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Sample records for status predicts pathological

  1. Clinico-pathological nomogram for predicting BRAF mutational status of metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Loupakis, Fotios; Moretto, Roberto; Aprile, Giuseppe; Muntoni, Marta; Cremolini, Chiara; Iacono, Donatella; Casagrande, Mariaelena; Ferrari, Laura; Salvatore, Lisa; Schirripa, Marta; Rossini, Daniele; De Maglio, Giovanna; Fasola, Gianpiero; Calvetti, Lorenzo; Pilotto, Sara; Carbognin, Luisa; Fontanini, Gabriella; Tortora, Giampaolo; Falcone, Alfredo; Sperduti, Isabella; Bria, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Background: In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), BRAFV600E mutation has been variously associated to specific clinico-pathological features. Methods: Two large retrospective series of mCRC patients from two Italian Institutions were used as training-set (TS) and validation-set (VS) for developing a nomogram predictive of BRAFV600E status. The model was internally and externally validated. Results: In the TS, data from 596 mCRC patients were gathered (RAS wild-type (wt) 281 (47.1%); BRAFV600E mutated 54 (9.1%)); RAS and BRAFV600E mutations were mutually exclusive. In the RAS-wt population, right-sided primary (odds ratio (OR): 7.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.05–19.92), female gender (OR: 2.90, 95% CI 1.14–7.37) and mucinous histology (OR: 4.95, 95% CI 1.90–12.90) were independent predictors of BRAFV600E mutation, with high replication at internal validation (100%, 93% and 98%, respectively). A predictive nomogram was calculated: patients with the highest score (right-sided primary, female and mucinous) had a 81% chance to bear a BRAFV600E-mutant tumour; accuracy measures: AUC=0.812, SE:0.034, sensitivity:81.2% specificity:72.1%. In the VS (508 pts, RAS wt: 262 (51.6%), BRAFV600E mutated: 49 (9.6%)), right-sided primary, female gender and mucinous histology were confirmed as independent predictors of BRAFV600E mutation with high accuracy. Conclusions: Three simple and easy-to-collect characteristics define a useful nomogram for predicting BRAF status in mCRC with high specificity and sensitivity. PMID:26575603

  2. Relationship Status Predicts Lower Restrictive Eating Pathology for Bisexual and Gay Men across 10-year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tiffany A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cross-sectional studies support that bisexual and gay (BG) men are at increased risk for eating pathology, and romantic relationships may buffer against risk; however, no studies have examined this association longitudinally. The current study examined how romantic relationships impact the trajectory of eating pathology in BG versus heterosexual men. Method BG (n=51) and heterosexual (n=522) men completed surveys of health and eating behaviors at baseline and 10-year follow-up. Results For BG men, being single at baseline prospectively predicted an increase in Drive for Thinness scores over 10-year follow-up. Additionally, for BG men in relationships at baseline, lower relationship satisfaction predicted an increase in Drive for Thinness scores over time. Conversely, these relationship variables did not predict trajectory of eating pathology for heterosexual men. Discussion Implications for theoretical models of risk, including objectification theory and sexual minority stress theory, and prevention, including peer-led cognitive dissonance based interventions, are discussed. PMID:26172055

  3. Pathological buying and partnership status.

    PubMed

    Müller, Astrid; de Zwaan, Martina; Mitchell, James E; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2016-05-30

    This pilot study investigated the partnership status and the level of pathological buying (PB) in 157 female patients with PB and 1153 women from a German population-based sample. Slightly more than half of both samples were currently living with a partner. The results suggest a protective effect of being in a couple relationship in the representative sample. In contrast, having a partner was not related to the severity of PB among patients. Future studies should address the question of whether the characteristics and quality of partnership have an impact on the severity and course of PB, and vice versa.

  4. Digital pathology: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Al-Janabi, Shaimaa; Huisman, André; Van Diest, Paul J

    2012-07-01

    During the last decade pathology has benefited from the rapid progress of image digitizing technology. The improvement in this technology had led to the creation of slide scanners which are able to produce whole slide images (WSI) which can be explored by image viewers in a way comparable to the conventional microscope. The file size of the WSI ranges from a few megabytes to several gigabytes, leading to challenges in the area of image storage and management when they will be used routinely in daily clinical practice. Digital slides are used in pathology for education, diagnostic purposes (clinicopathological meetings, consultations, revisions, slide panels and, increasingly, for upfront clinical diagnostics) and archiving. As an alternative to conventional slides, WSI are generally well accepted, especially in education, where they are available to a large number of students with the full possibilities of annotations without the problem of variation between serial sections. Image processing techniques can also be applied to WSI, providing pathologists with tools assisting in the diagnosis-making process. This paper will highlight the current status of digital pathology applications and its impact on the field of pathology.

  5. RU486 Mitigates Hippocampal Pathology Following Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Wulsin, Aynara C.; Herman, James P.; Danzer, Steve C.

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) induces rapid hyper-activation of the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis. HPA axis hyperactivity results in excess exposure to high levels of circulating glucocorticoids, which are associated with neurotoxicity and depression-like behavior. These observations have led to the hypothesis that HPA axis dysfunction may exacerbate SE-induced brain injury. To test this hypothesis, we used the mouse pilocarpine model of epilepsy to determine whether use of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 can attenuate hippocampal pathology following SE. Excess glucocorticoid secretion was evident 1 day after SE in the mice, preceding the development of spontaneous seizures (which can take weeks to develop). RU486 treatment blocked the SE-associated elevation of glucocorticoid levels in pilocarpine-treated mice. RU486 treatment also mitigated the development of hippocampal pathologies induced by SE, reducing loss of hilar mossy cells and limiting pathological cell proliferation in the dentate hilus. Mossy cell loss and accumulation of ectopic hilar cells are positively correlated with epilepsy severity, suggesting that early treatment with glucocorticoid antagonists could have anti-epileptogenic effects. PMID:27965624

  6. Predictive Information: Status or Alert Information?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Bruneau, Daniel; Press, Hayes N.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research investigating the efficacy of predictive information for detecting and diagnosing aircraft system failures found that subjects like to have predictive information concerning when a parameter would reach an alert range. This research focused on where the predictive information should be located, whether the information should be more closely associated with the parameter information or with the alert information. Each subject saw 3 forms of predictive information: (1) none, (2) a predictive alert message, and (3) predictive information on the status display. Generally, subjects performed better and preferred to have predictive information available although the difference between status and alert predictive information was minimal. Overall, for detection and recalling what happened, status predictive information is best; however for diagnosis, alert predictive information holds a slight edge.

  7. A Nomogram for Predicting the Pathological Response of Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xi; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Chen, Sheng; Shao, Zhi-Ming; Di, Gen-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The value of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) patients is still controversial. We aimed to identify predictors and construct a nomogram for predicting the pathologically complete response (pCR) of axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) after NCT in node positive breast cancer patients. In total, 426 patients with pathologically proven ALN metastasis before NCT were enrolled, randomized 1:1 and divided into a training set and a validation set. We developed a nomogram based on independent predictors for ALN pCR identified by multivariate logistic regression as well as clinical significant predictors. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that hormone receptor (HR) status, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) status and Ki67 index were independent predictors. The nomogram was thereby constructed by those independent predictors as well as tumor size and NCT regimens. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the training set and the validation set were 0.804 and 0.749, respectively. We constructed a nomogram for predicting ALN pCR in patients who received NCT. Our nomogram can improve risk stratification, accurately predict post-NCT ALN status and avoid unnecessary ALN dissection. PMID:27576704

  8. Using Computer-extracted Image Phenotypes from Tumors on Breast MRI to Predict Breast Cancer Pathologic Stage

    PubMed Central

    Burnside, Elizabeth S.; Drukker, Karen; Li, Hui; Bonaccio, Ermelinda; Zuley, Margarita; Ganott, Marie; Net, Jose M.; Sutton, Elizabeth; Brandt, Kathleen R.; Whitman, Gary; Conzen, Suzanne; Lan, Li; Ji, Yuan; Zhu, Yitan; Jaffe, Carl; Huang, Erich; Freymann, John; Kirby, Justin; Morris, Elizabeth; Giger, Maryellen

    2015-01-01

    Background To demonstrate that computer-extracted image phenotypes (CEIPs) of biopsy-proven breast cancer on MRI can accurately predict pathologic stage. Methods We used a dataset of de-identified breast MRIs organized by the National Cancer Institute in The Cancer Imaging Archive. We analyzed 91 biopsy-proven breast cancer cases with pathologic stage (stage I = 22; stage II = 58; stage III = 11) and surgically proven nodal status (negative nodes = 46, ≥ 1 positive node = 44, no nodes examined = 1). We characterized tumors by (a) radiologist measured size, and (b) CEIP. We built models combining two CEIPs to predict tumor pathologic stage and lymph node involvement, evaluated them in leave-one-out cross-validation with area under the ROC curve (AUC) as figure of merit. Results Tumor size was the most powerful predictor of pathologic stage but CEIPs capturing biologic behavior also emerged as predictive (e.g. stage I+II vs. III demonstrated AUC = 0.83). No size measure was successful in the prediction of positive lymph nodes but adding a CEIP describing tumor “homogeneity,” significantly improved this discrimination (AUC = 0.62, p=.003) over chance. Conclusions Our results indicate that MRI phenotypes show promise for predicting breast cancer pathologic stage and lymph node status. PMID:26619259

  9. Pilot Performance With Predictive System Status Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    1997-01-01

    Research has shown a strong pilot preference for predictive information of aircraft system status in the flight deck. However, the benefits of predictive information have not been quantitatively demonstrated. The study described here attempted to identify and quantify these benefits if they existed. In this simulator experiment, three types of predictive information (none, whether a parameter was changing abnormally, and the time for a parameter to reach an alert range) and four initial times to an alert (1 minute, 5 minutes, 15 minutes, and ETA+ 45 minutes) were found to affect when subjects accomplished certain actions, such as accessing pertinent checklists, declaring emergencies, diverting, and calling the flight attendant and dispatch.

  10. Carotid barochemoreceptor pathological findings regarding carotid plaque status and aging

    PubMed Central

    Milei, José; Lavezzi, Anna M; Bruni, Barbara; Grana, Daniel R; Azzato, Francisco; Matturri, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carotid barochemoreceptor pathological lesions have been studied in animals, but few human necropsies have been performed. Therefore, data rely on case patients following surgery, radiotherapy and carotid endarterectomy. Almost no data are available regarding whether the effect of aging prevails over pathological conditions, despite the classic description that glomic fibrosis increases with age. OBJECTIVE: To morphometrically characterize the alterations of the carotid barochemoreceptors and their supplying arteries. METHODS: Patients (n=23) who had suffered and died from stroke, with and without complicated internal carotid atheromatosis, were divided by age (group 1: older than 80 years; group 2: 65 to 80 years; and group 3: younger than 65 years). Carotid segments were obtained at autopsy. The specimens were stained for light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Carotid glomus presented from moderate-to-severe atrophy and fibrosis. A focal decrease in vascularization (CD34-positive) of the glomus (greater than 50%) was observed in areas of atrophy and fibrosis. Damaged nerve endings (S100 protein-positive) were observed at the media of the carotid sinus. Morphometric data showed no differences between groups for glomus area, number of type 1 and 2 cells, and the wall to lumen arteriole ratio. No statistical differences were demonstrated in the pathological findings of the carotid glomus when comparing complicated with noncomplicated plaques or age groups. CONCLUSION: Severe carotid chemoreceptor damage exists in patients who have died from stroke and suffered from carotid atheromatosis. These findings were independent from aging and plaque type. However, damage was correlated with a marked narrowing of the supplying arterioles as a consequence of hemodynamic and/or metabolic alterations (dyslipidemia, diabetes). PMID:19148350

  11. Predictive Analytics to Support Real-Time Management in Pathology Facilities.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Lysanne; Michalowski, Wojtek; Chen Li, Wei; Amyot, Daniel; Halwani, Fawaz; Banerjee, Diponkar

    2016-01-01

    Predictive analytics can provide valuable support to the effective management of pathology facilities. The introduction of new tests and technologies in anatomical pathology will increase the volume of specimens to be processed, as well as the complexity of pathology processes. In order for predictive analytics to address managerial challenges associated with the volume and complexity increases, it is important to pinpoint the areas where pathology managers would most benefit from predictive capabilities. We illustrate common issues in managing pathology facilities with an analysis of the surgical specimen process at the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (DPLM) at The Ottawa Hospital, which processes all surgical specimens for the Eastern Ontario Regional Laboratory Association. We then show how predictive analytics could be used to support management. Our proposed approach can be generalized beyond the DPLM, contributing to a more effective management of pathology facilities and in turn to quicker clinical diagnoses.

  12. Predictive Analytics to Support Real-Time Management in Pathology Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Lessard, Lysanne; Michalowski, Wojtek; Chen Li, Wei; Amyot, Daniel; Halwani, Fawaz; Banerjee, Diponkar

    2016-01-01

    Predictive analytics can provide valuable support to the effective management of pathology facilities. The introduction of new tests and technologies in anatomical pathology will increase the volume of specimens to be processed, as well as the complexity of pathology processes. In order for predictive analytics to address managerial challenges associated with the volume and complexity increases, it is important to pinpoint the areas where pathology managers would most benefit from predictive capabilities. We illustrate common issues in managing pathology facilities with an analysis of the surgical specimen process at the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (DPLM) at The Ottawa Hospital, which processes all surgical specimens for the Eastern Ontario Regional Laboratory Association. We then show how predictive analytics could be used to support management. Our proposed approach can be generalized beyond the DPLM, contributing to a more effective management of pathology facilities and in turn to quicker clinical diagnoses. PMID:28269873

  13. Pathologic Diagnosis of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma in the United States: Its Status and Prognostic Value

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Miaozhen; Qiu, Huijuan; Jin, Ying; Wei, Xiaoli; Zhou, Yixin; Wang, Zixian; Wang, Deshen; Ren, Chao; Luo, Huiyan; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Dongsheng; Wang, Fenghua; Li, Yuhong; Yang, Dajun; Xu, Ruihua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Even with the development of new biopsy methods, diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is sometimes without histological evidence. The aim of our study is to find out the status of pancreatic cancer patients who are diagnosed without pathologic confirm and the prognostic value of pathologic diagnosis. Methods: We identified 52,759 pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Logistic regression model was used to identify factors relating to no pathologic diagnosis. Multivariable Cox regression model identified potential prognostic factors. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: There were 6206 (11.76%) patients without pathologic diagnosis. Older age, reported from nursing/convalescent home/hospice or physician's office/private medical practitioner, early year of diagnosis, larger tumor size, pancreatic head cancer, unmarried patients, uninsured and stage I disease all contributed to no pathologic diagnosis. Median cause specific-survival for patients with and without pathologic diagnosis were 7.72 and 3.52 months, respectively. The HR for pathologic diagnosis was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.89-0.95), P<0.001. Conclusions: Pathologic diagnosis was an independent prognostic factor for pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients. New diagnostic methods are needed to get the pathologic diagnosis. PMID:27076851

  14. Tumour morphology predicts PALB2 germline mutation status

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Z L; Provenzano, E; Dite, G S; Park, D J; Apicella, C; Sawyer, S D; James, P A; Mitchell, G; Trainer, A H; Lindeman, G J; Shackleton, K; Cicciarelli, L; Buys, S S; Andrulis, I L; Mulligan, A M; Glendon, G; John, E M; Terry, M B; Daly, M; Odefrey, F A; Nguyen-Dumont, T; Giles, G G; Dowty, J G; Winship, I; Goldgar, D E; Hopper, J L; Southey, M C

    2013-01-01

    Background: Population-based studies of breast cancer have estimated that at least some PALB2 mutations are associated with high breast cancer risk. For women carrying PALB2 mutations, knowing their carrier status could be useful in directing them towards effective cancer risk management and therapeutic strategies. We sought to determine whether morphological features of breast tumours can predict PALB2 germline mutation status. Methods: Systematic pathology review was conducted on breast tumours from 28 female carriers of PALB2 mutations (non-carriers of other known high-risk mutations, recruited through various resources with varying ascertainment) and on breast tumours from a population-based sample of 828 Australian women diagnosed before the age of 60 years (which included 40 BRCA1 and 18 BRCA2 mutation carriers). Tumour morphological features of the 28 PALB2 mutation carriers were compared with those of 770 women without high-risk mutations. Results: Tumours arising in PALB2 mutation carriers were associated with minimal sclerosis (odds ratio (OR)=19.7; 95% confidence interval (CI)=6.0–64.6; P=5 × 10−7). Minimal sclerosis was also a feature that distinguished PALB2 mutation carriers from BRCA1 (P=0.05) and BRCA2 (P=0.04) mutation carriers. Conclusion: This study identified minimal sclerosis to be a predictor of germline PALB2 mutation status. Morphological review can therefore facilitate the identification of women most likely to carry mutations in PALB2. PMID:23787919

  15. The overall pathological status of the left hippocampus determines preoperative verbal memory performance in left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Witt, Juri-Alexander; Coras, Roland; Schramm, Johannes; Becker, Albert J; Elger, Christian E; Blümcke, Ingmar; Helmstaedter, Christoph

    2014-04-01

    Studies on hippocampal cell loss in epilepsy have produced diverging evidence as to which subfields are specifically related to memory. This may be due to rather small and often heterogeneous samples, or to different memory measures. Therefore, the current study examined hippocampal cell densities and memory in a large sample of patients with solely mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), employing measures with proven sensitivity to mesiotemporal pathology. In 104 patients who had undergone epilepsy surgery for mTLE, we evaluated the role of segmental hippocampal cell loss and its underlying factor structure with regard to presurgical verbal and figural memory while controlling for side-of-surgery and hemispheric dominance. First of all, patients showed material-specific memory impairment concordant with the lateralization of epilepsy. Factor analysis of segmental cell loss revealed a single factor reflecting the overall integrity of the hippocampus. The overall pathological status of the left hippocampus correlated with verbal memory parameters (r = 0.33-0.34, P < 0.05), especially when controlling for atypical hemispheric dominance (r = 0.50-0.57, P < 0.01), and explained up to 33% of the observed variance. Further analyses revealed no superior role of a single subfield or cell loss pattern for memory performance. No systematic relations between neuronal cell densities of the right hippocampus and memory function were found, nor did left or right hippocampal pathology explain figural memory parameters. The results suggest that the overall pathological status of the left hippocampus - rather than a specific subfield pathology - is predictive for verbal memory in mTLE. The finding that figural memory parameters, although sensitive to right mTLE, were not related to neuronal cell densities of the right hippocampus, puts the left/right hippocampus verbal/nonverbal memory dichotomy into perspective.

  16. Naive Prediction of Pathology from Human Figure Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkell, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    The present study investigated the degree of accuracy of five groups of judges in inferring pathology in human figure drawings. It was suggested that intuition gained through several years of unsystematic observation of figure drawings played the major role in their interpretation. (Author)

  17. High Proliferation Predicts Pathological Complete Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lluch, Ana; Ribelles, Nuria; Anton-Torres, Antonio; Sanchez-Rovira, Pedro; Albanell, Joan; Calvo, Lourdes; García-Asenjo, Jose Antonio Lopez; Palacios, Jose; Chacon, Jose Ignacio; Ruiz, Amparo; De la Haba-Rodriguez, Juan; Segui-Palmer, Miguel A.; Cirauqui, Beatriz; Margeli, Mireia; Plazaola, Arrate; Barnadas, Agusti; Casas, Maribel; Caballero, Rosalia; Carrasco, Eva; Rojo, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Background. In the neoadjuvant setting, changes in the proliferation marker Ki67 are associated with primary endocrine treatment efficacy, but its value as a predictor of response to chemotherapy is still controversial. Patients and Methods. We analyzed 262 patients with centralized basal Ki67 immunohistochemical evaluation derived from 4 GEICAM (Spanish Breast Cancer Group) clinical trials of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. The objective was to identify the optimal threshold for Ki67 using the receiver-operating characteristic curve method to maximize its predictive value for chemotherapy benefit. We also evaluated the predictive role of the defined Ki67 cutoffs for molecular subtypes defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Results. A basal Ki67 cutpoint of 50% predicted pathological complete response (pCR). Patients with Ki67 >50% achieved a pCR rate of 40% (36 of 91) versus a pCR rate of 19% in patients with Ki67 ≤50% (33 of 171) (p = .0004). Ki67 predictive value was especially relevant in ER-HER2− and ER-HER2+ patients (pCR rates of 42% and 64%, respectively, in patients with Ki67 >50% versus 15% and 45%, respectively, in patients with Ki67 ≤50%; p = .0337 and .3238, respectively). Both multivariate analyses confirmed the independent predictive value of the Ki67 cutpoint of 50%. Conclusion. Basal Ki67 proliferation index >50% should be considered an independent predictive factor for pCR reached after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, suggesting that cell proliferation is a phenomenon closely related to chemosensitivity. These findings could help to identify a group of patients with a potentially favorable long-term prognosis. Implications for Practice: The use of basal Ki67 status as a predictive factor of chemotherapy benefit could facilitate the identification of a patient subpopulation with high probability of achieving pathological complete response when treated with primary chemotherapy, and thus

  18. Current Status of Pathologic Examinations in Korea, 2011–2015, Based on the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Sun-ju

    2017-01-01

    Background Pathologic examinations play an important role in medical services. Until recently, the overall status of pathologic examinations in Korea has not been identified. I conducted a nationwide survey of pathologic examination status using the insurance reimbursements (IRs) dataset from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA). The aims of this study were to estimate current pathologic examination status in Korea and to provide information for future resource arrangement in the pathology area. Methods I asked HIRA to provide data on IR requests, including pathologic examinations from 2011 to 2015. Pathologic examination status was investigated according to the following categories: annual statistics, requesting department, type of medical institution, administrative district, and location at which pathologic examinations were performed. Results Histologic mapping, immunohistochemistry, and cervicovaginal examinations have increased in the last 5 years. Internal medicine, general surgery, obstetrics/gynecology, and urology were the most common medical departments requesting pathologic examinations. The majority of pathologic examinations were frequently performed in tertiary hospitals. About 60.3% of pathologic examinations were requested in medical institutions located in Seoul, Gyeonggi-do, and Busan. More than half of the biopsies and aspiration cytologic examinations were performed using outside services. The mean period between IR requests and 99 percentile IR request completion inspections was 6.2 months. Conclusions This survey was based on the HIRA dataset, which is one of the largest medical datasets in Korea. The trends of some pathologic examinations were reflected in the policies and needs for detailed diagnosis. The numbers and proportions of pathologic examinations were correlated with the population and medical institutions of the area, as well as patient preference. These data will be helpful for future resource arrangement in

  19. Testing the Predictive Validity and Construct of Pathological Video Game Use

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Christopher L.; Gentile, Douglas; Tapscott, Ryan L.; Lynch, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Three studies assessed the construct of pathological video game use and tested its predictive validity. Replicating previous research, Study 1 produced evidence of convergent validity in 8th and 9th graders (N = 607) classified as pathological gamers. Study 2 replicated and extended the findings of Study 1 with college undergraduates (N = 504). Predictive validity was established in Study 3 by measuring cue reactivity to video games in college undergraduates (N = 254), such that pathological gamers were more emotionally reactive to and provided higher subjective appraisals of video games than non-pathological gamers and non-gamers. The three studies converged to show that pathological video game use seems similar to other addictions in its patterns of correlations with other constructs. Conceptual and definitional aspects of Internet Gaming Disorder are discussed. PMID:26694472

  20. Smaller hippocampal volume predicts pathologic vulnerability to psychological trauma

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, Mark W.; Shenton, Martha E.; Ciszewski, Aleksandra; Kasai, Kiyoto; Lasko, Natasha B.; Orr, Scott P.; Pitman, Roger K.

    2010-01-01

    In animals, exposure to severe stress can damage the hippocampus. Recent human studies show smaller hippocampal volume in individuals with the stress-related psychiatric condition posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Does this represent the neurotoxic effect of trauma, or is smaller hippocampal volume a pre-existing condition that renders the brain more vulnerable to the development of pathological stress responses? In monozygotic twins discordant for trauma exposure, we found evidence that smaller hippocampi indeed constitute a risk factor for the development of stress-related psychopathology. Disorder severity in PTSD patients who were exposed to trauma was negatively correlated with the hippocampal volume of both the patients and the patients’ trauma-unexposed identical co-twin. Furthermore, severe PTSD twin pairs—both the trauma-exposed and unexposed members—had significantly smaller hippocampi than non-PTSD pairs. PMID:12379862

  1. Pathological grading for predicting metastasis in phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Noriko; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Takizawa, Nae; Itagaki, Eiji; Katabami, Takayuki; Kakoi, Narihiko; Rakugi, Hiromi; Ikeda, Yukihiro; Tanabe, Akiyo; Nigawara, Takeshi; Ito, Sadayoshi; Kimura, Itaru; Naruse, Mitsuhide

    2014-06-01

    Phaeochromocytomas (PHEO) and paragangliomas are rare catecholamine-producing tumours. Although 10-30% of these tumours metastasise, histopathological criteria to discriminate malignant from benign tumours have not been established; therefore, reliable histopathological markers predicting metastasis are urgently required. A total of 163 tumours, including 40 metastatic tumours, collected by the Phaeochromocytoma Study Group in Japan (PHEO-J) were analysed using a system called grading system for adrenal phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma (GAPP). The tumours were scored based on GAPP criteria as follows: histological pattern, cellularity, comedo-type necrosis, capsular/vascular invasion, Ki67 labelling index and catecholamine type. All tumours were scored from 0 to 10 points and were graded as one of the three types: well-differentiated (WD, 0-2 points), moderately differentiated (MD, 3-6 points) and poorly differentiated (PD, 7-10 points). GAPP scores of the non-metastatic and metastatic groups were 2.08±0.17 and 5.33±0.43 (mean±s.e.m., P<0.001) respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between the GAPP score and the interval until metastasis (r=-0.438, P<0.01). The mean number of years until metastasis after the initial operation was 5.5±2.6 years. The study included 111 WD, 35 MD and 17 PD types. The five-year survival of these groups was 100, 66.8 and 22.4% respectively. In addition, negative immunoreactivity for succinate dehydrogenase gene subunit B (SDHB) was observed in 13 (8%) MD or PD tumours and ten of the 13 (77%) had metastases. Our data indicate that a combination of GAPP classification and SDHB immunohistochemistry might be useful for the prediction of metastasis in these tumours.

  2. Fan Noise Prediction: Status and Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    1997-01-01

    The prediction of fan noise is an important part to the prediction of overall turbofan engine noise. Advances in computers and better understanding of the flow physics have allowed researchers to compute sound generation from first principles and rely less on empirical correlations. While progress has been made, there are still many aspects of the problem that need to be explored. This paper presents some recent advances in fan noise prediction and suggests areas that still need further development. Fan noise predictions that support the recommendations are taken from existing publications.

  3. Behavioral Changes Predicting Temporal Changes in Perceived Popular Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Buskirk-Cohen, Allison; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2010-01-01

    The primary objectives of this investigation were to determine the extent to which young adolescents are stable in high perceived popular status across the middle school transition and to examine whether changes in social behaviors predict the stability, gain, and loss of perceived popular status after the transition. The sample included 672 young…

  4. Crop status evaluations and yield predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haun, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    The growth-environment relationships for greenhouse and field conditions are compared, and the development of growth-prediction models for spring wheat is discussed along with the development of models for predicting the date for spring wheat emergence in North Dakota.

  5. Crop status evaluations and yield predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haun, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A model was developed for predicting the day 50 percent of the wheat crop is planted in North Dakota. This model incorporates location as an independent variable. The Julian date when 50 percent of the crop was planted for the nine divisions of North Dakota for seven years was regressed on the 49 variables through the step-down multiple regression procedure. This procedure begins with all of the independent variables and sequentially removes variables that are below a predetermined level of significance after each step. The prediction equation was tested on daily data. The accuracy of the model is considered satisfactory for finding the historic dates on which to initiate yield prediction model. Growth prediction models were also developed for spring wheat.

  6. A correlational approach to predicting operator status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shingledecker, Clark A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses a research approach for identifying and validating candidate physiological and behavioral parameters which can be used to predict the performance capabilities of aircrew and other system operators. In this methodology, concurrent and advance correlations are computed between predictor values and criterion performance measures. Continuous performance and sleep loss are used as stressors to promote performance variation. Preliminary data are presented which suggest dependence of prediction capability on the resource allocation policy of the operator.

  7. Basal forebrain degeneration precedes and predicts the cortical spread of Alzheimer's pathology

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Taylor W.; Nathan Spreng, R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Aisen, Paul; Petersen, Ronald; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William; Trojanowki, John Q.; Toga, Arthur W.; Beckett, Laurel; Green, Robert C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Morris, John; Shaw, Leslie M.; Khachaturian, Zaven; Sorensen, Greg; Kuller, Lew; Raichle, Marc; Paul, Steven; Davies, Peter; Fillit, Howard; Hefti, Franz; Holtzman, Davie; Mesulam, M Marcel; Potter, William; Snyder, Peter; Schwartz, Adam; Montine, Tom; Thomas, Ronald G.; Donohue, Michael; Walter, Sarah; Gessert, Devon; Sather, Tamie; Jiminez, Gus; Harvey, Danielle; Bernstein, Matthew; Fox, Nick; Thompson, Paul; Schuff, Norbert; Borowski, Bret; Gunter, Jeff; Senjem, Matt; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Jones, David; Kantarci, Kejal; Ward, Chad; Koeppe, Robert A.; Foster, Norm; Reiman, Eric M.; Chen, Kewei; Mathis, Chet; Landau, Susan; Cairns, Nigel J.; Householder, Erin; Taylor-Reinwald, Lisa; Lee, Virginia; Korecka, Magdalena; Figurski, Michal; Crawford, Karen; Neu, Scott; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Potkin, Steven; Shen, Li; Faber, Kelley; Kim, Sungeun; Nho, Kwangsik; Thal, Leon; Buckholtz, Neil; Albert, Marylyn; Frank, Richard; Hsiao, John; Kaye, Jeffrey; Quinn, Joseph; Lind, Betty; Carter, Raina; Dolen, Sara; Schneider, Lon S.; Pawluczyk, Sonia; Beccera, Mauricio; Teodoro, Liberty; Spann, Bryan M.; Brewer, James; Vanderswag, Helen; Fleisher, Adam; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Lord, Joanne L.; Mason, Sara S.; Albers, Colleen S.; Knopman, David; Johnson, Kris; Doody, Rachelle S.; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Chowdhury, Munir; Rountree, Susan; Dang, Mimi; Stern, Yaakov; Honig, Lawrence S.; Bell, Karen L.; Ances, Beau; Carroll, Maria; Leon, Sue; Mintun, Mark A.; Schneider, Stacy; Oliver, Angela; Marson, Daniel; Griffith, Randall; Clark, David; Geldmacher, David; Brockington, John; Roberson, Erik; Grossman, Hillel; Mitsis, Effie; de Toledo-Morrell, Leyla; Shah, Raj C.; Duara, Ranjan; Varon, Daniel; Greig, Maria T.; Roberts, Peggy; Albert, Marilyn; Onyike, Chiadi; D'Agostino, Daniel; Kielb, Stephanie; Galvin, James E.; Cerbone, Brittany; Michel, Christina A.; Rusinek, Henry; de Leon, Mony J.; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Petrella, Jeffrey R.; Wong, Terence Z.; Arnold, Steven E.; Karlawish, Jason H.; Wolk, David; Smith, Charles D.; Jicha, Greg; Hardy, Peter; Sinha, Partha; Oates, Elizabeth; Conrad, Gary; Lopez, Oscar L.; Oakley, MaryAnn; Simpson, Donna M.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Goldstein, Bonnie S.; Martin, Kim; Makino, Kelly M.; Ismail, M. Saleem; Brand, Connie; Mulnard, Ruth A.; Thai, Gaby; Mc-Adams-Ortiz, Catherine; Womack, Kyle; Mathews, Dana; Quiceno, Mary; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; King, Richard; Weiner, Myron; Martin-Cook, Kristen; DeVous, Michael; Levey, Allan I.; Lah, James J.; Cellar, Janet S.; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Anderson, Heather S.; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Apostolova, Liana; Tingus, Kathleen; Woo, Ellen; Silverman, Daniel H. S.; Lu, Po H.; Bartzokis, George; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Parfitt, Francine; Kendall, Tracy; Johnson, Heather; Farlow, Martin R.; Hake, AnnMarie; Matthews, Brandy R.; Herring, Scott; Hunt, Cynthia; van Dyck, Christopher H.; Carson, Richard E.; MacAvoy, Martha G.; Chertkow, Howard; Bergman, Howard; Hosein, Chris; Black, Sandra; Stefanovic, Bojana; Caldwell, Curtis; Robin Hsiung, Ging-Yuek; Feldman, Howard; Mudge, Benita; Assaly, Michele; Kertesz, Andrew; Rogers, John; Bernick, Charles; Munic, Donna; Kerwin, Diana; Mesulam, Marek-Marsel; Lipowski, Kristine; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Johnson, Nancy; Sadowsky, Carl; Martinez, Walter; Villena, Teresa; Turner, Raymond Scott; Johnson, Kathleen; Reynolds, Brigid; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Marshall, Gad; Frey, Meghan; Lane, Barton; Rosen, Allyson; Tinklenberg, Jared; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Belden, Christine M.; Jacobson, Sandra A.; Sirrel, Sherye A.; Kowall, Neil; Killiany, Ronald; Budson, Andrew E.; Norbash, Alexander; Johnson, Patricia Lynn; Allard, Joanne; Lerner, Alan; Ogrocki, Paula; Hudson, Leon; Fletcher, Evan; Carmichael, Owen; Olichney, John; DeCarli, Charles; Kittur, Smita; Borrie, Michael; Lee, T.-Y.; Bartha, Rob; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Potkin, Steven G.; Preda, Adrian; Nguyen, Dana; Tariot, Pierre; Reeder, Stephanie; Bates, Vernice; Capote, Horacio; Rainka, Michelle; Scharre, Douglas W.; Kataki, Maria; Adeli, Anahita; Zimmerman, Earl A.; Celmins, Dzintra; Brown, Alice D.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Blank, Karen; Anderson, Karen; Santulli, Robert B.; Kitzmiller, Tamar J.; Schwartz, Eben S.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Garg, Pradeep; Watkins, Franklin; Ott, Brian R.; Querfurth, Henry; Tremont, Geoffrey; Salloway, Stephen; Malloy, Paul; Correia, Stephen; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Mintzer, Jacobo; Spicer, Kenneth; Bachman, David; Finger, Elizabether; Pasternak, Stephen; Rachinsky, Irina; Drost, Dick; Pomara, Nunzio; Hernando, Raymundo; Sarrael, Antero; Schultz, Susan K.; Boles Ponto, Laura L.; Shim, Hyungsub; Smith, Karen Elizabeth; Relkin, Norman; Chaing, Gloria; Raudin, Lisa; Smith, Amanda; Fargher, Kristin; Raj, Balebail Ashok; Neylan, Thomas; Grafman, Jordan; Davis, Melissa; Morrison, Rosemary; Hayes, Jacqueline; Finley, Shannon; Friedl, Karl; Fleischman, Debra; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; James, Olga; Massoglia, Dino; Fruehling, J. Jay; Harding, Sandra; Peskind, Elaine R.; Petrie, Eric C.; Li, Gail; Yesavage, Jerome A.; Taylor, Joy L.; Furst, Ansgar J.

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable debate whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) originates in basal forebrain or entorhinal cortex. Here we examined whether longitudinal decreases in basal forebrain and entorhinal cortex grey matter volume were interdependent and sequential. In a large cohort of age-matched older adults ranging from cognitively normal to AD, we demonstrate that basal forebrain volume predicts longitudinal entorhinal degeneration. Models of parallel degeneration or entorhinal origin received negligible support. We then integrated volumetric measures with an amyloid biomarker sensitive to pre-symptomatic AD pathology. Comparison between cognitively matched normal adult subgroups, delineated according to the amyloid biomarker, revealed abnormal degeneration in basal forebrain, but not entorhinal cortex. Abnormal degeneration in both basal forebrain and entorhinal cortex was only observed among prodromal (mildly amnestic) individuals. We provide evidence that basal forebrain pathology precedes and predicts both entorhinal pathology and memory impairment, challenging the widely held belief that AD has a cortical origin. PMID:27811848

  8. Crop status evaluations and yield predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haun, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    One phase of the large area crop inventory project is presented. Wheat yield models based on the input of environmental variables potentially obtainable through the use of space remote sensing were developed and demonstrated. By the use of a unique method for visually qualifying daily plant development and subsequent multifactor computer analyses, it was possible to develop practical models for predicting crop development and yield. Development of wheat yield prediction models was based on the discovery that morphological changes in plants are detected and quantified on a daily basis, and that this change during a portion of the season was proportional to yield.

  9. Predicting Engineering Major Status from Mathematics Achievement and Interest Congruence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuwerke, Wade C.; Robbins, Steven; Sawyer, Richard; Hovland, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This study proposed that precollege students' standardized mathematics achievement score and the congruence between their occupational interests and engineering tasks would predict their second-year retention in college and the stability of their major. Binary response models were used to predict second-year major status (i.e., continue, transfer…

  10. Personality Pathology Predicts Outcomes in a Treatment-Seeking Sample with Bipolar I Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wenze, Susan J.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Weinstock, Lauren M.; Miller, Ivan W.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a clinical trial to explore the relationship between degree of personality disorder (PD) pathology (i.e., number of subthreshold and threshold PD symptoms) and mood and functioning outcomes in Bipolar I Disorder (BD-I). Ninety-two participants completed baseline mood and functioning assessments and then underwent 4 months of treatment for an index manic, mixed, or depressed phase acute episode. Additional assessments occurred over a 28-month follow-up period. PD pathology did not predict psychosocial functioning or manic symptoms at 4 or 28 months. However, it did predict depressive symptoms at both timepoints, as well as percent time symptomatic. Clusters A and C pathology were most strongly associated with depression. Our findings fit with the literature highlighting the negative repercussions of PD pathology on a range of outcomes in mood disorders. This study builds upon previous research, which has largely focused on major depression and which has primarily taken a categorical approach to examining PD pathology in BD. PMID:24516762

  11. Predicting changes in adjustment using repeated measures of sociometric status.

    PubMed

    Mayeux, Lara; Bellmore, Amy D; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2007-12-01

    The authors' goals in the study were to investigate the possible gains made by including multiple assessments of status in the prediction of change in psychosocial adjustment and to compare the effectiveness of continuous and categorical measures of peer status in predicting adjustment. The authors obtained continuous and categorical measures of status (social preference and rejected status) for 644 Grade 4 students at 3 points within 1 school year (fall, winter, and spring). The authors measured peer, teacher, and self-report indexes of social adjustment (including aggression, anxiety, and sociability) in Grades 4 and 5. Both measures of peer status at all 3 time points in Grade 4 were significant predictors of adjustment in Grade 5, controlling for Grade 4 levels, with the midyear (i.e., winter) assessment showing a slight predictive advantage over the fall and spring assessments. Children who were classified as peer rejected over multiple assessments had more social adjustment problems in the next school year than did children who were classified as peer rejected at 1 time point only. The authors discuss these findings in terms of the utility of multiple assessments of both continuous and categorical measures of peer status for predicting later outcomes.

  12. Establishment of the European College of Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ECVCP) and the current status of veterinary clinical pathology in Europe.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, P J; Fournel-Fleury, C; Bolliger, A P; Freeman, K P; Braun, J-P; Archer, J; Paltrinieri, S; Tvedten, H; Polizopoulou, Z S; Jensen, A L; Pastor, J; Lanevschi-Pietersma, A; Thoren-Tolling, K; Schwendenwien, I; Thoresen, S I; Bauer, N B; Ledieu, D; Cerón, J J; Palm, M; Papasouliotis, K; Gaál, T; Vajdovich, P

    2007-12-01

    After 5 years of development, the European College of Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ECVCP) was formally recognized and approved on July 4, 2007 by the European Board of Veterinary Specialisation (EBVS), the European regulatory body that oversees specialization in veterinary medicine and which has approved 23 colleges. The objectives, committees, basis for membership, constitution, bylaws, information brochure and certifying examination of the ECVCP have remained unchanged during this time except as directed by EBVS. The ECVCP declared full functionality based on the following criteria: 1) a critical mass of 65 members: 15 original diplomates approved by the EBVS to establish the ECVCP, 37 de facto diplomates, 7 diplomates certified by examination, and 5 elected honorary members; 2) the development and certification of training programs, laboratories, and qualified supervisors for residents; currently there are 18 resident training programs in Europe; 3) administration of 3 annual board-certifying examinations thus far, with an overall pass rate of 70%; 4) European consensus criteria for assessing the continuing education of specialists every 5 years; 5) organization of 8 annual scientific congresses and a joint journal (with the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology) for communication of scientific research and information; the College also maintains a website, a joint listserv, and a newsletter; 6) collaboration in training and continuing education with relevant colleges in medicine and pathology; 7) development and strict adherence to a constitution and bylaws compliant with the EBVS; and 8) demonstration of compelling rationale, supporting data, and the support of members and other colleges for independence as a specialty college. Formal EBVS recognition of ECVCP as the regulatory body for the science and practice of veterinary clinical pathology in Europe will facilitate growth and development of the discipline and compliance of academic

  13. Predictive radiogenomics modeling of EGFR mutation status in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gevaert, Olivier; Echegaray, Sebastian; Khuong, Amanda; Hoang, Chuong D.; Shrager, Joseph B.; Jensen, Kirstin C.; Berry, Gerald J.; Guo, H. Henry; Lau, Charles; Plevritis, Sylvia K.; Rubin, Daniel L.; Napel, Sandy; Leung, Ann N.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular analysis of the mutation status for EGFR and KRAS are now routine in the management of non-small cell lung cancer. Radiogenomics, the linking of medical images with the genomic properties of human tumors, provides exciting opportunities for non-invasive diagnostics and prognostics. We investigated whether EGFR and KRAS mutation status can be predicted using imaging data. To accomplish this, we studied 186 cases of NSCLC with preoperative thin-slice CT scans. A thoracic radiologist annotated 89 semantic image features of each patient’s tumor. Next, we built a decision tree to predict the presence of EGFR and KRAS mutations. We found a statistically significant model for predicting EGFR but not for KRAS mutations. The test set area under the ROC curve for predicting EGFR mutation status was 0.89. The final decision tree used four variables: emphysema, airway abnormality, the percentage of ground glass component and the type of tumor margin. The presence of either of the first two features predicts a wild type status for EGFR while the presence of any ground glass component indicates EGFR mutations. These results show the potential of quantitative imaging to predict molecular properties in a non-invasive manner, as CT imaging is more readily available than biopsies. PMID:28139704

  14. Predicting Problematic Alcohol Use with the DSM-5 Alternative Model of Personality Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Creswell, Kasey G.; Bachrach, Rachel L.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Pinto, Anthony; Ansell, Emily

    2015-01-01

    There is high comorbidity between personality disorders and alcohol use disorders, which appears related to individual differences in underlying personality dimensions of behavioral undercontrol and affective dysregulation. Very little is known about how the DSM-5 Section III trait model of personality pathology relates to alcohol problems, however, or how the strength of the relationship between personality pathology and alcohol problems changes with age and across gender. The current study examined these questions in a sample of 877 participants using the General Assessment of Personality Disorder to assess general personality dysfunction, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 to measure specific traits, and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test to assess problematic alcohol use. Results demonstrated that general personality pathology (Criterion A) was significantly related to problematic alcohol use after controlling for age and gender effects. Further, two of the five higher-order personality trait domains (Criterion B), Antagonism and Disinhibition, remained significant predictors of problematic alcohol use after accounting for the influence of general personality pathology; however, general personality pathology no longer predicted hazardous alcohol use once Antagonism and Disinhibition were added into the model. Finally, these two specific traits interacted with age, such that Antagonism was a stronger predictor of AUDIT scores among older individuals and Disinhibition was a stronger predictor of alcohol problems among younger individuals. Findings support the general validity of this new personality disorder diagnostic system and suggest important age effects in the relationship between traits and problematic alcohol use. PMID:26389625

  15. PREDICTING FIFTEEN-YEAR CANCER-SPECIFIC MORTALITY BASED ON THE PATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF PROSTATE CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Eggener, Scott E.; Scardino, Peter T.; Walsh, Patrick C.; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W.; Trock, Bruce J.; Feng, Zhaoyong; Wood, David P.; Eastham, James A.; Yossepowitch, Ofer; Rabah, Danny M.; Kattan, Michael W.; Yu, Changhong; Klein, Eric A.; Stephenson, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Long-term prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) after radical prostatectomy is poorly defined in the era of widespread screening. An understanding of the treated natural history of screen-detected cancers and the pathological risk factors for PCSM are needed for treatment decision-making. Methods Using Fine and Gray competing risk regression analysis, the clinical and pathological data and follow-up information of 11,521 patients treated by radical prostatectomy at four academic centers from 1987 to 2005 were modeled to predict PCSM. The model was validated on 12,389 patients treated at a separate institution during the same period. Results The overall 15-year PCSM was 7%. Primary and secondary pathological Gleason grade 4–5 (P < 0.001 for both), seminal vesicle invasion (P < 0.001), and year of surgery (P = 0.002) were significant predictors of PCSM. A nomogram predicting 15-year PCSM based on standard pathological parameters was accurate and discriminating with an externally-validated concordance index of 0.92. Stratified by patient age, 15-year PCSM for Gleason score ≤ 6, 3+4, 4+3, and 8–10 ranged from 0.2–1.2%, 4.2–6.5%, 6.6–11%, and 26–37%, respectively. The 15-year PCSM risks ranged from 0.8–1.5%, 2.9–10%, 15–27%, and 22–30% for organ-confined cancer, extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion, and lymph node metastasis, respectively. Only 3 of 9557 patients with organ-confined, Gleason score ≤ 6 cancers have died from prostate cancer. Conclusions The presence of poorly differentiated cancer and seminal vesicle invasion are the prime determinants of PCSM after radical prostatectomy. The risk of PCSM can be predicted with unprecedented accuracy once the pathological features of prostate cancer are known. PMID:21239008

  16. Perceived Attributes Predict Course Management System Adopter Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keesee, Gayla S.; Shepard, MaryFriend

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative, nonexperimental study utilized Rogers's diffusion of innovation theory as the theoretical base to determine instructors' perceptions of the attributes (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, observability) of the course management system used in order to predict adopter status. The study used a convenience…

  17. Implementation of a Precision Pathology Program Focused on Oncology-Based Prognostic and Predictive Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Michael J; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Personalized or precision medicine as a diagnostic and therapeutic paradigm was introduced some 10-15 years ago, with the advent of biomarker discovery as a mechanism for identifying prognostic and predictive attributes associated with treatment indication and outcome. While the concept is not new, the successful development and implementation of novel 'companion diagnostics', especially in oncology, continues to represent a significant challenge and is currently at the forefront of smart trial design and therapeutic choice. The ability to determine patient selection for a specific therapy has broad implications including better chances for a positive outcome, limited exposure to potentially toxic drugs and improved health economics. Importantly, a significant step in this paradigm is the role of predictive pathology or the accurate assessment of morphology at the microscopic level. In breast cancer, this has been most useful where histologic attributes such as the classification of tubular and cribriform carcinoma dictates surgery while neoadjuvant studies suggest that patients with lobular carcinoma are not likely to benefit from chemotherapy. The next level of 'personalized pathology' at the tissue-cellular level is the use of 'protein biomarker panels' to classify the disease process and ultimately drive tumor characterization and treatment. The following review article will focus on the evolution of predictive pathology from a subjective, 'opinion-based' approach to a quantitative science. In addition, we will discuss the individual components of the precise pathology platform including advanced image analysis, biomarker quantitation with mathematical modeling and the integration with fluid-based (i.e. blood, urine) analytics as drivers of next generation precise patient phenotyping.

  18. Use of registration-based contour propagation in texture analysis for esophageal cancer pathologic response prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Stephen S. F.; Coroller, Thibaud P.; Sanford, Nina N.; Huynh, Elizabeth; Mamon, Harvey; Aerts, Hugo J. W. L.; Berbeco, Ross I.

    2016-01-01

    Change in PET-based textural features has shown promise in predicting cancer response to treatment. However, contouring tumour volumes on longitudinal scans is time-consuming. This study investigated the usefulness of contour propagation in texture analysis for the purpose of pathologic response prediction in esophageal cancer. Forty-five esophageal cancer patients underwent PET/CT scans before and after chemo-radiotherapy. Patients were classified into responders and non-responders after the surgery. Physician-defined tumour ROIs on pre-treatment PET were propagated onto the post-treatment PET using rigid and ten deformable registration algorithms. PET images were converted into 256 discrete values. Co-occurrence, run-length, and size zone matrix textures were computed within all ROIs. The relative difference of each texture at different treatment time-points was used to predict the pathologic responders. Their predictive value was assessed using the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC). Propagated ROIs from different algorithms were compared using Dice similarity index (DSI). Contours propagated by the fast-demons, fast-free-form and rigid algorithms did not fully capture the high FDG uptake regions of tumours. Fast-demons propagated ROIs had the least agreement with other contours (DSI  =  58%). Moderate to substantial overlap were found in the ROIs propagated by all other algorithms (DSI  =  69%-79%). Rigidly propagated ROIs with co-occurrence texture failed to significantly differentiate between responders and non-responders (AUC  =  0.58, q-value  =  0.33), while the differentiation was significant with other textures (AUC  =  0.71‒0.73, p  <  0.009). Among the deformable algorithms, fast-demons (AUC  =  0.68‒0.70, q-value  <  0.03) and fast-free-form (AUC  =  0.69‒0.74, q-value  <  0.04) were the least predictive. ROIs propagated by all other

  19. Mining Discriminative Patterns to Predict Health Status for Cardiopulmonary Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qian; Shang, Jingbo; Juen, Joshua; Han, Jiawei; Schatz, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones are ubiquitous now, but it is still unclear what physiological functions they can monitor at clinical quality. Pulmonary function is a standard measure of health status for cardiopulmonary patients. We have shown that predictive models can accurately classify cardiopulmonary conditions from healthy status, as well as different severity levels within cardiopulmonary disease, the GOLD stages. Here we propose several universal models to monitor cardiopulmonary conditions, including DPClass, a novel learning approach we designed. We carefully prepare motion dataset covering status from GOLD 0 (healthy), GOLD 1 (mild), GOLD 2 (moderate), all the way to GOLD 3 (severe). Sixty-six subjects participate in this study. After de-identification, their walking data are applied to train the predictive models. The RBF-SVM model yields the highest accuracy while the DPClass model provides better interpretation of the model mechanisms. We not only provide promising solutions to monitor health status by simply carrying a smartphone, but also demonstrate how demographics influences predictive models of cardiopulmonary disease. PMID:28174760

  20. Predicting the conservation status of data-deficient species.

    PubMed

    Bland, Lucie M; Collen, Ben; Orme, C David L; Bielby, Jon

    2015-02-01

    There is little appreciation of the level of extinction risk faced by one-sixth of the over 65,000 species assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Determining the status of these data-deficient (DD) species is essential to developing an accurate picture of global biodiversity and identifying potentially threatened DD species. To address this knowledge gap, we used predictive models incorporating species' life history, geography, and threat information to predict the conservation status of DD terrestrial mammals. We constructed the models with 7 machine learning (ML) tools trained on species of known status. The resultant models showed very high species classification accuracy (up to 92%) and ability to correctly identify centers of threatened species richness. Applying the best model to DD species, we predicted 313 of 493 DD species (64%) to be at risk of extinction, which increases the estimated proportion of threatened terrestrial mammals from 22% to 27%. Regions predicted to contain large numbers of threatened DD species are already conservation priorities, but species in these areas show considerably higher levels of risk than previously recognized. We conclude that unless directly targeted for monitoring, species classified as DD are likely to go extinct without notice. Taking into account information on DD species may therefore help alleviate data gaps in biodiversity indicators and conserve poorly known biodiversity.

  1. Assessing the predictive validity of the admission process in a master's level speech language pathology program.

    PubMed

    Kjelgaard, Margaret M; Guarino, A J

    2012-10-01

    Astin's Input-Environment-Outcome (I-E-O) model served as the theoretical foundation to assess (a) undergraduate GPA, (b) undergraduate Speech Language Pathology majors, and (c, d) GRE-Q and GRE-V scores (Input) as predictors of students' graduate GPA (Environment), and graduate GPA as a predictor of PRAXIS scores (Outcome). The sample for this study was 122 students who completed the Speech-Language Pathology Program in recent academic cycles at a graduate school in the northeastern United States. The sample was representative of other programs in the country in terms of gender, undergraduate GPA, and GRE scores. Results appear to support the predictive validity of the linear combination of the input predictors of the environment variable (GPA) and of the environment variable on the outcome, i.e., PRAXIS scores.

  2. Predicting problematic alcohol use with the DSM-5 alternative model of personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Creswell, Kasey G; Bachrach, Rachel L; Wright, Aidan G C; Pinto, Anthony; Ansell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    High comorbidity between personality disorders and alcohol use disorders appears related to individual differences in underlying personality dimensions of behavioral undercontrol and affective dysregulation. However, very little is known about how the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition; DSM-5) Section III trait model of personality pathology relates to alcohol problems or how the strength of the relationship between personality pathology and alcohol problems changes with age and across gender. The current study examined these questions in a sample of 877 participants using the General Assessment of Personality Disorder to assess general personality dysfunction, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 to measure specific traits, and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess problematic alcohol use. Results demonstrated that general personality pathology (Criterion A) was significantly related to problematic alcohol use after controlling for age and gender effects. Furthermore, 2 of the 5 higher-order personality trait domains (Criterion B), Antagonism and Disinhibition, remained significant predictors of problematic alcohol use after accounting for the influence of general personality pathology; however, general personality pathology no longer predicted hazardous alcohol use once Antagonism and Disinhibition were added into the model. Finally, these 2 specific traits interacted with age, such that Antagonism was a stronger predictor of AUDIT scores among older individuals and Disinhibition was a stronger predictor of alcohol problems among younger individuals. Findings support the general validity of this new personality disorder diagnostic system and suggest important age effects in the relationship between traits and problematic alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Boldness predicts social status in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Dahlbom, S Josefin; Lagman, David; Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin; Sundström, L Fredrik; Winberg, Svante

    2011-01-01

    This study explored if boldness could be used to predict social status. First, boldness was assessed by monitoring individual zebrafish behaviour in (1) an unfamiliar barren environment with no shelter (open field), (2) the same environment when a roof was introduced as a shelter, and (3) when the roof was removed and an unfamiliar object (Lego® brick) was introduced. Next, after a resting period of minimum one week, social status of the fish was determined in a dyadic contest and dominant/subordinate individuals were determined as the winner/loser of two consecutive contests. Multivariate data analyses showed that males were bolder than females and that the behaviours expressed by the fish during the boldness tests could be used to predict which fish would later become dominant and subordinate in the ensuing dyadic contest. We conclude that bold behaviour is positively correlated to dominance in zebrafish and that boldness is not solely a consequence of social dominance.

  4. Boldness Predicts Social Status in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Dahlbom, S. Josefin; Lagman, David; Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin; Sundström, L. Fredrik; Winberg, Svante

    2011-01-01

    This study explored if boldness could be used to predict social status. First, boldness was assessed by monitoring individual zebrafish behaviour in (1) an unfamiliar barren environment with no shelter (open field), (2) the same environment when a roof was introduced as a shelter, and (3) when the roof was removed and an unfamiliar object (Lego® brick) was introduced. Next, after a resting period of minimum one week, social status of the fish was determined in a dyadic contest and dominant/subordinate individuals were determined as the winner/loser of two consecutive contests. Multivariate data analyses showed that males were bolder than females and that the behaviours expressed by the fish during the boldness tests could be used to predict which fish would later become dominant and subordinate in the ensuing dyadic contest. We conclude that bold behaviour is positively correlated to dominance in zebrafish and that boldness is not solely a consequence of social dominance. PMID:21858168

  5. Pathological Gleason prediction through gland ring morphometry in immunofluorescent prostate cancer images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Richard; Khan, Faisal M.; Zeineh, Jack; Donovan, Michael; Fernandez, Gerardo

    2016-03-01

    The Gleason score is the most common architectural and morphological assessment of prostate cancer severity and prognosis. There have been numerous quantitative techniques developed to approximate and duplicate the Gleason scoring system. Most of these approaches have been developed in standard H and E brightfield microscopy. Immunofluorescence (IF) image analysis of tissue pathology has recently been proven to be extremely valuable and robust in developing prognostic assessments of disease, particularly in prostate cancer. There have been significant advances in the literature in quantitative biomarker expression as well as characterization of glandular architectures in discrete gland rings. In this work we leverage a new method of segmenting gland rings in IF images for predicting the pathological Gleason; both the clinical and the image specific grade, which may not necessarily be the same. We combine these measures with nuclear specific characteristics as assessed by the MST algorithm. Our individual features correlate well univariately with the Gleason grades, and in a multivariate setting have an accuracy of 85% in predicting the Gleason grade. Additionally, these features correlate strongly with clinical progression outcomes (CI of 0.89), significantly outperforming the clinical Gleason grades (CI of 0.78). This work presents the first assessment of morphological gland unit features from IF images for predicting the Gleason grade.

  6. Status of research aimed at predicting structural integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Reuter, W.G.

    1997-12-31

    Considerable research has been performed throughout the world on measuring the fracture toughness of metals. The existing capability fills the need encountered when selecting materials, thermal-mechanical treatments, welding procedures, etc., but cannot predict the fracture process of structural components containing cracks. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have been collaborating for a number of years on developing capabilities for using fracture toughness results to predict structural integrity. Because of the high cost of fabricating and testing structural components, these studies have been limited to predicting the fracture process in specimens containing surface cracks. This paper summarizes the present status of the experimental studies of using fracture toughness data to predict crack growth initiation in specimens (structural components) containing surface cracks. These results are limited to homogeneous base materials.

  7. Clinical Parameters Predicting Pathologic Tumor Response After Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sang Min; Kim, Dae Yong Kim, Tae Hyun; Jung, Kyung Hae; Chang, Hee Jin; Koom, Woong Sub; Lim, Seok-Byung; Choi, Hyo Seong; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Jae-Gahb

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To identify pretreatment clinical parameters that could predict pathologic tumor response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: The study involved 351 patients who underwent preoperative CRT followed by surgery between October 2001 and July 2006. Tumor responses to preoperative CRT were assessed in terms of tumor downstaging and tumor regression. Statistical analyses were performed to identify clinical factors associated with pathologic tumor response. Results: Tumor downstaging (defined as ypT2 or less) was observed in 167 patients (47.6%), whereas tumor regression (defined as Dworak's Regression Grades 3 or 4) was observed in 103 patients (29.3%) and complete regression in 51 patients (14.5%). Multivariate analysis found that predictors of downstaging were pretreatment hemoglobin level (p = 0.045), cN0 classification (p < 0.001), and serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level (p < 0.001), that predictors of tumor regression were cN0 classification (p = 0.044) and CEA level (p < 0.001), and that the predictor of complete regression was CEA level (p = 0.004). Conclusions: The data suggest that pretreatment CEA level is the most important clinical predictor of pathologic tumor response. It may be of benefit in the selection of treatment options as well as the assessment of individual prognosis.

  8. Molecular damage in Fabry disease: characterization and prediction of alpha-galactosidase A pathological mutations.

    PubMed

    Riera, Casandra; Lois, Sergio; Domínguez, Carmen; Fernandez-Cadenas, Israel; Montaner, Joan; Rodríguez-Sureda, Victor; de la Cruz, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (GLA) causes Fabry disease (FD), that is a rare and potentially fatal disease. Identification of these pathological mutations by sequencing is important because it allows an early treatment of the disease. However, before taking any treatment decision, if the mutation identified is unknown, we first need to establish if it is pathological or not. General bioinformatic tools (PolyPhen-2, SIFT, Condel, etc.) can be used for this purpose, but their performance is still limited. Here we present a new tool, specifically derived for the assessment of GLA mutations. We first compared mutations of this enzyme known to cause FD with neutral sequence variants, using several structure and sequence properties. Then, we used these properties to develop a family of prediction methods adapted to different quality requirements. Trained and tested on a set of known Fabry mutations, our methods have a performance (Matthews correlation: 0.56-0.72) comparable or better than that of the more complex method, Polyphen-2 (Matthews correlation: 0.61), and better than those of SIFT (Matthews correl.: 0.54) and Condel (Matthews correl.: 0.51). This result is validated in an independent set of 65 pathological mutations, for which our method displayed the best success rate (91.0%, 87.7%, and 73.8%, for our method, PolyPhen-2 and SIFT, respectively). These data confirmed that our specific approach can effectively contribute to the identification of pathological mutations in GLA, and therefore enhance the use of sequence information in the identification of undiagnosed Fabry patients.

  9. Adolescent Expectations of Early Death Predict Young Adult Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quynh C.; Hussey, Jon M.; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Villaveces, Andres; Marshall, Stephen W.; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Poole, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Among adolescents, expectations of early death have been linked to future risk behaviors. These expectations may also reduce personal investment in education and training, thereby lowering adult socioeconomic status attainment. The importance of socioeconomic status is highlighted by pervasive health inequities and dramatic differences in life expectancy among education and income groups. The objectives of this study were to investigate patterns of change in perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations; PSE), predictors of PSE, and associations between PSE and future socioeconomic status attainment. We utilized the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994-95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001-02 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32). At Wave I, 14% reported ≤ 50% chance of living to age 35 and older adolescents reported lower PSE than younger adolescents. At Wave III, PSE were similar across age. Changes in PSE from Wave I to III were moderate, with 89% of respondents reporting no change (56%), one level higher (22%) or one level lower (10%) in a 5-level PSE variable. Higher block group poverty rate, perceptions that the neighborhood is unsafe, and less time in the U.S. (among the foreign-born) were related to low PSE at Waves I and III. Low PSE at Waves I and III predicted lower education attainment and personal earnings at Wave IV in multinomial logistic regression models controlling for confounding factors such as previous family socioeconomic status, individual demographic characteristics, and depressive symptoms. Anticipation of an early death is prevalent among adolescents and predictive of lower future socioeconomic status. Low PSE reported early in life may be a marker for worse health trajectories. PMID:22405687

  10. Changes in Pilot Behavior with Predictive System Status Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    1998-01-01

    Research has shown a strong pilot preference for predictive information of aircraft system status in the flight deck. However, changes in pilot behavior associated with using this predictive information have not been ascertained. The study described here quantified these changes using three types of predictive information (none, whether a parameter was changing abnormally, and the time for a parameter to reach an alert range) and three initial time intervals until a parameter alert range was reached (ITIs) (1 minute, 5 minutes, and 15 minutes). With predictive information, subjects accomplished most of their tasks before an alert occurred. Subjects organized the time they did their tasks by locus-of-control with no predictive information and for the 1-minute ITI, and by aviatenavigate-communicate for the time for a parameter to reach an alert range and the 15-minute conditions. Overall, predictive information and the longer ITIs moved subjects to performing tasks before the alert actually occurred and had them more mission oriented as indicated by their tasks grouping of aviate-navigate-communicate.

  11. Pilot Mental Workload with Predictive System Status Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    1998-01-01

    Research has shown a strong pilot preference for predictive information of aircraft system status in the flight deck. However, the mental workload associated with using this predictive information has not been ascertained. The study described here attempted to measure mental workload. In this simulator experiment, three types of predictive information (none, whether a parameter was changing abnormally, and the time for a parameter to reach an alert range) and four initial times to a parameter alert range (1 minute, 5 minutes, 15 minutes, and ETA+45 minutes) were tested to determine their effects on subjects mental workload. Subjective workload ratings increased with increasing predictive information (whether a parameter was changing abnormally or the time for a parameter to reach an alert range). Subjective situation awareness decreased with more predictive information but it became greater with increasing initial times to a parameter alert range. Also, subjective focus changed depending on the type of predictive information. Lastly, skin temperature fluctuated less as the initial time to a parameter alert range increased.

  12. Exploration of pathological prediction of chronic kidney diseases by a novel theory of bi-directional probability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan; Luo, Min; Xiao, Li; Zhu, Xue-Jing; Wang, Chang; Fu, Xiao; Yuan, Shu-Guang; Xiao, Fang; Liu, Hong; Dong, Zheng; Liu, Fu-You; Sun, Lin

    2016-08-25

    In the clinic, the pathological types of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) are considered references for choosing treatment protocols. From a statistical viewpoint, a non-invasive method to predict pathological types of CKD is a focus of our work. In the current study, following a frequency analysis of the clinical indices of 588 CKD patients in the department of nephrology, a third-grade class-A hospital, a novel theory is proposed: "bi-directional cumulative probability dichotomy". Further, two models for the prediction and differential diagnosis of CKD pathological type are established. The former indicates an occurrence probability of the pathological types, and the latter indicates an occurrence of CKD pathological type according to logistic binary regression. To verify the models, data were collected from 135 patients, and the results showed that the highest accuracy rate on membranous nephropathy (MN-100%), followed by IgA nephropathy (IgAN-83.33%) and mild lesion type (MLN-73.53%), whereas lower prediction accuracy was observed for mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (0%) and focal segmental sclerosis type (21.74%). The models of bi-directional probability prediction and differential diagnosis indicate a good prediction value in MN, IgAN and MLN and may be considered alternative methods for the pathological discrimination of CKD patients who are unable to undergo renal biopsy.

  13. Vitamin D Status Predicts 30 Day Mortality in Hospitalised Cats

    PubMed Central

    Titmarsh, Helen; Kilpatrick, Scott; Sinclair, Jennifer; Boag, Alisdair; Bode, Elizabeth F.; Lalor, Stephanie M.; Gaylor, Donna; Berry, Jacqueline; Bommer, Nicholas X.; Gunn-Moore, Danielle; Reed, Nikki; Handel, Ian; Mellanby, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency, defined as low serum concentrations of the major circulating form of vitamin D, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), has been associated with the development of numerous infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders in humans. In addition, vitamin D insufficiency has been found to be predictive of mortality for many disorders. However, interpretation of human studies is difficult since vitamin D status is influenced by many factors, including diet, season, latitude, and exposure to UV radiation. In contrast, domesticated cats do not produce vitamin D cutaneously, and most cats are fed a commercial diet containing a relatively standard amount of vitamin D. Consequently, domesticated cats are an attractive model system in which to examine the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and health outcomes. The hypothesis of this study was that vitamin D status would predict short term, all-cause mortality in domesticated cats. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, together with a wide range of other clinical, hematological, and biochemical parameters, were measured in 99 consecutively hospitalised cats. Cats which died within 30 days of initial assessment had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations than cats which survived. In a linear regression model including 12 clinical variables, serum 25(OH)D concentration in the lower tertile was significantly predictive of mortality. The odds ratio of mortality within 30 days was 8.27 (95% confidence interval 2.54-31.52) for cats with a serum 25(OH)D concentration in the lower tertile. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that low serum 25(OH)D concentration status is an independent predictor of short term mortality in cats. PMID:25970442

  14. PDL1 expression in inflammatory breast cancer is frequent and predicts for the pathological response to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, François; Finetti, Pascal; Colpaert, Cécile; Mamessier, Emilie; Parizel, Maxime; Dirix, Luc; Viens, Patrice; Birnbaum, Daniel; van Laere, Steven

    2015-05-30

    We retrospectively analyzed PDL1 mRNA expression in 306 breast cancer samples, including 112 samples of an aggressive form, inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). PDL1 expression was heterogeneous, but was higher in IBC than in non-IBC. Compared to normal breast samples, PDL1 was overexpressed in 38% of IBC. In IBC, PDL1 overexpression was associated with estrogen receptor-negative status, basal and ERBB2-enriched aggressive subtypes, and clinico-biological signs of anti-tumor T-cell cytotoxic response. PDL1 overexpression was associated with better pathological response to chemotherapy, independently of histo-clinical variables and predictive gene expression signatures. No correlation was found with metastasis-free and overall specific survivals. In conclusion, PDL1 overexpression in IBC correlated with better response to chemotherapy. This seemingly counterintuitive correlation between expression of an immunosuppressive molecule and improved therapeutic response may be resolved if PDL1 expression is viewed as a surrogate marker of a strong antitumor immune response among patients treated with immunogenic chemotherapy. In such patients, PDL1 inhibition could protect activated T-cells or reactivate inhibited T-cells and improve the therapeutic response, notably when associated with immunogenic chemotherapy.

