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Sample records for status causally related

  1. Is socioeconomic status of the rearing environment causally related to obesity in the offspring?

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Kevin R; Robertson, Henry T; Holst, Claus; Desmond, Renee; Stunkard, Albert J; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Allison, David B

    2011-01-01

    We attempt to elucidate whether there might be a causal connection between the socioeconomic status (SES) of the rearing environment and obesity in the offspring using data from two large-scale adoption studies: (1) The Copenhagen Adoption Study of Obesity (CASO), and (2) The Survey of Holt Adoptees and Their Families (HOLT). In CASO, the SES of both biological and adoptive parents was known, but all children were adopted. In HOLT, only the SES of the rearing parents was known, but the children could be either biological or adopted. After controlling for relevant covariates (e.g., adoptee age at measurement, adoptee age at transfer, adoptee sex) the raw (unstandardized) regression coefficients for adoptive and biological paternal SES on adoptee body mass index (BMI: kg/m(2)) in CASO were -.22 and -.23, respectively, both statistically significant (p = 0.01). Controlling for parental BMI (both adoptive and biological) reduced the coefficient for biological paternal SES by 44% (p = .034) and the coefficient for adoptive paternal SES by 1%. For HOLT, the regression coefficients for rearing parent SES were -.42 and -.25 for biological and adoptive children, respectively. Controlling for the average BMI of the rearing father and mother (i.e., mid-parental BMI) reduced the SES coefficient by 47% in their biological offspring (p≤.0001), and by 12% in their adoptive offspring (p = .09). Thus, despite the differing structures of the two adoption studies, both suggest that shared genetic diathesis and direct environmental transmission contribute about equally to the association between rearing SES and offspring BMI. PMID:22110724

  2. Physical constraints on causality-violating spacetimes in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janca, Andrew Joseph

    The theoretical possibility of global causality violation has long been a problem within general relativity, for there exists a large number of model spacetimes known to admit closed time-like curves, trajectories allowing a timelike observer to return to some point in her own past. However, nearly all such known models have some unphysical feature. These physicality issues rendered causality-violation to the status of an interesting but safely theoretical problem until twenty years ago, when the appearance of a new type of causality-violating model spacetime and the subsequent proliferation of new models admitting closed timelike curves forced the attention of the community to the issue, and made causality violation and its possible physical consequences an active area of research within general relativity. This paper focuses on some of the older causality-violating spacetimes which model matter sources with cylindrical symmetry. By describing how cylindrically-symmetric solutions can be embedded within a spatially bounded and physically realistic body which outwardly has the symmetry of a torus or ring, it is shown that the chief problem of physical plausibility which these older solutions possess can be resolved. The intention is to make these models active candidates for consideration in future experiments to test general relativity's prediction that causality violation is a phenomenon that could be observed in the real world. Attending chapters describe physical systems other than rotating objects that can alter a local observer's experience of time to a substantial extent, including an electrically-charged massive shell slowing time in its interior (though not affecting causality) and a class of trajectories in the Reissner-Nordstrom background that could in principle allow a timelike observer to reverse her personal arrow of time relative to other observers in the spacetime as a whole. The paper concludes with a discussion of one of the plausibility problems

  3. Preschoolers' Understanding of Temporal and Causal Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Kay Colby

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments investigated psychological factors determining preschoolers' success or failure on a sequence-completion task involving temporal and causal ordering of events. Overall findings demonstrate that while preschoolers do understand temporal/causal relationships, their abilities are dependent on process variables demanded by the task…

  4. Causal Coherence Relations and Levels of Discourse Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Gerben; Sanders, Ted J. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the cognitive representation of causal coherence relations linguistically marked with the connective "because." This article investigated whether these local causal relations are represented both at the level of the textbase and the situation model. Following earlier studies investigating the psychological validity of levels…

  5. Causal Relations Drive Young Children's Induction, Naming, and Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opfer, John E.; Bulloch, Megan J.

    2007-01-01

    A number of recent models and experiments have suggested that evidence of early category-based induction is an artifact of perceptual cues provided by experimenters. We tested these accounts against the prediction that different relations (causal versus non-causal) determine the types of perceptual similarity by which children generalize. Young…

  6. Causality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearl, Judea

    2000-03-01

    Written by one of the pre-eminent researchers in the field, this book provides a comprehensive exposition of modern analysis of causation. It shows how causality has grown from a nebulous concept into a mathematical theory with significant applications in the fields of statistics, artificial intelligence, philosophy, cognitive science, and the health and social sciences. Pearl presents a unified account of the probabilistic, manipulative, counterfactual and structural approaches to causation, and devises simple mathematical tools for analyzing the relationships between causal connections, statistical associations, actions and observations. The book will open the way for including causal analysis in the standard curriculum of statistics, artifical intelligence, business, epidemiology, social science and economics. Students in these areas will find natural models, simple identification procedures, and precise mathematical definitions of causal concepts that traditional texts have tended to evade or make unduly complicated. This book will be of interest to professionals and students in a wide variety of fields. Anyone who wishes to elucidate meaningful relationships from data, predict effects of actions and policies, assess explanations of reported events, or form theories of causal understanding and causal speech will find this book stimulating and invaluable.

  7. Infertile Individuals’ Marital Relationship Status, Happiness, and Mental Health: A Causal Model

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi Forooshany, Seyed Habiballah; Yazdkhasti, Fariba; Safari Hajataghaie, Saiede; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined the causal model of relation between marital relation- ship status, happiness, and mental health in infertile individuals. Materials and Methods In this descriptive study, 155 subjects (men: 52 and women: 78), who had been visited in one of the infertility Centers, voluntarily participated in a self-evaluation. Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital Status, Oxford Happiness Ques- tionnaire, and General Health Questionnaire were used as instruments of the study. Data was analyzed by SPSS17 and Amos 5 software using descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, and path analysis. Results Disregarding the gender factor, marital relationship status was directly related to happiness (p<0.05) and happiness was directly related to mental health, (p<0.05). Also, indirect relation between marital relationship status and mental health was significant (p<0.05). These results were confirmed in women participants but in men participants only the direct relation between happiness and mental health was significant (p<0.05). Conclusion Based on goodness of model fit in fitness indexes, happiness had a mediator role in relation between marital relationship status and mental health in infertile individu- als disregarding the gender factor. Also, considering the gender factor, only in infertile women, marital relationship status can directly and indirectly affect happiness and mental health. PMID:25379161

  8. The Recovery of Locality for Causal Sets and Related Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daughton, Alan Ronald

    The theory of causal sets is an attempt at a successful quantum theory of gravity. It is widely expected that any theory of quantum gravity should give rise to a discrete structure to spacetime geometry. This supposition rests upon three features of successfully quantized theories. The first is that quantization usually leads to some form of discrete object, or quantum, which is the source of the term "quantization". The second is the need for renormalization of field theories (which is not alleviated by including gravity, using the usual perturbative approach to quantization, as had once been hoped). An ultraviolet cutoff is introduced, which can be imagined to be either the mathematical manifestation of an underlying theory that contains new structures at some scale (for example the "GUT" fields, strings, etc.) or simply the result of the breakdown of the manifold picture at this same scale. Thirdly, quantized fields exhibit the phenomenon of virtual particles of unlimited energies at short length scales. The coupling of gravity to such quantized fields should induce infinite curvatures of the manifold at short scales, thereby dynamically prohibiting a manifold structure. The theory of causal sets begins with a discrete structure. The classical spacetime manifold is expected to emerge as an approximation (in a large grain limit) to the class of causal sets which dominate a sum over causal sets, each causal set being weighted by the exponentiation of an appropriately defined "action functional". In order for this theory to be successful, several questions need to be addressed. Some of these are directed at the relationship between the causal set theory and the geometry of classical spacetime. Other questions are related to the quantization of the causal set theory and inclusion of quantum fields into the theory's framework. This work addresses the relation between causal sets and classical gravity (specifically the issues of embeddability of a certain class of

  9. Causality and Kramers-Kronig relations for waveguides.

    PubMed

    Haakestad, Magnus; Skaar, Johannes

    2005-11-28

    Starting from the condition that optical signals propagate causally, we derive Kramers-Kronig relations for waveguides. For hollow waveguides with perfectly conductive walls, the modes propagate causally and Kramers-Kronig relations between the real and imaginary part of the mode indices exist. For dielectric waveguides, there exists a Kramers-Kronig type relation between the real mode index of a guided mode and the imaginary mode indices associated with the evanescent modes. For weakly guiding waveguides, the Kramers-Kronig relations are particularly simple, as the modal dispersion is determined solely from the profile of the corresponding mode field.

  10. An Analysis of the Ontological Causal Relation in Physics and Its Educational Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Yong Wook

    2016-08-01

    An ontological causal relation is a quantified relation between certain interactions and changes in corresponding properties. Key ideas in physics, such as Newton's second law and the first law of thermodynamics, are representative examples of these relations. In connection with the teaching and learning of these relations, this study investigated three issues: the appropriate view concerning ontological category, the role and status of ontological causal relations, and university students' understanding of the role and status of these relations. Concerning the issue of proper ontology, this study suggests an alternative view that distinguishes between interaction and property at the macroscopic level, in contrast to Chi and colleagues' influential view. Concerning the role and status of the relations, we conclude that fundamental ontological causal relations should be regarded as knowledge at the core of relevant physics theories. However, upon analysis of participants' responses, this study finds that university students' views on the status of the heat capacity relation and Newton's second law are quite different. Several possible educational implications of these results are discussed.

  11. The Special Status of Actions in Causal Reasoning in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leising, Kenneth J.; Wong, Jared; Waldmann, Michael R.; Blaisdell, Aaron P.

    2008-01-01

    A. P. Blaisdell, K. Sawa, K. J. Leising, and M. R. Waldmann (2006) reported evidence for causal reasoning in rats. After learning through Pavlovian observation that Event A (a light) was a common cause of Events X (an auditory stimulus) and F (food), rats predicted F in the test phase when they observed Event X as a cue but not when they generated…

  12. The causal relation between turbulent particle flux and density gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Milligen, B. Ph.; Carreras, B. A.; García, L.; Martín de Aguilera, A.; Hidalgo, C.; Nicolau, J. H.

    2016-07-01

    A technique for detecting the causal relationship between fluctuating signals is used to investigate the relation between flux and gradient in fusion plasmas. Both a resistive pressure gradient driven turbulence model and experimental Langmuir probe data from the TJ-II stellarator are studied. It is found that the maximum influence occurs at a finite time lag (non-instantaneous response) and that quasi-periodicities exist. Furthermore, the model results show very long range radial influences, extending over most of the investigated regions, possibly related to coupling effects associated with plasma self-organization. These results clearly show that transport in fusion plasmas is not local and instantaneous, as is sometimes assumed.

  13. Relative entropy, mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly and causality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Arpan; Cheng, Long; Hung, Ling-Yan

    2016-07-01

    In this note we explored the holographic relative entropy in the presence of the 5d Chern-Simons term, which introduces a mixed gauge-gravity anomaly to the dual CFT. The theory trivially satisfies an entanglement first law. However, to quadratic order in perturbations of the stress tensor T and current density J , there is a mixed contributionto the relative entropy bi-linear in T and J , signalling a potential violation of the positivity of the relative entropy. Miraculously, the term vanishes up to linear order in a derivative expansion. This prompted a closer inspection on a different consistency check, that involves time-delay of a graviton propagating in a charged background, scattered via a coupling supplied by the Chern-Simons term. The analysis suggests that the time-delay can take either sign, potentially violating causality for any finite value of the CS coupling.

  14. When Work is Related to Disease, What Establishes Evidence for a Causal Relation?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Establishing a causal relationship between factors at work and disease is difficult for occupational physicians and researchers. This paper seeks to provide arguments for the judgement of evidence of causality in observational studies that relate work factors to disease. I derived criteria for the judgement of evidence of causality from the following sources: the criteria list of Hill, the approach by Rothman, the methods used by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and methods used by epidemiologists. The criteria are applied to two cases of putative occupational diseases; breast cancer caused by shift work and aerotoxic syndrome. Only three of the Hill criteria can be applied to an actual study. Rothman stresses the importance of confounding and alternative explanations than the putative cause. IARC closely follows Hill, but they also incorporate other than epidemiological evidence. Applied to shift work and breast cancer, these results have found moderate evidence for a causal relationship, but applied to the aerotoxic syndrome, there is an absence of evidence of causality. There are no ready to use algorithms for judgement of evidence of causality. Criteria from different sources lead to similar results and can make a conclusion of causality more or less likely. PMID:22993715

  15. Conceptions of Statistical Relations within the Context of Thinking about Causal Relations. 1984:03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart

    The results concerning conceptions of statistical relations, presented in this report are based on interviews with fourteen nurses and fourteen technicians. The interviews were about a medical and a technical case of a causal relation. The starting point was a statement about the existence of the relation and the subjects were asked what evidence…

  16. The causal relation between human papillomavirus and cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, F X; Lorincz, A; Muñoz, N; Meijer, C J L M; Shah, K V

    2002-01-01

    The causal role of human papillomavirus infections in cervical cancer has been documented beyond reasonable doubt. The association is present in virtually all cervical cancer cases worldwide. It is the right time for medical societies and public health regulators to consider this evidence and to define its preventive and clinical implications. A comprehensive review of key studies and results is presented. PMID:11919208

  17. Human sensitivity to the magnitude and probability of a continuous causal relation in a video game.

    PubMed

    Young, Michael E; Cole, James J

    2012-01-01

    Continuous causation, in which incremental changes in one variable cause incremental changes in another, has received little attention in the causal judgment literature. A video game was adapted for the study of continuous causality in order to examine the novel cues to causality that are present in these paradigms. The spatial proximity of an object to an "enemy detector" produced auditory responses as a function of the object's proximity. Participants' behavior was a function of the range of the effect's auditory sensitivity and the moment-to-moment likelihood of detection. This new paradigm provides a rich platform for examining the cues to causation encountered in the learning of continuous causal relations.

  18. Is there a causal relation between mathematical creativity and mathematical problem-solving performance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Tarun Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between mathematical creativity (MC) and mathematical problem-solving performance (MP) has often been studied but the causal relation between these two constructs has yet to be clearly reported. The main purpose of this study was to define the causal relationship between MC and MP. Data from a representative sample of 480 eighth-grade students were analysed using a cross-lagged panel correlation (CLPC) design. CLPC attempts to rule out plausible alternative explanation of a causal effect. The result suggests that significant predominant causal relationship was found between MC and MP. It indicates that MP was found to be a cause of MC than the converse.

  19. [Historical causality and relative contemporaneity Einsteinian relativity in the historical sciences].

    PubMed

    Bontems, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The construction of historical frame of reference based on the distinction between and articulation of phenomenological and chronological times. As it relativises the notion of simultaneity and inverts its relation to causality, the special theory of relativity can induce analogous modes of reflection on the themes of "contemporaneity" in the history of art (Panofsky) and in epistemology (Bachelard). This "relativist" method, often misunderstood, sheds light on both historical and presentist methods.

  20. [Historical causality and relative contemporaneity Einsteinian relativity in the historical sciences].

    PubMed

    Bontems, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The construction of historical frame of reference based on the distinction between and articulation of phenomenological and chronological times. As it relativises the notion of simultaneity and inverts its relation to causality, the special theory of relativity can induce analogous modes of reflection on the themes of "contemporaneity" in the history of art (Panofsky) and in epistemology (Bachelard). This "relativist" method, often misunderstood, sheds light on both historical and presentist methods. PMID:24871883

  1. Genetic evidence for causal relationships between maternal obesity-related traits and birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C.; Palmer, Tom M.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Rangarajan, Janani; Metrustry, Sarah; Cavadino, Alana; Paternoster, Lavinia; Armstrong, Loren L.; De Silva, N. Maneka G.; Wood, Andrew R.; Horikoshi, Momoko; Geller, Frank; Myhre, Ronny; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Huikari, Ville; Painter, Jodie N.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Allard, Catherine; Berry, Diane J.; Bouchard, Luigi; Das, Shikta; Evans, David M.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Heikkinen, Jani; Hofman, Albert; Knight, Bridget; Lind, Penelope A.; McCarthy, Mark I.; McMahon, George; Medland, Sarah E.; Melbye, Mads; Morris, Andrew P.; Nodzenski, Michael; Reichetzeder, Christoph; Ring, Susan M.; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengpiel, Verena; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Spector, Tim D.; Power, Christine; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Bisgaard, Hans; Grant, Struan F.A.; Nohr, Ellen A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.; Jacobsson, Bo; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Hocher, Berthold; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Scholtens, Denise M.; Smith, George Davey; Hivert, Marie-France; Felix, Janine F.; Hyppönen, Elina; Lowe, William L.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Freathy, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Structured abstract Importance Neonates born to overweight/obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. Objective To test for genetic evidence of causal associations of maternal body mass index (BMI) and related traits with birth weight. Design, Setting and Participants We used Mendelian randomization to test whether maternal BMI and obesity-related traits are causally related to offspring birth weight. Mendelian randomization makes use of the fact that genotypes are randomly determined at conception and are thus not confounded by non-genetic factors. Data were analysed on 30,487 women from 18 studies. Participants were of European ancestry from population- or community-based studies located in Europe, North America or Australia and participating in the Early Growth Genetics (EGG) Consortium. Live, term, singleton offspring born between 1929 and 2013 were included. We tested associations between a genetic score of 30 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and (i) maternal BMI and (ii) birth weight, to estimate the causal relationship between BMI and birth weight. Analyses were repeated for other obesity-related traits. Exposures Genetic scores for BMI, fasting glucose level, type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglyceride level, HDL-cholesterol level, vitamin D status and adiponectin level. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) Offspring birth weight measured by trained study personnel (n=2 studies), from medical records (n= 10 studies) or from maternal report (n=6 studies). Results Among the 30,487 newborns the mean birth weight in the various cohorts ranged from 3325 g to 3679 g. The genetic score for BMI was associated with a 2g (95%CI: 0, 3g) higher offspring birth weight per maternal BMI-raising allele (P=0.008). The maternal genetic scores for fasting glucose and SBP were

  2. Intolerance of uncertainty, causal uncertainty, causal importance, self-concept clarity and their relations to generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Kusec, Andrea; Tallon, Kathleen; Koerner, Naomi

    2016-06-01

    Although numerous studies have provided support for the notion that intolerance of uncertainty plays a key role in pathological worry (the hallmark feature of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)), other uncertainty-related constructs may also have relevance for the understanding of individuals who engage in pathological worry. Three constructs from the social cognition literature, causal uncertainty, causal importance, and self-concept clarity, were examined in the present study to assess the degree to which these explain unique variance in GAD, over and above intolerance of uncertainty. N = 235 participants completed self-report measures of trait worry, GAD symptoms, and uncertainty-relevant constructs. A subgroup was subsequently classified as low in GAD symptoms (n = 69) or high in GAD symptoms (n = 54) based on validated cut scores on measures of trait worry and GAD symptoms. In logistic regressions, only elevated intolerance of uncertainty and lower self-concept clarity emerged as unique correlates of high (vs. low) GAD symptoms. The possible role of self-concept uncertainty in GAD and the utility of integrating social cognition theories and constructs into clinical research on intolerance of uncertainty are discussed. PMID:27113431

  3. Intolerance of uncertainty, causal uncertainty, causal importance, self-concept clarity and their relations to generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Kusec, Andrea; Tallon, Kathleen; Koerner, Naomi

    2016-06-01

    Although numerous studies have provided support for the notion that intolerance of uncertainty plays a key role in pathological worry (the hallmark feature of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)), other uncertainty-related constructs may also have relevance for the understanding of individuals who engage in pathological worry. Three constructs from the social cognition literature, causal uncertainty, causal importance, and self-concept clarity, were examined in the present study to assess the degree to which these explain unique variance in GAD, over and above intolerance of uncertainty. N = 235 participants completed self-report measures of trait worry, GAD symptoms, and uncertainty-relevant constructs. A subgroup was subsequently classified as low in GAD symptoms (n = 69) or high in GAD symptoms (n = 54) based on validated cut scores on measures of trait worry and GAD symptoms. In logistic regressions, only elevated intolerance of uncertainty and lower self-concept clarity emerged as unique correlates of high (vs. low) GAD symptoms. The possible role of self-concept uncertainty in GAD and the utility of integrating social cognition theories and constructs into clinical research on intolerance of uncertainty are discussed.

  4. Making sense of (exceptional) causal relations. A cross-cultural and cross-linguistic study

    PubMed Central

    Le Guen, Olivier; Samland, Jana; Friedrich, Thomas; Hanus, Daniel; Brown, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    In order to make sense of the world, humans tend to see causation almost everywhere. Although most causal relations may seem straightforward, they are not always construed in the same way cross-culturally. In this study, we investigate concepts of “chance,” “coincidence,” or “randomness” that refer to assumed relations between intention, action, and outcome in situations, and we ask how people from different cultures make sense of such non-law-like connections. Based on a framework proposed by Alicke (2000), we administered a task that aims to be a neutral tool for investigating causal construals cross-culturally and cross-linguistically. Members of four different cultural groups, rural Mayan Yucatec and Tseltal speakers from Mexico and urban students from Mexico and Germany, were presented with a set of scenarios involving various types of causal and non-causal relations and were asked to explain the described events. Three links varied as to whether they were present or not in the scenarios: Intention-to-Action, Action-to-Outcome, and Intention-to-Outcome. Our results show that causality is recognized in all four cultural groups. However, how causality and especially non-law-like relations are interpreted depends on the type of links, the cultural background and the language used. In all three groups, Action-to-Outcome is the decisive link for recognizing causality. Despite the fact that the two Mayan groups share similar cultural backgrounds, they display different ideologies regarding concepts of non-law-like relations. The data suggests that the concept of “chance” is not universal, but seems to be an explanation that only some cultural groups draw on to make sense of specific situations. Of particular importance is the existence of linguistic concepts in each language that trigger ideas of causality in the responses from each cultural group. PMID:26579028

  5. Is preschool executive function causally related to academic achievement?

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Michael T; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Voegler-Lee, Mary E

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to reevaluate the well-established result that preschoolers' performance on executive function tasks are positively associated with their performance on academic achievement tests. The current study replicated the previously established concurrent associations between children's performance on EF tasks and academic achievement tests. Specifically, children's performance on measures of inhibitory and motor control were positively associated with their performance on tests of reading, writing, and mathematics achievement (rs = .2-.5); moreover, although diminished in magnitude, most of these associations held up even after including an earlier measure of academic achievement as a covariate (rs = .1-.3). However, the application of an alternative analytic method, fixed effects analysis, a method that capitalizes on repeated measures data to control for all time stable measured and unmeasured covariates, rendered the apparent positive associations between executive function and academic achievement nonsignificant (rs = .0-.1). Taken together, these results suggest that the well-replicated association between executive function abilities and academic achievement may be spurious. Results are discussed with respect to the importance of utilizing analytic methods and research designs that facilitate strong causal inferences between executive function and academic achievement in early childhood, as well as the limitations of making curriculum development recommendations and/or public policy decisions based on studies that have failed to do so. PMID:21707258

  6. Causal effects of socioeconomic status on central adiposity risks: Evidence using panel data from urban Mexico.

    PubMed

    Levasseur, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Associated with overweight, obesity and chronic diseases, the nutrition transition process reveals important socioeconomic issues in Mexico. Using panel data from the Mexican Family Life Survey, the purpose of the study is to estimate the causal effect of household socioeconomic status (SES) on nutritional outcomes among urban adults. We divide the analysis into two steps. First, using a mixed clustering procedure, we distinguish four socioeconomic classes based on income, educational and occupational dimensions: (i) a poor class; (ii) a lower-middle class; (iii) an upper-middle class; (iv) a rich class. Second, using an econometric framework adapted to our study (the Hausman-Taylor estimator), we measure the impact of belonging to these socioeconomic groups on individual anthropometric indicators, based on the body-mass index (BMI) and the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Our results make several contributions: (i) we show that a new middle class, rising out of poverty, is the most exposed to the risks of adiposity; (ii) as individuals from the upper class seem to be fatter than individuals from the upper-middle class, we can reject the assumption of an inverted U-shaped relationship between socioeconomic and anthropometric status as commonly suggested in emerging economies; (iii) the influence of SES on central adiposity appears to be particularly strong for men.

  7. An Analysis of the Ontological Causal Relation in Physics and Its Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheong, Yong Wook

    2016-01-01

    An ontological causal relation is a quantified relation between certain interactions and changes in corresponding properties. Key ideas in physics, such as Newton's second law and the first law of thermodynamics, are representative examples of these relations. In connection with the teaching and learning of these relations, this study investigated…

  8. Perceived Causal Relations: Novel Methodology for Assessing Client Attributions about Causal Associations between Variables Including Symptoms and Functional Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frewen, Paul A.; Allen, Samantha L.; Lanius, Ruth A.; Neufeld, Richard W. J.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have argued that the investigation of causal interrelationships between symptoms may help explain the high comorbidity rate between certain psychiatric disorders. Clients' own attributions concerning the causal interrelationships linking the co-occurrence of their symptoms represent data that may inform their clinical case…

  9. Effects of Increased Psychiatric Treatment Contact and Acculturation on the Causal Beliefs of Chinese Immigrant Relatives of Individuals with Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Graciete; Tu, Ming; Wu, Olivia; Anglin, Deidre; Saw, Anne; Chen, Fang-pei

    2016-01-01

    Encounters with Western psychiatric treatment and acculturation may influence causal beliefs of psychiatric illness endorsed by Chinese immigrant relatives, thus affecting help-seeking. We examined causal beliefs held by forty-six Chinese immigrant relatives and found that greater acculturation was associated with an increased number of causal beliefs. Further, as Western psychiatric treatment and acculturation increased, causal models expanded to incorporate biological/physical causes. However, frequency of Chinese immigrant relatives' endorsing spiritual beliefs did not appear to change with acculturation. Clinicians might thus account for spiritual beliefs in treatment even after acculturation increases and biological causal models proliferate. PMID:27127454

  10. Is there a relation between the 2D Causal Set action and the Lorentzian Gauss-Bonnet theorem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the relation between the two dimensional Causal Set action, Script S, and the Lorentzian Gauss-Bonnet theorem (LGBT). We give compelling reasons why the answer to the title's question is no. In support of this point of view we calculate the causal set inspired action of causal intervals in some two dimensional spacetimes: Minkowski, the flat cylinder and the flat trousers.

  11. Causal Inference Based on the Analysis of Events of Relations for Non-stationary Variables.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yu; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    The main concept behind causality involves both statistical conditions and temporal relations. However, current approaches to causal inference, focusing on the probability vs. conditional probability contrast, are based on model functions or parametric estimation. These approaches are not appropriate when addressing non-stationary variables. In this work, we propose a causal inference approach based on the analysis of Events of Relations (CER). CER focuses on the temporal delay relation between cause and effect, and a binomial test is established to determine whether an "event of relation" with a non-zero delay is significantly different from one with zero delay. Because CER avoids parameter estimation of non-stationary variables per se, the method can be applied to both stationary and non-stationary signals. PMID:27389921

  12. Causal Inference Based on the Analysis of Events of Relations for Non-stationary Variables

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yu; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    The main concept behind causality involves both statistical conditions and temporal relations. However, current approaches to causal inference, focusing on the probability vs. conditional probability contrast, are based on model functions or parametric estimation. These approaches are not appropriate when addressing non-stationary variables. In this work, we propose a causal inference approach based on the analysis of Events of Relations (CER). CER focuses on the temporal delay relation between cause and effect, and a binomial test is established to determine whether an “event of relation” with a non-zero delay is significantly different from one with zero delay. Because CER avoids parameter estimation of non-stationary variables per se, the method can be applied to both stationary and non-stationary signals. PMID:27389921

  13. How Hypertext Reading Sequences Affect Understanding of Causal and Temporal Relations in Story Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urakami, Jacqueline; Krems, Josef F.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the comprehension of global causal and temporal relations between events that are represented in single hypertext documents. In two experiments we examined how reading sequences of hypertext nodes affects the establishment of event relations and how this process can be supported by advanced organizers that…

  14. Perceived causal relations between anxiety, posttraumatic stress and depression: extension to moderation, mediation, and network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Frewen, Paul A.; Schmittmann, Verena D.; Bringmann, Laura F.; Borsboom, Denny

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research demonstrates that posttraumatic memory reexperiencing, depression, anxiety, and guilt-shame are frequently co-occurring problems that may be causally related. Objectives The present study utilized Perceived Causal Relations (PCR) scaling in order to assess participants’ own attributions concerning whether and to what degree these co-occurring problems may be causally interrelated. Methods 288 young adults rated the frequency and respective PCR scores associating their symptoms of posttraumatic reexperiencing, depression, anxiety, and guilt-shame. Results PCR scores were found to moderate associations between the frequency of posttraumatic memory reexperiencing, depression, anxiety, and guilt-shame. Network analyses showed that the number of feedback loops between PCR scores was positively associated with symptom frequencies. Conclusion Results tentatively support the interpretation of PCR scores as moderators of the association between different psychological problems, and lend support to the hypothesis that increased symptom frequencies are observed in the presence of an increased number of causal feedback loops between symptoms. Additionally, a perceived causal role for the reexperiencing of traumatic memories in exacerbating emotional disturbance was identified. PMID:24003362

  15. Semi-supervised learning of causal relations in biomedical scientific discourse

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing number of daily published articles in the biomedical domain has become too large for humans to handle on their own. As a result, bio-text mining technologies have been developed to improve their workload by automatically analysing the text and extracting important knowledge. Specific bio-entities, bio-events between these and facts can now be recognised with sufficient accuracy and are widely used by biomedical researchers. However, understanding how the extracted facts are connected in text is an extremely difficult task, which cannot be easily tackled by machinery. Results In this article, we describe our method to recognise causal triggers and their arguments in biomedical scientific discourse. We introduce new features and show that a self-learning approach improves the performance obtained by supervised machine learners to 83.47% for causal triggers. Furthermore, the spans of causal arguments can be recognised to a slightly higher level that by using supervised or rule-based methods that have been employed before. Conclusion Exploiting the large amount of unlabelled data that is already available can help improve the performance of recognising causal discourse relations in the biomedical domain. This improvement will further benefit the development of multiple tasks, such as hypothesis generation for experimental laboratories, contradiction detection, and the creation of causal networks. PMID:25559746

  16. Causal estimation of neural and overall baroreflex sensitivity in relation to carotid artery stiffness.

    PubMed

    Lipponen, Jukka A; Tarvainen, Mika P; Laitinen, Tomi; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Vanninen, Joonas; Koponen, Timo; Laitinen, Tiina M

    2013-12-01

    Continuous electrocardiogram, blood pressure and carotid artery ultrasound video were analyzed from 15 diabetics and 28 healthy controls. By using these measurements artery elasticity, overall baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) assessed between RR and systolic blood pressure variation, and neural BRS assessed between RR and artery diameter variation were estimated. In addition, BRS was estimated using traditional and causal methods which enable separation of feedforward and feedback variation. The aim of this study was to analyze overall and neural BRS in relation to artery stiffness and to validate the causal BRS estimation method in assessing these two types of BRS within the study population. The most significant difference between the healthy and diabetic groups (p < 0.0007) was found for the overall BRS estimated using the causal method. The difference between the groups was also significant for neural BRS (p < 0.0018). However neural BRS was normal in some old diabetics, which indicates normal functioning of autonomic nervous system (ANS), even though the elasticity in arteries of these subjects was reduced. The noncausal method overestimated neural BRS in low BRS values when compared to causal BRS. In conclusion, neural BRS estimated using the causal method is proposed as the best marker of ANS functioning. PMID:24168896

  17. Causal and causally separable processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreshkov, Ognyan; Giarmatzi, Christina

    2016-09-01

    The idea that events are equipped with a partial causal order is central to our understanding of physics in the tested regimes: given two pointlike events A and B, either A is in the causal past of B, B is in the causal past of A, or A and B are space-like separated. Operationally, the meaning of these order relations corresponds to constraints on the possible correlations between experiments performed in the vicinities of the respective events: if A is in the causal past of B, an experimenter at A could signal to an experimenter at B but not the other way around, while if A and B are space-like separated, no signaling is possible in either direction. In the context of a concrete physical theory, the correlations compatible with a given causal configuration may obey further constraints. For instance, space-like correlations in quantum mechanics arise from local measurements on joint quantum states, while time-like correlations are established via quantum channels. Similarly to other variables, however, the causal order of a set of events could be random, and little is understood about the constraints that causality implies in this case. A main difficulty concerns the fact that the order of events can now generally depend on the operations performed at the locations of these events, since, for instance, an operation at A could influence the order in which B and C occur in A’s future. So far, no formal theory of causality compatible with such dynamical causal order has been developed. Apart from being of fundamental interest in the context of inferring causal relations, such a theory is imperative for understanding recent suggestions that the causal order of events in quantum mechanics can be indefinite. Here, we develop such a theory in the general multipartite case. Starting from a background-independent definition of causality, we derive an iteratively formulated canonical decomposition of multipartite causal correlations. For a fixed number of settings and

  18. Decision-related activity in sensory neurons reflects more than a neuron's causal effect.

    PubMed

    Nienborg, Hendrikje; Cumming, Bruce G

    2009-05-01

    During perceptual decisions, the activity of sensory neurons correlates with a subject's percept, even when the physical stimulus is identical. The origin of this correlation is unknown. Current theory proposes a causal effect of noise in sensory neurons on perceptual decisions, but the correlation could result from different brain states associated with the perceptual choice (a top-down explanation). These two schemes have very different implications for the role of sensory neurons in forming decisions. Here we use white-noise analysis to measure tuning functions of V2 neurons associated with choice and simultaneously measure how the variation in the stimulus affects the subjects' (two macaques) perceptual decisions. In causal models, stronger effects of the stimulus upon decisions, mediated by sensory neurons, are associated with stronger choice-related activity. However, we find that over the time course of the trial these measures change in different directions-at odds with causal models. An analysis of the effect of reward size also supports this conclusion. Finally, we find that choice is associated with changes in neuronal gain that are incompatible with causal models. All three results are readily explained if choice is associated with changes in neuronal gain caused by top-down phenomena that closely resemble attention. We conclude that top-down processes contribute to choice-related activity. Thus, even forming simple sensory decisions involves complex interactions between cognitive processes and sensory neurons.

  19. On the neglect of causality principles in solar activity - climate relations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Many research papers have claimed to demonstrate close relations between solar activity and the terrestrial climate. In most cases the relations have been based on comparisons between time series of solar activity parameters, for instance sunspot numbers, and climate parameters, for instance terrestrial temperatures. However, many of the reported close relations are based on skilfully manipulated data and neglect of basic causality principles. For cause-effect relations to be reliably established, the cause must obviously happen prior to the effects. Thus it is problematic to use, for instance, running averages of parameters if the result depends too much on posterior elements of the causative time series or precursory elements of the effects. Even more neglected are the causality principles for cause-effect relations with a strongly varying source function. Damping of source variations by smoothing data handling introduces additional implied delays, which should be considered in the judgement of apparent correlations between processed time series of cause and effect parameters. The presentation will discuss examples of frequently quoted solar activity-climate relations (e.g., by Reid, Friis-Christensen, and Svensmark), which violate basic causality principles.

  20. The Processing of Causal and Hierarchical Relations in Semantic Memory as Revealed by N400 and Frontal Negativity.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiuling; Chen, Qingfei; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Most current studies investigating semantic memory have focused on associative (ring-emerald) or taxonomic relations (bird-sparrow). Little is known about the question of how causal relations (virus-epidemic) are stored and accessed in semantic memory. The goal of this study was to examine the processing of causally related, general associatively related and hierarchically related word pairs when participants were required to evaluate whether pairs of words were related in any way. The ERP data showed that the N400 amplitude (200-500 ms) elicited by unrelated related words was more negative than all related words. Furthermore, the late frontal distributed negativity (500-700 ms) elicited by causally related words was smaller than hierarchically related words, but not for general associated words. These results suggested the processing of causal relations and hierarchical relations in semantic memory recruited different degrees of cognitive resources, especially for role binding. PMID:26148338

  1. Bayesian modeling for linking causally related observations in chest X-ray reports.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, W. W.; Haug, P. J.

    1998-01-01

    Our natural language understanding system outputs a list of diseases, findings, and appliances found in a chest x-ray report. The system described in this paper links those diseases and findings that are causally related. Using Bayesian networks to model the conceptual and diagnostic information found in a chest x-ray we are able to infer more specific information about the findings that are linked to diseases. PMID:9929287

  2. Genetic causal attributions for weight status and weight loss during a behavioral weight gain prevention intervention

    PubMed Central

    McVay, Megan A.; Steinberg, Dori M.; Askew, Sandy; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Bennett, Gary G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Emerging evidence suggests that attributing one’s weight to genetics may contribute to the adoption of obesogenic behaviors. We examined if weight-related genetic attributions were associated with weight change during a weight gain prevention intervention. Methods Participants (n=185) were from a randomized clinical trial of a digital health weight gain prevention intervention for Black women age 25–44 with BMI 25.0–34.9kg/m2. Weight-related genetic attributions (weight status attribution and weight loss attributions) were measured at baseline and 12 months. Results Among intervention participants, high genetic attribution for weight loss was associated with greater weight loss at 12 months (−2.7 kg vs 0.5 kg) and 18 months (−3.0 kg vs 0.9 kg). Among usual care participants, high genetic attribution for weight status was associated with greater 18-month weight gain (2.9 kg vs 0.3 kg). The intervention reduced likelihood of high genetic attribution for weight loss at 12 months (p=0.05). Change in likelihood of genetic attribution was not associated with weight change over 12 months. Conclusion Impact of genetic attributions on weight differs for those enrolled and not enrolled in an intervention. However, weight gain prevention intervention may reduce genetic attribution for weight loss. PMID:26291598

  3. Causal reasoning with forces

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Phillip; Barbey, Aron K.

    2015-01-01

    Causal composition allows people to generate new causal relations by combining existing causal knowledge. We introduce a new computational model of such reasoning, the force theory, which holds that people compose causal relations by simulating the processes that join forces in the world, and compare this theory with the mental model theory (Khemlani et al., 2014) and the causal model theory (Sloman et al., 2009), which explain causal composition on the basis of mental models and structural equations, respectively. In one experiment, the force theory was uniquely able to account for people's ability to compose causal relationships from complex animations of real-world events. In three additional experiments, the force theory did as well as or better than the other two theories in explaining the causal compositions people generated from linguistically presented causal relations. Implications for causal learning and the hierarchical structure of causal knowledge are discussed. PMID:25653611

  4. Sex differences in the inference and perception of causal relations within a video game

    PubMed Central

    Young, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    The learning of immediate causation within a dynamic environment was examined. Participants encountered seven decision points in which they needed to choose, which of three possible candidates was the cause of explosions in the environment. Each candidate was firing a weapon at random every few seconds, but only one of them produced an immediate effect. Some participants showed little learning, but most demonstrated increases in accuracy across time. On average, men showed higher accuracy and shorter latencies that were not explained by differences in self-reported prior video game experience. This result suggests that prior reports of sex differences in causal choice in the game are not specific to situations involving delayed or probabilistic causal relations. PMID:25202293

  5. On the violation of causal, emotional, and locative inferences: An event-related potentials study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Pablo; Sánchez-Carmona, Alberto; Smith, Cybelle; Pozo, Miguel A; Hinojosa, José A; Moreno, Eva M

    2016-07-01

    Previous event-related potential studies have demonstrated the online generation of inferences during reading for comprehension tasks. The present study contrasted the brainwave patterns of activity to the fulfilment or violation of various types of inferences (causal, emotional, locative). Relative to inference congruent sentence endings, a typical centro-parietal N400 was elicited for the violation of causal and locative inferences. This N400 effect was initially absent for emotional inferences, most likely due to their lower cloze probability. Between 500 and 750ms, a larger frontal positivity (pN400FP) was elicited by inference incongruent sentence endings in the causal condition. In emotional sentences, both inference congruent and incongruent endings exerted this frontally distributed late positivity. For the violation of locative inferences, the larger positivity was only marginally significant over left posterior scalp locations. Thus, not all inference eliciting sentences evoked a similar pattern of ERP responses. We interpret and discuss our results in line with recent views on what the N400, the P600 and the pN400FP brainwave potentials index.

  6. Causal Beliefs and Effects upon Mental Illness Identification Among Chinese Immigrant Relatives of Individuals with Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lawrence H; Wonpat-Borja, Ahtoy J

    2012-08-01

    Identifying factors that facilitate treatment for psychotic disorders among Chinese-immigrants is crucial due to delayed treatment use. Identifying causal beliefs held by relatives that might predict identification of 'mental illness' as opposed to other 'indigenous labels' may promote more effective mental health service use. We examine what effects beliefs of 'physical causes' and other non-biomedical causal beliefs ('general social causes', and 'indigenous Chinese beliefs' or culture-specific epistemologies of illness) might have on mental illness identification. Forty-nine relatives of Chinese-immigrant consumers with psychosis were sampled. Higher endorsement of 'physical causes' was associated with mental illness labeling. However among the non-biomedical causal beliefs, 'general social causes' demonstrated no relationship with mental illness identification, while endorsement of 'indigenous Chinese beliefs' showed a negative relationship. Effective treatment- and community-based psychoeducation, in addition to emphasizing biomedical models, might integrate indigenous Chinese epistemologies of illness to facilitate rapid identification of psychotic disorders and promote treatment use.

  7. Tropical convective onset statistics and establishing causality in the water vapor-precipitation relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelin, J. D.; Kuo, Y. H.; Schiro, K. A.; Langenbrunner, B.; Mechoso, C. R.; Sahany, S.; Bernstein, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    Previous work by various authors has pointed to the role of humidity in the lower free troposphere in affecting the onset of deep convection in the tropics. Empirical relations between column water vapor and the onset of precipitation have been inferred to be related to this. Evidence includes deep-convective conditional instability calculations for entraining plumes, in which the lower free-tropospheric environment affects the onset of deep convection due to the impact on buoyancy of turbulent entrainment of dry versus moist air. Tropical Western Pacific in situ observations, and tropical ocean basin satellite retrievals in comparison to climate model diagnostics each indicate that substantial entrainment is required to explain the observed relationship. In situ observations from the GoAmazon field campaign confirm that the basic relationship holds over tropical land much as it does over tropical ocean (although with greater additional sensitivity to boundary layer variations and to freezing processes). The relationship between deep convection and water vapor is, however, a two-way street, with convection moistening the free troposphere. One might thus argue that there has not yet been a smoking gun in terms of establishing the causality of the precipitation-water vapor relationship. Parameter perturbation experiments in the coupled Community Earth System Model show that when the deep convective scheme has low values of entrainment, the set of statistics associated with the transition to deep convection are radically altered, and the observed pickup of precipitation with column water vapor is no longer seen. In addition to cementing the dominant direction of causality in the fast timescale precipitation-column water vapor relationship, the results point to impacts of this mechanism on the climatology. Because at low entrainment the convection can fire before the lower troposphere is moistened, the climatology of water vapor remains lower than observed. These

  8. Intervention research, theoretical mechanisms, and causal processes related to externalizing behavior patterns.

    PubMed

    Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2002-01-01

    Intervention research with children and adolescents has suffered from a dearth of relevant theoretical grounding and from the lack of a reciprocal "feedback" mechanism by which clinical trials can inform relevant theorizing and conceptualization. There are hopeful signs, however, of increasing confluence between clinical efforts and theoretical models. Indeed, the key issue I discuss is how intervention studies can yield information about developmental and clinical theory as well as mechanisms related to psychopathology. Specific research examples in the field, particularly those emanating from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (MTA study), reveal that probes of moderator and mediator variables can clearly enhance our knowledge of relevant processes and mechanisms. In fact, recent MTA findings have relevance for models of genetic and epigenetic influence on symptomatology related to attentional deficits and hyperactivity. It would be overzealous, however, to make premature claims regarding etiologic variables from intervention research, as treatment studies typically address variables that are causally far "downstream" from primary causal factors and most clinical trials have statistical power that is barely sufficient for main outcome questions, much less mediational linkages. Overall, the field has severely underutilized experimental intervention research to subserve the dual ends of improving the lives of youth and advancing theoretical conceptualization regarding development and psychopathology.

  9. Great apes and children infer causal relations from patterns of variation and covariation.

    PubMed

    Völter, Christoph J; Sentís, Inés; Call, Josep

    2016-10-01

    We investigated whether nonhuman great apes (N=23), 2.5-year-old (N=20), and 3-year-old children (N=40) infer causal relations from patterns of variation and covariation by adapting the blicket detector paradigm for apes. We presented chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (Pan paniscus), orangutans (Pongo abelii), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and children (Homo sapiens) with a novel reward dispenser, the blicket detector. The detector was activated by inserting specific (yet randomly determined) objects, the so-called blickets. Once activated a reward was released, accompanied by lights and a short tone. Participants were shown different patterns of variation and covariation between two different objects and the activation of the detector. When subsequently choosing between one of the two objects to activate the detector on their own all species, except gorillas (who failed the training), took these patterns of correlation into account. In particular, apes and 2.5-year-old children ignored objects whose effect on the detector completely depended on the presence of another object. Follow-up experiments explored whether the apes and children were also able to re-evaluate evidence retrospectively. Only children (3-year-olds in particular) were able to make such retrospective inferences about causal structures from observing the effects of the experimenter's actions. Apes succeeded here only when they observed the effects of their own interventions. Together, this study provides evidence that apes, like young children, accurately infer causal structures from patterns of (co)variation and that they use this information to inform their own interventions. PMID:27343481

  10. Nonultralocality and causality in the relational framework of canonical quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vegvar, P. G. N.

    2016-05-01

    The relational framework of canonical quantum gravity with nonultralocal constraints is explored. After demonstrating the absence of anomalies, a spatially discretized version of the relational framework is introduced. This allows the application of Lieb-Robinson bounds to on-shell monotonic gauge flow when there is a continuous external "time" parameter. An explicit Lieb-Robinson bound is derived for the differential on-shell evolution of the operator norm of the commutator of discretized Dirac observables, demonstrating how a local light conelike causal structure emerges. Ultralocal constraints do not permit such a structure to arise via Lieb-Robinson bounds. Gauge and (3 +1 )-diffeomorphism invariance of the light cone is discussed along with the issues of quantum fluctuations, the nature of the nonlocalities, the spatial continuum limit, and the possible links to noncommutative geometry.

  11. Tumor intracellular redox status and drug resistance--serendipity or a causal relationship?

    PubMed

    Pervaiz, Shazib; Clement, Marie-Veronique

    2004-01-01

    Reducing tumor load by therapeutic induction of cell death in the transformed phenotype is the desirable goal of most chemotherapeutic regimens. Despite the tremendous strides made in our understanding of mechanisms that endow tumor cells with the ability to evade execution signals, development of chemo-resistance is still a major obstacle in the successful management of the disease. A host of factors have been implicated in the acquisition of the resistant phenotype, such as activation of drug efflux pumps, overexpression of proteins that inhibit cell death, absence of critical members of the death circuitry, and selective loss of cell cycle checkpoints. Consequently, it is now well established that the process of carcinogenesis is not only a result of an increase in cells' proliferative capacity, but a product of increased proliferation and defective or diminished cell death signaling. To that end, one of the critical determinants of cellular response to exogenous stimuli is the cellular redox status. Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is tightly regulated by the intrinsic anti-oxidant defense systems. Despite the conventional dogma that ROS are harmful to the cell, experimental evidence over the last decade or so bear witness to the fact that ROS also play an important role as signaling molecules in diverse physiological processes. Indeed, low levels of intracellular ROS have been linked to cellular proliferation and cell cycle progression, which provides an explanation for the pro-oxidant state invariably associated with the transformed phenotype. Coupled to that are recent observations implicating pro-oxidant intracellular milieu in tumor cells' resistance to cell death signals delivered through the cell surface receptor or upon exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs. These studies provide convincing evidence to support a direct or indirect role for intracellular superoxide anion in creating an intracellular milieu non-permissive for cell

  12. The influence of status on satisfaction with relative rewards

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Konstanze; von Essen, Emma; Fliessbach, Klaus; Falk, Armin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how induced relative status affects satisfaction with different relative payoffs. We find that participants with lower status are more satisfied with disadvantageous payoff inequalities than equal or higher status participants. In contrast, when receiving an advantageous payoff, status does not affect satisfaction. Our findings suggest that relative social status has important implications for the acceptance of income inequalities. PMID:24198802

  13. Negative emotions and coronary heart disease: causally related or merely coexistent? A review.

    PubMed

    Smith, D F

    2001-02-01

    Negative emotions have been claimed to be a cause of coronary heart disease (CHD) as well as a consequence of cardiovascular disorders. Early case studies of cardiac disorders of soldiers in battle drew attention to the possibility that strong negative emotional states could cause CHD. Subsequent reports of reactions to natural disasters supported the notion that intense negative emotions could precipitate somatic disorders such as CHD. Since then, numerous studies have investigated relations between negative emotions and CHD. Over the years, retrospective studies have found, for example, that negative emotions are often present before the occurrence of CHD. Cross-sectional studies have indicated that symptoms of depression and anxiety are often present in CHD patients. Prospective studies have shown that the likelihood of CHD tends to be higher for people with negative emotions than for those without them. The main symptoms of negative emotional states that seem to be most closely associated with CHD are nervousness, getting easily upset, feeling fatigue, being indecisive, having sleep disturbances, being usually worried about something, and feeling that others would be better off if oneself were dead. Although the findings appear to support the notion of causal connections between negative emotions and CHD, they fail to provide conclusive proof of such relations. An alternative explanation that could also account for the findings is simply that negative emotions and CHD often coexist.

  14. A causal relation between bioluminescence and oxygen to quantify the cell niche.

    PubMed

    Lambrechts, Dennis; Roeffaers, Maarten; Goossens, Karel; Hofkens, Johan; Vande Velde, Greetje; Van de Putte, Tom; Schrooten, Jan; Van Oosterwyck, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Bioluminescence imaging assays have become a widely integrated technique to quantify effectiveness of cell-based therapies by monitoring fate and survival of transplanted cells. To date these assays are still largely qualitative and often erroneous due to the complexity and dynamics of local micro-environments (niches) in which the cells reside. Here, we report, using a combined experimental and computational approach, on oxygen that besides being a critical niche component responsible for cellular energy metabolism and cell-fate commitment, also serves a primary role in regulating bioluminescent light kinetics. We demonstrate the potential of an oxygen dependent Michaelis-Menten relation in quantifying intrinsic bioluminescence intensities by resolving cell-associated oxygen gradients from bioluminescent light that is emitted from three-dimensional (3D) cell-seeded hydrogels. Furthermore, the experimental and computational data indicate a strong causal relation of oxygen concentration with emitted bioluminescence intensities. Altogether our approach demonstrates the importance of oxygen to evolve towards quantitative bioluminescence and holds great potential for future microscale measurement of oxygen tension in an easily accessible manner. PMID:24840204

  15. Causal Judgments of Positive Mood in Relation to Self-Regulation: A Case Study with Flemish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human-Vogel, Salome; van Petegem, Peter

    2008-01-01

    To examine students' causal judgements of positive mood in relation to self-regulation, 128 participants from two different schools representing two distinct educational environments (Technical/Vocational School (TSO/BSO): N = 63; General Secondary School (ASO): N = 65) were asked to judge 45 statements containing three possible relationships (A…

  16. Causal Factors and Adverse Events of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.

    2011-01-01

    Causal factors in aviation accidents and incidents related to system/component failure/malfunction (SCFM) were examined for Federal Aviation Regulation Parts 121 and 135 operations to establish future requirements for the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. Data analyzed includes National Transportation Safety Board (NSTB) accident data (1988 to 2003), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident data (1988 to 2003), and Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident data (1993 to 2008). Failure modes and effects analyses were examined to identify possible modes of SCFM. A table of potential adverse conditions was developed to help evaluate IVHM research technologies. Tables present details of specific SCFM for the incidents and accidents. Of the 370 NTSB accidents affected by SCFM, 48 percent involved the engine or fuel system, and 31 percent involved landing gear or hydraulic failure and malfunctions. A total of 35 percent of all SCFM accidents were caused by improper maintenance. Of the 7732 FAA database incidents affected by SCFM, 33 percent involved landing gear or hydraulics, and 33 percent involved the engine and fuel system. The most frequent SCFM found in ASRS were turbine engine, pressurization system, hydraulic main system, flight management system/flight management computer, and engine. Because the IVHM Project does not address maintenance issues, and landing gear and hydraulic systems accidents are usually not fatal, the focus of research should be those SCFMs that occur in the engine/fuel and flight control/structures systems as well as power systems.

  17. Device-independent test of causal order and relations to fixed-points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumeler, Ämin; Wolf, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Bell non-local correlations cannot be naturally explained in a fixed causal structure. This serves as a motivation for considering models where no global assumption is made beyond logical consistency. The assumption of a fixed causal order between a set of parties, together with free randomness, implies device-independent inequalities—just as the assumption of locality does. It is known that local validity of quantum theory is consistent with violating such inequalities. Moreover, for three parties or more, even the (stronger) assumption of local classical probability theory plus logical consistency allows for violating causal inequalities. Here, we show that a classical environment (with which the parties interact), possibly containing loops, is logically consistent if and only if whatever the involved parties do, there is exactly one fixed-point, the latter being representable as a mixture of deterministic fixed-points. We further show that the non-causal view allows for a model of computation strictly more powerful than computation in a world of fixed causal orders.

  18. Do people reason rationally about causally related events? Markov violations, weak inferences, and failures of explaining away.

    PubMed

    Rottman, Benjamin M; Hastie, Reid

    2016-06-01

    Making judgments by relying on beliefs about the causal relationships between events is a fundamental capacity of everyday cognition. In the last decade, Causal Bayesian Networks have been proposed as a framework for modeling causal reasoning. Two experiments were conducted to provide comprehensive data sets with which to evaluate a variety of different types of judgments in comparison to the standard Bayesian networks calculations. Participants were introduced to a fictional system of three events and observed a set of learning trials that instantiated the multivariate distribution relating the three variables. We tested inferences on chains X1→Y→X2, common cause structures X1←Y→X2, and common effect structures X1→Y←X2, on binary and numerical variables, and with high and intermediate causal strengths. We tested transitive inferences, inferences when one variable is irrelevant because it is blocked by an intervening variable (Markov Assumption), inferences from two variables to a middle variable, and inferences about the presence of one cause when the alternative cause was known to have occurred (the normative "explaining away" pattern). Compared to the normative account, in general, when the judgments should change, they change in the normative direction. However, we also discuss a few persistent violations of the standard normative model. In addition, we evaluate the relative success of 12 theoretical explanations for these deviations.

  19. [Information sources for causality assessment of health problems related to health foods and their usefulness].

