of molded polyimide and pyrrone polymers are presented. The coefficient of sliding friction up to surface velocities of 2 m/sec and the coefficient of thermal expansion from 300 to 500 K were measured. An apparatus was constructed to measure simultaneously the coefficient of sliding friction and the friction-generated temperature. Measurements were made at a nominal pressure-velocity product of 0.25 MN/msec and at temperatures between 300 and 500 K.

  7. A review of dynamics modelling of friction wedge suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qing; Cole, Colin; Spiryagin, Maksym; Sun, Yan Quan

    2014-11-01

    Three-piece bogies with friction wedge suspensions are the most widely used bogies in heavy haul trains. Fiction wedge suspensions play a key role in these wagon systems. This article reviews current techniques in dynamic modelling of friction wedge suspension with various motivations: to improve dynamic models of friction wedge suspensions so as to improve general wagon dynamics simulations; to seek better friction wedge suspension models for wagon stability assessments in complex train systems; to improve the modelling of other friction devices, such as friction draft gear. Relevant theories and friction wedge suspension models developed by using commercial simulation packages and in-house simulation packages are reviewed.

  8. Effects of shear load on frictional healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, K. L.; Marone, C.

    2014-12-01

    During the seismic cycle of repeated earthquake failure, faults regain strength in a process known as frictional healing. Laboratory studies have played a central role in illuminating the processes of frictional healing and fault re-strengthening. These studies have also provided the foundation for laboratory-derived friction constitutive laws, which have been used extensively to model earthquake dynamics. We conducted laboratory experiments to assess the affect of shear load on frictional healing. Frictional healing is quantified during slide-hold-slide (SHS) tests, which serve as a simple laboratory analog for the seismic cycle in which earthquakes (slide) are followed by interseismic quiescence (hold). We studied bare surfaces of Westerly granite and layers of Westerly granite gouge (thickness of 3 mm) at normal stresses from 4-25 MPa, relative humidity of 40-60%, and loading and unloading velocities of 10-300 μm/s. During the hold period of SHS tests, shear stress on the sample was partially removed to investigate the effects of shear load on frictional healing and to isolate time- and slip-dependent effects on fault healing. Preliminary results are consistent with existing works and indicate that frictional healing increases with the logarithm of hold time and decreases with normalized shear stress τ/τf during the hold. During SHS tests with hold periods of 100 seconds, healing values ranged from (0.013-0.014) for τ/τf = 1 to (0.059-0.063) for τ/τf = 0, where τ is the shear stress during the hold period and τf is the shear stress during steady frictional sliding. Experiments on bare rock surfaces and with natural and synthetic fault gouge materials are in progress. Conventional SHS tests (i.e. τ/τf = 1) are adequately described by the rate and state friction laws. However, previous experiments in granular quartz suggest that zero-stress SHS tests are not well characterized by either the Dieterich or Ruina state evolution laws. We are investigating

  9. Influence of dynamic load on friction behavior of human articular cartilage, stainless steel and polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel as artificial cartilage.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Su, Yonglin; Wang, Jianping; Wu, Gang; Wang, Chengtao

    2010-01-01

    Many biomaterials are being developed to be used for cartilage substitution and hemiarthroplasty implants. The lubrication property is a key feature of the artificial cartilage. The frictional behavior of human articular cartilage, stainless steel and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel were investigated under cartilage-on-PVA hydrogel contact, cartilage-on-cartilage contact and cartilage-on-stainless steel contact using pin-on-plate method. Tests under static load, cyclic load and 1 min load change were used to evaluate friction variations in reciprocating motion. The results showed that the lubrication property of cartilage-on-PVA hydrogel contact and cartilage-on-stainless steel contact were restored in both 1 min load change and cyclic load tests. The friction coefficient of PVA hydrogel decreased from 0.178 to 0.076 in 60 min, which was almost one-third of the value under static load in continuous sliding tests. In each test, the friction coefficient of cartilage-on-cartilage contact maintained far lower value than other contacts. It is indicated that a key feature of artificial cartilage is the biphasic lubrication properties.

  10. Role of friction and tangential force variation in the subjective scaling of tactile roughness.

    PubMed

    Smith, Allan M; Chapman, C Elaine; Deslandes, Mélanie; Langlais, Jean-Sébastien; Thibodeau, Marie-Pierre

    2002-05-01

    The present study examined the contribution of normal (Fz) and tangential (Fx) forces, and their ratio, kinetic friction (Fx/Fz), to the subjective magnitude estimations of roughness. The results suggested that the rate of variation in tangential stroking force is a significant determinant of roughness perception. In the first experiment, six volunteer subjects scaled the roughness of eight surfaces explored with a single, active scan of the middle finger. The surfaces were 7.5x2.4-cm polymer strips embossed with truncated cones 1.8 mm high with a spatial period of 2.0 mm in the transverse direction and 1.5-8.5 mm in the longitudinal, scanning direction. The surfaces were mounted on a six-axis force and torque sensor that measured the perpendicular, contact force (normal to the skin surface) and the tangential force along the axis of stroking. The results confirmed the findings of an earlier study that magnitude estimates of perceived roughness increase approximately linearly up to a longitudinal spatial period of 8.5 mm. Across subjects, no consistent correlations were found between perceived roughness and either the mean normal or tangential force alone. Although significant positive correlations were found between roughness and mean kinetic friction for all subjects, they were not as consistently robust as one might have expected. Furthermore, instantaneous kinetic friction varied widely over the course of a single stroke because of within trial oscillations in the tangential force. The amplitude of these oscillations increased with the longitudinal spatial period and their frequency was determined by a combination of the spatial period and the stroking velocity. These oscillations were even more conspicuous in the first derivative or rate of change of the tangential force (dFx/d t), which was quantified as the root mean square (RMS) of the tangential force rate. The mean normalized RMS proved to be strongly correlated with subjective roughness, averaging 0

  11. Flexible Friction Stir Joining Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Zhili; Lim, Yong Chae; Mahoney, Murray; Sanderson, Samuel; Larsen, Steve; Steel, Russel; Fleck, Dale; Fairchild, Doug P; Wasson, Andrew J; Babb, Jon; Higgins, Paul

    2015-07-23

    Reported herein is the final report on a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) project with industry cost-share that was jointly carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company (ExxonMobil), and MegaStir Technologies (MegaStir). The project was aimed to advance the state of the art of friction stir welding (FSW) technology, a highly energy-efficient solid-state joining process, for field deployable, on-site fabrications of large, complex and thick-sectioned structures of high-performance and high-temperature materials. The technology innovations developed herein attempted to address two fundamental shortcomings of FSW: 1) the inability for on-site welding and 2) the inability to weld thick section steels, both of which have impeded widespread use of FSW in manufacturing. Through this work, major advance has been made toward transforming FSW technology from a “specialty” process to a mainstream materials joining technology to realize its pervasive energy, environmental, and economic benefits across industry.

  12. Reduced friction engine tappet construction

    SciTech Connect

    Pieprzak, J.M.; Wilermet, P.A.

    1989-09-19

    This patent describes a tappet construction for the valve train of an internal combustion engine having an element of the valve train engaged by the tappet for moving the same. The tappet having an outer cup-shaped case member with side walls and an essentially flat bottom wall adapted to be engaged by a rotating cam member. The cam member having a circumferential base circle no-load portion and a countoured cam circumferential load portion, the cam member engaging the bottom wall to one side of its center to impart a rotative torque on the case. The case slidably and rotatably receiving therein in back-to-back relationship first and second channel-like members each having spaced side walls joined by a continuous essentially flat end wall, the first member being engageable by a portion of the engine element. The flat end walls of the members being adjacent one another and movable relative to each other to at times form a fluid chamber therebetween, a fluid inlet to the chamber and a source of fluid lubricant under pressure connected to the inlet for supplying lubricant at a pressure level greater than the force of the element and cam member against the first member and case to thereby effect separation of the end walls by a film of lubricant thereby reducing frictional resistance to rotation between the parts.

  13. Frictional behavior of talc-calcite mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgetti, C.; Carpenter, B. M.; Collettini, C.

    2015-09-01

    Faults involving phyllosilicates appear weak when compared to the laboratory-derived strength of most crustal rocks. Among phyllosilicates, talc, with very low friction, is one of the weakest minerals involved in various tectonic settings. As the presence of talc has been recently documented in carbonate faults, we performed laboratory friction experiments to better constrain how various amounts of talc could alter these fault's frictional properties. We used a biaxial apparatus to systematically shear different mixtures of talc and calcite as powdered gouge at room temperature, normal stresses up to 50 MPa and under different pore fluid saturated conditions, i.e., CaCO3-equilibrated water and silicone oil. We performed slide-hold-slide tests, 1-3000 s, to measure the amount of frictional healing and velocity-stepping tests, 0.1-1000 µm/s, to evaluate frictional stability. We then analyzed microstructures developed during our experiments. Our results show that with the addition of 20% talc the calcite gouge undergoes a 70% reduction in steady state frictional strength, a complete reduction of frictional healing and a transition from velocity-weakening to velocity-strengthening behavior. Microstructural analysis shows that with increasing talc content, deformation mechanisms evolve from distributed cataclastic flow of the granular calcite to localized sliding along talc-rich shear planes, resulting in a fully interconnected network of talc lamellae from 20% talc onward. Our observations indicate that in faults where talc and calcite are present, a low concentration of talc is enough to strongly modify the gouge's frictional properties and specifically to weaken the fault, reduce its ability to sustain future stress drops, and stabilize slip.

  14. Bibliography on Snow and Ice Friction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    for Use of the International System of Units (SI), published by the American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, Pa. 19103...Aliab’ev, V.I, (1936) External friction of ice. Airaksinen, K. (1974) Free beam tests and friction tests Irnatialeeti and G eoyal Union ossici- at Pond...icebreakers. Phase 11, Bowden, F.P. (1944)Physics of rubbing surfaces. Jour- Parts I and II: Laboratory and field tests . Washington, nal of the

  15. Dislocation Concepts in Friction and Wear.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    micrographs, among whom special thanks are due to L. D. Dyer, J. P. Hirth, L. K. Ives, K. R. Lawless, E. Rabinowicz , N. P. Suh, H. G. F. Wilsdorf and J. B. P...Page 21 Coefficient of friction as a function of sliding speed (After 70E. Rabinowicz ) 22 Coefficient of friction as a function of speed for extremely... Rabinowicz ) 24 Quantitative interpretation of subsurface shear strain distrib- ution in terms of local work hardening (Measurements 79 and diagram after J. H

  16. Experimental Benchmarking of the Magnetized Friction Force

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A. V.; Litvinenko, V. N.; Galnander, B.; Lofnes, T.; Ziemann, V.; Sidorin, A. O.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2006-03-20

    High-energy electron cooling, presently considered as essential tool for several applications in high-energy and nuclear physics, requires accurate description of the friction force. A series of measurements were performed at CELSIUS with the goal to provide accurate data needed for the benchmarking of theories and simulations. Some results of accurate comparison of experimental data with the friction force formulas are presented.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL BENCHMARKING OF THE MAGNETIZED FRICTION FORCE.

