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Sample records for station heat exhanger

  1. Multispecies Biofilm Development on Space Station Heat Exhanger Core Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pyle, B. H.; Roth, S. R.; Vega, L. M.; Pickering, K. D.; Alvarez, Pedro J. J.; Roman, M. C.

    2007-01-01

    Investigations of microbial contamination of the cooling system aboard the International Space Station (ISS) suggested that there may be a relationship between heat exchanger (HX) materials and the degree of microbial colonization and biofilm formation. Experiments were undertaken to test the hypothesis that biofilm formation is influenced by the type and previous exposure of HX surfaces. Acidovorax delafieldii, Comamonas acidovorans, Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, originally isolated from ISS cooling system fluid, were cultured on R2A agar and suspended separately in fresh filter-sterilized ISS cooling fluid, pH 8.3. Initial numbers in each suspension ranged from 10(exp 6)-10(exp 7) CFU/ml, and a mixture contained greater than 10(exp 7) CFU/ml. Coupons of ISS HX material, previously used on orbit (HXOO) or unused (HXUU), polycarbonate (PC) and 316L polished stainless steel (SS) were autoclaved, covered with multispecies suspension in sterile tubes and incubated in the dark at ambient (22-25 C). Original HX material contained greater than 90% Ni, 4.5% Si, and 3.2% B, with a borate buffer. For approximately 10 weeks, samples of fluid were plated on R2A agar, and surface colonization assessed by SYBR green or BacLight staining and microscopy. Suspension counts for the PC and SC samples remained steady at around 10(exp 7) CFU/ml. HXUU counts declined about 1 log in 21 d then remained steady, and HXOO counts declined 2 logs in 28 d, fluctuated and stabilized about 10(exp 3) CFU/ml from 47-54 d. Predominantly yellow S. paucimobilis predominated on plates from HXOO samples up to 26 d, then white or translucent colonies of other species appeared. All colony types were seen on plates from other samples throughout the trial. Epifluorescence microscopy indicated microbial growth on all surfaces by 21 d, followed by variable colonization. After 54 d, all but the HXOO samples had well

  2. Multispecies Biofilm Development on Space Station Heat Exhanger Core Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pyle, B. H.; Roth, S. R.; Vega, L. M.; Pickering, K. D.; Alvarez, Pedro J. J.; Roman, M. C.

    2007-01-01

    Investigations of microbial contamination of the cooling system aboard the International Space Station (ISS) suggested that there may be a relationship between heat exchanger (HX) materials and the degree of microbial colonization and biofilm formation. Experiments were undertaken to test the hypothesis that biofilm formation is influenced by the type and previous exposure of HX surfaces. Acidovorax delafieldii, Comamonas acidovorans, Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, originally isolated from ISS cooling system fluid, were cultured on R2A agar and suspended separately in fresh filter-sterilized ISS cooling fluid, pH 8.3. Initial numbers in each suspension ranged from 10(exp 6)-10(exp 7) CFU/ml, and a mixture contained greater than 10(exp 7) CFU/ml. Coupons of ISS HX material, previously used on orbit (HXOO) or unused (HXUU), polycarbonate (PC) and 316L polished stainless steel (SS) were autoclaved, covered with multispecies suspension in sterile tubes and incubated in the dark at ambient (22-25 C). Original HX material contained greater than 90% Ni, 4.5% Si, and 3.2% B, with a borate buffer. For approximately 10 weeks, samples of fluid were plated on R2A agar, and surface colonization assessed by SYBR green or BacLight staining and microscopy. Suspension counts for the PC and SC samples remained steady at around 10(exp 7) CFU/ml. HXUU counts declined about 1 log in 21 d then remained steady, and HXOO counts declined 2 logs in 28 d, fluctuated and stabilized about 10(exp 3) CFU/ml from 47-54 d. Predominantly yellow S. paucimobilis predominated on plates from HXOO samples up to 26 d, then white or translucent colonies of other species appeared. All colony types were seen on plates from other samples throughout the trial. Epifluorescence microscopy indicated microbial growth on all surfaces by 21 d, followed by variable colonization. After 54 d, all but the HXOO samples had well

  3. 1. EXTERIOR OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, LOOKING NORTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Central Heating Station, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  4. 3. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, SHOWING FURNACES, LOOKING SOUTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Central Heating Station, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  5. Direct solar heating for Space Station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    Early investigations have shown that a large percentage of the power generated on the Space Station will be needed in the form of high-temperature thermal energy. The most efficient method of satisfying this requirement is through direct utilization of available solar energy. A system concept for the direct use of solar energy on the Space Station, including its benefits to customers, technologists, and designers of the station, is described. After a brief discussion of energy requirements and some possible applications, results of selective tradeoff studies are discussed, showing area reduction benefits and some possible configurations for the practical use of direct solar heating. Following this is a description of system elements and required technologies. Finally, an assessment of available contributive technologies is presented, and a Space Shuttle Orbiter flight experiment is proposed.

  6. Implementation of Biogas Stations into Smart Heating and Cooling Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milčák, P.; Konvička, J.; Jasenská, M.

    2016-10-01

    The paper is aimed at the description of implementation of a biogas station into software environment for the "Smart Heating and Cooling Networks". The aim of this project is creation of a software tool for preparation of operation and optimization of treatment of heat/cool in small regions. In this case, the biogas station represents a kind of renewable energy source, which, however, has its own operational specifics which need to be taken into account at the creation of an implementation project. For a specific biogas station, a detailed computational model was elaborated, which is parameterized in particular for an optimization of the total computational time.

  7. Solar-heated ranger station--Glendo, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Report evaluates solar-energy system in residential ranger station. Installation provided 22 percent of space-heating and 58 percent of hot-water energy requirements. Annual net energy savings were 30 million Btu. Report describes system and its subsystems: collector array, storage, hot-water, and space-heating. Average weather conditions of test site, performance values, and energy savings are listed.

  8. Vibration test plan for a space station heat pipe subassembly

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, M.B.

    1987-09-29

    This test plan describes the Sundstrand portion of task two of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) contract 9-x6H-8102L-1. Sundstrand Energy Systems was awarded a contract to investigate the performance capabilities of a potassium liquid metal heat pipe as applied to the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) solar dynamic power system for the Space Station. The test objective is to expose the heat pipe subassembly to the random vibration environment which simulates the space shuttle launch condition. The results of the test will then be used to modify as required future designs of the heat pipe.

  9. Investigation of cooling properties of the gaseous medium of a space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baranski, S.; Blosznyski, R.; Hermaszewski, M.; Kubiczkowa, J.; Piorko, A.; Saganiak, R.; Sarol, Z.; Skibniewski, F.; Stendera, J.; Walichnowski, W.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of cooling properties of the gaseous medium was performed in the biosatellite Kosmos-936 as well as in the orbital complexes Soyuz-28/Salyut-6 and Soyuz-30/Salyut-6 with the aid of an especially constructed electric dynamic catathermometer. In this instrument current was measured which was necessary to keep a steady settled temperature of the sensing device. The investigation was performed because of the disturbed heat exhange of the human body caused by lack of natural convection in weightlessness. The instrument also enabled objective estimation of the temperature of the cosmonaut's ody in six optionally selected regions. The results obtained by means of the catathermometer will also enable defining the appropriate hygienic conditions of the gaseous medium of space stations.

  10. Freshwater exhange in the Sunda Strait estimated by Aquarius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potemra, J. T.; Hacker, P. W.; Maximenko, N. A.; Melnichenko, O.

    2012-12-01

    The Pacific and Indian Oceans are connected at a low latitude via the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). Through direct observations it is now understood that approximately 10 to 15 Sv of water are transported from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean. The implications of this transport, including impacts to water mass formation, heat and freshwater budgets and potential feedbacks to the atmosphere are still under investigation. One of the complexities in this region is the large number of smaller straits and passages between islands that may or may not play an important role in ITF processes. Many of these straits are more narrow than the typical resolution of ocean circulation models, and therefore are not properly simulated. For mass transport this is likely not an issue, since recent observations suggest that most of the mass transport flows via the Makassar Strait and then exits to the Indian Ocean via the Lombok, Ombai and Timor passages. This study, however, focuses on the fresh water transport between the Indonesian Seas and the Indian Ocean in particular via the Sunda Strait. There are very few direct observations of the upper ocean stratification in this region. Conversely, the recent launch of the Aquarius mission provides a unique opportunity to study the transport of fresh water, as indicated by sea surface salinity variability, between the Java Sea and the eastern Indian Ocean. Numerical model results, Argo measurements and Aquarius-derived sea surface salinity are used to examine the annual variability of fresh water exchange via the Sunda Strait. Model mass transport is typically low, averaging less than 1 Sv, but fresh water transport could have important implications for stratification along the Sumatra/Java southern coast and thus impact coastal wave propagation. The satellite derived sea surface salinity will be used to show the importance of seasonal variations in this region.

  11. Microgravity heat pump for space station thermal management.

    PubMed

    Domitrovic, R E; Chen, F C; Mei, V C; Spezia, A L

    2003-01-01

    A highly efficient recuperative vapor compression heat pump was developed and tested for its ability to operate independent of orientation with respect to gravity while maximizing temperature lift. The objective of such a heat pump is to increase the temperature of, and thus reduce the size of, the radiative heat rejection panels on spacecrafts such as the International Space Station. Heat pump operation under microgravity was approximated by gravitational-independent experiments. Test evaluations include functionality, efficiency, and temperature lift. Commercially available components were used to minimize costs of new hardware development. Testing was completed on two heat pump design iterations--LBU-I and LBU--II, for a variety of operating conditions under the variation of several system parameters, including: orientation, evaporator water inlet temperature (EWIT), condenser water inlet temperature (CWIT), and compressor speed. The LBU-I system employed an ac motor, belt-driven scroll compressor, and tube-in-tube heat exchangers. The LBU-II system used a direct-drive AC motor compressor assembly and plate heat exchangers. The LBU-II system in general outperformed the LBU-I system on all accounts. Results are presented for all systems, showing particular attention to those states that perform with a COP of 4.5 +/- 10% and can maintain a temperature lift of 55 degrees F (30.6 degrees C) +/- 10%. A calculation of potential radiator area reduction shows that points with maximum temperature lift give the greatest potential for reduction, and that area reduction is a function of heat pump efficiency and a stronger function of temperature lift.

  12. Potential availability of diesel waste heat at Echo Deep Space Station (DSS 12)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Energy consumption at the Goldstone Echo Deep Space Station (DSS 12) is predicted and quantified for a future station configuration which will involve implementation of proposed energy conservation modifications. Cogeneration by the utilization of diesel waste-heat to satisfy site heating and cooling requirements of the station is discussed. Scenarios involving expanded use of on-site diesel generators are presented.

  13. Rewetting of monogroove heat pipe in Space Station radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, S. H.

    1994-01-01

    This annual report summarizes the work accomplished on rewetting of monogroove heat pipe in space station. Specifically, theoretical and experimental investigations of the rewetting characteristics of thin liquid films over unheated and heated capillary grooved plates were performed. To investigate the effect of gravity on rewetting, the grooved surface was placed in upward and downward facing positions. Profound gravitational effects were observed as the rewetting velocity was found to be higher in the upward than in the downward facing orientation. The difference was even greater with higher initial plate temperatures. With either orientation, it was found that the rewetting velocity increased with the initial plate temperature. But when the temperature was raised above a rewetting temperature, the rewetting velocity decreased with the initial plate temperature. Hydrodynamically controlled and heat conduction controlled rewetting models were then presented to explain and to predict the rewetting characteristics in these two distinct regions. The predicted rewetting velocities were found to be in good agreement with experimental data with elevated plate temperatures.

  14. Heat pump evaluation for Space Station ATCS evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Brian E.; Petete, Patricia A.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility assessment of the application of a vapor compression heat pump to the Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) of SSF is presented. This paper focuses on the methodology of raising the surface temperature of the radiators for improved heat rejection. Some of the effects of the vapor compression cycle on SSF examined include heat pump integration into ATCS, constraints on the heat pump operating parameters, and heat pump performance enhancements.

  15. Control system for, and a method of, heating an operator station of a work machine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Thomas M.; Hoff, Brian D.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2005-04-05

    There are situations in which an operator remains in an operator station of a work machine when an engine of the work machine is inactive. The present invention includes a control system for, and a method of, heating the operator station when the engine is inactive. A heating system of the work machine includes an electrically-powered coolant pump, a power source, and at least one piece of warmed machinery. An operator heat controller is moveable between a first and a second position, and is operable to connect the electrically-powered coolant pump to the power source when the engine is inactive and the operator heat controller is in the first position. Thus, by deactivating the engine and then moving the operator heat controller to the first position, the operator may supply electrical energy to the electrically-powered coolant pump, which is operably coupled to heat the operator station.

  16. Design and Testing of a 2K Superfluid Helium Heat Station

    SciTech Connect

    William Hicks; Edward Daly; Joseph Preble; Mark Wiseman; Claus Rode

    2005-08-29

    Three transitional cryomodules (SL21, FEL03, Renascence) have been constructed as part of an energy upgrade effort at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). Each transitional cryomodule contains eight superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. Within the vacuum vessel, waveguides transmit up to 13 kW of RF power to the superconducting niobium cavities. The waveguides also provide the thermal transition between the room temperature ceramic RF window and the niobium fundamental power coupler (FPC), a 300K temperature gradient across {approx}20cm. The thermal performance of the waveguides is determined in part by the placement of heat stations and bellows. The original 13 kW waveguide design incorporated a single 60 K heat station and two bellows resulting in a total heat load (static + dynamic) to the FPC of {approx}3W per waveguide. To minimize this heat load and stabilize the FPC temperatures, a 2K superfluid helium heat station design was incorporated into the second transitional cryomodule, FEL03, installed in the JLab Free Electron Laser (FEL). The designed heat station is capable of removing up to 1.12W, with a bath temperature of 2.05K, while remaining sub-lambda. This paper describes the design, analysis and testing of the heat station.

  17. Space Heating at the Naval Air Station, Fallon, Nevada - An Economic Analysis of a Geothermal Alternative.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    CLAWaICaTO ? I$ P iktfe bA& 8^100ŕ Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Space Heating at the Naval Air Station, Fallon, Nevada-An Economic...Dictionary of Geophysics, p . 981.)-------- 12 2. High temperature geothermal system flow controlled by fractures...Rome,21-31 Aug.1961,Vol.3, Geothermal Energy: 17 11, p .125.- ------------------------------------------------- 1 4. Map of Naval Air Station, Fallon

  18. Conjugate heat transfer analysis of 300-mm bake station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanan, Natarajan; Liang, Frank F.; Sims, James B.

    1999-06-01

    An exhaustive heat-transfer analysis of 200-mm and 300-mm bake equipment has been conducted to infer the temperature uniformity on the wafer from the time it is set on the plate until the end of the bake process. The objective of the analysis was to gain insight into the heat transport to the wafer and improve the thermal uniformity of the wafer. During the soft, hard and post-exposure bake processes, the temperatures to which the wafer is heated can range from 50 degrees to 250 degrees C. The influence of the variables that contribute to the temperature nonuniformity, namely the height of the proximity pins, wafer warp and bow, heater thickness, insulation of the bake plate, and lid material, have been analyzed. The analysis has been carried out using computational fluid dynamics packages, FLUENT/UNS and FIDAP. The accuracy of the numerical simulations has been verified through analytical solution is presented which provides a closed-form expression for the temperature of the wafer in terms of Biot number, a dimensionless parameter. The temperature rise of the wafer based on this simple expression compares very favorably with the detailed axisymmetric numerical solution that was carried out using variable material properties and the complex boundary conditions for the geometry of a 200-mm bake plate. The radial temperature variation on the wafer after 100 seconds on the bake plate also matches very well with the measurements. Based on the success of the modeling results with the 200-mm bake plates, a 300-mm bake plate analysis was conducted to determine if the temperature uniformity would be within specifications. The analysis revealed some key factors that caused temperature nonuniformity and the design was then altered to improve the temperature uniformity. Subsequent measurements confirmed the improvement of the temperature uniformity.

  19. Rewetting of Monogroove Heat Pipe in Space Station Radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, S. H.; Shen, Ting Rong; Blake, John

    1996-01-01

    Experimental investigation of the rewetting characteristics of a uniformly heated grooved surface was performed, the results of which are presented in this work. It was found that, for a rewetting fluid of 2-propanol, the rewetting temperature was approx. 93-96 C for the upward-facing case and about 2 C lower for the downwardfacing case. When the initial plate temperature was higher than the rewetting temperature, the rewetting speed decreased with the initial plate temperature. The rewetting speed is also faster in the upward-facing case than in the downward-facing case for the same initial plate temperatures, which indicates a gravitational effect on rewetting. This trend is found to be consistent with the previously investigated end heating condition. The rewetting distance that is predicted by the conduction controlled model is found to be in fair agreement with the experimental data. Also, an apparatus that enables experiments to be performed in a reduced gravitational environment has been built and experiments are currently being performed. The design of this apparatus is presented along with preliminary data.

  20. Hot-spot heating in central-station arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    Hot spot tests performed on the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) verificaton array show that current imbalance occurs, resulting in significant hot spot heating. One cause of current imbalance is differences in the average shunt resistances of parallel cell strings due to cell shunt resistance variations. In depth hot spot tests are performed on the verification array with bypass diodes. The tests had several objectives: (1) a comparison of hot spot temperatures achieved under field conditions with those obtained with the present laboratory hot spot test using similar modules; (2) an assessment of current imbalance versus cross tie frequency; and (3) an assessment of different shadow patterns and shadow densities. Instrumented modules are used to vary the number of cross ties and to measure the test-cell current and back-bias voltage. The widths, lengths, and densities of the shadows are varied to maximize the back bias voltage at maximum power current. An infrared camera is used to indicate the existence of hot spots and estimate temperature increases in conjunction with thermocouples. The results of these hot spot tests indicate a sensitivity of back bias heating to the shadow size (amount of cell coverage) and density.

  1. STS-29 Space station Heat pipe Radiator Element (SHARE) at KSC OPF

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-01-20

    S89-25873 (Nov 1988) --- The Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element (SHARE) is readied for installation in late November at Kennedy Space Center's orbiter processing facility (OPF). The SHARE device will be carried on a pedestel in Discovery's cargo bay during the five-day STS-29 mission, scheduled for a mid-March 1989 launch.

  2. Advanced interface heat exchangers for the Space Station main thermal bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenzuela, Javier A.

    1990-01-01

    Future evolution and growth of the Space Station will place increasing demands on the thermal management system by the addition of new payloads and from increased activity in the habitat modules. To meet this need, Creare is developing advanced evaporators, condensors, and single-phase heat exchangers for operation in microgravity. The objective is to achieve a several-fold increase in the heat flux capability of these components, while operating at the same temperature difference as specified for the present interface heat exchangers. Two prototype interface heat exchangers are presently being developed: one to interface the main thermal bus to a payload two-phase ammonia bus, and the other, to interface with the crew module single-phase water loop. The results achieved to date in the development of these heat exchangers are reviewed.

  3. Test and evaluation of the heat recovery incinerator system at Naval Station, Mayport, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    This report describes test and evaluation of the two-ton/hr heat recovery incinerator (HRI) facility located at Mayport Naval Station, Fla., carried out during November and December 1980. The tests included: (1) Solid Waste: characterization, heating value, and ultimate analysis, (2) Ash: moisture, combustibles, and heating values of both bottom and cyclone ashes; Extraction Procedure toxicity tests on leachates from both bottom and cyclone ashes; trace metals in cyclone particulates, (3) Stack Emissions: particulates (quantity and size distribution), chlorides, oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and trace elements, and (4) Heat and Mass Balance: all measurements required to carry out complete heat and mass balance calculations over the test period. The overall thermal efficiency of the HRI facility while operating at approximately 1.0 ton/hr was found to be 49% when the primary Btu equivalent of the electrical energy consumed during the test program was included.

  4. Technical assessment and environmental improvement of Almaty No. 1 heat and power station

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.S.; Myers, P.T.

    1996-12-31

    Almaty No. 1 Heat and Power Station (BPS) supplies steam for industrial customers and heat and electricity to the residents of Almaty, the capital city of Kazakhstan. Feasibility studies performed by local technical institutes concluded that the aging boilers were soon reaching their end of life. Prior to approval of a loan to Kazakhstan for replacement of two of the boilers, the Asian Development Bank contracted the Tennessee Valley Authority to perform a technical and financial assessment of the power station to determine if continued operation was justified and to recommend a program of boiler equipment rehabilitation and/or replacement to reduce the high level of air pollution in the city. The assessment determined the city had a shortage of 480 Gcal/hr heating supply and a 125 MW deficit in electrical supply. Continued operation of Almaty No. 1 Heat and Power Station (UPS) was justified due to the strategic location of the heat and steam supply, high efficiency of the combined heating and power supply, and the low cost of the investment. The existing plant equipment had exceeded its original design life but the rehabilitation of the existing boilers is not a cost-effective option because of the very stringent emission requirements, low-cost and low-quality coal burning, and the derating requirements. Based on stringent air emission criteria, the most technically and economically viable solution is to replace the existing boiler Nos. 7 and 8 with a single circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler with limestone feed and a baghouse or electrostatic precipitator. The CFB boiler would allow Almatyenergo to burn the low-cost, low-quality coal and meet all the emission requirements.

  5. Turbulence and heat exchange inside the dome room of lidar station. Experiment and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosov, V. V.; Lukin, V. P.; Nosov, E. V.; Torgaev, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    The structure of air turbulent motion inside the dome room - Primary Mirror (diameter 2.2 m) closed shaft at Siberian Lidar Station of V. E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science has been experimentally and theoretically studied. Research is needed to forecast a laser radiation distortion. Results of experiments performed using the ultrasonic compact portable weather station are presented. The main heat exchange directions of air flows inside the shaft are determined. Theoretical results have been obtained by numerical solving of boundary value problem for Navier-Stokes equations. Solitary large vortices (coherent structures, topological solitons) are observed inside the shaft. Coherent decay of such vortices generates the coherent turbulence. It is determined that inside the primary mirror shaft one may expect the weakening of phase fluctuations of optical radiation, and thus improvement the lidar optical imaging. This increases the efficiency of Lidar Station.

  6. Considerations concerning the physical heat-recovery of raw coke-oven gas in an industrial pilot-station

    SciTech Connect

    Paunescu, L.; Gaba, A.

    1998-12-31

    The paper presents the conception and realization obtained by the research team at the Metallurgical Researches Institute in an industrial pilot-station on the field of the physical heat-recovery of raw coke-oven gas.

  7. Heat rate improvement at Sunflower Electric`s Holcomb Station - a programmatic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Linville, C.; Nelson, K.E.; DesJardins, R.R.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the heat rate improvement program implemented at Sunflower Electric Power Corporations Holcomb Generating Station located in Holcomb, Kansas. The Holcomb Station is a large coal-fired generating plant that supplies electricity to Southwestern. Kansas and surrounding states. In 1993, Sunflower Electric (SEPC) established a continuing heat rate improvement program at the Holcomb Station which consisted of a periodic performance test program in combination with continuous on-line monitoring. This paper provides an overview of the test program and initial results and describes a unique approach to monitoring boiler feed pump performance especially suitable for on-line monitoring. implementation of a 15-user LAN-based on-line performance monitoring system is also described. In addition to technical issues, the paper addresses some of the {open_quotes}human factors{close_quotes} encountered while promoting acceptance and use of the on-line monitoring system by all levels of plant personnel. The importance of proper program planning and long term management support is stressed.

  8. Exploring Mbar shock conditions and isochorically heated aluminum at the MEC end station of the LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, L. B.; Lee, H. J.; SLAC, aff; Barbrel, B.; Gauthier, M.; Galtier, E.; Nagler, B.; Doppner, T.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Turnbull, D.; White, T.; Gregori, G.; Wei, M.; Falcone, R. W.; Heimann, P.; Zastrau, U.; Hastings, J. B.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2015-02-05

    Recent experiments performed at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station (MEC) of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have demonstrated the first spectrally resolved measurements of plasmons from isochorically heated aluminum. The experiments have been performed using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam as a pump and probe to both volumetrically heat and scatter x-rays from aluminum. Collective x-ray Thomson scattering spectra show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV. In addition, Mbar shock pressures from laser-compressed aluminum foils using Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) have been measured. The combination of experiments fully demonstrates the possibility to perform warm dense matter studies at the LCLS with unprecedented accuracy and precision.

  9. Characterization of groundwater temperature obtained from the Korean national groundwater monitoring stations: Implications for heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin-Yong; Hahn, Jeong-Sang

    2006-10-01

    SummaryGroundwater is being now seriously considered as heat sources for space heating and cooling in Korea. This study evaluated groundwater temperature data obtained from 266 Korean national groundwater monitoring stations. Spatial distribution of the groundwater temperatures is mainly affected by geographical latitude, air temperature, and local topographic elevations. The distribution pattern for the groundwater temperatures is most similar to that of the air temperature. Annual variations of the groundwater temperatures were classified into four main patterns. The P (periodic) type representing periodic annual variation was mainly found in shallow groundwaters (62.5%). Most peculiar is F (flat) type, in which the groundwater temperatures showed nearly no variation, and was mostly observed in deep wells (47.9%). Water levels are seemingly related to the classifications. Water levels of P or WP (weak periodic) types were shallowest while those of F type were deepest. Magnitude of annual temperature variation was within 8 °C for 76.6% of the shallow wells while 97.1% account for the variation within 8 °C in the deep wells. The highest groundwater temperatures mostly occurred in the coldest months (November-February) and the lowest temperatures in March-June, immediately before the hottest months (July-August). A simple exponential relationship between the amplitude and the phase difference with respect to the air temperature was found, which indicates propagation of the air temperature mainly due to conduction. Considering stability of groundwater temperatures, F type in bedrock aquifers appeared most suitable for the heat pumps in respect to efficient system design and maintenance. For practical application of the groundwater heat pumps, detailed investigation of hydrogeologic conditions and potential environmental changes is required.

  10. Retrofitting the Strogino district heat supply station with construction of a 260-MW combined-cycle power plant (Consisting of two PGU-130 combined-cycle power units)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, V. F.

    2010-02-01

    The retrofitting carried out at the Strogino district heat supply station and the specific features of works accomplished in the course of constructing the thermal power station based on a combined-cycle power plant at the station site are described; the layout solutions for the main building and turbine building are presented, and a comparison of the retrofitted station with the Kolomenskoe and Vnukovo gas turbine-based power stations is given.

  11. Snow temperature profiles and heat fluxes measured on the Greenland crest by an automatic weather station

    SciTech Connect

    Stearns, C.R.; Weidner, G A.

    1992-03-01

    In June 1989 three automatic weather station (AWS) units were installed on the Greenland crest at the GISP2 (78.58 N, 38.46 W, 3265 m) and GRIP (78.57 N, 37.62 W, 3230 m) ice coring sites and at Kenton (72.28 N, 38.80 W, 3185 m), the air sampling site. The purpose of the AWS units is to measure the local meteorological variables, including snow temperatures at various depths, in support of ice coring studies. The AWS units measure wind speed and direction, air temperature, and relative humidity at a nominal height of 3.6 meters, air pressure at the electronics enclosure, and air temperature difference between 3.6 m and 0.5 m. The AWS units at GISP2 and GRIP also measure solar radiation, and seven snow temperatures from the surface to a depth of approximately 4 m in the snow. The data are updated at 10-minute intervals and transmitted to the ARGOS data collection system on board the NOAA series of polar-orbiting satellites. The air temperature and snow temperatures are presented as a function of time for the period from June 8, 1989 to August 31, 1990 and as tautochrones at 30-day intervals. The heat flux into the snow is determined from the daily mean snow temperature between the day after and the day before using the volumetric heat capacity of the snow assuming a snow density of 300 kg m-3. The daily mean heat flux into the snow between the highest and the lowest levels of snow temperature is presented as a function of time.

  12. Common station system for voltage and reactive power regulation at the Mosenergo TETs-27 heating and electric power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnova, M. E.

    2009-05-15

    The system for common station regulation of the voltage and reactive power at the Mosenergo TETs-27 heating and electric power plant is described briefly. Features of the algorithms for this system, which uses programs and instrumentation from the automatic control system for the electrical equipment in the 450 MW power generation unit No. 3, are examined.

  13. Thermal conditions on the International Space Station: Heat flux and temperature investigation of main radiators for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Min; Gao, Jianmin; Wu, Shaohua; Qin, Yukun

    2016-09-01

    The investigation on heat flux can clarify the thermal condition and explain temperature behavior on the main radiators of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS). In this paper, a detailed investigation of heat flux on the AMS main radiators is proposed. The heat transfer process of the AMS main radiators is theoretically analyzed. An updated thermal model of the AMS on the International Space Station (ISS) is developed to calculate the external heat flux density on the AMS main radiators. We conclude the ISS components and operations affect on the solar flux density of the AMS main radiators by reflecting or shading solar illumination. According to the energy conservation on the AMS main radiators, the temperature variation mainly depends on the solar flux change. The investigations are conducive to reference for the long-duration thermal control of the AMS, and knowledge for the thermal conditions on the ISS.

  14. Complex use of waste in wastewater and circulating water treatment from oil in heat power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, L. A.; Iskhakova, R. Ya.

    2017-06-01

    Sewage and circulating water from oil of thermal power plants (TPP) generated in fuel-oil shops during washing of electrical equipment and its running into the storm drainage system from the industrial site has been considered in the paper. It has been suggested to use the carbonate sludge of water treatment modified with hydrophobing emulsion as a sorption material for waste and circulating water treatment in thermal power plants. The carbonate sludge is waste accumulated in clarifiers at the stage of natural water pretreatment. General technical characteristics of the sludge, such as moisture, bulk density, total pore volume, ash, etc., have been determined. It has been found that the sludge without additional treatment is a hydrophilic material that has low adsorption capacity and wettability with nonpolar compounds. Therefore, the sludge is treated with organosilicon compounds to reduce the moisture capacity and increase its floatation. Several types of sorption materials based on the carbonate sludge subjected to surface and volume hydrophobization have been developed. During the volume treatment, the hydrophobing compound has been introduced into the material along with the plastifier. In case of the surface treatment, heat-treated granules have been soaked into hydrophobing emulsion. It has been shown that surface hydrophobization is most economically advantageous, because it reduces the consumption of water-repelling agent, wherein the total pore volume and sorption capacity during surface hydrophobization increase by 45 and 25% compared to that during volume hydrophobization. Based on the obtained results, the most effective sorption material has been chosen. To produce this material, it is necessary to sequentially carry out mixing of carbonate sludge with the binder, granulation, calcination, impregnation with a waterrepellent emulsion, and drying of the finished material. The suggested technology to produce the material and use it as a sorbent allows

  15. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Condensing Heat Exchanger Hydrophilic Coating Failures and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balistreri, Steven F.; Shaw, Laura A.; Laliberte, Yvon

    2010-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The CHX is the primary component responsible for control of temperature and humidity. The CCAA CHX contains a chemical coating that was developed to be hydrophilic and thus attract water from the humid influent air. This attraction forms the basis for water removal and therefore cabin humidity control. However, there have been several instances of CHX coatings becoming hydrophobic and repelling water. When this behavior is observed in an operational CHX, the unit s ability to remove moisture from the air is compromised and the result is liquid water carryover into downstream ducting and systems. This water carryover can have detrimental effects on the cabin atmosphere quality and on the health of downstream hardware. If the water carryover is severe and widespread, this behavior can result in an inability to maintain humidity levels in the USOS. This paper will describe the operation of the five CCAAs within in the USOS, the potential causes of the hydrophobic condition, and the impacts of the resulting water carryover to downstream systems. It will describe the history of this behavior and the actual observed impacts to the ISS USOS. Information on mitigation steps to protect the health of future CHX hydrophilic coatings and potential remediation techniques will also be discussed.

  16. Heat flow in impact melts - Apollo 17 Station 6 Boulder and some applications to other breccias and xenolith laden melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onorato, P. I. K.; Uhlmann, D. R.; Simonds, C. H.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents results of calculations for the cooling of an impact melt, the specific application being the clast-laden sheet sampled in the Apollo 17 Station 6 Boulder. The calculations were carried out using a two-stage cooling model which involves a short initial phase of thermal equilibration between small clasts and the surrounding melt and a second phase of heat loss from the melt sheet to the surroundings.

  17. Implications of temporal change in urban heat island intensity observed at Beijing and Wuhan stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, G. Y.; Chu, Z. Y.; Chen, Z. H.; Ren, Y. Y.

    2007-03-01

    Temporal change in urbanization-induced warming at two national basic meteorological stations of China and its contribution to the overall warming are analyzed. Annual and seasonal mean surface air temperature for time periods of 1961~2000 and 1981~2000 at the two stations of Beijing and Wuhan Cities and their nearby rural stations all significantly increase. Annual and seasonal urbanization-induced warming for the two periods at Beijing and Wuhan stations is also generally significant, with the annual urban warming accounting for about 65~80% of the overall warming in 1961~2000 and about 40~61% of the overall warming in 1981~2000. This result along with the previous researches indicates a need to pay more attention to the urbanization-induced bias probably existing in the current surface air temperature records of the national basic stations.

  18. High-heat-load synchrotron tests of room-temperature, silicon crystal monochromators at the CHESS F-2 wiggler station

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.K.; Fernandez, P.B.; Graber, T.; Assoufid, L.

    1995-09-08

    This note summarizes the results of the single crystal monochromator high-heat-load tests performed at the CHESS F-2 wiggler station. The results from two different cooling geometries are presented: (1) the ``pin-post`` crystal and (2) the ``criss-cross`` crystal. The data presented were taken in August 1993 (water-cooled pin-post) and in April 1995 (water- and gallium-cooled pin-post crystal and gallium-cooled criss-cross crystal). The motivation for trying these cooling (or heat exchanger) geometries is to improve the heat transfer efficiency over that of the conventional slotted crystals. Calculations suggest that the pin-post or the microchannel design can significantly improve the thermal performance of the crystal. The pin-post crystal used here was fabricated by Rocketdyne Albuquerque Operations. From the performance of the conventional slotted crystals, it was thought that increased turbulence in the flow pattern may also enhance the heat transfer. The criss-cross crystal was a simple attempt to achieve the increased flow turbulence. The criss-cross crystal was partly fabricated in-house (cutting, etching and polishing) and bonded by RAO. Finally, a performance comparison among all the different room temperature silicon monochromators that have been tested by the APS is presented. The data includes measurements with the slotted crystal and the core-drilled crystals. Altogether, the data presented here were taken at the CHESS F-2 wiggler station between 1991 and 1995.

  19. Modelling the performance of the tapered artery heat pipe design for use in the radiator of the solar dynamic power system of the NASA Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Austin Lewis

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents a computer program developed to model the steady-state performance of the tapered artery heat pipe for use in the radiator of the solar dynamic power system of the NASA Space Station. The program solves six governing equations to ascertain which one is limiting the maximum heat transfer rate of the heat pipe. The present model appeared to be slightly better than the LTV model in matching the 1-g data for the standard 15-ft test heat pipe.

  20. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Station, Kansas City, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    This document is the final report of the solar energy heating and hot water system installed at the Kansas City Fire Station, Number 24, 2309 Hardesty Street, Kansas City, Missouri. The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1428 cubic feet of 1/2 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71 1/2 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120-gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30-kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation. This project is part of the Department of Energy PON-1 Solar Demonstration Program with DOE cost sharing $154,282 of the $174,372 solar system cost. The Final Design Review was held March 1977, the system became operational March 1979 and acceptance test was completed in September 1979.

  1. Optimization of the thermodynamic cycles of a collective heating power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, G.

    The optimization of the centralized heating system of a city was studied. Modifications of the heating circuit increase the electric power characteristic from 0.20 to 0.37. A program for the calculation of the changes in the thermodynamic cyclic due to these modifications is presented.