    PubMed

    Umegaki, Keizo; Yamada, Hiroshi; Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Sato, Yoko; Fukuyama, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Collecting adverse case reports suspected to be due to health foods and evaluation of the causality are important to secure safety, even if the causal relationship between health foods and reported health problem is uncertain. Case reports are mainly collected at three sites: public health centers, practical living information online network system(PIO-NET), and individual companies. The case reports from the three sources are not dealt with consistently. In this study, we investigated and characterized those case reports from the viewpoint of evaluating causality, using the causality association rating methods, namely, the dendritic and pointed methods, which we reported previously. Information in public health centers comprised 20 reports per year; approximately 40% were from health care providers and contained detailed medical data. PIO-NET information comprised 366 reports per year; 80% were self-reports from users, and few medical details were included. Company information covered 1,323 cases from 13 companies; more than 90% were from users and most of them were complaints. Case reports from public health centers and PIO-NET showed that the largerst number of victims were female aged >60, with allergy and gastrointestinal symptoms. When these case reports from the letter two sources were examined using the causality association rating systems, most were rated as "possible" and only a few were rated as "probable". As specific case reports from different information sources were examined in this study, we were able to identify several points that should be improved in our two rating methods. However, to ensure the safety of health foods, it will be necessary to collect a large number of high-quality case reports for evaluation by a suitable causality rating method, and to integrate those evaluated case reports into a single site.

  20. Long-Range Temporal Correlations, Multifractality, and the Causal Relation between Neural Inputs and Movements

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing; Zheng, Yi; Gao, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the causal relation between neural inputs and movements is very important for the success of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). In this study, we analyze 104 neurons’ firings using statistical, information theoretic, and fractal analysis. The latter include Fano factor analysis, multifractal adaptive fractal analysis (MF-AFA), and wavelet multifractal analysis. We find neuronal firings are highly non-stationary, and Fano factor analysis always indicates long-range correlations in neuronal firings, irrespective of whether those firings are correlated with movement trajectory or not, and thus does not reveal any actual correlations between neural inputs and movements. On the other hand, MF-AFA and wavelet multifractal analysis clearly indicate that when neuronal firings are not well correlated with movement trajectory, they do not have or only have weak temporal correlations. When neuronal firings are well correlated with movements, they are characterized by very strong temporal correlations, up to a time scale comparable to the average time between two successive reaching tasks. This suggests that neurons well correlated with hand trajectory experienced a “re-setting” effect at the start of each reaching task, in the sense that within the movement correlated neurons the spike trains’ long-range dependences persisted about the length of time the monkey used to switch between task executions. A new task execution re-sets their activity, making them only weakly correlated with their prior activities on longer time scales. We further discuss the significance of the coalition of those important neurons in executing cortical control of prostheses. PMID:24130549

  1. The Relative Predictive Contribution and Causal Role of Phoneme Awareness, Rhyme Awareness, and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Reading Skills: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melby-Lervag, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The acknowledgement that educational achievement is highly dependent on successful reading development has led to extensive research on its underlying factors. A strong argument has been made for a causal relationship between reading and phoneme awareness; similarly, causal relations have been suggested for reading with short-term memory and rhyme…

  2. Causal Relation Analysis Tool of the Case Study in the Engineer Ethics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Morita, Keisuke; Yasui, Mitsukuni; Tanada, Ichirou; Fujiki, Hiroyuki; Aoyagi, Manabu

    In engineering ethics education, the virtual experiencing of dilemmas is essential. Learning through the case study method is a particularly effective means. Many case studies are, however, difficult to deal with because they often include many complex causal relationships and social factors. It would thus be convenient if there were a tool that could analyze the factors of a case example and organize them into a hierarchical structure to get a better understanding of the whole picture. The tool that was developed applies a cause-and-effect matrix and simple graph theory. It analyzes the causal relationship between facts in a hierarchical structure and organizes complex phenomena. The effectiveness of this tool is shown by presenting an actual example.

  3. Embeddings of Causal Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, David D.

    2009-07-06

    A key postulate of the causal set program is that this discrete partial order offers a sufficiently rich structure to make it a viable model of spacetime for quantum gravity. If the deep structure of spacetime is that of a causal set, then the correspondence principle (with the spacetimes of general relativity) must be obeyed. Therefore, one of the requirements of this program is to establish that the causal set structure is in fact, not just in principle, fully consistent with our macroscopic notion of spacetime as a Lorentzian manifold. An important component of any such 'manifold test' is the ability to find embeddings of causal sets into Lorentzian manifolds.

  4. Causal networks or causal islands? The representation of mechanisms and the transitivity of causal judgment

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Samuel G. B.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of mechanisms is critical for causal reasoning. We contrasted two possible organizations of causal knowledge—an interconnected causal network, where events are causally connected without any boundaries delineating discrete mechanisms; or a set of disparate mechanisms—causal islands—such that events in different mechanisms are not thought to be related even when they belong to the same causal chain. To distinguish these possibilities, we used causal transitivity—the inference given A causes B and B causes C that A causes C. Specifically, causal chains schematized as one chunk or mechanism in semantic memory (e.g., exercising, becoming thirsty, drinking water) led to transitive causal judgments. On the other hand, chains schematized as multiple chunks (e.g., having sex, becoming pregnant, becoming nauseous) led to intransitive judgments despite strong intermediate links (Experiments 1–3). Normative accounts of causal intransitivity could not explain these intransitive judgments (Experiments 4–5). PMID:25556901

  5. White rot of garlic and onion (Causal agent, Sclerotium cepivorum): A status report from the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is evidence from literature, state department of agriculture documents, and recent diagnoses that Sclerotium cepivorum, causal agent of white rot of garlic and onion, is spreading and/or becoming more established in the Pacific Northwest. Previously documented distributions are summarized, an...

  6. Beyond Status: Relating Status Inequality to Performance and Health in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Amy M.; Barling, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Status structures in organizations are ubiquitous yet largely ignored in organizational research. We offer a conceptualization of team status inequality, or the extent to which status positions on a team are dispersed. Status inequality is hypothesized to be negatively related to individual performance and physical health for low-status…

  7. Causal determination of acoustic group velocity and frequency derivative of attenuation with finite-bandwidth Kramers-Kronig relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobley, Joel; Waters, Kendall R.; Miller, James G.

    2005-07-01

    Kramers-Kronig (KK) analyses of experimental data are complicated by the extrapolation problem, that is, how the unexamined spectral bands impact KK calculations. This work demonstrates the causal linkages in resonant-type data provided by acoustic KK relations for the group velocity (cg) and the derivative of the attenuation coefficient (α') (components of the derivative of the acoustic complex wave number) without extrapolation or unmeasured parameters. These relations provide stricter tests of causal consistency relative to previously established KK relations for the phase velocity (cp) and attenuation coefficient (α) (components of the undifferentiated acoustic wave number) due to their shape invariance with respect to subtraction constants. For both the group velocity and attenuation derivative, three forms of the relations are derived. These relations are equivalent for bandwidths covering the entire infinite spectrum, but differ when restricted to bandlimited spectra. Using experimental data from suspensions of elastic spheres in saline, the accuracy of finite-bandwidth KK predictions for cg and α' is demonstrated. Of the multiple methods, the most accurate were found to be those whose integrals were expressed only in terms of the phase velocity and attenuation coefficient themselves, requiring no differentiated quantities.

  8. Causal determination of acoustic group velocity and frequency derivative of attenuation with finite-bandwidth Kramers-Kronig relations.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Joel; Waters, Kendall R; Miller, James G

    2005-07-01

    Kramers-Kronig (KK) analyses of experimental data are complicated by the extrapolation problem, that is, how the unexamined spectral bands impact KK calculations. This work demonstrates the causal linkages in resonant-type data provided by acoustic KK relations for the group velocity (c(g)) and the derivative of the attenuation coefficient (alpha') (components of the derivative of the acoustic complex wave number) without extrapolation or unmeasured parameters. These relations provide stricter tests of causal consistency relative to previously established KK relations for the phase velocity (c(p)) and attenuation coefficient (alpha) (components of the undifferentiated acoustic wave number) due to their shape invariance with respect to subtraction constants. For both the group velocity and attenuation derivative, three forms of the relations are derived. These relations are equivalent for bandwidths covering the entire infinite spectrum, but differ when restricted to bandlimited spectra. Using experimental data from suspensions of elastic spheres in saline, the accuracy of finite-bandwidth KK predictions for c(g) and alpha' is demonstrated. Of the multiple methods, the most accurate were found to be those whose integrals were expressed only in terms of the phase velocity and attenuation coefficient themselves, requiring no differentiated quantities.

  9. Increased Causal Connectivity Related to Anatomical Alterations as Potential Endophenotypes for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Xiao, Changqing; Yu, Miaoyu; Zhang, Zhikun; Liu, Jianrong; Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Jingping

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Anatomical and functional abnormalities in the cortico-cerebellar-thalamo-cortical circuit have been observed in schizophrenia patients and their unaffected siblings. However, it remains unclear to the relationship between anatomical and functional abnormalities within this circuit in schizophrenia patients and their unaffected siblings, which may serve as potential endophenotypes for schizophrenia. Anatomical and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 49 first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia patients, 46 unaffected siblings, and 46 healthy controls. Data were analyzed by using voxel-based morphometry and Granger causality analysis. The patients and the siblings shared anatomical deficits in the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and increased left MTG–left angular gyrus (AG) connectivity. Moreover, the left MTG–left AG connectivity negatively correlates to the duration of untreated psychosis in the patients. The findings indicate that anatomical deficits in the left MTG and its increased causal connectivity with the left AG may serve as potential endophenotypes for schizophrenia with clinical implications. PMID:26496253

  10. Assessing Interactive Causal Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novick, Laura R.; Cheng, Patricia W.

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of conjunctive causes--factors that act in concert to produce or prevent an effect--has been explained by purely covariational theories. Such theories assume that concomitant variations in observable events directly license causal inferences, without postulating the existence of unobservable causal relations. This article discusses…

  11. Causal Relationship between Obesity and Vitamin D Status: Bi-Directional Mendelian Randomization Analysis of Multiple Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chen; Tikkanen, Emmi; Pilz, Stefan; Hiraki, Linda T.; Cooper, Jason D.; Dastani, Zari; Li, Rui; Houston, Denise K.; Wood, Andrew R.; Michaëlsson, Karl; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Zgaga, Lina; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Dupuis, Josée; Kaakinen, Marika; Kleber, Marcus E.; Jameson, Karen; Arden, Nigel; Raitakari, Olli; Viikari, Jorma; Lohman, Kurt K.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Melhus, Håkan; Ingelsson, Erik; Byberg, Liisa; Lind, Lars; Lorentzon, Mattias; Salomaa, Veikko; Campbell, Harry; Dunlop, Malcolm; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Streeten, Elizabeth A.; Theodoratou, Evropi; Jula, Antti; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ohlsson, Claes; Frayling, Timothy M.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Spector, Timothy D.; Richards, J. Brent; Lehtimäki, Terho; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Kraft, Peter; Cooper, Cyrus; März, Winfried; Power, Chris; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Wang, Thomas J.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Whittaker, John C.; Hingorani, Aroon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with vitamin D deficiency, and both are areas of active public health concern. We explored the causality and direction of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] using genetic markers as instrumental variables (IVs) in bi-directional Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. Methods and Findings We used information from 21 adult cohorts (up to 42,024 participants) with 12 BMI-related SNPs (combined in an allelic score) to produce an instrument for BMI and four SNPs associated with 25(OH)D (combined in two allelic scores, separately for genes encoding its synthesis or metabolism) as an instrument for vitamin D. Regression estimates for the IVs (allele scores) were generated within-study and pooled by meta-analysis to generate summary effects. Associations between vitamin D scores and BMI were confirmed in the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium (n = 123,864). Each 1 kg/m2 higher BMI was associated with 1.15% lower 25(OH)D (p = 6.52×10−27). The BMI allele score was associated both with BMI (p = 6.30×10−62) and 25(OH)D (−0.06% [95% CI −0.10 to −0.02], p = 0.004) in the cohorts that underwent meta-analysis. The two vitamin D allele scores were strongly associated with 25(OH)D (p≤8.07×10−57 for both scores) but not with BMI (synthesis score, p = 0.88; metabolism score, p = 0.08) in the meta-analysis. A 10% higher genetically instrumented BMI was associated with 4.2% lower 25(OH)D concentrations (IV ratio: −4.2 [95% CI −7.1 to −1.3], p = 0.005). No association was seen for genetically instrumented 25(OH)D with BMI, a finding that was confirmed using data from the GIANT consortium (p≥0.57 for both vitamin D scores). Conclusions On the basis of a bi-directional genetic approach that limits confounding, our study suggests that a higher BMI leads to lower 25(OH)D, while any effects of lower 25(OH)D increasing BMI are likely

  12. Circadian Rhythms and Mood Disorders: Are the Phenomena and Mechanisms Causally Related?

    PubMed Central

    Bechtel, William

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the compelling evidence of disrupted circadian rhythms in individuals with mood disorders (major depressive disorder, seasonal affective disorder, and bipolar disorder) and that treatments such as bright light, designed to alter circadian rhythms, are effective in treating these disorders. Neurotransmitters in brain regions implicated in mood regulation exhibit circadian rhythms. A mouse model originally employed to identify a circadian gene has proven a potent model for mania. While this evidence is suggestive of an etiological role for altered circadian rhythms in mood disorders, it is compatible with other explanations, including that disrupted circadian rhythms and mood disorders are effects of a common cause and that genes and proteins implicated in both simply have pleiotropic effects. In light of this, the paper advances a proposal as to what evidence would be needed to establish a direct causal link between disruption of circadian rhythms and mood disorders. PMID:26379559

  13. Dynamics of large-scale cortical interactions at high gamma frequencies during word production: event related causality (ERC) analysis of human electrocorticography (ECoG).

    PubMed

    Korzeniewska, Anna; Franaszczuk, Piotr J; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Kuś, Rafał; Crone, Nathan E

    2011-06-15

    Intracranial EEG studies in humans have shown that functional brain activation in a variety of functional-anatomic domains of human cortex is associated with an increase in power at a broad range of high gamma (>60Hz) frequencies. Although these electrophysiological responses are highly specific for the location and timing of cortical processing and in animal recordings are highly correlated with increased population firing rates, there has been little direct empirical evidence for causal interactions between different recording sites at high gamma frequencies. Such causal interactions are hypothesized to occur during cognitive tasks that activate multiple brain regions. To determine whether such causal interactions occur at high gamma frequencies and to investigate their functional significance, we used event-related causality (ERC) analysis to estimate the dynamics, directionality, and magnitude of event-related causal interactions using subdural electrocorticography (ECoG) recorded during two word production tasks: picture naming and auditory word repetition. A clinical subject who had normal hearing but was skilled in American Signed Language (ASL) provided a unique opportunity to test our hypothesis with reference to a predictable pattern of causal interactions, i.e. that language cortex interacts with different areas of sensorimotor cortex during spoken vs. signed responses. Our ERC analyses confirmed this prediction. During word production with spoken responses, perisylvian language sites had prominent causal interactions with mouth/tongue areas of motor cortex, and when responses were gestured in sign language, the most prominent interactions involved hand and arm areas of motor cortex. Furthermore, we found that the sites from which the most numerous and prominent causal interactions originated, i.e. sites with a pattern of ERC "divergence", were also sites where high gamma power increases were most prominent and where electrocortical stimulation mapping

  14. Significant increase in trisomy 21 in Berlin nine months after the Chernobyl reactor accident: temporal correlation or causal relation?

    PubMed Central

    Sperling, K.; Pelz, J.; Wegner, R. D.; Dörries, A.; Grüters, A.; Mikkelsen, M.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess whether the increased prevalence of trisomy 21 in West Berlin in January 1987 might have been causally related to exposure to ionising radiation as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident or was merely a chance event. DESIGN--Analysis of monthly prevalence of trisomy 21 in West Berlin from January 1980 to December 1989. SETTING--Confines of West Berlin. RESULTS--Owing to the former "island" situation of West Berlin and its well organised health services, ascertainment of trisomy 21 was thought to be almost complete. A cluster of 12 cases occurred in January 1987 as compared with two or three expected. After exclusion of factors that might have explained the increase, including maternal age distribution, only exposure to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident remained. In six of seven cases that could be studied cytogenetically the extra chromosome was of maternal origin, confirming that nondisjunction had occurred at about the time of conception. CONCLUSION--On the basis of two assumptions--(a) that maternal meiosis is an error prone process susceptible to exogenous factors at the time of conception; (b) that owing to the high prevalence of iodine deficiency in Berlin a large amount of iodine-131 would have been accumulated over a short period--it is concluded that the increased prevalence of trisomy 21 in West Berlin in January 1987 was causally related to a short period of exposure to ionising radiation as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident. PMID:8044094

  15. Causal Factors and Adverse Conditions of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Jones, Sharon Monica

    2010-01-01

    The causal factors of accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database and incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) database associated with loss of control (LOC) were examined for four types of operations (i.e., Federal Aviation Regulation Part 121, Part 135 Scheduled, Part 135 Nonscheduled, and Part 91) for the years 1988 to 2004. In-flight LOC is a serious aviation problem. Well over half of the LOC accidents included at least one fatality (80 percent in Part 121), and roughly half of all aviation fatalities in the studied time period occurred in conjunction with LOC. An adverse events table was updated to provide focus to the technology validation strategy of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project. The table contains three types of adverse conditions: failure, damage, and upset. Thirteen different adverse condition subtypes were gleaned from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), the FAA Accident and Incident database, and the NTSB database. The severity and frequency of the damage conditions, initial test conditions, and milestones references are also provided.

  16. 42 CFR 436.1006 - Definitions relating to institutional status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ISLANDS Federal Financial Participation (FFP) Ffp for Expenditures for Determining Eligibility and Providing Services § 436.1006 Definitions relating to institutional status. For purposes of FFP,...

  17. Is There a Causal Relation between Maternal Acetaminophen Administration and ADHD?

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Antonio; Hegde, Shruti; Kechichian, Talar; Gamble, Phyllis; Rahman, Mahbubur; Stutz, Sonja J.; Anastasio, Noelle C.; Alshehri, Wael; Lei, Jun; Mori, Susumu; Kajs, Bridget; Cunningham, Kathryn A.; Saade, George; Burd, Irina; Costantine, Maged

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recent epidemiological studies reported an association between maternal intake of acetaminophen (APAP) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in their children. However, none of these studies demonstrated causality. Our objective was to determine whether exposure to APAP during pregnancy result in hyperkinetic dysfunctions in offspring, using a murine model. Material and Methods Pregnant CD1 mice (N = 8/group) were allocated to receive by gavage either APAP (150 mg/kg/day, equivalent to the FDA-approved maximum human clinical dose), or 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (control group), starting on embryonic day 7 until delivery. Maternal serum APAP and alanine transaminase (ALT) concentrations were determined by ELISA and kinetic colorimetric assays, respectively. Open field locomotor activity (LMA) in the 30-day old mouse offspring was quantified using Photobeam Activity System. Mouse offspring were then sacrificed, whole brains processed for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; 11.7 Tesla magnet) and for neuronal quantification using Nissl stain. The association between APAP exposure and LMA in mouse offspring was analyzed using a mixed effects Poisson regression model that accounted for mouse offspring weight, gender, random selection, and testing time and day. We corrected for multiple comparisons and considered P<0.008 as statistically significant. Results Maternal serum APAP concentration peaked 30 minutes after gavage, reaching the expected mean of 117 μg/ml. Serum ALT concentrations were not different between groups. There were no significant differences in vertical (rearing), horizontal, or total locomotor activity between the two rodent offspring groups at the P level fixed to adjust for multiple testing. In addition, no differences were found in volumes of 29 brain areas of interest on MRI or in neuronal quantifications between the two groups. Conclusion This study refutes that hypothesis that prenatal exposure to APAP causes hyperkinetic

  18. An application of GIS and Bayesian network in studying spatial-causal relations between enterprises and environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tiyan; Li, Xi; Li, Maiqing

    2009-10-01

    The paper intends to employ Geographic Information System (GIS) and Bayesian Network to discover the spatial causality between enterprises and environmental factors in Beijing Metropolis. The census data of Beijing was spatialized by means of GIS in the beginning, and then the training data was made using density mapping technique. Base on the training data, the structure of a Bayesian Network was learnt with the help of Maximum Weight Spanning Tree. Eight direct relations were discussed in the end, of which, the most exciting discovery, "Enterprise-Run Society", as the symbol of the former planned economy, was emphasized in the spatial relations between heavy industry and schools. Though the final result is not so creative in economic perspective, it is of significance in technique view due to all discoveries were drawn from data, therefore leading to the realization of the importance of GIS and data mining to economic geography research.

  19. Human causal discovery from observational data.

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, A. I.; Cooper, G. F.

    1996-01-01

    Utilizing Bayesian belief networks as a model of causality, we examined medical students' ability to discover causal relationships from observational data. Nine sets of patient cases were generated from relatively simple causal belief networks by stochastic simulation. Twenty participants examined the data sets and attempted to discover the underlying causal relationships. Performance was poor in general, except at discovering the absence of a causal relationship. This work supports the potential for combining human and computer methods for causal discovery. PMID:8947621

  20. Warp drive and causality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Allen E.

    1996-06-01

    Alcubierre recently exhibited a spacetime which, within the framework of general relativity, allows travel at superluminal speeds if matter with a negative energy density can exist, and conjectured that it should be possible to use similar techniques to construct a theory containing closed causal loops and, thus, travel backwards in time. We verify this conjecture by exhibiting a simple modification of Alcubierre's model, requiring no additional assumptions, in which causal loops are possible. We also note that this mechanism for generating causal loops differs in essential ways from that discovered by Gott involving cosmic strings.

  1. Beyond status: relating status inequality to performance and health in teams.

    PubMed

    Christie, Amy M; Barling, Julian

    2010-09-01

    Status structures in organizations are ubiquitous yet largely ignored in organizational research. We offer a conceptualization of team status inequality, or the extent to which status positions on a team are dispersed. Status inequality is hypothesized to be negatively related to individual performance and physical health for low-status individuals when uncooperative behavior is high. Trajectories of the outcomes across time are also explored. Analyses using multilevel modeling largely support our hypotheses in a sample of National Basketball Association players across six time points from 2000 to 2005.

  2. Epidemiological causality.

    PubMed

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  3. Anterior Cingulate Cortico-Hippocampal Dysconnectivity in Unaffected Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients: A Stochastic Dynamic Causal Modeling Study.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yi-Bin; Li, Chen; Cui, Long-Biao; Liu, Jian; Guo, Fan; Li, Liang; Liu, Ting-Ting; Liu, Kang; Chen, Gang; Xi, Min; Wang, Hua-Ning; Yin, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Familial risk plays a significant role in the etiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Many studies using neuroimaging have demonstrated structural and functional alterations in relatives of SZ patients, with significant results found in diverse brain regions involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), caudate, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and hippocampus. This study investigated whether unaffected relatives of first episode SZ differ from healthy controls (HCs) in effective connectivity measures among these regions. Forty-six unaffected first-degree relatives of first episode SZ patients-according to the DSM-IV-were studied. Fifty HCs were included for comparison. All subjects underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM) to estimate the directed connections between the left ACC, right ACC, left caudate, right caudate, left DLPFC, left hippocampus, and right hippocampus. We used Bayesian parameter averaging (BPA) to characterize the differences. The BPA results showed hyperconnectivity from the left ACC to right hippocampus and hypoconnectivity from the right ACC to right hippocampus in SZ relatives compared to HCs. The pattern of anterior cingulate cortico-hippocampal connectivity in SZ relatives may be a familial feature of SZ risk, appearing to reflect familial susceptibility for SZ. PMID:27512370

  4. Anterior Cingulate Cortico-Hippocampal Dysconnectivity in Unaffected Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients: A Stochastic Dynamic Causal Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Yi-Bin; Li, Chen; Cui, Long-Biao; Liu, Jian; Guo, Fan; Li, Liang; Liu, Ting-Ting; Liu, Kang; Chen, Gang; Xi, Min; Wang, Hua-Ning; Yin, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Familial risk plays a significant role in the etiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Many studies using neuroimaging have demonstrated structural and functional alterations in relatives of SZ patients, with significant results found in diverse brain regions involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), caudate, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and hippocampus. This study investigated whether unaffected relatives of first episode SZ differ from healthy controls (HCs) in effective connectivity measures among these regions. Forty-six unaffected first-degree relatives of first episode SZ patients—according to the DSM-IV—were studied. Fifty HCs were included for comparison. All subjects underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM) to estimate the directed connections between the left ACC, right ACC, left caudate, right caudate, left DLPFC, left hippocampus, and right hippocampus. We used Bayesian parameter averaging (BPA) to characterize the differences. The BPA results showed hyperconnectivity from the left ACC to right hippocampus and hypoconnectivity from the right ACC to right hippocampus in SZ relatives compared to HCs. The pattern of anterior cingulate cortico-hippocampal connectivity in SZ relatives may be a familial feature of SZ risk, appearing to reflect familial susceptibility for SZ. PMID:27512370

  5. PPInterFinder--a mining tool for extracting causal relations on human proteins from literature.

    PubMed

    Raja, Kalpana; Subramani, Suresh; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common and challenging problem in biomedical text mining is to mine protein-protein interactions (PPIs) from MEDLINE abstracts and full-text research articles because PPIs play a major role in understanding the various biological processes and the impact of proteins in diseases. We implemented, PPInterFinder--a web-based text mining tool to extract human PPIs from biomedical literature. PPInterFinder uses relation keyword co-occurrences with protein names to extract information on PPIs from MEDLINE abstracts and consists of three phases. First, it identifies the relation keyword using a parser with Tregex and a relation keyword dictionary. Next, it automatically identifies the candidate PPI pairs with a set of rules related to PPI recognition. Finally, it extracts the relations by matching the sentence with a set of 11 specific patterns based on the syntactic nature of PPI pair. We find that PPInterFinder is capable of predicting PPIs with the accuracy of 66.05% on AIMED corpus and outperforms most of the existing systems. DATABASE URL: http://www.biomining-bu.in/ppinterfinder/ PMID:23325628

  6. PPInterFinder--a mining tool for extracting causal relations on human proteins from literature.

    PubMed

    Raja, Kalpana; Subramani, Suresh; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common and challenging problem in biomedical text mining is to mine protein-protein interactions (PPIs) from MEDLINE abstracts and full-text research articles because PPIs play a major role in understanding the various biological processes and the impact of proteins in diseases. We implemented, PPInterFinder--a web-based text mining tool to extract human PPIs from biomedical literature. PPInterFinder uses relation keyword co-occurrences with protein names to extract information on PPIs from MEDLINE abstracts and consists of three phases. First, it identifies the relation keyword using a parser with Tregex and a relation keyword dictionary. Next, it automatically identifies the candidate PPI pairs with a set of rules related to PPI recognition. Finally, it extracts the relations by matching the sentence with a set of 11 specific patterns based on the syntactic nature of PPI pair. We find that PPInterFinder is capable of predicting PPIs with the accuracy of 66.05% on AIMED corpus and outperforms most of the existing systems. DATABASE URL: http://www.biomining-bu.in/ppinterfinder/

  7. Niacin status and treatment-related leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, James B

    2009-04-01

    Chemotherapy often causes damage to hematopoietic tissues, leading to acute bone marrow suppression and the long term development of leukemias. Niacin deficiency, which is common in cancer patients, causes dramatic genomic instability in bone marrow cells in an in vivo rat model. From a mechanistic perspective, niacin deficiency delays excision repair and causes double strand break accumulation, which in turn favors chromosome breaks and translocations. Niacin deficiency also impairs cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to DNA damage, which combine to encourage the survival of cells with leukemogenic potential. Conversely, pharmacological supplementation of rats with niacin increases bone marrow poly(ADP-ribose) formation and apoptosis. Improvement of niacin status in rats significantly decreased nitrosourea-induced leukemia incidence. The data from our rat model suggest that niacin supplementation of cancer patients may decrease the severity of short- and long-term side effects of chemotherapy, and could improve tumor cell killing through activation of poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent apoptosis pathways.

  8. Causal Model of a Health Services System

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, James G.

    1972-01-01

    Path analysis is used to construct a causal model of the health services system serving the state of New Mexico. The model includes a network specifying the causal relationships among a set of social, demographic, and economic variables hypothesized to be related to the health status of the population; a set of mathematical equations that permit prediction of the effects of changes in the values of any one variable on all other variables in the model; and estimates of path coefficients based on U.S. Census data and vital statistics. The model is used to predict both direct and indirect effects on health status of changes in population structure resulting from natural causes or from the intervention of health programs. PMID:5025955

  9. Learning a theory of causality.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Noah D; Ullman, Tomer D; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2011-01-01

    The very early appearance of abstract knowledge is often taken as evidence for innateness. We explore the relative learning speeds of abstract and specific knowledge within a Bayesian framework and the role for innate structure. We focus on knowledge about causality, seen as a domain-general intuitive theory, and ask whether this knowledge can be learned from co-occurrence of events. We begin by phrasing the causal Bayes nets theory of causality and a range of alternatives in a logical language for relational theories. This allows us to explore simultaneous inductive learning of an abstract theory of causality and a causal model for each of several causal systems. We find that the correct theory of causality can be learned relatively quickly, often becoming available before specific causal theories have been learned--an effect we term the blessing of abstraction. We then explore the effect of providing a variety of auxiliary evidence and find that a collection of simple perceptual input analyzers can help to bootstrap abstract knowledge. Together, these results suggest that the most efficient route to causal knowledge may be to build in not an abstract notion of causality but a powerful inductive learning mechanism and a variety of perceptual supports. While these results are purely computational, they have implications for cognitive development, which we explore in the conclusion.

  10. Relativity experiment on Helios - A status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Melbourne, W. G.; Cain, D. L.; Lau, E. K.; Wong, S. K.; Kundt, W.

    1975-01-01

    The relativity experiment on Helios (Experiment 11) uses S-band and Doppler data, and spacecraft-solar-orbital data to measure the effects of general relativity in the solar system and the quadrupole moment in the solar gravitational field. Specifically, Experiment 11 is converned with measuring the following effects: (1) relativistic orbital corrections described by two parameters of the space-time metric which are both equal to unity in Einstein's theory; (2) orbital perturbations caused by a finite quadrupole moment of an oblate sun, described by zonal harmonics in the solar gravitational field.

  11. Bone Related Health Status in Adolescent Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Olmedillas, Hugo; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Moreno, Luís A.; Casajús, José A.; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe bone status and analyse bone mass in adolescent cyclists. Methods Male road cyclists (n = 22) who had been training for a minimum of 2 years and a maximum of 7 years with a volume of 10 h/w, were compared to age-matched controls (n = 22) involved in recreational sports activities. Subjects were divided in 2 groups based on age: adolescents under 17 yrs (cyclists, n = 11; controls, n = 13) and over 17 yrs (cyclists, n = 11; controls, n = 9). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured on a cycloergometer. Whole body, lumbar spine, and hip bone mineral content (BMC), density (BMD) and bone area were assessed using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) were also estimated. Results The BMC of cyclists was lower for the whole body, pelvis, femoral neck and legs; BMD for the pelvis, hip, legs and whole body and legs bone area was lower but higher in the hip area (all, P≤0.05) after adjusting by lean mass and height. The BMC of young cyclists was 10% lower in the leg and 8% higher in the hip area than young controls (P≤0.05). The BMC of cyclists over 17 yrs was 26.5%, 15.8% and 14.4% lower BMC at the pelvis, femoral neck and legs respectively while the BMD was 8.9% to 24.5% lower for the whole body, pelvis, total hip, trochanter, intertrochanter, femoral neck and legs and 17.1% lower the vBMD at the femoral neck (all P≤0.05). Grouped by age interaction was found in both pelvis and hip BMC and BMD and in femoral neck vBMD (all P≤0.05). Conclusion Cycling performed throughout adolescence may negatively affect bone health, then compromising the acquisition of peak bone mass. PMID:21980360

  12. Is dengue severity related to nutritional status?

    PubMed

    Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Nimmannitya, Suchitra

    2005-03-01

    A retrospective review of dengue patients admitted to Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (previously known as Children's Hospital) from 1995 to 1999 revealed 4,532 confirmed cases of dengue infection; 80.9% were dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and 19.1% were dengue fever cases (DF). Among the DHF patients; 30.6% had shock. The majority of them, 66.6%, had a normal nutritional status, while 9.3% were malnourished and 24.2% had obesity as classified by weight for age. Compared with control patients with other diagnoses (excluding HIV/AIDS patients), malnourished children had a lower risk of contracting dengue infection (odds ratio = 0.48, 95% Cl = 0.39-0.60, p = 0.000) while obese children had a greater risk of infection with dengue viruses (odds ratio = 1.96, 95% Cl = 1.55-2.5, p = 0.000). The clinical signs, symptoms and laboratory findings of dengue were almost the same among the 3 groups of malnourished, normal, and obese patients. The minor differences observed were that in obese children liver enlargement was found less often; maculopapular/convalescence rash and elevations of alanine aminotransferase were found more often. Malnourished patients had a higher risk of developing shock (37.8%) than normal (29.9%) and obese patients (30.2%) (p = 0.000). Obese patients had more unusual presentations: encephalopathy (1.3%) and associated infections (4.8%), than normal (0.5% and 2.7%) and malnourished patients (1.2% and 3.1%). Complications of fluid overload were found more in obese patients (6.5%) compared to normal (3.2%) and malnourished patients (2.1%) (p = 0.000). The case-fatality rates (CFR) in malnourished patients and obese patients were 0.5% and 0.4%, respectively, while in normal patients the CFR was 0.07%. Under and over nutrition DHF patients had either a greater risk of shock or unusual presentations and complications, which can lead to severe disease or complications and probably a higher CFR.

  13. Is Grade Inflation Related to Faculty Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezim, Boualem; Pariseau, Susan E.; Quinn, Frances

    2005-01-01

    The authors performed a statistical analysis to investigate whether grade inflation existed in the business school at a small private college in the northeast region of the United States. The results showed that grade inflation existed and exhibited a linear trend over a 20-year period. The authors found that grade inflation was related to faculty…

  14. Causal inference based on counterfactuals

    PubMed Central

    Höfler, M

    2005-01-01

    Background The counterfactual or potential outcome model has become increasingly standard for causal inference in epidemiological and medical studies. Discussion This paper provides an overview on the counterfactual and related approaches. A variety of conceptual as well as practical issues when estimating causal effects are reviewed. These include causal interactions, imperfect experiments, adjustment for confounding, time-varying exposures, competing risks and the probability of causation. It is argued that the counterfactual model of causal effects captures the main aspects of causality in health sciences and relates to many statistical procedures. Summary Counterfactuals are the basis of causal inference in medicine and epidemiology. Nevertheless, the estimation of counterfactual differences pose several difficulties, primarily in observational studies. These problems, however, reflect fundamental barriers only when learning from observations, and this does not invalidate the counterfactual concept. PMID:16159397

  15. The Development of Causal Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Brett K.; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined the impact of causal relations between features on categorization in 5- to 6-year-old children and adults. Participants learned artificial categories containing instances with causally related features and noncausal features. They then selected the most likely category member from a series of novel test pairs.…

  16. Marriage Meets the Joneses: Relative Income, Identity, and Marital Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Tara; McLanahan, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of relative income on marriage. Accounting flexibly for absolute income, the ratio between a man's income and a local reference group median is a strong predictor of marital status, but only for low-income men. Relative income affects marriage even among those living with a partner. A 10 percent higher reference…

  17. Sensing the Coherence of Biology in Contrast to Psychology: Young Children's Use of Causal Relations to Distinguish Two Foundational Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Jane E.; Keil, Frank C.; Lockhart, Kristi L.

    2010-01-01

    To what extent do children understand that biological processes fall into 1 coherent domain unified by distinct causal principles? In Experiments 1 and 2 (N = 125) kindergartners are given triads of biological and psychological processes and asked to identify which 2 members of the triad belong together. Results show that 5-year-olds correctly…

  18. Apparent causality affects perceived simultaneity.

    PubMed

    Kohlrausch, Armin; van Eijk, Rob; Juola, James F; Brandt, Inge; van de Par, Steven

    2013-10-01

    The present research addresses the question of how visual predictive information and implied causality affect audio-visual synchrony perception. Previous research has shown a systematic shift in the likelihood of observers to accept audio-leading stimulus pairs as being apparently simultaneous in variants of audio-visual stimulus pairs that differ in (1) the amount of visual predictive information available and (2) the apparent causal relation between the auditory and visual components. An experiment was designed to separate the predictability and causality explanations, and the results indicated that shifts in subjective simultaneity were explained completely by changes in the implied causal relations in the stimuli and that predictability had no added value. Together with earlier findings, these results further indicate that the observed shifts in subjective simultaneity due to causal relations among auditory and visual events do not reflect a mere change in response strategy, but rather result from early multimodal integration processes in event perception.

  19. Evaluation of quality of life related to nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Castelló-Botia, Isabel; Guardiola-Wanden-Berghe, Rocio

    2009-04-01

    The way in which the quality of life related to health (HRQoL) is affected by the nutritional status of the patient is a subject of constant interest and permanent debate. The purpose of the present paper is to review those studies that relate HRQoL to nutritional status and examine the tools (questionnaires) that they use to investigate this relationship. A critical review of published studies was carried out via an investigation of the following databases: MEDLINE (via PubMed); EMBASE; The Cochrane Library; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science; Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS); Spanish Health Sciences Bibliographic Index (IBECS). The search was carried out from the earliest date possible until July 2007.The medical subject heading terms used were 'quality of life', 'nutritional status' and 'questionnaires'. The articles had to contain at least one questionnaire that evaluated quality of life. Twenty-eight documents fulfilling the inclusion criteria were accepted, although none of them used a specific questionnaire to evaluate HRQoL related to nutritional status. However, some of them used a combination of generic questionnaires with the intention of evaluating the same. Only three studies selectively addressed the relationship between nutritional status and quality of life, this evaluation being performed not by means of specific questionnaires but by statistical analysis of data obtained via validated questionnaires.

  20. Causality in epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Kamangar, Farin

    2012-10-01

    This article provides an introduction to the meaning of causality in epidemiology and methods that epidemiologists use to distinguish causal associations from non-causal ones. Alternatives to causal association are discussed in detail. Hill's guidelines, set forth approximately 50 years ago, and more recent developments are reviewed. The role of religious and philosophic views in our understanding of causality is briefly discussed.

  1. Perceived health status and health insurance status: protective factors against health-related debt?

    PubMed

    Christy, Kameri; Hampton-Stover, Elena; Shobe, Marcia; Hammig, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Current health care debate has largely focused on the need for health insurance coverage rather than quality coverage. Yet the economic downturn has resulted in an increasing number of individuals who are uninsured or underinsured, and consequently face financial hardships. Multivariate analyses were used with 95 adults to examine relationships between health insurance, health status, and health debt. Controlling for demographics, and human and financial capital, findings suggest that health debt is not related to health insurance or health status. However, individuals with post-secondary education and non-homeowners appear to be more at risk for accumulating health debt.

  2. Causal essentialism in kinds.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Woo-kyoung; Taylor, Eric G; Kato, Daniel; Marsh, Jessecae K; Bloom, Paul

    2013-06-01

    The current study examines causal essentialism, derived from psychological essentialism of concepts. We examine whether people believe that members of a category share some underlying essence that is both necessary and sufficient for category membership and that also causes surface features. The main claim is that causal essentialism is restricted to categories that correspond to our intuitive notions of existing kinds and hence is more attenuated for categories that are based on arbitrary criteria. Experiments 1 and 3 found that people overtly endorse causal essences in nonarbitrary kinds but are less likely to do so for arbitrary categories. Experiments 2 and 4 found that people were more willing to generalize a member's known causal relations (or lack thereof) when dealing with a kind than when dealing with an arbitrary category. These differences between kinds and arbitrary categories were found across various domains-not only for categories of living things, but also for artefacts. These findings have certain real-world implications, including how people make sense of mental disorders that are treated as real kinds. PMID:23098315

  3. On causality of extreme events

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Multiple metrics have been developed to detect causality relations between data describing the elements constituting complex systems, all of them considering their evolution through time. Here we propose a metric able to detect causality within static data sets, by analysing how extreme events in one element correspond to the appearance of extreme events in a second one. The metric is able to detect non-linear causalities; to analyse both cross-sectional and longitudinal data sets; and to discriminate between real causalities and correlations caused by confounding factors. We validate the metric through synthetic data, dynamical and chaotic systems, and data representing the human brain activity in a cognitive task. We further show how the proposed metric is able to outperform classical causality metrics, provided non-linear relationships are present and large enough data sets are available. PMID:27330866

  4. On causality of extreme events.

    PubMed

    Zanin, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Multiple metrics have been developed to detect causality relations between data describing the elements constituting complex systems, all of them considering their evolution through time. Here we propose a metric able to detect causality within static data sets, by analysing how extreme events in one element correspond to the appearance of extreme events in a second one. The metric is able to detect non-linear causalities; to analyse both cross-sectional and longitudinal data sets; and to discriminate between real causalities and correlations caused by confounding factors. We validate the metric through synthetic data, dynamical and chaotic systems, and data representing the human brain activity in a cognitive task. We further show how the proposed metric is able to outperform classical causality metrics, provided non-linear relationships are present and large enough data sets are available.

  5. Economic status and temperature-related mortality in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Bell, Michelle L.; Kan, Haidong; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Kim, Ho

    2015-10-01

    In developed countries, low latitude and high temperature are positively associated with the population's ability to adapt to heat. However, few studies have examined the effect of economic status on the relationship between long-term exposure to high temperature and health. We compared heterogeneous temperature-related mortality effects relative to the average summer temperature in high-socioeconomic-status (SES) cities to temperature-related effects in low-SES cities. In the first stage of the research, we conducted a linear regression analysis to quantify the mortality effects of high temperature (at or above the 95th percentile) in 32 cities in Taiwan, China, Japan, and Korea. In the second stage, we used a meta-regression to examine the association between mortality risk with average summer temperature and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In cities with a low GDP per capita (less than 20,000 USD), the effects of temperature were detrimental to the population if the long-term average summer temperature was high. In contrast, in cities with a high GDP per capita, temperature-related mortality risk was not significantly related to average summer temperature. The relationship between long-term average summer temperature and the short-term effects of high temperatures differed based on the city-level economic status.

  6. Circular causality.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R

    2006-07-01

    The problem of disentangling complex dynamic systems is addressed, especially with a view to identifying those variables that take part in the essential qualitative behaviour of systems. The author presents a series of reflections about the methods of formalisation together with the principles that govern the global operation of systems. In particular, a section on circuits, nuclei, and circular causality and a rather detailed description of the analytic use of the generalised asynchronous logical description, together with a brief description of its synthetic use (OreverseO logic). Some basic rules are recalled, such as the fact that a positive circuit is a necessary condition of multistationarity. Also, the interest of considering as a model, rather than a well-defined set of differential equations, a variety of systems that differ from each other only by the values of constant terms is emphasised. All these systems have a common Jacobian matrix and for all of them phase space has exactly the same structure. It means that all can be partitioned in the same way as regards the signs of the eigenvalues and thus as regards the precise nature of any steady states that might be present. Which steady states are actually present, depends on the values of terms of order zero in the ordinary differential equations (ODEs), and it is easy to find for which values of these terms a given point in phase space is steady. Models can be synthesised first at the level of the circuits involved in the Jacobian matrix (that determines which types and numbers of steady states are consistent with the model), then only at the level of terms of order zero in the ODE's (that determines which of the steady states actually exist), hence the title 'Circular casuality'.

  7. The Visual Causality Analyst: An Interactive Interface for Causal Reasoning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Mueller, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Uncovering the causal relations that exist among variables in multivariate datasets is one of the ultimate goals in data analytics. Causation is related to correlation but correlation does not imply causation. While a number of casual discovery algorithms have been devised that eliminate spurious correlations from a network, there are no guarantees that all of the inferred causations are indeed true. Hence, bringing a domain expert into the casual reasoning loop can be of great benefit in identifying erroneous casual relationships suggested by the discovery algorithm. To address this need we present the Visual Causal Analyst-a novel visual causal reasoning framework that allows users to apply their expertise, verify and edit causal links, and collaborate with the causal discovery algorithm to identify a valid causal network. Its interface consists of both an interactive 2D graph view and a numerical presentation of salient statistical parameters, such as regression coefficients, p-values, and others. Both help users in gaining a good understanding of the landscape of causal structures particularly when the number of variables is large. Our framework is also novel in that it can handle both numerical and categorical variables within one unified model and return plausible results. We demonstrate its use via a set of case studies using multiple practical datasets.

  8. Quantum causal modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Fabio; Shrapnel, Sally

    2016-06-01

    Causal modelling provides a powerful set of tools for identifying causal structure from observed correlations. It is well known that such techniques fail for quantum systems, unless one introduces ‘spooky’ hidden mechanisms. Whether one can produce a genuinely quantum framework in order to discover causal structure remains an open question. Here we introduce a new framework for quantum causal modelling that allows for the discovery of causal structure. We define quantum analogues for core features of classical causal modelling techniques, including the causal Markov condition and faithfulness. Based on the process matrix formalism, this framework naturally extends to generalised structures with indefinite causal order.

  9. Improving causality induction with category learning.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yi; Wang, Zhihong; Shao, Zhiqing

    2014-01-01

    Causal relations are of fundamental importance for human perception and reasoning. According to the nature of causality, causality has explicit and implicit forms. In the case of explicit form, causal-effect relations exist at either clausal or discourse levels. The implicit causal-effect relations heavily rely on empirical analysis and evidence accumulation. This paper proposes a comprehensive causality extraction system (CL-CIS) integrated with the means of category-learning. CL-CIS considers cause-effect relations in both explicit and implicit forms and especially practices the relation between category and causality in computation. In elaborately designed experiments, CL-CIS is evaluated together with general causality analysis system (GCAS) and general causality analysis system with learning (GCAS-L), and it testified to its own capability and performance in construction of cause-effect relations. This paper confirms the expectation that the precision and coverage of causality induction can be remarkably improved by means of causal and category learning.

  10. Improving Causality Induction with Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhihong; Shao, Zhiqing

    2014-01-01

    Causal relations are of fundamental importance for human perception and reasoning. According to the nature of causality, causality has explicit and implicit forms. In the case of explicit form, causal-effect relations exist at either clausal or discourse levels. The implicit causal-effect relations heavily rely on empirical analysis and evidence accumulation. This paper proposes a comprehensive causality extraction system (CL-CIS) integrated with the means of category-learning. CL-CIS considers cause-effect relations in both explicit and implicit forms and especially practices the relation between category and causality in computation. In elaborately designed experiments, CL-CIS is evaluated together with general causality analysis system (GCAS) and general causality analysis system with learning (GCAS-L), and it testified to its own capability and performance in construction of cause-effect relations. This paper confirms the expectation that the precision and coverage of causality induction can be remarkably improved by means of causal and category learning. PMID:24883419

  11. Effect of measurement noise on Granger causality.

    PubMed

    Nalatore, Hariharan; Sasikumar, N; Rangarajan, Govindan

    2014-12-01

    Most of the signals recorded in experiments are inevitably contaminated by measurement noise. Hence, it is important to understand the effect of such noise on estimating causal relations between such signals. A primary tool for estimating causality is Granger causality. Granger causality can be computed by modeling the signal using a bivariate autoregressive (AR) process. In this paper, we greatly extend the previous analysis of the effect of noise by considering a bivariate AR process of general order p. From this analysis, we analytically obtain the dependence of Granger causality on various noise-dependent system parameters. In particular, we show that measurement noise can lead to spurious Granger causality and can suppress true Granger causality. These results are verified numerically. Finally, we show how true causality can be recovered numerically using the Kalman expectation maximization algorithm.

  12. Cross-lagged relations between mentoring received from supervisors and employee OCBs: Disentangling causal direction and identifying boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    Eby, Lillian T; Butts, Marcus M; Hoffman, Brian J; Sauer, Julia B

    2015-07-01

    Although mentoring has documented relationships with employee attitudes and outcomes of interest to organizations, neither the causal direction nor boundary conditions of the relationship between mentoring and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) has been fully explored. On the basis of Social Learning Theory (SLT; Bandura, 1977, 1986), we predicted that mentoring received by supervisors would causally precede OCBs, rather than employee OCBs resulting in the receipt of more mentoring from supervisors. Results from cross-lagged data collected at 2 points in time from 190 intact supervisor-employee dyads supported our predictions; however, only for OCBs directed at individuals (OCB-Is) and not for OCBs directed at the organization (OCB-Os). Further supporting our theoretical rationale for expecting mentoring to precede OCBs, we found that coworker support operates as a substitute for mentoring in predicting OCB-Is. By contrast, no moderating effects were found for perceived organizational support. The results are discussed in terms of theoretical implications for mentoring and OCB research, as well as practical suggestions for enhancing employee citizenship behaviors.

  13. Causally nonseparable processes admitting a causal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feix, Adrien; Araújo, Mateus; Brukner, Časlav

    2016-08-01

    A recent framework of quantum theory with no global causal order predicts the existence of ‘causally nonseparable’ processes. Some of these processes produce correlations incompatible with any causal order (they violate so-called ‘causal inequalities’ analogous to Bell inequalities) while others do not (they admit a ‘causal model’ analogous to a local model). Here we show for the first time that bipartite causally nonseparable processes with a causal model exist, and give evidence that they have no clear physical interpretation. We also provide an algorithm to generate processes of this kind and show that they have nonzero measure in the set of all processes. We demonstrate the existence of processes which stop violating causal inequalities but are still causally nonseparable when mixed with a certain amount of ‘white noise’. This is reminiscent of the behavior of Werner states in the context of entanglement and nonlocality. Finally, we provide numerical evidence for the existence of causally nonseparable processes which have a causal model even when extended with an entangled state shared among the parties.

  14. Exposure to Traffic-related Air Pollution During Pregnancy and Term Low Birth Weight: Estimation of Causal Associations in a Semiparametric Model

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Amy M.; Mortimer, Kathleen; Hubbard, Alan; Lurmann, Frederick; Jerrett, Michael; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution is recognized as an important contributor to health problems. Epidemiologic analyses suggest that prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants may be associated with adverse birth outcomes; however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that the relation is causal. The Study of Air Pollution, Genetics and Early Life Events comprises all births to women living in 4 counties in California's San Joaquin Valley during the years 2000–2006. The probability of low birth weight among full-term infants in the population was estimated using machine learning and targeted maximum likelihood estimation for each quartile of traffic exposure during pregnancy. If everyone lived near high-volume freeways (approximated as the fourth quartile of traffic density), the estimated probability of term low birth weight would be 2.27% (95% confidence interval: 2.16, 2.38) as compared with 2.02% (95% confidence interval: 1.90, 2.12) if everyone lived near smaller local roads (first quartile of traffic density). Assessment of potentially causal associations, in the absence of arbitrary model assumptions applied to the data, should result in relatively unbiased estimates. The current results support findings from previous studies that prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution may adversely affect birth weight among full-term infants. PMID:23045474

  15. Detecting causality in complex ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, George; May, Robert; Ye, Hao; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Deyle, Ethan; Fogarty, Michael; Munch, Stephan

    2012-10-26

    Identifying causal networks is important for effective policy and management recommendations on climate, epidemiology, financial regulation, and much else. We introduce a method, based on nonlinear state space reconstruction, that can distinguish causality from correlation. It extends to nonseparable weakly connected dynamic systems (cases not covered by the current Granger causality paradigm). The approach is illustrated both by simple models (where, in contrast to the real world, we know the underlying equations/relations and so can check the validity of our method) and by application to real ecological systems, including the controversial sardine-anchovy-temperature problem.

  16. The Power of Causal Beliefs and Conflicting Evidence on Causal Judgments and Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Muller, Stephanie M.; Catena, Andres; Maldonado, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the relative impact of causal beliefs and empirical evidence on both decision making and causal judgments, and whether this relative impact could be altered by previous experience. 2. Selected groups of participants in both experiments received pre-training with either causal or neutral cues, or no pre-training…

  17. Attitudes toward Others Depend upon Self and Other Causal Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Stephanie J.; Osika, Matylda M.; McLanders, Mia

    2014-01-01

    People who are high in causal uncertainty doubt their own ability to understand the causes of social events. In three studies, we examined the effects of target and perceiver causal uncertainty on attitudes toward the target. Target causal uncertainty was manipulated via responses on a causal uncertainty scale in Studies 1 and 2, and with a scenario in Study 3. In Studies 1 and 2, we found that participants liked the low causal uncertainty target more than the high causal uncertainty target. This preference was stronger for low relative to high causal uncertainty participants because high causal uncertainty participants held more uncertain ideals. In Study 3, we examined the value individuals place upon causal understanding (causal importance) as an additional moderator. We found that regardless of their own causal uncertainty level, participants who were high in causal importance liked the low causal uncertainty target more than the high causal uncertainty target. However, when participants were low in causal importance, low causal uncertainty perceivers showed no preference and high causal uncertainty perceivers preferred the high causal uncertainty target. These findings reveal that goal importance and ideals can influence how perceivers respond to causal uncertainty in others. PMID:24504048

  18. Attitudes toward others depend upon self and other causal uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Stephanie J; Osika, Matylda M; McLanders, Mia

    2014-01-01

    People who are high in causal uncertainty doubt their own ability to understand the causes of social events. In three studies, we examined the effects of target and perceiver causal uncertainty on attitudes toward the target. Target causal uncertainty was manipulated via responses on a causal uncertainty scale in Studies 1 and 2, and with a scenario in Study 3. In Studies 1 and 2, we found that participants liked the low causal uncertainty target more than the high causal uncertainty target. This preference was stronger for low relative to high causal uncertainty participants because high causal uncertainty participants held more uncertain ideals. In Study 3, we examined the value individuals place upon causal understanding (causal importance) as an additional moderator. We found that regardless of their own causal uncertainty level, participants who were high in causal importance liked the low causal uncertainty target more than the high causal uncertainty target. However, when participants were low in causal importance, low causal uncertainty perceivers showed no preference and high causal uncertainty perceivers preferred the high causal uncertainty target. These findings reveal that goal importance and ideals can influence how perceivers respond to causal uncertainty in others.

  19. Cross-sectional schooling-health associations misrepresented causal schooling effects on adult health and health-related behaviors: evidence from the Chinese Adults Twins Survey.