    SciTech Connect

    FEDOTOV, A.V.; GALNANDER, B.; LITVINENKO, V.N.; LOFNES, T.; SIDORIN, A.O.; SMIRNOV, A.V.; ZIEMANN, V.

    2005-09-18

    High-energy electron cooling, presently considered as essential tool for several applications in high-energy and nuclear physics, requires accurate description of the friction force. A series of measurements were performed at CELSIUS with the goal to provide accurate data needed for the benchmarking of theories and simulations. Some results of accurate comparison of experimental data with the friction force formulas are presented.

  18. Friction of Materials for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2013-01-01

    This brief overview of friction-related issues in materials for automobiles is invited for a special issue on automotive materials in the ASM journal AM&P. It describes a range of areas in a ground vehicle in which friction must be controlled or minimized. Applications range from piston rings to tires, and from brakes to fuel injector components. A perspective on new materials and lubricants, and the need for validation testing is presented.

  19. Experimental research on the friction of pivots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaquerod, A; Defossez, L; Mugeli, H

    1930-01-01

    In horology the friction between solids is of the greatest importance; one limited, however, to the application of the laws of Coulomb which, do not at all correspond with reality. This report presents a review of the subject and some general conclusions. The choice of lubricant is discussed as well as the pressure between frictional surfaces. The gears in a watch are used extensively as examples.

  20. Rotary Engine Friction Test Rig Development Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    unless so designated by other authorized documents. Citation of manufacturer’s or trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval...used to determine friction characteristics from experimental measurements. A computer-aided design model of an engine friction test rig was designed ...focused research from other technical areas, including ceramic components, advanced bearing designs , etc., since an electric motor is used to spin the

  1. A frictional law for volcanic ash gouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavallée, Y.; Hirose, T.; Kendrick, J. E.; De Angelis, S.; Petrakova, L.; Hornby, A. J.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2014-08-01

    Volcanic provinces are structurally active regions - undergoing continual deformation along faults. Within such fault structures, volcanic ash gouge, containing both crystalline and glassy material, may act as a potential fault plane lubricant. Here, we investigate the frictional properties of volcanic ash gouges with varying glass fractions using a rotary shear apparatus at a range of slip rates (1.3-1300 mm/s) and axial stresses (0.5-2.5 MPa). We show that the frictional behaviour of volcanic ash is in agreement with Byerlee's friction law at low slip velocities, irrespective of glass content. The results reveal a common non-linear reduction of the friction coefficient with slip velocity and yield a frictional law for fault zones containing volcanic ash gouge. Textural analysis reveals that strain localisation and the development of shear bands are more prominent at higher slip velocities (>10 mm/s). The textures observed here are similar to those recorded in ash gouge at the surface of extrusive spines at Mount St. Helens (USA). We use the rate-weakening component of the frictional law to estimate shear-stress-resistance reductions associated with episodic seismogenic slip events that accompany magma ascent pulses. We conclude that the internal structure of volcanic ash gouge may act as a kinematic marker of exogenic dome growth.

  2. Investigation of transient friction in rock at low to high slip-rates using a new biaxial machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, O.; Chester, F. M.; Alvarado, J. L.; Barbery, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    exponential decay to a new steady-state value and a recovery of the quasi-static frictional strength at the end of slip during deceleration to low sliding rates.

  3. Eigenmodes of quasi-static magnetic islands in current sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yi; Cai Xiaohui; Chai Lihui; Wang Shui; Zheng Huinan; Shen Chao

    2011-12-15

    As observation have shown, magnetic islands often appear before and/or after the onset of magnetic reconnections in the current sheets, and they also appear in the current sheets in the solar corona, Earth's magnetotail, and Earth's magnetopause. Thus, the existence of magnetic islands can affect the initial conditions in magnetic reconnection. In this paper, we propose a model of quasi-static magnetic island eigenmodes in the current sheet. This model analytically describes the magnetic field structures in the quasi-static case, which will provide a possible approach to reconstructing the magnetic structures in the current sheet via observation data. This model is self-consistent in the kinetic theory. Also, the distribution function of charged particles in the magnetic island can be calculated.

  4. Breakway friction and dynamic friction/wear measurements of various ceramic materials from 25 C (75 F) to 650 C (1200 F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boes, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the results of a program designed to evaluate the breakaway friction and dynamic friction/wear characteristics of materials having potential for use as load bearing components in a high-performance high-temperature heavy duty diesel engine. Ten candidate materials were selected, six of which were evaluated under all possible material combinations as both stationary as well as moving breakaway specimens. The remaining materials were evaluated either in the static mode against themselves and all other materials, or against themselves only. Experiments were performed at five temperatures up to 650 C (1200 F) and unit pressures of 700 kPa (100 lb/sq in.), 3500 kPa (500 lb/sq in.), and 7000 kPa (1000 lb/sq in.). Experimental results indicate that under dynamic conditions, four of the ten materials exhibited good to excellent friction/wear characteristics in various material combinations. These materials were: titanium carbide, silicon nitride, silicon carbide (reaction sintered), and Refel (SiC).

  5. Friction Stir Processing for Efficient Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Mr. Christopher B. Smith; Dr. Oyelayo Ajayi

    2012-01-31

    Friction at contacting surfaces in relative motion is a major source of parasitic energy loss in machine systems and manufacturing processes. Consequently, friction reduction usually translates to efficiency gain and reduction in energy consumption. Furthermore, friction at surfaces eventually leads to wear and failure of the components thereby compromising reliability and durability. In order to reduce friction and wear in tribological components, material surfaces are often hardened by a variety of methods, including conventional heat treatment, laser surface hardening, and thin-film coatings. While these surface treatments are effective when used in conjunction with lubrication to prevent failure, they are all energy intensive and could potentially add significant cost. A new concept for surface hardening of metallic materials and components is Friction Stir Processing (FSP). Compared to the current surface hardening technologies, FSP is more energy efficient has no emission or waste by products and may result in better tribological performance. FSP involves plunging a rotating tool to a predetermined depth (case layer thickness) and translating the FSP tool along the area to be processed. This action of the tool produces heating and severe plastic deformation of the processed area. For steel the temperature is high enough to cause phase transformation, ultimately forming hard martensitic phase. Indeed, FSP has been used for surface modification of several metals and alloys so as to homogenize the microstructure and refine the grain size, both of which led to improved fatigue and corrosion resistance. Based on the effect of FSP on near-surface layer material, it was expected to have beneficial effects on friction and wear performance of metallic materials. However, little or no knowledge existed on the impact of FSP concerning friction and wear performance the subject of the this project and final report. Specifically for steel, which is the most dominant

  6. Effect of sliding friction on the dynamics of spur gear pair with realistic time-varying stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Song; Gunda, Rajendra; Singh, Rajendra

    2007-04-01

    The chief objective of this article is to propose a new method of incorporating the sliding friction and realistic time-varying stiffness into an analytical (multi-degree-of-freedom) spur gear model and to evaluate their effects. An accurate finite element/contact mechanics analysis code is employed, in the "static" mode, to compute the mesh stiffness at every time instant under a range of loading conditions. Here, the time-varying stiffness is calculated as an effective function which may also include the effect of profile modifications. The realistic mesh stiffness is then incorporated into the linear time-varying spur gear model with the contributions of sliding friction. Proposed methods are illustrated via two spur gear examples and validated by using the finite element in the "dynamic" mode as experimental results. A key question whether the sliding friction is indeed the source of the off-line-of-action forces and motions is then answered by our analytical model. Finally, the effect of the profile modification on the dynamic transmission error has been analytically examined under the influence of sliding friction. For instance, the linear tip relief introduces an amplification in the off-line-of-action forces and motions due to an out of phase relationship between the normal load and friction forces.

  7. Ultralow Friction in a Superconducting Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bornemann, Hans J.; Siegel, Michael; Zaitsev, Oleg; Bareiss, Martin; Laschuetza, Helmut

    1996-01-01

    Passive levitation by superconducting magnetic bearings can be utilized in flywheels for energy storage. Basic design criteria of such a bearing are high levitation force, sufficient vertical and horizontal stability and low friction. A test facility was built for the measurement and evaluation of friction in a superconducting magnetic bearing as a function of operating temperature and pressure in the vacuum vessel. The bearing consists of a commercial disk shaped magnet levitated above single grain, melt-textured YBCO high-temperature superconductor material. The superconductor was conduction cooled by an integrated AEG tactical cryocooler. The temperature could be varied from 50 K to 80 K. The pressure in the vacuum chamber was varied from 1 bar to 10(exp -5) mbar. At the lowest pressure setting, the drag torque shows a linear frequency dependence over the entire range investigated (0 less than f less than 40 Hz). Magnetic friction, the frequency independent contribution, is very low. The frequency dependent drag torque is generated by molecular friction from molecule-surface collisions and by eddy currents. Given the specific geometry of the set-up and gas pressure, the molecular drag torque can be estimated. At a speed of 40 Hz, the coefficient of friction (drag-to-lift ratio) was measured to be mu = 1.6 x 10(exp -7) at 10(exp -5) mbar and T = 60 K. This is equivalent to a drag torque of 7.6 x 10(exp -10) Nm. Magnetic friction causes approx. 1% of the total losses. Molecular friction accounts for about 13% of the frequency dependent drag torque, the remaining 87% being due to eddy currents and losses from rotor unbalance. The specific energy loss is only 0.3% per hour.