  15. PDL1 expression in inflammatory breast cancer is frequent and predicts for the pathological response to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bertucci, François; Finetti, Pascal; Colpaert, Cécile; Mamessier, Emilie; Parizel, Maxime; Dirix, Luc; Viens, Patrice; Birnbaum, Daniel; van Laere, Steven

    2015-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed PDL1 mRNA expression in 306 breast cancer samples, including 112 samples of an aggressive form, inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). PDL1 expression was heterogeneous, but was higher in IBC than in non-IBC. Compared to normal breast samples, PDL1 was overexpressed in 38% of IBC. In IBC, PDL1 overexpression was associated with estrogen receptor-negative status, basal and ERBB2-enriched aggressive subtypes, and clinico-biological signs of anti-tumor T-cell cytotoxic response. PDL1 overexpression was associated with better pathological response to chemotherapy, independently of histo-clinical variables and predictive gene expression signatures. No correlation was found with metastasis-free and overall specific survivals. In conclusion, PDL1 overexpression in IBC correlated with better response to chemotherapy. This seemingly counterintuitive correlation between expression of an immunosuppressive molecule and improved therapeutic response may be resolved if PDL1 expression is viewed as a surrogate marker of a strong antitumor immune response among patients treated with immunogenic chemotherapy. In such patients, PDL1 inhibition could protect activated T-cells or reactivate inhibited T-cells and improve the therapeutic response, notably when associated with immunogenic chemotherapy. PMID:25940795

  16. In vitro simulation of pathological bone conditions to predict clinical outcome of bone tissue engineered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Duong Thuy Thi

    According to the Centers for Disease Control, the geriatric population of ≥65 years of age will increase to 51.5 million in 2020; 40% of white women and 13% of white men will be at risk for fragility fractures or fractures sustained under normal stress and loading conditions due to bone disease, leading to hospitalization and surgical treatment. Fracture management strategies can be divided into pharmaceutical therapy, surgical intervention, and tissue regeneration for fracture prevention, fracture stabilization, and fracture site regeneration, respectively. However, these strategies fail to accommodate the pathological nature of fragility fractures, leading to unwanted side effects, implant failures, and non-unions. Compromised innate bone healing reactions of patients with bone diseases are exacerbated with protective bone therapy. Once these patients sustain a fracture, bone healing is a challenge, especially when fracture stabilization is unsuccessful. Traditional stabilizing screw and plate systems were designed with emphasis on bone mechanics rather than biology. Bone grafts are often used with fixation devices to provide skeletal continuity at the fracture gap. Current bone grafts include autologous bone tissue and donor bone tissue; however, the quality and quantity demanded by fragility fractures sustained by high-risk geriatric patients and patients with bone diseases are not met. Consequently, bone tissue engineering strategies are advancing towards functionalized bone substitutes to provide fracture reconstruction while effectively mediating bone healing in normal and diseased fracture environments. In order to target fragility fractures, fracture management strategies should be tailored to allow bone regeneration and fracture stabilization with bioactive bone substitutes designed for the pathological environment. The clinical outcome of these materials must be predictable within various disease environments. Initial development of a targeted

  17. Levels of 8-OxodG Predict Hepatobiliary Pathology in Opisthorchis viverrini Endemic Settings in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Jariwala, Amar R.; Sithithaworn, Jiraporn; Sripa, Banchob; Brindley, Paul J.; Laha, Thewarach; Mairiang, Eimorn; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Khuntikeo, Narong; Mulvenna, Jason; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Bethony, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is distinct among helminth infections as it drives a chronic inflammatory response in the intrahepatic bile duct that progresses from advanced periductal fibrosis (APF) to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Extensive research shows that oxidative stress (OS) plays a critical role in the transition from chronic O. viverrini infection to CCA. OS also results in the excision of a modified DNA lesion (8-oxodG) into urine, the levels of which can be detected by immunoassay. Herein, we measured concentrations of urine 8-oxodG by immunoassay from the following four groups in the Khon Kaen Cancer Cohort study: (1) O. viverrini negative individuals, (2) O. viverrini positive individuals with no APF as determined by abdominal ultrasound, (3) O. viverrini positive individuals with APF as determined by abdominal ultrasound, and (4) O. viverrini induced cases of CCA. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the utility of creatinine-adjusted urinary 8-oxodG among these groups, along with demographic, behavioral, and immunological risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the predictive accuracy of urinary 8-oxodG for APF and CCA. Elevated concentrations of 8-oxodG in urine positively associated with APF and CCA in a strongly dose-dependent manner. Urinary 8-oxodG concentrations also accurately predicted whether an individual presented with APF or CCA compared to O. viverrini infected individuals without these pathologies. In conclusion, urinary 8-oxodG is a robust ‘candidate’ biomarker of the progression of APF and CCA from chronic opisthorchiasis, which is indicative of the critical role that OS plays in both of these advanced hepatobiliary pathologies. The findings also confirm our previous observations that severe liver pathology occurs early and asymptomatically in residents of O. viverrini endemic regions, where individuals are infected for years (often decades) with this food-borne pathogen. These

  18. Levels of 8-OxodG Predict Hepatobiliary Pathology in Opisthorchis viverrini Endemic Settings in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saichua, Prasert; Yakovleva, Anna; Kamamia, Christine; Jariwala, Amar R; Sithithaworn, Jiraporn; Sripa, Banchob; Brindley, Paul J; Laha, Thewarach; Mairiang, Eimorn; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Khuntikeo, Narong; Mulvenna, Jason; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Bethony, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is distinct among helminth infections as it drives a chronic inflammatory response in the intrahepatic bile duct that progresses from advanced periductal fibrosis (APF) to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Extensive research shows that oxidative stress (OS) plays a critical role in the transition from chronic O. viverrini infection to CCA. OS also results in the excision of a modified DNA lesion (8-oxodG) into urine, the levels of which can be detected by immunoassay. Herein, we measured concentrations of urine 8-oxodG by immunoassay from the following four groups in the Khon Kaen Cancer Cohort study: (1) O. viverrini negative individuals, (2) O. viverrini positive individuals with no APF as determined by abdominal ultrasound, (3) O. viverrini positive individuals with APF as determined by abdominal ultrasound, and (4) O. viverrini induced cases of CCA. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the utility of creatinine-adjusted urinary 8-oxodG among these groups, along with demographic, behavioral, and immunological risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the predictive accuracy of urinary 8-oxodG for APF and CCA. Elevated concentrations of 8-oxodG in urine positively associated with APF and CCA in a strongly dose-dependent manner. Urinary 8-oxodG concentrations also accurately predicted whether an individual presented with APF or CCA compared to O. viverrini infected individuals without these pathologies. In conclusion, urinary 8-oxodG is a robust 'candidate' biomarker of the progression of APF and CCA from chronic opisthorchiasis, which is indicative of the critical role that OS plays in both of these advanced hepatobiliary pathologies. The findings also confirm our previous observations that severe liver pathology occurs early and asymptomatically in residents of O. viverrini endemic regions, where individuals are infected for years (often decades) with this food-borne pathogen. These

  19. Mini Nutritional Assessment predicts gait status and mortality 6 months after hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Gumieiro, David N; Rafacho, Bruna P M; Gonçalves, Andrea F; Tanni, Suzana E; Azevedo, Paula S; Sakane, Daniel T; Carneiro, Carlos A S; Gaspardo, David; Zornoff, Leonardo A M; Pereira, Gilberto J C; Paiva, Sergio A R; Minicucci, Marcos F

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) 2002 and the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Score (ASA) as predictors of gait status and mortality 6 months after hip fracture. A total of eighty-eight consecutive patients over the age of 65 years with hip fracture admitted to an orthopaedic unit were prospectively evaluated. Within the first 72 h of admission, each patient's characteristics were recorded, and the MNA, the NRS 2002 and the ASA were performed. Gait status and mortality were evaluated 6 months after hip fracture. Of the total patients, two were excluded because of pathological fractures. The remaining eighty-six patients (aged 80·2 (sd 7·3) years) were studied. Among these patients 76·7 % were female, 69·8 % walked with or without support and 12·8 % died 6 months after the fracture. In a multivariate analysis, only the MNA was associated with gait status 6 months after hip fracture (OR 0·773, 95 % CI 0·663, 0·901; P= 0·001). In the Cox regression model, only the MNA was associated with mortality 6 months after hip fracture (hazard ratio 0·869, 95 % CI 0·757, 0·998; P= 0·04). In conclusion, the MNA best predicts gait status and mortality 6 months after hip fracture. These results suggest that the MNA should be included in the clinical stratification of patients with hip fracture to identify and treat malnutrition in order to improve the outcomes.

  20. Quantitative imaging features to predict cancer status in lung nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Atwater, Thomas; Antic, Sanja; Li, Qian; Walker, Ronald; Smith, Gary T.; Massion, Pierre P.; Schabath, Matthew B.; Gillies, Robert J.

    2016-03-01

    Background: We propose a systematic methodology to quantify incidentally identified lung nodules based on observed radiological traits on a point scale. These quantitative traits classification model was used to predict cancer status. Materials and Methods: We used 102 patients' low dose computed tomography (LDCT) images for this study, 24 semantic traits were systematically scored from each image. We built a machine learning classifier in cross validation setting to find best predictive imaging features to differentiate malignant from benign lung nodules. Results: The best feature triplet to discriminate malignancy was based on long axis, concavity and lymphadenopathy with average AUC of 0.897 (Accuracy of 76.8%, Sensitivity of 64.3%, Specificity of 90%). A similar semantic triplet optimized on Sensitivity/Specificity (Youden's J index) included long axis, vascular convergence and lymphadenopathy which had an average AUC of 0.875 (Accuracy of 81.7%, Sensitivity of 76.2%, Specificity of 95%). Conclusions: Quantitative radiological image traits can differentiate malignant from benign lung nodules. These semantic features along with size measurement enhance the prediction accuracy.

  1. A marker of homologous recombination predicts pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in primary breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Graeser, Monika; McCarthy, Afshan; Lord, Christopher J; Savage, Kay; Hills, Margaret; Salter, Janine; Orr, Nicholas; Parton, Marina; Smith, Ian E; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Dowsett, Mitch; Ashworth, Alan; Turner, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To assess the prevalence of defective homologous recombination (HR) based DNA repair in sporadic primary breast cancers, examine the clincopathological features that correlate of with defective HR and the relationship with neoadjuvant chemotherapy response. Experimental Design We examined a cohort of 68 patients with sporadic primary breast cancer who received neoadjuvant anthracylcine based chemotherapy, with core biopsies taken 24 hours after the first cycle of chemotherapy. We assessed RAD51 focus formation, a marker of HR competence, by immunofluorescence in post chemotherapy biopsies along with geminin as a marker of proliferative cells. We assessed the RAD51 score as the proportion of proliferative cells with RAD51 foci. Results A low RAD51 score was present in 26% of cases (15/57, 95% CI, 15-40%). Low RAD51 score correlated with high histological grade (p=0.031) and high baseline Ki67 (p=0.005). Low RAD51 score was more frequent in triple negative breast cancers compared to ER and/or HER2 positive breast cancer (67% vs 19% respectively, p=0.0036). Low RAD51 score was strongly predictive of pathological complete response to chemotherapy, with 33% low RAD51 score cancers achieving pathological complete response compared to 3% of other cancers (p=0.011). Conclusions Our results suggest that defective HR, as indicated by low RAD51 score, may be one of the factors that underlie sensitivity to anthracycline based chemotherapy. Defective HR is frequent in triple negative breast cancer, but is also present in a subset of other subtypes, identifying breast cancers that may benefit from therapies that target defective HR, such as PARP inhibitors. PMID:20802015

  2. Language of perfectionistic parents predicting child anxiety diagnostic status.

    PubMed

    Affrunti, Nicholas W; Geronimi, Elena M C; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2015-03-01

    Previous research has identified parental perfectionism as a risk factor for child anxiety. Yet few studies investigated why parental perfectionism may play such a role. Based on research suggesting parental verbal information and language use are associated with increased child fear beliefs and anxiety, the current study investigated the linguistic style of perfectionistic mothers and its relation to child anxiety. Participants were 71 mother-child dyads. Children were 3-12 years old, 57.7% female, and 30 were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Analyses showed that parental perfectionism was associated with increased second person pronouns, decreased adverbs, negative emotion words, and anger words. Second person pronouns and negative emotion words predicted child anxiety diagnostic status and mediated the relation between maternal perfectionism and child anxiety. These findings suggest that parental perfectionism may be associated with a specific language style that is related to child anxiety. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  3. Does Adolescent Weight Status Predict Problematic Substance Use Patterns?

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Grella, Christine E.; Chung, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify underlying patterns of cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and marijuana use in young adulthood, and ascertain whether adolescent over-weight or obesity status predicts problematic substance use patterns. Methods The study included 15,119 participants from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) at Wave 1 (11-19 years) and Wave 3 (18-26 years). Latent class analysis was conducted. Results Participants were classified into a Low Substance Use (35%), Regular Smokers (12%), High-risk Alcohol use (33%), or High Substance Use (20%) class. Over-weight/obese adolescents had a greater likelihood of belonging to the Regular Smokers class. Conclusions Overweight/obese adolescents are at higher risk of engaging in regular cigarette smoking without problematic alcohol or marijuana use. PMID:24933140

  4. Behavioral Profile Predicts Dominance Status in Mountain Chickadees

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Rebecca A.; Ladage, Lara D.; Roth, Timothy C.; Pravosudov, Vladimir V.

    2009-01-01

    Individual variation in stable behavioral traits may explain variation in ecologically-relevant behaviors such as foraging, dispersal, anti-predator behavior, and dominance. We investigated behavioral variation in mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli), a North American parid that lives in dominance-structured winter flocks, using two common measures of behavioral profile: exploration of a novel room and novel object exploration. We related those behavioral traits to dominance status in male chickadees following brief, pair-wise encounters. Low-exploring birds (birds that visited less than four locations in the novel room) were significantly more likely to become dominant in brief, pairwise encounters with high-exploring birds (i.e., birds that visited all perching locations within a novel room). On the other hand, there was no relationship between novel object exploration and dominance. Interestingly, novel room exploration was also not correlated with novel object exploration. These results suggest that behavioral profile may predict the social status of group-living individuals. Moreover, our results contradict the idea that novel object exploration and novel room exploration are always interchangeable measures of individuals' sensitivity to environmental novelty. PMID:20161203

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of calculated serum osmolarity to predict dehydration in older people: adding value to pathology laboratory reports

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Lee; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Ali, Adam; Bunn, Diane K; Jennings, Amy; John, W Garry; Kerry, Susan; Lindner, Gregor; Pfortmueller, Carmen A; Sjöstrand, Fredrik; Walsh, Neil P; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Potter, John F; Hunter, Paul R; Shepstone, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess which osmolarity equation best predicts directly measured serum/plasma osmolality and whether its use could add value to routine blood test results through screening for dehydration in older people. Design Diagnostic accuracy study. Participants Older people (≥65 years) in 5 cohorts: Dietary Strategies for Healthy Ageing in Europe (NU-AGE, living in the community), Dehydration Recognition In our Elders (DRIE, living in residential care), Fortes (admitted to acute medical care), Sjöstrand (emergency room) or Pfortmueller cohorts (hospitalised with liver cirrhosis). Reference standard for hydration status Directly measured serum/plasma osmolality: current dehydration (serum osmolality >300 mOsm/kg), impending/current dehydration (≥295 mOsm/kg). Index tests 39 osmolarity equations calculated using serum indices from the same blood draw as directly measured osmolality. Results Across 5 cohorts 595 older people were included, of whom 19% were dehydrated (directly measured osmolality >300 mOsm/kg). Of 39 osmolarity equations, 5 showed reasonable agreement with directly measured osmolality and 3 had good predictive accuracy in subgroups with diabetes and poor renal function. Two equations were characterised by narrower limits of agreement, low levels of differential bias and good diagnostic accuracy in receiver operating characteristic plots (areas under the curve >0.8). The best equation was osmolarity=1.86×(Na++ K+)+1.15×glucose+urea+14 (all measured in mmol/L). It appeared useful in people aged ≥65 years with and without diabetes, poor renal function, dehydration, in men and women, with a range of ages, health, cognitive and functional status. Conclusions Some commonly used osmolarity equations work poorly, and should not be used. Given costs and prevalence of dehydration in older people we suggest use of the best formula by pathology laboratories using a cutpoint of 295 mOsm/L (sensitivity 85%, specificity 59%), to report

  6. Postchemoradiotherapy Positron Emission Tomography Predicts Pathologic Response and Survival in Patients With Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jayachandran, Priya; Pai, Reetesh K.; Quon, Andrew; Graves, Edward; Krakow, Trevor E.; La, Trang; Loo, Billy W.; Koong, Albert C.; Chang, Daniel T.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To correlate the prechemoradiotherapy (CRT) and post-CRT metabolic tumor volume (MTV) on positron emission tomography (PET) scanning with the pathologic response and survival in patients receiving preoperative CRT for esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 37 patients with histologically confirmed Stage I-IVA esophageal cancer treated with CRT with or without surgical resection were reviewed. Of the 37 patients, 21 received preoperative CRT (57%) and 16 received definitive CRT (43%). All patients had a pre-CRT and 32 had a post-CRT PET scan. The MTV was measured on the pre-CRT PET and post-CRT PET scan, respectively, using a minimum standardized uptake value (SUV) threshold x, where x = 2, 2.5, 3, or the SUV maximum Multiplication-Sign 50%. The total glycolytic activity (TGA{sub x}) was defined as the mean SUV Multiplication-Sign MTV{sub x}. The MTV ratio was defined as the pre-CRT PET MTV/post-CRT MTV. The SUV ratio was defined similarly. A single pathologist scored the pathologic response using a tumor regression grade (TRG) scale. Results: The median follow-up was 1.5 years (range, 0.4-4.9). No significant correlation was found between any parameters on the pre-CRT PET scan and the TRG or overall survival (OS). Multiple post-CRT MTV values and post-TGA values correlated with the TRG and OS; however, the MTV{sub 2.5Post} and TGA{sub 2.5Post} had the greatest correlation. The MTV{sub 2} ratio correlated with OS. The maximum SUV on either the pre-CRT and post-CRT PET scans or the maximum SUV ratio did not correlate with the TRG or OS. Patients treated preoperatively had survival similar compared with those treated definitively with a good PET response (p = 0.97) and significantly better than that of patients treated definitively with a poor PET response (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The maximum SUV was not a predictive or prognostic parameter. The MTV{sub 2.5} and TGA{sub 2.5} were useful markers for predicting the response and

  7. Computational modelling of traumatic brain injury predicts the location of chronic traumatic encephalopathy pathology.

    PubMed

    Ghajari, Mazdak; Hellyer, Peter J; Sharp, David J

    2017-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury can lead to the neurodegenerative disease chronic traumatic encephalopathy. This condition has a clear neuropathological definition but the relationship between the initial head impact and the pattern of progressive brain pathology is poorly understood. We test the hypothesis that mechanical strain and strain rate are greatest in sulci, where neuropathology is prominently seen in chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and whether human neuroimaging observations converge with computational predictions. Three distinct types of injury were simulated. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy can occur after sporting injuries, so we studied a helmet-to-helmet impact in an American football game. In addition, we investigated an occipital head impact due to a fall from ground level and a helmeted head impact in a road traffic accident involving a motorcycle and a car. A high fidelity 3D computational model of brain injury biomechanics was developed and the contours of strain and strain rate at the grey matter-white matter boundary were mapped. Diffusion tensor imaging abnormalities in a cohort of 97 traumatic brain injury patients were also mapped at the grey matter-white matter boundary. Fifty-one healthy subjects served as controls. The computational models predicted large strain most prominent at the depths of sulci. The volume fraction of sulcal regions exceeding brain injury thresholds were significantly larger than that of gyral regions. Strain and strain rates were highest for the road traffic accident and sporting injury. Strain was greater in the sulci for all injury types, but strain rate was greater only in the road traffic and sporting injuries. Diffusion tensor imaging showed converging imaging abnormalities within sulcal regions with a significant decrease in fractional anisotropy in the patient group compared to controls within the sulci. Our results show that brain tissue deformation induced by head impact loading is greatest in sulcal locations

  8. MicroRNA-31 Emerges as a Predictive Biomarker of Pathological Response and Outcome in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Caramés, Cristina; Cristobal, Ion; Moreno, Víctor; Marín, Juan P; González-Alonso, Paula; Torrejón, Blanca; Minguez, Pablo; Leon, Ana; Martín, José I; Hernández, Roberto; Pedregal, Manuel; Martín, María J; Cortés, Delia; García-Olmo, Damian; Fernández, María J; Rojo, Federico; García-Foncillas, Jesús

    2016-06-03

    Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by total mesorectal excision has emerged as the standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients. However, many cases do not respond to neoadjuvant CRT, suffering unnecessary toxicities and surgery delays. Thus, identification of predictive biomarkers for neoadjuvant CRT is a current clinical need. In the present study, microRNA-31 expression was measured in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsies from 78 patients diagnosed with LARC who were treated with neoadjuvant CRT. Then, the obtained results were correlated with clinical and pathological characteristics and outcome. High microRNA-31 (miR-31) levels were found overexpressed in 34.2% of cases. Its overexpression significantly predicted poor pathological response (p = 0.018) and worse overall survival (OS) (p = 0.008). The odds ratio for no pathological response among patients with miR-31 overexpression was 0.18 (Confidence Interval = 0.06 to 0.57; p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis corroborated the clinical impact of miR-31 in determining pathological response to neoadjuvant CRT as well as OS. Altogether, miR-31 quantification emerges as a novel valuable clinical tool to predict both pathological response and outcome in LARC patients.

  9. MicroRNA-31 Emerges as a Predictive Biomarker of Pathological Response and Outcome in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Caramés, Cristina; Cristobal, Ion; Moreno, Víctor; Marín, Juan P.; González-Alonso, Paula; Torrejón, Blanca; Minguez, Pablo; Leon, Ana; Martín, José I.; Hernández, Roberto; Pedregal, Manuel; Martín, María J.; Cortés, Delia; García-Olmo, Damian; Fernández, María J.; Rojo, Federico; García-Foncillas, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by total mesorectal excision has emerged as the standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients. However, many cases do not respond to neoadjuvant CRT, suffering unnecessary toxicities and surgery delays. Thus, identification of predictive biomarkers for neoadjuvant CRT is a current clinical need. In the present study, microRNA-31 expression was measured in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsies from 78 patients diagnosed with LARC who were treated with neoadjuvant CRT. Then, the obtained results were correlated with clinical and pathological characteristics and outcome. High microRNA-31 (miR-31) levels were found overexpressed in 34.2% of cases. Its overexpression significantly predicted poor pathological response (p = 0.018) and worse overall survival (OS) (p = 0.008). The odds ratio for no pathological response among patients with miR-31 overexpression was 0.18 (Confidence Interval = 0.06 to 0.57; p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis corroborated the clinical impact of miR-31 in determining pathological response to neoadjuvant CRT as well as OS. Altogether, miR-31 quantification emerges as a novel valuable clinical tool to predict both pathological response and outcome in LARC patients. PMID:27271609

  10. Relationship of parasites and pathologies to contaminant body burden in sentinel bivalves: NOAA Status and Trends 'Mussel Watch' Program.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yungkul; Powell, Eric N; Wade, Terry L; Presley, Bobby J

    2008-03-01

    The 1995-1998 database from NOAA's National Status and Trends 'Mussel Watch' Program was used to compare the distributional patterns of parasites and pathologies with contaminant body burdens. Principal components analysis (PCA) resolved five groups of contaminants in both mussels and oysters: one dominated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), one dominated by pesticides, and three dominated by metals. Metals produced a much more complex picture of spatial trends in body burden than did either the pesticides or PAHs. Contrasted to the relative simplicity of the contaminant groupings, PCA exposed a suite of parasite/pathology groups with few similarities between the sentinel bivalve taxa. Thus, the relationship between parasites/pathologies and contaminants differs significantly between taxa despite the similarity in contaminant pattern. Moreover, the combined effects of many contaminants and parasites may be important, leading to complex biological-contaminant interactions with synergies both of biological and chemical origin. Overall, correlations between parasites/pathologies and contaminants were more frequent with metals, frequent with pesticides, and less frequent with PAHs in mussels. In oysters, correlations with pesticides and metals were about equally frequent, but correlations with PAHs were still rare. In mytilids, correlations with metals predominated. Negative and positive correlations with metals occurred with about the same frequency in both taxa. The majority of correlations with pesticides were negative in oysters; not so for mytilids. Of the many significant correlations involving parasites, few involved single-celled eukaryotes or prokaryotes. The vast majority involved multi-cellular eukaryotes and nearly all of them either cestodes, trematode sporocysts, or trematode metacercariae. The few correlations for single-celled parasites all involved proliferating protozoa or protozoa reaching high body burdens through transmission. The tendency

  11. CSF abnormalities can be predicted by VEP and MRI pathology in the examination of optic neuritis.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Henrik; Degn, Matilda; Modvig, Signe; Larsson, Henrik B W; Wanscher, Benedikte; Frederiksen, Jette L

    2012-12-01

    Optic neuritis (ON) is linked to multiple sclerosis (MS). The presence of white matter lesions on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) predicts the risk of MS after ON with considerable accuracy. Oligoclonal bands (OCB) are present in 95 % of MS patients, and a lumbar puncture can also be valuable in the evaluation of patients with ON. We analyzed CSF findings in patients referred with ON in the context of MRI and visual evoked potential (VEP) pathology. We assessed the possible contributory role of a lumbar puncture and weigh this against disadvantages of the procedure. Between February 2003 and November 2011, 505 patients were referred by ophthalmologists to the Clinic of Optic Neuritis, Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen. None had MS prior to referral. A total of 437 were included in the study, and all underwent MRI, a lumbar puncture and VEP. Patients with other organic causes of their symptoms and patients with >3 months between onset and tests were excluded. All files were reviewed retrospectively. CSF leukocytes and the IgG index were elevated in 33 and 41 %, respectively, and OCBs were detected in 61 % of patients. CSF abnormalities correlated strongly with VEP and MRI (p < 0.0001). Patients with normal VEP and MRI had a 96 % probability of a normal lumbar puncture. The contributory role of a lumbar puncture in the evaluation of ON seems negligible when patients have a normal VEP and MRI. We suggest that all patients should be evaluated with VEP and MRI before deciding on a lumbar puncture.

  12. DNA Copy Number Aberrations, and Human Papillomavirus Status in Penile Carcinoma. Clinico-Pathological Correlations and Potential Driver Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lambros, Maryou; Stankiewicz, Elzbieta; Ng, Charlotte K. Y.; Weigelt, Britta; Rajab, Ramzi; Tinwell, Brendan; Corbishley, Cathy; Watkin, Nick; Berney, Dan; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.

    2016-01-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinoma is a rare disease, in which somatic genetic aberrations have yet to be characterized. We hypothesized that gene copy aberrations might correlate with human papillomavirus status and clinico-pathological features. We sought to determine the spectrum of gene copy number aberrations in a large series of PSCCs and to define their correlations with human papillomavirus, histopathological subtype, and tumor grade, stage and lymph node status. Seventy formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded penile squamous cell carcinomas were centrally reviewed by expert uropathologists. DNA was extracted from micro-dissected samples, subjected to PCR-based human papillomavirus assessment and genotyping (INNO-LiPA human papillomavirus Genotyping Extra Assay) and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization using a 32K Bacterial Artificial Chromosome array platform. Sixty-four samples yielded interpretable results. Recurrent gains were observed in chromosomes 1p13.3-q44 (88%), 3p12.3-q29 (86%), 5p15.33-p11 (67%) and 8p12-q24.3 (84%). Amplifications of 5p15.33-p11 and 11p14.1-p12 were found in seven (11%) and four (6%) cases, respectively. Losses were observed in chromosomes 2q33-q37.3 (86%), 3p26.3-q11.1 (83%) and 11q12.2-q25 (81%). Although many losses and gains were similar throughout the cohort, there were small significant differences observed at specific loci, between human papillomavirus positive and negative tumors, between tumor types, and tumor grade and nodal status. These results demonstrate that despite the diversity of genetic aberrations in penile squamous cell carcinomas, there are significant correlations between the clinico-pathological data and the genetic changes that may play a role in disease natural history and progression and highlight potential driver genes, which may feature in molecular pathways for existing therapeutic agents. PMID:26901676

  13. HER-2 overexpression/amplification in Barrett's oesophagus predicts early transition from dysplasia to adenocarcinoma: a clinico-pathologic study.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Elisa; Grisanti, Salvatore; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Della Casa, Domenico; Cengia, Paolo; Missale, Guido; Minelli, Luigi; Buglione, Michela; Cestari, Renzo; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2009-09-01

    Barrett's oesophagus (BO) is the primary precursor lesion for oesophageal adenocarcinoma (ADC). The natural history of metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence remains largely unknown. HER2/neu oncogene results overexpressed/amplified in preneoplastic lesions and in ADC of the oesophagus and it has been associated with poor prognosis. Our aim was to evaluate the role of HER2 overexpression/amplification in predicting the conversion from precursor lesions to ADC. We retrospectively evaluated by univariate analysis of single variables clinical records and histological specimens of 21 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of BO and/or oesophageal dysplasia. Clinical variables included age, gender, alcohol and smoking intake, presence of symptoms (pyrosis, disphagia) and endoscopic features (length). HER2 status was studied by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on paraffin-embedded tissue. The end-points were the occurrence of progression and the time-to-progression (TTP) from the initial histologic lesion to the worst pathological pattern. Median age at diagnosis was 63 years (range 37-84). BO median length was 4.5 cm. Progression occurred in 11 of 21 patients and median TTP was 24 months. HER2 was overexpressed/amplified in 8 of 21 (38%) patients. HER2 overexpression/ amplification and the presence of dysplasia were statistically associated with progression (P= 0.038). This study provides evidence for a possible role of HER2 in the transition from dysplasia to ADC of the oesophagus. This fact could help in identifying patients at high risk of malignant transformation.

  14. Self-Fitting Hearing Aids: Status Quo and Future Predictions.

    PubMed

    Keidser, Gitte; Convery, Elizabeth

    2016-04-12

    A self-contained, self-fitting hearing aid (SFHA) is a device that enables the user to perform both threshold measurements leading to a prescribed hearing aid setting and fine-tuning, without the need for audiological support or access to other equipment. The SFHA has been proposed as a potential solution to address unmet hearing health care in developing countries and remote locations in the developed world and is considered a means to lower cost and increase uptake of hearing aids in developed countries. This article reviews the status of the SFHA and the evidence for its feasibility and challenges and predicts where it is heading. Devices that can be considered partly or fully self-fitting without audiological support were identified in the direct-to-consumer market. None of these devices are considered self-contained as they require access to other hardware such as a proprietary interface, computer, smartphone, or tablet for manipulation. While there is evidence that self-administered fitting processes can provide valid and reliable results, their success relies on user-friendly device designs and interfaces and easy-to-interpret instructions. Until these issues have been sufficiently addressed, optional assistance with the self-fitting process and on-going use of SFHAs is recommended. Affordability and a sustainable delivery system remain additional challenges for the SFHA in developing countries. Future predictions include a growth in self-fitting products, with most future SFHAs consisting of earpieces that connect wirelessly with a smartphone and providers offering assistance through a telehealth infrastructure, and the integration of SFHAs into the traditional hearing health-care model.

  15. Urine Metabolite Profiles Predictive of Human Kidney Allograft Status.

    PubMed

    Suhre, Karsten; Schwartz, Joseph E; Sharma, Vijay K; Chen, Qiuying; Lee, John R; Muthukumar, Thangamani; Dadhania, Darshana M; Ding, Ruchuang; Ikle, David N; Bridges, Nancy D; Williams, Nikki M; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Karoly, Edward D; Mohney, Robert P; Abecassis, Michael; Friedewald, John; Knechtle, Stuart J; Becker, Yolanda T; Samstein, Benjamin; Shaked, Abraham; Gross, Steven S; Suthanthiran, Manikkam

    2016-02-01

    Noninvasive diagnosis and prognostication of acute cellular rejection in the kidney allograft may help realize the full benefits of kidney transplantation. To investigate whether urine metabolites predict kidney allograft status, we determined levels of 749 metabolites in 1516 urine samples from 241 kidney graft recipients enrolled in the prospective multicenter Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation-04 study. A metabolite signature of the ratio of 3-sialyllactose to xanthosine in biopsy specimen-matched urine supernatants best discriminated acute cellular rejection biopsy specimens from specimens without rejection. For clinical application, we developed a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based assay that enabled absolute and rapid quantification of the 3-sialyllactose-to-xanthosine ratio in urine samples. A composite signature of ratios of 3-sialyllactose to xanthosine and quinolinate to X-16397 and our previously reported urinary cell mRNA signature of 18S ribosomal RNA, CD3ε mRNA, and interferon-inducible protein-10 mRNA outperformed the metabolite signatures and the mRNA signature. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for the composite metabolite-mRNA signature was 0.93, and the signature was diagnostic of acute cellular rejection with a specificity of 84% and a sensitivity of 90%. The composite signature, developed using solely biopsy specimen-matched urine samples, predicted future acute cellular rejection when applied to pristine samples taken days to weeks before biopsy. We conclude that metabolite profiling of urine offers a noninvasive means of diagnosing and prognosticating acute cellular rejection in the human kidney allograft, and that the combined metabolite and mRNA signature is diagnostic and prognostic of acute cellular rejection with very high accuracy.

  16. Metabolic Glucose Status and Pituitary Pathology Portend Therapeutic Outcomes in Acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Sonia; Serri, Omar; L. Asa, Sylvia; Ezzat, Shereen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Acromegaly is frequently associated with impaired glucose tolerance and/or diabetes. To evaluate the relationship between glucose metabolism and acromegaly disease, we evaluated 269 consecutive patients from two referral centres. Methods Clinical presentation, pituitary tumor size and invasiveness, and pituitary pathology were captured in a dedicated database. Results 131 women and 138 men with a mean age of 53.8 years were included. Of these, 201 (74.7%) presented with a macroadenoma and 18 (6.7%) with a microadenoma. Radiographic invasion was present in 91 cases (33.8%). Mean tumor diameter was 1.86 cm (0.2–4.6). Pituitary histopathologic findings revealed pure GH-producing somatotroph adenomas (SA) in 147 patients, prolactin-production by mixed lactotroph (LA) and SA or mammosomatotroph adenoma (MSA) in 46 [22.4%], acidophil stem cell adenoma in 6 [2.9%], and other diagnoses in 6 [2.9%]. Medical treatment included octreotide in 96 [36.9%] and in combination with pegvisomant or dopamine agonists in 63 [24.2%]. Nearly 80% of patients achieved IGF-1 normalization. Importantly, patients with pure somatotroph adenomas were significantly more likely to present with abnormal glucose metabolism [48.7%] than those with mixed adenomas [9.7%] [p<0.001] independent of GH/IGF-1 levels or tumor invasiveness. Abnormal glucose metabolism and pituitary pathology also remained linked following IGF-1 normalization. Moreover patients with pure SA and abnormal glucose metabolism were significantly (p<0.001) less likely to achieve disease remission despite the same therapeutic strategies. Conversely, patients with mixed adenomas were more likely (OR: 2.766 (95% CI: 1.490–5.136) to achieve disease remission. Conclusions Patients with pure somatotroph adenomas are more likely than those with mixed adenomas to exhibit abnormal glucose metabolism. PMID:24039977

  17. Preference for High Status Predicts Implicit Outgroup Bias among Children from Low-Status Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newheiser, Anna-Kaisa; Dunham, Yarrow; Merrill, Anna; Hoosain, Leah; Olson, Kristina R.

    2014-01-01

    Whereas members of high-status racial groups show ingroup preference when attitudes are measured implicitly, members of low-status racial groups--both adults and children--typically show no bias, potentially reflecting awareness of the ingroup's low status. We hypothesized that when status differences are especially pronounced, children from…

  18. Trypanosoma cruzi infection and benznidazole therapy independently stimulate oxidative status and structural pathological remodeling of the liver tissue in mice.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Rômulo Dias; Santos, Eliziária C; Cupertino, Marli C; Bastos, Daniel S S; Oliveira, Jerusa M; Carvalho, Thaís V; Neves, Mariana M; Oliveira, Leandro L; Talvani, André

    2015-08-01

    This study used a murine model of Chagas disease to investigate the isolated and combined impact of Trypanosoma cruzi infection and benznidazole (BZ) therapy on liver structure and function. Male C57BL/6 mice were challenged with T. cruzi and BZ for 15 days. Serum levels of cytokines and hepatic enzymes, liver oxidative stress, morphology, collagen, and glycogen content were monitored. Separately, T. cruzi infection and BZ treatment resulted in a pro-oxidant status and hepatic reactive damage. Concurrently, both T. cruzi infection and BZ treatment induced upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and pathological reorganization of the liver parenchyma and stroma. T. cruzi infection increased serum levels of Th1 cytokines, which were reduced by BZ in both infected and non-infected animals. BZ also induced functional organ damage, increasing serum levels of liver enzymes. When combined, T. cruzi infection and BZ therapy elicited intense hepatic reactive damage that was not compensated by antioxidant enzymatic reaction, subsequently culminating in more severe morphofunctional hepatic injury. Taken together, these findings indicate that during specific treatment of Chagas disease, hepatic pathology may be a result of an interaction between BZ metabolism and specific mechanisms activated during the natural course of T. cruzi infection, rather than an isolated toxic effect of BZ on liver structure and function.

  19. Mismatch repair status may predict response to adjuvant chemotherapy in resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Riazy, Maziar; Kalloger, Steve E; Sheffield, Brandon S; Peixoto, Renata D; Li-Chang, Hector H; Scudamore, Charles H; Renouf, Daniel J; Schaeffer, David F

    2015-10-01

    Deficiencies in DNA mismatch repair have been associated with inferior response to 5-FU in colorectal cancer. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is similarly treated with pyrimidine analogs, yet the predictive value of mismatch repair status for response to these agents has not been examined in this malignancy. A tissue microarray with associated clinical outcome, comprising 254 resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients was stained for four mismatch repair proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2). Mismatch repair deficiency and proficiency was determined by the absence or presence of uniform nuclear staining in tumor cells, respectively. Cases identified as mismatch repair deficient on the tissue microarray were confirmed by immunohistochemistry on whole slide sections. Of the 265 cases, 78 (29%) received adjuvant treatment with a pyrimidine analog and 41 (15%) showed a mismatch repair-deficient immunoprofile. Multivariable disease-specific survival in the mismatch repair-proficient cohort demonstrated that adjuvant chemotherapy, regional lymph-node status, gender, and the presence of tumor budding were significant independent prognostic variables (P≤0.04); however, none of the eight clinico-pathologic covariates examined in the mismatch repair-deficient cohort were of independent prognostic significance. Univariable assessment of disease-specific survival revealed an almost identical survival profile for both treated and untreated patients with a mismatch repair-deficient profile, while treatment in the mismatch repair-proficient cohort conferred a greater than 10-month median disease-specific survival advantage over their untreated counterparts (P=0.0018). In this cohort, adjuvant chemotherapy with a pyrimidine analog conferred no survival advantage to mismatch repair-deficient pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients. Mismatch repair immunoprofiling is a feasible predictive marker in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients, and further prospective

  20. Preoperative characteristics of high-Gleason disease predictive of favourable pathological and clinical outcomes at radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Ross, Ashley E.; Lin, Brian M.; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Han, Misop; Walsh, Patrick C.; Partin, Alan W.; Pavlovich, Christian P.; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate preoperative characteristics that distinguish favourable and unfavourable pathological and clinical outcomes in men with high biopsy Gleason sum (8 – 10) prostate cancer to better select men who will most benefit from radical prostatectomy (RP). PATIENTS AND METHODS The Institutional Review Board-approved institutional RP database (1982 – 2010) was analysed for men with high-Gleason prostate cancer on biopsy; 842 men were identified. The 10-year biochemical-free (BFS), metastasis-free (MFS) and prostate cancer-specific survival (CSS) were calculated using the Kaplan – Meier method to verify favourable pathology as men with Gleason <8 at RP or ≤ pT3a compared with men with unfavourable pathology with Gleason 8 – 10 and pT3b or N1. Preoperative characteristics were compared using appropriate comparative tests. Logistic regression determined preoperative predictors of unfavourable pathology. RESULTS There was favourable pathology in 656 (77.9%) men. The 10-year BFS, MFS and CSS were 31.0%, 60.9% and 74.8%, respectively. In contrast, men with unfavourable pathological findings had significantly worse 10-year BFS, MFS and CSS, at 4.3%, 29.1% and 52.3%, respectively (all P < 0.001). In multivariable logistic regression, a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration of > 10 ng/mL (odds ratio [OR] 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.38 – 3.62, P = 0.001), advanced clinical stage (≥ cT2b; OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.55 – 4.21, P < 0.001), Gleason pattern 9 or 10 at biopsy (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.59 – 4.09, P < 0.001), increasing number of cores positive with high-grade cancer (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.01 – 1.34, P = 0.04) and > 50% positive core involvement (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.17 – 4.35, P = 0.015) were predictive of unfavourable pathology. CONCLUSIONS Men with high-Gleason sum at biopsy are at high risk for biochemical recurrence, metastasis and death after RP; men with high Gleason sum and advanced pathological stage (pT3b or N1) have the worst

  1. Pathologic Stage of Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Patients Presenting as Resectable Cases After Neoadjuvant Therapy Did Not Predict the Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Yang; Fu, Jui-Ying; Wu, Ching-Feng; Liu, Yun-Hen; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2015-10-01

    According to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, treatment plans for nonsmall cell lung cancer are to be based on cancer stage. Cancer staging for patients with resectable disease has been based on pathologic stage instead of preoperative clinical stage. However, the possibility of occult mediastinal lymph node metastases could lead to discrepancy between clinical and pathologic stage. While multi-modality treatments may be beneficial for patients with locally advanced disease, most studies have been based on clinical stage. The aim of this study was to identify the beneficial impact of neoadjuvant therapy and the prognostic value of final pathologic stage in these patients. This study enrolled 530 lung cancer patients who received anatomic resection and mediastinal lymph node dissection at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from January 2005 through June 2011. All resected specimens were examined by pathologists. Postoperative adjuvant therapies were given according to NCCN guideline recommendations. The clinico-pathologic factors of these patients were collected and analyzed. Patients not receiving neoadjuvant therapy had a better probability of disease-free survival (P < 0.001) and overall survival (P = 0.0005), as well as a lower incidence of early relapse. Patients not receiving neoadjuvant therapy had a better disease-free survival rate in stages IA (P < 0.001), IB (P = 0.002), and IIB (P = 0.0117) from the point of view of final pathologic stage. Patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy may experience a higher incidence of early relapse. Neoadjuvant therapy did not show definite benefits in the disease-free and overall survival rates from the point of view of final pathologic stage. Pathologic stage of nonsmall cell lung cancer patients who presented with resectable disease after neoadjuvant therapy did not predict the prognosis.

  2. HER2 status in molecular apocrine breast cancer: associations with clinical, pathological, and molecular features

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wenwen; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Yun; Zhu, Xiaojing; Shi, Zhongyuan; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Molecular apocrine breast cancer (MABC) is a distinct subtype of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between HER2 status and clinicopathologic characteristics of MABCs from Chinese Han cohort. A cohort of 90 MABC patients were enrolled. Immunohistochemical method was performed to analyze the molecular expression, and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification was verified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). By studying these 90 MABC cases, the majority of studied patients were premenopausal young women (median age 48 yr) with high grade tumors. We also found that MABCs had high positive expression rates of HER2, CK8, CD44, CD166, p53 and BRCA1, the elevated Ki-67 labeling index, and favorable prognosis. There was a significantly higher incidence of lymph node metastasis and lower CD166 positive rate in HER2-negative patients compared to HER2-positive patients (54.5% vs. 37.0%, P = 0.044 and 72.7% vs. 91.3%, P = 0.021, respectively). The CK5/6 and EGFR expression rates were significant higher in HER2-negative cases than in HER2-positive cases, suggesting that there is overlap between MABC with HER2-negative phenotype and basal-like breast cancer. In addition, HER2 positive was found to be significantly associated a poor overall survival in MABCs. In conclusion, HER2 are highly expressed, and HER2 positivity could be considered as a significant biomarker of poor prognosis in MABC. The results also suggest that a subtype tumor with distinct patterns of molecule expression depending on HER2 status presented in MABC. PMID:26339367

  3. HER2 status in molecular apocrine breast cancer: associations with clinical, pathological, and molecular features.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenwen; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Yun; Zhu, Xiaojing; Shi, Zhongyuan; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Molecular apocrine breast cancer (MABC) is a distinct subtype of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between HER2 status and clinicopathologic characteristics of MABCs from Chinese Han cohort. A cohort of 90 MABC patients were enrolled. Immunohistochemical method was performed to analyze the molecular expression, and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification was verified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). By studying these 90 MABC cases, the majority of studied patients were premenopausal young women (median age 48 yr) with high grade tumors. We also found that MABCs had high positive expression rates of HER2, CK8, CD44, CD166, p53 and BRCA1, the elevated Ki-67 labeling index, and favorable prognosis. There was a significantly higher incidence of lymph node metastasis and lower CD166 positive rate in HER2-negative patients compared to HER2-positive patients (54.5% vs. 37.0%, P = 0.044 and 72.7% vs. 91.3%, P = 0.021, respectively). The CK5/6 and EGFR expression rates were significant higher in HER2-negative cases than in HER2-positive cases, suggesting that there is overlap between MABC with HER2-negative phenotype and basal-like breast cancer. In addition, HER2 positive was found to be significantly associated a poor overall survival in MABCs. In conclusion, HER2 are highly expressed, and HER2 positivity could be considered as a significant biomarker of poor prognosis in MABC. The results also suggest that a subtype tumor with distinct patterns of molecule expression depending on HER2 status presented in MABC.

  4. Se status in normal and pathological human individuals before and after Se supplementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellisola, G.; Cinque, G.; Galassini, S.; Guidi, G. C.; Liu, N. Q.; Moschini, G.

    1996-04-01

    The determination of selenium in plasma and in urine samples has been suggested for the assessment of Se status in human individuals. The kidney is of fundamental importance in Se homeostasis: with low Se intake its excretion will be decreased and with high Se intake it will be increased. In 21 patients with kidney disease (8 with normal kidney function and 13 with moderate renal failure) Se was measured in 1 ml of urine by PIXE after preconcentration of the sample. The total urine volume was measured to calculate total daily Se excretion. The same procedure was applied to 14 normal individuals for comparison. All individuals were then supplemented orally with selenite for 8 weeks (Se = 600 μg/day) and the procedure was repeated. The behaviour of the major selenoproteins was also investigated by measuring glutathione peroxidase activities in plasma, in platelets and in erythrocyte samples. For renal function, serum and urine creatinine concentrations were utilised and creatinine clearances were calculated. Results obtained were compared before and after Se treatment and between groups. Some correlation studies were carried out between Se and kidney functions and/or selenoperoxidase activities.

  5. Development of a semi-automated method for subspecialty case distribution and prediction of intraoperative consultations in surgical pathology

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Raul S.; Long, Daniel; Hameed, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Background: In many surgical pathology laboratories, operating room schedules are prospectively reviewed to determine specimen distribution to different subspecialty services and to predict the number and nature of potential intraoperative consultations for which prior medical records and slides require review. At our institution, such schedules were manually converted into easily interpretable, surgical pathology-friendly reports to facilitate these activities. This conversion, however, was time-consuming and arguably a non-value-added activity. Objective: Our goal was to develop a semi-automated method of generating these reports that improved their readability while taking less time to perform than the manual method. Materials and Methods: A dynamic Microsoft Excel workbook was developed to automatically convert published operating room schedules into different tabular formats. Based on the surgical procedure descriptions in the schedule, a list of linked keywords and phrases was utilized to sort cases by subspecialty and to predict potential intraoperative consultations. After two trial-and-optimization cycles, the method was incorporated into standard practice. Results: The workbook distributed cases to appropriate subspecialties and accurately predicted intraoperative requests. Users indicated that they spent 1–2 h fewer per day on this activity than before, and team members preferred the formatting of the newer reports. Comparison of the manual and semi-automatic predictions showed that the mean daily difference in predicted versus actual intraoperative consultations underwent no statistically significant changes before and after implementation for most subspecialties. Conclusions: A well-designed, lean, and simple information technology solution to determine subspecialty case distribution and prediction of intraoperative consultations in surgical pathology is approximately as accurate as the gold standard manual method and requires less time and effort to

  6. Interaction Between Midlife Blood Glucose and APOE Genotype Predicts Later Alzheimer's Disease Pathology.

    PubMed

    Bangen, Katherine J; Himali, Jayandra J; Beiser, Alexa S; Nation, Daniel A; Libon, David J; Fox, Caroline S; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A; McKee, Ann C; Au, Rhoda; Delano-Wood, Lisa

    2016-07-06

    Elevated blood glucose and the apolipoprotein (APOE) ɛ4 allele have both been associated with increased dementia risk; however, the neuropathological mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. We examined the impact of APOE genotype and midlife blood glucose on post-mortem vascular and Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. Ninety-four participants from the Framingham Heart Study without diagnosed diabetes underwent health examination at midlife and brain autopsy at death. Histopathological measures of vascular and AD neuropathology were obtained and analyzed. Results demonstrated that, among APOE ɛ4 carriers, elevated blood glucose was associated with more severe AD pathology. There was no such relationship with vascular pathology. In a relatively healthy sample with low vascular risk burden, midlife elevated blood glucose was associated with greater AD pathology among APOE ɛ4 carriers. A better understanding of interactive effects of APOE genotype and vascular risk on neuropathology has implications for identification of individuals at risk for decline and long-term preventive treatment.

  7. Status and plans for the ANOPP/HSR prediction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolan, Sandra K.

    1992-01-01

    ANOPP is a comprehensive prediction system which was developed and validated by NASA. Because ANOPP is a system prediction program, it allows aerospace industry researchers to create trade-off studies with a variety of aircraft noise problems. The extensive validation of ANOPP allows the program results to be used as a benchmark for testing other prediction codes.

  8. Temporal Patterns of Fatigue Predict Pathologic Response in Patients Treated With Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hee Chul; Janjan, Nora A.; Mendoza, Tito R.; Lin, Edward H.; Vadhan-Raj, Saroj; Hundal, Mandeep; Zhang Yiqun; Delclos, Marc E.; Crane, Christopher H.; Das, Prajnan; Wang, Xin Shelley; Cleeland, Charles S.; Krishnan, Sunil

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether symptom burden before and during preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for rectal cancer predicts for pathologic tumor response. Methods and Materials: Fifty-four patients with T3/T4/N+ rectal cancers were treated on a Phase II trial using preoperative capecitabine and concomitant boost radiotherapy. Symptom burden was prospectively assessed before (baseline) and weekly during CRT by patient self-reported questionnaires, the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI), and Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI). Survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Symptom scores according to tumor downstaging (TDS) were compared using Student's t tests. Logistic regression was used to determine whether symptom burden levels predicted for TDS. Lowess curves were plotted for symptom burden across time. Results: Among 51 patients evaluated for pathologic response, 26 patients (51%) had TDS. Fatigue, pain, and drowsiness were the most common symptoms. All symptoms increased progressively during treatment. Patients with TDS had lower MDASI fatigue scores at baseline and at completion (Week 5) of CRT (p = 0.03 for both) and lower levels of BFI 'usual fatigue' at baseline. Conclusion: Lower levels of fatigue at baseline and completion of CRT were significant predictors of pathologic tumor response gauged by TDS, suggesting that symptom burden may be a surrogate for tumor burden. The relationship between symptom burden and circulating cytokines merits evaluation to characterize the molecular basis of this phenomenon.

  9. MR Prediction of Liver Function and Pathology Using Gd-EOB-DTPA: Effect of Liver Volume Consideration

    PubMed Central

    Shimamoto, Dai; Nishie, Akihiro; Asayama, Yoshiki; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Takayama, Yukihisa; Fujita, Nobuhiro; Shirabe, Ken; Hida, Tomoyuki; Kubo, Yuichiro; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate whether the diagnostic performance of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in evaluating liver function and pathology is improved by considering liver volume (LV). Methods. This retrospective study included 104 patients who underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI before liver surgery. For each patient, using the precontrast and hepatobiliary phase images, we calculated the increase rate of the liver-to-spleen signal intensity ratio (LSR), that is, the “ΔLSR,” and the increase rate of the liver-to-muscle signal intensity ratio (LMR), that is, the “ΔLMR.” ΔLSR × LV and ΔLMR × LV were also calculated. The correlation of each MR parameter with liver function data or liver pathology was assessed. The correlation coefficients were compared between ΔLSR (ΔLMR) and ΔLSR (ΔLMR) × LV. Results. The correlation coefficient between ΔLSR (ΔLMR) × LV and cholinesterase was significantly higher than that between ΔLSR (ΔLMR) and cholinesterase. The correlation coefficient between ΔLSR (ΔLMR) × LV and the degree of fibrosis or necroinflammatory activity was significantly lower than that between ΔLSR (ΔLMR) and the degree of fibrosis or necroinflammatory activity. Conclusion. The inclusion of liver volume may improve Gd-EOB-DTPA-based predictions of liver function, but not in predictions of liver pathology. PMID:26609519

  10. TU-AB-BRA-12: Impact of Image Registration Algorithms On the Prediction of Pathological Response with Radiomic Textures

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, S; Coroller, T; Niu, N; Mamon, H; Aerts, H; Berbeco, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Tumor regions-of-interest (ROI) can be propagated from the pre-onto the post-treatment PET/CT images using image registration of their CT counterparts, providing an automatic way to compute texture features on longitudinal scans. This exploratory study assessed the impact of image registration algorithms on textures to predict pathological response. Methods: Forty-six esophageal cancer patients (1 tumor/patient) underwent PET/CT scans before and after chemoradiotherapy. Patients were classified into responders and non-responders after the surgery. Physician-defined tumor ROIs on pre-treatment PET were propagated onto the post-treatment PET using rigid and ten deformable registration algorithms. One co-occurrence, two run-length and size zone matrix textures were computed within all ROIs. The relative difference of each texture at different treatment time-points was used to predict the pathologic responders. Their predictive value was assessed using the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC). Propagated ROIs and texture quantification resulting from different algorithms were compared using overlap volume (OV) and coefficient of variation (CoV), respectively. Results: Tumor volumes were better captured by ROIs propagated by deformable rather than the rigid registration. The OV between rigidly and deformably propagated ROIs were 69%. The deformably propagated ROIs were found to be similar (OV∼80%) except for fast-demons (OV∼60%). Rigidly propagated ROIs with run-length matrix textures failed to significantly differentiate between responders and non-responders (AUC=0.65, p=0.07), while the differentiation was significant with other textures (AUC=0.69–0.72, p<0.03). Among the deformable algorithms, fast-demons was the least predictive (AUC=0.68–0.71, p<0.04). ROIs propagated by all other deformable algorithms with any texture significantly predicted pathologic responders (AUC=0.71–0.78, p<0.01) despite substantial variation in

  11. Helicopter noise prediction - The current status and future direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, F.

    1992-01-01

    The paper takes stock of the progress, assesses the current prediction capabilities, and forecasts the direction of future helicopter noise prediction research. The acoustic analogy approach, specifically, theories based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equations, are the most widely used for deterministic noise sources. Thickness and loading noise can be routinely predicted given good plane motion and blade loading inputs. Blade-vortex interaction noise can also be predicted well with measured input data, but prediction of airloads with the high spatial and temporal resolution required for BVI is still difficult. Current semiempirical broadband noise predictions are useful and reasonably accurate. New prediction methods based on a Kirchhoff formula and direct computation appear to be very promising, but are currently very demanding computationally.

  12. Effective automated prediction of vertebral column pathologies based on logistic model tree with SMOTE preprocessing.

    PubMed

    Karabulut, Esra Mahsereci; Ibrikci, Turgay

    2014-05-01

    This study develops a logistic model tree based automation system based on for accurate recognition of types of vertebral column pathologies. Six biomechanical measures are used for this purpose: pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis angle, sacral slope, pelvic radius and grade of spondylolisthesis. A two-phase classification model is employed in which the first step is preprocessing the data by use of Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique (SMOTE), and the second one is feeding the classifier Logistic Model Tree (LMT) with the preprocessed data. We have achieved an accuracy of 89.73 %, and 0.964 Area Under Curve (AUC) in computer based automatic detection of the pathology. This was validated via a 10-fold-cross-validation experiment conducted on clinical records of 310 patients. The study also presents a comparative analysis of the vertebral column data with the use of several machine learning algorithms.

  13. Prediction of biochemical recurrence and prostate cancer specific death in men after radical retropublic prostatectomy: Use of pathology and computer-assisted quantitative nuclear grading information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Masood Ahmed

    Prostate cancer is the most common solid tumour in man. Accordingly, it is expected that 1 in 6 men will experience prostate cancer during their lifetime. Over the past 20 years there have been tremendous advancements in both diagnostic as well as surgical approach to prostate cancer. This has led not only to earlier detection of the disease in its natural history, but also the availability of effective surgical management. Furthermore, the discovery of serum prostate specific antigen as a marker for prostate cancer along with greater acceptance of prostate cancer screening has resulted in an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer in men younger than 50 years of age. This is an age group that has traditionally been associated with a poor prognosis after radical prostatectomy. In addition, despite being able to effectively remove the whole of the gland with limited morbidity, approximately 25% of men after radical prostatectomy will experience biochemical recurrence with time. Moreover, the majority will progress to distant metastases and/or die from prostate cancer. We firstly investigated whether radical prostatectomy is a viable option for men younger than 50 years of age diagnosed with clinically localised prostate cancer. We also determined factors that predict disease recurrence after radical prostatectomy. As many men demonstrate evidence of biochemical recurrence with some showing further progression after radical prostatectomy, we, therefore, investigated whether pathological variables as well as nuclear morphometry could be used to predict those that are at an increased risk for disease recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Our results demonstrated that 1) radical prostatectomy can be safely performed in younger men as it can provide excellent long-term disease-free survival; 2) We determined that there are a number of factors that are associated with an increased risk for disease recurrence after radical prostatectomy; 3) We have constructed a new

  14. Predicting and replacing the pathological Gleason grade with automated gland ring morphometric features from immunofluorescent prostate cancer images.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faisal M; Scott, Richard; Donovan, Michael; Fernandez, Gerardo

    2017-04-01

    The Gleason grade is the most common architectural and morphological assessment of prostate cancer severity and prognosis. There have been numerous algorithms developed to approximate and duplicate the Gleason scoring system, mostly developed in standard H&E brightfield microscopy. Immunofluorescence (IF) image analysis of tissue pathology has recently been proven to be robust in developing prognostic assessments of disease, particularly in prostate cancer. We leverage a method of segmenting gland rings in IF images for predicting the pathological Gleason, both the clinical and the image specific grades, which may not necessarily be the same. We combine these measures with nuclear specific characteristics. In 324 images from 324 patients, our individual features correlate well univariately with the Gleason grades and in a multivariate setting have an accuracy of 85% in predicting the Gleason grade. Additionally, these features correlate strongly with clinical progression outcomes [concordance index (CI) of 0.89], significantly outperforming the clinical Gleason grades (CI of 0.78). Finally, in multivariate models for multiple prostate cancer progression endpoints, replacing the Gleason with these features results in equivalent or improved performances. This work presents the first assessment of morphological gland unit features from IF images for predicting the Gleason grade, and even replacing it in prostate cancer prognostics.

  15. The role of personality in the prediction of treatment outcome in pathological gamblers: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Grille, Irene; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Aragay, Nùria; Valero, Sergi; Vallès, Vicenç

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine which domains in NEO Personality Inventory-Revised would predict relapse and dropout in treatment-seeking slot-machine pathological gamblers after 1-year follow-up. The NEO PI-R was completed by 73 consecutive treatment-seeking outpatients before they began an open program of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy. Twelve months after starting treatment, patients were categorized in groups as abstinent versus relapsed or completers versus dropouts. At 1-year follow-up, 29% of patients were abstinent, and 48% had completed treatment. Those who had relapsed showed higher significant scores on Neuroticism and lower scores on Conscientiousness. The dropout group scored significantly higher on Neuroticism and lower on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness than the completer group. Low scores on Conscientiousness emerged as a significant predictor of relapse; while low scores on Conscientiousness and Agreeableness were significant predictors of dropout. It seems as if low Conscientiousness could be considered as a predictor of treatment failure measured by either relapses or dropouts, whereas, low Agreeableness seems to be a prognostic domain specifically for dropouts. Pathological gamblers with lower Conscientiousness and lower Agreeableness seem to be at risk of prematurely dropping out of treatment. Our findings support the importance of individual differences in personality on therapy outcomes. The NEO PI-R may constitute an important tool to identify treatment-seeking pathological gamblers who may be at risk of relapsing or dropping out of treatment.

  16. Internet-Based Motivation Program for Women With Eating Disorders: Eating Disorder Pathology and Depressive Mood Predict Dropout

    PubMed Central

    Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Rieger, Elizabeth; Schmidt, Ulrike; Kosfelder, Joachim; Hechler, Tanja; Schulte, Dietmar; Vocks, Silja

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the main problems of Internet-delivered interventions for a range of disorders is the high dropout rate, yet little is known about the factors associated with this. We recently developed and tested a Web-based 6-session program to enhance motivation to change for women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or related subthreshold eating pathology. Objective The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of dropout from this Web program. Methods A total of 179 women took part in the study. We used survival analyses (Cox regression) to investigate the predictive effect of eating disorder pathology (assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q), depressive mood (Hopkins Symptom Checklist), motivation to change (University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale; URICA), and participants’ age at dropout. To identify predictors, we used the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method. Results The dropout rate was 50.8% (91/179) and was equally distributed across the 6 treatment sessions. The LASSO analysis revealed that higher scores on the Shape Concerns subscale of the EDE-Q, a higher frequency of binge eating episodes and vomiting, as well as higher depression scores significantly increased the probability of dropout. However, we did not find any effect of the URICA or age on dropout. Conclusions Women with more severe eating disorder pathology and depressive mood had a higher likelihood of dropping out from a Web-based motivational enhancement program. Interventions such as ours need to address the specific needs of women with more severe eating disorder pathology and depressive mood and offer them additional support to prevent them from prematurely discontinuing treatment. PMID:24686856

  17. Predictability in Pathological Gambling? Applying the Duplication of Purchase Law to the Understanding of Cross-Purchases Between Regular and Pathological Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Lam, Desmond; Mizerski, Richard

    2016-06-21

    The objective of this study is to explore the gambling participations and game purchase duplication of light regular, heavy regular and pathological gamblers by applying the Duplication of Purchase Law. Current study uses data collected by the Australian Productivity Commission for eight different types of games. Key behavioral statistics on light regular, heavy regular, and pathological gamblers were computed and compared. The key finding is that pathological gambling, just like regular gambling, follows the Duplication of Purchase Law, which states that the dominant factor of purchase duplication between two brands is their market shares. This means that gambling between any two games at pathological level, like any regular consumer purchases, exhibits "law-like" regularity based on the pathological gamblers' participation rate of each game. Additionally, pathological gamblers tend to gamble more frequently across all games except lotteries and instant as well as make greater cross-purchases compared to heavy regular gamblers. A better understanding of the behavioral traits between regular (particularly heavy regular) and pathological gamblers can be useful to public policy makers and social marketers in order to more accurately identify such gamblers and better manage the negative impacts of gambling.

  18. Comparison between Ultrasound and Pathologic Status of Axillary Lymph Nodes in Clinically Node-negative Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Amanda; Layne, Ginger; Shahan, Cimmie; Zhang, Jianjun; Wen, Siji; Radis, Sarah; Richmond, Bryan; Partin, Jessica; Hazard, Hannah

    2015-09-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard of care for axillary staging in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients. Ultrasound (US) has shown promise when used to assess axillary lymph nodes preoperatively, thus aiding surgical decision making. We examined the correlation between preoperative US and SLNB results to further clarify the role of US in clinicopathologic staging of breast cancer when the axilla is clinically negative on physical examination. Our institutional cancer registry was used to identify clinically node-negative patients diagnosed with breast cancer from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2012. Variables including age, body mass index, date of surgery, date of diagnosis, US results, US-directed biopsy results, SLNB results, and final pathology were recorded. Incomplete charts were excluded. In all, 249 patients were included. Sensitivity/specificity of US in the clinically negative axilla were 7.4 per cent and 91.8 per cent, respectively. The false-positive rate was 80 per cent, whereas the negative predictive value was 78 per cent. The effect of time from diagnosis/US to SLNB, interpreting radiologist, year in which US was performed, and body mass index were not statistically significant. US in the clinically node-negative patient, although useful when it leads to a positive needle biopsy result, is unlikely to replace SLNB owing to its low sensitivity and a high false-positive rate. Further prospective study into the role of US in the evaluation of the clinically negative axilla is warranted.

  19. Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model status and updates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will provide current information on the USDA-ARS Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model, and its implementation by the USDA-Forest Service (FS), USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), and other agencies and universities. Most recently, the USDA-NRCS has begun ef...

  20. Status of flow separation prediction in liquid propellant rocket nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmucker, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    Flow separation which plays an important role in the design of a rocket engine nozzle is discussed. For a given ambient pressure, the condition of no flow separation limits the area ratio and, therefore, the vacuum performance. Avoidance of performance loss due to area ratio limitation requires a correct prediction of the flow separation conditions. To provide a better understanding of the flow separation process, the principal behavior of flow separation in a supersonic overexpanded rocket nozzle is described. The hot firing separation tests from various sources are summarized, and the applicability and accuracy of the measurements are described. A comparison of the different data points allows an evaluation of the parameters that affect flow separation. The pertinent flow separation predicting methods, which are divided into theoretical and empirical correlations, are summarized and the numerical results are compared with the experimental points.

  1. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer: pathologic complete response rate, predictive and prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Buzatto, I.P.C.; Ribeiro-Silva, A.; Andrade, J.M.; Carrara, H.H.A.; Silveira, W.A.; Tiezzi, D.G.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate from patients (n=86) with stage II and III HER2-positive breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy at our institution from 2008 to 2013 and to determine possible predictive and prognostic factors. Immunohistochemistry for hormone receptors and Ki-67 was carried out. Clinical and pathological features were analyzed as predictive factors of response to therapy. For survival analysis, we used Kaplan-Meier curves to estimate 5-year survival rates and the log-rank test to compare the curves. The addition of trastuzumab to neoadjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved pCR rate from 4.8 to 46.8%, regardless of the number of preoperative trastuzumab cycles (P=0.0012). Stage II patients achieved a higher response rate compared to stage III (P=0.03). The disease-free and overall survivals were not significantly different between the group of patients that received trastuzumab in the neoadjuvant setting (56.3 and 70% at 5 years, respectively) and the group that initiated it post-operatively (75.8 and 88.7% at 5 years, respectively). Axillary pCR post neoadjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab was associated with reduced risk of recurrence (HR=0.34; P=0.03) and death (HR=0.21; P=0.02). In conclusion, we confirmed that trastuzumab improves pCR rates and verified that this improvement occurs even with less than four cycles of the drug. Hormone receptors and Ki-67 expressions were not predictive of response in this subset of patients. Axillary pCR clearly denotes prognosis after neoadjuvant target therapy and should be considered to be a marker of resistance, providing an opportunity to investigate new strategies for HER2-positive treatment. PMID:28146217

  2. Is Regional Lymph Node Irradiation Necessary in Stage II to III Breast Cancer Patients With Negative Pathologic Node Status After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy?

    SciTech Connect

    Daveau, Caroline; Stevens, Denise; Brain, Etienne

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) generally induces significant changes in the pathologic extent of disease. This potential down-staging challenges the standard indications of adjuvant radiation therapy. We assessed the utility of lymph node irradiation (LNI) in breast cancer (BC) patients with pathologic N0 status (pN0) after NAC and breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Methods and Materials: Among 1,054 BC patients treated with NAC in our institution between 1990 and 2004, 248 patients with clinical N0 or N1 to N2 lymph node status at diagnosis had pN0 status after NAC and BCS. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRR-FS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: All 248 patients underwent breast irradiation, and 158 patients (63.7%) also received LNI. With a median follow-up of 88 months, the 5-year LRR-FS and OS rates were respectively 89.4% and 88.7% with LNI and 86.2% and 92% without LNI (no significant difference). Survival was poorer among patients who did not have a pathologic complete primary tumor response (hazard ratio, 3.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-7.99) and in patients with N1 to N2 clinical status at diagnosis (hazard ratio = 2.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-4.36). LNI did not significantly affect survival. Conclusions: Relative to combined breast and local lymph node irradiation, isolated breast irradiation does not appear to be associated with a higher risk of locoregional relapse or death among cN0 to cN2 breast cancer patients with pN0 status after NAC. These results need to be confirmed in a prospective study.

  3. Extended Range Prediction of Indian Summer Monsoon: Current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, A. K.; Abhilash, S.; Borah, N.; Joseph, S.; Chattopadhyay, R.; S, S.; Rajeevan, M.; Mandal, R.; Dey, A.

    2014-12-01

    The main focus of this study is to develop forecast consensus in the extended range prediction (ERP) of monsoon Intraseasonal oscillations using a suit of different variants of Climate Forecast system (CFS) model. In this CFS based Grand MME prediction system (CGMME), the ensemble members are generated by perturbing the initial condition and using different configurations of CFSv2. This is to address the role of different physical mechanisms known to have control on the error growth in the ERP in the 15-20 day time scale. The final formulation of CGMME is based on 21 ensembles of the standalone Global Forecast System (GFS) forced with bias corrected forecasted SST from CFS, 11 low resolution CFST126 and 11 high resolution CFST382. Thus, we develop the multi-model consensus forecast for the ERP of Indian summer monsoon (ISM) using a suite of different variants of CFS model. This coordinated international effort lead towards the development of specific tailor made regional forecast products over Indian region. Skill of deterministic and probabilistic categorical rainfall forecast as well the verification of large-scale low frequency monsoon intraseasonal oscillations has been carried out using hindcast from 2001-2012 during the monsoon season in which all models are initialized at every five days starting from 16May to 28 September. The skill of deterministic forecast from CGMME is better than the best participating single model ensemble configuration (SME). The CGMME approach is believed to quantify the uncertainty in both initial conditions and model formulation. Main improvement is attained in probabilistic forecast which is because of an increase in the ensemble spread, thereby reducing the error due to over-confident ensembles in a single model configuration. For probabilistic forecast, three tercile ranges are determined by ranking method based on the percentage of ensemble members from all the participating models falls in those three categories. CGMME further

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of shear wave elastography for prediction of breast malignancy in patients with pathological nipple discharge

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaobo; Liu, Ying; Li, Wanhu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pathological nipple discharge (PND) may indicate malignant breast lesions. As the role of shear wave elastography (SWE) in predicting these malignant lesions has not yet been evaluated, we aim to evaluate the diagnostic value of SWE for this condition. Design Prospective diagnostic accuracy study comparing a combination of qualitative and quantitative measurements of SWE (index test) to a ductoscopy and microdochectomy for histological diagnosis (reference test). Setting Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing military command. Participants A total of 379 patients with PND were finally included from January, 2011 to March 2014, after we screened 1084 possible candidates. All participants were evaluated through SWE, with qualitative parameters generated by Virtual Touch tissue imaging (VTI) and quantitative parameters generated by Virtual Touch tissue quantification (VTQ). All the patients were consented to receive a ductoscopy and microdochectomy for histological diagnosis, and the results were set as a reference test. Outcome measures Sensitivity and specificity of the combined VTI and VTQ of the SWE for detection of malignancy in patients with PND. Results The 379 participants presented with 404 lesions. The results of pathological examination showed that 326 (80.7%) of the 404 lesions were benign and the other 78 (19.3%) were malignant. An area under the curve of elasticity score, VTQm and VTQc, were 0.872, 0.825 and 0.857, respectively, with the corresponding cut-off point as 2.50, 2.860 m/s and 3.015 m/s, respectively. After a combination of these measurements, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV), were 89.7%, 72.1%, 43.5% and 96.7%, respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed 82% of the sensitivity and 96.8% of the specificity, in which patients with no pathological findings in ductoscopy were excluded. Conclusions Ultrasonographic elastography is sensitive for patients with PND and could be used

  5. Predicting Adolescents' Bullying Participation from Developmental Trajectories of Social Status and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Pouwels, J Loes; Salmivalli, Christina; Saarento, Silja; van den Berg, Yvonne H M; Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2017-03-28

    The aim of this study was to determine how trajectory clusters of social status (social preference and perceived popularity) and behavior (direct aggression and prosocial behavior) from age 9 to age 14 predicted adolescents' bullying participant roles at age 16 and 17 (n = 266). Clusters were identified with multivariate growth mixture modeling (GMM). The findings showed that participants' developmental trajectories of social status and social behavior across childhood and early adolescence predicted their bullying participant role involvement in adolescence. Practical implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  6. Pathological aspects of cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Esposito*, I.