    PubMed

    Behrman, Jere R; Xiong, Yanyan; Zhang, Junsen

    2015-02-01

    Adult health outcomes and health behaviors are often associated with schooling. However, such associations do not necessarily imply that schooling has causal effects on health with the signs or magnitudes found in the cross-sectional associations. Schooling may be proxying for unobserved factors related to genetics and family background that directly affect both health and schooling. Recently several studies have used within-monozygotic (MZ) twins methods to control for unobserved factors shared by identical twins. Within-MZ estimates for developed countries are generally smaller than suggested by cross-sectional associations, consistent with positive correlations between unobserved factors that determine schooling and those that determine health. This study contributes new estimates of cross-sectional associations and within-MZ causal effects using the Chinese Adults Twins Survey, the first study of its type for developing countries. The cross-sectional estimates suggest that schooling is significantly associated with adult health-related behaviors (smoking, drinking, exercising) but not with own or spouse health outcomes (general health, mental health, overweight, chronic diseases). However, within-MZ-twins estimators change the estimates for approximately half of these health indicators, in one case declining in absolute magnitudes and becoming insignificant and in the other cases increasing in absolute magnitudes. Within-MZ estimates indicate significant pro-health effects for at least one of the indicators for own health (better mental health), own health-related behaviors (less smoking) and spouse health (less overweight). PMID:25464872

  20. Cross-sectional schooling-health associations misrepresented causal schooling effects on adult health and health-related behaviors: Evidence from the Chinese Adults Twins Survey

    PubMed Central

    Behrman, Jere R.; Xiong, Yanyan; Zhang, Junsen

    2015-01-01

    Adult health outcomes and health behaviors are often associated with schooling. However, such associations do not necessarily imply that schooling has causal effects on health with the signs or magnitudes found in the cross-sectional associations. Schooling may be proxying for unobserved factors related to genetics and family background that directly affect both health and schooling. Recently several studies have used within-monozygotic (MZ) twins methods to control for unobserved factors shared by identical twins. Within-MZ estimates for developed countries are generally smaller than suggested by cross-sectional associations, consistent with positive correlations between unobserved factors that determine schooling and those that determine health. This study contributes new estimates of cross-sectional associations and within-MZ causal effects using the Chinese Adults Twins Survey, the first study of its type for developing countries. The cross-sectional estimates suggest that schooling is significantly associated with adult health-related behaviors (smoking, drinking, exercising) but not with own or spouse health outcomes (general health, mental health, overweight, chronic diseases). However, within-MZ-twins estimators change the estimates for approximately half of these health indicators, in one case declining in absolute magnitudes and becoming insignificant and in the other cases increasing in absolute magnitudes. Within-MZ estimates indicate significant pro-health effects for at least one of the indicators for own health (better mental health), own health-related behaviors (less smoking) and spouse health (less overweight). PMID:25464872

  1. Causal learning with local computations.

    PubMed

    Fernbach, Philip M; Sloman, Steven A

    2009-05-01

    The authors proposed and tested a psychological theory of causal structure learning based on local computations. Local computations simplify complex learning problems via cues available on individual trials to update a single causal structure hypothesis. Structural inferences from local computations make minimal demands on memory, require relatively small amounts of data, and need not respect normative prescriptions as inferences that are principled locally may violate those principles when combined. Over a series of 3 experiments, the authors found (a) systematic inferences from small amounts of data; (b) systematic inference of extraneous causal links; (c) influence of data presentation order on inferences; and (d) error reduction through pretraining. Without pretraining, a model based on local computations fitted data better than a Bayesian structural inference model. The data suggest that local computations serve as a heuristic for learning causal structure.

  2. 22 CFR 42.42 - Petitions for immediate relative or preference status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Petitions for immediate relative or preference... relative or preference status. Petition for immediate relative or preference status. The consular officer...-sponsored immigrant entitled to preference status under 203(a)(1)-(4), or an employment-based...

  3. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    PubMed

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status. PMID:27364389

  4. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    PubMed

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status.

  5. Causal Inference in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Thomas A.; Goodman, Steven N.; Hernán, Miguel A.; Samet, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Causal inference has a central role in public health; the determination that an association is causal indicates the possibility for intervention. We review and comment on the long-used guidelines for interpreting evidence as supporting a causal association and contrast them with the potential outcomes framework that encourages thinking in terms of causes that are interventions. We argue that in public health this framework is more suitable, providing an estimate of an action’s consequences rather than the less precise notion of a risk factor’s causal effect. A variety of modern statistical methods adopt this approach. When an intervention cannot be specified, causal relations can still exist, but how to intervene to change the outcome will be unclear. In application, the often-complex structure of causal processes needs to be acknowledged and appropriate data collected to study them. These newer approaches need to be brought to bear on the increasingly complex public health challenges of our globalized world. PMID:23297653

  6. The Relation of Social Status to the Career Decision-Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Subich, Linda Mezydlo

    2006-01-01

    The relation of social status to individuals' career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and choice certainty was explored using a new, multifaceted measure of social status, the differential status identity scale (DSIS;, Brown, M. T., D'Agruma, H. D., Brown, A., Sia, A., Yamini-Diouf, Y., Porter, S., et al. (2002). Differential status identity:…

  7. [Odor perception in relation to age, general health, nutritional status, and dental status].

    PubMed

    Griep, M I; Mets, T F; Vogelaere, P; Collys, K; Laska, M; Massart, D L

    1997-02-01

    Many studies have shown that odour perception declines with age. Considering the possible role of age-related phenomena such as general health, dental health and nutrition in such a decline, their joint effect on variability in odour perception was evaluated in the present study. 73 apparently healthy adults aged from 53 to 86 years (median age = 66), living in the community, took part in this study. The SENIEUR protocol was used to assess the general health status and anthropometric measures were obtained to assess the nutritional status. The sensory detection threshold for isoamylacetate (banana odour) was determined as the lowest detectable odour concentration. Dental status was assessed by a questionnaire on the presence of natural teeth and wearing of dentures. Those in poor general health had significantly higher mean odour thresholds (2.35, SD = 1.34), where threshold concentration was expressed as -log(mol/l), than those in good (3.47, SD = 1.46) or reasonably general health (3.75, SD = 1.02). Partial denture wearers had significantly higher odour thresholds (2.99, SD = 1.12) than those having only natural teeth (4.24, SD = 1.43). Significant correlations between age and anthropometrical values were found, indicating that with age, muscle mass particularly in women decreases (r = -0.50). Odour perception of women correlated significantly inversely with triceps skinfold thickness (r = -0.42), indicating that poor sense of small is associated with high body content of fat. Our results indicate that general health and dental state are important age-associated factors in odour perception. Since age does not show a significant independent effect, neither in an analysis of variance, nor in a multiple regression analysis, such factors tend to become more important than chronological age per se.

  8. Causality and persistence in ecological systems: a nonparametric spectral granger causality approach.

    PubMed

    Detto, Matteo; Molini, Annalisa; Katul, Gabriel; Stoy, Paul; Palmroth, Sari; Baldocchi, Dennis

    2012-04-01

    Abstract Directionality in coupling, defined as the linkage relating causes to their effects at a later time, can be used to explain the core dynamics of ecological systems by untangling direct and feedback relationships between the different components of the systems. Inferring causality from measured ecological variables sampled through time remains a formidable challenge further made difficult by the action of periodic drivers overlapping the natural dynamics of the system. Periodicity in the drivers can often mask the self-sustained oscillations originating from the autonomous dynamics. While linear and direct causal relationships are commonly addressed in the time domain, using the well-established machinery of Granger causality (G-causality), the presence of periodic forcing requires frequency-based statistics (e.g., the Fourier transform), able to distinguish coupling induced by oscillations in external drivers from genuine endogenous interactions. Recent nonparametric spectral extensions of G-causality to the frequency domain pave the way for the scale-by-scale decomposition of causality, which can improve our ability to link oscillatory behaviors of ecological networks to causal mechanisms. The performance of both spectral G-causality and its conditional extension for multivariate systems is explored in quantifying causal interactions within ecological networks. Through two case studies involving synthetic and actual time series, it is demonstrated that conditional G-causality outperforms standard G-causality in identifying causal links and their concomitant timescales.

  9. How prescriptive norms influence causal inferences.

    PubMed

    Samland, Jana; Waldmann, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    Recent experimental findings suggest that prescriptive norms influence causal inferences. The cognitive mechanism underlying this finding is still under debate. We compare three competing theories: The culpable control model of blame argues that reasoners tend to exaggerate the causal influence of norm-violating agents, which should lead to relatively higher causal strength estimates for these agents. By contrast, the counterfactual reasoning account of causal selection assumes that norms do not alter the representation of the causal model, but rather later causal selection stages. According to this view, reasoners tend to preferentially consider counterfactual states of abnormal rather than normal factors, which leads to the choice of the abnormal factor in a causal selection task. A third view, the accountability hypothesis, claims that the effects of prescriptive norms are generated by the ambiguity of the causal test question. Asking whether an agent is a cause can be understood as a request to assess her causal contribution but also her moral accountability. According to this theory norm effects on causal selection are mediated by accountability judgments that are not only sensitive to the abnormality of behavior but also to mitigating factors, such as intentionality and knowledge of norms. Five experiments are presented that favor the accountability account over the two alternative theories. PMID:27591550

  10. Peer status and classroom seating arrangements: a social relations analysis.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Yvonne H M; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2015-02-01

    The current studies addressed the associations of classroom seating arrangements with peer status using the social relations model. Study 1 examined whether physical distance between classmates was associated with likeability and popularity. Participants were 336 children from 14 fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms (Mage=11.36 years, 47.3% boys). Children who sat closer to the center of the classroom were liked more. Moreover, classmates who sat closer together liked each other more and perceived each other as more popular. Study 2 examined whether children's likeability and popularity judgments were also reflected in the way they positioned themselves relative to their peers when they could arrange their classroom themselves. Participants were 158 children from 6 fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms (Mage=11.64 years, 50.5% boys). Participants placed liked and popular peers closer to themselves than disliked and unpopular peers. If children placed a classmate closer to themselves, they perceived that peer as better liked and more popular and were perceived as better liked and more popular in return. Implications for further research on classroom seating arrangements and peer relationships are discussed.

  11. Peer status and classroom seating arrangements: a social relations analysis.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Yvonne H M; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2015-02-01

    The current studies addressed the associations of classroom seating arrangements with peer status using the social relations model. Study 1 examined whether physical distance between classmates was associated with likeability and popularity. Participants were 336 children from 14 fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms (Mage=11.36 years, 47.3% boys). Children who sat closer to the center of the classroom were liked more. Moreover, classmates who sat closer together liked each other more and perceived each other as more popular. Study 2 examined whether children's likeability and popularity judgments were also reflected in the way they positioned themselves relative to their peers when they could arrange their classroom themselves. Participants were 158 children from 6 fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms (Mage=11.64 years, 50.5% boys). Participants placed liked and popular peers closer to themselves than disliked and unpopular peers. If children placed a classmate closer to themselves, they perceived that peer as better liked and more popular and were perceived as better liked and more popular in return. Implications for further research on classroom seating arrangements and peer relationships are discussed. PMID:25313926

  12. Self-esteem and causal attributions.

    PubMed

    Chandler, T A; Lee, M S; Pengilly, J W

    1997-11-01

    The relationship between self-esteem and causal attributions of success and failure in achievement-related behavior was examined among undergraduate students. An integration of a self-consistency model of causal attribution and self-enhancement theory was attempted. Self-esteem and performance outcome conditions of success and failure served as independent variables. Success and failure conditions were created via feedback regarding the participants' performance on an anagram task. The participants' attributions of six causal elements (ability, effort, immediate effort, task difficulty, luck, and mood) were categorized and combined with three causal dimensions (internal-external locus, stability, and controllability), which served as dependent variables. Participants' expectations regarding performance also served as a dependent variable. The relationship between self-esteem, expectancies of success and failure, performance, and stable causality were reported. In terms of causal dimensions, internal, stable, and controllable dimensions were explained by self-enhancement.

  13. Photodetection and causality I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haan, M.

    1985-09-01

    We investigate in this paper the link between the measurement process in quantum mechanics and casuality associated to a finite velocity of field propagation. We use models of interaction of a bound state with a scalar field. We first show that in the existing approaches, time delays resulting from the finite velocity of propagation have been obtained only as a consequence of ad hoc approximations. We show that exact causality can be restored in the case of a single photodetection by a slight change of the observable associated to the measurement process. Moreover, this modification may be justified by the introduction of a simple model for the photodetector. We present qualitative arguments to show that this procedure cannot be extended to the case of multiple photodetections. The process of repeated photodetection clashes therefore with causality. This paradox is closely related to the Zeno paradox described by Misra and Sudarshan 1). Both may be traced back to the positive definite character of the hamiltonian which is the generator of motion in quantum mechanics.

  14. Spin foam models as energetic causal sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortês, Marina; Smolin, Lee

    2016-04-01

    Energetic causal sets are causal sets endowed by a flow of energy-momentum between causally related events. These incorporate a novel mechanism for the emergence of space-time from causal relations [M. Cortês and L. Smolin, Phys. Rev. D 90, 084007 (2014); Phys. Rev. D 90, 044035 (2014)]. Here we construct a spin foam model which is also an energetic causal set model. This model is closely related to the model introduced in parallel by Wolfgang Wieland in [Classical Quantum Gravity 32, 015016 (2015)]. What makes a spin foam model also an energetic causal set is Wieland's identification of new degrees of freedom analogous to momenta, conserved at events (or four-simplices), whose norms are not mass, but the volume of tetrahedra. This realizes the torsion constraints, which are missing in previous spin foam models, and are needed to relate the connection dynamics to those of the metric, as in general relativity. This identification makes it possible to apply the new mechanism for the emergence of space-time to a spin foam model. Our formulation also makes use of Markopoulou's causal formulation of spin foams [arXiv:gr-qc/9704013]. These are generated by evolving spin networks with dual Pachner moves. This endows the spin foam history with causal structure given by a partial ordering of the events which are dual to four-simplices.

  15. Social status, glucocorticoids, immune function, and health: can animal studies help us understand human socioeconomic-status-related health disparities?

    PubMed

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Chaudhry, Hashim S

    2012-08-01

    For humans in developed nations, socioeconomic status (SES)--relative income, education and occupational position in a society--is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality rates, with increasing SES predicting longer life span (e.g. Marmot et al., 1991). Mechanisms underlying this relationship have been examined, but the relative role of each mechanism still remains unknown. By understanding the relative role of specific mechanisms that underlie dramatic health disparities between high and low social status individuals we can begin to identify effective, targeted methods to alleviate health disparities. In the current paper, we take advantage of a growing number of animal studies that have quantified biological health-related correlates (glucocorticoid production and immune function) of social status and compare these studies to the current literature on human SES and health to determine if and how animal studies can further our understanding of SES-associated human health disparities. Specifically, we compared social-status related glucocorticoid production and immune function in humans and animals. From the review, we show that our present understanding of the relationships between social status and glucocorticoid production/immune function is still growing, but that there are already identifiable parallels (and non-parallels) between humans and animals. We propose timely areas of future study focused on (1) specific aspects of social status that may influence stress-related physiology, (2) mechanisms underlying long-term influences of social status on physiology and health, and (3) intervention studies to alleviate potentially negative physiological correlates of social status. PMID:22841799

  16. Learning a Theory of Causality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Noah D.; Ullman, Tomer D.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2011-01-01

    The very early appearance of abstract knowledge is often taken as evidence for innateness. We explore the relative learning speeds of abstract and specific knowledge within a Bayesian framework and the role for innate structure. We focus on knowledge about causality, seen as a domain-general intuitive theory, and ask whether this knowledge can be…

  17. Accelerated relative sea-level rise and rapid coastal erosion: Testing a causal relationship for the Louisiana barrier islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    List, J.H.; Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Hansen, M.E.; Jaffe, B.E.

    1997-01-01

    The role of relative sea-level rise as a cause for the rapid erosion of Louisiana's barrier island coast is investigated through a numerical implementation of a modified Bruun rule that accounts for the low percentage of sand-sized sediment in the eroding Louisiana shoreface. Shore-normal profiles from 150 km of coastline west of the Mississippi delta are derived from bathymetric surveys conducted during the 1880s. 1930s and 1980s. An RMS difference criterion is employed to test whether an equilibrium profile form is maintained between survey years. Only about half the studied profiles meet the equilibrium Criterion this represents a significant limitation on the potential applicability of the Bruun rule. The profiles meeting the equilibrium criterion, along with measured rates of relative sea-level rise, are used to hindcast shoreline retreat rates at 37 locations within the study area. Modeled and observed shoreline retreat rates show no significant correlation. Thus in terms of the Bruun approach relative sea-level rise has no power for hindcasting (and presumably forecasting) rates of coastal erosion for the Louisiana barrier islands.

  18. Granger causality revisited

    PubMed Central

    Friston, Karl J.; Bastos, André M.; Oswal, Ashwini; van Wijk, Bernadette; Richter, Craig; Litvak, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This technical paper offers a critical re-evaluation of (spectral) Granger causality measures in the analysis of biological timeseries. Using realistic (neural mass) models of coupled neuronal dynamics, we evaluate the robustness of parametric and nonparametric Granger causality. Starting from a broad class of generative (state-space) models of neuronal dynamics, we show how their Volterra kernels prescribe the second-order statistics of their response to random fluctuations; characterised in terms of cross-spectral density, cross-covariance, autoregressive coefficients and directed transfer functions. These quantities in turn specify Granger causality — providing a direct (analytic) link between the parameters of a generative model and the expected Granger causality. We use this link to show that Granger causality measures based upon autoregressive models can become unreliable when the underlying dynamics is dominated by slow (unstable) modes — as quantified by the principal Lyapunov exponent. However, nonparametric measures based on causal spectral factors are robust to dynamical instability. We then demonstrate how both parametric and nonparametric spectral causality measures can become unreliable in the presence of measurement noise. Finally, we show that this problem can be finessed by deriving spectral causality measures from Volterra kernels, estimated using dynamic causal modelling. PMID:25003817

  19. Granger causality revisited.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl J; Bastos, André M; Oswal, Ashwini; van Wijk, Bernadette; Richter, Craig; Litvak, Vladimir

    2014-11-01

    This technical paper offers a critical re-evaluation of (spectral) Granger causality measures in the analysis of biological timeseries. Using realistic (neural mass) models of coupled neuronal dynamics, we evaluate the robustness of parametric and nonparametric Granger causality. Starting from a broad class of generative (state-space) models of neuronal dynamics, we show how their Volterra kernels prescribe the second-order statistics of their response to random fluctuations; characterised in terms of cross-spectral density, cross-covariance, autoregressive coefficients and directed transfer functions. These quantities in turn specify Granger causality - providing a direct (analytic) link between the parameters of a generative model and the expected Granger causality. We use this link to show that Granger causality measures based upon autoregressive models can become unreliable when the underlying dynamics is dominated by slow (unstable) modes - as quantified by the principal Lyapunov exponent. However, nonparametric measures based on causal spectral factors are robust to dynamical instability. We then demonstrate how both parametric and nonparametric spectral causality measures can become unreliable in the presence of measurement noise. Finally, we show that this problem can be finessed by deriving spectral causality measures from Volterra kernels, estimated using dynamic causal modelling.

  20. On the spectral formulation of Granger causality.

    PubMed

    Chicharro, D

    2011-12-01

    Spectral measures of causality are used to explore the role of different rhythms in the causal connectivity between brain regions. We study several spectral measures related to Granger causality, comprising the bivariate and conditional Geweke measures, the directed transfer function, and the partial directed coherence. We derive the formulation of dependence and causality in the spectral domain from the more general formulation in the information-theory framework. We argue that the transfer entropy, the most general measure derived from the concept of Granger causality, lacks a spectral representation in terms of only the processes associated with the recorded signals. For all the spectral measures we show how they are related to mutual information rates when explicitly considering the parametric autoregressive representation of the processes. In this way we express the conditional Geweke spectral measure in terms of a multiple coherence involving innovation variables inherent to the autoregressive representation. We also link partial directed coherence with Sims' criterion of causality. Given our results, we discuss the causal interpretation of the spectral measures related to Granger causality and stress the necessity to explicitly consider their specific formulation based on modeling the signals as linear Gaussian stationary autoregressive processes.

  1. Shoot life span in relation to successional status in deciduous broad-leaved tree species in a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Seiwa, Kenji; Kikuzawa, Kihachiro; Kadowaki, Takahiro; Akasaka, Shigetoshi; Ueno, Naoto

    2006-01-01

    In trees, leaf life span is closely related to successional status. Although leaves are attached to shoots, shoot life span has been insufficiently studied in the context of ecological systems. Interspecific variation in shoot survivorship was investigated over 27 months in 15 temperate hardwood tree species. Relationships between shoot architecture and shoot survival were also investigated. Shoot life span was shortest in early successional species, and longest in late successional species, in each of the families Betulaceae and Fagaceae. In Salicaceae, all of which were early successional species, shoot life span was longer in mountainous than in riparian species. Early successional or riparian species distributed longer shoots densely, even in proximal positions on mother shoots, resulting in mutual shading and consequent early and massive shoot shedding. By contrast, late successional or mountainous species concentrated shoots in distal positions, allowing shoots to receive equally favorable light, resulting in a longer life span. These results reveal close relationships between shoot life span and environmental resource availability or successional status and suggest a causal relationship between shoot shedding and shoot architecture.

  2. Causal Learning Across Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Laura E.; Gopnik, Alison

    2004-01-01

    Five studies investigated (a) children's ability to use the dependent and independent probabilities of events to make causal inferences and (b) the interaction between such inferences and domain-specific knowledge. In Experiment 1, preschoolers used patterns of dependence and independence to make accurate causal inferences in the domains of…

  3. Causality in Classical Electrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Causality in electrodynamics is a subject of some confusion, especially regarding the application of Faraday's law and the Ampere-Maxwell law. This has led to the suggestion that we should not teach students that electric and magnetic fields can cause each other, but rather focus on charges and currents as the causal agents. In this paper I argue…

  4. Repeated Causal Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in…

  5. Agency, time, and causality

    PubMed Central

    Widlok, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive Scientists interested in causal cognition increasingly search for evidence from non-Western Educational Industrial Rich Democratic people but find only very few cross-cultural studies that specifically target causal cognition. This article suggests how information about causality can be retrieved from ethnographic monographs, specifically from ethnographies that discuss agency and concepts of time. Many apparent cultural differences with regard to causal cognition dissolve when cultural extensions of agency and personhood to non-humans are taken into account. At the same time considerable variability remains when we include notions of time, linearity and sequence. The article focuses on ethnographic case studies from Africa but provides a more general perspective on the role of ethnography in research on the diversity and universality of causal cognition. PMID:25414683

  6. Practical application of the vanishing tetrad test for causal indicator measurement models: an example from health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Kenneth A; Lennox, Richard D; Dahly, Darren L

    2009-05-01

    Researchers are often faced with the task of trying to measure abstract concepts. The most common approach is to use multiple indicators that reflect an underlying latent variable. However, this 'effect indicator' measurement model is not always appropriate; sometimes the indicators instead cause the construct of interest. While the notion of 'causal indicators' has been known for some time, it is still too often ignored. However, there are limited means to determine whether a possible indicator should be treated as a cause or an effect of the latent construct of interest. Perhaps the best empirical way is to use the vanishing tetrad test (VTT), yet this method is still often overlooked. We speculate that one reason for this is the lack of published examples of its use in practice, written for an audience without extensive statistical training. The goal of this paper was to help fill this gap in the literature-to provide a basic example of how to use the VTT. We illustrated the VTT by looking at multiple items from a health related quality of life instrument that seem more likely to cause the latent variable rather than the other way around.

  7. Relation of Infant Vision to Early Cognitive and Language Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckman, Robert; Tulloch, Deborah

    Relationships between infant visual skills and the development of object permanence and expressive language skills were examined with 31 infants in three groups: visually typical, visually atypical, and Down Syndrome. Measures used to evaluate visual status were: forced preferential looking, optokinetic nystagmus, and behavioral. Object permanence…

  8. Causal Networks or Causal Islands? The Representation of Mechanisms and the Transitivity of Causal Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samuel G. B.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of mechanisms is critical for causal reasoning. We contrasted two possible organizations of causal knowledge--an interconnected causal "network," where events are causally connected without any boundaries delineating discrete mechanisms; or a set of disparate mechanisms--causal "islands"--such that events in different…

  9. Preschool Children Learn about Causal Structure from Conditional Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Laura E.; Gopnik, Alison; Glymour, Clark

    2007-01-01

    The conditional intervention principle is a formal principle that relates patterns of interventions and outcomes to causal structure. It is a central assumption of experimental design and the causal Bayes net formalism. Two studies suggest that preschoolers can use the conditional intervention principle to distinguish causal chains, common cause…

  10. The Specification of Causal Models with Tetrad IV: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsheer, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Tetrad IV is a program designed for the specification of causal models. It is specifically designed to search for causal relations, but also offers the possibility to estimate the parameters of a structural equation model. It offers a remarkable graphical user interface, which facilitates building, evaluating, and searching for causal models. The…

  11. How to Be Causal: Time, Spacetime and Spectra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsler, Paul

    2011-01-01

    I explain a simple definition of causality in widespread use, and indicate how it links to the Kramers-Kronig relations. The specification of causality in terms of temporal differential equations then shows us the way to write down dynamical models so that their causal nature "in the sense used here" should be obvious to all. To extend existing…

  12. Causal conjunction fallacies: the roles of causal strength and mental resources.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Aimée Kay; Feeney, Aidan

    2009-12-01

    In two experiments we tested the prediction derived from Tversky and Kahneman's (1983) work on the causal conjunction fallacy that the strength of the causal connection between constituent events directly affects the magnitude of the causal conjunction fallacy. We also explored whether any effects of perceived causal strength were due to graded output from heuristic Type 1 reasoning processes or the result of analytic Type 2 reasoning processes. As predicted, Experiment 1 demonstrated that fallacy rates were higher for strongly than for weakly related conjunctions. Weakly related conjunctions in turn attracted higher rates of fallacious responding than did unrelated conjunctions. Experiment 2 showed that a concurrent memory load increased rates of fallacious responding for strongly related but not for weakly related conjunctions. We interpret these results as showing that manipulations of the strength of the perceived causal relationship between the conjuncts result in graded output from heuristic reasoning process and that additional mental resources are required to suppress strong heuristic output.

  13. Reading Skill Moderates the Impact of Semantic Similarity and Causal Specificity on the Coherence of Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittwer, Jörg; Ihme, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has shown that readers are sensitive to causal relations between sentences. In addition, the extent to which readers put weight on causal relations seems to depend on their reading skill. Very little attention, however, has been given to the perception of causal relations linguistically expressed by different types of causal verbs…

  14. Causal Rasch models

    PubMed Central

    Stenner, A. Jackson; Fisher, William P.; Stone, Mark H.; Burdick, Donald S.

    2013-01-01

    Rasch's unidimensional models for measurement show how to connect object measures (e.g., reader abilities), measurement mechanisms (e.g., machine-generated cloze reading items), and observational outcomes (e.g., counts correct on reading instruments). Substantive theory shows what interventions or manipulations to the measurement mechanism can be traded off against a change to the object measure to hold the observed outcome constant. A Rasch model integrated with a substantive theory dictates the form and substance of permissible interventions. Rasch analysis, absent construct theory and an associated specification equation, is a black box in which understanding may be more illusory than not. Finally, the quantitative hypothesis can be tested by comparing theory-based trade-off relations with observed trade-off relations. Only quantitative variables (as measured) support such trade-offs. Note that to test the quantitative hypothesis requires more than manipulation of the algebraic equivalencies in the Rasch model or descriptively fitting data to the model. A causal Rasch model involves experimental intervention/manipulation on either reader ability or text complexity or a conjoint intervention on both simultaneously to yield a successful prediction of the resultant observed outcome (count correct). We conjecture that when this type of manipulation is introduced for individual reader text encounters and model predictions are consistent with observations, the quantitative hypothesis is sustained. PMID:23986726

  15. The power PC theory and causal powers: comment on Cheng (1997) and Novick and Cheng (2004).

    PubMed

    White, Peter A

    2005-07-01

    It has been claimed that the power PC theory reconciles regularity and power theories of causal judgment by showing how contingency information is used for inferences about unobservable causal powers. Under the causal powers theory causal relations are understood as generative relations in which a causal power of one thing acts on a liability of another thing under some releasing condition. These 3 causal roles are implicit or explicit in all causal interpretations. The power PC theory therefore fails to reconcile power theories and regularity theories because it has a fundamentally different definition of power and does not accommodate the tripartite causal role distinction. Implications of this distinction are drawn out.

  16. Relational Control: Historical Perspective and Current Empirical Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberg, James W.; Wettersten, Kara B.

    The notion of relational control in therapy has evolved as a concept over the past 30 years. This paper reviews the evolution of the construct of relational control as it relates to counseling and therapy. It analyzes the various ways that relational control has been used in process research and explores the manner in which counselors and clients…

  17. Dimensions of Causal Understanding: The Role of Complex Causal Models in Students' Understanding of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, David N.; Grotzer, Tina A.

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that an important source of the difficulties posed by particular concepts and theories is the narrow range of "types of causal models" with which most learners are familiar. Most learners are familiar with relatively simple styles of causal models, but many concepts and theories in science depend on styles substantially more…

  18. Social status and shaming experiences related to adolescent overt aggression at school.

    PubMed

    Aslund, Cecilia; Starrin, Bengt; Leppert, Jerzy; Nilsson, Kent W

    2009-01-01

    Feelings of rejection and humiliation in interpersonal interaction are strongly related to aggressive behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between social status, shaming experiences, gender and adolescent aggressive behavior by using a status-shaming model. A population-based sample of 5,396 adolescents aged from 15 to 18 completed a questionnaire that asked questions regarding psychosocial background, shaming experiences, social status of family, peer group and school and involvement in physical or verbal aggression at school. Shaming experiences, i.e. being ridiculed or humiliated by others, were strongly related to aggressive behavior. Social status and shaming were related in the prediction of aggressive behavior, suggesting that a person's social status may influence the risk for taking aggressive action when subjected to shaming experiences. Medium social status seemed to have a protective function in the association between shaming experiences and aggression. This study confirms the importance of further evaluation of the role of perceived social status and shaming experiences in the understanding of aggressive behavior. Moreover, the results indicate the need for different kinds of status measures when investigating the associations between status and behavior in adolescent populations. The results may have important implications for the prevention of bullying at school as well as other deviant aggressive behavior among adolescents. PMID:18925634

  19. The role of causal criteria in causal inferences: Bradford Hill's "aspects of association"

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Andrew C

    2009-01-01

    As noted by Wesley Salmon and many others, causal concepts are ubiquitous in every branch of theoretical science, in the practical disciplines and in everyday life. In the theoretical and practical sciences especially, people often base claims about causal relations on applications of statistical methods to data. However, the source and type of data place important constraints on the choice of statistical methods as well as on the warrant attributed to the causal claims based on the use of such methods. For example, much of the data used by people interested in making causal claims come from non-experimental, observational studies in which random allocations to treatment and control groups are not present. Thus, one of the most important problems in the social and health sciences concerns making justified causal inferences using non-experimental, observational data. In this paper, I examine one method of justifying such inferences that is especially widespread in epidemiology and the health sciences generally – the use of causal criteria. I argue that while the use of causal criteria is not appropriate for either deductive or inductive inferences, they do have an important role to play in inferences to the best explanation. As such, causal criteria, exemplified by what Bradford Hill referred to as "aspects of [statistical] associations", have an indispensible part to play in the goal of making justified causal claims. PMID:19534788

  20. Growth status related to brain responses, nutrition, home environment, and behavior in infants and toddlers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate whether growth status in infants and toddlers affects processes involved in speech perception and discrimination, cortical event-related potentials (ERPs) to consonant-vowel syllables were recorded from 48 healthy babies: 26 low in growth status (LGS, <25th percentile in growth measur...

  1. Aging-Related Geniohyoid Muscle Atrophy Is Related to Aspiration Status in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Age-related muscle weakness due to atrophy and fatty infiltration in orofacial muscles may be related to swallowing deficits in older adults. An important component of safe swallowing is the geniohyoid (GH) muscle, which helps elevate and stabilize the hyoid bone, thus protecting the airway. This study aimed to explore whether aging and aspiration in older adults were related to GH muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration. Method. Eighty computed tomography scans of the head and neck from 40 healthy older (average age 78 years) and 40 younger adults (average age 32 years) were analyzed. Twenty aspirators and 20 nonaspirators from the 40 older adults had been identified previously. Two-dimensional views in the sagittal and coronal planes were used to measure the GH cross-sectional area and fatty infiltration. Results. GH cross-sectional area was larger in men than in women (p < .05). Decreased cross-sectional area was associated with aging (p < .05), and cross-sectional area was significantly smaller in aspirators compared with nonaspirators, but only among the older men (p < .01). Increasing fatty infiltration was associated with aging in the middle (p < .05) and posterior (p < .01) portions of the GH muscle. There was no significant difference in fatty infiltration of the GH muscle among aspirators and nonaspirators. Conclusion. GH muscle atrophy was associated with aging and aspiration. Fatty infiltration in the GH muscle was increased with aging but not related to aspiration status. These findings suggest that GH muscle atrophy may be a component of decreased swallowing safety and aspiration in older adults and warrants further investigation. PMID:23112114

  2. Causal localizations in relativistic quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Castrigiano, Domenico P. L. Leiseifer, Andreas D.

    2015-07-15

    Causal localizations describe the position of quantum systems moving not faster than light. They are constructed for the systems with finite spinor dimension. At the center of interest are the massive relativistic systems. For every positive mass, there is the sequence of Dirac tensor-localizations, which provides a complete set of inequivalent irreducible causal localizations. They obey the principle of special relativity and are fully Poincaré covariant. The boosters are determined by the causal position operator and the other Poincaré generators. The localization with minimal spinor dimension is the Dirac localization. Thus, the Dirac equation is derived here as a mere consequence of the principle of causality. Moreover, the higher tensor-localizations, not known so far, follow from Dirac’s localization by a simple construction. The probability of localization for positive energy states results to be described by causal positive operator valued (PO-) localizations, which are the traces of the causal localizations on the subspaces of positive energy. These causal Poincaré covariant PO-localizations for every irreducible massive relativistic system were, all the more, not known before. They are shown to be separated. Hence, the positive energy systems can be localized within every open region by a suitable preparation as accurately as desired. Finally, the attempt is made to provide an interpretation of the PO-localization operators within the frame of conventional quantum mechanics attributing an important role to the negative energy states.

  3. The gravity dual of boundary causality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Fischetti, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    In gauge/gravity duality, points which are not causally related on the boundary cannot be causally related through the bulk; this is the statement of boundary causality. By the Gao-Wald theorem, the averaged null energy condition in the bulk is sufficient to ensure this property. Here we proceed in the converse direction: we derive a necessary as well as sufficient condition for the preservation of boundary causality under perturbative (quantum or stringy) corrections to the bulk. The condition that we find is a (background-dependent) constraint on the amount by which light cones can ‘open’ over all null bulk geodesics. We show that this constraint is weaker than the averaged null energy condition.

  4. The gravity dual of boundary causality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Fischetti, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    In gauge/gravity duality, points which are not causally related on the boundary cannot be causally related through the bulk; this is the statement of boundary causality. By the Gao–Wald theorem, the averaged null energy condition in the bulk is sufficient to ensure this property. Here we proceed in the converse direction: we derive a necessary as well as sufficient condition for the preservation of boundary causality under perturbative (quantum or stringy) corrections to the bulk. The condition that we find is a (background-dependent) constraint on the amount by which light cones can ‘open’ over all null bulk geodesics. We show that this constraint is weaker than the averaged null energy condition.

  5. Recent trends in the relative economic status of older adults.

    PubMed

    Harris, R J

    1986-05-01

    Contrary to theoretical expectations and previous empirical research based on modernization and aging theory, this study demonstrates that there has been no decline in the relative income of the older population from 1945 to 1980. Furthermore, recent increases in the relative earnings of older workers between 1967 and 1977 are documented, independent of structural changes in educational and occupational levels. Rather than representing a reversal of previous trends, conceptual and measurement issues appear to account for the differences in findings. Although each older cohort does experience a decline in relative earnings between 1967 and 1977, newer cohorts entering old age have higher relative earnings than the older cohorts whom they replace, accounting for aggregate improvements in relative earnings. PMID:3700992

  6. Causal conditionals and counterfactuals

    PubMed Central

    Frosch, Caren A.; Byrne, Ruth M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Causal counterfactuals e.g., ‘if the ignition key had been turned then the car would have started’ and causal conditionals e.g., ‘if the ignition key was turned then the car started’ are understood by thinking about multiple possibilities of different sorts, as shown in six experiments using converging evidence from three different types of measures. Experiments 1a and 1b showed that conditionals that comprise enabling causes, e.g., ‘if the ignition key was turned then the car started’ primed people to read quickly conjunctions referring to the possibility of the enabler occurring without the outcome, e.g., ‘the ignition key was turned and the car did not start’. Experiments 2a and 2b showed that people paraphrased causal conditionals by using causal or temporal connectives (because, when), whereas they paraphrased causal counterfactuals by using subjunctive constructions (had…would have). Experiments 3a and 3b showed that people made different inferences from counterfactuals presented with enabling conditions compared to none. The implications of the results for alternative theories of conditionals are discussed. PMID:22858874

  7. Causality discovery technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Ertl, T.; Jirotka, M.; Trefethen, A.; Schmidt, A.; Coecke, B.; Bañares-Alcántara, R.

    2012-11-01

    Causality is the fabric of our dynamic world. We all make frequent attempts to reason causation relationships of everyday events (e.g., what was the cause of my headache, or what has upset Alice?). We attempt to manage causality all the time through planning and scheduling. The greatest scientific discoveries are usually about causality (e.g., Newton found the cause for an apple to fall, and Darwin discovered natural selection). Meanwhile, we continue to seek a comprehensive understanding about the causes of numerous complex phenomena, such as social divisions, economic crisis, global warming, home-grown terrorism, etc. Humans analyse and reason causality based on observation, experimentation and acquired a priori knowledge. Today's technologies enable us to make observations and carry out experiments in an unprecedented scale that has created data mountains everywhere. Whereas there are exciting opportunities to discover new causation relationships, there are also unparalleled challenges to benefit from such data mountains. In this article, we present a case for developing a new piece of ICT, called Causality Discovery Technology. We reason about the necessity, feasibility and potential impact of such a technology.

  8. Neuropsychological factors related to employability and occupational status in persons with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Dikmen, S; Morgan, S F

    1980-04-01

    The relationship between neuropsychological abilities and employment and occupational status was examined in 108 epilepsy patients. The performances of each subject on a wide range of neuropsychological measures were grouped into six conceptually meaningful ability categories. Highly significant differences were obtained between groups of patients with epilepsy differing in employment status and occupational status across both the range of individual measures and the composite neuropsychological ability areas utilized. The relative importance of the six ability scores was then examined with respect to employment status and occupational status. The results suggest that generalized neuropsychological dysfunction characterizes groups of persons who are unemployed and/or who have held low occupational level jobs. Within this context of general impairment, however, memory and alertness and flexibility in thinking appear to be relatively important abilities with respect to these general employment variables. Implications of the results for vocational and rehabilitation efforts were discussed.

  9. Information causality from an entropic and a probabilistic perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Safi, Sabri W.; Short, Anthony J.

    2011-10-15

    The information causality principle is a generalization of the no-signaling principle which implies some of the known restrictions on quantum correlations. But despite its clear physical motivation, information causality is formulated in terms of a rather specialized game and figure of merit. We explore different perspectives on information causality, discussing the probability of success as the figure of merit, a relation between information causality and the nonlocal ''inner-product game,'' and the derivation of a quadratic bound for these games. We then examine an entropic formulation of information causality with which one can obtain the same results, arguably in a simpler fashion.

  10. Causal inference with multiple time series: principles and problems.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Michael

    2013-08-28

    I review the use of the concept of Granger causality for causal inference from time-series data. First, I give a theoretical justification by relating the concept to other theoretical causality measures. Second, I outline possible problems with spurious causality and approaches to tackle these problems. Finally, I sketch an identification algorithm that learns causal time-series structures in the presence of latent variables. The description of the algorithm is non-technical and thus accessible to applied scientists who are interested in adopting the method.

  11. Heavier smoking may lead to a relative increase in waist circumference: evidence for a causal relationship from a Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis. The CARTA consortium

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Richard W; Taylor, Amy E; Fluharty, Meg E; Bjørngaard, Johan H; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Elvestad Gabrielsen, Maiken; Campbell, Archie; Marioni, Riccardo; Kumari, Meena; Korhonen, Tellervo; Männistö, Satu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Kaakinen, Marika; Cavadino, Alana; Postmus, Iris; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Skaaby, Tea; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Treur, Jorien L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Dale, Caroline; Wannamethee, S Goya; Lahti, Jari; Palotie, Aarno; Räikkönen, Katri; McConnachie, Alex; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Wong, Andrew; Dalgård, Christine; Paternoster, Lavinia; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Tyrrell, Jessica; Horwood, John; Fergusson, David M; Kennedy, Martin A; Nohr, Ellen A; Christiansen, Lene; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Kuh, Diana; Watt, Graham; Eriksson, Johan G; Whincup, Peter H; Vink, Jacqueline M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie; Linneberg, Allan; Ford, Ian; Jukema, J Wouter; Power, Chris; Hyppönen, Elina; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Preisig, Martin; Borodulin, Katja; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kivimaki, Mika; Smith, Blair H; Hayward, Caroline; Romundstad, Pål R; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Munafò, Marcus R; Sattar, Naveed

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate, using a Mendelian randomisation approach, whether heavier smoking is associated with a range of regional adiposity phenotypes, in particular those related to abdominal adiposity. Design Mendelian randomisation meta-analyses using a genetic variant (rs16969968/rs1051730 in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene region) as a proxy for smoking heaviness, of the associations of smoking heaviness with a range of adiposity phenotypes. Participants 148 731 current, former and never-smokers of European ancestry aged ≥16 years from 29 studies in the consortium for Causal Analysis Research in Tobacco and Alcohol (CARTA). Primary outcome measures Waist and hip circumferences, and waist-hip ratio. Results The data included up to 66 809 never-smokers, 43 009 former smokers and 38 913 current daily cigarette smokers. Among current smokers, for each extra minor allele, the geometric mean was lower for waist circumference by −0.40% (95% CI −0.57% to −0.22%), with effects on hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and body mass index (BMI) being −0.31% (95% CI −0.42% to −0.19), −0.08% (−0.19% to 0.03%) and −0.74% (−0.96% to −0.51%), respectively. In contrast, among never-smokers, these effects were higher by 0.23% (0.09% to 0.36%), 0.17% (0.08% to 0.26%), 0.07% (−0.01% to 0.15%) and 0.35% (0.18% to 0.52%), respectively. When adjusting the three central adiposity measures for BMI, the effects among current smokers changed direction and were higher by 0.14% (0.05% to 0.22%) for waist circumference, 0.02% (−0.05% to 0.08%) for hip circumference and 0.10% (0.02% to 0.19%) for waist-hip ratio, for each extra minor allele. Conclusions For a given BMI, a gene variant associated with increased cigarette consumption was associated with increased waist circumference. Smoking in an effort to control weight may lead to accumulation of central adiposity. PMID:26264275

  12. Sensing the Coherence of Biology in Contrast to Psychology: Young Children’s Use of Causal Relations to Distinguish Two Foundational Domains

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Jane E.; Keil, Frank C.; Lockhart, Kristi L.

    2011-01-01

    To what extent do children understand that biological processes fall into 1 coherent domain unified by distinct causal principles? In Experiments 1 and 2 (N = 125) kindergartners are given triads of biological and psychological processes and asked to identify which 2 members of the triad belong together. Results show that 5-year-olds correctly cluster biological processes and separate them from psychological ones. Experiments 3 and 4 (N = 64) examine whether or not children make this distinction because they understand that biological and psychological processes operate according to fundamentally different causal mechanisms. The results suggest that 5-year-olds do possess this understanding, and furthermore, they have intuitions about the nature of these different mechanisms. PMID:20331675

  13. Considerations on causality in pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Edwards, I Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Causality has been a topic of debate by philosophers, scientists, lawyers and for centuries. It is essential to define as precisely as possible all steps in the logical chain of events, since each may strengthen or confound an argument. Almost always there are issues of missing and conflicting data that need to be addressed specifically. In pharmacovigilance, as in many other situations, there is not just one possible causation for an effect but several. Each must be evaluated in the given context for probability. There is also likely to be a causal chain of events to the adverse effect under consideration, and each must be considered. In an individual patient diagnosis the components of patient history, clinical findings and various laboratory test findings are combined to point to the probability of the patho-physiological diagnosis, which in turn is related to possible causes with a strength determined by the constellation of findings. The established Bradford-Hill criteria are valuable in considering all the possible causal factors. Pharmacoepidemiology allows for population incidences of causes for particular effects and therefore provides an a priori probability listing for competing possible causes, or at least of one possible cause against the background of all others in a control group. Since adverse effects of medicines are generally rare, it is not possible to exclude drug causation in an individual by reliance on epidemiological evidence alone, only to argue that the incidence is below a level determined by statistical power, of the study or studies combined. Other areas of society are concerned with the process of causal inference, and this is especially true in legal cases in which judgements are made on possible personal injury by drugs.

  14. Causal premise semantics.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    The rise of causality and the attendant graph-theoretic modeling tools in the study of counterfactual reasoning has had resounding effects in many areas of cognitive science, but it has thus far not permeated the mainstream in linguistic theory to a comparable degree. In this study I show that a version of the predominant framework for the formal semantic analysis of conditionals, Kratzer-style premise semantics, allows for a straightforward implementation of the crucial ideas and insights of Pearl-style causal networks. I spell out the details of such an implementation, focusing especially on the notions of intervention on a network and backtracking interpretations of counterfactuals.

  15. Demographics, Causality, Work Salience, and the Career Maturity of African-American Students: A Causal Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Anthony V.; Bowman, Sharon L.; Gerstein, Lawrence H.

    1998-01-01

    A model proposing that causality and work salience moderate the influence of gender, educational level, and socioeconomic status on career maturity was tested with 288 African-American students. Work salience had the strongest direct effect on career maturity. For these students home/family had higher salience than did work. (SK)

  16. 42 CFR 435.1010 - Definitions relating to institutional status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... lessening of illness, disability, or pain. Persons with related conditions means individuals who have a severe, chronic disability that meets all of the following conditions: (a) It is attributable to— (1) Cerebral palsy or epilepsy; or (2) Any other condition, other than mental illness, found to be...

  17. 42 CFR 435.1010 - Definitions relating to institutional status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... lessening of illness, disability, or pain. Persons with related conditions means individuals who have a severe, chronic disability that meets all of the following conditions: (a) It is attributable to— (1) Cerebral palsy or epilepsy; or (2) Any other condition, other than mental illness, found to be...

  18. 42 CFR 435.1010 - Definitions relating to institutional status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lessening of illness, disability, or pain. Persons with related conditions means individuals who have a severe, chronic disability that meets all of the following conditions: (a) It is attributable to— (1) Cerebral palsy or epilepsy; or (2) Any other condition, other than mental illness, found to be...

  19. 42 CFR 435.1010 - Definitions relating to institutional status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lessening of illness, disability, or pain. Persons with related conditions means individuals who have a severe, chronic disability that meets all of the following conditions: (a) It is attributable to— (1) Cerebral palsy or epilepsy; or (2) Any other condition, other than mental illness, found to be...

  20. Relations among Socioeconomic Status, Age, and Predictors of Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Kimberly D.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Goldstein, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study simultaneously examined predictors of phonological awareness within the framework of 2 theories: the phonological distinctness hypothesis and the lexical restructuring model. Additionally, age as a moderator of the relations between predictor variables and phonological awareness was examined. Method: This cross-sectional…

  1. State Profiles: Current Status of Public Sector Labor Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labor Management Services Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Div. of Public Employee Labor Relations.

    This guide summarizes the coverage of public employees by state labor relations laws. For each state, the guide describes legal provisions, current situation, and current legislative activity. The report also includes data on population, public employment, work stoppages, and state revenues and expenditures. Agencies useful in gathering and…

  2. Rate-Agnostic (Causal) Structure Learning

    PubMed Central

    Plis, Sergey; Danks, David; Freeman, Cynthia; Calhoun, Vince

    2016-01-01

    Causal structure learning from time series data is a major scientific challenge. Extant algorithms assume that measurements occur sufficiently quickly; more precisely, they assume approximately equal system and measurement timescales. In many domains, however, measurements occur at a significantly slower rate than the underlying system changes, but the size of the timescale mismatch is often unknown. This paper develops three causal structure learning algorithms, each of which discovers all dynamic causal graphs that explain the observed measurement data, perhaps given undersampling. That is, these algorithms all learn causal structure in a “rate-agnostic” manner: they do not assume any particular relation between the measurement and system timescales. We apply these algorithms to data from simulations to gain insight into the challenge of undersampling. PMID:27182188

  3. Establishing causal coherence across sentences: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Kuperberg, Gina R.; Paczynski, Martin; Ditman, Tali

    2011-01-01

    This study examined neural activity associated with establishing causal relationships across sentences during online comprehension. ERPs were measured while participants read and judged the relatedness of three-sentence scenarios in which the final sentence was highly causally related, intermediately related and causally unrelated to its context. Lexico-semantic co-occurrence was matched across the three conditions using a Latent Semantic Analysis. Critical words in causally unrelated scenarios evoked a larger N400 than words in both highly causally related and intermediately related scenarios, regardless of whether they appeared before or at the sentence-final position. At midline sites, the N400 to intermediately related sentence-final words was attenuated to the same degree as to highly causally related words, but otherwise the N400 to intermediately related words fell in between that evoked by highly causally related and intermediately related words. No modulation of the Late Positivity/P600 component was observed across conditions. These results indicate that both simple and complex causal inferences can influence the earliest stages of semantically processing an incoming word. Further, they suggest that causal coherence, at the situation level, can influence incremental word-by-word discourse comprehension, even when semantic relationships between individual words are matched. PMID:20175676

  4. Chinese Adolescents' Social Status Goals: Associations with Behaviors and Attributions for Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michelle F.; Li, Yan; Shi, Junqi

    2014-01-01

    This study examined two social status goals in relation to aggressive and prosocial behaviors as well as attributions for relational aggression among 477 (244 girls) Chinese early adolescents. Findings indicate that, after controlling for each other, the social preference goal was negatively related to self-reported overt aggression, and…

  5. Chromium status of tannery workers in relation to metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Stupar, J; Vrtovec, M; Kocijancic, A; Gantar, A

    1999-01-01

    Chromium (Cr), being an excellent tanning agent, is widely used in the leather industry. In the process of leather production, tannery workers are exposed to either inorganic Cr(III) compounds or Cr bound to proteins (leather dust). The total Cr content in tannery air (1-54 microg m(-3)) is rather high in comparison to ambient air (4-6 ng m(-3)) but the amount of Cr in inhalable particles (<10 microm) is two to three orders of magnitude less (20-60 ng m(-3)). The total daily intake of Cr was estimated by the analysis of diet (24.3 +/- 4.0 microg Cr day(-1)), drinking water (0.3 +/- 0.1 microg Cr dm(-3)) and ambient air. The contribution of the latter was dominant for tannery workers and almost negligible (8%) for the unexposed population. Chromium is an essential nutrient required for sugar and fat metabolism. The normal dietary intake of Cr for the occupationally unexposed population is found to be suboptimal (<30 microg Cr day(-1)) whereas tannery workers receive on average 150-325 microg of supplemental Cr day(-1). Assessment of the Cr status of both populations was made on the basis of the Cr contents of their scalp hair, pre-shift urine and thermally induced sweat. The median Cr contents in these tissues and fluids were significantly higher (P<0.01) in tannery workers (hair: 4 microg Cr g (-1), urine: Cr/creatinine 1.7 microg Cr g(-1), sweat: 25 microg Cr dm(-3)) in comparison with the control group (hair: 0.16 microg Cr g(-1), urine: Cr/creatinine 0.13 microg Cr g (-1), sweat: 0.7 microg Cr dm(-3)). Tannery workers absorbed up to 13 times more Cr in comparison to controls, the amount varying considerably depending on the workplace and duration of exposure. The main route of Cr absorption appears to be through the gastrointestinal tract, where medium to large particles play a dominant role. The absorption of Cr from leather dust may be more efficient in comparison to inorganic Cr(III) compounds. Under normal circumstances sweat Cr losses represent at least 20

  6. Evaluating Causal Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.

    Pointing out that linear causal models can organize the interrelationships of a large number of variables, this paper contends that such models are particularly useful to mass communication research, which must by necessity deal with complex systems of variables. The paper first outlines briefly the philosophical requirements for establishing a…

  7. Causal Responsibility and Counterfactuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagnado, David A.; Gerstenberg, Tobias; Zultan, Ro'i

    2013-01-01

    How do people attribute responsibility in situations where the contributions of multiple agents combine to produce a joint outcome? The prevalence of over-determination in such cases makes this a difficult problem for counterfactual theories of causal responsibility. In this article, we explore a general framework for assigning responsibility in…

  8. Causal Premise Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The rise of causality and the attendant graph-theoretic modeling tools in the study of counterfactual reasoning has had resounding effects in many areas of cognitive science, but it has thus far not permeated the mainstream in linguistic theory to a comparable degree. In this study I show that a version of the predominant framework for the formal…

  9. The Causal Asymmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Peter A.

    2006-01-01

    It is hypothesized that there is a pervasive and fundamental bias in humans' understanding of physical causation: Once the roles of cause and effect are assigned to objects in interactions, people tend to overestimate the strength and importance of the causal object and underestimate that of the effect object in bringing about the outcome. This…

  10. Causality: Physics and Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Atanu

    2013-01-01

    Nature is a complex causal network exhibiting diverse forms and species. These forms or rather systems are physically open, structurally complex and naturally adaptive. They interact with the surrounding media by operating a positive-feedback loop through which, they adapt, organize and self-organize themselves in response to the ever-changing…

  11. Models and Moves: Focusing on Dimensions of Causal Complexity To Achieve Deeper Scientific Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, David N.; Grotzer, Tina A.

    This paper presents the results of a research project based on the Understandings of Consequence Project. This study motivated students to engage in inquiry in science classrooms. The complexity of the models is divided into four categories--underlying causality, relational causality, probabilistic causality, and emergent causality--and provides…

  12. Triathlon related musculoskeletal injuries: the status of injury prevention knowledge.

    PubMed

    Gosling, Cameron McR; Gabbe, Belinda J; Forbes, Andrew B

    2008-07-01

    Triathlon is a popular participation sport that combines swimming, cycling and running into a single event. A number of studies have investigated the incidence of injury, profile of injuries sustained and factors contributing to triathlon injury. This paper summarises the published literature in the context of the evidence base for the prevention of triathlon related injuries. Relevant articles on triathlon injuries were sourced from peer-reviewed English language journals and assessed using the Translating Research into Injury Prevention Practice (TRIPP) framework. This review highlights the significant knowledge gap that exists in the published literature describing the incidence of injury, the profile of injuries sustained and evidence for the prevention of injury in triathlon. Despite the number of studies undertaken to address TRIPP Stages 1 and 2 (injury surveillance, aetiology and mechanism of injury), most triathlon studies have been limited by retrospective designs with substantial, and unvalidated, recall periods, inconsistency in the definitions used for a reportable injury and exposure to injury, or a failure to capture exposure data at all. Overall, the paucity of quality, prospective studies investigating the incidence of injury in triathlon and factors contributing to their occurrence has led to an inability to adequately inform the development of injury prevention strategies (TRIPP Stages 3-6) for this sport, a situation that must be rectified if gains are to be made in reducing the burden of triathlon related injury.

  13. Health-related worries, perceived health status, and health care utilization.

    PubMed

    Ren, A; Okubo, T; Takahashi, K

    1994-12-01

    This study examines the association of health-related worries (over cancers, diabetes, work-related stress, heart attack, obesity, general physical fitness, and/or other health conditions) and perceived health status (excellent, good, fair or poor) to the utilization of health care services for 19, 139 Japanese local public service employees. Data on health-related worries and health status were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire survey in 1988 and analyzed in relation to the subsequent 12-month utilization of health care. Results showed that perceived health status was associated with the utilization for almost all medical conditions and so was worry over a specific condition and the subsequent utilization of health care services. The implication of these findings is that measures targeting the relief of an employee's health-related worries, through either health consultation or other health programs, may contribute to the reduction of an employee's health care utilization and costs.