  8. Gimballed Shoulders for Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert; Lawless, Kirby

    2008-01-01

    In a proposed improvement of tooling for friction stir welding, gimballed shoulders would supplant shoulders that, heretofore, have been fixedly aligned with pins. The proposal is especially relevant to self-reacting friction stir welding. Some definitions of terms, recapitulated from related prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, are prerequisite to a meaningful description of the proposed improvement. In friction stir welding, one uses a tool that includes (1) a rotating shoulder on top (or front) of the workpiece and (2) a pin that rotates with the shoulder and protrudes from the shoulder into the depth of the workpiece. In conventional friction stir welding, the main axial force exerted by the tool on the workpiece is reacted through a ridged backing anvil under (behind) the workpiece. When conventional friction stir welding is augmented with an auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability, the depth of penetration of the pin into the workpiece is varied in real time by a position- or forcecontrol system that extends or retracts the pin as needed to obtain the desired effect. In self-reacting (also known as self-reacted) friction stir welding as practiced heretofore, there are two shoulders: one on top (or front) and one on the bottom (or back) of the workpiece. In this case, a threaded shaft protrudes from the tip of the pin to beyond the back surface of the workpiece. The back shoulder is held axially in place against tension by a nut on the threaded shaft. Both shoulders rotate with the pin and remain aligned coaxially with the pin. The main axial force exerted on the workpiece by the tool and front shoulder is reacted through the back shoulder and the threaded shaft into the friction-stir-welding machine head, so that a backing anvil is no longer needed. A key transmits torque between the bottom shoulder and the threaded shaft, so that the bottom shoulder rotates with the shaft. This concludes the prerequisite definitions of terms.

  9. Status of Stellite 6 friction testing

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, J.C.; DeWall, K.G.; Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1998-06-01

    For the past several years, researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, have been investigating the performance of motor-operated valves subjected to design basis flow and pressure loads. Part of this research addresses the friction that occurs at the interface between the valve disc and the valve body seats during operation of a gate valve. In most gate valves, these surfaces are hardfaced with Stellite 6, a cobalt-based alloy. Analytical methods exist for predicting the thrust needed to operate these valves at specific pressure conditions. To produce accurate valve thrust predictions, the analyst must have a reasonably accurate, though conservative, estimate of the coefficient of friction at the disc-to-seat interface. One of the questions that remains to be answered is whether, and to what extent, aging of the disc and seat surfaces effects the disc-to-seat coefficient of friction. Specifically, does the environment in a nuclear plants piping system cause the accumulation of an oxide film on these surfaces that increases the coefficient of friction; and if so, how great is the increase? This paper presents results of specimen tests addressing this issue, with emphasis on the following: (1) the characteristics and thickness of the oxide film that develops on Stellite 6 as it ages; (2) the change in the friction coefficient of Stellite 6 as it ages, including the question of whether the friction coefficient eventually reaches a plateau; and (3) the effect in-service cycling has on the characteristics and thickness of the oxide film and on the friction coefficient.

  10. Artefacts due to static electricity in a dental school.

    PubMed

    Sewerin, I P

    1995-05-01

    The diagnostic usefulness of radiographs is diminished by errors of film handling, and retakes mean increased radiation doses. Avoiding artefacts due to static electricity is part of a quality assurance programme. The number of types of artefacts originating from static electricity in the Department of Radiology, School of Dentistry, Copenhagen, were recorded over a five-week period with low temperatures and low air humidity. During the period 3137 intra-oral and 638 extra-oral films were processed by seven assistants and a number of trainees. A total of 48 artefacts on 47 extra-oral films was observed. The artefacts were classified into four types. Only one case of classical 'lightning' was found, while nine were of a hitherto undescribed type ('animals' or 'cactus flowers'). The most common type appeared as dots arranged in straight lines; their origin was obscure, but it was suspected that they were caused by the processing machine. The one typical 'lightning' case occurred on a Status-X film, consistent with the theory that friction may be a causative factor. Although individual frequencies varied, all the radiography assistants and trainees were associated with the artefacts recorded.

  11. Water cooled static pressure probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas T. (Inventor); Eves, John W. (Inventor); Reece, Garland D. (Inventor); Geissinger, Steve L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved static pressure probe containing a water cooling mechanism is disclosed. This probe has a hollow interior containing a central coolant tube and multiple individual pressure measurement tubes connected to holes placed on the exterior. Coolant from the central tube symmetrically immerses the interior of the probe, allowing it to sustain high temperature (in the region of 2500 F) supersonic jet flow indefinitely, while still recording accurate pressure data. The coolant exits the probe body by way of a reservoir attached to the aft of the probe. The pressure measurement tubes are joined to a single, larger manifold in the reservoir. This manifold is attached to a pressure transducer that records the average static pressure.

  12. Nanomechanics Model for Static Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sunghoon

    2002-09-01

    This study presented a computational technique to model and simulate atomistic behavior of materials under static loads, Interatomic potential energy was used to maintain equilibrium among atoms under static loads and constraints, In addition, the atomistic model was coupled with the finite element analysis model so that more flexible loads and constraints could be applied to the atomistic model A multi-scale technique was also presented for some single wall nanotubes of both zigzag and armchair and then their effective stiffness were estimated Those designed nanotubes are woven into fabric composites, which can be used in various military applications including body armored, vehicles, and infantry transportation vehicles because advanced nano- composites could be much lighter and stronger than current ones, Some example problems were presented to illustrate the developed technique for the nano-composites and SWNTs, The proposed technique for nanomechanics can be used for design and analysis of materials at the atomic or molecular level,

  13. Static Detection of Disassembly Errors

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, Nithya; Debray, Saumya; Fligg, Alan K

    2009-10-13

    Static disassembly is a crucial first step in reverse engineering executable files, and there is a consider- able body of work in reverse-engineering of binaries, as well as areas such as semantics-based security anal- ysis, that assumes that the input executable has been correctly disassembled. However, disassembly errors, e.g., arising from binary obfuscations, can render this assumption invalid. This work describes a machine- learning-based approach, using decision trees, for stat- ically identifying possible errors in a static disassem- bly; such potential errors may then be examined more closely, e.g., using dynamic analyses. Experimental re- sults using a variety of input executables indicate that our approach performs well, correctly identifying most disassembly errors with relatively few false positives.

  14. Cooperative and submolecular dissipation mechanisms of sliding friction in complex organic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Daniel B.; Gray, Tomoko O.; Overney, René M.

    2008-08-01

    Energy dissipation in single asperity sliding friction was directly linked to submolecular modes of mobility by intrinsic friction analysis, involving time-temperature superposition along with thermodynamic stress and reaction rate models. Thereby, polystyrene served as a representative tribological sample for organic and amorphous complex systems. This study reveals the significance of surface and subsurface (α-, β-, and γ-) relaxational modes, which couple under appropriate external conditions (load, temperature, and rate) with shear induced disturbances, and thus gives rise to material specific frictional dissipation. At low pressures and temperatures below the glass transition point, the phenyl pendant side groups of polystyrene, known for their preferential orientation at the free surface, were noticed to be the primary channel for dissipation of kinetic sliding-energy. While this process was found to be truly enthalpic (activation energy of 8 kcal/mol), energy dissipation was shown to possess both enthalpic and cooperative entropic contributions above the loading capacity of the surface phenyl groups (9.9 kcal/mol) or above the glass transition. Apparent Arrhenius activation energies of frictional dissipation of 22 and 90 kcal/mol, respectively, and cooperative contributions up to 80% were found. As such, this study highlights issues critical to organic lubricant design, i.e., the intrinsic enthalpic activation barriers of mobile linker groups, the evaluation of cooperative mobility phenomena, and critical tribological parameters to access or avoid coupling between shear disturbances and molecular actuators.

  15. Analysis of turbulent skin friction generated in flow along a cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monte, Stephane; Sagaut, Pierre; Gomez, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents an extension of FIK identity [K. Fukagata et al., Phys. Fluids 14, L73 (2002)] to turbulent axial flow along a cylinder. This relation gives the contributions of both the mean flow and the turbulent fluctuating flow to the skin friction coefficient. The later contribution is then further decomposed more precisely as proposed by B. Frohnapfel, Y. Hasegawa, and N. Kasagi, "Reactive Flow Control for Skin Friction Drag Reduction based on Sensing of the Streamwise Wall-Shear Stress," Euromech Fluid Mechanics Conference 8 (EFMC8), Bad Reichenhall, Germany, 13-16 Sept. 2010, S4-30. The Reynolds shear stress can be linked to the eigenvalues of the anisotropy tensor, the angle between the principal axis of the Reynolds stress tensor, and the mean flow direction and the turbulent kinetic energy. These eigenvalues and the alignment are important elements of the Reynolds stress profile. The present analysis is based on high-fidelity Reynolds-Stress-Model-based simulations. The results are first validated using available DNS and experimental data. Then, results are used in order to investigate the variations of the skin friction componential contributions with respect to characteristic dimensionless radius a+, Reynolds numbers, Rea (cylinder-radius-based Reynolds number) and Reδ (boundary-layer-thickness-based Reynolds number), or curvature ratio δ /a, and anisotropic decomposition of the Reynolds stress. Explicit empirical formula for surface responses of skin friction and its turbulent component is given.

