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Sample records for status selenoprotein expression

  1. Thyroid hormones regulate selenoprotein expression and selenium status in mice.

    PubMed

    Mittag, Jens; Behrends, Thomas; Hoefig, Carolin S; Vennström, Björn; Schomburg, Lutz

    2010-09-22

    Impaired expression of selenium-containing proteins leads to perturbed thyroid hormone (TH) levels, indicating the central importance of selenium for TH homeostasis. Moreover, critically ill patients with declining serum selenium develop a syndrome of low circulating TH and a central downregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. This prompted us to test the reciprocal effect, i.e., if TH status would also regulate selenoprotein expression and selenium levels. To investigate the TH dependency of selenium metabolism, we analyzed mice expressing a mutant TH receptor α1 (TRα1+m) that confers a receptor-mediated hypothyroidism. Serum selenium was reduced in these animals, which was a direct consequence of the mutant TRα1 and not related to their metabolic alterations. Accordingly, hyperthyroidism, genetically caused by the inactivation of TRβ or by oral TH treatment of adult mice, increased serum selenium levels in TRα1+m and controls, thus demonstrating a novel and specific role for TRα1 in selenium metabolism. Furthermore, TH affected the mRNA levels for several enzymes involved in selenoprotein biosynthesis as well as serum selenoprotein P concentrations and the expression of other antioxidative selenoproteins. Taken together, our results show that TH positively affects the serum selenium status and regulates the expression of several selenoproteins. This demonstrates that selenium and TH metabolism are interconnected through a feed-forward regulation, which can in part explain the rapid parallel downregulation of both systems in critical illness.

  2. Transcriptional regulation of mammalian selenoprotein expression

    PubMed Central

    Stoytcheva, Zoia R.; Berry, Marla J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Selenoproteins contain the twenty-first amino acid, selenocysteine, and are involved in cellular defenses against oxidative damage, important metabolic and developmental pathways, and responses to environmental challenges. Elucidating the mechanisms regulating selenoprotein expression at the transcriptional level is key to understanding how these mechanisms are called into play to respond to the changing environment. Methods This review summarizes published studies on transcriptional regulation of selenoprotein genes, focused primarily on genes whose encoded protein functions are at least partially understood. This is followed by in silico analysis of predicted regulatory elements in selenoprotein genes, including those in the aforementioned category as well as the genes whose functions are not known. Results Our findings reveal regulatory pathways common to many selenoprotein genes, including several involved in stress-responses. In addition, tissue-specific regulatory factors are implicated in regulating many selenoprotein genes. Conclusions These studies provide new insights into how selenoprotein genes respond to environmental and other challenges, and the roles these proteins play in allowing cells to adapt to these changes. General Significance Elucidating the regulatory mechanisms affecting selenoprotein expression is essential for understanding their roles in human diseases, and for developing diagnostic and potential therapeutic approaches to address dysregulation of members of this gene family. PMID:19465084

  3. Selenium-enriched probiotics improve antioxidant status, immune function, and selenoprotein gene expression of piglets raised under high ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Gan, Fang; Chen, Xingxiang; Liao, Shengfa F; Lv, Chenhui; Ren, Fei; Ye, Gengping; Pan, Cuiling; Huang, Da; Shi, Jun; Shi, Xiuli; Zhou, Hong; Huang, Kehe

    2014-05-21

    This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of selenium-enriched probiotics (SP) on growth performance, antioxidant status, immune function, and selenoprotein gene expression of piglets under natural high ambient temperature in summer. Forty-eight crossbred weanling piglets randomly allocated to four groups were fed for 42 days ad libitum a basal diet without (Con, 0.16 mg Se/kg) and with supplementation of probiotics (P, 0.16 mg Se/kg), sodium selenite (SS, 0.46 mg Se/kg), and SP (0.46 mg Se/kg). From each group, three piglets were randomly selected for blood collection on days 0, 14, 28, and 42 and tissue collection on day 42. The SP improved growth performance of piglets. Both SS and SP increased blood glutathione peroxidase activity and tissue thioredoxin reductase 1 mRNA expression, with SP being higher than SS. All P, SS, and SP supplementation increased the superoxide dismutase activity (40.1, 53.0, and 64.5%), glutathione content (84.6, 104, and 165%), TCR-induced T lymphocyte proliferation (20.8, 26.4, and 50.0%), and IL-2 concentration (24.9, 27.2, and 46.2%) and decreased malondialdehyde content (25.1, 26.3, and 49.3%), respectively. The greatest effects of SP supplementation suggest that SP may serve as a better feed additive than P or SS for piglets under high-temperature environments.

  4. Both selenoproteins and low molecular weight selenocompounds reduce colon cancer risk in mice with genetically impaired selenoprotein expression.

    PubMed

    Irons, Robert; Carlson, Bradley A; Hatfield, Dolph L; Davis, Cindy D

    2006-05-01

    Selenium has cancer protective effects in a variety of experimental systems. Currently, it is not known whether selenoproteins or low molecular weight selenocompounds are responsible for this activity. To evaluate the contribution of selenoproteins to the cancer protective effects of selenium, we used transgenic mice that carry a mutant selenocysteine transfer RNA gene, which causes reduced selenoprotein synthesis. Selenium homeostasis was characterized in liver and colon of wild-type and transgenic mice fed selenium-deficient diets supplemented with 0, 0.1, or 2.0 microg selenium (as selenite)/g diet. (75)Se-labeling, Western blot analysis, and enzymatic activities revealed that transgenic mice have reduced (P < 0.05) liver and colon glutathione peroxidase expression, but conserved thioredoxin reductase expression compared with wild-type mice, regardless of selenium status. Transgenic mice had more (P < 0.05) selenium in the nonprotein fraction of the liver and colon than wild-type mice, indicating a greater amount of low molecular weight selenocompounds. Compared with wild-type mice, transgenic mice had more (P < 0.05) azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt formation (a preneoplastic lesion for colon cancer). Supplemental selenium decreased (P < 0.05) the number of aberrant crypts and aberrant crypt foci in both wild-type and transgenic mice. These results provide evidence that a lack of selenoprotein activity increases colon cancer susceptibility. Furthermore, low molecular weight selenocompounds reduced preneoplastic lesions independent of the selenoprotein genotype. These results are, to our knowledge, the first to provide evidence that both selenoproteins and low molecular weight selenocompounds are important for the cancer-protective effects of selenium.

  5. Hierarchical regulation of selenoprotein expression and sex-specific effects of selenium.

    PubMed

    Schomburg, Lutz; Schweizer, Ulrich

    2009-11-01

    The expression of selenoproteins is controlled on each one of the textbook steps of protein biosynthesis, i.e., during gene transcription, RNA processing, translation and posttranslational events as well as via control of the stability of the involved intermediates and final products. Selenoproteins are unique in their dependence on the trace element Se which they incorporate as the 21st proteinogenic amino acid, selenocysteine. Higher mammals have developed unique pathways to enable a fine-tuned expression of all their different selenoproteins according to developmental stage, actual needs, and current availability of the trace element. Tightly controlled and dynamic expression patterns of selenoproteins are present in different tissues. Interestingly, these patterns display some differences in male and female individuals, and can be grossly modified during disease, e.g. in cancer, inflammation or neurodegeneration. Likewise, important health issues related to the selenium status show unexpected sexual dimorphisms. Some detailed molecular insights have recently been gained on how the hierarchical Se distribution among the different tissues is achieved, how the selenoprotein biosynthesis machinery discriminates among the individual selenoprotein transcripts and how impaired selenoprotein biosynthesis machinery becomes phenotypically evident in humans. This review tries to summarize these fascinating findings and highlights some interesting and surprising sex-specific differences.

  6. The Selenocysteine tRNA STAF-Binding Region is Essential for Adequate Selenocysteine tRNA Status, Selenoprotein Expression and Early Age Survival of Mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    STAF is a transcription activating factor for a number of RNA Pol III-and RNA Pol II-dependent genes including the selenocysteine (Sec) tRNA gene. Here, the role of STAF in regulating expression of Sec tRNA and selenoproteins was examined in an invivo model. Heterozygous inactivation of the Staf gen...

  7. Gene expression of selenoproteins can be regulated by selenoprotein K silencing in chicken myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruifeng; Yao, Haidong; Zhao, Xia; Cao, Changyu; Yang, Tianshu; Luan, Yilin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of Selenoprotein K (Selk) silencing on the mRNA expression of 25 selenoproteins in chicken myoblasts. The specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) for Selk gene was designed and transfected into chicken myoblasts. Post-transfection mRNA expression of 25 selenoproteins was determined at various time periods i.e., 24, 48 and 72 h. Moreover, based on the results of expression of 25 selenoproteins, correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were used for further analysis. The results showed that the designed siRNA effectively inhibited Selk expression (decreased by 20, 29 and 43 % on 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively) and the mRNA expression levels of the 23 selenoproteins were influenced by silencing Selk differently (P < 0.05). Time-dependent pattern of mRNA expression after siRNA treatment in three groups were found similar: one group including Gpx1, Gpx2, Gpx3, Gpx4, Txnrd1, Txnrd2, Txnrd3, Sepw1, Selh, Sepp1, Selo and Sepx1, another group including Sepn1, Sels, Selt, Selm and Sep15 and other group including Dio2 and Dio3. The results of correlation analysis showed that Gpx1, Gpx2, Gpx3, Gpx4, Dio1, Dio3, Sepn1, Sels, Sepw1, Selt, Selh, Sep15, Seli and Selu had a positive correlation with Selk, while Dio2 and Sepp1 had a negative correlation with Selk. PCA data also indicated that Txnrd1, Txnrd2, Dio2, Selpb, Sepp1and Selo may play special roles in response to Selk silencing. In summary, these results indicated that different selenoproteins possess and exhibits distinct responses to silencing of Selk in chicken myoblasts.

  8. Selenium status highly-regulates selenoprotein mRNA levels for only a subset of the selenoproteins in the selenoproteome

    PubMed Central

    SUNDE, Roger A.; RAINES, Anna M.; BARNES, Kimberly M.; EVENSON, Jacqueline K.

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis Gpx (glutathione peroxidase)-1 enzyme activity and mRNA levels decrease dramatically in selenium (Se) deficiency, whereas other selenoproteins are less affected by Se deficiency. This hierarchy of Se regulation is not understood, but the position of the UGA selenocysteine codon is thought to play a major role in making selenoprotein mRNAs susceptible to nonsense-mediated decay. Thus in the present paper we studied the complete selenoproteome in the mouse to uncover additional selenoprotein mRNAs that are highly-regulated by Se status. Mice were fed Se-deficient, Se-marginal, and Se-adequate diets (0, 0.05 and 0.2 μg Se/g, respectively) for 35 days, and selenoprotein mRNA levels in liver and kidney were determined using microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Se-deficient mice had liver Se concentrations and liver Gpx1 and thioredoxin reductase activities that were 4, 3 and 3%, respectively, of the levels in Se-adequate mice, indicating that the mice were Se-deficient. mRNAs for Selh (selenoprotein H) and Sepw1 (selenoprotein W) as well as Gpx1 were decreased by Se deficiency to <40% of Se-adequate levels. Five and two additional mRNAs were moderately down-regulated in Se-deficient liver and kidney, respectively. Importantly, nine selenoprotein mRNAs in liver and fifteen selenoprotein mRNAs in kidney were not significantly regulated by Se deficiency, clearly demonstrating that Se regulation of selenoprotein mRNAs is not a general phenomenon. The similarity of the response to Se deficiency suggests that there is one underlying mechanism responsible. Importantly, the position of the UGA codon did not predict susceptibility to Se regulation, clearly indicating that additional features are involved in causing selenoprotein mRNAs to be sensitive to Se status. PMID:19076066

  9. Gene expression of selenoproteins can be regulated by thioredoxin(Txn) silence in chicken cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Hamid, Sattar; Liu, Qi; Cai, Jingzeng; Xu, Shiwen; Zhang, Ziwei

    2017-09-04

    Thioredoxin (Txn) system is the most crucial antioxidant defense mechanism in myocardium. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of Txn low expression on 25 selenoproteins in chicken cardiomyocytes. We developed a Se-deficient model (0.033mg/kg) and Txn knock down cardiomyocytes model (siRNA) studies. Western Blot, Quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR) were performed, and correlation analysis, heat map were used for further analysis. Both low expression of Txn models are significantly decreased (P<0.05) the mRNA levels of Deiodinase 1, 2 (Dio 1, 2), Glutathione Peroxidase 1, 2, 3, 4 (Gpx 1, 2, 3, 4), Thioredoxin Reductase 1, 2, 3 (TR 1, 2, 3), Selenoprotein t (Selt), Selenoprotein w (Selw), Selenoprotein k (Selk), selenoprotein x1 (Sepx1), and significantly increased (P<0.05) the mRNA levels of the rest of selenoproteins. Correlation analysis showed that Deiodinase 3 (Dio 3), Selenoprotein m (Selm), 15-kDa Selenoprotein (Selp15), Selenoprotein h (Selh), Selenoprotein u (Selu), Selenoprotein i (Seli), Selenoprotein n (Seln), Selenoprotein p1 (Sepp1), Selenoprotein o (Selo), Selenoprotein s (Sels), Selenoprotein synthetase 2 (Sels2) and Selenoprotein p (Selp) had a negative correlation with Txn, while the rest of selenoproteins had a positive correlation with Txn. Combined in vivo and in vitro we can know that hamper Txn expression can inhibit Gpx 1, 2, 3, 4, TR 1, 2, 3, Dio 1, 2, Selt, Selw, Selk, Sepx1, meanwhile, over expression the rest of selenoproteins. In conclusion, the different selenoproteins possess and exhibit distinct responses to silence of Txn in chicken cardiomyocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Analyses of Fruit Flies That Do Not Express Selenoproteins or Express the Mouse Selenoprotein, Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase B1, Reveal a Role of Selenoproteins in Stress Resistance*

    PubMed Central

    Shchedrina, Valentina A.; Kabil, Hadise; Vorbruggen, Gerd; Lee, Byung Cheon; Turanov, Anton A.; Hirosawa-Takamori, Mitsuko; Kim, Hwa-Young; Harshman, Lawrence G.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Selenoproteins are essential in vertebrates because of their crucial role in cellular redox homeostasis, but some invertebrates that lack selenoproteins have recently been identified. Genetic disruption of selenoprotein biosynthesis had no effect on lifespan and oxidative stress resistance of Drosophila melanogaster. In the current study, fruit flies with knock-out of the selenocysteine-specific elongation factor were metabolically labeled with 75Se; they did not incorporate selenium into proteins and had the same lifespan on a chemically defined diet with or without selenium supplementation. These flies were, however, more susceptible to starvation than controls, and this effect could be ascribed to the function of selenoprotein K. We further expressed mouse methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (MsrB1), a selenoenzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxidized methionine residues and has protein repair function, in the whole body or the nervous system of fruit flies. This exogenous selenoprotein could only be expressed when the Drosophila selenocysteine insertion sequence element was used, whereas the corresponding mouse element did not support selenoprotein synthesis. Ectopic expression of MsrB1 in the nervous system led to an increase in the resistance against oxidative stress and starvation, but did not affect lifespan and reproduction, whereas ubiquitous MsrB1 expression had no effect. Dietary selenium did not influence lifespan of MsrB1-expressing flies. Thus, in contrast to vertebrates, fruit flies preserve only three selenoproteins, which are not essential and play a role only under certain stress conditions, thereby limiting the use of the micronutrient selenium by these organisms. PMID:21622567

  11. Characterization and Expression of Chicken Selenoprotein U.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yun-Yun; Huang, Jia-Qiang; Lin, Gao-Chao; Guo, Hui-Yuan; Ren, Fa-Zheng; Zhang, Hao

    2015-08-01

    Selenoprotein U (SelU) may regulate a myriad of biological processes through its redox function. In chicks, neither the nucleotide sequence nor the amino acid sequence is known. The main objectives of this study were to clone and characterize the chicken Selu gene and investigate Selu messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in chicken tissues. The coding sequence (CDS) of Selu contained 387 bases with a typical mammalian selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) located in the 3'-untranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequence of chicken SelU contains 224 amino acids with UAA as the stop codon. Like all SelU genes identified in different species, chicken SelU contains one well-conserved selenocysteine (Sec) at the 85th position encoded by the UGA codon. The SECIS element was with the conserved denosine (--AAA--) rather than the motif cytidine (--CC--) motif. Moreover, the expression pattern of Selu mRNA in muscle, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, lung, testis, and brain was analyzed with real-time quantitative PCR in young male chickens fed a Se-deficient corn-soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0.0 and 0.3 mg Se/kg in the form of sodium selenite. We found that the abundance of Selu mRNA in muscle, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and lung was downregulated (P < 0.05) by Se deficiency. However, it was not affected by dietary Se concentrations in testis and brain. Furthermore, protein abundance of SelU in these seven tissues was consistent with the mRNA abundance. Hence, we suggest that Selu might play an important role in the biochemical function of Se in birds.

  12. Both Maximal Expression of Selenoproteins and Selenoprotein Deficiency Can Promote Development of Type 2 Diabetes-Like Phenotype in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Labunskyy, Vyacheslav M.; Lee, Byung Cheon; Handy, Diane E.; Loscalzo, Joseph; Hatfield, Dolph L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element in mammals that has been shown to exert its function through selenoproteins. Whereas optimal levels of Se in the diet have important health benefits, a recent clinical trial has suggested that supplemental intake of Se above the adequate level potentially may raise the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the molecular mechanisms for the effect of dietary Se on the development of this disease are not understood. In the present study, we examined the contribution of selenoproteins to increased risk of developing diabetes using animal models. C57BL/6J mice (n=6–7 per group) were fed either Se-deficient Torula yeast-based diet or diets supplemented with 0.1 and 0.4 parts per million Se. Our data show that mice maintained on an Se-supplemented diet develop hyperinsulinemia and have decreased insulin sensitivity. These effects are accompanied by elevated expression of a selective group of selenoproteins. We also observed that reduced synthesis of these selenoproteins caused by overexpression of an i6A− mutant selenocysteine tRNA promotes glucose intolerance and leads to a diabetes-like phenotype. These findings indicate that both high expression of selenoproteins and selenoprotein deficiency may dysregulate glucose homeostasis and suggest a role for selenoproteins in development of diabetes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 2327–2336. PMID:21194350

  13. Reduced macrophage selenoprotein expression alters oxidized lipid metabolite biosynthesis from arachidonic and linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Mattmiller, Sarah A; Carlson, Bradley A; Gandy, Jeff C; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2014-06-01

    Uncontrolled inflammation is an underlying etiology for multiple diseases and macrophages orchestrate inflammation largely through the production of oxidized fatty acids known as oxylipids. Previous studies showed that selenium (Se) status altered the expression of oxylipids and magnitude of inflammatory responses. Although selenoproteins are thought to mediate many of the biological effects of Se, the direct effect of selenoproteins on the production of oxylipids is unknown. Therefore, the role of decreased selenoprotein activity in modulating the production of biologically active oxylipids from macrophages was investigated. Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages were collected from wild-type and myeloid-cell-specific selenoprotein knockout mice to analyze oxylipid production by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as oxylipid biosynthetic enzyme and inflammatory marker gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Decreased selenoprotein activity resulted in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, enhanced cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase expression and decreased oxylipids with known anti-inflammatory properties such as arachidonic acid-derived lipoxin A₄ (LXA₄) and linoleic acid-derived 9-​oxo-octadecadienoic acid (9-oxoODE). Treating RAW 264.7 macrophages with LXA₄ or 9-oxoODE diminished oxidant-induced macrophage inflammatory response as indicated by decreased production of TNFα. The results show for the first time that selenoproteins are important for the balanced biosynthesis of pro- and anti-inflammatory oxylipids during inflammation. A better understanding of the Se-dependent control mechanisms governing oxylipid biosynthesis may uncover nutritional intervention strategies to counteract the harmful effects of uncontrolled inflammation due to oxylipids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Selenium deficiency mainly influences the gene expressions of antioxidative selenoproteins in chicken muscles.

    PubMed

    Yao, Haidong; Zhao, Wenchao; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Khoso, Pervez Ahmed; Zhang, Ziwei; Liu, Wei; Xu, Shiwen

    2014-12-01

    Dietary selenium (Se) deficiency induces muscular dystrophy in chicken, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary Se deficiency on the expressions of 25 selenoproteins. One-day-old broiler chickens were fed either an Se deficiency diet (0.033 mg Se/kg; produced in the Se-deficient area of Heilongjiang, China) or a diet supplemented with Se (as sodium selenite) at 0.2 mg/kg for 55 days. Then, the mRNA levels of 25 selenoproteins in chicken muscles were examined, and the principal component was further analyzed. The results showed that antioxidative selenoproteins especially Gpxs and Sepw1 were highly and extensively expressed than other types of selenoproteins in chicken muscles. In 25 selenoproteins, Gpxs, Txnrd2, Txnrd 3, Dio1, Dio 3, Selk, Sels, Sepw1, Selh, Sep15, Selu, Selpb, Sepp1, Selo, Sepx1, and SPS2 were downregulated (P < 0.05), and other selenoproteins were not influenced (P > 0.05). Se deficiency decreased the expressions of 19 selenoproteins (P < 0.05), 11 of which were antioxidative selenoproteins. And, principal component analysis (PCA) further indicated that antioxidative selenoproteins, especially Gpx3, Gpx4, and Sepw1, may play crucial roles in chicken muscles. However, compared with these antioxidative selenoproteins, some other lower expressed selenoproteins (Dio1, Selu, Selpb, Sepp1) were excessively decreased (more than 60 %, P < 0.05) by Se deficiency. Thus, it may save the limited Se levels and be beneficial to remain the level of some crucial selenoproteins. These results suggested that Se deficiency mainly influenced the expressions of antioxidative selenoproteins in chicken muscles. And, antioxidative selenoproteins especially Gpxs and Sepw1 may play a crucial role in chicken muscles. Thus, it helps us focus on some specific selenoproteins when studying the role of Se in chicken muscles.

  15. Selenoprotein expression is regulated at multiple levels in prostate cells.

    PubMed

    Rebsch, Cheryl M; Penna, Frank J; Copeland, Paul R

    2006-12-01

    Selenium supplementation in a population with low basal blood selenium levels has been reported to decrease the incidence of several cancers including prostate cancer. Based on the clinical findings, it is likely that the antioxidant function of one or more selenoproteins is responsible for the chemopreventive effect, although low molecular weight seleno-compounds have also been posited to selectively induce apoptosis in transformed cells. To address the effects of selenium supplementation on selenoprotein expression in prostate cells, we have undertaken an analysis of antioxidant selenoprotein expression as well as selenium toxicity in non-tumorigenic prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1) and prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and PC-3). Our results show that two of the glutathione peroxidase family members (GPX1 and GPX4) are highly induced by supplemental selenium in prostate cancer cells but only slightly induced in RWPE-1 cells. In addition, GPX1 levels are dramatically lower in PC-3 cells as compared to RWPE-1 or LNCaP cells. GPX2 protein and mRNA, however, are only detectable in RWPE-1 cells. Of the three selenium compounds tested (sodium selenite, sodium selenate and selenomethionine), only sodium selenite shows toxicity in a physiological range of selenium concentrations. Notably and in contrast to previous studies, RWPE-1 cells were significantly more sensitive to selenite than either of the prostate cancer cell lines. These results demonstrate that selenoproteins and selenium metabolism are regulated at multiple levels in prostate cells.

  16. Influence of Genetic Variations in Selenoprotein Genes on the Pattern of Gene Expression after Supplementation with Brazil Nuts

    PubMed Central

    Rogero, Marcelo M.; Hesketh, John

    2017-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for human health. Its beneficial effects are exerted by selenoproteins, which can be quantified in blood and used as molecular biomarkers of Se status. We hypothesize that the presence of genetic polymorphisms in selenoprotein genes may: (1) influence the gene expression of specific selenoproteins and (2) influence the pattern of global gene expression after Brazil nut supplementation. The study was conducted with 130 healthy volunteers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, who consumed one Brazil nut (300 μg/Se) a day for eight weeks. Gene expression of GPX1 and SELENOP and genotyping were measured by real-time PCR using TaqMan Assays. Global gene expression was assessed by microarray using Illumina HumanHT-12 v4 BeadChips. Brazil nut supplementation significantly increased GPX1 mRNA expression only in subjects with CC genotype at rs1050450 (p < 0.05). SELENOP mRNA expression was significantly higher in A-carriers at rs7579 either before or after supplementation (p < 0.05). Genotype for rs713041 in GPX4 affected the pattern of blood cell global gene expression. Genetic variations in selenoprotein genes modulated both GPX1 and SELENOP selenoprotein gene expression and global gene expression in response to Brazil nut supplementation. PMID:28696394

  17. Influence of Genetic Variations in Selenoprotein Genes on the Pattern of Gene Expression after Supplementation with Brazil Nuts.

    PubMed

    Donadio, Janaina L S; Rogero, Marcelo M; Cockell, Simon; Hesketh, John; Cozzolino, Silvia M F

    2017-07-11

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for human health. Its beneficial effects are exerted by selenoproteins, which can be quantified in blood and used as molecular biomarkers of Se status. We hypothesize that the presence of genetic polymorphisms in selenoprotein genes may: (1) influence the gene expression of specific selenoproteins and (2) influence the pattern of global gene expression after Brazil nut supplementation. The study was conducted with 130 healthy volunteers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, who consumed one Brazil nut (300 μg/Se) a day for eight weeks. Gene expression of GPX1 and SELENOP and genotyping were measured by real-time PCR using TaqMan Assays. Global gene expression was assessed by microarray using Illumina HumanHT-12 v4 BeadChips. Brazil nut supplementation significantly increased GPX1 mRNA expression only in subjects with CC genotype at rs1050450 (p < 0.05). SELENOP mRNA expression was significantly higher in A-carriers at rs7579 either before or after supplementation (p < 0.05). Genotype for rs713041 in GPX4 affected the pattern of blood cell global gene expression. Genetic variations in selenoprotein genes modulated both GPX1 and SELENOP selenoprotein gene expression and global gene expression in response to Brazil nut supplementation.

  18. Selenoprotein P – Expression, Functions, and Roles in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Burk, Raymond F.; Hill, Kristina E.

    2009-01-01

    Selenoprotein P (Sepp1) is a secreted protein that is made up of 2 domains. The larger N-terminal domain contains 1 selenocysteine residue in a redox motif and the smaller C-terminal domain contains the other 9 selenocysteines. Sepp1 isoforms of varying length occur but quantitation of them has not been achieved. Hepatic synthesis of Sepp1 affects whole-body selenium content and the liver is the source of most plasma Sepp1. ApoER2, a member of the lipoprotein receptor family, binds Sepp1 and facilitates its uptake into testis and retention of its selenium by the brain. Megalin, another lipoprotein receptor, facilitates uptake of filtered Sepp1 into proximal tubule cells of the kidney. Thus, Sepp1 serves in homeostasis and distribution of selenium. Mice with deletion of Sepp1 suffer greater morbidity and mortality from infection with Trypanosoma congolense than do wild-type mice. Mice that express only the N-terminal domain of Sepp1 have the same severity of illness as wild-type mice, indicating that the protective function of Sepp1 against the infection resides in the N-terminal (redox) domain. Thus, Sepp1 has several functions. In addition, plasma Sepp1 concentration falls in selenium deficiency and, therefore, it can be used as an index of selenium nutritional status. PMID:19345254

  19. Regulation of selenoprotein mRNA expression by hormones and retinoic acid in bovine mammary cells.

    PubMed

    Bruzelius, Katharina; Sundler, Roger; Pagmantidis, Vasileios; Akesson, Björn

    2010-10-01

    Selenium is essential for maintaining many body functions through the actions of selenoproteins. To find factors regulating selenoprotein biosynthesis in the bovine mammary cell line MAC-T, the effects of supplementation with selenite and also with retinoic acid, insulin, hydrocortisone and prolactin on the mRNA expression of a number of selenoproteins were investigated. It was found that MAC-T cells express glutathione peroxidase (GPx) 1 and 4, thioredoxin reductase 1 and selenoprotein P, but not GPx 3, which is interesting considering that GPx 3 is one of the only few selenoproteins detected in milk so far. Addition of selenite to the cell culture resulted in a large increase in GPx 1 expression and an increase in selenoprotein P expression, which is similar to the findings made in other systems investigated. Increased mRNA levels of GPx 1 were also observed in cells treated with insulin and hydrocortisone or with retinoic acid. The expression of thioredoxin reductase 1 was increased in cells treated with retinoic acid, whereas that of selenoprotein P was decreased in cells exposed to insulin. The results indicate that several hormones, selenium, and retinoic acid regulate the biosynthesis of various selenoproteins differently in the bovine mammary cell. The possible implications of the findings for processes related to milk formation and mammary carcinogenesis will need additional investigation. Further study of the detailed mechanisms involved is also necessary. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. Secisbp2 Is Essential for Embryonic Development and Enhances Selenoprotein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Seeher, Sandra; Atassi, Tarik; Mahdi, Yassin; Carlson, Bradley A.; Braun, Doreen; Wirth, Eva K.; Klein, Marc O.; Reix, Nathalie; Miniard, Angela C.; Schomburg, Lutz; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Driscoll, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS)-binding protein 2 (Secisbp2) binds to SECIS elements located in the 3′-untranslated region of eukaryotic selenoprotein mRNAs. Selenoproteins contain the rare amino acid selenocysteine (Sec). Mutations in SECISBP2 in humans lead to reduced selenoprotein expression thereby affecting thyroid hormone-dependent growth and differentiation processes. The most severe cases also display myopathy, hearing impairment, male infertility, increased photosensitivity, mental retardation, and ataxia. Mouse models are needed to understand selenoprotein-dependent processes underlying the patients' pleiotropic phenotypes. Results: Unlike tRNA[Ser]Sec-deficient embryos, homozygous Secisbp2-deleted embryos implant, but fail before gastrulation. Heterozygous inactivation of Secisbp2 reduced the amount of selenoprotein expressed, but did not affect the thyroid hormone axis or growth. Conditional deletion of Secisbp2 in hepatocytes significantly decreased selenoprotein expression. Unexpectedly, the loss of Secisbp2 reduced the abundance of many, but not all, selenoprotein mRNAs. Transcript-specific and gender-selective effects on selenoprotein mRNA abundance were greater in Secisbp2-deficient hepatocytes than in tRNA[Ser]Sec-deficient cells. Despite the massive reduction of Dio1 and Sepp1 mRNAs, significantly more corresponding protein was detected in primary hepatocytes lacking Secisbp2 than in cells lacking tRNA[Ser]Sec. Regarding selenoprotein expression, compensatory nuclear factor, erythroid-derived, like 2 (Nrf2)-dependent gene expression, or embryonic development, phenotypes were always milder in Secisbp2-deficient than in tRNA[Ser]Sec-deficient mice. Innovation: We report the first Secisbp2 mutant mouse models. The conditional mutants provide a model for analyzing Secisbp2 function in organs not accessible in patients. Conclusion: In hepatocyte-specific conditional mouse models, Secisbp2 gene inactivation is less

  1. Inorganic arsenic modulates the expression of selenoproteins in mouse embryonic stem cell.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi; Li, Jun; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2009-06-01

    At least 25 selenoproteins in humans and 24 homologues in rodents have been identified. They play important roles in antioxidation, redox regulation and detoxification. The modulation of the expression of selenoproteins by inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure may highlight the molecular mechanism for the arsenic toxicity. To investigate the effects of iAs exposure on the expression of selenoproteins, we determined how addition of iAs to culture medium affected all known selenoproteins in the mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Separated groups of ES cells were treated with arsenite (iAsIII) (0.25-0.5microM), arsenate (iAsV) (1.0-2.0microM) and co-treatment with sodium selenite (SeIV) (0.5microM). The mRNA levels of all selenoproteins were detected by real time quantitative PCR. The up-regulated selenoproteins were confirmed by immunoblotting analysis and enzymatic activity detection. Results showed that CGR8 cells treated with iAsIII (0.25-0.5microM) and iAsV (2.0microM) displayed significant increases of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and nuclear accumulation of the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Treatments of iAsIII (0.5microM) or iAsV (2.0microM) for 24h caused significant increases in the expression of the antioxidant selenoproteins (Gpx1, Gpx4, and Tr1), whereas led to significant decreases in the mRNA levels of selenoprotein H and some endoplasmic reticulum (ER) located selenoproteins (15-Sep, SelK, SelM, and SelS). Additionally, supplement of SeIV (0.5microM) could restore most of the down-regulated selenoproteins. These results suggested that iAs exposure modulated not only the antioxidant selenoproteins but also the ER stress associated selenoproteins. Further studies are required to clarify whether these modulated selenoproteins genes are targets for selenium supplement in the defense against the toxicity of iAs.