  2. Heat-physical properties of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avduyevskiy, V. S.; Anfimov, N. A.; Marov, M. Y.; Treskin, Y. A.; Shalayev, S. P.; Ekonomov, A. P.

    1974-01-01

    Density, specific heat capacity, and coefficient of thermal conductivity were studied on a sample of lunar surface material returned by the Luna 16 automatic station. The study was carried out in a helium-filled chamber. The density of the surface material when freely heaped was 1.2 g/cu cm, and when shaken down -- 1.7 g/cu cm. The specific heat capacity was 0.177 + or - 0.010 cal x g/1 x deg/1. The coefficient of thermal conductivity in the material was 4.8 x 10/6 + or - 1.2 x 10/6 cal x cm/1 x sec/1 x deg/1.

  3. Heat Production During Countermeasure Exercises Planned for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapley, Michael G.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Guilliams, Mark E.; Greenisen, Michael C.; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation's purpose was to determine the amount of heat produced when performing aerobic and resistance exercises planned as part of the exercise countermeasures prescription for the ISS. These data will be used to determine thermal control requirements of the Node 1 and other modules where exercise hardware might reside. To determine heat production during resistive exercise, 6 subjects using the iRED performed 5 resistance exercises which form the core exercises of the current ISS resistive exercise countermeasures. Each exerciser performed a warm-up set at 50% effort, then 3 sets of increasing resistance. We measured oxygen consumption and work during each exercise. Heat loss was calculated as the difference between the gross energy expenditure (minus resting metabolism) and the work performed. To determine heat production during aerobic exercise, 14 subjects performed an interval, cycle exercise protocol and 7 subjects performed a continuous, treadmill protocol. Each 30-min. exercise is similar to exercises planned for ISS. Oxygen consumption monitored continuously during the exercises was used to calculate the gross energy expenditure. For cycle exercise, work performed was calculated based on the ergometer's resistance setting and pedaling frequency. For treadmill, total work was estimated by assuming 25% work efficiency and subtracting the calculated heat production and resting metabolic rate from the gross energy expenditure. This heat production needs to be considered when determining the location of exercise hardware on ISS and designing environmental control systems. These values reflect only the human subject s produced heat; heat produced by the exercise hardware also will contribute to the heat load.

  4. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Stations, Kansas City, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8,800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2,808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1,428 cubic feet of 0.5 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71.5 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120 gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30 kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation.

  5. Underground nuclear power station using self-regulating heat-pipe controlled reactors

    DOEpatents

    Hampel, Viktor E.

    1989-01-01

    A nuclear reactor for generating electricity is disposed underground at the bottom of a vertical hole that can be drilled using conventional drilling technology. The primary coolant of the reactor core is the working fluid in a plurality of thermodynamically coupled heat pipes emplaced in the hole between the heat source at the bottom of the hole and heat exchange means near the surface of the earth. Additionally, the primary coolant (consisting of the working flud in the heat pipes in the reactor core) moderates neutrons and regulates their reactivity, thus keeping the power of the reactor substantially constant. At the end of its useful life, the reactor core may be abandoned in place. Isolation from the atmosphere in case of accident or for abandonment is provided by the operation of explosive closures and mechanical valves emplaced along the hole. This invention combines technology developed and tested for small, highly efficient, space-based nuclear electric power plants with the technology of fast-acting closure mechanisms developed and used for underground testing of nuclear weapons. This invention provides a nuclear power installation which is safe from the worst conceivable reactor accident, namely, the explosion of a nuclear weapon near the ground surface of a nuclear power reactor.

  6. 11-Year cyclicity of the near-surface heat flux at the Vostok station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volobuev, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    It is known that the solar component is difficult to find in a climatic signal due to its small size and significant internal random disturbances of the climatic system, such as variations in cloudiness, precipitation, winds, and oceanic currents. In the center of the polar cap, these disturbances are as minimal as possible; therefore, solving the inverse heat conduction problem, we can calculate the informative heat flux through the ice cover based on temperature data. Variations in the heat flux are quite significant in amplitude (0.2-0.3 W/m2) and coincide with the 11-year solar cycle in phase. Application of this approach to the indices of the global and sea surface temperatures cannot yield a solar signal, yet it can be traced for solar cycles with big amplitude (cycles 19 and 21). Thus, the found variation in the heat flux is most probably caused by a change in the solar constant (TSI); however, other mechanisms are also possible.

  7. An underground nuclear power station using self-regulating heat-pipe controlled reactors

    DOEpatents

    Hampel, V.E.

    1988-05-17

    A nuclear reactor for generating electricity is disposed underground at the bottom of a vertical hole that can be drilled using conventional drilling technology. The primary coolant of the reactor core is the working fluid in a plurality of thermodynamically coupled heat pipes emplaced in the hole between the heat source at the bottom of the hole and heat exchange means near the surface of the earth. Additionally, the primary coolant (consisting of the working fluid in the heat pipes in the reactor core) moderates neutrons and regulates their reactivity, thus keeping the power of the reactor substantially constant. At the end of its useful life, the reactor core may be abandoned in place. Isolation from the atmosphere in case of accident or for abandonment is provided by the operation of explosive closures and mechanical valves emplaced along the hole. This invention combines technology developed and tested for small, highly efficient, space-based nuclear electric power plants with the technology of fast- acting closure mechanisms developed and used for underground testing of nuclear weapons. This invention provides a nuclear power installation which is safe from the worst conceivable reactor accident, namely, the explosion of a nuclear weapon near the ground surface of a nuclear power reactor. 5 figs.

  8. Structural assessment of a Space Station solar dynamic heat receiver thermal energy storage canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, M. T.; Kerslake, T. W.; Thompson, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper assesses the structural performance of a Space Station thermal energy storage (TES) canister subject to orbital solar flux variation and engine cold start-up operating conditions. The impact of working fluid temperature and salt-void distribution on the canister structure are assessed. Both analytical and experimental studies were conducted to determine the temperature distribution of the canister. Subsequent finite-element structural analyses of the canister were performed using both analytically and experimentally obtained temperatures. The Arrhenius creep law was incorporated into the procedure, using secondary creep data for the canister material, Haynes-188 alloy. The predicted cyclic creep strain accumulations at the hot spot were used to assess the structural performance of the canister. In addition, the structural performance of the canister based on the analytically-determined temperature was compared with that based on the experimentally-measured temperature data.

  9. Structural assessment of a space station solar dynamic heat receiver thermal energy storage canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. L.; Kerslake, T. W.; Tong, M. T.

    1988-01-01

    The structural performance of a space station thermal energy storage (TES) canister subject to orbital solar flux variation and engine cold start up operating conditions was assessed. The impact of working fluid temperature and salt-void distribution on the canister structure are assessed. Both analytical and experimental studies were conducted to determine the temperature distribution of the canister. Subsequent finite element structural analyses of the canister were performed using both analytically and experimentally obtained temperatures. The Arrhenius creep law was incorporated into the procedure, using secondary creep data for the canister material, Haynes 188 alloy. The predicted cyclic creep strain accumulations at the hot spot were used to assess the structural performance of the canister. In addition, the structural performance of the canister based on the analytically determined temperature was compared with that based on the experimentally measured temperature data.

  10. Structural assessment of a Space Station solar dynamic heat receiver thermal energy storage canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, M. T.; Kerslake, T. W.; Thompson, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper assesses the structural performance of a Space Station thermal energy storage (TES) canister subject to orbital solar flux variation and engine cold start-up operating conditions. The impact of working fluid temperature and salt-void distribution on the canister structure are assessed. Both analytical and experimental studies were conducted to determine the temperature distribution of the canister. Subsequent finite-element structural analyses of the canister were performed using both analytically and experimentally obtained temperatures. The Arrhenius creep law was incorporated into the procedure, using secondary creep data for the canister material, Haynes-188 alloy. The predicted cyclic creep strain accumulations at the hot spot were used to assess the structural performance of the canister. In addition, the structural performance of the canister based on the analytically-determined temperature was compared with that based on the experimentally-measured temperature data.

  11. Organic Rankine Cycle for Residual Heat to Power Conversion in Natural Gas Compressor Station. Part I: Modelling and Optimisation Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaczykowski, Maciej

    2016-06-01

    Basic organic Rankine cycle (ORC), and two variants of regenerative ORC have been considered for the recovery of exhaust heat from natural gas compressor station. The modelling framework for ORC systems has been presented and the optimisation of the systems was carried out with turbine power output as the variable to be maximized. The determination of ORC system design parameters was accomplished by means of the genetic algorithm. The study was aimed at estimating the thermodynamic potential of different ORC configurations with several working fluids employed. The first part of this paper describes the ORC equipment models which are employed to build a NLP formulation to tackle design problems representative for waste energy recovery on gas turbines driving natural gas pipeline compressors.

  12. Microbiological Contamination at Workplaces in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Station Processing Plant Biomass.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Sulyok, Michael; Gutarowska, Beata

    2017-01-21

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP). We found 2.42 × 10³ CFU/m³ of bacteria and 1.37 × 10⁴ CFU/m³ of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 10⁷ CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 10⁵ CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 10² CFU/cm² bacteria and 2.39 × 10¹ CFU/cm² fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs. Metagenomic analysis (Illumina MiSeq) revealed the presence of 46 bacterial and 5 fungal genera on the FFRs, including potential pathogens Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Prevotella sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.). The ability of microorganisms to create a biofilm on the FFRs was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also identified secondary metabolites in the biomass and FFRs, including fumigaclavines, quinocitrinines, sterigmatocistin, and 3-nitropropionic acid, which may be toxic to humans. Due to the presence of potential pathogens and mycotoxins, the level of microbiological contamination at workplaces in CHPs should be monitored.

  13. Microbiological Contamination at Workplaces in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Station Processing Plant Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Szulc, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Sulyok, Michael; Gutarowska, Beata

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP). We found 2.42 × 103 CFU/m3 of bacteria and 1.37 × 104 CFU/m3 of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 107 CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 105 CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 102 CFU/cm2 bacteria and 2.39 × 101 CFU/cm2 fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs. Metagenomic analysis (Illumina MiSeq) revealed the presence of 46 bacterial and 5 fungal genera on the FFRs, including potential pathogens Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Prevotella sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.). The ability of microorganisms to create a biofilm on the FFRs was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also identified secondary metabolites in the biomass and FFRs, including fumigaclavines, quinocitrinines, sterigmatocistin, and 3-nitropropionic acid, which may be toxic to humans. Due to the presence of potential pathogens and mycotoxins, the level of microbiological contamination at workplaces in CHPs should be monitored. PMID:28117709

  14. Observations of Under-Ice Heat and Momentum Fluxes from Drift Stations North of Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, A.; Fer, I.; McPhee, M.

    2016-02-01

    Unique measurements of under-ice turbulence were made from multiple drifting ice camps north of Svalbard in the winter and spring of 2015. Reynolds stresses and heat flux under the ice were measured by a mast holding two turbulence instrument clusters, measuring high frequency fluctuations of temperature and currents. Frequent ocean microstructure profiling down to 300m supplements the flux measurements. Spanning nearly half a year, the data set comprises observations of cold winter freezing conditions, winter storms and rapid melt events in spring. The camp drifted over the deep Nansen basin, across the shelf break onto the Yermak plateau and into the marginal ice zone, covering both quiescent mid-basin and more energetic mixing over the shelf break and plateau. Results obtained from these observations will be presented, providing new insight into processes of vertical mixing in the ice-ocean boundary layer in a region where underlying warm Atlantic-originating water threatens the shrinking ice cover.

  15. Assessment of the performance of the drag and bulk transfer method in estimating sensible and latent heat fluxes in a tropical station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeniyi, Mojisola Oluwayemisi; Ogunsola, Oluseyi E.

    2012-02-01

    The performance of the general bulk formulation in estimating sensible heat flux at Nigerian Micrometeorological Experimental site was assessed. Reliable sensible heat flux was estimated with the use of accurate diurnal values of transfer coefficient of sensible heat. The performances of one α, two β and a modified α formulations in the estimation of latent heat flux were also assessed at the station. The Lee and Pielke ( β), modified Kondo ( α), Jacquemin and Noilhan ( α) and Noilhan and Planton ( β) parameterizations gave good estimation of latent heat flux. The coefficient of determination ( R 2) of the models between measured and estimated values were greater than 0.7. Low diurnal mean absolute error and root mean squared error values were found between measured and estimated fluxes. All the parameterizations gave reliable latent heat flux when diurnal values of transfer coefficients of moisture were used.

  16. Implications of climate change on the heat budget of lentic systems used for power station cooling: Case study Clinton Lake, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quijano, Juan C; Jackson, P. Ryan; Santacruz, Santiago; Morales, Viviana M; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2016-01-01

    We use a numerical model to analyze the impact of climate change--in particular higher air temperatures--on a nuclear power station that recirculates the water from a reservoir for cooling. The model solves the hydrodynamics, the transfer of heat in the reservoir, and the energy balance at the surface. We use the numerical model to (i) quantify the heat budget in the reservoir and determine how this budget is affected by the combined effect of the power station and climate change and (ii) quantify the impact of climate change on both the downstream thermal pollution and the power station capacity. We consider four different scenarios of climate change. Results of simulations show that climate change will reduce the ability to dissipate heat to the atmosphere and therefore the cooling capacity of the reservoir. We observed an increase of 25% in the thermal load downstream of the reservoir, and a reduction in the capacity of the power station of 18% during the summer months for the worst-case climate change scenario tested. These results suggest that climate change is an important threat for both the downstream thermal pollution and the generation of electricity by power stations that use lentic systems for cooling.

  17. Implications of Climate Change on the Heat Budget of Lentic Systems Used for Power Station Cooling: Case Study Clinton Lake, Illinois.

    PubMed

    Quijano, Juan C; Jackson, P Ryan; Santacruz, Santiago; Morales, Viviana M; García, Marcelo H

    2016-01-05

    We use a numerical model to analyze the impact of climate change-in particular higher air temperatures-on a nuclear power station that recirculates the water from a reservoir for cooling. The model solves the hydrodynamics, the transfer of heat in the reservoir, and the energy balance at the surface. We use the numerical model to (i) quantify the heat budget in the reservoir and determine how this budget is affected by the combined effect of the power station and climate change and (ii) quantify the impact of climate change on both the downstream thermal pollution and the power station capacity. We consider four different scenarios of climate change. Results of simulations show that climate change will reduce the ability to dissipate heat to the atmosphere and therefore the cooling capacity of the reservoir. We observed an increase of 25% in the thermal load downstream of the reservoir, and a reduction in the capacity of the power station of 18% during the summer months for the worst-case climate change scenario tested. These results suggest that climate change is an important threat for both the downstream thermal pollution and the generation of electricity by power stations that use lentic systems for cooling.

  18. Impacte of water treatment plant performance on station heat-rate

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, M.; Johnson, C.

    1995-06-01

    Boiler 100 is a Babcock & Wilcox Co. radiant boiler erected in 1950 to provide steam to a Westinghouse 60 MW Non-condensing turbine and the Steam Distribution System within New York City. The boiler operates at 1500 psi and is rated for 1,100,000 lbs/hr continuous steam flow or 1,400,000 lbs/hr maximum steam flow. The boiler operators with 100% makeup water supplied by a demineralization plant with carbon filters and 3 cation - anion trains. The feedwater source is New York City water. The water treatment plant lacks capability for removal of non-reactive silica. Non-reactive silica concentration varies seasonally in New York City water. This paper examines the uncontrollable losses associated with boiler flowdown required for removal of reactive silica. The paper describes in detail, the diagnoses of water treatment equipment performance problems and the resulting impact on boiler performance. This is done by examining real data taken during a period in early 1992 when boilerwater filica levels and blowdown quantities were unusually high. The paper discusses plant improvements and the resulting heat-rate changes. The improvements included resin replacement, increased instrumentation, and improved water treatment plant operation.

  19. Optimization of the calibration graph for the determination of anions in the heat carrier of a nuclear power station by two-column ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Bragina, N.V.; Karpyuk, A.D.

    1995-10-01

    Methods upgrading the reliability of analyzing Cl{sup -} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions in the heat carrier of a nuclear power station are considered. The use of a multilevel calibration plot and eluent-modifying additives is shown to provide reliable determination of the above-mentioned ions in the range of 0.5-20 {mu}g/liter.

  20. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Condensing Heat Exchanger Hydrophilic Coating Operation, Recovery, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balistreri, Steven F.; Steele, John W.; Caron, Mark E.; Laliberte, Yvon J.; Shaw, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The CHX is the primary component responsible for control of temperature and humidity. The CCAA CHX contains a chemical coating that was developed to be hydrophilic and thus attract water from the humid influent air. This attraction forms the basis for water removal and therefore cabin humidity control. However, there have been several instances of CHX coatings becoming hydrophobic and repelling water. When this behavior is observed in an operational CHX in the ISS segments, the unit s ability to remove moisture from the air is compromised and the result is liquid water carryover into downstream ducting and systems. This water carryover can have detrimental effects on the ISS cabin atmosphere quality and on the health of downstream hardware. If the water carryover is severe and widespread, this behavior can result in an inability to maintain humidity levels in the USOS. This paper will describe the operation of the five CCAAs within the USOS, the potential causes of the hydrophobic condition, and the impacts of the resulting water carryover to downstream systems. It will describe the history of this behavior and the actual observed impacts to the ISS USOS. Information on mitigation steps to protect the health of future CHX hydrophilic coatings as well as remediation and recovery of the full heat exchanger will be

  1. Relationship between Surface Urban Heat Island intensity and sensible heat flux retrieved from meteorological parameters observed by road weather stations in urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawuć, Lech

    2017-04-01

    Urban Heat Island (UHI) is a direct consequence of altered energy balance in urban areas (Oke 1982). There has been a significant effort put into an understanding of air temperature variability in urban areas and underlying mechanisms (Arnfield 2003, Grimmond 2006, Stewart 2011, Barlow 2014). However, studies that are concerned on surface temperature are less frequent. Therefore, Voogt & Oke (2003) proposed term "Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI)", which is analogical to UHI and it is defined as a difference in land surface temperature (LST) between urban and rural areas. SUHI is a phenomenon that is not only concerned with high spatial variability, but also with high temporal variability (Weng and Fu 2014). In spite of the fact that satellite remote sensing techniques give a full spatial pattern over a vast area, such measurements are strictly limited to cloudless conditions during a satellite overpass (Sobrino et al., 2012). This significantly reduces the availability and applicability of satellite LST observations, especially over areas and seasons with high cloudiness occurrence. Also, the surface temperature is influenced by synoptic conditions (e.g., wind and humidity) (Gawuc & Struzewska 2016). Hence, utilising single observations is not sufficient to obtain a full image of spatiotemporal variability of urban LST and SUHI intensity (Gawuc & Struzewska 2016). One of the possible solutions would be a utilisation of time-series of LST data, which could be useful to monitor the UHI growth of individual cities and thus, to reveal the impact of urbanisation on local climate (Tran et al., 2006). The relationship between UHI and synoptic conditions have been summarised by Arnfield (2003). However, similar analyses conducted for urban LST and SUHI are lacking. We will present analyses of the relationship between time series of remotely-sensed LST and SUHI intensity and in-situ meteorological observations collected by road weather stations network, namely: road surface

  2. Application of High-Speed Infrared Imaging to Study Transient Joule Heating in Station Class Zinc Oxide Surge Arresters

    SciTech Connect

    Dinwiddie, R. B.; Wang, H.; Johnnerfelt, B.

    2004-03-15

    Zinc Oxide based surge arresters are widely used to safeguard and improve reliability of the electrical power delivering and transmission systems. The primary application of surge arresters is to protect valuable components such as transformers from lightning strikes and switching transients in the transmission lines. Metal-oxide-varistor blocks (MOV, e.g. ZnO) are used in surge arrester assemblies. ORNL has developed an advanced infrared imaging technique to monitor the joule heating during transient heating of small varistors. In a recent short-term R&D effort, researchers from ABB and ORNL have expanded the use of IR imaging to larger station-class arrester blocks. An on-site visit to the ABB facility demonstrated that the use of IR imaging is not only feasible but also has the potential to improve arrester quality and reliability. The ASEA Brown Bower (ABB) Power and Technology & Development Company located at Greensburg PA having benefited from collaborative R&D cooperation with ORNL. ABB has decided a follow-on CRADA project is very important. While the previous efforts to study surge arresters included broader studies of IR imaging and computer modeling, ABB has recognized the potential of IR imaging, decided to focus on this particular area. ABB plans to use this technique to systematically study the possible defects in the arrester fabrication process. ORNL will improve the real-time monitoring capability and provide analysis of the infrared images. More importantly, the IR images will help us understand transient heating in a ceramic material from the scientific standpoint. With the improved IR imaging ABB and ORNL will employ the IR system to visualize manufacturing defects that could not be detected otherwise. The proposed on-site tests at ABB Power Technology & Development processing facility will identify the defects and also allow quick adjustments to be made since the resulting products can be inspected immediately. ABB matched the DOE $50K funding

  3. Indian summer heat wave of 2015: a biometeorological analysis using half hourly automatic weather station data with special reference to Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Sarath Chandran, M A; Subba Rao, A V M; Sandeep, V M; Pramod, V P; Pani, P; Rao, V U M; Visha Kumari, V; Srinivasa Rao, Ch

    2017-06-01

    Heat wave is a hazardous weather-related extreme event that affects living beings. The 2015 summer heat wave affected many regions in India and caused the death of 2248 people across the country. An attempt has been made to quantify the intensity and duration of heat wave that resulted in high mortality across the country. Half hourly Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET), based on a complete heat budget of human body, was estimated using automatic weather station (AWS) data of four locations in Andhra Pradesh state, where the maximum number of deaths was reported. The heat wave characterization using PET revealed that extreme heat load conditions (PET >41) existed in all the four locations throughout May during 2012-2015, with varying intensity. The intensity and duration of heat waves characterized by "area under the curve" method showed good results for Srikakulam and Undi locations. Variations in PET during each half an hour were estimated. Such studies will help in fixing thresholds for defining heat waves, designing early warning systems, etc.

  4. Indian summer heat wave of 2015: a biometeorological analysis using half hourly automatic weather station data with special reference to Andhra Pradesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarath Chandran, M. A.; Subba Rao, A. V. M.; Sandeep, V. M.; Pramod, V. P.; Pani, P.; Rao, V. U. M.; Visha Kumari, V.; Srinivasa Rao, Ch

    2016-12-01

    Heat wave is a hazardous weather-related extreme event that affects living beings. The 2015 summer heat wave affected many regions in India and caused the death of 2248 people across the country. An attempt has been made to quantify the intensity and duration of heat wave that resulted in high mortality across the country. Half hourly Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET), based on a complete heat budget of human body, was estimated using automatic weather station (AWS) data of four locations in Andhra Pradesh state, where the maximum number of deaths was reported. The heat wave characterization using PET revealed that extreme heat load conditions (PET >41) existed in all the four locations throughout May during 2012-2015, with varying intensity. The intensity and duration of heat waves characterized by "area under the curve" method showed good results for Srikakulam and Undi locations. Variations in PET during each half an hour were estimated. Such studies will help in fixing thresholds for defining heat waves, designing early warning systems, etc.

  5. Development and investigations of compact heat-transfer equipment for a nuclear power station equipped with a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovko, V. F.; Dmitrieva, I. V.; Kodochigov, N. G.; Bykh, O. A.

    2013-07-01

    The project of a nuclear power station the reactor coolant system of which includes a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor combined with a gas-turbine energy conversion unit supposes the use of high-efficient gas-cycle-based heat-transfer equipment. An analysis aimed at selecting the optimal heat-transfer surfaces is presented together with the results from their calculated and experimental investigation. The design features of recuperators arranged integrally with end and intermediate coolers and placed in a vertical sealed high-pressure vessel of limited sizes are considered.

  6. A test program for predicting and monitoring the emergency diesel generator heat exchangers at Limerick Generating Station and Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.J.; Fusegni, L.J.; McFarland, W.J.; Andreone, C.F.

    1995-12-31

    The USNRC issued Generic Letter 89-13, ``Service Water Problems Affecting Safety-Related Equipment`` to all nuclear power plant licensees which requires the implementation of a program to ensure that nuclear safety-related heat exchangers are capable of performing their intended functions. The heat exchangers on the standby emergency diesel generator (EDG) skids are covered by this requirement. PECo and SWEC have developed a program of testing and analysis to monitor the level of fouling in the EDG`s at the Limerick and Peach Bottom nuclear power plants in response to the Generic Letter. The development of an EDG heat exchanger test program is significantly more complex than for most other heat exchangers. This is because the process fluid flows are controlled by self-modulating thermostatic valves to maintain proper process temperature setpoints. As a result, under some test conditions the process flows may be reduced to as little as 20% of their design values. Flow changes of this magnitude significantly affect the performance of the coolers and obscure observation of the effects of fouling if not properly addressed. This paper describes the methods developed by PECo and SWEC to address this problem.

  7. Characterization of PAHs within PM 10 fraction for ashes from coke production, iron smelt, heating station and power plant stacks in Liaoning Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Shaofei; Shi, Jianwu; Lu, Bing; Qiu, Weiguang; Zhang, Baosheng; Peng, Yue; Zhang, Bowen; Bai, Zhipeng

    2011-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons within PM 10 fraction of ashes from two coke production plants, one iron smelt plant, one heating station and one power plant were analyzed with GC-MS technique in 2009. The sum of 17 selected PAHs varied from 290.20 to 7055.72 μg/g and the amounts of carcinogenic PAHs were between 140.33 and 3345.46 μg/g. The most toxic ash was from the coke production plants and then from the iron smelt plant, coal-fired power plant and heating station according to BaP-based toxic equivalent factor (BaPeq) and BaP-based equivalent carcinogenic power (BaPE). PAHs profile of the iron smelt ash was significantly different from others with coefficient of divergence value higher than 0.40. Indicatory PAHs for coke production plants, heating station and coal-fired power plant were mainly 3-ring species such as Acy, Fl and Ace. While for iron smelt plant, they were Chr and BbF. Diagnostic ratios including Ant/(Ant + Phe), Flu/(Flu + Pyr), BaA/Chr, BbF/BkF, Ind/BghiP, IND/(IND + BghiP), BaP/BghiP, BaP/COR, Pyr/BaP, BaA/(BaA + Chr), BaA/BaP and BaP/(BaP + Chr) were calculated which were mostly different from other stacks for the iron smelt plant.

  8. Emission and profile characteristic of volatile organic compounds emitted from coke production, iron smelt, heating station and power plant in Liaoning Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianwu; Deng, Hao; Bai, Zhipeng; Kong, Shaofei; Wang, Xiuyan; Hao, Jiming; Han, Xinyu; Ning, Ping

    2015-05-15

    107 kinds of C₂-C₁₂ volatile organic compound (VOC) mass concentrations and profiles for four types of coal-fired stationary sources in Liaoning Province were studied by a dilution sampling system and GC-MS analysis method, which are of significant importance with regard to VOC emissions in northeast of China. The results showed that there were some differences among these VOC source profiles. The total mass concentrations of analyzed 107 VOC species varied from 10,917 to 19,652 μg m(-3). Halogenated hydrocarbons exhibited higher mass percentages for the VOC source profiles of iron smelt (48.8%) and coke production plant (37.7%). Aromatic hydrocarbons were the most abundant in heating station plant (69.1%). Ketones, alcohols and acetates held 45.0% of total VOCs in thermal power plant. For non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), which are demanded for photochemical assessment in the USA, toluene and n-hexane were the most abundant species in the iron smelt, coke production and thermal power plant, with the mass percentages of 64.8%, 52.7% and 38.6%, respectively. Trimethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene and o,m-ethyltoluene approximately accounted for 70.0% in heating station plant. NMHCs emitted from coke production, iron smelt, heating station and power plant listed above presented different chemical reactivities. The average OH loss rate of NMHCs from heating station, was 4 to 5.6 times higher than that of NMHCs from iron smelt, coke production and power plant, which implies that VOCs emitted from heating station in northeast of China should be controlled firstly to avoid photochemical ozone pollution and protect human health. There are significant variations in the ratios of benzene/toluene and m, p-xylene/ethylbenzene of these coal-fired source profiles. The representativeness of the coal-fired sources studied and the VOC samples collected should be more closely examined. The accuracy of VOC source profiles related to coal-fired processes is highly dependent on

  9. Modelling the performance of the monogroove with screen heat pipe for use in the radiator of the solar dynamic power system of the NASA Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Austin Lewis

    1987-01-01

    A computer code to model the steady-state performance of a monogroove heat pipe for the NASA Space Station is presented, including the effects on heat pipe performance of a screen in the evaporator section which deals with transient surges in the heat input. Errors in a previous code have been corrected, and the new code adds additional loss terms in order to model several different working fluids. Good agreement with existing performance curves is obtained. From a preliminary evaluation of several of the radiator design parameters it is found that an optimum fin width could be achieved but that structural considerations limit the thickness of the fin to a value above optimum.

  10. The Effects of Heat Exchange and Thermal Advection on the Rate of Change of Temperature at Ocean Weather Station NOVEMBER.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The effects of heat exchange across the sea surface and heat advection on the observed rate of change of temperature were examined using a physical...NOVEMBER during 1954 through 1970 were used. A three-dimensional plot of the annual variations of the monthly means of observed rate of change of...temperature produced three distinct trends. Heat exchange primarily contributed to the modification of the observed rate of change of temperature during the

  11. Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Performance Predictions for an International Space Station Node 3 Internal Active Thermal Control System Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Stephen A.; Holt, James M.

    2002-01-01

    The complexity of International Space Station (ISS) systems modeling often necessitates the concurrence of various dissimilar, parallel analysis techniques to validate modeling. This was the case with a feasibility and performance study of the ISS Node 3 Regenerative Heat Exchanger (RHX). A thermo-hydraulic network model was created and analyzed in SINDA/FLUINT. A less complex, closed form solution of the systems dynamics was created using an Excel Spreadsheet. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the modeling processes utilized, the results and benefits of each to the ISS Node 3 RHX study.

  12. Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Performance Predictions for a Regenerative Heat Exchanger in the International Space Station Node 3 Internal Active Thermal Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Stephen A.; Holt, James M.; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The complexity of International Space Station (ISS) systems modeling often necessitates the concurrence of various dissimilar, parallel analysis techniques to validate modeling. This was the case with a feasibility and performance study of the ISS Node 3 Regenerative Heat Exchanger (RHX). A thermo-hydraulic network model was created and analyzed in SINDA/FLUINT. A less complex, closed form solution of the system dynamics was created using Excel. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the modeling processes utilized, the results and benefits of each to the ISS Node 3 RHX study.

  13. The state of permafrost surrounding "Gabriel de Castilla" Spanish Antarctic Station (Deception Island, Antarctica): Studying the possible degradation due to the infrastructures heating effect.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recio, Cayetana; Ángel de Pablo, MIguel; Ramos, MIguel; Molina, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Permafrost degradation is one of the effects of the global warming. Many studies reveal the increase of active layer and reduction on permafrost table thickness, also in Antarctica. However, these trends on permafrost can be accelerated by the human activities, as the heating produced by the Antarctic stations infrastructures when they are not properly isolated from the ground. In Deception island, South Shetland Archipelago, we started 3 years ago a monitoring program at the 26 years old "Gabriel de Castilla" Spanish Antarctic Station (SAS), It is focused on charactering the state of permafrost, since in the coastal scarps at tens of meters from the station an increase on erosion had been detected. Although the main cause of the erosion of this coastal volcanoclastic materials is the 2 meters thick icefield which forms during the winter in the inner sea of this volcanic island, we want to detect any possible contribution to the coastal erosion caused by the permafrost degradation related to the SAS presence. We present our preliminary analysis based on three years of continuous ground temperature data, monitored at a shallow borehole (70 cm deep) in the SAS edge, together with the active layer thickness measured around the station and their vicinities in two thawing seasons. We complete this study with the analysis of the continuous temperature data taken inside the SAS and the air and ground temperatures below the station, acquired during the last Antarctic Campaign (December 2014-February 2015). These preliminary results are fundamental 1) to discard any contribution from the SAS presence, and to help to improve its thermal isolation, 2) to help improve our knowledge about the thermal state of permafrost in the area, and 3) to help to understand the causes of the coastal erosion in the volcanic Deception Island.

  14. Exploring Mbar shock conditions and isochorically heated aluminum at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE PAGES

    Doppner, T.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; ...

    2014-08-11

    Recent experiments performed at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have demonstrated the first spectrally resolved measurements of plasmons from isochorically heated aluminum. The experiments have been performed using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam as a pump and probe to both volumetrically heat and scatterx-rays from aluminum. Collective x-ray Thomson scattering spectra show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV. In addition, Mbar shock pressures from laser-compressed aluminum foils using velocity interferometer system for any reflector have been measured. Furthermore, the combination of experiments fully demonstratesmore » the possibility to perform warm dense matter studies at the LCLS with unprecedented accuracy and precision.« less

  15. Exploring Mbar shock conditions and isochorically heated aluminum at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Doppner, T.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Turnbull, D.; Fletcher, L. B.; Lee, H. J.; Galtier, E.; Nagler, B.; Gauthier, M.; Heimann, P.; Hastings, J. B.; Zastrau, U.; Glenzer, S. H.; White, T.; Gregori, G.; Wei, M.; Barbrel, B.; Falcone, R. W.

    2014-08-11

    Recent experiments performed at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have demonstrated the first spectrally resolved measurements of plasmons from isochorically heated aluminum. The experiments have been performed using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam as a pump and probe to both volumetrically heat and scatterx-rays from aluminum. Collective x-ray Thomson scattering spectra show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV. In addition, Mbar shock pressures from laser-compressed aluminum foils using velocity interferometer system for any reflector have been measured. Furthermore, the combination of experiments fully demonstrates the possibility to perform warm dense matter studies at the LCLS with unprecedented accuracy and precision.

  16. Exploring Mbar shock conditions and isochorically heated aluminum at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, L. B.; Lee, H. J.; Barbrel, B.; Gauthier, M.; Galtier, E.; Nagler, B.; Döppner, T.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Turnbull, D.; White, T.; Gregori, G.; Wei, M.; Falcone, R. W.; Heimann, P.; Zastrau, U.; Hastings, J. B.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2014-11-01

    Recent experiments performed at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have demonstrated the first spectrally resolved measurements of plasmons from isochorically heated aluminum. The experiments have been performed using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam as a pump and probe to both volumetrically heat and scatter x-rays from aluminum. Collective x-ray Thomson scattering spectra show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV. In addition, Mbar shock pressures from laser-compressed aluminum foils using velocity interferometer system for any reflector have been measured. The combination of experiments fully demonstrates the possibility to perform warm dense matter studies at the LCLS with unprecedented accuracy and precision.

  17. STS-131: Discovery Does Backflip at Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Commander Alan Poindexter performs a Rendezvous Pitch Maneuver as Discovery approaches the International Space Station for docking, allowing the station crew to photograph the orbiter's heat shield...

  18. Seaglider surveys at Ocean Station Papa: Diagnosis of upper-ocean heat and salt balances using least squares with inequality constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelland, Noel A.; Eriksen, Charles C.; Cronin, Meghan F.

    2017-06-01

    Heat and salt balances in the upper 200 m are examined using data from Seaglider spatial surveys June 2008 to January 2010 surrounding a NOAA surface mooring at Ocean Station Papa (OSP; 50°N, 145°W). A least-squares approach is applied to repeat Seaglider survey and moored measurements to solve for unknown or uncertain monthly three-dimensional circulation and vertical diffusivity. Within the surface boundary layer, the estimated heat and salt balances are dominated throughout the surveys by turbulent flux, vertical advection, and for heat, radiative absorption. When vertically integrated balances are considered, an estimated upwelling of cool water balances the net surface input of heat, while the corresponding large import of salt across the halocline due to upwelling and diffusion is balanced by surface moisture input and horizontal import of fresh water. Measurement of horizontal gradients allows the estimation of unresolved vertical terms over more than one annual cycle; diffusivity in the upper-ocean transition layer decreases rapidly to the depth of the maximum near-surface stratification in all months, with weak seasonal modulation in the rate of decrease and profile amplitude. Vertical velocity is estimated to be on average upward but with important monthly variations. Results support and expand existing evidence concerning the importance of horizontal advection in the balances of heat and salt in the Gulf of Alaska, highlight time and depth variability in difficult-to-measure vertical transports in the upper ocean, and suggest avenues of further study in future observational work at OSP.