  16. Assessment of Local Friction in Protein Folding Dynamics Using a Helix Cross-Linker

    PubMed Central

    Markiewicz, Beatrice N.; Jo, Hyunil; Culik, Robert M.; DeGrado, William F.; Gai, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Internal friction arising from local steric hindrance and/or the excluded volume effect plays an important role in controlling not only the dynamics of protein folding but also conformational transitions occurring within the native state potential well. However, experimental assessment of such local friction is difficult because it does not manifest itself as an independent experimental observable. Herein, we demonstrate, using the miniprotein trp-cage as a testbed, that it is possible to selectively increase the local mass density in a protein and hence the magnitude of local friction, thus making its effect directly measureable via folding kinetic studies. Specifically, we show that when a helix cross-linker, m-xylene, is placed near the most congested region of the trp-cage it leads to a significant decrease in both the folding rate (by a factor of 3.8) and unfolding rate (by a factor of 2.5 at 35 °C), but has little effect on protein stability. Thus, these results, in conjunction with those obtained with another cross-linked trp-cage and two uncross-linked variants, demonstrate the feasibility of using a non-perturbing cross-linker to help quantify the effect of internal friction. In addition, we estimate that an m-xylene cross-linker could lead to an increase in the roughness of the folding energy landscape by as much as 0.4-1.0kBT. PMID:24205975

  17. Transfer of the horizontal patient: the effect of a friction reducing assistive device on low back mechanics.

    PubMed

    McGill, S M; Kavcic, N S

    2005-06-22

    Recognizing that the transfer of bedridden patients is associated with a high rate of low back injuries, various devices have been developed to assist with sparing the patient handlers. The purpose of this study was to quantify the friction-reducing ability of three different 'sliding' patient transfer devices together with the subsequent consequences on the low back loads of people performing the transfers. Coefficients of friction of the devices were determined by 'transferring' a standard object and a 'patient' over several surfaces common to a hospital setting. Then three participants performed controlled transfers with the various devices. Electromyography to measure muscle activation levels together with external forces and kinematic positional data were collected during push, pull and twist transfers. Spine loads were estimated with a three-dimensional biomechanical static link-segment model of the human body. Simply sliding a patient on a cotton sheet (control condition) produced a coefficient of friction of 0.45. The assistive devices substantially reduced friction by well over one-half (coefficients of 0.18 - 0.21). However, when using the devices the subjects adopted a variety of postures and techniques, such that there were no consistent influences on trunk inclination, low back compression or muscle activation profiles. Direct measurement of reduced friction between the bed and the patient with a friction-reducing device together with measurement of the back loads when actually transferring a patient formed a proof of principle. Specifically, while the device lowers friction, the transfer technique adopted by the lifter must be proper to reduce low back loading and any subsequent risks of back troubles associated with patient transfers. The direction of hand forces and torso position remains important.

  18. Texture and grain evolutions in a 2195 friction stire weld

    SciTech Connect

    Fonda, R. W.; Bingert, J. F.; Colligan, K. J.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in microstructure, crystallographic texture, and grain distributions were determined in a conventional transverse cross section of the deposited weld and in a planview cross section around the embedded welding tool in an Al 2195 friction stir weld that had been prepared to preserve a static representation of the dynamic deformation field surrounding the tool. These results reveal important new details about the development of grain structure and crystallographic texture around the FSW tool that cannot be determined from observations on the transverse cross section alone. Two orthogonal views of a friction stir weld were analyzed to determine the microstructure, crystallographic texture, and grain structure of the deposited weld and how these characteristics initially developed in the vicinity of the weld tool. The transverse cross section reveals many interesting features. There is a complex precipitation sequence across the different weld regions. The strengthening precipitates from the matrix become coarsened across the HAZ, then are gradually replaced by a separate precipitate distribution, which forms during cooling of the weld, in the TMAZ. A third precipitate distribution that includes the equilibrium T{sub B} phase is observed in the weld nugget and is responsible for the lower microhardness of that region. A coarsening of grains is observed in the TMAZ adjacent to the weld nugget, accompanied by an in-plane rotation of the grains towards <110>{parallel} welding direction. The latter observation suggests that this texture evolution is primarily in response to a simple-shear deformation field surrounding the tool. A plan-view section through the embedded FSW tool of this stop-action weld was prepared to reveal the initial development and evolution of the grain structure and crystallographic texture during friction stir welding. This analysis revealed bands of refined grains developing ahead of the fully refined region, likely reflecting different

  19. Three Inexpensive Static-Electricity Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Gordon R.; Gregg, William R.

    1992-01-01

    Describes demonstrations to (1) construct an inexpensive static electricity detector; (2) obtain an abundant supply of either negative or positive charge using household items; and (3) create static electricity using a Tesla coil or Van de Graaff generator. (MDH)

  20. Mixing and bottom friction: parametrization and application to the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennis, A.-C.; Dumas, F.; Ardhuin, F.; Blanke, B.; Lepesqueur, J.

    2012-04-01

    Wave breaking has been observed to impact the bottom boundary layer in surf zones, with potential impacts on bottom friction. Observations in the inner surf zone have also shown a tendency to an underestimation of the wave-induced set-up when using usual model parameterizations. The present study investigates the possible impact of wave breaking on bottom friction and set-up using a recently proposed parameterization of the wave-induced turbulent kinetic energy in the vertical mixing parameterization of the wave-averaged flow. This parametrization proposed by Mellor (2002) allows us to take account the oscillations of the bottom boundary layer with the wave phases thanks to some additional turbulent source terms. First, the behavior of this parameterization, is investigated by comparing phase-resolving and phase-averaged solutions. The hydrodynamical model MARS (Lazure et Dumas, 2008) is used for this, using a modified k-epsilon model to take account the Mellor (2002) parametrization. It is shown that the phase averaged solution strongly overestimates the turbulent kinetic energy, which is similar to the situation of the air flow over waves (Miles 1996). The waves inhibits the turbulence and the wave-averaged parametrization is not able to reproduce correctly this phenomenom. Cases with wave breaking at the surface are simulated in order to study the influence of surface wave breaking on the bottom boundary layer. This parametrization is applied in the surf zone for two differents cases, one for a planar beach and one other for a barred beach with rip currents. The coupled model MARS-WAVEWATCH III is used for this (Bennis et al, 2011) and for a realistic planar beach, the mixing parameterization has only a limited impact on the bottom friction and the wave set-up, unless the bottom roughness is greatly enhanced in very shallow water, or for a spatially varying roughness. The use of the mixing parametrization requires an adjustement of the bottom roughness to fit

  1. Quasi-static magnetohydrodynamic turbulence at high Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delache, A.; Favier, B.; Godeferd, F. S.; Cambon, C.; Bos, W. J. T.

    2011-12-01

    We analyse the anisotropy of turbulence in an electrically conducting fluid submitted to a uniform magnetic field, for low magnetic Reynolds number, using the quasi-static approximation. In the linear limit, the kinetic energy of velocity components normal to the magnetic field decays faster than the kinetic energy of the component along the magnetic field (Moffatt, 1967). However, numerous numerical studies predict a different behaviour, wherein the final state is characterised by dominant horizontal energy. We investigate the corresponding nonlinear phenomenon using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and spectral closures based on Eddy Damping Quasi-Normal Markovian (EDQNM) models. The initial temporal evolution of the decaying flow indicates that the turbulence is very similar to the so-called "two-and-a-half-dimensional" flow (Montgomery & Turner, 1982) which explains the observations in numerical studies. EDQNM models confirm this statement at higher Reynolds number.

  2. Assessing the clarity of friction ridge impressions.

    PubMed

    Hicklin, R Austin; Buscaglia, JoAnn; Roberts, Maria Antonia

    2013-03-10

    The ability of friction ridge examiners to correctly discern and make use of the ridges and associated features in finger or palm impressions is limited by clarity. The clarity of an impression relates to the examiner's confidence that the presence, absence, and attributes of features can be correctly discerned. Despite the importance of clarity in the examination process, there have not previously been standard methods for assessing clarity in friction ridge impressions. We introduce a process for annotation, analysis, and interchange of friction ridge clarity information that can be applied to latent or exemplar impressions. This paper: (1) describes a method for evaluating the clarity of friction ridge impressions by using color-coded annotations that can be used by examiners or automated systems; (2) discusses algorithms for overall clarity metrics based on manual or automated clarity annotation; and (3) defines a method of quantifying the correspondence of clarity when comparing a pair of friction ridge images, based on clarity annotation and resulting metrics. Different uses of this approach include examiner interchange of data, quality assurance, metrics, and as an aid in automated fingerprint matching.

  3. Time dependent friction in a free gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, Cristiano; Sisti, Francesco; Stagno, Gabriele V.

    2016-03-01

    We consider a body moving in a perfect gas, described by the mean-field approximation and interacting elastically with the body, we study the friction exerted by the gas on the body fixed at constant velocities. The time evolution of the body in this setting was studied in Caprino et al. [Math. Phys. 264, 167-189 (2006)], Caprino et al. [Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci. 17, 1369-1403 (2007)], and Cavallaro [Rend. Mat. Appl. 27, 123-145 (2007)] for object with simple shape; the first study where a simple kind of concavity was considered was in Sisti and Ricciuti [SIAM J. Math. Anal. 46, 3759-3611 (2014)], showing new features in the dynamic but not in the friction term. The case of more general shape of the body was left out for further difficulties, and we believe indeed that there are actually non-trivial issues to be faced for these more general cases. To show this and in the spirit of getting a more realistic perspective in the study of friction problems, in this paper, we focused our attention on the friction term itself, studying its behavior on a body with a more general kind of concavity and fixed at constant velocities. We derive the expression of the friction term for constant velocities, we show how it is time dependent, and we give its exact estimate in time. Finally, we use this result to show the absence of a constant velocity in the actual dynamic of such a body.

  4. Computational Studies of Hard Disks: Contact Percolation, Fragility, Frictional Families and Basin Volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tianqi

    This thesis presents four computational and theoretical studies of the structural, mechanical, and vibrational properties of purely repulsive disks, dimer-, and ellipse-shaped particles with and without friction. The first study investigated the formation of interparticle contact networks below jamming onset at packing fraction φJ, where the pressure of the system becomes nonzero. We generated ensembles of static packings of frictionless disks over a range of packing fraction. We find that the network of interparticle contacts forms a system spanning cluster at a critical packing fraction φP < φJ. The contact percolation transition also signals the onset of cooperative non-affine particle motion and non-trivial response to applied stress. For the second project, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of dense liquids composed of bidisperse dimer- and ellipse-shaped particles over a wide range of temperature and packing fraction. We measured structural relaxation times for the translational and rotational degrees of freedom. We find that the slow dynamics for dense liquids composed of dimer- and ellipse-shaped particles are qualitatively the same, despite the fact that zero-temperature static packings of dimers are isostatic, while static packings of ellipses are hypostatic. We also show that the fragility of the structural relaxation time decreases with increasing aspect ratio for both dimer- and ellipse-shaped particles. For the third project, we developed a novel method to calculate and predict the average contact number as a function of the static friction coefficient for disk packings. We employed a novel numerical method that allowed us to enumerate sets of packings with m = N0c -- Nc missing contacts relative to the isostatic value N0c We show that the probability Pm(micro) to obtain a static packing with m missing contacts at micro can be expressed as a power series in micro. Using Pm(micro), we find that the average contact number versus micro

  5. 14 CFR 31.61 - Static discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Static discharge. 31.61 Section 31.61... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.61 Static discharge. Unless shown not to be... gas as a lifting means to ensure that the effects of static discharges will not create a hazard....