  2. Cloning, Sequencing, and Expression of Selenoprotein Transcripts in the Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    PubMed

    Sunde, Roger A; Sunde, Gavin R; Sunde, Colin M; Sunde, Milton L; Evenson, Jacqueline K

    2015-01-01

    The minimum Se requirement for male turkey poults is 0.3 μg Se/g--three times higher than requirements found in rodents--based on liver and gizzard glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4) and GPX1 activities. In addition, turkey liver GPX4 activity is 10-fold higher and GPX1 activity is 10-fold lower than in rats, and both GPX1 and GPX4 mRNA levels are dramatically down-regulated by Se deficiency. Currently, the sequences of all annotated turkey selenoprotein transcripts and proteins in the NCBI database are only "predicted." Thus we initiated cloning and sequencing of the full turkey selenoprotein transcriptome to demonstrate expression of selenoprotein transcripts in the turkey, and to develop tools to investigate Se regulation of the full selenoproteome. Total RNA was isolated from six tissues of Se-adequate adult tom turkeys, and used to prepare reverse-transcription cDNA libraries. PCR primers were designed, based initially on chicken, rodent, porcine, bovine and human sequences and later on turkey shotgun cloning sequences. We report here the cloning of full transcript sequences for 9 selenoproteins, and 3'UTR portions for 15 additional selenoproteins, which include SECIS elements in 22 3'UTRs, and in-frame Sec (UGA) codons within coding regions of 19 selenoproteins, including 12 Sec codons in SEPP1. In addition, we sequenced the gap between two contigs from the shotgun cloning of the turkey genome, and found the missing sequence for the turkey Sec-tRNA. RTPCR was used to determine the relative transcript expression in 6 tissues. GPX3 expression was high in all tissues except kidney, GPX1 expression was high in kidney, SEPW1 expression was high in heart, gizzard and muscle, and SELU expression was high in liver. SEPP2, a selenoprotein not found in mammals, was highly expressed in liver but not in other tissues. In summary, transcripts for 24 selenoproteins are expressed in the turkey, not just predicted.

  3. Barriers to heterologous expression of a selenoprotein gene in bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Tormay, P; Böck, A

    1997-01-01

    The specificity parameters counteracting the heterologous expression in Escherichia coli of the Desulfomicrobium baculatum gene (hydV) coding for the large subunit of the periplasmic hydrogenase which is a selenoprotein have been studied. hydV'-'lacZ fusions were constructed, and it was shown that they do not direct the incorporation of selenocysteine in E. coli. Rather, the UGA codon is efficiently suppressed by some other aminoacyl-tRNA in an E. coli strain possessing a ribosomal ambiguity mutation. The suppression is decreased by the strA1 allele, indicating that the hydV selenocysteine UGA codon has the properties of a "normal" and suppressible nonsense codon. The SelB protein from D. baculatum was purified; in gel shift experiments, D. baculatum SelB displayed a lower affinity for the E. coli fdhF selenoprotein mRNA than E. coli SelB did and vice versa. Coexpression of the hydV'-'lacZ fusion and of the selB and tRNA(Sec) genes from D. baculatum, however, did not lead to selenocysteine insertion into the protein, although the formation of the quaternary complex between SelB, selenocysteyl-tRNA(Sec), and the hydV mRNA recognition sequence took place. The results demonstrate (i) that the selenocysteine-specific UGA codon is readily suppressed under conditions where the homologous SelB protein is absent and (ii) that apart from the specificity of the SelB-mRNA interaction, a structural compatibility of the quaternary complex with the ribosome is required. PMID:9006007

  4. Selenoprotein expression in endothelial cells from different human vasculature and species.

    PubMed

    Miller, S; Walker, S W; Arthur, J R; Lewin, M H; Pickard, K; Nicol, F; Howie, A F; Beckett, G J

    2002-10-09

    Selenium (Se) can protect endothelial cells (EC) from oxidative damage by altering the expression of selenoproteins with antioxidant function such as cytoplasmic glutathione peroxidase (cyGPX), phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPX) and thioredoxin reductase (TR). If the role of Se on EC function is to be studied, it is essential that a model system be chosen which reflects selenoprotein expression in human EC derived from vessels prone to developing atheroma. We have used [75Se]-selenite labelling and selenoenzyme measurements to compare the selenoproteins expressed by cultures of EC isolated from different human vasculature with EC bovine and porcine aorta. Only small differences were observed in selenoprotein expression and activity in EC originating from human coronary artery, human umbilical vein (HUVEC), human umbilical artery and the human EC line EAhy926. The selenoprotein profile in HUVEC was consistent over eight passages and HUVEC isolated from four cords also showed little variability. In contrast, EC isolated from pig and bovine aorta showed marked differences in selenoprotein expression when compared to human cells. This study firmly establishes the suitability and consistency of using HUVEC (and possibly the human cell line EAhy926) as a model to study the effects of Se on EC function in relation to atheroma development in the coronary artery. Bovine or porcine EC appear to be an inappropriate model.

  5. Expression of Selenoprotein Genes Is Affected by Obesity of Pigs Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hua; Li, Ke; Tang, Jia-Yong; Zhou, Ji-Chang; Wang, Kang-Ning; Xia, Xin-Jie; Lei, Xin Gen

    2015-07-01

    Relations of the 25 mammalian selenoprotein genes with obesity and the associated inflammation remain unclear. This study explored impacts of high-fat diet-induced obesity on inflammation and expressions of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes in 10 tissues of pigs. Plasma and 10 tissues were collected from pigs (n = 10) fed a corn-soy-based control diet or that diet containing 3-7% lard from weanling to finishing (180 d). Plasma concentrations (n = 8) of cytokines and thyroid hormones and tissue mRNA abundance (n = 4) of 25 selenoprotein genes and 16 obesity-related genes were compared between the pigs fed the control and high-fat diets. Stepwise regression was applied to analyze correlations among all these measures, including the previously reported body physical and plasma biochemical variables. The high-fat diet elevated (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, leptin, and leptin receptor by 29-42% and affected (P < 0.05-0.1) tissue mRNA levels of the selenoprotein and obesity-related genes in 3 patterns. Specifically, the high-fat diet up-regulated 12 selenoprotein genes in 6 tissues, down-regulated 13 selenoprotein genes in 7 tissues, and exerted no effect on 5 genes in any tissue. Body weights and plasma triglyceride concentrations of pigs showed the strongest regressions to tissue mRNA abundances of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes. Among the selenoprotein genes, selenoprotein V and I were ranked as the strongest independent variables for the regression of phenotypic and plasma measures. Meanwhile, agouti signaling protein, adiponectin, and resistin genes represented the strongest independent variables of the obesity-related genes for the regression of tissue selenoprotein mRNA. The high-fat diet induced inflammation in pigs and affected their gene expression of selenoproteins associated with thioredoxin and oxidoreductase systems, local tissue thyroid hormone activity, endoplasmic reticulum protein degradation

  6. S-Adenosylmethionine-dependent protein methylation Is required for expression of selenoprotein P and gluconeogenic enzymes in HepG2 human hepatocytes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cellular methylation processes enable expression of gluconeogenic enzymes and metabolism of the nutrient selenium (Se). Se status may relate to type-II diabetes and plasma levels of selenoprotein P (SEPP1) are positively correlated with insulin resistance. Increased expression of gluconeogenic enzym...

  7. Effects of acclimation salinity on the expression of selenoproteins in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus.

    PubMed

    Seale, Lucia A; Gilman, Christy L; Moorman, Benjamin P; Berry, Marla J; Grau, E Gordon; Seale, Andre P

    2014-07-01

    Selenoproteins are ubiquitously expressed, act on a variety of physiological redox-related processes, and are mostly regulated by selenium levels in animals. To date, the expression of most selenoproteins has not been verified in euryhaline fish models. The Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, a euryhaline cichlid fish, has a high tolerance for changes in salinity and survives in fresh water (FW) and seawater (SW) environments which differ greatly in selenium availability. In the present study, we searched EST databases for cichlid selenoprotein mRNAs and screened for their differential expression in FW and SW-acclimated tilapia. The expression of mRNAs encoding iodothyronine deiodinases 1, 2 and 3 (Dio1, Dio2, Dio3), Fep15, glutathione peroxidase 2, selenoproteins J, K, L, M, P, S, and W, was measured in the brain, eye, gill, kidney, liver, pituitary, muscle, and intraperitoneal white adipose tissue. Gene expression of selenophosphate synthetase 1, Secp43, and selenocysteine lyase, factors involved in selenoprotein synthesis or in selenium metabolism, were also measured. The highest variation in selenoprotein and synthesis factor mRNA expression between FW- and SW-acclimated fish was found in gill and kidney. While the branchial expression of Dio3 was increased upon transferring tilapia from SW to FW, the inverse effect was observed when fish were transferred from FW to SW. Protein content of Dio3 was higher in fish acclimated to FW than in those acclimated to SW. Together, these results outline tissue distribution of selenoproteins in FW and SW-acclimated tilapia, and indicate that at least Dio3 expression is regulated by environmental salinity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of acclimation salinity on the expression of selenoproteins in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus

    PubMed Central

    Seale, Lucia A.; Gilman, Christy L.; Moorman, Benjamin P.; Berry, Marla J.; Grau, E. Gordon; Seale, Andre P.

    2014-01-01

    Selenoproteins are ubiquitously expressed, act on a variety of physiological redox-related processes, and are mostly regulated by selenium levels in animals. To date, the expression of most selenoproteins has not been verified in euryhaline fish models. The Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, a euryhaline cichlid fish, has a high tolerance for changes in salinity and survives in fresh water (FW) and seawater (SW) environments which differ greatly in selenium availability. In the present study, we searched EST databases for cichlid selenoprotein mRNAs and screened for their differential expression in FW and SW-acclimated tilapia. The expression of mRNAs encoding iodothyronine deiodinases 1, 2 and 3 (Dio1, Dio2, Dio3), Fep15, glutathione peroxidase 2, selenoproteins J, K, L, M, P, S, and W, was measured in the brain, eye, gill, kidney, liver, pituitary, muscle, and intraperitoneal white adipose tissue. Gene expression of selenophosphate synthetase 1, Secp43, and selenocysteine lyase, factors involved in selenoprotein synthesis or in selenium metabolism, were also measured. The highest variation in selenoprotein and synthesis factor mRNA expression between FW- and SW-acclimated fish was found in gill and kidney. While the branchial expression of Dio3 was increased upon transferring tilapia from SW to FW, the inverse effect was observed when fish were transferred from FW to SW. Protein content of Dio3 was higher in fish acclimated to FW than in those acclimated to SW. Together, these results outline tissue distribution of selenoproteins in FW and SW-acclimated tilapia, and indicate that at least Dio3 expression is regulated by environmental salinity. PMID:24854764

  9. Selenium Deficiency Influences the mRNA Expression of Selenoproteins and Cytokines in Chicken Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Luan, Yilin; Zhao, Jinxin; Yao, Haidong; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Wenchao; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-06-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency induces hemolysis in chickens, but the molecular mechanism for this effect remains unclear. Se primarily elicits its function through the activity of selenoproteins, which contain the unique amino acid selenocysteine (Sec). In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of Se deficiency on the expression of 24 selenoproteins and 10 cytokines. One hundred eighty chickens were randomly divided into 2 groups (90 chickens per group). During the entire experimental period, chickens were allowed ad libitum consumption of feed and water. The chickens were fed either a Se-deficient diet (0.008 mg Se/kg; produced in the Se-deficient area of Heilongjiang, China) or a Se-supplemented diet (as sodium selenite) at 0.2 mg/kg for 35 days. At the 35th day, the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of 24 selenoproteins and 10 cytokines were examined in erythrocytes of 5 chickens per group, and the correlation was analyzed. The results showed that the expression of 24 selenoproteins and 7 cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12β, TGF-β4, and IFN-γ) decreased (P < 0.05), and the expression of 3 cytokines (IL-1γ, IL-6 and IL-7) was higher in the Se-deficient group. In both groups, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), thioredoxin 1 (Txnrd1), selenoprotein P1 (SELP), and selenoprotein synthetase (SPS2) were highly expressed compared to the other selenoproteins in chicken erythrocytes (P < 0.05). These data suggest that GPXs, Txnrd1, SELP, and SPS2 possibly play a more important role than the other selenoproteins. The increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1γ, IL-6, and IL-7) suggested that the immune system of chickens was damaged by the Se deficiency. Correlation analysis suggested that although the expression of 24 selenoproteins and 7 cytokines decreased and that of 3 cytokines increased, there was a close correlation between their expression levels and a Se diet. These results suggested that Se deficiency influenced the expressions of 24 selenoproteins

  10. Impaired selenoprotein expression in brain triggers striatal neuronal loss leading to coordination defects in mice

    PubMed Central

    Seeher, Sandra; Carlson, Bradley A.; Miniard, Angela C.; Wirth, Eva K.; Mahdi, Yassin; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Driscoll, Donna M.; Schweizer, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Selenocysteine Insertion Sequence (SECIS)-Binding Protein 2 (Secisbp2) binds to SECIS elements located in the 3′-untranslated region of eukaryotic selenoprotein mRNAs. It facilitates incorporation of the rare amino acid selenocysteine in response to UGA codons. Inactivation of Secisbp2 in hepatocytes greatly reduced selenoprotein levels. Neuron-specific inactivation of Secisbp2 (CamK-Cre; Secisbp2fl/fl) reduced cerebral expression of selenoproteins to a lesser extent than inactivation of tRNA[Ser]Sec. This allowed us to study the development of cortical parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons, which are completely lost in tRNA[Ser]Sec mutants. PV+ interneuron density was reduced in the somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. In situ-hybridization for Gad67 confirmed the reduction of GABAergic interneurons. Because of the obvious movement phenotype involving a broad, dystonic gait, we suspected basal ganglia dysfunction. Tyrosine hydroxylase expression was normal in substantia nigra neurons and their striatal terminals. However the densities of striatal PV+ and Gad67+ neurons were decreased by 65% and 49%, respectively. Likewise, the density of striatal cholinergic neurons was reduced by 68%. Our observations demonstrate that several classes of striatal interneurons depend on selenoprotein expression. These findings may offer an explanation for the movement phenotype of selenoprotein P-deficient mice and the movement disorder and mental retardation described in a patient carrying SECISBP2 mutations. PMID:24844465

  11. Interplay between Selenium Levels, Selenoprotein Expression, and Replicative Senescence in WI-38 Human Fibroblasts*

    PubMed Central

    Legrain, Yona; Touat-Hamici, Zahia; Chavatte, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element, which is incorporated as selenocysteine into at least 25 selenoproteins using a unique translational UGA-recoding mechanism. Selenoproteins are important enzymes involved in antioxidant defense, redox homeostasis, and redox signaling pathways. Selenium levels decline during aging, and its deficiency is associated with a marked increase in mortality for people over 60 years of age. Here, we investigate the relationship between selenium levels in the culture medium, selenoprotein expression, and replicative life span of human embryonic lung fibroblast WI-38 cells. Selenium levels regulate the entry into replicative senescence and modify the cellular markers characteristic for senescent cells. Whereas selenium supplementation extends the number of population doublings, its deficiency impairs the proliferative capacity of WI-38 cells. We observe that the expression of several selenoproteins involved in antioxidant defense is specifically affected in response to cellular senescence. Their expression is selectively controlled by the modulation of mRNA levels and translational recoding efficiencies. Our data provide novel mechanistic insights into how selenium impacts the replicative life span of mammalian cells by identifying several selenoproteins as new targets of senescence. PMID:24425862

  12. Interplay between selenium levels, selenoprotein expression, and replicative senescence in WI-38 human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Legrain, Yona; Touat-Hamici, Zahia; Chavatte, Laurent

    2014-02-28

    Selenium is an essential trace element, which is incorporated as selenocysteine into at least 25 selenoproteins using a unique translational UGA-recoding mechanism. Selenoproteins are important enzymes involved in antioxidant defense, redox homeostasis, and redox signaling pathways. Selenium levels decline during aging, and its deficiency is associated with a marked increase in mortality for people over 60 years of age. Here, we investigate the relationship between selenium levels in the culture medium, selenoprotein expression, and replicative life span of human embryonic lung fibroblast WI-38 cells. Selenium levels regulate the entry into replicative senescence and modify the cellular markers characteristic for senescent cells. Whereas selenium supplementation extends the number of population doublings, its deficiency impairs the proliferative capacity of WI-38 cells. We observe that the expression of several selenoproteins involved in antioxidant defense is specifically affected in response to cellular senescence. Their expression is selectively controlled by the modulation of mRNA levels and translational recoding efficiencies. Our data provide novel mechanistic insights into how selenium impacts the replicative life span of mammalian cells by identifying several selenoproteins as new targets of senescence.

  13. Selenium controls the sex-specific immune response and selenoprotein expression during the acute-phase response in mice.

    PubMed

    Stoedter, Mette; Renko, Kostja; Hög, Antonia; Schomburg, Lutz

    2010-07-01

    Selenium modifies inflammatory reactions in rodents and humans. The liver controls metabolism and transport of selenium via hepatically-derived SEPP (selenoprotein P). Intracellular SEPS (selenoprotein S) modifies endoplasmic-reticulum function and immune-cell activity. Polymorphisms in SEPS have been associated with cytokine levels and inflammatory diseases in a subset of clinical studies. In the present study, we hypothesized that sex and selenium represent decisive parameters controlling the immune response and regulation of SEPS expression in vivo. Male and female mice fed a selenium-poor diet were supplemented or not with selenite for 3 days and injected with saline or LPS (lipopolysaccharide) 24 h before analysis. Selenium supplementation mitigated the LPS-induced rise in circulating cytokines in male mice. Serum SepP and selenium concentrations decreased in response to LPS, whereas hepatic SepS was specifically up-regulated despite declining selenium concentrations in the liver. Hepatic SepS induction was mainly controlled by post-transcriptional mechanisms and attributed to hepatocytes by analysing transgenic mice. Notably, selenium supplementation was essential for an optimal SepS induction. We conclude that selenoprotein biosynthesis becomes redirected in hepatocytes during the acute-phase response at the expense of dispensable selenoproteins (e.g. SepP) and in favour of SepS expression, thereby causing declining serum selenium and improving liver function. The selenium status and sex control SepS expression and modify cytokine response patterns in serum, which might explain contradictory results on associations of SEPS genotype and inflammatory diseases in clinical studies.

  14. Cloning, Sequencing, and Expression of Selenoprotein Transcripts in the Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)

    PubMed Central

    Sunde, Roger A.; Sunde, Gavin R.; Sunde, Colin M.; Sunde, Milton L.; Evenson, Jacqueline K.

    2015-01-01

    The minimum Se requirement for male turkey poults is 0.3 μg Se/g – three times higher than requirements found in rodents – based on liver and gizzard glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4) and GPX1 activities. In addition, turkey liver GPX4 activity is 10-fold higher and GPX1 activity is 10-fold lower than in rats, and both GPX1 and GPX4 mRNA levels are dramatically down-regulated by Se deficiency. Currently, the sequences of all annotated turkey selenoprotein transcripts and proteins in the NCBI database are only “predicted.” Thus we initiated cloning and sequencing of the full turkey selenoprotein transcriptome to demonstrate expression of selenoprotein transcripts in the turkey, and to develop tools to investigate Se regulation of the full selenoproteome. Total RNA was isolated from six tissues of Se-adequate adult tom turkeys, and used to prepare reverse-transcription cDNA libraries. PCR primers were designed, based initially on chicken, rodent, porcine, bovine and human sequences and later on turkey shotgun cloning sequences. We report here the cloning of full transcript sequences for 9 selenoproteins, and 3'UTR portions for 15 additional selenoproteins, which include SECIS elements in 22 3'UTRs, and in-frame Sec (UGA) codons within coding regions of 19 selenoproteins, including 12 Sec codons in SEPP1. In addition, we sequenced the gap between two contigs from the shotgun cloning of the turkey genome, and found the missing sequence for the turkey Sec-tRNA. RTPCR was used to determine the relative transcript expression in 6 tissues. GPX3 expression was high in all tissues except kidney, GPX1 expression was high in kidney, SEPW1 expression was high in heart, gizzard and muscle, and SELU expression was high in liver. SEPP2, a selenoprotein not found in mammals, was highly expressed in liver but not in other tissues. In summary, transcripts for 24 selenoproteins are expressed in the turkey, not just predicted. PMID:26070131

  15. Polymorphisms in thioredoxin reductase and selenoprotein K genes and selenium status modulate risk of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Méplan, Catherine; Rohrmann, Sabine; Steinbrecher, Astrid; Schomburg, Lutz; Jansen, Eugène; Linseisen, Jakob; Hesketh, John

    2012-01-01

    Increased dietary intake of Selenium (Se) has been suggested to lower prostate cancer mortality, but supplementation trials have produced conflicting results. Se is incorporated into 25 selenoproteins. The aim of this work was to assess whether risk of prostate cancer is affected by genetic variants in genes coding for selenoproteins, either alone or in combination with Se status. 248 cases and 492 controls from an EPIC-Heidelberg nested case-control study were subjected to two-stage genotyping with an initial screening phase in which 384 tagging-SNPs covering 72 Se-related genes were determined in 94 cases and 94 controls using the Illumina Goldengate methodology. This analysis was followed by a second phase in which genotyping for candidate SNPs identified in the first phase was carried out in the full study using Sequenom. Risk of high-grade or advanced stage prostate cancer was modified by interactions between serum markers of Se status and genotypes for rs9880056 in SELK, rs9605030 and rs9605031 in TXNRD2, and rs7310505 in TXNRD1. No significant effects of SNPs on prostate cancer risk were observed when grade or Se status was not taken into account. In conclusion, the risk of high-grade or advanced-stage prostate cancer is significantly altered by a combination of genotype for SNPs in selenoprotein genes and Se status. The findings contribute to explaining the biological effects of selenium intake and genetic factors in prostate cancer development and highlight potential roles of thioredoxin reductases and selenoprotein K in tumour progression.

  16. Polymorphisms in Thioredoxin Reductase and Selenoprotein K Genes and Selenium Status Modulate Risk of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Méplan, Catherine; Rohrmann, Sabine; Steinbrecher, Astrid; Schomburg, Lutz; Jansen, Eugène; Linseisen, Jakob; Hesketh, John

    2012-01-01

    Increased dietary intake of Selenium (Se) has been suggested to lower prostate cancer mortality, but supplementation trials have produced conflicting results. Se is incorporated into 25 selenoproteins. The aim of this work was to assess whether risk of prostate cancer is affected by genetic variants in genes coding for selenoproteins, either alone or in combination with Se status. 248 cases and 492 controls from an EPIC-Heidelberg nested case-control study were subjected to two-stage genotyping with an initial screening phase in which 384 tagging-SNPs covering 72 Se-related genes were determined in 94 cases and 94 controls using the Illumina Goldengate methodology. This analysis was followed by a second phase in which genotyping for candidate SNPs identified in the first phase was carried out in the full study using Sequenom. Risk of high-grade or advanced stage prostate cancer was modified by interactions between serum markers of Se status and genotypes for rs9880056 in SELK, rs9605030 and rs9605031 in TXNRD2, and rs7310505 in TXNRD1. No significant effects of SNPs on prostate cancer risk were observed when grade or Se status was not taken into account. In conclusion, the risk of high-grade or advanced-stage prostate cancer is significantly altered by a combination of genotype for SNPs in selenoprotein genes and Se status. The findings contribute to explaining the biological effects of selenium intake and genetic factors in prostate cancer development and highlight potential roles of thioredoxin reductases and selenoprotein K in tumour progression. PMID:23133653

  17. Expression of Selenoprotein Genes Is Affected by Heat Stress in IPEC-J2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lei; Tang, Jiayong; Li, Qiang; Xu, Jingyang; Jia, Gang; Liu, Guangmang; Chen, Xiaoling; Shang, Haiying; Cai, Jingyi; Zhao, Hua

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the impacts of heat stress (HS) on expressions of selenoprotein genes in IPEC-J2 cells. Cells were cultured with 5 % CO2-humidified chamber at 37 °C until the cells grew to complete confluence and then exposed to a mild hyperthermia at 41.5 °C (HS) or 37 °C (control) for another 24 h, finally harvested for total RNA or protein extraction. Real-time quantitative PCRs (qPCRs) were performed to compare gene expression of 25 selenoprotein genes, 3 tight junction-related genes, and 10 inflammation-related genes. Protein expressions of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and selenoprotein X and P (SelX and SelP) were also investigated by Western blot. The results showed that HS up-regulated (P < 0.05) Hsp70 and one tight junction-related gene [zonula occludens-1 (Zo-1)] in IPEC-J2 cells. At the same time, HS up-regulated (P < 0.05) 4 selenoprotein genes (Gpx3, Dio2, Selk, Sels) and three inflammation-related genes (Il-6, Icam-1, Tgf-β) and down-regulated (P < 0.05 or as indicated) six selenoprotein genes (Gpx2, Gpx6, Txnrd1, Selh, Selm, Selx) and three inflammation-related genes (Ifn-β, Mcp-1, Tnf-α) in the cells. HS also exhibited impacts on protein expressions, which up-regulated Hsp70, down-regulated SelX, and showed no effect on SelP in IPEC-J2 cells. Our results showed that HS affected the expression of inflammation-related genes and up-regulated gene and protein expressions of Hsp70. The changes of so many selenoprotein genes expression implied a potential link between selenoprotein genes and HS. Moreover, the results provided by this IPEC-J2 model may be used to further study the interactive mechanisms between selenoprotein function and potential intestinal damage induced by HS.

  18. Supranutritional dietary selenium depressed expression of selenoprotein genes in three immune organs of broilers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jiayong; Huang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Longqiong; Li, Qiang; Xu, Jinyang; Jia, Gang; Liu, Guangmang; Chen, Xiaoling; Shang, Haiying; Zhao, Hua

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supranutritional dietary selenium (Se) on selenoproteins expression in three immune organs of chickens. A total of 160 1-day-old male Cobb broilers were randomly divided into two groups and fed a Se-deficient corn-soybean basal diet supplemented with 0.3 (adequate) and 3.0 (excess) mg/kg Se for 42 days. Immune organs were collected, and effects of supranutritional Se on messenger RNA abundance of 23 selenoprotein genes and eight inflammation-related genes were compared at day 42. Also enzyme activities were measured at days 14, 28 and 42. The results showed supranutritional dietary Se depressed growth performance of chicken and down-regulated nine and three selenoprotein genes in thymus and spleen, respectively, and only Sepp1 was up-regulated in the bursa of Fabricius. Also three, three and seven inflammation-related genes were up-regulated in three organs, respectively. Supranutritional Se elevated (P < 0.05) activities of superoxidase dismutase, total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase, mainly in early stages. In summary, supranutritional Se resulted in down-regulation of selenoprotein genes and up-regulation of inflammation-related genes in three immune organs of chicken, which indicated potential roles of those selenoprotein genes in immune organs of the chicken. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Compositions and methods for the expression of selenoproteins in eukaryotic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gladyshev, Vadim; Novoselov, Sergey

    2012-09-25

    Recombinant nucleic acid constructs for the efficient expression of eukaryotic selenoproteins and related methods for production of recombinant selenoproteins are provided. The nucleic acid constructs comprise novel selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) elements. Certain novel SECIS elements of the invention contain non-canonical quartet sequences. Other novel SECIS elements provided by the invention are chimeric SECIS elements comprising a canonical SECIS element that contains a non-canonical quartet sequence and chimeric SECIS elements comprising a non-canonical SECIS element that contains a canonical quartet sequence. The novel SECIS elements of the invention facilitate the insertion of selenocysteine residues into recombinant polypeptides.