  19. Organic Rankine Cycle for Residual Heat to Power Conversion in Natural Gas Compressor Station. Part II: Plant Simulation and Optimisation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaczykowski, Maciej

    2016-06-01

    After having described the models for the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) equipment in the first part of this paper, this second part provides an example that demonstrates the performance of different ORC systems in the energy recovery application in a gas compressor station. The application shows certain specific characteristics, i.e. relatively large scale of the system, high exhaust gas temperature, low ambient temperature operation, and incorporation of an air-cooled condenser, as an effect of the localization in a compressor station plant. Screening of 17 organic fluids, mostly alkanes, was carried out and resulted in a selection of best performing fluids for each cycle configuration, among which benzene, acetone and heptane showed highest energy recovery potential in supercritical cycles, while benzene, toluene and cyclohexane in subcritical cycles. Calculation results indicate that a maximum of 10.4 MW of shaft power can be obtained from the exhaust gases of a 25 MW compressor driver by the use of benzene as a working fluid in the supercritical cycle with heat recuperation. In relation to the particular transmission system analysed in the study, it appears that the regenerative subcritical cycle with toluene as a working fluid presents the best thermodynamic characteristics, however, require some attention insofar as operational conditions are concerned.

  20. Cleanup Verification Package for the 100-K-55:1 and 100-K-56:1 Pipelines and the 116-KW-4 and 116-KE-5 Heat Recovery Stations

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2005-09-28

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 100-K-55:1 and 100-K-56:1 reactor cooling effluent underground pipelines and for the 116-KW-4 and 116-KE-5 heat recovery stations. The 100-K-55 and 100-K-56 sites consisted of those process effluent pipelines that serviced the 105-KW and 105-KE Reactors.

  1. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-01-01

    In 1982, the Space Station Task Force was formed, signaling the initiation of the Space Station Freedom Program, and eventually resulting in the Marshall Space Flight Center's responsibilities for Space Station Work Package 1.

  2. Urban Heat Islands of the World's Major Cities Revealed at Multiple Scales Using Both Station Observations and Complementary Remotely Sensed Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L. H.; Krehbiel, C.; Henebry, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) have long been studied using both ground-based observations of air temperature and remotely sensed data. In the rapidly urbanizing world, cross-comparison between various datasets will allow us to characterize and model UHI effects more generally. Here we analyze UHIs of the world's major cities using station observations from the Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN), surface air temperatures derived from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometers (AMSRs), and land surface temperatures (LST) estimated from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We compute the two measurements of thermal time (accumulated diurnal degree-days or ADDD and nocturnal degree-days or ANDD) and the normalized difference accumulated thermal time index (NDATTI) to characterize urban and rural thermal differences and day-night dynamics over multiple growing seasons. Our preliminary results for 27 major cities and 83 urban-rural groupings in the USA and Canada indicate that daytime urban thermal accumulations from the passive microwave data (AMSRs) were generally lower than in adjacent rural areas, with only 18% of urban-rural groupings showing higher thermal accumulations in cities. In contrast, station observations and MODIS LST showed consistently higher ADDD in cities (82% and 93% for GHCN and MODIS data respectively). UHIs are more pronounced at night, with 55% (AMSR), 93% (GHCN) and 100% (MODIS) of urban-rural groupings showing higher ANDD in cities. Humidity appears to be a common factor driving the day-night thermal dynamics throughout all three datasets (Figure 1). Normalized day-night differences in thermal time metrics were consistently lower (>90% of urban-rural groupings) in urban than rural areas for both air temperature datasets (GHCN and AMSRs). With MODIS LST, only 70% of urban-rural groupings show lower NDATTI in cities. We will present results for the rest of the globe.

  3. Assessment of the Microbial Control Measures for the Temperature and Humidity Control Subsystem Condensing Heat Exchanger of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Steele, John W.; Marsh, Robert W.; Callahan, David M.; VonJouanne, Roger G.

    1999-01-01

    In August 1997 NASA/ Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) began a test with the objective of monitoring the growth of microorganisms on material simulating the surface of the International Space Station (ISS) Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX). The test addressed the concerns of potential uncontrolled microbial growth on the surface of the THC CHX subsystem. For this study, humidity condensate from a closed manned environment was used as a direct challenge to the surfaces of six cascades in a test set-up. The condensate was collected using a Shuttle-type CHX within the MSFC End-Use Equipment Testing Facility. Panels in four of the six cascades tested were coated with the ISS CHX silver impregnated hydrophilic coating. The remainder two cascade panels were coated with the hydrophilic coating without the antimicrobial component, silver. Results of the fourteen-month study are discussed in this paper. The effects on the microbial population when drying vs. not-drying the simulated THC CHX surface are also discussed.

  4. Assessment of the Microbial Control Measures for the Temperature and Humidity Control Subsystem Condensing Heat Exchanger of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Steele, John W.; Marsh, Robert W.; Callahan, David M.; VonJouanne, Roger G.

    1999-01-01

    In August 1997 NASA/ Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) began a test with the objective of monitoring the growth of microorganisms on material simulating the surface of the International Space Station (ISS) Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX). The test addressed the concerns of potential uncontrolled microbial growth on the surface of the THC CHX subsystem. For this study, humidity condensate from a closed manned environment was used as a direct challenge to the surfaces of six cascades in a test set-up. The condensate was collected using a Shuttle-type CHX within the MSFC End-Use Equipment Testing Facility. Panels in four of the six cascades tested were coated with the ISS CHX silver impregnated hydrophilic coating. The remainder two cascade panels were coated with the hydrophilic coating without the antimicrobial component, silver. Results of the fourteen-month study are discussed in this paper. The effects on the microbial population when drying vs. not-drying the simulated THC CHX surface are also discussed.

  5. International water and steam quality standards for thermal power station drum-type and waste heat recovery boilers with the treatment of boiler water with phosphates and NaOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, T. I.; Orlov, K. A.; Dooley, R. B.

    2017-01-01

    One of the ways for improving the operational reliability and economy of thermal power station equipment, including combined-cycle equipment, is to decrease the rates of the corrosion of constructional materials and the formation of scales in the water-steam circuit. These processes can be reduced to a minimum via the use of water with a minimum content of admixtures and the correction treatment of a heat-transfer fluid. The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS), which unites specialists from every country of the world, has developed water and steam quality standards for power station equipment of different types on the basis of theoretical studies and long-term experience in the operation of power plants in 21 countries. Different water chemistry regimes are currently used at conventional and combined-cycle thermal power stations. This paper describes the conditions for the implementation of water chemistry regimes with the use of sodium salts of phosphoric acid and NaOH for the quality correction of boiler water. Water and steam quality standards and some recommendations for their maintenance under different operational conditions are given for each of the considered water chemistry regimes. The standards are designed for the water-steam circuit of conventional and combined-cycle thermal power stations. It is pointed out that the quality control of a heat-transfer fluid must be especially careful at combined-cycle thermal power stations with frequent startups and shutdowns.

  6. Assessment of Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion Potential in the International Space Station Internal Active Thermal Control System Heat Exchanger Materials: A 6-Momths Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Macuch, Patrick; McKrell, Thomas; VanDerSchijff, Ockert J.; Mitchell, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    The fluid in the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) of the International Space Station (ISS) is water based. The fluid in the ISS Laboratory Module and Node 1 initially contained a mix of water, phosphate (corrosion control), borate (pH buffer), and silver sulfate (Ag2SO4) (microbial control) at a pH of 9.5+/-0.5. Over time, the chemistry of the fluid changed. Fluid changes included a pH drop from 9.5 to 8.3 due to diffusion of carbon dioxide (CO2) through Teflon(reistered Trademark) (DuPont) hoses, increases in dissolved nickel (Ni) levels, deposition of silver (Ag) to metal surfaces, and precipitation of the phosphate (PO4) as nickel phosphate (NiPO4). The drop in pH and unavailability of a antimicrobial has provided an environment conducive to microbial growth. Microbial levels in the fluid have increased from >10 colony-forming units (CFUs)/100 ml to 10(exp 6) CFUs/100 ml. The heat exchangers in the IATCS loops are considered the weakest point in the loop because of the material thickness (=7 mil). It is made of a Ni-based braze filler/CRES 347. Results of a preliminary test performed at Hamilton Sundstrand indicated the possibility of pitting on this material at locations where Ag deposits were found. Later, tests have confirmed that chemical corrosion of the materials is a concern for this system. Accumulation of micro-organisms on surfaces (biofilm) can also result in material degradation and can amplify the damage caused by the chemical corrosion, known as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). This paper will discuss the results of a 6-mo test performed to characterize and quantify the damage from microbial accumulation on the surface of the ISS/ATCS heat exchanger materials. The test was designed to quantify the damage to the materials under worst-case conditions with and without micro-organisms present at pH 8.3 and 9.5.

  7. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of a modular space station. In 1970 the Marshall Space Flight Center arnounced the completion of a study concerning a modular space station that could be launched by the planned-for reusable Space Shuttle. The study envisioned a space station composed of cylindrical sections 14 feet in diameter and of varying lengths joined to form any one of a number of possible shapes. The sections were restricted to 14 feet in diameter and 58 feet in length to be consistent with a shuttle cargo bay size of 15 by 60 feet. Center officials said that the first elements of the space station could be in orbit by about 1978 and could be manned by three or six men. This would be an interim space station with sections that could be added later to form a full 12-man station by the early 1980s.

  8. Space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.; Hayes, Judith

    1989-01-01

    The history of American space flight indicates that a space station is the next logical step in the scientific pursuit of greater knowledge of the universe. The Space Station and its complement of space vehicles, developed by NASA, will add new dimensions to an already extensive space program in the United States. The Space Station offers extraordinary benefits for a comparatively modest investment (currently estimated at one-ninth the cost of the Apollo Program). The station will provide a permanent multipurpose facility in orbit necessary for the expansion of space science and technology. It will enable significant advancements in life sciences research, satellite communications, astronomy, and materials processing. Eventually, the station will function in support of the commercialization and industrialization of space. Also, as a prerequisite to manned interplanetary exploration, the long-duration space flights typical of Space Station missions will provide the essential life sciences research to allow progressively longer human staytime in space.

  9. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  10. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1952-01-01

    This is a von Braun 1952 space station concept. In a 1952 series of articles written in Collier's, Dr. Wernher von Braun, then Technical Director of the Army Ordnance Guided Missiles Development Group at Redstone Arsenal, wrote of a large wheel-like space station in a 1,075-mile orbit. This station, made of flexible nylon, would be carried into space by a fully reusable three-stage launch vehicle. Once in space, the station's collapsible nylon body would be inflated much like an automobile tire. The 250-foot-wide wheel would rotate to provide artificial gravity, an important consideration at the time because little was known about the effects of prolonged zero-gravity on humans. Von Braun's wheel was slated for a number of important missions: a way station for space exploration, a meteorological observatory and a navigation aid. This concept was illustrated by artist Chesley Bonestell.

  11. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-01-01

    This picture illustrates a concept of a 33-Foot-Diameter Space Station Leading to a Space Base. In-house work of the Marshall Space Flight Center, as well as a Phase B contract with the McDornel Douglas Astronautics Company, resulted in a preliminary design for a space station in 1969 and l970. The Marshall-McDonnel Douglas approach envisioned the use of two common modules as the core configuration of a 12-man space station. Each common module was 33 feet in diameter and 40 feet in length and provided the building blocks, not only for the space station, but also for a 50-man space base. Coupled together, the two modules would form a four-deck facility: two decks for laboratories and two decks for operations and living quarters. Zero-gravity would be the normal mode of operation, although the station would have an artificial gravity capability. This general-purpose orbital facility was to provide wide-ranging research capabilities. The design of the facility was driven by the need to accommodate a broad spectrum of activities in support of astronomy, astrophysics, aerospace medicine, biology, materials processing, space physics, and space manufacturing. To serve the needs of Earth observations, the station was to be placed in a 242-nautical-mile orbit at a 55-degree inclination. An Intermediate-21 vehicle (comprised of Saturn S-IC and S-II stages) would have launched the station in 1977.

  12. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Space Station Freedom as it would look orbiting the Earth, illustrated by Marshall Space Flight Center artist, Tom Buzbee. Scheduled to be completed in late 1999, this smaller configuration of the Space Station featured a horizontal truss structure that supported U.S., European, and Japanese Laboratory Modules; the U.S. Habitation Module; and three sets of solar arrays. The Space Station Freedom was an international, permanently marned, orbiting base to be assembled in orbit by a series of Space Shuttle missions that were to begin in the mid-1990's.

  13. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Space Station Freedom as it would look orbiting the Earth; illustrated by Marshall Space Flight Center artist, Tom Buzbee. Scheduled to be completed in late 1999, this smaller configuration of the Space Station features a horizontal truss structure that supported U.S., European, and Japanese Laboratory Modules; the U.S. Habitation Module; and three sets of solar arrays. The Space Station Freedom was an international, permanently marned, orbiting base to be assembled in orbit by a series of Space Shuttle missions that were to begin in the mid-1990's.

  14. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-09-01

    This image shows the Integrated Truss Assembly S-1 (S-One), the Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss, for the International Space Station (ISS) undergoing final construction in the Space Station manufacturing facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. Delivered and installed by the STS-112 mission, the S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing.

  15. Stations Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, John P.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Described is a program of outdoor education utilizing activity-oriented learning stations. Described are 13 activities including: a pond study, orienteering, nature crafts, outdoor mathematics, linear distance measurement, and area measurement. (SL)

  16. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-01

    This is an illustration of the Space Base concept. In-house work of the Marshall Space Flight Center, as well as a Phase B contract with the McDornel Douglas Astronautics Company, resulted in a preliminary design for a space station in 1969 and l970. The Marshall-McDonnel Douglas approach envisioned the use of two common modules as the core configuration of a 12-man space station. Each common module was 33 feet in diameter and 40 feet in length and provided the building blocks, not only for the space station, but also for a 50-man space base. Coupled together, the two modules would form a four-deck facility: two decks for laboratories and two decks for operations and living quarters. Zero-gravity would be the normal mode of operation, although the station would have an artificial-gravity capability. This general-purpose orbital facility was to provide wide-ranging research capabilities. The design of the facility was driven by the need to accommodate a broad spectrum of activities in support of astronomy, astrophysics, aerospace medicine, biology, materials processing, space physics, and space manufacturing. To serve the needs of Earth observations, the station was to be placed in a 242-nautical-mile orbit at a 55-degree inclination. An Intermediate-21 vehicle (comprised of Saturn S-IC and S-II stages) would have launched the station in 1977.

  17. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-11

    As the construction continued on the International Space Station (ISS), STS-118 Astronaut Rick Mastracchio and Canada Space Agency's Dave Williams (out of frame), participated in the first session of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) for the mission. During the 6 hour, 17 minute space walk, the two attached the Starboard 5 (S5) segment of truss, retracted the forward heat rejecting radiator from the Port 6 (P6) truss, and performed several get ahead tasks.

  18. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-11

    As the construction continued on the International Space Station (ISS), STS-118 Astronaut Rick Mastracchio and Canada Space Agency representative Dave Williams (out of frame), participated in the first session of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) for the mission. During the 6 hour, 17 minute space walk, the two attached the Starboard 5 (S5) segment of truss, retracted the forward heat rejecting radiator from the Port 6 (P6) truss, and performed several get ahead tasks.

  19. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of the Research and Applications Modules (RAM). Evolutionary growth was an important consideration in space station plarning, and another project was undertaken in 1971 to facilitate such growth. The RAM study, conducted through a Marshall Space Flight Center contract with General Dynamics Convair Aerospace, resulted in the conceptualization of a series of RAM payload carrier-sortie laboratories, pallets, free-flyers, and payload and support modules. The study considered two basic manned systems. The first would use RAM hardware for sortie mission, where laboratories were carried into space and remained attached to the Shuttle for operational periods up to 7 days. The second envisioned a modular space station capability that could be evolved by mating RAM modules to the space station core configuration. The RAM hardware was to be built by Europeans, thus fostering international participation in the space program.

  20. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1986-08-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts a configuration with enhanced capabilities. It builds on the horizontal boom and module pattern of the revised baseline. This configuration would feature dual keels, two vertical spines 105-meters long joined by upper and lower booms. The structure carrying the modules would become a transverse boom of a basically rectangular structure. The two new booms, 45-meters in length, would provide extensive accommodations for attached payloads, and would offer a wide field of view. Power would be increased significantly, with the addition if a 50-kW solar dynamic power system.

  1. Extension and improvement of Central Station District heating budget period 1 and 2, Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    Project aim was to reduce pollution levels in the City of Krakow through the retirement of coal-fired (hand and mechanically-stoked) boiler houses. This was achieved by identifying attractive candidates and connecting them to the Krakow district heating system, thus permitting them to eliminate boiler operations. Because coal is less costly than district hot water, the district heating company Miejskie Przedsiebiorstwo Energetyki Cieplnej S.A., henceforth identified as MPEC, needed to provide potential customers with incentives for purchasing district heat. These incentives consisted of offerings which MPEC made to the prospective client. The offerings presented the economic and environmental benefits to district heating tie-in and also could include conservation studies of the facilities, so that consumption of energy could be reduced and the cost impact on operations mitigated. Because some of the targeted boiler houses were large, the capacity of the district heating network required enhancement at strategic locations. Consequently, project construction work included both enhancement to the district piping network as well as facility tie-ins. The process of securing new customers necessitated the strengthening of MPEC`s competitive position in Krakow`s energy marketplace, which in turn required improvements in marketing, customer service, strategic planning, and project management. Learning how US utilities address these challenges became an integral segment of the project`s scope.

  2. Observation Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

  3. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-08-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

  4. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-12-01

    Skylab's success proved that scientific experimentation in a low gravity environment was essential to scientific progress. A more permanent structure was needed to provide this space laboratory. President Ronald Reagan, on January 25, 1984, during his State of the Union address, claimed that the United States should exploit the new frontier of space, and directed NASA to build a permanent marned space station within a decade. The idea was that the space station would not only be used as a laboratory for the advancement of science and medicine, but would also provide a staging area for building a lunar base and manned expeditions to Mars and elsewhere in the solar system. President Reagan invited the international community to join with the United States in this endeavour. NASA and several countries moved forward with this concept. By December 1985, the first phase of the space station was well underway with the design concept for the crew compartments and laboratories. Pictured are two NASA astronauts, at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS), practicing construction techniques they later used to construct the space station after it was deployed.

  5. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-07-28

    Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module and the External Stowage Platform-2. A major focus of the mission was the testing and evaluation of new Space Shuttle flight safety, which included new inspection and repair techniques. Upon its approach to the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Shuttle Discovery underwent a photography session in order to assess any damages that may have occurred during its launch and/or journey through Space. Discovery was over Switzerland, about 600 feet from the ISS, when Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the under side of the spacecraft as it performed a back flip to allow photography of its heat shield. Astronaut Eileen M. Collins, STS-114 Commander, guided the shuttle through the flip. The photographs were analyzed by engineers on the ground to evaluate the condition of Discovery’s heat shield. The crew safely returned to Earth on August 9, 2005. The mission historically marked the Return to Flight after nearly a two and one half year delay in flight after the Space Shuttle Columbia tragedy in February 2003.

  6. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-07-28

    Launched on July 26, 2005, from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module and the External Stowage Platform-2. A major focus of the mission was the testing and evaluation of new Space Shuttle flight safety, which included new inspection and repair techniques. Upon its approach to the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Shuttle Discovery underwent a photography session in order to assess any damages that may have occurred during its launch and/or journey through Space. Discovery was over Switzerland, about 600 feet from the ISS, when Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the under side of the spacecraft as it performed a back flip to allow photography of its heat shield. Astronaut Eileen M. Collins, STS-114 Commander, guided the shuttle through the flip. The photographs were analyzed by engineers on the ground to evaluate the condition of Discovery’s heat shield. The crew safely returned to Earth on August 9, 2005. The mission historically marked the Return to Flight after nearly a two and one half year delay in flight after the Space Shuttle Columbia tragedy in February 2003.

  7. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-07-28

    Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module and the External Stowage Platform-2. A major focus of the mission was the testing and evaluation of new Space Shuttle flight safety, which included new inspection and repair techniques. Upon its approach to the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Shuttle Discovery underwent a photography session in order to assess any damages that may have occurred during its launch and/or journey through Space. Discovery was over Switzerland, about 600 feet from the ISS, when Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the spacecraft as it performed a back flip to allow photography of its heat shield. Astronaut Eileen M. Collins, STS-114 Commander, guided the shuttle through the flip. The photographs were analyzed by engineers on the ground to evaluate the condition of Discovery’s heat shield. The crew safely returned to Earth on August 9, 2005. The mission historically marked the Return to Flight after nearly a two and one half year delay in flight after the Space Shuttle Columbia tragedy in February 2003.

  8. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-12

    Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard Side Integrated Truss Structure (S1) and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts. In this photograph, Astronaut Piers J. Sellers uses both a handrail on the Destiny Laboratory and a foot restraint on the Space Station Remote Manipulator System or Canadarm2 to remain stationary while performing work at the end of the STS-112 mission's second space walk. A cloud-covered Earth provides the backdrop for the scene.

  9. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-10

    Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts. This is a view of the newly installed S1 Truss as photographed during the mission's first scheduled EVA. The Station's Canadarm2 is in the foreground. Visible are astronauts Piers J. Sellers (lower left) and David A. Wolf (upper right), both STS-112 mission specialists.

  10. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-12

    Astronaut David A. Wolf, STS-112 mission specialist, participates in the mission's second session of extravehicular activity (EVA), a six hour, four minute space walk, in which an exterior station television camera was installed outside of the Destiny Laboratory. Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three EVA sessions. Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts.

  11. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-10

    Anchored to a foot restraint on the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) or Canadarm2, astronaut David A. Wolf, STS-112 mission specialist, participates in the mission's first session of extravehicular activity (EVA). Wolf is carrying the Starboard One (S1) outboard nadir external camera which was installed on the end of the S1 Truss on the International Space Station (ISS). Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three EVAs. Its primary mission was to install the S1 Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts.

  12. Effectiveness and humidification capacity investigation of liquid-to-air membrane energy exchanger under low heat capacity ratios at winter air conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassai, Miklos

    2015-06-01

    In this research, a novel small-scale single-panel liquid-to-air membrane energy exchanger has been used to numerically investigate the effect of given number of heat transfer units (4.5), different cold inlet air temperature (1.7, 5.0, 10.0 °C) and different low heat capacity ratio (0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9) on the steady-state performance of the energy exchanger. This small-scale energy exchanger represents the full-scale prototypes well, saving manufacturing costs and time. Lithium chloride is used as a salt solution in the system and the steady-state total effectiveness of the exchanger is evaluated for winter inlet air conditions. The results show that total effectiveness of the energy exchanger decreases with heat capacity ratio in the mentioned range. Maximum numerical total effectiveness of 97% is achieved for the energy exchanger. Increasing the heat capacity ratio values on given inlet air temperature, the humidification capacity of energy exhanger is also investigated in this paper. The humidification performance increases with heat capacity ratio. The highest humidification performance (4.53 g/kg) can be reached when inlet air temperature is 1.7 °C, and heat capacity ratio is 1.0 in winter inlet air conditions in the range of low heat capacity ratio.

  13. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-09

    Back dropped against a blue and white Earth, the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis was photographed by an Expedition 5 crew member onboard the International Space Station (ISS) during rendezvous and docking operations. Docking occurred at 10:17 am on October 9, 2002. The Starboard 1 (S1) Integrated Truss Structure, the primary payload of the STS-112 mission, can be seen in Atlantis' cargo bay. Installed and outfitted within 3 sessions of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) during the 11 day mission, the S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators.

  14. Results of surface heat balance and active soil layer observations at the Tiksi Hydrometeorological Observatory and the Research Station "Ice Base "Cape Baranova"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makshtas, Alexander; Laurila, Tuomas; Grachev, Andrey; Uttal, Taneil; Bogorodsky, Peter; Kustov, Vasilii; Timachev, Valery; Makhotina, Irina; Crepinsek, Sara; Aurela, Mika

    2017-04-01

    Based on meteorological measurements collected from 2013-2016 at HMO Tiksi and the Bolshevik Island, estimates of the components of the surface heat balance have been calculated. A number of methods which utilize different parameterizations and measurement strategies are compared. A description is provided of methods for determining turbulent heat fluxes that use recently developed parameterizations of the turbulent energy-mass transfer processes. Results are presented showing a remarkably large range between the magnitude and sign of the latent heat fluxes that occur during the summer; these appear to result from the specifics of the atmospheric humidity in the near surface layer as well as the characteristics of the underlying soil at the two sites. A comparison of temperature regimes of the active soil layer measured at four different areas of the tundra in HMO Tiksi region shows significant differences for sites separated by no more than 1 km and influenced by common atmospheric conditions. Differences between tundra areas covered by vegetation and tundra areas with shale (typical also for the Bolshevik Island) is clearly evident. In rocky areas the amplitude of seasonal temperature variation has twice the magnitude and the duration of the zero curtain effect (a measure of the energy transfer between the atmosphere and underlying surface) is attenuated by a factor of 3-7 times. To provide context for the direct observations the active layer temperature structure and thaw depths for the sand/gravel/clay soils observed at Tiksi and the Bolshevik island are modeling and trends are calculated for 1950-2012. This study is supported by CNTP 1.5.3.3 of Roshydromet and Project 2017-14-588-0005-003 of the Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation

  15. Solar water heater for NASA's Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of using a solar water heater for NASA's Space Station is investigated using computer codes developed to model the Space Station configuration, orbit, and heating systems. Numerous orbit variations, system options, and geometries for the collector were analyzed. Results show that a solar water heater, which would provide 100 percent of the design heating load and would not impose a significant impact on the Space Station overall design is feasible. A heat pipe or pumped fluid radial plate collector of about 10-sq m, placed on top of the habitat module was found to be well suited for satisfying water demand of the Space Station. Due to the relatively small area required by a radial plate, a concentrator is unnecessary. The system would use only 7 to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric water-heating system.

  16. Solar water heater for NASA's Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of using a solar water heater for NASA's Space Station is investigated using computer codes developed to model the Space Station configuration, orbit, and heating systems. Numerous orbit variations, system options, and geometries for the collector were analyzed. Results show that a solar water heater, which would provide 100 percent of the design heating load and would not impose a significant impact on the Space Station overall design is feasible. A heat pipe or pumped fluid radial plate collector of about 10-sq m, placed on top of the habitat module was found to be well suited for satisfying water demand of the Space Station. Due to the relatively small area required by a radial plate, a concentrator is unnecessary. The system would use only 7 to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric water-heating system.

  17. Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, T.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation are presented. Topics covered include: prime contract activity; key solar dynamic power module requirements; solar dynamic heat receiver technology; and solar concentrator advanced development.

  18. Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, T.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation are presented. Topics covered include: prime contract activity; key solar dynamic power module requirements; solar dynamic heat receiver technology; and solar concentrator advanced development.

  19. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-16

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by one of the crewmembers of the STS-112 mission following separation from the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis as the orbiter pulled away from the ISS. The newly added S1 truss is visible in the center frame. The primary payloads of this mission, International Space Station Assembly Mission 9A, were the Integrated Truss Assembly S-1 (S-One), the Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss,and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss was attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, which was launched on April 8, 2002 aboard the STS-110, and flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA cart was attached to the Mobil Transporter and will be used by assembly crews on later missions. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing. The launch of the STS-112 mission occurred on October 7, 2002, and its 11-day mission ended on October 18, 2002.

  20. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-01-01

    Shown here is the International Space Station (ISS) S1 Truss in preparation for installation in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Atlantis at NASA's Kennedy Space Center )KSC)in Florida. The truss launched October 7, 2002 on the STS-112 mission and will be attached during three spacewalks. Constructed primarily of aluminum, it measures 45 feet long, 15 feet wide, 10 feet tall, and weighs over 27,000 pounds. It is one of nine similar truss segments that, combined, will serve as the Station's main backbone, measuring 356 feet from end to end upon completion. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss was flown to the Marshall Space Flight Center, in Huntsville, Alabama where brackets, cable trays, fluid tubing, and other secondary components and outfitting items were added. In Huntsville, it was screened for manufacturing flaws, including pressure and leak checking tubing, and electrical checks for cabling, before being shipped to KSC for final hardware installation and testing. The Space Station's labs, living modules, solar arrays, heat radiators, and other main components will be attached to the truss.

  1. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-16

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by one of the crewmembers of the STS-112 mission following separation from the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis as the orbiter pulled away from the ISS. The primary payloads of this mission, International Space Station Assembly Mission 9A, were the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (S-One), the Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss, and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss was attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, which was launched on April 8, 2002 aboard the STS-110, and flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat-rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA cart was attached to the Mobil Transporter and will be used by assembly crews on later missions. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing. The launch of the STS-112 mission occurred on October 7, 2002, and its 11-day mission ended on October 18, 2002.

  2. Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1977-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) were each awarded 16-month contracts in April 1976 for the Space Station Systems Analysis Study (SSSAS). Grumman Aerospace Corporation was MSFC's contractor and McDornell Douglas Aerospace Company was JSC's contractor. The goal of this study was to formulate plans for a permanent operational base and laboratory facility in Earth orbit in addition to developing a space construction base design for implementing the program. An expended Space Shuttle external tank was to be the central core platform of the base, and additional pressurized modules could be added to provide laboratory facilities. This artist's concept depicts a space construction base design for implementing the SSSAS.

  3. Aerospace crew station design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Gerald P. (Editor); Montemerlo, Melvin D. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Consideration is given to spacecraft cockpits and work stations, commercial aircraft cockpits and crew stations, high performance aircraft cockpits and crew stations, and space stations and habitat crew stations. Particular attention is given to an historical review of NASA manned spacecraft crew stations, ESA spacelab crew stations, the evolution of commercial aircraft flight station design, Boeing 757/767 flight deck, a historical review of Concorde flight deck design, trends in the cockpit design of new European fighters, and state-of-the-art applications for Space Station crew interface design.

  4. Performance test plan for a space station toluene heater tube

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, M.B.

    1987-10-01

    Sundstrand Energy Systems was awarded a contract to investigate the performance capabilities of a toluene heater tube integral to a heat pipe as applied to the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) solar dynamic power system for the Space Station. This heat pipe is a subassembly of the heat receiver. The heat receiver, the heat absorption component of the ORC solar dynamic power system, consists of forty liquid metal heat pipes located circumferentially around the heat receiver`s outside diameter. Each heat pipe contains a toluene heater, two thermal energy storage (TES) canisters and potassium. The function of the heater tube is to heat the supercritical toluene to the required turbine inlet temperature. During the orbit of the space station, the heat receiver and thereby the heat pipe and heater tube will be subjected to variable heat input. The design of the heater must be such that it can accommodate the thermal and hydraulic variations that will be imposed upon it.

  5. Space Station thermal control system evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullock, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    The thermal control system (TCS) for the space station assembly complete configuration includes a two-phase central thermal bus with a supplemental body mounted radiator system. Evolution of the space station from a heat rejection capacity of 75 kW to 300 kW will require scars to expand the thermal fluid distribution network, equipment replacement to enable greater thermal transport capacity, and enlargement of the heat rejection subsystem for increased heat rejection. The TCS requirements for assembly completion and growth are presented along with a review of the basic structure of the active and passive thermal control systems which include provisions for growth.

  6. Space Station solar water heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

  7. Space Station trash removal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A trash removal system for space stations is described. The system is comprised of a disposable trash bag member and an attached, compacted large, lightweight inflatable balloon element. When the trash bag member is filled, the astronaut places the bag member into space through an airlock. Once in the vacuum of space, the balloon element inflates. Due to the large cross-sectional area of the balloon element relative to its mass, the combined balloon element and the trash bag member are slowed by atmospheric drag to a much greater extent than the Space Station's. The balloon element and bag member lose altitude and re-enter the atmosphere, and the elements and contents are destroyed by aerodynamic heating. The novelty of this system is in the unique method of using the vacuum of space and aerodynamic heating to dispose of waste material with a minimum of increase in orbital debris.

  8. Space Station solar water heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

  9. International Space Station Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, William V., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The overview of the International Space Station (ISS) is comprised of the program vision and mission; Space Station uses; definition of program phases; as well as descriptions and status of several scheduled International Space Station Overview assembly flights.

  10. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  11. Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In 1982, the Space Station Task Force was formed, signaling the initiation of the Space Station Freedom Program, and eventually resulting in the Marshall Space Flight Center's responsibilities for Space Station Work Package 1.

  12. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  13. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-14

    Astronauts Piers J. Sellers (left ) and David A. Wolf work on the newly installed Starboard One (S1) truss to the International Space Station (ISS) during the STS-112 mission. The primary payloads of this mission, ISS Assembly Mission 9A, were the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (S One), the starboard side thermal radiator truss, and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss was attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, which was launched on April 8, 2002 aboard the STS-110, and flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat-rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA cart was attached to the Mobil Transporter and will be used by assembly crews on later missions. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing. The launch of the STS-112 mission occurred on October 7, 2002, and its 11-day mission ended on October 18, 2002.

  14. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-10

    This view of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by an STS-112 crew member aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during rendezvous and docking operations. Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the railway on the ISS providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts.

  15. Space station user's handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A user's handbook for the modular space station concept is presented. The document is designed to acquaint science personnel with the overall modular space station program, the general nature and capabilities of the station itself, some of the scientific opportunities presented by the station, the general policy governing its operation, and the relationship between the program and participants from the scientific community.

  16. High heat flux single phase heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenzuela, Javier A.; Izenson, Michael G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained to date in a program to develop a high heat flux, single-phase heat exchanger for spacecraft thermal management. The intended application is a net generation interface heat exchanger to couple the crew module water thermal bus to the two-phase ammonia main thermal bus in the Space Station Freedom. The large size of the interface heat exchanger is dictated by the relatively poor water-side heat transfer characteristics. The objective of this program is to develop a single-phase heat transfer approach which can achieve heat fluxes and heat transfer coefficients comparable to those of the evaporation ammonia side. A new heat exchanger concept has been developed to meet these objecties. The main feature of this heat exchanger is that it can achieve very high heat fluxes with a pressure drop one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of previous microchannel or jet impingement high heat flux heat exchangers. This paper describes proof-of-concept experiments performed in air and water and presents analytical model of the heat exchanger.

  17. High heat flux single phase heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenzuela, Javier A.; Izenson, Michael G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained to date in a program to develop a high heat flux, single-phase heat exchanger for spacecraft thermal management. The intended application is a net generation interface heat exchanger to couple the crew module water thermal bus to the two-phase ammonia main thermal bus in the Space Station Freedom. The large size of the interface heat exchanger is dictated by the relatively poor water-side heat transfer characteristics. The objective of this program is to develop a single-phase heat transfer approach which can achieve heat fluxes and heat transfer coefficients comparable to those of the evaporation ammonia side. A new heat exchanger concept has been developed to meet these objecties. The main feature of this heat exchanger is that it can achieve very high heat fluxes with a pressure drop one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of previous microchannel or jet impingement high heat flux heat exchangers. This paper describes proof-of-concept experiments performed in air and water and presents analytical model of the heat exchanger.

  18. Space Station Spartan study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, J. H.; Schulman, J. R.; Neupert, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    The required extension, enhancement, and upgrading of the present Spartan concept are described to conduct operations from the space station using the station's unique facilities and operational features. The space station Spartan (3S), the free flyer will be deployed from and returned to the space station and will conduct scientific missions of much longer duration than possible with the current Spartan. The potential benefits of a space station Spartan are enumerated. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a credible concept for a space station Spartan; and (2) to determine the associated requirements and interfaces with the space station to help ensure that the 3S can be properly accommodated.