  14. Present status of the VMI and related models

    SciTech Connect

    Scharff-Goldhaber, G

    1980-05-01

    This article traces the evolution of the Variable Moment of Inertia model in its relation to the shell model, the Bohr-Mottelson model and the Interacting Boson Model. The discovery of a new type of spectrum, that of pseudomagic nuclei (isobars of doubly magic nuclei) is reported, and an explanation for their dynamics is suggested. The type of rotational motion underlying the ground state band of an e-e nucleus is shown to depend on whether the minimum number of valence nucleon pairs of one kind (neutrons or protons) is less than or equal to 2 or > 2. In the former case the alpha-dumbbell model holds; in the latter the two-fluid model.

  15. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Minas, Harry; Klimidis, Steven; Tuncer, Can

    2007-01-01

    Background People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Methods Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Results Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Conclusion Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes persists despite modernizing and

  16. Hymenoscyphus fraxineus vs. Hymenoscyphus albidus – A comparative light microscopic study on the causal agent of European ash dieback and related foliicolous, stroma-forming species

    PubMed Central

    Baral, Hans-Otto; Bemmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Five species of Hymenoscyphus that fruit on black stromatized parts of dead leaves of deciduous trees are presented, giving details on their morphological and ecological characteristics. Several of these species have previously been misplaced in rutstroemiaceous genera because of the presence of a substratal stroma. However, the heteropolar, scutuloid ascospores with an often hook-like lateral protrusion at the rounded apex and the ascus apical ring of the Hymenoscyphus-type represent two reliable morphological characteristics that, together with molecular data, provide clear evidence for their placement in the genus Hymenoscyphus (Helotiaceae). Among the species treated is Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (=Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus), the causal agent of the European ash dieback disease. Since 1992 this species started within Europe to replace the rather uncommon Hymenoscyphus albidus, which is likewise confined to leaves of Fraxinus. Hy. fraxineus has been recorded already since 1990 in Eastern Asia (Japan, Korea, northeast of China), where it had been initially misidentified as Lambertella albida (≡Hy. albidus). In these regions, it occurs as a harmless saprotroph on Fraxinus mandshurica and Fraxinus rhynchophylla, suggesting that those populations are native while the European ash dieback disease has a recent Eastern Asiatic origin. The distinctly higher genetic diversity found in Japanese Hy. fraxineus in contrast to European Hy. fraxineus supports this view. Genetic similarities between Japanese Hy. fraxineus and European Hy. albidus suggest that also Hy. albidus might be a descendant of Asian Hy. fraxineus, though having invaded Europe much earlier. However, consistent genetic deviation between European and Asian Hy. fraxineus at two nucleotide positions of the ITS region indicates that the European ash disease originates from a region different from the presently known areas in Eastern Asia. Our results underline the importance of detailed morphological studies

  17. Causal Discovery of Dynamic Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voortman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Recently, several philosophical and computational approaches to causality have used an interventionist framework to clarify the concept of causality [Spirtes et al., 2000, Pearl, 2000, Woodward, 2005]. The characteristic feature of the interventionist approach is that causal models are potentially useful in predicting the effects of manipulations.…

  18. Context, causality, and appreciation.

    PubMed

    Ross, Stephanie

    2013-04-01

    I applaud and elaborate on the contextualism at the heart of Bullot & Reber's (B&R's) theory, challenge two aspects of the appreciative structure they posit (the causal reasoning that allegedly underlies the design stance and the segregation of the component stages), suggest that expert and novice appreciators operate differently, and question the degree to which B&R's final theory is open to empirical investigation. PMID:23507111

  19. Context, causality, and appreciation.

    PubMed

    Ross, Stephanie

    2013-04-01

    I applaud and elaborate on the contextualism at the heart of Bullot & Reber's (B&R's) theory, challenge two aspects of the appreciative structure they posit (the causal reasoning that allegedly underlies the design stance and the segregation of the component stages), suggest that expert and novice appreciators operate differently, and question the degree to which B&R's final theory is open to empirical investigation.

  20. Relations between cognitive status and medication adherence in patients treated for memory disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ownby, Raymond L.; Hertzog, Christopher; Czaja, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Medication adherence has been increasingly recognized as an important factor in elderly persons' health. Various studies have shown that medication non-adherence is associated with poor health status in this population. As part of a study of the effects of two interventions to promote medication adherence in patients treated for memory problems, information on medication adherence and cognitive status was collected at 3-month intervals. Twenty-seven participants (16 men, 11 women, age 71–92 years) were assigned to control or treatment conditions and adherence was evaluated with an electronic monitoring device. Cognitive status was evaluated at 3-month intervals beginning in April of 2003 and continuing through September of 2006. We have previously reported on the effectiveness of these interventions to promote adherence. In this paper, we examine the relations of cognitive status and adherence over time using a partial least squares path model in order to evaluate the extent to which adherence to cholinesterase medications was related to cognitive status. Adherence predicted cognitive status at later time points while cognition did not, in general, predict adherence. Results thus suggest that interventions to ensure high levels of medication adherence may be important for maintaining cognitive function in affected elderly people. PMID:24575293

  1. Causal Responsibility and Counterfactuals

    PubMed Central

    Lagnado, David A; Gerstenberg, Tobias; Zultan, Ro'i

    2013-01-01

    How do people attribute responsibility in situations where the contributions of multiple agents combine to produce a joint outcome? The prevalence of over-determination in such cases makes this a difficult problem for counterfactual theories of causal responsibility. In this article, we explore a general framework for assigning responsibility in multiple agent contexts. We draw on the structural model account of actual causation (e.g., Halpern & Pearl, 2005) and its extension to responsibility judgments (Chockler & Halpern, 2004). We review the main theoretical and empirical issues that arise from this literature and propose a novel model of intuitive judgments of responsibility. This model is a function of both pivotality (whether an agent made a difference to the outcome) and criticality (how important the agent is perceived to be for the outcome, before any actions are taken). The model explains empirical results from previous studies and is supported by a new experiment that manipulates both pivotality and criticality. We also discuss possible extensions of this model to deal with a broader range of causal situations. Overall, our approach emphasizes the close interrelations between causality, counterfactuals, and responsibility attributions. PMID:23855451

  2. Relational trustworthiness: how status affects intra-organizational inequality in job autonomy.

    PubMed

    Campos-Castillo, Celeste; Ewoodzie, Kwesi

    2014-03-01

    Recent accounts of trustworthiness have moved away from treating it as a stable, individual-level attribute toward viewing it as a variable situated in a relational context, but have not been formalized or supported empirically. We extend status characteristics theory (SCT) to develop formal propositions about relational trustworthiness. We posit that members of task- and collectively oriented groups (non-consciously) infer three qualities from their relative status that are commonly used to determine an individual's trustworthiness: ability, benevolence, and integrity. We apply our formalization to clarify ambiguities regarding intra-organizational job autonomy inequality, thereby linking SCT to broader disparities rooted in job autonomy. We analyze data from a vignette experiment and the General Social Survey to test incrementally how well our propositions generalize across different settings and populations. Results generally support our proposed links between status and intra-organizational job autonomy. We discuss implications for SCT in understanding broader patterns of inequalities.

  3. Are fetal growth impairment and preterm birth causally related to child attention problems and ADHD? Evidence from a comparison between high-income and middle-income cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Elizabeth; Pearson, Rebecca; Fernandes, Michelle; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G; Stein, Alan; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Background Cross-cohort comparison is an established method for improving causal inference. This study compared 2 cohorts, 1 from a high-income country and another from a middle-income country, to (1) establish whether birth exposures may play a causal role in the development of childhood attention problems; and (2) identify whether confounding structures play a different role in parent-reported attention difficulties compared with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses. Methods Birth exposures included low birth weight (LBW), small-for-gestational age (SGA), small head circumference (HC) and preterm birth (PTB)). Outcomes of interest were attention difficulties (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDQ) and ADHD (Development and Well-Being Assessment, DAWBA). Associations between exposures and outcomes were compared between 7-year-old children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in the UK (N=6849) and the 2004 Pelotas cohort in Brazil (N=3509). Results For attention difficulties (SDQ), the pattern of association with birth exposures was similar between cohorts: following adjustment, attention difficulties were associated with SGA (OR=1.59, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.19) and small HC (OR=1.64, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.41) in ALSPAC and SGA (OR=1.35, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.75) in Pelotas. For ADHD, however, the pattern of association following adjustment differed markedly between cohorts. In ALSPAC, ADHD was associated with LBW (OR=2.29, 95% CI 1.09 to 4.80) and PTB (OR=2.33, 95% CI 1.23 to 4.42). In the Pelotas cohort, however, ADHD was associated with SGA (OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.82). Conclusions The findings suggest that fetal growth impairment may play a causal role in the development of attention difficulties in childhood, as similar associations were identified across both cohorts. Confounding structures, however, appear to play a greater role in determining whether a child meets the full diagnostic criteria for ADHD. PMID

  4. Non-Bayesian Inference: Causal Structure Trumps Correlation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bes, Benedicte; Sloman, Steven; Lucas, Christopher G.; Raufaste, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The study tests the hypothesis that conditional probability judgments can be influenced by causal links between the target event and the evidence even when the statistical relations among variables are held constant. Three experiments varied the causal structure relating three variables and found that (a) the target event was perceived as more…

  5. Linear structures, causal sets and topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudetz, Laurenz

    2015-11-01

    Causal set theory and the theory of linear structures (which has recently been developed by Tim Maudlin as an alternative to standard topology) share some of their main motivations. In view of that, I raise and answer the question how these two theories are related to each other and to standard topology. I show that causal set theory can be embedded into Maudlin's more general framework and I characterise what Maudlin's topological concepts boil down to when applied to discrete linear structures that correspond to causal sets. Moreover, I show that all topological aspects of causal sets that can be described in Maudlin's theory can also be described in the framework of standard topology. Finally, I discuss why these results are relevant for evaluating Maudlin's theory. The value of this theory depends crucially on whether it is true that (a) its conceptual framework is as expressive as that of standard topology when it comes to describing well-known continuous as well as discrete models of spacetime and (b) it is even more expressive or fruitful when it comes to analysing topological aspects of discrete structures that are intended as models of spacetime. On one hand, my theorems support (a). The theory is rich enough to incorporate causal set theory and its definitions of topological notions yield a plausible outcome in the case of causal sets. On the other hand, the results undermine (b). Standard topology, too, has the conceptual resources to capture those topological aspects of causal sets that are analysable within Maudlin's framework. This fact poses a challenge for the proponents of Maudlin's theory to prove it fruitful.

  6. "A Latino Advantage in Oral Health-Related Quality of Life is Modified by Nativity Status"

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Explanations for the social gradient in health status are informed by the rare exceptions. This cross-sectional observational study examined one such exception, the “Latino paradox” by investigating the presence of a Latino advantage in oral health-related quality of life and the effect of nativity status on this relationship. A nationally representative sample of adults (n = 4208) completed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004. The impact of oral disorders on oral health-related quality of life was evaluated using the NHANES Oral Health Impact Profile. Exposures of interest were race, ethnicity and nativity status. Covariates included sociodemographic characteristics, smoking status, self-rated health, access to dental care and number of teeth. Unconditional logistic regression models estimated odds of impaired oral health-related quality of life for racial/ethnic and nativity groups compared to the Non-Latino white population. Overall prevalence of impaired oral health-related quality of life was 15.1%. A protective effect of Latino ethnicity was modified by nativity status, such that Latino immigrants experienced substantially better outcomes than non-Latino whites. However the effect was limited to first-generation Latinos. U.S. born Latinos did not share the oral health-related quality of life advantage of their foreign-born counterparts. This advantage was not attributable to the healthy migrant phenomenon since immigrants of non-Latino origin did not differ from Non-Latino whites. The excess risk among Non-Hispanic Blacks was rendered non-significant after adjustment for socioeconomic position. A protective effect conferred by Latino nativity is unexpected given relatively disadvantaged socioeconomic position of this group, their language barrier and restrictions to needed dental care. As the Latino advantage in oral health-related quality of life is not explained by healthy immigrant selection, cultural explanations

  7. Causal Entropic Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissner-Gross, A. D.; Freer, C. E.

    2013-04-01

    Recent advances in fields ranging from cosmology to computer science have hinted at a possible deep connection between intelligence and entropy maximization, but no formal physical relationship between them has yet been established. Here, we explicitly propose a first step toward such a relationship in the form of a causal generalization of entropic forces that we find can cause two defining behaviors of the human “cognitive niche”—tool use and social cooperation—to spontaneously emerge in simple physical systems. Our results suggest a potentially general thermodynamic model of adaptive behavior as a nonequilibrium process in open systems.

  8. Quantum information causality.

    PubMed

    Pitalúa-García, Damián

    2013-05-24

    How much information can a transmitted physical system fundamentally communicate? We introduce the principle of quantum information causality, which states the maximum amount of quantum information that a quantum system can communicate as a function of its dimension, independently of any previously shared quantum physical resources. We present a new quantum information task, whose success probability is upper bounded by the new principle, and show that an optimal strategy to perform it combines the quantum teleportation and superdense coding protocols with a task that has classical inputs. PMID:23745844

  9. Fast causal multicast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth P.; Schiper, Andre; Stephenson, Pat

    1990-01-01

    A new protocol is presented that efficiently implements a reliable, causally ordered multicast primitive and is easily extended into a totally ordered one. Intended for use in the ISIS toolkit, it offers a way to bypass the most costly aspects of ISIS while benefiting from virtual synchrony. The facility scales with bounded overhead. Measured speedups of more than an order of magnitude were obtained when the protocol was implemented within ISIS. One conclusion is that systems such as ISIS can achieve performance competitive with the best existing multicast facilities - a finding contradicting the widespread concern that fault-tolerance may be unacceptably costly.

  10. Granger causality and transfer entropy are equivalent for Gaussian variables.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Lionel; Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K

    2009-12-01

    Granger causality is a statistical notion of causal influence based on prediction via vector autoregression. Developed originally in the field of econometrics, it has since found application in a broader arena, particularly in neuroscience. More recently transfer entropy, an information-theoretic measure of time-directed information transfer between jointly dependent processes, has gained traction in a similarly wide field. While it has been recognized that the two concepts must be related, the exact relationship has until now not been formally described. Here we show that for Gaussian variables, Granger causality and transfer entropy are entirely equivalent, thus bridging autoregressive and information-theoretic approaches to data-driven causal inference.

  11. Relations of Children's Social Status to Their Emotionality and Regulation: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maszk, Patricia; Eisenberg, Nancy; Guthrie, Ivanna K.

    1999-01-01

    Study examined relation of children's negative emotionality and regulation to current and subsequent sociometric status throughout the year. Measures of emotional intensity, regulation and aggression completed by teachers for 74 four- to six-year olds at two points during the year, indicated individual differences in regulation, and emotionality…

  12. Relations of Gender and Socioeconomic Status to Physics through Metacognition and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Pesman, Haki

    2013-01-01

    The authors explored how gender and socioeconomic status (SES) predicted physics achievement as mediated by metacognition and physics self-efficacy. Data were collected from 338 high school students. The model designed for exploring how gender and SES-related differences in physics achievement were explained through metacognition and physics…

  13. Perceptions of Thriving by Women Who Have Experienced Abuse or Status-Related Oppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poorman, Paula B.

    2002-01-01

    This study used the term "thriving," grounded theory design, and focus group interviews to investigate women's health. Purposeful sampling yielded women who had experienced abuse in adult interpersonal relationships and status-related oppression (N = 21). Four focus groups identified factors that define and contribute to thriving, began the…

  14. 8 CFR 212.17 - Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), in connection with a petition for U nonimmigrant status being filed pursuant to 8 CFR 214.14, must... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applications for the exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.17 Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U...

  15. 8 CFR 212.17 - Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...), in connection with a petition for U nonimmigrant status being filed pursuant to 8 CFR 214.14, must... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applications for the exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.17 Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U...

  16. 8 CFR 212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.16 Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status. (a) Filing the waiver application. An alien applying for the exercise of discretion under section...

  17. 8 CFR 212.17 - Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), in connection with a petition for U nonimmigrant status being filed pursuant to 8 CFR 214.14, must... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applications for the exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.17 Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U...

  18. 8 CFR 212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.16 Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status. (a) Filing the waiver application. An alien applying for the exercise of discretion under section...

  19. 8 CFR 212.17 - Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), in connection with a petition for U nonimmigrant status being filed pursuant to 8 CFR 214.14, must... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applications for the exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.17 Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U...

  20. 8 CFR 212.17 - Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), in connection with a petition for U nonimmigrant status being filed pursuant to 8 CFR 214.14, must... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for the exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.17 Applications for the exercise of discretion relating to U...

  1. 8 CFR 212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.16 Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status. (a) Filing the waiver application. An alien applying for the exercise of discretion under section...

  2. 8 CFR 212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.16 Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status. (a) Filing the waiver application. An alien applying for the exercise of discretion under section...

  3. 8 CFR 212.16 - Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applications for exercise of discretion... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.16 Applications for exercise of discretion relating to T nonimmigrant status. (a) Filing the waiver application. An alien applying for the exercise of discretion under section...

  4. Parental Conceptions of School Readiness: Relation to Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, and Children's Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarin, Oscar A.; Early, Diane; Clifford, Richard; Bryant, Donna; Frome, Pamela; Burchinal, Margaret; Howes, Carollee; Pianta, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: This study analyzed the school readiness beliefs of parents of 452 children from public pre-kindergarten and the relations of these beliefs to socioeconomic status and children's readiness skills. Parents conceived readiness largely in terms of the ability to name objects, letters, or numbers, but few included inferential…

  5. A Theoretical Framework of the Relation between Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    A socio-psychological analytical framework will be adopted to illuminate the relation between socioeconomic status and academic achievement. The framework puts the emphasis to incorporate micro familial factors into macro factor of the tracking system. Initially, children of the poor families always lack major prerequisite: diminution of cognitive…

  6. (De-)Accentuation and the Processing of Information Status: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Stefan; Schumacher, Petra B.

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports on a perception experiment in German that investigated the neuro-cognitive processing of information structural concepts and their prosodic marking using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Experimental conditions controlled the information status (given vs. new) of referring and non-referring target expressions (nouns vs.…

  7. Health care cost containment in Denmark and Norway: a question of relative professional status?

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lotte B

    2014-04-01

    The demand for publicly subsidized health care services is insatiable, but the costs can be contained in different ways: formal rules can limit access to and the number of subsidized services, demand and supply can be regulated through the price mechanism, the relevant profession can contain the costs through state-sanctioned self-regulation, and other professions can contain the costs (e.g. through referrals). The use of these cost containment measures varies between countries, depending on demand and supply factors, but the relative professional status of the health professions may help explain why different countries use cost containment measures differently for different services. This article compares cost containment measures in Denmark and Norway because these countries vary with regard to the professional status of the medical profession relative to other health care providers, while other relevant variables are approximately similar. The investigation is based on formal agreements and rules, historical documents, existing analyses and an analysis of 360 newspaper articles. It shows that high relative professional status seems to help professions to avoid user fees, steer clear of regulation from other professions and regulate the services produced by others. This implies that relative professional status should be taken into consideration in analyses of health care cost containment.

  8. On causality in polymer scalar field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Chung, Angel A.; Morales-Técotl, Hugo A.

    2011-10-01

    The properties of spacetime corresponding to a proposed quantum gravity theory might modify the high energy behavior of quantum fields. Motivated by loop quantum gravity, recently, Hossain et al [1] have considered a polymer field algebra that replaces the standard canonical one in order to calculate the propagator of a real scalar field in flat spacetime. This propagator features Lorentz violations. Motivated by the relation between Lorentz invariance and causality in standard Quantum Field Theory, in this work we investigate the causality behavior of the polymer scalar field.

  9. Causal Phenotype Discovery via Deep Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kale, David C.; Che, Zhengping; Bahadori, Mohammad Taha; Li, Wenzhe; Liu, Yan; Wetzel, Randall

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of digital health databases has attracted many researchers interested in using modern computational methods to discover and model patterns of health and illness in a research program known as computational phenotyping. Much of the work in this area has focused on traditional statistical learning paradigms, such as classification, prediction, clustering, pattern mining. In this paper, we propose a related but different paradigm called causal phenotype discovery, which aims to discover latent representations of illness that are causally predictive. We illustrate this idea with a two-stage framework that combines the latent representation learning power of deep neural networks with state-of-the-art tools from causal inference. We apply this framework to two large ICU time series data sets and show that it can learn features that are predictively useful, that capture complex physiologic patterns associated with critical illnesses, and that are potentially more clinically meaningful than manually designed features. PMID:26958203

  10. Causal binding of actions to their effects.

    PubMed

    Buehner, Marc J; Humphreys, Gruffydd R

    2009-10-01

    According to widely held views in cognitive science harking back to David Hume, causality cannot be perceived directly, but instead is inferred from patterns of sensory experience, and the quality of these inferences is determined by perceivable quantities such as contingency and contiguity. We report results that suggest a reversal of Hume's conjecture: People's sense of time is warped by the experience of causality. In a stimulus-anticipation task, participants' response behavior reflected a shortened experience of time in the case of target stimuli participants themselves had generated, relative to equidistant, equally predictable stimuli they had not caused. These findings suggest that causality in the mind leads to temporal binding of cause and effect, and extend and generalize beyond earlier claims of intentional binding between action and outcome.

  11. Obstructive Sleep Apnea is Related to Impaired Cognitive and Functional Status after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Aaronson, Justine A.; van Bennekom, Coen A.M.; Hofman, Winni F.; van Bezeij, Tijs; van den Aardweg, Joost G.; Groet, Erny; Kylstra, Wytske A.; Schmand, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder in stroke patients and is associated with prolonged hospitalization, decreased functional outcome, and recurrent stroke. Research on the effect of OSA on cognitive functioning following stroke is scarce. The primary objective of this study was to compare stroke patients with and without OSA on cognitive and functional status upon admission to inpatient rehabilitation. Design: Case-control study. Setting and Patients: 147 stroke patients admitted to a neurorehabilitation unit. Interventions: N/A. Measurements: All patients underwent sleep examination for diagnosis of OSA. We assessed cognitive status by neuropsychological examination and functional status by two neurological scales and a measure of functional independence. Results: We included 80 stroke patients with OSA and 67 stroke patients without OSA. OSA patients were older and had a higher body mass index than patients without OSA. OSA patients performed worse on tests of attention, executive functioning, visuoperception, psychomotor ability, and intelligence than those without OSA. No differences were found for vigilance, memory, and language. OSA patients had a worse neurological status, lower functional independence scores, and a longer period of hospitalization in the neurorehabilitation unit than the patients without OSA. OSA status was not associated with stroke type or classification. Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with a lower cognitive and functional status in patients admitted for stroke rehabilitation. This underlines the importance of OSA as a probable prognostic factor, and calls for well-designed randomized controlled trials to study its treatability. Citation: Aaronson JA, van Bennekom CA, Hofman WF, van Bezeij T, van den Aardweg JG, Groet E, Kylstra WA, Schmand B. Obstructive sleep apnea is related to impaired cognitive and functional status after stroke. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1431–1437. PMID

  12. The daily commute from work to home: examining employees' experiences in relation to their recovery status.

    PubMed

    van Hooff, Madelon L M

    2015-04-01

    Sufficient recovery after daily effort expenditure at work is important to protect employee health and well-being. However, the role of commuting in the daily effort-recovery process is still not very well understood. The present study aimed to advance insight in this respect by examining if relaxation, detachment, mastery and stressful delays experienced during the commute from work to home affect employees' recovery status after returning home from work and at the end of the evening. Daily job demands were expected to moderate these effects. Serenity and (low) anxiety were included as indicators of employees' recovery status. Data were collected by means of a 5-day daily diary study (three measurements daily) among 76 participants from various industries. Multilevel analyses showed that relaxation was positively and stressful delays were negatively related to employees' recovery status after returning home from work but not to indicators of recovery at the end of the evening. For detachment, similar relations were found but only on days with high job demands. Mastery was not related to employees' recovery status. These findings enhance our insight in the daily effort-recovery cycle and underline the importance of promoting detachment (on demanding workdays) and relaxation on the way home from work. PMID:24124028

  13. The daily commute from work to home: examining employees' experiences in relation to their recovery status.

    PubMed

    van Hooff, Madelon L M

    2015-04-01

    Sufficient recovery after daily effort expenditure at work is important to protect employee health and well-being. However, the role of commuting in the daily effort-recovery process is still not very well understood. The present study aimed to advance insight in this respect by examining if relaxation, detachment, mastery and stressful delays experienced during the commute from work to home affect employees' recovery status after returning home from work and at the end of the evening. Daily job demands were expected to moderate these effects. Serenity and (low) anxiety were included as indicators of employees' recovery status. Data were collected by means of a 5-day daily diary study (three measurements daily) among 76 participants from various industries. Multilevel analyses showed that relaxation was positively and stressful delays were negatively related to employees' recovery status after returning home from work but not to indicators of recovery at the end of the evening. For detachment, similar relations were found but only on days with high job demands. Mastery was not related to employees' recovery status. These findings enhance our insight in the daily effort-recovery cycle and underline the importance of promoting detachment (on demanding workdays) and relaxation on the way home from work.

  14. When low-warmth targets are liked: the roles of competence, gender, and relative status.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Ying; Wang, Jenn-Wu; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lin, Hui-Tzu; Johnson, Blair T

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people use warmth and competence as basic dimensions to evaluate others and to interpret their behavior, but little research has examined the conditions under which low-warmth targets are liked. A series of 3 experiments involving 4 vignettes showed, in general, that low-warmth targets were better liked when they exhibited higher competence and that high-status persons displayed greater tolerance toward the low-warmth person of low status. Exceptions to these patterns were predicted and found as a function of the type of organizational context in which evaluations were made: groups that place priority on individual goals over common goals and groups that are performance oriented rather than relationship oriented. Target gender interacted with competence and relative status.

  15. Food odor thresholds in relation to age, nutritional, and health status.

    PubMed

    Griep, M I; Mets, T F; Vercruysse, A; Cromphout, I; Ponjaert, I; Toft, J; Massart, D L

    1995-11-01

    Odor perception plays an important role in nutrition. In the present study, the effect of aging and health status on detection of food odors is shown and interrelations with nutritional status are explored. We have tested 26 healthy young (20-25 yrs) and 23 elderly (61-74 yrs) subjects who were screened according to the SENIEUR protocol. Anthropometric measures and blood samples provided 20 parameters of nutritional status. A validated measurement procedure under forced choice conditions was used to quantify the detection thresholds of two food odors of which one had a trigeminal effect and the other mainly had an olfactory effect. There is a significant declining sensitivity for both odors. Our observations indicate that a relation between nutrition and odor perception in the elderly population exists. Whether olfactory deficits cause or are caused by increased nutritional risk deserves further study.

  16. Experimental test of nonlocal causality

    PubMed Central

    Ringbauer, Martin; Giarmatzi, Christina; Chaves, Rafael; Costa, Fabio; White, Andrew G.; Fedrizzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Explaining observations in terms of causes and effects is central to empirical science. However, correlations between entangled quantum particles seem to defy such an explanation. This implies that some of the fundamental assumptions of causal explanations have to give way. We consider a relaxation of one of these assumptions, Bell’s local causality, by allowing outcome dependence: a direct causal influence between the outcomes of measurements of remote parties. We use interventional data from a photonic experiment to bound the strength of this causal influence in a two-party Bell scenario, and observational data from a Bell-type inequality test for the considered models. Our results demonstrate the incompatibility of quantum mechanics with a broad class of nonlocal causal models, which includes Bell-local models as a special case. Recovering a classical causal picture of quantum correlations thus requires an even more radical modification of our classical notion of cause and effect. PMID:27532045

  17. Redundant variables and Granger causality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelini, L.; de Tommaso, M.; Marinazzo, D.; Nitti, L.; Pellicoro, M.; Stramaglia, S.

    2010-03-01

    We discuss the use of multivariate Granger causality in presence of redundant variables: the application of the standard analysis, in this case, leads to under estimation of causalities. Using the un-normalized version of the causality index, we quantitatively develop the notions of redundancy and synergy in the frame of causality and propose two approaches to group redundant variables: (i) for a given target, the remaining variables are grouped so as to maximize the total causality and (ii) the whole set of variables is partitioned to maximize the sum of the causalities between subsets. We show the application to a real neurological experiment, aiming to a deeper understanding of the physiological basis of abnormal neuronal oscillations in the migraine brain. The outcome by our approach reveals the change in the informational pattern due to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulations.

  18. Experimental test of nonlocal causality.

    PubMed

    Ringbauer, Martin; Giarmatzi, Christina; Chaves, Rafael; Costa, Fabio; White, Andrew G; Fedrizzi, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Explaining observations in terms of causes and effects is central to empirical science. However, correlations between entangled quantum particles seem to defy such an explanation. This implies that some of the fundamental assumptions of causal explanations have to give way. We consider a relaxation of one of these assumptions, Bell's local causality, by allowing outcome dependence: a direct causal influence between the outcomes of measurements of remote parties. We use interventional data from a photonic experiment to bound the strength of this causal influence in a two-party Bell scenario, and observational data from a Bell-type inequality test for the considered models. Our results demonstrate the incompatibility of quantum mechanics with a broad class of nonlocal causal models, which includes Bell-local models as a special case. Recovering a classical causal picture of quantum correlations thus requires an even more radical modification of our classical notion of cause and effect. PMID:27532045

  19. Experimental test of nonlocal causality.

    PubMed

    Ringbauer, Martin; Giarmatzi, Christina; Chaves, Rafael; Costa, Fabio; White, Andrew G; Fedrizzi, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Explaining observations in terms of causes and effects is central to empirical science. However, correlations between entangled quantum particles seem to defy such an explanation. This implies that some of the fundamental assumptions of causal explanations have to give way. We consider a relaxation of one of these assumptions, Bell's local causality, by allowing outcome dependence: a direct causal influence between the outcomes of measurements of remote parties. We use interventional data from a photonic experiment to bound the strength of this causal influence in a two-party Bell scenario, and observational data from a Bell-type inequality test for the considered models. Our results demonstrate the incompatibility of quantum mechanics with a broad class of nonlocal causal models, which includes Bell-local models as a special case. Recovering a classical causal picture of quantum correlations thus requires an even more radical modification of our classical notion of cause and effect.

  20. Redundant variables and Granger causality.

    PubMed

    Angelini, L; de Tommaso, M; Marinazzo, D; Nitti, L; Pellicoro, M; Stramaglia, S

    2010-03-01

    We discuss the use of multivariate Granger causality in presence of redundant variables: the application of the standard analysis, in this case, leads to under estimation of causalities. Using the un-normalized version of the causality index, we quantitatively develop the notions of redundancy and synergy in the frame of causality and propose two approaches to group redundant variables: (i) for a given target, the remaining variables are grouped so as to maximize the total causality and (ii) the whole set of variables is partitioned to maximize the sum of the causalities between subsets. We show the application to a real neurological experiment, aiming to a deeper understanding of the physiological basis of abnormal neuronal oscillations in the migraine brain. The outcome by our approach reveals the change in the informational pattern due to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulations.

  1. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing. PMID:27504832

  2. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing.

  3. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing. PMID:27504832

  4. Manifest Variable Granger Causality Models for Developmental Research: A Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Eye, Alexander; Wiedermann, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Granger models are popular when it comes to testing hypotheses that relate series of measures causally to each other. In this article, we propose a taxonomy of Granger causality models. The taxonomy results from crossing the four variables Order of Lag, Type of (Contemporaneous) Effect, Direction of Effect, and Segment of Dependent Series…

  5. The Role of Functional Form in Causal-Based Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehder, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments tested how the "functional form" of the causal relations that link features of categories affects category-based inferences. Whereas "independent causes" can each bring about an effect by themselves, "conjunctive causes" all need to be present for an effect to occur. The causal model view of category…

  6. Causal Discourse Analyzer: Improving Automated Feedback on Academic ESL Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chukharev-Hudilainen, Evgeny; Saricaoglu, Aysel

    2016-01-01

    Expressing causal relations plays a central role in academic writing. While it is important that writing instructors assess and provide feedback on learners' causal discourse, it could be a very time-consuming task. In this respect, automated writing evaluation (AWE) tools may be helpful. However, to date, there have been no AWE tools capable of…

  7. The Feasibility of Using Causal Indicators in Educational Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jue; Engelhard, George, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The authors of the focus article describe an important issue related to the use and interpretation of causal indicators within the context of structural equation modeling (SEM). In the focus article, the authors illustrate with simulated data the effects of omitting a causal indicator. Since SEMs are used extensively in the social and behavioral…

  8. Thinking Fast and Slow about Causality: Response to Palinkas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Jeanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Larry Palinkas advances the developing science of social work by providing an explanation of how social science research methods, both qualitative and quantitative, can improve our capacity to draw casual inferences. Understanding causal relations and making causal inferences--with the promise of being able to predict and control outcomes--is…

  9. Gender Difference in Relationship between Health-Related Quality of Life and Work Status

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jumin; Kim, Hyun-jung; Kwon, Young Dae

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the association of employment status with health-related quality of life in adult Koreans, as well as the gender difference in the relationship, using a large, nationally representative sample. Using data from the Korea Health Panel survey, we examined the relationship between quality of life measured by EQ-5D and work status among Korean adults. We also tested whether and how the relationship between quality of life and work status differed by gender. Quality of life among working adults was better than among non-working adults. The gap between the two groups was larger among male than female participants. Further, the gender differential effect was larger in the 41–60-year-old age group than in the 18–40-year-old and 61-or-older groups. Being employed has a positive relation to quality of life among adults. Work status plays a more important role in quality of life for men than for women, especially for the working elderly men than working elderly women. PMID:26629811

  10. Gender Difference in Relationship between Health-Related Quality of Life and Work Status.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jumin; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kwon, Young Dae

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the association of employment status with health-related quality of life in adult Koreans, as well as the gender difference in the relationship, using a large, nationally representative sample. Using data from the Korea Health Panel survey, we examined the relationship between quality of life measured by EQ-5D and work status among Korean adults. We also tested whether and how the relationship between quality of life and work status differed by gender. Quality of life among working adults was better than among non-working adults. The gap between the two groups was larger among male than female participants. Further, the gender differential effect was larger in the 41-60-year-old age group than in the 18-40-year-old and 61-or-older groups. Being employed has a positive relation to quality of life among adults. Work status plays a more important role in quality of life for men than for women, especially for the working elderly men than working elderly women.

  11. Gender Difference in Relationship between Health-Related Quality of Life and Work Status.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jumin; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kwon, Young Dae

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the association of employment status with health-related quality of life in adult Koreans, as well as the gender difference in the relationship, using a large, nationally representative sample. Using data from the Korea Health Panel survey, we examined the relationship between quality of life measured by EQ-5D and work status among Korean adults. We also tested whether and how the relationship between quality of life and work status differed by gender. Quality of life among working adults was better than among non-working adults. The gap between the two groups was larger among male than female participants. Further, the gender differential effect was larger in the 41-60-year-old age group than in the 18-40-year-old and 61-or-older groups. Being employed has a positive relation to quality of life among adults. Work status plays a more important role in quality of life for men than for women, especially for the working elderly men than working elderly women. PMID:26629811

  12. The Relative Impacts of Disease on Health Status and Capability Wellbeing: A Multi-Country Study

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Paul Mark; Al-Janabi, Hareth; Richardson, Jeff; Iezzi, Angelo; Coast, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Evaluations of the impact of interventions for resource allocation purposes commonly focus on health status. There is, however, also concern about broader impacts on wellbeing and, increasingly, on a person's capability. This study aims to compare the impact on health status and capability of seven major health conditions, and highlight differences in treatment priorities when outcomes are measured by capability as opposed to health status. Methods The study was a cross-sectional four country survey (n = 6650) of eight population groups: seven disease groups with: arthritis, asthma, cancer, depression, diabetes, hearing loss, and heart disease and one health population ‘comparator’ group. Two simple self-complete questionnaires were used to measure health status (EQ-5D-5L) and capability (ICECAP-A). Individuals were classified by illness severity using condition-specific questionnaires. Effect sizes were used to estimate: (i) the difference in health status and capability for those with conditions, relative to a healthy population; and (ii) the impact of the severity of the condition on health status and capability within each disease group. Findings 5248 individuals were included in the analysis. Individuals with depression have the greatest mean reduction in both health (effect size, 1.26) and capability (1.22) compared to the healthy population. The effect sizes for capability for depression are much greater than for all other conditions, which is not the case for health. For example, the arthritis group effect size for health (1.24) is also high and similar to that of depression, whereas for the same arthritis group, the effect size for capability is much lower than that for depression (0.55). In terms of severity within disease groups, individuals categorised as 'mild' have similar capability levels to the healthy population (effect sizes <0.2, excluding depression) but lower health status than the healthy population (≥0.4). Conclusion

  13. Structural Equations and Causal Explanations: Some Challenges for Causal SEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markus, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    One common application of structural equation modeling (SEM) involves expressing and empirically investigating causal explanations. Nonetheless, several aspects of causal explanation that have an impact on behavioral science methodology remain poorly understood. It remains unclear whether applications of SEM should attempt to provide complete…

  14. Causality violation and paradoxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnikov, S. V.

    1997-03-01

    Paradoxes that can supposedly occur if causality is violated are discussed. It is shown that the existence of ``trajectories of multiplicity zero'' (i.e., trajectories that describe, say, a ball hitting its younger self so that the latter cannot fall into the time machine) is not paradoxical by itself. This apparent paradox can be resolved (at least sometimes) without any harm to local physics or to the time machine. Also a simple model is adduced for which the absence of true paradoxes caused by self-interaction in an acausal world is proved. The conclusion is made that the paradoxes appear if and (within this model) only if the fact is neglected that no conditions fixed to the past of a time machine guarantee that a system remains isolated after it intersects the Cauchy horizon.

  15. Causal electromagnetic interaction equations

    SciTech Connect

    Zinoviev, Yury M.

    2011-02-15

    For the electromagnetic interaction of two particles the relativistic causal quantum mechanics equations are proposed. These equations are solved for the case when the second particle moves freely. The initial wave functions are supposed to be smooth and rapidly decreasing at the infinity. This condition is important for the convergence of the integrals similar to the integrals of quantum electrodynamics. We also consider the singular initial wave functions in the particular case when the second particle mass is equal to zero. The discrete energy spectrum of the first particle wave function is defined by the initial wave function of the free-moving second particle. Choosing the initial wave functions of the free-moving second particle it is possible to obtain a practically arbitrary discrete energy spectrum.

  16. Visual Causality Judgments Correlate with the Phase of Alpha Oscillations.

    PubMed

    Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Santos, Karin Moreira; Reyes, Marcelo Bussotti; Caetano, Marcelo Salvador; Claessens, Peter M E

    2015-10-01

    The detection of causality is essential for our understanding of whether distinct events relate. A central requirement for the sensation of causality is temporal contiguity: As the interval between events increases, causality ratings decrease; for intervals longer than approximately 100 msec, the events start to appear independent. It has been suggested that this effect might be due to perception relying on discrete processing. According to this view, two events may be judged as sequential or simultaneous depending on their temporal relationship within a discrete neuronal process. To assess if alpha oscillations underlie this discrete neuronal process, we investigated how these oscillations modulate the judgment of causality. We used the classic launching effect with concurrent recording of EEG signal. In each trial, a disk moved horizontally toward a second disk at the center of the screen and stopped when they touched each other. After a delay that varied between 0 and 400 msec after contact, the right disk began to move. Participants were instructed to judge whether or not they had a feeling that the first disk caused the movement of the second disk. We found that frontocentral alpha phase significantly biased causality estimates. Moreover, we found that alpha phase was concentrated around different angles for trials in which participants judged events as causally related versus not causally related. We conclude that alpha phase plays a key role in biasing causality judgments.

  17. The lesson of causal discovery algorithms for quantum correlations: causal explanations of Bell-inequality violations require fine-tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Christopher J.; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2015-03-01

    An active area of research in the fields of machine learning and statistics is the development of causal discovery algorithms, the purpose of which is to infer the causal relations that hold among a set of variables from the correlations that these exhibit . We apply some of these algorithms to the correlations that arise for entangled quantum systems. We show that they cannot distinguish correlations that satisfy Bell inequalities from correlations that violate Bell inequalities, and consequently that they cannot do justice to the challenges of explaining certain quantum correlations causally. Nonetheless, by adapting the conceptual tools of causal inference, we can show that any attempt to provide a causal explanation of nonsignalling correlations that violate a Bell inequality must contradict a core principle of these algorithms, namely, that an observed statistical independence between variables should not be explained by fine-tuning of the causal parameters. In particular, we demonstrate the need for such fine-tuning for most of the causal mechanisms that have been proposed to underlie Bell correlations, including superluminal causal influences, superdeterminism (that is, a denial of freedom of choice of settings), and retrocausal influences which do not introduce causal cycles.

  18. Nutrition status and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with virus-related cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jia; Chang, Le; Yuan, Lili; Duan, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is frequently present in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). However, the direct relationship between SIBO and nutrition status in the LC patients has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was an association between nutrition status, evaluated by the subjective global assessment (SGA) and SIBO in patients with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) related cirrhosis. A total of 120 patients with HBV or HCV-related cirrhosis and 30 healthy controls were included. Nutritional status was determined according to SGA and anthropometry. All patients and healthy controls underwent a glucose hydrogen breath test for SIBO. The prevalence of malnutrition for the patients with HBV or HCV related cirrhosis ranged 19.4%-60% in China. The highest prevalence of malnutrition was detected by SGA, the lowest by triceps skinfold thickness. The frequency of SIBO was significantly higher in the malnourished (SGA-B/C) than in the well-nourished (SGA-A) patients with HBV or HCV related cirrhosis [41/72 (56.9%) vs 12/48 (25.0%) (p=0.001)]. Univariate analysis showed that SIBO, ascites, and Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class were associated with malnutrition. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that SIBO [odds ratio (OR) 8.10; p=0.002] and ascites (OR 4.56; p=0.022) were independently associated with the occurrence of malnutrition (SGA-B/C) in the same subjects. SIBO is independently related to the occurrence of malnutrition (SGA-B/C) in patients with HBV or HCV cirrhosis. We deduce that SIBO may play an important role in nutrition status in patients with HBV or HCV cirrhosis.

  19. Nutrition status and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with virus-related cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jia; Chang, Le; Yuan, Lili; Duan, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is frequently present in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). However, the direct relationship between SIBO and nutrition status in the LC patients has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was an association between nutrition status, evaluated by the subjective global assessment (SGA) and SIBO in patients with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) related cirrhosis. A total of 120 patients with HBV or HCV-related cirrhosis and 30 healthy controls were included. Nutritional status was determined according to SGA and anthropometry. All patients and healthy controls underwent a glucose hydrogen breath test for SIBO. The prevalence of malnutrition for the patients with HBV or HCV related cirrhosis ranged 19.4%-60% in China. The highest prevalence of malnutrition was detected by SGA, the lowest by triceps skinfold thickness. The frequency of SIBO was significantly higher in the malnourished (SGA-B/C) than in the well-nourished (SGA-A) patients with HBV or HCV related cirrhosis [41/72 (56.9%) vs 12/48 (25.0%) (p=0.001)]. Univariate analysis showed that SIBO, ascites, and Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class were associated with malnutrition. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that SIBO [odds ratio (OR) 8.10; p=0.002] and ascites (OR 4.56; p=0.022) were independently associated with the occurrence of malnutrition (SGA-B/C) in the same subjects. SIBO is independently related to the occurrence of malnutrition (SGA-B/C) in patients with HBV or HCV cirrhosis. We deduce that SIBO may play an important role in nutrition status in patients with HBV or HCV cirrhosis. PMID:27222411

  20. Bell's theorem and the causal arrow of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argaman, Nathan

    2010-10-01

    Einstein held that the formalism of quantum mechanics involves "spooky actions at a distance." In the 1960s, Bell amplified this by showing that the predictions of quantum mechanics disagree with the results of any locally causal description. It should be appreciated that accepting nonlocal descriptions while retaining causality leads to a clash with relativity. Furthermore, the causal arrow of time by definition contradicts time-reversal symmetry. For these reasons, Wheeler and Feynman, Costa de Beauregard, Cramer, Price, and others have advocated abandoning microscopic causality. In this paper, a simplistic but concrete example of this line of thought is presented, in the form of a retro-causal toy model that is stochastic and provides an appealing description of the quantum correlations discussed by Bell. It is concluded that Einstein's "spooky actions" may occur "in the past" rather than "at a distance," resolving the tension between quantum mechanics and relativity and opening unexplored possibilities for future reformulations of quantum mechanics.

  1. Mitigating the effects of measurement noise on Granger causality

    SciTech Connect

    Nalatore, Hariharan; Ding Mingzhou; Rangarajan, Govindan

    2007-03-15

    Computing Granger causal relations among bivariate experimentally observed time series has received increasing attention over the past few years. Such causal relations, if correctly estimated, can yield significant insights into the dynamical organization of the system being investigated. Since experimental measurements are inevitably contaminated by noise, it is thus important to understand the effects of such noise on Granger causality estimation. The first goal of this paper is to provide an analytical and numerical analysis of this problem. Specifically, we show that, due to noise contamination (1) spurious causality between two measured variables can arise and (2) true causality can be suppressed. The second goal of the paper is to provide a denoising strategy to mitigate this problem. Specifically, we propose a denoising algorithm based on the combined use of the Kalman filter theory and the expectation-maximization algorithm. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the denoising approach.

  2. Child-directed speech: relation to socioeconomic status, knowledge of child development and child vocabulary skill.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Meredith L

    2008-02-01

    This study sought to determine why American parents from different socioeconomic backgrounds communicate in different ways with their children. Forty-seven parent-child dyads were videotaped engaging in naturalistic interactions in the home for ninety minutes at child age 2;6. Transcripts of these interactions provided measures of child-directed speech. Children's vocabulary comprehension skills were measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at 2;6 and one year later at 3;6. Results indicate that: (I) child-directed speech with toddlers aged 2;6 predicts child vocabulary skill one year later, controlling for earlier toddler vocabulary skill; (2) child-directed speech relates to socioeconomic status as measured by income and education; and (3) the relation between socioeconomic status and child-directed speech is mediated by parental knowledge of child development. Potential mechanisms through which parental knowledge influences communicative behavior are discussed.

  3. Causal Poisson bracket via deformation quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berra-Montiel, Jasel; Molgado, Alberto; Palacios-García, César D.

    2016-06-01

    Starting with the well-defined product of quantum fields at two spacetime points, we explore an associated Poisson structure for classical field theories within the deformation quantization formalism. We realize that the induced star-product is naturally related to the standard Moyal product through an appropriate causal Green’s functions connecting points in the space of classical solutions to the equations of motion. Our results resemble the Peierls-DeWitt bracket that has been analyzed in the multisymplectic context. Once our star-product is defined, we are able to apply the Wigner-Weyl map in order to introduce a generalized version of Wick’s theorem. Finally, we include some examples to explicitly test our method: the real scalar field, the bosonic string and a physically motivated nonlinear particle model. For the field theoretic models, we have encountered causal generalizations of the creation/annihilation relations, and also a causal generalization of the Virasoro algebra for the bosonic string. For the nonlinear particle case, we use the approximate solution in terms of the Green’s function, in order to construct a well-behaved causal bracket.

  4. Expert Causal Reasoning and Explanation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuipers, Benjamin

    The relationship between cognitive psychologists and researchers in artificial intelligence carries substantial benefits for both. An ongoing investigation in causal reasoning in medical problem solving systems illustrates this interaction. This paper traces a dialectic of sorts in which three different types of causal resaoning for medical…

  5. Theory-Based Causal Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Thomas L.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2009-01-01

    Inducing causal relationships from observations is a classic problem in scientific inference, statistics, and machine learning. It is also a central part of human learning, and a task that people perform remarkably well given its notorious difficulties. People can learn causal structure in various settings, from diverse forms of data: observations…

  6. Causal Inference in Retrospective Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Paul W.; Rubin, Donald B.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of drawing causal inferences from retrospective case-controlled studies is considered. A model for causal inference in prospective studies is applied to retrospective studies. Limitations of case-controlled studies are formulated concerning relevant parameters that can be estimated in such studies. A coffee-drinking/myocardial…

  7. Causal Inference and Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, E. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Causal inference is of central importance to developmental psychology. Many key questions in the field revolve around improving the lives of children and their families. These include identifying risk factors that if manipulated in some way would foster child development. Such a task inherently involves causal inference: One wants to know whether…

  8. Overcoming confirmation bias in causal attribution: a case study of antibiotic resistance risks.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony; Popken, Douglas A

    2008-10-01

    When they do not use formal quantitative risk assessment methods, many scientists (like other people) make mistakes and exhibit biases in reasoning about causation, if-then relations, and evidence. Decision-related conclusions or causal explanations are reached prematurely based on narrative plausibility rather than adequate factual evidence. Then, confirming evidence is sought and emphasized, but disconfirming evidence is ignored or discounted. This tendency has serious implications for health-related public policy discussions and decisions. We provide examples occurring in antimicrobial health risk assessments, including a case study of a recently reported positive relation between virginiamycin (VM) use in poultry and risk of resistance to VM-like (streptogramin) antibiotics in humans. This finding has been used to argue that poultry consumption causes increased resistance risks, that serious health impacts may result, and therefore use of VM in poultry should be restricted. However, the original study compared healthy vegetarians to hospitalized poultry consumers. Our examination of the same data using conditional independence tests for potential causality reveals that poultry consumption acted as a surrogate for hospitalization in this study. After accounting for current hospitalization status, no evidence remains supporting a causal relationship between poultry consumption and increased streptogramin resistance. This example emphasizes both the importance and the practical possibility of analyzing and presenting quantitative risk information using data analysis techniques (such as Bayesian model averaging (BMA) and conditional independence tests) that are as free as possible from potential selection, confirmation, and modeling biases.

  9. Latina Mothers’ Beliefs and Practices Related to Weight Status, Feeding and the Development of Child Overweight

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine maternal beliefs and practices related to weight status, child feeding, and child overweight in the Latino culture that may contribute to the rising rates of overweight among preschool Latino children in the U.S. Design and sample This two-phase qualitative study relies on data obtained in 6 focus groups with a total of 31 primarily Spanish-speaking, low income mothers, followed by 20 individual, in-depth interviews with women participating in a health promotion educational program. Measures Child-feeding beliefs, practices and weight status perceptions were elicited. Results Findings indicated that most respondents reported personal struggles with weight gain, particularly during and after pregnancy, and were concerned that their children would become obese. Although subjects understood the health and social consequences related to overweight, many discussed the pressures of familial and cultural influences endorsing a “chubby child.” Conclusions Education and interventions that incorporate “culturally mediated” pathways to address mothers’ feeding practices are essential for prevention and control of childhood overweight among low-income Latinos. Nurses should be aware of social and cultural influences on Latina mothers’ beliefs and practices related to weight status and feeding practices and address these in their education approaches to prevent childhood overweight and obesity with this population group. PMID:21442018

  10. [Causality: risk factors and interventions].

    PubMed

    Dekkers, Olaf M; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

    2013-01-01

    A risk factor has a causal effect on a disease when the disease would not have occurred in the absence of the risk factor. Analogous reasoning applies to the effect of a particular therapy. Thinking in terms of contrasts is fundamental to causal reasoning in medicine. The contrast determines the content of the causal claim; the most important assumption here is that the prognosis between groups is comparable. Causal effects of risk factors are not always the same as the causal effect of an intervention: removal of a risk factor (e.g. smoking) for a disease does not necessarily mean that the risk will subsequently normalize. A second problem is that risk factors cannot always easily be translated into interventions. This applies to factors that cannot be changed (e.g. gender) or that can have multiple causes themselves (e.g. obesity).

  11. CausalTrail: Testing hypothesis using causal Bayesian networks

    PubMed Central

    Trampert, Patrick; Lenhof, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Summary Causal Bayesian Networks are a special class of Bayesian networks in which the hierarchy directly encodes the causal relationships between the variables. This allows to compute the effect of interventions, which are external changes to the system, caused by e.g. gene knockouts or an administered drug. Whereas numerous packages for constructing causal Bayesian networks are available, hardly any program targeted at downstream analysis exists. In this paper we present CausalTrail, a tool for performing reasoning on causal Bayesian networks using the do-calculus. CausalTrail's features include multiple data import methods, a flexible query language for formulating hypotheses, as well as an intuitive graphical user interface. The program is able to account for missing data and thus can be readily applied in multi-omics settings where it is common that not all measurements are performed for all samples. Availability and Implementation CausalTrail is implemented in C++ using the Boost and Qt5 libraries. It can be obtained from https://github.com/dstoeckel/causaltrail PMID:26913195

  12. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups—what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    PubMed Central

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given. PMID:25505432

  13. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups-what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    PubMed

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  14. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups-what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    PubMed

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given. PMID:25505432

  15. History, causality, and sexology.

    PubMed

    Money, John

    2003-08-01

    In 1896, Krafft-Ebing published Psychopathia Sexualis. Popularly defined as hereditary weakness or taintedness in the family pedigree, degeneracy was called upon as a causal explanation for perversions of the sexual instinct. Although Krafft-Ebing accepted Karl Ulrichs proposal that homosexuality could be innate and probably located in the brain, he paid little attention to neuropathological sexology. Alfred Binet challenged Krafft-Ebing's orthodoxy by explaining fetishism in terms of associative learning, to which Krafft-Ebing's response was that only those with a hereditary taint would be vulnerable. Thus did the venerable nature-nurture antithesis maintain its rhetoric, even to the present day. Krafft-Ebing died too soon to meet the Freudian challenge of endopsychic determinism, and too soon also to encounter the idea of a developmental multivariate outcome of what I have termed the lovemap. Like other brain maps, for example the languagemap, the lovemap requires an intact human brain in which to develop. The personalized content of the lovemap has access to the brain by way of the special senses.

  16. A Quantum Probability Model of Causal Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Trueblood, Jennifer S.; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    2012-01-01

    People can often outperform statistical methods and machine learning algorithms in situations that involve making inferences about the relationship between causes and effects. While people are remarkably good at causal reasoning in many situations, there are several instances where they deviate from expected responses. This paper examines three situations where judgments related to causal inference problems produce unexpected results and describes a quantum inference model based on the axiomatic principles of quantum probability theory that can explain these effects. Two of the three phenomena arise from the comparison of predictive judgments (i.e., the conditional probability of an effect given a cause) with diagnostic judgments (i.e., the conditional probability of a cause given an effect). The third phenomenon is a new finding examining order effects in predictive causal judgments. The quantum inference model uses the notion of incompatibility among different causes to account for all three phenomena. Psychologically, the model assumes that individuals adopt different points of view when thinking about different causes. The model provides good fits to the data and offers a coherent account for all three causal reasoning effects thus proving to be a viable new candidate for modeling human judgment. PMID:22593747

  17. Income inequality and health: a causal review.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Kate E; Wilkinson, Richard G

    2015-03-01

    There is a very large literature examining income inequality in relation to health. Early reviews came to different interpretations of the evidence, though a large majority of studies reported that health tended to be worse in more unequal societies. More recent studies, not included in those reviews, provide substantial new evidence. Our purpose in this paper is to assess whether or not wider income differences play a causal role leading to worse health. We conducted a literature review within an epidemiological causal framework and inferred the likelihood of a causal relationship between income inequality and health (including violence) by considering the evidence as a whole. The body of evidence strongly suggests that income inequality affects population health and wellbeing. The major causal criteria of temporality, biological plausibility, consistency and lack of alternative explanations are well supported. Of the small minority of studies which find no association, most can be explained by income inequality being measured at an inappropriate scale, the inclusion of mediating variables as controls, the use of subjective rather than objective measures of health, or follow up periods which are too short. The evidence that large income differences have damaging health and social consequences is strong and in most countries inequality is increasing. Narrowing the gap will improve the health and wellbeing of populations.