  20. Neuronal selenoprotein expression is required for interneuron development and prevents seizures and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Eva K.; Conrad, Marcus; Winterer, Jochen; Wozny, Christian; Carlson, Bradley A.; Roth, Stephan; Schmitz, Dietmar; Bornkamm, Georg W.; Coppola, Vincenzo; Tessarollo, Lino; Schomburg, Lutz; Köhrle, Josef; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Schweizer, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with neurological phenotypes including seizures and ataxia. We wanted to define whether neurons require selenoprotein expression and which selenoproteins are most important, and explore the possible pathomechanism. Therefore, we abrogated the expression of all selenoproteins in neurons by genetic inactivation of the tRNA[Ser]Sec gene. Cerebral expression of selenoproteins was significantly diminished in the mutants, and histological analysis revealed progressive neurodegeneration. Developing interneurons failed to specifically express parvalbumin (PV) in the mutants. Electrophysiological recordings, before overt cell death, showed normal excitatory transmission, but revealed spontaneous epileptiform activity consistent with seizures in the mutants. In developing cortical neuron cultures, the number of PV+ neurons was reduced on combined Se and vitamin E deprivation, while other markers, such as calretinin (CR) and GAD67, remained unaffected. Because of the synergism between Se and vitamin E, we analyzed mice lacking neuronal expression of the Se-dependent enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4). Although the number of CR+ interneurons remained normal in Gpx4-mutant mice, the number of PV+ interneurons was reduced. Since these mice similarly exhibit seizures and ataxia, we conclude that GPx4 is a selenoenzyme modulating interneuron function and PV expression. Cerebral SE deficiency may thus act via reduced GPx4 expression.—Wirth, E. K., Conrad, M., Winterer, J., Wozny, C., Carlson, B. A., Roth, S., Schmitz, D., Bornkamm, G. W., Coppola, V., Tessarollo, L., Schomburg, L., Köhrle, J., Hatfield, D. L., Schweizer, U. Neuronal selenoprotein expression is required for interneuron development and prevents seizures and neurodegeneration. PMID:19890015

  1. Delineating hierarchy of selenotranscriptome expression and their response to selenium status in chicken central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiu-Qing; Cao, Chang-Yu; Li, Zhao-Yang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Cong; Lin, Jia; Li, Xue-Nan; Li, Jing-Long

    2017-04-01

    Selenium (Se) incorporated in selenoproteins as selenocysteine and supports various important cellular and organismal functions. We recently reported that chicken brain exhibited high priority for Se supply and retention under conditions of dietary Se deficiency and supernutrition Li et al. (2012) . However, the selenotranscriptome expressions and their response to Se status in chicken central nervous system (CNS) are unclear. To better understand the relationship of Se homeostasis and selenoproteins expression in chicken CNS, 1day-old HyLine White chickens were fed a low Se diet (Se-L, 0.028mg/g) supplemented with 4 levels of dietary Se (0 to 5.0mgSe/kg) as Na2SeO3 for 8weeks. Then chickens were dissected for getting the CNS, which included cerebral cortex, cerebellum, thalamus, bulbus cinereus and marrow. The expressions of selenoproteome which have 24 selenoproteins were detected by the quantitative real-time PCR array. The concept of a selenoprotein hierarchy was developed and the hierarchy of different regions in chicken CNS was existence, especially cerebral cortex and bulbus cinereus. The expression of selenoproteins has a hierarch while changing Se content, and Selenoprotein T (Selt), Selenoprotein K (Selk), Selenoprotein W (Selw), Selenoprotein U (Selu), Glutathione peroxidase 3 (Gpx3), Glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4), Selenoprotein P (Sepp1), Selenoprotein O (Selo), Selenoprotein 15 (Sel15), Selenoprotein N (Seln), Glutathione peroxidase 2 (Gpx2) and Selenoprotein P 2 (Sepp2) take more necessary function in the chicken CNS. Therefore, we hypothesize that hierarchy of regulated the transcriptions of selenoproteome makes an important role of CNS Se metabolism and transport in birds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Selenium regulates gene expression of selenoprotein W in chicken skeletal muscle system.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Hongfeng; Zhang, Ziwei; Wu, Qiong; Yao, Haidong; Li, Jinlong; Li, Shu; Xu, Shiwen

    2012-01-01

    Selenoprotein W (SelW) is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscles of mammals and necessary for the metabolism of skeletal muscles. However, its expression pattern in skeletal muscle system of birds is still uncovered. Herein, to investigate the distribution of SelW mRNA in chicken skeletal muscle system and its response to different selenium (Se) status, 1-day-old chickens were exposed to various concentrations of Se as sodium selenite in the feed for 35 days. In addition, myoblasts were treated with different concentrations of Se in the medium for 72 h. Then the levels of SelW mRNA in skeletal muscles (wing muscle, pectoral muscle, thigh muscle) and myoblasts were determined on days 1, 15, 25, and 35 and at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The results showed that SelW was detected in all these muscle components and it increased both along with the growth of organism and the differentiation process of myoblasts. The thigh muscle is more responsive to Se intake than the other two skeletal muscle tissues while the optimal Se supplementation for SelW mRNA expression in chicken myoblasts was 10(-7) M. In summary, Se plays important roles in the development of chicken skeletal muscles. To effect optimal SelW gene expression, Se must be provided in the diet and the media in adequate amounts and neither at excessive nor deficient levels.

  3. Dietary Selenium Levels Affect Selenoprotein Expression and Support the Interferon-γ and IL-6 Immune Response Pathways in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Petra A.; Carlson, Bradley A.; Anderson, Christine B.; Seifried, Harold E.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Howard, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Selenium is an essential element that is required to support a number of cellular functions and biochemical pathways. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of reduced dietary selenium levels on gene expression to assess changes in expression of non-selenoprotein genes that may contribute to the physiological consequences of selenium deficiency. Mice were fed diets that were either deficient in selenium or supplemented with selenium in the form of sodium selenite for six weeks. Differences in liver mRNA expression and translation were measured using a combination of ribosome profiling, RNA-Seq, microarrays, and qPCR. Expression levels and translation of mRNAs encoding stress-related selenoproteins were shown to be up-regulated by increased selenium status, as were genes involved in inflammation and response to interferon-γ. Changes in serum cytokine levels were measured which confirmed that interferon-γ, as well as IL-6, were increased in selenium adequate mice. Finally, microarray and qPCR analysis of lung tissue demonstrated that the selenium effects on immune function are not limited to liver. These data are consistent with previous reports indicating that adequate selenium levels can support beneficial immune responses, and further identify the IL-6 and interferon-γ pathways as being responsive to dietary selenium intake. PMID:26258789

  4. Dietary Selenium Levels Affect Selenoprotein Expression and Support the Interferon-γ and IL-6 Immune Response Pathways in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Petra A; Carlson, Bradley A; Anderson, Christine B; Seifried, Harold E; Hatfield, Dolph L; Howard, Michael T

    2015-08-06

    Selenium is an essential element that is required to support a number of cellular functions and biochemical pathways. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of reduced dietary selenium levels on gene expression to assess changes in expression of non-selenoprotein genes that may contribute to the physiological consequences of selenium deficiency. Mice were fed diets that were either deficient in selenium or supplemented with selenium in the form of sodium selenite for six weeks. Differences in liver mRNA expression and translation were measured using a combination of ribosome profiling, RNA-Seq, microarrays, and qPCR. Expression levels and translation of mRNAs encoding stress-related selenoproteins were shown to be up-regulated by increased selenium status, as were genes involved in inflammation and response to interferon-γ. Changes in serum cytokine levels were measured which confirmed that interferon-γ, as well as IL-6, were increased in selenium adequate mice. Finally, microarray and qPCR analysis of lung tissue demonstrated that the selenium effects on immune function are not limited to liver. These data are consistent with previous reports indicating that adequate selenium levels can support beneficial immune responses, and further identify the IL-6 and interferon-γ pathways as being responsive to dietary selenium intake.

  5. Expression of Selenoprotein Genes Is Affected by Obesity of Pigs Fed a High-Fat Diet123

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Li, Ke; Tang, Jia-Yong; Zhou, Ji-Chang; Wang, Kang-Ning; Xia, Xin-Jie; Lei, Xin Gen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Relations of the 25 mammalian selenoprotein genes with obesity and the associated inflammation remain unclear. Objective: This study explored impacts of high-fat diet-induced obesity on inflammation and expressions of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes in 10 tissues of pigs. Methods: Plasma and 10 tissues were collected from pigs (n = 10) fed a corn-soy–based control diet or that diet containing 3–7% lard from weanling to finishing (180 d). Plasma concentrations (n = 8) of cytokines and thyroid hormones and tissue mRNA abundance (n = 4) of 25 selenoprotein genes and 16 obesity-related genes were compared between the pigs fed the control and high-fat diets. Stepwise regression was applied to analyze correlations among all these measures, including the previously reported body physical and plasma biochemical variables. Results: The high-fat diet elevated (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, leptin, and leptin receptor by 29–42% and affected (P < 0.05–0.1) tissue mRNA levels of the selenoprotein and obesity-related genes in 3 patterns. Specifically, the high-fat diet up-regulated 12 selenoprotein genes in 6 tissues, down-regulated 13 selenoprotein genes in 7 tissues, and exerted no effect on 5 genes in any tissue. Body weights and plasma triglyceride concentrations of pigs showed the strongest regressions to tissue mRNA abundances of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes. Among the selenoprotein genes, selenoprotein V and I were ranked as the strongest independent variables for the regression of phenotypic and plasma measures. Meanwhile, agouti signaling protein, adiponectin, and resistin genes represented the strongest independent variables of the obesity-related genes for the regression of tissue selenoprotein mRNA. Conclusions: The high-fat diet induced inflammation in pigs and affected their gene expression of selenoproteins associated with thioredoxin and oxidoreductase systems, local tissue

  6. The influence of selenium-enriched milk proteins and selenium yeast on plasma selenium levels and rectal selenoprotein gene expression in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; McIntosh, Graeme H; Le Leu, Richard K; Upton, Jane M; Woodman, Richard J; Young, Graeme P

    2011-08-01

    Certain forms of dietary Se may have advantages for improving human Se status and regulating the risk for disease, such as cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study compared the effects of a Se-enriched milk protein (dairy-Se) with a Se-rich yeast (yeast-Se) on plasma Se levels and rectal selenoprotein gene expression since we reasoned that if these genes were not regulated, there was little potential for regulating the risk for CRC in this organ. A total of twenty-three healthy volunteers with plasma Se in the lower half of the population range were supplemented with dairy-Se (150 μg/d) or yeast-Se (150 μg/d) for 6 weeks, followed by 6 weeks of washout period. Blood was sampled every 2 weeks, and rectal biopsies were obtained before and after Se supplementation and after the washout period. Plasma Se levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and rectal mRNA of selenoprotein P (SeP), cytosolic GPx-1 (GPx-1), gastrointestinal GPx-2 (GPx-2) and thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR-1) were measured. Plasma Se levels increased rapidly in both Se groups (P < 0·001); plasma GPx activity was not significantly changed. Rectal SeP mRNA increased at 6 weeks compared with baseline in both Se groups (P < 0·05); only dairy-Se resulted in a sustained elevation of SeP after the washout period (P < 0·05). Rectal GPx-1 and GPx-2 mRNA were higher with dairy-Se (P < 0·05) than with yeast-Se at 6 weeks. In conclusion, three rectal selenoprotein mRNA were differentially regulated by dairy-Se and yeast-Se. Changes in rectal selenoproteins are not predicted by changes in plasma Se; dairy-Se effectively regulates the expression of several rectal selenoproteins of relevance to the risk for CRC.

  7. Selenoprotein Genes Exhibit Differential Expression Patterns Between Hepatoma HepG2 and Normal Hepatocytes LO2 Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hua; Tang, Jiayong; Xu, Jingyang; Cao, Lei; Jia, Gang; Long, Dingbiao; Liu, Guangmang; Chen, Xiaoling; Wang, Kangning

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of selenoprotein genes between hepatoma HepG2 and normal hepatocytes LO2 cell lines. Liver HepG2 and LO2 cells were cultured in 12-well plates under the same condition until cells grew to complete confluence, and then cells were harvested for total RNA and protein extraction. The qPCRs were performed to compare gene expression of 14 selenoprotein genes and 5 cancer signaling-related genes. Enzyme activities were also assayed. The results showed that human hepatoma HepG2 cells grew faster than normal hepatocytes LO2 cells. Among the genes investigated, 10 selenoprotein genes (Gpx1, Gpx3, Gpx4, Selx, Sepp, Sepw1, Sepn1, Selt, Seli, Selh) and 3 cancer signaling-related genes (Bcl-2A, caspase-3, and P38) were upregulated (P < 0.05), while Selo and Bcl-2B were downregulated (P < 0.05) in hepatoma HepG2 cells compared to LO2 cells. Significant correlations were found between selenoprotein genes and the cancer signaling-related genes Caspase3, P53, Bc1-2A, and Bc1-2B. Our results revealed that selenoprotein genes were aberrantly expressed in hepatoma HepG2 cells compared to normal liver LO2 cells, which indicated that those selenoprotein genes may play important roles in the occurrence and development of liver carcinogenesis.

  8. Selenoprotein Transcript Level and Enzyme Activity as Biomarkers for Selenium Status and Selenium Requirements of Chickens (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin-Long; Sunde, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    The NRC selenium (Se) requirement for broiler chicks is 0.15 μg Se/g diet, based primarily on weight gain and feed intake studies reported in 1986. To determine Se requirements in today’s rapidly growing broiler chick, day-old male chicks were fed Se-deficient basal diets supplemented with graded levels of Se (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 μg Se/g) as Na2SeO3 (5/treatment). Diets contained 15X the vitamin E requirement, and there were no gross signs of Se-deficiency. At 29 d, Se-deficient chicks weighed 62% of Se-supplemented chicks; 0.025 μg Se/g reversed this effect, indicating a minimum Se requirement of 0.025 μg Se/g diet for growth for male broiler chicks. Enzyme activities in Se-deficient chicks for plasma GPX3, liver and gizzard GPX1, and liver and gizzard GPX4 decreased dramatically to 3, 2, 5, 10 and 5%, respectively, of Se-adequate levels, with minimum Se requirements of 0.10–0.13 μg Se/g, and with defined plateaus above these levels. Pancreas GPX1 and GPX4 activities, however, lacked defined plateaus, with breakpoints at 0.3 μg Se/g. qPCR measurement of all 24 chicken selenoprotein transcripts, plus SEPHS1, found that SEPP1 in liver, GPX3 in gizzard, and SEPP1, GPX3 and SELK in pancreas were expressed at levels comparable to housekeeping transcripts. Only 33%, 25% and 50% of selenoprotein transcripts were down-regulated significantly by Se deficiency in liver, gizzard and pancreas, respectively. No transcripts could be used as biomarkers for supernutritional Se status. For export selenoproteins SEPP1 and GPX3, tissue distribution, high expression and Se-regulation clearly indicate unique Se metabolism, which may underlie tissues targeted by Se deficiency. Based on enzyme activities in liver, gizzard, and plasma, the minimum Se requirement in today’s broiler chick is 0.15 μg Se/g diet; pancreas data indicate that the Se requirement should be raised to 0.2 μg Se/g diet to provide a margin of safety. PMID:27045754

  9. Selenoprotein Transcript Level and Enzyme Activity as Biomarkers for Selenium Status and Selenium Requirements of Chickens (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Long; Sunde, Roger A

    2016-01-01

    The NRC selenium (Se) requirement for broiler chicks is 0.15 μg Se/g diet, based primarily on weight gain and feed intake studies reported in 1986. To determine Se requirements in today's rapidly growing broiler chick, day-old male chicks were fed Se-deficient basal diets supplemented with graded levels of Se (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 μg Se/g) as Na2SeO3 (5/treatment). Diets contained 15X the vitamin E requirement, and there were no gross signs of Se-deficiency. At 29 d, Se-deficient chicks weighed 62% of Se-supplemented chicks; 0.025 μg Se/g reversed this effect, indicating a minimum Se requirement of 0.025 μg Se/g diet for growth for male broiler chicks. Enzyme activities in Se-deficient chicks for plasma GPX3, liver and gizzard GPX1, and liver and gizzard GPX4 decreased dramatically to 3, 2, 5, 10 and 5%, respectively, of Se-adequate levels, with minimum Se requirements of 0.10-0.13 μg Se/g, and with defined plateaus above these levels. Pancreas GPX1 and GPX4 activities, however, lacked defined plateaus, with breakpoints at 0.3 μg Se/g. qPCR measurement of all 24 chicken selenoprotein transcripts, plus SEPHS1, found that SEPP1 in liver, GPX3 in gizzard, and SEPP1, GPX3 and SELK in pancreas were expressed at levels comparable to housekeeping transcripts. Only 33%, 25% and 50% of selenoprotein transcripts were down-regulated significantly by Se deficiency in liver, gizzard and pancreas, respectively. No transcripts could be used as biomarkers for supernutritional Se status. For export selenoproteins SEPP1 and GPX3, tissue distribution, high expression and Se-regulation clearly indicate unique Se metabolism, which may underlie tissues targeted by Se deficiency. Based on enzyme activities in liver, gizzard, and plasma, the minimum Se requirement in today's broiler chick is 0.15 μg Se/g diet; pancreas data indicate that the Se requirement should be raised to 0.2 μg Se/g diet to provide a margin of safety.

  10. Umbilical cord blood and placental mercury, selenium and selenoprotein expression in relation to maternal fish consumption

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Christy L.; Soon, Reni; Sauvage, Lynnae; Ralston, Nicholas V.C.; Berry, Marla J.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is an important source of nutrients for fetal neurodevelopment. Most individuals are exposed to the toxic element mercury through seafood. Due to the neurotoxic effects of mercury, United States government agencies recommend no more than 340 g (12 oz) per week of seafood consumption during pregnancy. However, recent studies have shown that selenium, also abundant in seafood, can have protective effects against mercury toxicity. In this study, we analyzed mercury and selenium levels and selenoprotein mRNA, protein, and activity in placenta of a cohort of women in Hawaii in relation to maternal seafood consumption assessed with dietary surveys. Fish consumption resulted in differences in mercury levels in placenta and cord blood. When taken as a group, those who consumed no fish exhibited the lowest mercury levels in placenta and cord blood. However, there were numerous individuals who either had higher mercury with no fish consumption or lower mercury with high fish consumption, indicating a lack of correlation. Placental expression of selenoprotein mRNAs, proteins and enzyme activity was not statistically different in any region among the different dietary groups. While the absence of seafood consumption correlates with lower average placental and cord blood mercury levels, no strong correlations were seen between seafood consumption or its absence and the levels of either selenoproteins or selenoenzyme activity. PMID:25744505

  11. Umbilical cord blood and placental mercury, selenium and selenoprotein expression in relation to maternal fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Christy L; Soon, Reni; Sauvage, Lynnae; Ralston, Nicholas V C; Berry, Marla J

    2015-04-01

    Seafood is an important source of nutrients for fetal neurodevelopment. Most individuals are exposed to the toxic element mercury through seafood. Due to the neurotoxic effects of mercury, United States government agencies recommend no more than 340g (12oz) per week of seafood consumption during pregnancy. However, recent studies have shown that selenium, also abundant in seafood, can have protective effects against mercury toxicity. In this study, we analyzed mercury and selenium levels and selenoprotein mRNA, protein, and activity in placenta of a cohort of women in Hawaii in relation to maternal seafood consumption assessed with dietary surveys. Fish consumption resulted in differences in mercury levels in placenta and cord blood. When taken as a group, those who consumed no fish exhibited the lowest mercury levels in placenta and cord blood. However, there were numerous individuals who either had higher mercury with no fish consumption or lower mercury with high fish consumption, indicating a lack of correlation. Placental expression of selenoprotein mRNAs, proteins and enzyme activity was not statistically different in any region among the different dietary groups. While the absence of seafood consumption correlates with lower average placental and cord blood mercury levels, no strong correlations were seen between seafood consumption or its absence and the levels of either selenoproteins or selenoenzyme activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Binge drinking during adolescence disrupts Se homeostasis and its main hepatic selenoprotein expression.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, María Luisa; Rua, Rui Manuel; Murillo, María Luisa; Carreras, Olimpia; Nogales, Fátima

    2015-05-01

    Binge drinking (BD) is the most common ethanol (EtOH) intake consumption model among teenagers, but little is known about its effects on the liver. During its hepatic metabolism, acute alcohol exposure produces a great amount of reactive oxygen species which contributes to alcohol-induced liver injury. Selenium (Se) plays a key role in antioxidant defense as it forms part of selenoproteins, such as the antioxidant glutathione peroxidases (GPxs) or the selenoprotein P (SelP), synthesized mainly in liver. Chronic EtOH consumption decreases both Se deposits and this tissue's antioxidant activity. Two BD administration routes (oral and intraperitoneal) were used in adolescent rats to analyze Se homeostasis; the main hepatic selenoproteins' expression: GPx1, GPx4, and SelP, and their biological roles related to oxidation. Their relationship with inflammatory processes was also determined by analyzing the expression of the transcriptional factor nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κB). It has been demonstrated for the first time that BD in adolescents alters Se homeostasis regardless of the administration route employed, despite the fact that the BD oral group ingested less Se in diet. This decrease of Se in serum and liver is directly related to a decrease in serum GPx3 and hepatic GPx1 activity, contributing to the oxidative imbalance found. The depletion of Se detected in liver affects GPx1 expression and, surprisingly, GPx4 expression. This could be related to the lower expression of the transcriptional factor NF-κB in the liver, a key player in the regulation of inflammatory processes. Due to the above, and to find whether a Se supplementation therapy improves these situations, it would be interesting to explore in more depth the relationship between Se, the high oxidation found, and the depressed immune response reported in BD adolescents. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. Impaired selenoprotein expression in brain triggers striatal neuronal loss leading to co-ordination defects in mice.

    PubMed

    Seeher, Sandra; Carlson, Bradley A; Miniard, Angela C; Wirth, Eva K; Mahdi, Yassin; Hatfield, Dolph L; Driscoll, Donna M; Schweizer, Ulrich

    2014-08-15

    Secisbp2 [SECIS (selenocysteine insertion sequence)-binding protein 2] binds to SECIS elements located in the 3'-UTR region of eukaryotic selenoprotein mRNAs. It facilitates the incorporation of the rare amino acid selenocysteine in response to UGA codons. Inactivation of Secisbp2 in hepatocytes greatly reduced selenoprotein levels. Neuron-specific inactivation of Secisbp2 (CamK-Cre; Secisbp2fl/fl) reduced cerebral expression of selenoproteins to a lesser extent than inactivation of tRNA[Ser]Sec. This allowed us to study the development of cortical PV (parvalbumin)+ interneurons, which are completely lost in tRNA[Ser]Sec mutants. PV+ interneuron density was reduced in the somatosensory cortex, hippocampus and striatum. In situ hybridization for Gad67 (glutamic acid decarboxylase 67) confirmed the reduction of GABAergic (where GABA is γ-aminobutyric acid) interneurons. Because of the obvious movement phenotype involving a broad dystonic gait, we suspected basal ganglia dysfunction. Tyrosine hydroxylase expression was normal in substantia nigra neurons and their striatal terminals. However the densities of striatal PV+ and Gad67+ neurons were decreased by 65% and 49% respectively. Likewise, the density of striatal cholinergic neurons was reduced by 68%. Our observations demonstrate that several classes of striatal interneurons depend on selenoprotein expression. These findings may offer an explanation for the movement phenotype of selenoprotein P-deficient mice and the movement disorder and mental retardation described in a patient carrying SECISBP2 mutations.

  14. Selenoprotein K modulate intracellular free Ca(2+) by regulating expression of calcium homoeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Li, Ruimin; Huang, Yalan; Wang, Miao; Yang, Fan; Huang, Dana; Wu, Chunli; Li, Yue; Tang, Yijun; Zhang, Renli; Cheng, Jinquan

    2017-03-18

    Selenoprotein K (SelK) is an 11-kDa selenoprotein, which may be involved in the regulation of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and immune response. To explore the function of SelK in the process of immune response, several short-hairpin RNAs (shRNA) were designed for the construction of recombinant plasmids to down-regulate the expression of SelK gene in vitro. These shRNAs specifically and efficiently interfered with the expression of SelK at both mRNA and protein levels. The expression of calcium homoeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein (CHERP) and the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration were significantly down-regulated in anti-CD3 stimulated SelK-knockdown cells. The expression of Interleukin 2 receptor alpha chain (IL-2Rα) and the secretion of Interleukin 4 (IL-4), which play a significant role in the process of T cell activation and proliferation, were also reduced in SelK-knockdown cells. Selenomethionine (Se-Met) at an optimum concentration of 5 μM could up-regulate SelK expression and reverse the change of the expression of CHERP and the intracellular free calcium caused by SelK-knockdown. These results hereby imply SelK may regulate the release of Ca(2+) by CHERP and play an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of T cell by TCR stimulation.

  15. Selenoprotein P expression in liver, uterus and placenta during late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kasik, J W; Rice, E J

    1995-01-01

    To identify genes that exhibit increased expression in the placenta during late pregnancy, the technique of differential cDNA library screening was used to isolate a clone subsequently identified as the 3' untranslated region of the mouse selenoprotein p gene. Random primed radiolabelled cDNA probes were constructed from this clone and these probes were used to conduct Northern hybridizations against total RNA purified from mouse placenta, liver (maternal and fetal) and uterus collected sequentially during the latter third of pregnancy. Signal is present in the placenta and beginning 4 days before birth, the level of message increases, reaching maximal levels at term. The level of expression in the placenta at maximum is approximately 25 per cent of that observed in adult liver. In liver obtained from pregnant females, the level of message is increased compared to nonpregnant adults, but returns to normal shortly after birth. Message is also found in the fetal liver beginning at 4 days before birth and exhibits a pattern of expression similar to the placenta. The similarity of expression observed in fetal liver and placenta suggests a coordinated regulation of expression of this gene in these tissues. There is a minimal amount of signal present in the uterus and the expression does not appear to vary. We speculate that selenoprotein p may play a role in the transplacental transport of selenium to the fetus during late pregnancy.

  16. Selenium prevents downregulation of antioxidant selenoprotein genes by methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Penglase, S; Hamre, K; Ellingsen, S

    2014-10-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential nutrient required by Se-dependent proteins, termed selenoproteins. The selenoprotein family is small but diverse and includes key proteins in antioxidant, redox signaling, thyroid hormone metabolism, and protein folding pathways. Methylmercury (MeHg) is a toxic environmental contaminant that affects seafood safety. Selenium can reduce MeHg toxicity, but it is unclear how selenoproteins are affected in this interaction. In this study we explored how Se and MeHg interact to affect the mRNA expression of selenoprotein genes in whole zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Embryos were obtained from adult zebrafish fed MeHg with or without elevated Se in a 2×2 factorial design. The embryo mRNA levels of 30 selenoprotein genes were then measured. These genes cover most of the selenoprotein families, including members of the glutathione peroxidase (GPX), thioredoxin reductase, iodothyronine deiodinase, and methionine sulfoxide reductase families, along with selenophosphate synthetase 2 and selenoproteins H, J-P, T, W, sep15, fep15, and fam213aa. GPX enzyme activity and larval locomotor activity were also measured. We found that around one-quarter of the selenoprotein genes were downregulated by elevated MeHg. These downregulated genes were dominated by selenoproteins from antioxidant pathways that are also susceptible to Se-deficiency-induced downregulation. MeHg also decreased GPX activity and induced larval hypoactivity. Elevated Se partially prevented MeHg-induced disruption of selenoprotein gene mRNA levels, GPX activity, and larval locomotor activity. Overall, the MeHg-induced downregulation and subsequent rescue by elevated Se levels of selenogenes regulated by Se status suggest that Se deficiency is a contributing factor to MeHg toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Clostridium sticklandii glycine reductase selenoprotein A gene: cloning, sequencing, and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, G E; Stadtman, T C

    1992-01-01

    Gene grdA, which encodes selenoprotein A of the glycine reductase complex from Clostridium sticklandii, was identified and characterized. This gene encodes a protein of 158 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 17,142. The known sequence of 15 amino acids around the selenocysteine residue and the known carboxy terminus of the protein are correctly predicted by the nucleotide sequence. An opal termination codon (TGA) corresponding to the location of the single selenocysteine residue in the polypeptide was found in frame at position 130. The C. sticklandii grdA gene was inserted behind the tac promotor of an Escherichia coli expression vector. An E. coli strain transformed with this vector produced an 18-kDa polypeptide that was not detected in extracts of nontransformed cells. Affinity-purified anti-C. sticklandii selenoprotein A immunoglobulin G reacted specifically with this polypeptide, which was indistinguishable from authentic C. sticklandii selenoprotein A by immunological analysis. Addition of the purified expressed protein to glycine reductase protein components B and C reconstituted the active glycine reductase complex. Although synthesis of enzymically active protein A depended on the presence of selenium in the growth medium, formation of immunologically reactive protein did not. Moreover, synthesis of enzymically active protein in a transformed E. coli selD mutant strain indicated that there is a nonspecific mechanism of selenocysteine incorporation. These findings imply that mRNA secondary structures of C. sticklandii grdA are not functional for UGA-directed selenocysteine insertion in the E. coli expression system. Images PMID:1429431

  18. Clostridium sticklandii glycine reductase selenoprotein A gene: cloning, sequencing, and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Garcia, G E; Stadtman, T C

    1992-11-01

    Gene grdA, which encodes selenoprotein A of the glycine reductase complex from Clostridium sticklandii, was identified and characterized. This gene encodes a protein of 158 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 17,142. The known sequence of 15 amino acids around the selenocysteine residue and the known carboxy terminus of the protein are correctly predicted by the nucleotide sequence. An opal termination codon (TGA) corresponding to the location of the single selenocysteine residue in the polypeptide was found in frame at position 130. The C. sticklandii grdA gene was inserted behind the tac promotor of an Escherichia coli expression vector. An E. coli strain transformed with this vector produced an 18-kDa polypeptide that was not detected in extracts of nontransformed cells. Affinity-purified anti-C. sticklandii selenoprotein A immunoglobulin G reacted specifically with this polypeptide, which was indistinguishable from authentic C. sticklandii selenoprotein A by immunological analysis. Addition of the purified expressed protein to glycine reductase protein components B and C reconstituted the active glycine reductase complex. Although synthesis of enzymically active protein A depended on the presence of selenium in the growth medium, formation of immunologically reactive protein did not. Moreover, synthesis of enzymically active protein in a transformed E. coli selD mutant strain indicated that there is a nonspecific mechanism of selenocysteine incorporation. These findings imply that mRNA secondary structures of C. sticklandii grdA are not functional for UGA-directed selenocysteine insertion in the E. coli expression system.