    2008-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) arises from the biliary epithelium and in most cases represents adenocarcinoma. Pathomorphological evaluation is of decisive impact for the prognosis and management of CC. Morphological subtyping (histotype; hilar vs peripheral type), TNM classification, lymphatic spread, and resection margin status are of prognostic relevance. Distinction from hepatic metastases may be aided by immunohistology and clinico-pathological correlation. There is convincing evidence of the development of CC via premalignant lesions, especially biliary intraepithelial neoplasia, although further knowledge about the biology and diagnostic definition of these lesions has to be accumulated. Currently, there are no established molecular markers of prognosis or therapeutic target structures to be evaluated at the tissue level. Future progress is needed and expected in novel differential diagnostic and predictive markers, in uniform definition of resection margin status and further understanding of molecular and morphological changes in the development of CC. PMID:18773061

  7. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD): Instrument Status and Performance Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Christopher; Bailey, M. C.; Gross, Steven; Hood, Robbie; James, Mark; Johnson, James; Jones, Linwood; Miller, Timothy; Uhlhorn, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is an innovative radiometer which offers new and unique remotely sensed observations of both extreme oceanic wind events and strong precipitation. It is based on the airborne Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR) [Uhlhorn and Black, 2004]. The HIRAD instrument advances beyond the current nadir viewing SFMR to an equivalent wide-swath SFMR imager using passive microwave synthetic thinned aperture radiometer (STAR) technology [Ruf et al., 1988]. This sensor operates over 4-7 GHz, where the required tropical cyclone remote sensing physics has been validated by both SFMR and WindSat radiometer [Bettenhausen et al., 2006; Brown et al., 2006]. HIRAD incorporates a new and unique array antenna design along with several technologies successfully demonstrated by the Lightweight Rain Radiometer instrument [Ruf et al., 2002; Ruf and Principe, 2003]. HIRAD will be a compact, lightweight, low-power instrument with no moving parts that will produce wide-swath imagery of ocean winds and rain in hurricane conditions. Accurate observations of surface ocean vector winds (OVW) with high spatial and temporal resolution are required for understanding and predicting tropical cyclones. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is an innovative architecture which offers new and unique remotely sensed observations of both extreme oceanic wind events and strong precipitation. It is based on the airborne Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which is a proven remote sensing technique for observing tropical cyclone (TC) ocean surface wind speeds and rain rates. The proposed HIRAD instrument advances beyond the current nadir viewing SFMR to an equivalent wide-swath SFMR imager using passive microwave synthetic thinned aperture radiometer (STAR) technology combined with a a unique array antenna design. The overarching design concept of HIRAD is to combine the multi-frequency C-band observing strategy of the SFMR with STAR technology to

  8. External validation of a prediction model for pathologic N2 among patients with a negative mediastinum by positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Backhus, Leah M.; Varghese, Thomas K.; Manning, James P.; Cheng, Aaron M.; Mulligan, Michael S.; Wood, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    Background A prediction model for pathologic N2 (pN2) among lung cancer patients with a negative mediastinum by positron emission tomography (PET) was recently internally validated. Our study sought to determine the external validity of that model. Methods A cohort study [2005-2013] was performed of lung cancer patients with a negative mediastinum by PET. Previously published model coefficients were used to estimate the probability of pN2 based on tumor location and size, nodal enlargement by computed tomography (CT), maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the primary tumor, N1 disease by PET, and pretreatment histology. Results Among 239 patients, 18 had pN2 [7.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5-12%]. Model discrimination was excellent (c-statistic 0.80, 95% CI: 0.75-0.85) and the model fit the data well (P=0.191). The accuracy of the model was as follows: sensitivity 100%, 95% CI: 81-100%; specificity 49%, 95% CI: 42-56%; positive predictive value (PPV) 14%, 95% CI: 8-21%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 100%, 95% CI: 97-100%. CI inspection revealed a significantly higher c-statistic in this external validation cohort compared to the internal validation cohort. The model’s apparently poor specificity for patient selection is in fact significantly better than usual care (i.e., aggressive but allowable guideline concordant staging) and minimum guideline mandated selection criteria for invasive staging. Conclusions A prediction model for pN2 is externally valid. The high NPV of this model may allow pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons to more comfortably minimize the number of invasive procedures performed among patients with a negative mediastinum by PET. PMID:25973222

  9. Borderline, avoidant, sadistic personality traits and emotion dysregulation predict different pathological skin picking subtypes in a community sample

    PubMed Central

    Pozza, Andrea; Giaquinta, Nicoletta; Dèttore, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Pathological skin picking (SP) is a strongly impairing condition characterized by repetitive picking behaviors resulting in significant tissue damage and distress. Recent research suggested the presence of different subtypes of SP. No study has investigated which personality traits could be specifically associated with different subtypes. In a community sample (N=285, 71.20% females, mean age =34.98 years, standard deviation =15.91), this cross-sectional study investigated which personality traits and emotion regulation deficits could predict specific SP subtypes. Participants completed the Milwaukee Inventory for the Dimensions of Adult Skin Picking (MIDAS), Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III personality scales (MCMI-III), and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) questionnaires. Higher scores on the MCMI-III borderline (β=0.28, t=4.88, P<0.001), MCMI-III avoidant scale (β=0.18, t=2.59, P<0.01), and DERS difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior (β=0.19, t=3.27, P<0.01) predicted higher scores on the MIDAS automatic scale. Higher scores on the MCMI-III borderline (β=0.30, t=5.23, P<0.001) and DERS difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior (β=0.15, t=2.52, P<0.05) and DERS limited access to emotion regulation strategies (β=0.21, t=3.26, P<0.01) predicted higher scores on the MIDAS focused scale. Higher scores on the MCMI-III sadistic (β=0.19, t=3.30, P<0.001) and DERS difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior (β=0.15, t=2.68, P<0.01) predicted higher scores on the MIDAS mixed scale. Implications for future research and treatment are discussed. PMID:27536108

  10. Predictive Power of the Success Tendency and Ego Identity Status of the University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Pepe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to assess the predictive power of the success tendency and ego identity status of the students of Physical Education and Sports Teaching Department. 581 students of Physical Education and Sports Teaching Department in Kayseri, Nigde, Burdur, Bolu and Diyarbakir participated in this research. The acquired results were…

  11. The Roles of Negative Career Thoughts and Sense of Coherence in Predicting Career Decision Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, R. Kirk; Dahl, A. Dennis; Wagner, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between sense of coherence and negative career thoughts was investigated in a non-college-based population to determine the relationship and predictive value of these factors toward career decision status. Participants completed the Orientation to Life Questionnaire, Career Thoughts Inventory, and Career Decision Profile's…

  12. ASRM radiation and flowfield prediction status. [Advanced Solid Rocket Motor plume radiation prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reardon, J. E.; Everson, J.; Smith, S. D.; Sulyma, P. R.

    1991-01-01

    Existing and proposed methods for the prediction of plume radiation are discussed in terms of their application to the NASA Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) and Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) projects. Extrapolations of the Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) are discussed with respect to preliminary predictions of the primary and secondary radiation environments. The methodology for radiation and initial plume property predictions are set forth, including a new code for scattering media and independent secondary source models based on flight data. The Monte Carlo code employs a reverse-evaluation approach which traces rays back to their point of absorption in the plume. The SRM sea-level plume model is modified to account for the increased radiation in the ASRM plume due to the ASRM's propellant chemistry. The ASRM cycle-1 environment predictions are shown to identify a potential reason for the shutdown spike identified with pre-SRM staging.

  13. Mammographic Density and Prediction of Nodal Status in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hack, C. C.; Häberle, L.; Geisler, K.; Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Hartmann, A.; Fasching, P. A.; Uder, M.; Wachter, D. L.; Jud, S. M.; Loehberg, C. R.; Lux, M. P.; Rauh, C.; Beckmann, M. W.; Heusinger, K.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Nodal status remains one of the most important prognostic factors in breast cancer. The cellular and molecular reasons for the spread of tumor cells to the lymph nodes are not well understood and there are only few predictors in addition to tumor size and multifocality that give an insight into additional mechanisms of lymphatic spread. Aim of our study was therefore to investigate whether breast characteristics such as mammographic density (MD) add to the predictive value of the presence of lymph node metastases in patients with primary breast cancer. Methods: In this retrospective study we analyzed primary, metastasis-free breast cancer patients from one breast center for whom data on MD and staging information were available. A total of 1831 patients were included into this study. MD was assessed as percentage MD (PMD) using a semiautomated method and two readers for every patient. Multiple logistic regression analyses with nodal status as outcome were used to investigate the predictive value of PMD in addition to age, tumor size, Ki-67, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), grading, histology, and multi-focality. Results: Multifocality, tumor size, Ki-67 and grading were relevant predictors for nodal status. Adding PMD to a prediction model which included these factors did not significantly improve the prediction of nodal status (p = 0.24, likelihood ratio test). Conclusion: Nodal status could be predicted quite well with the factors multifocality, tumor size, Ki-67 and grading. PMD does not seem to play a role in the lymphatic spread of tumor cells. It could be concluded that the amount of extracellular matrix and stromal cell content of the breast which is reflected by MD does not influence the probability of malignant breast cells spreading from the primary tumor to the lymph nodes. PMID:24771910

  14. The Number of Pathologically Positive Lymph Nodes and Pathological Tumor Depth Predicts Prognosis in Patients With Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Chung-Jan; Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Hung-Ming; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lee, Li-Yu; Chen, I-How; Huang, Shiang-Fu; and others

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The objective of this retrospective study was twofold: (1) to investigate prognostic factors for clinical outcomes in patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and (2) to identify specific prognostic subgroups that may help to guide treatment decisions. Methods and Materials: We examined 102 patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. All patients were followed for at least 24 months after surgery or until death. The 5-year rates of local control, neck control, distant metastasis, disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival served as main outcome measures. Results: The 5-year rates were as follows: local control (79%), neck control (64%), distant metastases (27%), disease-free survival (48%), disease-specific survival (52%), and overall survival (42%). Multivariable analysis showed that the number of pathologically positive nodes ({>=}4 vs. {<=}3) was a significant predictor of neck control, distant metastasis, and disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates. In addition, the presence of tumor depth of {>=}11 mm (vs. <11 mm) was a significant predictor of distant metastasis, disease-specific survival, and overall survival rates. The combination of the two predictors (26.5%, 27/102) was independently associated with poorer neck control (p = 0.0319), distant metastasis (p < 0.0001), and disease-free (p < 0.0001), disease-specific (p < 0.0001), and overall survival (p < 0.0001) rates. Conclusions: In patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, the presence of at least 4 pathologically positive lymph nodes and of a pathological tumor depth {>=}11 mm identifies a subset of subjects with poor clinical outcomes. Patients carrying both risk factors are suitable candidates for the development of novel therapeutic approaches.

  15. Epigenetic Regulation of KLHL34 Predictive of Pathologic Response to Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy in Rectal Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Ye J.; Kim, Chan W.; Roh, Seon A.; Cho, Dong H.; Park, Jong L.; Kim, Seon Y.; Kim, Jong H.; Choi, Eun K.; Kim, Yong S.; Kim, Jin C.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Prediction of individual responsiveness to preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) is urgently needed in patients with poorly responsive locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Methods and Materials: Candidate methylation genes associated with radiosensitivity were identified using a 3-step process. In the first step, genome-wide screening of methylation genes was performed in correlation with histopathologic tumor regression grade in 45 patients with LARC. In the second step, the methylation status of selected sites was analyzed by pyrosequencing in 67 LARC patients, including 24 patients analyzed in the first step. Finally, colorectal cancer cell clones with stable KLHL34 knockdown were generated and tested for cellular sensitivity to radiation. Results: Genome-wide screening identified 7 hypermethylated CpG sites (DZIP1 cg24107021, DZIP1 cg26886381, ZEB1 cg04430381, DKK3 cg041006961, STL cg00991794, KLHL34 cg01828474, and ARHGAP6 cg07828380) associated with preoperative CRT responses. Radiosensitivity in patients with hypermethylated KLHL34 cg14232291 was confirmed by pyrosequencing in additional cohorts. Knockdown of KLHL34 significantly reduced colony formation (KLHL34 sh#1: 20.1%, P=.0001 and KLHL34 sh#2: 15.8%, P=.0002), increased the cytotoxicity (KLHL34 sh#1: 14.8%, P=.019 and KLHL34 sh#2: 17.9%, P=.007) in LoVo cells, and increased radiation-induced caspase-3 activity and the sub-G1 population of cells. Conclusions: The methylation status of KLHL34 cg14232291 may be a predictive candidate of sensitivity to preoperative CRT, although further validation is needed in large cohorts using various cell types.

  16. Influence of immunologic status on age prediction using signal joint T cell receptor excision circles.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sohee; Seo, Hee Jin; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Moon Young; Lee, Soong Deok

    2017-02-01

    Age estimation based on quantifying signal joint T cell receptor excision circle (sjTREC) in T cells has been established to be a promising approach in forensic practice and demonstrated in different ethnic groups. Considering that the homeostasis of T cells carrying sjTRECs is closely related to the immunologic status of a person, it is important to investigate the influence of various immunologic statuses on the age estimation model. In this study, quantification of sjTREC contents was performed for groups of people with various immune system statuses, and the result showed less correlation with chronological age (r (2) = 0.424) than in the healthy group (r (2) = 0.648). The simulation model indicated that this influence could increase the range of prediction in the age estimation model, and the mean absolute deviation (MAD) between chronological age and predicted age. Through this study, it was demonstrated that immunologic status is a factor that affects the accuracy of age prediction using sjTREC quantification.

  17. Predicting groundwater redox status on a regional scale using linear discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Close, M E; Abraham, P; Humphries, B; Lilburne, L; Cuthill, T; Wilson, S

    2016-08-01

    Reducing conditions are necessary for denitrification, thus the groundwater redox status can be used to identify subsurface zones where potentially significant nitrate reduction can occur. Groundwater chemistry in two contrasting regions of New Zealand was classified with respect to redox status and related to mappable factors, such as geology, topography and soil characteristics using discriminant analysis. Redox assignment was carried out for water sampled from 568 and 2223 wells in the Waikato and Canterbury regions, respectively. For the Waikato region 64% of wells sampled indicated oxic conditions in the water; 18% indicated reduced conditions and 18% had attributes indicating both reducing and oxic conditions termed "mixed". In Canterbury 84% of wells indicated oxic conditions; 10% were mixed; and only 5% indicated reduced conditions. The analysis was performed over three different well depths, <25m, 25 to 100 and >100m. For both regions, the percentage of oxidised groundwater decreased with increasing well depth. Linear discriminant analysis was used to develop models to differentiate between the three redox states. Models were derived for each depth and region using 67% of the data, and then subsequently validated on the remaining 33%. The average agreement between predicted and measured redox status was 63% and 70% for the Waikato and Canterbury regions, respectively. The models were incorporated into GIS and the prediction of redox status was extended over the whole region, excluding mountainous land. This knowledge improves spatial prediction of reduced groundwater zones, and therefore, when combined with groundwater flow paths, improves estimates of denitrification.

  18. Predicting groundwater redox status on a regional scale using linear discriminant analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, M. E.; Abraham, P.; Humphries, B.; Lilburne, L.; Cuthill, T.; Wilson, S.

    2016-08-01

    Reducing conditions are necessary for denitrification, thus the groundwater redox status can be used to identify subsurface zones where potentially significant nitrate reduction can occur. Groundwater chemistry in two contrasting regions of New Zealand was classified with respect to redox status and related to mappable factors, such as geology, topography and soil characteristics using discriminant analysis. Redox assignment was carried out for water sampled from 568 and 2223 wells in the Waikato and Canterbury regions, respectively. For the Waikato region 64% of wells sampled indicated oxic conditions in the water; 18% indicated reduced conditions and 18% had attributes indicating both reducing and oxic conditions termed "mixed". In Canterbury 84% of wells indicated oxic conditions; 10% were mixed; and only 5% indicated reduced conditions. The analysis was performed over three different well depths, < 25 m, 25 to 100 and > 100 m. For both regions, the percentage of oxidised groundwater decreased with increasing well depth. Linear discriminant analysis was used to develop models to differentiate between the three redox states. Models were derived for each depth and region using 67% of the data, and then subsequently validated on the remaining 33%. The average agreement between predicted and measured redox status was 63% and 70% for the Waikato and Canterbury regions, respectively. The models were incorporated into GIS and the prediction of redox status was extended over the whole region, excluding mountainous land. This knowledge improves spatial prediction of reduced groundwater zones, and therefore, when combined with groundwater flow paths, improves estimates of denitrification.

  19. Low expression of NQO1 predicts pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients treated with TAC regimen.

    PubMed

    Grim, J; Jandík, P; Slánská, I; Doležalová-Brčáková, E; Fuksa, L; Ryška, A; Knížek, J; Petera, J; Mičuda, S; Hornychová, H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate preoperative tumour expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) along with other biological markers as potential predictors of pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide-containing (TAC) chemotherapy in patients with primary breast cancer. Sixty-one patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) with TAC regimen were enrolled in this prospective study. The pre- and post- NCT expression of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), epidermal growth factor receptor 1 and 2 (EGFR and HER2), NQO1, Ki-67 proliferation index, multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), p53 and BCL2 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The pCR was reached in 14 patients (23 % of the study group). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that patients with ER-, PR-, NQO1- negative, and Ki-67-positive tumours had a significantly higher chance to achieve pCR. Within the biological subtypes, the highest pCR rate (50 %) was seen in triple-negative (i.e. ER-, PR-, HER2-) tumours. Post-operative evaluation showed that in comparison to pre-operative tissue samples, NQO1 expression was significantly increased, while Ki-67 and HER2 decreased, in the residual tissue after NCT. In conclusion, the present data suggests that NQO1 expression may be a novel diagnostic biomarker for the prediction of positive response to NCT in patients with breast cancer.

  20. Family characteristics have limited ability to predict weight status of young children.

    PubMed

    Gray, Virginia B; Byrd, Sylvia H; Cossman, Jeralynn S; Chromiak, Joseph; Cheek, Wanda K; Jackson, Gary B

    2007-07-01

    The ability of (a) family characteristics (marital status, income, race, and education), (b) parental control over child's food intake, and (c) parental belief in causes of overweight to predict weight status of children was assessed. Parents/caretakers of elementary school-aged children were surveyed to determine attitudes related to childhood nutrition and overweight. Anthropometric measurements were obtained from children to determine weight status (n=169 matched surveys and measurements). chi(2) tests and nested logistic regression models were used to determine relationships between children's weight status and family characteristics, parental control, and parental belief in the primary cause of overweight. Low household income was an important predictor of overweight; marital status and race added no further explanatory power to the model. Parental control was not a significant predictor of overweight. Parental belief in the primary cause of overweight in children (diet vs physical activity) was significantly related to children's weight; however, it was not significant after controlling for income. Low household income relates strongly to increased childhood weight status; therefore, school and government policies should promote an environment that supports affordable, safe, and feasible opportunities for healthful nutrition and physical activity, particularly for low-income audiences.

  1. Predictive factors for anti-HBs status after 1 booster dose of hepatitis B vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Lu, I-Cheng; Jean, Mei-Chu Yen; Lin, Chi-Wei; Chen, Wei-Hung; Perng, Daw-Shyong; Lin, Chih-Wen; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Taiwan, infants need to receive 3 doses of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine under the public health policy from the government. However, there are many young adults who even though received complete HBV vaccination in their childhood would lose the positive response of anti-hepatitis B surface antibody (HBs) and need the booster dose of HBV vaccine. The aim of our study is to determine the powerful predictive factor for screening the candidates who need only 1 booster dose of HB vaccine then they can regain positive postbooster anti-HBs status (≧10 mIU/mL) or protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL). We recruited 103 university freshmen who were born after July 1986 with complete HBV vaccination in childhood, but displayed negative results for hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HBs levels at their health examinations upon university entry. They received 1 booster dose of HB vaccine, and their anti-HBs titers were rechecked 4 weeks after the booster administration. Multivariate analysis logistic regression for positive postbooster anti-HBs status (≧10 mIU/mL, model 1) and protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL, model 2) was done with predictive factors of prebooster anti-HBs level, body mass index, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase level, and sex. Twenty-four students got positive postbooster anti-HBs status (10–100 mIU/mL) and 50 students got protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL). In the model of multivariate analysis logistic regression for positive postbooster anti-HBs status (≧10 mIU/mL), prebooster anti-HBs level was the strongest predictive factor. The odds ratio was 218.645 and the P value was 0.001. Even in the model of multivariate analysis logistic regression for protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL), prebooster anti-HBs level was still the strongest predictive factor, but the odds ratio of a protective booster effect was 2.143, with 95% confidence

  2. Predictive factors for anti-HBs status after 1 booster dose of hepatitis B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lu, I-Cheng; Jean, Mei-Chu Yen; Lin, Chi-Wei; Chen, Wei-Hung; Perng, Daw-Shyong; Lin, Chih-Wen; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2016-09-01

    In Taiwan, infants need to receive 3 doses of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine under the public health policy from the government. However, there are many young adults who even though received complete HBV vaccination in their childhood would lose the positive response of anti-hepatitis B surface antibody (HBs) and need the booster dose of HBV vaccine. The aim of our study is to determine the powerful predictive factor for screening the candidates who need only 1 booster dose of HB vaccine then they can regain positive postbooster anti-HBs status (≧10 mIU/mL) or protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL).We recruited 103 university freshmen who were born after July 1986 with complete HBV vaccination in childhood, but displayed negative results for hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HBs levels at their health examinations upon university entry. They received 1 booster dose of HB vaccine, and their anti-HBs titers were rechecked 4 weeks after the booster administration. Multivariate analysis logistic regression for positive postbooster anti-HBs status (≧10 mIU/mL, model 1) and protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL, model 2) was done with predictive factors of prebooster anti-HBs level, body mass index, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase level, and sex.Twenty-four students got positive postbooster anti-HBs status (10-100 mIU/mL) and 50 students got protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL). In the model of multivariate analysis logistic regression for positive postbooster anti-HBs status (≧10 mIU/mL), prebooster anti-HBs level was the strongest predictive factor. The odds ratio was 218.645 and the P value was 0.001. Even in the model of multivariate analysis logistic regression for protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL), prebooster anti-HBs level was still the strongest predictive factor, but the odds ratio of a protective booster effect was 2.143, with 95% confidence interval between 1

  3. HER-2 overexpression/amplification in Barrett’s oesophagus predicts early transition from dysplasia to adenocarcinoma: a clinico-pathologic study

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Elisa; Grisanti, Salvatore; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Casa, Domenico Della; Cengia, Paolo; Missale, Guido; Minelli, Luigi; Buglione, Michela; Cestari, Renzo; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2009-01-01

    Barrett’s oesophagus (BO) is the primary precursor lesion for oesophageal adenocarcinoma (ADC). The natural history of metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence remains largely unknown. HER2/neu oncogene results overexpressed/amplified in preneoplastic lesions and in ADC of the oesophagus and it has been associated with poor prognosis. Our aim was to evaluate the role of HER2 overexpression/amplification in predicting the conversion from precursor lesions to ADC. We retrospectively evaluated by univariate analysis of single variables clinical records and histological specimens of 21 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of BO and/or oesophageal dysplasia. Clinical variables included age, gender, alcohol and smoking intake, presence of symptoms (pyrosis, disphagia) and endoscopic features (length). HER2 status was studied by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on paraffin-embedded tissue. The end-points were the occurrence of progression and the time-to-progression (TTP) from the initial histologic lesion to the worst pathological pattern. Median age at diagnosis was 63 years (range 37–84). BO median length was 4.5 cm. Progression occurred in 11 of 21 patients and median TTP was 24 months. HER2 was overexpressed/amplified in 8 of 21 (38%) patients. HER2 overexpression/ amplification and the presence of dysplasia were statistically associated with progression (P= 0.038). This study provides evidence for a possible role of HER2 in the transition from dysplasia to ADC of the oesophagus. This fact could help in identifying patients at high risk of malignant transformation. PMID:19292734

  4. Fear of fatness and drive for thinness in predicting smoking status in college women.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Amy L; Spears, Claire A; Baillie, Lauren E; McVay, Megan A

    2016-03-01

    Recent research has identified fear of fatness (FF) as a related yet distinct construct from drive for thinness (DT). Whereas DT may be associated with need for approval and an "approach" tendency, FF may be more strongly related to avoidance of disapproval and an avoidant problem-solving style. Although no research has directly compared the influence of FF vs. DT with regard to smoking behavior, FF and DT might represent distinct motivations for smoking. We predicted that both FF and DT would be significantly associated with cigarette smoking, but that FF would be a stronger predictor of smoking behavior, even after controlling for variables such as body mass index (BMI) and nicotine dependence. Participants (N=289) were female college undergraduate students. Daily smokers had the highest scores on measures of DT and FF, followed sequentially by infrequent smokers, "triers," and never smokers. More frequent smokers also reported greater levels of body dissatisfaction and eating pathology than less frequent and never-smokers. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that greater DT predicted higher likelihood of smoking on a daily basis; however, higher FF predicted fewer cigarettes smoked per day. FF and DT may each play a role in the relationship between eating pathology and smoking, but they might be differentially related to specific smoking patterns. Both FF and DT and their coinciding coping styles should be further researched in the role of smoking initiation and maintenance.

  5. Fear of fatness and drive for thinness in predicting smoking status in college women☆

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Amy L.; Spears, Claire A.; Baillie, Lauren E.; McVay, Megan A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has identified fear of fatness (FF) as a related yet distinct construct from drive for thinness (DT). Whereas DT may be associated with need for approval and an “approach” tendency, FF may be more strongly related to avoidance of disapproval and an avoidant problem-solving style. Although no research has directly compared the influence of FF vs. DT with regard to smoking behavior, FF and DT might represent distinct motivations for smoking. We predicted that both FF and DT would be significantly associated with cigarette smoking, but that FF would be a stronger predictor of smoking behavior, even after controlling for variables such as body mass index (BMI) and nicotine dependence. Participants (N = 289) were female college undergraduate students. Daily smokers had the highest scores on measures of DT and FF, followed sequentially by infrequent smokers, “triers,” and never smokers. More frequent smokers also reported greater levels of body dissatisfaction and eating pathology than less frequent and never-smokers. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that greater DT predicted higher likelihood of smoking on a daily basis; however, higher FF predicted fewer cigarettes smoked per day. FF and DT may each play a role in the relationship between eating pathology and smoking, but they might be differentially related to specific smoking patterns. Both FF and DT and their coinciding coping styles should be further researched in the role of smoking initiation and maintenance. PMID:26656671

  6. Fracture risk prediction: importance of age, BMD and spine fracture status.

    PubMed

    Krege, John H; Wan, Xiaohai; Lentle, Brian C; Berger, Claudie; Langsetmo, Lisa; Adachi, Jonathan D; Prior, Jerilynn C; Tenenhouse, Alan; Brown, Jacques P; Kreiger, Nancy; Olszynski, Wojciech P; Josse, Robert G; Goltzman, David

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose was to identify factors for a parsimonious fracture risk assessment model considering morphometric spine fracture status, femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) and the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical risk factors. Using data from 2761 subjects from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of randomly selected community-dwelling men and women aged ⩾50 years, we previously reported that a logistic regression model considering age, BMD and spine fracture status provided as much predictive information as a model considering these factors plus the remaining WHO clinical risk factors. The current analysis assesses morphometric vertebral fracture and/or nonvertebral fragility fracture at 5 years using data from an additional 1964 CaMos subjects who have now completed 5 years of follow-up (total N=4725). Vertebral fractures were identified from lateral spine radiographs assessed using quantititative morphometry at baseline and end point. Nonvertebral fragility fractures were determined by questionnaire and confirmed using radiographs or medical records; fragility fracture was defined as occurring with minimal or no trauma. In this analysis, a model including age, BMD and spine fracture status provided a gradient of risk per s.d. (GR/s.d.) of 1.88 and captured most of the predictive information of a model including morphometric spine fracture status, BMD and all WHO clinical risk factors (GR/s.d. 1.92). For comparison, this model provided more information than a model considering BMD and the WHO clinical risk factors (GR/s.d. 1.74). These findings confirm the value of age, BMD and spine fracture status for predicting fracture risk.

  7. Fracture risk prediction: importance of age, BMD and spine fracture status

    PubMed Central

    Krege, John H; Wan, Xiaohai; Lentle, Brian C; Berger, Claudie; Langsetmo, Lisa; Adachi, Jonathan D; Prior, Jerilynn C; Tenenhouse, Alan; Brown, Jacques P; Kreiger, Nancy; Olszynski, Wojciech P; Josse, Robert G; Goltzman, David; Goltzman, David; Kreiger, Nancy; Tenenhouse, Alan; Godmaire, Suzanne; Dumont, Silvia; Berger, Claudie; Zhou, Wei; Joyce, Carol; Kovacs, Christopher; Sheppard, Emma; Kirkland, Susan; Kaiser, Stephanie; Stanfield, Barbara; Brown, Jacques P; Bessette, Louis; Gendreau, Marc; Anastassiades, Tassos; Towheed, Tanveer; Matthews, Barbara; Josse, Bob; Jamal, Sophie; Murray, Tim; Gardner-Bray, Barbara; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Pickard, Laura; Olszynski, Wojciech P.; Davison, K. Shawn; Thingvold, Jola; Hanley, David A.; Allan, Jane; Prior, Jerilynn C.; Patel, Millan; Vigna, Yvette; Andjelic, Nerkeza; Lentle, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose was to identify factors for a parsimonious fracture risk assessment model considering morphometric spine fracture status, femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) and the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical risk factors. Using data from 2761 subjects from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of randomly selected community-dwelling men and women aged ⩾50 years, we previously reported that a logistic regression model considering age, BMD and spine fracture status provided as much predictive information as a model considering these factors plus the remaining WHO clinical risk factors. The current analysis assesses morphometric vertebral fracture and/or nonvertebral fragility fracture at 5 years using data from an additional 1964 CaMos subjects who have now completed 5 years of follow-up (total N=4725). Vertebral fractures were identified from lateral spine radiographs assessed using quantititative morphometry at baseline and end point. Nonvertebral fragility fractures were determined by questionnaire and confirmed using radiographs or medical records; fragility fracture was defined as occurring with minimal or no trauma. In this analysis, a model including age, BMD and spine fracture status provided a gradient of risk per s.d. (GR/s.d.) of 1.88 and captured most of the predictive information of a model including morphometric spine fracture status, BMD and all WHO clinical risk factors (GR/s.d. 1.92). For comparison, this model provided more information than a model considering BMD and the WHO clinical risk factors (GR/s.d. 1.74). These findings confirm the value of age, BMD and spine fracture status for predicting fracture risk. PMID:24228164

  8. MRI texture features as biomarkers to predict MGMT methylation status in glioblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Kline, Timothy L.; Coufalova, Lucie; Lachance, Daniel H.; Parney, Ian F.; Carter, Rickey E.; Buckner, Jan C.; Erickson, Bradley J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Imaging biomarker research focuses on discovering relationships between radiological features and histological findings. In glioblastoma patients, methylation of the O6-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter is positively correlated with an increased effectiveness of current standard of care. In this paper, the authors investigate texture features as potential imaging biomarkers for capturing the MGMT methylation status of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors when combined with supervised classification schemes. Methods: A retrospective study of 155 GBM patients with known MGMT methylation status was conducted. Co-occurrence and run length texture features were calculated, and both support vector machines (SVMs) and random forest classifiers were used to predict MGMT methylation status. Results: The best classification system (an SVM-based classifier) had a maximum area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.78–0.91) using four texture features (correlation, energy, entropy, and local intensity) originating from the T2-weighted images, yielding at the optimal threshold of the ROC curve, a sensitivity of 0.803 and a specificity of 0.813. Conclusions: Results show that supervised machine learning of MRI texture features can predict MGMT methylation status in preoperative GBM tumors, thus providing a new noninvasive imaging biomarker. PMID:27277032

  9. From boys to men: predicting adult adaptation from middle childhood sociometric status.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Sarah E; Dishion, Thomas J

    2004-01-01

    This report examines the predictive validity of sociometric status at age 9-10 to young adult (age 23-24) antisocial behavior, work and school engagement, and arrests using Oregon Youth Study males (N = 206). A variety of analytic strategies included (a) multivariate analyses to examine the variation in adult adaptation as a function of sociometric classification at age 9-10, (b) regression analyses to evaluate the relative contribution of "liked most" and "liked least" peer nominations, and (c) structural equation modeling to predict the young adult outcome constructs from social preference at age 9-10. Contrary to expectation, when controlling for early antisocial behavior and academic skills, boys' social preference scores still predicted young adult outcomes. Longitudinal findings are discussed with respect to the salience of male peer rejection in middle childhood and the social developmental processes that may account for the predictive validity of peer rejection.

  10. KRAS Genomic Status Predicts the Sensitivity of Ovarian Cancer Cells to Decitabine | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Decitabine, a cancer therapeutic that inhibits DNA methylation, produces variable antitumor response rates in patients with solid tumors that might be leveraged clinically with identification of a predictive biomarker. In this study, we profiled the response of human ovarian, melanoma, and breast cancer cells treated with decitabine, finding that RAS/MEK/ERK pathway activation and DNMT1 expression correlated with cytotoxic activity. Further, we showed that KRAS genomic status predicted decitabine sensitivity in low-grade and high-grade serous ovarian cancer cells.

  11. Can personality traits and intelligence compensate for background disadvantage? Predicting status attainment in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Damian, Rodica Ioana; Su, Rong; Shanahan, Michael; Trautwein, Ulrich; Roberts, Brent W

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the interplay of family background and individual differences, such as personality traits and intelligence (measured in a large U.S. representative sample of high school students; N = 81,000) in predicting educational attainment, annual income, and occupational prestige 11 years later. Specifically, we tested whether individual differences followed 1 of 3 patterns in relation to parental socioeconomic status (SES) when predicting attained status: (a) the independent effects hypothesis (i.e., individual differences predict attainments independent of parental SES level), (b) the resource substitution hypothesis (i.e., individual differences are stronger predictors of attainments at lower levels of parental SES), and (c) the Matthew effect hypothesis (i.e., "the rich get richer"; individual differences are stronger predictors of attainments at higher levels of parental SES). We found that personality traits and intelligence in adolescence predicted later attained status above and beyond parental SES. A standard deviation increase in individual differences translated to up to 8 additional months of education, $4,233 annually, and more prestigious occupations. Furthermore, although we did find some evidence for both the resource substitution and the Matthew effect hypotheses, the most robust pattern across all models supported the independent effects hypothesis. Intelligence was the exception, the interaction models being more robust. Finally, we found that although personality traits may help compensate for background disadvantage to a small extent, they do not usually lead to a "full catch-up" effect, unlike intelligence. This was the first longitudinal study of status attainment to test interactive models of individual differences and background factors.

  12. Validation of Afterbody Aeroheating Predictions for Planetary Probes: Status and Future Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Michael J.; Brown, James L.; Sinha, Krishnendu; Candler, Graham V.; Milos, Frank S.; Prabhu, DInesh K.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the relevant flight conditions and physical models for planetary probe afterbody aeroheating calculations is given. Readily available sources of afterbody flight data and published attempts to computationally simulate those flights are summarized. A current status of the application of turbulence models to afterbody flows is presented. Finally, recommendations for additional analysis and testing that would reduce our uncertainties in our ability to accurately predict base heating levels are given.

  13. Defense of females, but not social status, predicts plasma androgen levels in male spotted hyenas.

    PubMed

    Goymann, Wolfgang; East, Marion L; Hofer, Heribert

    2003-01-01

    A positive correlation between male social status and testosterone levels is expected and often found in social species with high rates of agonistic interactions or when social relationships among males are unstable. In contrast, in species with low rates of agonistic interactions or when social relationships are stable, testosterone levels should not correlate with social status. The "challenge hypothesis" predicts that androgen levels should rise during periods of courtship or mate guarding. We addressed these questions in free-ranging spotted hyenas, a species with low rates and low intensities of aggression among males but where males spend extensive effort to court females. In males, we measured testosterone, its precursor androstenedione, and its metabolite 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. As predicted, testosterone levels were significantly higher and androstenedione levels tended to be higher in males that, at the time of sampling, defended a female, compared with males that did not defend a female. Also, as predicted, there was no correlation between social status and androgen levels in male spotted hyenas.

  14. K-Ras gene mutation status as a prognostic and predictive factor in patients with colorectal cancer undergoing irinotecan- or oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Stec, Rafał; Bodnar, Lubomir; Charkiewicz, Radosław; Korniluk, Jan; Rokita, Marta; Smoter, Marta; Ciechowicz, Marzena; Chyczewski, Lech; Nikliński, Jacek; Kozłowski, Wojciech; Szczylik, Cezary

    2012-01-01

    Background: CRC caused more than 600,000 estimated deaths in 2008. Dysregulated signaling through the RAS/RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway due to mutations in K-Ras and B-Raf are common events in CRC. Methods: Incidence of mutations in codons 12 and 13 of K-Ras and exons 11 and 15 of B-Raf were analyzed in amplified PCR products from primary tumors of 273 patients with CRC, and their prognostic and predictive significance was assessed. The prognostic role of clinical and pathological factors was also examined. Results: K-Ras mutations were present in 89 patients (32.6%), of whom 76 (85.4%) had mutations in codon 12 and 10 (11.2%) had mutations in codon 13. B-Raf gene mutations were present in 17 patients (6.9%), of whom 6 (35.3%) had mutations in exon 15. Multivariate analysis revealed a predictive significance for K-Ras mutations with respect to time to progression in patients treated with irinotecan and oxaliplatin as first-line chemotherapy. There was no predictive significance for B-Raf gene mutation status in these patients. The following risk factors were found to affect overall survival (OS) rates: primary tumor location, lymph node involvement grade, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level before treatment, and performance status according to WHO criteria. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, K-Ras mutation status may be a suitable indicator of patient eligibility and a prognostic indicator for responsiveness to anti-EGFR therapy alone, or in combination with chemotherapy. Also, K-Ras mutation status may predict time to progression in patients treated with irinotecan and oxaliplatin. PMID:22909976

  15. Survival Prediction Model Using Clinico-Pathologic Characteristics for Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Patients After Curative Resection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Yang; Fu, Jui-Ying; Wu, Ching-Feng; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Liu, Yun-Hen; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2015-11-01

    The current TNM staging system did not provide disease relapse information. The aim of study was try to establish a predictive survival model for disease and overall survival in nonsmall cell lung cancer patients who presented as resectable disease and to develop a reference for follow-up imaging tool selection.From January 2005 to December 2011, 442 patients who initially presented as resectable disease (stages I-IIIa) and received anatomic resection and mediastinal lymph node dissection were included in the study.Medical charts were thoroughly reviewed and clinico-pathologic factors were collected and analyzed.Visceral pleural invasion, tumor size >5 cm, and postoperative adjuvant therapy were identified as risk factors for poorer disease-free survival. The 5-year disease-free survival from score 0 to 3 was 68.7%, 46.6%, 31.9%, and 26.1%, respectively. The disease relapse percentage for scores 0 to 3 were 26.49%, 50.61%, 65.05%, and 73.81%, respectively. For analysis of overall survival, age >60 years, tumor size >3 cm, and total metastatic lymph node ratio >0.05 were correlated to worse overall survival. Because greater age may be correlated with poor general condition, we re-scored risk factors that correlated to disease severity that ranging from 0 to 2. The 5-year overall survival range from score 0 to 2 was 56.3%, 43.1%, and 13.1%, respectively.Poor prognostic factors correlated to disease-free survival were tumor size >5 cm, visceral pleural invasion, and patients needing to receive postoperative adjuvant therapy. Disease-free survival of resectable nonsmall cell lung cancer patients and disease relapse can be stratified by these 3 factors. Chest tomography may be recommended for patients with 1 or more poor disease-free survival risk factors.

  16. Predicting Cognitive Function from Clinical Measures of Physical Function and Health Status in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Kording, Konrad; Salowitz, Nicole; Davis, Jennifer C.; Hsu, Liang; Chan, Alison; Sharma, Devika; Blohm, Gunnar; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current research suggests that the neuropathology of dementia—including brain changes leading to memory impairment and cognitive decline—is evident years before the onset of this disease. Older adults with cognitive decline have reduced functional independence and quality of life, and are at greater risk for developing dementia. Therefore, identifying biomarkers that can be easily assessed within the clinical setting and predict cognitive decline is important. Early recognition of cognitive decline could promote timely implementation of preventive strategies. Methods We included 89 community-dwelling adults aged 70 years and older in our study, and collected 32 measures of physical function, health status and cognitive function at baseline. We utilized an L1–L2 regularized regression model (elastic net) to identify which of the 32 baseline measures were strongly predictive of cognitive function after one year. We built three linear regression models: 1) based on baseline cognitive function, 2) based on variables consistently selected in every cross-validation loop, and 3) a full model based on all the 32 variables. Each of these models was carefully tested with nested cross-validation. Results Our model with the six variables consistently selected in every cross-validation loop had a mean squared prediction error of 7.47. This number was smaller than that of the full model (115.33) and the model with baseline cognitive function (7.98). Our model explained 47% of the variance in cognitive function after one year. Discussion We built a parsimonious model based on a selected set of six physical function and health status measures strongly predictive of cognitive function after one year. In addition to reducing the complexity of the model without changing the model significantly, our model with the top variables improved the mean prediction error and R-squared. These six physical function and health status measures can be easily implemented in a

  17. Mental health status, aggression, and poor driving distinguish traffic offenders from non-offenders but health status predicts driving behavior in both groups

    PubMed Central

    Abdoli, Nasrin; Farnia, Vahid; Delavar, Ali; Dortaj, Fariborz; Esmaeili, Alireza; Farrokhi, Noorali; Karami, Majid; Shakeri, Jalal; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally, driver behavior rather than technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In a previous study, we showed that among young Iranian male traffic offenders, poor mental health status, along with aggression, predicted poor driving behavior. The aims of the present study were twofold, to determine whether this pattern could be replicated among non-traffic offenders, and to compare the mental health status, aggression, and driving behavior of male traffic offenders and non-offenders. Methods A total of 850 male drivers (mean age =34.25 years, standard deviation =10.44) from Kermanshah (Iran) took part in the study. Of these, 443 were offenders (52.1%) and 407 (47.9%) were non-offenders with lowest driving penalty scores applying for attaining an international driving license. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering socio-demographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results Compared to non-offenders, offenders reported higher aggression, poorer mental health status, and worse driving behavior. Among non-offenders, multiple regression indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion Compared to non-offenders, offenders reported higher aggression, poorer health status and driving behavior. Further, the predictive power of poorer mental health status, but not aggression, for driving behavior was replicated for male non-offenders. PMID:26300646

  18. Profiles of extracellular miRNA in cerebrospinal fluid and serum from patients with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases correlate with disease status and features of pathology.

    PubMed

    Burgos, Kasandra; Malenica, Ivana; Metpally, Raghu; Courtright, Amanda; Rakela, Benjamin; Beach, Thomas; Shill, Holly; Adler, Charles; Sabbagh, Marwan; Villa, Stephen; Tembe, Waibhav; Craig, David; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall

    2014-01-01

    The discovery and reliable detection of markers for neurodegenerative diseases have been complicated by the inaccessibility of the diseased tissue--such as the inability to biopsy or test tissue from the central nervous system directly. RNAs originating from hard to access tissues, such as neurons within the brain and spinal cord, have the potential to get to the periphery where they can be detected non-invasively. The formation and extracellular release of microvesicles and RNA binding proteins have been found to carry RNA from cells of the central nervous system to the periphery and protect the RNA from degradation. Extracellular miRNAs detectable in peripheral circulation can provide information about cellular changes associated with human health and disease. In order to associate miRNA signals present in cell-free peripheral biofluids with neurodegenerative disease status of patients with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, we assessed the miRNA content in cerebrospinal fluid and serum from postmortem subjects with full neuropathology evaluations. We profiled the miRNA content from 69 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 67 with Parkinson's disease and 78 neurologically normal controls using next generation small RNA sequencing (NGS). We report the average abundance of each detected miRNA in cerebrospinal fluid and in serum and describe 13 novel miRNAs that were identified. We correlated changes in miRNA expression with aspects of disease severity such as Braak stage, dementia status, plaque and tangle densities, and the presence and severity of Lewy body pathology. Many of the differentially expressed miRNAs detected in peripheral cell-free cerebrospinal fluid and serum were previously reported in the literature to be deregulated in brain tissue from patients with neurodegenerative disease. These data indicate that extracellular miRNAs detectable in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum are reflective of cell-based changes in pathology and can be used to assess

  19. Ecological and geographic characteristics predict nutritional status of communities: rapid assessment for poor villages.

    PubMed

    Kusumayati, A; Gross, R

    1998-12-01

    The quality of poverty alleviation programmes relies heavily on appropriate targeting and priority setting. Major problems in assessing poverty include identification of the indicators of poverty and the methods used for its assessment. Nutritional status, expressed by anthropometric indices, has been proposed as a poverty indicator because of its validity, objectivity, reliability and feasibility. This study was conducted to explore the application of remote sensing to poverty mapping based on nutritional status at the community level. Relationships between the nutritional status within a community and the ecological characteristics of the community were investigated. Multiple linear regression tests were executed, and the resultant equations were tested for their validity in predicting communities with poor nutritional status. Among geographical and ecological indicators used, distance to the nearest market, main soil type, rice field area, and perennial cultivation area were found to be most useful predictors for the ranking of the communities by nutritional status. Among non-ecological determinants, food consumption, health service status and living conditions were also found as predictors. The highest correlation was found if total population was also taken into account in the regression model (R2 = 0.69; p < 0.0001). In the assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of the eight models studied, 'undernutrition' was defined as a condition where a community belongs in the first quartile for nutritional status (highest prevalence of undernutrition), and the baseline nutritional survey was considered as a standard method for final diagnosis. Most models which included only ecological factors in the equations had lower sensitivity and specificity than models which included all determinant factors in the equations. All models which took into account the total population had higher sensitivity and specificity than those that did not take total population into

  20. Can Personality Traits and Intelligence Compensate for Background Disadvantage? Predicting Status Attainment in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Damian, Rodica Ioana; Su, Rong; Shanahan, Michael; Trautwein, Ulrich; Roberts, Brent W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the interplay of family background and individual differences, such as personality traits and intelligence (measured in a large US representative sample of high school students; N = 81,000) in predicting educational attainment, annual income, and occupational prestige eleven years later. Specifically, we tested whether individual differences followed one of three patterns in relation to parental SES when predicting attained status: (a) the independent effects hypothesis (i.e., individual differences predict attainments independent of parental SES level), (b) the resource substitution hypothesis (i.e., individual differences are stronger predictors of attainments at lower levels of parental SES), and (c) the Matthew effect hypothesis (i.e., “the rich get richer,” individual differences are stronger predictors of attainments at higher levels of parental SES). We found that personality traits and intelligence in adolescence predicted later attained status above and beyond parental SES. A standard deviation increase in individual differences translated to up to 8 additional months of education, $4,233 annually, and more prestigious occupations. Furthermore, although we did find some evidence for both the resource substitution and the Matthew effect hypotheses, the most robust pattern across all models supported the independent effects hypothesis. Intelligence was the exception, where interaction models were more robust. Finally, we found that although personality traits may help compensate for background disadvantage to a small extent, they do not usually lead to a “full catch up” effect, unlike intelligence. This was the first longitudinal study of status attainment to test interactive models of individual differences and background factors. PMID:25402679

  1. External validation and comparison of two nomograms predicting the probability of Gleason sum upgrading between biopsy and radical prostatectomy pathology in two patient populations: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Takanobu; Oka, Ryo; Endo, Takumi; Yano, Masashi; Kamijima, Shuichi; Kamiya, Naoto; Fujimura, Masaaki; Sekita, Nobuyuki; Mikami, Kazuo; Hiruta, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to validate and compare the predictive accuracy of two nomograms predicting the probability of Gleason sum upgrading between biopsy and radical prostatectomy pathology among representative patients with prostate cancer. We previously developed a nomogram, as did Chun et al. In this validation study, patients originated from two centers: Toho University Sakura Medical Center (n = 214) and Chibaken Saiseikai Narashino Hospital (n = 216). We assessed predictive accuracy using area under the curve values and constructed calibration plots to grasp the tendency for each institution. Both nomograms showed a high predictive accuracy in each institution, although the constructed calibration plots of the two nomograms underestimated the actual probability in Toho University Sakura Medical Center. Clinicians need to use calibration plots for each institution to correctly understand the tendency of each nomogram for their patients, even if each nomogram has a good predictive accuracy.

  2. Pretreatment Primary Tumor SUVmax Measured by FDG-PET and Pathologic Tumor Depth Predict for Poor Outcomes in Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Pathologically Positive Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.-T.; Chang, Joseph T.-C.; Wang, H.-M.; Ng, S.-H.; Hsueh, C.; Lee, L.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.; Chen, I.-H.; Huang, S.-F.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: The pathologic tumor depth is an independent prognosticator for local control (LC) and survival in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We sought to investigate the prognostic value of the preoperative maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) at the primary tumor in OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: A total of 109 OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes were investigated. All patients underwent 2-deoxy-2[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography within 2 weeks before surgery and neck dissection. All patients were followed for {>=}24 months after surgery or until death. The optimal cutoff value for the primary tumor SUVmax was selected according to the 5-year LC rate. Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: The median follow-up for all patients was 26 months (39 months for surviving patients). A cutoff SUVmax of 19.3 provided the greatest prognostic information for the 5-year LC rate (55% vs. 88%, p = 0.0135). A tumor depth {>=}12 mm appeared to be the most appropriate cutoff for predicting the 5-year LC rate (76% vs. 95%, p = 0.0075). A scoring system using the primary tumor SUVmax and tumor depth was formulated to define distinct prognostic groups. Patients with both a SUVmax of {>=}19.3 and tumor depth of {>=}12 mm (n = 8) had significantly poorer 5-year LC, 5-year disease-free, 5-year disease-specific, and 5-year overall survival rates compared with the other patient groups. Conclusion: The combination of the primary tumor SUVmax ({>=}19.3) and pathologic tumor depth ({>=}12 mm) identified a subgroup of OSCC patients at greatest risk of poor LC and death.

  3. Combining radiomic features with a miRNA classifier may improve prediction of malignant pathology for pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Permuth, Jennifer B.; Choi, Jung; Balarunathan, Yoganand; Kim, Jongphil; Chen, Dung-Tsa; Chen, Lu; Orcutt, Sonia; Doepker, Matthew P.; Gage, Kenneth; Zhang, Geoffrey; Latifi, Kujtim; Hoffe, Sarah; Jiang, Kun; Coppola, Domenico; Centeno, Barbara A.; Magliocco, Anthony; Li, Qian; Trevino, Jose; Merchant, Nipun; Gillies, Robert; Malafa, Mokenge

    2016-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are pancreatic cancer precursors incidentally discovered by cross-sectional imaging. Consensus guidelines for IPMN management rely on standard radiologic features to predict pathology, but they lack accuracy. Using a retrospective cohort of 38 surgically-resected, pathologically-confirmed IPMNs (20 benign; 18 malignant) with preoperative computed tomography (CT) images and matched plasma-based ‘miRNA genomic classifier (MGC)’ data, we determined whether quantitative ‘radiomic’ CT features (+/- the MGC) can more accurately predict IPMN pathology than standard radiologic features ‘high-risk’ or ‘worrisome’ for malignancy. Logistic regression, principal component analyses, and cross-validation were used to examine associations. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV, NPV) were estimated. The MGC, ‘high-risk,’ and ‘worrisome’ radiologic features had area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values of 0.83, 0.84, and 0.54, respectively. Fourteen radiomic features differentiated malignant from benign IPMNs (p<0.05) and collectively had an AUC=0.77. Combining radiomic features with the MGC revealed an AUC=0.92 and superior sensitivity (83%), specificity (89%), PPV (88%), and NPV (85%) than other models. Evaluation of uncertainty by 10-fold cross-validation retained an AUC>0.80 (0.87 (95% CI:0.84-0.89)). This proof-of-concept study suggests a noninvasive radiogenomic approach may more accurately predict IPMN pathology than ‘worrisome’ radiologic features considered in consensus guidelines. PMID:27589689

  4. Overview of the status of predictive computer models for skin sensitization (JRC Expert meeting on pre- and pro-haptens )

    EPA Science Inventory

    No abstract was prepared or requested. This is a short presentation aiming to present a status of what in silico models and approaches exists in the prediction of skin sensitization potential and/or potency.

  5. The Prediction of Labor Force Status: Implications from International Adult Skill Assessments. Research Report. ETS RR-16-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Tongyun; von Davier, Matthias; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    This report investigates the prediction of labor force status using observed variables, such as gender, age, and immigrant status, and more importantly, measured skill variables, including literacy proficiency and a categorical rating of educational attainment based on the 1994 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS), the 2003 Adult Literacy…

  6. Predicting Infant Maltreatment in Low-Income Families: The Interactive Effects of Maternal Attributions and Child Status at Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Happaney, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Maternal attributions and child neonatal status at birth were assessed as predictors of infant maltreatment (harsh parenting and safety neglect). The population included low-income, low-education families who were primarily Hispanic. Child maltreatment during the 1st year of life (N = 73) was predicted by neonatal status (low Apgar scores, preterm…

  7. A text mining approach to the prediction of disease status from clinical discharge summaries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Spasic, Irena; Keane, John A; Nenadic, Goran

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The authors present a system developed for the Challenge in Natural Language Processing for Clinical Data-the i2b2 obesity challenge, whose aim was to automatically identify the status of obesity and 15 related co-morbidities in patients using their clinical discharge summaries. The challenge consisted of two tasks, textual and intuitive. The textual task was to identify explicit references to the diseases, whereas the intuitive task focused on the prediction of the disease status when the evidence was not explicitly asserted. DESIGN The authors assembled a set of resources to lexically and semantically profile the diseases and their associated symptoms, treatments, etc. These features were explored in a hybrid text mining approach, which combined dictionary look-up, rule-based, and machine-learning methods. MEASUREMENTS The methods were applied on a set of 507 previously unseen discharge summaries, and the predictions were evaluated against a manually prepared gold standard. The overall ranking of the participating teams was primarily based on the macro-averaged F-measure. RESULTS The implemented method achieved the macro-averaged F-measure of 81% for the textual task (which was the highest achieved in the challenge) and 63% for the intuitive task (ranked 7(th) out of 28 teams-the highest was 66%). The micro-averaged F-measure showed an average accuracy of 97% for textual and 96% for intuitive annotations. CONCLUSIONS The performance achieved was in line with the agreement between human annotators, indicating the potential of text mining for accurate and efficient prediction of disease statuses from clinical discharge summaries.

  8. Comparison of mental status scales for predicting mortality on the general wards

    PubMed Central

    Zadravecz, Frank J.; Tien, Linda; Robertson-Dick, Brian J.; Yuen, Trevor C.; Twu, Nicole M.; Churpek, Matthew M.; Edelson, Dana P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Altered mental status is a significant predictor of mortality in inpatients. Several scales exist to characterize mental status, including the AVPU (Alert, responds to Voice, responds to Pain, Unresponsive) scale, which is used in many early warning scores in the general ward setting. The use of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) is not well established in this population. Objective To compare the accuracies of AVPU, GCS, and RASS for predicting inpatient mortality Design Retrospective cohort study Setting Single urban academic medical center Participants Adult inpatients on the general wards Measurements Nurses recorded GCS and RASS on consecutive adult hospitalizations. AVPU was extracted from the eye subscale of the GCS. We compared the accuracies of each scale for predicting in-hospital mortality within 24 hours of a mental status observation using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). Results 295,974 paired observations of GCS and RASS were obtained from 26,873 admissions; 417 (1.6%) resulted in in-hospital death. GCS and RASS more accurately predicted mortality than AVPU (AUC 0.80 and 0.82, respectively vs. 0.73; p<0.001 for both comparisons). Simultaneous use of GCS and RASS produced an AUC of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.82-0.87; p<0.001 when compared to all three scales). Conclusions In ward patients, both GCS and RASS were significantly more accurate predictors of mortality than AVPU. In addition, combining GCS and RASS was more accurate than any scale alone. Routine tracking of GCS and/or RASS on general wards may improve accuracy of detecting clinical deterioration. PMID:26374471

  9. Pathological tremor prediction using surface electromyogram and acceleration: potential use in ‘ON-OFF’ demand driven deep brain stimulator design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Ishita; Graupe, Daniel; Tuninetti, Daniela; Shukla, Pitamber; Slavin, Konstantin V.; Verhagen Metman, Leo; Corcos, Daniel M.

    2013-06-01

    Objective. We present a proof of concept for a novel method of predicting the onset of pathological tremor using non-invasively measured surface electromyogram (sEMG) and acceleration from tremor-affected extremities of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET). Approach. The tremor prediction algorithm uses a set of spectral (Fourier and wavelet) and nonlinear time series (entropy and recurrence rate) parameters extracted from the non-invasively recorded sEMG and acceleration signals. Main results. The resulting algorithm is shown to successfully predict tremor onset for all 91 trials recorded in 4 PD patients and for all 91 trials recorded in 4 ET patients. The predictor achieves a 100% sensitivity for all trials considered, along with an overall accuracy of 85.7% for all ET trials and 80.2% for all PD trials. By using a Pearson’s chi-square test, the prediction results are shown to significantly differ from a random prediction outcome. Significance. The tremor prediction algorithm can be potentially used for designing the next generation of non-invasive closed-loop predictive ON-OFF controllers for deep brain stimulation (DBS), used for suppressing pathological tremor in such patients. Such a system is based on alternating ON and OFF DBS periods, an incoming tremor being predicted during the time intervals when DBS is OFF, so as to turn DBS back ON. The prediction should be a few seconds before tremor re-appears so that the patient is tremor-free for the entire DBS ON-OFF cycle and the tremor-free DBS OFF interval should be maximized in order to minimize the current injected in the brain and battery usage.

  10. Pathological tremor prediction using surface EMG and acceleration: potential use in “ON-OFF” demand driven deep brain stimulator design

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Ishita; Graupe, Daniel; Tuninetti, Daniela; Shukla, Pitamber; Slavin, Konstantin V.; Metman, Leo Verhagen; Corcos, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We present a proof of concept for a novel method of predicting the onset of pathological tremor using non-invasively measured surface electromyogram (sEMG) and acceleration from tremor-affected extremities of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Essential tremor (ET). Approach The tremor prediction algorithm uses a set of spectral (fourier and wavelet) and non-linear time series (entropy and recurrence rate) parameters extracted from the non-invasively recorded sEMG and acceleration signals. Main results The resulting algorithm is shown to successfully predict tremor onset for all 91 trials recorded in 4 PD patients and for all 91 trials recorded in 4 ET patients. The predictor achieves a 100% sensitivity for all trials considered, along with an overall accuracy of 85.7% for all ET trials and 80.2% for all PD trials. By using a Pearson’s chi-square test, the prediction results are shown to significantly differ from a random prediction outcome. Significance The tremor prediction algorithm can be potentially used for designing the next generation of non-invasive closed-loop predictive ON-OFF controllers for deep brain stimulation (DBS), used for suppressing pathological tremor in such patients. Such a system is based on alternating ON and OFF DBS periods, an incoming tremor being predicted during the time intervals when DBS is OFF, so as to turn DBS back ON. The prediction should be a few seconds before tremor re-appears so that the patient is tremor-free for the entire DBS ON-OFF cycle as well as the tremor-free DBS OFF interval should be maximized in order to minimize the current injected in the brain and battery usage. PMID:23658233

  11. Anthropometric Indices Added the Predictive Ability of Iron Status in Prognosis of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Ebrahimi-Mameghani, Mehrangiz; Hajimaghsood, Masoud; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abnormal homeostasis of iron such as deficiency or overload is associated with the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Another risk factor for CVD is obesity whose added predictive ability to iron status has been assessed by few study. This study aimed to eva¬luate the effect of adding anthropometric indices to a model based on iron status as risk factors of CVD. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 140 adult women aged 18-50 years randomly se-lected from Sheikhorrais Clinic that is one of the Tabriz University sub-specialized clinics in 2011. Anthropometric indices, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and body iron status were measured by standard protocol, non-invasive ultrasound and concentrations of serum iron, ferri¬tin, TIBC (Total iron Binding Capacity) and complete blood cell counts (CBC), respectively. In¬tegrated discriminatory improvement index (IDI) and net reclassification improvement index (NRI) were used as the measures of added predictive ability of anthropometric measures to the iron statues. Results: IDI (SE) after adding Waist Circumference (WC), Waist to Heap Ratio (WHR), Waist to Height Ratio (WHtR), Body Mass Index (BMI) and Body fat (%) to base model was 0.12 (0.028), 0.09 (0.026), 0.12 (0.028), 0.07 (0.022) and 0.10 (0.026) respectively. The NRI (SE) was 0.10 (0.065) for WC, 0.03 (0.058) for WHR, 0.07 (0.067) for WHtR, 0.05 (0.067) for BMI, and 0.08 (0.064) for Body fat. Conclusions: Anthropometric indices could significantly add to the predictive ability of the iron statues, with highest IDI when WC and WHtR were added to the base model. It suggests that by adding WC and WHtR to the iron status lead us to a more optimal model for predicting the ini¬tial stage of atherosclerosis. PMID:24688936

  12. Status of the observed and predicted b anti-b production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Happacher, F.; Giromini, P.; Ptohos, F.; /Cyprus U.

    2005-09-01

    The authors review the experimental status of the b-quark production at the Fermilab Tevatron. They compare all available measurements to perturbative QCD predictions (NLO and FONLL) and also to the parton-level cross section evaluated with parton-shower Monte Carlo generators. They examine both the single b cross section and the so called b{bar b} correlations. The review shows that the experimental situation is quite complicated because the measurements appear to be inconsistent among themselves. In this situation, there is no solid basis to either claim that perturbative QCD is challenged by these measurements or, in contrast, that long-standing discrepancies between data and theory have been resolved by incrementally improving the measurements and the theoretical prediction.

  13. Can T2-weighted 3-T breast MRI predict clinically occult inflammatory breast cancer before pathological examination? A single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Takayoshi; Kasami, Masako; Watanabe, Junichiro

    2014-01-01

    Occult inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is defined as an invasive cancer without any clinical inflammatory signs but with pathologically proven dermal lymphovascular invasion. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of 3-T breast MRI to predict occult IBC before pathological examination and compare its effectiveness with that of mammography (MMG) and ultrasound (US). A retrospective review of clinical, radiological, and pathological records of 460 consecutive breast cancers revealed five proved occult IBCs. We analyzed the findings of 3-T MRI, MMG, and US for these five occult IBCs. Primary breast lesions were detected by 3-T MRI, MMG, and US in all five breasts with occult IBCs. 3-T MRI revealed 40% mass type lesions and 60% non-mass-like type lesions. Kinetic curve analysis of the primary breast lesions showed a rapid initial kinetic phase in 80% of lesions and a delayed washout pattern in 60% of lesions. 3-T MRI showed slight skin thickness in 60% of breasts, whereas MMG and US showed slight skin thickness in 40 and 20% of breasts, respectively. Subcutaneous and prepectoral edema, as evaluated on T2-weighted images, was present in all five breasts with occult IBCs. The presence of subcutaneous and prepectoral edema on T2-weighted 3-T breast MRI is an important finding that should suggest the diagnosis of occult IBC before pathological examination.

  14. Functional Status Predicts Acute Care Readmissions from Inpatient Rehabilitation in the Stroke Population

    PubMed Central

    Slocum, Chloe; Gerrard, Paul; Black-Schaffer, Randie; Goldstein, Richard; Singhal, Aneesh; DiVita, Margaret A.; Ryan, Colleen M.; Mix, Jacqueline; Purohit, Maulik; Niewczyk, Paulette; Kazis, Lewis; Zafonte, Ross; Schneider, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acute care readmission risk is an increasingly recognized problem that has garnered significant attention, yet the reasons for acute care readmission in the inpatient rehabilitation population are complex and likely multifactorial. Information on both medical comorbidities and functional status is routinely collected for stroke patients participating in inpatient rehabilitation. We sought to determine whether functional status is a more robust predictor of acute care readmissions in the inpatient rehabilitation stroke population compared with medical comorbidities using a large, administrative data set. Methods A retrospective analysis of data from the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation from the years 2002 to 2011 was performed examining stroke patients admitted to inpatient rehabilitation facilities. A Basic Model for predicting acute care readmission risk based on age and functional status was compared with models incorporating functional status and medical comorbidities (Basic-Plus) or models including age and medical comorbidities alone (Age-Comorbidity). C-statistics were compared to evaluate model performance. Findings There were a total of 803,124 patients: 88,187 (11%) patients were transferred back to an acute hospital: 22,247 (2.8%) within 3 days, 43,481 (5.4%) within 7 days, and 85,431 (10.6%) within 30 days. The C-statistics for the Basic Model were 0.701, 0.672, and 0.682 at days 3, 7, and 30 respectively. As compared to the Basic Model, the best-performing Basic-Plus model was the Basic+Elixhauser model with C-statistics differences of +0.011, +0.011, and + 0.012, and the best-performing Age-Comorbidity model was the Age+Elixhauser model with C-statistic differences of -0.124, -0.098, and -0.098 at days 3, 7, and 30 respectively. Conclusions Readmission models for the inpatient rehabilitation stroke population based on functional status and age showed better predictive ability than models based on medical comorbidities. PMID

  15. Predicting later life health status and mortality using state-level socioeconomic characteristics in early life.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H; Kuan, Kai Y; Cullen, Mark R

    2016-12-01

    Studies extending across multiple life stages promote an understanding of factors influencing health across the life span. Existing work has largely focused on individual-level rather than area-level early life determinants of health. In this study, we linked multiple data sets to examine whether early life state-level characteristics were predictive of health and mortality decades later. The sample included 143,755 U.S. employees, for whom work life claims and administrative data were linked with early life state-of-residence and mortality. We first created a "state health risk score" (SHRS) and "state mortality risk score" (SMRS) by modeling state-level contextual characteristics with health status and mortality in a randomly selected 30% of the sample (the "training set"). We then examined the association of these scores with objective health status and mortality in later life in the remaining 70% of the sample (the "test set") using multivariate linear and Cox regressions, respectively. The association between the SHRS and adult health status was β=0.14 (95%CI: 0.084, 0.20), while the hazard ratio for the SMRS was 0.96 (95%CI: 0.93, 1.00). The association between the SHRS and health was not statistically significant in older age groups at a p-level of 0.05, and there was a statistically significantly different association for health status among movers compared to stayers. This study uses a life course perspective and supports the idea of "sensitive periods" in early life that have enduring impacts on health. It adds to the literature examining populations in the U.S. where large linked data sets are infrequently available.

  16. Spatial-Temporal [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET Features for Predicting Pathologic Response of Esophageal Cancer to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Shan; Kligerman, Seth; Chen, Wengen; Lu, Minh; Kim, Grace; Feigenberg, Steven; D'Souza, Warren D.; Suntharalingam, Mohan; Lu, Wei

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To extract and study comprehensive spatial-temporal {sup 18}F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) features for the prediction of pathologic tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients with esophageal cancer were treated with trimodal therapy (CRT plus surgery) and underwent [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET/CT scans both before (pre-CRT) and after (post-CRT) CRT. The 2 scans were rigidly registered. A tumor volume was semiautomatically delineated using a threshold standardized uptake value (SUV) of ≥2.5, followed by manual editing. Comprehensive features were extracted to characterize SUV intensity distribution, spatial patterns (texture), tumor geometry, and associated changes resulting from CRT. The usefulness of each feature in predicting pathologic tumor response to CRT was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) value. Results: The best traditional response measure was decline in maximum SUV (SUV{sub max}; AUC, 0.76). Two new intensity features, decline in mean SUV (SUV{sub mean}) and skewness, and 3 texture features (inertia, correlation, and cluster prominence) were found to be significant predictors with AUC values ≥0.76. According to these features, a tumor was more likely to be a responder when the SUV{sub mean} decline was larger, when there were relatively fewer voxels with higher SUV values pre-CRT, or when [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake post-CRT was relatively homogeneous. All of the most accurate predictive features were extracted from the entire tumor rather than from the most active part of the tumor. For SUV intensity features and tumor size features, changes were more predictive than pre- or post-CRT assessment alone. Conclusion: Spatial-temporal [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET features were found to be useful predictors of pathologic tumor response to neoadjuvant CRT in esophageal cancer.

  17. The Interactive Role of Anxiety Sensitivity and Pubertal Status in Predicting Anxious Responding to Bodily Sensations among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Reardon, Laura E.; McKee, Laura G.; Feldner, Matthew T.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Zvolensky, Michael J. J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the interaction between pubertal status and anxiety sensitivity (AS) in predicting anxious and fearful responding to a three-minute voluntary hyperventilation challenge among 124 (57 females) adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17 years (Mage = 15.04; SD = 1.49). As predicted, after controlling for baseline anxiety,…

  18. Characteristics and role in outcome prediction of continuous EEG after status epilepticus: A prospective observational cohort

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Vincent; Drislane, Frank W.; Westover, M. Brandon; Dworetzky, Barbara A.; Lee, Jong Woo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Continuous electroencephalography (cEEG) is important for treatment guidance in status epilepticus (SE) management, but its role in clinical outcome prediction is unclear. Our aim is to determine which cEEG features give independent outcome information after correction for clinical predictor. Methods cEEG data of 120 consecutive adult patients with SE were prospectively collected in three academic medical centers using the 2012 American Clinical Neurophysiology Society’s Standardized Critical Care EEG Terminology. Association between cEEG features and two clinical outcome measures (mortality and complete recovery) was assessed. Results In the first 24 h of EEG recording, 49 patients (40.8%) showed no periodic or rhythmic pattern, 45 (37.5%) had periodic discharges, 20 (16.7%) had rhythmic delta activity, and 6 (5%) had spike-and-wave discharges. Seizures were recorded in 68.3% of patients. After adjusting for known clinical predictive factors for mortality including the STatus Epilepticus Severity Score (STESS) and the presence of a potentially fatal etiology, the only EEG features (among rhythmic and periodic patterns, seizures, and background activity) that remained significantly associated with outcome were the absence of a posterior dominant rhythm (odds ratio [OR] 9.8; p = 0.033) for mortality and changes in stage II sleep pattern characteristics (OR 2.59 for each step up among these categories: absent, present and abnormal, present and normal; p = 0.002) for complete recovery. Significance After adjustment for relevant clinical findings, including SE severity and etiology, cEEG background information (posterior dominant rhythm and sleep patterns) is more predictive for clinical outcome after SE than are rhythmic and periodic patterns or seizures. PMID:25953195

  19. Usefulness of the mini nutritional assessment in predicting the nutritional status of patients with liver cancer in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alan C; Hsu, Wei-Chung; Chan, Shu-Ching; Chang, Tusi-Lan

    2011-01-01

    Liver cancer patients are confronted with the additional risk of malnutrition because the disease is often associated with hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and metabolic disturbances. Nutritional intervention can improve treatment outcome, but early detection is important. This study aimed to determine whether the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) could effectively rate the nutritional status of patients with liver cancer in Taiwan. A total of 300 patients were evaluated for nutritional status with two modified versions of the MNA in short and long forms. MNA-Taiwan Version 1 adopted population-specific anthropometric cutpoints, whereas Version 2 replaced mid-arm and calf circumferences in place of body mass index. Predicted statuses were compared to results predicted by the Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) and analyzed for correlations with biochemical or cancer status parameters. Results showed that both versions of the MNA were effective in predicting nutritional status, and predictions by the short forms agreed well with those by the long forms. The nutritional scores correlated well with hemoglobin, serum albumin, C-reactive protein, r-glutamyl transpeptidase, TNM (tumor, node, metastasis) staging, and severity of cirrhosis. These results suggest that the MNA can be an effective tool for assessing the nutritional status of patients with liver cancer.

  20. [Current status of the predictive genetic testing for hereditary neurological diseases in Shinshu University Hospital].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Keiko; Sekijima, Yoshiki; Yoshida, Kunihiro; Mizuuchi, Asako; Yamashita, Hiromi; Tamai, Mariko; Ikeda, Shu-ichi; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu

    2013-01-01

    The current status of predictive genetic testing for late-onset hereditary neurological diseases in Japan is largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed data from 73 clients who visited the Division of Clinical and Molecular Genetics, Shinshu University Hospital, for the purpose of predictive genetic testing. The clients consisted of individuals with family histories of familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP; n=30), Huntington's disease (HD; n=16), spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD; n=14), myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1; n=9), familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 1 (ALS1; n=3), and Alzheimer's disease (AD; n=1). Forty-nine of the 73 (67.1%) clients were in their twenties or thirties. Twenty-seven of the 73 (37.0%) clients visited a medical institution within 3 months after becoming aware of predictive genetic testing. The most common reason for requesting predictive genetic testing was a need for certainty or to reduce uncertainty and anxiety. The decision-making about marriage and having a child was also a main reason in clients in the twenties and thirties. The numbers of clients who actually underwent predictive genetic testing was 22 of 30 (73.3%) in FAP, 3 of 16 (18.8%) in HD, 6 of 10 (60.0%) in SCD, 7 of 9 (77.8%) in DM1, and 0 of 3 (0%) in ALS1 (responsible gene of the disease was unknown in 4 SCD patients and an AD patient). The percentage of test usage was lower in untreatable diseases such as HD and SCD than that in FAP, suggesting that many clients changed their way of thinking on the significance of testing through multiple genetic counseling sessions. In addition, it was obvious that existence of disease-modifying therapy promoted usage of predictive genetic testing in FAP. Improvement of genetic counseling system to manage predictive genetic testing is necessary, as consultation concerning predictive genetic testing is the main motivation to visit genetic counseling clinic in many at-risk clients.

  1. Lumped Parameter Modeling as a Predictive Tool for a Battery Status Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Chester G. Motloch; Chinh D. Ho; John L. Morrison; Ronald C. Fenton; Vincent S. Battaglia; Tien Q. Duong

    2003-10-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program is currently evaluating the performance of the second generation of lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). Both the Gen 2 Baseline and Variant C cells are tested in accordance with the cell-specific test plan, and are removed at roughly equal power fade increments and sent for destructive diagnostic analysis. The diagnostic laboratories did not need all test cells for analysis, and returned five spare cells to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). INEEL used these cells for special pulse testing at various duty cycles, amplitudes, and durations to investigate the usefulness of the lumped parameter model (LPM) as a predictive tool in a battery status monitor (BSM). The LPM is a simplified linear model that accurately predicts the voltage response during certain pulse conditions. A database of parameter trends should enable dynamic predictions of state-of-charge and state-of-health conditions during in-vehicle pulsing. This information could be used by the BSM to provide accurate information to the vehicle control system.