  18. [FROM STATISTICAL ASSOCIATIONS TO SCIENTIFIC CAUSALITY].

    PubMed

    Golan, Daniel; Linn, Shay

    2015-06-01

    The pathogenesis of most chronic diseases is complex and probably involves the interaction of multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. One way to learn about disease triggers is from statistically significant associations in epidemiological studies. However, associations do not necessarily prove causation. Associations can commonly result from bias, confounding and reverse causation. Several paradigms for causality inference have been developed. Henle-Koch postulates are mainly applied for infectious diseases. Austin Bradford Hill's criteria may serve as a practical tool to weigh the evidence regarding the probability that a single new risk factor for a given disease is indeed causal. These criteria are irrelevant for estimating the causal relationship between exposure to a risk factor and disease whenever biological causality has been previously established. Thus, it is highly probable that past exposure of an individual to definite carcinogens is related to his cancer, even without proving an association between this exposure and cancer in his group. For multifactorial diseases, Rothman's model of interacting sets of component causes can be applied.

  19. 25(OH)D Status of Elite Athletes with Spinal Cord Injury Relative to Lifestyle Factors

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett, Kelly; Pritchett, Robert; Ogan, Dana; Bishop, Phil; Broad, Elizabeth; LaCroix, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the potential negative impact of low Vitamin D status on performance-related factors and the higher risk of low Vitamin D status in Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) population, research is warranted to determine whether elite athletes with SCI have sufficient 25(OH)D levels. The purposes of this study were to examine: (1) the seasonal proportion of vitamin D insufficiency among elite athletes with SCI; and (2) to determine whether lifestyle factors, SCI lesion level, and muscle performance/function are related to vitamin D status in athletes with SCI. Methods: Thirty-nine members of the Canadian Wheelchair Sports Association, and the US Olympic Committee Paralympic program from outdoor and indoor sports were recruited for this study. Dietary and lifestyle factors, and serum 25(OH)D concentrations were assessed during the autumn (October) and winter (February/March). An independent t-test was used to assess differences in 25(OH)D status among seasons, and indoor and outdoor sports in the autumn and winter, respectively. Results: Mean ± SD serum 25(OH)D concentration was 69.6 ± 19.7 nmol/L (range from 30 to 107.3 nmol/L) and 67.4 ± 25.5 nmol/L (range from 20 to 117.3 nmol/L)in the autumn and winter, respectively. In the autumn, 15.4% of participants were considered vitamin D deficient (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) whereas 51.3% had 25(OH)D concentrations that would be considered insufficient (<80 nmol/L). In the winter, 15.4% were deficient while 41% of all participants were considered vitamin D insufficient. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of elite athletes with SCI have insufficient (41%–51%) and deficient (15.4%) 25(OH)D status in the autumn and winter. Furthermore, a seasonal decline in vitamin D status was not observed in the current study. PMID:27322316

  20. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, O.

    1993-12-31

    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  1. Space, Time, and Causality in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Adam J.; Hamilton, Roy H.; Kranjec, Alexander; Minhaus, Preet; Bikson, Marom; Yu, Jonathan; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    The ability to perceive causality is a central human ability constructed from elemental spatial and temporal information present in the environment. Although the nature of causality has captivated philosophers and scientists since antiquity, the neural correlates of causality remain poorly understood. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to generate hypotheses for candidate brain regions related to component processes important for perceptual causality in the human brain: elemental space perception, elemental time perception, and decision-making (Experiment 1; n=16). We then used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to test neural hypotheses generated from the fMRI experiment (Experiment 2; n=16). In both experiments, participants judged causality in billiard-ball style launching events; a blue ball approaches and contacts a red ball. Spatial and temporal contributions to causal perception were assessed by parametrically varying the spatial linearity and the temporal delays of the movement of the balls. Experiment 1 demonstrated unique patterns of activation correlated with spatial, temporal, and decision-making components of causality perception. Using tDCS, we then tested hypotheses for the specific roles of the parietal and frontal cortices found in the fMRI experiment. Parietal stimulation only decreased participants’ perception of causality based on spatial violations, while frontal stimulation made participants less likely to perceive causality based on violations of space and time. Converging results from fMRI and tDCS indicate that parietal cortices contribute to causal perception because of their specific role in processing spatial relations, while the frontal cortices contribute more generally, consistent with their role in decision-making. PMID:24561228

  2. Space, time, and causality in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Woods, Adam J; Hamilton, Roy H; Kranjec, Alexander; Minhaus, Preet; Bikson, Marom; Yu, Jonathan; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2014-05-15

    The ability to perceive causality is a central human ability constructed from elemental spatial and temporal information present in the environment. Although the nature of causality has captivated philosophers and scientists since antiquity, the neural correlates of causality remain poorly understood. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to generate hypotheses for candidate brain regions related to component processes important for perceptual causality in the human brain: elemental space perception, elemental time perception, and decision-making (Experiment 1; n=16). We then used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to test neural hypotheses generated from the fMRI experiment (Experiment 2; n=16). In both experiments, participants judged causality in billiard-ball style launching events; a blue ball approaches and contacts a red ball. Spatial and temporal contributions to causal perception were assessed by parametrically varying the spatial linearity and the temporal delays of the movement of the balls. Experiment 1 demonstrated unique patterns of activation correlated with spatial, temporal, and decision-making components of causality perception. Using tDCS, we then tested hypotheses for the specific roles of the parietal and frontal cortices found in the fMRI experiment. Parietal stimulation only decreased participants' perception of causality based on spatial violations, while frontal stimulation made participants less likely to perceive causality based on violations of space and time. Converging results from fMRI and tDCS indicate that parietal cortices contribute to causal perception because of their specific role in processing spatial relations, while the frontal cortices contribute more generally, consistent with their role in decision-making.

  3. Property Transmission: An Explanatory Account of the Role of Similarity Information in Causal Inference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Many kinds of common and easily observed causal relations exhibit property transmission, which is a tendency for the causal object to impose its own properties on the effect object. It is proposed that property transmission becomes a general and readily available hypothesis used to make interpretations and judgments about causal questions under…

  4. Causal-explanatory pluralism: How intentions, functions, and mechanisms influence causal ascriptions.

    PubMed

    Lombrozo, Tania

    2010-12-01

    Both philosophers and psychologists have argued for the existence of distinct kinds of explanations, including teleological explanations that cite functions or goals, and mechanistic explanations that cite causal mechanisms. Theories of causation, in contrast, have generally been unitary, with dominant theories focusing either on counterfactual dependence or on physical connections. This paper argues that both approaches to causation are psychologically real, with different modes of explanation promoting judgments more or less consistent with each approach. Two sets of experiments isolate the contributions of counterfactual dependence and physical connections in causal ascriptions involving events with people, artifacts, or biological traits, and manipulate whether the events are construed teleologically or mechanistically. The findings suggest that when events are construed teleologically, causal ascriptions are sensitive to counterfactual dependence and relatively insensitive to the presence of physical connections, but when events are construed mechanistically, causal ascriptions are sensitive to both counterfactual dependence and physical connections. The conclusion introduces an account of causation, an "exportable dependence theory," that provides a way to understand the contributions of physical connections and teleology in terms of the functions of causal ascriptions. PMID:20801434

  5. Causal-explanatory pluralism: How intentions, functions, and mechanisms influence causal ascriptions.

    PubMed

    Lombrozo, Tania

    2010-12-01

    Both philosophers and psychologists have argued for the existence of distinct kinds of explanations, including teleological explanations that cite functions or goals, and mechanistic explanations that cite causal mechanisms. Theories of causation, in contrast, have generally been unitary, with dominant theories focusing either on counterfactual dependence or on physical connections. This paper argues that both approaches to causation are psychologically real, with different modes of explanation promoting judgments more or less consistent with each approach. Two sets of experiments isolate the contributions of counterfactual dependence and physical connections in causal ascriptions involving events with people, artifacts, or biological traits, and manipulate whether the events are construed teleologically or mechanistically. The findings suggest that when events are construed teleologically, causal ascriptions are sensitive to counterfactual dependence and relatively insensitive to the presence of physical connections, but when events are construed mechanistically, causal ascriptions are sensitive to both counterfactual dependence and physical connections. The conclusion introduces an account of causation, an "exportable dependence theory," that provides a way to understand the contributions of physical connections and teleology in terms of the functions of causal ascriptions.

  6. Air Pollution and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Causal or Confounded?

    PubMed

    Weisskopf, Marc G; Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Roberts, Andrea L

    2015-12-01

    In the last decade, several studies have examined the association between perinatal exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These studies have largely been consistent, with associations seen with different aspects of air pollution, including hazardous air toxics, ozone, particulate, and traffic-related pollution. Confounding by socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence are of particular concern, as these can be related to ASD case ascertainment and other potential causal risk factors for ASD. While all studies take steps to address this concern, residual confounding is difficult to rule out. Two recent studies of air pollution and ASD, however, present findings that strongly argue against residual confounding, especially for factors that do not vary over relatively short time intervals. These two studies, conducted in communities around the USA, found a specific association with air pollution exposure during the 3rd, but not the 1st, trimester, when both trimesters were modeled simultaneously. In this review, we discuss confounding possibilities and then explain-with the aid of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs)-why an association that is specific to a particular time window, when multiple exposure windows are simultaneously assessed, argues against residual confounding by (even unmeasured) non-time-varying factors. In addition, we discuss why examining ambient air pollution concentration as a proxy for personal exposure helps avoid confounding by personal behavior differences, and the implications of measurement error in using ambient concentrations as a proxy for personal exposures. Given the general consistency of findings across studies and the exposure-window-specific associations recently reported, the overall evidence for a causal association between air pollution and ASD is increasingly compelling.

  7. Colostrum yield and piglet growth during lactation are related to gilt metabolic and hepatic status prepartum.

    PubMed

    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; Ramaekers, P; Quesnel, H

    2014-07-01

    It was hypothesized that colostrum production could be influenced by sow peripartum endocrine, metabolic, and hepatic status. The plant extract silymarin was shown to influence endocrine and hepatic status in several species. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of silymarin intake during late pregnancy on sow hormonal and hepatic status and to determine whether relations exist between sow hepatic and metabolic status during the peripartum period and colostrum yield and piglet performances during lactation. From d 107 of pregnancy until farrowing, nulliparous sows were either fed 12 g/d of silymarin (SIL; n = 15) or no treatment (Control; n = 12). Piglet BW was recorded directly after birth, 24 h after birth of the first piglet, and at 7, 14, and 21 d of lactation. Blood samples were collected from sows on d 107 and 109 of pregnancy, daily from d 111 of pregnancy until d 2 of lactation, and on d 7 and 21 of lactation. They were assayed for endocrine, metabolic, and hepatic variables. Colostrum yield was estimated during 24 h starting at the onset of farrowing. Silymarin did not influence colostrum yield (3.7 ± 0.3 kg) or gross composition (P > 0.10), nor did it affect serum prolactin concentrations or plasma concentrations of progesterone, estradiol-17β, or cortisol (P > 0.10). Mean litter BW gain was lower (P < 0.05) during the first week and tended (P < 0.10) to be lower during the second week of lactation in litters from SIL sows. Silymarin had no effect on plasma concentrations of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), alkaline phosphatase, or total cholesterol (P > 0.10). Colostrum yield was positively correlated with urea (r = 0.50; P = 0.01) and creatinine (r = 0.43; P = 0.03) concentrations in sows on the day before farrowing. Mean litter BW gain over 2 wk was negatively correlated with concentrations of β-hydroxybutyric acid (r = -0.50; P = 0.01) and γ-GT (r = -0.42; P = 0.03) on the day

  8. [Relation between drug release and the drug status within curcumin-loaded microsphere].

    PubMed

    Chen, De; Liu, Yi; Fan, Kai-yan; Xie, Yi-qiao; Yu, An-an; Xia, Zi-hua; Yang, Fan

    2016-01-01

    To study the relation between drug release and the drug status within curcumin-loaded microsphere, SPG (shirasu porous glass) membrane emulsification was used to prepare the curcumin-PLGA (polylactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres with three levels of drug loading respectively, and the in vitro release was studied with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The morphology of microspheres was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the drug status was studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared analysis (IR). The drug loading of microspheres was (5.85 ± 0.21)%, (11.71 ± 0.39)%, (15.41 ± 0.40)%, respectively. No chemical connection was found between curcumin and PLGA. According to the results of XRD, curcumin dispersed in PLGA as amorphous form within the microspheres of the lowest drug loading, while (2.12 ± 0.64)% and (5.66 ± 0.07)% curcumin crystals was detected in the other two kinds of microspheres, respectively, indicating that the drug status was different within three kinds of microspheres. In the data analysis, we found that PLGA had a limited capacity of dissolving curcumin. When the drug loading exceeded the limit, the excess curcumin would exist in the form of crystals in microspheres independently. Meanwhile, this factor contributes to the difference in drug release behavior of the three groups of microspheres. PMID:27405176

  9. The Relation of Economic Status to Subjective Well-Being in Developing Countries: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Ryan T.; Howell, Colleen J.

    2008-01-01

    The current research synthesis integrates the findings of 111 independent samples from 54 economically developing countries that examined the relation between economic status and subjective well-being (SWB). The average economic status-SWB effect size was strongest among low-income developing economies (r = 0.28) and for samples that were least…

  10. The Mediating Role of Physical Self-Concept on Relations between Biological Maturity Status and Physical Activity in Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Sean P.; Standage, Martyn; Loney, Tom; Gammon, Catherine; Neville, Helen; Sherar, Lauren B.; Malina, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the mediating role of physical self-concept on relations between biological maturity status and self-reported physical activity in adolescent British females. Biological maturity status, physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed in 407 female British year 7-9 pupils (M age = 13.2 years, SD = 1.0).…

  11. Sentencing goals, causal attributions, ideology, and personality.

    PubMed

    Carroll, J S; Perkowitz, W T; Lurigio, A J; Weaver, F M

    1987-01-01

    Disparity in sentencing of criminals has been related to a variety of individual difference variables. We propose a framework establishing resonances or coherent patterns among sentencing goals, causal attributions, ideology, and personality. Two studies are described, one with law and criminology students, the other with probation officers. Relations among the different types of variables reveal two resonances among both students and officers. One comprises various conservative and moralistic elements: a tough, punitive stance toward crime; belief in individual causality for crime; high scores on authoritarianism, dogmatism, and internal locus of control; lower moral stage; and political conservatism. The second comprises various liberal elements: rehabilitation, belief in economic and other external determinants of crime, higher moral stage, and belief in the powers and responsibilities of government to correct social problems. Implications of these results are discussed for individual differences in sentencing, attribution theory, and attempts to reduce disparity.

  12. Marital/Cohabitation Status and History in Relation to Sleep in Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Matthews, Karen A.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Sowers, MaryFran; Hall, Martica H.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine whether current and/or history of marital/cohabitation status are associated with sleep, independent of demographic and general health risk factors. Design: Longitudinal, observational study of women, with sleep measured via multi-night in-home polysomnography and up to 35 nights of actigraphy. Setting: Participants' homes. Participants: Caucasian (n = 170), African American (n = 138), and Chinese women (n = 59); mean age 51 years. Interventions: None. Measurements: Sleep quality was assessed via questionnaire. Sleep duration, continuity, and architecture were calculated using in-home polysomnography (PSG). Sleep continuity was also assessed by actigraphy. Categories of marital/cohabiting status or changes in status were inclusive of women who were legally married or living as married as well as transitions into or out of those partnership categories. Results: Partnered (married or cohabiting) women at the time of the sleep study had better sleep quality and PSG and actigraphy-assessed sleep continuity than unpartnered women; however, with covariate adjustment, most of these associations became non-significant. Analyses of women's relationship histories over the 6-8 years prior to the sleep study showed advantages in sleep for women who were consistently partnered versus women who were unpartnered throughout this interval, or those who had lost or gained a partner over that time course. These results persisted after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusions: The stable presence of a partner is an independent correlate of better sleep quality and continuity in women. Citation: Troxel WM; Buysse DJ; Matthews KA; Kravitz HM; Bromberger JT; Sowers M; Hall MH. Marital/cohabitation status and history in relation to sleep in midlife women. SLEEP 2010;33(7):973-981. PMID:20614858

  13. The Relative Predictive Contribution and Causal Role of Phoneme Awareness, Rhyme Awareness and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Reading Skills: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melby-Lervag, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The acknowledgement that educational achievement is highly dependent on successful reading development, has led to extensive research on its underlying factors. Evidence clearly suggests that the relation between reading skills, phoneme awareness, rhyme awareness, and verbal short-term memory is more than a mere association. A strong argument has…

  14. The Significance of Causally Coupled, Stable Neuronal Assemblies for the Psychological Time Arrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Filk, Thomas; Scheingraber, Herbert

    2005-10-01

    Stable neuronal assemblies are generally regarded as neural correlates of mental representations. Their temporal sequence corresponds to the experience of a direction of time, sometimes called the psychological time arrow. We show that the stability of particular, biophysically motivated models of neuronal assemblies, called coupled map lattices, is supported by causal interactions among neurons and obstructed by non-causal or anti-causal interactions among neurons. This surprising relation between causality and stability suggests that those neuronal assemblies that are stable due to causal neuronal interactions, and thus correlated with mental representations, generate a psychological time arrow. Yet this impact of causal interactions among neurons on the directed sequence of mental representations does not rule out the possibility of mentally less efficacious non-causal or anti-causal interactions among neurons.

  15. Current Status and Quality Assessment of Cardiovascular Diseases Related Smartphone Apps in China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qian; Wang, Yanling; Sun, Liu; Lu, Sai; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    To examine current status and quality of CVD related apps available for download in China, a total of 151 apps from the top popular six app stores were analyzed. Data analysis uncovered a range of issues including missing of key variables in the pre-formatted daily records, no platform for interaction with relevant healthcare professionals and undesirable user-interface design. More importantly, these apps had low levels of adherence to internationally recognized guidelines in CVD management. Overall quality score of these apps was below the average (8.08/20). This study identified areas for improvement concerning the existing CVD related apps. Information may guide the further advancement of CVD related apps and benefit CVD management in China. PMID:27332467

  16. Do We Know Where We Stand? Neighborhood Relative Income, Subjective Social Status, and Health.

    PubMed

    Roy, Amanda L; Godfrey, Erin B; Rarick, Jason R D

    2016-06-01

    Bridging research on relative income and subjective social status (SSS), this study examines how neighborhood relative income is related to ones' SSS, and in turn, physical and mental health. Using a survey sample of 1807 U.S. adults, we find that neighborhood median income significantly moderates the relationship between household income and self-reported physical and mental health. Low-income individuals living in high-income neighborhoods (i.e., relative disadvantage) report better physical and mental health than low-income individuals living in low-income neighborhoods. In addition, high-income individuals living in low-income neighborhoods (i.e., relative advantage) report higher SSS (relative to neighbors), whereas low-income individuals living in high-income neighborhoods (i.e., relative disadvantage) also report higher SSS. We draw from social comparison theory to interpret these results positing that downward comparisons may serve an evaluative function while upward comparisons may result in affiliation with better-off others. Finally, we demonstrate that SSS explains the relationship between neighborhood relative income and health outcomes, providing empirical support for the underlying influence of perceived social position. PMID:27216636

  17. A Complex Systems Approach to Causal Discovery in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Saxe, Glenn N.; Statnikov, Alexander; Fenyo, David; Ren, Jiwen; Li, Zhiguo; Prasad, Meera; Wall, Dennis; Bergman, Nora; Briggs, Ernestine C.; Aliferis, Constantin

    2016-01-01

    Conventional research methodologies and data analytic approaches in psychiatric research are unable to reliably infer causal relations without experimental designs, or to make inferences about the functional properties of the complex systems in which psychiatric disorders are embedded. This article describes a series of studies to validate a novel hybrid computational approach–the Complex Systems-Causal Network (CS-CN) method–designed to integrate causal discovery within a complex systems framework for psychiatric research. The CS-CN method was first applied to an existing dataset on psychopathology in 163 children hospitalized with injuries (validation study). Next, it was applied to a much larger dataset of traumatized children (replication study). Finally, the CS-CN method was applied in a controlled experiment using a ‘gold standard’ dataset for causal discovery and compared with other methods for accurately detecting causal variables (resimulation controlled experiment). The CS-CN method successfully detected a causal network of 111 variables and 167 bivariate relations in the initial validation study. This causal network had well-defined adaptive properties and a set of variables was found that disproportionally contributed to these properties. Modeling the removal of these variables resulted in significant loss of adaptive properties. The CS-CN method was successfully applied in the replication study and performed better than traditional statistical methods, and similarly to state-of-the-art causal discovery algorithms in the causal detection experiment. The CS-CN method was validated, replicated, and yielded both novel and previously validated findings related to risk factors and potential treatments of psychiatric disorders. The novel approach yields both fine-grain (micro) and high-level (macro) insights and thus represents a promising approach for complex systems-oriented research in psychiatry. PMID:27028297

  18. Body-related state shame and guilt in women: do causal attributions mediate the influence of physical self-concept and shame and guilt proneness.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Peter R E; Brune, Sara M; Kowalski, Kent C; Mack, Diane E; Wilson, Philip M; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    Guided by the process model of self-conscious emotions, this study examined whether physical self-concept (PSC) and shame and guilt proneness were associated with body-related self-conscious emotions of state shame and guilt and if these relationships were mediated by attributions of stability, globality, and controllability. Female participants (N=284; Mean age=20.6±1.9 years) completed measures of PSC and shame and guilt proneness before reading a hypothetical scenario. Participants completed measures of attributions and state shame and guilt in response to the scenario. Significant relationships were noted between state shame and attributions of globality and controllability, and shame proneness, guilt proneness, and PSC. Similar relationships, with the additional predictor of stability, were found for state guilt. Mediation analysis partially supported the process model hypotheses for shame. Results indicate PSC and shame proneness are important in predicting body-related emotions, but the role of specific attributions are still unclear.

  19. Psychosomatic symptoms and low psychological well-being in relation to employment status: the influence of social capital in a large cross-sectional study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Unemployment is associated with adverse effects on health. Social capital has been suggested as a promoter of health via several causal pathways that are associated with the known health risk factors of being unemployed. This cross-sectional study investigated possible additive- and interaction effects of unemployment and five different measures of social capital in relation to psychosomatic symptoms and low psychological well-being. Methods A random population sample of 20,538 individuals aged 18–85 years from five counties in Sweden completed a postal survey questionnaire including questions of employment status, psychosomatic symptoms, psychological well-being (General Health Questionnaire-12) and social capital. Results Psychosomatic symptoms and reduced psychological well-being were more frequent among unemployed individuals compared with individuals who were employed. Moreover, low social capital and unemployment had additive effects on ill-health. Unemployed individuals with low social capital—specifically with low tangible social support—had increased ill-health compared with unemployed individuals with high social capital. Moreover, to have low social capital within several different areas magnified the negative effects on health. However, no significant interaction effects were found suggesting no moderating effect of social capital in this regard. Conclusions Elements of social capital, particularly social support, might be important health-protective factors among individuals who are unemployed. PMID:24593256

  20. The cosmic microwave background in a causal set universe

    SciTech Connect

    Zuntz, Joe

    2008-02-15

    We discuss cosmic microwave background constraints on the causal set theory of quantum gravity, which has made testable predictions about the nature of dark energy. We flesh out previously discussed heuristic constraints by showing how the power spectrum of causal set dark energy fluctuations can be found from the overlap volumes of past light cones of points in the universe. Using a modified Boltzmann code we put constraints on the single parameter of the theory that are somewhat stronger than previous ones. We conclude that causal set theory cannot explain late-time acceleration without radical alterations to general relativity.

  1. [Causality and prediction: differences and points of contact].

    PubMed

    Silva Ayçaguer, Luis Carlos

    2014-09-10

    This contribution presents the differences between those variables that might play a causal role in a certain process and those only valuable for predicting the outcome. Some considerations are made about the core intervention of the association and the temporal precedence and biases in both cases, the study of causality and predictive modeling. In that context, several relevant aspects related to the design of the corresponding studies are briefly reviewed and some of the mistakes that are often committed in handling both, causality and prediction, are illustrated.

  2. Deconstructing events: The neural bases for space, time, and causality

    PubMed Central

    Kranjec, Alexander; Cardillo, Eileen R.; Lehet, Matthew; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2013-01-01

    Space, time, and causality provide a natural structure for organizing our experience. These abstract categories allow us to think relationally in the most basic sense; understanding simple events require one to represent the spatial relations among objects, the relative durations of actions or movements, and links between causes and effects. The present fMRI study investigates the extent to which the brain distinguishes between these fundamental conceptual domains. Participants performed a one-back task with three conditions of interest (SPACE, TIME and CAUSALITY). Each condition required comparing relations between events in a simple verbal narrative. Depending on the condition, participants were instructed to either attend to the spatial, temporal, or causal characteristics of events, but between participants, each particular event relation appeared in all three conditions. Contrasts compared neural activity during each condition against the remaining two and revealed how thinking about events is deconstructed neurally. Space trials recruited neural areas traditionally associated with visuospatial processing, primarily bilateral frontal and occipitoparietal networks. Causality trials activated areas previously found to underlie causal thinking and thematic role assignment, such as left medial frontal, and left middle temporal gyri, respectively. Causality trials also produced activations in SMA, caudate, and cerebellum; cortical and subcortical regions associated with the perception of time at different timescales. The TIME contrast however, produced no significant effects. This pattern, indicating negative results for TIME trials, but positive effects for CAUSALITY trials in areas important for time perception, motivated additional overlap analyses to further probe relations between domains. The results of these analyses suggest a closer correspondence between time and causality than between time and space. PMID:21861674

  3. Deconstructing events: the neural bases for space, time, and causality.

    PubMed

    Kranjec, Alexander; Cardillo, Eileen R; Schmidt, Gwenda L; Lehet, Matthew; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2012-01-01

    Space, time, and causality provide a natural structure for organizing our experience. These abstract categories allow us to think relationally in the most basic sense; understanding simple events requires one to represent the spatial relations among objects, the relative durations of actions or movements, and the links between causes and effects. The present fMRI study investigates the extent to which the brain distinguishes between these fundamental conceptual domains. Participants performed a 1-back task with three conditions of interest (space, time, and causality). Each condition required comparing relations between events in a simple verbal narrative. Depending on the condition, participants were instructed to either attend to the spatial, temporal, or causal characteristics of events, but between participants each particular event relation appeared in all three conditions. Contrasts compared neural activity during each condition against the remaining two and revealed how thinking about events is deconstructed neurally. Space trials recruited neural areas traditionally associated with visuospatial processing, primarily bilateral frontal and occipitoparietal networks. Causality trials activated areas previously found to underlie causal thinking and thematic role assignment, such as left medial frontal and left middle temporal gyri, respectively. Causality trials also produced activations in SMA, caudate, and cerebellum; cortical and subcortical regions associated with the perception of time at different timescales. The time contrast, however, produced no significant effects. This pattern, indicating negative results for time trials but positive effects for causality trials in areas important for time perception, motivated additional overlap analyses to further probe relations between domains. The results of these analyses suggest a closer correspondence between time and causality than between time and space.

  4. Performance status and comorbidity predict transplant-related mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Artz, Andrew S; Pollyea, Daniel A; Kocherginsky, Masha; Stock, Wendy; Rich, Elizabeth; Odenike, Olatoyosi; Zimmerman, Todd; Smith, Sonali; Godley, Lucy; Thirman, Michael; Daugherty, Christopher; Extermann, Martine; Larson, Richard; van Besien, Koen

    2006-09-01

    Comorbidity measurements have recently been used to improve estimation of tolerance to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We sought to determine the independent effect of comorbidity and performance status on HCT outcome and to devise a simple risk classification system for transplant-related mortality. We analyzed 105 consecutively enrolled patients who underwent HCT and received reduced intensity conditioning with fludarabine, melphalan, and alemtuzumab. Comorbid conditions were tabulated using 2 scales, the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and the Kaplan-Feinstein Scale (KFS). Comorbid conditions were found in 47% of patients by the KFS and in 27% by the CCI (P < .001). Using the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (PS) scale, 34% had a PS score >0 (range, 0-2). A simple scale combining the KFS and PS enabled separation of high- from low-risk patients, with 6-month cumulative incidences 50% and 15%, respectively for transplant-related mortality (P = .001) and enhanced prognostic power over the CCI alone (P = .018). Prospective studies evaluating more comprehensive functional and comorbidity measurements are warranted.

  5. Paternal investment and status-related child outcomes: timing of father's death affects offspring success.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Mary K; Scelza, Brooke A

    2012-09-01

    Recent work in human behavioural ecology has suggested that analyses focusing on early childhood may underestimate the importance of paternal investment to child outcomes since such investment may not become crucial until adolescence or beyond. This may be especially important in societies with a heritable component to status, as later investment by fathers may be more strongly related to a child's adult status than early forms of parental investment that affect child survival and child health. In such circumstances, the death or absence of a father may have profoundly negative effects on the adult outcomes of his children that cannot be easily compensated for by the investment of mothers or other relatives. This proposition is tested using a multigenerational dataset from Bangalore, India, containing information on paternal mortality as well as several child outcomes dependent on parental investment during adolescence and young adulthood. The paper examines the effects of paternal death, and the timing of paternal death, on a child's education, adult income, age at marriage and the amount spent on his or her marriage, along with similar characteristics of spouses. Results indicate that a father's death has a negative impact on child outcomes, and that, in contrast to some findings in the literature on father absence, the effects of paternal death are strongest for children who lose their father in late childhood or adolescence.

  6. Water Load Test in Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain: No Relation to Food Intake and Nutritional Status.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Roberto Koity Fujihara; Soares, Ana Cristina Fontenele; Speridião, Patricia da Graça Leite; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the relations between the water load test in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders with food intake and nutritional status. Patients with functional dyspepsia required a lower maximum water intake to produce fullness (n = 11, median = 380 mL) than patients with irritable bowel syndrome (n = 10, median = 695 mL) or functional abdominal pain (n = 10, median = 670 mL) (P < 0.05). Among patients who ingested ≤560 mL (n = 17) or >560 mL (n = 14) in the water load test, there was no relation between the maximum drinking capacity and food intake, body mass index, or height. PMID:26317680

  7. Causality in physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Müller, Andreas; Kraemer, Jan F; Penzel, Thomas; Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Kurths, Jürgen; Wessel, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Health is one of the most important non-material assets and thus also has an enormous influence on material values, since treating and preventing diseases is expensive. The number one cause of death worldwide today originates in cardiovascular diseases. For these reasons the aim of understanding the functions and the interactions of the cardiovascular system is and has been a major research topic throughout various disciplines for more than a hundred years. The purpose of most of today's research is to get as much information as possible with the lowest possible effort and the least discomfort for the subject or patient, e.g. via non-invasive measurements. A family of tools whose importance has been growing during the last years is known under the headline of coupling measures. The rationale for this kind of analysis is to identify the structure of interactions in a system of multiple components. Important information lies for example in the coupling direction, the coupling strength, and occurring time lags. In this work, we will, after a brief general introduction covering the development of cardiovascular time series analysis, introduce, explain and review some of the most important coupling measures and classify them according to their origin and capabilities in the light of physiological analyses. We will begin with classical correlation measures, go via Granger-causality-based tools, entropy-based techniques (e.g. momentary information transfer), nonlinear prediction measures (e.g. mutual prediction) to symbolic dynamics (e.g. symbolic coupling traces). All these methods have contributed important insights into physiological interactions like cardiorespiratory coupling, neuro-cardio-coupling and many more. Furthermore, we will cover tools to detect and analyze synchronization and coordination (e.g. synchrogram and coordigram). As a last point we will address time dependent couplings as identified using a recent approach employing ensembles of time series. The

  8. Work-related Mental Consequences: Implications of Burnout on Mental Health Status Among Health Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Burnout can create problems in every aspect of individual’s’ human life. It may have an adverse effect on interpersonal and family relations and can lead to a general negative attitude towards life. Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether burnout is associated with the mental health status of health care providers. Material and Methods: The sample in this study consisted of 240 health care employees. The Greek version of Maslach’s Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used for measuring burnout levels and the Greek version of the Symptoms Rating Scale for Depression and Anxiety (SRSDA) questionnaire was used to evaluate health care providers’ mental health status. Descriptive statistics were initially generated for sample characteristics. Normality was checked by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and data was processed with parametric tests. General linear models with MBI dimensions as independent variables and SRSDA subscales as dependent variables were used to determine the relation between burnout and mental health status. Statistics were processed with SPSS v. 17.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical significance was set at p=0.05. Results: The average age of the sample is 40.00±7.95 years. Regarding gender the percentage of men is 21.40% (N=49) and of women is 78.60% (N=180). Overall the professional burnout of health care workers is moderate. The mean score for emotional exhaustion is 26.41, for personal accomplishment 36.70 and for depersonalization 9.81. The mean for each subscale of SRSDA is 8.23±6.79 for Depression Beck-21, 3.96±4.26 for Depression Beck-13, 4.91±4.44 for Melancholia, 6.32±4.35 for Asthenia and 6.36±4.72 for Anxiety. The results of general linear models with the MBI dimensions as independent variables and the SRSDA subscales as dependent variables are shown that emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment are statistically correlated with all subscales of SRSDA, while depersonalization is not correlated

  9. Different Kinds of Causality in Event Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Tamplin, Andrea K.; Armendarez, Joseph; Thompson, Alexis N.

    2014-01-01

    Narrative memory is better for information that is more causally connected and occurs at event boundaries, such as a causal break. However, it is unclear whether there are common or distinct influences of causality. For the event boundaries that arise as a result of causal breaks, the events that follow may subsequently become more causally…

  10. Introduction a potato cultivar "sprit" as relatively resistant to main fungal pathogens causal agents of early blight and wilting on potato in Iran.

    PubMed

    Saremi, H; Davoodvandy, M H; Amarlou, A

    2007-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tubersum L.) is one of the most human food production cultured in Iran especially Zanjan province as a temperate region. Some fungal pathogens caused severely infected on potato tubers or foliage in the majority grown areas and resulted yield losses in potato production. Recent years from 2002 to 2004 infected samples were collected from different potato grown regions in Zanjan province then cultured on PDA after surface sterilization with sodium hypochlorite. Isolated fungal pathogens were identified and study showed the main pathogens with high incidence and frequency were Alternaria solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium sp. in studied areas. The regions which used convention varieties showed more diseases than other locations which used relatively resistant races. The rate of resistance for 10 international potato varieties was studied by inoculation of them by 10(5) spores suspension of three common fungal pathogens in the field. Study showed Sprit cultivar was more resistant than others to all three common pathogens and Lady-Claire was most susceptible. Yield production of Sprit per unit of land area was also exceeded that of other cultivars by factors of 1.10 to 2.25 respectively. The results of the study helped potato growers to culture Sprit cultivar and have good yield production in Zanjan and Hamedan provinces in this year.

  11. Are neighborhoods causal? Complications arising from the 'stickiness' of ZNA.

    PubMed

    Glass, Thomas A; Bilal, Usama

    2016-10-01

    Are neighborhoods causal? The answer remains elusive. Armed with new multilevel methods, enthusiasm for neighborhoods research surged at the turn of the century. However, a wave of skepticism has arisen based on the difficulty of drawing causal inferences from observational studies in which selection to neighborhoods is non-random. Researchers have sought answers from experimental and quasi-experimental studies of movers vs. stayers. We develop two related concepts in this essay in the hopes of shedding light on this problem. First, the inceptive environment into which persons are born (which we term ZNA for Zip code Nativity Area) exerts a potentially powerful causal impact on health. Detecting that causal effect is challenging for reasons similar that obtain in other fields (including genetics). Second, we explicate the problem of neighborhood 'stickiness' in terms of the persistence of neighborhood treatment assignment, and argue that under-appreciation of stickiness has led to systematic bias in causal estimates of neighborhoods proportional to the degree of stickiness. In sticky contexts, failure to account for the lasting influences of ZNA by adjusting for intermediate individual socioeconomic and health variables on the causal pathway can result in neighborhood effects estimates that are biased toward the null. We follow with an example drawn from evidence of neighborhood 'stickiness' and obesity. The stickiness of ZNA cautions us that experimental evidence may be insufficient or misleading as a solution to causal inference problems in neighborhood research. PMID:26830654

  12. Spatio-temporal Granger causality: a new framework

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qiang; Lu, Wenlian; Cheng, Wei; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A.; Wen, Xiaotong; Ding, Mingzhou; Feng, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    That physiological oscillations of various frequencies are present in fMRI signals is the rule, not the exception. Herein, we propose a novel theoretical framework, spatio-temporal Granger causality, which allows us to more reliably and precisely estimate the Granger causality from experimental datasets possessing time-varying properties caused by physiological oscillations. Within this framework, Granger causality is redefined as a global index measuring the directed information flow between two time series with time-varying properties. Both theoretical analyses and numerical examples demonstrate that Granger causality is a monotonically increasing function of the temporal resolution used in the estimation. This is consistent with the general principle of coarse graining, which causes information loss by smoothing out very fine-scale details in time and space. Our results confirm that the Granger causality at the finer spatio-temporal scales considerably outperforms the traditional approach in terms of an improved consistency between two resting-state scans of the same subject. To optimally estimate the Granger causality, the proposed theoretical framework is implemented through a combination of several approaches, such as dividing the optimal time window and estimating the parameters at the fine temporal and spatial scales. Taken together, our approach provides a novel and robust framework for estimating the Granger causality from fMRI, EEG, and other related data. PMID:23643924

  13. Spatio-temporal Granger causality: a new framework.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qiang; Lu, Wenlian; Cheng, Wei; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A; Wen, Xiaotong; Ding, Mingzhou; Feng, Jianfeng

    2013-10-01

    That physiological oscillations of various frequencies are present in fMRI signals is the rule, not the exception. Herein, we propose a novel theoretical framework, spatio-temporal Granger causality, which allows us to more reliably and precisely estimate the Granger causality from experimental datasets possessing time-varying properties caused by physiological oscillations. Within this framework, Granger causality is redefined as a global index measuring the directed information flow between two time series with time-varying properties. Both theoretical analyses and numerical examples demonstrate that Granger causality is a monotonically increasing function of the temporal resolution used in the estimation. This is consistent with the general principle of coarse graining, which causes information loss by smoothing out very fine-scale details in time and space. Our results confirm that the Granger causality at the finer spatio-temporal scales considerably outperforms the traditional approach in terms of an improved consistency between two resting-state scans of the same subject. To optimally estimate the Granger causality, the proposed theoretical framework is implemented through a combination of several approaches, such as dividing the optimal time window and estimating the parameters at the fine temporal and spatial scales. Taken together, our approach provides a novel and robust framework for estimating the Granger causality from fMRI, EEG, and other related data.

  14. Abolishing the effect of reinforcement delay on human causal learning.

    PubMed

    Buehner, Marc J; May, Jon

    2004-04-01

    Associative learning theory postulates two main determinants for human causal learning: contingency and contiguity. In line with such an account, participants in Shanks, Pearson, and Dickinson (1989) failed to discover causal relations involving delays of more than two seconds. More recent research has shown that the impact of contiguity and delay is mediated by prior knowledge about the timeframe of the causal relation in question. Buehner and May (2002, 2003) demonstrated that the detrimental effect of delay can be significantly reduced if reasoners are aware of potential delays. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the negative influence of delay can be abolished completely by a subtle change in the experimental instructions. Temporal contiguity is thus not essential for human causal learning.

  15. Rhizosphere microbial community structure in relation to root location and plant iron nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Yang, C H; Crowley, D E

    2000-01-01

    Root exudate composition and quantity vary in relation to plant nutritional status, but the impact of the differences on rhizosphere microbial communities is not known. To examine this question, we performed an experiment with barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants under iron-limiting and iron-sufficient growth conditions. Plants were grown in an iron-limiting soil in root box microcosms. One-half of the plants were treated with foliar iron every day to inhibit phytosiderophore production and to alter root exudate composition. After 30 days, the bacterial communities associated with different root zones, including the primary root tips, nonelongating secondary root tips, sites of lateral root emergence, and older roots distal from the tip, were characterized by using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fingerprints generated by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results showed that the microbial communities associated with the different root locations produced many common 16S rDNA bands but that the communities could be distinguished by using correspondence analysis. Approximately 40% of the variation between communities could be attributed to plant iron nutritional status. A sequence analysis of clones generated from a single 16S rDNA band obtained at all of the root locations revealed that there were taxonomically different species in the same band, suggesting that the resolving power of DGGE for characterization of community structure at the species level is limited. Our results suggest that the bacterial communities in the rhizosphere are substantially different in different root zones and that a rhizosphere community may be altered by changes in root exudate composition caused by changes in plant iron nutritional status.

  16. Relation between vitamin D status and body composition in collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Heller, Jenna E; Thomas, Joi J; Hollis, Bruce W; Larson-Meyer, D Enette

    2015-04-01

    Excess body fat or obesity is known to increase risk of poor vitamin D status in nonathletes but it is not known if this is the case in athletes. Furthermore, the reason for this association is not understood, but is thought to be due to either sequestration of the fat-soluble vitamin within adipose tissue or the effect of volume dilution related to obese individuals' larger body size. Forty two US college athletes (24 men 18 women, 20.7 ± 1.6 years, 85.0 ± 28.7 kg, BMI = 25.7 ± 6.1 kg/m2) provided blood samples during the fall and underwent measurement of body composition via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum samples were evaluated for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration to assess vitamin D status using Diasorin 25(OH)D radioiodine assay. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was negatively associated with height (r = -0.45), total body mass (r = -0.57), BMI (r = -0.57), body fat percentage (r = -0.45), fat mass (r = -0.60) and fat-free mass (r = -0.51) (p < .05). These associations did not change after controlling for sex. In a linear regression mixed model, fat mass (coefficient -0.47, p = .01), but not fat-free mass (coefficient -0.18, p = .32) significantly predicted vitamin D status and explained approximately 36% of the variation in serum 25(OH)D concentration. These results suggest that athletes with a large body size and/or excess adiposity may be at higher risk for vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency. In addition, the significant association between serum 25(OH)D concentration and fat mass in the mixed model, which remained after controlling for sex, is in support of vitamin D sequestration rather than volume dilution as an explanation for such association.

  17. An Evaluation of Active Learning Causal Discovery Methods for Reverse-Engineering Local Causal Pathways of Gene Regulation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sisi; Kemmeren, Patrick; Aliferis, Constantin F; Statnikov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Reverse-engineering of causal pathways that implicate diseases and vital cellular functions is a fundamental problem in biomedicine. Discovery of the local causal pathway of a target variable (that consists of its direct causes and direct effects) is essential for effective intervention and can facilitate accurate diagnosis and prognosis. Recent research has provided several active learning methods that can leverage passively observed high-throughput data to draft causal pathways and then refine the inferred relations with a limited number of experiments. The current study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the performance of active learning methods for local causal pathway discovery in real biological data. Specifically, 54 active learning methods/variants from 3 families of algorithms were applied for local causal pathways reconstruction of gene regulation for 5 transcription factors in S. cerevisiae. Four aspects of the methods' performance were assessed, including adjacency discovery quality, edge orientation accuracy, complete pathway discovery quality, and experimental cost. The results of this study show that some methods provide significant performance benefits over others and therefore should be routinely used for local causal pathway discovery tasks. This study also demonstrates the feasibility of local causal pathway reconstruction in real biological systems with significant quality and low experimental cost.

  18. An Evaluation of Active Learning Causal Discovery Methods for Reverse-Engineering Local Causal Pathways of Gene Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Sisi; Kemmeren, Patrick; Aliferis, Constantin F.; Statnikov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Reverse-engineering of causal pathways that implicate diseases and vital cellular functions is a fundamental problem in biomedicine. Discovery of the local causal pathway of a target variable (that consists of its direct causes and direct effects) is essential for effective intervention and can facilitate accurate diagnosis and prognosis. Recent research has provided several active learning methods that can leverage passively observed high-throughput data to draft causal pathways and then refine the inferred relations with a limited number of experiments. The current study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the performance of active learning methods for local causal pathway discovery in real biological data. Specifically, 54 active learning methods/variants from 3 families of algorithms were applied for local causal pathways reconstruction of gene regulation for 5 transcription factors in S. cerevisiae. Four aspects of the methods’ performance were assessed, including adjacency discovery quality, edge orientation accuracy, complete pathway discovery quality, and experimental cost. The results of this study show that some methods provide significant performance benefits over others and therefore should be routinely used for local causal pathway discovery tasks. This study also demonstrates the feasibility of local causal pathway reconstruction in real biological systems with significant quality and low experimental cost. PMID:26939894

  19. Effective coping with stroke disability in a community setting: the development of a causal model.

    PubMed

    Boynton De Sepulveda, L I; Chang, B

    1994-08-01

    A proposed causal model based upon Lazarus' theory of psychological stress and coping was tested in a sample of 75 persons disabled by stroke. Coping constraints such as demographic and stroke factors were hypothesized to affect resources (perceived availability of social support, perceived effectiveness of social support, social contact), stress appraisal, coping behavior and coping effectiveness. Although the model did not fit the data, several path coefficients within the model were statistically significant. Functional status was positively related to resources and negatively related to the stressor. Resources were negatively related to the stressor and positively related to coping effectiveness. It was noted that the buffering effect of social support was related to the level of disability of the stroke person. Persons with functional disability following stroke also had decreased social contact, perceived less availability of social resources and increased threat to physical well-being, and had reduced coping effectiveness.

  20. Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated students’ scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated parents as well as greater number of books at home together with a separate study room are more likely to have tentative views and less likely to have fixed views about science compared to students with unemployed mother, uneducated parents, less books at home, and no separate study room. Generally, results revealed while family SES correlated positively with tentative views, it was negatively associated with fixed views, implying that students from high SES family were more likely to believe that knowledge is uncertain and not handed down by authority compared to students from low SES family. This study, however, failed to indicate any relationship between father work-status, buying daily newspaper and epistemological beliefs. In addition, Multivariate Analysis of Variance indicated that boys more likely to have tentative beliefs compared to girls.

  1. Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated parents as well as greater number of books at home together with a separate study room are more likely to have tentative views and less likely to have fixed views about science compared to students with unemployed mother, uneducated parents, less books at home, and no separate study room. Generally, results revealed while family SES correlated positively with tentative views, it was negatively associated with fixed views, implying that students from high SES family were more likely to believe that knowledge is uncertain and not handed down by authority compared to students from low SES family. This study, however, failed to indicate any relationship between father work-status, buying daily newspaper and epistemological beliefs. In addition, Multivariate Analysis of Variance indicated that boys more likely to have tentative beliefs compared to girls.

  2. Neck strain in car occupants: injury status after 6 months and crash-related factors.

    PubMed

    Ryan, G A; Taylor, G W; Moore, V M; Dolinis, J

    1994-10-01

    In this study, 29 individuals who sustained a neck strain as a result of a car crash were drawn from a group of physiotherapy and general practices and were followed up after 6 months. The aim was to examine relationships between the state of the neck injury at the time of follow up and crash-related factors, notably crash severity and occupant awareness. Crash severity was assessed by measurement of damage to the involved vehicles, while 6-month injury status was established through physical examinations and interviews. No statistically significant associations between crash severity and 6-month injury status were found, but subjects who were unaware of the impending collision had a greatly increased likelihood of experiencing persisting symptoms of and/or signs of neck strain, compared with those who were aware (odds ratio = 15.0; 95 per cent confidence limits: 1.8, 178). While the role of crash severity in the production and duration of neck strains remains unclear, awareness appears to have a strong protective influence and may prove to be a useful prognostic indicator in clinical settings.

  3. (De-)accentuation and the process of information status: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Stefan; Schumacher, Petra B

    2012-09-01

    The paper reports on a perception experiment in German that investigated the neuro-cognitive processing of information structural concepts and their prosodic marking using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Experimental conditions controlled the information status (given vs. new) of referring and non-referring target expressions (nouns vs. adjectives) and were elicited via context sentences, which did not - unlike most previous ERP studies in the field--trigger an explicit focus expectation. Target utterances displayed prosodic realizations of the critical words which differed in accent position and accent type. Electrophysiological results showed an effect of information status, maximally distributed over posterior sites, displaying a biphasic N400--Late Positivity pattern for new information. We claim that this pattern reflects increased processing demands associated with new information, with the N400 indicating enhanced costs from linking information with the previous discourse and the Late Positivity indicating the listener's effort to update his/her discourse model. The prosodic manipulation registered more pronounced effects over anterior regions and revealed an enhanced negativity followed by a Late Positivity for deaccentuation, probably also reflecting costs from discourse linking and updating respectively. The data further lend indirect support for the idea that givenness applies not only to referents but also to non-referential expressions ('lexical givenness'). PMID:23094319

  4. Disclosing food allergy status in schools: health-related stigma among school children in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Dean, Jennifer; Fenton, Nancy E; Shannon, Sara; Elliott, Susan J; Clarke, Ann

    2016-09-01

    In 2006, 3 years after the tragic death of 13-year-old Sabrina Shannon, the Province of Ontario (Canada) passed Sabrina's Law ushering in a new era of focus and concern for severe food allergic children at risk of anaphylaxis. Questions were raised at the time regarding the potential of doing more harm than good with the new legislation. This paper reports the experiences of health-related stigma among food allergic children at risk of anaphylaxis who were required to disclose their health status under this new legislation. In 2008, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 children and youth and their parents in order to explore the experiences living with a severe food allergy. This particular study explores their experiences of felt and enacted stigma in the school setting as a result of the disclosure process. Interviews were tape recorded with permission and transcribed for subsequent thematic analysis using NVIVO, a qualitative analysis software package. Results indicate that participants were stigmatised as a result of protective school policies under the law, and that created tension between their physical safety and social well-being. Sabrina's Law also led to a cultural shift in awareness of food allergies that resulted in some participants normalising their health status, offering promising directions for the future.

  5. Maternal Eating and Physical Activity Strategies and their Relation with Children's Nutritional Status1

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Peña, Yolanda; Ortiz-Félix, Rosario Edith; Cárdenas-Villarreal, Velia Margarita; Ávila-Alpirez, Hermelinda; Alba-Alba, Corina Mariela; Hernández-Carranco, Roandy Gaspar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to describe the maternal eating and physical activity strategies (monitoring, discipline, control, limits and reinforcement) [MEES]; to determine the relation between MEES and the child's nutritional status [body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BFP)]; to verify whether the MEES differ according to the child's nutritional status. Method participants were 558 mothers and children (3 to 11 years of age) who studied at public schools. The Parental Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale (PEAS) was applied and the child's weight, height and BFP were measured. For analysis purposes, descriptive statistics were obtained, using multiple linear regression and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results the highest mean score was found for reinforcement (62.72) and the lowest for control (50.07). Discipline, control and limits explained 12% of the BMI, while discipline and control explained 6% of the BFP. Greater control is found for obese children (χ2=38.36, p=0.001) and greater reinforcement for underweight children (χ2=7.19, p<0.05). Conclusions the mothers exert greater control (pressure to eat) over obese children and greater recognition (congratulating due to healthy eating) in underweight children. Modifications in parental strategies are recommended with a view to strengthening healthy eating and physical activity habits. PMID:26107837

  6. A Difference-in-Differences Approach to Assess the Effect of a Heat Action Plan on Heat-Related Mortality, and Differences in Effectiveness According to Sex, Age, and Socioeconomic Status (Montreal, Quebec)

    PubMed Central

    Benmarhnia, Tarik; Bailey, Zinzi; Kaiser, David; Auger, Nathalie; King, Nicholas; Kaufman, Jay S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The impact of heat waves on mortality and health inequalities is well documented. Very few studies have assessed the effectiveness of heat action plans (HAPs) on health, and none has used quasi-experimental methods to estimate causal effects of such programs. Objectives: We developed a quasi-experimental method to estimate the causal effects associated with HAPs that allows the identification of heterogeneity across subpopulations, and to apply this method specifically to the case of the Montreal (Quebec, Canada) HAP. Methods: A difference-in-differences approach was undertaken using Montreal death registry data for the summers of 2000–2007 to assess the effectiveness of the Montreal HAP, implemented in 2004, on mortality. To study equity in the effect of HAP implementation, we assessed whether the program effects were heterogeneous across sex (male vs. female), age (≥ 65 years vs. < 65 years), and neighborhood education levels (first vs. third tertile). We conducted sensitivity analyses to assess the validity of the estimated causal effect of the HAP program. Results: We found evidence that the HAP contributed to reducing mortality on hot days, and that the mortality reduction attributable to the program was greater for elderly people and people living in low-education neighborhoods. Conclusion: These findings show promise for programs aimed at reducing the impact of extreme temperatures and health inequities. We propose a new quasi-experimental approach that can be easily applied to evaluate the impact of any program or intervention triggered when daily thresholds are reached. Citation: Benmarhnia T, Bailey Z, Kaiser D, Auger N, King N, Kaufman J. 2016. A difference-in-differences approach to assess the effect of a heat action plan on heat-related mortality, and differences in effectiveness according to sex, age, and socioeconomic status (Montreal, Quebec). Environ Health Perspect 124:1694–1699; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP203 PMID:27203433

  7. Causal reasoning with mental models

    PubMed Central

    Khemlani, Sangeet S.; Barbey, Aron K.; Johnson-Laird, Philip N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the model-based theory of causal reasoning. It postulates that the core meanings of causal assertions are deterministic and refer to temporally-ordered sets of possibilities: A causes B to occur means that given A, B occurs, whereas A enables B to occur means that given A, it is possible for B to occur. The paper shows how mental models represent such assertions, and how these models underlie deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning yielding explanations. It reviews evidence both to corroborate the theory and to account for phenomena sometimes taken to be incompatible with it. Finally, it reviews neuroscience evidence indicating that mental models for causal inference are implemented within lateral prefrontal cortex. PMID:25389398

  8. Causal inference from observational data.

    PubMed

    Listl, Stefan; Jürges, Hendrik; Watt, Richard G

    2016-10-01

    Randomized controlled trials have long been considered the 'gold standard' for causal inference in clinical research. In the absence of randomized experiments, identification of reliable intervention points to improve oral health is often perceived as a challenge. But other fields of science, such as social science, have always been challenged by ethical constraints to conducting randomized controlled trials. Methods have been established to make causal inference using observational data, and these methods are becoming increasingly relevant in clinical medicine, health policy and public health research. This study provides an overview of state-of-the-art methods specifically designed for causal inference in observational data, including difference-in-differences (DiD) analyses, instrumental variables (IV), regression discontinuity designs (RDD) and fixed-effects panel data analysis. The described methods may be particularly useful in dental research, not least because of the increasing availability of routinely collected administrative data and electronic health records ('big data'). PMID:27111146

  9. Fluctuations in relativistic causal hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Avdhesh; Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Mishra, Ananta P.