  19. Membrane-bound selenoproteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Rozovsky, Sharon

    2015-10-01

    Selenoproteins employ selenium to supplement the chemistry available through the common 20 amino acids. These powerful enzymes are affiliated with redox biology, often in connection with the detection, management, and signaling of oxidative stress. Among them, membrane-bound selenoproteins play prominent roles in signaling pathways, Ca(2+) regulation, membrane complexes integrity, and biosynthesis of lipophilic molecules. The number of selenoproteins whose physiological roles, protein partners, expression, evolution, and biosynthesis are characterized is steadily increasing, thus offering a more nuanced view of this specialized family. This review focuses on human membrane selenoproteins, particularly the five least characterized ones: selenoproteins I, K, N, S, and T. Membrane-bound selenoproteins are the least understood, as it is challenging to provide the membrane-like environment required for their biochemical and biophysical characterization. Hence, their studies rely mostly on biological rather than structural and biochemical assays. Another aspect that has not received much attention is the particular role that their membrane association plays in their physiological function. Findings cited in this review show that it is possible to infer the structure and the membrane-binding mode of these lesser-studied selenoproteins and design experiments to examine the role of the rare amino acid selenocysteine.

  20. Selective rescue of selenoprotein expression in mice lacking a highly specialized methyl group in selenocysteine tRNA.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Bradley A; Xu, Xue-Ming; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Hatfield, Dolph L

    2005-02-18

    Selenocysteine (Sec) is the 21st amino acid in the genetic code. Its tRNA is variably methylated on the 2'-O-hydroxyl site of the ribosyl moiety at position 34 (Um34). Herein, we identified a role of Um34 in regulating the expression of some, but not all, selenoproteins. A strain of knock-out transgenic mice was generated, wherein the Sec tRNA gene was replaced with either wild type or mutant Sec tRNA transgenes. The mutant transgene yielded a tRNA that lacked two base modifications, N(6)-isopentenyladenosine at position 37 (i(6)A37) and Um34. Several selenoproteins, including glutathione peroxidases 1 and 3, SelR, and SelT, were not detected in mice rescued with the mutant transgene, whereas other selenoproteins, including thioredoxin reductases 1 and 3 and glutathione peroxidase 4, were expressed in normal or reduced levels. Northern blot analysis suggested that other selenoproteins (e.g. SelW) were also poorly expressed. This novel regulation of protein expression occurred at the level of translation and manifested a tissue-specific pattern. The available data suggest that the Um34 modification has greater influence than the i(6)A37 modification in regulating the expression of various mammalian selenoproteins and Um34 is required for synthesis of several members of this protein class. Many proteins that were poorly rescued appear to be involved in responses to stress, and their expression is also highly dependent on selenium in the diet. Furthermore, their mRNA levels are regulated by selenium and are subject to nonsense-mediated decay. Overall, this study described a novel mechanism of regulation of protein expression by tRNA modification that is in turn regulated by levels of the trace element, selenium.

  1. Selenoprotein Expression in Macrophages Is Critical for Optimal Clearance of Parasitic Helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis*

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Shakira M.; Shay, Ashley E.; James, Jamaal L.; Carlson, Bradley A.; Urban, Joseph F.; Prabhu, K. Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    The plasticity of macrophages is evident in helminthic parasite infections, providing protection from inflammation. Previously we demonstrated that the micronutrient selenium induces a phenotypic switch in macrophage activation from a classically activated (pro-inflammatory; M1/CAM) toward an alternatively activated (anti-inflammatory; M2/AAM) phenotype, where cyclooxygenase (COX)-dependent cyclopentenone prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) plays a key role. Here, we hypothesize that dietary selenium modulates macrophage polarization toward an AAM phenotype to assist in the increasing clearance of adult Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, a gastrointestinal nematode parasite. Mice on a selenium-adequate (0.08 ppm) diet significantly augmented intestinal AAM presence while decreasing adult worms and fecal egg production when compared with infection of mice on selenium-deficient (<0.01 ppm) diet. Further increase in dietary selenium to supraphysiological levels (0.4 ppm) had very little or no impact on worm expulsion. Normal adult worm clearance and enhanced AAM marker expression were observed in the selenium-supplemented Trspfl/flCreWT mice that express selenoproteins driven by tRNASec (Trsp), whereas N. brasiliensis-infected Trspfl/flCreLysM selenium-supplemented mice showed a decreased clearance, with lowered intestinal expression of several AAM markers. Inhibition of the COX pathway with indomethacin resulted in delayed worm expulsion in selenium-adequate mice. This was rescued with 15d-PGJ2, which partially recapitulated the effect of selenium supplementation on fecal egg output in addition to increasing markers of AAMs in the small intestine. Antagonism of PPARγ blocked the effect of selenium. These results suggest that optimal expression of selenoproteins and selenium-dependent production of COX-derived endogenous prostanoids, such as Δ12-PGJ2 and 15d-PGJ2, may regulate AAM activation to enhance anti-helminthic parasite responses. PMID:26644468

  2. Selenium and selenoproteins in inflammatory bowel diseases and experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Speckmann, Bodo; Steinbrenner, Holger

    2014-06-01

    Inadequate dietary intake of the essential trace element selenium (Se) is thought to be a risk factor for several chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Biological actions of Se occur through low-molecular weight metabolites and through selenoproteins. Several key selenoproteins including glutathione peroxidases; selenoproteins M, P, and S; and selenium-binding protein 1 have been detected in the intestine. Interestingly, Se and antioxidant selenoproteins are known to modulate differentiation and function of immune cells and contribute to avoid excessive immune responses. This review discusses the role of Se and intestinal selenoproteins in inflammatory bowel diseases, based on data from human, animal, and in vitro studies. In humans, Se deficiency is commonly observed in patients with Crohn's disease. In animal models of experimental colitis, the Se status was negatively correlated with the severity of the disease. While the cause-effect relationship of these observations remains to be clarified, the beneficial outcome of dietary Se supplementation and an optimization of selenoprotein biosynthesis in murine inflammatory bowel disease models have led to investigations of targets and actions of Se in the gastrointestinal tract. The Se status affects gene expression, signaling pathways, and cellular functions in the small and large intestine as well as the gut microbiome composition. This data, particularly from animal experiments, hold promise that adequate dietary Se supply may counteract chronic intestinal inflammation in humans.

  3. Selenium Deficiency Affects the mRNA Expression of Inflammatory Factors and Selenoprotein Genes in the Kidneys of Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiu-Li; Xu, Bo; Huang, Xiao-Dan; Gao, Yu-Hong; Chen, Yu; Shan, An-Shan

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of Se deficiency on the transcription of inflammatory factors and selenoprotein genes in the kidneys of broiler chicks. One hundred fifty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to two groups fed with either a low-Se diet (L group, 0.033 mg/kg Se) or an adequate Se diet (C group, 0.2 mg/kg Se). The levels of uric acid (UA) and creatinine (Cr) in the serum and the mRNA levels of 6 inflammatory factors and 25 selenoprotein genes in the kidneys were measured as the clinical signs of Se deficiency occurred at 20 days old. The results indicated that the contents of UA and Cr in the serum increased in L group (p < 0.05), and the mRNA levels of the inflammatory factors (NF-κB, iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-α) increased in L group (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the mRNA levels of PTGEs and HO-1 were not changed. In addition, 25 selenoprotein transcripts displayed ubiquitous expression in the kidneys of the chicks. The mRNA levels of 14 selenoprotein genes (Dio1, Dio2, GPx3, Sepp1, SelH, SelI, SelK, Sepn1, SelO, SelW, Sep15, SelT, SelU, and SelS) decreased, and 9 selenoprotein genes (GPx1, GPx2, GPx4, SelPb, Txnrd1, Txnrd2, Txnrd3, SPS2, and SelM) increased in L group (p < 0.05), but the Dio3 and Sepx1 mRNA levels did not change. The results indicated that Se deficiency resulted in kidney dysfunction, activation of the NF-κB pathway, and a change in selenoprotein gene expression. The changes of inflammatory factor and selenoprotein gene expression levels were directly related to the abnormal renal functions induced by Se deficiency.

  4. Structure- and cell-specific effects of imidoselenocarbamates on selenoprotein expression and activity in liver cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Elena; Stoedter, Mette; Hofmann, Peter Josef; Plano, Daniel; Calvo, Alfonso; Nguewa, Paul A; Palop, Juan Antonio; Sanmartín, Carmen; Schomburg, Lutz

    2012-12-01

    The essential micronutrient selenium (Se) exerts its biological effects mainly through selenoproteins thereby affecting a number of physiological pathways including intracellular redox control, stress response and cancer cell proliferation. Besides affecting selenoprotein expression, some selenocompounds have been synthesized and analyzed in order to serve as chemotherapeutic substances preferentially targeting cancer cells. This promising chemotherapeutic potential has recently been verified for a particular imidoselenocarbamate in a mouse tumor model. In the present study we tested the effects of this and a number of related Se-methyl- and Se-benzyl-imidoselenocarbamates on selenoprotein expression in nontransformed and hepatic carcinoma cells in culture. Most of the Se-benzyl-imidoselenocarbamates strongly stimulated selenoprotein P (SePP) secretion while the Se-methyl-imidoselenocarbamates elicited less pronounced effects in hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. However, most of the Se-methyl-imidoselenocarbamates increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and decreased thioredoxin reductase (TXNRD) activity in parallel, while the majority of the Se-benzyl-imidoselenocarbamates were without a respective effect in HepG2 cells. Performing inhibitor assays in vitro, GPx activity was unaffected by the imidoselenocarbamates. In contrast, most of the Se-methyl-imidoselenocarbamates inhibited TXNRD activity in vitro in line with the results in HepG2 cells. Both classes of imidoselenocarbamates strongly induced selenoprotein S (SELS) expression without a respective increase in ER stress or unfolded protein response which are known inducers of SELS biosynthesis. Notably, many of these effects were cancer cell-specific, and not observed in nontransformed AML12 hepatocytes. Our results indicate that these novel selenocompounds affect expression and activity of crucial selenoenzymes in a compound- and cell-specific way in hepatocytes. Especially the Se

  5. Update on selenoprotein biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bulteau, Anne-Laure; Chavatte, Laurent

    2015-10-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element that is incorporated in the small but vital family of proteins, namely the selenoproteins, as the selenocysteine amino acid residue. In humans, 25 selenoprotein genes have been characterized. The most remarkable trait of selenoprotein biosynthesis is the cotranslational insertion of selenocysteine by the recoding of a UGA codon, normally decoded as a stop signal. In eukaryotes, a set of dedicated cis- and trans-acting factors have been identified as well as a variety of regulatory mechanisms, factors, or elements that control the selenoprotein expression at the level of the UGA-selenocysteine recoding process, offering a fascinating playground in the field of translational control. It appeared that the central players are two RNA molecules: the selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element within selenoprotein mRNA and the selenocysteine-tRNA([Ser]Sec); and their interacting partners. After a couple of decades, despite many advances in the field and the discovery of many essential and regulatory components, the precise mechanism of UGA-selenocysteine recoding remains elusive and more complex than anticipated, with many layers of control. This review offers an update of selenoproteome biosynthesis and regulation in eukaryotes. The regulation of selenoproteins in response to a variety of pathophysiological conditions and cellular stressors, including selenium levels, oxidative stress, replicative senescence, or cancer, awaits further detailed investigation. Clearly, the efficiency of UGA-selenocysteine recoding is the limiting stage of selenoprotein synthesis. The sequence of events leading Sec-tRNA([Ser]Sec) delivery to ribosomal A site awaits further analysis, notably at the level of a three-dimensional structure.

  6. Selenium, selenoproteins and human health: a review.

    PubMed

    Brown, K M; Arthur, J R

    2001-04-01

    Selenium is of fundamental importance to human health. It is an essential component of several major metabolic pathways, including thyroid hormone metabolism, antioxidant defence systems, and immune function. The decline in blood selenium concentration in the UK and other European Union countries has therefore several potential public health implications, particularly in relation to the chronic disease prevalence of the Western world such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Ten years have elapsed since recommended dietary intakes of selenium were introduced on the basis of blood glutathione peroxidase activity. Since then 30 new selenoproteins have been identified, of which 15 have been purified to allow characterisation of their biological function. The long term health implications in relation to declining selenium intakes have not yet been thoroughly examined, yet the implicit importance of selenium to human health is recognised universally. Selenium is incorporated as selenocysteine at the active site of a wide range of selenoproteins. The four glutathione peroxidase enzymes (classical GPx1, gastrointestinal GPx2, plasma GPx3, phospholipid hydroperoxide GPx4)) which represent a major class of functionally important selenoproteins, were the first to be characterised. Thioredoxin reductase (TR) is a recently identified seleno-cysteine containing enzyme which catalyzes the NADPH dependent reduction of thioredoxin and therefore plays a regulatory role in its metabolic activity. Approximately 60% of Se in plasma is incorporated in selenoprotein P which contains 10 Se atoms per molecule as selenocysteine, and may serve as a transport protein for Se. However, selenoprotein-P is also expressed in many tissues which suggests that although it may facilitate whole body Se distribution, this may not be its sole function. A second major class of selenoproteins are the iodothyronine deiodinase enzymes which catalyse the 5'5-mono-deiodination of the prohormone thyroxine (T4

  7. Expression of Selenoproteins Is Maintained in Mice Carrying Mutations in SECp43, the tRNA Selenocysteine 1 Associated Protein (Trnau1ap)

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Bradley A.; Fradejas, Noelia; Günter, Paul; Braun, Doreen; Southon, Eileen; Tessarollo, Lino; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Schweizer, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Selenocysteine tRNA 1 associated protein (Trnau1ap) has been characterized as a tRNA[Ser]Sec-binding protein of 43 kDa, hence initially named SECp43. Previous studies reported its presence in complexes containing tRNA[Ser]Sec implying a role of SECp43 as a co-factor in selenoprotein expression. We generated two conditionally mutant mouse models targeting exons 3+4 and exons 7+8 eliminating parts of the first RNA recognition motif or of the tyrosine-rich domain, respectively. Constitutive inactivation of exons 3+4 of SECp43 apparently did not affect the mice or selenoprotein expression in several organs. Constitutive deletion of exons 7+8 was embryonic lethal. We therefore generated hepatocyte-specific Secp43 knockout mice and characterized selenoprotein expression in livers of mutant mice. We found no significant changes in the levels of 75Se-labelled hepatic proteins, selenoprotein levels as determined by Western blot analysis, enzymatic activity or selenoprotein mRNA abundance. The methylation pattern of tRNA[Ser]Sec remained unchanged. Truncated Secp43 Δ7,8mRNA increased in Secp43-mutant livers suggesting auto-regulation of Secp43 mRNA abundance. We found no signs of liver damage in Secp433-mutant mice, but neuron-specific deletion of exons 7+8 impaired motor performance, while not affecting cerebral selenoprotein expression or cerebellar development. These findings suggest that the targeted domains in the SECp43 protein are not essential for selenoprotein biosynthesis in hepatocytes and neurons. Whether the remaining second RNA recognition motif plays a role in selenoprotein biosynthesis and which other cellular process depends on SECp43 remains to be determined. PMID:26043259

  8. Selenium Regulation of the Selenoprotein and Nonselenoprotein Transcriptomes in Rodents12

    PubMed Central

    Sunde, Roger A.; Raines, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    This review discusses progress in understanding the hierarchy of selenoprotein expression at the transcriptome level from selenium (Se) deficiency to Se toxicity. Microarray studies of the full selenoproteome have found that 5 of 24 rodent selenoprotein mRNA decrease to <40% of Se adequate levels in Se deficient liver but that the majority of selenoprotein mRNA are not regulated by Se deficiency. These differences match with the hierarchy of selenoprotein expression, helping to explain these differences and also showing that selenoprotein transcripts can be used as molecular biomarkers for assessing Se status. The similarity of the response curves for regulated selenoproteins suggests one underlying mechanism is responsible for the downregulation of selenoprotein mRNA in Se deficiency, but the heterogeneity of the UGA position in regulated and nonregulated selenoprotein transcripts now indicates that current nonsense mediated decay models cannot explain which transcripts are susceptible to mRNA decay. Microarray studies on the full liver transcriptome in rats found only <10 transcripts/treatment were significantly down- or upregulated by Se deficiency or by supernutritional Se up to 2.0 μg Se/g diet (20× requirement), suggesting that cancer prevention associated with supernutritional Se may not be mediated by transcriptional changes. Toxic dietary Se at 50× requirement (5 μg Se/g diet), however, significantly altered ∼4% of the transcriptome, suggesting number of transcriptional changes itself as a biomarker of Se toxicity. Finally, panels of Se regulated selenoprotein plus nonselenoprotein transcripts predict Se status from deficient to toxic better than conventional biomarkers, illustrating potential roles for molecular biomarkers in nutrition. PMID:22332043

  9. Lower Selenoprotein T Expression and Immune Response in the Immune Organs of Broilers with Exudative Diathesis Due to Selenium Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tingru; Liu, Tianqi; Tan, Siran; Wan, Na; Zhang, Yiming; Li, Shu

    2017-08-05

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether dietary selenium (Se) deficiency would affect the expression of selenoprotein T (SelT) and immune response in the immune organs of broilers. Changes in expression of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress response caused by Se deficiency can lead to organism damage, which in turn leads to immune response. Sixty (1-day-old) broilers were divided into the control group and Se-deficiency group. Animal models with exudative diathesis were duplicated in the broilers by feeding them Se-deficient diet for 20 days. After the Se-deficient group exhibited symptoms of exudative diathesis, all the broilers were euthanized, and their immune organs were taken for analysis. The tissues including spleen, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus were treated to determine the pathological changes (including microscopic and ultramicroscopic), the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of SelT and its synthetase (SecS and SPS1), cytokine mRNA expression levels, and antioxidant status. The microscopic and ultramicroscopic analyses showed that immune tissues were obviously injured in the Se-deficient group. The mRNA expression of SelT was decreased compared with that in the control group. Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of SecS and SPS1 were downregulated. In the Se-deficient group, the mRNA expression levels of IL-1R and IL-1β were higher than those of three control organs. Additionally, the IL-2 and INF-γ mRNA expression levels were lower than those of the control group. The activity of CAT was decreased, and the contents of H2O2 and •OH were increased due to Se deficiency. Pearson method analysis showed that the expression of SelT had a positive correlation with IL-2, INF-γ, SecS, and SPS1 and a negative correlation with IL-1R and IL-1β. In summary, these data indicated that Se-deficient diet decreased the SelT expression and its regulation of oxidative stress, and it inhibited a pleiotropic mechanism of the immune

  10. Selenoprotein Gene Nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Vadim N; Arnér, Elias S; Berry, Marla J; Brigelius-Flohé, Regina; Bruford, Elspeth A; Burk, Raymond F; Carlson, Bradley A; Castellano, Sergi; Chavatte, Laurent; Conrad, Marcus; Copeland, Paul R; Diamond, Alan M; Driscoll, Donna M; Ferreiro, Ana; Flohé, Leopold; Green, Fiona R; Guigó, Roderic; Handy, Diane E; Hatfield, Dolph L; Hesketh, John; Hoffmann, Peter R; Holmgren, Arne; Hondal, Robert J; Howard, Michael T; Huang, Kaixun; Kim, Hwa-Young; Kim, Ick Young; Köhrle, Josef; Krol, Alain; Kryukov, Gregory V; Lee, Byeong Jae; Lee, Byung Cheon; Lei, Xin Gen; Liu, Qiong; Lescure, Alain; Lobanov, Alexei V; Loscalzo, Joseph; Maiorino, Matilde; Mariotti, Marco; Sandeep Prabhu, K; Rayman, Margaret P; Rozovsky, Sharon; Salinas, Gustavo; Schmidt, Edward E; Schomburg, Lutz; Schweizer, Ulrich; Simonović, Miljan; Sunde, Roger A; Tsuji, Petra A; Tweedie, Susan; Ursini, Fulvio; Whanger, Philip D; Zhang, Yan

    2016-11-11

    The human genome contains 25 genes coding for selenocysteine-containing proteins (selenoproteins). These proteins are involved in a variety of functions, most notably redox homeostasis. Selenoprotein enzymes with known functions are designated according to these functions: TXNRD1, TXNRD2, and TXNRD3 (thioredoxin reductases), GPX1, GPX2, GPX3, GPX4, and GPX6 (glutathione peroxidases), DIO1, DIO2, and DIO3 (iodothyronine deiodinases), MSRB1 (methionine sulfoxide reductase B1), and SEPHS2 (selenophosphate synthetase 2). Selenoproteins without known functions have traditionally been denoted by SEL or SEP symbols. However, these symbols are sometimes ambiguous and conflict with the approved nomenclature for several other genes. Therefore, there is a need to implement a rational and coherent nomenclature system for selenoprotein-encoding genes. Our solution is to use the root symbol SELENO followed by a letter. This nomenclature applies to SELENOF (selenoprotein F, the 15-kDa selenoprotein, SEP15), SELENOH (selenoprotein H, SELH, C11orf31), SELENOI (selenoprotein I, SELI, EPT1), SELENOK (selenoprotein K, SELK), SELENOM (selenoprotein M, SELM), SELENON (selenoprotein N, SEPN1, SELN), SELENOO (selenoprotein O, SELO), SELENOP (selenoprotein P, SeP, SEPP1, SELP), SELENOS (selenoprotein S, SELS, SEPS1, VIMP), SELENOT (selenoprotein T, SELT), SELENOV (selenoprotein V, SELV), and SELENOW (selenoprotein W, SELW, SEPW1). This system, approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee, also resolves conflicting, missing, and ambiguous designations for selenoprotein genes and is applicable to selenoproteins across vertebrates.

  11. Ubiquitous expression of selenoprotein N transcripts in chicken tissues and early developmental expression pattern in skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiuli; Li, Jinlong; Zhang, Ziwei; Sun, Bo; Wang, Rihua; Jiang, Zhihui; Li, Shu; Xu, Shiwen

    2012-05-01

    Previous results revealed a ubiquitous expression pattern of selenoprotein N (SelN, SEPN1) in humans, zebrafish, and mouse, suggesting that it plays a potential role during the embryogenesis of these species. However, no information is known about the tissue distribution of SelN and mRNA expression analysis in the muscle tissues during development in birds. We analyzed the mRNA expression of SelN in 26 different tissues of 90-day-old chickens and the expression of SelN in the muscle tissues of 12-day-old chicken embryos and 15-month-old adult chickens by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that SelN transcripts were expressed widely in the chicken tissues. Moreover, the expression of SelN mRNA in skeletal muscles was present at a high level in whole embryos and at a lower level in postnatal stages. However, the expression of SelN mRNA in cardiac muscle showed a different expression pattern compared with skeletal muscles. Our data indicate that the expression of the SelN gene in chicken is ubiquitous, suggesting a role of SelN in the development of chick embryo skeletal muscles.

  12. Selenoprotein P Regulation by the Glucocorticoid Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Colleen; Moos, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance of the antioxidant activity of selenoproteins is one potential mechanism of the beneficial health effects of selenium. Selenoprotein P is the primary selenium distribution protein of the body as well as the major selenium containing protein in serum. The transcriptional regulation of selenoprotein P is of interest since the extrahepatic expression of this gene has demonstrated differentiation-dependent expression in development as well as under different disease states. SEPP1 displays patterned expression in numerous tissues during development and the loss of SEPP1 expression has been observed in malignancy. In addition, factors that influence inflammatory processes like cytokines and their regulators have been implicated in selenoprotein P transcriptional control. Herein, we identify a retinoid responsive element and describe a mechanism where the glucocorticoid receptor negatively regulates expression of selenoprotein P. Luciferase reporter assays and quantitative PCR were used to measure selenoprotein P transcription in engineered HEK-293 cells. When stimulated with ecdysone analogs, selenoprotein P expression was increased with the use of a fusion transcription factor that contains the glucocorticoid receptor DNA binding domain, an ecdysone ligand-binding domain, and a strong transactivation domain as well as the retinoid X receptor. The native glucocorticoid receptor inhibited selenoprotein P transactivation, and selenoprotein P was further attenuated in the presence of dexamethasone. Our results may provide insight into a potential mechanism by which selenium is redistributed during development, differentiation or under conditions of critical illness, where glucocorticoid levels are typically increased. PMID:19513589

  13. Selenoprotein Transcript Level and Enzyme Activity as Biomarkers for Selenium Status and Selenium Requirements in the Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rachel M; Sunde, Roger A

    2016-01-01

    The current National Research Council (NRC) selenium (Se) requirement for the turkey is 0.2 μg Se/g diet. The sequencing of the turkey selenoproteome offers additional molecular biomarkers for assessment of Se status. To determine dietary Se requirements using selenoprotein transcript levels and enzyme activities, day-old male turkey poults were fed a Se-deficient diet supplemented with graded levels of Se (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 μg Se/g diet) as selenite, and 12.5X the vitamin E requirement. Poults fed less than 0.05 μg Se/g diet had a significantly reduced rate of growth, indicating the Se requirement for growth in young male poults is 0.05 μg Se/g diet. Se deficiency decreased plasma GPX3 (glutathione peroxidase), liver GPX1, and liver GPX4 activities to 2, 3, and 7%, respectively, of Se-adequate levels. Increasing Se supplementation resulted in well-defined plateaus for all blood, liver and gizzard enzyme activities and mRNA levels, showing that these selenoprotein biomarkers could not be used as biomarkers for supernutritional-Se status. Using selenoenzyme activity, minimum Se requirements based on red blood cell GPX1, plasma GPX3, and pancreas and liver GPX1 activities were 0.29-0.33 μg Se/g diet. qPCR analyses using all 10 dietary Se treatments for all 24 selenoprotein transcripts (plus SEPHS1) in liver, gizzard, and pancreas found that only 4, 4, and 3 transcripts, respectively, were significantly down-regulated by Se deficiency and could be used as Se biomarkers. Only GPX3 and SELH mRNA were down regulated in all 3 tissues. For these transcripts, minimum Se requirements were 0.07-0.09 μg Se/g for liver, 0.06-0.15 μg Se/g for gizzard, and 0.13-0.18 μg Se/g for pancreas, all less than enzyme-based requirements. Panels based on multiple Se-regulated transcripts were effective in identifying Se deficiency. These results show that the NRC turkey dietary Se requirement should be raised to 0.3 μg Se/g diet.

  14. Selenoprotein Transcript Level and Enzyme Activity as Biomarkers for Selenium Status and Selenium Requirements in the Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Rachel M.; Sunde, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    The current National Research Council (NRC) selenium (Se) requirement for the turkey is 0.2 μg Se/g diet. The sequencing of the turkey selenoproteome offers additional molecular biomarkers for assessment of Se status. To determine dietary Se requirements using selenoprotein transcript levels and enzyme activities, day-old male turkey poults were fed a Se-deficient diet supplemented with graded levels of Se (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 μg Se/g diet) as selenite, and 12.5X the vitamin E requirement. Poults fed less than 0.05 μg Se/g diet had a significantly reduced rate of growth, indicating the Se requirement for growth in young male poults is 0.05 μg Se/g diet. Se deficiency decreased plasma GPX3 (glutathione peroxidase), liver GPX1, and liver GPX4 activities to 2, 3, and 7%, respectively, of Se-adequate levels. Increasing Se supplementation resulted in well-defined plateaus for all blood, liver and gizzard enzyme activities and mRNA levels, showing that these selenoprotein biomarkers could not be used as biomarkers for supernutritional-Se status. Using selenoenzyme activity, minimum Se requirements based on red blood cell GPX1, plasma GPX3, and pancreas and liver GPX1 activities were 0.29–0.33 μg Se/g diet. qPCR analyses using all 10 dietary Se treatments for all 24 selenoprotein transcripts (plus SEPHS1) in liver, gizzard, and pancreas found that only 4, 4, and 3 transcripts, respectively, were significantly down-regulated by Se deficiency and could be used as Se biomarkers. Only GPX3 and SELH mRNA were down regulated in all 3 tissues. For these transcripts, minimum Se requirements were 0.07–0.09 μg Se/g for liver, 0.06–0.15 μg Se/g for gizzard, and 0.13–0.18 μg Se/g for pancreas, all less than enzyme-based requirements. Panels based on multiple Se-regulated transcripts were effective in identifying Se deficiency. These results show that the NRC turkey dietary Se requirement should be raised to 0.3 μg Se/g diet. PMID

  15. Nuclear selenoproteins and genome maintenance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiong; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Jian-Hong; Cheng, Wen-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential metalloid required for the expression of selenoproteins. While cells are constantly challenged by clastogens of endogenous and exogenous origins, genome integrity is maintained by direct repair of DNA damage, redox balance, and epigenetic regulation. To date, only five selenoproteins are experimentally demonstrated to reside in nucleus, exclusively or partially, including selenoprotein H, methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase 1, glutathione peroxidase-4, thioredoxin reductase-1, and thioredoxin glutathione reductase. All these five selenoproteins have demonstrated or potential roles in redox regulation and genome maintenance. Selenoprotein H is known to transactivate the expression of a couple of genes against oxidative stress. The thioredoxin reductase-1b isoform delivers estrogen receptor-α and -β to the nucleus. Nuclear glutathione peroxidase-4 epigenetically and globally inhibits gene expression through the maintenance of chromatin compactness in testes. Continued studies on how these and additional nuclear selenoproteins regulate genome stability will have profound impact on advancing our understanding in selenium regulation of optimal health. © 2015 IUBMB Life, 68(1):5-12, 2016. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  16. Selenoprotein expression in macrophages is critical for optimal clearance of parasitic helminth Helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The plasticity of macrophages is evident in helminthic parasite infections where they play a role in both inflammation and protection. Previously, we demonstrated that selenium (Se), in the form of selenoproteins, induced a phenotypic switch in macrophage activation from a pro-inflammatory (M1) towa...