  2. Goal Attribution toward Non-Human Objects during Infancy Predicts Imaginary Companion Status during Preschool Years.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Yusuke; Kanakogi, Yasuhiro; Todo, Naoya; Okumura, Yuko; Shinohara, Ikuko; Itakura, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that there is a significant relationship between children's mentalizing skills and creation of an imaginary companion (IC). Theorists have proposed that interaction with an IC may improve mentalizing skills, but it is also possible that children's mentalizing skills affect their creation of an IC. In this longitudinal study, we examined whether goal attribution in infants younger than 1 years old (Time 1) predicted their creation of ICs at 48 months old (Time 2). At Time 1, infants' goal attribution was measured in an action prediction experiment, where infants anticipated three types of action goals: (1) another person's goal-directed action (GH condition); (2) another person's non-goal-directed (BH condition); and (3) a mechanical claw's goal-directed action (MC condition). At Time 2, parents completed questionnaires assessing whether their children had ICs. The path analyses using Bayesian estimation revealed that infants' anticipation in the MC condition, but not in the GH and BH conditions, predicted their later IC status. These results indicate that infants' goal attributions to non-human agents may be a strong predictor of their later IC creation. Early mentalizing skills toward non-human objects may provide children with a basis for their engagement in imaginative play.

  3. Goal Attribution toward Non-Human Objects during Infancy Predicts Imaginary Companion Status during Preschool Years

    PubMed Central

    Moriguchi, Yusuke; Kanakogi, Yasuhiro; Todo, Naoya; Okumura, Yuko; Shinohara, Ikuko; Itakura, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that there is a significant relationship between children's mentalizing skills and creation of an imaginary companion (IC). Theorists have proposed that interaction with an IC may improve mentalizing skills, but it is also possible that children's mentalizing skills affect their creation of an IC. In this longitudinal study, we examined whether goal attribution in infants younger than 1 years old (Time 1) predicted their creation of ICs at 48 months old (Time 2). At Time 1, infants' goal attribution was measured in an action prediction experiment, where infants anticipated three types of action goals: (1) another person's goal-directed action (GH condition); (2) another person's non-goal-directed (BH condition); and (3) a mechanical claw's goal-directed action (MC condition). At Time 2, parents completed questionnaires assessing whether their children had ICs. The path analyses using Bayesian estimation revealed that infants' anticipation in the MC condition, but not in the GH and BH conditions, predicted their later IC status. These results indicate that infants' goal attributions to non-human agents may be a strong predictor of their later IC creation. Early mentalizing skills toward non-human objects may provide children with a basis for their engagement in imaginative play. PMID:26941682

  4. Computational Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Louis, David N.; Feldman, Michael; Carter, Alexis B.; Dighe, Anand S.; Pfeifer, John D.; Bry, Lynn; Almeida, Jonas S.; Saltz, Joel; Braun, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E.; Gilbertson, John R.; Sinard, John H.; Gerber, Georg K.; Galli, Stephen J.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Becich, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Context We define the scope and needs within the new discipline of computational pathology, a discipline critical to the future of both the practice of pathology and, more broadly, medical practice in general. Objective To define the scope and needs of computational pathology. Data Sources A meeting was convened in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2014 prior to the annual Association of Pathology Chairs meeting, and it was attended by a variety of pathologists, including individuals highly invested in pathology informatics as well as chairs of pathology departments. Conclusions The meeting made recommendations to promote computational pathology, including clearly defining the field and articulating its value propositions; asserting that the value propositions for health care systems must include means to incorporate robust computational approaches to implement data-driven methods that aid in guiding individual and population health care; leveraging computational pathology as a center for data interpretation in modern health care systems; stating that realizing the value proposition will require working with institutional administrations, other departments, and pathology colleagues; declaring that a robust pipeline should be fostered that trains and develops future computational pathologists, for those with both pathology and non-pathology backgrounds; and deciding that computational pathology should serve as a hub for data-related research in health care systems. The dissemination of these recommendations to pathology and bioinformatics departments should help facilitate the development of computational pathology. PMID:26098131

  5. Monitoring methods and predictive models for water status in Jonathan apples.

    PubMed

    Trincă, Lucia Carmen; Căpraru, Adina-Mirela; Arotăriţei, Dragoş; Volf, Irina; Chiruţă, Ciprian

    2014-02-01

    Evaluation of water status in Jonathan apples was performed for 20 days. Loss moisture content (LMC) was carried out through slow drying of wholes apples and the moisture content (MC) was carried out through oven drying and lyophilisation for apple samples (chunks, crushed and juice). We approached a non-destructive method to evaluate LMC and MC of apples using image processing and multilayer neural networks (NN) predictor. We proposed a new simple algorithm that selects the texture descriptors based on initial set heuristically chosen. Both structure and weights of NN are optimised by a genetic algorithm with variable length genotype that led to a high precision of the predictive model (R(2)=0.9534). In our opinion, the developing of this non-destructive method for the assessment of LMC and MC (and of other chemical parameters) seems to be very promising in online inspection of food quality.

  6. Drug-induced EEG pattern predicts effectiveness of ketamine in treating refractory status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Basha, Maysaa M; Alqallaf, Abdulradha; Shah, Aashit K

    2015-04-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) can lack overt clinical manifestation and is usually treated with continuous infusion of intravenous anesthetic drugs (IVADs), where the use of continuous electroencephalography (cEEG) is imperative. Ketamine has recently been shown to be effective in the treatment of RSE. We retrospectively review a cohort of 11 patients receiving ketamine as part of their treatment regimen for RSE. We report on the presence of a characteristic EEG rhythm consisting of a generalized archiform theta to beta rhythms (7-20 Hz) appearing after ketamine administration. This pattern was seen in five patients, four of whom achieved successful resolution of RSE. Ketamine-induced EEG pattern may serve as a biomarker predictive of successful treatment outcome in RSE.

  7. Functional network changes in hippocampal CA1 after status epilepticus predict spatial memory deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Anna L; Mahoney, J Matthew; Richard, Gregory R; Holmes, Gregory L; Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal; Scott, Rod C

    2012-08-15

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a common neurological emergency, which has been associated with subsequent cognitive impairments. Neuronal death in hippocampal CA1 is thought to be an important mechanism of these impairments. However, it is also possible that functional interactions between surviving neurons are important. In this study we recorded in vivo single-unit activity in the CA1 hippocampal region of rats while they performed a spatial memory task. From these data we constructed functional networks describing pyramidal cell interactions. To build the networks, we used maximum entropy algorithms previously applied only to in vitro data. We show that several months following SE pyramidal neurons display excessive neuronal synchrony and less neuronal reactivation during rest compared with those in healthy controls. Both effects predict rat performance in a spatial memory task. These results provide a physiological mechanism for SE-induced cognitive impairment and highlight the importance of the systems-level perspective in investigating spatial cognition.

  8. Androgen receptor expression predicts different clinical outcomes for breast cancer patients stratified by hormone receptor status

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Zheng, Yi-Zi; Liu, Yi-Rong; Lang, Guan-Tian; Qiao, Feng; Hu, Xin; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In this study we sought to correlate androgen receptor (AR) expression with tumor progression and disease-free survival (DFS) in breast cancer patients. We investigated AR expression in 450 breast cancer patients. We found that breast cancers expressing the estrogen receptor (ER) are more likely to co-express AR compared to ER-negative cancers (56.0% versus 28.1%, P < 0.001). In addition, we found that AR expression is correlated with increased DFS in patients with luminal breast cancer (P < 0.001), and decreased DFS in TNBC (triple negative breast cancer, P = 0.014). In addition, patients with HR+ tumors (Hormone receptor positive tumors) expressing low levels of AR have the lowest DFS among all receptor combinations. We also propose a novel prognostic model using AR receptor status, BRCA1, and present data showing that our model is more predictive of disease free survival compared to the traditional TMN staging system. PMID:27285752

  9. Predictive Value of GJB2 Mutation Status for Hearing Outcomes of Pediatric Cochlear Implantation.

    PubMed

    Abdurehim, Yasin; Lehmann, Alexandre; Zeitouni, Anthony G

    2017-03-01

    Objective To systematically review and quantify current evidence regarding the association of GJB2 mutation status with outcomes of pediatric cochlear implantation. Data Sources PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for "GJB2,"pediatric hearing loss," and "cochlear implantation" and their synonyms, with no language restrictions, until December 2, 2015. Review Methods Studies were included that investigated the status of GJB2 mutation and its predictive value for outcomes of pediatric cochlear implantation. Speech recognition scores, Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale, Speech Intelligibility Rating, and Categorized Auditory Performance were pooled using weighted mean differences, and a 95% confidence interval. Results Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The differences between GJB2-related deafness and non- GJB2-related deafness due to unidentified causes and other types of genetic deafness without additional disabilities were not statistically significant ( P = .15 and P = .30, respectively); however, the difference between GJB2-related deafness and acquired hearing loss due to environmental etiologies was statistically significant and favored GJB2-related deafness ( P = .03). Conclusion GJB2-related deafness leads to significantly better cochlear implantation outcomes when compared with acquired deafness caused by environmental etiologies. However, GJB2 mutation is not associated with a significantly better prognosis when compared with those whose deafness results from either nonsyndromic hearing loss of unknown origin or other types of genetic mutations in the absence of other neurologic deficits.

  10. Ideal number of biopsy tumor fragments for predicting HER2 status in gastric carcinoma resection specimens.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sangjeong; Ahn, Soomin; Van Vrancken, Michael; Lee, Minju; Ha, Sang Yun; Lee, Hyuk; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Jae J; Choi, Sunkyu; Jung, Sin-Ho; Choi, Min Gew; Lee, Jun-Ho; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

    2015-11-10

    Intratumoral heterogeneity of HER2 expression is common in gastric cancers and pose a challenge for identifying patients who would benefit from anti-HER2 therapy. The aim of this study is to compare HER2 expression in biopsy and resection specimens of gastric carcinoma by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and to find the ideal number of biopsy tumor fragments that can accurately predict HER2 overexpression in the corresponding surgically resected specimen. The HER2 IHC results of 702 paired biopsy and resection specimens of gastric cancer were compared.The mean number of biopsy fragments among all cases was 4.3 (range 1-11). HER2 was positive in 130 (18.5%) endoscopic biopsies and in 102 (14.5%) gastrectomy specimens. Intratumoral heterogeneity of HER2 was found in 80 (61.5%) biopsies and 70 (68.6%) resection specimens. Out of the 70 surgical specimens with intratumoral heterogeneity, 24 (34.3%) of the corresponding biopsies were categorized as negative (positive conversion). In the 86 (12.3%) discrepant cases, negative conversion was observed in 57 (66.3%) cases and positive conversion in 29 (33.7%). The fragment numbers were significantly correlated with the discrepancy of results and positive predictability (P = 0.0315 and P = 0.0052). ROC curve analysis and positive predictability showed that 4 fragments should be obtained to minimize the differences in HER2 scores between biopsy and resection specimen.In gastric carcinomas with discrepant HER2 results between biopsy and surgical resection specimens, intratumoral heterogeneity is common with most of them showing positive conversion. To predict HER2 status precisely, at least 4 biopsy fragments containing tumor cells are required.

  11. Ideal number of biopsy tumor fragments for predicting HER2 status in gastric carcinoma resection specimens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minju; Ha, Sang Yun; Lee, Hyuk; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Jae J.; Choi, Sunkyu; Jung, Sin-Ho; Choi, Min Gew; Lee, Jun-Ho; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

    2015-01-01

    Intratumoral heterogeneity of HER2 expression is common in gastric cancers and pose a challenge for identifying patients who would benefit from anti-HER2 therapy. The aim of this study is to compare HER2 expression in biopsy and resection specimens of gastric carcinoma by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and to find the ideal number of biopsy tumor fragments that can accurately predict HER2 overexpression in the corresponding surgically resected specimen. The HER2 IHC results of 702 paired biopsy and resection specimens of gastric cancer were compared. The mean number of biopsy fragments among all cases was 4.3 (range 1–11). HER2 was positive in 130 (18.5%) endoscopic biopsies and in 102 (14.5%) gastrectomy specimens. Intratumoral heterogeneity of HER2 was found in 80 (61.5%) biopsies and 70 (68.6%) resection specimens. Out of the 70 surgical specimens with intratumoral heterogeneity, 24 (34.3%) of the corresponding biopsies were categorized as negative (positive conversion). In the 86 (12.3%) discrepant cases, negative conversion was observed in 57 (66.3%) cases and positive conversion in 29 (33.7%). The fragment numbers were significantly correlated with the discrepancy of results and positive predictability (P = 0.0315 and P = 0.0052). ROC curve analysis and positive predictability showed that 4 fragments should be obtained to minimize the differences in HER2 scores between biopsy and resection specimen. In gastric carcinomas with discrepant HER2 results between biopsy and surgical resection specimens, intratumoral heterogeneity is common with most of them showing positive conversion. To predict HER2 status precisely, at least 4 biopsy fragments containing tumor cells are required. PMID:26460823

  12. Prediction of Ambulatory Status After Hip Fracture Surgery in Patients Over 60 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To predict ambulatory capacity, 1 month after physical therapy following hip fracture surgery. Methods A retrospective chart review was carried out. Patients more than 60 years old, who underwent hip fracture surgery and received physical therapies, were selected (n=548). Age, gender, presence of cognitive dysfunction, combined medical diseases, combined fractures, previous history of hip surgery, prefracture ambulatory capacity, days from the fracture to surgery, type of fracture, type of surgery, presence of postoperative complications, days from the surgery to physical therapy, and total admission period, were collected. Prefracture ambulatory capacity and postoperative ambulatory capacity were classified into non-ambulatory status (NA), ambulation with assistive device (AA), and independent-ambulation without any assistive device (IA). Multiple-logistic regression analysis was performed for the prediction of postoperative ambulatory capacity. Results Age (odds ratio [OR]=0.94 for IA and 0.96 for IA or AA), gender (OR=1.64 for IA and 0.98 for IA or AA), prefracture ambulatory capacity (OR of IA=19.17 for IA; OR of IA=16.72 for IA or AA; OR of AA=1.26 for IA, OR of AA=9.46 for IA or AA), and combined medical disease (OR=2.02) were found to be the factors related to postoperative ambulatory capacity and the prediction model was set up using these four factors. Conclusion Using this model, we can predict the ambulatory capacity following hip fracture surgery. Further prospective studies should be constructed to improve postoperative ambulatory capacity. PMID:27606273

  13. Development of a scoring system using a statistical model to predict cure status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Khoshhali, Mehri; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Jaffary, Fariba; Baghbaderani, Azadeh Zolfaghari

    2017-01-01

    Background: The present study was performed to develop a scoring system for predicting cure status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Materials and Methods: This study included 199 patients with CL from Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center (Isfahan, Iran). Data were collected as longitudinal in each visit of patients. We applied ordinal logistic generalized estimating equation regression to predict score on this correlated data. To evaluate the fitted model, split sample validation method was applied. SPSS software was used for data analysis. Results: The regression coefficients of the fitted model were used to calculate score for cure status. Based on split-sample validation method, overall correct classification rate was 82%. Conclusion: This study suggested a scoring system predict cure status in CL patients based on clinical characteristics. Using this method, score for a CL patient is easily obtained by physicians or health workers.

  14. ATRX immunostaining predicts IDH and H3F3A status in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Azadeh; Skardelly, Marco; Bonzheim, Irina; Ott, Ines; Mühleisen, Helmut; Eckert, Franziska; Tabatabai, Ghazaleh; Schittenhelm, Jens

    2016-06-16

    Gliomas are the most frequent intraaxial CNS neoplasms with a heterogeneous molecular background. Recent studies on diffuse gliomas have shown frequent alterations in the genes involved in chromatin remodelling pathways such as α-thalassemia/mental-retardation-syndrome-X-linked gene (ATRX). Yet, the reliability of ATRX in predicting isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and H3 histone, family 3A (H3F3A) mutations in gliomas, is unclear.We analysed the ATRX expression status by immunohistochemistry, in a large series of 1064 gliomas and analysed the results in correlation to IDH, H3F3A and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) 1p/19q status in these tumors. We also investigated the prognostic potential of ATRX concerning the clinical outcome of patients with diffuse gliomas.According to our results, loss of nuclear ATRX expression was accompanied with an astrocytic tumor lineage and a younger age of onset. ATRX loss in astrocytomas was also strongly associated with IDH1/2 and H3F3A mutation (p < 0.0001). Among 196 glial tumors with nuclear ATRX loss, 173 (89 %) had an IDH1 or IDH2 mutation. Among the remaining 23 cases (11 %) with ATRX loss and IDH wild type status, 7 cases had a H3F3A G34R mutation (3 %) and 2 cases had a H3F3A K27M mutation (1 %). ATRX retention in IDH1/2 mutant tumors was strongly associated with LOH 1p/19q and oligodendroglioma histology (p < 0.0001). We also confirmed the significant prognostic role of ATRX. Diffuse gliomas with ATRX loss (n = 137, median 1413 days, 95 % CI: 1065-1860 days) revealed a significantly better clinical outcome compared with tumors with ATRX retention (n = 335, median: 609, 95 % CI: 539-760 days, HR = 1.81, p < 0.0001).In conclusion, ATRX is a potential marker for prediction of IDH/H3F3A mutations and substratification of diffuse gliomas into survival relevant tumor groups. Such classification is of great importance for further clinical decision making especially concerning the therapeutic options

  15. Role of nutritional status in predicting quality of life outcomes in cancer--a systematic review of the epidemiological literature.

    PubMed

    Lis, Christopher G; Gupta, Digant; Lammersfeld, Carolyn A; Markman, Maurie; Vashi, Pankaj G

    2012-04-24

    Malnutrition is a significant factor in predicting cancer patients' quality of life (QoL). We systematically reviewed the literature on the role of nutritional status in predicting QoL in cancer. We searched MEDLINE database using the terms "nutritional status" in combination with "quality of life" together with "cancer". Human studies published in English, having nutritional status as one of the predictor variables, and QoL as one of the outcome measures were included. Of the 26 included studies, 6 investigated head and neck cancer, 8 gastrointestinal, 1 lung, 1 gynecologic and 10 heterogeneous cancers. 24 studies concluded that better nutritional status was associated with better QoL, 1 study showed that better nutritional status was associated with better QoL only in high-risk patients, while 1 study concluded that there was no association between nutritional status and QoL. Nutritional status is a strong predictor of QoL in cancer patients. We recommend that more providers implement the American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) guidelines for oncology patients, which includes nutritional screening, nutritional assessment and intervention as appropriate. Correcting malnutrition may improve QoL in cancer patients, an important outcome of interest to cancer patients, their caregivers, and families.

  16. The prognostic index: a useful pathologic guide for prediction of nodal metastases and survival in penile squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Alcides; Caballero, Carmelo; Soares, Fernando; Guimarães, Gustavo C; Cunha, Isabel W; Reuter, Víctor; Barreto, José; Rodríguez, Ingrid; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2009-07-01

    A concern of surgical oncologists has been to find a method to select patients for groin dissection in penile carcinomas considering the high morbidity of this procedure. A promising methodology, in the identification of early metastatic foci by the sentinel lymph node technique (initiated in Paraguay in the 1970s), was found, using a static anatomic approach, to be associated with a recurrence rate of 30%. Later, a dynamic method using radioactive tracers and peritumoral dye injection was introduced with an improvement in patients' outcome. Recurrences, however, remained high in most studies at a rate of about 15% to 20% except in few highly specialized centers with failure rates of 5%. The technical sophistication, lack of multicenter reproduction, and cost of dynamic sentinel node biopsies preclude their routine implementation in developing countries and other approaches are necessary. Because histologic grade, depth of tumor infiltration, and perineural invasion (PNI) are considered among the most important pathologic prognostic parameters in penile cancer, we devised a Prognostic Index combining these 3 factors. In this study, we are evaluating the incidence of nodal metastasis according to the Prognostic Index score. Pathologic materials from 193 patients with penectomy/circumcision and bilateral groin dissections for invasive squamous cell carcinoma were analyzed. The Prognostic Index (ranging from 2 to 7) consisted in the addition of numerical values given to histologic grade (1 to 3), deepest anatomic level involved by cancer (1 to 3), and presence of PNI (0 or 1). Histologic grades were defined as follows: grade 1, carcinomas with minimal to no atypias; grade 3, tumors showing any proportion of anaplastic cells; and grade 2, the remainder tumors. The anatomic levels and their numerical values were: in glans, lamina propria, 1; corpus spongiosum, 2; and corpus cavernosum, 3. In foreskin they were: lamina propria, 1; dartos, 2; and skin, 3. PNI was

  17. A combination of Nottingham prognostic index and IHC4 score predicts pathological complete response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Weijuan; Liang, Gehao; Xie, Xinhua; Zheng, Wenbo; Song, Erwei; Su, Fengxi; Gong, Chang

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic complete response (pCR) prediction after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is important for clinical decision-making in breast cancer. This study investigated the predictive value of Nottingham prognostic index (NPI), Immunohistochemical four (IHC4) score and a new predictive index combined with them in estrogen-positive (ER+) breast cancer following NAC. We retrospectively gathered clinical data of 739 ER+ breast cancer patients who received NAC from two cancer centers. We developed a new predictive biomarker named NPI+IHC4 to predict pCR in ER+ breast cancer in a training set (n=443) and validated it in an external validation set (n=296). The results showed that a lower IHC4 score, NPI and NPI+IHC4 were significantly associated a high pCR rate in the entire cohort. In the study set, NPI+IHC4 showed a better sensitivity and specificity for pCR prediction (AUC 0.699, 95% CI 0.626-0.772) than IHC4 score (AUC 0.613, 95% CI 0.533-0.692), NPI (AUC 0.576, 95% CI 0.494-0.659), tumor size (AUC 0.556, 95% CI 0.481-0.631) and TNM stage (AUC 0.521, 95% CI 0.442-0.601). In the validation set, NPI+IHC4 had a better predictive value for pCR (AUC 0.665, 95% CI 0.579-0.751) than IHC4 score or NPI alone. In addition, ER+ patients with lower IHC4, NPI and NPI+IHC4 scores had significantly better DFS in both study and validation sets. In summary, NPI+IHC4 can predict pCR following NAC and prognosis in ER+ breast cancer, which is cost-effect and potentially more useful in guiding decision-making regarding NAC in clinical practice. Further validation is needed in prospective clinical trials with larger cohorts of patients. PMID:27894097

  18. Satiety responsiveness in toddlerhood predicts energy intake and weight status at four years of age.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Nambiar, Smita; Magarey, Anthea M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal-report of child eating behaviour at two years predicted self-regulation of energy intake and weight status at four years. Using an 'eating in the absence of hunger' paradigm, children's energy intake (kJ) from a semi-standardized lunch meal and a standardized selection of snacks were measured. Participants were 37 mother-child dyads (16 boys, Median child age=4.4years, Inter-quartile range=3.7-4.5years) recruited from an existing longitudinal study (NOURISH randomised controlled trial). All participants were tested in their own home. Details of maternal characteristics, child eating behaviours (at age two years) reported by mothers on a validated questionnaire, and measured child height and weight (at age 3.5-4years) were sourced from existing NOURISH trial data. Correlation and partial correlation analyses were used to examine longitudinal relationships. Satiety responsiveness and Slowness in eating were inversely associated with energy intake of the lunch meal (partial r=-.40, p=.023, and partial r=-.40, p=.023) and the former was also negatively associated with BMI-for-age Z score (partial r=-.42, p=.015). Food responsiveness and Enjoyment of food were not related to energy intake or BMI Z score. None of the eating behaviours were significantly associated with energy intake of the snacks (i.e., eating in the absence of hunger). The small and predominantly 'healthy weight' sample of children may have limited the ability to detect some hypothesized effects. Nevertheless, the study provides evidence for the predictive validity of two eating behaviours and future research with a larger and more diverse sample should be able to better evaluate the predictive validity of other children's early eating behaviour styles.

  19. Predictive parameters for the antecedent development of hip pathology associated with long segment fusions to the pelvis for the treatment of adult spinal deformity

    PubMed Central

    Kinon, Merritt D.; Nasser, Rani; Nakhla, Jonathan P.; Adogwa, Owoicho; Moreno, Jessica R.; Harowicz, Michael; Verla, Terence; Yassari, Reza; Bagley, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The surgical treatment of adult scoliosis frequently involves long segment fusions across the lumbosacral joints that redistribute tremendous amounts of force to the remaining mobile spinal segments as well as to the pelvis and hip joints. Whether or not these forces increase the risk of femoral bone pathology remains unknown. The aim of this study is to determine the correlation between long segment spinal fusions to the pelvis and the antecedent development of degenerative hip pathologies as well as what predictive patient characteristics, if any, correlate with their development. Methods: A retrospective chart review of all long segment fusions to the pelvis for adult degenerative deformity operated on by the senior author at the Duke Spine Center from February 2008 to March 2014 was undertaken. Enrolment criteria included all available demographic, surgical, and clinical outcome data as well as pre and postoperative hip pathology assessment. All patients had prospectively collected outcome measures and a minimum 2-year follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed comparing the incidence of preoperative hip pain and antecedent postoperative hip pain as a function of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and number of spinal levels fused. Results: In total, 194 patients were enrolled in this study. Of those, 116 patients (60%) reported no hip pain prior to surgery. Eighty-three patients (71.6%) remained hip pain free, whereas 33 patients (28.5%) developed new postoperative hip pain. Age, gender, and BMI were not significant among those who went on to develop hip pain postoperatively (P < 0.0651, 0.3491, and 0.1021, respectively). Of the 78 patients with preoperative hip pain, 20 patients (25.6%) continued to have hip pain postoperatively, whereas 58 patients reported improvement in the hip pain after long segment fusion for correction of their deformity, a 74.4% rate of reduction. Age, gender, and BMI were not significant among

  20. A Score Predicting Posttreatment Ambulatory Status in Patients Irradiated for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk Rudat, Volker; Veninga, Theo; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Basic, Hiba; Karstens, Johann H.; Hoskin, Peter J.; Schild, Steven E.

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To create a scoring system to predict ambulatory status after radiotherapy (RT) for metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC). Methods and Materials: On the basis of a multivariate analysis of 2096 MSCC patients, a scoring system was developed. This included the five prognostic factors significantly associated with post-RT ambulatory status: primary tumor type, interval between tumor diagnosis and MSCC, visceral metastases, motor function before RT, and time developing motor deficits before RT. The score for each factor was determined by dividing the post-RT ambulatory rate (as a percentage) by 10. Total scores represented the sum of the scores for each factor and ranged between 21 and 44 points. Patients were divided into five groups according to this score. Results: The post-RT ambulatory rates were 6% (24 of 389) for patients with scores of {<=}28 points, 44% (121 of 278) for those with 29-31 points, 70% (212 of 303) for those with 32-34 points, 86% (315 of 266) for those with 35-37 points, and 99% (750 of 760) for those with {>=}38 points. The 3-month survival rates were 29%, 62%, 77%, 84%, and 98%, respectively. The 6-months survival rates were 6%, 31%, 42%, 61%, and 93%, respectively. Conclusions: Because patients with scores of {<=}28 points had poor functional outcome after RT and extraordinarily poor survival rates, short-course RT to decrease pain or best supportive care may be considered. Patients with scores of 29-37 points should be considered surgical candidates, because RT-alone results were not optimal. Patients with scores of {>=}38 points seem to have excellent results with RT alone.

  1. New method for predicting estrogen receptor status utilizing breast MRI texture kinetic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhury, Baishali; Hall, Lawrence O.; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Gatenby, Robert A.; Gillies, Robert; Drukteinis, Jennifer S.

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of breast cancer typically shows that tumors are heterogeneous with spatial variations in blood flow and cell density. Here, we examine the potential link between clinical tumor imaging and the underlying evolutionary dynamics behind heterogeneity in the cellular expression of estrogen receptors (ER) in breast cancer. We assume, in an evolutionary environment, that ER expression will only occur in the presence of significant concentrations of estrogen, which is delivered via the blood stream. Thus, we hypothesize, the expression of ER in breast cancer cells will correlate with blood flow on gadolinium enhanced breast MRI. To test this hypothesis, we performed quantitative analysis of blood flow on dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and correlated it with the ER status of the tumor. Here we present our analytic methods, which utilize a novel algorithm to analyze 20 volumetric DCE-MRI breast cancer tumors. The algorithm generates post initial enhancement (PIE) maps from DCE-MRI and then performs texture features extraction from the PIE map, feature selection, and finally classification of tumors into ER positive and ER negative status. The combined gray level co-occurrence matrices, gray level run length matrices and local binary pattern histogram features allow quantification of breast tumor heterogeneity. The algorithm predicted ER expression with an accuracy of 85% using a Naive Bayes classifier in leave-one-out cross-validation. Hence, we conclude that our data supports the hypothesis that imaging characteristics can, through application of evolutionary principles, provide insights into the cellular and molecular properties of cancer cells.

  2. Mini-nutritional assessment predicts functional status and quality of life of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Chung; Tsai, Alan C; Chan, Shu-Ching; Wang, Po-Ming; Chung, Na-Na

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the possibility of using the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) to evaluate the quality of life and functional status in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The study recruited 300 outpatients with HCC from a teaching hospital in Central Taiwan to serve as subjects. All subjects were interviewed with a structured questionnaire for rating the nutritional status with the MNA (long-form and short-form), and for evaluating quality of life and functional status with Global Quality of Life (GQL) and Global Functional Status (GFS), respectively, of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 version-3. Cancer staging and liver cirrhosis indicators, blood biochemical indicators, and self-rated health status and mobility were used as reference standards. Results showed that based on the strength of the correlation and association with the reference standards, both the long-form and short-form of the MNA performed better than GQL and GFS in predicting quality of life and functional status of patients with HCC. These results suggest that the MNA is suitable for identifying the risk of deteriorating quality of life or functional status, in addition to identifying the risk of malnutrition, in patients with HCC.

  3. Preoperative inflammation markers and IDH mutation status predict glioblastoma patient survival.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Fei; Song, Hong-Wang; Cai, Hong-Qing; Kong, Ling-Wei; Yao, Kun; Jiang, Tao; Li, Shou-Wei; Yan, Chang-Xiang

    2017-02-09

    Recent studies suggest that inflammation response biomarkers are prognostic indicators of solid tumor outcomes. Here, we quantify the prognostic value of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) in glioblastomas (GBMs), taking into consideration the role of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status. We examined 141 primary glioblastomas (pGBMs) and 25 secondary glioblastomas (sGBMs). NLRs, PLRs, and LMRs were calculated before surgery. IDH mutations were detected immunohistochemically after tumor resection, and patients' clinical outcomes were analyzed after classification into GBM, pGBM, and IDH-wild type glioblastoma (IDH-wt GBM) groups. To make comparisons, we set cutoffs for NLR, PLR and LMR of 4.0, 175.0, and 3.7, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, both NLR (HR=1.712, 95% CI 1.026-2.858, p=0.040) and PLR (HR=2.051, 95% CI 1.288-3.267, p=0.002) had independent prognostic value. While a low NLR was associated with a better prognosis only in the IDH-wt GBM group, PLR was predictive of patient survival in the GBM, pGBM, and IDH-wt GBM groups. By contrast, LMR exhibited no prognostic value for any of the 3 types of GBM.

  4. Towards a general framework for predicting threat status of data-deficient species from phylogenetic, spatial and environmental information

    PubMed Central

    Jetz, Walter; Freckleton, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    In taxon-wide assessments of threat status many species remain not included owing to lack of data. Here, we present a novel spatial-phylogenetic statistical framework that uses a small set of readily available or derivable characteristics, including phylogenetically imputed body mass and remotely sensed human encroachment, to provide initial baseline predictions of threat status for data-deficient species. Applied to assessed mammal species worldwide, the approach effectively identifies threatened species and predicts the geographical variation in threat. For the 483 data-deficient species, the models predict highly elevated threat, with 69% ‘at-risk’ species in this set, compared with 22% among assessed species. This results in 331 additional potentially threatened mammals, with elevated conservation importance in rodents, bats and shrews, and countries like Colombia, Sulawesi and the Philippines. These findings demonstrate the future potential for combining phylogenies and remotely sensed data with species distributions to identify species and regions of conservation concern. PMID:25561677

  5. Prediction of the Oncotype DX recurrence score: use of pathology-generated equations derived by linear regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Klein, Molly E; Dabbs, David J; Shuai, Yongli; Brufsky, Adam M; Jankowitz, Rachel; Puhalla, Shannon L; Bhargava, Rohit

    2013-05-01

    Oncotype DX is a commercial assay frequently used for making chemotherapy decisions in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers. The result is reported as a recurrence score ranging from 0 to 100, divided into low-risk (<18), intermediate-risk (18-30), and high-risk (≥31) categories. Our pilot study showed that recurrence score can be predicted by an equation incorporating standard morphoimmunohistologic variables (referred to as original Magee equation). Using a data set of 817 cases, we formulated three additional equations (referred to as new Magee equations 1, 2, and 3) to predict the recurrence score category for an independent set of 255 cases. The concordance between the risk category of Oncotype DX and our equations was 54.3%, 55.8%, 59.4%, and 54.4% for original Magee equation, new Magee equations 1, 2, and 3, respectively. When the intermediate category was eliminated, the concordance increased to 96.9%, 100%, 98.6%, and 98.7% for original Magee equation, new Magee equations 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Even when the estimated recurrence score fell in the intermediate category with any of the equations, the actual recurrence score was either intermediate or low in more than 80% of the cases. Any of the four equations can be used to estimate the recurrence score depending on available data. If the estimated recurrence score is clearly high or low, the oncologists should not expect a dramatically different result from Oncotype DX, and the Oncotype DX test may not be needed. Conversely, an Oncotype DX result that is dramatically different from what is expected based on standard morphoimmunohistologic variables should be thoroughly investigated.

  6. Novel Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers Predictive of Pathologic Response to Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy in Rectal Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin C.; Ha, Ye J.; Roh, Seon A.; Cho, Dong H.; Choi, Eun Y.; Kim, Tae W.; Kim, Jong H.; Kang, Tae W.; Kim, Seon Y.; Kim, Yong S.

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Studies aimed at predicting individual responsiveness to preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) are urgently needed, especially considering the risks associated with poorly responsive patients. Methods and Materials: A 3-step strategy for the determination of CRT sensitivity is proposed based on (1) the screening of a human genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array in correlation with histopathologic tumor regression grade (TRG); (2) clinical association analysis of 113 patients treated with preoperative CRT; and (3) a cell-based functional assay for biological validation. Results: Genome-wide screening identified 9 SNPs associated with preoperative CRT responses. Positive responses (TRG 1-3) were obtained more frequently in patients carrying the reference allele (C) of the SNP CORO2A rs1985859 than in those with the substitution allele (T) (P=.01). Downregulation of CORO2A was significantly associated with reduced early apoptosis by 27% (P=.048) and 39% (P=.023) in RKO and COLO320DM colorectal cancer cells, respectively, as determined by flow cytometry. Reduced radiosensitivity was confirmed by colony-forming assays in the 2 colorectal cancer cells (P=.034 and .015, respectively). The SNP FAM101A rs7955740 was not associated with radiosensitivity in the clinical association analysis. However, downregulation of FAM101A significantly reduced early apoptosis by 29% in RKO cells (P=.047), and it enhanced colony formation in RKO cells (P=.001) and COLO320DM cells (P=.002). Conclusion: CRT-sensitive SNP markers were identified using a novel 3-step process. The candidate marker CORO2A rs1985859 and the putative marker FAM101A rs7955740 may be of value for the prediction of radiosensitivity to preoperative CRT, although further validation is needed in large cohorts.

  7. Risk Factors for Elementary School Drinking: Pubertal Status, Personality, and Alcohol Expectancies Concurrently Predict 5th Grade Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Rachel L.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the correlates and potential causes of very early drinking. The authors proposed this risk theory: (a) pubertal onset is associated with increased levels of positive urgency (the tendency to act rashly when experiencing intensely positive mood), negative urgency (the tendency to act rashly when distressed), and sensation seeking; (b) those traits predict increased endorsement of high-risk alcohol expectancies; (c) the expectancies predict drinker status among 5th graders; and (d) the apparent influence of positive urgency, negative urgency, and sensation seeking on drinker status is mediated by alcohol expectancies. The authors conducted a concurrent test of whether the relationships among these variables were consistent with the theory in a sample of 1,843 5th grade students. In a well-fitting structural model, their hypotheses were supported. Drinker status among 5th graders is not just a function of context and factors external to children: it is predictable from a combination of pubertal status, personality characteristics, and learned alcohol expectancies. PMID:20822192

  8. Prediction of intramammary infection status across the dry period from lifetime cow records.

    PubMed

    Henderson, A C; Hudson, C D; Bradley, A J; Sherwin, V E; Green, M J

    2016-07-01

    The dry period is very important for mammary gland health, with the aim not only to cure existing intramammary infections (IMI) but also to prevent new IMI. Although it is known that the dry period is an important time for optimizing udder health, the probability that individual cows will succumb to a new IMI or, if infected, will fail to cure an IMI is not well established. The aim of this study was to investigate whether lifetime cow data, available through routine on-farm milk recording, could be used to predict changes in IMI status across the dry period for individual cows that were (1) deemed high somatic cell count (SCC; >199,000 cells/mL) or (2) low SCC (<200,000 cells/mL) at the last test day before drying off. Milk recording data collected between September 1994 and July 2014 from 114 herds in the United Kingdom were used. Two 2-level random effects models were built and both cure and new IMI were used as outcome variables in separate models. Cows with a smaller proportion of test days with a high SCC in the lactation before drying off, a smaller proportion of test days recording a high SCC in the lactation before the current lactation, of lower parity, producing less milk before drying off, of lower days in milk at drying off, and of lower SCC just before drying off were more likely to cure across the dry period. Dry period length had no effect on the likelihood of cure. Individual cows with a smaller proportion of test days recording a high SCC in the lactation before the current, of lower parity, of lower milk production at drying off, and fewer days in milk at drying off were less likely to develop a new IMI. Dry period length was found to have no effect on the probability of new IMI. Model predictions showed that a high level of discrimination was possible between cows with a high and low risk of both cures and new infections across the dry period.

  9. Immunohistochemical NF1 analysis does not predict NF1 gene mutation status in pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Stenman, Adam; Svahn, Fredrika; Welander, Jenny; Gustavson, Boel; Söderkvist, Peter; Gimm, Oliver; Juhlin, C Christofer

    2015-03-01

    Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) are tumors originating from the adrenal medulla displaying a diverse genetic background. While most PCCs are sporadic, about 40 % of the tumors have been associated with constitutional mutations in one of at least 14 known susceptibility genes. As 25 % of sporadic PCCs harbor somatic neurofibromin 1 gene (NF1) mutations, NF1 has been established as the most recurrently mutated gene in PCCs. To be able to pinpoint NF1-related pheochromocytoma (PCC) disease in clinical practice could facilitate the detection of familial cases, but the large size of the NF1 gene makes standard DNA sequencing methods cumbersome. The aim of this study was to examine whether mutations in the NF1 gene could be predicted by immunohistochemistry as a method to identify cases for further genetic characterization. Sixty-seven PCCs obtained from 67 unselected patients for which the somatic and constitutional mutational status of NF1 was known (49 NF1 wild type, 18 NF1 mutated) were investigated for NF1 protein immunoreactivity, and the results were correlated to clinical and genetic data. NF1 immunoreactivity was absent in the majority of the PCCs (44/67; 66 %), including 13 out of 18 cases (72 %) with a somatic or constitutional NF1 mutation. However, only a minority of the NF1 wild-type PCCs (18/49; 37 %) displayed retained NF1 immunoreactivity, thereby diminishing the specificity of the method. We conclude that NF1 immunohistochemistry alone is not a sufficient method to distinguish between NF1-mutated and non-mutated PCCs. In the clinical context, genetic screening therefore remains the most reliable tool to detect NF1-mutated PCCs.

  10. Predicting infant maltreatment in low-income families: the interactive effects of maternal attributions and child status at birth.

    PubMed

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Happaney, Keith

    2004-03-01

    Maternal attributions and child neonatal status at birth were assessed as predictors of infant maltreatment (harsh parenting and safety neglect). The population included low-income, low-education families who were primarily Hispanic. Child maltreatment during the 1st year of life (N = 73) was predicted by neonatal status (low Apgar scores, preterm status), as moderated by mothers' attributions. The highest levels of maltreatment were shown within dyads that included a mother with low perceived power and an at-risk infant. Partial support was found for maternal depressive symptoms as mediators of harsh parenting among at-risk infants. It is suggested that lack of perceived parental power constrains investment in protective relationships and fosters sensitization to potential threat.

  11. Predicting performance expectations from affective impressions: linking affect control theory and status characteristics theory.

    PubMed

    Dippong, Joseph; Kalkhoff, Will

    2015-03-01

    Affect control theory (ACT) and status characteristics theory (SCT) offer separate and distinct explanations for how individuals interpret and process status- and power-relevant information about interaction partners. Existing research within affect control theory offers evidence that status and power are related to the affective impressions that individuals form of others along the dimensions of evaluation and potency, respectively. Alternately, status characteristics theory suggests that status and power influence interaction through the mediating cognitive construct of performance expectations. Although both theories have amassed an impressive amount of empirical support, research has yet to articulate theoretical and empirical connections between affective impressions and performance expectations. The purpose of our study is to address this gap. Elaborating a link between ACT and SCT in terms of their central concepts can serve as a stepping stone to improving the explanatory capacity of both theories, while providing a potential bridge by which they can be employed jointly.

  12. Immune Response in a Wild Bird Is Predicted by Oxidative Status, but Does Not Cause Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cram, Dominic L.; Blount, Jonathan D.; York, Jennifer E.; Young, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    The immune system provides vital protection against pathogens, but extensive evidence suggests that mounting immune responses can entail survival and fecundity costs. The physiological mechanisms that underpin these costs remain poorly understood, despite their potentially important role in shaping life-histories. Recent studies involving laboratory models highlight the possibility that oxidative stress could mediate these costs, as immune-activation can increase the production of reactive oxygen species leading to oxidative stress. However, this hypothesis has rarely been tested in free-ranging wild populations, where natural oxidative statuses and compensatory strategies may moderate immune responses and their impacts on oxidative status. Furthermore, the possibility that individuals scale their immune responses according to their oxidative status, conceivably to mitigate such costs, remains virtually unexplored. Here, we experimentally investigate the effects of a phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) immune-challenge on oxidative status in wild male and female white-browed sparrow weavers, Plocepasser mahali. We also establish whether baseline oxidative status prior to challenge predicts the scale of the immune responses. Contrary to previous work on captive animals, our findings suggest that PHA-induced immune-activation does not elicit oxidative stress. Compared with controls (n = 25 birds), PHA-injected birds (n = 27 birds) showed no evidence of a differential change in markers of oxidative damage or enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant protection 24 hours after challenge. We did, however, find that the activity of a key antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, SOD) prior to immune-activation predicted the scale of the resulting swelling: birds with stronger initial SOD activity subsequently produced smaller swellings. Our findings (i) suggest that wild birds can mount immune responses without suffering from systemic oxidative stress, and (ii) lend support to

  13. Oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  14. [Pathology- a new revival].

    PubMed

    Barshack, Iris

    2013-06-01

    The field of pathology has undergone considerable change in recent years. The editor and editorial board of this journal are to be commended for their decision to devote a special issue to the field of pathology. Pathology deals with the characterization, investigation, and diagnosis of disease and disease processes and as such, has Long been considered one of the foundations of medicine. It is a rich and multi-faceted field which has retained its breadth of scope in the face of ever-increasing specialization and sub-specialization in medicine. In addition to its classic roles in autopsy, case description, and the diagnosis of pathoLogic processes, new and innovative spheres of activity are becoming integral to the field, especially in the realm of molecular pathology. Pathology is a Leading player in the new age of "personalized cancer therapy", where pathologists are responsible not only for diagnosing disease in the tissue, but also for conducting additional tests which may predict its response to specific drug therapies. In this context, moLecular pathology has become essential to the field both in the provision of cLinical service and research. To fully implement this trend, we are witness to the rise of tissue collection and tissue banking initiatives for both diagnostic and research purposes. A national tissue banking project in Israel has recently received considerable attention.

  15. Accuracy of Computed Tomography for Predicting Pathologic Nodal Extracapsular Extension in Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer Undergoing Initial Surgical Resection

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhu, Roshan S.; Magliocca, Kelly R.; Hanasoge, Sheela; Aiken, Ashley H.; Hudgins, Patricia A.; Hall, William A.; Chen, Susie A.; Eaton, Bree R.; Higgins, Kristin A.; Saba, Nabil F.; Beitler, Jonathan J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Nodal extracapsular extension (ECE) in patients with head-and-neck cancer increases the loco-regional failure risk and is an indication for adjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT). To reduce the risk of requiring trimodality therapy, patients with head-and-neck cancer who are surgical candidates are often treated with definitive CRT when preoperative computed tomographic imaging suggests radiographic ECE. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of preoperative CT imaging for predicting pathologic nodal ECE (pECE). Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 432 consecutive patients with oral cavity or locally advanced/nonfunctional laryngeal cancer who underwent preoperative CT imaging before initial surgical resection and neck dissection. Specimens with pECE had the extent of ECE graded on a scale from 1 to 4. Results: Radiographic ECE was documented in 46 patients (10.6%), and pECE was observed in 87 (20.1%). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were 43.7%, 97.7%, 82.6%, and 87.3%, respectively. The sensitivity of radiographic ECE increased from 18.8% for grade 1 to 2 ECE, to 52.9% for grade 3, and 72.2% for grade 4. Radiographic ECE criteria of adjacent structure invasion was a better predictor than irregular borders/fat stranding for pECE. Conclusions: Radiographic ECE has poor sensitivity, but excellent specificity for pECE in patients who undergo initial surgical resection. PPV and NPV are reasonable for clinical decision making. The performance of preoperative CT imaging increased as pECE grade increased. Patients with resectable head-and-neck cancer with radiographic ECE based on adjacent structure invasion are at high risk for high-grade pECE requiring adjuvant CRT when treated with initial surgery; definitive CRT as an alternative should be considered where appropriate.

  16. Nutritional status as a predictive marker for surgical site infection in total joint arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Alfargieny, Randa; Bodalal, Zuhir; Bendardaf, Riyad; El-Fadli, Mustafa; Langhi, Salem

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical site infection (SSI) is considered one of the most serious complications in total joint arthroplasty (TJA). This study seeks to analyze the predictive value of preoperative and postoperative nutritional biomarkers for SSI in elective TJA. Methodology: Nutritional markers were gathered retrospectively utilizing patient's records from the orthopedics department at Benghazi Medical Center (BMC). The sample spanned cases admitted during the 20-month period between January 2012 and August 2013 and had undergone either elective total hip replacement or total knee replacement. The collected lab results included a complete blood count, total lymphocyte count (TLC), and serum albumin (S. alb.) levels. The patients were then divided into two groups based on the occurrence of an SSI. Results: A total of 135 total knee (81.5%, n = 110/135) and total hip (18.5%, n = 25/135) replacements were performed at BMC during the study period. Among these cases, 57% (n = 78/135) had patient records suitable for statistical analysis. The average preoperative TLC was 2.422 ×103 cells/mm3 (range = 0.8–4.7 ×103 cells/mm3) whereas that number dropped after the surgery to 1.694 ×103 cells/mm3 (range = 0.6–3.8 ×103 cells/mm3). S. alb. levels showed a mean of 3.973 g/dl (range = 2.9–4.7 g/dl) preoperatively and 3.145 g/dl (range = 1.0–4.1 g/dl) postoperatively. The majority of TJA patients did not suffer any complication (67.4%, n = 91/135) while eight cases (5.9%) suffered from a superficial SSI. Conclusion: Preoperative S. alb. was identified as the only significant predictor for SSI (P = 0.011). Being a preventable cause of postoperative morbidity, it is recommended that the nutritional status (especially preoperative S. alb.) of TJA patients be used as a screening agent and appropriate measures be taken to avoid SSI. PMID:26629466

  17. The status and prospect of seasonal climate prediction of climate over Korea and East Asia: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Lee, Hyunsoo; Yoo, Jin Ho; Kwon, MinHo; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Kug, Jong-Seong; Lee, Jun-Yi; Kim, Baek-Min; Son, Seok-Woo; Min, Seung-Ki; Lee, Hansu; Lee, Woo-Seop; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Kim, Hyun-kyung

    2017-02-01

    Over the last few decades, there have been startling advances in our understanding of climate system and in modelling techniques. However, the skill of seasonal climate prediction is still not enough to meet the various needs from industrial and public sectors. Therefore, there are tremendous on-going efforts to improve the skill of climate prediction in the seasonal to interannual time scales. Since seasonal to interannual climate variabilities in Korea and East Asia are influenced by many internal and external factors including East Asian monsoon, tropical ocean variability, and other atmospheric low-frequency variabilities, comprehensive understanding of these factors are essential for skillful seasonal climate prediction for Korea and East Asia. Also, there are newly suggested external factors providing additional prediction skill like soil moisture, snow, Arctic sea ice, and stratospheric variability, and techniques to realize skills from underlying potential predictability. In this review paper, we describe current status of seasonal climate prediction and future prospect for improving climate prediction over Korea and East Asia.

  18. The value of forceps biopsy and core needle biopsy in prediction of pathologic complete remission in locally advanced rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing-Hua; An, Xin; Lin, Xi; Gao, Yuan-Hong; Liu, Guo-Chen; Kong, Ling-Heng; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Ding, Pei-Rong

    2015-10-20

    Patients with pathological complete remission (pCR) after treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) have better long-term outcome and may receive conservative treatments in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). The study aimed to evaluate the value of forceps biopsy and core needle biopsy in prediction of pCR in LARC treated with nCRT. In total, 120 patients entered this study. Sixty-one consecutive patients received preoperative forceps biopsy during endoscopic examination. Ex vivo core needle biopsy was performed in resected specimens of another 43 consecutive patients. The accuracy for ex vivo core needle biopsy was significantly higher than forceps biopsy (76.7% vs. 36.1%; p < 0.001). The sensitivity for ex vivo core needle biopsy was significantly lower in good responder (TRG 3) than poor responder (TRG ≤ 2) (52.9% vs. 94.1%; p = 0.017). In vivo core needle biopsy was further performed in 16 patients with good response. Eleven patients had residual cancer cells in final resected specimens, among whom 4 (36.4%) patients were biopsy positive. In conclusion, routine forceps biopsy was of limited value in identifying pCR after nCRT. Although core needle biopsy might further identify a subset of patients with residual cancer cells, the accuracy was not substantially increased in good responders.

  19. A scoring system basing pathological parameters to predict regional lymph node metastasis after preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer: implication for local excision

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Jie; Chi, Pan; Lin, Hui-Ming; Lu, Xing-Rong; Huang, Ying; Xu, Zong-Bin; Huang, Sheng-Hui; Sun, Yan-Wu; Ye, Dao-Xiong; Yu, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Local excision is an alternative to radical surgery that is indicated in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) who have a good response to chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Regional lymph node status is a major uncertainty during local excision of LARC following CRT. We retrospectively reviewed clinicopathologic variables for 244 patients with LARC who were treated at our institute between December 2000 and December 2013 in order to identify independent predictors of regional lymph node metastasis. Multivariate analysis of the training sample demonstrated that histopathologic type, tumor size, and the presence of lymphovascular invasion were significant predictors of regional nodal metastasis. These variables were then incorporated into a scoring system in which the total scores were calculated based on the points assigned for each parameter. The area under the curve in the receiver operating characteristic analysis was 0.750, and the cutoff value for the total score to predict regional nodal metastasis was 7.5. The sensitivity of our system was 73.2% and the specificity was 69.4%. The sensitivity was 77.8% and the specificity was 51.2% when the scoring system was applied to the testing sample. Using this system, we could accurately predict regional nodal metastases in LARC patients following CRT, which may be useful for stratifying patients in clinical trials and selecting potential candidates for organ-sparing surgery following CRT for LARC PMID:27489356

  20. Assessment of microsatellite instability status for the prediction of metachronous recurrence after initial endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hasuo, T; Semba, S; Li, D; Omori, Y; Shirasaka, D; Aoyama, N; Yokozaki, H

    2006-01-01

    The technique of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been developed for en bloc resection of early gastric cancer (EGC); however, little is known about the risk of metachronous cancer in the remnant stomach after initial ESD. In this study, we investigated the correlation between microsatellite instability (MSI) status and the incidence of metachronous recurrence of gastric cancer. According to the genetic/molecular background determined with MSI status and expression levels of hMLH1 and p53 tumour suppressor, 110 EGCs removed with ESD were subclassified into three groups: the mutator/MSI-type (8%), suppressor/p53-type (45%) and unclassified type (47%). Interestingly, patients with the mutator/MSI-type tumour had a high incidence (67%) of metachronous recurrence of gastric cancer within a 3-year observation after initial ESD, which was significantly higher than those with the suppressor/p53-type and unclassified type tumours (P<0.01). Although we investigated mucin phenotypes, there was no correlation between mucin phenotype and the recurrence of EGC. These findings suggest that subclassification of molecular pathological pathways in EGCs is required for the assessment of patients with a high risk of recurrent gastric cancer. The information delivered from our investigation is expected to be of value for decisions about therapy and surveillance after ESD. PMID:17179982

  1. Inguinoscrotal pathology

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Luis; Leonard, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Infants, children, and adolescents with inguinoscrotal pathology comprise a significant proportion of emergency department and outpatient visits. Visits to the emergency department primarily comprise individuals presenting with scrotal pain due to testicular torsion or torsion of the testicular appendages. At such time, immediate urological consultation is sought. Outpatient visits comprise those individuals with undescended testes, hydroceles, and varicoceles. Rare, but important problems, such as pediatric testicular tumours, may also present in the office setting. Many of these outpatient visits are to primary care physicians, who should have an appreciation of the timing and need for referral. The purpose of this review is to familiarize the general urologist and primary care physician with these varied pathologies and give insight into their assessment and management. Some of these same conditions are seen in adult patients, but there are some significant differences in their management in the pediatric group. In addition, the utility of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, are discussed within each pathological entity. It is hoped that this overview will assist our general urology and primary care colleagues in patient management for diverse inguinoscrotal pathologies. PMID:28265317

  2. Predicting Sobriety from the Employment Status of Dually Diagnosed Clients Who Are Opiate Dependent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorzelli, James F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (E. S. Neukrug & R. C. Fawcett, 2006) profiles and employment status for clients who are opiate dependent. A discriminant function analysis indicated that employment was a predictor in maintaining sobriety after 6 months. (Contains…

  3. Does social status predict adult smoking and obesity? Results from the 2000 Mexican National Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Buttenheim, A M; Wong, R; Goldman, N; Pebley, A R

    2010-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is generally associated with better health, but recent evidence suggests that this 'social gradient' in health is far from universal. This study examines whether social gradients in smoking and obesity in Mexico - a country in the midst of rapid socioeconomic change - conform to or diverge from results for richer countries. Using a nationally representative sample of 39,129 Mexican adults, we calculate the odds of smoking and of being obese by educational attainment and by household wealth. We conclude that socioeconomic determinants of smoking and obesity in Mexico are complex, with some flat gradients and some strong positive or negative gradients. Higher social status (education and assets) is associated with more smoking and less obesity for urban women. Higher status rural women also smoke more, but obesity for these women has a non-linear relationship to education. For urban men, higher asset levels (but not education) are associated with obesity, whereas education is protective of smoking. Higher status rural men with more assets are more likely to smoke and be obese. As household wealth, education and urbanisation continue to increase in Mexico, these patterns suggest potential targets for public health intervention now and in the future.

  4. Predicted Vitamin D Status and Colon Cancer Recurrence and Mortality in CALGB 89803 (Alliance).

    PubMed

    Fuchs, M A; Yuan, C; Sato, K; Niedzwiecki, D; Ye, X; Saltz, L B; Mayer, R J; Mowat, R B; Whittom, R; Hantel, A; Benson, A; Atienza, D; Messino, M; Kindler, H; Venook, A; Innocenti, F; Warren, R S; Bertagnolli, M M; Ogino, S; Giovannucci, E L; Horvath, E; Meyerhardt, J A; Ng, K

    2017-03-15

    Observational studies suggest that higher levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (25(OH)D) are associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer and improved survival of colorectal cancer patients. However, the influence of vitamin D status on cancer recurrence and survival of patients with stage III colon cancer is unknown.

  5. Does social status predict adult smoking and obesity? Results from the 2000 Mexican National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Buttenheim, A.M.; Wong, R.; Goldman, N.; Pebley, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is generally associated with better health, but recent evidence suggests that this ‘social gradient’ in health is far from universal. This study examines whether social gradients in smoking and obesity in Mexico—a country in the midst of rapid socioeconomic change—conform to or diverge from results for richer countries. Using a nationally-representative sample of 39 129 Mexican adults, we calculate the odds of smoking and of being obese by educational attainment and by household wealth. We conclude that socioeconomic determinants of smoking and obesity in Mexico are complex, with some flat gradients and some strong positive or negative gradients. Higher social status (education and assets) is associated with more smoking and less obesity for urban women. Higher status rural women also smoke more, but obesity for these women has a non-linear relationship to education. For urban men, higher asset levels (but not education) are associated with obesity, whereas education is protective of smoking. Higher status rural men with more assets are more likely to smoke and be obese. As household wealth, education, and urbanisation continue to increase in Mexico, these patterns suggest potential targets for public health intervention now and in the future. PMID:19367478

  6. Assignment of polled status using single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes and predicted gene content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is growing interest in cattle that are naturally polled, but the polled allele has a very low frequency. The best way to increase its frequency is by index selection, which requires known polled status for all animals. Laboratory tests for polled are used as data, and US and Canadian bulls wit...

  7. Does Third Grade Discrepancy Status Predict the Course of Reading Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Lynn; Meyer, Marianne; Lovato, James; Felton, Rebecca; Wood, Frank

    2001-01-01

    A study employed mixed effects regression growth curve analysis to assess the developmental course of discrepant (n=51) and nondiscrepant (n=89) poor readers identified in third grade and retested in fifth, eight, and twelfth grades. Discrepancy status did not differentiate the developmental course of basic reading skills or reading comprehension.…

  8. Using Blood Indexes to Predict Overweight Statuses: An Extreme Learning Machine-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huiling; Yang, Bo; Liu, Dayou; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Yanlong; Zhang, Xiuhua; Hu, Lufeng

    2015-01-01

    The number of the overweight people continues to rise across the world. Studies have shown that being overweight can increase health risks, such as high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and certain forms of cancer. Therefore, identifying the overweight status in people is critical to prevent and decrease health risks. This study explores a new technique that uses blood and biochemical measurements to recognize the overweight condition. A new machine learning technique, an extreme learning machine, was developed to accurately detect the overweight status from a pool of 225 overweight and 251 healthy subjects. The group included 179 males and 297 females. The detection method was rigorously evaluated against the real-life dataset for accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and AUC (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve) criterion. Additionally, the feature selection was investigated to identify correlating factors for the overweight status. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in blood and biochemical indexes between healthy and overweight people (p-value < 0.01). According to the feature selection, the most important correlated indexes are creatinine, hemoglobin, hematokrit, uric Acid, red blood cells, high density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, triglyceride, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. These are consistent with the results of Spearman test analysis. The proposed method holds promise as a new, accurate method for identifying the overweight status in subjects.

  9. Social status does not predict corticosteroid levels in postdispersal male spotted hyenas.

    PubMed

    Goymann, Wolfgang; East, Marion L; Wachter, Bettina; Höner, Oliver P; Möstl, Erich; Hofer, Heribert

    2003-04-01

    In social species with low rates of direct male competition levels of corticosteroids should not correlate with social status. Male spotted hyenas acquire social status by observing strict queuing conventions over many years, and thus levels of male-male aggression are low, and male social status and tenure are closely correlated. In this study, we investigated whether the low rate of direct male competition in spotted hyenas was reflected in fecal corticosteroid levels of adult males in the Serengeti National Park. Also, interactions with dominant females may influence corticosteroid levels of males, and it has been suggested recently that males with a long tenure (high rank) are more stressed by females than males with a short tenure (low rank). We tested whether there is a difference in the likelihood of being aggressively challenged by dominant females between long-tenured and short-tenured males. Short-tenured males were more likely to elicit an aggressive response by females than long-tenured males, but previous work suggests that they also interacted less frequently with females, thus avoiding putting themselves in a potentially stressful situation. Thus, as expected, the comparison of males in three different clans revealed no correlation between social status or tenure and fecal corticosteroid levels. However, males of the largest clan had the highest levels of fecal corticosteroids, possibly reflecting higher rates of social interactions in larger clans.

  10. Serum HER2 as a predictive biomarker for tissue HER2 status and prognosis in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hong-Zhi; Wang, Yu-Ning; Huang, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Ke-Cheng; Xi, Hong-Qing; Cui, Jian-Xin; Liu, Guo-Xiao; Liang, Wen-Tao; Wei, Bo; Chen, Lin

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the association between serum human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) extracellular domain (ECD) and tissue HER2 status, and the prognostic value of serum HER2 ECD in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS A total of 239 patients with gastric cancer were enrolled from December 2012 to June 2013. Serum HER2 ECD was determined by chemiluminescent assay, and tissue HER2 status was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization assay. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to identify the optimal cut-off value for serum HER2 ECD assay for predicting survival in gastric cancer patients. RESULTS Serum HER2 ECD was significantly correlated with tissue HER2 status (P < 0.001), tumor size (P < 0.001), and intestinal type of gastric cancer (P = 0.021). Serum HER2 ECD levels differed significantly between patients with HER2-positive tissue expression and those with HER2-negative tissue expression. ROC analysis yielded an area under the curve value of 0.79 (95%CI: 0.71-0.87, P < 0.001), with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.54 (95%CI: 0.37-0.70) and 0.93 (95%CI: 0.88-0.96), respectively. With a cut-off value of 24.75 ng/mL, high serum HER2 ECD had a negative impact on overall survival of the patients (HR: 1.93, 95%CI: 1.32-4.38, P = 0.006). CONCLUSION Serum HER2 ECD could be a highly specific surrogate biomarker for tissue HER2 status in gastric cancer. Optimal cut-off criteria for predicting survival should be established. PMID:28348489

  11. Nurses' Assessment of Rehabilitation Potential and Prediction of Functional Status at Discharge from Inpatient Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jamie S.; Grigsby, Jim; Teel, Cynthia S.; Kramer, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the accuracy of nurses' predictions of rehabilitation potential in older adults admitted to inpatient rehabilitation facilities and to ascertain whether the addition of a measure of executive cognitive function would enhance predictive accuracy. Secondary analysis was performed on prospective data collected…

  12. Validation of mid-infrared spectrometry in milk for predicting body energy status in Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    McParland, S; Banos, G; McCarthy, B; Lewis, E; Coffey, M P; O'Neill, B; O'Donovan, M; Wall, E; Berry, D P

    2012-12-01

    Cow energy balance is known to be associated with cow health and fertility; therefore, routine access to data on energy balance can be useful in both management and breeding decisions to improve cow performance. The objective of this study was to determine if individual cow milk mid-infrared spectra (MIR) could be useful to predict cow energy balance across contrasting production systems. Direct energy balance was calculated as the differential between energy intake and energy output in milk and maintenance (maintenance was predicted using body weight). Body energy content was calculated from (change in) body weight and body condition score. Following editing, 2,992 morning, 2,742 midday, and 2,989 evening milk MIR records from 564 lactations on 337 Scottish cows, managed in a confinement system on 1 of 2 diets, were available. An additional 844 morning and 820 evening milk spectral records from 338 lactations on 244 Irish cows offered a predominantly grazed grass diet were also available. Equations were developed to predict body energy status using the milk spectral data and milk yield as predictor variables. Several different approaches were used to test the robustness of the equations calibrated in one data set and validated in another. The analyses clearly showed that the variation in the validation data set must be represented in the calibration data set. The accuracy (i.e., square root of the coefficient of multiple determinations) of predicting, from MIR, direct energy balance, body energy content, and energy intake was 0.47 to 0.69, 0.51 to 0.56, and 0.76 to 0.80, respectively. This highlights the ability of milk MIR to predict body energy balance, energy content, and energy intake with reasonable accuracy. Very high accuracy, however, was not expected, given the likely random errors in the calculation of these energy status traits using field data.

  13. Exploiting heterogeneous features to improve in silico prediction of peptide status – amyloidogenic or non-amyloidogenic

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prediction of short stretches in protein sequences capable of forming amyloid-like fibrils is important in understanding the underlying cause of amyloid illnesses thereby aiding in the discovery of sequence-targeted anti-aggregation pharmaceuticals. Due to the constraints of experimental molecular techniques in identifying such motif segments, it is highly desirable to develop computational methods to provide better and affordable in silico predictions. Results Accurate in silico prediction techniques of amyloidogenic peptide regions rely on the cooperation between informative features and classifier design. In this research article, we propose one such efficient fibril prediction implementation exploiting heterogeneous features based on bio-physio-chemical (BPC) properties, auto-correlation function of carefully selected amino acid indices and atomic composition within a protein fragment of amino acids in a window. In an attempt to get an optimal number of BPC features, an evolutionary Support Vector Machine (SVM) integrating a novel implementation of hybrid Genetic Algorithm termed Memetic Algorithm and SVM is utilized. Five prediction modules designed using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models are trained with independent and integrated features in order to validate the fibril forming motifs. The results provide evidence that incorporating new feature namely auto-correlation function besides BPC, attempt to strengthen the sequence interaction effect in forming the feature vector thereby obtaining better prediction quality in terms of sensitivity, specificity, Mathews Correlation Coefficient and Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve. Conclusion A significant improvement in performance is observed by introducing features like auto-correlation function that maintains sequence order effect, in addition to the conventional BPC properties selected through a novel optimization strategy to predict the peptide status – amyloidogenic or

  14. Seizures, refractory status epilepticus, and depolarization block as endogenous brain activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Houssaini, Kenza; Ivanov, Anton I.; Bernard, Christophe; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy, refractory status epilepticus, and depolarization block are pathological brain activities whose mechanisms are poorly understood. Using a generic mathematical model of seizure activity, we show that these activities coexist under certain conditions spanning the range of possible brain activities. We perform a detailed bifurcation analysis and predict strategies to escape from some of the pathological states. Experimental results using rodent data provide support of the model, highlighting the concept that these pathological activities belong to the endogenous repertoire of brain activities.

  15. Social status predicts how sex steroid receptors regulate complex behavior across levels of biological organization.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Lauren A; Hofmann, Hans A

    2012-03-01

    Social status strongly affects behavior and physiology, in part mediated by gonadal hormones, although how each sex steroid acts across levels of biological organization is not well understood. We examine the role of sex steroids in modulating social behavior in dominant (DOM) and subordinate (SUB) males of a highly social fish, Astatotilapia burtoni. We first used agonists and antagonists to each sex steroid receptor and found that androgens and progestins modulate courtship behavior only in DOM, whereas estrogens modulate aggressive behavior independent of social status. We then examined the hormonal and physiological responses to sex steroid receptor antagonist treatment and uncovered substantial changes in circulating steroid hormone levels and gonad size only in SUB, not in DOM. Consistent with status-based physiological sensitivities to drug manipulation, we found that neuropeptide and steroid receptor gene expression in the preoptic area was sensitive only in SUB. However, when we compared the transcriptomes of males that received either vehicle or an estrogen receptor antagonist, 8.25% of all genes examined changed expression in DOM in comparison with only 0.56% in SUB. Finally, we integrate behavior, physiology, and brain gene expression to infer functional modules that underlie steroid receptor regulation of behavior. Our work suggests that environmentally induced changes at one level of biological organization do not simply affect changes of similar magnitude at other levels, but that instead very few key pathways likely serve as conduits for executing plastic responses across multiple levels.

  16. Underweight status predicts a poor prognosis in elderly patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Manabu; Sasaki, Shin; Ozaki, Kosuke; Ishimaru, Kazuhiro; Terai, Emi; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of underweight status on the survival of elderly patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC). A total of 113 patients aged ≥75 years who underwent curative surgery for CRC were included. In addition to standard perioperative variables, body mass index (BMI) was assessed. The patients were categorized as underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2) or non-underweight (BMI≥18.5 kg/m2). The 3-year overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were analyzed. Of the 113 patients, 24 (21%) were underweight. The two groups were well-balanced regarding all factors evaluated. In the multivariate analysis, underweight status was an independent indicator of lower 3-year OS [hazard ratio (HR)=2.65; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08–6.50; P=0.033] and CSS (HR=3.51, 95% CI: 1.16–10.60; P=0.025) rates. Compared with the non-underweight group, the underweight group had significantly worse 3-year OS (66.7 vs. 86.5%, respectively; P=0.017) and CSS (74.1 vs. 90.9%, respectively; P=0.025) rates. Therefore, underweight status was a significant risk factor for poor survival in elderly CRC patients. The development of effective nutritional interventions may improve the prognosis of such patients. PMID:27602223

  17. AI AND SAR APPROACHES FOR PREDICTING CHEMICAL CARCINOGENICITY: SURVEY AND STATUS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide variety of artificial intelligence (AI) and structure-activity relationship (SAR approaches have been applied to tackling the general problem of predicting rodent chemical carcinogenicity. Given the diversity of chemical structures and mechanisms relative to this endpoin...

  18. Bcl-2/Bax protein ratio predicts 5-fluorouracil sensitivity independently of p53 status

    PubMed Central

    Mirjolet, J-F; Barberi-Heyob, M; Didelot, C; Peyrat, J-P; Abecassis, J; Millon, R; Merlin, J-L

    2000-01-01

    p53 tumour-suppressor gene is involved in cell growth control, arrest and apoptosis. Nevertheless cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction can be observed in p53-defective cells after exposure to DNA-damaging agents such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) suggesting the importance of alternative pathways via p53-independent mechanisms. In order to establish relationship between p53 status, cell cycle arrest, Bcl-2/Bax regulation and 5-FU sensitivity, we examined p53 mRNA and protein expression and p53 protein functionality in wild-type (wt) and mutant (mt) p53 cell lines. p53 mRNA and p53 protein expression were determined before and after exposure to equitoxic 5-FU concentration in six human carcinoma cell lines differing in p53 status and displaying marked differences in 5-FU sensitivity, with IC 50 values ranging from 0.2–22.6 mM. 5-FU induced a rise in p53 mRNA expression in mt p53 cell lines and in human papilloma virus positive wt p53 cell line, whereas significant decrease in p53 mRNA expression was found in wt p53 cell line. Whatever p53 status, 5-FU altered p53 transcriptional and translational regulation leading to up-regulation of p53 protein. In relation with p53 functionality, but independently of p53 mutational status, after exposure to 5-FU equitoxic concentration, all cell lines were able to arrest in G1. No relationship was evidenced between G1 accumulation ability and 5-FU sensitivity. Moreover, after 5-FU exposure, Bax and Bcl-2 proteins regulation was under p53 protein control and a statistically significant relationship (r= 0.880,P= 0.0097) was observed between Bcl-2/Bax ratio and 5-FU sensitivity. In conclusion, whatever p53 status, Bcl-2 or Bax induction and Bcl-2/Bax protein ratio were correlated to 5-FU sensitivity. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11044365

  19. A new model to predict remission status in AML patients based on day 14 bone marrow biopsy.

    PubMed

    Norkin, Maxim; Chang, Myron; An, Qi; Leather, Helen; Katragadda, Lakshmikanth; Li, Ying; Moreb, Jan S; May, W Stratford; Brown, Randy A; Hsu, Jack W; Hiemenz, John W; Wingard, John R; Cogle, Christopher R

    2016-07-01

    Although bone marrow evaluation on day 14 after initiation of induction chemotherapy (D14 BM) is a widely accepted practice in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), it has suboptimal predictive value for predicting complete remission. We retrospectively analyzed pretreatment characteristics and post-induction response in a cohort of AML patients to determine if adding clinical and laboratory characteristics can improve the predictive value of the D14 BM evaluation. Among 297 patients treated for AML at the single institution 183 patients (61%) had leukemia-positive D14 BM. Of those, 94 were given reinduction chemotherapy and 89 were not. Of the 89 patients who did not receive reinduction, 32 (36%) subsequently achieved complete remission (CR) or complete remission with incomplete count recovery (CRi), and 57 (64%) had persistent disease. Persistent disease after positive D14 BM was more likely associated with higher percentage of D14 myeloblasts, a history of relapsed disease before induction, and higher risk disease compared to patients who subsequently achieved CR. Age, diagnostic white blood cell count, and the D14 BM cellularity did not influence the subsequent likelihood of achieving remission in patients with a positive D14 BM. A new mathematical equation was created and resulted in a positive predictive value of 83%, negative predictive value 90% and accuracy 88% for correctly identifying remission status after positive D14 BM in AML. The accuracy of predicting response using these additional parameters was significantly higher than without (0.88 vs. 0.80, P=0.002). Our new model provides better accuracy for predicting the likelihood of achieving remission and if validated in future studies may be useful for managing AML patients.