    2014-05-01

    Formalism to calculate the hydrodynamic fluctuations by applying the Onsager theory to the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation is already known. In this work, we calculate hydrodynamic fluctuations within the framework of the second order hydrodynamics of Müller, Israel and Stewart and its generalization to the third order. We have also calculated the fluctuations for several other causal hydrodynamical equations. We show that the form for the Onsager-coefficients and form of the correlation functions remain the same as those obtained by the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation and do not depend on any specific model of hydrodynamics. Further we numerically investigate evolution of the correlation function using the one dimensional boost-invariant (Bjorken) flow. We compare the correlation functions obtained using the causal hydrodynamics with the correlation function for the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation. We find that the qualitative behavior of the correlation functions remains the same for all the models of the causal hydrodynamics.

  10. [Causality in cardiology: concepts in evolution].

    PubMed

    Méndez, Gustavo F

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes several concepts about causality from Empedocles, Aristoteles and Galeno, to Koch and Hill and the evolution of these concepts related to cardiovascular diseases. Also defines cause and risk, and the philosophical theories about scientific knowledge: inductive versus refutation analysis. On these basis, the study of cardiovascular disease's causality, especially coronary heart disease, allows us the identification of several risk factors involved in its development. However, even with the presently coronary heart disease risk charts (from Framingham and European studies) the higher probability for the development of a cardiovascular ischemic event is around 40%, establishing an important degree of uncertainty. With the improvement in molecular biology techniques, genetics have attempted to analyse several genetic polymorphisms in search of the origin of coronary heart disease. Unfortunately, less than 10% of these polymorphisms have had a positive correlation with coronary heart disease being of minor risk that those obtained for having the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus or hypercholesterolemia. On these basis, the requirement of new population research projects in which clinical and genetic risk factors are to be studied for the appropriate understanding of the causality process of cardiovascular diseases must be a worldwide priority.

  11. A cross-lagged structural equation model of relational aggression, physical aggression, and peer status in a Chinese culture.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Banny, Adrienne M; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined the associations among relational aggression, physical aggression, and peer status (i.e., acceptance, rejection, and perceived popularity) across three time points, six months apart, in a Taiwanese sample. Participants were 198 fifth grade students (94 girls and 104 boys; Mean age = 10.35 years) from Taipei, Taiwan. Study variables were assessed using peer nomination procedure. Results from the cross-lagged structural equation models demonstrated that there were longitudinal associations between relational aggression and each of the peer status constructs while only one longitudinal association was found for physical aggression such that physical aggression positively predicted subsequent peer rejection. The longitudinal associations did not vary with gender. Results also showed high stabilities of relational aggression, physical aggression, and the three peer status constructs over 1 year as well as high concurrent association between relational and physical aggression. In addition, relational aggression and physical aggression were concurrently related to less acceptance, more rejection, and less perceived popularity, especially at the outset of the study. Findings of this study demonstrated both similarities and differences in relation to previous literature in primarily Western cultures. This study also highlights the bidirectional and complex nature of the association between aggression and peer status, which appears to depend on the form of aggression and on the particular indicator of peer status under study.

  12. Age-Related Differences in Cortical Thickness Vary by Socioeconomic Status.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Luciane R; Merz, Emily C; He, Xiaofu; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Noble, Kimberly G

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings indicate robust associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and brain structure in children, raising questions about the ways in which SES may modify structural brain development. In general, cortical thickness and surface area develop in nonlinear patterns across childhood and adolescence, with developmental patterns varying to some degree by cortical region. Here, we examined whether age-related nonlinear changes in cortical thickness and surface area varied by SES, as indexed by family income and parental education. We hypothesized that SES disparities in age-related change may be particularly evident for language- and literacy-supporting cortical regions. Participants were 1148 typically-developing individuals between 3 and 20 years of age. Results indicated that SES factors moderate patterns of age-associated change in cortical thickness but not surface area. Specifically, at lower levels of SES, associations between age and cortical thickness were curvilinear, with relatively steep age-related decreases in cortical thickness earlier in childhood, and subsequent leveling off during adolescence. In contrast, at high levels of SES, associations between age and cortical thickness were linear, with consistent reductions across the age range studied. Notably, this interaction was prominent in the left fusiform gyrus, a region that is critical for reading development. In a similar pattern, SES factors significantly moderated linear age-related change in left superior temporal gyrus, such that higher SES was linked with steeper age-related decreases in cortical thickness in this region. These findings suggest that SES may moderate patterns of age-related cortical thinning, especially in language- and literacy-supporting cortical regions. PMID:27644039

  13. Age-Related Differences in Cortical Thickness Vary by Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaofu; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Noble, Kimberly G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings indicate robust associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and brain structure in children, raising questions about the ways in which SES may modify structural brain development. In general, cortical thickness and surface area develop in nonlinear patterns across childhood and adolescence, with developmental patterns varying to some degree by cortical region. Here, we examined whether age-related nonlinear changes in cortical thickness and surface area varied by SES, as indexed by family income and parental education. We hypothesized that SES disparities in age-related change may be particularly evident for language- and literacy-supporting cortical regions. Participants were 1148 typically-developing individuals between 3 and 20 years of age. Results indicated that SES factors moderate patterns of age-associated change in cortical thickness but not surface area. Specifically, at lower levels of SES, associations between age and cortical thickness were curvilinear, with relatively steep age-related decreases in cortical thickness earlier in childhood, and subsequent leveling off during adolescence. In contrast, at high levels of SES, associations between age and cortical thickness were linear, with consistent reductions across the age range studied. Notably, this interaction was prominent in the left fusiform gyrus, a region that is critical for reading development. In a similar pattern, SES factors significantly moderated linear age-related change in left superior temporal gyrus, such that higher SES was linked with steeper age-related decreases in cortical thickness in this region. These findings suggest that SES may moderate patterns of age-related cortical thinning, especially in language- and literacy-supporting cortical regions. PMID:27644039

  14. Prognostic role of oestrogen and progesterone receptors in patients with breast cancer: relation to age and lymph node status.

    PubMed Central

    Collett, K; Hartveit, F; Skjaerven, R; Maehle, B O

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To consider the prognostic role of oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status in relation to the age at surgery, length of follow up and lymph node status. METHODS: The study population comprised 977 patients with histologically confirmed breast carcinoma, with a median follow up of nine years. The actuarial life table method was used to test for survival differences. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to test for interaction effects between each hormone receptor and age, lymph node status and length of follow up. As the analysis involved multiple subgroups, significance was set at the 1% level (p < 0.01). RESULTS: When the patients were subdivided into groups according to lymph node status and age, progesterone and oestrogen receptor status predicted prognosis in middle aged (46-60 years) patients with lymph node positive breast cancer. Their prognostic effect in this subgroup, however, was restricted to the first five years after surgery. Progesterone receptor status was the strongest predictor of outcome. CONCLUSION: The prognostic power of oestrogen and progesterone receptor status varies depending on age, lymph node status and length of follow up after surgery. PMID:8944613

  15. Reasoning about Causal Relationships: Inferences on Causal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Rottman, Benjamin Margolin; Hastie, Reid

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, a normative framework for making causal inferences, Bayesian Probabilistic Causal Networks, has come to dominate psychological studies of inference based on causal relationships. The following causal networks—[X→Y→Z, X←Y→Z, X→Y←Z]—supply answers for questions like, “Suppose both X and Y occur, what is the probability Z occurs?” or “Suppose you intervene and make Y occur, what is the probability Z occurs?” In this review, we provide a tutorial for how normatively to calculate these inferences. Then, we systematically detail the results of behavioral studies comparing human qualitative and quantitative judgments to the normative calculations for many network structures and for several types of inferences on those networks. Overall, when the normative calculations imply that an inference should increase, judgments usually go up; when calculations imply a decrease, judgments usually go down. However, two systematic deviations appear. First, people’s inferences violate the Markov assumption. For example, when inferring Z from the structure X→Y→Z, people think that X is relevant even when Y completely mediates the relationship between X and Z. Second, even when people’s inferences are directionally consistent with the normative calculations, they are often not as sensitive to the parameters and the structure of the network as they should be. We conclude with a discussion of productive directions for future research. PMID:23544658

  16. The relative effect of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality by socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    Ripping, Theodora M.; van der Waal, Danielle; Verbeek, André L.M.; Broeders, Mireille J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Breast cancer incidence and mortality are higher in women with a high socioeconomic status (SES). The potential to prevent death from breast cancer is therefore greater in the high SES group. This does, however, require that the effectiveness of screening in the high SES group is equal to or greater than the effectiveness in the low SES group. The aim of this study is to assess the relative effectiveness of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality by SES. In Nijmegen, the Netherlands, women are invited to participate in biennial mammographic screening since 1975. Postal code is collected at each round and is used to calculate the SES of each woman based on the SES indicator of the Netherlands Institute for Social Research. The Dutch average was used to classify the SES score of each woman as either high or low. We designed a case-control study to investigate the effect of mammographic screening in women aged 50 to 75, 40 to 75, and 50 to 69 years, and calculated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Among the women invited to the mammographic screening program in Nijmegen, 10% had a high SES. In women aged 50 to 75 years, the breast cancer death rate was 38% lower in screened women than in unscreened women. The ORs for women with high SES (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.31–2.19) and low SES did not differ significantly (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.47–0.78). Mammographic screening reduces breast cancer mortality, but we did not observe a significant difference in the relative effectiveness of screening by SES. If the effectiveness of mammographic screening is indeed not dependent on SES status, the absolute number of breast cancer deaths prevented by mammographic screening will be greater in the high SES than low SES group, because women with a high SES have a greater risk of breast cancer death. PMID:27495038

  17. Role of Peroxiredoxin I in Rectal Cancer and Related to p53 Status

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Miao-Fen; Lee, Kuan-Der; Yeh, Chung-Hung; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Wen-Shih; Chin, Chih-Chien; Lin, Paul- Yang; Wang, Jeng-Yi

    2010-11-01

    Background: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is widely accepted for the treatment of localized rectal cancer. Although peroxiredoxin I (PrxI) and p53 have been implicated in carcinogenesis and cancer treatment, the role of PrxI and its interaction with p53 in the prognosis and treatment response of rectal cancer remain relatively unstudied. Methods and Materials: In the present study, we examined the levels of PrxI and p53 in rectal cancer patients using membrane arrays and compared them with normal population samples. To demonstrate the biologic changes after manipulation of PrxI expression, we established stable transfectants of HCT-116 (wild-type p53) and HT-29 (mutant p53) cells with a PrxI silencing vector. The predictive capacities of PrxI and p53 were also assessed by relating the immunohistochemical staining of a retrospective series of rectal cancer cases to the clinical outcome. Results: The membrane array and immunochemical staining data showed that PrxI, but not p53, was significantly associated with the tumor burden. Our immunochemistry findings further indicated that PrxI positivity was linked to a poor response to neoadjuvant therapy and worse survival. In cellular and animal experiments, the inhibition of PrxI significantly decreased tumor growth and sensitized the tumor to irradiation, as indicated by a lower capacity to scavenge reactive oxygen species and more extensive DNA damage. The p53 status might have contributed to the difference between HCT-116 and HT-29 after knockdown of PrxI. Conclusion: According to our data, the level of PrxI combined with the p53 status is relevant to the prognosis and the treatment response. We suggested that PrxI might be a new biomarker for rectal cancer.

  18. The Effect of Injury-Related Characteristics on Changes in Marital Status after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    MERGHATI KHOI, Effat; LATIFI, Sahar; RAHDARI, Fereshteh; SHAKERI, Hania; ARMAN, Farid; KOUSHKI, Davood; NOROUZI JAVIDAN, Abbas; TAHERI OTAGHSARA, Seyede-Mohadeseh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) imposes a significant burden on the social and marital life. Here, we assessed the divorce rate and changes in marital status among a sample of Iranian individuals with SCI. Methods: Referred patients to Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center were invited to participate in this cross-sectional investigation. The Main exclusion criteria were coincidental brain injury, history of chronic diseases before SCI and substance use. Demographic characteristics (including age, gender, educational level, marital status before and after injury and duration of marriage) and Injury characteristics (level of the injury, American spinal injury association (ASIA) scale and Spinal cord independence measure III (SCIM)) were collected. Results: Total of 241 subjects with SCI participated in this investigation (164 (68%) male and 77 (32%) female). Among men, 16.5% [95% CI: 10.81%–22.18%] and among women 18.2% [95% CI: 9.58%–26.81%] got divorced after injury. Duration of marriage before injury was significantly related to lower divorce rate (P< 0.001 and 0.016 in men and women, respectively). Injury characteristics had no relationship with marital longevity. Age was a protective factor against marital dissolution only in men (P< 0.004). Conclusion: Our study revealed the divorce rate of 17% [95% CI: 13%–20.9%] after SCI in a sample of Iranian population. The protective influence of age in maintenance of marriage was only detected in men, which proposes existence of a sexual polymorphism in the role of age. Divorce rate was similar between two genders and injury characteristics were not related to divorce rate as well. PMID:26576353

  19. Methods for causal inference from gene perturbation experiments and validation

    PubMed Central

    Meinshausen, Nicolai; Hauser, Alain; Mooij, Joris M.; Peters, Jonas; Versteeg, Philip; Bühlmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Inferring causal effects from observational and interventional data is a highly desirable but ambitious goal. Many of the computational and statistical methods are plagued by fundamental identifiability issues, instability, and unreliable performance, especially for large-scale systems with many measured variables. We present software and provide some validation of a recently developed methodology based on an invariance principle, called invariant causal prediction (ICP). The ICP method quantifies confidence probabilities for inferring causal structures and thus leads to more reliable and confirmatory statements for causal relations and predictions of external intervention effects. We validate the ICP method and some other procedures using large-scale genome-wide gene perturbation experiments in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results suggest that prediction and prioritization of future experimental interventions, such as gene deletions, can be improved by using our statistical inference techniques. PMID:27382150

  20. Methods for causal inference from gene perturbation experiments and validation.

    PubMed

    Meinshausen, Nicolai; Hauser, Alain; Mooij, Joris M; Peters, Jonas; Versteeg, Philip; Bühlmann, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Inferring causal effects from observational and interventional data is a highly desirable but ambitious goal. Many of the computational and statistical methods are plagued by fundamental identifiability issues, instability, and unreliable performance, especially for large-scale systems with many measured variables. We present software and provide some validation of a recently developed methodology based on an invariance principle, called invariant causal prediction (ICP). The ICP method quantifies confidence probabilities for inferring causal structures and thus leads to more reliable and confirmatory statements for causal relations and predictions of external intervention effects. We validate the ICP method and some other procedures using large-scale genome-wide gene perturbation experiments in Saccharomyces cerevisiae The results suggest that prediction and prioritization of future experimental interventions, such as gene deletions, can be improved by using our statistical inference techniques. PMID:27382150

  1. "Head take you": causal attributions of mental illness in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Carlotta M; Whitley, Rob

    2015-02-01

    Causal attributions are a key factor in explanatory models of illness; however, little research on causal attributions of mental illness has been conducted in developing nations in the Caribbean, including Jamaica. Explanatory models of mental illness may be important in understanding illness experience and be a crucial factor in mental health service seeking and utilization. We explored causal attributions of mental illness in Jamaica by conducting 20 focus groups, including 16 community samples, 2 patient samples, and 2 samples of caregivers of patients, with a total of 159 participants. The 5 most commonly endorsed causal attributions of mental illness are discussed: (a) drug-related causes, including ganja (marijuana); (b) biological causes, such as chemical imbalance, familial transmission, and "blood"; (c) psychological causes, including stress and thinking too much; (d) social causes, such as relationship problems and job loss; and (e) spiritual or religious causes, including Obeah.

  2. Causal interpretation rules for encoding and decoding models in neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Weichwald, Sebastian; Meyer, Timm; Özdenizci, Ozan; Schölkopf, Bernhard; Ball, Tonio; Grosse-Wentrup, Moritz

    2015-04-15

    Causal terminology is often introduced in the interpretation of encoding and decoding models trained on neuroimaging data. In this article, we investigate which causal statements are warranted and which ones are not supported by empirical evidence. We argue that the distinction between encoding and decoding models is not sufficient for this purpose: relevant features in encoding and decoding models carry a different meaning in stimulus- and in response-based experimental paradigms.We show that only encoding models in the stimulus-based setting support unambiguous causal interpretations. By combining encoding and decoding models trained on the same data, however, we obtain insights into causal relations beyond those that are implied by each individual model type. We illustrate the empirical relevance of our theoretical findings on EEG data recorded during a visuo-motor learning task. PMID:25623501

  3. The mediating role of physical self-concept on relations between biological maturity status and physical activity in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Sean P; Standage, Martyn; Loney, Tom; Gammon, Catherine; Neville, Helen; Sherar, Lauren B; Malina, Robert M

    2011-06-01

    The current study examined the mediating role of physical self-concept on relations between biological maturity status and self-reported physical activity in adolescent British females. Biological maturity status, physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed in 407 female British year 7-9 pupils (M age = 13.2 years, SD = 1.0). Participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (Kowalski, Crocker, & Donen, 2004) and the Children and Youth Physical Self-Perceptions Profile (Whitehead, 1995). Percentage of predicted adult height attained at measurement was used as an estimate of biological maturity status. Structural equation modelling using maximum likelihood estimation and bootstrapping procedures revealed that perceptions of sports competence, body attractiveness and physical self-worth mediated an inverse relation between maturity status and physical activity. The results provide partial support for Petersen and Taylor's (1980) Mediated Effects Model of Psychological and Behavioural Adaptation to Puberty within the context of physical activity. PMID:20655102

  4. Children with special health care needs: how immigrant status is related to health care access, health care utilization, and health status.

    PubMed

    Javier, Joyce R; Huffman, Lynne C; Mendoza, Fernando S; Wise, Paul H

    2010-07-01

    To compare health care access, utilization, and perceived health status for children with SHCN in immigrant and nonimmigrant families. This cross-sectional study used data from the 2003 California Health Interview Survey to identify 1404 children (ages 0-11) with a special health care need. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were used to examine relations between immigrant status and health access, utilization, and health status variables. Compared to children with special health care needs (CSHCN) in nonimmigrant families, CSHCN in immigrant families are more likely to be uninsured (10.4 vs. 4.8%), lack a usual source of care (5.9 vs. 1.9%), report a delay in medical care (13.0 vs. 8.1%), and report no visit to the doctor in the past year (6.8 vs. 2.6%). They are less likely to report an emergency room visit in the past year (30.0 vs. 44.0%), yet more likely to report fair or poor perceived health status (33.0 vs. 16.0%). Multivariate analyses suggested that the bivariate findings for children with SHCN in immigrant families largely reflected differences in family socioeconomic status, parent's language, parental education, ethnicity, and children's insurance status. Limited resources, non-English language, and limited health-care use are some of the barriers to staying healthy for CSHCN in immigrant families. Public policies that improve access to existing insurance programs and provide culturally and linguistically appropriate care will likely decrease health and health care disparities for this population.

  5. Causal structure in categorical quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Raymond Ashwin

    Categorical quantum mechanics is a way of formalising the structural features of quantum theory using category theory. It uses compound systems as the primitive notion, which is formalised by using symmetric monoidal categories. This leads to an elegant formalism for describing quantum protocols such as quantum teleportation. In particular, categorical quantum mechanics provides a graphical calculus that exposes the information flow of such protocols in an intuitive way. However, the graphical calculus also reveals surprising features of these protocols; for example, in the quantum teleportation protocol, information appears to flow `backwards-in-time'. This leads to question of how causal structure can be described within categorical quantum mechanics, and how this might lead to insight regarding the structural compatibility between quantum theory and relativity. This thesis is concerned with the project of formalising causal structure in categorical quantum mechanics. We begin by studying an abstract view of Bell-type experiments, as described by `no-signalling boxes', and we show that under time-reversal no-signalling boxes generically become signalling. This conflicts with the underlying symmetry of relativistic causal structure. This leads us to consider the framework of categorical quantum mechanics from the perspective of relativistic causal structure. We derive the properties that a symmetric monoidal category must satisfy in order to describe systems in such a background causal structure. We use these properties to define a new type of category, and this provides a formal framework for describing protocols in spacetime. We explore this new structure, showing how it leads to an understanding of the counter-intuitive information flow of protocols in categorical quantum mechanics. We then find that the formal properties of our new structure are naturally related to axioms for reconstructing quantum theory, and we show how a reconstruction scheme based on

  6. How to establish causality in epilepsy surgery.

    PubMed

    Asano, Eishi; Brown, Erik C; Juhász, Csaba

    2013-09-01

    Focality in electro-clinical or neuroimaging data often motivates epileptologists to consider epilepsy surgery in patients with medically-uncontrolled seizures, while not all focal findings are causally associated with the generation of epileptic seizures. With the help of Hill's criteria, we have discussed how to establish causality in the context of the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy. The strengths of EEG include the ability to determine the temporal relationship between cerebral activities and clinical events; thus, scalp video-EEG is necessary in the evaluation of the majority of surgical candidates. The presence of associated ictal discharges can confirm the epileptic nature of a particular spell and whether an observed neuroimaging abnormality is causally associated with the epileptic seizure. Conversely, one should be aware that scalp EEG has a limited spatial resolution and sometimes exhibits propagated epileptiform discharges more predominantly than in situ discharges generated at the seizure-onset zone. Intraoperative or extraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) is utilized when noninvasive presurgical evaluation, including anatomical and functional neuroimaging, fails to determine the margin between the presumed epileptogenic zone and eloquent cortex. Retrospective as well as prospective studies have reported that complete resection of the seizure-onset zone on ECoG was associated with a better seizure outcome, but not all patients became seizure-free following such resective surgery. Some retrospective studies suggested that resection of sites showing high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) at >80Hz on interictal or ictal ECoG was associated with a better seizure outcome. Others reported that functionally-important areas may generate HFOs of a physiological nature during rest as well as sensorimotor and cognitive tasks. Resection of sites showing task-related augmentation of HFOs has been reported to indeed result in functional loss following surgery

  7. Relationship between Health Literacy, Health-Related Behaviors and Health Status: A Survey of Elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Bing; Liu, Liu; Li, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yan-Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008) and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452). Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points). There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001). The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001). The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors (smoking, regular

  8. Do body-related shame and guilt mediate the association between weight status and self-esteem?

    PubMed

    Pila, Eva; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Castonguay, Andree L; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Individuals who are overweight or obese report body image concerns and lower self-esteem. However, little is known about the mechanisms underpinning these associations. The objective of this study was to test body-related shame and guilt as mediators in the association between weight status and self-esteem. Young adult participants (n = 790) completed assessments of self-esteem and body-related guilt and shame, and weight status indicators were measured by trained technicians. Findings from multiple mediation analyses suggest that body-related shame mediates the relationship between weight status and self-esteem. If replicated in longitudinal studies, these findings suggest that reducing body-related emotions may have important implications for improving self-esteem in clinical weight management. PMID:25903252

  9. Do body-related shame and guilt mediate the association between weight status and self-esteem?

    PubMed

    Pila, Eva; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Castonguay, Andree L; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Individuals who are overweight or obese report body image concerns and lower self-esteem. However, little is known about the mechanisms underpinning these associations. The objective of this study was to test body-related shame and guilt as mediators in the association between weight status and self-esteem. Young adult participants (n = 790) completed assessments of self-esteem and body-related guilt and shame, and weight status indicators were measured by trained technicians. Findings from multiple mediation analyses suggest that body-related shame mediates the relationship between weight status and self-esteem. If replicated in longitudinal studies, these findings suggest that reducing body-related emotions may have important implications for improving self-esteem in clinical weight management.

  10. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Relative Status-Field Theory, Results for Cooperation, UU Behavior, 1966-69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph presents findings from an analysis of data on international cooperation over a three-year period. Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their ability to analyze international relations, this monograph reports on the testing of relative status field theory on WEIS conflict data for 1966-1969…

  11. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Relative Status-Field Theory, Results for Conflict, UU Behavior, 1966-69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph presents findings from an analysis of data on international conflict over a three-year period. Computer printout of the analysis is included. Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their ability to analyze international relations, this monograph reports on the testing of relative status field…

  12. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Patterns of Cooperation: Relative Status-Field Theory, TT Actors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph presents findings from an analysis of data on international cooperation over a three-year period. Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their power in analyzing international relations, this monograph reports on the testing of relative status field theory on WEIS conflict data for 1966-1969…

  13. An Efficient Two-Tier Causal Protocol for Mobile Distributed Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Eduardo Lopez; Pomares Hernandez, Saul E.; Gomez, Gustavo Rodriguez; Medina, Maria Auxilio

    2013-01-01

    Causal ordering is a useful tool for mobile distributed systems (MDS) to reduce the non-determinism induced by three main aspects: host mobility, asynchronous execution, and unpredictable communication delays. Several causal protocols for MDS exist. Most of them, in order to reduce the overhead and the computational cost over wireless channels and mobile hosts (MH), ensure causal ordering at and according to the causal view of the Base Stations. Nevertheless, these protocols introduce certain disadvantage, such as unnecessary inhibition at the delivery of messages. In this paper, we present an efficient causal protocol for groupware that satisfies the MDS's constraints, avoiding unnecessary inhibitions and ensuring the causal delivery based on the view of the MHs. One interesting aspect of our protocol is that it dynamically adapts the causal information attached to each message based on the number of messages with immediate dependency relation, and this is not directly proportional to the number of MHs. PMID:23585828

  14. On the concept of Bell’s local causality in local classical and quantum theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hofer-Szabó, Gábor; Vecsernyés, Péter

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to implement Bell’s notion of local causality into a framework, called local physical theory. This framework, based on the axioms of algebraic field theory, is broad enough to integrate both probabilistic and spatiotemporal concepts and also classical and quantum theories. Bell’s original idea of local causality will arise as the classical case of our definition. Classifying local physical theories by whether they obey local primitive causality, a property rendering the dynamics of the theory causal, we then investigate what is needed for a local physical theory to be locally causal. Finally, comparing local causality with the common cause principles and relating both to the Bell inequalities we find a nice parallelism: Bell inequalities cannot be derived neither from local causality nor from a common cause unless the local physical theory is classical or the common cause is commuting, respectively.

  15. Rethinking temporal contiguity and the judgement of causality: effects of prior knowledge, experience, and reinforcement procedure.

    PubMed

    Buehner, Marc J; May, Jon

    2003-07-01

    Time plays a pivotal role in causal inference. Nonetheless most contemporary theories of causal induction do not address the implications of temporal contiguity and delay, with the exception of associative learning theory. Shanks, Pearson, and Dickinson (1989) and several replications (Reed, 1992, 1999) have demonstrated that people fail to identify causal relations if cause and effect are separated by more than two seconds. In line with an associationist perspective, these findings have been interpreted to indicate that temporal lags universally impair causal induction. This interpretation clashes with the richness of everyday causal cognition where people apparently can reason about causal relations involving considerable delays. We look at the implications of cause-effect delays from a computational perspective and predict that delays should generally hinder reasoning performance, but that this hindrance should be alleviated if reasoners have knowledge of the delay. Two experiments demonstrated that (1) the impact of delay on causal judgement depends on participants' expectations about the timeframe of the causal relation, and (2) the free-operant procedures used in previous studies are ill-suited to study the direct influences of delay on causal induction, because they confound delay with weaker evidence for the relation in question. Implications for contemporary causal learning theories are discussed.

  16. Nonlinear connectivity by Granger causality.

    PubMed

    Marinazzo, Daniele; Liao, Wei; Chen, Huafu; Stramaglia, Sebastiano

    2011-09-15

    The communication among neuronal populations, reflected by transient synchronous activity, is the mechanism underlying the information processing in the brain. Although it is widely assumed that the interactions among those populations (i.e. functional connectivity) are highly nonlinear, the amount of nonlinear information transmission and its functional roles are not clear. The state of the art to understand the communication between brain systems are dynamic causal modeling (DCM) and Granger causality. While DCM models nonlinear couplings, Granger causality, which constitutes a major tool to reveal effective connectivity, and is widely used to analyze EEG/MEG data as well as fMRI signals, is usually applied in its linear version. In order to capture nonlinear interactions between even short and noisy time series, a few approaches have been proposed. We review them and focus on a recently proposed flexible approach has been recently proposed, consisting in the kernel version of Granger causality. We show the application of the proposed approach on EEG signals and fMRI data.

  17. Identity, causality, and pronoun ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Sagi, Eyal; Rips, Lance J

    2014-10-01

    This article looks at the way people determine the antecedent of a pronoun in sentence pairs, such as: Albert invited Ron to dinner. He spent hours cleaning the house. The experiment reported here is motivated by the idea that such judgments depend on reasoning about identity (e.g., the identity of the he who cleaned the house). Because the identity of an individual over time depends on the causal-historical path connecting the stages of the individual, the correct antecedent will also depend on causal connections. The experiment varied how likely it is that the event of the first sentence (e.g., the invitation) would cause the event of the second (the house cleaning) for each of the two individuals (the likelihood that if Albert invited Ron to dinner, this would cause Albert to clean the house, versus cause Ron to clean the house). Decisions about the antecedent followed causal likelihood. A mathematical model of causal identity accounted for most of the key aspects of the data from the individual sentence pairs.

  18. Socioeconomic Status, IQ, and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Results from two Danish prospective longitudinal studies are presented to support the view that IQ bears a causal relationship to delinquency that is independent of the effects of socioeconomic status (SES). (CL)

  19. Preeclampsia and Blood Pressure Trajectory during Pregnancy in Relation to Vitamin D Status.

    PubMed

    Bärebring, Linnea; Bullarbo, Maria; Glantz, Anna; Leu Agelii, Monica; Jagner, Åse; Ellis, Joy; Hulthén, Lena; Schoenmakers, Inez; Augustin, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Every tenth pregnancy is affected by hypertension, one of the most common complications and leading causes of maternal death worldwide. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy include pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia. The pathophysiology of the development of hypertension in pregnancy is unknown, but studies suggest an association with vitamin D status, measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gestational 25(OH)D concentration and preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension and blood pressure trajectory. This cohort study included 2000 women. Blood was collected at the first (T1) and third (T3) trimester (mean gestational weeks 10.8 and 33.4). Blood pressure at gestational weeks 10, 25, 32 and 37 as well as symptoms of preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension were retrieved from medical records. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations (LC-MS/MS) in T1 was not significantly associated with preeclampsia. However, both 25(OH)D in T3 and change in 25(OH)D from T1 to T3 were significantly and negatively associated with preeclampsia. Women with a change in 25(OH)D concentration of ≥30 nmol/L had an odds ratio of 0.22 (p = 0.002) for preeclampsia. T1 25(OH)D was positively related to T1 systolic (β = 0.03, p = 0.022) and T1 diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.02, p = 0.016), and to systolic (β = 0.02, p = 0.02) blood pressure trajectory during pregnancy, in adjusted analyses. There was no association between 25(OH)D and pregnancy-induced hypertension in adjusted analysis. In conclusion, an increase in 25(OH)D concentration during pregnancy of at least 30 nmol/L, regardless of vitamin D status in T1, was associated with a lower odds ratio for preeclampsia. Vitamin D status was significantly and positively associated with T1 blood pressure and gestational systolic blood pressure trajectory but not with pregnancy-induced hypertension.

  20. Preeclampsia and Blood Pressure Trajectory during Pregnancy in Relation to Vitamin D Status

    PubMed Central

    Bärebring, Linnea; Bullarbo, Maria; Glantz, Anna; Leu Agelii, Monica; Jagner, Åse; Ellis, Joy; Hulthén, Lena; Schoenmakers, Inez; Augustin, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Every tenth pregnancy is affected by hypertension, one of the most common complications and leading causes of maternal death worldwide. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy include pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia. The pathophysiology of the development of hypertension in pregnancy is unknown, but studies suggest an association with vitamin D status, measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gestational 25(OH)D concentration and preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension and blood pressure trajectory. This cohort study included 2000 women. Blood was collected at the first (T1) and third (T3) trimester (mean gestational weeks 10.8 and 33.4). Blood pressure at gestational weeks 10, 25, 32 and 37 as well as symptoms of preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension were retrieved from medical records. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations (LC-MS/MS) in T1 was not significantly associated with preeclampsia. However, both 25(OH)D in T3 and change in 25(OH)D from T1 to T3 were significantly and negatively associated with preeclampsia. Women with a change in 25(OH)D concentration of ≥30 nmol/L had an odds ratio of 0.22 (p = 0.002) for preeclampsia. T1 25(OH)D was positively related to T1 systolic (β = 0.03, p = 0.022) and T1 diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.02, p = 0.016), and to systolic (β = 0.02, p = 0.02) blood pressure trajectory during pregnancy, in adjusted analyses. There was no association between 25(OH)D and pregnancy-induced hypertension in adjusted analysis. In conclusion, an increase in 25(OH)D concentration during pregnancy of at least 30 nmol/L, regardless of vitamin D status in T1, was associated with a lower odds ratio for preeclampsia. Vitamin D status was significantly and positively associated with T1 blood pressure and gestational systolic blood pressure trajectory but not with pregnancy-induced hypertension. PMID:27022948

  1. The Relations of Majority-Minority Group Status and Having an Other-Religion Friend to Indonesian Youths' Socioemotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Sallquist, Julie; French, Doran C.; Purwono, Urip; Suryanti, Telie Ari; Pidada, Sri

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the relations of Indonesian adolescents' socioemotional functioning to their majority-minority status and the presence of cross-religion friendships and whether sex moderated these relations. At Time 1, 1,254 7th graders and their peers in Bandung, Indonesia, reported on their friendships, prosocial behavior,…

  2. Parental Socioeconomic Status and the Neural Basis of Arithmetic: Differential Relations to Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Özlem Ece; Prado, Jérôme; Booth, James R.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the relation of parental socioeconomic status (SES) to the neural bases of subtraction in school-age children (9- to 12-year-olds). We independently localized brain regions subserving verbal versus visuo-spatial representations to determine whether the parental SES-related differences in children's reliance on these neural…

  3. Relative and combined effects of socioeconomic status and diabetes on mortality: A nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Hoon; Kim, Tae Joon; Kim, Nan Hee; Choi, Kyung Mook; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Dong Seop; Park, Yousung; Kim, Sin Gon

    2016-07-01

    Both low socioeconomic status (SES) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are important risk factors for mortality. However, little is known about their combined effects and relative contribution to the mortality risk.From a nationwide cohort provided by the National Health Insurance Service in Korea, 153,075 subjects who were over 30 years of age from 2003 to 2004 were followed-up until 2010. The SESs of the subjects in the DM and non-DM (NDM) groups were categorized into 3 groups (highest 30% as S1, middle 40% as S2, and lowest 30% as S3) based on the subjects' income levels.During the 7.9-year follow-up, 3933 deaths occurred. When the subjects were stratified into 6 groups by their socioeconomic and diabetes status, a linearly increasing pattern of the hazard ratio (HR) of mortality from the higher SES without diabetes group (NDM-S1, as a reference) to the lower SES with diabetes group (DM-S3; HR, 2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.80-2.36) was observed (P for trend < 0.001). Notably, subjects with DM in the highest SES group (DM-S1) had a significantly higher mortality risk than did non-DM subjects in the lowest SES group (NDM-S3). This pattern was maintained in cause-specific mortality but was more prominent in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and less prominent in cancer mortality. The association was not affected by gender; however, in individuals <60 years of age, the combined effects of SES and DM on mortality were more prominent (DM-S3; HR, 3.68, 95% CI, 2.95-4.60) than in those ≥60 years of age.Low SES and DM were major determinants of mortality and synergistically increased the risks of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality. PMID:27472736

  4. Polar Bear Conservation Status in Relation to Projected Sea-ice Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regehr, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    The status of the world's 19 subpopulations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) varies as a function of sea-ice conditions, ecology, management, and other factors. Previous methods to project the response of polar bears to loss of Arctic sea ice—the primary threat to the species—include expert opinion surveys, Bayesian Networks providing qualitative stressor assessments, and subpopulations-specific demographic analyses. Here, we evaluated the global conservation status of polar bears using a data-based sensitivity analysis. First, we estimated generation length for subpopulations with available data (n=11). Second, we developed standardized sea-ice metrics representing habitat availability. Third, we projected global population size under alternative assumptions for relationships between sea ice and subpopulation abundance. Estimated generation length (median = 11.4 years; 95%CI = 9.8 to 13.6) and sea-ice change (median = loss of 1.26 ice-covered days per year; 95%CI = 0.70 to 3.37) varied across subpopulations. Assuming a one-to-one proportional relationship between sea ice and abundance, the median percent change in global population size over three polar bear generations was -30% (95%CI = -35% to -25%). Assuming a linear relationship between sea ice and normalized estimates of subpopulation abundance, median percent change was -4% (95% CI = -62% to +50%) or -43% (95% CI = -76% to -20%), depending on how subpopulations were grouped and how inference was extended from relatively well-studied subpopulations (n=7) to those with little or no data. Our findings suggest the potential for large reductions in polar bear numbers over the next three polar bear generations if sea-ice loss due to climate change continues as forecasted.

  5. Pollution status of the Bohai Sea: an overview of the environmental quality assessment related trace metals.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuelu; Zhou, Fengxia; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that the ecosystem of the Bohai Sea is being rapidly degraded and the Sea has basically lost its function as a fishing ground. Billions of funds have been spent in slowing down, halting and finally reversing the environmental deterioration of the Bohai Sea. Although trace metals are routinely monitored, the data with high temporal resolution for a clear understanding of biogeochemical processes in the ecosystem of the Bohai Sea are insufficient, especially in the western literature. In this review, status of trace metal contamination in the Bohai Sea is assessed based on a comprehensive review of their concentrations recorded in the waters, sediments and organisms over the past decades. Studies show that metal contamination in the Bohai Sea is closely associated with the fast economic growth in the past decades. Concentrations of trace metals are high in coastal areas especially in the estuaries. Alarmingly high metal concentrations are observed in the waters, sediments and organisms from the western Bohai Bay and the northern Liaodong Bay, especially the coasts near Huludao in the northernmost area of the Bohai Sea, which is being polluted by industrial sewage from the surrounding areas. The knowledge of the speciation and fractionation of trace metals and the influence of submarine groundwater discharge on the biogeochemistry of trace metals in the Bohai Sea is far from enough and related work needs to be done urgently to get a better understanding of the influence of trace metals on the ecosystem of the Bohai Sea. A clear understanding of the trace metal pollution status of the Bohai Sea could not be achieved presently for lack of systematic cooperation in different research fields. It is quite necessary to apply the environmental and ecological modeling to the investigation of trace metals in the Bohai Sea and then provide foundations for the protection of the environment and ecosystem of the Bohai Sea.

  6. 5 CFR 875.208 - May I apply as a qualified relative if the person on whom I am basing my eligibility status has...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the person on whom I am basing my eligibility status has died? 875.208 Section 875.208 Administrative... I am basing my eligibility status has died? You may not apply as a qualified relative if the workforce member on whom you are basing your qualified relative status died prior to the time you apply...

  7. 5 CFR 875.208 - May I apply as a qualified relative if the person on whom I am basing my eligibility status has...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the person on whom I am basing my eligibility status has died? 875.208 Section 875.208 Administrative... I am basing my eligibility status has died? You may not apply as a qualified relative if the workforce member on whom you are basing your qualified relative status died prior to the time you apply...

  8. 5 CFR 875.208 - May I apply as a qualified relative if the person on whom I am basing my eligibility status has...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the person on whom I am basing my eligibility status has died? 875.208 Section 875.208 Administrative... I am basing my eligibility status has died? You may not apply as a qualified relative if the workforce member on whom you are basing your qualified relative status died prior to the time you apply...

  9. 5 CFR 875.208 - May I apply as a qualified relative if the person on whom I am basing my eligibility status has...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the person on whom I am basing my eligibility status has died? 875.208 Section 875.208 Administrative... I am basing my eligibility status has died? You may not apply as a qualified relative if the workforce member on whom you are basing your qualified relative status died prior to the time you apply...

  10. Causal Inference for a Population of Causally Connected Units

    PubMed Central

    van der Laan, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Suppose that we observe a population of causally connected units. On each unit at each time-point on a grid we observe a set of other units the unit is potentially connected with, and a unit-specific longitudinal data structure consisting of baseline and time-dependent covariates, a time-dependent treatment, and a final outcome of interest. The target quantity of interest is defined as the mean outcome for this group of units if the exposures of the units would be probabilistically assigned according to a known specified mechanism, where the latter is called a stochastic intervention. Causal effects of interest are defined as contrasts of the mean of the unit-specific outcomes under different stochastic interventions one wishes to evaluate. This covers a large range of estimation problems from independent units, independent clusters of units, and a single cluster of units in which each unit has a limited number of connections to other units. The allowed dependence includes treatment allocation in response to data on multiple units and so called causal interference as special cases. We present a few motivating classes of examples, propose a structural causal model, define the desired causal quantities, address the identification of these quantities from the observed data, and define maximum likelihood based estimators based on cross-validation. In particular, we present maximum likelihood based super-learning for this network data. Nonetheless, such smoothed/regularized maximum likelihood estimators are not targeted and will thereby be overly bias w.r.t. the target parameter, and, as a consequence, generally not result in asymptotically normally distributed estimators of the statistical target parameter. To formally develop estimation theory, we focus on the simpler case in which the longitudinal data structure is a point-treatment data structure. We formulate a novel targeted maximum likelihood estimator of this estimand and show that the double robustness of the

  11. Entanglement, holography and causal diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Jan; Haehl, Felix M.; Heller, Michal P.; Myers, Robert C.

    2016-08-01

    We argue that the degrees of freedom in a d-dimensional CFT can be reorganized in an insightful way by studying observables on the moduli space of causal diamonds (or equivalently, the space of pairs of timelike separated points). This 2 d-dimensional space naturally captures some of the fundamental nonlocality and causal structure inherent in the entanglement of CFT states. For any primary CFT operator, we construct an observable on this space, which is defined by smearing the associated one-point function over causal diamonds. Known examples of such quantities are the entanglement entropy of vacuum excitations and its higher spin generalizations. We show that in holographic CFTs, these observables are given by suitably defined integrals of dual bulk fields over the corresponding Ryu-Takayanagi minimal surfaces. Furthermore, we explain connections to the operator product expansion and the first law of entanglemententropy from this unifying point of view. We demonstrate that for small perturbations of the vacuum, our observables obey linear two-derivative equations of motion on the space of causal diamonds. In two dimensions, the latter is given by a product of two copies of a two-dimensional de Sitter space. For a class of universal states, we show that the entanglement entropy and its spin-three generalization obey nonlinear equations of motion with local interactions on this moduli space, which can be identified with Liouville and Toda equations, respectively. This suggests the possibility of extending the definition of our new observables beyond the linear level more generally and in such a way that they give rise to new dynamically interacting theories on the moduli space of causal diamonds. Various challenges one has to face in order to implement this idea are discussed.

  12. The impact of marital status on epilepsy-related health concerns.

    PubMed

    Elliott, John O; Charyton, Christine; McAuley, James W; Shneker, Bassel F

    2011-08-01

    Social support from marriage has been linked with better health outcomes. Persons with epilepsy (PWE) are significantly less likely to be married than persons without epilepsy. No previous studies have examined the impact of marriage on epilepsy-related health concerns. Outpatient PWE (n=267) were asked to identify their top five concerns on the Epilepsy Foundation Concerns Index. After controlling for clinical factors (seizure frequency, age of epilepsy diagnosis and disability status) PWE who were married were significantly less likely to report "Fear of being injured during a seizure" Odds Ratio (OR) 0.33, "Holding down a job" OR 0.29, "Getting the work or education you want" OR 0.29, "Medical costs of your epilepsy" OR 0.21 and "Lack of people's understanding of epilepsy" OR 0.27. Once we controlled for both clinical factors and demographic factors only one concern "Medical costs of your epilepsy" OR 0.24 remained significant. Our findings support several theories examining the health benefits of marriage related to selection, protection and economic resources. PWE are particularly prone to economic disparities due to lower educational attainment and unemployment. Earlier intervention especially for those with childhood onset epilepsy may help mitigate these disparities and their impact on social relationships and marriage.

  13. Relation between body composition and bone mineral density in young undregraduate students with different nutritional status

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Edil de Albuquerque; dos Santos, Marcos André Moura; da Silva, Amanda Tabosa Pereira; Farah, Breno Quintella; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Camara e Siqueira; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the relationship between total and segmental body fat, bone mineral density and bone mineral content in undergraduate students stratified according to nutritional status. Methods The study included 45 male undergraduate students aged between 20 and 30 years. Total and segmental body composition, bone mineral density and bone mineral content assessments were performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were allocated into three groups (eutrophic, overweight and obese). Results With the exception of upper limb bone mineral content, significantly higher (p<0.05) mean bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and relative body fat values were documented in the obese group. Total body and segmental relative body fat (lower limbs and trunk) were positively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral density in the overweight group. Upper limb fat was negatively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral content in the normal and eutrophic groups. Conclusion Total body and segmental body fat were correlated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in male undergraduate students, particularly in overweight individuals. PMID:27074228

  14. Effects of question formats on causal judgments and model evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Smithson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of causal reasoning models depends on how well the subjects’ causal beliefs are assessed. Elicitation of causal beliefs is determined by the experimental questions put to subjects. We examined the impact of question formats commonly used in causal reasoning research on participant’s responses. The results of our experiment (Study 1) demonstrate that both the mean and homogeneity of the responses can be substantially influenced by the type of question (structure induction versus strength estimation versus prediction). Study 2A demonstrates that subjects’ responses to a question requiring them to predict the effect of a candidate cause can be significantly lower and more heterogeneous than their responses to a question asking them to diagnose a cause when given an effect. Study 2B suggests that diagnostic reasoning can strongly benefit from cues relating to temporal precedence of the cause in the question. Finally, we evaluated 16 variations of recent computational models and found the model fitting was substantially influenced by the type of questions. Our results show that future research in causal reasoning should place a high priority on disentangling the effects of question formats from the effects of experimental manipulations, because that will enable comparisons between models of causal reasoning uncontaminated by method artifact. PMID:25954225

  15. Effects of question formats on causal judgments and model evaluation.

    PubMed

    Shou, Yiyun; Smithson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of causal reasoning models depends on how well the subjects' causal beliefs are assessed. Elicitation of causal beliefs is determined by the experimental questions put to subjects. We examined the impact of question formats commonly used in causal reasoning research on participant's responses. The results of our experiment (Study 1) demonstrate that both the mean and homogeneity of the responses can be substantially influenced by the type of question (structure induction versus strength estimation versus prediction). Study 2A demonstrates that subjects' responses to a question requiring them to predict the effect of a candidate cause can be significantly lower and more heterogeneous than their responses to a question asking them to diagnose a cause when given an effect. Study 2B suggests that diagnostic reasoning can strongly benefit from cues relating to temporal precedence of the cause in the question. Finally, we evaluated 16 variations of recent computational models and found the model fitting was substantially influenced by the type of questions. Our results show that future research in causal reasoning should place a high priority on disentangling the effects of question formats from the effects of experimental manipulations, because that will enable comparisons between models of causal reasoning uncontaminated by method artifact.

  16. The relationship between racial identity status attitudes, racism-related coping, and mental health among Black Americans.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Jessica; Carter, Robert T

    2012-04-01

    To date, few studies have examined how different strategies for coping with racism affect the mental health of Black Americans, and none have explored how racial identity status attitudes and racism-related coping affect mental health. This study sought to examine the relationship between racial identity status attitudes, the specific strategies used by Black Americans to cope with racism, and mental health outcomes. Participants were 233 Black adults, and cluster analysis identified four cluster groups that differed significantly with respect to the patterns of racial identity attitudes and racism-related coping strategies employed. Although the groups did not differ significantly in well-being, the group with predominantly high Internalization status attitudes and that used primarily Empowered Resistance racism-related coping strategies had the least psychological symptoms. Implications for mental health and research are discussed.

  17. Causality and complexity: the myth of objectivity in science.

    PubMed

    Mikulecky, Donald C

    2007-10-01

    Two distinctly different worldviews dominate today's thinking in science and in the world of ideas outside of science. Using the approach advocated by Robert M. Hutchins, it is possible to see a pattern of interaction between ideas in science and in other spheres such as philosophy, religion, and politics. Instead of compartmentalizing these intellectual activities, it is worthwhile to look for common threads of mutual influence. Robert Rosen has created an approach to scientific epistemology that might seem radical to some. However, it has characteristics that resemble ideas in other fields, in particular in the writings of George Lakoff, Leo Strauss, and George Soros. Historically, the atmosphere at the University of Chicago during Hutchins' presidency gave rise to Rashevsky's relational biology, which Rosen carried forward. Strauss was writing his political philosophy there at the same time. One idea is paramount in all this, and it is Lakoff who gives us the most insight into how the worldviews differ using this idea. The central difference has to do with causality, the fundamental concept that we use to build a worldview. Causal entailment has two distinct forms in Lakoff 's analysis: direct causality and complex causality. Rosen's writings on complexity create a picture of complex causality that is extremely useful in its detail, grounding in the ideas of Aristotle. Strauss asks for a return to the ancients to put philosophy back on track. Lakoff sees the weaknesses in Western philosophy in a similar way, and Rosen provides tools for dealing with the problem. This introduction to the relationships between the thinking of these authors is meant to stimulate further discourse on the role of complex causal entailment in all areas of thought, and how it brings them together in a holistic worldview. The worldview built on complex causality is clearly distinct from that built around simple, direct causality. One important difference is that the impoverished causal

  18. Causal inference methods to assess safety upper bounds in randomized trials with noncompliance

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Jesse A; Pinheiro, José; Wilcox, Marsha A

    2015-01-01

    Background Premature discontinuation and other forms of noncompliance with treatment assignment can complicate causal inference of treatment effects in randomized trials. The intent-to-treat analysis gives unbiased estimates for causal effects of treatment assignment on outcome, but may understate potential benefit or harm of actual treatment. The corresponding upper confidence limit can also be underestimated. Purpose To compare estimates of the hazard ratio and upper bound of the two-sided 95% confidence interval from causal inference methods that account for noncompliance with those from the intent-to-treat analysis. Methods We used simulations with parameters chosen to reflect cardiovascular safety trials of diabetes drugs, with a focus on upper bound estimates relative to 1.3, based on regulatory guidelines. A total of 1000 simulations were run under each parameter combination for a hypothetical trial of 10,000 total subjects randomly assigned to active treatment or control at 1:1 ratio. Noncompliance was considered in the form of treatment discontinuation and cross-over at specified proportions, with an assumed true hazard ratio of 0.9, 1, and 1.3, respectively. Various levels of risk associated with being a non-complier (independent of treatment status) were evaluated. Hazard ratio and upper bound estimates from causal survival analysis and intent-to-treat were obtained from each simulation and summarized under each parameter setting. Results Causal analysis estimated the true hazard ratio with little bias in almost all settings examined. Intent-to-treat was unbiased only when the true hazard ratio = 1; otherwise it underestimated both benefit and harm. When upper bound estimates from intent-to-treat were ≥1.3, corresponding estimates from causal analysis were also ≥1.3 in almost 100% of the simulations, regardless of the true hazard ratio. When upper bound estimates from intent-to-treat were <1.3 and the true hazard ratio = 1, corresponding

  19. Suppression of male-specific cytochrome P450 2c and its mRNA by 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl in rat liver is not causally related to changes in serum testosterone.

    PubMed

    Yeowell, H N; Waxman, D J; LeBlanc, G A; Linko, P; Goldstein, J A

    1989-06-01

    Rat cytochrome P450 2c (P450 gene IIC11) is a constitutive, male-specific hepatic enzyme which is suppressed greater than 90% by treatment with 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB) [H. N. Yeowell et al. (1987) Mol. Pharmacol. 32, 340-347]. HCB also decreases serum testosterone levels in adult male rats (greater than 98% loss). The present study assesses whether the suppression of P450 2c by HCB is a direct result of its effects on serum testosterone levels. Further, the site along the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis at which HCB acts to depress testosterone secretion was examined. Administration of the synthetic androgen methyltrienolone to HCB-treated rats failed to prevent the suppression of P450 2c mRNA and its associated microsomal steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylase activity under conditions where it effectively reversed the large decrease in P450 2c mRNA and steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylase activity produced by castration. Hepatic steroid 6 beta-hydroxylase activity, which is catalyzed primarily by P450 2a (P450 gene IIIA2), was also suppressed by HCB and was not protected by methyltrienolone. Administration of either human chorionic gonadotropin, an analog of pituitary-derived luteinizing hormone, or the hypothalamic luteinizing hormone releasing hormone elevated serum testosterone levels to a much smaller extent in HCB-treated rats than in control rats. These results indicate that the effects of HCB on serum testosterone levels reflect its effects on testicular function rather than the pituitary or hypothalamus. However, the present study demonstrates that the consequential reduction in serum testosterone levels in HCB-treated rats is not causally related to the reduction in hepatic P450 2c levels. Thus, HCB must also act on some other regulatory mechanism involved in the expression of this protein.

  20. Image Theory and Career Aspirations: Indirect and Interactive Effects of Status-Related Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Dahling, Jason J.

    2010-01-01

    The present study applied Image Theory (Beach, 1990) to test how different components of a person's value image (i.e., perceived social status identity and conformity to masculine and feminine gender role norms) interact to influence trajectories toward high career aspirations (i.e., high value for status in one's work and aspirations for…

  1. Modifying Status Relations in Israel Youth: An Application of Expectation States Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elizabeth G.; Sharan, Shlomo

    Group participation by Israeli youth is examined in light of the Theory of Status Characteristics and Expectation States. This theory maintains that social and/or group status influences expectations of competence and triggers self-fulfilling prophecies of performance. An experiment designed to prevent unwanted dominance of high status…

  2. Motor Proficiency and Body Mass Index of Preschool Children: In Relation to Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mülazimoglu-Balli, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…

  3. The Relation between Identity Status and Romantic Attachment Style in Middle and Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Steven L.; Weems, Carl F.; Rodriguez, Eileen T.; Zamora, Irving J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the linkages between identity formation and romantic attachment in an ethnically diverse sample of high school (n=189) and college students (n=324). Individuals in the foreclosed identity status group had significantly lower relationship avoidance scores than the diffused identity status group, and the foreclosed group had…

  4. Reading Performances as Related to Race and Socio-economic Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carron, Theodore J.; And Others

    A study was conducted to explore the relationship of race and socioeconomic status to the learning of reading skills among ninth-grade black and white students in the Tuscaloosa, Alabama, city and county schools. Each student was given diagnostic reading tests by timed, untimed, and auditory administration. Socioeconomic status was measured by…

  5. Regulatory causality evaluation methods applied in kava hepatotoxicity: are they appropriate?

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht

    2011-02-01

    Since 1998 liver injury has been assumed in some patients after the use of kava (Piper methysticum G. Forster) as an anxyolytic herbal extract, but the regulatory causality evaluation of these cases was a matter of international and scientific debate. This review critically analyzes the regulatory issues of causality assessments of patients with primarily suspected kava hepatotoxicity and suggests recommendations for minimizing regulatory risks when assessing causality in these and other related cases. The various regulatory causality approaches were based on liver unspecific assessments such as ad hoc evaluations, the WHO scale using the definitions of the WHO Collaborating Centre for International Drug Monitoring, and the Naranjo scale. Due to their liver unspecificity, however, these causality approaches are not suitable for assessing cases of primarily assumed liver related adverse reactions by drugs and herbs including kava. Major problems emerged trough the combination of regulatory inappropriate causality assessment methods with the poor data quality as presented by the regulatory agency when reassessment was done and the resulting data were heavily criticized worldwide within the scientific community. Conversely, causality of cases with primarily assumed kava hepatotoxicity is best assessed by structured, quantitative and liver specific causality algorithms such as the scale of the CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) or the main-test as its update. Future strategies should therefore focus on the implementation of structured, quantitative and liver specific causality assessment methods as regulatory standards to improve regulatory causality assessments for liver injury by drugs and herbs including kava.