  19. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-10

    Being attached to the Canadarm2 on the International Space Station (ISS), the Remote Manipulator System arm built by the Canadian Space Agency, the Integrated Truss Assembly (S1) Truss is suspended over the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis' cargo bay. Astronauts Sandra H. Magnus, STS-112 mission specialist, and Peggy A. Whitson, Expedition Five flight engineer, used the Canadarm2 from inside the Destiny laboratory on the ISS to lift the S1 truss out of the orbiter's cargo bay and move it into position prior to its installation on the ISS. The primary payloads of this mission, ISS Assembly Mission 9A, were the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (S One), the starboard side thermal radiator truss, and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss was attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, which was launched on April 8, 2002 aboard the STS-110, and flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat-rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA cart was attached to the Mobil Transporter and will be used by assembly crews on later missions. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing. The launch of the STS-112 mission occurred on October 7, 2002, and its 11-day mission ended on October 18, 2002.

  20. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  1. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  2. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  3. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  4. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  5. Station Tour: Russian Segment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams concludes her tour of the International Space Station with a visit to the Russian segment, which includes Zarya, the first segment of the station launched in 1...

  6. Radio spectrum surveillance station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersey, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a general and functional description of a low-cost surveillance station designed as the first phase of NASA's program to develop a radio spectrum surveillance capability for deep space stations for identifying radio frequency interference sources. The station described has identified several particular interferences and is yielding spectral signature data which, after cataloging, will serve as a library for rapid identification of frequently observed interference. Findings from the use of the station are discussed.

  7. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-01

    These 5 astronauts and cosmonaut, all members of the STS-112 mission, pose for a crew portrait. Pictured from left to right are: Astronauts Sandra H. Magnus, mission specialist; David A. Wolf, mission specialist; Pamela A. Melroy, pilot; Jeffrey S. Ashby, commander; Piers J. Sellers, mission specialist; and cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin, mission specialist representing Rosaviakosmos. STS-112 launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis October 7, 2002 for an 11-day mission completing three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity(EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the railway on the ISS providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts.

  8. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-20

    Photograph shows the International Space Station Laboratory Module under fabrication at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Building 4708 West High Bay. Although management of the U.S. elements for the Station were consolidated in 1994, module and node development continued at MSFC by Boeing Company, the prime contractor for the Space Station.

  9. Space Station Live: Station Communications Upgrade

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters recently spoke with Penny Roberts, one of the leads for the International Space Station Avionics and Software group, about the upgrade of the K...

  10. Space Station attached payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Lenwood G.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom is being designed and developed with user requirements being used to shape the configuration. Plans include accommodation provisions for a wide variety of attached payloads including the Earth sciences research activities which are the focus of this conference. The station program is even beginning some preliminary payload manifesting which involves planning for accommodation of payload during the station's assembly flights. Potential payload organizations should be aware of the station's plans for payload accommodations so as to guide their own payload activities for future space station use.

  11. Neuroradiology viewing station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Shyhliang A.; Lufkin, Robert B.; Valentino, Daniel J.; Huang, H. K.; Hanafee, William; Jabour, Bradly; Bentsen, John R.; Duckwiler, Gary R.; Dion, Jacques E.

    1990-07-01

    A distributed CT/MR digital viewing station for the neuroradiology section has been developed and is being evaluated in our department. The major components of the station consist of a SUN host computer, a PIXAR II image processor, and four 1K x 1K progressive video monitors. The software modules operating in the station include an image acquisition process, a local database process, and an user image display and processing process. Functions provided by the station are described. Preliminary results obtained from clinical evaluation are reported. Future plans to refine the station are presented.

  12. Automating existing stations

    SciTech Connect

    Little, J.E.

    1986-09-01

    The task was to automate 20 major compressor stations along ANR Pipeline Co.'s Southeastern and Southwestern pipelines in as many months. Meeting this schedule required standardized hardware and software design. Working with Bristol Babcock Co., ANR came up with an off-the-shelf station automation package suitable for a variety of compressor stations. The project involved 148 engines with 488,880-hp in the 20 stations. ANR Pipeline developed software for these engines and compressors, including horsepower prediction and efficiency. The system places processors ''intelligence'' at each station and engine to monitor and control operations. The station processor receives commands from the company's gas dispatch center at Detroit and informs dispatchers of alarms, conditions, and decision it makes. The automation system is controlled by the Detroit center through a central communications network. Operating orders from the center are sent to the station processor, which obeys orders using the most efficient means of operation at the station's disposal. In a malfunction, a control and communications backup system takes over. Commands and information are directly transmitted between the center and the individual compressor stations. Stations receive their orders based on throughput, with suction and discharge pressure overrides. Additionally, a discharge temperature override protects pipeline coatings.

  13. Energy consumption for the echo station (DSS 12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiar, C. N.; Schonfeld, D.

    1981-12-01

    Energy consumption for the Echo Station is analyzed. The HVAC equipment including vapor compression refrigeration units, absorption chillers, annd heating units such as boilers and heat pumps is shown to be the largest consumer of electrical energy. The energy consumption for the buildings at the station is itemized and compared to the electrical meter data. The figures for energy consumption as predicted by the ECP computer program are found to agree well with the meter data.

  14. Central Station DHC Phase 1 feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, H.L.

    1992-03-01

    This project assisted a private real estate developer in technically assessing the feasibility of integrating a central DHC system into a proposed 72 acre area mixed-use Planned Development (Central Station) just south of the Chicago Central Business District (Loop). The technical assessment concluded that a district heating and cooling system for Central Station will be feasible, provided that a major anchor load can be connected to the system. The system conceived for the site employs a modular approach that adjusts production capacity to actual load growth. The design concept includes gas-fired boilers for heating, gas turbine driven chillers for base loading, electric motor driven chillers for peaking, steam turbines for peak power and back pressure operation, and chilled water storage. Energy will be supplied to the users in the form of steam or low temperature hot water for heating, and low temperature chilled water for cooling.

  15. Space station, 1959 to . .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, G. V.

    1981-04-01

    Early space station designs are considered, taking into account Herman Oberth's first space station, the London Daily Mail Study, the first major space station design developed during the moon mission, and the Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program of DOD. Attention is given to Skylab, new space station studies, the Shuttle and Spacelab, communication satellites, solar power satellites, a 30 meter diameter radiometer for geological measurements and agricultural assessments, the mining of the moons, and questions of international cooperation. It is thought to be very probable that there will be very large space stations at some time in the future. However, for the more immediate future a step-by-step development that will start with Spacelab stations of 3-4 men is envisaged.

  16. Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The topics addressed in Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference are: (1) space station freedom overview and research capabilities; (2) space station freedom research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research on space station freedom; (4) technology research on space station freedom; (5) microgravity research and biotechnology on space station freedom; and (6) closing plenary.

  17. Space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1987-01-01

    The major requirements and guidelines that affect the space station configuration and power system are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts are described and linked to the present concept. Trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described in detail. A summary of present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems is also given.

  18. Technology for space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colladay, R. S.; Carlisle, R. F.

    1984-10-01

    Some of the most significant advances made in the space station discipline technology program are examined. Technological tasks and advances in the areas of systems/operations, environmental control and life support systems, data management, power, thermal considerations, attitude control and stabilization, auxiliary propulsion, human capabilities, communications, and structures, materials, and mechanisms are discussed. An overview of NASA technology planning to support the initial space station and the evolutionary growth of the space station is given.

  19. Space Station operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    An evaluation of the success of the Space Station will be based on the service provided to the customers by the Station crew, the productivity of the crew, and the costs of operation. Attention is given to details regarding Space Station operations, a summary of operational philosophies and requirements, logistics and resupply operations, prelaunch processing and launch operations, on-orbit operations, aspects of maintainability and maintenance, habitability, and questions of medical care. A logistics module concept is considered along with a logistics module processing timeline, a habitability module concept, and a Space Station rescue mission.

  20. Control of space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. Y.

    1983-01-01

    A study is made to develop controllers for the NASA-JSC Triangular Space Station and evaluate their performances to make recommendations for structural design and/or control alternatives. The control system design assumes the rigid body of the Space Station and developes the lumped parameter control system by using the Inverse Optimal Control Theory. In order to evaluate the performance of the control system, a Parameter Estimation algorithm is being developed which will be used in modeling an equivalent but simpler Space Station model. Finally, a scaled version of the Space Station is being built for the purpose of physical experiments to evaluate the control system performance.

  1. Space Station fluid resupply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Al

    Viewgraphs on space station fluid resupply are presented. Space Station Freedom is resupplied with supercritical O2 and N2 for the ECLSS and USL on a 180 day resupply cycle. Resupply fluids are stored in the subcarriers on station between resupply cycles and transferred to the users as required. ECLSS contingency fluids (O2 and N2) are supplied and stored on station in a gaseous state. Efficiency and flexibility are major design considerations. Subcarrier approach allows multiple manifest combinations. Growth is achieved by adding modular subcarriers.

  2. Station Crew Celebrates Christmas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Aboard the orbiting International Space Station, Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford, Russian Flight Engineers Oleg Novitskiy, Evgeny Tarelkin and Roman Romanenko, NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn...

  3. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  4. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-06

    Though very close to the International Space Station, the majority of Discovery's underside is visible in this frame. The image was captured by one of the Expedition 13 crew members onboard the International Space Station (ISS) during the STS-121 Rotating Pitch Maneuver (RPM) survey prior to docking of the two spacecraft.

  5. Summit Station Skiway Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    delivery of personnel and materials, is by skied airplanes (currently Twin Otters and LC-130s) or by annual traverse. To support aircraft, the station...Station during the first sea - son (2009) of skiway construction at Pegasus Airfield (Haehnel et al. 2013) but consistently lower than densities of

  6. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-13

    Back dropped by the blue and white Earth is a Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) on the exterior of the Station. The photograph was taken during the second bout of STS-118 Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). MISSE collects information on how different materials weather in the environment of space.

  7. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-01

    This image of the International Space Station in orbit was taken from the Space Shuttle Endeavour prior to docking. Most of the Station's components are clearly visible in this photograph. They are the Node 1 or Unity Module docked with the Functional Cargo Block or Zarya (top) that is linked to the Zvezda Service Module. The Soyuz spacecraft is at the bottom.

  8. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  9. Space station dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berka, Reg

    1990-01-01

    Structural dynamic characteristics and responses of the Space Station due to the natural and induced environment are discussed. Problems that are peculiar to the Space Station are also discussed. These factors lead to an overall acceleration environment that users may expect. This acceleration environment can be considered as a loading, as well as a disturbance environment.

  10. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  11. [STEM on Station Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundebjerg, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    The STEM on Station team is part of Education which is part of the External Relations organization (ERO). ERO has traditional goals based around BHAG (Big Hairy Audacious Goal). The BHAG model is simplified to a saying: Everything we do stimulates actions by others to advance human space exploration. The STEM on Station education initiate is a project focused on bringing off the earth research and learning into classrooms. Educational resources such as lesson plans, activities to connect with the space station and STEM related contests are available and hosted by the STEM on Station team along with their partners such as Texas Instruments. These educational activities engage teachers and students in the current happenings aboard the international space station, inspiring the next generation of space explorers.

  12. Ranger Station Solar-Energy System Receives Economic Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Economic performance of Glendo Reservoir Ranger Station solar-energy system in Wyoming and extrapolated performance in four other locations around the U.S. is reviewed in report. System is a passive drain-down system using water as heat-transfer medium for space and hot-water heating.

  13. Ranger Station Solar-Energy System Receives Economic Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Economic performance of Glendo Reservoir Ranger Station solar-energy system in Wyoming and extrapolated performance in four other locations around the U.S. is reviewed in report. System is a passive drain-down system using water as heat-transfer medium for space and hot-water heating.

  14. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-16

    Docked to the International Space Station (ISS), a Soyuz vehicle (foreground) and the Space Shuttle Atlantis were photographed by a crew member in the Pirs docking compartment on the orbital outpost. Atlantis launched on April 8, 2002, carrying the the STS-110 mission which prepared the ISS for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long Starboard side S0 (S-zero) truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver space walkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's scapulas were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock.

  15. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-13

    Astronaut Paul W. Richards, STS-102 mission specialist, works in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Discovery during the second of two scheduled space walks. Richards, along with astronaut Andy Thomas, spent 6.5 hours outside the International Space Station (ISS), continuing work to outfit the station and prepare for delivery of its robotic arm. STS-102 delivered the first Multipurpose Logistics Modules (MPLM) named Leonardo, which was filled with equipment and supplies to outfit the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the ISS' moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. NASA's 103rd overall mission and the 8th Space Station Assembly Flight, STS-102 mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  16. Overview of guideway, Pratt Street Station, Bridge Street Station and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of guideway, Pratt Street Station, Bridge Street Station and train yard, looking east. Dyre street in foreground. - Frankford Elevated, 52100-5400 Frankford Avenue (guideway & stations), Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 4. EASTBOUND VIEW. NORTH TRACK WAITING STATION ON LEFT. STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EASTBOUND VIEW. NORTH TRACK WAITING STATION ON LEFT. STATION ON RIGHT. NOTE TUNNEL IN BACKGROUND. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Harpers Ferry Station, Potomac Street, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  18. Reduction of noxious substance emissions at the pulverized fuel combustion in the combustor of the BKZ-160 boiler of the Almaty heat electropower station using the "Overfire Air" technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askarova, A. S.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Bolegenova, S. A.; Bolegenova, S. A.; Maximov, V. Yu.; Yergalieva, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    The computational experiments using the "Overfire Air" (OFA) technology at the coal dust torch combustion in the combustor of the BKZ-160 boiler of the heat power plant No. 2 in Almaty have been conducted. The results show a possibility of reaching a reduction of the emission of noxious nitrogen oxides NO x and minimizing the energy losses. The results of numerical experiments on the influence of the additional air supply on the main characteristics of heat and mass transfer are presented. A comparison with the base regime of the solid fuel combustion when there is no supply of the additional air (OFA = 0 %) has been made.

  19. Station Climatic Summaries, Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    MANDALAY 480420 8809 (OCDS) .................................................. .022 MYITKYINA 480080 8809 (OCDS...0 1 0 0 0 2 0 5 2 1 06-20 LST 8 3 # 1 # 1 1 2 4 10 11 13 4 ECR-KRW-7a OZi OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMMARY STATION: MANDALAY , BM STATION #: 480420...18-20 LST # 0 # 0 # 1 0 2 1 # 1 1 1 06-20 LST 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 5 1 ECR-KRW-6 oZ3 OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUPPLEMENT STATION: MANDALAY , BM

  20. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-06-01

    Artist's digital concept of the International Space Station (ISS), a gateway to permanent human presence in space, after all assembly is completed in Year 2003. The Station will be powered by almost an acre of solar panels and have a mass of almost one million pounds. Station modules are being provided by the United States, Russia, Japan, and Europe. Canada is providing a mechanical arm and Canada Hand. Sixteen countries are cooperating to provide a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  1. Madrid space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahnestock, R. J.; Renzetti, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Madrid space station, operated under bilateral agreements between the governments of the United States and Spain, is described in both Spanish and English. The space station utilizes two tracking and data acquisition networks: the Deep Space Network (DSN) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) operated under the direction of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The station, which is staffed by Spanish employees, comprises four facilities: Robledo 1, Cebreros, and Fresnedillas-Navalagamella, all with 26-meter-diameter antennas, and Robledo 2, with a 64-meter antenna.

  2. The space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Abraham

    1988-01-01

    Conceived since the beginning of time, living in space is no longer a dream but rather a very near reality. The concept of a Space Station is not a new one, but a redefined one. Many investigations on the kinds of experiments and work assignments the Space Station will need to accommodate have been completed, but NASA specialists are constantly talking with potential users of the Station to learn more about the work they, the users, want to do in space. Present configurations are examined along with possible new ones.

  3. Space Station Induced Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F. (Editor); Torr, Marsha R. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the results of a conference convened May 10-11, 1988, to review plans for monitoring the Space Station induced environment, to recommend primary components of an induced environment monitoring package, and to make recommendations pertaining to suggested modifications of the Space Station External Contamination Control Requirements Document JSC 30426. The contents of this report are divided as Follows: Monitoring Induced Environment - Space Station Work Packages Requirements, Neutral Environment, Photon Emission Environment, Particulate Environment, Surface Deposition/Contamination; and Contamination Control Requirements.

  4. Space station operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  5. High Volume and High Jinks over Control of Rice's Radio Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Describes how at Rice University's radio station, students talk about artistic vision while administrators talk about responsibility. Discusses the heated events following Rice's demand that a university-paid general manager be placed at the station, raising the issue of whether the station is a university asset or something held in trust for…

  6. Enabler operator station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Andrea; Kietzman, John; King, Shirlyn; Stover, Rae; Wegner, Torsten

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design an onboard operator station for the conceptual Lunar Work Vehicle (LWV). The LWV would be used in the colonization of a lunar outpost. The details that follow, however, are for an Earth-bound model. The operator station is designed to be dimensionally correct for an astronaut wearing the current space shuttle EVA suit (which include life support). The proposed operator station will support and restrain an astronaut as well as to provide protection from the hazards of vehicle rollover. The threat of suit puncture is eliminated by rounding all corners and edges. A step-plate, located at the front of the vehicle, provides excellent ease of entry and exit. The operator station weight requirements are met by making efficient use of rigid members, semi-rigid members, and woven fabrics.

  7. Space Station Software Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Four panels of invited experts and NASA representatives focused on the following topics: software management, software development environment, languages, and software standards. Each panel deliberated in private, held two open sessions with audience participation, and developed recommendations for the NASA Space Station Program. The major thrusts of the recommendations were as follows: (1) The software management plan should establish policies, responsibilities, and decision points for software acquisition; (2) NASA should furnish a uniform modular software support environment and require its use for all space station software acquired (or developed); (3) The language Ada should be selected for space station software, and NASA should begin to address issues related to the effective use of Ada; and (4) The space station software standards should be selected (based upon existing standards where possible), and an organization should be identified to promulgate and enforce them. These and related recommendations are described in detail in the conference proceedings.

  8. Space station data flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results of the space station data flow study are reported. Conceived is a low cost interactive data dissemination system for space station experiment data that includes facility and personnel requirements and locations, phasing requirements and implementation costs. Each of the experiments identified by the operating schedule is analyzed and the support characteristics identified in order to determine data characteristics. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of candidate concepts resulted in a proposed data system configuration baseline concept that includes a data center which combines the responsibility of reprocessing, archiving, and user services according to the various agencies and their responsibility assignments. The primary source of data is the space station complex which provides through the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRS) and by space shuttle delivery data from experiments in free flying modules and orbiting shuttles as well as from the experiments in the modular space station itself.

  9. The Space Station Chronicles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    As early as the nineteenth century, writers and artists and scientists around the world began to publish their visions of a crewed outpost in space. Learn about the history of space stations, from ...

  10. Station Assembly Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation depicts the assembly of the International Space Station since Nov. 20, 1998, with the delivery of the Zarya module, through May 16, 2011, with the delivery of the EXPRESS Logistics C...

  11. Space station propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    The progress on the Space Station Propulsion Technology Program is described. The objectives are to provide a demonstration of hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the Initial Operating Capability (IOC) space station application, specifically gaseous hydrogen/oxygen and warm hydrogen thruster concepts, and to establish a means for evolving from the IOC space station propulsion to that required to support and interface with advanced station functions. The evaluation of concepts was completed. The accumulator module of the test bed was completed and, with the microprocessor controller, delivered to NASA-MSFC. An oxygen/hydrogen thruster was modified for use with the test bed and successfully tested at mixture ratios from 4:1 to 8:1.

  12. Station Commander Praises AMS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    When asked what's the most important International Space Station experiment, Commander Chris Hadfield names the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer-2, a state-of-the-art particle physics detector that coul...

  13. Multiple Craft Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Mary Sue

    1980-01-01

    Described are three craft stations (claywork, papermaking, and stamp designing) for intermediate grade students, to correlate with their classroom study which focused on Ohio: its history, geography, cities, industries, products and famous natives. (KC)

  14. Space Station Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1986-01-01

    A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

  15. Enabler operator station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Andrea; Keitzman, John; King, Shirlyn; Stover, Rae; Wegner, Torsten

    The objective of this project was to design an onboard operator station for the conceptual Lunar Work Vehicle (LWV). This LWV would be used in the colonization of a lunar outpost. The details that follow, however, are for an earth-bound model. Several recommendations are made in the appendix as to the changes needed in material selection for the lunar environment. The operator station is designed dimensionally correct for an astronaut wearing the current space shuttle EVA suit (which includes life support). The proposed operator station will support and restrain an astronaut as well as provide protection from the hazards of vehicle rollover. The threat of suit puncture is eliminated by rounding all corners and edges. A step-plate, located at the front of the vehicle, provides excellent ease of entry and exit. The operator station weight requirements are met by making efficient use of grid members, semi-rigid members and woven fabrics.

  16. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-04-17

    This computer generated scene of the International Space Station (ISS) represents the first addition of hardware following the completion of Phase II. The 8-A Phase shows the addition of the S-9 truss.

  17. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-04-20

    An artist's concept of a fully deployed International Space Station (ISS) Alpha. The ISS-A is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experiments.

  18. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-01

    A section of the International Space Station truss assembly arrived at the Marshall Space Flight Center on NASA's Super Guppy cargo plane for structural and design testing as well as installation of critical flight hardware.

  19. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-01

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) in orbit was taken during a fly-around inspection by the Space Shuttle Endeavour after successfull attachment of the 240-foot-long, 38-foot-wide solar array.

  20. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-21

    Artist's concept of the final configuration of the International Space Station (ISS) Alpha. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  1. Space Station Live! Tour

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA is using the Internet and smartphones to provide the public with a new inside look at what happens aboard the International Space Station and in the Mission Control Center. NASA Public Affairs...

  2. Space Station Software Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor); Beskenis, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Issues in the development of software for the Space Station are discussed. Software acquisition and management, software development environment, standards, information system support for software developers, and a future software advisory board are addressed.

  3. Destination Station Atlanta

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Destination Station was recently in Atlanta from April 15 through April 21. During the week, NASA visited schools, hospitals, museums, and the city’s well known Atlanta Science Tavern Meet Up gro...

  4. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-10-01

    Not long after separation of the Space Shuttle Discovery from the International Space Station (ISS), a crew member was able to use a 70mm handheld camera to grab this image of the station, featuring its newest additions. Backdropped against the blackness of space, the Z1 truss structure and its anterna, as well as the new Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA-3), are visible in the foreground.

  5. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-28

    A Canadian "handshake" in space occurred on April 28, 2001, as the Canadian-built space station robotic arm (Canadarm-2) transferred its launch cradle over to Endeavor's robotic arm. Marning the controls from the shuttle's aft flight deck, Canadian Mission Specialist Chris A. Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) was instrumental in the activity. The Spacelab pallet that carried the Canadarm2 robotic arm to the station was developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama.

  6. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-17

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 upon its ISS flyaround mission while pulling away from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the station and was the first time all of a Shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  7. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-14

    STS-110 mission specialist Lee M.E. Morin carries an affixed 35 mm camera to record work which is being performed on the International Space Station (ISS). Working with astronaut Jerry L. Ross (out of frame), the duo completed the structural attachment of the S0 (s-zero) truss, mating two large tripod legs of the 13 1/2 ton structure to the station's main laboratory during a 7-hour, 30-minute space walk. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the Mobile Transporter. The S0 Truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver space walkers around the Station and marked the first time all space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  8. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-17

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 during its ISS flyaround mission while pulling away from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  9. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-17

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000 pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 during its ISS fly-around mission while pulling away from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to manuever spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  10. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-17

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000- pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission following its undocking from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  11. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-17

    This close-up view of the International Space Station (ISS), newly equipped with its new 27,000-pound S0 (S-zero) truss, was photographed by an astronaut aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission following its undocking from the ISS. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and was the first time all of a Shuttle crew's spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  12. NASA develops Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freitag, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Space Station program's planning stage began in 1982, with a view to development funding in FY1987 and initial operations within a decade. An initial cost of $8 billion is projected for the continuously habitable, Space Shuttle-dependent system, not including either operational or scientific and commercial payload-development costs. As a customer-oriented facility, the Space Station will be available to foreign countries irrespective of their participation in the development phase.

  13. Leadership at Antarctic Stations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Claseification 6. No. Pegees LEADERSHIP AT ANTARTIC STATIONS hxIs i4 5, C =r~eta(C), 17 Rfs~W (R, Udusiied U)J 7. No Refs 8. Author(s) Edocumesnt I...whether there is a "best" approach to leadership at an Antartic Station and what leadership style may have the most to offer. 3~~ __ ___ Tipesis to be

  14. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-06-19

    Eight days of construction resumed on the International Space Station (ISS), as STS-117 astronauts and mission specialists and the Expedition 15 crew completed installation of the second and third starboard truss segments (S3 and S4). Back dropped by our colorful Earth, its newly expanded configuration is revealed as pilot Lee Archambault conducts a fly around upon departure from the station on June 19, 2007.

  15. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-06-19

    Eight days of construction resumed on the International Space Station (ISS), as STS-117 astronauts and mission specialists and the Expedition 15 crew completed installation of the second and third starboard truss segments (S3 and S4). Back dropped by the blackness of space, its newly expanded configuration is revealed as pilot Lee Archambault conducts a fly around upon departure from the station on June 19, 2007.

  16. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-06-15

    Construction resumed on the International Space Station (ISS), as STS-117 astronauts and mission specialists Jim Reilly (on robotic arm), and John “Danny” Olivas joined forces with their colleagues inside the Shuttle and station, and controllers in Houston, to complete the delicate process of folding an older solar array, Port 6 (P6), so that it can be moved from its temporary location to its permanent home during an upcoming Fall scheduled Shuttle mission. The EVA lasted nearly 8 hours.

  17. Minneapolis district-heating options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, T. K.; Borkowski, R. J.; Karnitz, M. A.; Strom, S.; Linwick, K.

    1981-10-01

    The feasibility of a large-scale district heating system for the Minneapolis central city area was investigated. The analysis was based on a previous city of St. Paul Hot-water district heating study and other studies done by a Swedish engineering firm. Capital costs such as building and heat source conversion, pipeline construction, and equipment were used in comparing the projected expenses of various district heating scenarios. Options such as coal, refuse-derived fuel burning, and cogeneration at the Riverside Power Station were discussed as energy supplies for a cost-effective district heating system.

  18. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  19. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-01

    Lining the walls of the Space Station Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are the launch awaiting U.S. Node 2 (lower left). and the first pressurized module of the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) (upper right), named "Kibo" (Hope). Node 2, the "utility hub" and second of three connectors between International Space Station (ISS) modules, was built in the Torino, Italy facility of Alenia Spazio, an International contractor based in Rome. Japan's major contribution to the station, the JEM, was built by the Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) at the Tsukuba Space Center near Tokyo and will expand research capabilities aboard the station. Both were part of an agreement between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). The Node 2 will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station. Once the Japanese and European laboratories are attached to it, the resulting roomier Station will expand from the equivalent space of a 3-bedroom house to a 5-bedroom house. The Marshall Space Center in Huntsville, Alabama manages the Node program for NASA.

  20. Space station mobile transporter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renshall, James; Marks, Geoff W.; Young, Grant L.

    1988-01-01

    The first quarter of the next century will see an operational space station that will provide a permanently manned base for satellite servicing, multiple strategic scientific and commercial payload deployment, and Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle/Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OMV/OTV) retrieval replenishment and deployment. The space station, as conceived, is constructed in orbit and will be maintained in orbit. The construction, servicing, maintenance and deployment tasks, when coupled with the size of the station, dictate that some form of transportation and manipulation device be conceived. The Transporter described will work in conjunction with the Orbiter and an Assembly Work Platform (AWP) to construct the Work Station. The Transporter will also work in conjunction with the Mobile Remote Servicer to service and install payloads, retrieve, service and deploy satellites, and service and maintain the station itself. The Transporter involved in station construction when mounted on the AWP and later supporting a maintenance or inspection task with the Mobile Remote Servicer and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer is shown.

  1. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-12-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis, STS-110 mission, deployed this railcar, called the Mobile Transporter, and an initial 43-foot section of track, the S0 (S-zero) truss, preparing the International Space Station (ISS) for future spacewalks. The first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The 27,000-pound S0 truss is the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002. STS-110's Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station.

  2. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-16

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  3. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-08

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110, embarking on its 25th flight, lifts off from launch pad 39B at Kennedy Space Center at 3:44 p.m. CDT April 8, 2002. The STS-110 mission prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for future space walks by installing and outfitting a 43-foot-long Starboard side S0 truss and preparing the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 Truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver space walkers around the Station and marked the first time all space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines.

  4. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-11

    STS-102 mission astronaut Susan J. Helms translates along the longerons of the Space Shuttle Discovery during the first of two space walks. During this walk, the Pressurized Mating Adapter 3 was prepared for repositioning from the Unity Module's Earth-facing berth to its port-side berth to make room for the Leonardo multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM), supplied by the Italian Space Agency. The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the International Space Station's (ISS') moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. NASA's 103rd overall mission and the 8th Space Station Assembly Flight, STS-102 mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  5. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-08

    STS-102 astronaut and mission specialist, Andrew S.W. Thomas, gazes through an aft window of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery as it approaches the docking bay of the International Space Station (ISS). Launched March 8, 2001, STS-102's primary cargo was the Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency-built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM). The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the ISS's moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. NASA's 103rd overall mission and the 8th Space Station Assembly Flight, STS-102 mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  6. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-01

    Pilot James M. Kelly (left) and Commander James D. Wetherbee for the STS-102 mission, participate in the movement of supplies inside Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM). In this particular photograph, the two are handling a film magazine for the IMAX cargo bay camera. The primary cargo of the STS-102 mission, the Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the International Space Station's (ISS') moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. The eighth station assembly flight, the STS-102 mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  7. Thermodynamic power stations at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malherbe, J.; Ployart, R.; Alleau, T.; Bandelier, P.; Lauro, F.

    The development of low-temperature thermodynamic power stations using solar energy is considered, with special attention given to the choice of the thermodynamic cycle (Rankine), working fluids (frigorific halogen compounds), and heat exchangers. Thermomechanical conversion machines, such as ac motors and rotating volumetric motors are discussed. A system is recommended for the use of solar energy for irrigation and pumping in remote areas. Other applications include the production of cold of fresh water from brackish waters, and energy recovery from hot springs.

  8. Shoring pumping station excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, J.B.; Reardon, D.J. )

    1991-11-01

    The city of San Mateo, Calif., operates three 12- to 50-year old wastewater pumping stations on a 24-m (80-ft) wide lot located in a residential area near San Francisco Bay. Because the aging stations have difficulty pumping peak 2.19-m{sup 3}/s (50-mgd) wet-weather flows and have structural and maintenance problems, a new 2.62-m{sup 3}/s (60-mgd) station was proposed - the Dale Avenue Pumping Station - to replace the existing ones. To prevent potential damage to adjacent homes, the new station was originally conceived as a circular caisson type; however, a geotechnical investigation recommended against this type of structure because the stiff soils could make sinking the structure difficult. This prompted an investigation of possible shoring methods for the proposed structure. Several shoring systems were investigated, including steel sheeting, soldier beams and lagging, tieback systems, open excavation, and others; however, each had disadvantages that prevented its use. Because these conventional techniques were unacceptable, attention was turned to using deep soil mixing (DSM) to create a diaphragm wall around the area to be excavated before constructing the pumping station. Although this method has been used extensively in Japan since 1983, the Dale Avenue Pumping Station would be the technology's first US application. The technology's anticipated advantages were its impermeability, its fast and efficient installation that did not require tiebacks under existing homes, its adaptability to subsurface conditions ranging from soft ground to stiff clay to gravels, and its lack of pile-driving requirements that would cause high vibration levels during installation.

  9. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-14

    STS-110 Mission astronauts Steven L. Smith (right) and Rex J. Walheim work in tandem on the third scheduled EVA session in which they released the locking bolts on the Mobile Transporter and rewired the Station's robotic arm (out of frame). Part of the Destiny laboratory and a glimpse of the Earth's horizon are seen in the lower portion of this digital image. The STS-110 mission prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) Truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 truss weighing in at 27,000 pounds was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  10. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-16

    Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis on April 8, 2002, the STS-110 mission prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long Starboard side S0 (S-zero) truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver space walkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. In this photograph, Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, mission specialist, anchored on the end of the Canadarm2, moves near the newly installed S0 truss. Astronaut Lee M. E. Morin, mission specialist, (out of frame), worked in tandem with Ross during this fourth and final scheduled session of EVA for the STS-110 mission. The final major task of the space walk was the installation of a beam, the Airlock Spur, between the Quest Airlock and the S0. The spur will be used by space walkers in the future as a path from the airlock to the truss.

  11. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-14

    STS-110 Mission astronaut Rex J. Walheim, accompanied by astronaut Steven L. Smith (out of frame) translates along the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS) during the third scheduled EVA session. The duo released the locking bolts on the Mobile Transporter and rewired the Station's robotic arm. The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future space walks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-Zero) Truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 truss weighing in at 27,000 pounds was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver space walkers around the Station and marked the first time all space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  12. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-14

    STS-110 Mission Specialists Jerry L. Ross and Lee M.E. Morin work in tandem on the fourth scheduled EVA session for the STS-110 mission aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis. Ross is anchored on the mobile foot restraint on the International Space Station's (ISS) Canadarm2, while Morin works inside the S0 (S-zero) truss. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting a 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 Truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  13. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-01

    This is the STS-102 mission crew insignia. The central image on the crew patch depicts the International Space Station (ISS) in the build configuration that it had at the time of the arrival and docking of Discovery during the STS-102 mission, the first crew exchange flight to the Space Station. The station is shown along the direction of the flight as was seen by the shuttle crew during their final approach and docking, the so-called V-bar approach. The names of the shuttle crew members are depicted in gold around the top of the patch, and surnames of the Expedition crew members being exchanged are shown in the lower barner. The three ribbons swirling up to and around the station signify the rotation of these ISS crew members. The number 2 is for the Expedition 2 crew who flew up to the station, and the number 1 is for the Expedition 1 crew who then returned down to Earth. In conjunction with the face of the Lab module of the Station, these Expedition numbers create the shuttle mission number 102. Shown mated below the ISS is the Italian-built Multipurpose Logistics Module, Leonardo, that flew for the first time on this flight. The flags of the countries that were the major contributors to this effort, the United States, Russia, and Italy are also shown in the lower part of the patch. The build-sequence number of this flight in the overall station assembly sequence, 5A.1, is captured by the constellations in the background.

  14. Compression station upgrades include advanced noise reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, V.R.; Sherikar, S.

    1998-10-01

    Since its inception in the mid-`80s, AlintaGas` Dampier to Bunbury natural gas pipeline has been constantly undergoing a series of upgrades to boost capacity and meet other needs. Extending northward about 850 miles from near Perth to the northwest shelf, the 26-inch line was originally served by five compressor stations. In the 1989-91 period, three new compressor stations were added to increase capacity and a ninth station was added in 1997. Instead of using noise-path-treatment mufflers to reduce existing noise, it was decided to use noise-source-treatment technology to prevent noise creation in the first place. In the field, operation of these new noise-source treatment attenuators has been very quiet. If there was any thought earlier of guaranteed noise-level verification, it is not considered a priority now. It`s also anticipated that as AlintaGas proceeds with its pipeline and compressor station upgrade program, similar noise-source treatment equipment will be employed and retrofitted into older stations where the need to reduce noise and potential radiant-heat exposure is indicated.