  20. Examination of DNA methylation status of the ELOVL2 marker may be useful for human age prediction in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Zbieć-Piekarska, Renata; Spólnicka, Magdalena; Kupiec, Tomasz; Makowska, Żanetta; Spas, Anna; Parys-Proszek, Agnieszka; Kucharczyk, Krzysztof; Płoski, Rafał; Branicki, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Age estimation in forensic investigations may complement the prediction of externally visible characteristics and the inference of biogeographical ancestry, thus allowing a better description of an unknown individual. Multiple CpG sites that show linear correlation between age and degree of DNA methylation have been identified in the human genome, providing a selection of candidates for age prediction. In this study, we optimized an assay based on bisulfite conversion and pyrosequencing of 7 CpG sites located in the ELOVL2 gene. Examination of 303 blood samples collected from individuals aged 2-75 years allowed selection of the most informative site, explaining 83% of variation in age. The final linear regression model included two CpG sites in ELOVL2 and enabled age prediction with R(2)=0.859, prediction error=6.85 and mean absolute deviation MAD=5.03. Examination of a testing set of 124 blood samples (MAD=5.75) showed that 68.5% of samples were correctly predicted, assuming that chronological and predicted ages matched ± 7 years. It was found that the ELOVL2 methylation status in bloodstains had not changed significantly after 4 weeks of storage in room temperature conditions. Analysis of 45 bloodstains deposited on tissue paper after 5, 10 and 15 years of storage in room conditions indicated that although a gradual decrease of positive PCR results was observed, the general age prediction success rate remained similar and equaled 60-78%. The obtained results show that the ELOVL2 locus provides a very good source of information about human chronological age based on analysis of blood, including bloodstains, and it may constitute a powerful and reliable predictor in future forensic age estimation models.

  1. AI and SAR approaches for predicting chemical carcinogenicity: survey and status report.

    PubMed

    Richardt, A M; Benigni, R

    2002-03-01

    A wide variety of artificial intelligence (AI) and structure-activity relationship (SAR) approaches have been applied to tackling the general problem of predicting rodent chemical carcinogenicity. Given the diversity of chemical structures and mechanisms relative to this endpoint, the shared challenge of these approaches is to accurately delineate classes of active chemicals representing distinct biological and chemical mechanism domains, and within those classes determine the structural features and properties responsible for modulating activity. In the following discussion, we present a survey of AI and SAR approaches that have been applied to the prediction of rodent carcinogenicity, and discuss these in general terms and in the context of the results of two organized prediction exercises (PTE-1 and PTE-2) sponsored by the US National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology Program. Most models participating in these exercises were successful in identifying major structural-alerting classes of active carcinogens, but failed in modeling the more subtle modifiers to activity within those classes. In addition, methods that incorporated mechanism-based reasoning or biological data along with structural information outperformed models limited to structural information exclusively. Finally, a few recent carcinogenicity-modeling efforts are presented illustrating progress in tackling some aspects of the carcinogenicity prediction problem. The first example, a QSAR model for predicting carcinogenic potency of aromatic amines, illustrates that success is possible within well-represented classes of carcinogens. From the second example, a newly developed FDA/OTR MultiCASE model for predicting the carcinogenicity of pharmaceuticals, we conclude that the definitions of biological activity and nature of chemicals in the training set are important determinants of the predictive success and specificity/sensitivity characteristics of a derived model.

  2. VE1 immunohistochemistry predicts BRAF V600E mutation status and clinical outcome in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schafroth, Christian; Galván, José A.; Centeno, Irene; Koelzer, Viktor H.; Dawson, Heather E.; Sokol, Lena; Rieger, Gregor; Berger, Martin D.; Hädrich, Marion; Rosenberg, Robert; Nitsche, Ulrich; Schnüriger, Beat; Langer, Rupert; Inderbitzin, Daniel; Lugli, Alessandro; Zlobec, Inti

    2015-01-01

    Aim VE1 is a monoclonal antibody detecting mutant BRAFV600E protein by immunohistochemistry. Here we aim to determine the inter-observer agreement and concordance of VE1 with mutational status, investigate heterogeneity in colorectal cancers and metastases and determine the prognostic effect of VE1 in colorectal cancer patients. Methods Concordance of VE1 with mutational status and inter-observer agreement were tested on a pilot cohort of colorectal cancers (n = 34), melanomas (n = 23) and thyroid cancers (n = 8). Two prognostic cohorts were evaluated (n = 259, Cohort 1 and n = 226, Cohort 2) by multiple-punch tissue microarrays. VE1 staining on preoperative biopsies (n = 118 patients) was compared to expression in resections. Primary tumors and metastases from 13 patients were tested for VE1 heterogeneity using a tissue microarray generated from all available blocks (n = 100 blocks). Results Inter-observer agreement was 100% (kappa = 1.0). Concordance between VE1 and V600E mutation was 98.5%. Cohort 1: VE1 positivity (seen in 13.5%) was associated with older age (p = 0.0175) and MLH1 deficiency (p < 0.0001). Cohort 2: VE1 positivity (seen in 12.8%) was associated with female gender (p = 0.0016), right-sided tumor location (p < 0.0001), higher tumor grade (p < 0.0001) and mismatch repair (MMR)-deficiency (p < 0.0001). In survival analysis, MMR status and postoperative therapy were identified as possible confounding factors. Adjusting for these features, VE1 was an unfavorable prognostic factor. Preoperative biopsy staining matched resections in all cases except one. No heterogeneity was found across any primary/metastatic tumor blocks. Conclusion VE1 is highly concordant for V600E and homogeneously expressed suggesting staining can be analysed on resection specimens, preoperative biopsies, metastatic lesions and tissue microarrays. PMID:26496026

  3. Next-Generation Pathology.

    PubMed

    Caie, Peter D; Harrison, David J

    2016-01-01

    The field of pathology is rapidly transforming from a semiquantitative and empirical science toward a big data discipline. Large data sets from across multiple omics fields may now be extracted from a patient's tissue sample. Tissue is, however, complex, heterogeneous, and prone to artifact. A reductionist view of tissue and disease progression, which does not take this complexity into account, may lead to single biomarkers failing in clinical trials. The integration of standardized multi-omics big data and the retention of valuable information on spatial heterogeneity are imperative to model complex disease mechanisms. Mathematical modeling through systems pathology approaches is the ideal medium to distill the significant information from these large, multi-parametric, and hierarchical data sets. Systems pathology may also predict the dynamical response of disease progression or response to therapy regimens from a static tissue sample. Next-generation pathology will incorporate big data with systems medicine in order to personalize clinical practice for both prognostic and predictive patient care.

  4. Estrogen Receptor Status Predicts Late-Onset Skeletal Recurrence in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hyun Ho; Lee, Sung Hwan; Kim, Baek Gil; Lee, Joo Hyun; Kang, Suki; Cho, Nam Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer (BCa) often recurs after long latency, and is known to favor bone as a metastatic site. We hypothesized that skeletal recurrence of ER+ BCa follows a different chronological pattern from that of nonskeletal recurrence. We retrospectively evaluated 434 matched pairs of ER+ and ER− female patients who underwent surgery for clinically localized BCa between 2005 and 2009. Patient age, tumor size, lymph node involvement, and adjuvant treatment biases were adjusted by the propensity score method. We conducted competing risk analysis to determine the prognostic significance of ER expression status on the risk of overall recurrence and late recurrence (after 3 years). We also compared chronological patterns of ER+ and ER− tumor recurrence, stratified by the first metastatic site (skeletal vs nonskeletal). After 3 postoperative years, ER+ tumor had a significantly higher risk of overall distant recurrence than ER− tumor (P = 0.02). When further stratified by first site of metastasis, only late skeletal recurrence was significantly associated with ER status (P = 0.029). In multivariate analysis, ER and lymph node involvement status were significant prognostic factors for late skeletal recurrence, with adjusted hazard ratios of 5.2 (95% CI = 1.2–22.4, P = 0.025) and 5.2 (1.7–16.3, P = 0.005), respectively. For nonskeletal distant recurrence, tumor size (>2 cm) was the only significant risk factor with adjusted hazard ratio of 2.8 (1.4–5.7, P = 0.005). Annual hazard of skeletal recurrence events of ER+ tumors continued to exist up to 10 years, while annual hazard of nonskeletal recurrences decreased after peaking at 5 years. ER− tumor recurrences exhibited similar annual hazard patterns across skeletal and nonskeletal sites. ER expression and lymph node involvement status were strong predictors of BCa late-onset (>3 years) recurrences, especially in skeletal sites. Therefore

  5. TP53 Mutational Status and Prediction of Benefit from Adjuvant 5-Fluorouracil in Stage III Colon Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Kandioler, Daniela; Mittlböck, Martina; Kappel, Sonja; Puhalla, Harald; Herbst, Friedrich; Langner, Cord; Wolf, Brigitte; Tschmelitsch, Jörg; Schippinger, Walter; Steger, Günther; Hofbauer, Friedrich; Samonigg, Hellmut; Gnant, Michael; Teleky, Bela; Kührer, Irene

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that the varying treatment efficacy of adjuvant 5-fluorouracil (5FU) in stage III colon cancer is linked to the TP53 mutational status. ABCSG-90 was a prospective randomized trial in which effect of adjuvant 5FU was studied in stage III colon cancer patients. Tumor material of 70% of these patients (389/572) was available for analysis of the biomarker TP53 using a TP53-gene-specific Sanger sequencing protocol. Median follow-up was 88 months. TP53 mutation frequency was 33%. A significant interaction between TP53 status, outcomes and nodal category was found (P = 0.0095). In the N1 category, TP53 wildtype patients had significantly better overall survival than TP53 mutated (81.0% vs. 62.0% overall survival at 5 years; HR = 2.131; 95% CI: 1.344-3.378; P = 0.0010). In the N2 category, the TP53 status did not affect survival (P = 0.4992). In TP53 wildtype patients, the prognostic significance of N category was significantly enhanced (P = 0.0002). In TP53 mutated patients, survival curves of N1 and N2 patients overlapped and nodal category was no longer prognostic. The biomarker TP53 independently predicted effect of adjuvant 5FU in N1 colon cancer patients. TP53 was not predictive in N2 patients, in whom 5FU is known to have no effect.

  6. Field Verification of the Prediction Model on Desert Locust Adult Phase Status From Density and Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Cissé, S.; Ghaout, S.; Babah Ebbe, M. A; Kamara, S; Piou, C.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigated the effect of vegetation on density thresholds of adult Desert Locust gregarization from historical data in Mauritania. We examine here the prediction of locust phase based on adult density and vegetation conditions using the statistical model from Cisse et al. compared with actual behavior of Desert Locust adults observed in the field in Mauritania. From the 130 sites where adult locusts were found, the model predicted the phase of Desert Locust adults with a relatively small error of prediction of 6.1%. Preventive locust control should be rational, based on a risk assessment. The staff involved in implementation of the preventive control strategy needs specific indicators for when or where chemical treatment should be done. In this respect, we show here that the statistical model of Cisse et al. may be appropriate. PMID:27432351

  7. Field Verification of the Prediction Model on Desert Locust Adult Phase Status From Density and Vegetation.

    PubMed

    Cissé, S; Ghaout, S; Babah Ebbe, M A; Kamara, S; Piou, C

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigated the effect of vegetation on density thresholds of adult Desert Locust gregarization from historical data in Mauritania. We examine here the prediction of locust phase based on adult density and vegetation conditions using the statistical model from Cisse et al. compared with actual behavior of Desert Locust adults observed in the field in Mauritania. From the 130 sites where adult locusts were found, the model predicted the phase of Desert Locust adults with a relatively small error of prediction of 6.1%. Preventive locust control should be rational, based on a risk assessment. The staff involved in implementation of the preventive control strategy needs specific indicators for when or where chemical treatment should be done. In this respect, we show here that the statistical model of Cisse et al. may be appropriate.

  8. Surrogate molecular markers for IGHV mutational status in chronic lymphocytic leukemia for predicting time to first treatment.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Fortunato; Cutrona, Giovanna; Mosca, Laura; D'Anca, Marianna; Matis, Serena; Gentile, Massimo; Vigna, Ernesto; Colombo, Monica; Recchia, Anna Grazia; Bossio, Sabrina; De Stefano, Laura; Maura, Francesco; Manzoni, Martina; Ilariucci, Fiorella; Consoli, Ugo; Vincelli, Iolanda; Musolino, Caterina; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Molica, Stefano; Ferrarini, Manlio; Neri, Antonino

    2015-08-01

    ZAP-70 is a marker of clinical outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), however its assessment suffers from a lack of standardization consensus. To identify novel markers able to surrogate IGHV mutational status, CD19(+)CD5(+)-B-lymphocytes from 216 patients enrolled in a prospective study (ClinicalTrial.gov Identifier:NCT00917540), underwent gene expression profiling. Samples were split into CLL-Training (n=102) and CLL-Validation (n=114) sets, and an independent supervised analysis for IGHV mutational status was performed considering all genes with gene expression equal or above that of ZAP-70. Thirty-one genes (23 up- and 8 down-regulated) and 23 genes (18 up- and 5 down-regulated) satisfied these criteria in the CLL-Training and CLL-Validation sets, respectively, and 20 common genes (15 up and 5 down) were found to be differentially regulated in both sets. Two (SNORA70F, NRIP1) of the down-regulated and 6 (SEPT10, ZNF667, TGFBR3, MBOAT1, LPL, CRY1) of the up-regulated genes were significantly associated with a reduced risk of disease progression in both sets. Forcing the afore-mentioned genes in a Cox multivariate model together with IGHV mutational status, only CRY1 (HR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.1-4.9, P=.027) and MBOAT1 (HR=2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-3.7, P=.018) retained their independent prognostic impact, supporting the hypothesis that these genes may potentially act as surrogates for predicting IGHV mutational status.

  9. The competitive status of trees determines their responsiveness to increasing atmospheric humidity - a climate trend predicted for northern latitudes.

    PubMed

    Tullus, Arvo; Kupper, Priit; Kaasik, Ants; Tullus, Hardi; Lõhmus, Krista; Sõber, Anu; Sellin, Arne

    2017-05-01

    The interactive effects of climate variables and tree-tree competition are still insufficiently understood drivers of forest response to global climate change. Precipitation and air humidity are predicted to rise concurrently at high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. We investigated whether the growth response of deciduous trees to elevated air humidity varies with their competitive status. The study was conducted in seed-originated silver birch and monoclonal hybrid aspen stands grown at the free air humidity manipulation (FAHM) experimental site in Estonia, in which manipulated stands (n = 3 for both species) are exposed to artificially elevated relative air humidity (6-7% over the ambient level). The study period included three growing seasons during which the stands had reached the competitive stage (trees were 7 years old in the final year). A significant 'treatment×competitive status' interactive effect on growth was detected in all years in birch (P < 0.01) and in one year in aspen stands (P = 0.015). Competitively advantaged trees were always more strongly affected by elevated humidity. Initially the growth of advantaged and neutral trees of both species remained significantly suppressed in humidified stands. In the following years, dominance and elevated humidity had a synergistic positive effect on the growth of birches. Aspens with different competitive status recovered more uniformly, attaining similar relative growth rates in manipulated and control stands, but preserved a significantly lower total growth yield due to severe initial growth stress. Disadvantaged trees of both species were never significantly affected by elevated humidity. Our results suggest that air humidity affects trees indirectly depending on their social status. Therefore, the response of northern temperate and boreal forests to a more humid climate in future will likely be modified by competitive relationships among trees, which may potentially affect species

  10. Vitamin D status predicts reproductive fitness in a wild sheep population

    PubMed Central

    Handel, Ian; Watt, Kathryn A.; Pilkington, Jill G.; Pemberton, Josephine M.; Macrae, Alastair; Scott, Philip; McNeilly, Tom N.; Berry, Jacqueline L.; Clements, Dylan N.; Nussey, Daniel H.; Mellanby, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with the development of many human diseases, and with poor reproductive performance in laboratory rodents. We currently have no idea how natural selection directly acts on variation in vitamin D metabolism due to a total lack of studies in wild animals. Here, we measured serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in female Soay sheep that were part of a long-term field study on St Kilda. We found that total 25(OH)D was strongly influenced by age, and that light coloured sheep had higher 25(OH)D3 (but not 25(OH)D2) concentrations than dark sheep. The coat colour polymorphism in Soay sheep is controlled by a single locus, suggesting vitamin D status is heritable in this population. We also observed a very strong relationship between total 25(OH)D concentrations in summer and a ewe’s fecundity the following spring. This resulted in a positive association between total 25(OH)D and the number of lambs produced that survived their first year of life, an important component of female reproductive fitness. Our study provides the first insight into naturally-occurring variation in vitamin D metabolites, and offers the first evidence that vitamin D status is both heritable and under natural selection in the wild. PMID:26757805

  11. [Molecular diagnostics in pathology].

    PubMed

    Stenzinger, A; Penzel, R; Endris, V; Weichert, W

    2013-05-01

    Tissue-based molecular diagnostics is a fast growing diagnostic field, which already complements morphologic classifications in many cases. Pathology based molecular diagnosis is performed almost exclusively on paraffin embedded material and always in conjunction with histopathology. Besides the classic field of tissue based detection of pathogenic organisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, molecular diagnostics of tumor tissue is one of the current hot topics in oncology. In this context the detection of predictive molecular biomarkers, such as specific mutations, allows patient stratification for individually tailored treatment strategies and thereby is one of the key components of individualized patient care in oncology. The rapidly growing number of clinically relevant predictive biomarkers together with impressive technical advances, specifically the development of massive parallel sequencing, will modify the care of patients with malignant diseases. Pathology, therefore, has returned in the very center of interdisciplinary patient care.

  12. Development of a new outcome prediction model for Chinese patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma based on preoperative serum C-reactive protein, body mass index, and standard pathological risk factors: the TNCB score group system

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Mi, Qi-Wu; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Zhao, Qi; Li, Yong-Hong; Chen, Jie-Ping; Deng, Chuang-Zhong; Ye, Yun-Lin; Zhong, Ming-Zhu; Liu, Zhuo-Wei; Qin, Zi-Ke; Lin, Xiang-Tian; Liang, Wei-Cong; Han, Hui; Zhou, Fang-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the predictive value and feasibility of the new outcome prediction model for Chinese patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma. Results The 3-year disease-specific survival (DSS) was 92.3% in patients with < 8.70 mg/L CRP and 54.9% in those with elevated CRP (P < 0.001). The 3-year DSS was 86.5% in patients with a BMI < 22.6 Kg/m2 and 69.9% in those with a higher BMI (P = 0.025). In a multivariate analysis, pathological T stage (P < 0.001), pathological N stage (P = 0.002), BMI (P = 0.002), and CRP (P = 0.004) were independent predictors of DSS. A new scoring model was developed, consisting of BMI, CRP, and tumor T and N classification. In our study, we found that the addition of the above-mentioned parameters significantly increased the predictive accuracy of the system of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) anatomic stage group. The accuracy of the new prediction category was verified. Methods A total of 172 Chinese patients with penile squamous cell cancer were analyzed retrospectively between November 2005 and November 2014. Statistical data analysis was conducted using the nonparametric method. Survival analysis was performed with the log-rank test and the Cox proportional hazard model. Based on regression estimates of significant parameters in multivariate analysis, a new BMI-, CRP- and pathologic factors-based scoring model was developed to predict disease-specific outcomes. The predictive accuracy of the model was evaluated using the internal and external validation. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that the TNCB score group system maybe a precise and easy to use tool for predicting outcomes in Chinese penile squamous cell carcinoma patients. PMID:26980738

  13. Seamless Meteorology-Chemistry Modelling: Status and Relevance for Numerical Weather Prediction, Air Quality and Climate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; EuMetChem Team

    2015-04-01

    Online coupled meteorology atmospheric chemistry models have undergone a rapid evolution in recent years. Although mainly developed by the air quality modelling community, these models are also of interest for numerical weather prediction and climate modelling as they can consider not only the effects of meteorology on air quality, but also the potentially important effects of atmospheric composition on weather. Two ways of online coupling can be distinguished: online integrated and online access coupling. Online integrated models simulate meteorology and chemistry over the same grid in one model using one main timestep for integration. Online access models use independent meteorology and chemistry modules that might even have different grids, but exchange meteorology and chemistry data on a regular and frequent basis. This paper is an overall outcome of the European COST Action ES1004: European Framework for Online Integrated Air Quality and Meteorology Modelling (EuMetChem) and conclusions from the recently organized Symposium on Coupled Chemistry-Meteorology/Climate Modelling: Status and Relevance for Numerical Weather Prediction, Air Quality and Climate Research. It offers a review of the current research status of online coupled meteorology and atmospheric chemistry modelling, a survey of processes relevant to the interactions between atmospheric physics, dynamics and composition; and highlights selected scientific issues and emerging challenges that require proper consideration to improve the reliability and usability of these models for the three scientific communities: air quality, numerical meteorology modelling (including weather prediction) and climate modelling. It presents a synthesis of scientific progress and provides recommendations for future research directions and priorities in the development, application and evaluation of online coupled models.

  14. Changes in neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios during chemoradiation predict for survival and pathologic complete response in trimodality esophageal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Hyder, Jalal; Boggs, Drexell Hunter; Hanna, Andrew; Suntharalingam, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Background Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) predict for survival in cancer patients. In patients receiving multimodality therapy, the effect of therapy on the NLR and PLR is not well understood. We evaluated changes in NLR and PLR among locally advanced esophageal cancer patients who received trimodality therapy. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of nonmetastatic patients with esophageal cancer who received neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) followed by esophagectomy at our institution between March 2000 and April 2012. NLR and PLR values were obtained for the following time points (TPs): (I) at diagnosis before CRT; (II) after CRT but prior to surgery; and (III) after surgery. We evaluated changes in NLR and PLR using the difference and ratio between TPs. Overall survival (OS) was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were applied to evaluate the independent prognostic significance of NLR and PLR. Results This IRB-approved study included the records of 83 consecutive patients with stage II-IV esophageal cancer. The median age was 60 years, and median follow-up was 29.3 months. Patients were treated to a median prescription dose of 50.4 Gy (range, 50.4-56.4 Gy) in 28-33 fractions. Median NLR and PLR were 3.3 and 157.2, 12 and 645, and 11.5 and 391.7 at TPs 1, 2, and 3, respectively. On multivariate analysis, superior OS was associated with PLR ≥250 at TP3 (P=0.03), PLR decrease ≥609.2 between TP2 and TP3 (P=0.02), and PLR ratio (TP3/TP1) ≥1.08 (P=0.03). Inferior progression-free survival (PFS) was associated with NLR ≥36 at TP2 (P=0.0008), NLR increase ≥28.3 between TP1 and TP2 (P=0.0005), and PLR ratio (TP2/TP3) ≥0.38 (P=0.1). Pathologic complete response (PCR) was less likely for adenocarcinoma (AC) histology (P=0.03), NLR ≥10.6 at TP2 (P=0.04), and NLR increase ≥4.6 from TP1 to TP2 (P=0.03). Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first

  15. Phonological skills and vocabulary knowledge mediate socioeconomic status effects in predicting reading outcomes for Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and vocabulary abilities exerted equally strong and independent mediation of the SES effects on children's reading achievement by the end of 3rd grade for this Chinese sample. These findings not only replicate studies in alphabetic languages but, because of their longitudinal nature, also demonstrate the potential for interventions focused on improving children's early language skills, and at which ages these factors may have the greatest impact.

  16. Effects of Medicated Diet to Eradicate Helicobacter spp. on Growth, Pathology, and Infection Status in Rag1–/– and Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Caroline M; Muth, Dillon; Watson, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The use of a commercial 4-drug diet has been shown to eradicate Helicobacter spp. from immunocompetent mice and those with innate immunodeficiencies. However the efficacy of this diet has not been confirmed in mice with altered adaptive immunity. We hypothesized that an 8-wk treatment with medicated diet would eradicate H. hepaticus and H. typhlonius from young naturally infected nude and Rag1 mice lacking functional T cells (Foxn1nu) or T and B cells (B6.129S7-Rag1tm1Mom/J), respectively. We evaluated helicobacter status, body weight, and gross and histologic changes between medicated and control diet in groups of infected and uninfected mice throughout treatment and at 8 wk after treatment completion. Initial infection status was confirmed by fecal PCR at weaning and 3 wk later, with study initiation in 7-wk-old mice. PCR testing demonstrated that independent of strain and sex, all treated mice tested negative for Helicobacter spp. after 4 wk of treatment and remained negative for the duration of the study. Irrespective of infection status, nude and Rag1 mice fed 8 wk of medicated diet gained less weight than did their untreated controls. Both strains normalized body weight while on control diet for the 8 wk after treatment. Mice fed medicated diet developed severe gastroesophageal hyperkeratosis, suggestive of reduced feed consumption, and enlarged ceca. These conditions improved or resolved after the return to control diet. This report is the first to demonstrate the efficacy and physical effects of providing medicated diet for the eradication of Helicobacter spp. from mice with adaptive immune deficiencies. PMID:24827565

  17. Predicted vitamin D status and incidence of tooth loss and periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Monik; Giovannucci, Edward; Kaye, Elizabeth Krall; Joshipura, Kaumudi J; Dietrich, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objective Vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent, with particular subgroups at greater risk (e.g. the elderly and those with darker skin). Vitamin D insufficiency may partly explain US racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of periodontitis and tooth loss. We evaluated the association between a predictor score of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and incidence of periodontitis and tooth loss. Design Detailed biennial questionnaires were collected on medical history, lifestyle practices and incident periodontitis and tooth loss. The predictor score was derived from variables known to influence circulating concentrations of plasma 25(OH)D and validated against plasma concentrations among a sub-sample. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazards models with time-varying covariates estimated the association between the predicted 25(OH)D score and time until first tooth loss. Subjects A total of 42 730 participants of the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study aged 40–75 years at baseline were followed from 1986 to 2006. Setting USA, representing all fifty states and the District of Columbia. Results We observed 13 581 incident tooth loss events from 539 335 person-years. There was a dose-dependent significant inverse association across quintiles of the predicted 25(OH)D score and incidence of tooth loss. In multivariable analyses, the highest quintile of the updated predicted 25(OH)D score compared with the lowest was associated with a 20 % lower incidence of tooth loss (hazard ratio 5 0·80, 95 % CI 0·76, 0·85; P value for trend <0·0 0 1); UV-B was also independently associated. Results for the predicted 25(OH)D score and periodontitis were similar. Conclusions These results are suggestive of an association between predictors of vitamin D and lower incidence of tooth loss and periodontitis. PMID:23469936

  18. Status and Direction of Tribology as a Science in the 80's. Understanding and Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabor, D.

    1984-01-01

    The most challenging research problems in tribology for the next decade or beyond are classified horizontally into two categories: (1) understanding of basic mechanisms and (2) prediction of practical performance. Vertical classifications are in terms of particular themes or fields of interest. Areas where more fundamental work is required are: adhesion and friction of clean and contaminated surfaces; lubrication; new materials; surface characterization at the engineering level (topography) and at the atomic levels (various spectroscopies); and wear.

  19. Prediction of solute kinetics, acid-base status, and blood volume changes during profiled hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Ursino, M; Colí, L; Brighenti, C; Chiari, L; de Pascalis, A; Avanzolini, G

    2000-02-01

    A mathematical model of solute kinetics oriented to the simulation of hemodialysis is presented. It includes a three-compartment model of body fluids (plasma, interstitial and intracellular), a two-compartment description of the main solutes (K+, Na+, Cl-, urea, HCO3-, H+), and acid-base equilibrium through two buffer systems (bicarbonate and noncarbonic buffers). Tentative values for the main model parameters can be given a priori, on the basis of body weight and plasma concentration values measured before beginning the session. The model allows computation of the amount of sodium removed during hemodialysis, and may enable the prediction of plasma volume and osmolarity changes induced by a given sodium concentration profile in the dialysate and by a given ultrafiltration profile. Model predictions are compared with clinical data obtained during 11 different profiled hemodialysis sessions, both with all parameters assigned a priori, and after individual estimation of dialysances and mass-transfer coefficients. In most cases, the agreement between the time pattern of model solute concentrations in plasma and clinical data was satisfactory. In two sessions, blood volume changes were directly measured in the patient, and in both cases the agreement with model predictions was acceptable. The present model can be used to improve the dialysis session taking some characteristics of individual patients into account, in order to minimize intradialytic unbalances (such as hypotension or disequilibrium syndrome).

  20. Influence of Pathological Nodal Status and Maximal Standardized Uptake Value of the Primary Tumor and Regional Lymph Nodes on Treatment Plans in Patients With Advanced Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.-T.; Wang, H.-M.; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Lin, C.-Y.; Ng, S.-H.; Huang, S.-F.; Chen, I.-H.; Hsueh Chuen; Lee, L.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: A better understanding of the prognostic factors in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) may optimize the therapeutic approach. In this study, we sought to investigate whether the combination of clinical information, pathologic results, and preoperative maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) at the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes might improve the prognostic stratification in this patient group. Methods and Materials: A total of 347 consecutive OSCC patients were investigated. All participants underwent fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography within 2 weeks before surgery and neck dissection. The duration of follow-up was at least 24 months in all surviving patients. The optimal cutoff values for SUVmax at the primary tumor (SUVtumor-max) and regional lymph nodes (SUVnodal-max) were selected according to the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: In multivariate analysis, a cutoff SUVtumor-max of 8.6, a cutoff SUVnodal-max of 5.7, and the presence of pathologic lymph node metastases were found to be significant prognosticators for the 5-year DFS. A scoring system using these three prognostic factors was formulated to define distinct prognostic groups. The 5-year rates for patients with a score between 0 and 3 were as follows: neck control, 94%, 86%, 77%, 59% (p < 0.0001); distant metastases, 1%, 7%, 22%, 47% (p < 0.0001); disease-specific survival, 93%, 85%, 61%, 36%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Based on the study findings, the combined evaluation of pathologic node status and SUVmax at the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes may improve prognostic stratification in OSCC patients.

  1. The Power of Personality: The Comparative Validity of Personality Traits, Socioeconomic Status, and Cognitive Ability for Predicting Important Life Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Brent W; Kuncel, Nathan R; Shiner, Rebecca; Caspi, Avshalom; Goldberg, Lewis R

    2007-12-01

    The ability of personality traits to predict important life outcomes has traditionally been questioned because of the putative small effects of personality. In this article, we compare the predictive validity of personality traits with that of socioeconomic status (SES) and cognitive ability to test the relative contribution of personality traits to predictions of three critical outcomes: mortality, divorce, and occupational attainment. Only evidence from prospective longitudinal studies was considered. In addition, an attempt was made to limit the review to studies that controlled for important background factors. Results showed that the magnitude of the effects of personality traits on mortality, divorce, and occupational attainment was indistinguishable from the effects of SES and cognitive ability on these outcomes. These results demonstrate the influence of personality traits on important life outcomes, highlight the need to more routinely incorporate measures of personality into quality of life surveys, and encourage further research about the developmental origins of personality traits and the processes by which these traits influence diverse life outcomes.

  2. Tumor size and lymph node status determined by imaging are reliable factors for predicting advanced cervical cancer prognosis.

    PubMed

    Kyung, Min Sun; Kim, Hong Bae; Seoung, Jung Yeob; Choi, In Young; Joo, Young Soo; Lee, Me Yeon; Kang, Jung Bae; Park, Young Han

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic role of a number of clinical factors in advanced cervical cancer patients. Patients (n=157) with stage IIA-IIB cervical cancer treated at four Hallym Medical Centers in South Korea (Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital; Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital; Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital; and Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital) between 2006 and 2010 were retrospectively enrolled. Univariate analysis identified significant predictive values in the following eight factors: i) Cancer stage (P<0.0001); ii) tumor size (≤4 vs. 4-6 cm, P=0.0147; and ≤4 vs. >6 cm, P<0.0001); iii) serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen level (≤2 vs. >15 ng/ml; P=0.0291); iv) lower third vaginal involvement (P<0.0001); v) hydronephrosis (P=0.0003); vi) bladder/rectum involvement (P=0.0015); vii) pelvic (P=0.0017) or para-aortic (P=0.0019) lymph node (LN) metastasis detected by imaging vs. no metastasis; and viii) pelvic LN metastasis identified by pathological analysis (P=0.0289). Furthermore, multivariate analysis determined that tumor size (≤4 vs. 4-6 cm, P=0.0371; and ≤4 vs. >6 cm, P=0.0024) and pelvic LN metastasis determined by imaging vs. no metastasis (P=0.0499) were independent predictive variables. Therefore, tumor size and pelvic LN metastasis measured by imaging were independent predictive factors for the prognosis of advanced cervical cancer. These factors may provide more clinically significant prognostic information compared with the currently used International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging system.

  3. Periconception Maternal Folate Status and Human Embryonic Cerebellum Growth Trajectories: The Rotterdam Predict Study

    PubMed Central

    Koning, Irene V.; Groenenberg, Irene A. L.; Gotink, Anniek W.; Willemsen, Sten P.; Gijtenbeek, Manon; Dudink, Jeroen; Go, Attie T. J. I.; Reiss, Irwin K. M.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P. M.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether periconceptional maternal folate status affects human embryonic cerebellar size and growth trajectories. In a prospective periconceptional cohort participants filled out questionnaires and received weekly transvaginal 3D-ultrasounds between 7+0 and 12+6 weeks gestational age (GA). Viable non-malformed singleton pregnancies were selected for cerebellar measurements; transcerebellar diameter, (TCD), left and right cerebellar diameters (LCD, RCD). Linear mixed models were performed to estimate associations between questionnaire data on the timing of maternal folic acid supplement initiation and longitudinal cerebellar measurements as a function of crown-rump length (CRL) and GA. Maternal red blood cell folate concentrations were analysed before 8 weeks GA to validate the associations. A total of 263 serial high quality three-dimensional ultrasound scans of 135 pregnancies were studied. Preconceptional compared to postconceptional initiation of folic acid use was associated with slightly larger cerebellar diameters per millimetre increase of CRL (TCD: β = 0.260mm, 95%CI = 0.023–0.491, p<0.05; LCD: β = 0.171mm, 95%CI = 0.038–0.305, p<0.05; RCD: β = 0.156mm, 95%CI = 0.032–0.280, p<0.05) and with proportional cerebellar growth (TCD/CRL:β = 0.015mm/mm, 95%CI = 0.005–0.024, p<0.01; LCD/CRL:β = 0.012mm/mm, 95%CI = 0.005–0.018, p<0.01; RCD/CRL:β = 0.011mm/mm, 95%CI = 0.005–0.017, p<0.01). Cerebellar growth was significantly highest in the third quartile of maternal red blood cell folate levels (1538–1813 nmol/L). These first findings show that periconceptional maternal folate status is associated with human embryonic cerebellar development. Implications of these small but significant variations for fetal cerebellar growth trajectories and the child’s neurodevelopmental outcome are yet unknown and warrant further investigation. PMID:26491876

  4. Pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Hollander, E; Buchalter, A J; DeCaria, C M

    2000-09-01

    With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG.

  5. Neighborhood socioeconomic status and coronary heart disease risk prediction in a nationally representative sample

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Craig E.; Slaughter, Mary E.; Griffin, Beth A.; Dubowitz, Tamara; Bird, Chloe E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Test the association between coronary heart disease (CHD) risk scores and neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) in a US nationally-representative sample and describe whether any association varies by gender and race/ethnicity. Study Design Cross-sectional study Methods We use Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999 to 2004 linked with Census tract data. Multivariable regression models and propensity score adjusted models are employed to test the association between NSES and 10-year risk of CHD based on the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), adjusting for individual-level characteristics. Results An individual living in a neighborhood at the 75th percentile of NSES (high NSES) has, on average, a 10-year CHD risk that is 0.16 percentage points lower (95% Confidence Interval 0.16, 0.17) than a similar person residing in a neighborhood at the 25th percentile of NSES (low NSES). Race/ethnicity and gender were found to significantly modify the association between NSES on CHD risk: the association is larger in men than women and in whites than minorities. Propensity score models showed findings on the main effects of NSES were robust to self-selection into neighborhoods. Similar results were observed between NSES and risk of cardiovascular disease events. Conclusions NSES is significantly associated with CHD risk, and the relationship varies by gender and race/ethnicity. PMID:23083844

  6. Serum DNA Motifs Predict Disease and Clinical Status in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Julia; Urnovitz, Howard B.; Saresella, Marina; Caputo, Domenico; Clerici, Mario; Mitchell, William M.; Schütz, Ekkehard

    2010-01-01

    Using recently available mass sequencing and assembly technologies, we have been able to identify and quantify unique cell-free DNA motifs in the blood of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The most common MS clinical syndrome, relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), is accompanied by a unique fingerprint of both inter- and intragenic cell-free circulating nucleic acids as specific DNA sequences that provide significant clinical sensitivity and specificity. Coding genes that are differentially represented in MS serum encode cytoskeletal proteins, brain-expressed regulators of growth, and receptors involved in nervous system signal transduction. Although coding genes distinguish RRMS and its clinical activity, several repeat sequences, such as the L1M family of LINE elements, are consistently different in all MS patients and clinical status versus the normal database. These data demonstrate that DNA motifs observed in serum are characteristic of RRMS and disease activity and are promising as a clinical tool in monitoring patient responses to treatment modalities. PMID:20228264

  7. The status of Fas and Fas ligand expression can predict recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Y; Monden, M; Takeda, T; Eguchi, H; Umeshita, K; Nagano, H; Nakamori, S; Dono, K; Sakon, M; Nakamura, M; Tsujimoto, M; Nakahara, M; Nakao, K; Yokosaki, Y; Matsuura, N

    2000-01-01

    The status of Fas and Fas ligand (Fas L) expression was investigated in this study for 103 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). We studied the expression of the following three factors, Fas and Fas L expression in carcinoma cells and Fas L expression in stromal mononuclear cells (defined as stromal Fas L index). Fas expression in HCC cells was significantly decreased in cases with poor differentiation (P< 0.0001) and of larger size (P = 0.0058). Fas L expression in carcinoma cells was observed exclusively in moderately or poorly differentiated cases. Furthermore, each factor had prognostic significance for disease-free survival (DFS) (P< 0.0001, P = 0.0222 and 0.0027 respectively). We then scored the results of each factor and defined the total score as ‘Fas-Fas L risk score’. The P -value of the score for DFS was even lower than that of the clinical stage by multivariate analysis. These results suggest that the evaluation of Fas and Fas ligand expression potentially has a significant prognostic value for DFS of HCC patients, in addition to the clinical stage, and can be regarded as a new prognostic marker. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10735508

  8. ALK gene expression status in pleural effusion predicts tumor responsiveness to crizotinib in Chinese patients with lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Wu, Xiaonan; Han, Xiaohong; Cheng, Gang; Mu, Xinlin; Zhang, Yuhui; Cui, Di; Liu, Chang; Liu, Dongge; Shi, Yuankai

    2016-01-01

    Objective The relationship between anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) expression in malignant pleural effusion (MPE) samples detected only by Ventana immunohistochemistry (IHC) ALK (D5F3) and the efficacy of ALK-tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy is uncertain. Methods Ventana anti-ALK (D5F3) rabbit monoclonal primary antibody testing was performed on 313 cell blocks of MPE samples from Chinese patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to verify the ALK gene status in Ventana IHC ALK (D5F3)-positive samples. The follow-up clinical data on patients who received crizotinib treatment were recorded. Results Of the 313 MPE samples, 27 (8.6%) were confirmed as ALK expression-positive, and the Ventana IHC ALK (D5F3)-positive rate was 17.3% (27/156) in wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) MPE samples. Twenty-three of the 27 IHC ALK (D5F3)-positive samples were positive by FISH. Of the 11 Ventana IHC ALK (D5F3)-positive patients who received crizotinib therapy, 2 patients had complete response (CR), 5 had partial response (PR) and 3 had stable disease (SD). Conclusions The ALK gene expression status detected by the Ventana IHC ALK (D5F3) platform in MPE samples may predict tumor responsiveness to crizotinib in Chinese patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:28174489

  9. The status of the fourth ventricle and ambient cisterns predict outcome in moderate and severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Bram; Beems, Tjemme; van der Vliet, Ton M; Borm, George F; Vos, Pieter E

    2010-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the head has become the diagnostic tool of choice, particularly for moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Various CT characteristics are associated with outcome, and may therefore be used as outcome predictors. One of the most prominent predictors appears to be the status of the basal cisterns. This study describes the prognostic value of the appearance of individual cisterns and ventricles in relation to that of the basal cisterns. Further, we determine the interrater and intrarater reliability in the evaluation of the cisterns and ventricles. All consecutive moderate and severe adult TBI patients admitted to our hospital were included in this study as part of the prospective Radboud University Brain Injury Cohort Study (RUBICS). Outcome was assessed at 6 months post-trauma using the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E). The predictive value of cisterns and ventricles was determined using multivariate binary logistic regression analysis. We included 126 moderate and 574 severe TBI patients. Absence (complete obliteration), but also compression of the ambient cisterns and/or the fourth ventricle were strongly related to unfavorable outcome and death and emerged as the only significant outcome predictors after multivariate analysis. The assessment of the ambient cisterns and the fourth ventricle had a satisfactory inter- and intrarater reliability (kappa coefficients: 0.80-0.95). We conclude that, because obliteration of the ambient cisterns and the fourth ventricle both are better than the status of the basal cisterns as outcome predictors, they might be used in CT prediction models in cases of moderate and severe TBI.

  10. Sequential PET/CT with [18F]-FDG Predicts Pathological Tumor Response to Preoperative Short Course Radiotherapy with Delayed Surgery in Patients with Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Using Logistic Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pecori, Biagio; Lastoria, Secondo; Caracò, Corradina; Celentani, Marco; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Avallone, Antonio; Rega, Daniela; De Palma, Giampaolo; Mormile, Maria; Budillon, Alfredo; Muto, Paolo; Bianco, Francesco; Aloj, Luigi; Petrillo, Antonella; Delrio, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that FDG PET/CT may predict pathological response in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Aim of the current study is evaluate if pathological response can be similarly predicted in LARC patients after short course radiation therapy alone. Methods: Thirty-three patients with cT2-3, N0-2, M0 rectal adenocarcinoma treated with hypo fractionated short course neoadjuvant RT (5x5 Gy) with delayed surgery (SCRTDS) were prospectively studied. All patients underwent 3 PET/CT studies at baseline, 10 days from RT end (early), and 53 days from RT end (delayed). Maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) of the primary tumor were measured and recorded at each PET/CT study. We use logistic regression analysis to aggregate different measures of metabolic response to predict the pathological response in the course of SCRTDS. Results: We provide straightforward formulas to classify response and estimate the probability of being a major responder (TRG1-2) or a complete responder (TRG1) for each individual. The formulas are based on the level of TLG at the early PET and on the overall proportional reduction of TLG between baseline and delayed PET studies. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that in the course of SCRTDS it is possible to estimate the probabilities of pathological tumor responses on the basis of PET/CT with FDG. Our formulas make it possible to assess the risks associated to LARC borne by a patient in the course of SCRTDS. These risk assessments can be balanced against other health risks associated with further treatments and can therefore be used to make informed therapy adjustments during SCRTDS. PMID:28060889

  11. Communalism predicts prenatal affect, stress, and physiology better than ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Cleopatra M; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Campos, Belinda; Hilmert, Clayton J; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Hobel, Calvin J; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt

    2010-07-01

    The authors examined the relevance of communalism, operationalized as a cultural orientation emphasizing interdependence, to maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology and distinguished its effects from those of ethnicity and childhood and adult socioeconomic status (SES). African American and European American women (N = 297) were recruited early in pregnancy and followed through 32 weeks gestation using interviews and medical chart review. Overall, African American women and women of lower socioeconomic backgrounds had higher levels of negative affect, stress, and blood pressure, but these ethnic and socioeconomic disparities were not observed among women higher in communalism. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that communalism was a more robust predictor of prenatal emotional health than ethnicity, childhood SES, and adult SES. Communalism also interacted with ethnicity and SES, resulting in lower blood pressure during pregnancy for African American women and women who experienced socioeconomic disadvantage over the life course. The effects of communalism on prenatal affect, stress, and physiology were not explained by depressive symptoms at study entry, perceived availability of social support, self-esteem, optimism, mastery, nor pregnancy-specific factors, including whether the pregnancy was planned, whether the pregnancy was desired after conception, or how frequently the woman felt happy to be pregnant. This suggests that a communal cultural orientation benefits maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology over and above its links to better understood personal and social resources in addition to economic resources. Implications of culture as a determinant of maternal prenatal health and well-being and an important lens for examining ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in health are discussed.

  12. Prepregnancy Obesity Predicts Poor Vitamin D Status in Mothers and Their Neonates1,2

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Lisa M.; Catov, Janet M.; Roberts, James M.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for vitamin D deficiency, but this relation has not been studied among pregnant women, who must sustain their own vitamin D stores as well as those of their fetuses. Our objective was to assess the effect of prepregnancy BMI on maternal and newborn 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations. Serum 25(OH)D was measured at 4–21 wk gestation and predelivery in 200 white and 200 black pregnant women and in their neonates’ cord blood. We used multivariable logistic regression models to assess the independent association between BMI and the odds of vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D <50 nmol/L] after adjustment for race/ethnicity, season, gestational age, multivitamin use, physical activity, and maternal age. Compared with lean women (BMI <25), pregravid obese women (BMI ≥30) had lower adjusted mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations at 4–22 wk (56.5 vs. 62.7 nmol/L; P < 0.05) and a higher prevalence vitamin D deficiency (61 vs. 36%; P < 0.01). Vitamin D status of neonates born to obese mothers was poorer than neonates of lean mothers (adjusted mean, 50.1 vs. 56.3 nmol/L; P < 0.05). There was a dose-response trend between prepregnancy BMI and vitamin D deficiency. An increase in BMI from 22 to 34 was associated with 2-fold (95% CI: 1.2, 3.6) and 2.1-fold (1.2, 3.8) increases in the odds of mid-pregnancy and neonatal vitamin D deficiency, respectively. The rise in maternal obesity highlights that maternal and newborn vitamin D deficiency will continue to be a serious public health problem until steps are taken to identify and treat low 25(OH)D. PMID:17951482

  13. Status, Alert System, and Prediction of Cyanobacterial Bloom in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ankita; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Asthana, Ravi Kumar; Lee, Hyung-Gwan; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2015-01-01

    Bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacterial genera pose a major ecological problem due to their ability to produce toxins and other bioactive compounds, which can have important implications in illnesses of humans and livestock. Cyanobacteria such as Microcystis, Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Phormidium, and Aphanizomenon species producing microcystins and anatoxin-a have been predominantly documented from most South Korean lakes and reservoirs. With the increase in frequency of such blooms, various monitoring approaches, treatment processes, and prediction models have been developed in due course. In this paper we review the field studies and current knowledge on toxin producing cyanobacterial species and ecological variables that regulate toxin production and bloom formation in major rivers (Han, Geum, Nakdong, and Yeongsan) and reservoirs in South Korea. In addition, development of new, fast, and high-throughput techniques for effective monitoring is also discussed with cyanobacterial bloom advisory practices, current management strategies, and their implications in South Korean freshwater bodies. PMID:25705675

  14. Applicability of predictive toxicology methods for monoclonal antibody therapeutics: status Quo and scope.

    PubMed

    Kizhedath, Arathi; Wilkinson, Simon; Glassey, Jarka

    2017-04-01

    Biopharmaceuticals, monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based therapeutics in particular, have positively impacted millions of lives. MAbs and related therapeutics are highly desirable from a biopharmaceutical perspective as they are highly target specific and well tolerated within the human system. Nevertheless, several mAbs have been discontinued or withdrawn based either on their inability to demonstrate efficacy and/or due to adverse effects. Approved monoclonal antibodies and derived therapeutics have been associated with adverse effects such as immunogenicity, cytokine release syndrome, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, intravascular haemolysis, cardiac arrhythmias, abnormal liver function, gastrointestinal perforation, bronchospasm, intraocular inflammation, urticaria, nephritis, neuropathy, birth defects, fever and cough to name a few. The advances made in this field are also impeded by a lack of progress in bioprocess development strategies as well as increasing costs owing to attrition, wherein the lack of efficacy and safety accounts for nearly 60 % of all factors contributing to attrition. This reiterates the need for smarter preclinical development using quality by design-based approaches encompassing carefully designed predictive models during early stages of drug development. Different in vitro and in silico methods are extensively used for predicting biological activity as well as toxicity during small molecule drug development; however, their full potential has not been utilized for biological drug development. The scope of in vitro and in silico tools in early developmental stages of monoclonal antibody-based therapeutics production and how it contributes to lower attrition rates leading to faster development of potential drug candidates has been evaluated. The applicability of computational toxicology approaches in this context as well as the pitfalls and promises of extending such techniques to biopharmaceutical development has been highlighted.

  15. IgM+ Memory B Cell Expression Predicts HIV-Associated Cryptococcosis Status

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Krishanthi; Metzger, Brian; Hanau, Lawrence H.; Guh, Alice; Rucker, Lisa; Badri, Sheila; Pirofski, Liise-anne

    2009-01-01

    Background The role of B cells in resistance to Cryptococcus neoformans disease (i.e., cryptococcosis) is unknown. Given evidence that IgM+ memory B cells are required for immunity to other encapsulated pathogens, we hypothesized that these cells might contribute to resistance to cryptococcosis. Methods We compared levels of IgM expression on memory B cells in 29 HIV-infected individuals who had a history of cryptococcosis (the HIV+CN+ group) with levels in 30 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected subjects who had no history of cryptococcosis (the HIV+CN− group) and 20 HIV-uninfected subjects who had no history of cryptococcosis (the HIV− group) (cohort 1). We also determined levels of IgM expression on memory B cells in banked samples obtained before cryptococcosis onset from 31 participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, of whom 8 had HIV infection and subsequently developed cryptococcosis (the HIV+CN+ group), 8 had HIV infection and did not develop cryptococcosis (the HIV+CN− group), and 15 did not have HIV infection and did not develop cryptococcosis (the HIV− group) (cohort 2). Results In cohort 1, the percentage of memory B cells that expressed IgM was lower among HIV+CN+ subjects, compared with HIV+CN− subjects (P < .01) and HIV− subjects (P <.05); expression of IgM on ≤50% of memory B cells was a significant predictor of C. neoformans disease status (odds ratio, 5.5; P = .03). In cohort 2, the percentage of memory B cells that expressed IgM was lower in HIV+CN+ subjects than in HIV+CN− subjects (P = .02) and HIV− subjects (P < .01); an IgM+ memory B cell percentage of ≤38.5% was a significant predictor of future development of cryptococcosis (odds ratio, 14; P = .02). Conclusions These findings suggest that HIV-infected persons in whom the percentage of memory B cells that express IgM is decreased might be at greater risk for the development of cryptococcosis. PMID:19527168

  16. Synergistic effects of resveratrol (free and inclusion complex) and sulfamethoxazole-trimetropim treatment on pathology, oxidant/antioxidant status and behavior of mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Baldissera, Matheus D; Tonin, Alexandre A; Rech, Virginia C; Alves, Catiane B; D'Avila, Fernanda; Thomé, Gustavo R; Guarda, Naiara S; Moresco, Rafael N; Camillo, Giovana; Vogel, Fernanda F; Luchese, Cristiane; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Morsch, Vera M; Tochetto, Camila; Fighera, Rafael; Nishihira, Vivian S K; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of resveratrol and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (ST) on the treatment of mice experimentally infected by Toxoplasma gondii during the chronic phase of the disease considering infection, behavior, and oxidative/antioxidants profile aspects. For the study, 60 mice were initially divided into two groups: uninfected (n = 24) and infected by T. gondii (n = 36). These two groups were later subdivided into other groups and treated with resveratrol (free and inclusion complex containing resveratrol) alone and co-administered with ST: groups A to D were composed by healthy mice and groups E to J were consisted of animals infected by T. gondii (VEG strain). Treatments began 20 days post-infection for 10 consecutive days with oral doses of 0.5 mg kg(-1) of ST (groups B and F), 100 mg kg(-1) of free resveratrol (groups C and G) and inclusion complex of resveratrol (nanoparticles containing resveratrol) (groups D and H), and lastly an co-administration of both drugs (groups I and J). Behavioral tests (memory, anxiety and locomotion) were performed after treatment. Liver and brain fragments were collected to evaluate pathological changes, brain cysts counts, as well as oxidant and antioxidant levels. A reduction on the number of cysts in the brain of animals treated with both drugs combined was observed; there was also reduced number of lesions on both organs. This drug combined effect was also able to reduce oxidative and increase antioxidant levels in infected mice, which might be interpreted as a resveratrol protective effect. In addition, the combination of ST and resveratrol was able to prevent behavioral changes in infected mice. Therefore, the use of co-administration drugs enhances the therapeutic effect acting on a synergic way, reducing the oxidizing effects of the chemical treatment for toxoplasmosis. In addition, resveratrol in inclusion complex when co-administered with ST showed an improved

  17. Nitrogen oxides emissions from thermal power plants in china: current status and future predictions.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hezhong; Liu, Kaiyun; Hao, Jiming; Wang, Yan; Gao, Jiajia; Qiu, Peipei; Zhu, Chuanyong

    2013-10-01

    Increasing emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) over the Chinese mainland have been of great concern due to their adverse impacts on regional air quality and public health. To explore and obtain the temporal and spatial characteristics of NOx emissions from thermal power plants in China, a unit-based method is developed. The method assesses NOx emissions based on detailed information on unit capacity, boiler and burner patterns, feed fuel types, emission control technologies, and geographical locations. The national total NOx emissions in 2010 are estimated at 7801.6 kt, of which 5495.8 kt is released from coal-fired power plant units of considerable size between 300 and 1000 MW. The top provincial emitter is Shandong where plants are densely concentrated. The average NOx-intensity is estimated at 2.28 g/kWh, markedly higher than that of developed countries, mainly owing to the inadequate application of high-efficiency denitrification devices such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Future NOx emissions are predicted by applying scenario analysis, indicating that a reduction of about 40% by the year 2020 can be achieved compared with emissions in 2010. These results suggest that NOx emissions from Chinese thermal power plants could be substantially mitigated within 10 years if reasonable control measures were implemented effectively.

  18. The Role of BRCA2 Mutation Status as Diagnostic, Predictive, and Prognosis Biomarker for Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Foncillas, Jesus

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide, and life expectancy after diagnosis is often short. Most pancreatic tumours appear sporadically and have been highly related to habits such as cigarette smoking, high alcohol intake, high carbohydrate, and sugar consumption. Other observational studies have suggested the association between pancreatic cancer and exposure to arsenic, lead, or cadmium. Aside from these factors, chronic pancreatitis and diabetes have also come to be considered as risk factors for these kinds of tumours. Studies have found that 10% of pancreatic cancer cases arise from an inherited syndrome related to some genetic alterations. One of these alterations includes mutation in BRCA2 gene. BRCA2 mutations impair DNA damage response and homologous recombination by direct regulation of RAD51. In light of these findings that link genetic factors to tumour development, DNA damage agents have been proposed as target therapies for pancreatic cancer patients carrying BRCA2 mutations. Some of these drugs include platinum-based agents and PARP inhibitors. However, the acquired resistance to PARP inhibitors has created a need for new chemotherapeutic strategies to target BRCA2. The present systematic review collects and analyses the role of BRCA2 alterations to be used in early diagnosis of an inherited syndrome associated with familiar cancer and as a prognostic and predictive biomarker for the management of pancreatic cancer patients. PMID:28078281

  19. The Class 6 Semaphorin SEMA6A Is Induced by Interferon-γ and Defines an Activation Status of Langerhans Cells Observed in Pathological Situations

    PubMed Central

    Gautier, Gregory; de Saint-Vis, Blandine; Sénéchal, Brigitte; Pin, Jean-Jacques; Bates, Elizabeth E.M.; Caux, Christophe; Geissmann, Frédéric; Garrone, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Originally implicated in axon guidance, semaphorins represent a large family of molecules that are now known to be expressed in the immune system. Among different semaphorins tested by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in human immune cells, the expression of class 6 transmembrane semaphorin SEMA6A was restricted to dendritic cells (DCs). Using in-house generated monoclonal antibodies, SEMA6A expression appeared further restricted to Langerhans cells (LCs). In vivo, SEMA6A mRNA was expressed in freshly isolated skin LCs but SEMA6A protein was not detectable on normal skin and tonsillar epithelium. Of interest, SEMA6A protein was strongly expressed on skin and bone LCs and on LCs in draining lymph nodes from patients with LC histiocytosis or dermatopathic lymphadenitis, respectively, representing two inflammatory conditions in which LCs display an immature DC-LAMPlow, CD83low, and CCR7+ phenotype. SEMA6A expression was low in resting LCs generated in vitro and was enhanced by interferon (IFN)-γ but not by interleukin-4, interleukin-10, IFN-α/β, or lipopolysaccharide. Most IFN-γ-induced SEMA6A-positive cells remained immature with low CD83 and DC-LAMP/CD208 expression, but they expressed CCR7 and responded to macrophage inflammatory protein-3β (MIP-3β/CCL19). The expression of SEMA6A, for which the ligand and function remain unknown, may therefore identify an alternative IFN-γ-dependent activation status of LCs in vivo. PMID:16436660

  20. Long-range Weather Prediction and Prevention of Climate Catastrophes: A Status Report

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Caldeira, K.; Caravan, G.; Govindasamy, B.; Grossman, A.; Hyde, R.; Ishikawa, M.; Ledebuhr, A.; Leith, C.; Molenkamp, C.; Teller, E.; Wood, L.

    1999-08-18

    As the human population of Earth continues to expand and to demand an ever-higher quality-of-life, requirements for ever-greater knowledge--and then control--of the future of the state of the terrestrial biosphere grow apace. Convenience of living--and, indeed, reliability of life itself--become ever more highly ''tuned'' to the future physical condition of the biosphere being knowable and not markedly different than the present one. Two years ago, we reported at a quantitative albeit conceptual level on technical ways-and-means of forestalling large-scale changes in the present climate, employing practical means of modulating insolation and/or the Earth's mean albedo. Last year, we reported on early work aimed at developing means for creating detailed, high-fidelity, all-Earth weather forecasts of two weeks duration, exploiting recent and anticipated advances in extremely high-performance digital computing and in atmosphere-observing Earth satellites bearing high-technology instrumentation. This year, we report on recent progress in both of these areas of endeavor. Preventing the commencement of large-scale changes in the current climate presently appears to be a considerably more interesting prospect than initially realized, as modest insolation reductions are model-predicted to offset the anticipated impacts of ''global warming'' surprisingly precisely, in both space and time. Also, continued study has not revealed any fundamental difficulties in any of the means proposed for insolation modulation and, indeed, applicability of some of these techniques to other planets in the inner Solar system seems promising. Implementation of the high-fidelity, long-range weather-forecasting capability presently appears substantially easier with respect to required populations of Earth satellites and atmospheric transponders and data-processing systems, and more complicated with respect to transponder lifetimes in the actual atmosphere; overall, the enterprise seems more

  1. Long-range weather prediction and prevention of climate catastrophes: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Caldeira, K; Caravan, G; Govindasamy, B; Grossman, A; Hyde, R; Ishikawa, M; Ledebuhr, A; Leith, C; Molenkamp, C; Teller, E; Wood, L

    1999-08-18

    As the human population of Earth continues to expand and to demand an ever-higher quality-of-life, requirements for ever-greater knowledge--and then control--of the future of the state of the terrestrial biosphere grow apace. Convenience of living--and, indeed, reliability of life itself--become ever more highly ''tuned'' to the future physical condition of the biosphere being knowable and not markedly different than the present one, Two years ago, we reported at a quantitative albeit conceptual level on technical ways-and-means of forestalling large-scale changes in the present climate, employing practical means of modulating insolation and/or the Earth's mean albedo. Last year, we reported on early work aimed at developing means for creating detailed, high-fidelity, all-Earth weather forecasts of two weeks duration, exploiting recent and anticipated advances in extremely high-performance digital computing and in atmosphere-observing Earth satellites bearing high-technology instrumentation. This year, we report on recent progress in both of these areas of endeavor. Preventing the commencement of large-scale changes in the current climate presently appears to be a considerably more interesting prospect than initially realized, as modest insolation reductions are model-predicted to offset the anticipated impacts of ''global warming'' surprisingly precisely, in both space and time. Also, continued study has not revealed any fundamental difficulties in any of the means proposed for insolation modulation and, indeed, applicability of some of these techniques to other planets in the inner Solar system seems promising. Implementation of the high-fidelity, long-range weather-forecasting capability presently appears substantially easier with respect to required populations of Earth satellites and atmospheric transponders and data-processing systems, and more complicated with respect to transponder lifetimes in the actual atmosphere; overall, the enterprise seems more

  2. Prediction of disease relapses by multibiomarker disease activity and autoantibody status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis on tapering DMARD treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rech, Juergen; Hueber, Axel J; Finzel, Stephanie; Englbrecht, Matthias; Haschka, Judith; Manger, Bernhard; Kleyer, Arnd; Reiser, Michaela; Cobra, Jayme Fogagnolo; Figueiredo, Camille; Tony, Hans-Peter; Kleinert, Stefan; Wendler, Joerg; Schuch, Florian; Ronneberger, Monika; Feuchtenberger, Martin; Fleck, Martin; Manger, Karin; Ochs, Wolfgang; Schmitt-Haendle, Matthias; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin; Nuesslein, Hubert; Alten, Rieke; Henes, Joerg; Krueger, Klaus; Schett, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyse the role of multibiomarker disease activity (MBDA) score in predicting disease relapses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in sustained remission who tapered disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy in RETRO, a prospective randomised controlled trial. Methods MBDA scores (scale 1–100) were determined based on 12 inflammation markers in baseline serum samples from 94 patients of the RETRO study. MBDA scores were compared between patients relapsing or remaining in remission when tapering DMARDs. Demographic and disease-specific parameters were included in multivariate logistic regression analysis for defining predictors of relapse. Results Moderate-to-high MBDA scores were found in 33% of patients with RA overall. Twice as many patients who relapsed (58%) had moderate/high MBDA compared with patients who remained in remission (21%). Baseline MBDA scores were significantly higher in patients with RA who were relapsing than those remaining in stable remission (N=94; p=0.0001) and those tapering/stopping (N=59; p=0.0001). Multivariate regression analysis identified MBDA scores as independent predictor for relapses in addition to anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) status. Relapse rates were low (13%) in patients who were MBDA−/ACPA−, moderate in patients who were MBDA+/ACPA− (33.3%) and MBDA−ACPA+ (31.8%) and high in patients who were MBDA+/ACPA+ (76.4%). Conclusions MBDA improved the prediction of relapses in patients with RA in stable remission undergoing DMARD tapering. If combined with ACPA testing, MBDA allowed prediction of relapse in more than 80% of the patients. Trial registration number EudraCT 2009-015740-42. PMID:26483255

  3. IL17a and IL21 combined with surgical status predict the outcome of ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Li; Chou, Cheng-Yang; Chang, Ming-Cheng; Lin, Han-Wei; Huang, Ching-Ting; Hsieh, Shu-Feng; Chen, Chi-An; Cheng, Wen-Fang

    2015-10-01

    Aside from tumor cells, ovarian cancer-related ascites contains the immune components. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a combination of clinical and immunological parameters can predict survival in patients with ovarian cancer. Ascites specimens and medical records from 144 ovarian cancer patients at our hospital were used as the derivation group to select target clinical and immunological factors to generate a risk-scoring system to predict patient survival. Eighty-two cases from another hospital were used as the validation group to evaluate this system. The surgical status and expression levels of interleukin 17a (IL17a) and IL21 in ascites were selected for the risk-scoring system in the derivation group. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves of the overall score for disease-free survival (DFS) of the ovarian cancer patients were 0.84 in the derivation group, 0.85 in the validation group, and 0.84 for all the patients. The AUROC curves of the overall score for overall survival (OS) of cases were 0.78 in the derivation group, 0.76 in the validation group, and 0.76 for all the studied patients. Good correlations between overall risk score and survival of the ovarian cancer patients were demonstrated by sub-grouping all participants into four groups (P for trend <0.001 for DFS and OS). Therefore, acombination of clinical and immunological parameters can provide a practical scoring system to predict the survival of patients with ovarian carcinoma. IL17a and IL21 can potentially be used as prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers.

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of the MGMT-STP27 Model and Impact of Genetic and Epigenetic Context to Predict the MGMT Methylation Status in Gliomas and Other Tumors.

    PubMed

    Bady, Pierre; Delorenzi, Mauro; Hegi, Monika E

    2016-05-01

    The methylation status of the O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene is an important predictive biomarker for benefit from alkylating agent therapy in glioblastoma. Our model MGMT-STP27 allows prediction of the methylation status of the MGMT promoter using data from the Illumina's Human Methylation BeadChips (HM-27K and HM-450K) that is publically available for many cancer data sets. Here, we investigate the impact of the context of genetic and epigenetic alterations and tumor type on the classification and report on technical aspects, such as robustness of cutoff definition and preprocessing of the data. The association between gene copy number variation, predicted MGMT methylation, and MGMT expression revealed a gene dosage effect on MGMT expression in lower grade glioma (World Health Organization grade II/III) that in contrast to glioblastoma usually carry two copies of chromosome 10 on which MGMT resides (10q26.3). This implies some MGMT expression, potentially conferring residual repair function blunting the therapeutic effect of alkylating agents. A sensitivity analyses corroborated the performance of the original cutoff for various optimization criteria and for most data preprocessing methods. Finally, we propose an R package mgmtstp27 that allows prediction of the methylation status of the MGMT promoter and calculation of appropriate confidence and/or prediction intervals. Overall, MGMT-STP27 is a robust model for MGMT classification that is independent of tumor type and is adapted for single sample prediction.

  5. Investigation of a redox-sensitive predictive model of mouse embryonic stem cells differentiation using quantitative nuclease protection assays and glutathione redox status

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigation of a redox-sensitive predictive model of mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation via quantitative nuclease protection assays and glutathione redox status Chandler KJ,Hansen JM, Knudsen T,and Hunter ES 1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangl...

  6. The Predictive Value of Cognitive Impairments Measured at the Start of Clinical Rehabilitation for Health Status 1 Year and 3 Years Poststroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Clara L.; Schepers, Vera P.; Post, Marcel W.; van Heugten, Caroline M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the value of screening for cognitive functions at the start of an inpatient rehabilitation programme to predict the health status 1 and 3 years poststroke. In this longitudinal cohort study of stroke patients in inpatient rehabilitation data of 134 participants were analysed. Cognitive and clinical…

  7. Expression of Estrogen Receptor Beta Predicts Oncologic Outcome of pT3 Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Better Than Aggressive Pathological Features

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hao Lun; Sung, Ming Tse; Tsai, Eing Mei; Lin, Chang Shen; Lee, Nai Lun; Chung, Yueh-Hua; Chiang, Po Hui

    2016-01-01

    Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UT-UC) is rare and treatment options or prognostic markers are limited. There is increasing evidence indicating that urothelial carcinoma may be an endocrine-related cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic effect of estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) on the outcome of UT-UC. From 2005 to 2012, this study included 105 patients with pT3 UT-UC. Perioperative factors, pathological features, and ERβ immunostaining were reviewed and prognostic effects were examined by multivariate analysis. This study divided patients into either the ERβ-high (n = 52) or ERβ-low (n = 53) group and analyzed their oncologic outcomes. All pathological features except infiltrating tumor architecture (significantly higher incidence in ERβ-low group, p = 0.004) are symmetric in both groups. Low ERβ expression was significantly correlated with local recurrence and distant metastasis in univariate analysis (p = 0.035 and 0.004, respectively) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.05 and 0.008, respectively). Cell line study also proved that knock down of ERβ cause less UTUC proliferation and migration. In addition, ERβ agonist also enhanced the cytotoxic and migration inhibition effect of cisplatin and ERβ antagonist cause the UTUC cell more resistant to cisplatin. This result may help identify patients in need of adjuvant therapy or develop potential targeted therapy. PMID:27052470

  8. Field determination and QSPR prediction of equilibrium-status soil/vegetation partition coefficient of PCDD/Fs.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Wang, Qiang; Qiu, Xinghua; Dong, Yian; Jia, Shenglan; Hu, Jianxin

    2014-07-15

    Characterizing pseudo equilibrium-status soil/vegetation partition coefficient KSV, the quotient of respective concentrations in soil and vegetation of a certain substance at remote background areas, is essential in ecological risk assessment, however few previous attempts have been made for field determination and developing validated and reproducible structure-based estimates. In this study, KSV was calculated based on measurements of seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/F congeners in soil and moss (Dicranum angustum), and rouzi grass (Thylacospermum caespitosum) of two background sites, Ny-Ålesund of the Arctic and Zhangmu-Nyalam region of the Tibet Plateau, respectively. By both fugacity modeling and stepwise regression of field data, the air-water partition coefficient (KAW) and aqueous solubility (SW) were identified as the influential physicochemical properties. Furthermore, validated quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model was developed to extrapolate the KSV prediction to all 210 PCDD/F congeners. Molecular polarizability, molecular size and molecular energy demonstrated leading effects on KSV.

  9. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome: von Willebrand factor propeptide to von Willebrand factor antigen ratio predicts remission status

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Adrienne; Sinclair, Gary; Valentine, Karen; James, Paula

    2014-01-01

    We investigated a case of acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) secondary to a nonneutralizing anti-von Willebrand factor (VWF) antibody associated with an autoimmune disorder. At diagnosis, VWF activity (VWF:Act), antigen (VWF:Ag), multimers, and factor VIII coagulant activity were virtually absent. VWF propeptide (VWFpp) was elevated with an infinitely high VWFpp to VWF:Ag ratio (VWFpp:Ag) consistent with rapid VWF clearance. Immunosuppressive treatment resulted in phenotypic remission 1 with normalization of VWF/factor VIII levels and multimer pattern. However, VWFpp:Ag remained elevated (∼2× normal), consistent with ongoing VWF clearance by the remaining anti-VWF antibody still present by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This suggests that increased VWF secretion was compensating for the incomplete remission state. Relapse occurred when VWFpp:Ag was again infinitely high, with associated decreased VWFpp but unchanged anti-VWF titers; switching the balance to favor VWF clearance over secretion. Complete remission with undetectable anti-VWF occurred only when VWFpp:Ag was normal. This case of relapsing-remitting AVWS demonstrates the use of VWFpp:Ag for predicting remission status. PMID:24951428

  10. Attentional orienting toward social stress stimuli predicts increased cortisol responsivity to psychosocial stress irrespective of the early socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Pilgrim, Kamala; Marin, Marie-France; Lupien, Sonia J

    2010-05-01

    The principal aim of the study was to examine how the natural tendency to shift attention toward or away from social stress stimuli during a restful state, relates to the magnitude of cortisol elicited in response to a stressful context. It also assessed whether any relationship that did emerge between attentional biases and cortisol responsivity would be associated with the childhood socioeconomic status (SES). Twenty-five healthy normal controls rested for 45min during which time they completed an adaptation of Posner's attentional orienting paradigm comprising social stress words as cues. Immediately following, participants were exposed to a public stressful speech task adapted from the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results indicated that a rapid attentional engagement in the direction of social stress words prior to stress exposure related to a pronounced cortisol response to the stress task, while a slow attentional engagement toward social stress words was related to a weak cortisol response to the stress task. It was also found that fast engagers of social stress information displayed lower self-esteem than slow engagers. Groups did not differ in terms of their reported past SES. These findings demonstrate that attentional biases for social stress stimuli at rest predict the magnitude of cortisol likely to be elicited in response to a subsequent stressor. A natural tendency to rapidly shift attention toward social stress-related information may be the driving force behind cortisol reactivity when handling psychological forms of stress, independent of the early SES environment.