  6. Constraints on Children's Judgments of Magical Causality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolley, Jacqueline D.; Browne, Cheryl A.; Boerger, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    In 3 studies we addressed the operation of constraints on children's causal judgments. Our primary focus was whether children's beliefs about magical causality, specifically wishing, are constrained by features that govern the attribution of ordinary causality. In Experiment 1, children witnessed situations in which a confederate's wish appeared…

  7. Expectations and interpretations during causal learning.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Christian C; Ahn, Woo-Kyoung

    2011-05-01

    In existing models of causal induction, 4 types of covariation information (i.e., presence/absence of an event followed by presence/absence of another event) always exert identical influences on causal strength judgments (e.g., joint presence of events always suggests a generative causal relationship). In contrast, we suggest that, due to expectations developed during causal learning, learners give varied interpretations to covariation information as it is encountered and that these interpretations influence the resulting causal beliefs. In Experiments 1A-1C, participants' interpretations of observations during a causal learning task were dynamic, expectation based, and, furthermore, strongly tied to subsequent causal judgments. Experiment 2 demonstrated that adding trials of joint absence or joint presence of events, whose roles have been traditionally interpreted as increasing causal strengths, could result in decreased overall causal judgments and that adding trials where one event occurs in the absence of another, whose roles have been traditionally interpreted as decreasing causal strengths, could result in increased overall causal judgments. We discuss implications for traditional models of causal learning and how a more top-down approach (e.g., Bayesian) would be more compatible with the current findings.

  8. Expectations and Interpretations during Causal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luhmann, Christian C.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2011-01-01

    In existing models of causal induction, 4 types of covariation information (i.e., presence/absence of an event followed by presence/absence of another event) always exert identical influences on causal strength judgments (e.g., joint presence of events always suggests a generative causal relationship). In contrast, we suggest that, due to…

  9. Expectations and Interpretations During Causal Learning

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Christian C.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2012-01-01

    In existing models of causal induction, 4 types of covariation information (i.e., presence/absence of an event followed by presence/absence of another event) always exert identical influences on causal strength judgments (e.g., joint presence of events always suggests a generative causal relationship). In contrast, we suggest that, due to expectations developed during causal learning, learners give varied interpretations to covariation information as it is encountered and that these interpretations influence the resulting causal beliefs. In Experiments 1A–1C, participants’ interpretations of observations during a causal learning task were dynamic, expectation based, and, furthermore, strongly tied to subsequent causal judgments. Experiment 2 demonstrated that adding trials of joint absence or joint presence of events, whose roles have been traditionally interpreted as increasing causal strengths, could result in decreased overall causal judgments and that adding trials where one event occurs in the absence of another, whose roles have been traditionally interpreted as decreasing causal strengths, could result in increased overall causal judgments. We discuss implications for traditional models of causal learning and how a more top-down approach (e.g., Bayesian) would be more compatible with the current findings. PMID:21534705

  10. Designing Effective Supports for Causal Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.; Ionas, Ioan Gelu

    2008-01-01

    Causal reasoning represents one of the most basic and important cognitive processes that underpin all higher-order activities, such as conceptual understanding and problem solving. Hume called causality the "cement of the universe" [Hume (1739/2000). Causal reasoning is required for making predictions, drawing implications and inferences, and…

  11. Exploring Individual Differences in Preschoolers' Causal Stance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Aubry; Booth, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    Preschoolers, as a group, are highly attuned to causality, and this attunement is known to facilitate memory, learning, and problem solving. However, recent work reveals substantial individual variability in the strength of children's "causal stance," as demonstrated by their curiosity about and preference for new causal information. In…

  12. Representing Personal Determinants in Causal Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandura, Albert

    1984-01-01

    Responds to Staddon's critique of the author's earlier article and addresses issues raised by Staddon's (1984) alternative models of causality. The author argues that it is not the formalizability of causal processes that is the issue but whether cognitive determinants of behavior are reducible to past stimulus inputs in causal structures.…

  13. Causal inference in economics and marketing.

    PubMed

    Varian, Hal R

    2016-07-01

    This is an elementary introduction to causal inference in economics written for readers familiar with machine learning methods. The critical step in any causal analysis is estimating the counterfactual-a prediction of what would have happened in the absence of the treatment. The powerful techniques used in machine learning may be useful for developing better estimates of the counterfactual, potentially improving causal inference.

  14. Present Status and Future Prospects of Laser Fusion and Related High Energy Density Plasma Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mima, Kunioki

    2004-12-01

    The present status and future prospects of the laser fusion research and related laser plasma physics are reviewed. In laser fusion research, giant lasers for ignition and burn by imploding DT fuel pellets are under construction at LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) and CEA, France. In Japan , the Gekko XII and the Peta Watt laser system have been operated to investigate the implosion hydrodynamics, fast ignition, and the relativistic laser plasma interactions and a new project; FIREX( Fast Ignition Realization Experiment) had started toward the ignition and burn at the Institute of laser Engineering of Osaka University. Recently, heating experiments with cone shell target have been carried out. The thermal neutron yield is found to increase by three orders of magnitude by the peta watt laser injection to the cone shell target. The FIREX-I is planned according to this experimental results, where multi 10kJ peta watt laser is used to heat compressed DT fuel to the ignition temperature. The FIREX-II will follow for demonstrating ignition and burn, in which the implosion laser and heating laser are up-graded.

  15. Relative Importance of Social Status and Physiological Need in Determining Leadership in a Social Forager

    PubMed Central

    Öst, Markus; Jaatinen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Group decisions on the timing of mutually exclusive activities pose a dilemma: monopolized decision-making by a single leader compromises the optimal timing of activities by the others, while independent decision-making by all group members undermines group coherence. Theory suggests that initiation of foraging should be determined by physiological demand in social foragers, thereby resolving the dilemma of group coordination. However, empirical support is scant, perhaps because intrinsic qualities predisposing individuals to leadership (social status, experience or personality), or their interactions with satiation level, have seldom been simultaneously considered. Here, we examine which females initiated foraging in eider (Somateria mollissima) brood-rearing coalitions, characterized by female dominance hierarchies and potentially large individual differences in energy requirements due to strenuous breeding effort. Several physiological and social factors, except for female breeding experience and boldness towards predators, explained foraging initiation. Initiators spent a larger proportion of time submerged during foraging bouts, had poorer body condition and smaller structural size, but they were also aggressive and occupied central positions. Initiation probability also declined with female group size as expected given random assignment of initiators. However, the relative importance of physiological predictors of leadership propensity (active foraging time, body condition, structural size) exceeded those of social predictors (aggressiveness, spatial position) by an order of magnitude. These results confirm recent theoretical work suggesting that ‘leading according to need’ is an evolutionary viable strategy regardless of group heterogeneity or underlying dominance structure. PMID:23691258

  16. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status in Relation to Serum Biomarkers in the Black Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Cozier, Yvette C; Albert, Michelle A; Castro-Webb, Nelsy; Coogan, Patricia F; Ridker, Paul; Kaufman, Harvey W; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2016-04-01

    Lower neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Black women have a higher CVD risk and are more likely to live in poor neighborhoods than white women. We examined the association of neighborhood SES with several CVD biomarkers using data from the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS), a follow-up study of US black women reporting high levels of education and income. Blood specimens of 418 BWHS participants were assayed for C-reactive protein (CRP), hemoglobin A1C (hgA1C), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. US Census block group data were linked to the women's addresses to reflect neighborhood SES. Multivariable-adjusted mixed linear regression models that adjusted for person-level SES and for cardiovascular risk factors were used to assess CRP, hgA1C, and HDL levels in relation to quintiles of neighborhood SES. Women living in the poorest neighborhoods had the least favorable biomarker levels. As neighborhood SES increased, CRP decreased (P for trend = 0.01), hgA1C decreased (P for trend = 0.07), and HDL increased (P for trend = 0.19). These associations were present within strata of individual educational level. The present findings suggest that neighborhood environments may affect physiological processes within residents independently of individual SES. PMID:27000125

  17. [History and present status of butterfly monitoring in Europe and related development strategies for China].

    PubMed

    Fang, Li-Jun; Xu, Hai-Gen; Guan, Jian-Ling

    2013-09-01

    Butterfly is an important bio-indicator for biodiversity monitoring and ecological environment assessment. In Europe, the species composition, population dynamics, and distribution pattern of butterfly have been monitored for decades, and many long-term monitoring schemes with international effects have been implemented. These schemes are aimed to assess the regional and national variation trends of butterfly species abundance, and to analyze the relationships of this species abundance with habitat, climate change, and other environmental factors, providing basic data for researching, protecting, and utilizing butterfly resources and predicting environmental changes, and playing important roles in the division of butterfly' s threatened level, the formulation of related protection measures, and the protection and management of ecological environment. This paper reviewed the history and present status of butterfly monitoring in Europe, with the focus on the well-known long-term monitoring programs, e. g. , the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme and the Germany and European Union Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. Some specific proposals for conducting butterflies monitoring in China were suggested.

  18. Relative importance of social status and physiological need in determining leadership in a social forager.

    PubMed

    Öst, Markus; Jaatinen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Group decisions on the timing of mutually exclusive activities pose a dilemma: monopolized decision-making by a single leader compromises the optimal timing of activities by the others, while independent decision-making by all group members undermines group coherence. Theory suggests that initiation of foraging should be determined by physiological demand in social foragers, thereby resolving the dilemma of group coordination. However, empirical support is scant, perhaps because intrinsic qualities predisposing individuals to leadership (social status, experience or personality), or their interactions with satiation level, have seldom been simultaneously considered. Here, we examine which females initiated foraging in eider (Somateria mollissima) brood-rearing coalitions, characterized by female dominance hierarchies and potentially large individual differences in energy requirements due to strenuous breeding effort. Several physiological and social factors, except for female breeding experience and boldness towards predators, explained foraging initiation. Initiators spent a larger proportion of time submerged during foraging bouts, had poorer body condition and smaller structural size, but they were also aggressive and occupied central positions. Initiation probability also declined with female group size as expected given random assignment of initiators. However, the relative importance of physiological predictors of leadership propensity (active foraging time, body condition, structural size) exceeded those of social predictors (aggressiveness, spatial position) by an order of magnitude. These results confirm recent theoretical work suggesting that 'leading according to need' is an evolutionary viable strategy regardless of group heterogeneity or underlying dominance structure. PMID:23691258

  19. Relative importance of social status and physiological need in determining leadership in a social forager.

    PubMed

    Öst, Markus; Jaatinen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Group decisions on the timing of mutually exclusive activities pose a dilemma: monopolized decision-making by a single leader compromises the optimal timing of activities by the others, while independent decision-making by all group members undermines group coherence. Theory suggests that initiation of foraging should be determined by physiological demand in social foragers, thereby resolving the dilemma of group coordination. However, empirical support is scant, perhaps because intrinsic qualities predisposing individuals to leadership (social status, experience or personality), or their interactions with satiation level, have seldom been simultaneously considered. Here, we examine which females initiated foraging in eider (Somateria mollissima) brood-rearing coalitions, characterized by female dominance hierarchies and potentially large individual differences in energy requirements due to strenuous breeding effort. Several physiological and social factors, except for female breeding experience and boldness towards predators, explained foraging initiation. Initiators spent a larger proportion of time submerged during foraging bouts, had poorer body condition and smaller structural size, but they were also aggressive and occupied central positions. Initiation probability also declined with female group size as expected given random assignment of initiators. However, the relative importance of physiological predictors of leadership propensity (active foraging time, body condition, structural size) exceeded those of social predictors (aggressiveness, spatial position) by an order of magnitude. These results confirm recent theoretical work suggesting that 'leading according to need' is an evolutionary viable strategy regardless of group heterogeneity or underlying dominance structure.

  20. Who Is the Dynamic Duo? How Infants Learn about the Identity of Objects in a Causal Chain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakison, David H.; Smith, Gabriel Tobin; Ali, Areej

    2016-01-01

    Four experiments investigated infants' and adults' knowledge of the identity of objects in a causal sequence of events. In Experiments 1 and 2, 18- and 22-month-olds in the visual habituation procedure were shown a 3-step causal chain event in which the relation between an object's part (dynamic or static) and its causal role was either consistent…

  1. Mediators involved in the relation between depressive symptoms and weight status in female adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, A B; Wall, M M; Choo, T-H J; Larson, N I; Neumark-Sztainer, D

    2015-06-01

    Depression may be a risk factor for overweight status, but mechanisms involved in this relationship are unclear. This study explored behavioral factors involved in the relationship between adolescent depression symptoms and adult overweight status. A population-based cohort of female participants in Project EAT (n=1035) was followed over 10 years and reported on psychological functioning, weight status and eating and activity patterns in early/middle adolescence (1999=Time 1; T1), middle adolescence/early young adulthood (2004=Time 2; T2) and early/middle young adulthood (2009=Time 3; T3). Structural equation models were fit which included T1 depression scores predicting overweight status at T3, with T2 fruit and vegetable consumption, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and binge eating examined as mediators. There were small but significant effects of T1 depression scores predicting an increased likelihood of T3 overweight status (standardized estimate=0.038; P=0.007), and of T2 binge eating mediating the relation between T1 depression and T3 overweight status (standardized indirect effect estimate=0.036; P=0.009). Binge eating may be one pathway to overweight among depressed females, suggesting that recognition and treatment of eating pathology in individuals with depression may help prevent overweight. Examination of other behavioral (and non-behavioral) factors explaining the relationship between depression and overweight is warranted.

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Status Quality Indicators for Older Persons with Multiple Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Dy, Sydney M.; Pfoh, Elizabeth R.; Salive, Marcel E.; Boyd, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To explore central challenges with translating self-reported measurement tools for functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) into ambulatory quality indicators for older people with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). DESIGN Review. SETTING Sources including the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse and National Quality Forum were reviewed for existing ambulatory quality indicators relevant to functional status, HRQOL, and people with MCCs. PARTICIPANTS Seven informants with expertise in indicators using functional status and HRQOL. MEASUREMENTS Informant interviews were conducted to explore knowledge about these types of indicators, particularly usability and feasibility. RESULTS Nine important existing indicators were identified in the review. For process, identified indicators addressed whether providers assessed functional status; outcome indicators addressed quality of life. In interviews, informants agreed that indicators using self-reported data were important in this population. Challenges identified included concerns about usability due to inability to discriminate quality of care adequately between organizations and feasibility concerns regarding high data collection burden, with a correspondingly low response rate. Validity was also a concern because evidence is mixed that healthcare interventions can improve HRQOL or functional status for this population. As a possible first step, a structural standard could be systematic collection of these measures in a specific setting. CONCLUSION Although functional status and HRQOL are important outcomes for older people with MCCs, few relevant ambulatory quality indicators exist, and there are concerns with usability, feasibility, and validity. Further research is needed on how best to incorporate these outcomes into quality indicators for people with MCCs. PMID:24320819

  3. Home food environment in relation to children’s diet quality and weight status

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Sarah C.; Glanz, Karen; Zhou, Chuan; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to explore relationships between the home food environment (HFE), child / parent characteristics, diet quality and measured weight status among 699 child-parent pairs from King County, WA and San Diego County, CA. HFE variables included parenting style / feeding practices, food rules, frequency of eating out, home food availability, and parent’s perception of food costs. Child dietary intake was measured by 3 day recall and diet quality indicators included fruits and vegetables, sweet/ savory snacks, high calorie beverages, and DASH score. Individual linear regression models were run where child BMI z-score and child diet quality indicators were dependent variables and HFE variables and child/parent characteristics were independent variables of interest. Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with parental encouragement/modeling (β = 0.68, P<0.001) and unhealthful food availability (-0.27, P<0.05); DASH score with food availability (healthful: 1.3, P<0.01; unhealthful:-2.25, P<0.001), food rules (0.45, P<0.01) and permissive feeding style (-1.04, P<0.05); high calorie beverages with permissive feeding style (0.14, P<0.01) and unhealthful food availability (0.21, P<0.001); and sweet/savory snacks with healthful food availability (0.26, P<0.05; unexpectedly positive). Children’s BMI z-score was positively associated with parent’s use of food restriction (0.21, P<0.001), permissive feeding style (0.16, P<0.05), and concern for healthy food costs (0.10, P<0.01), but negatively with verbal encouragement / modeling (-0.17, P<0.05), and pressure to eat (-0.34, P<0.001). Various HFE factors associated with parenting around eating and food availability are related to child diet quality and weight status. These factors should be considered when designing interventions for improving child health. PMID:25066057

  4. Mental health status and related characteristics of Chinese male rural-urban migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tingzhong; Xu, Xiaochao; Li, Mu; Rockett, Ian R H; Zhu, Waner; Ellison-Barnes, Alejandra

    2012-06-01

    To explore mental health status and related characteristics in a sample of Chinese male rural-urban migrants. Subjects were 1,595 male rural-urban migrant workers selected though a multi-stage sample survey conducted in two cities (Hangzhou and Guangzhou). Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Both life and work stressors were examined. Stress and mental health status were measured by the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS) and the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ), respectively. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with probable mental disorders. There are approximately 120 million rural-urban migrants in China. The prevalence of probable mental disorders in the sample population was 24.4% (95% CI: 23.3-25.5%), which was higher than among urban residents (20.2%, 95% CI: 18.8-21.7%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that five characteristics were positively associated with risk for probable mental disorders: originating in the South (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.02, 4.00), higher life stress (OR = 7.63; 95% CI = 5.88, 10.00), staying in the city for 5-9 months each year (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.67, 3.85), higher work stress (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.96, 3.33), and separation from wife (OR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.61, 3.57). Employment in machinery and transportation (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.36, 0.81) and higher self-worth (OR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.28, 0.62) were negatively associated. Findings support an urgent need to develop specific policies and programs to address mental health problems among Chinese rural-urban migrants. PMID:21394472

  5. Home food environment in relation to children's diet quality and weight status.

    PubMed

    Couch, Sarah C; Glanz, Karen; Zhou, Chuan; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian E

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to explore relationships among the home food environment (HFE), child/parent characteristics, diet quality, and measured weight status among 699 child-parent pairs from King County, WA, and San Diego County, CA. HFE variables included parenting style/feeding practices, food rules, frequency of eating out, home food availability, and parents' perceptions of food costs. Child dietary intake was measured by 3-day recall and diet quality indicators included fruits and vegetables, sweet/savory snacks, high-calorie beverages, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score. Individual linear regression models were run in which child BMI z score and child diet quality indicators were dependent variables and HFE variables and child/parent characteristics were independent variables of interest. Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with parental encouragement/modeling (β=.68, P<0.001) and unhealthful food availability (-0.27, P<0.05); DASH score with food availability (healthful: 1.3, P<0.01; unhealthful: -2.25, P<0.001), food rules (0.45, P<0.01), and permissive feeding style (-1.04, P<0.05); high-calorie beverages with permissive feeding style (0.14, P<0.01) and unhealthful food availability (0.21, P<0.001); and sweet/savory snacks with healthful food availability (0.26, P<0.05; unexpectedly positive). Children's BMI z score was positively associated with parent's use of food restriction (0.21, P<0.001), permissive feeding style (0.16, P<0.05), and concern for healthy food costs (0.10, P<0.01), but negatively with verbal encouragement/modeling (-0.17, P<0.05), and pressure to eat (-0.34, P<0.001). Various HFE factors associated with parenting around eating and food availability are related to child diet quality and weight status. These factors should be considered when designing interventions for improving child health.

  6. Modeling of causality with metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyaninov, Igor I.

    2013-02-01

    Hyperbolic metamaterials may be used to model a 2 + 1-dimensional Minkowski space-time in which the role of time is played by one of the spatial coordinates. When a metamaterial is built and illuminated with a coherent extraordinary laser beam, the stationary pattern of light propagation inside the metamaterial may be treated as a collection of particle world lines, which represents a complete ‘history’ of this 2 + 1-dimensional space-time. While this model may be used to build interesting space-time analogs, such as metamaterial ‘black holes’ and a metamaterial ‘big bang’, it lacks causality: since light inside the metamaterial may propagate back and forth along the ‘timelike’ spatial coordinate, events in the ‘future’ may affect events in the ‘past’. Here we demonstrate that a more sophisticated metamaterial model may fix this deficiency via breaking the mirror and temporal (PT) symmetries of the original model and producing one-way propagation along the ‘timelike’ spatial coordinate. The resulting 2 + 1-dimensional Minkowski space-time appears to be causal. This scenario may be considered as a metamaterial model of the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory of causality.

  7. Velocity Requirements for Causality Violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modanese, Giovanni

    We re-examine the "Regge-Tolman paradox" with reference to some recent experimental results. It is straightforward to find a formula for the velocity v of the moving system required to produce causality violation. This formula typically yields a velocity very close to the speed of light (for instance, v/c > 0.97 for X-shaped microwaves), which raises some doubts about the real physical observability of the violations. We then compute the velocity requirement introducing a delay between the reception of the primary signal and the emission of the secondary. It turns out that in principle for any delay it is possible to find moving observers able to produce active causal violation. This is mathematically due to the singularity of the Lorentz transformations for β →1. For a realistic delay due to the propagation of a luminal precursor, we find that causality violations in the reported experiments are still more unlikely (v/c > 0.989), and even in the hypothesis that the superluminal propagation velocity goes to infinity, the velocity requirement is bounded by v/c > 0.62. We also prove that if two oscopic bodies exchange energy and momentum through superluminal signals, then the swap of signal source and target is incompatible with the Lorentz transformations; therefore it is not possible to distinguish between source and target, even with reference to a definite reference frame.

  8. Standardized Mental Status Testing on the Sideline After Sport-Related Concussion.

    PubMed

    McCrea, Michael

    2001-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: The effects of concussion on mental status are often difficult to assess on routine clinical examination. I investigated the efficacy of standardized mental status testing on the sport sideline to detect abnormalities that result from concussion and provide an objective measure of postinjury cognitive recovery. DESIGN AND SETTING: All subjects underwent a standardized preseason baseline mental status evaluation. Standardized testing of injured and uninjured control subjects was repeated on the sideline immediately after concussion and 48 hours after injury. SUBJECTS: Sixty-three high school and collegiate football players with concussion and 55 uninjured control subjects were studied. MEASUREMENTS: The Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) was administered to evaluate neurocognitive functioning and neurologic status. RESULTS: Immediately after concussion, injured subjects performed significantly below preinjury baseline and below uninjured controls on the SAC. Measurable deficits in orientation, concentration, and memory were evident immediately after concussion. A decline in SAC score at time of injury was 95% sensitive and 76% specific in accurately classifying injured and uninjured subjects on the sideline. Injured subjects demonstrated significant improvements in SAC score 48 hours after injury. CONCLUSIONS: Standardized mental status testing can be a valuable tool to assist the sports medicine clinician in detecting the immediate effects of concussion on mental status, tracking resolution of immediate postconcussive mental status abnormalities, and making more informed decisions on return to play after injury.

  9. Identifying Differential Item Functioning Related to Student Socioeconomic Status and Investigating Sources Related to Classroom Opportunities to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkes, LaShona L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study identified socioeconomic status (SES) group differences in student performance on an eighth grade mathematics assessment derived from the Third/Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003. Differential item functioning (DIF) methodology was applied to examine SES group differences on item performance for…

  10. Intergroup Discrimination in Positive and Negative Outcome Allocations: Impact of Stimulus Valence, Relative Group Status, and Relative Group Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otten, Sabine; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Three studies investigated the determination of social discrimination by the valence of stimuli that are allocated between groups. The studies were based on either the minimal group paradigm or a more reality-based laboratory intergroup setting, with stimulus valence, group status, and group size as factors and with pull scores on Tajfel matrices…

  11. Quality of Life, Health Status, and Health Service Utilization Related to a New Measure of Health Literacy FLIGHT/VIDAS

    PubMed Central

    Ownby, Raymond L; Acevedo, Amarilis; Jacobs, Robin J.; Caballero, Joshua; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna

    2014-01-01

    Objective Researchers have identified significant limitations in some currently-used measures of health literacy. The purpose of this paper is to present data on the relation of health-related quality of life, health status, and health service utilization to performance on a new measure of health literacy in a nonpatient population. Methods The new measure was administered to 475 English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling volunteers along with existing measures of health literacy and assessments of health-related quality of life, health status, and healthcare service utilization. Relations among measures were assessed via correlations and health status and utilization was tested across levels of health literacy using ANCOVA models. Results The new health literacy measure is significantly related to existing measures of health literacy as well as to participants’ health-related quality of life. Persons with lower levels of health literacy reported more health conditions, more frequent physical symptoms, and greater healthcare service utilization. Conclusion The new measure of health literacy is valid and shows relations to measures of conceptually-related constructs such as quality of life and health behaviors. Practice Implications: FLIGHT/VIDAS may be useful to researchers and clinicians interested in a computer administered and scored measure of health literacy. PMID:24856447

  12. Causal Attributions and Recovery from Rape: Implications for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Patricia A.; Schauben, Laura J.

    One factor related to postrape trauma is the survivor's belief about the cause of the rape. Most research to date on the relation between causal attributions and postrape recovery has been guided by a theoretical model which proposes that certain types of self-blame can be adaptive for survivors. Specifically, behavioral self-blame is thought to…

  13. Seeing red: How perceptions of social status and worth influence hostile attributions and endorsement of aggression.

    PubMed

    Davis, James R; Reyna, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Within social hierarchies, low social status is associated with increased vigilance, hostile expectations, and reactive aggression. We propose that societal devaluation is common across many low social status groups and produces a sense of threatened social worth. Threatened social worth may lead those of low status to be more vigilant towards social threats, thereby increasing the likelihood of hostile attributions and endorsement of aggression. Integrating theory on belongingness, social rejection, and stigma compensation, two studies test a sequential process model demonstrating that threatened social worth mediates the relationship between status, hostile attributions, and endorsement of aggression. Employing a relative status manipulation, Study 2 reveals a causal effect of status and highlights the importance of perceptions of low social status on threatened social worth. These data demonstrate the role of social worth in explaining the link between status and hostility and have implications for research in the social, health, and developmental domains.

  14. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: mechanisms, interactions, and causality.

    PubMed

    Gillman, P Ken

    2010-09-15

    This review focuses on new data from recent publications concerning how compounding interactions between different thermoregulatory pathways influence the development of hyperthermia and/or neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), and the fundamental issue of the presumed causal role of antipsychotic drugs. The formal criteria for substantiating cause-effect relationships in medical science, established by Hill, are applied to NMS and, for comparison, also to malignant hyperthermia and serotonin toxicity. The risk of morbidities related to hyperthermia is reviewed from human and experimental data: temperatures in excess of 39.5°C cause physiological and cellular dysfunction and high mortality. The most temperature-sensitive elements of neural cells are mitochondrial and plasma membranes, in which irreversible changes occur around 40°C. Temperatures of up to 39°C are "normal" in mammals, so, the term hyperthermia should be reserved for temperatures of 39.5°C or greater. The implicitly accepted presumption that NMS is a hypermetabolic and hyperthermic syndrome is questionable and does not explain the extensive morbidity in the majority of cases, where the temperature is less than 39°C. The thermoregulatory effects of dopamine and acetylcholine are outlined, especially because they are probably the main pathways by which neuroleptic drugs might affect thermoregulation. It is notable that even potent antagonism of these mechanisms rarely causes temperature elevation and that multiple mechanisms, including the acute phase response, stress-induced hyperthermia, drugs effects, etc., involving compounding interactions, are required to precipitate hyperthermia. The application of the Hill criteria clearly supports causality for drugs inducing both MH and ST but do not support causality for NMS.

  15. Career-Related Parental Support of Adolescents with Hearing Loss: Relationships with Parents' Expectations and Occupational Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinat, Michael; Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Most, Tova

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the contribution of parents' occupational status and expectations regarding persons with hearing loss to career-related support they provide their deaf and hard of hearing (dhh) adolescent children. Thirty-eight parents completed the Evaluation of Occupational Competence Scale (Weisel & Cinamon, 2005), the Evaluation of…

  16. The ratification status of ILO conventions related to occupational safety and health and its relationship with reported occupational fatality rates.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Donald J; Takahashi, Ken; Sakuragi, Sonoko; Yoshino, Masako; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Imai, Teppei; Takala, Jukka

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the ratification status of occupational safety and health (OSH)-related ILO conventions and reported occupational fatality rates of ILO member countries, while controlling for possible confounding factors. ILO member states were divided into 4 levels of income status, based on the gross national income per capita. Seventeen conventions designated as OSH-related were examined. Reported country occupational fatality rates were compared according to the ratification status of these 17 conventions and multiple regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between the fatality rates, ratification status, income level and length of ILO membership. Fatality rates were inversely and significantly related to income levels. In general, non-ratifying countries had higher work-related fatality rates than ratifying countries. A statistical model for identifying predictors of fatal injury rates showed that a larger number of conventions ratified was significantly associated with lower fatality rates. The fact that non-ratifying countries generally have higher fatality rates than ratifying ones supports the notion that all countries should promote ratification of ILO conventions aimed at improving OSH conditions.

  17. Maternal parenting behaviors during childhood relate to weight status and fruit and vegetable intakes of college students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to examine if childhood parenting behaviors, under both general and feeding specific situations, related to college students’ weight status, waist circumference (WC), and fruit and vegetable (FV) intakes. U.S. college students (n equals 424, 66 percent female, 18-24 yr,...

  18. Maternal Parenting Behaviors during Childhood Relate to Weight Status and Fruit and Vegetable Intake of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murashima, Megumi; Hoerr, Sharon L.; Hughes, Sheryl O.; Kattelmann, Kendra K.; Phillips, Beatrice W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine how maternal parenting behaviors in childhood, both general and feeding specific, relate to weight status and fruit and vegetable consumption in college students. Design: Retrospective surveys on maternal behaviors and assessments on the college-aged child's current anthropometric measures and dietary intakes. Participants:…

  19. ADHD Symptoms Moderate the Relation between ASD Status and Internalizing Symptoms in 3-6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Manangan, Christen N.; Dauterman, Hayley A.; Davis, Heather N.

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to understand the relation between diagnostic status (autism spectrum disorders [ASD] versus typically developing) and internalizing problems in children with and without co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Participants were 88 children, ages 3:0-6:11, their parents and teachers. Findings…

  20. The Complex Relation between Bullying, Victimization, Acceptance, and Rejection: Giving Special Attention to Status, Affection, and Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Munniksma, Anke; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis

    2010-01-01

    To understand the complex nature of bullies' acceptance and rejection, this article considered goal-framing effects of status and affection as they relate to the gender of the bully (male vs. female bullies), the target (male vs. female victims), and the evaluator (acceptance and rejection from male vs. female classmates). The hypotheses were…

  1. Dietary calcium and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in relation to bone mineral density among US adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A higher calcium intake is still the primary recommendation for the prevention of osteoporosis, while vitamin D deficiency is often not addressed. To study the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status in regard to hip bone mineral density (BMD) in ...

  2. Factors related to employment status changes in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Megan M; Arnett, Peter A

    2005-10-01

    In a sample of 50 individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), participants able to work full-time ('W'), those who reduced their hours ('CB') and those who were unemployed ('NW') were compared on demographic and disease variables and symptoms that the participants identified as being responsible for their work status change. The NW group had significantly greater physical disability than the other two groups and significantly more fatigue than the W group. The CB group had significantly more years of education and higher occupational prestige ratings than the NW group. The W group reported significantly greater mood disturbance compared with the NW group. Employment status was unrelated to age, gender, full scale IQ estimate, disease duration, diagnosis duration or cognitive functioning. Ninety per cent of the CB group reported that fatigue was a primary symptom responsible for their work status change, whereas 86% of the NW group reported that broad physical/neurological symptoms were responsible for their change in work status.

  3. [Self-evaluation by workers of health status and its relation to the life style].

    PubMed

    Izutkin, D A; Kvasov, S E; Kopteva, L N

    1991-01-01

    The article provides an analysis of lifestyle factors among industrial workers in connection with their self-assessment of health status. The diet, physical activity, harmful habits, ethico-psychological atmosphere in the family has been assessed. The survey made it possible to detect certain regularities. Such self-assessments of health status as "poor" and "satisfactory" predominated among persons who had a low level of physical activity, irregular meals, smoke or systematically consume alcohol as compared to those conducting healthy lifestyle.

  4. Voluntary action and causality in temporal binding.

    PubMed

    Cravo, Andre M; Claessens, Peter M E; Baldo, Marcus V C

    2009-10-01

    Previous studies have documented temporal attraction in perceived times of actions and their effects. While some authors argue that voluntary action is a necessary condition for this phenomenon, others claim that the causal relationship between action and effect is the crucial ingredient. In the present study, we investigate voluntary action and causality as the necessary and sufficient conditions for temporal binding. We used a variation of the launching effect proposed by Michotte, in which participants controlled the launch stimulus in some blocks. Volunteers reported causality ratings and estimated the interval between the two events. Our results show dissociations between causality ratings and temporal estimation. While causality ratings are not affected by voluntary action, temporal bindings were only found in the presence of both voluntary action and high causality. Our results indicate that voluntary action and causality are both necessary for the emergence of temporal binding.

  5. Predicting self-rated mental and physical health: the contributions of subjective socioeconomic status and personal relative deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Callan, Mitchell J.; Kim, Hyunji; Matthews, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Lower subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) and higher personal relative deprivation (PRD) relate to poorer health. Both constructs concern people's perceived relative social position, but they differ in their emphasis on the reference groups people use to determine their comparative disadvantage (national population vs. similar others) and the importance of resentment that may arise from such adverse comparisons. We investigated the relative utility of SSS and PRD as predictors of self-rated physical and mental health (e.g., self-rated health, stress, health complaints). Across six studies, self-rated physical and mental health were on the whole better predicted by measures of PRD than by SSS while controlling for objective socioeconomic status (SES), with SSS rarely contributing unique variance over and above PRD and SES. Studies 4–6 discount the possibility that the superiority of PRD over SSS in predicting health is due to psychometric differences (e.g., reliability) or response biases between the measures. PMID:26441786

  6. Aggressiveness in king penguins in relation to reproductive status and territory location.

    PubMed

    CôTé

    2000-04-01

    King penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicus, vigorously defend small territories in very dense colonies. The egg-laying season lasts approximately 4 months, but only pairs that reproduce during the first half of the period succeed in fledging a chick. I examined various factors affecting aggressiveness of king penguins during the breeding season and focused on the differences between central and peripheral territories. Pairs on peripheral territories experienced twice as many encounters with avian predators as did central birds. The vast majority of peripheral birds were late breeders, indicating that reproductive success was very low among penguins defending a territory on the edge of the colony. Time invested in territory defence and rate of agonistic encounters between breeding neighbours increased from the incubation to the brooding period. Parents gave most threat displays to territorial neighbours when the chick was very young and just before crèche formation. Distance to colony edge was not related to aggressiveness in incubating birds, however, the rate of pecking and flipper blows increased from the edge to the centre during brooding. In addition, aggressiveness of breeding penguins towards travelling birds trespassing into their territory increased with distance to edge. Early breeders were not more aggressive than late breeders but the proportion of time spent in territory defence increased with the number of days a bird had spent incubating. As expected, I did not detect any sex difference in aggressive behaviour. Birds occupying territories on the beach were generally more aggressive during the incubation period than those located on the valley sides. Reproductive status (incubating versus brooding) and territory location were the main factors explaining the various levels of aggressiveness observed in breeding king penguins. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10792937

  7. COX-2 gene expression in colon cancer tissue related to regulating factors and promoter methylation status

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increased cyclooxygenase activity promotes progression of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms behind COX-2 induction remain elusive. This study was therefore aimed to define external cell signaling and transcription factors relating to high COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue. Method Tumor and normal colon tissue were collected at primary curative operation in 48 unselected patients. COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue was quantified including microarray analyses on tumor mRNA accounting for high and low tumor COX-2 expression. Cross hybridization was performed between tumor and normal colon tissue. Methylation status of up-stream COX-2 promoter region was evaluated. Results Tumors with high COX-2 expression displayed large differences in gene expression compared to normal colon. Numerous genes with altered expression appeared in tumors of high COX-2 expression compared to tumors of low COX-2. COX-2 expression in normal colon was increased in patients with tumors of high COX-2 compared to normal colon from patients with tumors of low COX-2. IL1β, IL6 and iNOS transcripts were up-regulated among external cell signaling factors; nine transcription factors (ATF3, C/EBP, c-Fos, Fos-B, JDP2, JunB, c-Maf, NF-κB, TCF4) showed increased expression and 5 (AP-2, CBP, Elk-1, p53, PEA3) were decreased in tumors with high COX-2. The promoter region of COX-2 gene did not show consistent methylation in tumor or normal colon tissue. Conclusions Transcription and external cell signaling factors are altered as covariates to COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue, but DNA methylation of the COX-2 promoter region was not a significant factor behind COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue. PMID:21668942

  8. Status of health and environmental research relative to direct coal liquefaction: 1976 to the present

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.H.; Cowser, K.E.

    1982-06-01

    This document describes the status of health and environmental research efforts, supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), to assist in the development of environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction processes. Four major direct coal liquefaction processes are currently in (or have been investigated at) the pilot plant stage of development. Two solvent refined coal processes (SRC-I and -II), H-coal (a catalytic liquefaction process) and Exxon donor solvent (EDS). The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was assigned responsibility for evaluating SRC process materials and prepared comprehensive health and environmental effects research program plans for SRC-I and -II. A similar program plan was prepared for H-coal process materials by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A program has been developed for EDS process materials by Exxon Research and Engineering Co. The program includes short-term screening of coal-derived materials for potential health and ecological effects. Longer-term assays are used to evaluate materials considered most representative of potential commercial practice and with greatest potential for human exposure or release to the environment. Effects of process modification, control technologies and changing operational conditions on potential health and ecological effects are also being evaluated. These assessments are being conducted to assist in formulating cost-effective environmental research programs and to estimate health and environmental risks associated with a large-scale coal liquefaction industry. Significant results of DOE's health and environmental research efforts relative to coal liquefaction include the following: chemical characterization, health effects, ecological fate and effects, amelioration and risk assessment.

  9. Dietary intake and nutritional status of micronutrients in adults with cystic fibrosis in relation to current recommendations.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Somerset, Shawn

    2016-08-01

    An increased prevalence of cystic fibrosis (CF) related complications such as impaired bone health and diabetes has accompanied increased survival of patients with CF. This review was conducted to determine the extent to which adults with CF are meeting current nutrition recommendations for micronutrients in association with CF-related complications management. Although dietary intake and nutritional status in CF has improved significantly in recent decades, micronutrient status seems to have diverged. While vitamin A and E intakes appear adequate, frequent vitamin D and K deficiency/insufficiency and compromised bone health in CF, occurs despite supplementation. Although deficiency of water-soluble vitamins and minerals is uncommon, ongoing surveillance will enhance overall health outcomes, particularly in cases of CF-related liver disease and deteriorated lung function and bone health. Salt and fluid status in CF may also need attention due to diminished thirst sensation and voluntary rehydration. Further investigation in micronutrient status optimisation in CF will inform the development of more effective and targeted nutrition therapies to enable integration of more refined recommendations for micronutrient intakes in CF based on individual needs and disease progression.

  10. Conditional Granger causality and partitioned Granger causality: differences and similarities.

    PubMed

    Malekpour, Sheida; Sethares, William A

    2015-12-01

    Neural information modeling and analysis often requires a measurement of the mutual influence among many signals. A common technique is the conditional Granger causality (cGC) which measures the influence of one time series on another time series in the presence of a third. Geweke has translated this condition into the frequency domain and has explored the mathematical relationships between the time and frequency domain expressions. Chen has observed that in practice, the expressions may return (meaningless) negative numbers, and has proposed an alternative which is based on a partitioned matrix scheme, which we call partitioned Granger causality (pGC). There has been some confusion in the literature about the relationship between cGC and pGC; some authors treat them as essentially identical measures, while others have noted that some properties (such as the relationship between the time and frequency domain expressions) do not hold for the pGC. This paper presents a series of matrix equalities that simplify the calculation of the pGC. In this simplified expression, the essential differences and similarities between the cGC and the pGC become clear; in essence, the pGC is dependent on only a subset of the parameters in the model estimation, and the noise residuals (which are uncorrelated in the cGC) need not be uncorrelated in the pGC. The mathematical results are illustrated with a simulation, and the measures are applied to an EEG dataset.

  11. Algorithms for the inference of causality in dynamic processes: Application to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular variability.

    PubMed

    Faes, Luca; Porta, Alberto; Nollo, Giandomenico

    2015-08-01

    This study faces the problem of causal inference in multivariate dynamic processes, with specific regard to the detection of instantaneous and time-lagged directed interactions. We point out the limitations of the traditional Granger causality analysis, showing that it leads to false detection of causality when instantaneous and time-lagged effects coexist in the process structure. Then, we propose an improved algorithm for causal inference that combines the Granger framework with the approach proposed by Pearl for the study of causality among multiple random variables. This new approach is compared with the traditional one in theoretical and simulated examples of interacting processes, showing its ability to retrieve the correct structure of instantaneous and time-lagged interactions. These approaches for causal inference are then tested on the physiological variability series of heart period, arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow variability obtained in subjects with postural-related syncope during a tilt-test protocol.

  12. Immunity in arterial hypertension: associations or causalities?

    PubMed

    Anders, Hans-Joachim; Baumann, Marcus; Tripepi, Giovanni; Mallamaci, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Numerous studies describe associations between markers of inflammation and arterial hypertension (aHT), but does that imply causality? Interventional studies that reduce blood pressure reduced also markers of inflammation, but does immunosuppression improve hypertension? Here, we review the available mechanistic data. Aberrant immunity can trigger endothelial dysfunction but is hardly ever the primary cause of aHT. Innate and adaptive immunity get involved once hypertension has caused vascular wall injury as immunity is a modifier of endothelial dysfunction and vascular wall remodelling. As vascular remodelling progresses, immunity-related mechanisms can become significant cofactors for cardiovascular (CV) disease progression; vice versa, suppressing immunity can improve hypertension and CV outcomes. Innate and adaptive immunity both contribute to vascular wall remodelling. Innate immunity is driven by danger signals that activate Toll-like receptors and other pattern-recognition receptors. Adaptive immunity is based on loss of tolerance against vascular autoantigens and includes autoreactive T-cell immunity as well as non-HLA angiotensin II type 1 receptor-activating autoantibodies. Such processes involve numerous other modulators such as regulatory T cells. Together, immunity is not causal for hypertension but rather an important secondary pathomechanism and a potential therapeutic target in hypertension.

  13. Scalar Fields via Causal Tapestries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulis, William

    2012-02-01

    Causal tapestries provide a framework for implementing an explicit Process Theory approach to quantum foundations which models information flow within a physical system. We consider event-transition tapestry pairs. An event tapestry O is a 4-tuple (L, K, M, Ip ) where K is an index set of cardinality κ, M = M x F(M) x D x P(M') a mathematical structure with M a causal space, F(M) a function space, D a descriptor space, P(M') either a Lie algebra or tangent space on a manifold M', Ip an event tapestry. L consists of elements of the form [n]<α>G, n in K, α in M and G an acyclic directed graph whose vertex set is a subset of Lp Likewise, a transition tapestry π is a 4-tuple (L', K', M', I'p ) where M' = M' x F(M') x D' x P'(M). The dynamic generates a consistent succession of O-π pairs by means of a game based on the technique of forcing used in logic to generate models. This dynamic has previously been shown to be compatible with Lorentz invariance. An application of this approach to model scalar fields is presented in which each informon is associated with a function of the form f(πk1 /σ1 ,,πkN /σN )sin ( σ1 t1 --πk1 )/ ( σ1 t1 --πk1 ) .sin ( σN tN --πkN )/ ( σN tN --πkN ) and the WSK interpolation theorem is used to generate the resulting scalar field on the causal manifold.

  14. Maternal child-rearing attitudes, IQ, and socioeconomic status as related to cognitive abilities of five-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Andersson, H W; Sommerfelt, K; Sonnander, K; Ahlsten, G

    1996-08-01

    The effects of maternal child-rearing attitudes, as measured by the Child Rearing Practices Report, on 5-yr.-old children's Verbal IQ and Performance IQ were investigated in a Scandinavian sample of 108 boys and 126 girls. The maternal child-rearing attitude of Restrictiveness, as defined by scores on the Report, showed negative relations to the cognitive measures. However, the significant negative relation between Restrictiveness and Verbal IQ, obtained for both sexes, disappeared when the effects of maternal IQ and socioeconomic status were controlled. The maternal child-rearing attitude of Nurturance, as defined by scores on the Report, was significantly related to Verbal IQ and Performance IQ for boys only. Significant relationships between scores on Nurturance and cognitive abilities of boys remained when the effects of maternal IQ and socioeconomic status were controlled. PMID:8873781

  15. Career-related parental support of adolescents with hearing loss: relationships with parents' expectations and occupational status.

    PubMed

    Michael, Rinat; Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Most, Tova

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the contribution of parents' occupational status and expectations regarding persons with hearing loss to career-related support they provide their deaf and hard of hearing (dhh) adolescent children. Thirty-eight parents completed the Evaluation of Occupational Competence Scale (Weisel & Cinamon, 2005), the Evaluation of Family Competence Scale (Caprara, Regalia, Scabini, Barbaranelli, & Bandura, 2004), the Career-Related Parent Support Scale (Turner, Alliman-Brissett, Lapan, Udipi, & Ergun, 2003), and a background questionnaire. Parents' occupational expectations were positively correlated with their family expectations regarding deaf persons. Parents' occupational status contributed to expectations of success for deaf persons in prestigious occupations with high communication demands. Different types of expectations contributed to career-related parental support. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  16. Alcohol consumption in relation to residence status and ethnicity in college students.

    PubMed

    Cacciola, Eleanora E T; Nevid, Jeffrey S

    2014-12-01

    The present study examined the roles of gender, ethnicity, and residence status in an ethnically diverse sample of undergraduate students who completed the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey. Gender, ethnicity, and residential status were associated with likelihood of binge drinking among students who reported consuming alcohol (non-Hispanic). White students were more likely to report using alcohol than Black students and Asian students. Ethnicity moderated the effects of both residence status and gender on alcohol consumption. Living with one's parents was associated with a lower likelihood of reported alcohol use among Hispanic students, but not among (non-Hispanic) White students. Hispanic women were more likely to report using alcohol than were Hispanic men, but no gender difference in likelihood of alcohol consumption was found among (non-Hispanic) White students.

  17. Childhood Health Status and Adulthood Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity in Rural China: Are They Related?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Shen, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are among the top health problems of the Chinese population. Although mounting evidence suggests that early childhood health status has an enduring effect on late life chronic morbidity, no study so far has analyzed the issue in China. Using nationally representative data from the 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), a Probit model and Two-Stage Residual Inclusion estimation estimator were applied to analyze the relationship between childhood health status and adulthood cardiovascular disease in rural China. Good childhood health was associated with reduced risk of adult CVDs. Given the long-term effects of childhood health on adulthood health later on, health policy and programs to improve the health status and well-being of Chinese populations over the entire life cycle, especially in persons’ early life, are expected to be effective and successful. PMID:27275829

  18. Space and time in perceptual causality.

    PubMed

    Straube, Benjamin; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    Inferring causality is a fundamental feature of human cognition that allows us to theorize about and predict future states of the world. Michotte suggested that humans automatically perceive causality based on certain perceptual features of events. However, individual differences in judgments of perceptual causality cast doubt on Michotte's view. To gain insights in the neural basis of individual difference in the perception of causality, our participants judged causal relationships in animations of a blue ball colliding with a red ball (a launching event) while fMRI-data were acquired. Spatial continuity and temporal contiguity were varied parametrically in these stimuli. We did not find consistent brain activation differences between trials judged as caused and those judged as non-caused, making it unlikely that humans have universal instantiation of perceptual causality in the brain. However, participants were slower to respond to and showed greater neural activity for violations of causality, suggesting that humans are biased to expect causal relationships when moving objects appear to interact. Our participants demonstrated considerable individual differences in their sensitivity to spatial and temporal characteristics in perceiving causality. These qualitative differences in sensitivity to time or space in perceiving causality were instantiated in individual differences in activation of the left basal ganglia or right parietal lobe, respectively. Thus, the perception that the movement of one object causes the movement of another is triggered by elemental spatial and temporal sensitivities, which themselves are instantiated in specific distinct neural networks. PMID:20463866

  19. Children's use of interventions to learn causal structure.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Teresa; Bramley, Neil; Frosch, Caren; Patrick, Fiona; Lagnado, David

    2016-01-01

    Children between 5 and 8 years of age freely intervened on a three-variable causal system, with their task being to discover whether it was a common cause structure or one of two causal chains. From 6 or 7 years of age, children were able to use information from their interventions to correctly disambiguate the structure of a causal chain. We used a Bayesian model to examine children's interventions on the system; this showed that with development children became more efficient in producing the interventions needed to disambiguate the causal structure and that the quality of interventions, as measured by their informativeness, improved developmentally. The latter measure was a significant predictor of children's correct inferences about the causal structure. A second experiment showed that levels of performance were not reduced in a task where children did not select and carry out interventions themselves, indicating no advantage for self-directed learning. However, children's performance was not related to intervention quality in these circumstances, suggesting that children learn in a different way when they carry out interventions themselves. PMID:26298433

  20. Quantifying causal emergence shows that macro can beat micro.

    PubMed

    Hoel, Erik P; Albantakis, Larissa; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-12-01

    Causal interactions within complex systems can be analyzed at multiple spatial and temporal scales. For example, the brain can be analyzed at the level of neurons, neuronal groups, and areas, over tens, hundreds, or thousands of milliseconds. It is widely assumed that, once a micro level is fixed, macro levels are fixed too, a relation called supervenience. It is also assumed that, although macro descriptions may be convenient, only the micro level is causally complete, because it includes every detail, thus leaving no room for causation at the macro level. However, this assumption can only be evaluated under a proper measure of causation. Here, we use a measure [effective information (EI)] that depends on both the effectiveness of a system's mechanisms and the size of its state space: EI is higher the more the mechanisms constrain the system's possible past and future states. By measuring EI at micro and macro levels in simple systems whose micro mechanisms are fixed, we show that for certain causal architectures EI can peak at a macro level in space and/or time. This happens when coarse-grained macro mechanisms are more effective (more deterministic and/or less degenerate) than the underlying micro mechanisms, to an extent that overcomes the smaller state space. Thus, although the macro level supervenes upon the micro, it can supersede it causally, leading to genuine causal emergence--the gain in EI when moving from a micro to a macro level of analysis.

  1. The impact of domain-specific beliefs on decisions and causal judgments.

    PubMed

    Müller, S M; Garcia-Retamero, R; Galesic, M; Maldonado, A

    2013-11-01

    Extensive evidence suggests that people often rely on their causal beliefs in their decisions and causal judgments. To date, however, there is a dearth of research comparing the impact of causal beliefs in different domains. We conducted two experiments to map the influence of domain-specific causal beliefs on the evaluation of empirical evidence when making decisions and subsequent causal judgments. Participants made 120 decisions in a two-alternative forced-choice task, framed in either a medical or a financial domain. Before each decision, participants could actively search for information about the outcome ("occurrence of a disease" or "decrease in a company's share price") on the basis of four cues. To analyze the strength of causal beliefs, we set two cues to have a generative relation to the outcome and two to have a preventive relation to the outcome. To examine the influence of empirical evidence, we manipulated the predictive power (i.e., cue validities) of the cues. Both experiments included a validity switch, where the four selectable cues switched from high to low validity or vice versa. Participants had to make a causal judgment about each cue before and after the validity switch. In the medical domain, participants stuck to the causal information in causal judgments, even when evidence was contradictory, while decisions showed an effect of both empirical and causal information. In contrast, in the financial domain, participants mainly adapted their decisions and judgments to the cue validities. We conclude that the strength of causal beliefs (1) is shaped by the domain, and (2) has a differential influence on the degree to which empirical evidence is taken into account in causal judgments and decision making.

  2. There aren't plenty more fish in the sea: a causal network approach.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Milena; Lagnado, David A

    2015-11-01

    The current research investigated how lay representations of the causes of an environmental problem may underlie individuals' reasoning about the issue. Naïve participants completed an experiment that involved two main tasks. The causal diagram task required participants to depict the causal relations between a set of factors related to overfishing and to estimate the strength of these relations. The counterfactual task required participants to judge the effect of counterfactual suppositions based on the diagrammed factors. We explored two major questions: (1) what is the relation between individual causal models and counterfactual judgments? Consistent with previous findings (e.g., Green et al., 1998, Br. J. Soc. Psychology, 37, 415), these judgments were best explained by a combination of the strength of both direct and indirect causal paths. (2) To what extent do people use two-way causal thinking when reasoning about an environmental problem? In contrast to previous research (e.g., White, 2008, Appl. Cogn. Psychology, 22, 559), analyses based on individual causal networks revealed the presence of numerous feedback loops. The studies support the value of analysing individual causal models in contrast to consensual representations. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed in relation to causal reasoning as well as environmental psychology.

  3. There aren't plenty more fish in the sea: a causal network approach.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Milena; Lagnado, David A

    2015-11-01

    The current research investigated how lay representations of the causes of an environmental problem may underlie individuals' reasoning about the issue. Naïve participants completed an experiment that involved two main tasks. The causal diagram task required participants to depict the causal relations between a set of factors related to overfishing and to estimate the strength of these relations. The counterfactual task required participants to judge the effect of counterfactual suppositions based on the diagrammed factors. We explored two major questions: (1) what is the relation between individual causal models and counterfactual judgments? Consistent with previous findings (e.g., Green et al., 1998, Br. J. Soc. Psychology, 37, 415), these judgments were best explained by a combination of the strength of both direct and indirect causal paths. (2) To what extent do people use two-way causal thinking when reasoning about an environmental problem? In contrast to previous research (e.g., White, 2008, Appl. Cogn. Psychology, 22, 559), analyses based on individual causal networks revealed the presence of numerous feedback loops. The studies support the value of analysing individual causal models in contrast to consensual representations. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed in relation to causal reasoning as well as environmental psychology. PMID:25597224

  4. Causality as individual essence: its bearing on synchronicity.

    PubMed

    Tougas, Cecile T

    2014-06-01

    Causality, time, and number are subjectively lived realities and need to be noticed as such. Fundamental to the wide range of living experience, they are also basic to scientific knowing. In this article I examine causality in relation to an article on synchronicity by Harald Atmanspacher and Wolfgang Fach. My examination is neither scientific nor metaphysical, but rather phenomenological, as it is a clarification of form as individual essence of a thing. This non-material form of an individual thing in the widest sense of the word 'thing' was rejected and so lost during modern seventeenth-century science but, renewed now, can help describe synchronicity. A commentary by William Willeford follows.