  17. Gene expression of endoplasmic reticulum resident selenoproteins correlates with apoptosis in various muscles of se-deficient chicks.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hai-Dong; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Zi-Wei; Zhang, Jiu-Li; Li, Shu; Huang, Jia-Qiang; Ren, Fa-Zheng; Xu, Shi-Wen; Wang, Xiao-Long; Lei, Xin Gen

    2013-05-01

    Dietary selenium (Se) deficiency causes muscular dystrophy in various species, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Our objectives were to investigate: 1) if dietary Se deficiency induced different amounts of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and cell apoptosis in 3 skeletal muscles; and 2) if the distribution and expression of 4 endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident selenoprotein genes (Sepn1, Selk, Sels, and Selt) were related to oxidative damages in these muscles. Two groups of day-old layer chicks (n = 60/group) were fed a corn-soy basal diet (33 μg Se/kg; produced in the Se-deficient area of Heilongjiang, China) or the diet supplemented with Se (as sodium selenite) at 0.15 mg/kg for 55 d. Dietary Se deficiency resulted in accelerated (P < 0.05) cell apoptosis that was associated with decreased glutathione peroxidase activity and elevated lipid peroxidation in these muscles. All these responses were stronger in the pectoral muscle than in the thigh and wing muscles (P < 0.05). Relative distribution of the 4 ER resident selenoprotein gene mRNA amounts and their responses to dietary Se deficiency were consistent with the resultant oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in the 3 muscles. Expression of Sepn1, Sels, and Selt in these muscles was correlated with (r > 0.72; P < 0.05) that of Sepsecs encoding a key enzyme for biosynthesis of selenocysteine (selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase). In conclusion, the pectoral muscle demonstrated unique expression patterns of the ER resident selenoprotein genes and GPx activity, along with elevated susceptibility to oxidative cell death, compared with the other skeletal muscles. These features might help explain why it is a primary target of Se deficiency diseases in chicks.

  18. Selenium effect on selenoprotein transcriptome in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jidong; Zheng, Yuewen; Min, Zixin; Ning, Qilan; Lu, Shemin

    2013-04-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient and exerts its biological functions predominantly through selenoproteins. Selenium deficiency is associated with cartilage function. This study demonstrated that all 24 selenoprotein transcripts in mouse genome were detectable in ATDC5 chondrocytes except deiodinase 1 (DIO1), DIO2, and selenoprotein V (Sel V), while all 25 selenoprotein transcripts in human genome were detectable in C28/I2 chondrocytes except glutathione peroxidase 6 (GPx6) and DIO1. In addition, gene expression of five selenoproteins (GPx1, Sel H, Sel N, Sel P, and Sel W) was up-regulated and two selenoproteins (SPS2 and Sel O) was down-regulated by sodium selenite (Se) in both ATDC5 and C28/I2 cells. Gene expression of six selenoproteins (TrxR1, Sel I, Sel M, Sel R, Sel S, Sel T) and one selenoprotein (GPx3) was up-regulated by Se in ATDC5 and C28/I2 cells, respectively. Gene expression of one selenoprotein (TrxR2) was down-regulated by Se only in ATDC5 cells. Further transcription inhibition assay showed that both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms involved in Se-regulated gene expression of GPx1, TrxR1, TrxR2, SPS2, Sel O, and Sel S. However, Se-regulated gene expression of Sel H, Sel I, Sel M, Sel N, Sel P, Sel R, Sel T, and Sel W mainly at posttranscriptional level. Moreover, new protein synthesis inhibition assay indicated that Se-mediated new protein synthesis also played roles in Se-regulated gene expression of GPx1, TrxR1, TrxR2, Sel H, Sel O, Sel P, Sel R, and Sel W. In summary, this study described the selenoprotein transcriptome, Se-regulated selenoproteins and possible mechanisms involved in chondrocytes.

  19. Dietary Selenium (Se) and Copper (Cu) Affect the Activity and Expression of the Hepatic Selenoprotein Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase B (MrsB) in Rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As reported by Jenkinson et al. (J Nutr 1982) and Prohaska et al. (J Nutr Biochem 1992) Cu deficiency (CuD) decreases the activity and mRNA expression of the selenoprotein GPx. Because both Se and Cu are important in oxidative defense, we wanted to determine the effect of a combined deficiency on th...

  20. Selenium homeostasis and antioxidant selenoproteins in brain: implications for disorders in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Steinbrenner, Holger; Sies, Helmut

    2013-08-15

    The essential trace element selenium, as selenocysteine, is incorporated into antioxidant selenoproteins such as glutathione peroxidases (GPx), thioredoxin reductases (TrxR) and selenoprotein P (Sepp1). Although comparatively low in selenium content, the brain exhibits high priority for selenium supply and retention under conditions of dietary selenium deficiency. Liver-derived Sepp1 is the major transport protein in plasma to supply the brain with selenium, serving as a "survival factor" for neurons in culture. Sepp1 expression has also been detected within the brain. Presumably, astrocytes secrete Sepp1, which is subsequently taken up by neurons via the apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2). Knock-out of Sepp1 or ApoER2 as well as neuron-specific ablation of selenoprotein biosynthesis results in neurological dysfunction in mice. Astrocytes, generally less vulnerable to oxidative stress than neurons, are capable of up-regulating the expression of antioxidant selenoproteins upon brain injury. Occurrence of neurological disorders has been reported occasionally in patients with inadequate nutritional selenium supply or a mutation in the gene encoding selenocysteine synthase, one of the enzymes involved in selenoprotein biosynthesis. In three large trials carried out among elderly persons, a low selenium status was associated with faster decline in cognitive functions and poor performance in tests assessing coordination and motor speed. Future research is required to better understand the role of selenium and selenoproteins in brain diseases including hepatic encephalopathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of different selenium levels on gene expression of a subset of selenoproteins and antioxidative capacity in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Chen, Long; Guo, Kai; Zheng, Liangyan; Liu, Bitao; Yu, Wenlan; Guo, Cuili; Liu, Zhengwei; Chen, Ye; Tang, Zhaoxin

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate how excess selenium induces oxidative stress by determining antioxidant enzyme activity and changes in expression of selected selenoproteins in mice. BALB/c mice (n = 20 per group) were fed a diet containing 0.045 (Se-marginal), 0.1 (Se-adequate), 0.4 (Se-supernutrition), or 0.8 (Se-excess) mg Se/kg. Gene expression was quantified in RNA samples extracted from the liver, kidney, and testis by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We found that glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase activities decreased in livers of mice fed the marginal or excess dose of Se as compared to those in the Se-adequate group. Additionally, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase activities were significantly reduced only in mice fed the excess Se diet, compared to animals on the adequate Se diet. Se-supernutrition had no effect on hepatic mRNA levels of GPx isoforms 1 and 4 (GPx1 and GPx4), down-regulated GPx isoform 3 (GPx3), and upregulated selenoprotein W (SelW) mRNA expression. The excess Se diet led to decreased hepatic mRNA levels of GPx1, GPx3 and GPx4 but no change in testicular mRNA levels of GPx1, GPx3 or SelW. Dietary Se had no effect on testicular mRNA levels of GPx4. Thus, our results suggest that Se exposure can reduce hepatic antioxidant capacity and cause liver dysfunction. Dietary Se was found to differentially regulate mRNA levels of the GPx family or SelW, depending on exposure. Therefore, these genes may play a role in the toxicity associated with Se.

  2. Selenoprotein Gene Expression in Thyroid and Pituitary of Young Pigs Is Not Affected by Dietary Selenium Deficiency or Excess1–3

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ji-Chang; Zhao, Hua; Li, Jun-Gang; Xia, Xin-Jie; Wang, Kang-Ning; Zhang, Ya-Jun; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Ying; Lei, Xin Gen

    2009-01-01

    Expression and function of selenoproteins in endocrine tissues remain unclear, largely due to limited sample availability. Pigs have a greater metabolic similarity and tissue size than rodents as a model of humans for that purpose. We conducted 2 experiments: 1) we cloned 5 novel porcine selenoprotein genes; and 2) we compared the effects of dietary selenium (Se) on mRNA levels of 12 selenoproteins, activities of 4 antioxidant enzymes, and Se concentrations in testis, thyroid, and pituitary with those in liver of pigs. In Experiment 1, porcine Gpx2, Sephs2, Sep15, Sepn1, and Sepp1 were cloned and demonstrated 84–94% of coding sequence homology to human genes. In Experiment 2, weanling male pigs (n = 30) were fed a Se-deficient (0.02 mg Se/kg) diet added with 0, 0.3, or 3.0 mg Se/kg as Se-enriched yeast for 8 wk. Although dietary Se resulted in dose-dependent increases (P < 0.05) in Se concentrations and GPX activities in all 4 tissues, it did not affect the mRNA levels of any selenoprotein gene in thyroid or pituitary. Testis mRNA levels of Txnrd1 and Sep15 were decreased (P < 0.05) by increasing dietary Se from 0.3 to 3.0 mg/kg. Comparatively, expressions of Gpx2, Gpx4, Dio3, and Sep15 were high in pituitary and Dio1, Sepp1, Sephs2, and Gpx1 were high in liver. In conclusion, the mRNA abundances of the 12 selenoprotein genes in thyroid and pituitary of young pigs were resistant to dietary Se deficiency or excess. PMID:19357213

  3. Hypoxia reduces and redirects selenoprotein biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Niels-Peter; Martitz, Janine; Renko, Kostja; Stoedter, Mette; Hybsier, Sandra; Cramer, Thorsten; Schomburg, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Selenium deficiency constitutes a risk factor for the incidence and negative course of severe diseases including sepsis, stroke, autoimmune diseases or cancer. In this study, hypoxia is identified as a powerful stimulus to redirect selenoprotein biosynthesis causing reduced selenoprotein P expression and diminished selenium export from hepatocytes in favour of increased biosynthesis of the essential protective intracellular phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase GPX4. Specifically, hypoxia decreases transcript concentrations of central factors controlling selenium and selenocysteine metabolism including selenophosphate synthetase-2, phosphoseryl-tRNA(SerSec) kinase and selenocysteine lyase, which are all proven to be rate-limiting enzymes in selenoprotein biosynthesis. These effects are paralleled by a general decline of selenoprotein expression; however, not all selenoproteins are affected to the same extent by hypoxia, and GPX4 constitutes an exception as its expression becomes slightly increased. Supplemental selenium is able to overcome the hypoxia-dependent down regulation of selenoprotein expression in our cell culture model system, supporting the concept of using selenium as an adjuvant treatment option in severe diseases. Although it remains to be tested whether these effects constitute a hepatocyte-specific response, the selenium-dependent decline of selenoprotein P biosynthesis under hypoxic conditions may explain the progressive selenium deficit developing in severe diseases.

  4. Selenoproteins and Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    1-0009 TITLE: Selenoproteins and Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Veda Navsariwala, Ph.D...Annual Summary 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Oct 2004 – 14 Oct 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Selenoproteins and Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...ABSTRACT For this postdoctoral fellowship the specific role of selenoproteins in prostate carcinogenesis is being investigated using a cell

  5. Selenoproteins: Antioxidant selenoenzymes and beyond.

    PubMed

    Steinbrenner, Holger; Speckmann, Bodo; Klotz, Lars-Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Adequate intake of the essential trace element and micronutrient selenium is thought to be beneficial for maintaining human health. Selenium may modulate a broad spectrum of key biological processes, including the cellular response to oxidative stress, redox signalling, cellular differentiation, the immune response, and protein folding. Biochemical and cellular effects of selenium are achieved through activities of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins. This small yet essential group comprises proteins encoded by 25 genes in humans, e.g. oxidoreductases such as glutathione peroxidases (GPx) and thioredoxin reductases (TrxR), as well as the iodothyronine deiodinases (DIO) and the plasma selenium transport protein, selenoprotein P (SePP1). Synthetic selenoorganic compounds, including the GPx mimetic ebselen, have also been applied in biological systems in vitro and in vivo; antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of ebselen and its history as a drug candidate are summarised here. Furthermore, we discuss several aspects of selenoprotein biochemistry, ranging from their well-known importance for cellular protection against oxidative damage to more recent data that link selenoprotein expression/activity to enterocyte and adipocyte differentiation and function and to (dys)regulation of insulin action and secretion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Eukaryotic selenoproteins and selenoproteomes

    PubMed Central

    Lobanov, Alexey V.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2012-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element for which both beneficial and toxic effects in human health have been described. It is now clear that the importance of having adequate amounts of this micronutrient in the diet is primarily due to the fact that selenium is required for biosynthesis of selenocysteine, the twenty first naturally occurring amino acid in protein. In this review, we provide an overview of eukaryotic selenoproteins and selenoproteomes, which are sets of selenoproteins in these organisms. In eukaryotes, selenoproteins show a mosaic occurrence, with some organisms, such as vertebrates and algae, having dozens of these proteins, while other organisms, such as higher plants and fungi, having lost all selenoproteins during evolution. We also discuss selenoprotein functions and evolutionary trends in the use of these proteins in eukaryotes. Functional analysis of selenoproteins is critical for better understanding of the role of selenium in human health and disease. PMID:19477234

  7. Nonsense-mediated decay factors are involved in the regulation of selenoprotein mRNA levels during selenium deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Seyedali, Ali; Berry, Marla J.

    2014-01-01

    Selenoproteins contain the unique amino acid selenocysteine (Sec), which is encoded by the triplet UGA. Since UGA also serves as a stop codon, it has been postulated that selenoprotein mRNAs are targeted for degradation by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway (NMD). Several reports have observed a hierarchy of selenoprotein mRNA expression when selenium (Se) is limiting, whereby the abundance of certain transcripts decline while others do not. We sought to investigate the role of NMD in this hierarchical response that selenoprotein mRNAs exhibit to environmental Se status. Selenoprotein mRNAs were categorized as being predicted sensitive or resistant to NMD based on the requirements held by the current model. About half of the selenoprotein transcriptome was predicted to be sensitive to NMD and showed significant changes in mRNA abundance in response to cellular Se status. The other half that was predicted to be resistant to NMD did not respond to Se status. RNA immunoprecipitation with essential NMD factor UPF1 revealed that the mRNAs that were the most sensitive to Se status were also the most enriched on UPF1 during Se deficiency. Furthermore, depletion of SMG1, the kinase responsible for UPF1 phosphorylation and NMD activation, abrogated the decline in transcript abundance of Se-responsive transcripts. Lastly, mRNA decay rates of Se-responsive transcripts were altered upon the addition of Se to resemble the slower decay rates of nonresponsive transcripts. Taken together, these results present novel evidence in support of a crucial role for the NMD pathway in regulating selenoprotein mRNA levels when Se is limiting. PMID:24947499

  8. Selenoproteins and Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    W81XWH-05-1-0009 TITLE: Selenoproteins and Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Veda Diwadkar-Navsariwala, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...From - To) 14 Oct 2004 – 14 Oct 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Selenoproteins and Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-05...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT For this postdoctoral fellowship the specific role of selenoproteins (SP) in prostate cancer (PCa) was

  9. Effect of Inorganic Dietary Selenium Supplementation on Selenoprotein and Lipid Metabolism Gene Expression Patterns in Liver and Loin Muscle of Growing Lambs.

    PubMed

    Juszczuk-Kubiak, Edyta; Bujko, Kamila; Cymer, Monika; Wicińska, Krystyna; Gabryszuk, Mirosław; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2016-08-01

    Effect of selenium (Se) supplementation on the selenoprotein and lipid metabolism gene expression patterns in ruminants, especially in lambs is not yet fully understood. The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of Se supplementation on the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression patterns of selected selenoproteins and genes related to lipid metabolism in growing lambs. The experiment was conducted on 48 Polish Merino lambs divided into two groups (n = 24): control (C)-lambs fed with a basal diet (BD) with no Se supplementation, and supplemented (S)-lambs fed with a BD, supplemented with 0.5 mg Se/kg as sodium selenate for 8 weeks. Expression of 12 selenoproteins and six genes related to lipid metabolism was analyzed in the liver and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of growing lambs by qPCR. Significant differences were found in the expression of GPX1, GPX2, SEPM, SEPW1, SEP15, SEPGS2, and TXNRD1 in the liver, and GPX1, SEPP1, SEPN1, SEPW1, SEP15, and MSRB1 in the LD muscle between S and C lambs. Se supplementation mainly upregulated SEPW1, SEP15 (P < 0.001; P < 0.01) mRNA expression in the liver, and GPX1, SEPP1, SEPN1, SEPW1 (P < 0.001; P < 0.01) in the muscle of S group. On the other hand, significant decrease in GPX2 (P < 0.01), SEPM (P < 0.001), and SEPHS2 (P < 0.01) mRNA expression levels were observed in the liver of S group of lambs. Se supplementation did not affect PON1, LXRα, and PPARα mRNA expression levels, but a significant increase in mRNA levels of APOE and LPL in the LD muscle (P < 0.05) as well as LPL (P < 0.05) in the liver were noticed in the group of Se supplemented lambs. Our study confirmed that, in lambs, similarly to other species, mRNA expression patterns of several selenoproteins highly depend on dietary Se levels, and their expression is ruled by hierarchical principles and tissue-specific mechanisms. Moreover, the study showed that changes Se intake leads to different levels of genes expression related

  10. Regulation and function of selenoproteins in human disease

    PubMed Central

    BELLINGER, Frederick P.; RAMAN, Arjun V.; REEVES, Mariclair A.; BERRY, Marla J.

    2010-01-01

    Selenoproteins are proteins containing selenium in the form of the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine. Members of this protein family have many diverse functions, but their synthesis is dependent on a common set of cofactors and on dietary selenium. Although the functions of many selenoproteins are unknown, several disorders involving changes in selenoprotein structure, activity or expression have been reported. Selenium deficiency and mutations or polymorphisms in selenoprotein genes and synthesis cofactors are implicated in a variety of diseases, including muscle and cardiovascular disorders, immune dysfunction, cancer, neurological disorders and endocrine function. Members of this unusual family of proteins have roles in a variety of cell processes and diseases. PMID:19627257

  11. Selenoprotein S Is Highly Expressed in the Blood Vessels and Prevents Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells From Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yali; Fu, Fen; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Jie; Liu, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and related cardiovascular diseases (CVD) represent one of the greatest threats to human health worldwide. The protection of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from apoptosis in the plaque has become an important therapeutic target for atherosclerotic plaque stabilization. A significant association of selenoprotein S (SelS) gene polymorphism with atherosclerotic CVD has been reported in epidemiologic studies, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this paper, SelS expression in the thoracic aorta and its role in the protection of VSMCs from apoptosis have been studied. Western blot analysis showed that SelS was highly expressed in rat thoracic aorta. SelS gene silence by small interference RNA (siRNA) rendered VSMCs more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide- or tunicamycin- induced injury and apoptosis, as determined by MTT assay, Hoechst staining, and annexin V/propidium iodide staining. SelS silence aggravated hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in VSMCs. Furthermore, SelS silence enhanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by hydrogen peroxide or tunicamycin, as showed by the increased protein levels of ER chaperone 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), ER stress transducer phosphorylated protein kinase RNA like ER kinase (PERK), and the proapoptotic transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). In conclusion, the present study suggested that SelS highly expressed in the blood vessel might protect VSMCs from apoptosis by inhibiting oxidative stress and ER stress. Our finding provided mechanistic insights for the potential preventive role of SelS in atherosclerotic CVD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Impaired Homocysteine Transmethylation and Protein-Methyltransferase Activity Reduce Expression of Selenoprotein P: Implications for Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obesity causes Metabolic Syndrome and Type-II Diabetes, disrupting hepatic function, methionine (Met)/homocysteine (Hcy) transmethylation and methyltransferase (PRMT) activities. Selenoprotein P (SEPP1), exported from the liver, is the predominate form of plasma selenium (Se) and the physiological S...

  13. Effects of dietary selenium deficiency or excess on gene expression of selenoprotein N in chicken muscle tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiu-li; Zhang, Zi-wei; Shan, An-shan; Xu, Shi-wen

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have determined the effects of dietary selenium (Se) supplementation on selenoprotein N (SelN, SEPN1), selenophosphate synthetase-1 (SPS1), and selenocysteine-synthase (SecS) mRNA abundance in chicken skeletal and cardiac muscles. To investigate collective responses of these genes to dietary Se concentrations ranging from deficiency to moderately high level in muscle tissues of chicken, 1-day-old chickens were exposed to a diet of deficient Se and supplemented with Se (0.15 mg Se/kg and 1.50 mg Se/kg) as sodium selenite in the feed for 35 days. Muscle tissues (flight, breast, leg, and cardiac muscles) were collected and examined for Se content and mRNA levels of SelN on days 1, 15, 25, and 35 days, respectively. Moreover, SPS1 and SecS mRNA levels were analyzed. The results showed that the expression of SelN gene in cardiac muscle responded to dietary Se concentrations. SelN gene was downregulated in the Se deficiency group (L group), and upregulated in the Se excess group (H group) compared with the moderate Se group (M group) (P < 0.05) in cardiac muscle. Se deficiency mainly unregulated SelN mRNA level in skeletal muscles compared with M group. Excess dietary Se mainly resulted in the upregulation of SelN mRNA level in skeletal muscles compared with the M group. SecS mRNA levels responded to dietary Se concentrations showed a similar change compared with SelN in cardiac muscle. SPS1 mRNA levels responded to dietary Se concentrations showed a downregulation in L group and upregulation in H group. However, SelN mRNA levels displayed a different expression pattern in different skeletal and cardiac muscles. Moreover, Se also regulated the levels of SPS1 and SecS mRNAs. In summary, Se regulated the expression of SelN gene and affected the mRNA levels of SecS and SPS1. The level of Se in the feed may regulate SelN biosynthesis by affecting the levels of SPS1 and SecS mRNA.

  14. Characterization of selenoprotein P as a selenium supply protein.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshiro; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2002-11-01

    Selenium (Se) is well known to be essential for cell culture when using a serum-free medium, but not when a medium containing serum is used. This finding suggests that serum contains some usable form of Se. To identify the Se-supplier, T-lymphoma (Jurkat) cells were cultured for 3 days in the presence of human serum immunodepleted of Se-containing serum protein, selenoprotein P or extracellular glutathione peroxidase. The Se-dependent enzyme activities (glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductase) and Se content within the cells markedly decreased only when cultured with selenoprotein P-depleted serum. Compared with other Se-containing proteins, the addition of purified selenoprotein P to the selenoprotein P-depleted serum or a serum-free medium was the most effective for the recovery of cellular glutathione peroxidase activity (index of Se status). These results suggest that selenoprotein P functions as a Se-supply protein, delivering Se to the cells.

  15. Structure-function relationship and evolutionary history of the human selenoprotein M (SelM) found over-expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Guariniello, Stefano; Colonna, Giovanni; Raucci, Raffaele; Costantini, Maria; Di Bernardo, Gianni; Bergantino, Francesca; Castello, Giuseppe; Costantini, Susan

    2014-02-01

    In humans we know 25 selenoproteins that play important roles in redox regulation, detoxification, immune-system protection and viral suppression. In particular, selenoprotein M (SelM) may function as thiol disulfide oxidoreductase that participates in the formation of disulfide bonds, and can be implicated in calcium responses. However, it presents a redox motif (CXXU), where U is a selenocysteine, and may also function as redox regulator because its decreased or increased expression regulated by dietary selenium alters redox homeostasis. No data are reported in literature about its involvement in cancer but only in neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper we evaluated the SelM expression in two hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Huh7, compared to normal hepatocytes. The results suggested its involvement in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as well as its possible use to follow the progression of this cancer as putative marker. The aim of this study has been to analyze the structure-function relationships of SelM. Hence, firstly we studied the evolutionary history of this protein by phylogenetic analysis and GC content of genes from various species. So, we modeled the three-dimensional structure of the human SelM evaluating its energetic stability by molecular dynamics simulations. Moreover, we modeled some of its mutants to obtain structural information helpful for structure-based drug design. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Selenoproteins and cardiovascular stress.

    PubMed

    Rose, Aaron H; Hoffmann, Peter R

    2015-03-01

    Dietary selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient that exerts its biological effects through its incorporation into selenoproteins. This family of proteins contains several antioxidant enzymes such as the glutathione peroxidases, redox-regulating enzymes such as thioredoxin reductases, a methionine sulfoxide reductase, and others. In this review, we summarise the current understanding of the roles these selenoproteins play in protecting the cardiovascular system from different types of stress including ischaemia-reperfusion, homocysteine dysregulation, myocardial hypertrophy, doxirubicin toxicity, Keshan disease, and others.

  17. Selenium and Selenoprotein Deficiencies Induce Widespread Pyogranuloma Formation in Mice, while High Levels of Dietary Selenium Decrease Liver Tumor Size Driven by TGFα

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Nianxin; Ward, Jerrold M.; Perella, Christine M.; Hoffmann, Victoria J.; Rogers, Keith; Combs, Gerald F.; Schweizer, Ulrich; Merlino, Glenn; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Hatfield, Dolph L.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in dietary selenium and selenoprotein status may influence both anti- and pro-cancer pathways, making the outcome of interventions different from one study to another. To characterize such outcomes in a defined setting, we undertook a controlled hepatocarcinogenesis study involving varying levels of dietary selenium and altered selenoprotein status using mice carrying a mutant (A37G) selenocysteine tRNA transgene (TrsptG37) and/or a cancer driver TGFα transgene. The use of TrsptG37 altered selenoprotein expression in a selenoprotein and tissue specific manner and, at sufficient dietary selenium levels, separate the effect of diet and selenoprotein status. Mice were maintained on diets deficient in selenium (0.02 ppm selenium) or supplemented with 0.1, 0.4 or 2.25 ppm selenium or 30 ppm triphenylselenonium chloride (TPSC), a non-metabolized selenium compound. TrsptG37 transgenic and TGFα/TrsptG37 bi-transgenic mice subjected to selenium-deficient or TPSC diets developed a neurological phenotype associated with early morbidity and mortality prior to hepatocarcinoma development. Pathology analyses revealed widespread disseminated pyogranulomatous inflammation. Pyogranulomas occurred in liver, lungs, heart, spleen, small and large intestine, and mesenteric lymph nodes in these transgenic and bi-transgenic mice. The incidence of liver tumors was significantly increased in mice carrying the TGFα transgene, while dietary selenium and selenoprotein status did not affect tumor number and multiplicity. However, adenoma and carcinoma size and area were smaller in TGFα transgenic mice that were fed 0.4 and 2.25 versus 0.1 ppm of selenium. Thus, selenium and selenoprotein deficiencies led to widespread pyogranuloma formation, while high selenium levels inhibited the size of TGFα–induced liver tumors. PMID:23460847

  18. Association of expression of selenoprotein P in mRNA and protein levels with metabolic syndrome in subjects with cardiovascular disease: Results of the Selenegene study.

    PubMed

    Gharipour, Mojgan; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Salehi, Mansour; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Khosravi, Elham; Dianatkhah, Minoo; Haghjoo Javanmard, Shaghayegh; Razavi, Rouzbeh; Gharipour, Amin

    2017-03-01

    Selenoprotein P (SeP) is involved in transporting selenium from the liver to target tissues. Because SeP confers protection against disease by reducing chronic oxidative stress, the present study aimed to assess the level of SeP in the serum of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A cross-sectional study was conducted in 63 and 71 subjects with and without MetS in the presence of documented CVD. All demographic, anthropometric and cardiometabolic variables (lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure) were assessed. Lifestyle-related factors and personal history and familial CVD risk factors were recorded. The expression of SELP in mRNA and protein levels in the serum was measured, and MetS was determined using ATPIII criteria. Binary logistic regression analysis demonstrated MetS and SeP to be dependent and independent variables, respectively. Mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, fasting blood sugar, body mass index and waist circumference were higher among subjects with MetS (p = 0.05). The mean of selenium was higher among subjects with MetS, whereas the mean of SeP was lower among subjects with MetS (p < 0.001). In the unadjusted model, the SeP had decreased odds for MetS [odds ratio (OR) = 0.995; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.989-1.00] (p < 0.04). Furthermore, the association between MetS and SeP levels remained marginally significant even after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, gender, family history, smoking status and nutrition. SeP and waist circumference show a significant relationship (OR =0.995; 95% CI = 0.990-1.00) (p < 0.033). We have demonstrated a significant decrease in circulating SeP levels according to MetS status in patients with documented cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Regulation of Selenocysteine Content of Human Selenoprotein P by Dietary Selenium and Insertion of Cysteine in Place of Selenocysteine.

    PubMed

    Turanov, Anton A; Everley, Robert A; Hybsier, Sandra; Renko, Kostja; Schomburg, Lutz; Gygi, Steven P; Hatfield, Dolph L; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2015-01-01

    Selenoproteins are a unique group of proteins that contain selenium in the form of selenocysteine (Sec) co-translationally inserted in response to a UGA codon with the help of cis- and trans-acting factors. Mammalian selenoproteins contain single Sec residues, with the exception of selenoprotein P (SelP) that has 7-15 Sec residues depending on species. Assessing an individual's selenium status is important under various pathological conditions, which requires a reliable selenium biomarker. Due to a key role in organismal selenium homeostasis, high Sec content, regulation by dietary selenium, and availability of robust assays in human plasma, SelP has emerged as a major biomarker of selenium status. Here, we found that Cys is present in various Sec positions in human SelP. Treatment of cells expressing SelP with thiophosphate, an analog of the selenium donor for Sec synthesis, led to a nearly complete replacement of Sec with Cys, whereas supplementation of cells with selenium supported Sec insertion. SelP isolated directly from human plasma had up to 8% Cys inserted in place of Sec, depending on the Sec position. These findings suggest that a change in selenium status may be reflected in both SelP concentration and its Sec content, and that availability of the SelP-derived selenium for selenoprotein synthesis may be overestimated under conditions of low selenium status due to replacement of Sec with Cys.

  20. Hepatic selenoprotein P (SePP) expression restores selenium transport and prevents infertility and motor-incoordination in Sepp-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Renko, Kostja; Werner, Margarethe; Renner-Müller, Ingrid; Cooper, Trevor G; Yeung, Ching Hei; Hollenbach, Birgit; Scharpf, Marcus; Köhrle, Josef; Schomburg, Lutz; Schweizer, Ulrich

    2008-02-01

    SePP (selenoprotein P) is central for selenium transport and distribution. Targeted inactivation of the Sepp gene in mice leads to reduced selenium content in plasma, kidney, testis and brain. Accordingly, activities of selenoenzymes are reduced in Sepp(-/-) organs. Male Sepp(-/-) mice are infertile. Unlike selenium deficiency, Sepp deficiency leads to neurological impairment with ataxia and seizures. Hepatocyte-specific inactivation of selenoprotein biosynthesis reduces plasma and kidney selenium levels similarly to Sepp(-/-) mice, but does not result in neurological impairment, suggesting a physiological role of locally expressed SePP in the brain. In an attempt to define the role of liver-derived circulating SePP in contrast with locally expressed SePP, we generated Sepp(-/-) mice with transgenic expression of human SePP under control of a hepatocyte-specific transthyretin promoter. Secreted human SePP was immunologically detectable in serum from SEPP1-transgenic mice. Selenium content and selenoenzyme activities in serum, kidney, testis and brain of Sepp(-/-;SEPP1) (SEPP1-transgenic Sepp(-/-)) mice were increased compared with Sepp(-/-) controls. When a selenium-adequate diet (0.16-0.2 mg/kg of body weight) was fed to the mice, liver-specific expression of SEPP1 rescued the neurological defects of Sepp(-/-) mice and rendered Sepp(-/-) males fertile. When fed on a low-selenium diet (0.06 mg/kg of body weight), Sepp(-/-;SEPP1) mice survived 4 weeks longer than Sepp(-/-) mice, but ultimately developed the neurodegenerative phenotype. These results indicate that plasma SePP derived from hepatocytes is the main transport form of selenium supporting the kidney, testis and brain. Nevertheless, local Sepp expression is required to maintain selenium content in selenium-privileged tissues such as brain and testis during dietary selenium restriction.