  6. 14 CFR 31.61 - Static discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static discharge. 31.61 Section 31.61... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.61 Static discharge. Unless shown not to be... gas as a lifting means to ensure that the effects of static discharges will not create a hazard....

  7. 14 CFR 31.61 - Static discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Static discharge. 31.61 Section 31.61... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.61 Static discharge. Unless shown not to be... gas as a lifting means to ensure that the effects of static discharges will not create a hazard....

  8. 14 CFR 31.61 - Static discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Static discharge. 31.61 Section 31.61... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.61 Static discharge. Unless shown not to be... gas as a lifting means to ensure that the effects of static discharges will not create a hazard....

  9. 14 CFR 31.61 - Static discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Static discharge. 31.61 Section 31.61... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.61 Static discharge. Unless shown not to be... gas as a lifting means to ensure that the effects of static discharges will not create a hazard....

  10. 30 CFR 18.26 - Static electricity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Static electricity. 18.26 Section 18.26 Mineral... § 18.26 Static electricity. Nonmetallic rotating parts, such as belts and fans, shall be provided with a means to prevent an accumulation of static electricity....

  11. 30 CFR 18.26 - Static electricity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Static electricity. 18.26 Section 18.26 Mineral... § 18.26 Static electricity. Nonmetallic rotating parts, such as belts and fans, shall be provided with a means to prevent an accumulation of static electricity....

  12. 30 CFR 18.26 - Static electricity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Static electricity. 18.26 Section 18.26 Mineral... § 18.26 Static electricity. Nonmetallic rotating parts, such as belts and fans, shall be provided with a means to prevent an accumulation of static electricity....

  13. 30 CFR 18.26 - Static electricity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Static electricity. 18.26 Section 18.26 Mineral... § 18.26 Static electricity. Nonmetallic rotating parts, such as belts and fans, shall be provided with a means to prevent an accumulation of static electricity....

  14. 30 CFR 18.26 - Static electricity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Static electricity. 18.26 Section 18.26 Mineral... § 18.26 Static electricity. Nonmetallic rotating parts, such as belts and fans, shall be provided with a means to prevent an accumulation of static electricity....

  15. In-Flight Pitot-Static Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John V. (Inventor); Cunningham, Kevin (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A GPS-based pitot-static calibration system uses global output-error optimization. High data rate measurements of static and total pressure, ambient air conditions, and GPS-based ground speed measurements are used to compute pitot-static pressure errors over a range of airspeed. System identification methods rapidly compute optimal pressure error models with defined confidence intervals.

  16. Are there reliable constitutive laws for dynamic friction?

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Jim; Putelat, Thibaut; McKay, Andrew

    2015-09-28

    Structural vibration controlled by interfacial friction is widespread, ranging from friction dampers in gas turbines to the motion of violin strings. To predict, control or prevent such vibration, a constitutive description of frictional interactions is inevitably required. A variety of friction models are discussed to assess their scope and validity, in the light of constraints provided by different experimental observations. Three contrasting case studies are used to illustrate how predicted behaviour can be extremely sensitive to the choice of frictional constitutive model, and to explore possible experimental paths to discriminate between and calibrate dynamic friction models over the full parameter range needed for real applications.

  17. Frictional strength of wet- and dry- talc gouge in high-velocity shear experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Reches, Z.; Elwood Madden, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    The strength of the creeping segment of the San Andres fault may be controlled by the distinct weakness and stability of talc (Moore & Rymer, 2007). We analyze talc frictional strength at high slip-velocity of 0.002 - 0.66 m/s, long slip-distances of 0.01 m to 33 m, and normal stresses up to 4.1 MPa. This analysis bridges the gap between nucleation stage of low velocity/distance, and the frictional behavior during large earthquakes. We tested wet and dry samples of pure talc gouge in a confined rotary cell, and continuously monitored the slip-velocity, stresses, dilation and temperature. We run 29 experiments of single and stepped velocities to obtain 243 values of quasi-static frictional coefficients. Dry talc gouge showed distinct slip-strengthening: friction coefficient of µ ~0.4 at short slip-distances of D < 0.1 m, and it increased systematically to µ ~0.8 at slip-distances of D = 0.1- 1 m; at D > 1 m, the frictional strength saturated at µ= 0.8 - 1 level. Wet talc gouge (16-20% water) displayed low frictional strength of µ= 0.1-0.3, in agreement with published triaxial tests. The stepped-velocity runs revealed a consistent velocity-strengthening trend. For a velocity jump from V1 to V2, we used VD = (µ2 -µ1)/ln (V2/V1), and found that on average VD = 0.06 and 0.03 for dry and wet talc, respectively, and for slip distances shorter than 1 m. Microstructural analysis of post-shearing wet talc gouge revealed extreme slip localization to a principal-slip-zone of a few microns, and significant shear compaction of 10-30%. In contrast, dry talc gouge exhibited distributed shear in a wide zone and systematic shear dilation (10-50%). We propose slip along weak interlayer talc plates and thermal-pressurization as the possible weakening mechanisms for wet talc. The development of distributed secondary fault network along with substantial grain crushing is responsible for slip-strengthening in dry condition. Fig. 1. Friction maps of talc gouge as function of slip

  18. Hyperstaticity and loops in frictional granular packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Lam, Edward; Metzger, Philip T.

    2009-06-01

    The hyperstatic nature of granular packings of perfectly rigid disks is analyzed algebraically and through numerical simulation. The elementary loops of grains emerge as a fundamental element in addressing hyperstaticity. Loops consisting of an odd number of grains behave differently than those with an even number. For odd loops, the latent stresses are exterior and are characterized by the sum of frictional forces around each loop. For even loops, the latent stresses are interior and are characterized by the alternating sum of frictional forces around each loop. The statistics of these two types of loop sums are found to be Gibbsian with a "temperature" that is linear with the friction coefficient μ when μ<1.

  19. Adhesion and friction of thin metal films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted in vacuum with thin films of titanium, chromium, iron, and platinum sputter deposited on quartz or mica substrates. A single crystal hemispherically tipped gold slider was used in contact with the films at loads of 1.0 to 30.0 and at a sliding velocity of 0.7 mm/min at 23 C. Test results indicate that the friction coefficient is dependent on the adhesion of two interfaces, that between the film and its substrate and the slider and the film. There exists a relationship between the percent d bond character of metals in bulk and in thin film form and the friction coefficient. Oxygen can increase adhesive bonding of a metal film (platinum) to a substrate.

  20. CAM/LIFTER forces and friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbey, D. J.; Lee, J.; Patterson, D. J.

    1992-02-01

    This report details the procedures used to measure the cam/lifter forces and friction. The present effort employed a Cummins LTA-10, and focuses on measurements and dynamic modeling of the injector train. The program was sponsored by the US Department of Energy in support of advanced diesel engine technology. The injector train was instrumented to record the instantaneous roller speed, roller pin friction torque, pushrod force, injector link force, and cam speed. These measurements, together with lift profiles for pushrod and injector link displacement, enabled the friction work loss in the injector train to be determined. Other significant design criteria such as camshaft roller follower slippage and maximum loads on components were also determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the dynamic model, with tests run as required for correlation.

  1. Physics of Friction in Disposable Plastic Syringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebmann-Vinson, A.; Vogler, E. A.; Martin, D. A.; Montgomery, D. B.; Sugg, H. W.; Monahan, L. A.

    1997-03-01

    Nosocomial applications of disposable plastic syringes demand excellent frictional behavior with no stick-slip over a broad velocity range and, simultaneously, a tight seal between stopper and barrel. However, when used in syringe pumps at slow injection speeds, stick-slip motion is frequently observed and high "break-out" forces are often necessary to initiate plunger movement after extended storage times. We have traced this frictional behavior to a velocity-dependent interaction between the elastomeric stopper and the plastic syringe barrel mediated by the syringe lubricant, almost universally a polydimethyl siloxane fluid. Lubricant properties were altered by crosslinking the surface of the silicone oil in an oxygen plasma. Changes in surface chemistry and morphology of the crosslinked oil were correlated with changes in frictional performance.

  2. [Brackets and friction in orthodontics: experimental study].

    PubMed

    Ben Rejeb Jdir, Saloua; Tobji, Samir; Turki, Wiem; Dallel, Ines; Khedher, Nedra; Ben Amor, Adel

    2015-09-01

    Many authors have been involved in developing brackets in order to improve the quality, stability, speed and efficiency of orthodontic treatment. In order to reduce friction between bracket and archwire, new therapeutic approaches have been devised based on novel technologies. Among these innovative techniques, self-ligating brackets are increasingly popular. SLBs can be classified into several categories according to their mode of action and their materials. We performed an experimental study to compare the friction forces generated during the sliding of orthodontic archwires made from various alloys through conventional and self-ligating brackets. Results show the favorable influence of SLBs, compared to conventional systems using elastomeric or metal ligatures, on the level of friction, particularly when shape-memory Ni-Ti archwires are used.

  3. Friction Stir Welding of Steel Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The friction stir welding process has been developed primarily for the welding of aluminum alloys. Other higher melting allows such, as steels are much more difficult to join. Special attention must be given to pin tool material selection and welding techniques. This paper addresses the joining of steels and other high melting point materials using the friction stir welding process. Pin tool material and welding parameters will be presented. Mechanical properties of weldments will also be presented. Significance: There are many applications for the friction stir welding process other than low melting aluminum alloys. The FSW process can be expanded for use with high melting alloys in the pressure vessel, railroad and ship building industries.

  4. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration

    DOE PAGES

    Intravaia, Francesco; Mkrtchian, Vanik E.; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; ...

    2015-05-12

    The aim of this study is to revisit the calculation of atom–surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton (2010 New J. Phys. 12 113045). We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contributionmore » to the frictional power which goes as v4. These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v3.« less

  5. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Intravaia, Francesco; Mkrtchian, Vanik E.; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Scheel, Stefan; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Henkel, Carsten

    2015-05-12

    The aim of this study is to revisit the calculation of atom–surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton (2010 New J. Phys. 12 113045). We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contribution to the frictional power which goes as v4. These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v3.

  6. CAM/LIFTER forces and friction

    SciTech Connect

    Gabbey, D.J.; Lee, J.; Patterson, D.J.