  15. UMTS Network Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed

  16. Space station contamination modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, T. D.

    1989-01-01

    Current plans for the operation of Space Station Freedom allow the orbit to decay to approximately an altitude of 200 km before reboosting to approximately 450 km. The Space Station will encounter dramatically increasing ambient and induced environmental effects as the orbit decays. Unfortunately, Shuttle docking, which has been of concern as a high contamination period, will likely occur during the time when the station is in the lowest orbit. The combination of ambient and induced environments along with the presence of the docked Shuttle could cause very severe contamination conditions at the lower orbital altitudes prior to Space Station reboost. The purpose here is to determine the effects on the induced external environment of Space Station Freedom with regard to the proposed changes in altitude. The change in the induced environment will be manifest in several parameters. The ambient density buildup in front of ram facing surfaces will change. The source of such contaminants can be outgassing/offgassing surfaces, leakage from the pressurized modules or experiments, purposeful venting, and thruster firings. The third induced environment parameter with altitude dependence is the glow. In order to determine the altitude dependence of the induced environment parameters, researchers used the integrated Spacecraft Environment Model (ISEM) which was developed for Marshall Space Flight Center. The analysis required numerous ISEM runs. The assumptions and limitations for the ISEM runs are described.

  17. The manned space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovit, B.

    The development and establishment of a manned space station represents the next major U.S. space program after the Space Shuttle. If all goes according to plan, the space station could be in orbit around the earth by 1992. A 'power tower' station configuration has been selected as a 'reference' design. This configuration involves a central truss structure to which various elements are attached. An eight-foot-square truss forms the backbone of a structure about 400 feet long. At its lower end, nearest the earth, are attached pressurized manned modules. These modules include two laboratory modules and two so-called 'habitat/command' modules, which provide living and working space for the projected crew of six persons. Later, the station's pressurized space would be expanded to accommodate up to 18 persons. By comparison, the Soviets will provide habitable space for 12 aboard a 300-ton station which they are expected to place in orbit. According to current plans the six U.S. astronauts will work in two teams of three persons each. A ninety-day tour of duty is considered.

  18. International space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLucas, Lawrence J.

    1996-02-01

    The International Space Station represents the largest scientific and technological cooperative program in history, drawing on the resources of thirteen nations. The early stages of construction will involve significant participation from the Russian Space Agency (RSA), numerous nations of the European Space Agency (ESA), and the space agencies of Canada (CSA), Japan (NASDA) and the United States Space Agency (NASA). Its purpose is to place a unique, highly capable laboratory in tower orbit, where high value scientific research can be performed in microgravity. In addition to providing facilities where an international crew of six astronaut-scientists can live and work in space, it will provide important laboratory research facilities for performing basic research in life science, biomedical and material sciences, as well as space and engineering technology development which cannot be accomplished on Earth. The Space Station will be comprised of numerous interlocking components which are currently being constructed on Earth. Space Station will be assembled in orbit over a period of time and will provide several experimentation modules as well as habitation modules and interfaces for logistic modules. Including the four extensive solar rays from which it will draw electrical power, the Station will measure more than 300 feet wide by 200 feet long. This paper will present an overview of the various phases of construction of the Space Station and the planned science thought will be performed during the construction phase and after completion.

  19. ILRS Station Reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey E.; Pearlman, Michael Reisman; Torrence, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Network stations provided system configuration documentation upon joining the ILRS. This information, found in the various site and system log files available on the ILRS website, is essential to the ILRS analysis centers, combination centers, and general user community. Therefore, it is imperative that the station personnel inform the ILRS community in a timely fashion when changes to the system occur. This poster provides some information about the various documentation that must be maintained. The ILRS network consists of over fifty global sites actively ranging to over sixty satellites as well as five lunar reflectors. Information about these stations are available on the ILRS website (http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/network/stations/index.html). The ILRS Analysis Centers must have current information about the stations and their system configuration in order to use their data in generation of derived products. However, not all information available on the ILRS website is as up-to-date as necessary for correct analysis of their data.

  20. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-01

    A crewmember of Expedition One, cosmonaut Yuri P. Gidzenko, is dwarfed by transient hardware aboard Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency-built Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM), a primary cargo of the STS-102 mission. The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the International Space Station's (ISS's) moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments and supplies to and from the Space Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo into 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. The eighth Shuttle mission to visit the ISS, the STS-102 mission served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  1. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-10

    This in-orbit close up shows the Italian Space Agency-built multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM), Leonardo, the primary cargo of the STS-102 mission, resting in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery. The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the International Space Station's (ISS') moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. The eighth station assembly flight and NASA's 103rd overall flight, STS-102 launched March 8, 2001 for an almost 13 day mission.

  2. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-08

    The Space Shuttle Discovery, STS-102 mission, clears launch pad 39B at the Kennedy Space Center as the sun peers over the Atlantic Ocean on March 8, 2001. STS-102's primary cargo was the Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM). The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the International Space Station's (ISS') moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. NASA's 103rd overall flight and the eighth assembly flight, STS-102 was also the first flight involved with Expedition Crew rotation. The Expedition Two crew was delivered to the station while Expedition One was returned home to Earth.

  3. Fault-Tolerant Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Crowley, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    A compact, lightweight heat exchanger has been designed to be fault-tolerant in the sense that a single-point leak would not cause mixing of heat-transfer fluids. This particular heat exchanger is intended to be part of the temperature-regulation system for habitable modules of the International Space Station and to function with water and ammonia as the heat-transfer fluids. The basic fault-tolerant design is adaptable to other heat-transfer fluids and heat exchangers for applications in which mixing of heat-transfer fluids would pose toxic, explosive, or other hazards: Examples could include fuel/air heat exchangers for thermal management on aircraft, process heat exchangers in the cryogenic industry, and heat exchangers used in chemical processing. The reason this heat exchanger can tolerate a single-point leak is that the heat-transfer fluids are everywhere separated by a vented volume and at least two seals. The combination of fault tolerance, compactness, and light weight is implemented in a unique heat-exchanger core configuration: Each fluid passage is entirely surrounded by a vented region bridged by solid structures through which heat is conducted between the fluids. Precise, proprietary fabrication techniques make it possible to manufacture the vented regions and heat-conducting structures with very small dimensions to obtain a very large coefficient of heat transfer between the two fluids. A large heat-transfer coefficient favors compact design by making it possible to use a relatively small core for a given heat-transfer rate. Calculations and experiments have shown that in most respects, the fault-tolerant heat exchanger can be expected to equal or exceed the performance of the non-fault-tolerant heat exchanger that it is intended to supplant (see table). The only significant disadvantages are a slight weight penalty and a small decrease in the mass-specific heat transfer.

  4. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-05-14

    Astronaut James S. Voss, Expedition Two flight engineer, works with a series of cables on the EXPRESS Rack in the United State's Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS). The EXPRESS Rack is a standardized payload rack system that transports, stores, and supports experiments aboard the ISS. EXPRESS stands for EXpedite the PRocessing of Experiments to the Space Station, reflecting the fact that this system was developed specifically to maximize the Station's research capabilities. The EXPRESS Rack system supports science payloads in several disciplines, including biology, chemistry, physics, ecology, and medicine. With the EXPRESS Rack, getting experiments to space has never been easier or more affordable. With its standardized hardware interfaces and streamlined approach, the EXPRESS Rack enables quick, simple integration of multiple payloads aboard the ISS. The system is comprised of elements that remain on the ISS, as well as elements that travel back and forth between the ISS and Earth via the Space Shuttle.

  5. Space station - Technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlisle, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA manned space station program's systems technology effort involves the development of novel techniques that will reduce the scope of tasks neeeded for design, development, testing and evaluation of the hardware. Operations technology efforts encompass analyses that will define those techniques best able to improve the efficiency and reduce the costs of space station functions. The technology objective for data management calls for a fault-tolerant, distributed, expandable and adaptable, as well as repairable and user-friendly, flight data management system that employs state-of-the-art hardware and software. The space station's power system includes the largest element, a 'solar blanket', and the heaviest component, the batteries, of all the subsystems. A thermal management system for the power system is of paramount importance. Attention is also given to the exacting demands of attitude control and stabilization and a regenerative life support system of the requisite capacity and reliability.

  6. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-11-28

    The 16th American assembly flight and 112th overall American flight to the International Space Station (ISS) launched on November 23, 2002 from Kennedy's launch pad 39A aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-113. Mission objectives included the delivery of the Expedition Six Crew to the ISS, the return of Expedition Five crew back to Earth, and the installation and activation of the Port 1 Integrated Truss Assembly (P1). The first major component installed on the left side of the Station, the P1 truss provides an additional three External Thermal Control System radiators. Weighing in at 27,506 pounds, the P1 truss is 45 feet (13.7 meters) long, 15 feet (4.6 meters) wide, and 13 feet (4 meters) high. Three space walks, aided by the use of the Robotic Manipulator Systems of both the Shuttle and the Station, were performed in the installation of P1.

  7. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-05-01

    This photograph depicts the International Space Station's (ISS) Joint Airlock Module undergoing exhaustive structural and systems testing in the Space Station manufacturing facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) prior to shipment to the Kennedy Space Center. The Airlock includes two sections. The larger equipment lock, on the left, will store spacesuits and associated gear and the narrower crewlock is on the right, from which the astronauts will exit into space for extravehicular activity. The airlock is 18 feet long and has a mass of about 13,500 pounds. It was launched to the station aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-104 mission) on July 12, 2001. The MSFC is playing a primary role in NASA's development, manufacturing, and operations of the ISS.

  8. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-05-01

    The Joint Airlock Module for the International Space Station (ISS) awaits shipment to the Kennedy Space Center in the Space Station manufacturing facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The Airlock includes two sections. The larger equipment lock on the left is where crews will change into and out of their spacesuits for extravehicular activities, and store spacesuits, batteries, power tools, and other supplies. The narrower crewlock from which the astronauts will exit into space for extravehicular activities, is on the right. The airlock is 18 feet long and has a mass of about 13,500 pounds. It was launched to the station aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-104 mission) on July 12, 2001. The MSFC is playing a primary role in NASA's development, manufacturing, and operations of the ISS.

  9. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-20

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by one of the crewmembers of the STS-105 mission from the Shuttle Orbiter Discovery after separating from the ISS. The STS-105 mission was the 11th ISS assembly flight and its goals were the rotation of the ISS Expedition Two crew with Expedition Three crew, and the delivery of supplies utilizing the Italian-built Multipurpose Logistic Module (MPLM) Leonardo. Aboard Leonardo were six resupply stowage racks, four resupply stowage supply platforms, and two new scientific experiment racks, EXPRESS (Expedite the Processing of Experiments to the Space Station) Racks 4 and 5, which added science capabilities to the ISS. Another payload was the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), which included materials and other types of space exposure experiments mounted on the exterior of the ISS.

  10. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-09

    The STS-117 crew patch symbolizes the continued construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and our ongoing human presence in space. The ISS is shown orbiting high above the Earth. Gold is used to highlight the portion of the ISS that will be installed by the STS-117 crew. It consists of the second starboard truss section, S3 and S4, and a set of solar arrays. The names of the STS-117 crew are located above and below the orbiting outpost. The two gold astronaut office symbols, emanating from the 117 at the bottom of the patch, represent the concerted efforts of the shuttle and station programs toward the completion of the station. The orbiter and unfurled banner of red, white, and blue represent our Nation and renewed patriotism as we continue to explore the universe.

  11. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    Pictured is an artist's concept of the International Space Station (ISS) with solar panels fully deployed. In addition to the use of solar energy, the ISS will employ at least three types of propulsive support systems for its operation. The first type is to reboost the Station to correct orbital altitude to offset the effects of atmospheric and other drag forces. The second function is to maneuver the ISS to avoid collision with oribting bodies (space junk). The third is for attitude control to position the Station in the proper attitude for various experiments, temperature control, reboost, etc. The ISS, a gateway to permanent human presence in space, is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation by cooperation of sixteen countries.

  12. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-07-28

    Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform-2. Back dropped by popcorn-like clouds, the MPLM can be seen in the cargo bay as Discovery undergoes rendezvous and docking operations. Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the spacecraft from the International Space Station (ISS).

  13. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-07-28

    Launched on July 26 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform-2. Back dropped by popcorn-like clouds, the MPLM can be seen in the cargo bay as Discovery undergoes rendezvous and docking operations. Cosmonaut Sergei K. Kriklev, Expedition 11 Commander, and John L. Phillips, NASA Space Station officer and flight engineer photographed the spacecraft from the International Space Station (ISS).

  14. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-13

    As the construction continued on the International Space Station (ISS), STS-118 astronaut and mission specialist, Dave Williams, representing the Canadian Space Agency, was anchored on the foot restraint of the Canadarm2 as he participated in the second session of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) for the mission. Assisting Williams was Rick Mastracchio (out of frame). During the 6 hour, 28 minute space walk, the two removed a faulty control moment gyroscope (CMG-3) and installed a new CMG into the Z1 truss. The failed CMG will remain in its temporary stowage location on the exterior of the station until it is returned to Earth on a later Shuttle mission. The new gyroscope is one of four CMGs that are used to control the orbital attitude of the station.

  15. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-13

    As the construction continued on the International Space Station (ISS), STS-118 astronaut and mission specialist Rick Mastracchio participated in the second session of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) for the mission. Assisting Mastracchio was Canadian Space Agency representative Dave Williams (out of frame). During the 6 hour, 28 minute space walk, the two removed a faulty control moment gyroscope (CMG-3) and installed a new CMG into the Z1 truss. The failed CMG will remain in its temporary stowage location on the exterior of the station until it is returned to Earth on a later Shuttle mission. The new gyroscope is one of four CMGs that are used to control the orbital attitude of the station.

  16. Physics of heat pipe rewetting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, S. H.

    1994-01-01

    This is the final report which summarizes the research accomplishments under the project entitled 'Physics of Heat Pipe Rewetting' under NASA Grant No. NAG 9-525, Basic, during the period of April 1, 1991 to January 31, 1994. The objective of the research project was to investigate both analytically and experimentally the rewetting characteristics of the heated, grooved plate. The grooved plate is to simulate the inner surface of the vapor channel in monogroove heat pipes for space station design. In such designs, the inner surface of the vapor channel is threaded with monogrooves. When the heat pipe is thermally overloaded, dryout of the monogroove surface occurs. Such a dryout surface should be promptly rewetted to prevent the failure of the heat pipe operation in the thermal radiator of the space station.

  17. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-13

    Hovering in space some 240 miles above the blue and white Earth, STS-110 astronaut M.E. Morin participates in his first ever and second of four scheduled space walks for the STS-110 mission. He is seen toting one of the S0 (S-Zero) keel pins which were removed from their functional position on the truss and attached on the truss' exterior for long term stowage. The 43-foot-long, 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the International Space Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first "space railroad," which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. The mission completed the installations and preparations of the S0 truss and the Mobile Transporter within four space walks. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver space walkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  18. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  19. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-10

    STS-102 mission astronauts James S. Voss and James D. Weatherbee share a congratulatory handshake as the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery successfully docks with the International Space Station (ISS). Photographed from left to right are: Astronauts Susan J. Helms, mission specialist; James S. Voss, Expedition 2 crew member; James D. Weatherbee, mission commander; Andrew S.W. Thomas, mission specialist; and nearly out of frame is James M. Kelley, Pilot. Launched March 8, 2001, STS-102's primary cargo was the Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency-built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM). The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as ISS' moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. NASA's 103rd overall mission and the 8th Space Station Assembly Flight, STS-102 mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  20. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-18

    Astronaut Patrick G. Forrester works with the the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) during extravehicular activity (EVA). MISSE would expose 750 material samples for about 18 months and collect information on how different materials weather the space environment The objective of MISSE is to develop early, low-cost, non-intrusive opportunities to conduct critical space exposure tests of space materials and components plarned for use on future spacecraft. The experiment was the first externally mounted experiment conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) and was installed on the outside of the ISS Quest Airlock. MISSE was launched on August 10, 2001 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  1. Solar power station

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, J.

    1982-11-30

    Solar power station with semiconductor solar cells for generating electric power is described, wherein the semiconductor solar cells are provided on a member such as a balloon or a kite which carries the solar cells into the air. The function of the balloon or kite can also be fulfilled by a glider or airship. The solar power station can be operated by allowing the system to ascend at sunrise and descend at sunset or when the wind is going to be too strong in order to avoid any demage.

  2. Space station structures development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teller, V. B.

    1986-01-01

    A study of three interrelated tasks focusing on deployable Space Station truss structures is discussed. Task 1, the development of an alternate deployment system for linear truss, resulted in the preliminary design of an in-space reloadable linear motor deployer. Task 2, advanced composites deployable truss development, resulted in the testing and evaluation of composite materials for struts used in a deployable linear truss. Task 3, assembly of structures in space/erectable structures, resulted in the preliminary design of Space Station pressurized module support structures. An independent, redundant support system was developed for the common United States modules.

  3. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-10-03

    In this photograph, Russians are working on the aft portion of the United States-funded, Russian-built Functional Cargo Bay (FGB) also known as Zarya (Russian for sunrise). Built at Khrunichev, the FGB began pre-launch testing shortly after this photo was taken. Launched by a Russian Proton rocket from the Baikonu Cosmodrome on November 20, 1998, Zarya was the first element of the International Space Station (ISS) followed by the U.S. Unity Node. The aft docking mechanism, Pirs, on the far right with ventilation ducting rurning through it, will be docked with the third Station element, the Russian Service Module, or Zvezda.

  4. Space Station design integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlisle, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the top Program level design integration process which involves the integration of a US Space Station manned base that consists of both US and international Elements. It explains the form and function of the Program Requirements Review (PRR), which certifies that the program is ready for preliminary design, the Program Design Review (PDR), which certifies the program is ready to start the detail design, and the Critical Design Review (CDR), which certifies that the program is completing a design that meets the Program objectives. The paper also discusses experience, status to date, and plans for continued system integration through manufacturing, testing and final verification of the Space Station system performance.

  5. Modular space station facilities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The modular space station will operate as a general purpose laboratory (GPL). In addition, the space station will be able to support many attached or free-flying research and application modules that would be dedicated to specific projects like astronomy or earth observations. The GPL primary functions have been organized into functional laboratories including an electrical/electronics laboratory, a mechanical sciences laboratory, an experiment and test isolation laboratory, a hard data process facility, a data evaluation facility, an optical sciences laboratory, a biomedical and biosciences laboratory, and an experiment/secondary command and control center.

  6. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-01

    This artist's digital concept depicts the completely assembled International Space Station (ISS) passing over Florida. As a gateway to permanent human presence in space, the Space Station Program is to expand knowledge benefiting all people and nations. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation. Experiments to be conducted in the ISS include: microgravity research, Earth science, space science, life sciences, space product development, and engineering research and technology. The sixteen countries participating the ISS are: United States, Russian Federation, Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, France, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, and Brazil.

  7. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-09-16

    The setting sun and the thin blue airglow line at Earth's horizon was captured by the International Space Station's (ISS) Expedition Three crewmembers with a digital camera. Some of the Station's components are silhouetted in the foreground. The crew was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery STS-105 mission, on August 10, 2001, replacing the Expedition Two crew. After marning the orbiting ISS for 128 consecutive days, the three returned to Earth on December 17, 2001, aboard the STS-108 mission Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour.

  8. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-05

    Back dropped by the blackness of space and Earth's horizon is the International Space Station (ISS) as seen from Space Shuttle Discovery as the two spacecraft begin their relative separation. The latest configuration of the ISS includes the Italian-built U.S. Node 2, named Harmony, and the P6 truss segment installed over 11 days of cooperative work onboard the shuttle and station by the STS-120 and Expedition 16 crews. Undocking of the two spacecraft occurred at 4:32 a.m. (CST) on Nov. 5, 2007.

  9. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-17

    This view of the International Space Station, back dropped against the blackness of space, was taken shortly after the Space Shuttle Atlantis undocked from the orbital outpost at 7:50 a.m. CDT during the STS-115 mission. The unlinking completed after six days, two hours and two minutes of joint operations of the installation of the P3/P4 truss. The new 17 ton truss included batteries, electronics, a giant rotating joint, and sported a second pair of 240-foot solar wings. The new solar arrays will eventually double the onboard power of the Station when their electrical systems are brought online during the next shuttle flight, STS-116.

  10. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-01

    In this photograph, Astronaut James Voss, flight engineer of Expedition Two, performs a task at a work station in the International Space Station (ISS) Destiny Laboratory, or U.S. Laboratory, as Astronaut Scott Horowitz, STS-105 mission commander, floats through the hatchway leading to the Unity node. After spending five months aboard the orbital outpost, the ISS Expedition Two crew was replaced by Expedition Three and returned to Earth aboard the STS-105 Space Shuttle Discovery on August 22, 2001. The Orbiter Discovery was launched from the Kennedy Space Center on August 10, 2001.

  11. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-05

    Back dropped by the blueness of Earth is the International Space Station (ISS) as seen from Space Shuttle Discovery as the two spacecraft begin their relative separation. The latest configuration of the ISS includes the Italian-built U.S. Node 2, named Harmony, and the P6 truss segment installed over 11 days of cooperative work onboard the shuttle and station by the STS-120 and Expedition 16 crews. Undocking of the two spacecraft occurred at 4:32 a.m. (CST) on Nov. 5, 2007.

  12. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the completely assembled International Space Station (ISS) passing over Florida and the Bahamas. As a gateway to permanent human presence in space, the Space Station Program is to expand knowledge benefiting all people and nations. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation. Experiments to be conducted in the ISS include: microgravity research, Earth science, space science, life sciences, space product development, and engineering research and technology. The sixteen countries participating in the ISS are: United States, Russian Federation, Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, France, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, and Brazil.

  13. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-24

    This is a Space Shuttle STS-100 mission onboard photograph. Astronaut Scott Parazynski totes a Direct Current Switching Unit while anchored on the end of the Canadian-built Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robotic arm. The RMS is in the process of moving Parazynski to the exterior of the Destiny laboratory (right foreground), where he will secure the spare unit, a critical part of the station's electrical system, to the stowage platform in case future crews will need it. Also in the photograph are the Italian-built Raffaello multipurpose Logistics Module (center) and the new Canadarm2 (lower right) or Space Station Remote Manipulator System.

  14. Space Station habitability research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Y. A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Cente is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  15. Space Station Habitability Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  16. Heat Islands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  17. 77 FR 30053 - Repair Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ...This action would amend the regulations for repair stations by revising the system of ratings, the repair station certification requirements, and the regulations on repair stations providing maintenance for air carriers. This action is necessary because many portions of the existing repair station regulations do not reflect current repair station aircraft maintenance and business practices, or advances in aircraft technology. These changes would modernize the regulations to keep pace with current industry standards and practices.

  18. Power Station Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Kuljian Corporation provides design engineering and construction management services for power generating plants in more than 20 countries. They used WASP (Calculating Water and Steam Properties), a COSMIC program to optimize power station design. This enabled the company to substantially reduce lead time and software cost in a recent design project.

  19. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-06-01

    Backdropped against the blackness of space and the Earth's horizon, the Mobile Remote Base System (MBS) is moved by the Canadarm2 for installation on the International Space Station (ISS). Delivered by the STS-111 mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour in June 2002, the MBS is an important part of the Station's Mobile Servicing System allowing the robotic arm to travel the length of the Station, which is neccessary for future construction tasks. In addition, STS-111 delivered a new crew, Expedition Five, replacing Expedition Four after remaining a record-setting 196 days in space. Three spacewalks enabled the STS-111 crew to accomplish the delivery and installation of the MBS to the Mobile Transporter on the S0 (S-zero) truss, the replacement of a wrist roll joint on the Station's robotic arm, and the task of unloading supplies and science experiments from the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, which made its third trip to the orbital outpost. The STS-111 mission, the 14th Shuttle mission to visit the ISS, was launched on June 5, 2002 and landed June 19, 2002.

  20. Space Station Water Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Charles E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  1. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-10-01

    As the Space Shuttle Discovery began its separation from the International Space Station (ISS), a crew member captured this view of the ISS, revealing new additions to the complex. Most of the Z1 truss structure is visible, along with the recently installed Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA-3).

  3. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-09-08

    This is the insignia for STS-98, which marks a major milestone in assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). Atlantis' crew delivered the United States Laboratory, Destiny, to the ISS. Destiny will be the centerpiece of the ISS, a weightless laboratory where expedition crews will perform unprecedented research in the life sciences, materials sciences, Earth sciences, and microgravity sciences. The laboratory is also the nerve center of the Station, performing guidance, control, power distribution, and life support functions. With Destiny's arrival, the Station will begin to fulfill its promise of returning the benefits of space research to Earth's citizens. The crew patch depicts the Space Shuttle with Destiny held high above the payload bay just before its attachment to the ISS. Red and white stripes, with a deep blue field of white stars, border the Shuttle and Destiny to symbolize the continuing contribution of the United States to the ISS. The constellation Hercules, seen just below Destiny, captures the Shuttle and Station's team efforts in bringing the promise of orbital scientific research to life. The reflection of Earth in Destiny's window emphasizes the connection between space exploration and life on Earth.

  4. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an unparalleled international scientific and technological cooperative venture that will usher in a new era of human space exploration and research and provide benefits to people on Earth. On-Orbit assembly began on November 20, 1998, with the launch of the first ISS component, Zarya, on a Russian Proton rocket. The Space Shuttle followed on December 4, 1998, carrying the U.S.-built Unity cornecting Module. Sixteen nations are participating in the ISS program: the United States, Canada, Japan, Russia, Brazil, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. The ISS will include six laboratories and be four times larger and more capable than any previous space station. The United States provides two laboratories (United States Laboratory and Centrifuge Accommodation Module) and a habitation module. There will be two Russian research modules, one Japanese laboratory, referred to as the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), and one European Space Agency (ESA) laboratory called the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF). The station's internal volume will be roughly equivalent to the passenger cabin volume of two 747 jets. Over five years, a total of more than 40 space flights by at least three different vehicles - the Space Shuttle, the Russian Proton Rocket, and the Russian Soyuz rocket - will bring together more than 100 different station components and the ISS crew. Astronauts will perform many spacewalks and use new robotics and other technologies to assemble ISS components in space.

  5. Designing a Weather Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  6. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-04-17

    International Cooperation Phase III: A Space Shuttle docked to the International Space Station (ISS) in this computer generated representation of the ISS in its completed and fully operational state with elements from the U.S., Europe, Canada, Japan, and Russia.

  7. Designing a Weather Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  8. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-15

    At the control of Expedition Two Flight Engineer Susan B. Helms, the newly-installed Canadian-built Canadarm2, Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) maneuvers the Quest Airlock into the proper position to be mated onto the starboard side of the Unity Node I during the first of three extravehicular activities (EVA) of the STS-104 mission. The Quest Airlock makes it easier to perform space walks, and allows both Russian and American spacesuits to be worn when the Shuttle is not docked with the International Space Station (ISS). American suits will not fit through Russion airlocks at the Station. The Boeing Company, the space station prime contractor, built the 6.5-ton (5.8 metric ton) airlock and several other key components at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), in the same building where the Saturn V rocket was built. Installation activities were supported by the development team from the Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) located at the MSFC and the Mission Control Center at NASA's Johnson Space Flight Center in Houston, Texas.

  9. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-07-10

    Expedition Five crewmember and flight engineer Peggy Whitson displays the progress of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  10. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-09-01

    This is the crew patch for the Shuttle Endeavor STS-113 mission, the 16th American assembly flight, and 112th overall American flight to the International Space Station (ISS). STS-113 mission objectives included the delivery of the Expedition Six Crew to the ISS, the return of Expedition Five back to Earth, and the installation and activation of the Port 1 Integrated Truss Assembly (P1). The first major component installed on the left side of the Station, the P1 truss provides an additional three External Thermal Control System radiators. Three space walks, aided by the use of the Robotic Manipulator Systems of both the Shuttle and the Station, were performed in the installation of P1. Also, more than 2,500 pounds (1,134 kilograms) of cargo were transferred between the Shuttle and Station. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor launched on November 23, 2002 from Kennedy's launch pad 39A and returned 11 days later on December 4, 2002. The patch depicts the Space Shuttle Endeavour docked to the ISS during the installation of the P1 truss with the gold astronaut symbol in the background. The seven stars at the top left center of the patch are the seve brightest stars in the constellation Orion. They represent the combined seven crew members (four Shuttle and three Expedition Six). The three stars to the right of the astronaut symbol represent the returning Expedition Five crew members. The Roman Numeral CXIII represents the mission number 113.

  11. Space Station structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, W.

    1985-04-01

    A brief overview of some structural results that came from space station skunk works is presented. Detailed drawings of the pressurized modules, and primary truss structures such as deployable single fold beams, erectable beams and deployable double folds are given. Typical truss attachment devices and deployable backup procedures are also given.

  12. Dragon Departs the Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Expedition 31 crew used the Canadarm2 robotic arm to demate the SpaceX Dragon cargo vehicle from the Earth-facing port of the station’s Harmony node at 4:07 a.m. EDT on Thursday. It was relea...

  13. Galileo Station Keeping Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Cambriles, Antonio; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Taboada, Daniel; Perez-Lopez, Fernando; Navarro, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents analyses done for the design and implementation of the Maneuver Planning software of the Galileo Flight Dynamics Facility. The station keeping requirements of the constellation have been analyzed in order to identify the key parameters to be taken into account in the design and implementation of the software.

  14. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-01

    One of the astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery took this photograph, from the aft flight deck of the Discovery, of the International Space Station (ISS) in orbit. The photo was taken after separation of the orbiter Discovery from the ISS after several days of joint activities and an important crew exchange.

  15. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Payload Operations Center (POC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is the world's primary science command post for the International Space Station (ISS), the most ambitious space research facility in human history. The Payload Operations team is responsible for managing all science research experiments aboard the Station. The center is also home for coordination of the mission-plarning work of variety of international sources, all science payload deliveries and retrieval, and payload training and safety programs for the Station crew and all ground personnel. Within the POC, critical payload information from the ISS is displayed on a dedicated workstation, reading both S-band (low data rate) and Ku-band (high data rate) signals from a variety of experiments and procedures operated by the ISS crew and their colleagues on Earth. The POC is the focal point for incorporating research and experiment requirements from all international partners into an integrated ISS payload mission plan. This photograph is an overall view of the MSFC Payload Operations Center displaying the flags of the countries participating the ISS. The flags at the left portray The United States, Canada, France, Switzerland, Netherlands, Japan, Brazil, and Sweden. The flags at the right portray The Russian Federation, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Spain, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Norway.

  16. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-12-12

    Astronaut Robert L. Curbeam, Jr., STS-116 mission specialist, smiles for the camera in the Quest Airlock of the International Space Station (ISS). Curbeam had just completed the mission’s first space walk in which the P6 truss installation was conducted.

  17. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-07-11

    Artist's concept for Phase III of the International Space Station (ISS) as shown here in its completed and fully operational state with elements from the United States, Europe, Canada, Japan, and Russia. Sixteen countries are cooperating to provide a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  18. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-16

    The International Space Station (ISS), with its newly attached U.S. Laboratory, Destiny, was photographed by a crew member aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis during a fly-around inspection after Atlantis separated from the Space Station. The Laboratory is shown in the foreground of this photograph. The American-made Destiny module is the cornerstone for space-based research aboard the orbiting platform and the centerpiece of the International Space Station (ISS), where unprecedented science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. Destiny will also serve as the command and control center for the ISS. The aluminum module is 8.5-meters (28-feet) long and 4.3-meters (14-feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two endcones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations. Payload racks will occupy 15 locations especially designed to support experiments. The Destiny module was built by the Boeing Company under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  19. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-07-01

    The 45-foot, port-side (P1) truss segment flight article for the International Space Station is being transported to the Redstone Airfield, Marshall Space Flight Center. The truss will be loaded aboard NASA's Super Guppy cargo plane for shipment to the Kennedy Space Center.

  20. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-07-20

    An artist's conception of what the final configuration of the International Space Station (ISS) will look like when it is fully built and deployed. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  1. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-09-17

    Enroute for docking, the 16-foot-long Russian docking compartment Pirs (the Russian word for pier) approaches the International Space Station (ISS). Pirs will provide a docking port for future Russian Soyuz or Progress craft, as well as an airlock for extravehicular activities. Pirs was launched September 14, 2001 from Baikonur in Russia.

  2. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-12-16

    Artist's concept of the International Space Station (ISS) Alpha deployed and operational. This figure also includes the docking procedures for the Space Shuttle (shown with cargo bay open). The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  3. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-16

    With its new U.S. Laboratory, Destiny, contrasted over a blue and white Earth, the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by one of the STS-98 crew members aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis following separation of the Shuttle and Station. The Laboratory is shown at the lower right of the Station. The American-made Destiny module is the cornerstone for space-based research aboard the orbiting platform and the centerpiece of the ISS, where unprecedented science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. Destiny will also serve as the command and control center for the ISS. The aluminum module is 8.5- meters (28-feet) long and 4.3-meters (14-feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two endcones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations. Payload racks will occupy 15 locations especially designed to support experiments. The Destiny module was built by the Boeing Company under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  4. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-03

    Expedition Seven photographed the Soyez TMA-1 Capsule through a window of the International Space Station (ISS) as it departed for Earth. Aboard were Expedition Six crew members, astronauts Kerneth D. Bowersox and Donald R. Pettit, and cosmonaut Nikolai M. Budarin. Expedition Six served a 5 and 1/2 month stay aboard the ISS, the longest stay to date.

  5. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-02

    Back dropped against the blue hues of Earth, the International Space Station (ISS) sports its new Port One (P-1) Truss (center frame) as photographed by a crew member aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour following its undocking from the Station. Launched on November 23, 2002 from Kennedy's launch pad 39A, the STS-113 mission, the 16th American assembly flight and 112th overall American flight, installed and activated the Port 1 Integrated Truss Assembly (P1). The first major component installed on the left side of the Station, the P1 truss will provide three additional External Thermal Control System radiators. Weighing in at 27,506 pounds, the P1 truss is 45 feet (13.7 meters) long, 15 feet (4.6 meters) wide, and 13 feet (4 meters) high. Three space walks, aided by the use of the Robotic Manipulator Systems of both the Shuttle and the Station, were performed in the installation of P1. This photograph depicts the the latest completed configuration of the ISS to date.

  6. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-01

    The Quest Airlock is in the process of being installed onto the starboard side of the Unity Node 1 of the International Space Station (ISS). Astronaut Susan J. Helms, Expedition Two flight engineer, used controls onboard the station to maneuver the Airlock into place with the Canadarm2, or Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). The Joint Airlock is a pressurized flight element consisting of two cylindrical chambers attached end-to-end by a cornecting bulkhead and hatch. Once installed and activated, the ISS Airlock becomes the primary path for ISS space walk entry and departure for U.S. spacesuits, which are known as Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs). In addition, it is designed to support the Russian Orlan spacesuit for extravehicular activity (EVA). The Joint Airlock is 20-feet long, 13-feet in diameter and weighs 6.5 tons. It was built at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by the Space Station prime contractor Boeing. The ISS Airlock has two main components: a crew airlock and an equipment airlock for storing EVA and EVA preflight preps. The Airlock was launched on July 21, 2001 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis for the STS-104 mission.

  7. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-01

    Backdropped against water and clouds, the International Space Station was separated from the Space Shuttle Discovery after several days of joint activities and an important crew exchange. This photograph was taken by one of the crew of this mission from the aft flight deck of Discovery.

  8. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-23

    Carrying out a flight program for the French Space Agency (CNES) under a commerial contract with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, a Russian Soyuz spacecraft approaches the International Space Station (ISS) delivering a crew of three for an eight-day stay. Aboard the craft are Commander Victor Afanasyev, Flight Engineer Konstantin Kozeev, both representing Rosaviakosmos, and French Flight Engineer Claudie Haignere.

  9. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-01

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Russian Lada greenhouse provides home to an experiment that investigates plant development and genetics. Space grown peas have dried and "gone to seed." The crew of the ISS will soon harvest the seeds. Eventually some will be replanted onboard the ISS, and some will be returned to Earth for further study.