  1. The selenoproteome exhibits widely varying, tissue-specific dependence on selenoprotein P for selenium supply.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Peter R; Höge, Simone C; Li, Ping-An; Hoffmann, Fukun W; Hashimoto, Ann C; Berry, Marla J

    2007-01-01

    Selenoprotein P (Sel P) is a selenium-rich glycoprotein believed to play a key role in selenium (Se) transport throughout the body. Development of a Sel P knockout mouse model has supported this notion and initial studies have indicated that selenium supply to various tissues is differentially affected by genetic deletion of Sel P. Se in the form of the amino acid, selenocysteine, is incorporated into selenoproteins at UGA codons. Thus, Se availability affects not only selenoprotein levels, but also the turnover of selenoprotein mRNAs via the nonsense-mediated decay pathway. We investigated how genetic deletion of Sel P in mice affected levels of the mRNAs encoding all known members of the murine selenoprotein family, as well as three non-selenoprotein factors involved in their synthesis, selenophosphate synthetase 1 (SPS1), SECIS-binding protein 2 (SBP2) and SECp43. Our findings present a comprehensive description of selenoprotein mRNA expression in the following murine tissues: brain, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lung, spleen and testes. We also describe how abundance of selenoproteins and selenoprotein-synthesis factors are affected by genetic deletion of Sel P in some of these tissues, providing insight into how the presence of this selenoprotein influences selenoprotein mRNA levels, and thus, the selenoproteome.

  2. Selenoprotein K and Protein Palmitoylation

    PubMed Central

    Fredericks, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Selenoprotein K (SelK) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein, and its expression is sensitive to dietary selenium levels. A recently described role for SelK as a cofactor in catalyzing protein palmitoylation reactions provides an important link between low dietary selenium intake and suboptimal cellular functions that depend on this selenoprotein for palmitoylation. Recent Advances: A recent breakthrough provided insight into the contribution of SelK to calcium (Ca2+) flux in immune cells. In particular, SelK is required for palmitoylation of the Ca2+ channel protein, inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) in the ER membrane. Without this post-translational modification, expression and function of the IP3R is impaired. SelK is required for palmitoylation of another transmembrane protein, CD36, and very likely other proteins. SelK serves as a cofactor during protein palmitoylation by binding to the protein acyltransferase, DHHC6, thereby facilitating addition of the palmitate via a thioester bond to the sulfhydryl group of cysteine residues of target proteins. Critical Issues: The association of DHHC6 and SelK is clearly important for immune cell functions and possibly other cell types. The step in the DHHC6 catalyzed S-acylation reaction on which SelK acts remains unclear and possible mechanisms of how the kinetics of the reaction are impacted by SelK binding to DHHC6 are presented here. Future Directions: Uncovering the specific role of SelK in promoting DHHC6 catalyzed protein palmitoylation may open a new line of inquiry into other selenoproteins playing similar roles as cofactors for different enzymatic processes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 854–862. PMID:26058750

  3. Mammalian selenocysteine lyase is involved in selenoprotein biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Suguru; Takehashi, Masanori; Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Mihara, Hisaaki; Kurihara, Tatsuo; Tanaka, Seigo; Hill, Kristina; Burk, Raymond; Esaki, Nobuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Selenocysteine lyase (SCL) catalyzes the decomposition of L-selenocysteine to yield L-alanine and selenium by acting exclusively on l-selenocysteine. The X-ray structural analysis of rat SCL has demonstrated how SCL discriminates L-selenocysteine from L-cysteine on the molecular basis. SCL has been proposed to function in the recycling of the micronutrient selenium from degraded selenoproteins containing selenocysteine residues, but the role of SCL in selenium metabolism in vivo remains unclear. We here demonstrate that the (75)Se-labeling efficiency of selenoproteins with (75)Se-labeled selenoprotein P (Sepp1) as a selenium source was decreased in HeLa cells transfected with SCL siRNA as compared to the cells transfected with control siRNA. Immunocytochemical analyses showed high SCL expression in kidney and liver cells, where selenocysteine is recovered from selenoproteins. Mature testes of mice exhibited a specific staining pattern of SCL in spermatids that actively produce selenoproteins. However, SCL was weakly expressed in Sertoli cells, which receive Sepp1 and supply selenium to germ cells. These demonstrate that SCL occurs in the cells requiring selenoproteins, probably to recycle selenium derived from selenoproteins such as Sepp1.

  4. Selenoprotein deficiency accelerates prostate carcinogenesis in a transgenic model

    PubMed Central

    Diwadkar-Navsariwala, Veda; Prins, Gail S.; Swanson, Steven M.; Birch, Lynn A.; Ray, Vera H.; Hedayat, Samad; Lantvit, Daniel L.; Diamond, Alan M.

    2006-01-01

    Considerable animal and human data have indicated that selenium is effective in reducing the incidence of several different types of cancer, including that of the prostate. However, the mechanism by which selenium inhibits carcinogenesis remains unknown. One possibility is that dietary selenium influences the levels of selenium-containing proteins, or selenoproteins. Selenoproteins contain selenium in the form of selenocysteine and perform a variety of cellular functions, including antioxidant defense. To determine whether the levels of selenoproteins can influence carcinogenesis independent of selenium intake, a unique mouse model was developed by breeding two transgenic animals: mice with reduced selenoprotein levels because of the expression of an altered selenocysteine-tRNA (i6A−) and mice that develop prostate cancer because of the targeted expression of the SV40 large T and small t oncogenes to that organ [C3(1)/Tag]. The resulting bigenic animals (i6A−/Tag) and control WT/Tag mice were assessed for the presence, degree, and progression of prostatic epithelial hyperplasia and nuclear atypia. The selenoprotein-deficient mice exhibited accelerated development of lesions associated with prostate cancer progression, implicating selenoproteins in cancer risk and development and raising the possibility that selenium prevents cancer by modulating the levels of these selenoproteins. PMID:16690748

  5. Selenium deficiency influences nitric oxide and selenoproteins in pancreas of chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xia; Yao, Haidong; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2014-12-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency induces pancreatic atrophy in chickens, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary Se deficiency on the expressions of 25 selenoproteins and the content of nitric oxide (NO) and examined the relationship between selenoproteins and NO. Chickens (180; 1 day old) were randomly divided into two groups, low (L) group (fed with Se deficient (Se 0.033 mg/kg) diet) and control (C) group (fed with normal (Se 0.2 mg/kg) diet). Then, pancreas was collected at 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55 days, and the content of NO, the activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of 25 selenoproteins and iNOS were measured. The results showed that 25 selenoproteins were decreased (P < 0.05) by Se deficiency. Among them, thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1), selenoprotein S (SELS), selenoprotein U (SELU), selenoprotein X1 (SEPX1), and selenoprotein synthetase 2 (SPS2) were highly and extensively expressed than other types of selenoproteins in pancreas of chickens (P < 0.05). Thioredoxin reductase 2 (TXNRD2), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3), selenoprotein I (SELI), iodothyronine deiodinase 1 (DIO1), selenoprotein P1 (SEPP1), selenoprotein W1 (SEPW1), selenoprotein O (SELO), selenoprotein T (SELT), selenoprotein M (SELM), selenoprotein X1 (SEPX1), and SPS2 were excessively decreased (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, NO content, iNOS activity, and mRNA level were increased strikingly compared with C group (P < 0.05). The correlation analysis suggested that NO had a strong negative correlation with GPX1, glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPX2), GPX3, DIO1, selenoprotein K (SELK), SELI, SEPX1, and SPS2. These results suggested that Se deficiency induced pancreatic injury by influencing NO and selenoproteins in pancreas of chickens. Thus, it offers some information on the mechanism of pancreatic injury induced by Se deficiency.

  6. Selenoproteins in Nervous System Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, Matthew W.; Byrns, China N.; Ogawa, Ashley N.; Kremer, Penny; Berry, Marla J.

    2014-01-01

    Selenoproteins are a distinct class of proteins that are characterized by the co-translational incorporation of selenium (Se) in the form of the 21st amino acid selenocysteine. Selenoproteins provide a key defense against oxidative stress, as many of these proteins participate in oxidation-reduction reactions neutralizing reactive oxygen species, where selenocysteine residues act as catalytic sites. Many selenoproteins are highly expressed in the brain and mouse knockout studies have determined that several are required for normal brain development. In parallel with these laboratory studies, recent reports of rare human cases with mutations in genes involved in selenoprotein biosynthesis have described individuals with an assortment of neurological problems that mirror those detailed in knockout mice. These deficits include impairments in cognition and motor function, seizures, hearing loss, and altered thyroid metabolism. Additionally, due to the fact that oxidative stress is a key feature of neurodegenerative disease, there is considerable interest in the therapeutic potential of selenium supplementation for human neurological disorders. Studies performed in cell culture and rodent models have demonstrated that selenium administration attenuates oxidative stress, prevents neurodegeneration, and counters cell signaling mechanisms known to be dysregulated in certain disease states. However, there is currently no definitive evidence in support of selenium supplementation to prevent and/or treat common neurological conditions in the general population. It appears likely, that in humans, supplementation with selenium may only benefit certain subpopulations, such as those that are either selenium-deficient or possess genetic variants that affect selenium metabolism. PMID:24974905

  7. Genetic variants in selenoprotein genes increase risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Méplan, Catherine; Hughes, David J; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Soucek, Pavel; Vodickova, Ludmila; Hlavatá, Ivona; Vrána, David; Vodicka, Pavel; Hesketh, John E

    2010-06-01

    Low selenium (Se) status correlates with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Since Se exerts its biological roles through the selenoproteins, genetic variations in selenoprotein genes may influence susceptibility to CRC. This study analysed 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selenoprotein genes [glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), GPX4, 15 kDa selenoprotein (SEP15), selenoprotein S (SELS), selenoprotein P (SEPP1) and thioredoxin reductase 2 (TXNRD2)] and in genes that code for a key protein in Se incorporation [SECIS-binding protein 2 (SBP2)] and in antioxidant defence [superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2)] in relation to sporadic CRC incidence. CRC patients (832) and controls (705) from the Czech Republic were genotyped using allele specific PCR. Logistic regression analysis showed that three SNPs were significantly associated with an altered risk of CRC: rs7579 (SEPP1), rs713041 (GPX4) and rs34713741 (SELS). The association of these SNPs with disease risk remained after data stratification for diagnosis and adjustments for lifestyle factors and sex. Significant two-loci interactions were observed between rs4880 (SOD2), rs713041 (GPX4) and rs960531 (TXNRD2) and between SEPP1 and either SEP15 or GPX4. The results indicate that SNPs in SEPP1, GPX4 and SELS influence risk of CRC. We hypothesize that the two-loci interactions reflect functional interactions between the gene products. We propose that these variants play a role in cancer development and represent potential biomarkers of CRC risk.

  8. Selenoproteins Are Essential for Proper Keratinocyte Function and Skin Development

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Aniruddha; Lichti, Ulrike F.; Carlson, Bradley A.; Ryscavage, Andrew O.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Yuspa, Stuart H.; Hatfield, Dolph L.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary selenium is known to protect skin against UV-induced damage and cancer and its topical application improves skin surface parameters in humans, while selenium deficiency compromises protective antioxidant enzymes in skin. Furthermore, skin and hair abnormalities in humans and rodents may be caused by selenium deficiency, which are overcome by dietary selenium supplementation. Most important biological functions of selenium are attributed to selenoproteins, proteins containing selenium in the form of the amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec). Sec insertion into proteins depends on Sec tRNA; thus, knocking out the Sec tRNA gene (Trsp) ablates selenoprotein expression. We generated mice with targeted removal of selenoproteins in keratin 14 (K14) expressing cells and their differentiated descendents. The knockout progeny had a runt phenotype, developed skin abnormalities and experienced premature death. Lack of selenoproteins in epidermal cells led to the development of hyperplastic epidermis and aberrant hair follicle morphogenesis, accompanied by progressive alopecia after birth. Further analyses revealed that selenoproteins are essential antioxidants in skin and unveiled their role in keratinocyte growth and viability. This study links severe selenoprotein deficiency to abnormalities in skin and hair and provides genetic evidence for the role of these proteins in keratinocyte function and cutaneous development. PMID:20805887

  9. Selenoproteins and cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Davis, Cindy D; Tsuji, Petra A; Milner, John A

    2012-08-21

    The discovery of multiple selenoproteins has raised tantalizing questions about their role in maintaining normal cellular function. Unfortunately, many of these remain inadequately investigated. While they have a role in maintaining redox balance, other functions are becoming increasingly recognized. As the roles of these selenoproteins are further characterized, a better understanding of the true physiological significance of this trace element will arise. This knowledge will be essential in defining optimum intakes to achieve cellular homeostasis in order to optimize health, including a reduction in cancer, for diverse populations. Human variation in the response to selenium likely reflects significant interactions between the type and amounts of selenium consumed with the genome and a host of environmental factors including the totality of the diet, as discussed in this review.

  10. Identification, characterization of selenoprotein W and its mRNA expression patterns in response to somatostatin 14, cysteamine hydrochloride, 17β-estradiol and a binary mixture of 17β-estradiol and cysteamine hydrochloride in topmouth culter (Erythroculter ilishaeformis).

    PubMed

    Dong, Haiyan; Chen, Wenbo; Sun, Chao; Sun, Jianwei; Wang, Yanlin; Xie, Chao; Fu, Qianwen; Zhu, Junjie; Ye, Jinyun

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a selenoprotein W cDNA was cloned from topmouth culter (Erythroculter ilishaeformis), and it was designated as EISelW. The EISelW open reading frame was composed of 261 base pairs (bp), encoding 86-amino-acid protein. The 5' untranslated region (UTR) consisted of 104 bp, and the 3'-UTR was composed of 365 bp. A selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element was found in the 3'-UTR of EISelW mRNA. The SECIS element was classified as form II because of a small additional apical loop presented in SECIS element of EISelW mRNA. Bioinformatic approaches showed that the secondary structure of EISelW was a β1-α1-β2-β3-β4-α2 pattern from amino-terminal to carboxy-terminal. Real-time PCR analysis of EISelW mRNAs expression in 17 tissues showed that the EISelW mRNA was predominantly expressed in liver, ovary, pituitary, various regions of the brain, spinal cord and head kidney. Study of intraperitoneal injection showed that the levels of EISelW mRNA in brain, liver, ovary and spleen were regulated by somatostatin 14 (SS14), 17β-estradiol (E2), cysteamine hydrochloride (CSH) and a binary mixture of E2 and CSH, dependent on the dosage. These results suggest that E2, SS14 and CSH status may affect tissues of selenium metabolism by regulating the expression of SelW mRNA, as SelW plays a central role in selenium metabolism.

  11. Selenoprotein M gene expression, peroxidases activity and hydrogen peroxide concentration are differentially regulated in gill and hepatopancreas of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during hypoxia and reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    García-Triana, Antonio; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma Beatriz; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2016-09-01

    In many organisms, episodes of low O2 concentration (hypoxia) and the subsequent rise of O2 concentration (reoxygenation) result in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. Selenoprotein M (SelM), is a selenocysteine containing protein with redox activity involved in the antioxidant response. It was previously shown that in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the silencing of SelM by RNAi decreased peroxidase activity in gill. In this work, we report the structure of the SelM gene (LvSelM) and its relative expression in hepatopancreas and gill after 24h of hypoxia followed by 1h of reoxygenation. The gene is composed by four exons interrupted by tree introns. In gills and hepatopancreas, SelM expression increased after 24h of hypoxia followed by 1h of reoxygenation, while peroxidases activity diminished in hepatopancreas but increased in gills. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration was higher in hepatopancreas in response to hypoxia for 6h and did not change after 24 of hypoxia followed by reoxygenation; conversely, no change was detected in gill. SelM appears to be a key enzyme in gill oxidative stress regulation, since the higher expression is associated with an increase in peroxidases activity while maintaining H2O2 concentration. In contrast, in hepatopancreas there is a higher expression after hypoxia and reoxygenation for 24h, but peroxidases activity was lower and the change in H2O2 occurred after 6h of hypoxia and this level was maintained during reoxygenation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prolonged Dietary Selenium Deficiency or Excess Does Not Globally Affect Selenoprotein Gene Expression and/or Protein Production in Various Tissues of Pigs123

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Qiaoshan; Tang, Jiayong; Li, Ke; Xia, Xin-Jie; Wang, Kang-Ning; Li, Kui; Lei, Xin Gen

    2012-01-01

    We previously determined the effects of dietary selenium (Se) deficiency or excess on mRNA abundance of 12 selenoprotein genes in pig tissues. In this study, we determined the effect of dietary Se on mRNA levels of the remaining porcine selenoprotein genes along with protein production of 4 selenoproteins (Gpx1, Sepp1, Selh, and Sels) and body glucose homeostasis. Weanling male pigs (n = 24) were fed a Se-deficient (<0.02 mg Se/kg), basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.3, or 3.0 mg Se/kg as Se-enriched yeast (Angel Yeast) for 16 wk. Although mRNA abundance of the 13 selenoproteins in 10 tissues responded to dietary Se in 3 patterns, there was no common regulation for any given gene across all tissues or for any given tissue across all genes. Dietary Se affected (P < 0.05) 2, 3, 3, 5, 6, 7, 7, and 8 selenoprotein genes in muscle, hypothalamus, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, thyroid, and pituitary, respectively. Protein abundance of Gpx1, Sepp1, Selh, and Sels in 6 tissues was regulated (P < 0.05) by dietary Se concentrations in 3 ways. Compared with those fed 0.3 mg Se/kg, pigs fed 3.0 mg Se/kg became hyperinsulinemic (P < 0.05) and had lower (P < 0.05) tissue levels of serine/threonine protein kinase. In conclusion, dietary Se exerted no global regulation of gene transcripts or protein levels of individual selenoproteins across porcine tissues. Pigs may be a good model for studying mechanisms related to the potential prodiabetic risk of high-Se intake in humans. PMID:22739382

  13. Prolonged dietary selenium deficiency or excess does not globally affect selenoprotein gene expression and/or protein production in various tissues of pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Qiaoshan; Tang, Jiayong; Li, Ke; Xia, Xin-Jie; Wang, Kang-Ning; Li, Kui; Lei, Xin Gen

    2012-08-01

    We previously determined the effects of dietary selenium (Se) deficiency or excess on mRNA abundance of 12 selenoprotein genes in pig tissues. In this study, we determined the effect of dietary Se on mRNA levels of the remaining porcine selenoprotein genes along with protein production of 4 selenoproteins (Gpx1, Sepp1, Selh, and Sels) and body glucose homeostasis. Weanling male pigs (n = 24) were fed a Se-deficient (<0.02 mg Se/kg), basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.3, or 3.0 mg Se/kg as Se-enriched yeast (Angel Yeast) for 16 wk. Although mRNA abundance of the 13 selenoproteins in 10 tissues responded to dietary Se in 3 patterns, there was no common regulation for any given gene across all tissues or for any given tissue across all genes. Dietary Se affected (P < 0.05) 2, 3, 3, 5, 6, 7, 7, and 8 selenoprotein genes in muscle, hypothalamus, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, thyroid, and pituitary, respectively. Protein abundance of Gpx1, Sepp1, Selh, and Sels in 6 tissues was regulated (P < 0.05) by dietary Se concentrations in 3 ways. Compared with those fed 0.3 mg Se/kg, pigs fed 3.0 mg Se/kg became hyperinsulinemic (P < 0.05) and had lower (P < 0.05) tissue levels of serine/threonine protein kinase. In conclusion, dietary Se exerted no global regulation of gene transcripts or protein levels of individual selenoproteins across porcine tissues. Pigs may be a good model for studying mechanisms related to the potential prodiabetic risk of high-Se intake in humans.

  14. Selenoprotein P is the essential selenium transporter for bones.

    PubMed

    Pietschmann, Nicole; Rijntjes, Eddy; Hoeg, Antonia; Stoedter, Mette; Schweizer, Ulrich; Seemann, Petra; Schomburg, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Selenium (Se) plays an important role in bone physiology as best reflected by Kashin-Beck disease, an endemic Se-dependent osteoarthritis. Bone development is delayed in children with mutations in SECIS binding protein 2 (SBP2), a central factor for selenoprotein biosynthesis. Circulating selenoprotein P (SePP) is positively associated with bone turnover in humans, yet its function for bone homeostasis is not known. We have analysed murine models of altered Se metabolism. Most of the known selenoprotein genes and factors needed for selenoprotein biosynthesis are expressed in bones. Bone Se is not associated with the mineral but exclusively with the organic matrix. Genetic ablation of Sepp-expression causes a drastic decline in serum (25-fold) but only a mild reduction in bone (2.5-fold) Se concentrations. Cell-specific expression of a SePP transgene in hepatocytes efficiently restores bone Se levels in Sepp-knockout mice. Of the two known SePP receptors, Lrp8 was detected in bones while Lrp2 was absent. Interestingly, Lrp8 mRNA concentrations were strongly increased in bones of Sepp-knockout mice likely in order to counteract the developing Se deficiency. Our data highlight SePP as the essential Se transporter to bones, and suggest a novel feedback mechanism for preferential uptake of Se in Se-deprived bones, thereby contributing to our understanding of hepatic osteodystrophy and the consistent bone phenotype observed in subjects with inherited selenoprotein biosynthesis mutations.

  15. Absence of Selenoprotein P but not Selenocysteine Lyase Results in Severe Neurological Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Arjun V.; Pitts, Matthew W.; Seyedali, Ali; Hashimoto, Ann C.; Seale, Lucia A.; Bellinger, Frederick P.; Berry, Marla J.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary selenium restriction in mammals causes bodily selenium to be preferentially retained in the brain relative to other organs. Almost all of the known selenoproteins are found in brain, where expression is facilitated by selenocysteine-laden selenoprotein P. The brain also expresses selenocysteine lyase, an enzyme that putatively salvages selenocysteine and recycles the selenium for selenoprotein translation. We compared mice with a genetic deletion of selenocysteine lyase to selenoprotein P knockout mice for similarity of neurological impairments, and whether dietary selenium modulates these parameters. We report that selenocysteine lyase knockout mice do not display neurological dysfunction comparable to selenoprotein P knockout mice. Feeding a low-selenium diet to selenocysteine lyase knockout mice revealed a mild spatial learning deficit without disrupting motor coordination. Additionally, we report that the neurological phenotype caused by the absence of selenoprotein P is exacerbated in male versus female mice. These findings indicate that selenocysteine recycling via selenocysteine lyase becomes limiting under selenium deficiency, and suggest the presence of a complementary mechanism for processing selenocysteine. Our studies illuminate the interaction between selenoprotein P and selenocysteine lyase in the distribution and turnover of body and brain selenium, and emphasize the consideration of sex differences when studying selenium and selenoproteins in vertebrate biology. PMID:22487427

  16. Eicosapentaenoic acid down-regulates expression of the selenoprotein P gene by inhibiting SREBP-1c protein independently of the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway in H4IIEC3 hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Tajima-Shirasaki, Natsumi; Ishii, Kiyo-Aki; Takayama, Hiroaki; Shirasaki, Takayoshi; Iwama, Hisakazu; Chikamoto, Keita; Saito, Yoshiro; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Teraguchi, Atsushi; Lan, Fei; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Takeshita, Yumie; Murao, Koji; Matsugo, Seiichi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Misu, Hirofumi; Takamura, Toshinari

    2017-06-30

    Selenoprotein P (encoded by SELENOP in humans, Selenop in rat), a liver-derived secretory protein, induces resistance to insulin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in type 2 diabetes. Suppression of selenoprotein P may provide a novel therapeutic approach to treating type 2 diabetes; however, few drugs inhibiting SELENOP expression in hepatocytes have been identified. The present findings demonstrate that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) suppresses SELENOP expression by inactivating sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c, encoded by Srebf1 in rat) in H4IIEC3 hepatocytes. Treatment with EPA caused concentration- and time-dependent reduction in SELENOP promoter activity. EPA activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK); however, the inhibitory effect of EPA on SELENOP promoter activity was not canceled with an AMPK inhibitor compound C and dominant-negative AMPK transfection. Deletion mutant promoter assays and computational analysis of transcription factor-binding sites conserved among the species resulted in identification of a sterol regulatory element (SRE)-like site in the SELENOP promoter. A chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed that EPA decreases binding of SREBP-1c to the SELENOP promoter. Knockdown of Srebf1 resulted in a significant down-regulation of Selenop expression. Conversely, SREBP-1c overexpression inhibited the suppressive effect of EPA. These data provide a novel mechanism of action for EPA involving improvement of systemic insulin sensitivity through the regulation of selenoprotein P production independently of the AMPK pathway and suggest an additional approach to developing anti-diabetic drugs. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Understanding selenoprotein function and regulation through the use of rodent models

    PubMed Central

    Kasaikina, Marina V.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2012-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient. Its biological functions are associated with selenoproteins, which contain this trace element in the form of the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine. Genetic defects in selenocysteine insertion into proteins are associated with severe health issues. The consequences of selenoprotein deficiency are more variable, with several selenoproteins being essential, and several showing no clear phenotypes. Much of these functional studies benefited from the use of rodent models and diets employing variable levels of Se. This review summarizes the data obtained with these models, focusing on mouse models with targeted expression of individual selenoproteins and removal of individual, subsets or all selenoproteins in a systemic or organ-specific manner. PMID:22440326

  18. Mutation in human selenocysteine transfer RNA selectively disrupts selenoprotein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Schoenmakers, Erik; Carlson, Bradley; Agostini, Maura; Moran, Carla; Rajanayagam, Odelia; Bochukova, Elena; Tobe, Ryuta; Peat, Rachel; Gevers, Evelien; Muntoni, Francesco; Guicheney, Pascale; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Farooqi, Sadaf; Lyons, Greta; Hatfield, Dolph; Chatterjee, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is a trace element that is essential for human health and is incorporated into more than 25 human selenocysteine-containing (Sec-containing) proteins via unique Sec-insertion machinery that includes a specific, nuclear genome–encoded, transfer RNA (tRNA[Ser]Sec). Here, we have identified a human tRNA[Ser]Sec mutation in a proband who presented with a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, fatigue, muscle weakness, and low plasma levels of selenium. This mutation resulted in a marked reduction in expression of stress-related, but not housekeeping, selenoproteins. Evaluation of primary cells from the homozygous proband and a heterozygous parent indicated that the observed deficit in stress-related selenoprotein production is likely mediated by reduced expression and diminished 2′-O-methylribosylation at uridine 34 in mutant tRNA[Ser]Sec. Moreover, this methylribosylation defect was restored by cellular complementation with normal tRNA[Ser]Sec. This study identifies a tRNA mutation that selectively impairs synthesis of stress-related selenoproteins and demonstrates the importance of tRNA modification for normal selenoprotein synthesis. PMID:26854926

  19. Selenium Supplementation Fails to Correct the Selenoprotein Synthesis Defect in Subjects with SBP2 Gene Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Dumitrescu, Alexandra M.; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Bin-Abbas, Bassam; Hoeflich, Johanna; Köhrle, Josef; Refetoff, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element needed for the biosynthesis of selenoproteins. Selenocysteine incorporation sequence binding protein 2 (SBP2) represents a key trans-acting factor for the co-translational insertion of selenocysteine into selenoproteins. We recently described children with mutations in the SBP2 gene who displayed abnormal thyroid function tests and reduced selenoprotein concentrations. We have tried to improve selenoprotein biosynthesis and thyroid hormone metabolism in SBP2 deficient subjects by supplementing an organic and an inorganic Se form. Methods Three affected and two unaffected siblings received daily doses of 100, 200, or 400 μg selenomethionine-rich yeast and 400 μg sodium selenite for one month each. Serum was drawn at baseline and after supplementations. Thyroid function tests, extracellular glutathione peroxidase activity, Se, and selenoprotein P concentrations were determined. Results Selenomethionine-rich yeast increased serum Se concentrations in all subjects irrespective of genotype. Sodium selenite was effective in increasing the selenoprotein P concentration in normal and to a lesser degree in affected subjects. Both forms failed to increase the glutathione peroxidase activity or to correct the thyroid function abnormalities in the SBP2 deficient individuals indicating that impaired deiodinase expression was not positively affected. No adverse side effects were observed. Conclusions Total serum Se concentrations in SBP2 deficient subjects respond to selenomethionine supplementation but this effect is not indicative for improved selenoprotein synthesis. Se is obviously not a limiting factor in the SBP2 deficient individuals when regular daily Se intake is provided. These findings might help to identify and diagnose more individuals with selenoprotein biosynthesis defects who might present at young age irrespective of their Se supply with characteristic thyroid function test abnormalities, growth

  20. Selenium supplementation fails to correct the selenoprotein synthesis defect in subjects with SBP2 gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Schomburg, Lutz; Dumitrescu, Alexandra M; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Bin-Abbas, Bassam; Hoeflich, Johanna; Köhrle, Josef; Refetoff, Samuel

    2009-03-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element needed for the biosynthesis of selenoproteins. Selenocysteine incorporation sequence binding protein 2 (SBP2) represents a key trans-acting factor for the co-translational insertion of selenocysteine into selenoproteins. We recently described children with mutations in the SBP2 gene who displayed abnormal thyroid function tests and reduced selenoprotein concentrations. We have tried to improve selenoprotein biosynthesis and thyroid hormone metabolism in SBP2 deficient subjects by supplementing an organic and an inorganic Se form. Three affected and two unaffected siblings received daily doses of 100, 200, or 400 microg selenomethionine-rich yeast and 400 microg sodium selenite for one month each. Serum was drawn at baseline and after supplementations. Thyroid function tests, extracellular glutathione peroxidase activity, Se, and selenoprotein P concentrations were determined. Selenomethionine-rich yeast increased serum Se concentrations in all subjects irrespective of genotype. Sodium selenite was effective in increasing the selenoprotein P concentration in normal and to a lesser degree in affected subjects. Both forms failed to increase the glutathione peroxidase activity or to correct the thyroid function abnormalities in the SBP2 deficient individuals indicating that impaired deiodinase expression was not positively affected. No adverse side effects were observed. Total serum Se concentrations in SBP2 deficient subjects respond to selenomethionine supplementation but this effect is not indicative for improved selenoprotein synthesis. Se is obviously not a limiting factor in the SBP2 deficient individuals when regular daily Se intake is provided. These findings might help to identify and diagnose more individuals with selenoprotein biosynthesis defects who might present at young age irrespective of their Se supply with characteristic thyroid function test abnormalities, growth retardation, and reduced Se and

  1. Selenoprotein deficiency enhances radiation-induced micronuclei formation.

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar S; Diwadkar-Navsariwala, Veda; Koh, Timothy; Fayad, Raja; Fantuzzi, Giamila; Diamond, Alan M

    2008-11-01

    The availability of selenium and the levels of specific selenoproteins might affect cancer risk by influencing the ability of DNA damaging agents to cause genomic instability and mutations. Transgenic mice that express reduced levels of selenoproteins and previously shown to be more susceptible to pathology associated with cancer development were used to study this possibility. These mice were exposed to X-rays and DNA damage assessed in the erythrocytes, where micronuclei formation was higher compared to the same cells obtained from irradiated wild-type controls. To determine whether the selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) might be involved in this protection, its levels were reduced by siRNA targeting in LNCaP human prostate cells. UV-induced micronuclei frequency was higher in these cells compared to control-transfected cells. These results indicate a role for selenoproteins in protecting DNA from damage and support human data implicating GPx-1 as a possible target of the chemoprotective effect of selenium.