  11. Social status does not predict responses to Seoul virus infection or reproductive success among male Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Hinson, Ella R; Hannah, Michele F; Norris, Douglas E; Glass, Gregory E; Klein, Sabra L

    2006-03-01

    Trade-offs exist among life history strategies that are used to increase survival and reproduction; such that, males that engage in more competitive behaviors may be more susceptible to infection. Hantaviruses are transmitted horizontally between rodents through the passage of virus in saliva during wounding and male rodents are more likely to be infected with hantaviruses than females. To determine whether a trade-off exists between dominance and susceptibility to Seoul virus infection, male Long Evans rats were group housed (3/cage) with a female rat and aggressive and subordinate behaviors were monitored during a 10 day group housing condition. After behavioral testing, males were individually housed, inoculated with Seoul virus, and blood, saliva, and fecal samples were collected. Dominant males initiated more aggressive encounters than subordinate males. Dominant and subordinate males, however, had similar steroid hormone concentrations, anti-Seoul virus IgG responses, and weight gain over the course of infection. A similar proportion of dominant and subordinate males shed virus in saliva and feces during infection. Using microsatellite DNA markers paternity was assigned to pups derived during the group housing period. In contrast to our initial hypothesis, dominant and subordinate males sired a similar percentage of pups. Taken together, host social status may not predict reproductive success or susceptibility to hantaviruses in rodent reservoir populations.

  12. The prediction of later neurodevelopmental status of preterm infants at ages 7 to 10 years using the Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener.

    PubMed

    Soysal, A Sebnem; Gucuyener, Kivilcim; Ergenekon, Ebru; Turan, Özden; Koc, Esin; Turkyılmaz, Canan; Önal, Esra; Atalay, Yıldız

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to see whether the scores of the Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener of 45 high-risk preterm infants (gestational age 26-37 wk) between the ages of 3 and 24 months predicted neurodevelopmental status at 7 to 10 years of age. Neurodevelopmental status of 45/122 preterm infants, grouped according to their gestational ages of 26 to 29, 30 to 32, and 33 to 37 weeks, were previously evaluated by Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener. The scores were categorized as low or high-moderate. Verbal and performance scores of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) of those patients were assessed between 7 and 10 years. The patients with high-moderate-risk scores of Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener at all times, regardless of their gestational age, had lower performance, verbal, and total scores of WISC-R than those of who had low Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener risk scores. High-moderate risk score of Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener at 7 to 10, and 16 to 20 months, of all patients especially showed good prediction for identifying lower verbal and performance scales. For 7 to 10 months, verbal scale: positive predictive value = 92.3%, negative predictive value = 44.4%, sensitivity = 70.58%, and specificity = 80%; performance scale: positive predictive value = 100%, negative predictive value = 30%, sensitivity = 68.18%, and specificity = 100%. For 16 to 20 months, verbal scale: positive predictive value = 90%, negative predictive value = 37.5%, sensitivity = 64.3%, and specificity = 80%; performance scale: positive predictive value = 90%, negative predictive value = 12.5%, sensitivity = 56.3%, and specificity = 50%. Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener shows good prediction of later verbal and performance scores of Wechsler Intelligence Scale-Revised for Children as early as 7 to 10 months, which gives us the opportunity to start early intervention.

  13. Validation of a Score Predicting Post-Treatment Ambulatory Status After Radiotherapy for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk; Douglas, Sarah; Huttenlocher, Stefan; Rudat, Volker; Veninga, Theo; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Basic, Hiba; Karstens, Johann H.; Hoskin, Peter J.; Adamietz, Irenaeus A.; Schild, Steven E.

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: A score predicting post-radiotherapy (RT) ambulatory status was developed based on 2,096 retrospectively evaluated metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) patients. This study aimed to validate the score in a prospective series. Methods and Materials: The score included five factors associated with post-RT ambulatory status: tumor type, interval tumor diagnosis to MSCC, visceral metastases, pre-RT motor function, time developing motor deficits. Patients were divided into five groups: 21-28, 29-31, 32-34, 35-37, 38-44 points. In this study, 653 prospectively followed patients were divided into the same groups. Furthermore, the number of prognostic groups was reduced from five to three (21-28, 29-37, 38-44 points). Post-RT ambulatory rates from this series were compared with the retrospective series. Additionally, this series was compared with 104 patients receiving decompressive surgery plus RT (41 laminectomy, 63 laminectomy plus stabilization of vertebrae). Results: In this study, post-RT ambulatory rates were 10.6% (21-28 points), 43.5% (29-31 points), 71.0% (32-34 points), 89.5% (35-37 points), and 98.5% (38-44 points). Ambulatory rates from the retrospective study were 6.2%, 43.5%, 70.0%, 86.1%, and 98.7%. After regrouping, ambulatory rates were 10.6% (21-28 points), 70.9% (29-37 points), and 98.5% (38-44 points) in this series, and 6.2%, 68.4%, and 98.7% in the retrospective series. Ambulatory rates were 0%, 62.5%, and 90.9% in the laminectomy plus RT group, and 14.3%, 83.9%, and 100% in the laminectomy + stabilization plus RT group. Conclusions: Ambulatory rates in the different groups in this study were similar to those in the retrospective study demonstrating the validity of the score. Using only three groups is simplier for clinical routine.

  14. A Head-to-Head Comparison of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) With the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4) in Predicting the General Level of Personality Pathology Among Community Dwelling Subjects.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Andrea; Somma, Antonella; Borroni, Serena; Maffei, Cesare; Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F

    2016-02-01

    In order to evaluate if measures of DSM-5 Alternative PD Model domains predicted interview-based scores of general personality pathology when compared to self-report measures of DSM-IV Axis II/DSM-5 Section II PD criteria, 300 Italian community adults were administered the Iowa Personality Disorder Screen (IPDS) interview, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+). Multiple regression analyses showed that the five PID-5 domain scales collectively explained an adequate rate of the variance of the IPDS interview total score. This result was slightly lower than the amount of variance in the IPDS total score explained by the 10 PDQ-4+ scales. The PID-5 traits scales performed better than the PDQ-4+, although the difference was marginal. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the PID-5 domain and trait scales provided a moderate, but significant increase in the prediction of the general level of personality pathology above and beyond the PDQ-4+ scales.

  15. A Head-to-Head Comparison of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) With the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4) in Predicting the General Level of Personality Pathology Among Community Dwelling Subjects.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Andrea; Somma, Antonella; Borroni, Serena; Maffei, Cesare; Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F

    2015-02-24

    In order to evaluate if measures of DSM-5 Alternative PD Model domains predicted interview-based scores of general personality pathology when compared to self-report measures of DSM-IV Axis II/DSM-5 Section II PD criteria, 300 Italian community adults were administered the Iowa Personality Disorder Screen (IPDS) interview, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+). Multiple regression analyses showed that the five PID-5 domain scales collectively explained an adequate rate of the variance of the IPDS interview total score. This result was slightly lower than the amount of variance in the IPDS total score explained by the 10 PDQ-4+ scales. The PID-5 traits scales performed better than the PDQ-4+, although the difference was marginal. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the PID-5 domain and trait scales provided a moderate, but significant increase in the prediction of the general level of personality pathology above and beyond the PDQ-4+ scales.

  16. Bio-pathologic characteristics related to chromosome 11 aneusomy and cyclin D1 gene status in surgically resected stage I and II breast cancer: Identification of an adverse prognostic profile.

    PubMed

    Mottolese, Marcella; Orlandi, Giulia; Sperduti, Isabella; Merola, Roberta; Buglioni, Simonetta; Di Benedetto, Anna; Pinnarò, Paola; Perracchio, Letizia; Venturo, Irene; Cognetti, Francesco; Cianciulli, AnnaMaria

    2007-02-01

    We aimed at developing a more detailed understanding of cyclin D1 in early stage human breast cancer and defining the biologic profiles with different prognostic value correlating cyclin D1 gene amplification and chromosome 11 aneusomy with bio-pathologic variables of known clinical importance. Cyclin D1 gene amplification and chromosome 11 aneusomy were investigated using fluorescence in situ hybridization whereas cyclin D1, PgR, HER-2, Bcl2, p53, and Ki-67 expressions were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 121 stage I or II breast cancer patients uniformly treated with cyclophosphamide/metotrexate/5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Cyclin D1 was amplified in 6.6% and overexpressed in 32.2% of cases. Amplification was not associated with any selected bio-pathologic variables, whereas the chromosome 11 aneusomy level significantly increased in tumors with higher histologic grade (P < 0.01), higher tumor size (P < 0.003), p53 nuclear accumulation (P < 0.04), and ERalpha negativity (P < 0.049). Multiple correspondence analysis showed 4 different biologic tumor profiles. The first, characterized by high Ki-67 score, p53+, cyclin D1+, HER-2+, aneusomy level > 30%, ratio (cyclin D1 gene/CEP11) > 2, was associated with tumor relapse defining the most unfavorable biologic profile. Kaplan-Meier's method showed significantly shorter disease-free survival in patients with at least 3 variables positive out of the 6 detected by multiple correspondence analysis. In multivariate analysis, the identified biologic profile emerged as the only significant prognostic indicator. Our findings are of particular clinical interest for early stage breast cancer patients, because the assessment of biologic factors predictive of tumor aggressiveness may influence postoperative therapeutic strategies.

  17. Can Intoxication Status Be Used as a Prediction Tool for Manner of Death?: A Comparison of the Intoxication Status in Violent Suicides and Homicides.

    PubMed

    Molina, D Kimberley; Hargrove, Veronica M

    2017-03-01

    Determining the manner of death in medicolegal death investigations can be difficult. The investigator relies on many facets of death investigation, including the circumstances of death and autopsy examination. A study was designed to analyze whether the intoxication status of the decedent could be used as another tool in death investigations. The intoxication status of violent (nonoverdose or poisoning) suicides and homicides was retrospectively reviewed and compared. A total of 625 deaths were identified, including 366 suicides and 259 homicides. Age, sex, cause of death, and intoxication status, including the specific drugs present, were analyzed. Gunshot wounds were the most common cause of death in both groups, with hanging being the second most common cause in suicides and sharp force injuries in homicides. Analysis found that although the overall intoxication status for suicides versus homicides did not differ significantly, certain drugs were more prevalent in one group over the other. Specifically, illicit drugs, that is, heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine, were more likely to be present in homicides, whereas antidepressants or antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, and zolpidem were more common in suicides.

  18. Evaluation of tumor-derived MRI-texture features for discrimination of molecular subtypes and prediction of 12-month survival status in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dalu; Rao, Ganesh; Martinez, Juan; Veeraraghavan, Ashok; Rao, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain cancer. Four molecular subtypes of GBM have been described but can only be determined by an invasive brain biopsy. The goal of this study is to evaluate the utility of texture features extracted from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans as a potential noninvasive method to characterize molecular subtypes of GBM and to predict 12-month overall survival status for GBM patients. Methods: The authors manually segmented the tumor regions from postcontrast T1 weighted and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI scans of 82 patients with de novo GBM. For each patient, the authors extracted five sets of computer-extracted texture features, namely, 48 segmentation-based fractal texture analysis (SFTA) features, 576 histogram of oriented gradients (HOGs) features, 44 run-length matrix (RLM) features, 256 local binary patterns features, and 52 Haralick features, from the tumor slice corresponding to the maximum tumor area in axial, sagittal, and coronal planes, respectively. The authors used an ensemble classifier called random forest on each feature family to predict GBM molecular subtypes and 12-month survival status (a dichotomized version of overall survival at the 12-month time point indicating if the patient was alive or not at 12 months). The performance of the prediction was quantified and compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: With the appropriate combination of texture feature set, image plane (axial, coronal, or sagittal), and MRI sequence, the area under ROC curve values for predicting different molecular subtypes and 12-month survival status are 0.72 for classical (with Haralick features on T1 postcontrast axial scan), 0.70 for mesenchymal (with HOG features on T2 FLAIR axial scan), 0.75 for neural (with RLM features on T2 FLAIR axial scan), 0.82 for proneural (with SFTA features on T1 postcontrast coronal scan), and 0.69 for 12

  19. Current status of pediatric renal transplant pathology.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jan U

    2017-03-01

    Histopathology is still an indispensable tool for the diagnosis of kidney transplant dysfunction in adult and pediatric patients. This review presents consolidated knowledge, recent developments and future prospects on the biopsy procedure, the diagnostic work-up, classification schemes, the histopathology of rejection, including antibody-mediated forms, ABO-incompatible transplants, protocol biopsies, recurrent and de novo disease, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, infectious complications and drug-induced toxicity. It is acknowledged that frequently the correct diagnosis can only be reached in consensus with clinical, serological, immunogenetical, bacteriological and virological findings. This review shall enhance the understanding of the pediatric nephrologist for the thought processes of nephropathologists with the aim to facilitate teamwork between these specialist groups for the benefit of the patient.

  20. Nutritional Status, DNA Damage, and Tumor Pathology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    tetrazolium bromide (MTT), 4.8 mM EDTA, 1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA), 50 µg/ml (U) alcohol dehydrogenase (yeast; 507 U/mg prot), and 1.9 mM phenazine ...NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (porcine heart; 26-29 U/mg prot), and 1.9 mM phenazine ethosulfate. After incubation of assays for NAD or

  1. Nutritional Status DNA Damage and Tumor Pathology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    Periconceptional multivitamin folic acid use, dietary folate , total folate and risk of neural tube defects in South Carolina. Ann. Epidemiol. 13:412-418... folate metabolism and colorectal neoplasia: a HuGE review. Am. J. Epidemiol. 159:423-443 (2004). 9 APPENDIX Central Role of 5,10...cancer (1). Breast cancer is associated with defects in DNA damage surveillance and repair. Polymorphism in genes encoding proteins involved in DNA repair

  2. Satisfaction with care after total hip or knee replacement predicts self-perceived health status after surgery

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Inpatient satisfaction with care is a standard indicator of the quality of care delivered during hospitalization. Total hip and knee replacement (THR/TKR) for osteoarthritis (OA) are among the most successful orthopaedic interventions having a positive impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim was to evaluate the effect of satisfaction shortly after hospital discharge on 1-month, 6-month and 1-year Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form (SF-36) scores for OA patients after THR and TKR, controlling for patient characteristics, clinical presentation and preoperative SF-36 scores. Methods A multicenter prospective cohort study recruited 231 patients with OA scheduled to receive THR or TKR. Satisfaction was assessed by the Patients Judgment of Hospital Quality (PJHQ) questionnaire and HRQoL by the SF-36 questionnaire. Linear models for repeated measures assessed the relation between satisfaction (scores were dichotomized) and postoperative SF-36 scores. Results Of 231 participants, 189 were followed up 12 months after discharge (mean age 69 SD = 8; 42.6% male). The mean length of hospital stay was 13.5 (SD = 4) days. After adjustment for preoperative SF-36 scores, sociodemographic and clinical patient characteristics, satisfied patients (PJHQ score > 70) had higher SF-36 scores 1 year after surgery than did less-satisfied patients. Admission, medical care, and nursing and daily care scores mainly predicted bodily pain, mental health, social functioning, vitality and general health scores of the SF-36. Conclusion Besides being a quality-of-care indicator, immediate postoperative patient satisfaction with care may bring a new insight into clinical practice, as a predictor of self-perceived health status after surgery. PMID:19958520

  3. Career Success: The Role of Teenage Career Aspirations, Ambition Value and Gender in Predicting Adult Social Status and Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Julie S.; Schoon, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Links between family social background, teenage career aspirations, educational performance and adult social status attainment are well documented. Using a contextual developmental framework, this article extends previous research by examining the role of gender and teenage ambition value in shaping social status attainment and earnings in…

  4. ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT in the early prediction of pathological response in aggressive subtypes of breast cancer: review of the literature and recommendations for use in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Groheux, David; Mankoff, David; Espié, Marc; Hindié, Elif

    2016-05-01

    Early assessment of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) might be helpful in avoiding the toxicity of ineffective chemotherapy and allowing refinement of treatment. We conducted a review of the literature regarding the applicability of (18)F-FDG PET/CT to the prediction of an early pathological response in different subgroups of breast cancer. Clinical research in this field has intensified in the last few years. Early studies by various groups have shown the potential of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in the early assessment of response to NAC. However, interim PET/CT in breast cancer has not yet gained wide acceptance compared to its use in other settings such as lymphomas. This is in part due to a lack of consensus that early evaluation of response can be used to direct change in therapy in the neoadjuvant breast cancer setting, and only limited data showing that response-adaptive therapy leads to improved outcomes. However, one major element that has hampered the use of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in directing neoadjuvant therapy is its evaluation in populations with mixed subtypes of breast cancer. However, major improvements have occurred in recent years. Pilot studies have highlighted the need for considering breast cancer subtype and the type of treatment, and have offered criteria for the use of PET/CT for the early prediction of response in specific settings. (18)F-FDG PET/CT has considerable potential for the early prediction of pathological complete response to NAC in aggressive subtypes such as triple-negative or HER2-positive breast cancers. The results of a multicentre trial that used early metabolic response on (18)F-FDG PET/CT as a means to select poor responders to adapt neoadjuvant treatment have recently been published. Other trials are ongoing or being planned.

  5. A Model Predicting Lymph Node Status for Patients with Clinical Stage T1aN0-2M0 Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Ruo-Chuan; Qiu, Bin; Gao, Shu-Geng; He, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lymph node status of patients with early-stage nonsmall cell lung cancer has an influence on the choice of surgery. To assess the lymph node status more correspondingly and accurately, we evaluated the relationship between the preoperative clinical variables and lymph node status and developed one model for predicting lymph node involvement. Methods: We collected clinical and dissected lymph node information of 474 patients with clinical stage T1aN0-2M0 nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Logistic regression analysis of clinical characteristics was used to estimate independent predictors of lymph node metastasis. The prediction model was validated by another group. Results: Eighty-two patients were diagnosed with positive lymph nodes (17.3%), and four independent predictors of lymph node disease were identified: larger consolidation size (odds ratio [OR] = 2.356, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.517–3.658, P < 0.001,), central tumor location (OR = 2.810, 95% CI: 1.545–5.109, P = 0.001), abnormal status of tumor marker (OR = 3.190, 95% CI: 1.797–5.661, P < 0.001), and clinical N1–N2 stage (OR = 6.518, 95% CI: 3.242–11.697, P < 0.001). The model showed good calibration (Hosmer–Lemeshow goodness-of-fit, P < 0.766) with an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.842 (95% [CI]: 0.797–0.886). For the validation group, the AUC was 0.810 (95% CI: 0.731–0.889). Conclusions: The model can assess the lymph node status of patients with clinical stage T1aN0-2M0 NSCLC, enable surgeons perform an individualized prediction preoperatively, and assist the clinical decision-making procedure. PMID:28218211

  6. Glass-Cockpit Pilot Subjective Ratings of Predictive Information, Collocation, and Mission Status Graphics: An Analysis and Summary of the Future Focus of Flight Deck Research Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolone, Anthony; Trujillo, Anna

    2002-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has been researching ways to improve flight crew decision aiding for systems management. Our current investigation is how to display a wide variety of aircraft parameters in ways that will improve the flight crew's situation awareness. To accomplish this, new means are being explored that will monitor the overall health of a flight and report the current status of the aircraft and forecast impending problems to the pilots. The initial step in this research was to conduct a survey addressing how current glass-cockpit commercial pilots would value a prediction of the status of critical aircraft systems. We also addressed how this new type of data ought to be conveyed and utilized. Therefore, two other items associated with predictive information were also included in the survey. The first addressed the need for system status, alerts and procedures, and system controls to be more logically grouped together, or collocated, on the flight deck. The second idea called for the survey respondents opinions on the functionality of mission status graphics; a display methodology that groups a variety of parameters onto a single display that can instantaneously convey a complete overview of both an aircraft's system and mission health.

  7. Preoperative [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Standardized Uptake Value of Neck Lymph Nodes Predicts Neck Cancer Control and Survival Rates in Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Pathologically Positive Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.-T.; Chang, J.T.-C.; Wang, H.-M.; Ng, S.-H.; Hsueh, C.; Lee, L.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.; Chen, I-H.; Huang, S.-F.

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: Survival in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) depends heavily on locoregional control. In this prospective study, we sought to investigate whether preoperative maximum standardized uptake value of the neck lymph nodes (SUVnodal-max) may predict prognosis in OSCC patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes were investigated. All subjects underwent a [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scan within 2 weeks before radical surgery and neck dissection. All patients were followed up for at least 24 months after surgery or until death. Postoperative adjuvant therapy was performed in the presence of pathologic risk factors. Optimal cutoff values of SUVnodal-max were chosen based on 5-year disease-free survival (DFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: The median follow-up for surviving patients was 41 months. The optimal cutoff value for SUVnodal-max was 5.7. Multivariate analyses identified the following independent predictors of poor outcome: SUVnodal-max {>=}5.7 for the 5-year neck cancer control rate, distant metastatic rate, DFS, DSS, and extracapsular spread (ECS) for the 5-year DSS and OS. Among ECS patients, the presence of a SUVnodal-max {>=}5.7 identified patients with the worst prognosis. Conclusion: A SUVnodal-max of 5.7, either alone or in combination with ECS, is an independent prognosticator for 5-year neck cancer control and survival rates in OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes.

  8. Forensic veterinary pathology, today's situation and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ottinger, T; Rasmusson, B; Segerstad, C H A; Merck, M; Goot, F V D; Olsén, L; Gavier-Widén, D

    2014-11-08

    To investigate the current status of forensic veterinary pathology, a survey was composed directed at pathology laboratories and institutes, mostly in Europe. The questions included number of and type of cases, resources available, level of special training of the investigating pathologists and the general view on the current status and future of the discipline. The surveys were sent to 134 laboratories and were returned by 72 respondents of which 93 per cent work on forensic pathology cases. The results indicate scarcity of training opportunities and special education, and insufficient veterinary-specific reference data and information on forensic analyses. More cooperation with human forensic pathology was desired by many respondents, as was more interaction across country borders.

  9. [Periodontal tissue pathology in pubertal children (pupils)].

    PubMed

    Shishniashvili, T E; Tsagareli, Z G; Gogiashvili, L E; Khimshiashvili, N B

    2012-03-01

    The study aimed at investigation of the rate of periodontal pathologies in juvenile adolescents, the analysis of the severity of the disease and detection of the correlation between the periodontal tissue pathology and hormonal status of pre-and pubertal periods. A stomatologic (dental) status of 618 pupils, 9-15 of ages in Tbilisi General Education Schools has been studied--to detect the rate and intensity of periodontal pathologies and analyze the influence of hormonal changes of juvenile periodontal tissues. According to the obtained results we can conclude that the high rate of periodontal diseases has been fixed in pre-pubertal and pubertal schoolchildren (pupils). It should be emphasized that the degree of periodontal tissue pathologies increases with age. In addition, the mentioned pathology was more frequently fixed and expressed in girls, 12-13 of ages and in boys, 14-15 of ages. Juvenile periodontal pathologies most frequently is generalized, which most frequently is aggravated with the existence of jaw-dental anomalies and the poor oral hygiene status.

  10. Upregulation of Talin-1 expression associates with advanced pathological features and predicts lymph node metastases and biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ning; Chen, Hui-Jun; Chen, Shao-Hao; Xue, Xue-Yi; Chen, Hong; Zheng, Qing-Shui; Wei, Yong; Li, Xiao-Dong; Huang, Jin-Bei; Cai, Hai; Sun, Xiong-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Talin-1 functions to regulate cell–cell adhesion, and its altered expression was reported to be associated with human carcinogenesis. A total of 280 tissue specimens from prostate cancer (PCa) patients who underwent radical prostatectomy, 75 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissue, and 6 cases of normal prostate tissue specimens were collected for construction of tissue microarray and subsequently subjected to immunohistochemical staining of Talin-1 expression. Talin-1 expression was significantly higher in PCa than both normal and BPH tissues (P <0.001). Talin-1 expression in PCa tissues was associated with preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, Gleason score, tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, positive surgical margin, extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion (all P <0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that Talin-1 and Gleason score were independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis of PCa (P <0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve indicated that Talin-1 expression (AUC = 0.766) had a better accuracy to predict PCa lymph node metastasis than Gleason score (AUC = 0.697), whereas their combination could further enhance the prediction accuracy (AUC = 0.803). Kaplan–Meier curve analysis showed that increased Talin-1 expression was associated with shortened biochemical-free survival of PCa patients after radical prostatectomy (P <0.001). These findings suggested that Talin-1 protein was significantly upregulated in PCa tissues compared with that of BPH tissue and Talin-1 expression was an independent predictor for lymph node metastasis and biochemical recurrence of PCa. Further study will investigate the underlying molecular mechanism and the role of Talin-1 in PCa. PMID:27442684

  11. Biopsy proportion of tumour predicts pathological tumour response and benefit from chemotherapy in resectable oesophageal carcinoma: results from the UK MRC OE02 trial

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Matthew D.; Nankivell, Matthew; Hutchins, Gordon G.; Stenning, Sally P.; Langley, Ruth E.; Mueller, Wolfram; West, Nicholas P.; Wright, Alexander I.; Treanor, Darren; Hewitt, Lindsay C.; Allum, William H.; Cunningham, David; Hayden, Jeremy D.; Grabsch, Heike I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery is the standard of care for UK patients with locally advanced resectable oesophageal carcinoma (OeC). However, not all patients benefit from multimodal treatment and there is a clinical need for biomarkers which can identify chemotherapy responders. This study investigated whether the proportion of tumour cells per tumour area (PoT) measured in the pre-treatment biopsy predicts chemotherapy benefit for OeC patients. Patients and methods PoT was quantified using digitized haematoxylin/eosin stained pre-treatment biopsy slides from 281 OeC patients from the UK MRC OE02 trial (141 treated by surgery alone (S); 140 treated by 5-fluorouracil/cisplatin followed by surgery (CS)). The relationship between PoT and clinicopathological data including tumour regression grade (TRG), overall survival and treatment interaction was investigated. Results PoT was associated with chemotherapy benefit in a non-linear fashion (test for interaction, P=0.006). Only patients with a biopsy PoT between 40% and 70% received a significant survival benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy (N=129; HR (95%CI):1.94 (1.39-2.71), unlike those with lower or higher PoT (PoT<40%, N=39, HR:1.25 (0.66-2.35); PoT>70% (N=28, HR:0.65 (0.36-1.18)). High pre-treatment PoT was related to lack of primary tumour regression (TRG 4 or 5), P=0.0402. Conclusions This is the first study to identify in a representative subgroup of OeC patients from a large randomized phase III trial that the proportion of tumour in the pre-chemotherapy biopsy predicts benefit from chemotherapy and may be a clinically useful biomarker for patient treatment stratification. PMID:27769054

  12. Predicting acceptance and popularity in early adolescence as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry E T; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special education. Acceptance varied as a function of hearing status by gender; popularity varied as a function of hearing status and educational setting. Deaf boys in mainstream education were less accepted and popular than their hearing classmates and than deaf peers in special education. Deaf girls in mainstream education were also less popular but not less accepted. Communicative skills varied as a function of hearing status, whereas social behavior varied as a function of educational setting. Deaf mainstreamed children showed less developed pragmatic and strategic communicative skills (monitoring, improvisation, initiating/maintaining) than their hearing classmates, but more social adjustment than deaf peers in special education (more prosocial behavior, less antisocial or withdrawn behavior, and more agreeableness). For acceptance, deaf girls in mainstream education compensated the lack of improvisation with higher levels of prosocial behavior, agreeableness, monitoring, and pragmatic skills, and lower levels of antisocial behavior than deaf boys. Monitoring and pragmatic skills negatively affected a deaf mainstream boy's acceptance. In special education, gender differences in prosocial behavior explained deaf boys' lower acceptance. Popularity was explained by pragmatic skills and improvisation as a function of hearing status. Voter population difference and different social behavior norms are considered as an explanation for popularity differences as a function of educational setting.

  13. Fecal occult blood testing for the prediction of small-bowel pathology detected by capsule endoscopy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yung, Diana E.; Vijayan, Sanju; Avni, Tomer; Douglas, Sarah; Kopylov, Uri; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios

    2017-01-01

    Background Fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) has been suggested as a potential screening tool for small-bowel capsule endoscopy (CE). We conducted a meta-analysis of studies correlating FOBT and CE findings to examine the predictive value of positive FOBT for CE findings. Methods PubMed and Embase search. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) were calculated. Results Six studies were identified. Four used fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), one used FIT and guaiac FOBT, one used hemoglobin/haptoglobin complex testing (Hb/Hpt). Five of the 6 studies were suitable for statistical analysis. For all positive FOBT, sensitivity for small-bowel findings was 0.60 (95%CI 0.50-0.69), specificity was 0.72 (95%CI 0.52-0.86), and DOR was 3.96 (95%CI 1.50-10.4). For the 4 studies using only FIT, sensitivity was 0.48 (95%CI 0.36-0.61), specificity was 0.60 (95%CI 0.42-0.76), and DOR was 1.41 (95%CI 0.72-2.75). Conclusions Although a number of modalities have been suggested for screening small-bowel CE referrals, none of them, including FOBT, offer a comprehensive solution. Further work is required to refine screening methods for small-bowel CE referrals. PMID:28243039

  14. Does Child Maltreatment Predict Adult Crime? Reexamining the Question in a Prospective Study of Gender Differences, Education, and Marital Status

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyunzee; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Klika, J. Bart; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Brown, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    Bivariate analyses of adult crime and child maltreatment showed that individuals who had been maltreated as children, according to child welfare reports, subsequently committed more crime than others who had not been maltreated. Analyses of crimes by category—property, person, and society—provided further evidence of a link between child maltreatment and crime at the bivariate level. Tests of gender differences showed that crime generally is more prevalent among males, although females with a history of maltreatment were more likely than those in a no-maltreatment (comparison) group to report having had some prior involvement in crime. Surprisingly, multivariate analyses controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, gender, minority racial status, marital status, and education level showed that, with one exception (crimes against society), the significant association between child maltreatment and crime observed in bivariate tests was not maintained. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:25287414

  15. Does Child Maltreatment Predict Adult Crime? Reexamining the Question in a Prospective Study of Gender Differences, Education, and Marital Status.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyunzee; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Klika, J Bart; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Brown, Eric C

    2015-08-01

    Bivariate analyses of adult crime and child maltreatment showed that individuals who had been maltreated as children, according to child welfare reports, subsequently committed more crime than others who had not been maltreated. Analyses of crimes by category-property, person, and society-provided further evidence of a link between child maltreatment and crime at the bivariate level. Tests of gender differences showed that crime generally is more prevalent among males, although females with a history of maltreatment were more likely than those in a no-maltreatment (comparison) group to report having had some prior involvement in crime. Surprisingly, multivariate analyses controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, gender, minority racial status, marital status, and education level showed that, with one exception (crimes against society), the significant association between child maltreatment and crime observed in bivariate tests was not maintained. Implications for future research are discussed.

  16. Pathological video-game use among youth ages 8 to 18: a national study.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Douglas

    2009-05-01

    Researchers have studied whether some youth are "addicted" to video games, but previous studies have been based on regional convenience samples. Using a national sample, this study gathered information about video-gaming habits and parental involvement in gaming, to determine the percentage of youth who meet clinical-style criteria for pathological gaming. A Harris poll surveyed a randomly selected sample of 1,178 American youth ages 8 to 18. About 8% of video-game players in this sample exhibited pathological patterns of play. Several indicators documented convergent and divergent validity of the results: Pathological gamers spent twice as much time playing as nonpathological gamers and received poorer grades in school; pathological gaming also showed comorbidity with attention problems. Pathological status significantly predicted poorer school performance even after controlling for sex, age, and weekly amount of video-game play. These results confirm that pathological gaming can be measured reliably, that the construct demonstrates validity, and that it is not simply isomorphic with a high amount of play.

  17. Lung Adenocarcinoma: Predictive Value of KRAS Mutation Status in Assessing Local Recurrence in Patients Undergoing Image-guided Ablation.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Etay; Erinjeri, Joseph P; Yarmohammadi, Hooman; Boas, F Edward; Petre, Elena N; Gao, Song; Shady, Waleed; Sofocleous, Constantinos T; Jones, David R; Rudin, Charles M; Solomon, Stephen B

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To establish the relationship between KRAS mutation status and local recurrence after image-guided ablation of lung adenocarcinoma. Materials and Methods This study consisted of a HIPAA-compliant institutional review board-approved retrospective review of 56 primary lung adenocarcinomas in 54 patients (24 men, 30 women; median age, 72 years; range, 54-87 years) treated with percutaneous image-guided ablation and with available genetic mutational analysis. KRAS mutation status and additional clinical and technical variables-Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status, smoking history, stage at diagnosis, status (new primary or not), history of radiation, history of surgery, prior systemic treatment, modality of ablation, size of nodule, ablation margin, and presence of ground-glass appearance-were recorded and evaluated in relation to time to local recurrence, which was calculated from the time of ablation to the first radiographic evidence of recurrence. Predictors of outcome were identified by using a proportional hazards model for both univariate and multivariate analysis, with death as a competing risk. Results Technical success was 100%. Of the 56 ablated tumors, 37 (66%) were wild type for KRAS and 19 (34%) were KRAS mutants. The 1-year and 3-year cumulative incidences of recurrence were 20% and 35% for wild-type KRAS compared with 40% and 63% for KRAS mutant tumors. KRAS mutation status was a significant predictor of local recurrence at both univariate (P = .05; subdistribution hazard ratio [sHR], 2.32) and multivariate (P = .006; sHR, 3.75) analysis. At multivariate analysis, size (P = .026; sHR, 2.54) and ECOG status (P = .012; sHR, 2.23) were also independent significant predictors, whereas minimum margin (P = .066) was not. Conclusion The results of this study show that there is a relationship between KRAS mutation status and local recurrence after image-guided ablation of lung adenocarcinoma. Specifically, KRAS mutation status of the ablated

  18. Importance of Tissue Morphology Relative to Patient Reports of Symptoms and Functional Limitations Resulting From Median Nerve Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Kevin D.; Li, Xiaobai; Sommerich, Carolyn M.; Case-Smith, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Significant data exist for the personal, environmental, and occupational risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome. Few data, however, explain the interrelationship of tissue morphology to these factors among patients with clinical presentation of median nerve pathology. Therefore, our primary objective was to examine the relationship of various risk factors that may be predictive of subjective reports of symptoms or functional deficits accounting for median nerve morphology. Using diagnostic ultrasonography, we observed real-time median nerve morphology among 88 participants with varying reports of symptoms or functional limitations resulting from median nerve pathology. Body mass index, educational level, and nerve morphology were the primary predictive factors. Monitoring median nerve morphology with ultrasonography may provide valuable information for clinicians treating patients with symptoms of median nerve pathology. Sonographic measurements may be a useful clinical tool for improving treatment planning and provision, documenting patient status, or measuring clinical outcomes of prevention and rehabilitation interventions. PMID:23245784

  19. Predicting Acceptance and Popularity in Early Adolescence as a Function of Hearing Status, Gender, and Educational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special education. Acceptance varied as a function of…

  20. Predicting Developmental Status from 12 to 24 Months in Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Preliminary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macari, Suzanne L.; Campbell, Daniel; Gengoux, Grace W.; Saulnier, Celine A.; Klin, Ami J.; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    The study examined whether performance profiles on individual items of the Toddler Module of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule at 12 months are associated with developmental status at 24 months in infants at high and low risk for developing Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). A nonparametric decision-tree learning algorithm identified sets of…

  1. Social Support and Socioeconomic Status Predict Secondary Students' Grades and Educational Plans Indifferently across Immigrant Group and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulriksen, Robin; Sagatun, Åse; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Waaktaar, Trine; Lervåg, Arne Ola

    2015-01-01

    Social support and socioeconomic status (SES) have received considerable attention in explaining academic achievement and the achievement gap between students with ethic majority and immigrant background, and between boys and girls. Using a Structural Equation Modeling approach we examine (1) if there exist a gap in school achievements between…

  2. Predictiveness of Identity Status, Main Internet Use Purposes and Gender on University Students' the Problematic Internet Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceyhan, Esra

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at revealing the relationships between the problematic Internet use of university students and their identity status, main Internet use purposes, and gender. A total of 464 university students participated in the study, and the research data were collected through the Problematic Internet Use Scale, the Extended Objective Measure…

  3. Latino Maternal Literacy Beliefs and Practices Mediating Socioeconomic Status and Maternal Education Effects in Predicting Child Receptive Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Acosta, Sandra; Davis, Heather; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn; Saenz, Laura; Soares, Denise; Resendez, Nora; Zhu, Leina

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated the association between Mexican American maternal education and socioeconomic status (SES) and child vocabulary as mediated by parental reading beliefs, home literacy environment (HLE), and parent-child shared reading frequency. As part of a larger study, maternal reports of education level, SES, HLE, and…

  4. [Once again: theoretical pathology].

    PubMed

    Bleyl, U

    2010-07-01

    Theoretical pathology refers to the attempt to reintroduce methodical approaches from the humanities, philosophical logic and "gestalt philosophy" into medical research and pathology. Diseases, in particular disease entities and more complex polypathogenetic mechanisms of disease, have a "gestalt quality" due to the significance of their pathophysiologic coherence: they have a "gestalt". The Research group Theoretical Pathology at the Academy of Science in Heidelberg are credited with having revitalized the philosophical notion of "gestalt" for morphological and pathological diagnostics. Gestalt means interrelated schemes of pathophysiological significance in the mind of the diagnostician. In pathology, additive and associative diagnostic are simply not possible without considering the notion of synthetic entities in Kant's logic.

  5. Predicted vitamin D status during pregnancy in relation to offspring forearm fractures in childhood: a study from the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Sesilje B; Strøm, Marin; Maslova, Ekaterina; Granström, Charlotta; Vestergaard, Peter; Mølgaard, Christian; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2015-12-14

    In a prospective cohort study, the association between maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures during childhood and adolescence was analysed in 30 132 mother and child pairs recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. Data on characteristics, dietary factors and lifestyle factors were collected on several occasions during pregnancy. We analysed the association between predicted vitamin D status, based on a subsample with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) biomarker measurements (n 1497) from gestation week 25, and first-time forearm fractures among offspring between birth and end of follow-up. Diagnoses were extracted from the Danish National Patient Register. Multivariable Cox regression models using age as the underlying time scale indicated no overall association between predicted vitamin D status (based on smoking, season, dietary and supplementary vitamin D intake, tanning bed use and outdoor physical activity) in pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. Likewise, measured 25(OH)D, tanning bed use and dietary vitamin D intake were not associated with offspring forearm fractures. In mid-pregnancy, 91 % of the women reported intake of vitamin D from dietary supplements. Offspring of women who took >10 µg/d in mid-pregnancy had a significantly increased risk for fractures compared with the reference level of zero intake (hazard ratios (HR) 1·31; 95% CI 1·06, 1·62), but this was solely among girls (HR 1·48; 95% CI 1·10, 2·00). Supplement use in the peri-conceptional period exhibited similar pattern, although not statistically significant. In conclusion, our data indicated no protective effect of maternal vitamin D status with respect to offspring forearm fractures.

  6. A low bioimpedance phase angle predicts a higher mortality and lower nutritional status in chronic dialysis patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumler Md, Francis

    2010-04-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis is an established technique for body composition analysis. The phase angle parameter, an index of body cell mass, tissue hydration, and membrane integrity, makes it suitable for assessing nutritional status and survivability. We evaluated the significance of a low phase angle value on nutritional status and mortality in 285 chronic dialysis patients during a longitudinal prospective observational study. Patients in the lower phase angle tertile had decreased body weight, body mass index, fat free mass, body cell mass, and lower serum albumin concentrations than those in the higher tertile (P<001). In addition, mortality rates were significantly lower (P=0.05) in the highest tertile patients. In conclusion, the phase angle is a useful method for identifying dialysis patients at high risk for malnutrition and increased mortality.

  7. How well does spirituality predict health status in adults living with HIV-Disease: A Neuman systems model study.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Rachel K

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between spirituality and health status of 39 adult men and women living with HIV-disease. A model building approach was used to explore the associations among the five variables of the Neuman systems model, which was the guiding framework for the study. The model presented includes existential well-being, meaningfulness, age, and income.

  8. MicroRNA signatures predict dysregulated vitamin D receptor and calcium pathways status in limb girdle muscle dystrophies (LGMD) 2A/2B.

    PubMed

    Aguennouz, M; Lo Giudice, C; Licata, N; Rodolico, C; Musumeci, O; Fanin, M; Migliorato, A; Ragusa, M; Macaione, V; Di Giorgio, R M; Angelini, C; Toscano, A

    2016-08-01

    miRNA expression profile and predicted pathways involved in selected limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD)2A/2B patients were investigated. A total of 187 miRNAs were dysregulated in all patients, with six miRNAs showing opposite regulation in LGMD2A versus LGMD2B patients. Silico analysis evidence: (1) a cluster of the dysregulated miRNAs resulted primarily involved in inflammation and calcium metabolism, and (2) two genes predicted as controlled by calcium-assigned miRNAs (Vitamin D Receptor gene and Guanine Nucleotide Binding protein beta polypeptide 1gene) showed an evident upregulation in LGMD2B patients, in accordance with miRNA levels. Our data support alterations in calcium pathway status in LGMD 2A/B, suggesting myofibre calcium imbalance as a potential therapeutic target. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Discriminative and predictive properties of disease-specific and generic health status indexes in elderly COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Conte, Maria E; Pedone, Claudio; Forastiere, Francesco; Bellia, Vincenzo; Antonelli-Incalzi, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    Background The association between bronchial obstruction severity and mortality in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is well established, but it is unknown whether disease-specific health status measures and multidimensional assessment (MDA) have comparable prognostic value. Methods We analyzed data coming from the Salute Respiratoria nell'Anziano (Respiratory Health in the Elderly – SaRA) study, enrolling elderly people attending outpatient clinics for respiratory and non-respiratory problems. From this population we selected 449 patients with bronchial obstruction (77.3% men, mean age 73.1). We classified patients' health status using tertiles of the Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and a MDA including functional (the 6' walking test, WT), cognitive (Mini-Mental State Examination, MMSE) and affective status (Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS). The agreement of the classification methods was calculated using the kappa statistic, and survival associated with group membership was evaluated using survival analysis. Results Pulmonary function, expressed by the FEV1, worsened with increasing SGRQ or MDA scores. Cognitive function was not associated with the SGRQ, while physical performance and mood status were impaired only in the highest tertile of SGRQ. A poor agreement was found between the two classification systems tested (k = 0.194). Compared to people in the first tertile of SGRQ score, those in the second tertile had a sex-adjusted HR of 1.22 (0.75 – 1.98) and those in the third tertile of 2.90 (1.92 – 4.40). The corresponding figures of the MDA were 1.49 (95% CI 1.02 – 2.18) and 2.01 (95% CI: 1.31 – 3.08). After adjustment for severity of obstruction, only a SGRQ in the upper tertile was associated with mortality (HR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.14 – 3.02). Conclusion In elderly outpatients with mild-moderate COPD, a disease-specific health status index seems to be a better predictor of death compared to a MDA. PMID:18700955

  10. Sprint kayaking and canoeing performance prediction based on the relationship between maturity status, anthropometry and physical fitness in young elite paddlers.

    PubMed

    López-Plaza, Daniel; Alacid, Fernando; Muyor, José María; López-Miñarro, Pedro Ángel

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to identify the maturity-related differences and its influence on the physical fitness, morphological and performance characteristics of young elite paddlers. In total, 89 kayakers and 82 canoeists, aged 13.69 ± 0.57 years (mean ± s), were allocated in three groups depending on their age relative to the age at peak height velocity (pre-APHV, circum-APHV and post-APHV) and discipline (kayak and canoe). Nine anthropometric variables, a battery of four physical fitness tests (overhead medicine ball throw, countermovement jump, sit-and-reach test and 20 m multistage shuttle run test) and three specific performance tests (1000, 500 and 200 m) were assessed. Both disciplines presented significant maturity-based differences in all anthropometric parameters (except for fat and muscle mass percentage), overhead medicine ball throw and all performance times (pre > circum > post; P < 0.05). Negative and significant correlations (P < 0.01) were detected between performance times, chronological age and anthropometry (body mass, height, sitting height and maturity status), overhead medicine ball throw and sit and reach for all distances. These findings confirm the importance of maturity status in sprint kayaking and canoeing since the more mature paddlers were also those who revealed largest body size, physical fitness level and best paddling performance. Additionally, the most important variables predicting performance times in kayaking and canoeing were maturity status and chronological age, respectively.

  11. Using “Big Data” to Capture Overall Health Status: Properties and Predictive Value of a Claims-Based Health Risk Score

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Rita; Modrek, Sepideh; Kubo, Jessica; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; Cullen, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Investigators across many fields often struggle with how best to capture an individual’s overall health status, with options including both subjective and objective measures. With the increasing availability of “big data,” researchers can now take advantage of novel metrics of health status. These predictive algorithms were initially developed to forecast and manage expenditures, yet they represent an underutilized tool that could contribute significantly to health research. In this paper, we describe the properties and possible applications of one such “health risk score,” the DxCG Intelligence tool. Methods We link claims and administrative datasets on a cohort of U.S. workers during the period 1996–2011 (N = 14,161). We examine the risk score’s association with incident diagnoses of five disease conditions, and we link employee data with the National Death Index to characterize its relationship with mortality. We review prior studies documenting the risk score’s association with other health and non-health outcomes, including healthcare utilization, early retirement, and occupational injury. Results and Conclusions We find that the risk score is associated with outcomes across a variety of health and non-health domains. These examples demonstrate the broad applicability of this tool in multiple fields of research and illustrate its utility as a measure of overall health status for epidemiologists and other health researchers. PMID:25951622

  12. Genetic parameters of dairy cow energy intake and body energy status predicted using mid-infrared spectrometry of milk.

    PubMed

    McParland, S; Kennedy, E; Lewis, E; Moore, S G; McCarthy, B; O'Donovan, M; Berry, D P

    2015-02-01

    Energy balance (EB) and energy intake (EI) are heritable traits of economic importance. Despite this, neither trait is explicitly included in national dairy cow breeding goals due to a lack of routinely available data from which to compute reliable breeding values. Mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry, which is performed during routine milk recording, is an accurate predictor of both EB and EI. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of EB and EI predicted using MIR spectrometry. Measured EI and EB were available for 1,102 Irish Holstein-Friesian cows based on actual feed intake and energy sink data. A subset of these data (1,270 test-day records) was used to develop equations to predict EI, EB, and daily change in body condition score (ΔBCS) and body weight (ΔBW) using the MIR spectrum with or without milk yield also as a predictor variable. Accuracy of cross-validation of the prediction equations was 0.75, 0.73, 0.77, and 0.70 for EI, EB, ΔBCS, and ΔBW, respectively. Prediction equations were applied to additional spectral data, yielding up to 94,653 records of MIR-predicted EI, EB, ΔBCS, and ΔBW available for variance component estimation. Variance components were estimated using repeatability animal linear mixed models. Heritabilities of MIR-predicted EI, EB, ΔBCS, and ΔBW were 0.20, 0.10, 0.07, and 0.06, respectively; heritability estimates of the respective measured traits were 0.35, 0.16, 0.07, and 0.08, respectively. The genetic correlation between measured and MIR-predicted EI was 0.84 and between measured and MIR-predicted EB was 0.54, indicating that selection based on MIR-predicted EI or EB would improve true EI or EB. Genetic and phenotypic associations between EI and both the milk production and body-change traits were generally in agreement, regardless of whether measured EI or MIR-predicted EI was considered. Higher-yielding animals of higher body weight had greater EI. Predicted EB was negatively genetically correlated

  13. IDH mutation status is associated with a distinct hypoxia/angiogenesis transcriptome signature which is non-invasively predictable with rCBV imaging in human glioma.

    PubMed

    Kickingereder, Philipp; Sahm, Felix; Radbruch, Alexander; Wick, Wolfgang; Heiland, Sabine; Deimling, Andreas von; Bendszus, Martin; Wiestler, Benedikt

    2015-11-05

    The recent identification of IDH mutations in gliomas and several other cancers suggests that this pathway is involved in oncogenesis; however effector functions are complex and yet incompletely understood. To study the regulatory effects of IDH on hypoxia-inducible-factor 1-alpha (HIF1A), a driving force in hypoxia-initiated angiogenesis, we analyzed mRNA expression profiles of 288 glioma patients and show decreased expression of HIF1A targets on a single-gene and pathway level, strong inhibition of upstream regulators such as HIF1A and downstream biological functions such as angio- and vasculogenesis in IDH mutant tumors. Genotype/imaging phenotype correlation analysis with relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) MRI - a robust and non-invasive estimate of tumor angiogenesis - in 73 treatment-naive patients with low-grade and anaplastic gliomas showed that a one-unit increase in rCBV corresponded to a two-third decrease in the odds for an IDH mutation and correctly predicted IDH mutation status in 88% of patients. Together, these findings (1) show that IDH mutation status is associated with a distinct angiogenesis transcriptome signature which is non-invasively predictable with rCBV imaging and (2) highlight the potential future of radiogenomics (i.e. the correlation between cancer imaging and genomic features) towards a more accurate diagnostic workup of brain tumors.

  14. Pathogen threat assessment is predictive plant pathology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The American Society of Plant Pathologists has maintained a formal effort to prioritize threatening and emerging crop pathogens for over 70 years, and the APS Emerging Pathogens and Diseases Committee is continuing the process. In order to accomplish prioritization in a rigorous fashion, criteria mu...

  15. A combination of TERT promoter mutation and MGMT methylation status predicts clinically relevant subgroups of newly diagnosed glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Arita, Hideyuki; Yamasaki, Kai; Matsushita, Yuko; Nakamura, Taishi; Shimokawa, Asanao; Takami, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Shota; Mukasa, Akitake; Shirahata, Mitsuaki; Shimizu, Saki; Suzuki, Kaori; Saito, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Keiichi; Higuchi, Fumi; Uzuka, Takeo; Otani, Ryohei; Tamura, Kaoru; Sumita, Kazutaka; Ohno, Makoto; Miyakita, Yasuji; Kagawa, Naoki; Hashimoto, Naoya; Hatae, Ryusuke; Yoshimoto, Koji; Shinojima, Naoki; Nakamura, Hideo; Kanemura, Yonehiro; Okita, Yoshiko; Kinoshita, Manabu; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Shofuda, Tomoko; Kodama, Yoshinori; Mori, Kanji; Tomogane, Yusuke; Fukai, Junya; Fujita, Koji; Terakawa, Yuzo; Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro; Moriuchi, Shusuke; Nonaka, Masahiro; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Shibuya, Makoto; Maehara, Taketoshi; Saito, Nobuhito; Nagane, Motoo; Kawahara, Nobutaka; Ueki, Keisuke; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Miyaoka, Etsuo; Nishikawa, Ryo; Komori, Takashi; Narita, Yoshitaka; Ichimura, Koichi

    2016-08-08

    The prognostic impact of TERT mutations has been controversial in IDH-wild tumors, particularly in glioblastomas (GBM). The controversy may be attributable to presence of potential confounding factors such as MGMT methylation status or patients' treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of TERT status on patient outcome in association with various factors in a large series of adult diffuse gliomas. We analyzed a total of 951 adult diffuse gliomas from two cohorts (Cohort 1, n = 758; Cohort 2, n = 193) for IDH1/2, 1p/19q, and TERT promoter status. The combined IDH/TERT classification divided Cohort 1 into four molecular groups with distinct outcomes. The overall survival (OS) was the shortest in IDH wild-type/TERT mutated groups, which mostly consisted of GBMs (P < 0.0001). To investigate the association between TERT mutations and MGMT methylation on survival of patients with GBM, samples from a combined cohort of 453 IDH-wild-type GBM cases treated with radiation and temozolomide were analyzed. A multivariate Cox regression model revealed that the interaction between TERT and MGMT was significant for OS (P = 0.0064). Compared with TERT mutant-MGMT unmethylated GBMs, the hazard ratio (HR) for OS incorporating the interaction was the lowest in the TERT mutant-MGMT methylated GBM (HR, 0.266), followed by the TERT wild-type-MGMT methylated (HR, 0.317) and the TERT wild-type-MGMT unmethylated GBMs (HR, 0.542). Thus, patients with TERT mutant-MGMT unmethylated GBM have the poorest prognosis. Our findings suggest that a combination of IDH, TERT, and MGMT refines the classification of grade II-IV diffuse gliomas.

  16. Digital imaging in pathology.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung; Pantanowitz, Liron; Parwani, Anil Vasdev

    2012-12-01

    Advances in computing speed and power have made a pure digital work flow for pathology. New technologies such as whole slide imaging (WSI), multispectral image analysis, and algorithmic image searching seem poised to fundamentally change the way in which pathology is practiced. This article provides the practicing pathologist with a primer on digital imaging. Building on this primer, the current state of the art concerning digital imaging in pathology is described. Emphasis is placed on WSI and its ramifications, showing how it is useful in both anatomic (histology, cytopathology) and clinical (hematopathology) pathology. Future trends are also extrapolated.

  17. Handheld computing in pathology

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-01-01

    Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

  18. Pathology in Greece.

    PubMed

    Sakellariou, S; Patsouris, E

    2015-11-01

    Pathology is the field of medicine that studies diseases. Ancient Greece hosted some of the earliest societies that laid the structural foundations of pathology. Initially, knowledge was based on observations but later on the key elements of pathology were established based on the dissection of animals and the autopsy of human cadavers. Christianized Greece under Ottoman rule (1453-1821) was not conducive to the development of pathology. After liberation, however, a series of events took place that paved the way for the establishment and further development of the specialty. The appointment in 1849 of two Professors of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens for didactical purposes proved to be the most important step in fostering the field of pathology in modern Greece. Presently in Greece there are seven university departments and 74 pathology laboratories in public hospitals, employing 415 specialized pathologists and 90 residents. The First Department of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens University is the oldest (1849) and largest in Greece, encompassing most pathology subspecialties.

  19. Development and Validation of a Vitamin D Status Prediction Model in Danish Pregnant Women: A Study of the Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bjørn Jensen, Camilla; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Vadgård Hansen, Linda; Strøm, Marin; Odgaard Nielsen, Nina; Cohen, Arieh; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D has been hypothesized to reduce risk of pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, and preterm delivery. However, many of these outcomes are rare and require a large sample size to study, representing a challenge for cohorts with a limited number of preserved samples. The aims of this study were to (1) identify predictors of serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) among pregnant women in a subsample (N = 1494) of the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and (2) develop and validate a score predicting 25(OH)D-status in order to explore associations between vitamin D and maternal and offspring health outcomes in the DNBC. In our study sample, 42.3% of the population had deficient levels of vitamin D (<50 nmol/L 25(OH)D) and average levels of 25(OH)D-status were 56.7(s.d. 24.6) nmol/L. A prediction model consisting of intake of vitamin D from diet and supplements, outdoor physical activity, tanning bed use, smoking, and month of blood draw explained 40.1% of the variance in 25(OH)D and mean measured 25(OH)D-level increased linearly by decile of predicted 25(OH)D-score. In total 32.2% of the women were placed in the same quintile by both measured and predicted 25(OH)D-values and 69.9% were placed in the same or adjacent quintile by both methods. Cohen's weighted kappa coefficient (Κ = 0.3) reflected fair agreement between measured 25(OH)D-levels and predicted 25(OH)D-score. These results are comparable to other settings in which vitamin D scores have shown similar associations with disease outcomes as measured 25(OH)D-levels. Our findings suggest that predicted 25(OH)D-scores may be a useful alternative to measured 25(OH)D for examining associations between vitamin D and disease outcomes in the DNBC cohort, but cannot substitute for measured 25(OH)D-levels for estimates of prevalence. PMID:23326380

  20. I Don't Think You Like Me Very Much: Child Minority Status and Disadvantage Predict Relationship Quality With Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Côté-Lussier, Carolyn; Pagani, Linda S.; Blair, Clancy

    2015-01-01

    Even when accounting for past performance, academic achievement can be influenced by teacher expectations, which are lower for disadvantaged and visible ethnic minority children. We use a Quebec (Canada) population-based sample (N = 1,311) to examine whether ethnicity and teacher-perceived signs of disadvantage in kindergarten predict child…

  1. Predicting the At Risk Status of College Students: Males and Students with Disabilities. Final Report Presented to PAREA, Spring 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Shirley; Fichten, Catherine; Havel, Alice

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of why students abandon their studies, or perform less well than expected given their high school grades, and to develop predictive models that can help identify those students most at-risk at the time they enter college. This will allow teachers and those responsible for student…

  2. Location of Food Stores Near Schools Does Not Predict the Weight Status of Maine High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, David E.; Blum, Janet Whatley; Bampton, Matthew; O'Brien, Liam M.; Beaudoin, Christina M.; Polacsek, Michele; O'Rourke, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between stores selling calorie-dense food near schools and student obesity risk, with the hypothesis that high availability predicts increased risk. Methods: Mail surveys determined height, weight, and calorie-dense food consumption for 552 students at 11 Maine high schools. Driving distance from all food…

  3. An empirical model that uses light attenuation and plant nitrogen status to predict within-canopy nitrogen distribution and upscale photosynthesis from leaf to whole canopy

    PubMed Central

    Louarn, Gaëtan; Frak, Ela; Zaka, Serge; Prieto, Jorge; Lebon, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Modelling the spatial and temporal distribution of leaf nitrogen (N) is central to specify photosynthetic parameters and simulate canopy photosynthesis. Leaf photosynthetic parameters depend on both local light availability and whole-plant N status. The interaction between these two levels of integration has generally been modelled by assuming optimal canopy functioning, which is not supported by experiments. During this study, we examined how a set of empirical relationships with measurable parameters could be used instead to predict photosynthesis at the leaf and whole-canopy levels. The distribution of leaf N per unit area (Na) within the canopy was related to leaf light irradiance and to the nitrogen nutrition index (NNI), a whole-plant variable accounting for plant N status. Na was then used to determine the photosynthetic parameters of a leaf gas exchange model. The model was assessed on alfalfa canopies under contrasting N nutrition and with N2-fixing and non-fixing plants. Three experiments were carried out to parameterize the relationships between Na, leaf irradiance, NNI and photosynthetic parameters. An additional independent data set was used for model evaluation. The N distribution model showed that it was able to predict leaf N on the set of leaves tested. The Na at the top of the canopy appeared to be related linearly to the NNI, whereas the coefficient accounting for N allocation remained constant. Photosynthetic parameters were related linearly to Na irrespective of N nutrition and the N acquisition mode. Daily patterns of gas exchange were simulated accurately at the leaf scale. When integrated at the whole-canopy scale, the model predicted that raising N availability above an NNI of 1 did not result in increased net photosynthesis. Overall, the model proposed offered a solution for a dynamic coupling of leaf photosynthesis and canopy N distribution without requiring any optimal functioning hypothesis. PMID:26433705

  4. An empirical model that uses light attenuation and plant nitrogen status to predict within-canopy nitrogen distribution and upscale photosynthesis from leaf to whole canopy.

    PubMed

    Louarn, Gaëtan; Frak, Ela; Zaka, Serge; Prieto, Jorge; Lebon, Eric

    2015-10-03

    Modelling the spatial and temporal distribution of leaf nitrogen (N) is central to specify photosynthetic parameters and simulate canopy photosynthesis. Leaf photosynthetic parameters depend on both local light availability and whole-plant N status. The interaction between these two levels of integration has generally been modelled by assuming optimal canopy functioning, which is not supported by experiments. During this study, we examined how a set of empirical relationships with measurable parameters could be used instead to predict photosynthesis at the leaf and whole-canopy levels. The distribution of leaf N per unit area (Na) within the canopy was related to leaf light irradiance and to the nitrogen nutrition index (NNI), a whole-plant variable accounting for plant N status. Na was then used to determine the photosynthetic parameters of a leaf gas exchange model. The model was assessed on alfalfa canopies under contrasting N nutrition and with N2-fixing and non-fixing plants. Three experiments were carried out to parameterize the relationships between Na, leaf irradiance, NNI and photosynthetic parameters. An additional independent data set was used for model evaluation. The N distribution model showed that it was able to predict leaf N on the set of leaves tested. The Na at the top of the canopy appeared to be related linearly to the NNI, whereas the coefficient accounting for N allocation remained constant. Photosynthetic parameters were related linearly to Na irrespective of N nutrition and the N acquisition mode. Daily patterns of gas exchange were simulated accurately at the leaf scale. When integrated at the whole-canopy scale, the model predicted that raising N availability above an NNI of 1 did not result in increased net photosynthesis. Overall, the model proposed offered a solution for a dynamic coupling of leaf photosynthesis and canopy N distribution without requiring any optimal functioning hypothesis.

  5. PD-L1 Expression and Combined Status of PD-L1/PD-1–Positive Tumor Infiltrating Mononuclear Cell Density Predict Prognosis in Glioblastoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jiheun; Hong, Yongkil; Lee, Youn Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in tumor cells is known to promote immune escape of cancer by interacting with programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) in tumor infiltrating immune cells. Immunotherapy targeting these molecules is emerging as a new strategy for the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM). Understanding the relationship between the PD-L1/PD-1 axis and prognosis in GBM patients may be helpful to predict the effects of immunotherapy. Methods PD-L1 expression and PD-1–positive tumor infiltrating mononuclear cell (PD-1+tumor infiltrating mononuclear cell [TIMC]) density were evaluated using tissue microarray containing 54 GBM cases by immunohistochemical analysis; the associations with patient clinical outcomes were evaluated. Results PD-L1 expression and high PD-1+TIMC density were observed in 31.5% and 50% of GBM cases, respectively. High expression of PD-L1 in tumor cells was an independent and significant predictive factor for worse overall survival (OS; hazard ratio, 4.958; p = .007) but was not a significant factor in disease-free survival (DFS). PD-1+TIMC density was not correlated with OS or DFS. When patients were classified based on PD-1 expression and PD-1+TIMC density, patients with PD-L1+/PD-1+TIMC low status had the shortest OS (13 months, p = .009) and DFS (7 months, p = .053). Conclusions PD-L1 expression in GBM was an independent prognostic factor for poor OS. In addition, combined status of PD-L1 expression and PD-1+TIMC density also predicted patient outcomes, suggesting that the therapeutic role of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis should be considered in the context of GBM immunity. PMID:27989100

  6. Serum HER2 levels are increased in cats with mammary carcinomas and predict tissue HER2 status

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Maria; Ribeiro, Rita; Najmudin, Shabir; Gameiro, Andreia; Rodrigues, Rita; Cardoso, Fátima; Ferreira, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    HER2 is overexpressed in about 30% of feline mammary carcinomas (FMC) and in 15-30% of breast cancers. Women with HER2-positive breast tumors are associated with shorter survival. This study aimed to optimize the detection and quantification of serum HER2 (sHER2) in cats and to evaluate its potential in diagnosing cats with mammary carcinomas (MC) overexpressing HER2. A prospective study was conducted in 60 queens showing MC and 20 healthy animals. Pre-operative serum samples were collected for sHER2 quantification using two immunoassays: ELISA and Dot blot assay. sHER2 levels were compared with tissue HER2 status assessed by immunohistochemistry. Queens with FMC showed significantly higher mean levels of sHER2 by both ELISA and Dot blot assay. A significant difference in the sHER2 levels was also found between cats with HER2-positive MC and those with low-expressing HER2 MC. A significant correlation between sHER2 levels and tumor HER2 status was also found, particularly when ELISA was used (r = 0.58, p < 0.0001). The value of 10 ng/ml was proposed as the optimal cutoff for both immunoassays by ROC analysis. Like in humans, sHER2 levels are increased in cats with MC HER2-positive, strongly suggesting that evaluation of sHER2 levels can be very useful in feline oncology. The results show that ELISA and Dot blot assay can replace the immunohistochemistry technique, due to their efficacy and lower costs for diagnostic purposes and for monitoring the response to anti-HER2 therapies in cats. PMID:26909614

  7. Using the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS) effort index to predict treatment group attendance in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Raeanne C; Davine, Taylor; Harmell, Alexandrea L; Cardenas, Veronica; Palmer, Barton W; Mausbach, Brent T

    2013-02-01

    In a psychosocial treatment study, knowing which participants are likely to put forth adequate effort to maximize their treatment, such as attending group sessions and completing homework assignments, and knowing which participants need additional motivation before engagement in treatment is a crucial component to treatment success. This study examined the ability of the Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) Effort Index (EI), a newly developed measure of suboptimal effort that is embedded within the RBANS, to predict group attendance in a sample of 128 middle-aged and older adults with schizophrenia. This study was the first to evaluate the EI with a schizophrenia sample. While the EI literature recommends a cutoff score of >3 to be considered indicative of poor effort, a cutoff of >4 was identified as the optimal cutoff for this sample. Receiver Operating Characteristics curve analyses were conducted to determine if the EI could predict participants who had high versus low attendance. Results indicated that the EI was successfully able to discriminate between group attendance, and this measure of effort appears to be most valuable as a tool to identify participants who will have high attendance. Of interest, overall cognitive functioning and symptoms of psychopathology were not predictive of group attendance.

  8. Climate change is predicted to alter the current pest status of Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis in the UK.

    PubMed

    Jones, Laura M; Koehler, Ann-Kristin; Trnka, Mirek; Balek, Jan; Challinor, Andrew J; Atkinson, Howard J; Urwin, Peter E

    2017-03-05

    The potato cyst nematodes Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis are economically important plant pathogens causing losses to UK potato harvests estimated at £50m/ year. Implications of climate change on their future pest status have not been fully considered. Here, we report growth of female G. pallida and G. rostochiensis over the range 15 to 25 °C. Females per plant and their fecundity declined progressively with temperatures above 17.5 °C for G. pallida, whilst females per plant were optimal between 17.5 and 22.5 °C for G. rostochiensis. Relative reproductive success with temperature was confirmed on two potato cultivars infected with either species at 15, 22.5 and 25 °C. The reduced reproductive success of G. pallida at 22.5 °C relative to 15 °C was also recorded for a further seven host cultivars studied. The differences in optimal temperatures for reproductive success may relate to known differences in the altitude of their regions of origin in the Andes. Exposure of G. pallida to a diurnal temperature stress for one week during female growth significantly suppressed subsequent growth for one week at 17.5 °C but had no effect on G. rostochiensis. However, after two weeks of recovery female size was not significantly different from that for the control treatment. Future soil temperatures were simulated for medium and high emissions scenarios and combined with nematode growth data to project future implications of climate change for the two species. Increased soil temperatures associated with climate change may reduce the pest status of G. pallida but benefit G. rostochiensis especially in southern UK. We conclude that plant breeders may be able to exploit the thermal limits of G. pallida by developing potato cultivars able to grow under future warm summer conditions. Existing widely deployed resistance to G. rostochiensis is an important characteristic to retain for new potato cultivars. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. The status of cephalometry in the prediction of non-CPAP treatment outcome in obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    PubMed

    Denolf, Petra L; Vanderveken, Olivier M; Marklund, Marie E; Braem, Marc J

    2016-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is the most common sleep disordered breathing disorder (SDB) in adults and is characterized by a recurrent partial or complete collapse of the upper airway during sleep. This can be caused by many factors, sometimes interacting, such as skeletal malformations, soft tissue crowding, respiratory instability and the various effects of aging, obesity and gender that dictate craniofacial and upper airway anatomy. Research has demonstrated that the majority of patients exhibit at least one anatomical component such as retrognathia or a narrow posterior airway space that predisposes to the development of OSAS. Within the predisposing elements for OSAS many seem to point to anatomical characteristics. A standardized and relatively simple radiologic technique to evaluate anatomical craniofacial relationships is cephalometry. This has been used already for a long time in orthodontics, but is now gradually being introduced in OSAS treatment to envisage optimal treatment selection as well as to predict treatment outcomes. The purpose of the present review is to evaluate the contribution of cephalometry in the prediction of outcomes from OSAS treatments that depend on the upper airway morphology in their mechanisms of action such as oral appliances that advance the mandible as well as various surgical methods. In addition, an overview of imaging modalities and methods that currently are being used in cephalometric analysis in OSAS patients is provided. The findings indicate that isolated cephalometric parameters cannot be used to reliably predict treatment outcomes from mandibular advancement devices and surgical methods for OSAS. Extreme or outlying values of cephalometric parameters may rather be used as contra-indicators or 'red flags' instead of predictors.

  10. Role of Quantitative CSF Microscopy to Predict Culture Status and Outcome in HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis in a Brazilian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, José E.; Gerhardt, Juliana; Peixoto de Miranda, Érique J.; Dauar, Rafi F.; Oliveira Filho, Gilberto S.; Penalva de Oliveira, Augusto C.; Boulware, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate clinical, laboratory, and quantitative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cryptococcal cell counts for associations with in-hospital outcomes of HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Design Retrospective study. Methods 98 HIV-infected adult patients with CSF culture-proven cryptococcal meningitis admitted between January 2006 and June 2008 at a referral center in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Results Cryptococcal meningitis was the first AIDS-defining illness in 69% of whom 97% (95/98) had known prior HIV-infection. The median CD4+ T cell count was 39 cells/mcL (IQR: 17–87 cells/mcL). Prior antiretroviral therapy (ART) was reported in 50%. Failure to sterilize the CSF by 7–14 days was associated with baseline fungal burden of ≥10 yeasts/mcL by quantitative CSF microscopy (OR=15.3, 95% CI: 4.1–56.7;P<.001) and positive blood cultures (OR=11.5, 95% CI:1.2–109;P=.034). At 7–14 days, ≥10 yeasts/mcL CSF was associated with positive CSF cultures in 98% vs. 36% when <10 yeasts/mcL CSF (P<.001). In-hospital mortality was 30% and associated with symptoms duration for >14 days, altered mental status (P<.001), CSF WBC counts <5 cells/mcL (P=.027), intracranial hypertension (P=.011), viral loads >50,000 copies/mL (P=.036), ≥10 yeasts/mcL CSF at 7–14 days (P=.038), and intracranial pressure >50 cmH20 at 7–14 days (P=.007). Conclusion Most patients were aware of their HIV-status. Fungal burden of ≥10 yeasts/mcL by quantitative CSF microscopy predicted current CSF culture status and may be useful to customize the induction therapy. High uncontrolled intracranial pressure was associated with mortality. PMID:22578940

  11. [Gunshot wounds: forensic pathology].

    PubMed

    Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

    2012-02-01

    Gunshot wounds are among the most complex traumatic lesions encountered in forensic pathology. At the time of autopsy, careful scrutiny of the wounds is essential for correct interpretation of the lesions. Complementary pathological analysis has many interests: differentiation between entrance and exit wounds, estimation of firing distance, differentiation between vital and post mortem wounds and wounds dating. In case of multiple headshots, neuropathological examination can provide arguments for or against suicide. Sampling of gunshot wounds at autopsy must be systematic. Pathological data should be confronted respectively to autopsy and death scene investigation data and also ballistic studies. Forensic pathologist must be aware of the limits of optic microscopy.

  12. [Pathological gambling: literature revue].

    PubMed

    Filteau, M J; Baruch, P; Vincent, P

    1992-03-01

    This paper summarizes the current literature on pathological gambling. Interest in gambling has been present in every society but treated as an object of sociopolitical or literary interest. It is only from the beginning of this century that psychiatry began to look at pathological gambling, first with Freud and his writing on Dostoïevsky then with other theories like the learning theory, studies on substance dependence, the links with affective syndromes and the psychobiological studies. These studies are presented and discussed. Finally, the authors offer some guidelines for an approach to a pathological gambler.