  10. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-06

    The nozzles for Discovery's three main engines are visible in this close-up image photographed by one of the Expedition 13 crew members onboard the International Space Station (ISS) during the STS-121 Rotating Pitch Maneuver (RPM) survey prior to docking of the two spacecraft. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has management responsibility for development of the space shuttle main engines (SSME).

  11. The Home Weather Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Steven D.

    1991-01-01

    Described is how an amateur weather observer measures and records temperature and precipitation at a well-equipped, backyard weather station. Directions for building an instrument shelter and a description of the instruments needed for measuring temperature and precipitation are included. (KR)

  12. The Home Weather Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Steven D.

    1991-01-01

    Described is how an amateur weather observer measures and records temperature and precipitation at a well-equipped, backyard weather station. Directions for building an instrument shelter and a description of the instruments needed for measuring temperature and precipitation are included. (KR)

  13. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-07-10

    This is a photo of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  14. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-11

    STS-102 astronaut and mission specialist James S. Voss works outside Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory (shown in lower frame) on the International Space Station (ISS), while anchored to the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robotic arm on the Space Shuttle Discovery during the first of two space walks. During this space walk, the longest to date in space shuttle history, Voss in tandem with Susan Helms (out of frame), prepared the Pressurized Mating Adapter 3 for repositioning from the Unity Module's Earth-facing berth to its port-side berth to make room for the Leonardo Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) supplied by the Italian Space Agency. The The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the ISS' moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. Launched on May 8, 2001 for nearly 13 days in space, the STS-102 mission was the 8th spacecraft assembly flight to the ISS and NASA's 103rd overall mission. The mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  15. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-11

    STS-102 mission astronaut Susan J. Helms works outside the International Space Station (ISS) while holding onto a rigid umbilical and her feet anchored to the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robotic arm on the Space Shuttle Discovery during the first of two space walks. During this space walk, the longest to date in space shuttle history, Helms in tandem with James S. Voss (out of frame), prepared the Pressurized Mating Adapter 3 for repositioning from the Unity Module's Earth-facing berth to its port-side berth to make room for the Leonardo Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) supplied by the Italian Space Agency. The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the ISS's moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. Launched on May 8, 2001 for nearly 13 days in space, STS-102 mission was the 8th spacecraft assembly flight to the ISS and NASA's 103rd overall mission. The mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  16. Cofiring at the Seward Generating Station -- A long term demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Battista, J.; Tillman, D.; Hughes, E.

    1999-07-01

    GPU Genco, supported by the Electric Power Research Institute and the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office and the Federal Energy Technology Center, is demonstrating cofiring of wood waste with coal using separate injection of prepared wood waste at its Seward Generating Station. The program is based upon 3 previous tests: a program of parametric testing at Shawville Generating Station and two parametric test programs at Seward Generating Station. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is the primary contractor for the demonstration. The physical plant installed at Seward Generating Station includes a pole barn, a trommel screen, a fuel storage silo, and a pneumatic transport system. Testing of cofiring has been at the 5 to 10% heat input level. This paper summarizes the progression of cofiring testing at GPU Genco, details the facility design and equipment installed at the Seward Generation Station.

  17. 47 CFR 80.519 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.519 Station identification. (a...) Marine utility stations, private coast stations, and associated hand-held radios, when...

  18. Heat accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Bracht, A.

    1981-09-29

    A heat accumulator comprises a thermally-insulated reservoir full of paraffin wax mixture or other flowable or meltable heat storage mass, heat-exchangers immersed in the mass, a heat-trap connected to one of the heat-exchangers, and a heat user connected to the other heat-exchanger. Pumps circulate fluids through the heat-trap and the heat-using means and the respective heat-exchangers, and a stirrer agitates and circulates the mass, and the pumps and the stirrer and electric motors driving these devices are all immersed in the mass.

  19. Hydrogen Filling Station

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  20. Accumulation and subsequent utilization of waste heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloničný, Jan; Richter, Aleš; Pavloková, Petra

    2016-06-01

    This article aims to introduce a special way of heat accumulation and primary operating characteristics. It is the unique way in which the waste heat from flue gas of biogas cogeneration station is stored in the system of storage tanks, into the heat transfer oil. Heat is subsequently transformed into water, from which is generated the low-pressure steam. Steam, at the time of peak electricity needs, spins the special designed turbine generator and produces electrical energy.

  1. Levels at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenney, Terry A.

    2010-01-01

    Operational procedures at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations include periodic leveling checks to ensure that gages are accurately set to the established gage datum. Differential leveling techniques are used to determine elevations for reference marks, reference points, all gages, and the water surface. The techniques presented in this manual provide guidance on instruments and methods that ensure gaging-station levels are run to both a high precision and accuracy. Levels are run at gaging stations whenever differences in gage readings are unresolved, stations may have been damaged, or according to a pre-determined frequency. Engineer's levels, both optical levels and electronic digital levels, are commonly used for gaging-station levels. Collimation tests should be run at least once a week for any week that levels are run, and the absolute value of the collimation error cannot exceed 0.003 foot/100 feet (ft). An acceptable set of gaging-station levels consists of a minimum of two foresights, each from a different instrument height, taken on at least two independent reference marks, all reference points, all gages, and the water surface. The initial instrument height is determined from another independent reference mark, known as the origin, or base reference mark. The absolute value of the closure error of a leveling circuit must be less than or equal to ft, where n is the total number of instrument setups, and may not exceed |0.015| ft regardless of the number of instrument setups. Closure error for a leveling circuit is distributed by instrument setup and adjusted elevations are determined. Side shots in a level circuit are assessed by examining the differences between the adjusted first and second elevations for each objective point in the circuit. The absolute value of these differences must be less than or equal to 0.005 ft. Final elevations for objective points are determined by averaging the valid adjusted first and second elevations. If final elevations

  2. House cuts science to restore Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The House voted 240 to 173 to fully fund Space Station Freedom at $1.9 billion next year, overriding the House appropriations subcommittee, which eliminated the funding for the station last month. The unexpected action on June 6, taken after a day of heated debate, froze all other programs of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration at this year's levels, confirming the recent suspicion that the rest of the agency would suffer if the space station were funded. The House also took an additional $217 million from public housing subsidies and added it to the station. The National Science Foundation's budget request, funded by the same bill as NASA is, was not affected.NASA administrator Richard H. Truly called the vote “a big victory for all America.” He added, however, that “much work remains to be done to provide a final FY 1992 budget for NASA that is well balanced between science, manned space flight and exploration, aeronautical research, Earth observation, and technology development.”

  3. Microbiology of aquatic environments: Characterizations of the microbiotas of municipal water supplies, the International Space Station Internal Active Thermal Control System's heat transport fluid, and US Space Shuttle drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, James Nicholas, III

    An understanding of the microbiota within life support systems is essential for the prolonged presence of humans in space. This is because microbes may cause disease or induce biofouling and/or corrosion within spacecraft water systems. It is imperative that we develop effective high-throughput technologies for characterizing microbial populations that can eventually be used in the space environment. This dissertation describes testing and development of such methodologies, targeting both bacteria and viruses in water, and examines the bacterial and viral diversity within two spacecraft life support systems. The bacterial community of the International Space Station Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) was examined using conventional culture-based and advanced molecular techniques including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assays, direct microscopic examination, and analyses of 16S rRNA gene libraries from the community metagenome. The cultivable heterotrophs of the IATCS fluids ranged from below detection limit to 1.1x10 5/100 ml, and viable cells, measured by ATP, ranged from 1.4x10 3/100 ml to 7.7x105/100 ml. DNA extraction, cloning, sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis of the clones from 16S RNA gene libraries showed members of the firmicutes, alpha, beta, and gamma-proteobacteria to be present in the fluids. This persistent microbial bioburden and the presence of probable metal reducers, biofilm formers, and opportunistic pathogens illustrate the need for better characterization of bacterial communities present within spacecraft fluids. A new methodology was developed for detection of viruses in water using microarrays. Samples were concentrated by lyophilization, resuspended and filtered (0.22microm). Viral nucleic acids were then extracted, amplified, fluorescently labeled and hybridized onto a custom microarray with probes for ˜1000 known viruses. Numerous virus signatures were observed. Human Adenovirus C and

  4. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-07

    In this image, STS-97 astronaut and mission specialist Carlos I. Noriega waves at a crew member inside Endeavor's cabin during the mission's final session of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor on November 30, 2000, the STS-97 mission's primary objective was the delivery, assembly, and activation of the U.S. electrical power system onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment, and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The electrical system will eventually provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment.

  5. Station Climatic Summaries, Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    1 I n a 9 2 1 OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMMARY STATION: PRAGUE, CZECHOSLOVAKIA STATION #: 115180 ICAO ID: LKPR LOCATION: 50006 ’N, 140 17’E ELEVATION...I 5 1 IU UD U 15 U’ PC: 37 35 36 46 16 16 3.5 0.3 0.9 84 .1 32 120 U 7 45 8 5 18 6 If 0 0 16 0 M 4 3 36 54 12 18 49 02 12 8 .1 33 ISO W 7 46 6 6 18 5...20 13 17A G IS b8 59 :; 5513 4 •% . :ST A9 3 .2 5SI 5 1 EAk"(IMSI 3 2 I I 0 0 0 0 2 9 17. 17 SEP 69 61 53 .6 59 .3e 51 ISO S S % 24 1k. "IN ON (INSf

  6. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-17

    Backdropped by a sunrise, the newly installed Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is visible on this image. MISSE would expose 750 material samples for about 18 months and collect information on how different materials weather the space environment. The objective of MISSE is to develop early, low-cost, non-intrusive opportunities to conduct critical space exposure tests of space materials and components plarned for use on future spacecraft. The experiment was the first externally mounted experiment conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) and was installed on the outside of the ISS Quest Airlock during extravehicular activity (EVA) of the STS-105 mission. MISSE was launched on August 10, 2001 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  7. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Payload Operations Center (POC) is the science command post for the International Space Station (ISS). Located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, it is the focal point for American and international science activities aboard the ISS. The POC's unique capabilities allow science experts and researchers around the world to perform cutting-edge science in the unique microgravity environment of space. The POC is staffed around the clock by shifts of payload flight controllers. At any given time, 8 to 10 flight controllers are on consoles operating, plarning for, and controlling various systems and payloads. This photograph shows a Payload Rack Officer (PRO) at a work station. The PRO is linked by a computer to all payload racks aboard the ISS. The PRO monitors and configures the resources and environment for science experiments including EXPRESS Racks, multiple-payload racks designed for commercial payloads.

  8. Battery charging stations

    SciTech Connect

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  9. A lunar space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, LU; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

    1989-01-01

    A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

  10. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This photograph shows the development Water Processor located in two racks in the ECLSS test area at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Actual waste water, simulating Space Station waste, is generated and processed through the hardware to evaluate the performance of technologies in the flight Water Processor design.

  11. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-01-01

    This photograph, taken by the Boeing Company,shows Boeing technicians preparing to install one of six hatches or doors to the Node 1 (also called Unity), the first U.S. Module for the International Space Station (ISS). The Node 1, or Unity, serves as a cornecting passageway to Space Station modules and was manufactured by the Boeing Company at the Marshall Space Flight Center from 1994 to 1997. The U.S. built Unity module was launched aboard the orbiter Endeavour (STS-88 mission) on December 4, 1998 and connected to the Zarya, the Russian-built Functional Energy Block (FGB). The Zarya was launched on a Russian proton rocket prior to the launch of the Unity. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  12. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-01-01

    This photograph, taken by the Boeing Company, shows Boeing technicians preparing to install one of six hatches or doors to the Node 1 (also called Unity), the first U.S. Module for the International Space Station (ISS). The Node 1, or Unity, serves as a cornecting passageway to Space Station modules and was manufactured by the Boeing Company at the Marshall Space Flight Center from 1994 to 1997. The U.S. built Unity module was launched aboard the orbiter Endeavour (STS-88 mission) on December 4, 1998 and connected to the Zarya, the Russian-built Functional Energy Block (FGB). The Zarya was launched on a Russian proton rocket prior to the launch of the Unity. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  13. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-08

    Astronaut Michael E. Fossum, STS-121 mission specialist, used a digital still camera to expose a photo of his helmet visor during a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) while Space Shuttle Discovery was docked with the International Space Station (ISS). Also visible in the visor reflections are fellow space walker Piers J. Sellers, mission specialist, Earth's horizon, and a station solar array. During its 12-day mission, this utilization and logistics flight delivered a multipurpose logistics module (MPLM) to the ISS with several thousand pounds of new supplies and experiments. In addition, some new orbital replacement units (ORUs) were delivered and stowed externally on the ISS on a special pallet. These ORUs are spares for critical machinery located on the outside of the ISS. During this mission the crew also carried out testing of Shuttle inspection and repair hardware, as well as evaluated operational techniques and concepts for conducting on-orbit inspection and repair.

  14. Modular space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The modular space station comprising small, shuttle-launched modules, and characterized by low initial cost and incremental manning, is described. The initial space station is designed to be delivered into orbit by three space shuttles and assembled in space. The three sections are the power/subsystems module, the crew/operations module, and the general purpose laboratory module. It provides for a crew of six. Subsequently duplicate/crew/operations and power/subsystems modules will be mated to the original modules, and provide for an additional six crewmen. A total of 17 research and applications modules is planned, three of which will be free-flying modules. Details are given on the program plan, modular characteristics, logistics, experiment support capability and requirements, operations analysis, design support analyses, and shuttle interfaces.

  15. Space Station Technology, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L. (Editor); Mays, C. R. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of the panel summaries presented in the following areas: systems/operations technology; crew and life support; EVA; crew and life support: ECLSS; attitude, control, and stabilization; human capabilities; auxillary propulsion; fluid management; communications; structures and mechanisms; data management; power; and thermal control. The objective of the workshop was to aid the Space Station Technology Steering Committee in defining and implementing a technology development program to support the establishment of a permanent human presence in space. This compilation will provide the participants and their organizations with the information presented at this workshop in a referenceable format. This information will establish a stepping stone for users of space station technology to develop new technology and plan future tasks.

  16. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-04

    This video still depicts the recently deployed starboard and port solar arrays towering over the International Space Station (ISS). The video was recorded on STS-97's 65th orbit. Delivery, assembly, and activation of the solar arrays was the main mission objective of STS-97. The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics, and will provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment, and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The STS-97 crew of five launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor on November 30, 2000 for an 11 day mission.

  17. Space station propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Morren, W. Earl; Sovey, James S.; Tacina, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Two propulsion systems have been selected for the space station: gaseous H/O rockets for high thrust applications and the multipropellant resistojets for low thrust needs. These two thruster systems integrate very well with the fluid systems on the space station, utilizing waste fluids as their source of propellant. The H/O rocket will be fueled by electrolyzed water and the resistojets will use waste gases collected from the environmental control system and the various laboratories. The results are presented of experimental efforts with H/O and resistojet thrusters to determine their performance and life capability, as well as results of studies to determine the availability of water and waste gases.

  18. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Payload Operations Center (POC) is the science command post for the International Space Station (ISS). Located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, it is the focal point for American and international science activities aboard the ISS. The POC's unique capabilities allow science experts and researchers around the world to perform cutting-edge science in the unique microgravity environment of space. The POC is staffed around the clock by shifts of payload flight controllers. At any given time, 8 to 10 flight controllers are on consoles operating, plarning for, and controlling various systems and payloads. This photograph show the Safety Coordination Manager (SCM) at a work station. The SCM monitors science experiments to ensure they are conducted in a safe manner in accordance with strict safety regulations.

  19. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Payload Operations Center (POC) is the science command post for the International Space Station (ISS). Located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, it is the focal point for American and international science activities aboard the ISS. The POC's unique capabilities allow science experts and researchers around the world to perform cutting-edge science in the unique microgravity environment of space. The POC is staffed around the clock by shifts of payload flight controllers. At any given time, 8 to 10 flight controllers are on consoles operating, plarning for, and controlling various systems and payloads. This photograph shows the Payload Communications Manager (PAYCOM) at a work station. The PAYCOM coordinates payload-related voice communications between the POC and the ISS crew. The PAYCOM is the voice of the POC.

  20. A lunar space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Lu; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

    A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

  1. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Payload Operations Center (POC) is the science command post for the International Space Station (ISS). Located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, it is the focal point for American and international science activities aboard the ISS. The POC's unique capabilities allow science experts and researchers around the world to perform cutting-edge science in the unique microgravity environment of space. The POC is staffed around the clock by shifts of payload flight controllers. At any given time, 8 to 10 flight controllers are on consoles operating, plarning for, and controlling various systems and payloads. This photograph shows the Photo and TV Operations Manager (PHANTOM) at a work station. The PHANTOM configures all video systems aboard the ISS and ensures they are working properly, providing a video link from the ISS to the POC.

  2. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Payload Operations Center (POC) is the science command post for the International Space Station (ISS). Located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, it is the focal point for American and international science activities aboard the ISS. The POC's unique capabilities allow science experts and researchers around the world to perform cutting-edge science in the unique microgravity environment of space. The POC is staffed around the clock by shifts of payload flight controllers. At any given time, 8 to 10 flight controllers are on consoles operating, plarning for, and controlling various systems and payloads. This photograph shows the Command and Payload Multiplexer/Demultiplexer (MDM) Officers (CPO's) at their work stations. The CPO maintains the command link between the Operation Center at MSFC and Mission Control at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, and configures the link to allow the international partners and remote scientists to operate their payloads from their home sites.

  3. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Payload Operations Center (POC) is the science command post for the International Space Station (ISS). Located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, it is the focal point for American and international science activities aboard the ISS. The POC's unique capabilities allow science experts and researchers around the world to perform cutting-edge science in the unique microgravity environment of space. The POC is staffed around the clock by shifts of payload flight controllers. At any given time, 8 to 10 flight controllers are on consoles operating, plarning for, and controlling various systems and payloads. This photograph shows the Timeline Change Officer (TCO) at a work station. The TCO maintains the daily schedule of science activities and work assignments, and works with planners at Mission Control at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, to ensure payload activities are accommodated in overall ISS plans and schedules.

  4. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Payload Operations Center (POC) is the science command post for the International Space Station (ISS). Located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, it is the focal point for American and international science activities aboard the ISS. The POC's unique capabilities allow science experts and researchers around the world to perform cutting-edge science in the unique microgravity environment of space. The POC is staffed around the clock by shifts of payload flight controllers. At any given time, 8 to 10 flight controllers are on consoles, operating, plarning for, and controlling various systems and payloads. This photograph shows the Payload Operations Director (POD) at work. The POD is the leader of the POC flight control team. The Director guides all payload activities in coordination with Mission Control at Johnson Space Center at Houston, Texas, the Station crew, the international partners, and other research facilities.

  5. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the completely assembled International Space Station (ISS) passing over the Straits of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean Sea. As a gateway to permanent human presence in space, the Space Station Program is to expand knowledge benefiting all people and nations. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation. Experiments to be conducted in the ISS include: microgravity research, Earth science, space science, life sciences, space product development, and engineering research and technology. The sixteen countries participating the ISS are: United States, Russian Federation, Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, France, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, and Brazil.

  6. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-17

    This view of the International Space Station, back dropped against the blackness of space and Earth, was taken shortly after the Space Shuttle Atlantis undocked from the orbital outpost at 7:50 a.m. CDT during the STS-115 mission. The unlinking completed after six days, two hours and two minutes of joint operations of the installation of the P3/P4 truss. The new 17 ton truss included batteries, electronics, a giant rotating joint, and sported a second pair of 240-foot solar wings. The new solar arrays will eventually double the onboard power of the Station when their electrical systems are brought online during the next shuttle flight, STS-116.

  7. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-06-25

    The unpiloted Russian Progress 7 supply ship departs from the Zvezda Service Module's docking port on the International Space Station. Carrying its load of trash and urneeded equipment, it will be deorbited and burned up in the atmosphere. The undocking paves the way for the arrival of the new Progress 8, filled with fresh supplies. Soviet designers realized that long-duration missions in space would demand a constant supply of consumable materials from Earth. The cost-effective Progress spacecraft made possible an almost permanent presence in space and stands out as a single biggest contribution to this achievement. Propulsion and service systems were installed in the tail section of the vehicle and the cargo ship was inseparable during its entire flight. Upon conclusion of its supply mission to the Station, it would be directed into the atmosphere to burn up.

  8. Space Station Furnace Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, S.D.; Lehoczky, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    The Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is the modular, multi-user scientific instrumentation for conducting materials research in the reduced gravity ({approximately}10{sup {minus}6} g) environment of the International Space Station (ISS). The facility is divided into the Core System and two Instrument Racks (IRs). The Core System provides the common electrical and mechanical support equipment required to operate Experiment Modules (EMs). The EMs are investigator unique furnaces or apparatus designed to accomplish specific science investigations. Investigations are peer selected every two years from proposals submitted in response to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Research Announcements. The SSFF Core systems are designed to accommodate an envelope of eight types of experiment modules. The first two modules to be developed for the first Instrument Rack include a High Temperature Gradient Furnace with Quench (HGFQ), and a Low Temperature Gradient Furnace (LGF). A new EM is planned to be developed every two years.

  9. Broadcasting Stations of the World; Part IV. Television Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Washington, DC.

    This fourth part of "Broadcasting Stations of the World", which lists all reported radio broadcasting and television stations, with the exception of those in the United States which broadcast on domestic channels, covers television stations. Two sections are provided: one indexed alphabetically by country and city, and the other indexed by…

  10. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-06-18

    This is a photo of the Hayman Fire burning in the foothills southwest of Denver, Colorado, as viewed by an Expedition Five crewmember aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Astronauts use a variety of lenses and look angles as their orbits pass over the wildfires to document the long-distance movements of smoke from the fires as well as details of the burning areas. In this view, Littleton, Chatfield Lake, and the Arkansas River are all visible.

  11. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-22

    An Expedition Two crewmember aboard the International Space Station (ISS) captured this overhead look at the smoke and ash regurgitated from the erupting volcano Mt. Etna on the island of Sicily, Italy. At an elevation of 10,990 feet (3,350 m), the summit of the Mt. Etna volcano, one of the most active and most studied volcanoes in the world, has been active for a half-million years and has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history.

  12. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-21

    STS-118 astronaut and mission specialist Dafydd R. “Dave” Williams, representing the Canadian Space Agency, uses Virtual Reality Hardware in the Space Vehicle Mock Up Facility at the Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of his duties for the upcoming mission. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear special gloves and other gear while looking at a computer that displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware which with they will be working.

  13. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-20

    In the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS), European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain is seen working at the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). He is working with the PROMISS experiment, which will investigate the growth processes of proteins during weightless conditions. The PROMISS is one of the Cervantes program of tests (consisting of 20 commercial experiments). The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  14. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-23

    A Russian Soyuz spacecraft departs from the International Space Station (ISS) with its crew of three ending an eight-day stay. Aboard the craft are Commander Victor Afanasyev, Flight Engineer Konstantin Kozeev, both representing Rosaviakosmos, and French Flight Engineer Claudie Haignere. Their mission was to carry out a flight program for the French Space Agency (CNES) under a commercial contract with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency.

  15. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-06-08

    Astronaut Susan J. Helms, Expedition Two flight engineer, mounts a video camera onto a bracket in the Russian Zarya or Functional Cargo Block (FGB) of the International Space Station (ISS). Launched by a Russian Proton rocket from the Baikonu Cosmodrome on November 20, 1998, the Unites States-funded and Russian-built Zarya was the first element of the ISS, followed by the U.S. Unity Node.

  16. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-12-15

    As seen through a window on the Space Shuttle Endeavor's aft flight deck, the International Space Station (ISS), with its newly-staffed crew of three, Expedition Four, is contrasted against a patch of the blue and white Earth. The Destiny laboratory is partially covered with shadows in the foreground. The photo was taken during the departure of the Earth-bound Endeavor, bringing to a close the STS-108 mission, the 12th Shuttle mission to visit the ISS.

  17. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-23

    A Russian Soyuz spacecraft undocks from the International Space Station (ISS) with its crew of three ending an eight-day stay. Aboard the craft are Commander Victor Afanasyev, Flight Engineer Konstantin Kozeev, both representing Rosaviakosmos, and French Flight Engineer Claudie Haignere. Their mission was to carry out a flight program for the French Space Agency (CNES) under a commercial contract with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency.

  18. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-09

    Cosmonaut Sergei K. Krikalev, flight engineer for Expedition One, is positioned by a porthole aboard the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station (ISS) as the Space Shuttle Atlantis approaches for docking to begin several days of joint activities between the two crews. Visible through the window are the crew cabin and forward section of the Shuttle amidst scattered clouds above the Western Pacific. The aft part of the cargo bay stowing the Destiny Laboratory is not visible in this scene.

  19. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-13

    Posed inside the Soyuz TMA-3 Vehicle in a processing facility at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan during a pre-launch inspection are (left to right): Expedition-8 Crew members, Michael C. Foale, Mission Commander and NASA ISS Science Officer; Cosmonaut Alexander Y. Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer; and European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain. The three launched from the Cosmodrome on October 18, 2003 onboard a Soyuz rocket destined for the International Space Station (ISS).

  20. Photographic bait stations

    Treesearch

    T.E. Kucera; A.M. Soukkala; Bill Zielinski

    1995-01-01

    There are a variety of systems in use that employ a camera at a bait station to detect wildlife. We will describe three that are widely used and with which we are most familiar. They can be divided into two major categories according to the type of camera used. The first employs automatic, 35-mm cameras and can be further divided into two types that differ by...

  1. Space Station - early

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    'North American selected this space station design in 1962 for final systems analysis. Incorporating all the advantages of a wheel configuration, it had rigid cylindrical modules arranged in a hexagonal shape with three rigid telescoping spokes. This configuration eliminated the need for exposed flexible fabric.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 284.

  2. Space Station development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speaker, Edwin E.

    1987-01-01

    NASA has recently completed an in-depth review of the Space Station Program plan and is considering several changes to the baseline configuration and to the launch and assembly sequence. These configurational changes will facilitate development as well as system operation, although a few more launches are required. However, the new sequence will allow more useful payload activities earlier than previously planned, and will still result in a permanently manned capability by 1994.

  3. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-25

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain watches a water bubble float between a camera and himself. The bubble shows his reflection (reversed). Duque was launched aboard a Russian Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 18th, along with expedition-8 crew members Michael C. Foale, Mission Commander and NASA ISS Science Officer, and Cosmonaut Alexander Y. Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer.

  4. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-06-13

    STS-117 astronauts and mission specialists Patrick Forrester and Steven Swanson (out of frame), participated in the second Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) as construction resumed on the International Space Station (ISS). Among other tasks, the two removed all of the launch locks holding the 10 foot wide solar alpha rotary joint in place and began the solar array retraction. The primary mission objective was the installment of the second and third starboard truss segments (S3 and S4).

  5. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-10-30

    Astronaut Doug Wheelock, STS-120 mission specialist, participated in the third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction continued on the International Space Station (ISS). During a 7-hour and 8-minute space walk, Wheelock and mission specialist Scott Parazynski (out of frame), installed the P6 truss segment with its set of solar arrays to its permanent home, installed a spare main bus switching unit on a stowage platform, and performed a few get-ahead tasks.

  6. Heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilli, P. V.

    1982-11-01

    Heat pumps for residential/commercial space heating and hot tap water make use of free energy of direct or indirect solar heat and save from about 40 to about 70 percent of energy if compared to a conventional heating system with the same energy basis. In addition, the electrically driven compressor heat pump is able to substitute between 40% (bivalent alternative operation) to 100% (monovalent operation) of the fuel oil of an oilfired heating furnace. For average Central European conditions, solar space heating systems with high solar coverage factor show the following sequence of increasing cost effectiveness: pure solar systems (without heat pumps); heat pump assisted solar systems; solar assisted heat pump systems; subsoil/water heat pumps; air/water heat pumps; air/air heat pumps.

  7. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-12-12

    Astronauts Frank L. Culbertson, Jr. (left), Expedition Three mission commander, and Daniel W. Bursch, Expedition Four flight engineer, work in the Russian Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS). Zvezda is linked to the Russian built Functional Cargo Block (FGB), or Zarya, the first component of the ISS. Zarya was launched on a Russian Proton rocket prior to the launch of Unity. The third component of the ISS, Zvezda (Russian word for star), the primary Russian contribution to the ISS, was launched by a three-stage Proton rocket on July 12, 2000. Zvezda serves as the cornerstone for early human habitation of the Station, providing living quarters, a life support system, electrical power distribution, a data processing system, a flight control system, and a propulsion system. It also provides a communications system that includes remote command capabilities from ground flight controllers. The 42,000 pound module measures 43 feet in length and has a wing span of 98 feet. Similar in layout to the core module of Russia's Mir space station, it contains 3 pressurized compartments and 13 windows that allow ultimate viewing of Earth and space.

  8. Space station commonality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

  9. Mir Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This fish-eye view of the Russian Mir Space Station was photographed by a crewmember of the STS-74 mission after the separation. The image shows the installed Docking Module at bottom. The Docking Module was delivered and installed, making it possible for the Space Shuttle to dock easily with Mir. The Orbiter Atlantis delivered water, supplies, and equipment, including two new solar arrays to upgrade the Mir; and returned to Earth with experiment samples, equipment for repair and analysis, and products manufactured on the Station. Mir was constructed in orbit by cornecting different modules, each launched separately from 1986 to 1996, providing a large and livable scientific laboratory in space. The 100-ton Mir was as big as six school buses and commonly housed three crewmembers. Mir was continuously occupied, except for two short periods, and hosted international scientists and American astronauts until August 1999. The journey of the 15-year-old Russian Mir Space Station ended March 23, 2001, as Mir re-entered the Earth's atmosphere and fell into the south Pacific ocean. STS-74 was the second Space Shuttle/Mir docking mission launched on November 12, 1995, and landed at the Kennedy Space Center on November 20, 1995.

  10. Space station advanced automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Donald

    1990-01-01

    In the development of a safe, productive and maintainable space station, Automation and Robotics (A and R) has been identified as an enabling technology which will allow efficient operation at a reasonable cost. The Space Station Freedom's (SSF) systems are very complex, and interdependent. The usage of Advanced Automation (AA) will help restructure, and integrate system status so that station and ground personnel can operate more efficiently. To use AA technology for the augmentation of system management functions requires a development model which consists of well defined phases of: evaluation, development, integration, and maintenance. The evaluation phase will consider system management functions against traditional solutions, implementation techniques and requirements; the end result of this phase should be a well developed concept along with a feasibility analysis. In the development phase the AA system will be developed in accordance with a traditional Life Cycle Model (LCM) modified for Knowledge Based System (KBS) applications. A way by which both knowledge bases and reasoning techniques can be reused to control costs is explained. During the integration phase the KBS software must be integrated with conventional software, and verified and validated. The Verification and Validation (V and V) techniques applicable to these KBS are based on the ideas of consistency, minimal competency, and graph theory. The maintenance phase will be aided by having well designed and documented KBS software.

  11. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-11-30

    STS-113, the 16th American assembly flight and 112th overall American flight to the International Space Station (ISS), launched on November 23, 2002 from Kennedy's launch pad 39A aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour. The main mission objective was the the installation and activation of the Port 1 Integrated Truss Assembly (P1). The first major component installed on the left side of the Station, the P1 truss provides an additional three External Thermal Control System radiators. Weighing in at 27,506 pounds, the P1 truss is 45 feet (13.7 meters) long, 15 feet (4.6 meters) wide, and 13 feet (4 meters) high. Three space walks, aided by the use of the Robotic Manipulator Systems of both the Shuttle and the Station, were performed in the installation of P1. In this photograph astronaut and mission specialist John B. Herrington, (center frame), participates in the mission's third space walk. The forward section of the Space Shuttle Endeavour is in right frame.

  12. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-09-16

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), Cosmonaut and Expedition Three flight engineer Vladimir N. Dezhurov, representing Rosaviakosmos, talks with flight controllers from the Zvezda Service Module. Russian-built Zvezda is linked to the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), or Zarya, the first component of the ISS. Zarya was launched on a Russian Proton rocket prior to the launch of Unity. The third component of the ISS, Zvezda (Russian word for star), the primary Russian contribution to the ISS, was launched by a three-stage Proton rocket on July 12, 2000. Zvezda serves as the cornerstone for early human habitation of the Station, providing living quarters, a life support system, electrical power distribution, a data processing system, flight control system, and propulsion system. It also provides a communications system that includes remote command capabilities from ground flight controllers. The 42,000-pound module measures 43 feet in length and has a wing span of 98 feet. Similar in layout to the core module of Russia's Mir space station, it contains 3 pressurized compartments and 13 windows that allow ultimate viewing of Earth and space.

  13. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-30

    Astronaut James S. Voss, Expedition Two flight engineer, performs an electronics task in the Russian Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS). Zvezda is linked to the Russian-built Functional Cargo Block (FGB), or Zarya, the first component of the ISS. Zarya was launched on a Russian Proton rocket prior to the launch of Unity, the first U.S.-built component to the ISS. Zvezda (Russian word for star), the third component of the ISS and the primary Russian contribution to the ISS, was launched by a three-stage Proton rocket on July 12, 2000. Zvezda serves as the cornerstone for early human habitation of the station, providing living quarters, a life support system, electrical power distribution, a data processing system, a flight control system, and a propulsion system. It also provides a communications system that includes remote command capabilities from ground flight controllers. The 42,000-pound module measures 43 feet in length and has a wing span of 98 feet. Similar in layout to the core module of Russia's Mir space station, it contains 3 pressurized compartments and 13 windows that allow ultimate viewing of Earth and space.

  14. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-11-26

    This photograph shows the U.S. Laboratory Module (also called Destiny) for the International Space Station (ISS), under construction in the Space Station manufacturing facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The U.S. Laboratory module is the centerpiece of the ISS, where science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. The Destiny Module was launched aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-67 mission) on February 7, 2001. The aluminum module is 8.5 meters (28 feet) long and 4.3 meters (14 feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two end cones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter- (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations, and payload racks will occupy 13 locations especially designed to support experiments. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  15. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-10

    Cosmonaut Yuri P. Gidzenko, Expedition One Soyuz commander, stands near the hatch leading from the Unity node into the newly-attached Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The Node 1, or Unity, serves as a cornecting passageway to Space Station modules. The U.S.-built Unity module was launched aboard the Orbiter Endeavour (STS-88 mission) on December 4, 1998, and connected to Zarya, the Russian-built Functional Cargo Block (FGB). The U.S. Laboratory (Destiny) module is the centerpiece of the ISS, where science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity in space. The Destiny Module was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis (STS-98 mission) on February 7, 2001. The aluminum module is 8.5 meters (28 feet) long and 4.3 meters (14 feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two endcones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter- (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations, and payload racks will occupy 13 locations especially designed to support experiments.

  16. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-01-01

    In this photograph, the U.S. Laboratory Module (also called Destiny) for the International Space Station (ISS) is shown under construction in the West High Bay of the Space Station manufacturing facility (building 4708) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The U.S. Laboratory module is the centerpiece of the ISS, where science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. The Destiny Module was launched aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-98 mission) on February 7, 2001. The aluminum module is 8.5 meters (28 feet) long and 4.3 meters (14 feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two endcones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter- (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations, and payload racks will occupy 13 locations especially designed to support experiments. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  17. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-10-01

    The Zvezda Service Module, the first Russian contribution and third element to the International Space Station (ISS), is shown under construction in the Krunichev State Research and Production Facility (KhSC) in Moscow. Russian technicians work on the module shortly after it completed a pressurization test. In the foreground is the forward portion of the module, including the spherical transfer compartment and its three docking ports. The forward port docked with the cornected Functional Cargo Block, followed by Node 1. Launched via a three-stage Proton rocket on July 12, 2000, the Zvezda Service Module serves as the cornerstone for early human habitation of the Station, providing living quarters, life support system, electrical power distribution, data processing system, flight control system, and propulsion system. It also provides a communications system that includes remote command capabilities from ground flight controllers. The 42,000-pound module measures 43 feet in length and has a wing span of 98 feet. Similar in layout to the core module of Russia's Mir space station, it contains 3 pressurized compartments and 13 windows that allow ultimate viewing of Earth and space.