  2. Engineering the elongation factor Tu for efficient selenoprotein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Haruna, Ken-ichi; Alkazemi, Muhammad H; Liu, Yuchen; Söll, Dieter; Englert, Markus

    2014-09-01

    Selenocysteine (Sec) is naturally co-translationally incorporated into proteins by recoding the UGA opal codon with a specialized elongation factor (SelB in bacteria) and an RNA structural signal (SECIS element). We have recently developed a SECIS-free selenoprotein synthesis system that site-specifically--using the UAG amber codon--inserts Sec depending on the elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). Here, we describe the engineering of EF-Tu for improved selenoprotein synthesis. A Sec-specific selection system was established by expression of human protein O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (hAGT), in which the active site cysteine codon has been replaced by the UAG amber codon. The formed hAGT selenoprotein repairs the DNA damage caused by the methylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, and thereby enables Escherichia coli to grow in the presence of this mutagen. An EF-Tu library was created in which codons specifying the amino acid binding pocket were randomized. Selection was carried out for enhanced Sec incorporation into hAGT; the resulting EF-Tu variants contained highly conserved amino acid changes within members of the library. The improved UTu-system with EF-Sel1 raises the efficiency of UAG-specific Sec incorporation to >90%, and also doubles the yield of selenoprotein production. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Modeling and gene knockdown to assess the contribution of nonsense-mediated decay, premature termination, and selenocysteine insertion to the selenoprotein hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Meplan, Catherine; Huguenin, Grazielle V.B.; Hesketh, John E.; Shanley, Daryl P.

    2016-01-01

    The expression of selenoproteins, a specific group of proteins that incorporates selenocysteine, is hierarchically regulated by the availability of Se, with some, but not all selenoprotein mRNA transcripts decreasing in abundance with decreasing Se. Selenocysteine insertion into the peptide chain occurs during translation following recoding of an internal UGA stop codon. There is increasing evidence that this UGA recoding competes with premature translation termination, which is followed by nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) of the transcript. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the susceptibility of different selenoprotein mRNAs to premature termination during translation and differential sensitivity of selenoprotein transcripts to NMD are major factors in the selenoprotein hierarchy. Selenoprotein transcript abundance was measured in Caco-2 cells using real-time PCR under different Se conditions and the data obtained fitted to mathematical models of selenoprotein translation. A calibrated model that included a combination of differential sensitivity of selenoprotein transcripts to NMD and different frequency of non-NMD related premature translation termination was able to fit all the measurements. The model predictions were tested using SiRNA to knock down expression of the crucial NMD factor UPF1 (up-frameshift protein 1) and selenoprotein mRNA expression. The calibrated model was able to predict the effect of UPF1 knockdown on gene expression for all tested selenoproteins, except SPS2 (selenophosphate synthetase), which itself is essential for selenoprotein synthesis. These results indicate an important role for NMD in the hierarchical regulation of selenoprotein mRNAs, with the exception of SPS2 whose expression is likely regulated by a different mechanism. PMID:27208313

  4. Evolution of selenoproteins in the metazoan.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liang; Ni, Jiazuan; Liu, Qiong

    2012-09-03

    The selenocysteine (Sec) containing proteins, selenoproteins, are an important group of proteins present throughout all 3 kingdoms of life. With the rapid progression of selenoprotein research in the post-genomic era, application of bioinformatics methods to the identification of selenoproteins in newly sequenced species has become increasingly important. Although selenoproteins in human and other vertebrates have been investigated, studies of primitive invertebrate selenoproteomes are rarely reported outside of insects and nematodes. A more integrated view of selenoprotein evolution was constructed using several representative species from different evolutionary eras. Using a SelGenAmic-based selenoprotein identification method, 178 selenoprotein genes were identified in 6 invertebrates: Amphimedon queenslandica, Trichoplax adhaerens, Nematostella vectensis, Lottia gigantean, Capitella teleta, and Branchiostoma floridae. Amphioxus was found to have the most abundant and variant selenoproteins of any animal currently characterized, including a special selenoprotein P (SelP) possessing 3 repeated Trx-like domains and Sec residues in the N-terminal and 2 Sec residues in the C-terminal. This gene structure suggests the existence of two different strategies for extension of Sec numbers in SelP for the preservation and transportation of selenium. In addition, novel eukaryotic AphC-like selenoproteins were identified in sponges. Comparison of various animal species suggests that even the most primitive animals possess a selenoproteome range and variety similar to humans. During evolutionary history, only a few new selenoproteins have emerged and few were lost. Furthermore, the massive loss of selenoproteins in nematodes and insects likely occurred independently in isolated partial evolutionary branches.

  5. Evolution of selenoproteins in the metazoan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The selenocysteine (Sec) containing proteins, selenoproteins, are an important group of proteins present throughout all 3 kingdoms of life. With the rapid progression of selenoprotein research in the post-genomic era, application of bioinformatics methods to the identification of selenoproteins in newly sequenced species has become increasingly important. Although selenoproteins in human and other vertebrates have been investigated, studies of primitive invertebrate selenoproteomes are rarely reported outside of insects and nematodes. Result A more integrated view of selenoprotein evolution was constructed using several representative species from different evolutionary eras. Using a SelGenAmic-based selenoprotein identification method, 178 selenoprotein genes were identified in 6 invertebrates: Amphimedon queenslandica, Trichoplax adhaerens, Nematostella vectensis, Lottia gigantean, Capitella teleta, and Branchiostoma floridae. Amphioxus was found to have the most abundant and variant selenoproteins of any animal currently characterized, including a special selenoprotein P (SelP) possessing 3 repeated Trx-like domains and Sec residues in the N-terminal and 2 Sec residues in the C-terminal. This gene structure suggests the existence of two different strategies for extension of Sec numbers in SelP for the preservation and transportation of selenium. In addition, novel eukaryotic AphC-like selenoproteins were identified in sponges. Conclusion Comparison of various animal species suggests that even the most primitive animals possess a selenoproteome range and variety similar to humans. During evolutionary history, only a few new selenoproteins have emerged and few were lost. Furthermore, the massive loss of selenoproteins in nematodes and insects likely occurred independently in isolated partial evolutionary branches. PMID:22943432

  6. Four selenoproteins, protein biosynthesis, and Wnt signalling are particularly sensitive to limited selenium intake in mouse colon.

    PubMed

    Kipp, Anna; Banning, Antje; van Schothorst, Evert M; Méplan, Catherine; Schomburg, Lutz; Evelo, Chris; Coort, Susan; Gaj, Stan; Keijer, Jaap; Hesketh, John; Brigelius-Flohé, Regina

    2009-12-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient. Its recommended daily allowance is not attained by a significant proportion of the population in many countries and its intake has been suggested to affect colorectal carcinogenesis. Therefore, microarrays were used to determine how both selenoprotein and global gene expression patterns in the mouse colon were affected by marginal selenium deficiency comparable to variations in human dietary intakes. Two groups of 12 mice each were fed a selenium-deficient (0.086 mg Se/kg) or a selenium-adequate (0.15 mg Se/kg) diet. After 6 wk, plasma selenium level, liver, and colon glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the deficient group was 12, 34, and 50%, respectively, of that of the adequate group. Differential gene expression was analysed with mouse 44K whole genome microarrays. Pathway analysis by GenMAPP identified the protein biosynthesis pathway as most significantly affected, followed by inflammation, Delta-Notch and Wnt pathways. Selected gene expression changes were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. GPx1 and the selenoproteins W, H, and M, responded significantly to selenium intake making them candidates as biomarkers for selenium status. Thus, feeding a marginal selenium-deficient diet resulted in distinct changes in global gene expression in the mouse colon. Modulation of cancer-related pathways may contribute to the higher susceptibility to colon carcinogenesis in low selenium status.

  7. Redox active motifs in selenoproteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Lutz, Patricia B; Pepelyayeva, Yuliya; Arnér, Elias S J; Bayse, Craig A; Rozovsky, Sharon

    2014-05-13

    Selenoproteins use the rare amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) to act as the first line of defense against oxidants, which are linked to aging, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Many selenoproteins are oxidoreductases in which the reactive Sec is connected to a neighboring Cys and able to form a ring. These Sec-containing redox motifs govern much of the reactivity of selenoproteins. To study their fundamental properties, we have used (77)Se NMR spectroscopy in concert with theoretical calculations to determine the conformational preferences and mobility of representative motifs. This use of (77)Se as a probe enables the direct recording of the properties of Sec as its environment is systematically changed. We find that all motifs have several ring conformations in their oxidized state. These ring structures are most likely stabilized by weak, nonbonding interactions between the selenium and the amide carbon. To examine how the presence of selenium and ring geometric strain governs the motifs' reactivity, we measured the redox potentials of Sec-containing motifs and their corresponding Cys-only variants. The comparisons reveal that for C-terminal motifs the redox potentials increased between 20-25 mV when the selenenylsulfide bond was changed to a disulfide bond. Changes of similar magnitude arose when we varied ring size or the motifs' flanking residues. This suggests that the presence of Sec is not tied to unusually low redox potentials. The unique roles of selenoproteins in human health and their chemical reactivities may therefore not necessarily be explained by lower redox potentials, as has often been claimed.

  8. Selenotranscriptomic Analyses Identify Signature Selenoproteins in Brain Regions in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiong; Ye, Yang-Lie; Zhu, Hui; Sun, Sheng-Nan; Zheng, Jing; Fan, Hui-Hui; Wu, Hong-Mei; Chen, Song-Fang; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Zhu, Jian-Hong

    Genes of selenoproteome have been increasingly implicated in various aspects of neurobiology and neurological disorders, but remain largely elusive in Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the selenotranscriptome (24 selenoproteins in total) in five brain regions (cerebellum, substantia nigra, cortex, pons and hippocampus) by real time qPCR in a two-phase manner using a mouse model of chronic PD. A wide range of changes in selenotranscriptome was observed in a manner depending on selenoproteins and brain regions. While Selv mRNA was not detectable and Dio1& 3 mRNA levels were not affected, 1, 11 and 9 selenoproteins displayed patterns of increase only, decrease only, and mixed response, respectively, in these brain regions of PD mice. In particular, the mRNA expression of Gpx1-4 showed only a decreased trend in the PD mouse brains. In substantia nigra, levels of 17 selenoprotein mRNAs were significantly decreased whereas no selenoprotein was up-regulated in the PD mice. In contrast, the majority of selenotranscriptome did not change and a few selenoprotein mRNAs that respond displayed a mixed pattern of up- and down-regulation in cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus, and/or pons of the PD mice. Gpx4, Sep15, Selm, Sepw1, and Sepp1 mRNAs were most abundant across all these five brain regions. Our results showed differential responses of selenoproteins in various brain regions of the PD mouse model, providing critical selenotranscriptomic profiling for future functional investigation of individual selenoprotein in PD etiology.

  9. Selective Up-regulation of Human Selenoproteins in Response to Oxidative Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Touat-Hamici, Zahia; Legrain, Yona; Bulteau, Anne-Laure; Chavatte, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Selenocysteine is inserted into selenoproteins via the translational recoding of a UGA codon, normally used as a stop signal. This process depends on the nature of the selenocysteine insertion sequence element located in the 3′ UTR of selenoprotein mRNAs, selenium bioavailability, and, possibly, exogenous stimuli. To further understand the function and regulation of selenoproteins in antioxidant defense and redox homeostasis, we investigated how oxidative stress influences selenoprotein expression as a function of different selenium concentrations. We found that selenium supplementation of the culture media, which resulted in a hierarchical up-regulation of selenoproteins, protected HEK293 cells from reactive oxygen species formation. Furthermore, in response to oxidative stress, we identified a selective up-regulation of several selenoproteins involved in antioxidant defense (Gpx1, Gpx4, TR1, SelS, SelK, and Sps2). Interestingly, the response was more efficient when selenium was limiting. Although a modest change in mRNA levels was noted, we identified a novel translational control mechanism stimulated by oxidative stress that is characterized by up-regulation of UGA-selenocysteine recoding efficiency and relocalization of SBP2, selenocysteine-specific elongation factor, and L30 recoding factors from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. PMID:24706762

  10. Detection, identification, and quantification of selenoproteins in a candidate human plasma standard reference material.

    PubMed

    Ballihaut, Guillaume; Kilpatrick, Lisa E; Davis, W Clay

    2011-11-15

    To understand the effect of Se supplementation on health, it is critical to accurately assess the Se status in the human body by measuring reliable biomarkers. The preferred biomarkers of the Se status are selenoprotein P (SelP) and glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) along with selenoalbumin (SeAlb), but there is still a real need for reference methods and reference materials to validate their measurements. Therefore, this work presents a systematic approach to provide quality control data in selenoprotein measurements. This approach combines online isotope dilution affinity liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), laser ablation ICPMS, and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to identify and quantify SelP, GPx3, and SeAlb in a human plasma reference material SRM 1950. Quantitative determinations of SelP, GPx3, and SeAlb were 50.2 ± 4.3, 23.6 ± 1.3, and 28.2 ± 2.6 ng g(-1) as Se, respectively. The subsequent identification of the selenoproteins included nine SelP peptides, including two selenopeptides and nine GPx3 peptides, while albumin was identified with a protein coverage factor >95%. The structural elucidation of selenoproteins in the target Se affinity fractions in SRM 1950 provides information needed for method validation and quality control measurements of selenoproteins and therefore the selenium status in human plasma.

  11. Factors impacting the aminoglycoside-induced UGA stop codon readthrough in selenoprotein translation.

    PubMed

    Martitz, Janine; Hofmann, Peter Josef; Johannes, Jörg; Köhrle, Josef; Schomburg, Lutz; Renko, Kostja

    2016-09-01

    Aminoglycosides (AG) are oligosaccharide antibiotics that interfere with the small ribosomal subunit in aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, causing pathogen-destructing error rates in their protein biosynthesis. Aminoglycosides also induce mRNA misinterpretation in eukaryotic cells, especially of the UGA (Opal)-stop codon, albeit to a lower extent. UGA recoding is essentially required for the incorporation of selenocysteine (Sec) into growing selenoproteins during translation. Selenocysteine incorporation requires the presence of a selenoprotein-specific stem-loop structure within the 3'-untranslated region of the mRNA, the so-called Sec-insertion sequence (SECIS) element. Interestingly, selenoprotein genes differ in their SECIS-element sequence and in their UGA base context. We hypothesized that the SECIS-element and the specific codon context synergize in controlling the effects of AG on stop codon readthrough. To this end, the SECIS-elements of glutathione peroxidase 1, glutathione peroxidase 4 and selenoprotein P transcripts were cloned into a reporter system and analyzed in combination with different UGA codon contexts. Our results indicate that a cytosine in position 4 (directly downstream of UGA) confers strongest effects on both the Se- and AG-dependent readthrough. Overall selenoprotein biosynthesis rate depends on the Se-status, AG concentration and the specific SECIS-element present in the transcript. These findings help to get a better understanding for the susceptibility of different transcripts towards AG-mediated interference with the biosynthesis of functional Se-containing selenoproteins, and highlight the importance of the Se-status for successful selenoprotein biosynthesis under antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. The Selenium Deficiency Disease Exudative Diathesis in Chicks Is Associated with Downregulation of Seven Common Selenoprotein Genes in Liver and Muscle123

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jia-Qiang; Li, Dai-Lin; Zhao, Hua; Sun, Lv-Hui; Xia, Xin-Jie; Wang, Kang-Ning; Luo, Xugang; Lei, Xin Gen

    2011-01-01

    Fast-growing broiler chicks are susceptible to Se deficiency diseases including exudative diathesis (ED). Our objective was to determine if ED could be induced by feeding a current, practical diet and if the incidence was related to selenogenome expression in liver and muscle of chicks. Four groups of day-old broiler chicks (n = 60/group) were fed a corn-soy basal diet (BD; 14 μg Se/kg; produced in the Se-deficient area of Sichuan, China and not supplemented with Se or vitamin E), the BD and all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate at 50 mg/kg and Se (as sodium selenite) at 0.3 mg/kg, or both of these nutrients for 6 wk. A high incidence of ED and mortality of chicks were induced by the BD. The incidences and mortality were completely prevented by supplemental dietary Se but were only partially decreased by supplemental α-tocopherol acetate. Dietary Se deficiency decreased (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of 7 common selenoprotein genes (Gpx1, Gpx4, Sepw1, Sepn1, Sepp1, Selo, and Selk) in muscle and liver. Whereas supplementing α-tocopherol acetate enhanced (P < 0.05) only the muscle Sepx1 mRNA level, it actually decreased (P < 0.05) hepatic Gpx1, Seli, Txnrd1, and Txnrd2 mRNA levels. In conclusion, dietary Se protected chicks from the Se deficiency disease ED, probably by upregulating selenoprotein genes coding for oxidation- and/or lesion-protective proteins. The protection by vitamin E might be mediated via selenoproteins not assayed in this study and/or Se-independent mechanisms. The inverse relationship between hepatic expression of 4 redox-related selenoprotein genes and vitamin E status revealed a novel interaction between Se and vitamin E in vivo. PMID:21795426

  13. The selenium deficiency disease exudative diathesis in chicks is associated with downregulation of seven common selenoprotein genes in liver and muscle.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia-Qiang; Li, Dai-Lin; Zhao, Hua; Sun, Lv-Hui; Xia, Xin-Jie; Wang, Kang-Ning; Luo, Xugang; Lei, Xin Gen

    2011-09-01

    Fast-growing broiler chicks are susceptible to Se deficiency diseases including exudative diathesis (ED). Our objective was to determine if ED could be induced by feeding a current, practical diet and if the incidence was related to selenogenome expression in liver and muscle of chicks. Four groups of day-old broiler chicks (n = 60/group) were fed a corn-soy basal diet (BD; 14 μg Se/kg; produced in the Se-deficient area of Sichuan, China and not supplemented with Se or vitamin E), the BD and all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate at 50 mg/kg and Se (as sodium selenite) at 0.3 mg/kg, or both of these nutrients for 6 wk. A high incidence of ED and mortality of chicks were induced by the BD. The incidences and mortality were completely prevented by supplemental dietary Se but were only partially decreased by supplemental α-tocopherol acetate. Dietary Se deficiency decreased (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of 7 common selenoprotein genes (Gpx1, Gpx4, Sepw1, Sepn1, Sepp1, Selo, and Selk) in muscle and liver. Whereas supplementing α-tocopherol acetate enhanced (P < 0.05) only the muscle Sepx1 mRNA level, it actually decreased (P < 0.05) hepatic Gpx1, Seli, Txnrd1, and Txnrd2 mRNA levels. In conclusion, dietary Se protected chicks from the Se deficiency disease ED, probably by upregulating selenoprotein genes coding for oxidation- and/or lesion-protective proteins. The protection by vitamin E might be mediated via selenoproteins not assayed in this study and/or Se-independent mechanisms. The inverse relationship between hepatic expression of 4 redox-related selenoprotein genes and vitamin E status revealed a novel interaction between Se and vitamin E in vivo.

  14. Role of microRNA-7 and selenoprotein P in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tarek, Marwa; Louka, Manal Louis; Khairy, Eman; Ali-Labib, Randa; Zakaria Zaky, Doaa; Montasser, Iman F

    2017-05-01

    There is an obvious need to diagnose hepatocellular carcinoma using novel non-invasive and sensitive biomarkers. In this regard, the aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate both relative quantification of microRNA-7 using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and quantitative analysis of selenoprotein P using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in sera of hepatocellular carcinoma patients, chronic liver disease patients, as well as normal healthy subjects in order to establish a new diagnostic biomarker with a valid non-invasive technique. In addition, this study aimed to investigate whether changes in selenium supply affect microRNA-7 expression and selenoprotein P levels in human hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2). The results showed a highly significant decrease in serum microRNA-7 relative quantification values and selenoprotein P levels in malignant group in comparison with benign and control groups. The best cutoff for serum microRNA-7 and selenoprotein P to discriminate hepatocellular carcinoma group from benign and control groups was 0.06 and 4.30 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, this study showed that changes in selenium supply to HepG2 cell line can alter the microRNA-7 profile and are paralleled by changes in the concentration of its target protein (selenoprotein P). Hence, serum microRNA-7 and selenoprotein P appear to be potential non-invasive diagnostic markers for hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, the results suggest that selenium could be used as an anticancer therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma by affecting both microRNA-7 and selenoprotein P.

  15. SECIS elements in the coding regions of selenoprotein transcripts are functional in higher eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Mix, Heiko; Lobanov, Alexey V.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2007-01-01

    Expression of selenocysteine (Sec)-containing proteins requires the presence of a cis-acting mRNA structure, called selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element. In bacteria, this structure is located in the coding region immediately downstream of the Sec-encoding UGA codon, whereas in eukaryotes a completely different SECIS element has evolved in the 3′-untranslated region. Here, we report that SECIS elements in the coding regions of selenoprotein mRNAs support Sec insertion in higher eukaryotes. Comprehensive computational analysis of all available viral genomes revealed a SECIS element within the ORF of a naturally occurring selenoprotein homolog of glutathione peroxidase 4 in fowlpox virus. The fowlpox SECIS element supported Sec insertion when expressed in mammalian cells as part of the coding region of viral or mammalian selenoproteins. In addition, readthrough at UGA was observed when the viral SECIS element was located upstream of the Sec codon. We also demonstrate successful de novo design of a functional SECIS element in the coding region of a mammalian selenoprotein. Our data provide evidence that the location of the SECIS element in the untranslated region is not a functional necessity but rather is an evolutionary adaptation to enable a more efficient synthesis of selenoproteins. PMID:17169995

  16. Absence of selenoprotein P but not selenocysteine lyase results in severe neurological dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Raman, A V; Pitts, M W; Seyedali, A; Hashimoto, A C; Seale, L A; Bellinger, F P; Berry, M J

    2012-07-01

    Dietary selenium restriction in mammals causes bodily selenium to be preferentially retained in the brain relative to other organs. Almost all the known selenoproteins are found in brain, where expression is facilitated by selenocysteine (Sec)-laden selenoprotein P. The brain also expresses selenocysteine lyase (Scly), an enzyme that putatively salvages Sec and recycles the selenium for selenoprotein translation. We compared mice with a genetic deletion of Scly to selenoprotein P (Sepp1) knockout mice for similarity of neurological impairments and whether dietary selenium modulates these parameters. We report that Scly knockout mice do not display neurological dysfunction comparable to Sepp1 knockout mice. Feeding a low-selenium diet to Scly knockout mice revealed a mild spatial learning deficit without disrupting motor coordination. Additionally, we report that the neurological phenotype caused by the absence of Sepp1 is exacerbated in male vs. female mice. These findings indicate that Sec recycling via Scly becomes limiting under selenium deficiency and suggest the presence of a complementary mechanism for processing Sec. Our studies illuminate the interaction between Sepp1 and Scly in the distribution and turnover of body and brain selenium and emphasize the consideration of sex differences when studying selenium and selenoproteins in vertebrate biology. © 2012 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  17. Selenium Deficiency Downregulates Selenoproteins and Suppresses Immune Function in Chicken Thymus.

    PubMed

    Khoso, Pervez Ahmed; Yang, Zijiang; Liu, Chunpeng; Li, Shu

    2015-09-01

    Selenoproteins and selenium (Se) play important roles in the immune system. Selenoprotein expression in the immune system of mammals is sensitive to dietary Se levels; however, little is known about the expression of selenoproteins and their immune functions in the chicken thymus. We assessed selenoprotein gene expression and cytokine content in the chicken thymus in this study. The animals were randomly assigned to two groups as follows: the Se-deficient group (L group) was fed a diet containing 0.033 mg Se/Kg, and the control group was fed the same basal diet supplemented with Se at 0.15 mg/kg (sodium selenite). Real-time qPCR was used to investigate the expression level of selenoproteins on days 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55, and ELISA was used to evaluate the cytokine content on days 15, 35, and 55. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of Txnrd1, Txnrd2, Txnrd3, Dio1, Dio2, Dio3, GPx1, GPx2, GPx3, Gpx4, Sepp1, Selo, Sep15, Sepx1, Sels, Seli, Selu, Selh, and SPS2 were all significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the L group compared to the control group. A significant decrease in IL-2, IL-10, IL-17, IL-1β, IFN-α, and IFN-β was observed in the L group, and there was also a significant increase in IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in the L group. In summary, Se deficiency results in significant changes in the expression of selenoproteins, which may cause oxidative stress in the chicken thymus tissue. Moreover, immunological changes and immune stress may occur because of Se deficiency in the chicken thymus.

  18. Interference of selenium and selenoproteins with the insulin-regulated carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Steinbrenner, Holger

    2013-12-01

    An assumed link between supranutritional intake of the micronutrient selenium (Se) and type 2 diabetes mellitus is discussed controversially. Se concentrations in the habitual diet and in dietary supplements are probably not sufficient to induce overt diabetes in healthy individuals. On the other hand, high plasma Se and selenoprotein P (Sepp1) levels have been found to be associated with biomarkers of an impaired carbohydrate and lipid homeostasis in humans. Moreover, abundant expression of antioxidant selenoproteins due to dietary Se oversupply resulted in hyperinsulinemia and decreased insulin sensitivity in animal models. This review discusses findings from animal and cell culture studies in search of molecular mechanisms underlying an interference of Se and selenproteins such as the Se transport and supply protein Sepp1 and the hydrogen peroxide-reducing selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) with insulin-controlled metabolic pathways. A probable rationale derives from the positive and negative regulation of both glucose-induced insulin secretion and insulin-induced signaling by hydrogen peroxide. Se status and GPx1 expression have been reported to affect the activity of insulin-antagonistic phosphatases that are regulated by hydrogen peroxide-mediated reversible oxidation of catalytic cysteine residues. GPx1 and/or Sepp1 inhibited phosphorylation (activation) of key mediators in energy metabolism such as protein kinase B (Akt) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in liver and/or skeletal muscle. Conversely, a dys-regulated carbohydrate metabolism in diabetes might affect plasma Se and Sepp1 levels, as the hepatic biosynthesis of Sepp1 is suppressed by insulin and stimulated under hyperglycemic conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Selenoproteins: the key factor in selenium essentiality. State of the art analytical techniques for selenoprotein studies.

    PubMed

    Lopez Heras, Isabel; Palomo, Maria; Madrid, Yolanda

    2011-06-01

    Selenium is an essential element for human health. The benefits of selenium are many including protection against cancer, heart diseases and other cardiovascular and muscle disorders. Selenium is also helpful in controlling gastrointestinal disorders, enhancing immunity of the human body and reducing age-related diseases. The health-promoting properties of Se are due to vital functions of selenoproteins in which selenium is present as selenocysteine, the 21st amino acid. To date, dozens of selenoprotein families have been described though many have roles that have not been fully elucidated. Selenoproteins research has attracted tremendous interest from different scientific areas. Analytical chemists have not remained indifferent to the attractive features of these unique proteins. Different analytical techniques, such as multidimensional chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), electrospray (tandem) mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight (MALDI-TOF) and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SDS-PAGE-LA-ICPMS), have been applied to the determination of selenoproteins and selenium-containing proteins. This review describes the best-characterized selenoproteins to date in addition to the major contributions of analytical chemistry to the field of selenoproteins. The article also highlights the challenges of combining elemental and molecular mass spectrometry for the determination of selenoproteins and selenium-containing proteins.

  20. Selenoproteins: Molecular Pathways and Physiological Roles

    PubMed Central

    Labunskyy, Vyacheslav M.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2014-01-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient with important functions in human health and relevance to several pathophysiological conditions. The biological effects of selenium are largely mediated by selenium-containing proteins (selenoproteins) that are present in all three domains of life. Although selenoproteins represent diverse molecular pathways and biological functions, all these proteins contain at least one selenocysteine (Sec), a selenium-containing amino acid, and most serve oxidoreductase functions. Sec is cotranslationally inserted into nascent polypeptide chains in response to the UGA codon, whose normal function is to terminate translation. To decode UGA as Sec, organisms evolved the Sec insertion machinery that allows incorporation of this amino acid at specific UGA codons in a process requiring a cis-acting Sec insertion sequence (SECIS) element. Although the basic mechanisms of Sec synthesis and insertion into proteins in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have been studied in great detail, the identity and functions of many selenoproteins remain largely unknown. In the last decade, there has been significant progress in characterizing selenoproteins and selenoproteomes and understanding their physiological functions. We discuss current knowledge about how these unique proteins perform their functions at the molecular level and highlight new insights into the roles that selenoproteins play in human health. PMID:24987004

  1. Molecular characterization and expression analyses of cDNAs encoding the thioredoxin-interacting protein and selenoprotein P genes and histological changes in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in response to silver nanoparticle exposure.