  13. Patterns of Behaviour, Group Structure and Reproductive Status Predict Levels of Glucocorticoid Metabolites in Zoo-Housed Ring-Tailed Lemurs, Lemur catta.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tessa E; McCusker, Cara M; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Elwood, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    In ring-tailed lemurs, Lemur catta, the factors modulating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity differ between wild and semi-free-ranging populations. Here we assess factors modulating HPA activity in ring-tailed lemurs housed in a third environment: the zoo. First we validate an enzyme immunoassay to quantify levels of glucocorticoid (GC) metabolites in the faeces of L. catta. We determine the nature of the female-female dominance hierarchies within each group by computing David's scores and examining these in relation to faecal GC (fGC). Relationships between female age and fGC are assessed to evaluate potential age-related confounds. The associations between fGC, numbers of males in a group and reproductive status are explored. Finally, we investigate the value of 7 behaviours in predicting levels of fGC. The study revealed stable linear dominance hierarchies in females within each group. The number of males in a social group together with reproductive status, but not age, influenced fGC. The 7 behavioural variables accounted for 68% of the variance in fGC. The amounts of time an animal spent locomoting and in the inside enclosure were both negative predictors of fGC. The study highlights the flexibility and adaptability of the HPA system in ring-tailed lemurs.

  14. A Novel Prognostic Score, Based on Preoperative Nutritional Status, Predicts Outcomes of Patients after Curative Resection for Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuechao; Qiu, Haibo; Liu, Jianjun; Chen, Shangxiang; Xu, Dazhi; Li, Wei; Zhan, Youqing; Li, Yuanfang; Chen, Yingbo; Zhou, Zhiwei; Sun, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to determine whether preoperative nutritional status (PNS) was a valuable predictor of outcome in patients with gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 1320 patients with GC undergoing curative resection. The PNS score was constructed based on four objective and easily measurable criteria: prognostic nutritional index (PNI) score 1, serum albumin <35 g/L, body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m(2), or preoperative weight loss ≥5% of body weight. The PNS score was 2 for patients who met three or four criteria, 1 for those who met one or two criteria, and 0 for those who didn't meet all of these criteria. RESULTS: The overall survival (OS) rates in patients with PNS scores 0, 1, and 2 were 59.1%, 42.4%, and 23.4%, respectively (P < 0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed the PNS was an independent predictor for OS (HR for PNS 1 and PNS 2: 1.497, 95 % CI: 1.230-1.820 and 2.434, 95 % CI: 1.773-3.340, respectively; p < 0.001). Furthermore, 5-year OS ranged from 92% (stage I) to 37% (stage III), while the combination of TNM and PNS stratified 5-year OS from 95% (TNM I, PNS 0) to 19% (TNM III, PNS 3). Of note, the prognostic significance of PNS was still maintained when stratified by TNM stage, age, sex, tumor size, anemia and adjuvant chemotherapy (All P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The PNS, a novel nutritional-based prognostic score, is independently associated with OS in GC. Prospective studies are needed to validate its clinical utility.

  15. Intrathoracic impedance vs daily weight monitoring for predicting worsening heart failure events: results of the Fluid Accumulation Status Trial (FAST).

    PubMed

    Abraham, William T; Compton, Steven; Haas, Garrie; Foreman, Blair; Canby, Robert C; Fishel, Robert; McRae, Scott; Toledo, Gloria B; Sarkar, Shantanu; Hettrick, Douglas A

    2011-01-01

    The relative sensitivity and unexplained detection rate of changes in intrathoracic impedance has not been compared with standard heart failure (HF) monitoring using daily weight changes. The Fluid Accumulation Status Trial (FAST) prospectively followed 156 HF patients with implanted cardioverter-defibrillator or cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator devices modified to record daily changes in intrathoracic impedance in a blinded fashion for 537±312 days. Daily impedance changes were used to calculate a fluid index that could be compared with a prespecified threshold. True positives were defined as adjudicated episodes of worsening HF occurring within 30 days of a fluid index above threshold or an acute weight gain. Unexplained detections were defined as threshold crossings or acute weight gains not associated with worsening HF. Impedance measurements were performed on >99% of follow-up days, compared with only 76% of days for weight measurements. Sixty-five HF events occurred during follow-up (0.32/patient-year). Forty HF events were detected by impedance but not weight, whereas 5 were detected by weight but not impedance. Sensitivity was greater (76% vs 23%; P<.0001) and unexplained detection rate was lower (1.9 vs 4.3/patient-year; P<.0001) for intrathoracic impedance monitoring at the threshold of 60Ω days compared with acute weight increases of 3 lbs in 1 day or 5 lbs in 3 days and also over a wide range of fluid index and weight thresholds. The sensitivity and unexplained detection rate of intrathoracic impedance monitoring was superior to that seen for acute weight changes. Intrathoracic impedance monitoring represents a useful adjunctive clinical tool for managing HF in patients with implanted devices.

  16. A Novel Prognostic Score, Based on Preoperative Nutritional Status, Predicts Outcomes of Patients after Curative Resection for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuechao; Qiu, Haibo; Liu, Jianjun; Chen, Shangxiang; Xu, Dazhi; Li, Wei; Zhan, Youqing; Li, Yuanfang; Chen, Yingbo; Zhou, Zhiwei; Sun, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to determine whether preoperative nutritional status (PNS) was a valuable predictor of outcome in patients with gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 1320 patients with GC undergoing curative resection. The PNS score was constructed based on four objective and easily measurable criteria: prognostic nutritional index (PNI) score 1, serum albumin <35 g/L, body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m2, or preoperative weight loss ≥5% of body weight. The PNS score was 2 for patients who met three or four criteria, 1 for those who met one or two criteria, and 0 for those who didn't meet all of these criteria. RESULTS: The overall survival (OS) rates in patients with PNS scores 0, 1, and 2 were 59.1%, 42.4%, and 23.4%, respectively (P < 0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed the PNS was an independent predictor for OS (HR for PNS 1 and PNS 2: 1.497, 95 % CI: 1.230-1.820 and 2.434, 95 % CI: 1.773-3.340, respectively; p < 0.001). Furthermore, 5-year OS ranged from 92% (stage I) to 37% (stage III), while the combination of TNM and PNS stratified 5-year OS from 95% (TNM I, PNS 0) to 19% (TNM III, PNS 3). Of note, the prognostic significance of PNS was still maintained when stratified by TNM stage, age, sex, tumor size, anemia and adjuvant chemotherapy (All P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The PNS, a novel nutritional-based prognostic score, is independently associated with OS in GC. Prospective studies are needed to validate its clinical utility. PMID:27877232

  17. Renal pathology in reptiles.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Peernel

    2006-01-01

    The class of Reptilia varies widely. Both the gross morphology and microscopic anatomy of the kidneys are specific for each species. In each species of reptile, the physiology of the renal system has adapted to the specific conditions of life, including, among other factors, the type of food, environmental temperature, and the availability of water. The pathology of the kidneys in reptiles has been poorly studied, but in recent years a number of investigators have specifically studied reptilian renal pathology.

  18. Assessing Tumor Oxygenation for Predicting Outcome in Radiation Oncology: A Review of Studies Correlating Tumor Hypoxic Status and Outcome in the Preclinical and Clinical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Colliez, Florence; Gallez, Bernard; Jordan, Bénédicte F.

    2017-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia is recognized as a limiting factor for the efficacy of radiotherapy, because it enhances tumor radioresistance. It is strongly suggested that assessing tumor oxygenation could help to predict the outcome of cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Strategies have also been developed to alleviate tumor hypoxia in order to radiosensitize tumors. In addition, oxygen mapping is critically needed for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), in which the most hypoxic regions require higher radiation doses and the most oxygenated regions require lower radiation doses. However, the assessment of tumor oxygenation is not yet included in day-to-day clinical practice. This is due to the lack of a method for the quantitative and non-invasive mapping of tumor oxygenation. To fully integrate tumor hypoxia parameters into effective improvements of the individually tailored radiation therapy protocols in cancer patients, methods allowing non-invasively repeated, safe, and robust mapping of changes in tissue oxygenation are required. In this review, non-invasive methods dedicated to assessing tumor oxygenation with the ultimate goal of predicting outcome in radiation oncology are presented, including positron emission tomography used with nitroimidazole tracers, magnetic resonance methods using endogenous contrasts (R1 and R2*-based methods), and electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry; the goal is to highlight results of studies establishing correlations between tumor hypoxic status and patients’ outcome in the preclinical and clinical settings. PMID:28180110

  19. Can the response to a platinum-based therapy be predicted by the DNA repair status in non-small cell lung cancer?

    PubMed

    Macerelli, Marianna; Ganzinelli, Monica; Gouedard, Cedric; Broggini, Massimo; Garassino, Marina Chiara; Linardou, Helena; Damia, Giovanna; Wiesmüller, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Preclinical evidence has been accumulating on the impact of the DNA repair status on the sensitivity/resistance to anticancer agents in different tumor types, including lung cancer. The possibility to predict the response to therapy, and specifically to platinum agents, based on tumor specific DNA repair functionality would enable to tailor its use only in those patients with maximum chances to respond, avoiding the burden of toxicity in those ones with lesser chances. We here reviewed the clinical evidence on the prognostic role of DNA repair markers and/or functional assays in predicting the response to a platinum-based chemotherapy in lung cancer patients. Consequently, we focused on those proteins involved in pathways repairing platinum induced DNA inter-strand and intra-strand crosslinks. Most promising clinical trials targeting the nucleotide repair protein ERCC1 in non-small cell lung cancer later on suffered from serious drawbacks. Nevertheless, these results spurred a variety of preclinical studies on a multitude of alternative DNA repair markers. However so far, no one of the analyzed DNA repair markers can be considered a reliable and mature biomarker for selecting patients. We discuss the reasons for such failure which discloses novel strategies for the future.

  20. MET expression and copy number status in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma: prognostic value and potential predictive marker

    PubMed Central

    Macher-Goeppinger, Stephan; Keith, Martina; Endris, Volker; Penzel, Roland; Tagscherer, Katrin E.; Pahernik, Sascha; Hohenfellner, Markus; Gardner, Humphrey; Grüllich, Carsten; Schirmacher, Peter; Roth, Wilfried

    2017-01-01

    Multiple targeted therapy for advanced clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has substantially improved patient outcome, but complete remission is uncommon and many tumors eventually develop resistance. Mechanistic, preclinical, and early clinical data highlight c-Met / hepatocyte growth factor receptor as a promising target for RCC therapeutic agents. We have examined MET expression, frequency of MET gene copy gains and MET gene mutation in a large, hospital-based series of renal cell carcinomas with long-term follow-up information. Out of a total of 572 clear-cell RCC, only 17% were negative for MET expression whereas 32% showed high protein levels. High MET expression and MET copy number gains were associated with an aggressive phenotype and an unfavorable patient outcome. Elevated protein levels in absence of gene amplification were not attributed to mutations, based on results of targeted next-generation sequencing. Our data reveal that clear-cell RCC with MET upregulation show an aggressive behavior and MET copy number increase is evident in a substantial percentage of patients with high-grade carcinomas and metastatic disease. Diagnostic assessment of MET expression and amplification may be of predictive value to guide targeted therapy against MET signaling in patients with clear-cell RCC. PMID:27894094

  1. Evaluation of fall Sun Exposure Score in predicting vitamin D status in young Canadian adults, and the influence of ancestry.

    PubMed

    Sham, Lauren; Yeh, E Ann; Magalhaes, Sandra; Parra, Esteban J; Gozdzik, Agnes; Banwell, Brenda; Hanwell, Heather E

    2015-04-01

    Query of sun-related habits or ancestry could help screen for risk of vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<75nmol/L). We evaluated the association between Sun Exposure Score (calculated from recall of Time Exposed to Sun and Skin Exposed to Sun in the previous week), demographics and anthropometrics (including self-reported ancestry and skin melanin reflectometry), and serum 25(OH)D levels in healthy young Canadian adults in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA; 43°N) during fall. 310 adults (67% female) of European, East Asian, and South Asian ancestries were evaluated. The median (interquartile range) 25(OH)D level was 49.7nmol/L (36.7-70.3) and 80% of participants were vitamin D insufficient. The vast majority of those of East and South Asian ancestry were vitamin D insufficient (91% and 97%, respectively), as were 55% of those of European ancestry. Sun Exposure Score and 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated after accounting for confounders. A multivariable model showed ancestry, recent summer sun exposure, sex, melanin, vitamin D intake, age and year of study significantly predicted 25(OH)D concentration; ancestry was the strongest independent predictor (adjusted R(2)=43%). Although Sun Exposure Score was not a significant predictor of serum 25(OH)D levels, inquiry of ancestry has potential use in screening for vitamin D insufficiency.

  2. Handling and Pathology Reporting of Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Mucosal Resection

    PubMed Central

    Geramizadeh, Bita; Owen, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is a non-invasive alternative to surgery that is now frequently used for resection of early lesions in both upper and lower parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. One of the main advantages of these techniques is providing tissue for histopathological examination. Pathological examination of endoscopically resected specimens of GI tract is a crucial component of these procedures and is useful for prediction of both the risk of metastasis and lymph node involvement. As the first step, it is very important for the pathologist to handle the EMR gross specimen in the correct way: it should be oriented, and then the margins should be labeled and inked accurately before fixation. In the second step, the EMR pathological report should include all the detailed information about the diagnosis, grading, depth of invasion (mucosa only or submucosal involvement), status of the margins, and the presence or absence of lymphovascular invasion. The current literature (PubMed and Google Scholar) was searched for the words "endoscopic mucosal resection" to find all relevant publications about this technique with emphasis on the pathologist responsibilities. PMID:28316760

  3. Early Childhood Developmental Status in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: National, Regional, and Global Prevalence Estimates Using Predictive Modeling

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Danaei, Goodarz; Black, Maureen M.; Sudfeld, Christopher R.; Fawzi, Wafaie; Fink, Günther

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of cognitive and socioemotional skills early in life influences later health and well-being. Existing estimates of unmet developmental potential in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are based on either measures of physical growth or proxy measures such as poverty. In this paper we aim to directly estimate the number of children in LMICs who would be reported by their caregivers to show low cognitive and/or socioemotional development. Methods and Findings The present paper uses Early Childhood Development Index (ECDI) data collected between 2005 and 2015 from 99,222 3- and 4-y-old children living in 35 LMICs as part of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) and Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) programs. First, we estimate the prevalence of low cognitive and/or socioemotional ECDI scores within our MICS/DHS sample. Next, we test a series of ordinary least squares regression models predicting low ECDI scores across our MICS/DHS sample countries based on country-level data from the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Nutrition Impact Model Study. We use cross-validation to select the model with the best predictive validity. We then apply this model to all LMICs to generate country-level estimates of the prevalence of low ECDI scores globally, as well as confidence intervals around these estimates. In the pooled MICS and DHS sample, 14.6% of children had low ECDI scores in the cognitive domain, 26.2% had low socioemotional scores, and 36.8% performed poorly in either or both domains. Country-level prevalence of low cognitive and/or socioemotional scores on the ECDI was best represented by a model using the HDI as a predictor. Applying this model to all LMICs, we estimate that 80.8 million children ages 3 and 4 y (95% CI 48.1 million, 113.6 million) in LMICs experienced low cognitive and/or socioemotional development in 2010, with the largest number of affected children in sub-Saharan Africa (29.4.1 million; 43.8% of children

  4. Primary air pollutant emissions of coal-fired power plants in China: Current status and future prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei; Lei, Yu; Cao, Pengfei; Hao, Jiming

    To explore the atmospheric emissions of coal-fired power sector in China, a unit-based method was developed based on detailed information of unit type, fuel quality, emission control technology, and geographical location. During 2000-2005, the period when power sector developed fastest in the past 20 years, SO 2, NO x and PM emissions of coal-fired power plants increased by 1.5, 1.7 and 1.2 times, respectively. The SO 2, emission of coal-fired power sector was estimated to be 16 097 kt in 2005, and would decrease to 11 801 kt in 2010, attributed mainly to the wide application of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology. The NO x emission, however, would increase from 6965 kt in 2005 to 9680 kt in 2010, since few NO x control measures would be taken during the five years. The TSP, PM 10, and PM 2.5 emissions in 2005 were estimated to be 2774, 1842 and 994 kt, and the values would be 2540, 1824 and 1090 kt in 2010 respectively. The wet FGD would play an important role on dust emission removal. Through faithful implementation of closing small units and emission control policies in the acid rain and sulfur dioxide control zones, approximately 33%, 6% and 25% of SO 2, NO x, and TSP emissions respectively could be further reduced in 2010. Emissions in 2015 and 2020 of coal-fired power plants were predicted applying scenario analysis. For SO 2 and TSP, optimistic situation can be achieved through reasonable control policies; in contrast, NO x would probably be a more serious issue in future.

  5. Individualized Survival and Treatment Response Predictions in Breast Cancer Patients: Involvements of Phospho-EGFR and Phospho-Her2/neu Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lan; Abraham, Jame; Flynn, Daniel C.; Castranova, Vincent; Shi, Xianglin; Qian, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Our robust prediction system for individual breast cancer patients combines three well-known machine-learning classifiers to provide stable and accurate clinical outcome prediction (N=269). The average performance of the selected classifiers is used as the evaluation criterion in breast cancer outcome predictions. A profile (incorporating histology, lymph node status, tumor grade, tumor stage, ER, PR, Her2/neu, patient’s age and smoking status) generated over 95% accuracy in individualized disease-free survival and treatment response predictions. Furthermore, our analysis demonstrated that the measurement of phospho-EGFR and phospho-Her2/neu is more powerful in breast cancer survival prediction than that of total EGFR and total Her2/neu (p < 0.05). The incorporation of hormone receptor status, Her2/neu, patient’s age and smoking status into the traditional pathologic markers creates a powerful standard to perform individualized survival and treatment outcome predictions for breast cancer patients. PMID:25558292

  6. Melanoma sentinel node biopsy and prediction models for relapse and overall survival

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, A; Conway, C; Walker, C; Cook, M; Powell, B; Lobo, S; Chan, M; Kissin, M; Layer, G; Smallwood, J; Ottensmeier, C; Stanley, P; Peach, H; Chong, H; Elliott, F; Iles, M M; Nsengimana, J; Barrett, J H; Bishop, D T; Newton-Bishop, J A

    2010-01-01

    Background: To optimise predictive models for sentinal node biopsy (SNB) positivity, relapse and survival, using clinico-pathological characteristics and osteopontin gene expression in primary melanomas. Methods: A comparison of the clinico-pathological characteristics of SNB positive and negative cases was carried out in 561 melanoma patients. In 199 patients, gene expression in formalin-fixed primary tumours was studied using Illumina's DASL assay. A cross validation approach was used to test prognostic predictive models and receiver operating characteristic curves were produced. Results: Independent predictors of SNB positivity were Breslow thickness, mitotic count and tumour site. Osteopontin expression best predicted SNB positivity (P=2.4 × 10−7), remaining significant in multivariable analysis. Osteopontin expression, combined with thickness, mitotic count and site, gave the best area under the curve (AUC) to predict SNB positivity (72.6%). Independent predictors of relapse-free survival were SNB status, thickness, site, ulceration and vessel invasion, whereas only SNB status and thickness predicted overall survival. Using clinico-pathological features (thickness, mitotic count, ulceration, vessel invasion, site, age and sex) gave a better AUC to predict relapse (71.0%) and survival (70.0%) than SNB status alone (57.0, 55.0%). In patients with gene expression data, the SNB status combined with the clinico-pathological features produced the best prediction of relapse (72.7%) and survival (69.0%), which was not increased further with osteopontin expression (72.7, 68.0%). Conclusion: Use of these models should be tested in other data sets in order to improve predictive and prognostic data for patients. PMID:20859289

  7. Eponyms in forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Nečas, Pavel; Hejna, Petr

    2012-12-01

    The phenomenon of eponymous terms in forensic pathology is described in this paper. The authors analyzed representative textbooks (monographs) dealing with forensic pathology in both English and German and identified several eponymous terms. The paper aims to present to the reader the most important eponymous terms in forensic pathology. Included in the paper are the following terms: Beckwith's Sign, Casper's Rule, Krönlein's Shot, Lichtenberg's Figures, Nysten's Law, Paltauf's Spots, Puppe's Rule, Sehrt's Sign, Simon's Sign, Sveshnikov's Sign, Tardieu's Spots, Wischnewski Spots, Wydler's Sign. The spread of eponymous terms throughout various languages is mentioned. The linguistic basis of such terms as well as their advantages and disadvantages in specialist fields, and indeed in even wider circles, is discussed. The authors state that the main function of these terms is to facilitate the open flow of unambiguous information among scholars. Eponymous terms in forensic pathology are characteristic for the German speaking countries and for all countries influenced by the German school of forensic pathology. Their usage in the Anglo-Saxon world is much less widespread, meaning they do not occur very often in English monographs and textbooks.

  8. Pathology of radiation myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Burns, R. J.; Jones, A. N.; Robertson, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    After nothing the rarity of papers describing the pathology of delayed radiation necrosis of the spinal cord, the clinical and pathological findings from four cases are presented. The main pathological features are asymmetric demyelination of the lateral columns and to a lesser degree the posterior and anterior columns of white matter, with coagulative necrosis at the level of irradiation which affected the grey matter to a lesser degree. There is ascending and descending secondary tract degeneration, and poor glial response in the lesions themselves. Vascular changes, mainly hyalilne thickening of arteriolar walls, are present, but not in degree sufficient to explain the primary lesion. The discussion of the pathogenesis of the myelopathy weighs the merits of a primary vascular lesion against those of a primary effect of the radiation on neural tissue. The latter is favoured. Images PMID:4647860

  9. The effects of pathological gaming on aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Jeroen S; Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this purpose, we conducted a two-wave panel study among 851 Dutch adolescents (49% female) of which 540 played games (30% female). Our analyses indicated that higher levels of pathological gaming predicted an increase in time spent playing games 6 months later. Time spent playing violent games specifically, and not just games per se, increased physical aggression. Furthermore, higher levels of pathological gaming, regardless of violent content, predicted an increase in physical aggression among boys. That this effect only applies to boys does not diminish its importance, because adolescent boys are generally the heaviest players of violent games and most susceptible to pathological involvement.

  10. The Effects of Pathological Gaming on Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this purpose, we conducted a two-wave panel study among 851 Dutch adolescents (49% female) of which 540 played games (30% female). Our analyses indicated that higher levels of pathological gaming predicted an increase in time spent playing games 6 months later. Time spent playing violent games specifically, and not just games per se, increased physical aggression. Furthermore, higher levels of pathological gaming, regardless of violent content, predicted an increase in physical aggression among boys. That this effect only applies to boys does not diminish its importance, because adolescent boys are generally the heaviest players of violent games and most susceptible to pathological involvement. PMID:20549320

  11. Toward a consensus definition of pathological video-gaming: a systematic review of psychometric assessment tools.

    PubMed

    King, Daniel L; Haagsma, Maria C; Delfabbro, Paul H; Gradisar, Michael; Griffiths, Mark D

    2013-04-01

    Pathological video-gaming, or its proposed DSM-V classification of "Internet Use Disorder", is of increasing interest to scholars and practitioners in allied health disciplines. This systematic review was designed to evaluate the standards in pathological video-gaming instrumentation, according to Cicchetti (1994) and Groth-Marnat's (2009) criteria and guidelines for sound psychometric assessment. A total of 63 quantitative studies, including eighteen instruments and representing 58,415 participants, were evaluated. Results indicated that reviewed instrumentation may be broadly characterized as inconsistent. Strengths of available measures include: (i) short length and ease of scoring, (ii) excellent internal consistency and convergent validity, and (iii) potentially adequate data for development of standardized norms for adolescent populations. However, key limitations included: (a) inconsistent coverage of core addiction indicators, (b) varying cut-off scores to indicate clinical status, (c) a lack of a temporal dimension, (d) untested or inconsistent dimensionality, and (e) inadequate data on predictive validity and inter-rater reliability. An emerging consensus suggests that pathological video-gaming is commonly defined by (1) withdrawal, (2) loss of control, and (3) conflict. It is concluded that a unified approach to assessment of pathological video-gaming is needed. A synthesis of extant research efforts by meta-analysis may be difficult in the context of several divergent approaches to assessment.

  12. Pathology of extramedullary mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Leona A; Hornick, Jason L

    2014-05-01

    Mastocytosis encompasses a group of clinically and pathologically heterogeneous disorders most commonly involving the skin, which typically takes the form of urticaria pigmentosa. Mastocytosis may also involve other organs, most often bone marrow, followed by gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. The presence of extracutaneous involvement by mastocytosis is a major diagnostic criterion for systemic disease. However, mast cell infiltrates are often subtle in skin and extracutaneous organs, and the histologic features of mastocytosis at different anatomic sites may be variable. This article reviews the pathologic features and clinical correlates of mastocytosis involving skin and other extramedullary sites.

  13. Reinforcement pathology and obesity.

    PubMed

    Carr, Katelyn A; Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Lin, Henry; Epstein, Leonard H

    2011-09-01

    Obesity is, in part, a result of positive energy balance or energy intake exceeding physiological needs. Excess energy intake is determined by a series of food choices over time. These choices involve both motivational and executive function processes. Problems arise when there is excessive motivation to eat and low impulse control, a situation we have termed reinforcement pathology. Motivational and executive function processes have also been implicated in the development of drug dependence and addiction. In this review we discuss the application of reinforcement pathology to obesity, and implications of this approach for obesity treatment.

  14. Image management in pathology.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, D S; Doolittle, M

    1996-04-01

    Much of the diagnostic work in pathology, especially surgical pathology and cytology, involves the interpretation of images. Recent advances in digital imaging technologies and telecommunications will allow pathologists to use image-based information in ways that are not possible using conventional glass slides alone. We are entering an age in which image-based information can be more easily and widely shared, both locally and globally. In this article, some of the digital technologies that can allow pathologists to make more effective use of diagnostic images will be discussed.

  15. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice.

  16. p16(INK4) expression is of prognostic and predictive value in oropharyngeal cancers independent of human papillomavirus status: a Hungarian study.

    PubMed

    Brauswetter, Diana; Birtalan, Ede; Danos, Kornel; Kocsis, Adrienn; Krenacs, Tibor; Timar, Jozsef; Mihalyi, Reka; Horcsik, Dorottya; Polony, Gabor; Tamas, Laszlo; Petak, Istvan

    2017-04-01

    Head and neck cancer treatment protocols still lack well-established biomarkers of prognostic and predictive value. It is well known that human papillomavirus (HPV)-related and non-HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers are distinct entities concerning tumor biology and clinical outcome. However, there is an ongoing debate whether tumor suppressor p16(INK4) status alone or both p16(INK4) and HPV detection should be used in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to investigate p16(INK4)-immunolabelled and HPV-induced rates and determine their clinical significance in 110 primary head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. The expression of p16(INK4) protein was assessed with immunohistochemistry, while high-risk HPV detection was performed using DNA PCR method. P16(INK4) immunolabelling was detected in 17.3% of all tumor samples, and in 38.1% of oropharyngeal malignancies. Oropharyngeal, p16(INK4)-immunolabelled tumors showed an improved disease-specific survival compared to the non-p16(INK4)-immunolabelled group (median survival: 30.3 vs. 8.8 months, p < 0.001 with the log-rank test). Furthermore, 56% of p16(INK4)-immunolabelled cases were tested positive for HPV-DNA. The HPV-induced group presented better disease-specific survival compared to the non-HPV-induced cases (median survival: 25.9 vs. 9.5 months, p = 0.024 with the log-rank test). Improved response rates to neoadjuvant chemotherapy were observed both in p16(INK4)-immunolabelled and p16(INK4)- immunolabelled/HPV DNA- containing groups (Fisher's exact test: p = 0.025 and p = 0.009). In conclusion, p16(INK4) immunohistochemistry proved to be a reliable and affordable tool for prognostic and predictive testing of head and neck squamous cell cancers. The p16(INK4) immunopositivity status alone was confirmed to be an equally precise indicator of clinical outcome as p16(INK4)/HPV DNA PCR double testing.

  17. CD127 Expression, Exhaustion Status and Antigen Specific Proliferation Predict Sustained Virologic Response to IFN in HCV/HIV Co-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kared, Hassen; Saeed, Sahar; Klein, Marina B.; Shoukry, Naglaa H.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the HIV co-infected population. Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) remains a major component of anti-HCV therapy despite its deleterious effects on the immune system. Furthermore, IFN-α was recently shown to diminish the size of the latent HIV reservoir. The objectives of this study were to monitor the impact of IFN-α on T cell phenotype and proliferation of HIV and HCV-specific T cells during IFN therapy, and to identify immune markers that can predict the response to IFN in HICV/HIV co-infected patients. We performed longitudinal analyses of T cell numbers, phenotype and function in co-infected patients undergoing IFN-α therapy with different outcomes including IFN-α non-responders (NR) (n = 9) and patients who achieved sustained virologic response (SVR) (n = 19). We examined the expression of activation (CD38, HLA-DR), functional (CD127) and exhaustion markers (PD1, Tim-3, CD160 and CD244) on total CD4 and CD8 T cells before, during and after therapy. In addition, we examined the HIV- and HCV-specific proliferative responses against HIV-p24 and HCV-NS3 proteins. Frequencies of CD127+ CD4 T cells were higher in SVR than in NR patients at baseline. An increase in CD127 expression on CD8 T cells was observed after IFN-α therapy in all patients. In addition, CD8 T cells from NR patients expressed a higher exhaustion status at baseline. Finally, SVR patients exhibited higher proliferative response against both HIV and HCV antigens at baseline. Altogether, SVR correlated with higher expression of CD127, lower T cell exhaustion status and better HIV and HCV proliferative responses at baseline. Such factors might be used as non-invasive methods to predict the success of IFN–based therapies in co-infected individuals. PMID:25007250

  18. Investigation of a dual modal method for bone pathologies using quantitative ultrasound and photoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Idan; Gannot, Israel; Eyal, Avishay

    2015-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a widespread disease that has a catastrophic impact on patient's lives and overwhelming related healthcare costs. In recent works, we have developed a multi-spectral, frequency domain photoacoustic method for the evaluation of bone pathologies. This method has great advantages over pure ultrasonic or optical methods as it provides both molecular information from the bone absorption spectrum and bone mechanical status from the characteristics of the ultrasound propagation. These characteristics include both the Speed of Sound (SOS) and Broadband Ultrasonic Attenuation (BUA). To test the method's quantitative predictions, we have constructed a combined ultrasound and photoacoustic setup. Here, we experimentally present a dual modality system, and compares between the methods on bone samples in-vitro. The differences between the two modalities are shown to provide valuable insight into the bone structure and functional status.

  19. Pathology of Extranodal Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Heckendorn, Emily; Auerbach, Aaron

    2016-07-01

    An overview of the pathology of extranodal lymphoma is presented. The emphasis of this presentation is on the classification system of extranodal lymphomas, including both B-cell and T-cell lymphomas, based on their morphology, phenotype, and molecular alterations.

  20. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  1. Pathology of hereditary nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, V. V.

    1968-01-01

    This report describes the renal pathology in three siblings with hereditary nephritis. All three cases showed combined features of chronic glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, and interstitial nephritis. Foam cells were seen in only one case. These findings support the contention of Krickstein, Gloor, and Balogh (1966) that the renal changes in hereditary nephritis are those of a mixed nephritis. Images PMID:5717545

  2. A pilot study evaluating shaved cavity margins with micro-computed tomography: a novel method for predicting lumpectomy margin status intraoperatively.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rong; Coopey, Suzanne B; Buckley, Julliette M; Aftreth, Owen P; Fernandez, Leopoldo J; Brachtel, Elena F; Michaelson, James S; Gadd, Michele A; Specht, Michelle C; Koerner, Frederick C; Smith, Barbara L

    2013-01-01

    Microscopically clear lumpectomy margins are essential in breast conservation, as involved margins increase local recurrence. Currently, 18-50% of lumpectomies have close or positive margins that require re-excision. We assessed the ability of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to evaluate lumpectomy shaved cavity margins (SCM) intraoperatively to determine if this technology could rapidly identify margin involvement by tumor and reduce re-excision rates. Twenty-five SCM from six lumpectomies were evaluated with a Skyscan 1173 table top micro-CT scanner (Skyscan, Belgium). Micro-CT results were compared to histopathological results. We scanned three SCM at once with a 7-minute scanning protocol, and studied a total of 25 SCM from six lumpectomies. Images of the SCM were evaluated for radiographic signs of breast cancer including clustered microcalcifications and spiculated masses. SCM were negative by micro-CT in 19/25 (76%) and negative (≥2 mm) by histopathology in 19/25 (76%). Margin status by micro-CT was concordant with histopathology in 23/25 (92%). Micro-CT overestimated margin involvement in 1/25 and underestimated margin involvement in 1/25. Micro-CT had an 83.3% positive predictive value, a 94.7% negative predictive value, 83.3% sensitivity, and 94.7% specificity for evaluation of SCM. Evaluation of SCM by micro-CT is an accurate and promising method of intraoperative margin assessment in breast cancer patients. The scanning time required is short enough to permit real-time feedback to the operating surgeon, allowing immediate directed re-excision.

  3. The expression level of small non-coding RNAs derived from the first exon of protein-coding genes is predictive of cancer status.

    PubMed

    Zovoilis, Athanasios; Mungall, Andrew J; Moore, Richard; Varhol, Richard; Chu, Andy; Wong, Tina; Marra, Marco; Jones, Steven J M

    2014-04-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (smRNAs) are known to be significantly enriched near the transcriptional start sites of genes. However, the functional relevance of these smRNAs remains unclear, and they have not been associated with human disease. Within the cancer genome atlas project (TCGA), we have generated small RNA datasets for many tumor types. In prior cancer studies, these RNAs have been regarded as transcriptional "noise," due to their apparent chaotic distribution. In contrast, we demonstrate their striking potential to distinguish efficiently between cancer and normal tissues and classify patients with cancer to subgroups of distinct survival outcomes. This potential to predict cancer status is restricted to a subset of these smRNAs, which is encoded within the first exon of genes, highly enriched within CpG islands and negatively correlated with DNA methylation levels. Thus, our data show that genome-wide changes in the expression levels of small non-coding RNAs within first exons are associated with cancer.

  4. Pathological Dissociation as Measured by the Child Dissociative Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wherry, Jeffrey N.; Neil, Debra A.; Taylor, Tamara N.

    2009-01-01

    The component structure of the Child Dissociative Checklist was examined among abused children. A factor described as pathological dissociation emerged that was predicted by participants being male. There also were differences in pathological dissociation between groups of sexually abused and physically abused children. Replication of this factor…

  5. Internet-based treatment of pathological gambling with a three-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Carlbring, Per; Degerman, Nicklas; Jonsson, Jakob; Andersson, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Effective therapies for pathological gambling exist, but their use is limited to about 10% of the target population. In an attempt to lower the barriers for help, Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) has been shown to be effective when delivered to a non-depressed sample with pathological gambling. This study sought to extend this finding to a larger, more representative population, and also test a model to predict responder status. Following advertisement, a total of 284 participants started an 8-week ICBT programme with minimal therapist contact via e-mail and weekly telephone calls of less than 15 min. The average time spent on each participant, including telephone conversations, e-mail, and administration, was 4 h. In addition to a mixed effects model to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment, two logistic regression analyses were performed with the following eight pre-defined response predictor variables: work-life satisfaction, primary gambling activity, debts due to gambling, social support, personal yearly salary, alcohol consumption, stage of change, and dissociative gambling. ICBT resulted in statistically significant reductions in the scores of pathological gambling, anxiety, and depression as well as an increase in quality of life compared to pre-treatment levels. Follow-ups carried out in the treatment group at 6, 18, and 36 months indicated that treatment effects were sustained. Using the eight predictor variable model rendered an acceptable predictive ability to identify responders both at post-test (AUC = .72, p < .01) and at 36-month follow-up (AUC = .70, p < .01). We conclude that ICBT for pathological gamblers, even if depressed, can be effective and that outcome can partly be predicted by pre-treatment characteristics.

  6. Evaluation of modified Kumar and Kalra myelopathy scoring system in sub-axial spinal pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Anant; Srivastava, Arun; Sahu, Rabi N.; Kumar, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various pathologies affect the spine, but these lesions present with more or less similar clinical profile. The present functional scoring systems are inadequate and insensitive to changes in neurological status of the patient. Objective: Our study aims to assess the modified Kumar and Kalra (K and K) scoring system in patients with pathologies in the sub-axial spine. Materials and Methods: A total of 78 consecutive patients from the period of January 2009 to June 2010 were prospectively included in the study. These patients were operated by the senior author at our institute. The mean Modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (MJOA) score and the mean modified K and K score were calculated in the preoperative, at the time of discharge (post-surgery), and at 3 months and 6 months follow-up. Results: There were 57 male (73.01%) patients and 21 female patients (26.92%), with the mean age of presentation of 39.20 years (±14.12 years) and a range of 9-75 years. Out of the total 78 patients, 60 patients had pathology in the cervical spine (sub-axial spine) and 18 patients had pathology in the dorsal spine. Majority of the patients had motor and sensory symptoms. The mean preoperative modified K and K score was 17.38 (±3.18) and the mean preoperative MJOA score was 11.21 (±2.12). The K and K score was able to predict the correct outcome in 70 patients (89.74%), whereas the MJOA score was able to predict correctly in 62 patients (79.49%). Conclusion: The modified K and K score has a better predictive value than the MJOA score. PMID:27695541

  7. Preoperative mental health status may not be predictive of improvements in patient-reported outcomes following an anterior cervical discectomy and fusion.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Benjamin C; Massel, Dustin H; Bohl, Daniel D; Narain, Ankur S; Hijji, Fady Y; Long, William W; Modi, Krishna D; Basques, Bryce A; Yacob, Alem; Singh, Kern

    2017-02-01

    achieving a minimum clinically important difference at 6 months did not differ between the bottom and top MCS score halves (p > 0.05 for each). CONCLUSIONS The results of this study suggest that better preoperative mental health status is associated with lower perceived preoperative disability but is not associated with severity of preoperative neck or arm pain. In contrast to other studies, the present study was unable to demonstrate that preoperative mental health is predictive of improvement in patient-reported outcomes at any postoperative time point following an ACDF.

  8. [Czech eponyms in pathology].

    PubMed

    Steiner, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    The 24th European Congress of Pathology taking place in Prague is an opportunity to remind our society of the Czech names appearing as eponyms in pathological terminology: Karel Rokitanský - R. protuberance in dermoid cyst; R. thrombogenic theory of atherosclerosis; Mayer - R. - Küster - Hauser - Winckel syndrome (congenital malformation of the vagina and uterus); Václav Treitz - T. duodenal ligament; T. retroperitoneal hernia; T. uremic colitis; Vilém Dušan Lambl - L. excrescences of heart valves; Lamblia (Giardia) intestinalis, and also the foundation of urological cytology; Stanislav Provázek - Prowazek - Halberstädter bodies (trachoma), Rickettsia Prowazeki (typhus fever); Josef Vaněk - V. tumor (gastric inflammatory fibroid polyp), and also discovery of the etiology of pneumocystic pneumonia; Otto Jírovec - Pneumocystis Jiroveci; Blahoslav Bednář - B. tumor (pigmented dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans).

  9. Pathological α-synuclein Distribution in Subjects with Coincident Alzheimer’s and Lewy Body Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Jon B.; Gopal, Pallavi; Raible, Kevin; Irwin, David J.; Brettschneider, Johannes; Sedor, Samantha; Watts, Kayla; Boluda, Susana; Grossman, Murray; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Lee, Edward B.; Arnold, Steven E.; Duda, John E.; Hurtig, Howard; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Adler, Charles H.; Beach, Thomas G.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the distribution patterns of Lewy body related pathology (LRP) and the effect of coincident Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology using a data-driven clustering approach that identified groups with different LRP pathology distributions without any diagnostic or researcher’s input in two cohorts including: Parkinson disease patients without (PD, n=141) and with AD (PD-AD, n=80), dementia with Lewy bodies subjects without AD (DLB, n=13) and demented subjects with AD and LRP pathology (Dem-AD-LB, n=308). This latter group presented two LRP patterns, olfactory-amygdala and limbic LRP with negligible brainstem pathology, that were absent in the PD groups, are not currently included in the DLB staging system and lacked extracranial LRP as opposed to the PD group. The Dem-AD-LB individuals showed relative preservation of substantia nigra cells and dopamine active transporter in putamen. PD cases with AD pathology showed increased LRP. The cluster with occipital LRP was associated with non-AD type dementia clinical diagnosis in the Dem-AD-LB group and a faster progression to dementia in the PD groups. We found that 1) LRP pathology in Dem-AD-LB shows a distribution that differs from PD, without significant brainstem or extracranial LRP in initial phases, 2) coincident AD pathology is associated with increased LRP in PD indicating an interaction, 3) LRP and coincident AD pathology independently predict progression to dementia in PD, and 4) evaluation of LRP needs to acknowledge different LRP spreading patterns and evaluate substantia nigra integrity in the neuropathological assessment and consider the implications of neuropathological heterogeneity for clinical and biomarker characterization. PMID:26721587

  10. Pathological Characterization of Ovarian Cancer Patients Who Underwent Debulking Surgery in Combination With Diaphragmatic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Takeshi; Oshiro, Hisashi; Sagawa, Yasukazu; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Terauchi, Fumitoshi; Nagao, Toshitaka

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Despite exhaustive efforts to detect early-stage ovarian cancers, greater than two-thirds of patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Although diaphragmatic metastasis is not rare in advanced ovarian cancer patients and often precludes optimal cytoreductive surgery, little is known about the mechanisms and predictive factors of metastasis to the diaphragm. Thus, as an initial step toward investigating such factors, the present study was conducted to characterize the pathological status of ovarian cancer patients who underwent debulking surgery in combination with diaphragmatic surgery. This is a retrospective and cross-sectional study of patients who underwent debulking surgery in combination with diaphragmatic surgery at our institution between January 2005 and July 2015. Clinicopathological data were reviewed by board-certified gynecologists, pathologists, and cytopathologists. The rates of various pathological findings were investigated and compared by Fisher exact test between 2 groups: 1 group that was pathologically positive for diaphragmatic metastasis (group A) and another group that was pathologically negative for diaphragmatic metastasis (group B). Forty-six patients were included: 41 patients pathologically positive and 5 pathologically negative for diaphragmatic metastasis. The rates of metastasis to the lymph node (95.8% vs 20%, P = 0.001) and metastasis to the peritoneum except for the diaphragm (97.6% vs 60.0%, P = 0.028) were significantly increased in group A compared with group B. However, no significant differences between the 2 groups were found for rates of histological subtypes (high-grade serous or non-high-grade serous), the presence of ascites, the presence of malignant ascites, exposure of cancer cells on the ovarian surface, blood vascular invasion in the primary lesion, and lymphovascular invasion in the primary lesion. Our study demonstrated that metastasis to the lymph node and nondiaphragmatic metastasis to the

  11. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale.

  12. Thumb ultrasound: Technique and pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jatinder P; Kumar, Shwetam; Kathiria, Atman V; Harjai, Rachit; Jawed, Akram; Gupta, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound is ideally suited for the assessment of complex anatomy and pathologies of the thumb. Focused and dynamic thumb ultrasound can provide a rapid real-time diagnosis and can be used for guided treatment in certain clinical situations. We present a simplified approach to scanning technique for thumb-related pathologies and illustrate a spectrum of common and uncommon pathologies encountered. PMID:27857468

  13. Pathologic and physiologic phimosis

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Thomas B.; Pike, John G.; Leonard, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the differences between physiologic and pathologic phimosis, review proper foreskin care, and discuss when it is appropriate to seek consultation regarding a phimotic foreskin. SOURCES OF INFORMATION This paper is based on selected findings from a MEDLINE search for literature on phimosis and circumcision referrals and on our experience at the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Urology Clinic. MeSH headings used in our MEDLINE search included “phimosis,” “referral and consultation,” and “circumcision.” Most of the available articles about phimosis and foreskin referrals were retrospective reviews and cohort studies (levels II and III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Phimosis is defined as the inability to retract the foreskin. Differentiating between physiologic and pathologic phimosis is important, as the former is managed conservatively and the latter requires surgical intervention. Great anxiety exists among patients and parentsregarding non-retractile foreskins. Most phimosis referrals seen in pediatric urology clinics are normal physiologically phimotic foreskins. Referrals of patients with physiologic phimosis to urology clinics can create anxiety about the need for surgery among patients and parents, while unnecessarily expanding the waiting list for specialty assessment. Uncircumcised penises require no special care. With normal washing, using soap and water, and gentle retraction during urination and bathing, most foreskins will become retractile over time. CONCLUSION Physiologic phimosis is often seen by family physicians. These patients and their parents require reassurance of normalcy and reinforcement of proper preputial hygiene. Consultation should be sought when evidence of pathologic phimosis is present, as this requires surgical management. PMID:17872680

  14. Pathology case of the month. Altered mental status, alcohol abuse, and hyperammonemia. DIAGNOSIS: Mallory-Denk bodies (a.k.a. Mallory’s hyaline)–seen most commonly in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Nuttli, Theresa; McGoey, Robin R

    2014-01-01

    A 74-year-old woman with a past medical history of diabetes, hypertension, and alcohol abuse was brought to the emergency department and subsequently admitted to the intensive care unit with an altered mental status and weakness. Laboratories revealed acute renal failure (BUN 15 mg/dL, creatinine 2.5 mg/dL), elevated serum transaminase (AST of 83 IU/L), hyperammonemia (187 ug/dL), and marked normocytic anemia requiring transfusion of three units of packed red cells (hemoglobin 4.3 g/dL; hematocrit 13.1%). Blood ethanol level at the time of admission was less than 5 mg/dL, and full urine toxicology was negative. Alcohol abuse was reported to consist of, on average, "one pint of gin per day." Her hospital course was nine days and included complete inotropic blood pressure support and intubation. On the ninth day, she was declared dead, and authorization for an unrestricted autopsy was granted by the coroner. At autopsy, two liters of serous ascitic fluid was drained from the peritoneal cavity, and non-ruptured, distended varices were identified at the gastroesophageal junction. Additional findings included changes compatible with hypertensive cardiovascular disease, including hypertrophy of the interventricular cardiac septum and glomerulosclerosis along with renal atrophy. The liver weighed 1,300 grams (normal 1,475 gm±362) and was markedly discolored yellow-tan. Its parenchyma was more firm than usual. Representative microscopic sections from the decedent's liver are shown in the image below.

  15. Marketing the pathology practice.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, E N

    1995-07-01

    Effective marketing of the pathology practice is essential in the face of an increasingly competitive market. Successful marketing begins with a market-driven planning process. As opposed to the traditional planning process used in health care organizations, a market-driven approach is externally driven. Implementing a market-driven plan also requires recognition of the definition of the service. Each market to which pathologists direct their service defines the service differently. Recognition of these different service definitions and creation of a product to meet these needs could lead to competitive advantages in the marketplace.

  16. Eye pathologies in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Mansoor, Nyaish; Mansoor, Tihami; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, newborn assessment incorporates a screening eye examination for any structural abnormalities, observation of neonate's visual behaviour and direct ophthalmoscopy examination looking for red reflex. Early identification and immediate management of eye related pathologies should commence soon after birth as early diagnosis and prompt intervention may have significant impact on the prognosis for many potentially blinding but treatable disorders such as congenital cataracts and retinoblastoma. If left undetected and untreated, such problems may potentially lead to irreversible damage to the vision which persists into adulthood resulting in lack of self-confidence together with difficulties in educational attainment and job opportunities. PMID:28003988

  17. Formaldehyde in pathology departments.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R P

    1983-01-01

    Toxic effects of formaldehyde in humans are discussed in relation to occupational exposure and tolerance to this agent. Carcinogenic and mutagenic properties of formaldehyde have been reported in animals and this has led to concern about a possible role in human cancer. The current state of affairs is reviewed in the light of a lack of direct evidence linking formaldehyde with cancer in man and in relation to recommended exposure levels. It is important to employ effective means of containment and practical methods for reducing exposure to formaldehyde in pathology departments and post-mortem rooms are described. Images PMID:6223948

  18. The pathology of AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Macher, A M

    1988-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a devastating new disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This retrovirus causes profound immunoincompetence in its infected hosts, who are thereafter susceptible to develop myriad severe and relapsing protozoal, fungal, bacterial, viral, and arthropodal opportunistic infections, as well as unusual malignancies. The more than 50,000 patients who have developed AIDS in the United States have produced a sudden unexpected deluge of diagnostic dilemmas that are stressing laboratories of pathology everywhere. This paper describes the gross and microscopic pathology of the numerous complications in patients infected by HIV: (a) the prodromal AIDS-related complex with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, (b) lymphoid infiltration of salivary gland and lung, including the complex of lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis-pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia, (c) extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, (d) multifocal mucocutaneous and visceral Kaposi's sarcoma, (e) small cell undifferentiated (oat cell) carcinomas, (f) protozoal infections caused by Pneumocystis carinii, Toxoplasma gondii, Acanthamoeba, Cryptosporidium species (sp.), and Isospora belli, (g) the causes of chronic enteritis, (h) mycotic infections caused by Candida sp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, and Sporothrix schenckii, (i) bacterial infections caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, M. tuberculosis, M. kansasii, Nocardia sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Legionella sp., Treponema pallidum, and others, (j) viral infections caused by cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex and zoster, polyomavirus (progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy), hepatitis B, molluscum contagiosum, and papillomavirus, (k) oral hairy leukoplakia, (l) subacute encephalopathy, and (m) Norwegian scabies. PMID:2836878

  19. Nanotechnology: Toxicologic Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hubbs, Ann F.; Sargent, Linda M.; Porter, Dale W.; Sager, Tina M.; Chen, Bean T.; Frazer, David G.; Castranova, Vincent; Sriram, Krishnan; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.; Reynolds, Steven H.; Battelli, Lori A.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; McKinney, Walter; Fluharty, Kara L.; Mercer, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology involves technology, science, and engineering in dimensions less than 100 nm. A virtually infinite number of potential nanoscale products can be produced from many different molecules and their combinations. The exponentially increasing number of nanoscale products will solve critical needs in engineering, science, and medicine. However, the virtually infinite number of potential nanotechnology products is a challenge for toxicologic pathologists. Because of their size, nanoparticulates can have therapeutic and toxic effects distinct from micron-sized particulates of the same composition. In the nanoscale, distinct intercellular and intracellular translocation pathways may provide a different distribution than that obtained by micron-sized particulates. Nanoparticulates interact with subcellular structures including microtubules, actin filaments, centrosomes, and chromatin; interactions that may be facilitated in the nanoscale. Features that distinguish nanoparticulates from fine particulates include increased surface area per unit mass and quantum effects. In addition, some nanotechnology products, including the fullerenes, have a novel and reactive surface. Augmented microscopic procedures including enhanced dark-field imaging, immunofluorescence, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy are useful when evaluating nanoparticulate toxicologic pathology. Thus, the pathology assessment is facilitated by understanding the unique features at the nanoscale and the tools that can assist in evaluating nanotoxicology studies. PMID:23389777

  20. [(Impending) pathological fracture].

    PubMed

    Sutter, P M; Regazzoni, P

    2002-01-01

    Pathological fractures will be encountered in increasing frequency due to more patients with cancer, surviving a longer period. The skeleton is the third most frequent localization for metastases. Breast cancer is still the most common primary tumor, but bone metastases from lung cancer seem to be diagnosed more and more. Despite of finding metastases most often in the spinal column, fractures are seen mostly at the femoral site. A pathological fracture and, in almost all cases, an impending fracture are absolute indication for operation. An exact definition of an "impending fracture" is still lacking; it is widely accepted, that 50 per cent of bone mass must be destroyed before visualization in X-ray is possible, thus defining an impending fracture. The score system by Mirels estimates the fracture risk by means of four parameters (localization, per cent of destructed bone mass, type of metastasis, pain). Improving quality of life, relieving pain, preferably with a single operation and a short length of stay are the goals of (operative) treatment. For fractures of the proximal femur, prosthetic replacement, for fractures of the subtrochanteric region or the shaft, intramedullary nails are recommended. Postoperative radiation therapy possibly avoids tumor progression. In patient with a good long term prognosis, tumor should be removed locally aggressive.

  1. Pathology of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vijgen, Sandrine; Terris, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCC) is a primary carcinoma of the liver with increasing significance and major pathogenic, clinical and therapeutic challenges. Classically, it arises from malignant transformation of cholangiocytes bordering small portal bile duct (BD) to second-order segmental large BDs. It has three major macroscopic growth pattern [mass-forming (MF), periductal infiltrative (PI), and intraductal growth (IG)] and histologically is a desmoplastic stroma-rich adenocarcinoma with cholangiocyte differentiation. Recent data pointed out noteworthy degree of heterogeneity in regards of their epidemiology and risk factors, pathological and molecular features, pathogenesis, clinical behaviors and treatment. Notably, several histological variants are described and can coexist within the same tumor. Several different cells of origin have also been depicted in a fraction of iCCs, amongst which malignant transformation of ductules, of hepatic stem/progenitor cells, of periductal glands or through oncogenic reprogramming of adult hepatocytes. A degree of pathological overlap with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may be observed in a portion of iCC. A series of precursor lesions are today characterized and emphasize the existence of a multistep carcinogenesis process. Overall, these new data have brought up in proposal of new histological or molecular classifications, which could soon replace current anatomic-based classification and could have major impact on establishment of prognosis and on development of novel target treatment approaches. PMID:28261592

  2. Improving the reliability of female fertility breeding values using type and milk yield traits that predict energy status in Australian Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    González-Recio, O; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to propose changing the selection criteria trait for evaluating fertility in Australia from calving interval to conception rate at d 42 after the beginning of the mating season and (2) to use type traits as early fertility predictors, to increase the reliability of estimated breeding values for fertility. The breeding goal in Australia is conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season. Currently, the Australian model to predict fertility breeding values (expressed as a linear transformation of calving interval) is a multitrait model that includes calving interval (CVI), lactation length (LL), calving to first service (CFS), first nonreturn rate (FNRR), and conception rate. However, CVI has a lower genetic correlation with the breeding goal (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) than conception rate. Milk yield, type, and fertility data from 164,318 cow sired by 4,766 bulls were used. Principal component analysis and genetic correlation estimates between type and fertility traits were used to select type traits that could subsequently be used in a multitrait analysis. Angularity, foot angle, and pin set were chosen as type traits to include in an index with the traits that are included in the multitrait fertility model: CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and conception rate at d 42 (CR42). An index with these 8 traits is expected to achieve an average bull first proof reliability of 0.60 on the breeding objective (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) compared with reliabilities of 0.39 and 0.45 for CR42 only or the current 5-trait Australian model. Subsequently, we used the first eigenvector of a principal component analysis with udder texture, bone quality, angularity, and body condition score to calculate an energy status indicator trait. The inclusion of the energy status indicator trait composite in a multitrait index with CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and CR42 achieved a 12-point increase in

  3. Influence of basal cisterns, midline shift and pathology on outcome in head injury.

    PubMed

    Athiappan, S; Muthukumar, N; Srinivasan, U S

    1993-05-01

    The relationship of outcome to the basal cisterns, midline shift and pathology as seen on initial CT scan was assessed in 107 moderate and severe head injured patients. The mortality rates were 82 cases (76%) and 29 cases (27%) among those with obliterated and normal basal cisterns, and 74 cases (69%) and 42 cases (39%) when the midline shift was present and absent, respectively. The state of the cisterns and midline shift was correlated with the type of intracranial pathology and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores. The state of the cisterns and midline shift was more important for those with single contusions and intra-cerebral haematoma (ICH) than for those with multiple lesions, extradural haematoma, subdural haematoma, diffuse cerebral oedema and normal CT scan. The state of the above two parameters when correlated with GCS score, showed that they were important for those with higher GCS scores. This indicates that the status of the cisterns and midline shift is correlated with the type of pathology and GCS score rather than these parameters taken alone in prediction.

  4. PHYTOPLANKTON DYNAMICS IN A GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARY: THE POTENTIAL USE OF PHOTO-PHYSIOLOGY AND ALGAL PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY TO PREDICT NUTRIENT STATUS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of rapid techniques to determine in situ phytoplankton nutrient status could facilitate understanding of phytoplankton growth and species succession. Variable fluorescence parameters of phytoplankton communities can be easily and rapidly measured, and changes in param...

  5. Pathological findings in homocystinuria

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, J. B.; Carson, Nina A. J.; Neill, D. W.

    1964-01-01

    Pathological findings are described in four cases of a new aminoaciduria in which homocystine is excreted in the urine. All the patients were mentally retarded children. Three of them presented diagnostic features of Marfan's syndrome. Necropsy on one case and biopsy findings in the others are described. Fatty change occurs in the liver. The most striking lesions are vascular. Metachromatic medial degeneration of the aorta and of the elastic arteries in the necropsied case are considered in relation to Marfan's syndrome. Other changes, particularly thrombosis which is prevalent in homocystinuria, suggest the possibility of a platelet defect. The findings are discussed in respect of an upset in the metabolism of sulphur-containing amino-acids and with particular reference to Marfan's syndrome. Images PMID:14195630

  6. Pathology of sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, Richard K.; Rebar, A.H.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Haebler, Romona J.; Loughlin, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    In the months following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), 994 sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from oil-spill-affected areas died (Doroff et al. 1993). Carcasses collected from these areas and otters that died in rehabilitation centers are included in this number. The actual number that died was probably much greater.Within days of the spill, the Exxon Company (USA) funded an effort to rehabilitate oil-contaminated sea otters (Davis 1990). Initially, clinical veterinarians working on the rehabilitation effort performed partial necropsies on some of the sea otters that died. Soon, veterinary pathologists from the University of Alaska and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provided assistance. Later, rehabilitation centers were constructed and other veterinarians with special training in pathology were hired by Exxon to provide diagnostic support.In late April 1989, veterinary pathologists from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) assumed responsibility for pathologic evaluation of oil-spill-affected sea otters. The USFWS requested assistance from veterinary pathologists of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) in June 1989. Eventually, as part of the Natural Resources Damage Assessment program, AFIP veterinary pathologists were asked to carry out histopathological studies of the tissue specimens collected by all parties and to perform necropsies on carcasses that had been collected and frozen. A veterinary clinical pathologist was requested to assess hematology and clinical chemistry findings in otters that had been held in the rehabilitation centers.In spite of the best efforts of many dedicated people working under extremely difficult conditions, there are significant limitations in the pathological studies. The absence of a detailed necropsy protocol and of full documentation of necropsy findings during the first several weeks after the spill resulted in important data being lost. Often, samples of all major organs were not collected. In some

  7. Intra-population variation in anemia status and its relationship to economic status and self-perceived health in the Mexican Family Life Survey: implications for bioarchaeology.

    PubMed

    Piperata, Barbara A; Hubbe, Mark; Schmeer, Kammi K

    2014-10-01

    Recently scholars have advocated for the use of a critical biocultural approach in bioarchaeology, where osteological and dental markers of stress are used to understand the broader biosocial context of past populations. However, the ability to accomplish this task rests on the assumption that ultimate-level environmental stressors and well-being in the past can be reconstructed from the prevalence of pathologies in skeletal collections. Here we test this assumption using anemia prevalence in the Mexican Family Life Survey. Specifically we test three hypotheses: (1) that individuals sharing the same household are more likely to share anemia status; (2) anemia status is a predictor of economic status (a common proxy for broader environmental context); and (3) anemia status is related to self-rated health. Results demonstrate that: anemia status was not commonly shared between household members; there was a significant overlap in economic status between anemic and nonanemic individuals (i.e., anemia poorly predicted economic status) and; while anemia status was associated with self-perceived health, the majority of those who reported poor health were nonanemic while a significant number of those who reported very good health were anemic. We argue that these findings are likely related to variation in individual frailty, which is shaped by biological and cultural risk factors. Therefore, we advocate for greater incorporation of individual frailty into bioarchaeological investigations, and, in effort to overcome some of the difficulties associated with this task, increased use of data from living populations and greater collaboration between bioarchaeologists and human biologists.

  8. Prediction of clinical phenotypes in invasive breast carcinomas from the integration of radiomics and genomics data.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wentian; Li, Hui; Zhu, Yitan; Lan, Li; Yang, Shengjie; Drukker, Karen; Morris, Elizabeth; Burnside, Elizabeth; Whitman, Gary; Giger, Maryellen L; Ji, Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Genomic and radiomic imaging profiles of invasive breast carcinomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas and The Cancer Imaging Archive were integrated and a comprehensive analysis was conducted to predict clinical outcomes using the radiogenomic features. Variable selection via LASSO and logistic regression were used to select the most-predictive radiogenomic features for the clinical phenotypes, including pathological stage, lymph node metastasis, and status of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Cross-validation with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was employed as the prediction metric. Higher AUCs were obtained in the prediction of pathological stage, ER, and PR status than for lymph node metastasis and HER2 status. Overall, the prediction performances by genomics alone, radiomics alone, and combined radiogenomics features showed statistically significant correlations with clinical outcomes; however, improvement on the prediction performance by combining genomics and radiomics data was not found to be statistically significant, most likely due to the small sample size of 91 cancer cases with 38 radiomic features and 144 genomic features.

  9. Prediction of clinical phenotypes in invasive breast carcinomas from the integration of radiomics and genomics data

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wentian; Li, Hui; Zhu, Yitan; Lan, Li; Yang, Shengjie; Drukker, Karen; Morris, Elizabeth; Burnside, Elizabeth; Whitman, Gary; Giger, Maryellen L.; Ji, Yuan; TCGA Breast Phenotype Research Group

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Genomic and radiomic imaging profiles of invasive breast carcinomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas and The Cancer Imaging Archive were integrated and a comprehensive analysis was conducted to predict clinical outcomes using the radiogenomic features. Variable selection via LASSO and logistic regression were used to select the most-predictive radiogenomic features for the clinical phenotypes, including pathological stage, lymph node metastasis, and status of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Cross-validation with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was employed as the prediction metric. Higher AUCs were obtained in the prediction of pathological stage, ER, and PR status than for lymph node metastasis and HER2 status. Overall, the prediction performances by genomics alone, radiomics alone, and combined radiogenomics features showed statistically significant correlations with clinical outcomes; however, improvement on the prediction performance by combining genomics and radiomics data was not found to be statistically significant, most likely due to the small sample size of 91 cancer cases with 38 radiomic features and 144 genomic features. PMID:26835491

  10. Behavior, Expectations and Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Jr, Murray; Rashotte, Lisa Slattery

    2010-01-01

    We predict effects of behavior patterns and status on performance expectations and group inequality using an integrated theory developed by Fisek, Berger and Norman (1991). We next test those predictions using new experimental techniques we developed to control behavior patterns as independent variables. In a 10-condition experiment, predictions…

  11. Pathological gambling: understanding relapses and dropouts.

    PubMed

    Aragay, Núria; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Ramos-Grille, Irene; Cardona, Sara; Garrido, Gemma; Anisul Islam, Mohammed; Menchón, José M; Vallès, Vicenç

    2015-02-01

    There is little available information on the factors that influence relapses and dropouts during therapy for pathological gambling (PG). The aim of this study was to determine socio-demographic, clinical, personality, and psychopathological predictors of relapse and dropout in a sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. A total of 566 consecutive outpatients diagnosed with PG according to DSM-IV-TR criteria were included. All patients underwent an individualized cognitive-behavioral treatment program. We analyzed predictors of relapse during 6months of treatment and during the subsequent 6months of follow-up, and predictors of dropout over the entire therapeutic program. Eighty patients (14.1%) experienced at least one relapse during the entire follow-up of the study: 50 (8.8%) within the treatment period and 12 (2.1%) during the subsequent 6-month follow-up period. The main predictors of relapse were single marital status, spending less than 100euros/week on gambling, active gambling behavior at treatment inclusion, and high scores on the TCI-R Harm Avoidance personality dimension. One hundred fifty-seven patients (27.8%) missed 3 or more therapeutic sessions over the entire therapeutic program. The main predictors of dropout were single marital status, younger age, and high scores on the TCI-R Novelty Seeking personality dimension. The presence of these factors at inclusion should be taken into account by physicians dealing with PG patients.

  12. Nontraditional applications in clinical pathology.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Holly L; Register, Thomas C; Tripathi, Niraj K; Bolliger, Anne Provencher; Everds, Nancy; Zelmanovic, David; Poitout, Florence; Bounous, Denise I; Wescott, Debra; Ramaiah, Shashi K

    2014-10-01

    Most published reviews of preclinical toxicological clinical pathology focus on the fundamental aspects of hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, and urinalysis in routine toxicology animal species, for example, rats, mice, dogs, and nonhuman primates. The objective of this continuing education course was to present and discuss contemporary examples of nonroutine applications of clinical pathology endpoints used in the drug development setting. Area experts discussed bone turnover markers of laboratory animal species, clinical pathology of pregnant and growing laboratory animals, clinical pathology of nonroutine laboratory animal species, and unique applications of the Siemens Advia(®) hematology analyzer. This article is a summary based on a presentation given at the 31st Annual Symposium of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology, during the Continuing Education Course titled "Nontraditional Applications of Clinical Pathology in Drug Discovery and Preclinical Toxicology."

  13. Recommendations for pathology peer review.

    PubMed

    Morton, Daniel; Sellers, Rani S; Barale-Thomas, Erio; Bolon, Brad; George, Catherine; Hardisty, Jerry F; Irizarry, Armando; McKay, Jennifer S; Odin, Marielle; Teranishi, Munehiro

    2010-12-01

    Pathology peer review verifies and improves the accuracy and quality of pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Pathology peer review is recommended when important risk assessment or business decisions are based on nonclinical studies. For pathology peer review conducted before study completion, the peer-review pathologist reviews sufficient slides and pathology data to assist the study pathologist in refining pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Materials to be reviewed are selected by the peer-review pathologist. Consultations with additional experts or a formal (documented) pathology working group may be used to resolve discrepancies. The study pathologist is solely responsible for the content of the final pathology data and report, makes changes resulting from peer-review discussions, initiates the audit trail for microscopic observations after all changes resulting from peer-review have been made, and signs the final pathologist's report. The peer-review pathologist creates a signed peer-review memo describing the peer-review process and confirming that the study pathologist's report accurately and appropriately reflects the pathology data. The study pathologist also may sign a statement of consensus. It is not necessary to archive working notes created during the peer-review process.

  14. [Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].

    PubMed

    Baliasnyĭ, M M

    1991-01-01

    Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness.

  15. Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Chemoembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Riaz, Ahsun; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Kulik, Laura; Ryu, Robert K.; Mulcahy, Mary F.; Baker, Talia; Gates, Vanessa; Nayar, Ritu; Wang, Ed; Miller, Frank H.; Sato, Kent T.; Omary, Reed A.; Abecassis, Michael; Salem, Riad

    2010-12-15

    To correlate posttreatment radiologic and pathologic findings in patients who underwent transarterial chemoembolization before transplantation or resection. Thirty-five patients with postchemoembolization follow-up imaging underwent liver transplantation/resection. Pre- and posttreatment contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging were used to evaluate radiologic findings. Imaging characteristics using World Health Organization (WHO) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria after treatment were evaluated. Treated lesions were examined by pathology (gold standard) for the assessment of necrosis. Radiologic findings on magnetic resonance imaging were correlated to pathologic findings to assess the predictability by imaging of actual necrosis. Kappa ({kappa}) statistics were used to determine intermethod agreement between WHO and EASL criteria. Fourteen (40%) of 35 lesions had biopsy-proven hepatocellular carcinoma. Thirteen (37%) of 35 target lesions showed complete pathologic necrosis. Complete pathologic necrosis was seen in 35% of lesions with pretreatment size <3 cm. Complete pathologic necrosis was seen in 1 (100%) of 1, 6 (67%) of 9, 6 (33%) of 18, and 0 (0%) of 7 of the lesions that exhibited complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), or progressive disease (PD) by WHO criteria, respectively. Complete pathologic necrosis was seen in 9 (82%) of 11, 4 (36%) of 11, 0 (0%) of 8, and 0 (0%) of 5 of the lesions that showed CR, PR, SD, or PD by EASL criteria, respectively. EASL CR and WHO response were shown to have {>=}85% specificity for predicting complete pathologic necrosis. The {kappa} coefficient for agreement between WHO and EASL was 0.29. EASL and WHO criteria had minimal intermethod agreement. EASL CR and WHO response were able to predict pathologic necrosis.

  16. Forest pathology in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

  17. Rabies: ocular pathology.

    PubMed Central

    Haltia, M; Tarkkanen, A; Kivelä, T

    1989-01-01

    Ocular pathology in the first European case of human bat-borne rabies is described. The patient was a 30-year-old bat scientist who seven weeks after bat bite developed neurological symptoms and died 23 days later. Rabies virus antigens were detected in brain smears. After extensive virological studies the virus turned out to be a rabies-related virus, closely resembling the Duvenhage virus isolated from bats in South Africa in 1980. By light microscopy focal chronic inflammatory infiltration of the ciliary body and of the choroid was found. PAS-positive exudate was seen in the subretinal and in the outer plexiform layers of the retina, and retinal veins showed endothelial damage and perivascular inflammation. Many of the retinal ganglion cells were destroyed. The presence of rabies-related viral antigen in the retinal ganglion cells was shown by positive cytoplasmic immunofluorescence, though electron microscopy failed to identify definite viral structures in the retina. By immunohistochemistry glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the Müller's cells, which are normally negative for this antigen but express it as a reactive change when the retina is damaged. Synaptophysin, a constituent of presynaptic vesicles of normal retinal neurons, was not detected in the retina. Images PMID:2920157

  18. Macrophage polarization in pathology.

    PubMed

    Sica, Antonio; Erreni, Marco; Allavena, Paola; Porta, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    Macrophages are cells of the innate immunity constituting the mononuclear phagocyte system and endowed with remarkable different roles essential for defense mechanisms, development of tissues, and homeostasis. They derive from hematopoietic precursors and since the early steps of fetal life populate peripheral tissues, a process continuing throughout adult life. Although present essentially in every organ/tissue, macrophages are more abundant in the gastro-intestinal tract, liver, spleen, upper airways, and brain. They have phagocytic and bactericidal activity and produce inflammatory cytokines that are important to drive adaptive immune responses. Macrophage functions are settled in response to microenvironmental signals, which drive the acquisition of polarized programs, whose extremes are simplified in the M1 and M2 dichotomy. Functional skewing of monocyte/macrophage polarization occurs in physiological conditions (e.g., ontogenesis and pregnancy), as well as in pathology (allergic and chronic inflammation, tissue repair, infection, and cancer) and is now considered a key determinant of disease development and/or regression. Here, we will review evidence supporting a dynamic skewing of macrophage functions in disease, which may provide a basis for macrophage-centered therapeutic strategies.

  19. Pathology of bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Domingo, M; Vidal, E; Marco, A

    2014-10-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic granulomatous caseous-necrotising inflammatory process that mainly affects the lungs and their draining lymph nodes (Ln.). The pathological changes associated with bTB infection reflect the interplay between the host defence mechanisms and the mycobacterial virulence factors and the balance between the immunologic protective responses and the damaging inflammatory processes. Inhalation is the most common infection route and causes lesions of the nasopharynx and lower respiratory tract, including its associated lymph nodes. The initial infection (primary complex) may be followed by chronic (post-primary) tuberculosis or may be generalised. Goat tuberculosis often produces liquefactive necrosis and caverns, similarly to human TB. The assessment of the severity of TB lesions is crucial for vaccine trials. Semi-quantitative gross lesion scoring systems have been developed for cattle, but imaging technology has allowed the development of more standardised, objective, and quantitative methods, such as multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), which provides quantitative measures of lesion volume.

  20. Age Demographics, Hiring Trends, and Graduation Rates in Plant Pathology in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the status of plant pathology departments and age demographics of the profession. Seven of eight large departments have lost from 17 to 40% of their faculty positions since 1987, and several smaller graduate programs in plant pathology (e.g., in several northeastern states) have all but...

  1. [Molecular Pathological Aspects in Visceral Surgery].