  18. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-25

    Cosmonaut Yury I. Onufrienko, Expedition Four mission commander, uses a communication system in the Russian Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS). The Zvezda is linked to the Russian-built Functional Cargo Block (FGB) or Zarya, the first component of the ISS. Zarya was launched on a Russian Proton rocket prior to the launch of Unity. The third component of the ISS, Zvezda (Russian word for star), the primary Russian contribution to the ISS, was launched by a three-stage Proton rocket on July 12, 2000. Zvezda serves as the cornerstone for early human habitation of the station, providing living quarters, a life support system, electrical power distribution, a data processing system, flight control system, and propulsion system. It also provides a communications system that includes remote command capabilities from ground flight controllers. The 42,000-pound module measures 43 feet in length and has a wing span of 98 feet. Similar in layout to the core module of Russia's Mir space station, it contains 3 pressurized compartments and 13 windows that allow ultimate viewing of Earth and space.

  19. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-11-01

    In this photograph, the U.S. Laboratory Module (also called Destiny) for the International Space Station (ISS) is shown under construction in the West High Bay of the Space Station manufacturing facility (building 4708) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The U.S. Laboratory module is the centerpiece of the ISS, where science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. The Destiny Module was launched aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-98 mission) on February 7, 2001. The aluminum module is 8.5 meters (28 feet) long and 4.3 meters (14 feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two endcones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter- (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations, and payload racks will occupy 13 locations especially designed to support experiments. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  20. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-11-01

    This photograph shows the U.S. Laboratory Module (also called Destiny) for the International Space Station (ISS), in the Space Station manufacturing facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center, being readied for shipment to the Kennedy Space Center. The U.S. Laboratory module is the centerpiece of the ISS, where science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. The Destiny Module was launched aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-67 mission) on February 7, 2001. The aluminum module is 8.5 meters (28 feet) long and 4.3 meters (14 feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two endcones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter- (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations, and payload racks will occupy 13 locations especially designed to support experiments. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  1. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-06-01

    This Boeing photograph shows the Node 1, Unity module, Flight Article (at right) and the U.S. Laboratory module, Destiny, Flight Article for the International Space Station (ISS) being manufactured in the High Bay Clean Room of the Space Station Manufacturing Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The Node 1, or Unity, serves as a cornecting passageway to Space Station modules. The U.S. built Unity module was launched aboard the orbiter Endeavour (STS-88 mission) on December 4, 1998 and connected to the Zarya, the Russian-built Functional Energy Block (FGB). The U.S. Laboratory (Destiny) module is the centerpiece of the ISS, where science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. The U.S. Laboratory/Destiny was launched aboard the orbiter Atlantis (STS-98 mission) on February 7, 2001. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  2. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-11-28

    The 16th American assembly flight and 112th overall American flight to the International Space Station (ISS), launched on November 23, 2002 from Kennedy's launch pad 39A aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-113. Mission objectives included the delivery of the Expedition Six Crew to the ISS, the return of Expedition Five crew back to Earth, and the installation and activation of the Port 1 Integrated Truss Assembly (P1). The first major component installed on the left side of the Station, the P1 truss provides an additional three External Thermal Control System radiators. Weighing in at 27,506 pounds, the P1 truss is 45 feet (13.7 meters) long, 15 feet (4.6 meters) wide, and 13 feet (4 meters) high. Three space walks, aided by the use of the Robotic Manipulator Systems of both the Shuttle and the Station, were performed in the installation of P1. In this photograph, astronaut and mission specialist Michael E. Lopez-Alegria works on the newly installed P1 truss during the mission's second scheduled session of extravehicular activity.

  3. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-11-26

    The 16th American assembly flight and 112th overall American flight to the International Space Station (ISS) launched on November 23, 2002 from Kennedy's launch pad 39A aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour STS-113. Mission objectives included the delivery of the Expedition Six Crew to the ISS, the return of Expedition Five crew back to Earth, the delivery of the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart, and the installation and activation of the Port 1 Integrated Truss Assembly (P1). The first major component installed on the left side of the Station, the P1 truss provides an additional three External Thermal Control System radiators. Weighing in at 27,506 pounds, the P1 truss is 45 feet (13.7 meters) long, 15 feet (4.6 meters) wide, and 13 feet (4 meters) high. Three space walks, aided by the use of the Robotic Manipulator Systems of both the Shuttle and the Station, were performed in the installation of P1. In this photograph, astronauts and mission specialists John B. Herrington (left) and Michael E. Lopez-Alegria (right) work near the CETA cart on a truss on the ISS during a scheduled space walk for the mission. The final major task of the space walk was the relocation of the CETA cart from the Port One (P1) to the Starboard One (S1) Truss, which will allow the Mobile Transporter to move along the P1 to assist in upcoming assembly missions.

  4. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Payload Operations Center (POC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is the world's primary science command post for the (ISS), the most ambitious space research facility in human history. The Payload Operations team is responsible for managing all science research experiments aboard the Station. The center is also home for coordination of the mission-plarning work of variety of international sources, all science payload deliveries and retrieval, and payload training and safety programs for the Station crew and all ground personnel. Within the POC, critical payload information from the ISS is displayed on a dedicated workstation, reading both S-band (low data rate) and Ku-band (high data rate) signals from a variety of experiments and procedures operated by the ISS crew and their colleagues on Earth. The POC is the focal point for incorporating research and experiment requirements from all international partners into an integrated ISS payload mission plan. This photograph is an overall view of the MSFC Payload Operations Center displaying the flags of the countries participating in the ISS. The flags at the left portray The United States, Canada, France, Switzerland, Netherlands, Japan, Brazil, and Sweden. The flags at the right portray The Russian Federation, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Spain, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Norway.

  5. Space station ventilation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Allen, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    A ventilation system design and selection method which is applicable to any manned vehicle were developed. The method was used to generate design options for the NASA 33-foot diameter space station, all of which meet the ventilation system design requirements. System characteristics such as weight, volume, and power were normalized to dollar costs for each option. Total system costs for the various options ranged from a worst case $8 million to a group of four which were all approximately $2 million. A system design was then chosen from the $2 million group and is presented in detail. A ventilation system layout was designed for the MSFC space station mockup which provided comfortable, efficient ventilation of the mockup. A conditioned air distribution system design for the 14-foot diameter modular space station, using the same techniques, is also presented. The tradeoff study resulted in the selection of a system which costs $1.9 million, as compared to the alternate configuration which would have cost $2.6 million.

  6. Space station thermal control surfaces. [space radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maag, C. R.; Millard, J. M.; Jeffery, J. A.; Scott, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Mission planning documents were used to analyze the radiator design and thermal control surface requirements for both space station and 25-kW power module, to analyze the missions, and to determine the thermal control technology needed to satisfy both sets of requirements. Parameters such as thermal control coating degradation, vehicle attitude, self eclipsing, variation in solar constant, albedo, and Earth emission are considered. Four computer programs were developed which provide a preliminary design and evaluation tool for active radiator systems in LEO and GEO. Two programs were developed as general programs for space station analysis. Both types of programs find the radiator-flow solution and evaluate external heat loads in the same way. Fortran listings are included.

  7. Milliken Station demonstration project FGD retrofit update

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, C.E.; Elia, G.G.

    1994-12-31

    The Milliken Clean Coal Demonstration Project is one of the nine Clean Coal Projects that were selected for funding in Round 4 of the US DOE`s Clean Coal Demonstration Program. The Project will provide full-scale demonstration of a combination of innovative emission-reducing technologies and plant upgrades for the control of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from a coal-fired steam generator without a significant loss of station efficiency. The overall Project goals are: 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency using limestone while burning high sulfur coal; up to 70% NO{sub x} reduction using the NOXOUT selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology in conjunction with combustion modifications; minimization of solid wastes by producing marketable by-products including commercial grade gypsum, calcium chloride and fly ash; zero wastewater discharge; and maintaining station efficiency by using a high efficiency heat pipe air heater system and a low power consuming scrubber system.

  8. Heat Without Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubkin, Elihu

    1997-04-01

    Logic of the Second Law of Thermodynamics demands acquisition of naked entropy. Accordingly, the leanest liaison between systems is not a diathermic membrane, it is a purely informational tickler, leaking no appreciable energy. The subsystem here is a thermodynamic universe, which gets `heated' entropically, yet without gaining calories. Quantum Mechanics graciously supports that(Lubkin, E. and Lubkin, T., International Journal of Theoretical Physics,32), 933-943 (1993) (at a cost of about 1 bit) through entanglement---across this least permeable of membranes---with what is beyond that universe. Heat without heat(Also v. forthcoming Proceedings of the 4th Drexel University Conference of September 1994) is the aspirin for Boltzmann's headache, conserving entropy in mechanical isolation, even while increasing entropy in thermodynamic isolation.

  9. Station Tour: Cupola and Leonardo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams continues the tour of the International Space Station with a look at the station's observation deck, the cupola, as well as the Advanced Resistive Exercise Dev...

  10. Station Crew Opens Dragon's Hatch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The hatch between the newly arrived SpaceX Dragon spacecraft and the Harmony module of the International Space Station was opened by NASA Astronaut Don Pettit at 5:53 am EDT as the station flew 253...

  11. Space Station fluid management logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  12. Space Station commercial user development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The commercial utilization of the space station is investigated. The interest of nonaerospace firms in the use of the space station is determined. The user requirements are compared to the space station's capabilities and a feasibility analysis of a commercial firm acting as an intermediary between NASA and the private sector to reduce costs is presented.

  13. Build Your Own Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolinger, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be used to educate elementary students on the purposes and components of the International Space Station and then allow them to build their own space stations with household objects and then present details on their space stations to the rest of the group.

  14. The Pacific Northwest Research Station.

    Treesearch

    Forest Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture

    1937-01-01

    The research organization of the United States Forest Service in the North Pacific Region is the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, one of the 12 regional experiment stations maintained by the service. This station, which has headquarters in Portland, Oregon, is making studies and surveys in the fields of economics, forest management, forest...

  15. 47 CFR 80.519 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.519 Station identification. (a) Stations must identify transmissions by announcing in the English language the station's assigned call sign...) Marine utility stations, private coast stations, and associated hand-held radios, when...

  16. Heat Pipes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction, function, and applications of heat pipes. Suggests using the heat pipe to teach principles related to heat transfer and gives sources for obtaining instructional kits for this purpose. (GS)

  17. Heat Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work in the Heat: Why Acclimatization Matters The natural adaptation to the heat takes time, and from a management perspective, it may require careful planning. NIOSH Science Blog: Extreme Heat – Are you prepared for summer ...

  18. Space station: Cost and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Costs for developing, producing, operating, and supporting the initial space station, a 4 to 8 man space station, and a 4 to 24 man space station are estimated and compared. These costs include contractor hardware; space station assembly and logistics flight costs; and payload support elements. Transportation system options examined include orbiter modules; standard and extended duration STS fights; reusable spacebased perigee kick motor OTV; and upper stages. Space station service charges assessed include crew hours; energy requirements; payload support module storage; pressurized port usage; and OTV service facility. Graphs show costs for science missions, space processing research, small communication satellites; large GEO transportation; OVT launch costs; DOD payload costs, and user costs.

  19. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-07

    In this image, the five STS-97 crew members pose with the 3 members of the Expedition One crew onboard the International Space Station (ISS) for the first ever traditional onboard portrait taken in the Zvezda Service Module. On the front row, left to right, are astronauts Brent W. Jett, Jr., STS-97 commander; William M. Shepherd, Expedition One mission commander; and Joseph R. Tarner, STS-97 mission specialist. On the second row, from the left are Cosmonaut Sergei K. Krikalev, Expedition One flight engineer; astronaut Carlos I. Noriega, STS-97 mission specialist; cosmonaut Yuri P. Gidzenko, Expedition One Soyuz commander; and Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-97 pilot. Behind them is astronaut Marc Garneau, STS-97 mission specialist representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). The primary objective of the STS-97 mission was the delivery, assembly, and activation of the U.S. electrical power system onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment, and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The electrical system will eventually provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment. The STS-97 crew of five launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor on November 30, 2000 for an 11 day mission.

  20. Southeast Regional Experiment Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-08-01

    This is the final report of the Southeast Regional Experiment Station project. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), a research institute of the University of Central Florida (UCF), has operated the Southeast Regional Experiment Station (SE RES) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since September 1982. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA) provides technical program direction for both the SE RES and the Southwest Regional Experiment Station (SW RES) located at the Southwest Technology Development Institute at Las Cruces, New Mexico. This cooperative effort serves a critical role in the national photovoltaic program by conducting system evaluations, design assistance and technology transfer to enhance the cost-effective utilization and development of photovoltaic technology. Initially, the research focus of the SE RES program centered on utility-connected PV systems and associated issues. In 1987, the SE RES began evaluating amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film PV modules for application in utility-interactive systems. Stand-alone PV systems began receiving increased emphasis at the SE RES in 1986. Research projects were initiated that involved evaluation of vaccine refrigeration, water pumping and other stand-alone power systems. The results of this work have led to design optimization techniques and procedures for the sizing and modeling of PV water pumping systems. Later recent research at the SE RES included test and evaluation of batteries and charge controllers for stand-alone PV system applications. The SE RES project provided the foundation on which FSEC achieved national recognition for its expertise in PV systems research and related technology transfer programs. These synergistic products of the SE RES illustrate the high visibility and contributions the FSEC PV program offers to the DOE.

  1. Submerged AUV Charging Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder

  2. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-01

    This Expedition Seven image, taken while aboard the International Space Station (ISS), shows the limb of the Earth at the bottom transitioning into the orange-colored stratosphere, the lowest and most dense portion of the Earth's atmosphere. The troposphere ends abruptly at the tropopause, which appears in the image as the sharp boundary between the orange- and blue-colored atmosphere. The silvery blue noctilucent clouds extend far above the Earth's troposphere. The silver of the setting moon is visible at upper right.

  3. International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlberg, Jennifer; Gordon, Randy

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the research on the International Space Station (ISS), including the sponsorship of payloads by country and within NASA. Included is a description of the space available for research, the Laboratory "Rack" facilities, the external research facilities and those available from the Japanese Experiment Module (i.e., Kibo), and highlights the investigations that JAXA has maintained. There is also a review of the launch vehicles and spacecraft that are available for payload transportation to the ISS, including cargo capabilities of the spacecraft.

  4. Space station contamination considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L.; Ehlers, H.; Jacobs, S.

    1986-01-01

    The external induced environment generated by space station activity, or more specifically by gases, particles, and light background is discussed. These contaminant species must be controlled if sensitive systems, such as solar energy collectors or science experiments exposed to the external environment are to function properly. The requirements generally set limits on the level of gas species, matter deposited on surfaces and light background levels over various spectral regions. They also address environment monitoring and contamination controls during manufacturing. Limits on effluent release and system leakages are in turn derived from these requirements.

  5. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-10-25

    Astronauts Sunita L. Williams, Expedition 14 flight engineer, and Robert L. Curbeam (partially obscured), STS-116 mission specialist, are about to be submerged in the waters of the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) near Johnson Space Center. Williams and Curbeam are attired in training versions of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit. SCUBA-equipped divers are in the water to assist the crew members in their rehearsal intended to help prepare them for work on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS).

  6. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-20

    Astronaut Daniel W. Bursch, Expedition Four flight engineer, was delighted in capturing this image of Mt. Everest in the Himalayan Range from aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The mountain is near frame center. Because the photo was taken close to orbital sunrise, the low sun angle gave tremendous relief to the mountains. Named for Sir George Everest, the British surveyor-general of India, Mount Everest is the tallest point on earth. Standing 29,028 feet tall, it is 5 1/2 miles above sea level. Mount Everest is located half in Nepal and half in Tibet.

  7. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-19

    Back dropped by the colorful Earth, the International Space Station (ISS) boasts its newest configuration upon the departure of Space Shuttle Endeavor and STS-118 mission. Days earlier, construction resumed on the ISS as STS-118 mission specialists and the Expedition 15 crew completed installation of the Starboard 5 (S-5) truss segment, removed a faulty Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG-3), installed a new CMG into the Z1 truss, relocated the S-band Antenna Sub-Assembly from the Port 6 (P6) to Port 1 (P1) truss, installed a new transponder on P1, retrieved the P6 transponder, and delivered roughly 5,000 pounds of supplies.

  8. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    This is a crew portrait of the International Space Station (ISS) Expedition Two. Left to right are Astronaut James S. Voss, flight engineer; Cosmonaut Yury V. Usachev, commander; and Astronaut Susan J. Helms, flight engineer. The crew was launched on March 8, 2001 aboard the STS-102 mission Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for an extended stay on the ISS. After living and working on the ISS for the duration of 165 days, the crew returned to Earth on August 22, 2001 aboard the STS-105 mission Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery. Cosmonaut Usachev represents the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. The flags representing all the international partners are arrayed at bottom.

  9. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-12

    In this photograph, Astronaut Susan Helms, Expedition Two flight engineer, is positioned near a large amount of water temporarily stored in the Unity Node aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Astronaut Helms accompanied the STS-105 crew back to Earth after having spent five months with two crewmates aboard the ISS. The 11th ISS assembly flight, the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery STS-105 mission was launched on August 10, 2001, and landed on August 22, 2001 at the Kennedy Space Center after the completion of the successful 12-day mission.

  10. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-10-01

    This is a crew portrait of the International Space Station (ISS) Expedition One. Left to right are flight engineer Sergei K. Krikalev, commander William M. (Bill) Shepherd, and Soyuz commander Yuri P. Gidzenko. They are wearing the Russian Sokol space suits. The Russian Soyuz rocket carrying the Expedition One crew was launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 31, 2000. The crew returned to the Kennedy Space Center on March 21, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery (STS-102 mission). The crew's duration on the ISS was 138 days. National flags representing all the international partners run along the bottom of the portrait.

  11. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-01

    This is a crew portrait of the International Space Station (ISS) Expedition Four. Left to right are Astronaut Daniel W. Bursch, flight engineer; Cosmonaut Yuri I. Onufrienko, mission commander; and Astronaut Carl E. Walz, flight engineer. The crew was launched on December 5, 2001 aboard the STS-108 mission Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, the 12th Shuttle mission to visit the ISS. The crew returned to Earth on June 19th, 2002 aboard the STS-111 mission Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, replaced by Expedition Five. The Expedition Four crew spent 196 days in space, which gives flight engineers Walz and Bursh the U.S. space flight endurance record.

  12. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-10-29

    The Soyuz TM-31 launch vehicle is shown in the vertical position for its launch from Baikonur, carrying the first resident crew to the International Space Station. The Russian Soyuz launch vehicle is an expendable spacecraft that evolved out of the original Class A (Sputnik). From the early 1960s until today, the Soyuz launch vehicle has been the backbone of Russia's marned and unmanned space launch fleet. Today, the Soyuz launch vehicle is marketed internationally by a joint Russian/French consortium called STARSEM. As of August 2001, there have been ten Soyuz missions under the STARSEM banner.

  13. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-10-29

    The Soyuz TM-31 launch vehicle, which carried the first resident crew to the International Space Station, moves toward the launch pad at the Baikonur complex in Kazakhstan. The Russian Soyuz launch vehicle is an expendable spacecraft that evolved out of the original Class A (Sputnik). From the early 1960' until today, the Soyuz launch vehicle has been the backbone of Russia's marned and unmanned space launch fleet. Today, the Soyuz launch vehicle is marketed internationally by a joint Russian/French consortium called STARSEM. As of August 2001, there have been ten Soyuz missions under the STARSEM banner.

  14. Multimodality image display station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, H. Joseph

    1990-07-01

    The Multi-modality Image Display Station (MIDS) is designed for the use of physicians outside of the radiology department. Connected to a local area network or a host computer, it provides speedy access to digitized radiology images and written diagnostics needed by attending and consulting physicians near the patient bedside. Emphasis has been placed on low cost, high performance and ease of use. The work is being done as a joint study with the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and as part of a joint development effort with the Mayo Clinic. MIDS is a prototype, and should not be assumed to be an IBM product.

  15. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-15

    As the construction continued on the International Space Station (ISS), STS-118 astronaut and mission specialist Rick Mastracchio was anchored on the foot restraint of the Canadarm2 as he participated in the third session of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) for the mission. Assisting Mastracchio was Expedition 15 flight engineer Clay Anderson (out of frame). During the 5 hour, 28 minute space walk, the two relocated the S-band Antenna Sub-Assembly from the Port 6 (P6) truss to the Port 1 (P1) truss, installed a new transponder on P1 and retrieved the P6 transponder.

  16. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-03

    Astronaut Doug Wheelock, STS-120 mission specialist, participated in the mission's fourth session of extravehicular activity (EVA) while Space Shuttle Discovery was docked with the International Space Station (ISS). During the 7-hour and 19-minute space walk, astronaut Scott Parazynski (out of frame), mission specialist, cut a snagged wire and installed homemade stabilizers designed to strengthen the structure and stability of the damaged P6 4B solar array wing. Wheelock assisted from the truss by keeping an eye on the distance between Parazynski and the array. Once the repair was complete, flight controllers on the ground successfully completed the deployment of the array.

  17. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-06-11

    STS-117 astronauts and mission specialists Jim Reilly (center frame), and John “Danny” Olivas (bottom center), participated in the first Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) as construction resumed on the International Space Station (ISS). Among other tasks, the two connected power, data, and cooling cables between trusses 1 (S1) and 3 (S3), released the launch restraints from and deployed the four solar array blanket boxes on S4, and released the cinches and winches holding the photovoltaic radiator on S4. The primary mission objective was the installment of the second and third starboard truss segments (S3 and S4).

  18. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-01

    Astronaut Michael L. Gernhardt, STS-104 mission specialist, participates in one of three STS-104 space walks while holding on to the end effector of the Canadarm on the Space Shuttle Atlantis. Gernhardt was joined on the extravehicular activity (EVA) by astronaut James F. Reilly (out of frame). The major objective of the mission was to install and activate the Joint Airlock, which completed the second phase of construction on the International Space Station (ISS). The airlock accommodates both United States and Russian space suits and was designed and built at the Marshall Space Flight Center by the Boeing Company.

  19. Tether applications for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nobles, W.

    1986-01-01

    A wide variety of space station applications for tethers were reviewed. Many will affect the operation of the station itself while others are in the category of research or scientific platforms. One of the most expensive aspects of operating the space station will be the continuing shuttle traffic to transport logistic supplies and payloads to the space station. If a means can be found to use tethers to improve the efficiency of that transportation operation, it will increase the operating efficiency of the system and reduce the overall cost of the space station. The concept studied consists of using a tether to lower the shuttle from the space station. This results in a transfer of angular momentum and energy from the orbiter to the space station. The consequences of this transfer is studied and how beneficial use can be made of it.

  20. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-07

    In this image, planet Earth, some 235 statute miles away, forms the back drop for this photo of STS-97 astronaut and mission specialist Joseph R. Tanner, taken during the third of three space walks. The mission's goal was to perform the delivery, assembly, and activation of the U.S. electrical power system onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment, and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The electrical system will eventually provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment. The STS-97 crew of five launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor on November 30, 2000 for an 11 day mission.

  1. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-12-09

    Against a black night sky, the Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member crew head toward Earth-orbit and a scheduled linkup with the International Space Station (ISS). Liftoff from the Kennedy Space Center's launch pad 39B occurred at 8:47 p.m. (EST) on Dec. 9, 2006 in what was the first evening shuttle launch since 2002. The primary mission objective was to deliver and install the P5 truss element. The P5 installation was conducted during the first of three space walks, and involved use of both the shuttle and station’s robotic arms. The remainder of the mission included a major reconfiguration and activation of the ISS electrical and thermal control systems, as well as delivery of Zvezda Service Module debris panels, which will increase ISS protection from potential impacts of micro-meteorites and orbital debris. Two major payloads developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) were also delivered to the Station. The Lab-On-A Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS) and the Water Delivery System, a vital component of the Station’s Oxygen Generation System.

  2. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-01

    In this Space Shuttle STS-102 mission image, the Payload Equipment Restraint System H-Strap is shown at the left side of the U.S. Laboratory hatch and behind Astronaut James D. Weatherbee, mission specialist. PERS is an integrated modular system of components designed to assist the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) in restraining and carrying necessary payload equipment and tools in a microgravity environment. The Operations Development Group, Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), while providing operation support to the ISS Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF), recognized the need for an on-orbit restraint system to facilitate control of lose objects, payloads, and tools. The PERS is the offspring of that need and it helps the ISS crew manage tools and rack components that would otherwise float away in the near-zero gravity environment aboard the Space Station. The system combines Kevlar straps, mesh pockets, Velcro and a variety of cornecting devices into a portable, adjustable system. The system includes the Single Strap, the H-Strap, the Belly Pack, the Laptop Restraint Belt, and the Tool Page Case. The Single Strap and the H-Strap were flown on this mission. The PERS concept was developed by industrial design students at Auburn University and the MSFC Flight Projects Directorate.

  3. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-05

    Astronaut Joseph R. Tanner, STS-97 mission specialist, is seen during a session of Extravehicular Activity (EVA), performing work on the International Space Station (ISS). Part of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm and a section of the newly deployed solar array panel are in the background. The primary objective of the STS-97 mission was the delivery, assembly, and activation of the U.S. electrical power system on board the ISS. The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The electrical system will eventually provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment. The STS-97 crew of five launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor on November 30, 2000 for an 11 day mission.

  4. Draper Station Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Jang, Jiann-Woei; McCants, Edward; Omohundro, Zachary; Ring, Tom; Templeton, Jeremy; Zoss, Jeremy; Wallace, Jonathan; Ziegler, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Draper Station Analysis Tool (DSAT) is a computer program, built on commercially available software, for simulating and analyzing complex dynamic systems. Heretofore used in designing and verifying guidance, navigation, and control systems of the International Space Station, DSAT has a modular architecture that lends itself to modification for application to spacecraft or terrestrial systems. DSAT consists of user-interface, data-structures, simulation-generation, analysis, plotting, documentation, and help components. DSAT automates the construction of simulations and the process of analysis. DSAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI), plus a Web-enabled interface, similar to the GUI, that enables a remotely located user to gain access to the full capabilities of DSAT via the Internet and Webbrowser software. Data structures are used to define the GUI, the Web-enabled interface, simulations, and analyses. Three data structures define the type of analysis to be performed: closed-loop simulation, frequency response, and/or stability margins. DSAT can be executed on almost any workstation, desktop, or laptop computer. DSAT provides better than an order of magnitude improvement in cost, schedule, and risk assessment for simulation based design and verification of complex dynamic systems.

  5. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-11

    This STS-98 mission photograph shows astronauts Thomas D. Jones (foreground) and Kerneth D. Cockrell floating inside the newly installed Laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The American-made Destiny module is the cornerstone for space-based research aboard the orbiting platform and the centerpiece of the ISS, where unprecedented science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. Destiny will also serve as the command and control center for the ISS. The aluminum module is 8.5-meters (28-feet) long and 4.3-meters (14-feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two endcones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations. Payload racks will occupy 15 locations especially designed to support experiments. The Destiny module was built by the Boeing Company under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  6. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-16

    The International Space Station (ISS), with the newly installed U.S. Laboratory, Destiny, is backdropped over clouds, water and land in South America. South Central Chile shows up at the bottom of the photograph. Just below the Destiny, the Chacao Charnel separates the large island of Chile from the mainland and connects the Gulf of Coronado on the Pacific side with the Gulf of Ancud, southwest of the city of Puerto Montt. The American-made Destiny module is the cornerstone for space-based research aboard the orbiting platform and the centerpiece of the ISS, where unprecedented science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. Destiny will also serve as the command and control center for the ISS. The aluminum module is 8.5-meters (28-feet) long and 4.3-meters (14-feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two endcones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations. Payload racks will occupy 15 locations especially designed to support experiments. The Destiny module was built by the Boeing Company under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  7. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    In the grasp of the Shuttle's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robot arm, the U.S. Laboratory, Destiny, is moved from its stowage position in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Atlantis. This photograph was taken by astronaut Thomas D. Jones during his Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The American-made Destiny module is the cornerstone for space-based research aboard the orbiting platform and the centerpiece of the International Space Station (ISS), where unprecedented science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. Destiny will also serve as the command and control center for the ISS. The aluminum module is 8.5- meters (28-feet) long and 4.3-meters (14-feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two endcones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter- (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations. Payload racks will occupy 15 locations especially designed to support experiments. The Destiny module was built by the Boeing Company under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  8. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    In the grasp of the Shuttle's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robot arm, the U.S. Laboratory, Destiny, is moved from its stowage position in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Atlantis. This photograph was taken by astronaut Thomas D. Jones during his Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The American-made Destiny module is the cornerstone for space-based research aboard the orbiting platform and the centerpiece of the International Space Station (ISS), where unprecedented science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity of space. Destiny will also serve as the command and control center for the ISS. The aluminum module is 8.5- meters (28-feet) long and 4.3-meters (14-feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two endcones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations. Payload racks will occupy 15 locations especially designed to support experiments. The Destiny module was built by the Boeing Company under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  9. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-01

    Astronaut James F. Reilly participated in the first ever space walk to egress from the International Space Station (ISS) by utilizing the newly-installed Joint Airlock Quest. The Joint Airlock is a pressurized flight element consisting of two cylindrical chambers attached end-to-end by a cornecting bulkhead and hatch. Once installed and activated, the ISS Airlock becomes the primary path for ISS space walk entry and departure for U.S. spacesuits, which are known as Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs). In addition, it is designed to support the Russian Orlan spacesuit for extravehicular activity (EVA). The Joint Airlock is 20-feet long, 13- feet in diameter and weighs 6.5 tons. It was built at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by the Space Station prime contractor Boeing. The ISS Airlock has two main components: a crew airlock and an equipment airlock for storing EVA and EVA preflight preps. The Airlock was launched on July 21, 2001 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis for the STS-104 mission.

  10. Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment (FBCE) for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mudawar, Issam; Hasan, Mohammad M.; Kharangate, Chirag; O'Neill, Lucas; Konishi, Chris; Nahra, Henry; Hall, Nancy; Balasubramaniam, R.; Mackey, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The proposed research aims to develop an integrated two-phase flow boiling/condensation facility for the International Space Station (ISS) to serve as primary platform for obtaining two-phase flow and heat transfer data in microgravity.

  11. Finite Span Effects on Flap Heating and Effectiveness in a Turbulent Boundary Layer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    Flap Span on Centerline Heating Distribution(15 Deflection) ........ ......................... 46 35 Span Edge Effect on Centerline Heat Transfer...Pressure Distributions at 87.5% Chord Station ....... ...................... 50 39 Span Edge Effect on Spanwise Pressure Distribution ........... 52 40...Distribution at 87.5% Chord Station ..... ............... 55 43 Span Edge Effect on Spanwise Heat Transfer Distribution ..... 56 44 Finite Span Effects

  12. Efficient ways for setting up the operation of nuclear power stations in power systems in the base load mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Shkret, A. F.; Burdenkova, E. Yu.; Garievskii, M. V.

    2011-05-01

    The results obtained from studies of efficient ways and methods for organizing the operation of developing nuclear power stations in the base load mode are presented. We also show comparative efficiency of different scenarios for unloading condensing thermal power stations, cogeneration stations, combined-cycle power plants, nuclear power stations, and using off-peak electric energy for electricity-intensive loads: pumped-hydroelectric storage, electric-powered heat supply, and electrolysis of water for producing hydrogen and oxygen.

  13. 47 CFR 74.1281 - Station records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1281 Station records. (a) The licensee of a station...

  14. 47 CFR 74.1281 - Station records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1281 Station records. (a) The licensee of a station...

  15. The Capabilities of Space Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Over the past two years the U.S. space station program has evolved to a three-phased international program, with the first phase consisting of the use of the U.S. Space Shuttle and the upgrading and use of the Russian Mir Space Station, and the second and third phases consisting of the assembly and use of the new International Space Station. Projected capabilities for research, and plans for utilization, have also evolved and it has been difficult for those not directly involved in the design and engineering of these space stations to learn and understand their technical details. The Committee on the Space Station of the National Research Council, with the concurrence of NASA, undertook to write this short report in order to provide concise and objective information on space stations and platforms -- with emphasis on the Mir Space Station and International Space Station -- and to supply a summary of the capabilities of previous, existing, and planned space stations. In keeping with the committee charter and with the task statement for this report, the committee has summarized the research capabilities of five major space platforms: the International Space Station, the Mir Space Station, the Space Shuttle (with a Spacelab or Spacehab module in its cargo bay), the Space Station Freedom (which was redesigned to become the International Space Station in 1993 and 1994), and Skylab. By providing the summary, together with brief descriptions of the platforms, the committee hopes to assist interested readers, including scientists and engineers, government officials, and the general public, in evaluating the utility of each system to meet perceived user needs.

  16. International Space Station (ISS) S1 Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Shown here is the International Space Station (ISS) S1 Truss in preparation for installation in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Atlantis at NASA's Kennedy Space Center )KSC)in Florida. The truss launched October 7, 2002 on the STS-112 mission and will be attached during three spacewalks. Constructed primarily of aluminum, it measures 45 feet long, 15 feet wide, 10 feet tall, and weighs over 27,000 pounds. It is one of nine similar truss segments that, combined, will serve as the Station's main backbone, measuring 356 feet from end to end upon completion. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss was flown to the Marshall Space Flight Center, in Huntsville, Alabama where brackets, cable trays, fluid tubing, and other secondary components and outfitting items were added. In Huntsville, it was screened for manufacturing flaws, including pressure and leak checking tubing, and electrical checks for cabling, before being shipped to KSC for final hardware installation and testing. The Space Station's labs, living modules, solar arrays, heat radiators, and other main components will be attached to the truss.

  17. Updated population metadata for United States historical climatology network stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, T.W.; Gallo, K.P.

    2000-01-01

    The United States Historical Climatology Network (HCN) serial temperature dataset is comprised of 1221 high-quality, long-term climate observing stations. The HCN dataset is available in several versions, one of which includes population-based temperature modifications to adjust urban temperatures for the "heat-island" effect. Unfortunately, the decennial population metadata file is not complete as missing values are present for 17.6% of the 12 210 population values associated with the 1221 individual stations during the 1900-90 interval. Retrospective grid-based populations. Within a fixed distance of an HCN station, were estimated through the use of a gridded population density dataset and historically available U.S. Census county data. The grid-based populations for the HCN stations provide values derived from a consistent methodology compared to the current HCN populations that can vary as definitions of the area associated with a city change over time. The use of grid-based populations may minimally be appropriate to augment populations for HCN climate stations that lack any population data, and are recommended when consistent and complete population data are required. The recommended urban temperature adjustments based on the HCN and grid-based methods of estimating station population can be significantly different for individual stations within the HCN dataset.

  18. Thulium heat sources for space power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alderman, C.J.

    1992-05-01

    Reliable power supplies for use in transportation and remote systems will be an important part of space exploration terrestrial activities. A potential power source is available in the rare earth metal, thulium. Fuel sources can be produced by activating Tm-169 targets in the space station reactor. The resulting Tm-170 heat sources can be used in thermoelectric generators to power instrumentation and telecommunications located at remote sites such as weather stations. As the heat source in a dynamic Sterling or Brayton cycle system, the heat source can provide a lightweight power source for rovers or other terrestrial transportation systems.

  19. Evaporation estimates using weather station data and boundary layer theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentine, P.; Chhang, A.; Rigden, A.; Salvucci, G.