    1992-02-01

    This report details the procedures used to measure the cam/lifter forces and friction. The present effort employed a Cummins LTA-10, and focuses on measurements and dynamic modeling of the injector train. The program was sponsored by the US Department of Energy in support of advanced diesel engine technology. The injector train was instrumented to record the instantaneous roller speed, roller pin friction torque, pushrod force, injector link force and cam speed. These measurements, together with lift profiles for pushrod and injector link displacement, enabled the friction work loss in the injector train to be determined. Other significant design criteria such as camshaft roller follower slippage and maximum loads on components were also determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the dynamic model, with tests run as required for correlation.

  7. Laser Peening Effects on Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatamleh, Omar

    2011-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a welding technique that uses frictional heating combined with forging pressure to produce high strength bonds. It is attractive for aerospace applications. Although residual stresses in FSW are generally lower when compared to conventional fusion welds, recent work has shown that significant tensile residual stresses can be present in the weld after fabrication. Therefore, laser shock peening was investigated as a means of moderating the tensile residual stresses produced during welding. This slide presentation reviews the effect of Laser Peening on the weld, in tensile strength, strain, surface roughness, microhardness, surface wear/friction, and fatigue crack growth rates. The study concluded that the laser peening process can result in considerable improvement to crack initiaion, propagation and mechanical properties in FSW.

  8. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration.

    PubMed

    Intravaia, Francesco; Mkrtchian, Vanik E; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Scheel, Stefan; Dalvit, Diego A R; Henkel, Carsten

    2015-06-03

    The aim of this paper is to revisit the calculation of atom-surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton (2010 New J. Phys. 12 113045). We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contribution to the frictional power which goes as v(4). These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v(3).

  9. Tunable Friction Behavior of Photochromic Fibrillar Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nanni, Gabriele; Ceseracciu, Luca; Oropesa-Nuñez, Reinier; Canale, Claudio; Salvatore, Princia; Fragouli, Despina; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2015-06-09

    Grasslike compliant micro/nano crystals made of diarylethene (DAE) photochromic molecules are spontaneously formed on elastomer films after dipping them in a solution containing the photochromic molecules. The frictional forces of such micro- and nanofibrillar surfaces are reversibly tuned upon ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and dark storage cycles. This behavior is attributed to the Young's modulus variation of the single fibrils due to the photoisomerization process of the DAE molecules, as measured by advanced atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. In fact, a significant yet reversible decrease of the stiffness of the outer part of the fibrils in response to the UV light irradiation is demonstrated. The modification of the molecular structure of the fibrils influences their mechanical properties and affects the frictional behavior of the overall fibrillar surfaces. These findings provide the possibility to develop a system that controllably and accurately generates both low and high friction forces.

  10. Method and device for frictional welding

    DOEpatents

    Peacock, H.B.

    1991-01-01

    A method for friction welding that produces a seal having essentially no gas porosity, comprises two rotationally symmetric, generally cylindrical members, spaced apart and coaxially aligned, that are rotated with respect to each other and brought together under high pressure. One member is preferably a generally cylindrical cannister that stores uranium within its hollow walls. The other member is preferably a generally cylindrical, hollow weld ring. An annular channel formed in the weld ring functions as an internal flash trap and is uniquely designed so that substantially all of the welding flash generated from the friction welding is directed into the channel`s recessed bottom. Also, the channel design limits distortion of the two members during the friction welding, process, further contributing to the complete seal that is obtained.

  11. Method and device for frictional welding

    DOEpatents

    Peacock, H.B.

    1992-10-13

    A method is described for friction welding that produces a seal having essentially no gas porosity, comprises two rotationally symmetric, generally cylindrical members, spaced apart and coaxially aligned, that are rotated with respect to each other and brought together under high pressure. One member is preferably a generally cylindrical canister that stores uranium within its hollow walls. The other member is preferably a generally cylindrical, hollow weld ring. An annular channel formed in the weld ring functions as an internal flash trap and is uniquely designed so that substantially all of the welding flash generated from the friction welding is directed into the channel's recessed bottom. Also, the channel design limits distortion of the two members during the friction welding process, further contributing to the complete seal that is obtained. 5 figs.

  12. Method and device for frictional welding

    DOEpatents

    Peacock, Harold B.

    1992-01-01

    A method for friction welding that produces a seal having essentially no gas porosity, comprises two rotationally symmetric, generally cylindrical members, spaced apart and coaxially aligned, that are rotated with respect to each other and brought together under high pressure. One member is preferably a generally cylindrical cannister that stores uranium within its hollow walls. The other member is preferably a generally cylindrical, hollow weld ring. An annular channel formed in the weld ring functions as an internal flash trap and is uniquely designed so that substantially all of the welding flash generated from the friction welding is directed into the channel's recessed bottom. Also, the channel design limits distortion of the two members during the friction welding process, further contributing to the complete seal that is obtained.

  13. Friction enhancement in concertina locomotion of snakes.

    PubMed

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Hu, David L

    2012-11-07

    Narrow crevices are challenging terrain for most organisms and biomimetic robots. Snakes move through crevices using sequential folding and unfolding of their bodies in the manner of an accordion or concertina. In this combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we elucidate this effective means of moving through channels. We measure the frictional properties of corn snakes, their body kinematics and the transverse forces they apply to channels of varying width and inclination. To climb channels inclined at 60°, we find snakes use a combination of ingenious friction-enhancing techniques, including digging their ventral scales to double their frictional coefficient and pushing channel walls transversely with up to nine times body weight. Theoretical modelling of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler is used to calculate the transverse force factor of safety: we find snakes push up to four times more than required to prevent sliding backwards, presumably trading metabolic energy for an assurance of wall stability.

  14. Frictional Ignition Testing of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peralta, Steve; Rosales, Keisa; Robinson, Michael J.; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The space flight community has been investigating lightweight composite materials for use in propellant tanks for both liquid and gaseous oxygen for space flight vehicles. The use of these materials presents some risks pertaining to ignition and burning hazards in the presence of oxygen. Through hazard analysis process, some ignition mechanisms have been identified as being potentially credible. One of the ignition mechanisms was reciprocal friction; however, test data do not exist that could be used to clear or fail these types of materials as "oxygen compatible" for the reciprocal friction ignition mechanism. Therefore, testing was performed at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) to provide data to evaluate this ignition mechanism. This paper presents the test system, approach, data results, and findings of the reciprocal friction testing performed on composite sample materials being considered for propellant tanks.

  15. Tolrestat kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, D.R.; Kraml, M.; Cayen, M.N.; Dubuc, J.; Ryder, S.; Dvornik, D.

    1984-10-01

    The kinetics of tolrestat, a potent inhibitor of aldose reductase, were examined. Serum concentrations of tolrestat and of total /sup 14/C were measured after dosing normal subjects and subjects with diabetes with /sup 14/C-labeled tolrestat. In normal subjects, tolrestat was rapidly absorbed and disappearance from serum was biphasic. Distribution and elimination t 1/2s were approximately 2 and 10 to 12 hr, respectively, after single and multiple doses. Unchanged tolrestat accounted for the major portion of /sup 14/C in serum. Radioactivity was rapidly and completely excreted in urine and feces in an approximate ratio of 2:1. Findings were much the same in subjects with diabetes. In normal subjects, the kinetics of oral tolrestat were independent of dose in the 10 to 800 mg range. Repetitive dosing did not result in unexpected cumulation. Tolrestat was more than 99% bound to serum protein; it did not compete with warfarin for binding sites but was displaced to some extent by high concentrations of tolbutamide or salicylate.

  16. Origin of Subglacial Debris-bed Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, D. O.; Byers, J.; Iverson, N. R.

    2011-12-01

    Numerical models of glaciers sliding on hard beds assume that basal flow resistance is controlled entirely by viscous drag on bedrock bumps. However, observations and measurements indicate that basal ice can contain large concentrations of rock debris that exert significant frictional resistance: for example, locally high shear stress (˜500 kPa) was measured below 200 m of ice on a smooth rock tablet at the bed of Engabreen, Norway. This value of shear stress is an order of magnitude greater than estimated by leading theories. To better understand the origin of debris-bed friction, we built a new laboratory apparatus that recorded the contact force between a clast and a hard bed as a function of ice velocity toward the bed. An independent experiment with the same apparatus in which the clast is isolated from the bed was used to obtain the ice viscosity. After correcting for cavity formation and ice flow geometry, results indicate that the contact force between a clast and a hard bed is about twice the drag force on the same clast estimated using Stokes's law. This value is insufficient to explain the high debris-bed friction measured beneath Engabreen. An alternative explanation is that longitudinal ice extension caused by ice flowing over the rough topography near the smooth rock tablet increased the rate of ice convergence with the bed by a factor of 5. Our measurements confirm that debris-bed friction is controlled by contact forces caused by flow of ice towards the bed due to basal melting and longitudinal ice extension. This form of frictional drag has yet to be included in models of ice flow. Inclusion of debris-bed friction may prove important to properly estimating rates of basal sliding, energy dissipation and meltwater production at the bed, and, more importantly, to quantifying the stick-slip behavior of hard-bedded glaciers.

  17. Frictional Evolution of Schists during Seismic Slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, S.; Ree, J.; Hirose, T.; Lee, S.

    2012-12-01

    Pseudotachylytes (PT) of pelitic rocks are relatively rare, although there have been some reports on natural and experimental PT of argillites and siltstones. Thus our knowledge on earthquake mechanics in pelitic rocks is limited. The conventional wisdom for the rare occurrence of pelitic PT is that dehydration of phyllosilicate minerals due to frictional heating during seismic slip increases the pore pressure and facilitates thermal pressurization to work as a main slip weakening mechanism. We performed high-velocity-rotary-shear experiments on mica schists at seismic slip rates (up to 1.3 ms-1) and at normal stress of 2-16 MPa to understand the earthquake faulting mechanics and microstructural evolution of metapelites. The simulated fault zones show two transient peak frictions followed by a final slip weakening to reach a steady-state friction with friction coefficient of 0.16 to 0.5. The steady-state friction decreases with an increase in slip velocity, indicating a velocity-weakening behavior. Also, steady-state friction decreases with an increase in normal stress. The fault zone consists of a principal slip zone (PSZ) mantled by damage zone (DZ). The fracture density and grain size in DZ increases and decreases toward PSZ, respectively. The quartz grains of DZ tend to exhibit patchy undulose extinction and deformation bands, while those of the wall rock are mostly strain-free. Biotite grains of DZ become darker toward the PSZ in plane-polarized light and the darker color is presumably due to tiny holes produced by incipient dehydration of biotite. The PSZ is a molten layer laden with clasts of quartz and plagioclase. The melt composition of the central PSZ is felsic, whereas that of the marginal PSZ is mafic. To figure out the reason for the compositionally layered configuration of the melt in PSZ, microstructural analyses using electron microscopies and correlation of microstructural evolution with mechanical evolution are underway.