    PubMed

    Unger, T; Sändig, I; Wittekind, C

    2016-04-01

    New insights gained in the field of molecular medicine have led to fundamental progress in the diagnosis and treatment of tumour patients. Individualised treatment has been essentially facilitated by molecular diagnostics, which, by identifying and interpreting characteristic genetic alterations (biomarkers) in single cells and tissues, provide specific information to confirm the diagnosis and support the treatment of numerous diseases. Particularly with regard to the use of new targeted drugs, which often require the presence or absence of specific target structures or genetic alterations to induce response, the molecular pathological determination of predictive biomarkers plays an increasing role and helps clinicians to decide on optimal therapies for individual patients. The aim of this review is to highlight general aspects of molecular tumour pathology for relevant tumour entities and to present available targeted therapies.

  2. Predicting Ethnic Minority Children's Vocabulary from Socioeconomic Status, Maternal Language and Home Reading Input: Different Pathways for Host and Ethnic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevoo, Mariëlle J. L.; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; Emmen, Rosanneke A. G.; Yeniad, Nihal; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus; Linting, Mariëlle

    2014-01-01

    When bilingual children enter formal reading education, host language proficiency becomes increasingly important. This study investigated the relation between socioeconomic status (SES), maternal language use, reading input, and vocabulary in a sample of 111 six-year-old children of first- and second-generation Turkish immigrant parents in the…

  3. Nutritional Quality of Breakfast and Physical Activity Independently Predict the Literacy and Numeracy Scores of Children after Adjusting for Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Mugridge, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    Health-related behaviors [physical activity (PA), nutritional quality of breakfast and sleep]; personal variables (self-esteem, attitudes to PA and gender) and socioeconomic status (SES) (school SES and parental education), were examined in relation to literacy and numeracy scores of 824 grade 3-7 children. Participants completed a questionnaire,…

  4. Ethnicity and acculturation: do they predict weight status in a longitudinal study among Asain, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White early adolescent females?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents has increased over the past decade. Prevalence rates are disparate among certain racial and ethnic groups. In this study, the relationship between overweight status (> 85th percentile according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevent...

  5. Maintaining Functional Independence in Elderly Adults: The Roles of Health Status and Financial Resources in Predicting Home Modifications and Use of Mobility Equipment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieson, Kathleen M.; Kronenfeld, Jennie Jacobs; Keith, Verna M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether health status (i.e., need characteristics) and financial resources (i.e., enabling characteristics) were important predictors of two types of functional adaptations among elderly adults: home modifications such as putting nonslip tape on rugs or installing more telephones and use of equipment for mobility or…

  6. The Effect of High School Socioeconomic Status on the Predictive Validity of SAT Scores and High School Grade-Point Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; Himelfarb, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Research has often found that, when high school grades and SAT scores are used to predict first-year college grade-point average (FGPA) via regression analysis, African-American and Latino students, are, on average, predicted to earn higher FGPAs than they actually do. Under various plausible models, this phenomenon can be explained in terms of…

  7. Prognostic signature of protocadherin 10 methylation in curatively resected pathological stage I non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Yamashita, Yoshinori; Taniyama, Kiyomi; Mihara, Kazuko; Nishimura, Mitsuki; Okada, Morihito

    2015-01-01

    Although curative resection is the current treatment of choice for localized non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), patients show a wide spectrum of survival even after complete resection of pathological stage I NSCLC. Thus, identifying molecular biomarkers that help to accurately select patients at high risk of relapse is an important key to improving the treatment strategy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic signature of protocadherin 10 (PCDH10) promoter methylation in curatively resected pathological stage I NSCLC. Using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assays, methylation of PCDH10 promoter was assessed in cancer tissues of 109 patients who underwent curative resection of pathological stage I NSCLC. Associations between PCDH10 methylation status and disease outcome was analyzed. PCDH10 promoter methylation was detected in 46/109 patients (42.2%). Patients with methylated PCDH10 showed significantly worse recurrence-free, overall, and disease-specific survival compared with those without methylation (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0004, P = 0.0002, respectively). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed that adjusted hazard ratios of methylated PCDH10 were 5.159 for recurrence-free, 1.817 for overall, and 5.478 for disease-specific survival (P = 0.0005, P = 0.1475, P = 0.0109, respectively). The pattern of recurrence was not significantly different between patients with and without PCDH10 methylation (P = 0.5074). PCDH10 methylation is a potential biomarker that predicts a poor prognosis after curative resection of pathological stage I NSCLC. Assessment of PCDH10 methylation status might assist in patient stratification for determining an appropriate adjuvant treatment and follow-up strategy. PMID:26276761

  8. Comparison of transvaginal ultrasonography and hysteroscopy in the diagnosis of uterine pathologies.

    PubMed

    Babacan, Ali; Gun, Ismet; Kizilaslan, Cem; Ozden, Okan; Muhcu, Murat; Mungen, Ercument; Atay, Vedat

    2014-01-01

    A thorough evaluation of the uterine cavity is frequently required in gynecology practice. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic values of transvaginal ultrasound examination and hysteroscopy in detecting uterine abnormalities in a group of patients within a range of menopausal status and symptomatology. This study included 285 patients admitted with complaints of abnormal uterine bleeding, postmenopausal bleeding, lower abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal discharge or for a routine gynecological examination. All patients had available transvaginal ultrasonography and hysteroscopy data for evaluation. A biopsy was obtained from all patients during the hysteroscopy session. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and likelihood ratio were calculated for both methods and compared, considering the histopathological diagnosis as the gold standard. The mean age of the patients was 49.5±12.9 years (range, 24-89 y). Majority of the patients admitted for abnormal uterine bleeding (n=198, 69.4%). For the diagnosis of polyps of any size, hysteroscopy had better sensitivity (p<0.001), however, specificities did not differ (p=1.0). On the other hand, hysteroscopy did not have a sensitivity advantage over TVU in diagnosing polyps greater than 1 cm (p=0.077), although this time hysteroscopy had better specificity (p<0.001). Combined approach did not offer diagnostic advantage for any of the specific pathologies. Although TVU represents a practical approach for the initial evaluation of uterine pathologies, hysteroscopy seems to offer better diagnostic value for uterine pathologies in general, and uterine polyps in particular.

  9. Pathology of peliosis.

    PubMed

    Tsokos, Michael; Erbersdobler, Andreas

    2005-04-20

    Peliosis is a pathological entity characterized by the gross appearance of multiple cyst-like, blood-filled cavities within parenchymatous organs. Peliosis has been related to several underlying debilitating illnesses such as tuberculosis, hematological malignancies, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and post-transplant immunodeficiency, as well as intravenous drug abuse, chronic alcoholism, and in conjunction with the intake of oral contraceptives or steroids. The classical pathoanatomical concept is based upon the opinion that peliosis exclusively develops in organs belonging to the mononuclear phagocytic system (liver, spleen, bone marrow, and lymph nodes). However, a paucity of studies indicates that other organs such as lungs, parathyroid glands, and kidneys may be affected too. Concerning the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms of onset and maintenance of peliosis, the morphological data obtained by different investigators suggest that there is more than one path of formal pathogenesis (e.g., congenital malformation of vessels manifesting under altered local intravascular pressure conditions, acquired vascular disorder triggered by toxic noxae, active proliferation of vessels corresponding to the benign end on the spectrum of neoplastic vascular lesions). In the liver, at gross inspection, the peliotic lesions give the cut sections a "swiss cheese" appearance. Microscopically, two different types of peliosis can be distinguished in the liver: (1) "parenchymal peliosis" consisting of irregular cavities that are neither lined by sinusoidal cells nor by fibrous tissue, and (2) "phlebectatic peliosis" characterized by regular, spherical cavities lined by endothelium and/or fibrosis. One of the differential diagnoses that most closely resembles peliosis hepatis is secondary hepatic congestion due to veno-occlusive disease or the Budd-Chiari syndrome. In the spleen, the peliotic lesions may be arranged sporadically, disseminated, or in clusters in an

  10. [Corticotherapy and mucocutaneous pathology].

    PubMed

    Kuffer, R

    1975-01-01

    The tremendous advances in treatment brought about by corticotherapy applied to cutaneo-mucosal pathology should not be allowed to obscure the fact that its action is merely palliative, that it should only be proceeded with after careful diagnosis and that it may trigger undesirable side-effects. General corticotherapy is definitely indicated in certain serious dermatoses (e.g. pemphigus vulgaris) in large doses at the beginning of the course of treatment which often has to be kept up indefinitely; it is in these patients that the most serious accidents occur. It is also indicated in other dermatoses (e.g. lichen planus) in smaller doses and in separate courses, generally triggering incidents and accidents of a less serious nature which to a certain extent seem to be attenuated by taking the drug on alternate days. It is counter-indicated in one particular condition: psoriasis. Corticotherapy by intra- and sub-lesional local injection is most useful in the treatment of certain localised skin lesions (e.g. cheloids) and of the oral mucosa (e.g. erosive lichen planus). Either a few drops are injected or a larger quantity in a suspension of microcrystals. Complications have sometimes been observed in the skin (leukoderma, dermoepidermatrophia and, particularly, amaurosis), but never so far after sub-mucosal injections. Local corticotherapy by external application, very widely used in the form of ointments, creams and lotions for numerous cutaneous conditions may cause various more or less serious local side-effects, the systemic effects with depression of the hypophyso-adrenal axis, only seem to occur to any extent with occlusive dressings. It can also be used in the treatment of some conditions of the oral mucosa (e.g. some forms of lichen planus, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid) by means of either a corticosteroid incorporated into a special excipient which adheres to the mucous membrane or in tablets of 17-betamethasone valerate which gradually break up in the

  11. Digital pathology and anatomic pathology laboratory information system integration to support digital pathology sign-out

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huazhang; Birsa, Joe; Farahani, Navid; Hartman, Douglas J.; Piccoli, Anthony; O’Leary, Matthew; McHugh, Jeffrey; Nyman, Mark; Stratman, Curtis; Kvarnstrom, Vanja; Yousem, Samuel; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adoption of digital pathology offers benefits over labor-intensive, time-consuming, and error-prone manual processes. However, because most workflow and laboratory transactions are centered around the anatomical pathology laboratory information system (APLIS), adoption of digital pathology ideally requires integration with the APLIS. A digital pathology system (DPS) integrated with the APLIS was recently implemented at our institution for diagnostic use. We demonstrate how such integration supports digital workflow to sign-out anatomical pathology cases. Methods: Workflow begins when pathology cases get accessioned into the APLIS (CoPathPlus). Glass slides from these cases are then digitized (Omnyx VL120 scanner) and automatically uploaded into the DPS (Omnyx® Integrated Digital Pathology (IDP) software v.1.3). The APLIS transmits case data to the DPS via a publishing web service. The DPS associates scanned images with the correct case using barcode labels on slides and information received from the APLIS. When pathologists remotely open a case in the DPS, additional information (e.g. gross pathology details, prior cases) gets retrieved from the APLIS through a query web service. Results: Following validation of this integration, pathologists at our institution have signed out more than 1000 surgical pathology cases in a production environment. Integration between the APLIS and DPS enabled pathologists to review digital slides while simultaneously having access to pertinent case metadata. The introduction of a digital workflow eliminated costly manual tasks involving matching of glass slides and avoided delays waiting for glass slides to be delivered. Conclusion: Integrating the DPS and APLIS were instrumental for successfully implementing a digital solution at our institution for pathology sign-out. The integration streamlined our digital sign-out workflow, diminished the potential for human error related to matching slides, and improved the sign

  12. Comparison of the WHO/ISUP classification and cytokeratin 20 expression in predicting the behavior of low-grade papillary urothelial tumors. World/Health Organization/Internattional Society of Urologic Pathology.

    PubMed

    Alsheikh, A; Mohamedali, Z; Jones, E; Masterson, J; Gilks, C B

    2001-04-01

    It has not been possible to identify those low-grade papillary transitional cell bladder tumors that will recur based on conventional histopathologic assessment. Both the new World Health Organization/International Society of Urologic Pathology (WHO/ISUP) classification of transitional cell papillary neoplasms and the pattern of tumor cytokeratin 20 (CK20) immunostaining have been suggested as means of improving prognostication in low-grade transitional cell tumors. Forty-nine low-grade, noninvasive papillary transitional cell tumors were identified for the period between 1984 and 1993. The recently described WHO/ISUP classification was applied, and the tumors were classified histologically as papilloma, papillary neoplasm of low malignant potential (LMP) or low-grade papillary carcinoma. After CK20 immunostaining, the expression pattern in the tumor was classified as normal (superficial) or abnormal. Of 49 tumors, 20 were classified as papillary neoplasms of LMP and five of these patients (25%) experienced a recurrence. Of 29 tumors classified as low-grade papillary carcinoma, 14 (48.2%) recurred. In 46 of 49 cases, the CK20 immunostaining could be evaluated. Sixteen tumors showed normal (superficial) pattern of CK20 expression, and four (25%) of these patients experienced a recurrence. In contrast, of 30 patients with abnormal CK20 staining of their tumors, 15 (50%) patients had one or more recurrences. In this study, papillary neoplasms of LMP (as per the WHO/ISUP classification system) had a lower recurrence rate than low-grade papillary transitional cell carcinoma. Similarly low-grade urothelial tumors showing a normal CK20 expression pattern recurred less frequently than tumors with an abnormal pattern of CK20 staining. Neither of these differences was statistically significant, and recurrences were observed in 20% of patients whose tumors were both classified as papillary neoplasms of LMP and showed normal CK20 immunostaining; thus they do not allow a change

  13. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management.

  14. Pathology of Anal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Paulo M; Coudry, Renata; Moniz, Camila Motta Venchiarutti

    2017-01-01

    Anal canal cancer is rather an uncommon disease but its incidence is increasing. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most frequent primary anal neoplasm and can encompass a variety of morphologies. HPV infection has a key role in precancerous lesions and cancer development by the production of E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Anal squamous precancerous lesions are now classified according to the same criteria and terminology as their cervical counterparts. The p16 expression by immunohistochemistry is a surrogate marker for human papilloma virus (HPV). Many other tumor types can arise in the anal canal, including adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, malignant melanomas, lymphomas and various types of mesenchymal tumors. For differential diagnosis, immunostaining markers such as CK5/6 and p63 can be used to distinguish SCC and CK7 for adenocarcinoma. Other classical panels can also be applied as in other locations. Currently, there are no biomarkers able to predict prognosis or response to treatment in clinical practice.

  15. Pathology of chronic mountain sickness

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Stella, Javier; Krüger, Hever; Recavarren, Sixto

    1973-01-01

    Arias-Stella, J., Krüger, H., and Recavarren, S. (1973).Thorax, 28, 701-708. Pathology of chronic mountain sickness. Pathological data on chronic mountain sickness are scarce due to the fact that the disease is ameliorated or cured by descent to a low altitude. In this report we describe a case of chronic mountain sickness occurring in a woman of 48 years at Cerro de Pasco (4,300 m above sea level). The necropsy findings are compared with the limited pathological observations reported by others. It is apparent from our findings that in fatal cases the main changes are located within the pulmonary circulation. So far histological studies have been reported only in cases of the secondary form of chronic mountain sickness. The basic pathology of the primary form (Monge's disease) remains to be defined. Images PMID:4787982

  16. [Methods and methodology of pathology].

    PubMed

    Lushnikov, E F

    2016-01-01

    The lecture gives the state-of-the-art of the methodology of human pathology that is an area of the scientific and practice activity of specialists to produce and systematize objective knowledge of pathology and to use the knowledge in clinical medicine. It considers the objects and subjects of an investigation, materials and methods of a pathologist, and the results of his/her work.

  17. Inflammatory breast carcinoma: pathological or clinical entity?

    PubMed

    Amparo, R S; Angel, C D; Ana, L H; Antonio, L C; Vicente, M S; Carlos, F M; Vicente, G P

    2000-12-01

    Inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) diagnosis is usually based in the presence of typical clinical symptoms (redness and edema in more than 2/3 of the breast), which are not always associated with pathologic characteristics (subdermal lymphatics involvement). Whether exclusively pathologic findings without clinical symptoms are sufficient for IBC diagnosis remains controversial. A retrospective analysis of 163 clinically diagnosed IBC (CIC) either with dermal lymphatics invasion or not, was compared with another group of 99 patients with dermal lymphatics invasion without clinical symptoms (occult inflammatory carcinoma) (OIC). The following clinical and pathological characteristics have been analyzed and compared: age, menopausal status, clinical axillar node involvement, symptoms duration before diagnosis, grade, estrogen receptors, presence of metastases at diagnosis, local recurrence, metastasic dissemination, disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Median age was younger in CIC (52.3 vs. 63.8 years; p < 0.001). Symptom duration before diagnosis were significantly shorter in CIC (3.4 vs. 6.8 months: p < 0.0001). Visceral (36.2% vs. 17.2%; p = 0.001) and brain metastases (7.4% vs. 1%; p = 0.02) was significantly more frequent in CIC. Negative estrogen receptors were more frequent in CIC (34.9% vs. 65.1%: p < 0.004). Five-years DFS (25.6 vs. 51.6%; p < 0.0001) and OS (28.6 vs. 40%; p < 0.05) were shorter in CIC. CIC (regardless of subdermal lymphatics involvement) must be clearly differentiated from OIC. Prognosis of CIC patients is poorer, so this two entities should be clearly differentiated when therepeutic results are reported.

  18. Effect of Adding McKenzie Syndrome, Centralization, Directional Preference, and Psychosocial Classification Variables to a Risk-Adjusted Model Predicting Functional Status Outcomes for Patients With Lumbar Impairments.

    PubMed

    Werneke, Mark W; Edmond, Susan; Deutscher, Daniel; Ward, Jason; Grigsby, David; Young, Michelle; McGill, Troy; McClenahan, Brian; Weinberg, Jon; Davidow, Amy L

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Background Patient-classification subgroupings may be important prognostic factors explaining outcomes. Objectives To determine effects of adding classification variables (McKenzie syndrome and pain patterns, including centralization and directional preference; Symptom Checklist Back Pain Prediction Model [SCL BPPM]; and the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire subscales of work and physical activity) to a baseline risk-adjusted model predicting functional status (FS) outcomes. Methods Consecutive patients completed a battery of questionnaires that gathered information on 11 risk-adjustment variables. Physical therapists trained in Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy methods classified each patient by McKenzie syndromes and pain pattern. Functional status was assessed at discharge by patient-reported outcomes. Only patients with complete data were included. Risk of selection bias was assessed. Prediction of discharge FS was assessed using linear stepwise regression models, allowing 13 variables to enter the model. Significant variables were retained in subsequent models. Model power (R(2)) and beta coefficients for model variables were estimated. Results Two thousand sixty-six patients with lumbar impairments were evaluated. Of those, 994 (48%), 10 (<1%), and 601 (29%) were excluded due to incomplete psychosocial data, McKenzie classification data, and missing FS at discharge, respectively. The final sample for analyses was 723 (35%). Overall R(2) for the baseline prediction FS model was 0.40. Adding classification variables to the baseline model did not result in significant increases in R(2). McKenzie syndrome or pain pattern explained 2.8% and 3.0% of the variance, respectively. When pain pattern and SCL BPPM were added simultaneously, overall model R(2) increased to 0.44. Although none of these increases in R(2) were significant, some classification variables were stronger predictors compared with some other variables included in

  19. Student Characteristics and Behaviors at Age 12 Predict Occupational Success 40 Years Later over and above Childhood IQ and Parental Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spengler, Marion; Brunner, Martin; Damian, Rodica I.; Lüdtke, Oliver; Martin, Romain; Roberts, Brent W.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a 2-wave longitudinal sample spanning 40 years from childhood (age 12) to middle adulthood (age 52), the present study was designed to examine how student characteristics and behaviors in late childhood (assessed in Wave 1 in 1968) predict career success in adulthood (assessed in Wave 2 in 2008). We examined the influence of parental…

  20. TDP-43 and pathological subtype of Alzheimer’s disease impact clinical features

    PubMed Central

    Josephs, Keith A.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Weigand, Stephen D.; Murray, Melissa E.; Serie, Amanda M.; Petrucelli, Leonard; Senjem, Matthew L.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Dickson, Dennis W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the frequency of TDP-43 deposition in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) differs across pathologically defined AD subtypes (Hippocampal sparing [HpSp]; Typical and Limbic), and to further examine the relationship between TDP-43, pathological subtype, and clinical features in AD. Methods We identified all cases with pathologically-confirmed AD (NIA-Reagan intermediate-high probability, Braak stage IV–VI) independent of cognitive status (n=188). Neurofibrillary tangle counts were performed using thioflavin-S microscopy in hippocampus and three neocortical regions, and all cases were subtyped: HpSp AD Pathology (n=19); Typical AD Pathology (n=136); Limbic AD Pathology (n=33). TDP-43 immunoreactivity was performed in multiple brain regions to assess for the presence of TDP-43 and TDP-43 stage. All cases were clinically sub-classified at presentation as Amnestic AD Dementia versus Atypical AD Dementia. Statistical analysis was performed using linear and penalized logistic regression to assess associations with pathological subtype, and the effects of TDP-43, accounting for possible interactions between pathological subtype and TDP-43. Results TDP-43 deposition was frequent in Typical (59%) and Limbic AD pathologies (67%), but not HpSp AD Pathology (21%) (p=0.003). The observed associations of TDP-43 with greater memory loss, naming and functional decline, and smaller hippocampal volumes, closest to death, did not differ across AD pathological subtype. Clinical presentation was associated with pathological subtype (p=0.01), but not TDP-43 (p=0.69). Interpretation Although the frequency of TDP-43 deposition in AD varies by pathological subtype, the observed effects of TDP-43 on clinical/MRI features are consistent across pathological subtypes. Clinical presentation in AD is driven by pathological subtype, not by TDP-43. PMID:26224156

  1. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and pathologic response: a retrospective cohort

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Diocésio Alves Pinto; Zucca-Matthes, Gustavo; Vieira, René Aloísio da Costa; de Andrade, Cristiane Thomaz de Aquino Exel; da Costa, Allini Mafra; Monteiro, Aurélio Julião de Castro; Lago, Lissandra Dal; Nunes, João Soares

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the complete pathologic response attained by patients diagnosed with locally advanced breast cancer submitted to neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on the doxorubicin/ cyclophosphamide regimen followed by paclitaxel. Methods: A retrospective cohort of patients with locally advanced breast cancer, admitted to the Hospital de Câncer de Barretos between 2006 and 2008 submitted to the doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide protocol followed by paclitaxel (4 cycles of doxorubicin 60mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 600mg/m2 every 21 days; 4 cycles of paclitaxel 175mg/m2 every 21 days). The following variables were assessed: age, menopause, performance status, initial clinical staging, anthropometric data, chemotherapy (dose – duration), toxicity profile, post-treatment staging, surgery, pathologic complete response rate, disease-free survival, and pathological characteristics (type and histological degree, hormonal profile and lymph node involvement). Statistical analysis was performed using a 5% level of significance. Results: Of the 434 patients evaluated, 136 were excluded due to error in staging or because they had received another type of chemotherapy. Median age was 50 years, all with performance status 0-1. Median initial clinical size of tumor was 65mm and the median final clinical size of the tumor was 22mm. Fifty-one (17.1%) patients experienced a pathologic complete response. Those with a negative hormonal profile or who were triple-negative (negative Her-2 and hormonal profile) experienced a favorable impact on the pathologic complete response. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin/ cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel provided a pathologic complete response in the population studied in accordance with that observed in the literature. Triple-negative patients had a greater chance of attaining this response. PMID:24488382

  2. Predicting ethnic minority children's vocabulary from socioeconomic status, maternal language and home reading input: different pathways for host and ethnic language.

    PubMed

    Prevoo, Mariëlle J L; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; Emmen, Rosanneke A G; Yeniad, Nihal; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Linting, Mariëlle

    2014-09-01

    When bilingual children enter formal reading education, host language proficiency becomes increasingly important. This study investigated the relation between socioeconomic status (SES), maternal language use, reading input, and vocabulary in a sample of 111 six-year-old children of first- and second-generation Turkish immigrant parents in the Netherlands. Mothers reported on their language use with the child, frequency of reading by both parents, and availability of children's books in the ethnic and the host language. Children's Dutch and Turkish vocabulary were tested during a home visit. SES was related to maternal language use and to host language reading input. Reading input mediated the relation between SES and host language vocabulary and between maternal language use and host language vocabulary, whereas only maternal language use was related to ethnic language vocabulary. During transition to formal reading education, one should be aware that children from low-SES families receive less host language reading input.

  3. Karnofsky Performance Status and Lactate Dehydrogenase Predict the Benefit of Palliative Whole-Brain Irradiation in Patients With Advanced Intra- and Extracranial Metastases From Malignant Melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Partl, Richard; Richtig, Erika; Avian, Alexander; Berghold, Andrea; Kapp, Karin S.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To determine prognostic factors that allow the selection of melanoma patients with advanced intra- and extracerebral metastatic disease for palliative whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) or best supportive care. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study of 87 patients who underwent palliative WBRT between 1988 and 2009 for progressive or multiple cerebral metastases at presentation. Uni- and multivariate analysis took into account the following patient- and tumor-associated factors: gender and age, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), neurologic symptoms, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, number of intracranial metastases, previous resection or stereotactic radiosurgery of brain metastases, number of extracranial metastasis sites, and local recurrences as well as regional lymph node metastases at the time of WBRT. Results: In univariate analysis, KPS, LDH, number of intracranial metastases, and neurologic symptoms had a significant influence on overall survival. In multivariate survival analysis, KPS and LDH remained as significant prognostic factors, with hazard ratios of 3.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-6.5) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.6-4.9), respectively. Patients with KPS ≥70 and LDH ≤240 U/L had a median survival of 191 days; patients with KPS ≥70 and LDH >240 U/L, 96 days; patients with KPS <70 and LDH ≤240 U/L, 47 days; and patients with KPS <70 and LDH >240 U/L, only 34 days. Conclusions: Karnofsky performance status and serum LDH values indicate whether patients with advanced intra- and extracranial tumor manifestations are candidates for palliative WBRT or best supportive care.

  4. Communication skills in diagnostic pathology.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Hans-Anton; Bosman, Fred T

    2016-01-01

    Communication is an essential element of good medical practice also in pathology. In contrast to technical or diagnostic skills, communication skills are not easy to define, teach, or assess. Rules almost do not exist. In this paper, which has a rather personal character and cannot be taken as a set of guidelines, important aspects of communication in pathology are explored. This includes what should be communicated to the pathologist on the pathology request form, communication between pathologists during internal (interpathologist) consultation, communication around frozen section diagnoses, modalities of communication of a final diagnosis, with whom and how critical and unexpected findings should be communicated, (in-)adequate routes of communication for pathology diagnoses, who will (or might) receive pathology reports, and what should be communicated and how in case of an error or a technical problem. An earlier more formal description of what the responsibilities are of a pathologist as communicator and as collaborator in a medical team is added in separate tables. The intention of the paper is to stimulate reflection and discussion rather than to formulate strict rules.

  5. HER2-HER3 dimer quantification by FLIM-FRET predicts breast cancer metastatic relapse independently of HER2 IHC status

    PubMed Central

    Lawler, Katherine; Patel, Gargi; Woodman, Natalie; Kelleher, Muireann T.; Pinder, Sarah E.; Rowley, Mark; Ellis, Paul A.; Purushotham, Anand D.; Coolen, Anthonius C.; Kholodenko, Boris N.; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Gillett, Cheryl; Ng, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of HER2 is an important prognostic marker, and the only predictive biomarker of response to HER2-targeted therapies in invasive breast cancer. HER2-HER3 dimer has been shown to drive proliferation and tumor progression, and targeting of this dimer with pertuzumab alongside chemotherapy and trastuzumab, has shown significant clinical utility. The purpose of this study was to accurately quantify HER2-HER3 dimerisation in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) breast cancer tissue as a novel prognostic biomarker. FFPE tissues were obtained from patients included in the METABRIC (Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium) study. HER2-HER3 dimerisation was quantified using an improved fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) histology-based analysis. Analysis of 131 tissue microarray cores demonstrated that the extent of HER2-HER3 dimer formation as measured by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) determined through FLIM predicts the likelihood of metastatic relapse up to 10 years after surgery (hazard ratio 3.91 (1.61–9.5), p = 0.003) independently of HER2 expression, in a multivariate model. Interestingly there was no correlation between the level of HER2 protein expressed and HER2-HER3 heterodimer formation. We used a mathematical model that takes into account the complex interactions in a network of all four HER proteins to explain this counterintuitive finding. Future utility of this technique may highlight a group of patients who do not overexpress HER2 protein but are nevertheless dependent on the HER2-HER3 heterodimer as driver of proliferation. This assay could, if validated in a group of patients treated with, for instance pertuzumab, be used as a predictive biomarker to predict for response to such targeted therapies. PMID:27618787

  6. Socio-Economic Status and Occupational Status Projections of Southern Youth, By Race and Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lever, Michael F.; Kuvlesky, William P.

    The purpose of this study was to examine selected occupational status projections and the relationship between these projections and socioeconomic status (SES). Occupational status projections referred to predictive statements about the future lifetime job of the respondents. The occupational status projections included in the analysis were: (1)…

  7. The molecular pathology of noroviruses.

    PubMed

    Karst, Stephanie M; Zhu, Shu; Goodfellow, Ian G

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus infection in humans typically results in acute gastroenteritis but may also occur in many animal species. Noroviruses are recognized as one of the most common causes of acute gastroenteritis in the world, being responsible for almost 20% of all cases. Despite their prevalence and impact, our knowledge of the norovirus life cycle and the pathological processes associated with norovirus-induced disease is limited. Whilst infection of the intestine is the norm, extraintestinal spread and associated pathologies have also been described. In addition, long-term chronic infections are now recognized as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised. This review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge with respect to norovirus pathology and the underlying mechanisms that have been characterized to date.

  8. Pathology of human diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Malik, R A

    2014-01-01

    Pathologic study of a disease provides insights into the precise mechanisms and targets of damage and may provide insights into new therapies. The main targets in diabetic neuropathy are myelinated and unmyelinated fibers as dysfunction and damage to them explains the symptoms of painful neuropathy and the major end points of foot ulceration and amputation as well as mortality. Demyelination and axonal degeneration are established hallmarks of the pathology of human diabetic neuropathy and were derived from pioneering light and electronmicroscopic studies of sural nerve biopsies in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Additional abnormalities, which are relevant to the pathogenesis of human diabetic neuropathy, include pathology of the microvessels and extracellular space. Intraepidermal and sudomotor nerve quantification in skin biopsies provides a minimally invasive means for the detection of early nerve damage. Studies of muscle biopsies are limited and show significant alterations in the expression of neurotrophins, but limited changes in muscle fiber size and capillary density.

  9. Shame regulation in personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Berenbaum, Howard

    2012-05-01

    Drawing on extant work on shame and emotion regulation, this article proposes that three broad forms of maladaptive shame regulation strategies are fundamental in much of personality pathology: Prevention (e.g., dependence, fantasy), used preemptively, lessens potential for shame; Escape (e.g., social withdrawal, misdirection) reduces current or imminent shame; Aggression, used after shame begins, refocuses shame into anger directed at the self (e.g., physical self-harm) or others (e.g., verbal aggression). This article focuses on the contributions of shame regulation to the development and maintenance of personality pathology, highlighting how various maladaptive shame regulation strategies may lead to personality pathology symptoms, associated features, and dimensions. Consideration is also given to the possible shame-related constructs necessitating emotion regulation (e.g., shame aversion and proneness) and the points in the emotion process when regulation can occur.

  10. [Pathology of the vitreomacular interface].

    PubMed

    Pop, Monica; Gheorghe, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Vitreous role in the pathophysiology of retinal diseases has increased importantly over the recent years. This was possible using Optical Coherence Tomography which reviewed the way the vitreoretinal interface should be looked at and defined and classified new pathologies such as Vitreoretinal Traction Syndrome. Vitreous is not an empty space but an important anatomical structure with role in ocular physiology. With age biochemical changes occur so that vitreous starts to liquefy. Once the vitreous is liquefied (sinchisis) it collapses and passes in the retrohialoid space (sineresis). In complete PVD besides sinchisis there is a weakness of the adherence between the posterior cortex and ILM with total detachment of posterior cortex. Abnormal adhesions are associated with incomplete PVD. The definition and understanting of vitreoretinal pathology is an active and continuous process, PVD being the trigger of a lot of retinal pathologies: epiretinal membrane, macular hole, tractional macular oedema, VMTS, myopic traction maculopathy, exacerbations of exudative ARMD.

  11. Correlating transcriptional networks with pathological complete response following neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Lv, Qiao-Li; Yu, Jing; Hu, Lei; Zhang, Li-Hua; Cheng, Yu; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between gene co-expression modules and responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer by using a systematic biological approach. The gene expression profiles and clinico-pathological data of 508 (discovery set) and 740 (validation set) patients with breast cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis was performed and identified seven co-regulated gene modules. Each module and gene signature were evaluated with logistic regression models for pathological complete response (pCR). The association between modules and pCR in each intrinsic molecular subtype was also investigated. Two transcriptional modules were correlated with tumor grade, estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, and chemotherapy response in breast cancer. One module that constitutes upregulated cell proliferation genes was associated with a high probability for pCR in the whole (odds ratio (OR) = 5.20 and 3.45 in the discovery and validation datasets, respectively), luminal B, and basal-like subtypes. The prognostic potentials of novel genes, such as MELK, and pCR-related genes, such as ESR1 and TOP2A, were identified. The upregulation of another gene co-expression module was associated with weak chemotherapy responses (OR = 0.19 and 0.33 in the discovery and validation datasets, respectively). The novel gene CA12 was identified as a potential prognostic indicator in this module. A systems biology network-based approach may facilitate the discovery of biomarkers for predicting chemotherapy responses in breast cancer and contribute in developing personalized medicines.

  12. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    PubMed

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way.

  13. Molecular Biomarkers of Knee Pathology.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Vanessa; Strauss, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers has become increasingly important in our fundamental understanding of the molecular basis for disease and subsequently in the advancement of modern medicine. Biomarkers have been identified in a plethora of normal and pathologic conditions and are most often found in blood, tissue, or synovial fluid. Orthopaedic research has more recently focused on biomarkers of cartilage and joint diseases, with an emphasis on understanding the molecular underpinnings of their pathophysiology. This article focuses on the biomarkers identified to date in several select knee pathologies and how further research can contribute to new diagnostic tools and targeted therapeutics.

  14. Medical careers in pathology, 1977.

    PubMed Central

    Baron, D N

    1979-01-01

    A survey has been made, mainly covering the second half of 1977, of career grade posts and senior training posts in pathology in the United Kingdom. The survey included all disciplines of pathology and all types of employment--National Health Service, medical school, and many others. The survey also examined the number of applicants for advertised posts and the number of posts left vacant. There were variations between disciplines and between regions; microbiology and Northern Ireland had most failures in filling posts. Overall about 3% of career grade posts, and 15% of training grade posts, were left unfilled. PMID:429573

  15. Attention problems and pathological gaming: resolving the 'chicken and egg' in a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Ceranoglu, T Atilla

    2014-03-01

    Pathological gaming (PG) behaviors are behaviors which interfere with other life responsibilities. Continued debate exists regarding whether symptoms of PG behaviors are a unique phenomenon or arise from other mental health problems, including attention problems. Development of attention problems and occurrence of pathological gaming in 144 adolescents were followed during a 1-year prospective analysis. Teens and their parents reported on pathological gaming behaviors, attention problems, and current grade point average, as well as several social variables. Results were analyzed using regression and path analysis. Attention problems tended to precede pathological gaming behaviors, but the inverse was not true. Attention problems but not pathological gaming predicted lower GPA 1 year later. Current results suggest that pathological gaming arises from attention problems, but not the inverse. These results suggest that pathological gaming behaviors are symptomatic of underlying attention related mental health issues, rather than a unique phenomenon.

  16. Polymorphic variation in the dopamine D4 receptor predicts delay discounting as a function of childhood socioeconomic status: evidence for differential susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Sweitzer, Maggie M.; Halder, Indrani; Flory, Janine D.; Craig, Anna E.; Gianaros, Peter J.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    Inconsistent or null findings among studies associating behaviors on the externalizing spectrum—addictions, impulsivity, risk-taking, novelty-seeking traits—with presence of the 7-repeat allele of a common length polymorphism in the gene encoding the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) may stem from individuals’ variable exposures to prominent environmental moderators (gene × environment interaction). Here, we report that relative preference for immediate, smaller rewards over larger rewards delayed in time (delay discounting), a behavioral endophenotype of impulsive decision-making, varied by interaction of DRD4 genotype with childhood socioeconomic status (SES) among 546 mid-life community volunteers. Independent of age, sex, adulthood SES and IQ, participants who were both raised in families of distinctly low SES (low parental education and occupational grade) and carried the DRD4 7-repeat allele discounted future rewards more steeply than like-reared counterparts of alternate DRD4 genotype. In the absence of childhood socioeconomic disadvantage, however, participants carrying the 7-repeat allele discounted future rewards less steeply. This bidirectional association of DRD4 genotype with temporal discounting, conditioned by participants’ early life circumstances, accords with a recently proposed developmental model of gene × environment interaction (‘differential susceptibility’) that posits genetically modulated sensitivity to both adverse and salubrious environmental influences. PMID:22345368

  17. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  18. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  19. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  20. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  1. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  2. An overview about the pre-earthquake signals observed in relation to Tohoku M9 EQ and the current status of EQ prediction study in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, T.

    2012-12-01

    the effect of induced fields, obvious telluric current variations are detected before the EQ. Yomoto (pers. comm.) also reported that ULF three-component magnetic data observed at Onagawa station, Pc3 polarization showed quite unique feature almost one month before the EQ. Future EQ prediction science in Japan After March 11, Japanese seismological community has changed totally pessimistic view for EQ prediction study. The author suspect the main reason of such pessimism is that the society did not touch upon even the possibility of the occurrence of M 9 class EQ. Nowadays, I dare to say that seismological society of Japan would like to escape EQ prediction study. Because their consensus is deterministic prediction is practically impossible. Basic knowledge of seismologists is, of-course, mechanics. They have no (or very few) interests for electromagnetics. The author believes that the breakthrough of short-term EQ prediction may evolve from other fields. At this moment, Japanese situation is really things look dark. We have to overcome this situation.

  3. Surgical pathology of urologic diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Javadpour, N.; Barsky, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    This text details recent advances in methods for detecting, diagnosing, and managing genitourinary diseases. Included are chapters on imaging techniques (including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound; tumor markers (such as alphafetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, prostatic specific antigen, and T-antigens); immunocytochemistry; pediatric urologic pathology; and other key topics.

  4. Learning Biology with Plant Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Juliet E.

    This monograph contains 10 plant pathology experiments that were written to correspond to portions of a biology curriculum. Each experiment is suitable to a biology topic and designed to encourage exploration of those biological concepts being taught. Experiments include: (1) The Symptoms and Signs of Disease; (2) Koch's Postulates; (3)…

  5. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  6. Mediators involved in the relation between depressive symptoms and weight status in female adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Wall, Melanie M.; Choo, Tse-Hwei J.; Larson, Nicole I.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Depression may be a risk factor for overweight status, but mechanisms involved in this relationship are unclear. This study explored behavioral factors involved in the relationship between adolescent depression symptoms and adult overweight status. A population-based cohort of female participants in Project EAT (n=1,035) was followed over 10 years and reported on psychological functioning, weight status, and eating and activity patterns in early/middle adolescence (1999=Time 1; T1), middle adolescence/early young adulthood (2004=Time 2; T2), and early/middle young adulthood (2009=Time 3; T3). Structural equation models were fit which included T1 depression scores predicting overweight status at T3, with T2 fruit and vegetable consumption, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and binge eating examined as mediators. There were small but significant effects of T1 depression scores predicting an increased likelihood of T3 overweight status (standardized estimate=0.038; p=.007), and of T2 binge eating mediating the relation between T1 depression and T3 overweight status (standardized indirect effect estimate=.036; p=.009). Binge eating may be one pathway to overweight among depressed females, suggesting that recognition and treatment of eating pathology in individuals with depression may help prevent overweight. Examination of other behavioral (and non-behavioral) factors explaining the relationship between depression and overweight is warranted. PMID:25640769

  7. Prediction of Vitamin A, Vitamin E, Selenium and Zinc Status of Periparturient Dairy Cows Using Blood Sampling During the Mid Dry Period

    PubMed Central

    Meglia, GE; Holtenius, K; Petersson, L; Öhagen, P; Waller, K Persson

    2004-01-01

    Vitamins A and E, and the trace elements selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) are essential for the health and performance of dairy cows. Their concentrations often decrease around calving and extra supplementation is sometimes recommended at that time. However, the need for this varies, for example depending on quantity and quality of feedstuffs in the diet. The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of serum vitamin A (S-vit A) and vitamin E (S-vit E), plasma Se (P-Se) and serum Zn (S-Zn) in blood samples taken at several time points from one month before to one month after calving, and to evaluate if a blood sample taken during the mid dry period can accurately predict the blood concentration at calving and early lactation. Dairy cows on 3 different feeding regimens during the dry period were included in the study. A significant decrease in the concentrations of S-vit A and S-vit E, and S-Zn, was observed at calving, and P-Se was significantly lower during the dry period and at calving than in early lactation. The blood concentrations of S-vit E and P-Se in the mid dry period significantly predicted the occurrence of values considered marginal or deficient at the time of calving. The data indicate that a mid dry period concentration of ≥5.4 mg/l of S-vit E and ≥0.09 mg/l of P-Se will result in a 90% chance that the cow stays above marginal levels at calving given that a feed of the same quality is offered. PMID:15535092

  8. Predicting non-sentinel lymph node status after positive sentinel biopsy in breast cancer: what model performs the best in a Czech population?

    PubMed

    Coufal, Oldrich; Pavlík, Tomás; Fabian, Pavel; Bori, Rita; Boross, Gábor; Sejben, István; Maráz, Róbert; Koca, Jaroslav; Krejcí, Eva; Horáková, Iva; Foltinová, Vendula; Vrtelová, Pavlína; Chrenko, Vojtech; Eliza Tekle, Wolde; Rajtár, Mária; Svébis, Mihály; Fait, Vuk; Cserni, Gábor

    2009-12-01

    Several models have previously been proposed to predict the probability of non-sentinel lymph node (NSLN) metastases after a positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of two previously published nomograms (MSKCC, Stanford) and to develop an alternative model with the best predictive accuracy in a Czech population. In the basic population of 330 SLN-positive patients from the Czech Republic, the accuracy of the MSKCC and the Stanford nomograms was tested by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). A new model (MOU nomogram) was proposed according to the results of multivariate analysis of relevant clinicopathologic variables. The new model was validated in an independent test population from Hungary (383 patients). In the basic population, six of 27 patients with isolated tumor cells (ITC) in the SLN harbored additional NSLN metastases. The AUCs of the MSKCC and Stanford nomograms were 0.68 and 0.66, respectively; for the MOU nomogram it reached 0.76. In the test population, the AUC of the MOU nomogram was similar to that of the basic population (0.74). The presence of only ITC in SLN does not preclude further nodal involvement. Additional variables are beneficial when considering the probability of NSLN metastases. In the basic population, the previously published nomograms (MSKCC and Stanford) showed only limited accuracy. The developed MOU nomogram proved more suitable for the basic population, such as for another independent population from a mid-European country.

  9. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Status in Circulating Tumor Cells as a Predictive Biomarker of Sensitivity in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Docetaxel Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Okegawa, Takatsugu; Itaya, Naoshi; Hara, Hidehiko; Tambo, Mitsuhiro; Nutahara, Kikuo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We examined whether epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be used to predict survival in a population of bone-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients treated with docetaxel chemotherapy. Methods: All patients with mCRPC who had experienced treatment failure with androgen-deprivation therapy and had received docetaxel chemotherapy were eligible. CTCs and EGFR expression in CTCs were enumerated with the CellSearch System in whole blood. This system is a semi-automated system that detects and enriches epithelial cells from whole blood using an EpCAM antibody-based immunomagnetic capture. In addition, the EGFR-positive CTCs were assessed using CellSearch® Tumor Phenotyping Reagent EGFR. Results: The median CTC count at baseline before starting trial treatment was eight CTCs per 7.5 mL of blood (range 0–184). There were 37 patients (61.7%) who had ≥5 CTCs, with median overall survival of 11.5 months compared with 20.0 months for 23 patients (38.3%) with <5 CTCs (p < 0.001). A total of 15 patients (40.5%, 15/37) with five or more CTCs were subjected to automated immunofluorescence staining and cell sorting for EGFR protein. Patients with EGFR-positive CTCs had a shorter overall survival (OS) (5.5 months) than patients with EGFR-negative CTCs (20.0 months). CTCs, EGFR-positive CTCs, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were independent predictors of overall survival time (p = 0.002, p < 0.001, and p = 0.017, respectively). Conclusion: CTCs may be an independent predictor of OS in CRPC treated with docetaxel chemotherapy. The EGFR expression detected in CTCs was important for assessing the response to chemotherapy and predicting disease outcome. PMID:27916908

  10. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape

    PubMed Central

    Cucoranu, Ioan C.; Parwani, Anil V.; Vepa, Suryanarayana; Weinstein, Ronald S.; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-01-01

    ), workflow, slide navigation and remote control). An increasing number of recent patents focused on computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and digital consultation networks. Conclusion: In the last 2 decades, there have been an increasing number of patents granted and patent applications filed related to digital pathology. The number of these patents quadrupled during the last decade, and this trend is predicted to intensify based on the number of patent applications already published by the USPTO. PMID:25057430

  11. Can personality traits predict pathological responses to audiovisual stimulation?

    PubMed

    Yambe, Tomoyuki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Fukudo, Shin; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Shizuka, Kazuhiko; Nanka, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Akira; Abe, Ken-ichi; Shouji, Tomonori; Hongo, Michio; Tabayashi, Kouichi; Nitta, Shin-ichi

    2003-10-01

    The "Pockemon shock" is the most famous accident in the history of the broadcasting industry in Japan. Based on the experiences of this unfortunate accident from famous animation program "Pocket Monster", this study focused on the psychology and psychosomatics of the patients. A head-mounted display was used as the three-dimensional image presentation device and "Descent", a free software shooting game, was used as the software. Ten healthy adult male volunteers were used in this experiment after obtaining their informed consent. The oxygen metabolic change in the anterior lobe of the brain was measured by near infrared spectroscopy and recorded on an electrocardiogram. The mental scaling tendency of the object was analyzed using the type A behavior pattern and the hostility scaling. The Cook and Medley hostility (HO) scale from the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) was also used in this experiment. From this scaling methodology, the paranoid scale, cynicism scale, lie scale, social support quality and social support quantity were calculated. All measured time series data were kept in the normal range, and no fatal arrhythmia or epilepsy were observed during experiments. In some cases, the brain oxygen metabolism may completely differ for the objects of Type A and Type B behavior patterns. On the whole, correlation did not become significant in type A scaling and hostility scaling. In a comparison of the percent changes of the HF in HRV with lie scaling, significant negative correlation was observed. The social support quantity was calculated from Cook and Medley, and significant negative correlations were observed with percent changes of LF/HF in HRV. The lie scale and social support quantity are opposite scaling. The sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system have an opposite function also. Therefore, our results showed an interesting phenomenon, when considering the relationship between the autonomic function and the pathophysiological reaction to the audiovisual stimulations. As for the photo sensitive epilepsy, it was reported to be only 5-10% for all patients. Therefore, 90% or more of the cause could not be determined in patients who started a morbid response. The results in this study suggest that the autonomic function was connected to the mental tendency of the objects. By examining such directivity, it is expected that subjects, which show morbid reaction to an audiovisual stimulation, can be screened beforehand.

  12. Pathological Significance of Mitochondrial Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Murphy, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Glycation, the nonenzymatic glycosylation of biomolecules, is commonly observed in diabetes and ageing. Reactive dicarbonyl species such as methylglyoxal and glyoxal are thought to be major physiological precursors of glycation. Because these dicarbonyls tend to be formed intracellularly, the levels of advanced glycation end products on cellular proteins are higher than on extracellular ones. The formation of glycation adducts within cells can have severe functional consequences such as inhibition of protein activity and promotion of DNA mutations. Although several lines of evidence suggest that there are specific mitochondrial targets of glycation, and mitochondrial dysfunction itself has been implicated in disease and ageing, it is unclear if glycation of biomolecules specifically within mitochondria induces dysfunction and contributes to disease pathology. We discuss here the possibility that mitochondrial glycation contributes to disease, focussing on diabetes, ageing, cancer, and neurodegeneration, and highlight the current limitations in our understanding of the pathological significance of mitochondrial glycation. PMID:22778743

  13. Noise reduction for vocal pathologies.

    PubMed

    Matassini, L; Manfredi, C

    2002-01-01

    A noise reduction scheme, particularly suited for the correction of vocal pathologies, is proposed. The filter makes use of concepts originated within the theory of dynamical systems and deterministic chaos. In particular, the idea of embedding scalar data in order to reconstruct a phase space is of fundamental importance here. Furthermore, the concept of an attractor as a result of dynamical constraints is exploited. In order to perform noise reduction one needs redundancy and the human voice provides it even within a phoneme, namely the smallest structural unit of speech. Due to several repetitions of a pattern called pitch inside a phoneme, separation between the pure voice signal and the noise is possible, provided the latter is uncorrelated with the former. With a proper parameter tuning, different kinds of noise can be removed. We describe the idea behind the noise reduction algorithm and present applications to vocal pathologies.

  14. Quality in pathology laboratory practice.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, S

    1995-06-01

    Quality refers not only to analytical quality control, a traditional area of laboratory excellence, but to the entire science of quality management. As measures of quality, structural indicators refer to staffing and physical facilities, process indicators to the institutions operations and, perhaps most importantly, outcome indicators address the ultimate patient care uses that pathology information is put to. Comparison of performance to peer laboratories, external quality control, is a practical, if limited, yardstick of performance. Customer satisfaction and turn-around-time of tests are receiving more recent attention as quality measures. Blood banking, because of its inherently complex cycle from donor phlebotomy to product infusion, requires special considerations with regard to quality management. Reporting of anatomical pathology, where the only gold standard is a consensus of experts, also does not lend itself to classical numerical quality assessment.

  15. Interleukin-22: immunobiology and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Dudakov, Jarrod A.; Hanash, Alan M.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a recently described IL-10 family cytokine that is produced by T-helper (Th)-17 cells, γδ T cells, NKT cells and newly described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Knowledge of IL-22 biology has rapidly evolved since its discovery in 2000, and a role for IL-22 has been identified in numerous tissues including the intestines, lung, liver, kidney, thymus, pancreas and skin. IL-22 primarily targets non-hematopoietic epithelial and stromal cells where it can promote proliferation and play a role in tissue regeneration. In addition, IL-22 regulates host defense at barrier surfaces. However, IL-22 has also been linked to several conditions involving inflammatory tissue pathology. In this review, we will assess the current understanding of this cytokine, including its physiologic and pathologic effects on epithelial cell function. PMID:25706098

  16. Pathology of glomerular deposition diseases.

    PubMed

    Joh, Kensuke

    2007-09-01

    In routine diagnosis on renal biopsy, one of the confusing fields for pathological diagnoses is the glomerulopathies with fibrillary structure. The primary glomerulopathies with a deposit of ultrastructural fibrillary structure, which are negative for Congo-red stain but positive for immunoglobulins, include fibrillary glomerulonephritis and immunotactoid glomerulopathy. Several paraproteinemias including cryoglobulinemia, monoclonal gammopathy, and light chain deposition disease as well as hematopoietic disorders including plasmacytoma, plasma cell dyscrasia, and B cell lymphoproliferative disorders involve glomerulopathy with an ultrastructural fibrillary structure. A rare glomerulopathy with fibrillary structure that stains negative for Congo-red as well as for immunoglobulins has been also reported. The pathological diagnoses of these glomerulopathies can include either glomerular diseases, or paraproteinemic diseases, or hematopoietic diseases. The terminology is still confusing when glomerular diseases can be combined with paraproteinemic diseases and/or hematopoietic diseases. Therefore, the generic term, 'glomerular deposition disease' (GDD), has been proposed by pathologists with a requirement for clinicians to detect autoantibodies, paraproteins as well as to carry out a bone marrow check. An attempt has been made to rearrange the diseases with related disorders of fibrillary deposits, based on detailed clinical and pathological finding and to elucidate the correlation between GDD, paraproteinemia, and hematopoietic disorder.

  17. Pathologic classification of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Tervaert, Thijs W Cohen; Mooyaart, Antien L; Amann, Kerstin; Cohen, Arthur H; Cook, H Terence; Drachenberg, Cinthia B; Ferrario, Franco; Fogo, Agnes B; Haas, Mark; de Heer, Emile; Joh, Kensuke; Noël, Laure H; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Seshan, Surya V; Bajema, Ingeborg M; Bruijn, Jan A

    2010-04-01

    Although pathologic classifications exist for several renal diseases, including IgA nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and lupus nephritis, a uniform classification for diabetic nephropathy is lacking. Our aim, commissioned by the Research Committee of the Renal Pathology Society, was to develop a consensus classification combining type1 and type 2 diabetic nephropathies. Such a classification should discriminate lesions by various degrees of severity that would be easy to use internationally in clinical practice. We divide diabetic nephropathy into four hierarchical glomerular lesions with a separate evaluation for degrees of interstitial and vascular involvement. Biopsies diagnosed as diabetic nephropathy are classified as follows: Class I, glomerular basement membrane thickening: isolated glomerular basement membrane thickening and only mild, nonspecific changes by light microscopy that do not meet the criteria of classes II through IV. Class II, mesangial expansion, mild (IIa) or severe (IIb): glomeruli classified as mild or severe mesangial expansion but without nodular sclerosis (Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions) or global glomerulosclerosis in more than 50% of glomeruli. Class III, nodular sclerosis (Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions): at least one glomerulus with nodular increase in mesangial matrix (Kimmelstiel-Wilson) without changes described in class IV. Class IV, advanced diabetic glomerulosclerosis: more than 50% global glomerulosclerosis with other clinical or pathologic evidence that sclerosis is attributable to diabetic nephropathy. A good interobserver reproducibility for the four classes of DN was shown (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.84) in a test of this classification.

  18. Selflessness and perfectionism as predictors of pathological eating attitudes and disorders: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bachar, Eytan; Gur, Eitan; Canetti, Laura; Berry, Elliot; Stein, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role that selflessness and perfectionism may play as possible predictors of pathological eating attitudes and eating disorders (ED). 1057 schoolgirls (seventh to ninth grade) participated in the initial screening phase. They were administered the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), Selflessness Scale (SS) and Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS). Based on their EAT-26 scores, 150 girls were invited to a clinical interview 2 years later (second phase). In the third phase 4 years later, 243 girls who completed the questionnaires in the seventh grade were the target of re-administration of these scales. Seventh-grade selflessness scores at initial screening phase predicted ED status determined in clinical interview at the 2-year interval and abnormal eating attitudes at the 4-year interval, above and beyond baseline seventh-grade eating-attitude scores. Perfectionism was not found to predict the development of neither ED nor abnormal eating attitudes. Preventional and therapeutic implications of the role of selflessness as a predisposing factor for ED are discussed.

  19. Tree-ring δ13C and δ18O, leaf δ13C and wood and leaf N status demonstrate tree growth strategies and predict susceptibility to disturbance.

    PubMed

    Billings, S A; Boone, A S; Stephen, F M

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how tree growth strategies may influence tree susceptibility to disturbance is an important goal, especially given projected increases in diverse ecological disturbances this century. We use growth responses of tree rings to climate, relationships between tree-ring stable isotopic signatures of carbon (δ(13)C) and oxygen (δ(18)O), wood nitrogen concentration [N], and contemporary leaf [N] and δ(13)C values to assess potential historic drivers of tree photosynthesis in dying and apparently healthy co-occurring northern red oak (Quercus rubra L. (Fagaceae)) during a region-wide oak decline event in Arkansas, USA. Bole growth of both healthy and dying trees responded negatively to drought severity (Palmer Drought Severity Index) and temperature; healthy trees exhibited a positive, but small, response to growing season precipitation. Contrary to expectations, tree-ring δ(13)C did not increase with drought severity. A significantly positive relationship between tree-ring δ(13)C and δ(18)O was evident in dying trees (P < 0.05) but not in healthy trees. Healthy trees' wood exhibited lower [N] than that of dying trees throughout most of their lives (P < 0.05), and we observed a significant, positive relationship (P < 0.05) in healthy trees between contemporary leaf δ(13)C and leaf N (by mass), but not in dying trees. Our work provides evidence that for plants in which strong relationships between δ(13)C and δ(18)O are not evident, δ(13)C may be governed by plant N status. The data further imply that historic photosynthesis in healthy trees was linked to N status and, perhaps, C sink strength to a greater extent than in dying trees, in which tree-ring stable isotopes suggest that historic photosynthesis was governed primarily by stomatal regulation. This, in turn, suggests that assessing the relative dominance of photosynthetic capacity vs stomatal regulation as drivers of trees' C accrual may be a feasible means of predicting tree

  20. Pooled Analysis of the Prognostic and Predictive Effects of KRAS Mutation Status and KRAS Mutation Subtype in Early-Stage Resected Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Four Trials of Adjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Frances A.; Domerg, Caroline; Hainaut, Pierre; Jänne, Pasi A.; Pignon, Jean-Pierre; Graziano, Stephen; Douillard, Jean-Yves; Brambilla, Elizabeth; Le Chevalier, Thierry; Seymour, Lesley; Bourredjem, Abderrahmane; Teuff, Gwénaël Le; Pirker, Robert; Filipits, Martin; Rosell, Rafael; Kratzke, Robert; Bandarchi, Bizhan; Ma, Xiaoli; Capelletti, Marzia; Soria, Jean-Charles; Tsao, Ming-Sound

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We undertook this analysis of KRAS mutation in four trials of adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) versus observation (OBS) to clarify the prognostic/predictive roles of KRAS in non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods KRAS mutation was determined in blinded fashion. Exploratory analyses were performed to characterize relationships between mutation status and subtype and survival outcomes using a multivariable Cox model. Results Among 1,543 patients (763 OBS, 780 ACT), 300 had KRAS mutations (codon 12, n = 275; codon 13, n = 24; codon 14, n = 1). In OBS patients, there was no prognostic difference for overall survival for codon-12 (mutation v wild type [WT] hazard ratio [HR] = 1.04; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.40) or codon-13 (HR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.47 to 2.17) mutations. No significant benefit from ACT was observed for WT-KRAS (ACT v OBS HR = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.04; P = .15) or codon-12 mutations (HR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.35; P = .77); with codon-13 mutations, ACT was deleterious (HR = 5.78; 95% CI, 2.06 to 16.2; P < .001; interaction P = .002). There was no prognostic effect for specific codon-12 amino acid substitution. The effect of ACT was variable among patients with codon-12 mutations: G12A or G12R (HR = 0.66; P = .48), G12C or G12V (HR = 0.94; P = .77) and G12D or G12S (HR = 1.39; P = .48; comparison of four HRs, including WT, interaction P = .76). OBS patients with KRAS-mutated tumors were more likely to develop second primary cancers (HR = 2.76, 95% CI, 1.34 to 5.70; P = .005) but not ACT patients (HR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.25 to 1.75; P = .40; interaction, P = .02). Conclusion KRAS mutation status is not significantly prognostic. The potential interaction in patients with codon-13 mutations requires validation. At this time, KRAS status cannot be recommended to select patients with NSCLC for ACT. PMID:23630215

  1. Evaluation and treatment of pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    González-Ibáñez, Angels; Rosel, Pilar; Moreno, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this article was to describe a model for evaluating and implementing cognitive-behavioral treatment for pathological gambling. The model takes into account the fact that pathological gamblers form a heterogeneous group with varied biopsychosocial characteristics.

  2. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  3. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  4. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  5. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  6. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  7. Bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: targeting pathological fractures.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duong T; Burg, Karen J L

    2015-01-01

    Patients with bone diseases have the highest risk of sustaining fractures and of suffering from nonunion bone healing due to tissue degeneration. Current fracture management strategies are limited in design and functionality and do not effectively promote bone healing within a diseased bone environment. Fracture management approaches include pharmaceutical therapy, surgical intervention, and tissue regeneration for fracture prevention, fracture stabilization, and fracture site regeneration, respectively. However, these strategies fail to accommodate the pathological nature of fragility fractures, leading to unwanted side effects, implant failures, and nonunions. To target fragility fractures, fracture management strategies should include bioactive bone substitutes designed for the pathological environment. However, the clinical outcome of these materials must be predictable within various disease environments. Initial development of a targeted treatment strategy should focus on simulating the physiological in vitro bone environment to predict clinical effectiveness of the engineered bone. An in vitro test system can facilitate reduction of implant failures and non-unions in fragility fractures.

  8. MRI Predictive Factors for Tumor Response in Rectal Cancer Following Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy - Implications for Induction Chemotherapy?

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Stanley K.T.; Tait, Diana

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics at baseline and following chemoradiation therapy (CRT) most strongly associated with histopathologic response were investigated and survival outcomes evaluated in accordance with imaging and pathological response. Methods and Materials: Responders were defined as mrT3c/d-4 downstaged to ypT0-2 on pathology or low at risk mrT2 downstaged to ypT1 or T0. Multivariate logistic regression of baseline and posttreatment MRI: T, N, extramural venous invasion (EMVI), circumferential resection margin, craniocaudal length <5 cm, and MRI tumor height ≤5 cm were used to identify independent predictor(s) for response. An association between induction chemotherapy and EMVI status was analyzed. Survival outcomes for pathologic and MRI responders and nonresponders were analyzed. Results: Two hundred eighty-one patients were eligible; 114 (41%) patients were pathology responders. Baseline MRI negative EMVI (odds ratio 2.94, P=.007), tumor height ≤5 cm (OR 1.96, P=.02), and mrEMVI status change (positive to negative) following CRT (OR 3.09, P<.001) were the only predictors for response. There was a strong association detected between induction chemotherapy and ymrEMVI status change after CRT (OR 9.0, P<.003). ymrT0-2 gave a positive predictive value of 80% and OR of 9.1 for ypT0-2. ymrN stage accuracy of ypN stage was 75%. Three-year disease-free survival for pathology and MRI responders were similar at 80% and 79% and significantly better than poor responders. Conclusions: Tumor height and mrEMVI status are more important than baseline size and stage of the tumor as predictors of response to CRT. Both MRI- and pathologic-defined responders have significantly improved survival. “Good response” to CRT in locally advanced rectal cancer with ypT0-2 carries significantly better 3-year overall survival and disease-free survival. Use of induction chemotherapy for improving mrEMVI status and knowledge of MRI

  9. The use of digital images in pathology.

    PubMed

    Furness, P N

    1997-11-01

    Digital images are routinely used by the publishing industry, but most diagnostic pathologists are unfamiliar with the technology and its possibilities. This review aims to explain the basic principles of digital image acquisition, storage, manipulation and use, and the possibilities provided not only in research, but also in teaching and in routine diagnostic pathology. Images of natural objects are usually expressed digitally as 'bitmaps'--rectilinear arrays of small dots. The size of each dot can vary, but so can its information content in terms, for example, of colour, greyscale or opacity. Various file formats and compression algorithms are available. Video cameras connected to microscopes are familiar to most pathologists; video images can be converted directly to a digital form by a suitably equipped computer. Digital cameras and scanners are alternative acquisition tools of relevance to pathologists. Once acquired, a digital image can easily be subjected to the digital equivalent of any conventional darkroom manipulation and modern software allows much more flexibility, to such an extent that a new tool for scientific fraud has been created. For research, image enhancement and analysis is an increasingly powerful and affordable tool. Morphometric measurements are, after many predictions, at last beginning to be part of the toolkit of the diagnostic pathologist. In teaching, the potential to create dramatic yet informative presentations is demonstrated daily by the publishing industry; such methods are readily applicable to the classroom. The combination of digital images and the Internet raises many possibilities; for example, instead of seeking one expert diagnostic opinion, one could simultaneously seek the opinion of many, all around the globe. It is inevitable that in the coming years the use of digital images will spread from the laboratory to the medical curriculum and to the whole of diagnostic pathology.

  10. [Dental status in children and adolescents diagnosed with obesity].

    PubMed

    Galkina, Iu V; Gavrilova, O A; Piekalnits, I Ia; Dianov, O A

    2015-01-01

    Dental status was studied in 168 obese teenagers aged from 12 to 17 years. The study revealed high prevalence in this group of teenagers of oral pathology like caries and fluorosis, inflammatory periodontal disease in 75% of children and poor oral hygiene level. One should consider high need for development of treatment-and-prophylactic measures for improvement of dental status in obese teenagers.

  11. Interpersonal guilt in college student pathological gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Geoffrey W.; Shilkret, Robert; Everett, Joyce E.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Interpersonal guilt is associated with psychopathology, but its relationship to pathological gambling has not been studied. Objectives This study examined the relationship between interpersonal guilt and pathological gambling. Methods In total, 1,979 college students completed a questionnaire containing the South Oaks Gambling Screen, Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire, and questions about substance use. Students identified as pathological gamblers (n = 145) were matched to non-problem gamblers with respect to demographics and substance use. Results Pathological gamblers had significantly higher interpersonal guilt than their non-problem gambling peers. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Pathological gambling college students have excessive interpersonal guilt, and these findings may lead to novel treatment approaches. PMID:22746179

  12. Quality assurance in forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Ong, Beng Beng; Milne, Nathan

    2009-06-01

    One of the requirements for proper running of a pathology laboratory is implementation of a quality assurance programme. Forensic pathology is not exempted, especially so when cases are increasing in complexity. It is not difficult to introduce a quality assurance programme even in a small forensic centre. Among the steps that can be implemented including introduction of a set of minimal standards in performance of the autopsy, timeliness and report writing, a vigorous peer review process either internally or externally and participation in external quality programmes. Proper documentation of the post-mortem process (photography, slides and blocks and various imaging modalities) is to be encouraged. There should be limits set on workload of pathologists as overburden is known to lower standards. A pleasant work environment is also essential. Personal continuous medical education should be made mandatory. Introduction of a quality assurance programme will not only improve standards but minimise possible negligence. The post-mortem reports will be seen to carry more weight in court.

  13. Virtual microscopy in pathology education.

    PubMed

    Dee, Fred R

    2009-08-01

    Technology for acquisition of virtual slides was developed in 1985; however, it was not until the late 1990s that desktop computers had enough processing speed to commercialize virtual microscopy and apply the technology to education. By 2000, the progressive decrease in use of traditional microscopy in medical student education had set the stage for the entry of virtual microscopy into medical schools. Since that time, it has been successfully implemented into many pathology courses in the United States and around the world, with surveys indicating that about 50% of pathology courses already have or expect to implement virtual microscopy. Over the last decade, in addition to an increasing ability to emulate traditional microscopy, virtual microscopy has allowed educators to take advantage of the accessibility, efficiency, and pedagogic versatility of the computer and the Internet. The cost of virtual microscopy in education is now quite reasonable after taking into account replacement cost for microscopes, maintenance of glass slides, and the fact that 1-dimensional microscope space can be converted to multiuse computer laboratories or research. Although the current technology for implementation of virtual microscopy in histopathology education is very good, it could be further improved upon by better low-power screen resolution and depth of field. Nevertheless, virtual microscopy is beginning to play an increasing role in continuing education, house staff education, and evaluation of competency in histopathology. As Z-axis viewing (focusing) becomes more efficient, virtual microscopy will also become integrated into education in cytology, hematology, microbiology, and urinalysis.

  14. The association between sports participation and athletic identity with eating pathology among college-aged males and females.

    PubMed

    Fay, K; Economos, C; Lerner, R M; Becker, A E; Sacheck, J

    2011-06-01

    The current study examined associations among sports participation (SP), athletic identity (AI), weight status, and eating pathology, and whether these relations differed by gender. Data come from male and female first-year college students who participated in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS) between 1999-2007 (N=712). Relations among SP, AI, actual and perceived weight statuses, Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) subscale scores, and indices of body shape concern and restrictive eating were examined with hierarchical ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. Associations between SP and eating pathology among females were moderated by perceived weight status. By contrast, relations between males' EDI subscales scores and SP were moderated by ethnicity, as well as by actual weight status. Our findings support that sports participation alone neither promotes nor protects against eating pathology among males and females.

  15. Anatomical pathology is dead? Long live anatomical pathology.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, John M; Francis, Glenn D

    2011-10-01

    The standard diagnostic instrument used for over 150 years by anatomical pathologists has been the optical microscope and glass slide. The advent of immunohistochemistry in the routine laboratory in the 1980s, followed by in situ hybridisation in the 1990s, has increased the armamentaria available to the diagnostic pathologist, and this technology has led to changed patient management in a limited number of neoplastic diseases. The first decade of the 21 century has seen an increasing number of publications using proteomic technologies that promise to change disease diagnosis and management, the traditional role of an anatomical pathologist. Despite the plethora of publications on proteomics and pathology, to date there are actually limited data where proteomic technologies do appear to be of greater diagnostic value than the standard histological slide. Though proteomic techniques will become more prevalent in the future, it will need the expertise of an anatomical pathologist to dissect out and validate this added information.

  16. Vasoregression: A Shared Vascular Pathology Underlying Macrovascular And Microvascular Pathologies?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Akanksha

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vasoregression is a common phenomenon underlying physiological vessel development as well as pathological microvascular diseases leading to peripheral neuropathy, nephropathy, and vascular oculopathies. In this review, we describe the hallmarks and pathways of vasoregression. We argue here that there is a parallel between characteristic features of vasoregression in the ocular microvessels and atherosclerosis in the larger vessels. Shared molecular pathways and molecular effectors in the two conditions are outlined, thus highlighting the possible systemic causes of local vascular diseases. Our review gives us a system-wide insight into factors leading to multiple synchronous vascular diseases. Because shared molecular pathways might usefully address the diagnostic and therapeutic needs of multiple common complex diseases, the literature analysis presented here is of broad interest to readership in integrative biology, rational drug development and systems medicine. PMID:26669709

  17. Wind shear predictive detector technology study status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gandolfi, C.

    1990-01-01

    Among the different elements to be investigated when considering the Wind Shear hazard, the Aeronautical Navigation Technical Service (STNA/3E), whose task is to participate in the development of new technologies and equipments, focused its effort on airborne and ground sensors for the detection of low-level wind shear. The first task, initiated in 1986, consists in the evaluation of three candidate techniques for forward-looking sensors: lidar, sodar, and radar. No development is presently foreseen for an infrared based air turbulence advance warning system although some flight experiments took place in the 70's. A Thomson infrared radiometer was then installed on an Air France Boeing 707 to evaluate its capability of detecting clear air turbulence. The conclusion showed that this technique was apparently able to detect cloud layers but that additional experiments were needed; on the other hand, the rarity of the phenomenon and the difficulty in operating on a commercial aircraft were also mentioned.

  18. Prognostic Influence of Clinical and Pathological Factors in Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Study of 53 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Lenine G.; Cavalheiro, Beatriz G.; Junqueira, Consuelo R.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES AND INTRODUCTION Medullary thyroid carcinoma, a neoplasia of intermediate prognosis and differentiation, does not always respond predictably to known treatments. This study aimed to correlate the clinical progression of surgically treated patients with clinical and pathological data. METHODS A total of 53 patients were followed for 75 months (mean average) in tertiary-care hospital. The clinical status of patients at the end of the study period was characterized to determine correlations with a range of disease aspects. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS Twenty-two patients (41.5%) were alive and disease-free at the end of the follow-up period; twenty-three patients (43.4%) had persistent disease; and eight patients (15.1%) had recurrent disease. Four patients (7.6%) died from medullary thyroid carcinoma with clinical and/or imaging evidence of neoplasia. The following aspects demonstrated statistically significant correlations with the final medical condition: positive initial cervical examination (p = 0.002); neoplastic extensions to the thyroid capsule (p = 0.004) and adjacent tissues (p = 0.034); cervical lymph node metastases (p < 0.001); diameter of neoplasia (p = 0.018); TNM (tumor, node and metastasis) Stage (p = 0.001) and evidence of distant and/or cervical diseases in the absence of a cure (p = 0.011). Through logistic regression, the presence of cervical lymph node metastases was considered an independent variable (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Clinical and pathological aspects of patients with surgically treated medullary thyroid carcinomas are predictors of disease progression. Specifically, even treated cervical lymph node metastases are significantly correlated with disease progression. PMID:19759878