    2016-11-01

    Global estimates of evapotranspiration remain a challenge. In this study, we show that the daily course of air temperature and specific humidity available at routine weather stations can be used to estimate evapotranspiration and the evaporative fraction, the ratio of latent heat flux to available energy at the surface. Indeed, the diurnal increase in air temperature reflects the magnitude of the sensible heat flux and the increase of specific humidity after sunrise reflects the amplitude of evapotranspiration. The method is physically constrained and based on the budget of heat and moisture in the boundary layer. Unlike land surface-based estimates, the proposed boundary layer estimate does not rely on ad hoc surface resistance parameterizations (e.g., Penman-Monteith). The proposed methodology can be applied to data collected at weather stations to estimate evapotranspiration and evaporative fraction under cloudy conditions and in the pre-remote sensing era.

  20. Radiator selection for Space Station Solar Dynamic Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Mike; Hoehn, Frank

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted to define the best radiator for heat rejection of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power System. Included in the study were radiators for both the Organic Rankine Cycle and Closed Brayton Cycle heat engines. A number of potential approaches were considered for the Organic Rankine Cycle and a constructable radiator was chosen. Detailed optimizations of this concept were conducted resulting in a baseline for inclusion into the ORC Preliminary Design. A number of approaches were also considered for the CBC radiator. For this application a deployed pumped liquid radiator was selected which was also refined resulting in a baseline for the CBC preliminary design. This paper reports the results and methodology of these studies and describes the preliminary designs of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power System radiators for both of the candidate heat engine cycles.

  1. Mapping an Ice Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    On July 10, 2011, Melinda Webster of University of Washington mapped the locations where measurements were collected during the 2011 ICESCAPE mission's fourth sea ice station in the Chukchi Sea. The ICESCAPE mission, or "Impacts of Climate on Ecosystems and Chemistry of the Arctic Pacific Environment," is a NASA shipborne investigation to study how changing conditions in the Arctic affect the ocean's chemistry and ecosystems. The bulk of the research took place in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas in summer 2010 and 2011. Credit: NASA/Kathryn Hansen NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  2. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This is a view of the ECLSS and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) Test Facility in building 4755, MSFC. In the foreground is the 3-module ECLSS simulator comprised of the U.S. Laboratory Module Simulator, Node 1 Simulator, and Node 3/Habitation Module Simulator. At center left is the ITCS Simulator. The main function of the ITCS is to control the temperature of equipment and hardware installed in a typical ISS Payload Rack.

  3. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This is a view of the ECLSS and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) Test Facility in building 4755, MSFC. In the foreground is the 3-module ECLSS simulator comprised of the U.S. Laboratory Module Simulator, Node 1 Simulator, and Node 3/Habitation Module Simulator. On the left is the ITCS Simulator. The main function of the ITCS is to control the temperature of equipment and hardware installed in a typical ISS Payload Rack.

  4. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-09

    The STS-118 crew patch represents the Space Shuttle Endeavour on its mission to help complete the assembly of the International Space Station (ISS), and symbolizes the pursuit of knowledge through space exploration. The flight accomplished its ISS 13A.1 assembly tasks through a series of space walks, robotic operations, logistics transfers, and the exchange of one of the three long-duration expedition crew members. On the patch, the top of the gold astronaut symbol overlays the starboard S5 truss segment, highlighting its installation during the mission. The flame of knowledge represents the importance of education, and honors teachers and students everywhere. The seven white stars and the red maple leaf signify the American and Canadian crew members, respectively, flying aboard Endeavour.

  5. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-01

    This diagram shows the flow of water recovery and management in the International Space Station (ISS). The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for the regenerative ECLSS hardware, as well as providing technical support for the rest of the system. The regenerative ECLSS, whose main components are the Water Recovery System (WRS), and the Oxygen Generation System (OGS), reclaims and recycles water oxygen. The ECLSS maintains a pressurized habitation environment, provides water recovery and storage, maintains and provides fire detection/ suppression, and provides breathable air and a comfortable atmosphere in which to live and work within the ISS. The ECLSS hardware will be located in the Node 3 module of the ISS.

  6. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-01

    This diagram shows the flow of recyclable resources in the International Space Station (ISS). The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for the regenerative ECLSS hardware, as well as providing technical support for the rest of the system. The regenerative ECLSS, whose main components are the Water Recovery System (WRS), and the Oxygen Generation System (OGS), reclaims and recycles water and oxygen. The ECLSS maintains a pressurized habitation environment, provides water recovery and storage, maintains and provides fire detection / suppression, and provides breathable air and a comfortable atmosphere in which to live and work within the ISS. The ECLSS hardware will be located in the Node 3 module of the ISS.

  7. Local control stations

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Wachtel, J.A.

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted.

  8. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-19

    Back dropped by the blue Earth, the International Space Station (ISS) boasts its newest configuration upon the departure of Space Shuttle Endeavor and STS-118 mission. Days earlier, construction resumed on the ISS as STS-118 mission specialists and the Expedition 15 crew completed installation of the Starboard 5 (S-5) truss segment, removed a faulty Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG-3), installed a new CMG into the Z1 truss, relocated the S-band Antenna Sub-Assembly from the Port 6 (P6) to Port 1 (P1) truss, installed a new transponder on P1, retrieved the P6 transponder, and delivered roughly 5,000 pounds of equipment and supplies.

  9. Space station MMOD shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Nagy, Kornel; Lear, Dana M.; Prior, Thomas G.

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes the International Space Station (ISS) micro-meteoroid orbital debris (MMOD) impact shielding including the requirements for protection as well as technical approaches to meeting the requirements. Current activities in providing MMOD protection for ISS are described, including efforts to augment MMOD protection by adding shields on-orbit. Another activity is to observe MMOD impact damage on ISS elements and returned hardware, and to compare the observed damage with predicted damage using Bumper code risk assessment software. A conclusion of this paper is that ISS will be protected adequately from MMOD impact after completing augmentation of ISS shielding for service module, and after improving MMOD protection for Soyuz and Progress vehicles. Another conclusion is that impact damage observed to the ISS mini-pressurized logistics module matches the distribution of impacts predicted by Bumper code.

  10. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-06-09

    The STS-121 patch depicts the Space Shuttle docked with the International Space Station (ISS) in the foreground, overlaying the astronaut symbol with three gold columns and a gold star. The ISS is shown in the configuration that it was during the STS-121 mission. The background shows the nighttime Earth with a dawn breaking over the horizon. STS-121, ISS mission ULF1.1, was the final Shuttle Return to Flight test mission. This utilization and logistics flight delivered a multipurpose logistics module (MPLM) to the ISS with several thousand pounds of new supplies and experiments. In addition, some new orbital replacement units (ORUs) were delivered and stowed externally on the ISS on a special pallet. These ORUs are spares for critical machinery located on the outside of the ISS. During this mission the crew also carried out testing of Shuttle inspection and repair hardware, as well as evaluated operational techniques and concepts for conducting on-orbit inspection and repair.

  11. Advanced ground station architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zillig, David; Benjamin, Ted

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a new station architecture for NASA's Ground Network (GN). The architecture makes efficient use of emerging technologies to provide dramatic reductions in size, operational complexity, and operational and maintenance costs. The architecture, which is based on recent receiver work sponsored by the Office of Space Communications Advanced Systems Program, allows integration of both GN and Space Network (SN) modes of operation in the same electronics system. It is highly configurable through software and the use of charged coupled device (CCD) technology to provide a wide range of operating modes. Moreover, it affords modularity of features which are optional depending on the application. The resulting system incorporates advanced RF, digital, and remote control technology capable of introducing significant operational, performance, and cost benefits to a variety of NASA communications and tracking applications.

  12. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-11-03

    While anchored to a foot restraint on the end of the Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS), astronaut Scott Parazynski, STS-120 mission specialist, participated in the mission's fourth session of extravehicular activity (EVA) while Space Shuttle Discovery was docked with the International Space Station (ISS). During the 7-hour and 19-minute space walk, Parazynski cut a snagged wire and installed homemade stabilizers designed to strengthen the structure and stability of the damaged P6 4B solar array wing. Astronaut Doug Wheelock (out of frame), mission specialist, assisted from the truss by keeping an eye on the distance between Parazynski and the array. Once the repair was complete, flight controllers on the ground successfully completed the deployment of the array.

  13. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-03-08

    The STS-101 mission patch commemorates the third Space Shuttle flight supporting the assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). This flight's primary tasks were to outfit the ISS and extend its lifetime, to conduct a space walk to install external components in preparation for the docking of the Russian Service Module, Zvezda, and the arrival of the first ISS crew. The Space Shuttle is depicted in an orbit configuration prior to docking with the ISS. The ISS is depicted in the stage of assembly completed for the STS-101 mission, which consists of the United States built Unity module and the Russian-built Zarya module. The three large stars represent the third ISS mission in the assembly sequence. The elements and colors of the border reflect the flags of the nations represented by the STS-101 crew members, the United States, and Russia.

  14. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This is an exterior view of the U.S. Laboratory Module Simulator containing the ECLSS Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) testing facility at MSFC. At the bottom right is the data acquisition and control computers (in the blue equipment racks) that monitor the testing in the facility. The ITCS simulator facility duplicates the function, operation, and troubleshooting problems of the ITCS. The main function of the ITCS is to control the temperature of equipment and hardware installed in a typical ISS Payload Rack.

  15. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-03

    While anchored to a foot restraint on the end of the Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS), astronaut Scott Parazynski, STS-120 mission specialist, participated in the mission's fourth session of extravehicular activity (EVA) while Space Shuttle Discovery was docked with the International Space Station (ISS). During the 7-hour and 19-minute space walk, Parazynski cut a snagged wire and installed homemade stabilizers designed to strengthen the structure and stability of the damaged P6 4B solar array wing. Astronaut Doug Wheelock (out of frame), mission specialist, assisted from the truss by keeping an eye on the distance between Parazynski and the array. Once the repair was complete, flight controllers on the ground successfully completed the deployment of the array.

  16. Integrated microfluidic probe station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrault, C. M.; Qasaimeh, M. A.; Brastaviceanu, T.; Anderson, K.; Kabakibo, Y.; Juncker, D.

    2010-11-01

    The microfluidic probe (MFP) consists of a flat, blunt tip with two apertures for the injection and reaspiration of a microjet into a solution—thus hydrodynamically confining the microjet—and is operated atop an inverted microscope that enables live imaging. By scanning across a surface, the microjet can be used for surface processing with the capability of both depositing and removing material; as it operates under immersed conditions, sensitive biological materials and living cells can be processed. During scanning, the MFP is kept immobile and centered over the objective of the inverted microscope, a few micrometers above a substrate that is displaced by moving the microscope stage and that is flushed continuously with the microjet. For consistent and reproducible surface processing, the gap between the MFP and the substrate, the MFP's alignment, the scanning speed, the injection and aspiration flow rates, and the image capture need all to be controlled and synchronized. Here, we present an automated MFP station that integrates all of these functionalities and automates the key operational parameters. A custom software program is used to control an independent motorized Z stage for adjusting the gap, a motorized microscope stage for scanning the substrate, up to 16 syringe pumps for injecting and aspirating fluids, and an inverted fluorescence microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device camera. The parallelism between the MFP and the substrate is adjusted using manual goniometer at the beginning of the experiment. The alignment of the injection and aspiration apertures along the scanning axis is performed using a newly designed MFP screw holder. We illustrate the integrated MFP station by the programmed, automated patterning of fluorescently labeled biotin on a streptavidin-coated surface.

  17. Space Station Technology Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iacabucci, R.; Evans, S.; Briley, G.; Delventhal, R. A.; Braunscheidel, E.

    1989-01-01

    The completion of the Space Station Propulsion Advanced Technology Programs established an in-depth data base for the baseline gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen thruster, the waste gas resistojet, and the associated system operations. These efforts included testing of a full end-to-end system at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in which oxygen and hydrogen were generated from water by electrolysis at 6.89 MPa (1,000 psia), stored and fired through the prototype thruster. Recent end-to-end system tests which generate the oxygen/hydrogen propellants by electrolysis of water at 20.67 MPa (3,000 psia) were completed on the Integrated Propulsion Test Article (IPTA) at NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC). Resistojet testing has included 10,000 hours of life testing, plume characterization, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) testing. Extensive 25-lbf thruster testing was performed defining operating performance characteristics across the required mixture ratio and thrust level ranges. Life testing has accumulated 27 hours of operation on the prototype thruster. A total of seven injectors and five thrust chambers were fabricated to the same basic design. Five injectors and three thrust chambers designed to incorporate improved life, performance, and producibility characteristics are ready for testing. Five resistojets were fabricated and tested, with modifications made to improve producibility. The lessons learned in the area of producibility for both the O2/H2 thrusters and for the resistojet have resolved critical fabrication issues. The test results indicate that all major technology issues for long life and reliability for space station application were resolved.

  18. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-05-08

    This is the insignia for the STS-108 mission, which marked a major milestone in the assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) as the first designated Utilization Flight, UF-1. The crew of Endeavour delivered the Expedition Four crew to ISS and returned the Expedition Three crew to Earth. Endeavour launched with a Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) that was berthed to the ISS and unloaded. The MPLM was returned to Endeavour for the trip home and used again on a later flight. The crew patch depicts Endeavour and the ISS in the configuration at the time of arrival and docking. The Station is shown viewed along the direction of flight as seen by the Shuttle crew during their final approach and docking along the X-axis. The three ribbons and stars on the left side of the patch signify the returning Expedition Three crew. The red, white and blue order of the ribbons represents the American commander for that mission. The three ribbons and stars on the right depict the arriving Expedition Four crew. The white, blue, and red order of the Expedition Four ribbon matches the color of the Russian flag and signifies that the commander of Expedition Four is a Russian cosmonaut. Each white star in the center of the patch represents the four Endeavour crew members. The names of the four astronauts who crewed Endeavour are shown along the top border of the patch. The three astronauts and three cosmonauts of the two expedition crews are shown on the chevron at the bottom of the patch.

  19. Integrated microfluidic probe station.

    PubMed

    Perrault, C M; Qasaimeh, M A; Brastaviceanu, T; Anderson, K; Kabakibo, Y; Juncker, D

    2010-11-01

    The microfluidic probe (MFP) consists of a flat, blunt tip with two apertures for the injection and reaspiration of a microjet into a solution--thus hydrodynamically confining the microjet--and is operated atop an inverted microscope that enables live imaging. By scanning across a surface, the microjet can be used for surface processing with the capability of both depositing and removing material; as it operates under immersed conditions, sensitive biological materials and living cells can be processed. During scanning, the MFP is kept immobile and centered over the objective of the inverted microscope, a few micrometers above a substrate that is displaced by moving the microscope stage and that is flushed continuously with the microjet. For consistent and reproducible surface processing, the gap between the MFP and the substrate, the MFP's alignment, the scanning speed, the injection and aspiration flow rates, and the image capture need all to be controlled and synchronized. Here, we present an automated MFP station that integrates all of these functionalities and automates the key operational parameters. A custom software program is used to control an independent motorized Z stage for adjusting the gap, a motorized microscope stage for scanning the substrate, up to 16 syringe pumps for injecting and aspirating fluids, and an inverted fluorescence microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device camera. The parallelism between the MFP and the substrate is adjusted using manual goniometer at the beginning of the experiment. The alignment of the injection and aspiration apertures along the scanning axis is performed using a newly designed MFP screw holder. We illustrate the integrated MFP station by the programmed, automated patterning of fluorescently labeled biotin on a streptavidin-coated surface.

  20. 47 CFR 74.783 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.783 Station identification. (a) Each low power TV and TV translator station not... television station licensee for this purpose. (c) A low power TV station shall comply with the station...

  1. 47 CFR 74.783 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.783 Station identification. (a) Each low power TV and TV translator station not... television station licensee for this purpose. (c) A low power TV station shall comply with the station...

  2. 47 CFR 74.783 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.783 Station identification. (a) Each low power TV and TV translator station not... television station licensee for this purpose. (c) A low power TV station shall comply with the station...

  3. 47 CFR 74.783 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.783 Station identification. (a) Each low power TV and TV translator station not... television station licensee for this purpose. (c) A low power TV station shall comply with the station...

  4. 47 CFR 74.783 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.783 Station identification. (a) Each low power TV and TV translator station not... television station licensee for this purpose. (c) A low power TV station shall comply with the station...

  5. The Calern atmospheric turbulence station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabé, Julien; Ziad, Aziz; Fantéï-Caujolle, Yan; Aristidi, Éric; Renaud, Catherine; Blary, Flavien; Marjani, Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    From its long expertise in Atmospheric Optics, the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur and the J.L. Lagrange Laboratory have equipped the Calern Observatory with a station of atmospheric turbulence measurement (CATS: Calern Atmospheric Turbulence Station). The CATS station is equipped with a set of complementary instruments for monitoring atmospheric turbulence parameters. These new-generation instruments are autonomous within original techniques for measuring optical turbulence since the first meters above the ground to the borders of the atmosphere. The CATS station is also a support for our training activities as part of our Masters MAUCA and OPTICS, through the organization of on-sky practical works.

  6. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  7. Students Learn About Station Robotics

    NASA Image and Video Library

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, Robotics Systems Flight Controller Jason Dyer participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at East Stroudsber...

  8. International Space Station Research Racks

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The International Space Station has a variety of multidisciplinary laboratory facilities and equipment available for scientists to use. This video highlights the capabilities of select facilities. ...

  9. Combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  10. Combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  11. Solar dynamic space power system heat rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. W.; Gustafson, E.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1986-01-01

    A radiator system concept is described that meets the heat rejection requirements of the NASA Space Station solar dynamic power modules. The heat pipe radiator is a high-reliability, high-performance approach that is capable of erection in space and is maintainable on orbit. Results are present of trade studies that compare the radiator system area and weight estimates for candidate advanced high performance heat pipes. The results indicate the advantages of the dual-slot heat pipe radiator for high temperature applications as well as its weight-reduction potential over the range of temperatures to be encountered in the solar dynamic heat rejection systems.

  12. Milliken Station Demonstration Project FDG retrofit update

    SciTech Connect

    Alder, R.C.; Jackson, C.E.; O`Dea, D.T.

    1994-12-31

    The Milliken Clean Coal Demonstration Project is one of the nine Clean Coal Projects selected for funding in Round 4 of the U.S. DOE`s Clean Coal Demonstration Program. The project`s sponsor is New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (NYSEG). Project team members include CONSOL Inc., Saarberg-Holter-Umwelttechnik (SHU), NALCO/FuelTech, Stebbins Engineering and Manufacturing Co., DHR Technologies, and CE Air Preheater. Gilbert/Commonwealth is the Architect/Engineer and Construction Manager for the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) retrofit. The project will provide full-scale demonstration of a combination of innovative emission-reducing technologies and plant upgraded for the control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired steam generator without a significant loss of station efficiency. The overall project goals are the following: 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency using limestone while burning high sulfur coal; up to 70% NO{sub x} reduction using the NOXOUT selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology in conjunction with combustion modifications; minimization of solid waste by producing marketable by-products including commercial grade gypsum, calcium chloride, and fly ash; zero wastewater discharge; maintenance of station efficiency by using a high efficiency heat-pipe air heater system and a low-power-consuming scrubber system. The demonstration project is being conducted at NYSEG`s Milliken Station, located in Lansing, New York. Milliken Station has two 150-MWe pulverized coal-fired units built in the 1950s by Combustion Engineering. The SHU FGD process and the combustion modifications are being installed on both units, but the NOXOUT process, Plant Economic Optimization Advisor (PEOA), and the high-efficiency air heater system will be installed on only one unit.

  13. Attached algae of the Lake Erie shoreline near Nanticoke Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, M.K.; Dunford, W.E.

    1981-11-01

    The distribution, species composition, and standing crop of attached algae were surveyed in the splash zone along the shore of Lake Erie from 1971 to 1978 to determine the impact of construction and operation of the Nanticoke Generating Station, a coal-fired power plant. Station operation has had no apparent influence on the spatial distribution of attached algae in the lake stations. However, the discharge of heated condenser cooling water has resulted in an accelerated growth of attached algae in the immediate vicinity of the station early in the growing season, but the effect was not sustained after May. The species composition at sites near the generating station differed from control areas. Three years after the initial operation of the plant the generating station had a lower percent abundance of Cladophora and a higher percent abundance of weakly attached algal species such as Zygnema; this is perhaps attributable to the sheltered conditions in the discharge area of the generating station.

  14. Attached algae of the Lake Erie shoreline near Nanticoke generating station

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, M.K.; Dunford, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution, species composition and standing crop of attached algae were surveyed in the splash zone along the shore of Lake Erie from 1971 to 1978 to determine the impact of construction and operation of the Nanticoke Generating Station, a coal-fired power plant. Station operation has had no apparent influence on the spatial distribution of attached algae in the lake stations. However, the discharge of heated condenser cooling water has resulted in an accelerated growth of attached algae in the immediate vicinity of the station early in the growing season, but the effect was not sustained after May. The species composition at sites near the generating station differed from control areas. Three years after the initial operation of the plant the generating station had a lower percent abundance of Cladophora and a higher percent abundance of weakly attached algal species such as Zygnema; this is perhaps attributable to the sheltered conditions in the discharge area of the generating station.

  15. Agricultural Experiment Stations and Branch Stations in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Calvin H.; Atucha, Amaya

    2015-01-01

    In 1887, Congress passed the Hatch Act, which formally established and provided a funding mechanism for agricultural experiment stations in each state and territory in the United States. The main purpose of agricultural experiment stations is to conduct agricultural research to meet the needs of the citizens of the United States. The objective of…

  16. Agricultural Experiment Stations and Branch Stations in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Calvin H.; Atucha, Amaya

    2015-01-01

    In 1887, Congress passed the Hatch Act, which formally established and provided a funding mechanism for agricultural experiment stations in each state and territory in the United States. The main purpose of agricultural experiment stations is to conduct agricultural research to meet the needs of the citizens of the United States. The objective of…

  17. An Automatic Meteorological Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    the measurement site. Not only the transmission depends on meteorological conditions, but also the thermal behaviour of materials. Solar heating for... pannel in the power supply box. 0 0 FUSE 0 0 0 0 220-MAINS 0 PIR S-NETr AMRP CM1 1 0 0/1 o 0 0 0 220-T+RH PRECIP WIND.DIR T+RH WIND.SP.Q Fa.4.1 Lay-u co...ectr pannel in pow mipply box TNOMW The codes on the cables consist of two parts. The first parn indicates the sga flow, the second part describes

  18. Solar dynamic power for space station freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Secunde, Richard R.; Lovely, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program is presently planned to consist of two phases. At the completion of Phase 1, Freedom's manned base will consist of a transverse boom with attached manned modules and 75 kW of available electric power supplied by photovoltaic (PV) power sources. In Phase 2, electric power available to the manned base will be increased to 125 kW by the addition of two solar dynamic (SD) power modules, one at each end of the transverse boom. Power for manned base growth beyond Phase 2 will be supplied by additional SD modules. Studies show that SD power for the growth eras will result in life cycle cost savings of $3 to $4 billion when compared to PV-supplied power. In the SD power modules for Space Station Freedom, an offset parabolic concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver. To allow full power operation over the entire orbit, the receiver includes integral thermal energy storage by means of the heat of fusion of a salt mixture. Thermal energy is removed from the receiver and converted to electrical energy by a power conversion unit (PCU) which includes a closed brayton cycle (CBC) heat engine and an alternator. The receiver/PCU/radiator combination will be completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling fluid on Earth before launch to orbit. The concentrator subassemblies will be pre-aligned and stowed in the orbiter bay before launch. On orbit, the receiver/PCU/radiator assembly will be installed as a unit. The pre-aligned concentrator panels will then be latched together and the total concentrator attached to the receiver/PCU/radiator by the astronauts. After final electric connections are made and checkout is complete, the SD power module will be ready for operation.

  19. Solar dynamic power for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Secunde, Richard R.; Lovely, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program is presently planned to consist of two phases. At the completion of Phase 1, Freedom's manned base will consist of a transverse boom with attached manned modules and 75 kW of available electric power supplied by photovoltaic (PV) power sources. In Phase 2, electric power available to the manned base will be increased to 125 kW by the addition of two solar dynamic (SD) power modules, one at each end of the transverse boom. Power for manned base growth beyond Phase 2 will be supplied by additional SD modules. Studies show that SD power for the growth eras will result in life cycle cost savings of $3 to $4 billion when compared to PV-supplied power. In the SD power modules for Space Station Freedom, an offset parabolic concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver. To allow full power operation over the entire orbit, the receiver includes integral thermal energy storage by means of the heat of fusion of a salt mixture. Thermal energy is removed from the receiver and converted to electrical energy by a power conversion unit (PCU) which includes a closed brayton cycle (CBC) heat engine and an alternator. The receiver/PCU/radiator combination will be completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling fluid on earth before launch to orbit. The concentrator subassemblies will be pre-aligned and stowed in the orbiter bay before launch. On orbit, the receiver/PCU/radiator assembly will be installed as a unit. The pre-aligned concentrator panels will then be latched together and the total concentrator attached to the receiver/PCU/radiator by the astronauts. After final electric connections are made and checkout is complete, the SD power module will be ready for operation.

  20. Milliwatt radioisotope power supply for the PASCAL Mars surface stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Daniel T.; Murbach, Marcus S.

    2001-02-01

    A milliwatt power supply is being developed based on the 1 watt Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (RHU), which has already been used to provide heating alone on numerous spacecraft. In the past year the power supply has been integrated into the design of the proposed PASCAL Mars Network Mission, which is intended to place 24 surface climate monitoring stations on Mars. The PASCAL Mars mission calls for the individual surface stations to be transported together in one spacecraft on a trajectory direct from launch to orbit around Mars. From orbit around Mars each surface station will be deployed on a SCRAMP (slotted compression ramp) probe and, after aerodynamic and parachute deceleration, land at a preselected location on the planet. During descent sounding data and still images will be accumulated, and, once on the surface, the station will take measurements of pressure, temperature and overhead atmospheric optical depth for a period of 10 Mars years (18.8 Earth years). Power for periodic data acquisition and transmission to orbital then to Earth relay will come from a bank of ultracapacitors which will be continuously recharged by the radioisotope power supply. This electronic system has been designed and a breadboard built. In the ultimate design the electronics will be arrayed on the exterior surface of the radioisotope power supply in order to take advantage of the reject heat. This assembly in turn is packaged within the SCRAMP, and that assembly comprises the surface station. An electrically heated but otherwise prototypical power supply was operated in combination with the surface station breadboard system, which included the ultracapacitors. Other issues addressed in this work have been the capability of the generator to withstand the mechanical shock of the landing on Mars and the effectiveness of the generator's multi-foil vacuum thermal insulation. .

  1. SHIIVER (Structural Heat Intercept Insulation Vibration Evaluation Rig)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-11

    SHIIVER (Structural Heat Intercept Insulation Vibration Evaluation Rig) is a cryogenic test tank developed to evaluate heat intercept concepts. It arrived at Marshall Space Flight Center on August 10, 2017. The tank will receive heat sensors and spray-on foam insulation before making its way to Plum Brook station for further insulation and testing.

  2. Space station impact experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P.; Ahrens, T.; Alexander, W. M.; Cintala, M.; Gault, D.; Greeley, R.; Hawke, B. R.; Housen, K.; Schmidt, R.

    1986-01-01

    Four processes serve to illustrate potential areas of study and their implications for general problems in planetary science. First, accretional processes reflect the success of collisional aggregation over collisional destruction during the early history of the solar system. Second, both catastrophic and less severe effects of impacts on planetary bodies survivng from the time of the early solar system may be expressed by asteroid/planetary spin rates, spin orientations, asteroid size distributions, and perhaps the origin of the Moon. Third, the surfaces of planetary bodies directly record the effects of impacts in the form of craters; these records have wide-ranging implications. Fourth, regoliths evolution of asteroidal surfaces is a consequence of cumulative impacts, but the absence of a significant gravity term may profoundly affect the retention of shocked fractions and agglutinate build-up, thereby biasing the correct interpretations of spectral reflectance data. An impact facility on the Space Station would provide the controlled conditions necessary to explore such processes either through direct simulation of conditions or indirect simulation of certain parameters.

  3. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This photograph shows the fifth generation Urine Processor Development Hardware. The Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) is a part of the Water Recovery System (WRS) on the ISS. It uses a chase change process called vapor compression distillation technology to remove contaminants from urine. The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. Product water quality is monitored primarily through conductivity measurements. Unacceptable water is sent back through the WPA for reprocessing. Clean water is sent to a storage tank.

  4. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-16

    In this International Space Station (ISS) onboard photo, Expedition Six Science Officer Donald R. Pettit works to set up the Pulmonary Function in Flight (PuFF) experiment hardware in the Destiny Laboratory. Expedition Six is the fourth and final crew to perform the PuFF experiment. The PuFF experiment was developed to better understand what effects long term exposure to microgravity may have on the lungs. The focus is on measuring changes in the everness of gas exchange in the lungs, and on detecting changes in respiratory muscle strength. It allows astronauts to measure blood flow through the lungs, the ability of the lung to take up oxygen, and lung volumes. Each PuFF session includes five lung function tests, which involve breathing only cabin air. For each planned extravehicular (EVA) activity, a crew member performs a PuFF test within one week prior to the EVA. Following the EVA, those crew members perform another test to document the effect of exposure of the lungs to the low-pressure environment of the space suits. This experiment utilizes the Gas Analyzer System for Metabolic Analysis Physiology, or GASMAP, located in the Human Research Facility (HRF), along with a variety of other Puff equipment including a manual breathing valve, flow meter, pressure-flow module, pressure and volume calibration syringes, and disposable mouth pieces.

  5. Space Station lubrication considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Lubert J.; Dufrane, Keith

    1987-01-01

    Future activities in space will require the use of large structures and high power availability in order to fully exploit opportunities in Earth and stellar observations, space manufacturing and the development of optimum space transportation vehicles. Although these large systems will have increased capabilities, the associated development costs will be high, and will dictate long life with minimum maintenance. The Space Station provides a concrete example of such a system; it is approximately one hundred meters in major dimensions and has a life requirement of thirty years. Numerous mechanical components will be associated with these systems, a portion of which will be exposed to the space environment. If the long life and low maintenance goals are to be satisfied, lubricants and lubrication concepts will have to be carefully selected. Current lubrication practices are reviewed with the intent of determining acceptability for the long life requirements. The effects of exposure of lubricants and lubricant binders to the space environment are generally discussed. Potential interaction of MoS2 with atomic oxygen, a component of the low Earth orbit environment, appears to be significant.

  6. Space station internal propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richie, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned with a wireless communication system in place for the transmission of information between crew members on board. The clarity of transmission is paramount to an effective system of communication. A short overview is presented of the system including the requirements of interest, and a statement of the problem. The theory used to solve the problem is explored. The results given are for the experiments performed on a mockup of the proposed structure at NASA-Marshall. The requirements on the signal level are that there is a 45 dB signal to noise ratio from end to end, and that coverage over 99 pct. of the volume be maintained. The Rice probability distribution function, a simple extension of the Rayleigh distribution, is used to estimate the field strength inside a volume, where a significant line of sight from the transmitter to the receiver exists. For the SSF, this distribution will correspond to the summation of a coherent line of sight path between the transmitter and the receiver and an incoherent portion. The incoherent portion is the sum of reflections from the walls and the equipment inside the SSF. The Rice distribution was found to be the optimal distribution from the results.

  7. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. In this photograph, the life test area on the left of the MSFC ECLSS test facility is where various subsystems and components are tested to determine how long they can operate without failing and to identify components needing improvement. Equipment tested here includes the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA), the Urine Processing Assembly (UPA), the mass spectrometer filament assemblies and sample pumps for the Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA). The Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) simulator facility (in the module in the right) duplicates the function and operation of the ITCS in the ISS U.S. Laboratory Module, Destiny. This facility provides support for Destiny, including troubleshooting problems related to the ITCS.

  8. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-07-05

    Expedition Five flight engineer Peggy Whitson is shown installing the Solidification Using a Baffle in Sealed Ampoules (SUBSA) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). SUBSA examines the solidification of semiconductor crystals from a melted material. Semiconductor crystals are used for many products that touch our everyday lives. They are found in computer chips, integrated circuits, and a multitude of other electronic devices, such as sensors for medical imaging equipment and detectors of nuclear radiation. Materials scientists want to make better semiconductor crystals to be able to further reduce the size of high-tech devices. In the microgravity environment, convection and sedimentation are reduced, so fluids do not remove and deform. Thus, space laboratories provide an ideal environment of studying solidification from the melt. This investigation is expected to determine the mechanism causing fluid motion during production of semiconductors in space. It will provide insight into the role of the melt motion in production of semiconductor crystals, advancing our knowledge of the crystal growth process. This could lead to a reduction of defects in semiconductor crystals produced in space and on Earth.

  9. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-09-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack. The ECLSS Group at the MSFC oversees the development of the OGS, which produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen lost due to experiment use, airlock depressurization, module leakage, and carbon dioxide venting. The OGS consists primarily of the Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA), provided by the prime contractor, the Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) in Windsor Locks, Cornecticut and a Power Supply Module (PSM), supplied by the MSFC. The OGA is comprised of a cell stack that electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the Water Recovery System and the separators that remove the gases from water after electrolysis. The PSM provides the high power to the OGA needed to electrolyze the water.

  10. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This photograph shows the mockup of the the ECLSS to be installed in the Node 3 module of the ISS. From left to right, shower rack, waste management rack, Water Recovery System (WRS) Rack #2, WRS Rack #1, and Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack are shown. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters and is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA. The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. The OGS produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen loss. The OGS is comprised of a cell stack, which electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the WRS, and the separators that remove the gases from the water after electrolysis.

  11. Earth Day at Union Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-22

    NASA's Earth Dome is seen at Union Station, Monday, April 22, 2013 in Washington. The Earth Dome housed two of NASA's Science Gallery exhibits as part of a NASA-sponsored Earth Day event at Union Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  12. Space Station medical sciences concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. A. (Editor); Johnson, P. C., Jr. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Current life sciences concepts relating to Space Station are presented including the following: research, extravehicular activity, biobehavioral considerations, medical care, maintenance of dental health, maintaining health through physical conditioning and countermeasures, protection from radiation, atmospheric contamination control, atmospheric composition, noise pollution, food supply and service, clothing and furnishings, and educational program possibilities. Information on the current status of Soviet Space Stations is contained.

  13. 77 FR 16175 - Station Blackout

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... onsite electrical power sources, including the batteries, and the onsite electrical distribution system... turbine trip and unavailability of the onsite emergency ac power system). Station blackout does not include the loss of available ac power to buses fed by station ] batteries through inverters or by...

  14. Reusing Railroad Stations. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    Railroad stations are a unique American resource that should continue to serve public and private interests even though their original purpose may have passed. Large stations should be considered as prominent civic structures whose redevelopment could offer significant opportunities to influence the future character, economy, and operation of…

  15. Computer-Assisted Laboratory Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, William J., Hanyak, Michael E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the advantages and features of computer-assisted laboratory stations for use in a chemical engineering program. Also describes a typical experiment at such a station: determining the response times of a solid state humidity sensor at various humidity conditions and developing an empirical model for the sensor. (JN)

  16. International Space Station Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Propp, Timothy William

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the International Space Station Power Systems. The topics include: 1) The Basics of Power; 2) Space Power Systems Design Constraints; 3) Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems; 4) Energy Storage for Space Power Systems; 5) Challenges of Operating Power Systems in Earth Orbit; 6) and International Space Station Electrical Power System.

  17. Sighting the International Space Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

  18. Computer-Assisted Laboratory Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, William J., Hanyak, Michael E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the advantages and features of computer-assisted laboratory stations for use in a chemical engineering program. Also describes a typical experiment at such a station: determining the response times of a solid state humidity sensor at various humidity conditions and developing an empirical model for the sensor. (JN)

  19. The space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The requirements for electrical power by the proposed Space Station Freedom are discussed. The options currently under consideration are examined. The three power options are photovoltaic, solar dynamic, and a hybrid system. Advantages and disadvantages of each system are tabulated. Drawings and artist concepts of the Space Station configuration are provided.

  20. Sighting the International Space Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…