  18. Switchable static and dynamic self-assembly of magnetic droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Timonen, Jaakko V I; Latikka, Mika; Leibler, Ludwik; Ras, Robin H A; Ikkala, Olli

    2013-07-19

    Self-assembly is a process in which interacting bodies are autonomously driven into ordered structures. Static structures such as crystals often form through simple energy minimization, whereas dynamic ones require continuous energy input to grow and sustain. Dynamic systems are ubiquitous in nature and biology but have proven challenging to understand and engineer. Here, we bridge the gap from static to dynamic self-assembly by introducing a model system based on ferrofluid droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces. The droplets self-assemble under a static external magnetic field into simple patterns that can be switched to complicated dynamic dissipative structures by applying a time-varying magnetic field. The transition between the static and dynamic patterns involves kinetic trapping and shows complexity that can be directly visualized.

  19. Hybrid superconducting magnetic bearing and its frictional energy loss and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Z.; Ma, K.B.; Chen, Q.Y.; Cooley, R.R.

    1995-12-31

    A hybrid superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) has been designed and tested. A flywheel energy storage (FES) prototype has been constructed for testing bearing friction loss and characterizing the dynamics of the rotor. The hybrid SMB design uses magnetic forces from permanent magnets for levitation and high temperature superconductor YBCO in between the magnets for stabilization. A 42 lb. flywheel currently can rotate up to 6,000 RPM with kinetic energy of 8 Wh stored. The result from the recent rotor spin-down experiment indicates an average frictional energy loss <2% per hour in a vacuum of 10 {sup {minus}5} torr, with imperfect system alignment and balance of rotor. The system dynamics has been conducted to improve upon the energy loss and rotor-bearing modeling.

  20. Gas desorption during friction of amorphous carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusanov, A.; Fontaine, J.; Martin, J.-M.; Mogne, T. L.; Nevshupa, R.

    2008-03-01

    Gas desorption induced by friction of solids, i.e. tribodesorption, is one of the numerous physical and chemical phenomena, which arise during friction as result of thermal and structural activation of material in a friction zone. Tribodesorption of carbon oxides, hydrocarbons, and water vapours may lead to significant deterioration of ultra high vacuum conditions in modern technological equipment in electronic, optoelectronic industries. Therefore, knowledge of tribodesorption is crucial for the performance and lifetime of vacuum tribosystems. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings are interesting materials for vacuum tribological systems due to their high wear resistance and low friction. Highly hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films are known to exhibit extremely low friction coefficient under high vacuum or inert environment, known as 'superlubricity' or 'superlow friction'. However, the superlow friction period is not always stable and then tends to spontaneous transition to high friction. It is supposed that hydrogen supply from the bulk to the surface is crucial for establishing and maintaining superlow friction. Thus, tribodesorption can serve also as a new technique to determine the role of gases in superlow friction mechanisms. Desorption of various a-C:H films, deposited by PECVD, ion-beam deposition and deposition using diode system, has been studied by means of ultra-high vacuum tribometer equipped with a mass spectrometer. It was found that in superlow friction period desorption rate was below the detection limit in the 0-85 mass range. However, transition from superlow friction to high friction was accompanied by desorption of various gases, mainly of H2 and CH4. During friction transition, surfaces were heavily damaged. In experiments with DLC films with low hydrogen content tribodesorption was significant during the whole experiment, while low friction was not observed. From estimation of maximum surface temperature during sliding contact it was

  1. Evaluation of the friction coefficient, the radial stress, and the damage work during needle insertions into agarose gels.

    PubMed

    Urrea, Fabián A; Casanova, Fernando; Orozco, Gustavo A; García, José J

    2016-03-01

    Agarose hydrogels have been extensively used as a phantom material to mimic the mechanical behavior of soft biological tissues, e.g. in studies aimed to analyze needle insertions into the organs producing tissue damage. To better predict the radial stress and damage during needle insertions, this study was aimed to determine the friction coefficient between the material of commercial catheters and hydrogels. The friction coefficient, the tissue damage and the radial stress were evaluated at 0.2, 1.8, and 10mm/s velocities for 28, 30, and 32 gauge needles of outer diameters equal to 0.36, 0.31, and 0.23mm, respectively. Force measurements during needle insertions and retractions on agarose gel samples were used to analyze damage and radial stress. The static friction coefficient (0.295±0.056) was significantly higher than the dynamic (0.255±0.086). The static and dynamic friction coefficients were significantly smaller for the 0.2mm/s velocity compared to those for the other two velocities, and there was no significant difference between the friction coefficients for 1.8 and 10mm/s. Radial stress averages were 131.2±54.1, 248.3±64.2, and 804.9±164.3Pa for the insertion velocity of 0.2, 1.8, and 10mm/s, respectively. The radial stress presented a tendency to increase at higher insertion velocities and needle size, which is consistent with other studies. However, the damage work did not show to be a good predictor of tissue damage, which appears to be due to simplifications in the analytical model. Differently to other approaches, the method proposed here based on radial stress may be extended in future studies to quantity tissue damage in vivo along the entire needle track.

  2. Influence of friction on granular segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Stephan; Schröter, Matthias; Swinney, Harry L.

    2007-10-01

    Vertical shaking of a mixture of small and large beads can lead to segregation where the large beads either accumulate at the top of the sample, the so-called Brazil nut effect (BNE), or at the bottom, the reverse Brazil nut effect (RBNE). Here we demonstrate experimentally a sharp transition from the RBNE to the BNE when the particle coefficient of friction increases due to aging of the particles. This result can be explained by the two competing mechanisms of buoyancy and sidewall-driven convection, where the latter is assumed to grow in strength with increasing friction.

  3. Dynamical friction in a relativistic plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, O. J.; Rose, S. J.

    2014-05-01

    The work of Spitzer on dynamical friction in a plasma [L. Spitzer, Jr., Physics of Fully Ionized Gases, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1962), Chap. 5] is extended to relativistic systems. We derive the force of dynamical friction, diffusion tensor, and test particle relaxation rates for a Maxwellian background in the same form as Trubnikov [B. A. Trubnikov, in Reviews of Plasma Physics, edited by M. A. Leontovich (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1965), Vol. 1, p. 105], enabling high-temperature laboratory and astrophysical plasmas to be modeled in a consistent manner.

  4. Magnetic Viscous Drag for Friction Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, Chris; Catching, Adam

    2016-09-01

    The typical friction lab performed in introductory mechanics courses is usually not the favorite of either the student or the instructor. The measurements are not all that easy to make, and reproducibility is usually a troublesome issue. This paper describes the augmentation of such a friction lab with a study of the viscous drag on a magnet sliding down a conducting ramp, e.g., an aluminum ramp (Fig. 1). The measurements are simple and quite reproducible, and it appears to readily catch the interest of students.

  5. High fidelity frictional models for MEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    Carpick, Robert W.; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Bitsie, Fernando; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Corwin, Alex David; Ashurst, William Robert; Jones, Reese E.; Subhash, Ghatu S.; Street, Mark D.; Sumali, Anton Hartono; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Starr, Michael James; Redmond, James Michael; Flater, Erin E.

    2004-10-01

    The primary goals of the present study are to: (1) determine how and why MEMS-scale friction differs from friction on the macro-scale, and (2) to begin to develop a capability to perform finite element simulations of MEMS materials and components that accurately predicts response in the presence of adhesion and friction. Regarding the first goal, a newly developed nanotractor actuator was used to measure friction between molecular monolayer-coated, polysilicon surfaces. Amontons law does indeed apply over a wide range of forces. However, at low loads, which are of relevance to MEMS, there is an important adhesive contribution to the normal load that cannot be neglected. More importantly, we found that at short sliding distances, the concept of a coefficient of friction is not relevant; rather, one must invoke the notion of 'pre-sliding tangential deflections' (PSTD). Results of a simple 2-D model suggests that PSTD is a cascade of small-scale slips with a roughly constant number of contacts equilibrating the applied normal load. Regarding the second goal, an Adhesion Model and a Junction Model have been implemented in PRESTO, Sandia's transient dynamics, finite element code to enable asperity-level simulations. The Junction Model includes a tangential shear traction that opposes the relative tangential motion of contacting surfaces. An atomic force microscope (AFM)-based method was used to measure nano-scale, single asperity friction forces as a function of normal force. This data is used to determine Junction Model parameters. An illustrative simulation demonstrates the use of the Junction Model in conjunction with a mesh generated directly from an atomic force microscope (AFM) image to directly predict frictional response of a sliding asperity. Also with regards to the second goal, grid-level, homogenized models were studied. One would like to perform a finite element analysis of a MEMS component assuming nominally flat surfaces and to include the effect of

  6. Friction Drilling of Stainless Steels Pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, A.; Lopez de Lacalle, L. N.; Lamikiz, A.

    2011-01-17

    This work describes the experimental study of the friction drilling process in stainless steel by means of an optimization of the machining conditions. For such purpose austenitic stainless steel with different thicknesses were analyzed through controlled tests at different rotation speeds and feed rates. On one hand, the torque and the thrust force were computed and monitorized. On the other hand, the dimensional tolerances of the holes were evaluated, mainly the accuracy of the hole diameter and the burr thickness at different depths. Another topic of interest inherent to this special technique is the temperature level reached during the friction process which is crucial when it comes to development of microstructural transformations.

  7. Static feed water electrolysis module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced static feed water electrolysis module (SFWEM) and associated instrumentation for generating breathable O2 was developed. The system also generates a H2 byproduct for use in an air revitalization system for O2 recovery from metabolic CO2. Special attention was given to: (1) eliminating water feed compartment degassing, (2) eliminating need for zero gravity condenser/separators, (3) increasing current density capability, and (4) providing a self contained module so that operation is independent of laboratory instrumentation and complicated startup/shutdown procedures.