  5. The latent causal chain of industrial water pollution in China.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xin; Tang, Yanhong; Wong, Christina W Y; Zang, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discover the latent causal chain of industrial water pollution in China and find ways to cure the want on discharge of toxic waste from industries. It draws evidences from the past pollution incidents in China. Through further digging the back interests and relations by analyzing representative cases, extended theory about loophole derivations and causal chain effect is drawn. This theoretical breakthrough reflects deeper causality. Institutional defect instead of human error is confirmed as the deeper reason of frequent outbreaks of water pollution incidents in China. Ways for collaborative environmental governance are proposed. This paper contributes to a better understanding about the deep inducements of industrial water pollution in China, and, is meaningful for ensuring future prevention and mitigation of environmental pollution. It illuminates multiple dimensions for collaborative environmental governance to cure the stubborn problem.

  6. Relative residential property value as a socio-economic status indicator for health research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Residential property is reported as the most valuable asset people will own and therefore provides the potential to be used as a socio-economic status (SES) measure. Location is generally recognised as the most important determinant of residential property value. Extending the well-established relationship between poor health and socio-economic disadvantage and the role of residential property in the overall wealth of individuals, this study tested the predictive value of the Relative Location Factor (RLF), a SES measure designed to reflect the relationship between location and residential property value, and six cardiometabolic disease risk factors, central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL), hypertension, impaired fasting glucose, and high low density lipoprotein (LDL). These risk factors were also summed and expressed as a cumulative cardiometabolic risk (CMR) score. Methods RLF was calculated using a global hedonic regression model from residential property sales transaction data based upon several residential property characteristics, but deliberately blind to location, to predict the selling price of the property. The predicted selling price was divided by the actual selling price and the results interpolated across the study area and classified as tertiles. The measures used to calculate CMR were collected via clinic visits from a population-based cohort study. Models with individual risk factors and the cumulative cardiometabolic risk (CMR) score as dependent variables were respectively tested using log binomial and Poisson generalised linear models. Results A statistically significant relationship was found between RLF, the cumulative CMR score and all but one of the risk factors. In all cases, participants in the most advantaged and intermediate group had a lower risk for cardio-metabolic diseases. For the CMR score the RR for the most advantaged was 19% lower (RR = 0.81; CI 0.76-0.86; p <0.0001) and the

  7. Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback. PMID:22429606

  8. Grade, Pubertal Status, and Gender Related Variations in Conflictual Issues among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; Savage, Catherine L.

    It is possible that conflicts in families with adolescents are linked to the transitions and individual development that occur during adolescence. A study was conducted to describe domains of conflictual issues associated with adolescent grade in school, pubertal status, and gender. The sample was comprised of 78 seventh graders, 115 ninth…

  9. Grade, Pubertal Status, and Gender-Related Variations in Conflictual Issues among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Junior and senior high school students (N=279) completed measures of pubertal status, demographics, and Issues Checklist. Intensity of School Issues and Household Behavior Issues was greater among seventh and ninth graders than among eleventh graders. Self-Responsibility Issues were most intense among transpubertal adolescents. Boys perceived more…

  10. An Analysis of Minority Status Supported Employees in Relation to Placement Approach and Selected Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Philip G.; And Others

    This study investigated potential differences between nonminority and minority groups of individuals with disabilities, in terms of employment placement approach utilized and employment outcomes achieved. The 173 minority status individuals represented four subgroups: Black, Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian. Dependent variables analyzed…

  11. Physical Activity and Diet Relative to Socio-Economic Status and Gender in British Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study considers the physical activity (PA) and dietary habits of British young people according to socio-economic status (SES). Methods: The PA and dietary habits of 98 boys and 101 girls (12.9 0.3 years) from two Welsh secondary schools (school 1 and school 2) were examined. Free school meal eligibility and Census 2001 data were…

  12. [Relation of HER2 status and prognosis in gastric cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Fuse, Nozomu

    2011-07-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) became one of the most important biomarkers for gastric cancer patients with the results of ToGA trial which proved the benefits of trastuzumab treatment in HER2-positive advanced or recurrent gastric cancer patients. Many investigations have been conducted on HER2 as a prognostic factor. Although there have been no universal conclusions, the positive result of HER2 status appears to be poor prognostic factor according to current evidences. All the studies have encountered problems such as small sample size, diversity of patient characteristics,methods of HER2 tests and diagnosis of HER2 status. Furthermore, few studies were conducted in advanced or recurrent gastric cancer patients. Biomarker analysis including HER2 status on the patients enrolled in ACTS-GC trial which evaluated S-1 in resectable gastric cancer patients is underway, and we are planning biomarker analysis of HER2 status as a prognostic factor on advanced or recurrent gastric cancer patients. These results would clarify the role of HER2 as a prognostic factor.

  13. Nonverbal Behavior, Status, and Gender: How Do We Understand Their Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    The causes of gender differences in nonverbal behavior are not well understood. The present article discusses status as a possible explanation and analyzes some of the methodological and conceptual challenges associated with testing that hypothesis. The study by Helweg-Larsen, Cunningham, Carrico, and Pergram (2004), which investigated gender in…

  14. Arsenic metabolism efficiency has a causal role in arsenic toxicity: Mendelian randomization and gene-environment interaction

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Brandon L; Tong, Lin; Argos, Maria; Gao, Jianjun; Jasmine, Farzana; Roy, Shantanu; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Rahaman, Ronald; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Parvez, Faruque; Ahmed, Alauddin; Quasem, Iftekhar; Hore, Samar K; Alam, Shafiul; Islam, Tariqul; Harjes, Judith; Sarwar, Golam; Slavkovich, Vesna; Gamble, Mary V; Chen, Yu; Yunus, Mohammad; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Baron, John A; Graziano, Joseph H; Ahsan, Habibul

    2013-01-01

    Background Arsenic exposure through drinking water is a serious global health issue. Observational studies suggest that individuals who metabolize arsenic efficiently are at lower risk for toxicities such as arsenical skin lesions. Using two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 10q24.32 region (near AS3MT) that show independent associations with metabolism efficiency, Mendelian randomization can be used to assess whether the association between metabolism efficiency and skin lesions is likely to be causal. Methods Using data on 2060 arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi individuals, we estimated associations for two 10q24.32 SNPs with relative concentrations of three urinary arsenic species (representing metabolism efficiency): inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). SNP-based predictions of iAs%, MMA% and DMA% were tested for association with skin lesion status among 2483 cases and 2857 controls. Results Causal odds ratios for skin lesions were 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87, 0.95), 1.19 (CI: 1.10, 1.28) and 1.23 (CI: 1.12, 1.36) for a one standard deviation increase in DMA%, MMA% and iAs%, respectively. We demonstrated genotype-arsenic interaction, with metabolism-related variants showing stronger associations with skin lesion risk among individuals with high arsenic exposure (synergy index: 1.37; CI: 1.11, 1.62). Conclusions We provide strong evidence for a causal relationship between arsenic metabolism efficiency and skin lesion risk. Mendelian randomization can be used to assess the causal role of arsenic exposure and metabolism in a wide array of health conditions. Developing interventions that increase arsenic metabolism efficiency are likely to reduce the impact of arsenic exposure on health. PMID:24536095

  15. Seasonal Vitamin D Status in Polish Elite Athletes in Relation to Sun Exposure and Oral Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Krysztofiak, Hubert; Mlynczak, Marcel; Gaczynska, Ewa; Ziemba, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D does not only influence the musculoskeletal health and mineral homeostasis but it also affects cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, immune and mental functions, thus it is of considerable importance for both physically active people and elite athletes. However, vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide and results from inadequate endogenous skin synthesis (insufficient ultraviolet B exposure) and diet. To improve the vitamin D status elite athletes often travel to lower latitude during winter. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seasonal vitamin D status in Polish elite athletes according to the sun exposure and oral supplementation. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured in the years 2010–2014 in 409 elite athletes, who were divided into the following groups: OUTD—outdoor sports, represented by track and field athletes, who trained in Poland; IND—weightlifters, handball and volleyball players who trained indoors in Poland; SUN—track and field athletes who trained during Polish winter in lower latitude with high sunshine exposure; SUPL—track and field athletes who trained in Poland, had an inadequate vitamin D status (25(OH)D < 30 ng/ml) and were supplemented orally. Inadequate Vitamin D status was observed in 80% of OUTD and 84% of IND athletes in winter, whereas in summer the values amounted to 42% and 83%, respectively. The athletes exposed to sun in winter had significantly higher vitamin D concentration than OUTD group. Oral supplementation improved vitamin D concentration by 45%, whereas winter sun exposure caused its increase by 85%. Except for a few summer months an inadequate status of vitamin D was found in the majority of Polish elite athletes, with the deficiency level being similar to the one observed in non-athletic population. The most serious deficiency was observed in indoor disciplines. Adequate vitamin D status can be achieved by both increased sun exposure, especially in winter, and oral

  16. Subjective Social Status and Cardiovascular Reactivity: An Experimental Examination

    PubMed Central

    Pieritz, Karoline; Süssenbach, Philipp; Rief, Winfried; Euteneuer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The present experiment examined the causal influence of subjective social status (SSS) on variables related to cardiovascular health [i.e., blood pressure, heart rate variability (HRV)]. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions involving a social comparison that either induced a temporary shift toward high SSS or toward low SSS. Cardiovascular variables were measured before (baseline), throughout, and after the manipulation (recovery). Participants in the low SSS condition had a significantly lower HRV during experimental manipulation than at baseline (p = 0.001). They also showed a significantly stronger HRV reactivity compared to participants in the high SSS condition (p = 0.027). Our results suggest that already temporary shifts of one's SSS have measureable effects on cardiovascular variables. They support the notion that social status plays a causal role in the development of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27486426

  17. Music and Spatial Task Performance: A Causal Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauscher, Frances H.; And Others

    This research paper reports on testing the hypothesis that music and spatial task performance are causally related. Two complementary studies are presented that replicate and explore previous findings. One study of college students showed that listening to a Mozart sonata induces subsequent short-term spatial reasoning facilitation and tested the…

  18. Timing and Causality in the Generation of Learned Eyelid Responses

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Campusano, Raudel; Gruart, Agnès; Delgado-García, José M.

    2011-01-01

    The cerebellum-red nucleus-facial motoneuron (Mn) pathway has been reported as being involved in the proper timing of classically conditioned eyelid responses. This special type of associative learning serves as a model of event timing for studying the role of the cerebellum in dynamic motor control. Here, we have re-analyzed the firing activities of cerebellar posterior interpositus (IP) neurons and orbicularis oculi (OO) Mns in alert behaving cats during classical eyeblink conditioning, using a delay paradigm. The aim was to revisit the hypothesis that the IP neurons (IPns) can be considered a neuronal phase-modulating device supporting OO Mns firing with an emergent timing mechanism and an explicit correlation code during learned eyelid movements. Optimized experimental and computational tools allowed us to determine the different causal relationships (temporal order and correlation code) during and between trials. These intra- and inter-trial timing strategies expanding from sub-second range (millisecond timing) to longer-lasting ranges (interval timing) expanded the functional domain of cerebellar timing beyond motor control. Interestingly, the results supported the above-mentioned hypothesis. The causal inferences were influenced by the precise motor and pre-motor spike timing in the cause-effect interval, and, in addition, the timing of the learned responses depended on cerebellar–Mn network causality. Furthermore, the timing of CRs depended upon the probability of simulated causal conditions in the cause-effect interval and not the mere duration of the inter-stimulus interval. In this work, the close relation between timing and causality was verified. It could thus be concluded that the firing activities of IPns may be related more to the proper performance of ongoing CRs (i.e., the proper timing as a consequence of the pertinent causality) than to their generation and/or initiation. PMID:21941469

  19. Quantum field theory and gravity in causal sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sverdlov, Roman M.

    Causal set is a model of space time that allows to reconcile discreteness and manifest relativistic invariance. This is done by viewing space time as finite, partially ordered set. The elements of the set are viewed as points of space time, or events; the partial ordering between them is viewed as causal relations. It has been shown that, in discrete scenario, the information about causal relations between events can, indeed, approximate the metric. The goal of this thesis is to introduce matter fields and their Lagrangians into causal set context. This is a two step process. The first step is to re-define gauge fields, gravity, and distances in such a way that no reference to Lorentz index is made. This is done by defining gauge fields as two-point real valued functions, and gravitational field as causal structure itself. Once the above is done, Lagrangians have to be defined in a way that they don't refer to Lorentzian indices either. This is done by introducing a notion of type 1 and type 2 Lagrangian generators, coupled with respective machinery that "translates" each generator into corresponding Lagrangian. The fields that are subject to these generators are, respectively, defined as type 1 and type 2. The main difference between two kinds of fields is the prediction of different behavior in different dimensions of type 2 fields. However, despite our inability to travel to different dimensions, gravity was shown to be type 2 based on the erroneous predictions of its 4-dimensional behavior if it was viewed as type 1. However, no erroneous predictions are made if non-gravitational fields are viewed as either type 1 or type 2, thus the nature of the latter is still an open question. Finally, an attempt was made to provide interpretation of quantum mechanics that would allow to limit fluctuations of causal structure to allow some topological background. However, due to its controversial nature, it is placed in the Appendix.

  20. Is religious fasting related to iron status in Greek Orthodox Christians?

    PubMed

    Sarri, Katerina O; Kafatos, Anthony G; Higgins, Siobhan

    2005-08-01

    The Orthodox Christian diet is unique in regularly interchanging from an omnivore to a vegetarian-type diet, and no study to date has focused on the impact of this on Fe status. Thirty-five Greek Orthodox Christian strict fasters (n 17 male, n 18 female; mean age 43.6+/-13.2 years) and twenty-four controls (n 11 male, n 13 female; mean age 39.8+/-7.6 years) were studied before (pre) and near completion (end) of the Christmas fasting (CF) period (40 d), during which meat and dairy products are prohibited. Fe status was assessed using standard haematological parameters, and Fe deficiency was determined via serum ferritin levels (<12 ng/ml) and the tri-index model. While fasters had marginally poorer pre haematological indicators, values were well above the cut-off levels, suggesting that intermittent fasting for a mean of 22.5+/-15.5 years did not have any substantial adverse effects on Fe status. During the CF period the changes in Fe status indices were more beneficial for fasters than for control subjects. In particular, fasters increased their ferritin levels (P = 0.02) and decreased their total Fe-binding capacity (P < 0.001). Compared with males, the effect of CF was more pronounced in female fasters. No subjects were detected with Fe deficiency at the end of the CF period. End dietary Fe and fibre intake were significantly higher in the fasters as compared with the control group (P = 0.038 and P = 0.001, respectively). Adherence to the Orthodox Christian dietary guidelines does not have a major impact on Fe status and is not associated with a significantly greater degree of Fe deficiency.

  1. Bayes Nets and Babies: Infants' Developing Statistical Reasoning Abilities and Their Representation of Causal Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, David M.; Kirkham, Natasha Z.

    2007-01-01

    A fundamental assumption of the causal graphical model framework is the Markov assumption, which posits that learners can discriminate between two events that are dependent because of a direct causal relation between them and two events that are independent conditional on the value of another event(s). Sobel and Kirkham (2006) demonstrated that…

  2. Introducing Causality and Power into Family Therapy Theory: A Correction to the Systemic Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Vincent

    1990-01-01

    Proposes that concepts of causality and power are compatible with systemic paradigm based on cybernetics of Ashby rather than that of Bateson. Criticizes Bateson's repudiation of causality and power; addresses related Batesonian biases against "quantity" and "logic." Contrasts relevant aspects of Ashby's cybernetic theory with Batesonian…

  3. The Relationship between Battered Women's Causal Attributions for Violence and Coping Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Alicia; Wagner, Barry; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between battered women's causal attributions for the violence they experience and their subsequent coping efforts. Causal attributions related to partner blame, excusing the violence, and the combination of partner blame and excusing the violence were regressed on six categories of coping strategies:…

  4. Multiple Causality: Consequences for Medical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Nydegger, Corinne N.

    1983-01-01

    When a scientifically trained health professional is called upon to deal with patients holding differing causal views of illness, the resulting lack of communication is frustrating to both. This discussion traces some implications for medical practice of significant cultural differences in two aspects of causal paradigms of illness: (1) terms accepted and (2) dimension or level of causality typically sought. The second is the more pervasive and intractable problem, having distinctive consequences for the role of curer, symptomatology, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:6858133

  5. Nonparametric causal inference for bivariate time series.

    PubMed

    McCracken, James M; Weigel, Robert S

    2016-02-01

    We introduce new quantities for exploratory causal inference between bivariate time series. The quantities, called penchants and leanings, are computationally straightforward to apply, follow directly from assumptions of probabilistic causality, do not depend on any assumed models for the time series generating process, and do not rely on any embedding procedures; these features may provide a clearer interpretation of the results than those from existing time series causality tools. The penchant and leaning are computed based on a structured method for computing probabilities.

  6. Physical integration: a causal account for consciousness.

    PubMed

    Manzotti, Riccardo; Chella, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    The issue of integration in neural networks is intimately connected with that of consciousness. In this paper, integration as an effective level of physical organization is contrasted with a methodological integrative approach. Understanding how consciousness arises out of neural processes requires a model of integration in just causal physical terms. Based on a set of feasible criteria (physical grounding, causal efficacy, no circularity and scaling), a causal account of physical integration for consciousness centered on joint causation is outlined.

  7. Causal inference in economics and marketing

    PubMed Central

    Varian, Hal R.

    2016-01-01

    This is an elementary introduction to causal inference in economics written for readers familiar with machine learning methods. The critical step in any causal analysis is estimating the counterfactual—a prediction of what would have happened in the absence of the treatment. The powerful techniques used in machine learning may be useful for developing better estimates of the counterfactual, potentially improving causal inference. PMID:27382144

  8. Causal inference in economics and marketing.

    PubMed

    Varian, Hal R

    2016-07-01

    This is an elementary introduction to causal inference in economics written for readers familiar with machine learning methods. The critical step in any causal analysis is estimating the counterfactual-a prediction of what would have happened in the absence of the treatment. The powerful techniques used in machine learning may be useful for developing better estimates of the counterfactual, potentially improving causal inference. PMID:27382144

  9. Nonparametric causal inference for bivariate time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, James M.; Weigel, Robert S.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce new quantities for exploratory causal inference between bivariate time series. The quantities, called penchants and leanings, are computationally straightforward to apply, follow directly from assumptions of probabilistic causality, do not depend on any assumed models for the time series generating process, and do not rely on any embedding procedures; these features may provide a clearer interpretation of the results than those from existing time series causality tools. The penchant and leaning are computed based on a structured method for computing probabilities.

  10. Algorithms of causal inference for the analysis of effective connectivity among brain regions

    PubMed Central

    Chicharro, Daniel; Panzeri, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, powerful general algorithms of causal inference have been developed. In particular, in the framework of Pearl’s causality, algorithms of inductive causation (IC and IC*) provide a procedure to determine which causal connections among nodes in a network can be inferred from empirical observations even in the presence of latent variables, indicating the limits of what can be learned without active manipulation of the system. These algorithms can in principle become important complements to established techniques such as Granger causality and Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) to analyze causal influences (effective connectivity) among brain regions. However, their application to dynamic processes has not been yet examined. Here we study how to apply these algorithms to time-varying signals such as electrophysiological or neuroimaging signals. We propose a new algorithm which combines the basic principles of the previous algorithms with Granger causality to obtain a representation of the causal relations suited to dynamic processes. Furthermore, we use graphical criteria to predict dynamic statistical dependencies between the signals from the causal structure. We show how some problems for causal inference from neural signals (e.g., measurement noise, hemodynamic responses, and time aggregation) can be understood in a general graphical approach. Focusing on the effect of spatial aggregation, we show that when causal inference is performed at a coarser scale than the one at which the neural sources interact, results strongly depend on the degree of integration of the neural sources aggregated in the signals, and thus characterize more the intra-areal properties than the interactions among regions. We finally discuss how the explicit consideration of latent processes contributes to understand Granger causality and DCM as well as to distinguish functional and effective connectivity. PMID:25071541

  11. Algorithms of causal inference for the analysis of effective connectivity among brain regions.

    PubMed

    Chicharro, Daniel; Panzeri, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, powerful general algorithms of causal inference have been developed. In particular, in the framework of Pearl's causality, algorithms of inductive causation (IC and IC(*)) provide a procedure to determine which causal connections among nodes in a network can be inferred from empirical observations even in the presence of latent variables, indicating the limits of what can be learned without active manipulation of the system. These algorithms can in principle become important complements to established techniques such as Granger causality and Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) to analyze causal influences (effective connectivity) among brain regions. However, their application to dynamic processes has not been yet examined. Here we study how to apply these algorithms to time-varying signals such as electrophysiological or neuroimaging signals. We propose a new algorithm which combines the basic principles of the previous algorithms with Granger causality to obtain a representation of the causal relations suited to dynamic processes. Furthermore, we use graphical criteria to predict dynamic statistical dependencies between the signals from the causal structure. We show how some problems for causal inference from neural signals (e.g., measurement noise, hemodynamic responses, and time aggregation) can be understood in a general graphical approach. Focusing on the effect of spatial aggregation, we show that when causal inference is performed at a coarser scale than the one at which the neural sources interact, results strongly depend on the degree of integration of the neural sources aggregated in the signals, and thus characterize more the intra-areal properties than the interactions among regions. We finally discuss how the explicit consideration of latent processes contributes to understand Granger causality and DCM as well as to distinguish functional and effective connectivity.

  12. Comparative performance evaluation of data-driven causality measures applied to brain networks.

    PubMed

    Fasoula, Angie; Attal, Yohan; Schwartz, Denis

    2013-05-15

    In this article, several well-known data-driven causality methods are revisited and comparatively evaluated. These are the Granger-Geweke Causality (GGC), the Partial Directed Coherence (PDC), the Directed Transfer Function (DTF) and the Direct Directed Transfer Function (dDTF). The robustness of the four causality measures against two degradation factors is quantitatively evaluated. These are: the presence of realistic biological/electronic noise at various SNR levels, as recorded on a MagnetoEncephalography (MEG) machine, and the presence of a weak node in the brain network where the causality analysis is applied. The causality measures are evaluated in terms of the relative estimation error and the compromise between true and fictitious causal density in the brain network. Both parametric and non-parametric causality analysis is performed. It is illustrated that the non-parametric method is a promising alternative to the more commonly applied MVAR-model based causality analysis. It is also demonstrated that, in the presence of both tested degradation factors, the DTF method is the most robust in terms of low estimation error, while the PDC in terms of low fictitious causal density. The dDTF provides lower fictitious causal density and higher spectral selectivity as compared to DTF, at high enough SNR. The GGC exhibits the worst compromise of performance. An application of the causality measures to a set of MEG resting-state experimental data is accordingly presented. It is demonstrated that significant contrast between the Eyes-Closed and Eyes-Open rest condition in the alpha frequency band allows to detect significant causality between the occipital cortex and the thalamus.

  13. Resting metabolic rate in healthy adults: relation to growth hormone status and leptin levels.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, J O; Vahl, N; Dall, R; Christiansen, J S

    1998-09-01

    Studies in patients with acromegaly and growth hormone (GH) deficiency, and administration of GH in normal and obese subjects and in patients with GH deficiency, suggest that GH increases resting metabolic rate (RMR) independently of changes in body composition. To test whether endogenous GH status determines RMR, we studied 38 healthy adults (18 women and 18 men) in two age groups (young, 30+/-0 years (n=18); older, 51+/-1 years [n=18]) with indirect calorimetry, deconvolution analysis of 24-hour GH secretion, arginin stimulation test, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) measurement, lean and fat tissue distribution (computed tomography [CT] and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), assessment of physical fitness (maximal oxygen consumption [VO2max]), thyroid status, and serum leptin levels. RMR was higher in men compared with women, whereas RMR per lean body mass (LBM) (kcal x 24 h(-1) x kg(-1)) was higher in women (30.0+/-0.5 v 33.0 2/3 0.8; P=.003). GH secretion was higher in women and in young people. Total-body fat (TBF) was higher in women, whereas LBM and abdominal fat were higher in men. Older people had significantly more TBF and abdominal fat as compared with younger people. VO2max was higher in younger people. Leptin levels were higher in women and in older people. Thyroid status was narrowly within the normal range in all subjects. RMR was strongly correlated with LBM (r=.90, P < .001). RMR/LBM correlated strongly with TBF (r=.49, P < .01) and leptin (r=.56, P < .001), but not with GH status. By multiple regression analysis, sex and TBF were the strongest predictors of RMR/LBM. However, in the young subgroup, GH production rate was a positive determinant of RMR/LBM. In the male subgroup, leptin was a stronger predictor than TBF of RMR/LBM (P < .001). Neither age, physical fitness, nor thyroid status contributed independently to predict RMR/LBM. In conclusion, (1) LBM was the most important determinant of RMR; (2) RMR/LBM was higher in women and depended

  14. Causal supports for early word learning.

    PubMed

    Booth, Amy E

    2009-01-01

    What factors determine whether a young child will learn a new word? Although there are surely numerous contributors, the current investigation highlights the role of causal information. Three-year-old children (N = 36) were taught 6 new words for unfamiliar objects or animals. Items were described in terms of their causal or noncausal properties. When tested only minutes after training, no significant differences between the conditions were evident. However, when tested several days after training, children performed better on words trained in the causal condition. These results demonstrate that the well-documented effect of causal information on learning and categorization extends to word learning in young children. PMID:19630905

  15. Assessing causality in multivariate accident models.

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of operational criteria of causality to multivariate statistical models developed to identify sources of systematic variation in accident counts, in particular the effects of variables representing safety treatments. Nine criteria of causality serving as the basis for the discussion have been developed. The criteria resemble criteria that have been widely used in epidemiology. To assess whether the coefficients estimated in a multivariate accident prediction model represent causal relationships or are non-causal statistical associations, all criteria of causality are relevant, but the most important criterion is how well a model controls for potentially confounding factors. Examples are given to show how the criteria of causality can be applied to multivariate accident prediction models in order to assess the relationships included in these models. It will often be the case that some of the relationships included in a model can reasonably be treated as causal, whereas for others such an interpretation is less supported. The criteria of causality are indicative only and cannot provide a basis for stringent logical proof of causality.

  16. Women's intercollegiate athletic competition: cortisol, testosterone, and the dual-hormone hypothesis as it relates to status among teammates.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David A; Casto, Kathleen V

    2013-06-01

    Recent research suggests that testosterone and cortisol jointly regulate dominance motivation and, perhaps, the status relationships that are affected by it. For this article, the results of six different studies of women's intercollegiate athletic competition were combined to give a sample size of almost ninety women for whom we had before- and after-competition values for salivary cortisol and testosterone for at least one and sometimes two competitions. For many of these women, we had surveys that allowed us to assess their status with teammates. In no matter what sport (soccer, softball, volleyball, and tennis) levels of salivary cortisol and testosterone increased when women participated in athletic competition. Salivary levels of C and T appear to rise in parallel during competition and increases in levels of one hormone are significantly related to increases in the other. Salivary levels of these hormones typically decreased for teammates who did not play but watched the competition from the sidelines. For women who played in two competitions, individual differences in the positive effect of competition on cortisol and testosterone were conserved from one competition to the next, affirming the personal consistency of endocrine responses to competition. Status with teammates was positively related to before-competition levels of testosterone, but only for women with relatively low before-competition levels of cortisol. This result provides novel support for the "dual-hormone hypothesis" as it relates to predicting social status in women's athletic teams - natural social groups of individuals who know each other and whose social hierarchy has evolved over the course of practice and play for at least one and, in some cases, several years of intercollegiate athletic competition.

  17. Systems-based analyses of brain regions functionally impacted in Parkinson's disease reveals underlying causal mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Riley, Brigit E; Gardai, Shyra J; Emig-Agius, Dorothea; Bessarabova, Marina; Ivliev, Alexander E; Schüle, Birgitt; Schüle, Birgit; Alexander, Jeff; Wallace, William; Halliday, Glenda M; Langston, J William; Braxton, Scott; Yednock, Ted; Shaler, Thomas; Johnston, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Detailed analysis of disease-affected tissue provides insight into molecular mechanisms contributing to pathogenesis. Substantia nigra, striatum, and cortex are functionally connected with increasing degrees of alpha-synuclein pathology in Parkinson's disease. We undertook functional and causal pathway analysis of gene expression and proteomic alterations in these three regions, and the data revealed pathways that correlated with disease progression. In addition, microarray and RNAseq experiments revealed previously unidentified causal changes related to oligodendrocyte function and synaptic vesicle release, and these and other changes were reflected across all brain regions. Importantly, subsets of these changes were replicated in Parkinson's disease blood; suggesting peripheral tissue may provide important avenues for understanding and measuring disease status and progression. Proteomic assessment revealed alterations in mitochondria and vesicular transport proteins that preceded gene expression changes indicating defects in translation and/or protein turnover. Our combined approach of proteomics, RNAseq and microarray analyses provides a comprehensive view of the molecular changes that accompany functional loss and alpha-synuclein pathology in Parkinson's disease, and may be instrumental to understand, diagnose and follow Parkinson's disease progression.

  18. Systems-Based Analyses of Brain Regions Functionally Impacted in Parkinson's Disease Reveals Underlying Causal Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Emig-Agius, Dorothea; Bessarabova, Marina; Ivliev, Alexander E.; Schüle, Birgit; Alexander, Jeff; Wallace, William; Halliday, Glenda M.; Langston, J. William; Braxton, Scott; Yednock, Ted; Shaler, Thomas; Johnston, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed analysis of disease-affected tissue provides insight into molecular mechanisms contributing to pathogenesis. Substantia nigra, striatum, and cortex are functionally connected with increasing degrees of alpha-synuclein pathology in Parkinson's disease. We undertook functional and causal pathway analysis of gene expression and proteomic alterations in these three regions, and the data revealed pathways that correlated with disease progression. In addition, microarray and RNAseq experiments revealed previously unidentified causal changes related to oligodendrocyte function and synaptic vesicle release, and these and other changes were reflected across all brain regions. Importantly, subsets of these changes were replicated in Parkinson's disease blood; suggesting peripheral tissue may provide important avenues for understanding and measuring disease status and progression. Proteomic assessment revealed alterations in mitochondria and vesicular transport proteins that preceded gene expression changes indicating defects in translation and/or protein turnover. Our combined approach of proteomics, RNAseq and microarray analyses provides a comprehensive view of the molecular changes that accompany functional loss and alpha-synuclein pathology in Parkinson's disease, and may be instrumental to understand, diagnose and follow Parkinson's disease progression. PMID:25170892

  19. Hospital treatment, mortality and healthcare costs in relation to socioeconomic status among people with bipolar affective disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Ling-Ling; Chen, Yu-Chun; Kuo, Kuei-Hong; Chang, Chin-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence regarding the relationships between the socioeconomic status and long-term outcomes of individuals with bipolar affective disorder (BPD) is lacking. Aims We aimed to estimate the effects of baseline socioeconomic status on longitudinal outcomes. Method A national cohort of adult participants with newly diagnosed BPD was identified in 2008. The effects of personal and household socioeconomic status were explored on outcomes of hospital treatment, mortality and healthcare costs, over a 3-year follow-up period (2008–2011). Results A total of 7987 participants were recruited. The relative risks of hospital treatment and mortality were found elevated for the ones from low-income households who also had higher healthcare costs. Low premium levels did not correlate with future healthcare costs. Conclusions Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with poorer outcome and higher healthcare costs in BPD patients. Special care should be given to those with lower socioeconomic status to improve outcomes with potential benefits of cost savings in the following years. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © 2016 The Royal College of Psychiatrists. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703748

  20. Anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and disorders among Latinos in primary care.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Valdivieso, Jeanette; Ortiz, Mayra; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Vujanovic, Anka

    2015-05-01

    The present investigation examined the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and psychopathology among 143 Latinos (85.7% female; Mage=39.0, SD=10.9; 97.2% used Spanish as their first language) who attended a community-based primary healthcare clinic. Results indicated that the interaction between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status was significantly associated with number of mood and anxiety disorders, panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The form of the significant interactions indicated that individuals reporting co-occurring higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and lower levels of subjective social status evidenced the greatest levels of psychopathology and panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that there is merit in focusing further scientific attention on the interplay between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in regard to understanding, and thus, better intervening to reduce anxiety/depressive vulnerability among Latinos in primary care.

  1. [Perception of pain in rheumatoid arthritis: relation to inflammation, psychic disorders, functional status, and quality of life].

    PubMed

    Lisitsyna, T A; Vel'tishchev, D Iu; Gerasimov, A N; Seravina, O F; Kovalevskaia, O B; Zel'tyn', A E; Novikov, A A; Aleksandrova, E N; Tallerova, A V; Kovalenko, L P

    2013-01-01

    Pain perception was analyzed depending on the inflammatory activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), variants and manifestations of psychic disorders (including depressive, anxious and moderate cognitive ones), chronic fatigue, changes in the functional status and quality of life. The study included 125 patients (mean age 47.4 +/- 1.01 yr) with definitive diagnosis of RA 138.4 +/- 10.1 months in duration. RA activity was estimated from the DAS28 index, pain intensity and degree of fatigue by BPI and FSS scales respectively, the functional status and life quality by HAQ and EQ-5D. Psychic disorders were diagnosed by a psychiatrist in accordance with ICD-10 with the use of relevant psychiatric and psychological scales and methods. Pain perception was unrelated to the patients' age and RA duration. The multifactor analysis provided a basis for the prognostic model suggesting that the most severe pain in RA is related to the functional status and quality of life (VAS of general health status), hsCRP level, inflammatory activity index RA DAS28, peripheral platelet count, degree of fatigue (FSS) and depression (YADS), female sex. Depression and its severity is one more factor influencing pain perception in RA and accounting for functional insufficiency and low quality of life. Early diagnostics of psychic disorders (in the first place anxious and depressive ones) is mandatory to ensure effective combined therapy of pain in RA patients.

  2. Child gender and weight status moderate the relation of maternal feeding practices to body esteem in 1st grade children.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Harrist, Amanda W; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age ≥85th) was: girls - 29%; boys - 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (β = -.140, p = .05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b = -1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade. PMID:25624022

  3. Child gender and weight status moderate the relation of maternal feeding practices to body esteem in 1st grade children.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Harrist, Amanda W; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age ≥85th) was: girls - 29%; boys - 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (β = -.140, p = .05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b = -1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade.

  4. Affected sib-pair interval mapping and exclusion for complex genetic traits: Inferring identity by descent status from relatives

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, E.R.; Boehnke, M.; Guo, S.W.

    1994-09-01

    Affected sib-pair (ASP) methods provide a useful approach for the initial genetic mapping of complex diseases for which mode of inheritance is uncertain. Risch described a method for interval mapping and exclusion based on the ratio lambda comparing disease risk in the first degree relatives of affected individuals to disease risk in the general population. He assumed marker identity by descent (IBD) status for the ASP could be deduced from parental genotypes. For late onset diseases such as type 2 diabetes, parents may be dead or otherwise unavailable, so that marker IBD status generally cannot be inferred with certainty. Guo has developed efficient methods for probabilistic determination of marker IBD sharing for two or more loci. We have combined and extended the methods of Risch and Guo to carry out interval mapping and exclusion when parents are missing but other relatives such as additional siblings are available. Our method is based on calculating the likelihood of marker data of the ASP and their relatives conditional on the disease status of the ASP, as a function of lambda and the position of the disease locus within the genetic map. We currently are using this method to compare the information to detect or exclude linkage provided by various types of ASP nuclear families -- zero, one, or two typed parents and zero, one, two, or more additional siblings -- as a function of sample size, marker density and informativity, and risk ratio lambda.

  5. Occupational status and job stress in relation to cardiovascular stress reactivity in Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Kumi; Ohira, Tetsuya; Nagayoshi, Mako; Kajiura, Mitsugu; Imano, Hironori; Kitamura, Akihiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Okada, Takeo; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of occupational status and job stress factors on cardiovascular stress reactivity in Japanese workers. In this baseline assessment between 2001 and 2009 in Osaka, Japan, we examined 928 healthy Japanese employees (330 men, 598 women) from two occupational statuses: managers/professionals and general workers. A brief job stress questionnaire was used to evaluate job stress levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate, heart rate variability (high-frequency [HF], low-frequency [LF], LF/HF], and peripheral blood flow were measured at rest and during two stressful tasks. Changes in stress reactivity were calculated as the difference between the measured variables during the tasks and the rest period. Men showed inverse associations between quantitative job overload and DBP, heart rate, and LF/HF, between physical demands and blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and between a poor physical environment and HF. Men also had positive associations between qualitative job overload and heart rate, and between physical demands and peripheral blood flow (all p < 0.05). Women showed inverse associations between qualitative job overload and SBP, and showed positive associations between qualitative job overload and peripheral blood flow, and between a poor physical environment and SBP (all p < 0.05). When stratified by occupational status, significant associations between job stress and changes in stress reactivity were observed in male managers/professionals and female general workers (p < 0.05). Job stress levels are associated with changes in cardiovascular stress reactivity in men and women. Occupational status may modify these associations. PMID:27413662

  6. Occupational status and job stress in relation to cardiovascular stress reactivity in Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Kumi; Ohira, Tetsuya; Nagayoshi, Mako; Kajiura, Mitsugu; Imano, Hironori; Kitamura, Akihiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Okada, Takeo; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of occupational status and job stress factors on cardiovascular stress reactivity in Japanese workers. In this baseline assessment between 2001 and 2009 in Osaka, Japan, we examined 928 healthy Japanese employees (330 men, 598 women) from two occupational statuses: managers/professionals and general workers. A brief job stress questionnaire was used to evaluate job stress levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate, heart rate variability (high-frequency [HF], low-frequency [LF], LF/HF], and peripheral blood flow were measured at rest and during two stressful tasks. Changes in stress reactivity were calculated as the difference between the measured variables during the tasks and the rest period. Men showed inverse associations between quantitative job overload and DBP, heart rate, and LF/HF, between physical demands and blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and between a poor physical environment and HF. Men also had positive associations between qualitative job overload and heart rate, and between physical demands and peripheral blood flow (all p < 0.05). Women showed inverse associations between qualitative job overload and SBP, and showed positive associations between qualitative job overload and peripheral blood flow, and between a poor physical environment and SBP (all p < 0.05). When stratified by occupational status, significant associations between job stress and changes in stress reactivity were observed in male managers/professionals and female general workers (p < 0.05). Job stress levels are associated with changes in cardiovascular stress reactivity in men and women. Occupational status may modify these associations.

  7. Dental Health Status of HIV-Positive Patients and Related Variables in Southeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    Saravani, Shirin; Nosrat Zehi, Tahereh; Kadeh, Hamideh; Mir, Sarvar

    2016-01-01

    Background Different factors can be responsible for the increased prevalence of dental caries and missing teeth in HIV-positive patients. Objectives This study evaluates dental health status and its relationship with social, behavioral, and medical factors in HIV-positive patients under the coverage of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences in Southeast Iran. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study, the dental health status of 119 HIV-positive patients was assessed in accordance with WHO indices and included decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT). A questionnaire on different social, behavioral, and medical variables was filled out for every case and the relationship and correlation of the variables to dental health status were investigated using One-way ANOVA, the Kruskal Wallis test, the t-test, the Mann-Whitney test, Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient, and Pearson correlation. Results The mean value of DMFT index was 11.87 ± 8.08, where the mean values of decayed and missing teeth were 8.42 ± 5.44 and 3.43 ± 4.07, respectively. DMFT index, decayed, and missing teeth correlated only with age (P < 0.0001, P = 0.009, P < 0.0001) and duration of HIV involvement (P = 0.004, P = 0.031, P = 0.007). Conclusions The dental health status of HIV-positive patients in this region was almost inappropriate. Most social, behavioral, and medical factors had no influence on dental health; only a correlation between dental health, age, and duration of HIV involvement was observed. PMID:27622173

  8. Only-Child Status in Relation to Perceived Stress and Studying-Related Life Satisfaction among University Students in China: A Comparison with International Students

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Janet Junqing; Khan, Mobarak Hossain; Jahn, Heiko J.; Kraemer, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objectives University students in general face multiple challenges, which may affect their levels of perceived stress and life satisfaction. Chinese students currently face specific strains due to the One-Child Policy (OCP). The aim of this study was to assess (1) whether the levels of perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction are associated with only-child (OC) status after controlling for demographic and socio-economic characteristics and (2) whether these associations differ between Chinese and international students. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional health survey based on a self-administrated standardised questionnaire was conducted among 1,843 (1,543 Chinese, 300 international) students at two Chinese universities in 2010–2011. Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) and Stock and Kraemer’s Studying-related Life Satisfaction Scale were used to measure perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations of OC status with perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction by sex for Chinese students and international students separately. Results The Chinese non-only-children (NOCs) were more likely to come from small cities. Multivariable regression models indicate that the Chinese NOCs were more stressed than OCs (OR = 1.39, 1.11–1.74) with a stronger association in men (OR = 1.48, 1.08–2.02) than women (OR = 1.26, 0.89–1.77). NOCs were also more dissatisfied than their OC fellows in the Chinese subsample (OR = 1.37, 1.09–1.73). Among international students, no associations between OC status and perceived stress or studying-related life satisfaction were found. Conclusions To promote equality between OCs and NOCs at Chinese universities, the causes of more stress and less studying-related life satisfaction among NOCs compared to OCs need further exploration. PMID:26675032

  9. Diet of Finnish children in relation to the family's socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, S; Räsänen, L; Viikari, J; Akerblom, H K

    1995-06-01

    The differences between higher and lower socio-economic groups in food consumption, energy intake and nutrient density of the diet of Finnish 9- to 15-year-old children were examined in a study performed within the project entitled Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns. Data on food consumption were collected using the 48-hour recall method. Family's socio-economic status was defined according to the father's educational level, his occupation, and family income. Children of families with higher socio-economic status used more fruit, low-fat milk, soft vegetable margarine and less high-fat milk, butter, rye products and coffee than did the children of families with lower socioeconomic status. Consequently, the main differences appeared in the fat, vitamin D, vitamin C and fatty acid content of the diet. Differences in energy intake and in mineral density of the diet were minor. If these childhood dietary differences remain in adulthood, it is possible that the present disparity between socio-economic groups in mortality from coronary heart disease will not disappear. PMID:7676224

  10. Interactions between C-reactive protein genotypes with markers of nutritional status in relation to inflammation.

    PubMed

    Nienaber-Rousseau, Cornelie; Swanepoel, Bianca; Dolman, Robin C; Pieters, Marlien; Conradie, Karin R; Towers, G Wayne

    2014-11-11

    Inflammation, as indicated by C-reactive protein concentrations (CRP), is a risk factor for chronic diseases. Both genetic and environmental factors affect susceptibility to inflammation. As dietary interventions can influence inflammatory status, we hypothesized that dietary effects could be influenced by interactions with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRP gene. We determined 12 CRP SNPs, as well as various nutrition status markers in 2010 black South Africans and analyzed their effect on CRP. Interactions were observed for several genotypes with obesity in determining CRP. Lipid intake modulated the pro-inflammatory effects of some SNPs, i.e., an increase in both saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid intake in those homozygous for the polymorphic allele at rs2808630 was associated with a larger increase in CRP. Those harboring the minor alleles at rs3093058 and rs3093062 presented with significantly higher CRP in the presence of increased triglyceride or cholesterol intake. When harboring the minor allele of these SNPs, a high omega-6 to -3 ratio was, however, found to be anti-inflammatory. Carbohydrate intake also modulated CRP SNPs, as HbA1C and fasting glucose levels interacted with some SNPs to influence the CRP. This investigation highlights the impact that nutritional status can have on reducing the inherent genetic susceptibility to a heightened systemic inflammatory state.

  11. Vitamin B-6 status of Egyptian mothers: relation to infant behavior and maternal-infant interactions.

    PubMed

    McCullough, A L; Kirksey, A; Wachs, T D; McCabe, G P; Bassily, N S; Bishry, Z; Galal, O M; Harrison, G G; Jerome, N W

    1990-06-01

    Functional consequences of marginal maternal vitamin B-6 status for behavior of the neonate and for mother-infant interactions at age 3-6 mo were assessed by a double-blind procedure. In 27 of 70 Egyptian village women studied, vitamin B-6 concentration of their milk was considered indicative of poor maternal vitamin B-6 nutriture. Neonatal behavior, quantified by the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, showed that consolability, appropriate build-up to a crying state, and response to aversive stimuli were significantly correlated with maternal vitamin B-6 nutriture. Naturalistic observational procedures, used twice monthly with infants aged 3-6 mo, indicated that mothers assessed as having marginal vitamin B-6 status were less responsive to their infants' vocalizations, showed less effective intervention to infant distress, and were more likely to use older siblings as care-givers than were mothers of better vitamin status. We conclude that vitamin B-6 was a factor influencing both the behavior of the mother and her infant.

  12. Study on Total Antioxidant Status in Relation to Oxidative Stress in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Rani, A. Jamuna; Mythili, S.V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus is a condition of increased oxidative stress and requiries antioxidants. The sum of endogenous and food derived antioxidants represents the total antioxidant activity of the system. The cooperation among different antioxidants provides greater protection against damage caused by reactive oxygen species or reactive nitrogen species, than any single compound alone. Thus the overall antioxidant capacity may provide more relevant biological information compared to that obtained by the measurement of individual components, as it considers the cumulative effect of all antioxidants present in plasma and body fluids and hence the study. Materials and Methods: The study population included healthy volunteers from staff of Sree Balaji Medical College & Hospital (SBMC&H) and Type 2 Diabetic patients attending SBMC&H, Chennai, India. Malondialdehyde levels and total antioxidant status of the case and controls was assessed. Results: A significant decrease in the total antioxidant status among Diabetic patients and significant increase in their malondialdehyde levels in comparison to healthy controls was observed. Conclusion: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a condition in which there is increased oxidative stress as evident by increased Malondialdehyde levels and the condition calls for utilization of antioxidants to combat the oxidants thereby resulting in decreased total antioxidants status. PMID:24783095

  13. Interactions between C-Reactive Protein Genotypes with Markers of Nutritional Status in Relation to Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Nienaber-Rousseau, Cornelie; Swanepoel, Bianca; Dolman, Robin C.; Pieters, Marlien; Conradie, Karin R.; Towers, G. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation, as indicated by C-reactive protein concentrations (CRP), is a risk factor for chronic diseases. Both genetic and environmental factors affect susceptibility to inflammation. As dietary interventions can influence inflammatory status, we hypothesized that dietary effects could be influenced by interactions with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRP gene. We determined 12 CRP SNPs, as well as various nutrition status markers in 2010 black South Africans and analyzed their effect on CRP. Interactions were observed for several genotypes with obesity in determining CRP. Lipid intake modulated the pro-inflammatory effects of some SNPs, i.e., an increase in both saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid intake in those homozygous for the polymorphic allele at rs2808630 was associated with a larger increase in CRP. Those harboring the minor alleles at rs3093058 and rs3093062 presented with significantly higher CRP in the presence of increased triglyceride or cholesterol intake. When harboring the minor allele of these SNPs, a high omega-6 to -3 ratio was, however, found to be anti-inflammatory. Carbohydrate intake also modulated CRP SNPs, as HbA1C and fasting glucose levels interacted with some SNPs to influence the CRP. This investigation highlights the impact that nutritional status can have on reducing the inherent genetic susceptibility to a heightened systemic inflammatory state. PMID:25393688

  14. Interactions between C-reactive protein genotypes with markers of nutritional status in relation to inflammation.

    PubMed

    Nienaber-Rousseau, Cornelie; Swanepoel, Bianca; Dolman, Robin C; Pieters, Marlien; Conradie, Karin R; Towers, G Wayne

    2014-11-01

    Inflammation, as indicated by C-reactive protein concentrations (CRP), is a risk factor for chronic diseases. Both genetic and environmental factors affect susceptibility to inflammation. As dietary interventions can influence inflammatory status, we hypothesized that dietary effects could be influenced by interactions with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRP gene. We determined 12 CRP SNPs, as well as various nutrition status markers in 2010 black South Africans and analyzed their effect on CRP. Interactions were observed for several genotypes with obesity in determining CRP. Lipid intake modulated the pro-inflammatory effects of some SNPs, i.e., an increase in both saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid intake in those homozygous for the polymorphic allele at rs2808630 was associated with a larger increase in CRP. Those harboring the minor alleles at rs3093058 and rs3093062 presented with significantly higher CRP in the presence of increased triglyceride or cholesterol intake. When harboring the minor allele of these SNPs, a high omega-6 to -3 ratio was, however, found to be anti-inflammatory. Carbohydrate intake also modulated CRP SNPs, as HbA1C and fasting glucose levels interacted with some SNPs to influence the CRP. This investigation highlights the impact that nutritional status can have on reducing the inherent genetic susceptibility to a heightened systemic inflammatory state. PMID:25393688

  15. Right external globus pallidus changes are associated with altered causal awareness in youth with depression

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, K R; Lagopoulos, J; Hermens, D F; Hickie, I B; Balleine, B W

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a functionally disabling feature of depression contributing to maladaptive decision-making, a loss of behavioral control and an increased disease burden. The ability to calculate the causal efficacy of ones actions in achieving specific goals is critical to normal decision-making and, in this study, we combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM), shape analysis and diffusion tensor tractography to investigate the relationship between cortical–basal ganglia structural integrity and such causal awareness in 43 young subjects with depression and 21 demographically similar healthy controls. Volumetric analysis determined a relationship between right pallidal size and sensitivity to the causal status of specific actions. More specifically, shape analysis identified dorsolateral surface vertices where an inward location was correlated with reduced levels of causal awareness. Probabilistic tractography revealed that affected parts of the pallidum were primarily connected with the striatum, dorsal thalamus and hippocampus. VBM did not reveal any whole-brain gray matter regions that correlated with causal awareness. We conclude that volumetric reduction within the indirect pathway involving the right dorsolateral pallidum is associated with reduced awareness of the causal efficacy of goal-directed actions in young depressed individuals. This causal awareness task allows for the identification of a functionally and biologically relevant subgroup to which more targeted cognitive interventions could be applied, potentially enhancing the long-term outcomes for these individuals. PMID:26440541

  16. Causal compensated perturbations in cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veeraraghavan, Shoba; Stebbins, Albert

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical framework is developed to calculate linear perturbations in the gravitational and matter fields which arise causally in response to the presence of stiff matter sources in a FRW cosmology. It is shown that, in order to satisfy energy and momentum conservation, the gravitational fields of the source must be compensated by perturbations in the matter and gravitational fields, and the role of such compensation in containing the initial inhomogeneities in their subsequent evolution is discussed. A complete formal solution is derived in terms of Green functions for the perturbations produced by an arbitrary source in a flat universe containing cold dark matter. Approximate Green function solutions are derived for the late-time density perturbations and late-time gravitational waves in a universe containing a radiation fluid. A cosmological energy-momentum pseudotensor is defined to clarify the nature of energy and momentum conservation in the expanding universe.

  17. Individual differences in causal uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Weary, G; Edwards, J A

    1994-08-01

    This article presents a scale that measures chronic individual differences in people's uncertainty about their ability to understand and detect cause-and-effect relationships in the social world: the Causal Uncertainty Scale (CUS). The results of Study 1 indicated that the scale has good internal and adequate test-retest reliability. Additionally, the results of a factor analysis suggested that the scale appears to be tapping a single construct. Study 2 examined the convergent and discriminant validity of the scale, and Studies 3 and 4 examined the predictive and incremental validity of the scale. The importance of the CUS to work on depressives' social information processing and for basic research and theory on human social judgment processes is discussed.

  18. Causal Systems Categories: Differences in Novice and Expert Categorization of Causal Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rottman, Benjamin M.; Gentner, Dedre; Goldwater, Micah B.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the understanding of causal systems categories--categories defined by common causal structure rather than by common domain content--among college students. We asked students who were either novices or experts in the physical sciences to sort descriptions of real-world phenomena that varied in their causal structure (e.g., negative…

  19. Causality from the Cosmological Perspective in Vedanta and Western Physics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, Danny Lee

    The relation between Western physics and Indian Vedanta philosophy is investigated through the topic of causality, taken in the sense of explanatory theories of the origin of the universe and the relations among its physical, mental, and spiritual aspects. Both physics and Vedanta have a common goal of explanation by means of a unitary principle. While physics has long been separated from metaphysics, its discoveries indicate that consciousness must be included in a complete explanation. Consciousness is taken as the fundamental basis and source of all phenomena in Vedanta. This work traces the developments of causal explanation in Western physics and Indian philosophy, and considers how these views may relate to each other and how they may together suggest a comprehensive view of reality. Approaches typically applied by historians of religion to the study of creation myths, especially the psychological approach which considers myths from the perspective or cyclical stages of conscious development, are applied to the causal theories of the two cultures. The question of how causal explanations attempt to bridge the gap between cause and effect, unity and multiplicity, absolute and relative, conscious and unconscious, etc., is addressed. Though the investigation begins from the earliest causal explanations, viz., creation myths, emphasis is placed upon Samkara's commentaries of Advaita Vedanta, examined in the original Sanskrit, and upon the convergence of modern field theory, astrophysics, and cosmology, seen from the perspective of a previous doctorate in physics. Consideration is given to the comparison between physics and Vedanta as to goals, methods, and domains, to the question of the incompleteness of physics and the extent to which it nevertheless points beyond itself, to the possibility of a synthetic view and how it might be effected, and to analogies and metaphors through which physics and Vedanta may illuminate each other. An intuitive picture is

  20. Causality and stability of cosmic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porth, Oliver; Komissarov, Serguei S.

    2015-09-01

    In stark contrast to their laboratory and terrestrial counterparts, cosmic jets appear to be very stable. They are able to penetrate vast spaces, which exceed by up to a billion times the size of their central engines. We propose that the reason behind this remarkable property is the loss of causal connectivity across these jets, caused by their rapid expansion in response to fast decline of external pressure with the distance from the `jet engine'. In atmospheres with power-law pressure distribution, pext ∝ z-κ, the total loss of causal connectivity occurs, when κ > 2 - the steepness which is expected to be quite common for many astrophysical environments. This conclusion does not seem to depend on the physical nature of jets - it applies both to relativistic and non-relativistic flows, both magnetically dominated and unmagnetized jets. In order to verify it, we have carried out numerical simulations of moderately magnetized and moderately relativistic jets. The results give strong support to our hypothesis and provide with valuable insights. In particular, we find that the z-pinched inner cores of magnetic jets expand slower than their envelopes and become susceptible to instabilities even when the whole jet is stable. This may result in local dissipation and emission without global disintegration of the flow. Cosmic jets may become globally unstable when they enter flat sections of external atmospheres. We propose that the Fanaroff-Riley (FR) morphological division of extragalactic radio sources into two classes is related to this issue. In particular, we argue that the low power FR-I jets become reconfined, causally connected and globally unstable on the scale of galactic X-ray coronas, whereas more powerful FR-II jets reconfine much further out, already on the scale of radio lobes and remain largely intact until they terminate at hotspots. Using this idea, we derived the relationship between the critical jet power and the optical luminosity of the host