  8. Modeling recrystallization kinetics during strip rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, W.P.; Hawbolt, E.B.; Meadowcroft, T.R.

    1995-01-01

    In order to simulate the microstructural evolution during hot strip rolling, double-hit compression tests have been carried out on plain carbon steels. Using the softening data obtained by these tests, mathematical models were developed to predict the overall kinetics of static recrystallization under roughing and finishing mill conditions. These models include the effects of deformation temperature, applied strain, strain rate and initial austenite grain size. Predictions based on these models are in reasonable agreement with the present experimental results.

  9. First arrival time surface, estimation of statics

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, J.H.; Jacewitz, C.A.

    1983-09-05

    The problem of obtaining surface consistent statics using first arrival refractions has several phases. To begin with, the first arrivals must be picked in some reasonable, consistent fashion. Next, appropriate techniques must be used to solve for surface-consistent statics. Finally, the interpreter must be provided with an evaluation of the quality of the estimated statics. First arrival refractions are part of reflection seismic data. Early seismic reflection work used first arrival refractions for weathering static corrections. With the advent of the common midpoint (CMP) method, first arrivals lost their predominance in statics to correlation techniques within CMP gathers. However, the increasing use of a large number of receivers and a small group interval has made first arrival statics more reliable. In addition, recent work has helped to revitalize interest in the use of first arrival refractions for surface-consistent static corrections.

  10. Measurement of static pressure on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracey, William

    1958-01-01

    Existing data on the errors involved in the measurement of static pressure by means of static-pressure tubes and fuselage vents are presented. The errors associated with the various design features of static-pressure tubes are discussed for the condition of zero angle of attack and for the case where the tube is inclined to flow. Errors which result from variations in the configuration of static-pressure vents are also presented. Errors due to the position of a static-pressure tube in the flow field of the airplane are given for locations ahead of the fuselage nose, ahead of the wing tip, and ahead of the vertical tail fin. The errors of static-pressure vents on the fuselage of an airplane are also presented. Various methods of calibrating static-pressure installations in flight are briefly discussed.

  11. Kinetic buffers.

    PubMed

    Alibrandi, Giuseppe; Fabbrizzi, Luigi; Licchelli, Maurizio; Puglisi, Antonio

    2015-01-12

    This paper proposes a new type of molecular device that is able to act as an inverse proton sponge to slowly decrease the pH inside a reaction vessel. This makes the automatic monitoring of the concentration of pH-sensitive systems possible. The device is a composite formed of an alkyl chloride, which kinetically produces acidity, and a buffer that thermodynamically modulates the variation in pH value. Profiles of pH versus time (pH-t plots) have been generated under various experimental conditions by computer simulation, and the device has been tested by carrying out automatic spectrophotometric titrations, without using an autoburette. To underline the wide variety of possible applications, this new system has been used to realize and monitor HCl uptake by a di-copper(II) bistren complex in a single run, in a completely automatic experiment.

  12. Adaptive methods, rolling contact, and nonclassical friction laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oden, J. T.

    1989-01-01

    Results and methods on three different areas of contemporary research are outlined. These include adaptive methods, the rolling contact problem for finite deformation of a hyperelastic or viscoelastic cylinder, and non-classical friction laws for modeling dynamic friction phenomena.

  13. Friction-factor characteristics for narrow channels with honeycomb surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, T. W.; Morrison, G. L.; Childs, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental determination of friction-factors for the flow of air in a narrow channel lined with various honeycomb geometries has been carried out. Test results show that, generally, the friction-factor is nearly constant or slightly decreases as the Reynolds number increases, a characteristic common to turbulent flow in pipes. However, in some test geometries this trend is remarkably different. The friction factor dramatically drops and then rises as the Reynolds number increases. This phenomenon can be characterized as a 'friction-factor jump'. Further investigations of the acoustic spectrum and friction-factor measurements for a broad range of Reynolds numbers indicate that the 'friction-factor jump' phenomenon is accompanied by an onset of a normal mode resonance excited coherent flow fluctuation structure, which occurs at Reynolds number of the order of 10,000. The purpose of this paper is to explain the friction-factor-jump phenomenon and friction-factor characteristics.

  14. Tyre friction behaviour under abrupt wheel torque transients on slippery road surfaces: experimental analysis and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanović, Vladimir; Deur, Joško; Kostelac, Milan; Pentek, Tibor; Hrovat, Davor

    2011-10-01

    The paper shows that, during abrupt wheel torque transients for ice surface and low vehicle speeds, the tyre can develop significantly larger longitudinal force than the peak value of the tyre static curve. This so-called dynamic tyre friction potential (DTFP) effect has many influencing factors such as the rate of change of the wheel torque, the vehicle speed, and the tyre dwell time. The paper presents a detailed analysis of the DTFP behaviour based on the experimental data collected by using an in-wheel motor-based tyre test vehicle. The analysis results and an insight into the brush structure of a tyre model lead to the hypothesis that the different influencing factors may be predominantly explained by the bristle dwell time (BDT) effect. Following this hypothesis, the LuGre model of the tyre friction dynamics is extended with a physical BDT sub-model. The experimental validation results show that the proposed model can accurately capture the low-speed tyre-ice friction behaviour during abrupt wheel torque transients.

  15. Static magnetic fields: animal studies.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Various experimental studies carried out over the last 30-40 years have examined the effects of the chronic or acute exposure of laboratory animals to static magnetic fields. Many of the earlier studies have been adequately reviewed elsewhere; few adverse effects were identified. This review focuses on studies carried out more recently, mostly those using vertebrates, particularly mammals. Four main areas of investigation have been covered, viz., nervous system and behavioural studies, cardiovascular system responses, reproduction and development, and genotoxicity and cancer. Work on the role of the natural geomagnetic field in animal orientation and migration has been omitted. Generally, the acute responses found during exposure to static fields above about 4 T are consistent with those found in volunteer studies, namely the induction of flow potentials around the heart and the development of aversive/avoidance behaviour resulting from body movement in such fields. No consistently demonstrable effects of exposure to fields of approximately 1T and above have been seen on other behavioural or cardiovascular endpoints. In addition, no adverse effects of such fields on reproduction and development or on the growth and development of tumours have been firmly established. Overall, however, far too few animal studies have been carried out to reach any firm conclusions.

  16. Electrowetting -- from statics to dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Longquan; Bonaccurso, Elmar

    2014-08-01

    More than one century ago, Lippmann found that capillary forces can be effectively controlled by external electrostatic forces. As a simple example, by applying a voltage between a conducting liquid droplet and the surface it is sitting on we are able to adjust the wetting angle of the drop. Since Lippmann's findings, electrocapillary phenomena - or electrowetting - have developed into a series of tools for manipulating microdroplets on solid surfaces, or small amounts of liquids in capillaries for microfluidic applications. In this article, we briefly review some recent progress of fundamental understanding of electrowetting and address some still unsolved issues. Specifically, we focus on static and dynamic electrowetting. In static electrowetting, we discuss some basic phenomena found in DC and AC electrowetting, and some theories about the origin of contact angle saturation. In dynamic electrowetting, we introduce some studies about this rather recent area. At last, we address some other capillary phenomena governed by electrostatics and we give an outlook that might stimulate further investigations on electrowetting.

  17. Comparative study regarding friction coefficient for three epoxy resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihu, G.; Mihalache, I.; Graur, I.; Ungureanu, C.; Bria, V.

    2017-02-01

    Three commercial epoxy diglycidylether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) were used in this study namely Epiphen RE4020-DE 4020 (Bostik), Epoxy Resin C (R&G Gmbh Waldenbuch), and Epoxy Resin HT-2 (R&G Gmbh Waldenbuch). Epoxy resins are often used for the friction purpose but their friction resistance is quite low and it is thus necessary to enhance their friction resistance. In this paper it is shown how load, sliding velocity, and distance affect friction coefficient of epoxy resins.

  18. PREFACE: The International Conference on Science of Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Kouji; Matsukawa, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    The first international conference on the science of friction in Japan was held at Irago, Aichi on 9-13 September 2007. The conference focused on the elementary process of friction phenomena from the atomic and molecular scale view. Topics covered in the conference are shown below.:

  19. Superlubricity and friction>
  20. Electronic and phononic contributions to friction>
  21. Friction on the atomic and molecular scales
  22. van der Waals friction and Casimir force
  23. Molecular motor and friction>
  24. Friction and adhesion in soft matter systems
  25. Wear and crack on the nanoscale
  26. Theoretical studies on the atomic scale friction and energy dissipation
  27. Friction and chaos
  28. Mechanical properties of nanoscale contacts
  29. Friction of powder
  30. The number of participants in the conference was approximately 100, registered from 11 countries. 48 oral and 29 poster talks were presented at the conference. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 23 papers devoted to the above topics of friction. The successful organization of the conference was made possible by the contribution of the members of the Organizing Committee and International Advisory Committee. The conference was made possible thanks to the financial support from Aichi University of Education and the Taihokogyo Tribology Research Foundation (TTRF), and moreover thanks to the approval societies of The Physical Society of Japan, The Surface Science Society of Japan, The Japanese Society of Tribologists and Toyota Physical and Chemical Research Institute. The details of the conference are available at http://www.science-of-friction.com . Finally we want to thank the speakers for the high quality of their talks and all participants for coming to Irago, Japan and actively contributing to the conference. Kouji Miura and Hiroshi Matsukawa Editors

  31. Microstructural Evolution in Friction Stir Welding of Ti-5111

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    industry for aluminum alloys. FSW of steels is under continued development. 1.1.3.1 Friction Stir Welding of Metals Since the development of...or friction welding [Titanium handbook]. A potential welding technique for titanium that has shown promise for joining aluminum and steel is...combatants, this research examines an alternative joining technology, friction stir welding ( FSW ). Friction stir welding uses a non-consumable tool to

  32. Frictional and morphological characteristics of ion plated soft, metallic films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.; Buzek, B.

    1981-01-01

    Ion plated metallic films in contrast to films applied by other deposition techniques offer a lower friction coefficient, longer endurance lives and exhibit a gradual increase in friction coefficient after the film has been worn off. The friction coefficients of metallic films are affected by the degree of adherence, thickness and nucleation and growth characteristics during ion plating lead to a fine, continuous crystalline structure, which contributes to a lower friction coefficient.