    PubMed

    Thummabancha, Kubpaphas; Onparn, Nuttaphon; Srisapoome, Prapansak

    2016-02-15

    Herein, Nile tilapia thioredoxin-interacting protein (On-TXNIP) and selenoprotein P (On-SEPP) cDNAs were cloned and characterized. The full-length On-TXNIP cDNA contained 2 arrestin domains, 2 conserved cysteine residues that bind to thioredoxin to inhibit thioredoxin function, and 2 PPXY motifs, which negatively regulate the protein by stimulating binding to E3 ubiquitin ligase. The On-SEPP cDNA contained 17 selenocysteines (Sec) encoded by the TGA codon, which can be recognized as either a stop codon or a Sec codon. The On-SEPP cDNA also carried 2 typical SECIS elements located in the 3'UTR that are important for selenocysteine translation. Evolutionary analyses of both the On-TXNIP and On-SEPP genes revealed that these genes are closely related to the TXNIP and SEPP genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio), with amino acid similarities of 91.8% and 61.9%, respectively. A normal tissue distribution analysis indicated that the On-TXNIP and On-SEPP genes were ubiquitously expressed in all tissues examined, and the highest expression levels of these genes were observed in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and the trunk kidney, respectively. The expression levels of On-TXNIP and On-SEPP transcripts were acutely and chronically analyzed following the injection of fish with 1, 10 or 100mg/kg silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). Significant up-regulation of On-TXNIP and On-SEPP transcripts was observed in the liver, spleen, and head kidney at the early phase of Ag NP exposure (hours 6 through 48). Down-regulation of On-SEPP transcripts was clearly observed in the liver at weeks 1 to 4. Histopathology analysis demonstrated that the fish livers exhibited a dramatic infiltration of Kupffer cells, elevated bi-nucleated cells, expanded sinusoidal blood congestion and severe necrosis in a dose-dependent manner. Based on these findings, coupling of the expression analysis of these two cellular stress response genes and histopathological observation of fish exposed to Ag NPs should be

  2. Deletion of Selenoprotein M Leads to Obesity without Cognitive Deficits*

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, Matthew W.; Reeves, Mariclair A.; Hashimoto, Ann C.; Ogawa, Ashley; Kremer, Penny; Seale, Lucia A.; Berry, Marla J.

    2013-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element that is co-translationally incorporated into selenoproteins in the form of the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine. This class of proteins largely functions in oxidation-reduction reactions and is critically involved in maintaining proper redox balance essential to health. Selenoprotein M (SelM) is a thioredoxin-like endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein that is highly expressed in the brain and possesses neuroprotective properties. In this study, we first assessed the regional pattern of SelM expression in the mouse brain to provide insights into the potential functional implications of this protein in physiology and behavior. Next, we generated transgenic mice with a targeted deletion of the SelM gene and subjected them to a battery of neurobehavioral tests to evaluate motor coordination, locomotion, and cognitive function in comparison with wild-type controls. Finally, these mice were tested for several measures of metabolic function and body composition. Our results show that SelM knock-out (KO) mice display no deficits in measures of motor coordination and cognitive function but exhibit increased weight gain, elevated white adipose tissue deposition, and diminished hypothalamic leptin sensitivity. These findings suggest that SelM plays an important role in the regulation of body weight and energy metabolism. PMID:23880772

  3. Contrasting roles of dietary selenium and selenoproteins in chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has long been known for its cancer prevention properties, but the molecular basis remains unclear. The principal questions in assessing the effect of dietary Se in cancer are whether selenoproteins, small molecule selenocompounds, or both, are involved, and under which conditions and genotypes Se may be protective. In this study, we examined diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice lacking a subset of selenoproteins due to expression of a mutant selenocysteine tRNA gene (Trsp A37G mice). To uncouple the effects of selenocompounds and selenoproteins, these animals were examined at several levels of dietary Se. Our analysis revealed that tumorigenesis in Trsp A37G mice maintained on the adequate Se diet was increased. However, in the control, wild-type mice, both Se deficiency and high Se levels protected against tumorigenesis. We further found that the Se-deficient diet induced severe neurological phenotypes in TrspA37G mice. Surprisingly, a similar phenotype could be induced in these mice at high dietary Se intake. Overall, our results show a complex role of Se in chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis, which involves interaction among selenoproteins, selenocompounds and toxins, and depends on genotype and background of the animals. PMID:23389288

  4. Effects of dietary selenium deficiency on mRNA levels of twenty-one selenoprotein genes in the liver of layer chicken.

    PubMed

    Liu, C P; Fu, J; Lin, S L; Wang, X S; Li, S

    2014-06-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element in many life forms due to its occurrence as selenocysteine (Sec) residue in selenoproteins. However, little is known about the expression pattern of selenoproteins in the liver of layer chicken. To investigate the effects of Se deficiency on the mRNA expressions of selenoproteins in the liver tissue of layer chickens, 1-day-old layer chickens were randomly allocated into two groups (n=120/group). The Se-deficient group (-Se) was fed a Se-deficient corn-soy basal diet; the Se-adequate group as control (+Se) was fed the same basal diet supplemented with Se at 0.15 mg/kg (sodium selenite). The liver tissue was collected and examined for mRNA levels of 21 selenoprotein genes at 15, 25, 35, 45, 55, and 65 days old. The data indicated that the mRNA expressions of Gpx1, Gpx2, Gpx3, Gpx4, Sepn1, Sepp1, Selo, Sepx1, Selu, Txnrd1, Txnrd2, Txnrd3, Dio1, Dio2, SPS2, Selm, SelPb, Sep15, and Sels were decreased (p<0.05), but not the levels of Dio3 and Seli (p>0.05). The results showed that the mRNA levels of 19 selenoprotein (except Seli and Dio3) genes in the layer chicken liver were regulated by diet Se level. The present study provided some compensated data about the roles of Se in the regulation of selenoproteins.

  5. Modulation of selenium tissue distribution and selenoprotein expression in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed diets with graded levels of plant ingredients.

    PubMed

    Betancor, Monica B; Dam, Thi M C; Walton, James; Morken, Thea; Campbell, Patrick J; Tocher, Douglas R

    2016-04-01

    Increased substitution of marine ingredients by terrestrial plant products in aquafeeds has been proven to be suitable for Atlantic salmon farming. However, a reduction in n-3 long-chain PUFA is a consequence of this substitution. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the effects of fishmeal and oil substitution on levels of micronutrients such as Se, considering fish are major sources of this mineral for human consumers. To evaluate the effects of dietary marine ingredient substitution on tissue Se distribution and the expression of Se metabolism and antioxidant enzyme genes, Atlantic salmons were fed three feeds based on commercial formulations with increasing levels of plant proteins (PP) and vegetable oil. Lipid content in flesh did not vary at any sampling point, but it was higher in the liver of 1 kg of fish fed higher PP. Fatty acid content reflected dietary input and was related to oxidation levels (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances). Liver had the highest Se levels, followed by head kidney, whereas the lowest contents were found in brain and gill. The Se concentration of flesh decreased considerably with high levels of substitution, reducing the added value of fish consumption. Only the brain showed significant differences in glutathione peroxidase, transfer RNA selenocysteine 1-associated protein 1b and superoxide dismutase expression, whereas no significant regulation of Se-related genes was found in liver. Although Se levels in the diets satisfied the essential requirements of salmon, high PP levels led to a reduction in the supply of this essential micronutrient.

  6. Pro198Leu polymorphism affects the selenium status and GPx activity in response to Brazil nut intake.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Bárbara R; Busse, Alexandre L; Hare, Dominic J; Cominetti, Cristiane; Horst, Maria A; McColl, Gawain; Magaldi, Regina M; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Cozzolino, Silvia M F

    2016-02-01

    Selenoproteins play important roles in antioxidant mechanisms, and are thus hypothesised to have some involvement in the pathology of certain types of dementia. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are both thought to involve impaired biological activity of certain selenoproteins. Previously, supplementation with a selenium-rich Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) has shown potential in reducing cognitive decline in MCI patients, and could prove to be a safe and effective nutritional approach early in the disease process to slow decline. Here, we have conducted a pilot study that examined the effects of a range of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding the selenoproteins glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) and selenoprotein P (SEPP) in response to selenium supplementation via dietary Brazil nuts, including selenium status, oxidative stress parameters and GPX1 and SEPP gene expression. Our data suggest that GPX1 Pro198Leu rs1050450 genotypes may differentially affect the selenium status and GPx activity. Moreover, rs7579 and rs3877899 SNPs in SEPP gene, as well as GPX1 rs1050450 genotypes can influence the expression of GPX1 and SEPP mRNA in response to Brazil nuts intake. This small study gives cause for larger investigations into the role of these SNPs in both the selenium status and response to selenium dietary intake, especially in chronic degenerative conditions like MCI and AD.

  7. Selenium, glutathione peroxidase and other selenoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, E.C.

    1983-01-01

    Selenium, as essential trace element, has long been associated with protein. The essentiality of selenium is partially understood as glutathione peroxidase contains an essential selenocysteine. Glutathione peroxidase has been purified from many tissues including rat liver. An estimated molecular weight of 105,000 was obtained for glutathione peroxidase by comparison to standards. A subunit size of 26,000 was obtained by SDS-gel electrophoresis. Glutathione peroxidase is not the only selenoprotein in the rat. In seven rat tissues examined, there were many different subunit sizes and change groups representing between 9 and 23 selenoproteins. Selenocysteine in glutathione peroxidase accounts for ca. 36% of the selenium in the rat. The mode of synthesis of glutathione peroxidase and the other selenoproteins is not understood. Glutathione peroxidase is strongly and reversibly inhibited by mercaptocarboxylic acids and other mercaptans, including some used as slow-acting drugs for the symtomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The mechanism and chemistry of this inhibition is discussed. This inhibition may provide a link between selenium and arthritis.

  8. Direct interaction between selenoprotein P and tubulin.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiubo; Qiu, Shi; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Ruoran; Wang, Chao; Tian, Jing; Liu, Qiong

    2014-06-06

    Selenium (Se), an essential trace element for human health, mainly exerts its biological function via selenoproteins. Among the 25 selenoproteins identified in human, selenoprotein P (SelP) is the only one that contains multiple selenocysteines (Sec) in the sequence, and has been suggested to function as a Se transporter. Upon feeding a selenium-deficient diet, mice lacking SelP develop severe neurological dysfunction and exhibit widespread brainstem neurodegeneration, indicating an important role of SelP in normal brain function. To further elucidate the function of SelP in the brain, SelP was screened by the yeast two-hybrid system from a human fetal brain cDNA library for interactive proteins. Our results demonstrated that SelP interacts with tubulin, alpha 1a (TUBA1A). The interaction between SelP and tubulin was verified by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays. We further found that SelP interacts with the C-terminus of tubulin by its His-rich domain, as demonstrated by FRET and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) assays. The implications of the interaction between SelP and tubulin in the brain and in Alzheimer's disease are discussed.

  9. Direct Interaction between Selenoprotein P and Tubulin

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiubo; Qiu, Shi; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Ruoran; Wang, Chao; Tian, Jing; Liu, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Selenium (Se), an essential trace element for human health, mainly exerts its biological function via selenoproteins. Among the 25 selenoproteins identified in human, selenoprotein P (SelP) is the only one that contains multiple selenocysteines (Sec) in the sequence, and has been suggested to function as a Se transporter. Upon feeding a selenium-deficient diet, mice lacking SelP develop severe neurological dysfunction and exhibit widespread brainstem neurodegeneration, indicating an important role of SelP in normal brain function. To further elucidate the function of SelP in the brain, SelP was screened by the yeast two-hybrid system from a human fetal brain cDNA library for interactive proteins. Our results demonstrated that SelP interacts with tubulin, alpha 1a (TUBA1A). The interaction between SelP and tubulin was verified by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays. We further found that SelP interacts with the C-terminus of tubulin by its His-rich domain, as demonstrated by FRET and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) assays. The implications of the interaction between SelP and tubulin in the brain and in Alzheimer’s disease are discussed. PMID:24914767

  10. Gender-specific distribution of selenium to serum selenoproteins: associations with total selenium levels, age, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Letsiou, S; Nomikos, T; Panagiotakos, D B; Pergantis, S A; Fragopoulou, E; Pitsavos, C; Stefanadis, C; Antonopoulou, S

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiology of selenium (Se) is mainly based on the determination of total serum selenium levels (TSe) which by many aspects is an inadequate marker of Se status. In this study we applied a recently developed LC-ICP-MS method, for the determination of the selenium content of the three main serum selenium-containing proteins, in a subcohort of the ATTICA study. This enables us to investigate whether the selenium distribution to selenoproteins may correlate with demographic (age, gender) and lifestyle variables (smoking, physical activity) that are crucial for the development of chronic diseases. A sub-sample from the ATTICA Study, consisted of 236 males (40 ± 11 years) and 163 females (38 ± 12 years), was selected. The selenium content of glutathione peroxidase (GPx-3), selenoprotein P (SelP) and selenoalbumin (SeAlb) was determined in serum by LC-ICP/MS method. We found that 26% of TSe is found in GPx-3, 61% in SelP and 13% in SeAlb. We have assessed the different ratios of selenoproteins' selenium content (Se-GPX-3/Se-SelP, Se-GPX-3/Se-SeAlb, Se-SelP/Se-SeAlb), showing that people with similar TSe may have different distribution of this selenium to selenoproteins. Total selenium levels and gender are the variables that mostly affect selenium distribution to selenoproteins while age, smoking, physical activity and BMI do not significantly influence selenium distribution. In conclusion, the simultaneous determination of the selenium content of serum selenium-containing selenoproteins is necessary for a thorough estimation of selenium status. The ratio of the Se content between selenoproteins may be proven a novel, valid marker of selenium status. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Biomarkers of Selenium Status

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Gerald F.

    2015-01-01

    The essential trace element, selenium (Se), has multiple biological activities, which depend on the level of Se intake. Relatively low Se intakes determine the expression of selenoenzymes in which it serves as an essential constituent. Higher intakes have been shown to have anti-tumorigenic potential; and very high Se intakes can produce adverse effects. This hierarchy of biological activities calls for biomarkers informative at different levels of Se exposure. Some Se-biomarkers, such as the selenoproteins and particularly GPX3 and SEPP1, provide information about function directly and are of value in identifying nutritional Se deficiency and tracking responses of deficient individuals to Se-treatment. They are useful under conditions of Se intake within the range of regulated selenoprotein expression, e.g., for humans <55 μg/day and for animals <20 μg/kg diet. Other Se-biomarkers provide information indirectly through inferences based on Se levels of foods, tissues, urine or feces. They can indicate the likelihood of deficiency or adverse effects, but they do not provide direct evidence of either condition. Their value is in providing information about Se status over a wide range of Se intake, particularly from food forms. There is need for additional Se biomarkers particularly for assessing Se status in non-deficient individuals for whom the prospects of cancer risk reduction and adverse effects risk are the primary health considerations. This would include determining whether supranutritional intakes of Se may be required for maximal selenoprotein expression in immune surveillance cells. It would also include developing methods to determine low molecular weight Se-metabolites, i.e., selenoamino acids and methylated Se-metabolites, which to date have not been detectable in biological specimens. Recent analytical advances using tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry suggest prospects for detecting these metabolites. PMID:25835046

  12. SECIS-binding protein 2 interacts with the SMN complex and the methylosome for selenoprotein mRNP assembly and translation.

    PubMed

    Gribling-Burrer, Anne-Sophie; Leichter, Michael; Wurth, Laurence; Huttin, Alexandra; Schlotter, Florence; Troffer-Charlier, Nathalie; Cura, Vincent; Barkats, Martine; Cavarelli, Jean; Massenet, Séverine; Allmang, Christine

    2017-05-19

    Selenoprotein synthesis requires the co-translational recoding of a UGASec codon. This process involves an RNA structural element, called Selenocysteine Insertion Sequence (SECIS) and the SECIS binding protein 2 (SBP2). Several selenoprotein mRNAs undergo unusual cap hypermethylation by the trimethylguanosine synthase 1 (Tgs1), which is recruited by the ubiquitous Survival of MotoNeurons (SMN) protein. SMN, the protein involved in spinal muscular atrophy, is part of a chaperone complex that collaborates with the methylosome for RNP assembly. Here, we analyze the role of individual SMN and methylosome components in selenoprotein mRNP assembly and translation. We show that SBP2 interacts directly with four proteins of the SMN complex and the methylosome core proteins. Nevertheless, SBP2 is not a methylation substrate of the methylosome. We found that both SMN and methylosome complexes are required for efficient translation of the selenoprotein GPx1 in vivo. We establish that the steady-state level of several selenoprotein mRNAs, major regulators of oxidative stress damage in neurons, is specifically reduced in the spinal cord of SMN-deficient mice and that cap hypermethylation of GPx1 mRNA is affected. Altogether we identified a new function of the SMN complex and the methylosome in selenoprotein mRNP assembly and expression. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Effects of Dietary Selenium Against Lead Toxicity on mRNA Levels of 25 Selenoprotein Genes in the Cartilage Tissue of Broiler Chicken.

    PubMed

    Gao, H; Liu, C P; Song, S Q; Fu, J

    2016-07-01

    The interactions between the essential element selenium (Se) and the toxic element lead (Pb) have been reported extensively; however, little is known about the effect of Se on Pb toxicity and the expression pattern of selenoproteins in the cartilage of chicken. To investigate the effects of Se on Pb toxicity and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of selenoproteins in cartilage tissue, an in vitro study was performed on 1-day-old broiler chickens (randomly allocated into four groups) with diet of different concentration of Se and Pb. After 90 days, the meniscus cartilage and sword cartilage tissue were examined for the mRNA levels of 25 selenoprotein genes. The results showed that Se and Pb influenced the expression of selenoprotein genes in the chicken cartilage tissue. In detail, Se could alleviate the downtrend of the expression of Gpx1, Gpx2, Gpx4, Txnrd2, Txnrd3, Dio1, Dio2, Seli, Selu, Sepx1, Selk, Selw, Selo, Selm, Sep15, Sepnn1, Sels, and Selt induced by Pb exposure in the meniscus cartilage. In the sword cartilage, Se alleviated the downtrend of the expression of Gpx2, Gpx3, Gpx4, Txnrd1, Txnrd2, Dio2, Dio3, Seli, Selh, SPS2, Sepx1, Selk, Selw, Selo, Selm, Sep15, Selpb, Sepn1, and Selt induced by Pb exposure. The present study provided some compensated data about the roles of Se against Pb toxicity in the regulation of selenoprotein expression.

  14. Titration and conditional knockdown of the prfB gene in Escherichia coli: effects on growth and overproduction of the recombinant mammalian selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase.

    PubMed

    Rengby, Olle; Arnér, Elias S J

    2007-01-01

    Release factor 2 (RF2), encoded by the prfB gene in Escherichia coli, catalyzes translational termination at UGA and UAA codons. Termination at UGA competes with selenocysteine (Sec) incorporation at Sec-dedicated UGA codons, and RF2 thereby counteracts expression of selenoproteins. prfB is an essential gene in E. coli and can therefore not be removed in order to increase yield of recombinant selenoproteins. We therefore constructed an E. coli strain with the endogenous chromosomal promoter of prfB replaced with the titratable P(BAD) promoter. Knockdown of prfB expression gave a bacteriostatic effect, while two- to sevenfold overexpression of RF2 resulted in a slightly lowered growth rate in late exponential phase. In a turbidostatic fermentor system the simultaneous impact of prfB knockdown on growth and recombinant selenoprotein expression was subsequently studied, using production of mammalian thioredoxin reductase as model system. This showed that lowering the levels of RF2 correlated directly with increasing Sec incorporation specificity, while also affecting total selenoprotein yield concomitant with a lower growth rate. This study thus demonstrates that expression of prfB can be titrated through targeted exchange of the native promoter with a P(BAD)-promoter and that knockdown of RF2 can result in almost full efficiency of Sec incorporation at the cost of lower total selenoprotein yield.

  15. Selenoprotein P is not elevated in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Altinova, Alev E; Iyidir, Ozlem T; Ozkan, Cigdem; Ors, Damla; Ozturk, Merve; Gulbahar, Ozlem; Bozkurt, Nuray; Toruner, Fusun B; Akturk, Mujde; Cakir, Nuri; Arslan, Metin

    2015-01-01

    Selenoprotein P concentrations have been found to be associated with insulin resistance and elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of the present study was to investigate circulating selenoprotein P level and its possible relationship with metabolic parameters in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Plasma selenoprotein P concentrations were measured in 30 pregnant women with GDM, 35 pregnant women without GDM and 22 healthy nonpregnant women. No difference in selenoprotein P levels was observed among the groups [6.2 (4.5-8.2), 7.9 (4.5-10.7) and 6.7 (5.3-9.1) ng/ml, respectively, p = 0.69]. In pregnant women with and without GDM, selenoprotein P did not correlate with age, gestational age, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), HbA1c, glucose concentrations at oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), area under curve (AUC) glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels (p > 0.05). But, there were statistically significant correlations between selenoprotein P and current BMI (r = -0.28, p = 0.04) and HDL cholesterol levels (r = 0.43, p = 0.01). We found that selenoprotein P concentrations are not elevated in women with GDM but associated with BMI and HDL cholesterol.

  16. A case-control study of selenoprotein genes polymorphisms and autoimmune thyroid diseases in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ling; Yuan, Jianghong; Yao, Qiuming; Yan, Ni; Song, Ronghua; Jiang, Wenjuan; Li, Danfeng; Shi, Liangfeng; Zhang, Jin-An

    2017-05-12

    Selenium is an essential trace and there is a high selenium concentration in the thyroid gland. Selenium deficiency may impair the thyroid function. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between three selenoprotein genes polymorphisms and autoimmune thyroid diseases. We genotyped six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs6865453 in selenoprotein P gene (SELENOP), rs713041 rs2074451 rs3746165 in glutathione peroxidase 4 gene (GPX4) and rs28665122 and rs7178239 in selenoprotein S gene (SELENOS) by MassARRAY system using the chip-based matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry technology in 1060 patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases and 938 healthy controls. Major alleles in rs6865453 of SELENOP, rs713041, rs2074451, rs3746165 of GPX4 decreased while the major allele C in rs28665122 of SELENOS increased in AITD patients than in the control. The allele C and genotype CC in rs7178239 of SELENOS showed different trend in GD and HT patients when compared with the control. All the distribution difference showed nonsignificant. Analysis according to clinical features including ophthalmopathy, hypothyroidism and family history came out to be negative either. Our findings suggest non-association between three selenoprotein genes and AITD, conflicting to the positive result in another population. Different selenium nutrition status in different populations may contribute to conflicting results, the contribution of genetic variants in AITD mechanism may be another reason.

  17. Selenoprotein O deficiencies suppress chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jidong; Fei, Yao; Han, Yan; Lu, Shemin

    2016-10-01

    Selenoprotein O (Sel O) is a selenium-containing protein, but its function is still unclear. In the present study, we observed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of Sel O increased during chondrogenic induction of ATDC5 cells. The effects of Sel O on chondrocyte differentiation were then examined through shRNA-mediated gene silencing technique. The expression of Sel O was significantly suppressed at both mRNA and protein levels in a stable cell line transfected with a Sel O-specific target shRNA construct. Thereafter, we demonstrated that Sel O deficiencies suppress chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells. Sel O deficiencies inhibited expression of chondrogenic gene Sox9, Col II, and aggrecan. Sel O-deficient cells also accumulated a few cartilage glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and decreased the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In addition, Sel O deficiencies inhibited chondrocyte proliferation through delayed cell cycle progression by suppression of cyclin D1 expression. Moreover, Sel O deficiencies induced chondrocyte death through cell apoptosis. In summary, we describe the expression patterns and the essential roles of Sel O in chondrocyte viability, proliferation, and chondrogenic differentiation. Additionally, Sel O deficiency-mediated impaired chondrogenesis may illustrate the mechanisms of Se deficiency in the pathophysiological process of the endemic osteoarthropathy.

  18. Characterization of Selenoprotein M and Its Response to Selenium Deficiency in Chicken Brain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia-Qiang; Ren, Fa-Zheng; Jiang, Yun-Yun; Lei, XinGen

    2016-04-01

    Selenoprotein M (SelM) may function as thiol disulfide oxidoreductase that participates in the formation of disulfide bonds and can be implicated in calcium responses. SelM may have a functional role in catalyzing free radicals and has been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, studies of SelM in chicken remain very limited. In this study, two groups of day-old broiler chicks (n = 40/group) were fed a corn-soy basal diet (BD, 13 μg Se/kg) and BD supplemented with Se (as sodium selenite) at 0.3 mg/kg. The brain was collected at 14, 21, 28, and 42 days of age. We performed a sequence analysis and predicted the structure and function of SelM. We also investigated the effects of Se deficiency on the expression of Selt, Selw, and Selm and the Se status in the chicken brain. The results show that Se deficiency induced the lower (P < 0.05) Se content, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activities; increased (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde (MDA) content; and reduced (P < 0.05) the expression of Selm messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein abundance of SelM in the brain. However, there were no significant brain Selt and Selw mRNA levels by dietary Se deficiency in chicks. The different regulations of these three redox (Rdx) protein expressions by Se deficiency represent a novel finding of the present study. Our results demonstrated that SelM may have an important role in protecting against oxidative damage in the brain of chicken, which might shed light on the role of SelM in human neurodegenerative disease. More studies are needed to confirm our conclusion.

  19. The 15kDa selenoprotein and thioredoxin reductase 1 promote colon cancer by different pathways.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Petra A; Carlson, Bradley A; Yoo, Min-Hyuk; Naranjo-Suarez, Salvador; Xu, Xue-Ming; He, Yiwen; Asaki, Esther; Seifried, Harold E; Reinhold, William C; Davis, Cindy D; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Hatfield, Dolph L

    2015-01-01

    Selenoproteins mediate much of the cancer-preventive properties of the essential nutrient selenium, but some of these proteins have been shown to also have cancer-promoting effects. We examined the contributions of the 15kDa selenoprotein (Sep15) and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1) to cancer development. Targeted down-regulation of either gene inhibited anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth and formation of experimental metastases of mouse colon carcinoma CT26 cells. Surprisingly, combined deficiency of Sep15 and TR1 reversed the anti-cancer effects observed with down-regulation of each single gene. We found that inflammation-related genes regulated by Stat-1, especially interferon-γ-regulated guanylate-binding proteins, were highly elevated in Sep15-deficient, but not in TR1-deficient cells. Interestingly, components of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were up-regulated in cells lacking both TR1 and Sep15. These results suggest that Sep15 and TR1 participate in interfering regulatory pathways in colon cancer cells. Considering the variable expression levels of Sep15 and TR1 found within the human population, our results provide insights into new roles of selenoproteins in cancer.

  20. Selenium and the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase in the prevention, treatment and diagnostics of cancer.

    PubMed

    Selenius, Markus; Rundlöf, Anna-Klara; Olm, Eric; Fernandes, Aristi P; Björnstedt, Mikael

    2010-04-01

    Selenium is an essential element that is specifically incorporated as selenocystein into selenoproteins. It is a potent modulator of eukaryotic cell growth with strictly concentration-dependant effects. Lower concentrations are necessary for cell survival and growth, whereas higher concentrations inhibit growth and induce cell death. It is well established that selenium has cancer preventive effects, and several studies also have shown that it has strong anticancer effects with a selective cytotoxicity on malignant drug-resistant cells while only exerting marginal effects on normal and benign cells. This cancer-specific cytotoxicity is likely explained by high affinity selenium uptake dependent on proteins connected to multidrug resistance. One of the most studied selenoproteins in cancer is thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) that has important functions in neoplastic growth and is an important component of the resistant phenotype. Several reports have shown that TrxR is induced in tumor cells and pre-neoplastic cells, and several commonly used drugs interact with the protein. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of selenium as a potent preventive and tumor selective anticancer drug, and we also discuss the potential of using the expression and modulation of the selenoprotein TrxR in the diagnostics and treatment of cancer.

  1. Relaxation of Selective Constraints Causes Independent Selenoprotein Extinction in Insect Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Chapple, Charles E.; Guigó, Roderic

    2008-01-01

    Background Selenoproteins are a diverse family of proteins notable for the presence of the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine. Until very recently, all metazoan genomes investigated encoded selenoproteins, and these proteins had therefore been believed to be essential for animal life. Challenging this assumption, recent comparative analyses of insect genomes have revealed that some insect genomes appear to have lost selenoprotein genes. Methodology/Principal Findings In this paper we investigate in detail the fate of selenoproteins, and that of selenoprotein factors, in all available arthropod genomes. We use a variety of in silico comparative genomics approaches to look for known selenoprotein genes and factors involved in selenoprotein biosynthesis. We have found that five insect species have completely lost the ability to encode selenoproteins and that selenoprotein loss in these species, although so far confined to the Endopterygota infraclass, cannot be attributed to a single evolutionary event, but rather to multiple, independent events. Loss of selenoproteins and selenoprotein factors is usually coupled to the deletion of the entire no-longer functional genomic region, rather than to sequence degradation and consequent pseudogenisation. Such dynamics of gene extinction are consistent with the high rate of genome rearrangements observed in Drosophila. We have also found that, while many selenoprotein factors are concomitantly lost with the selenoproteins, others are present and conserved in all investigated genomes, irrespective of whether they code for selenoproteins or not, suggesting that they are involved in additional, non-selenoprotein related functions. Conclusions/Significance Selenoproteins have been independently lost in several insect species, possibly as a consequence of the relaxation in insects of the selective constraints acting across metazoans to maintain selenoproteins. The dispensability of selenoproteins in insects may be related to the

  2. Molecular mechanisms by which selenoproteins affect cancer risk and progression.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Pin; Diamond, Alan M

    2009-11-01

    Selenoproteins comprise a unique class of proteins that contain selenium in the form of selenocysteine. Several selenoproteins have been implicated in the risk or development of cancers in humans by genetic data. These include Selenoprotein P, 3 members of the glutathione peroxidase family of anti-oxidant enzymes and Sep15. At-risk alleles in the germline indicate a likely role in determining susceptibility to cancer, while loss of heterozygosity or chromosomal epigenetic silencing indicate that the reduction in the levels of the corresponding proteins contribute to malignant progression. Lower levels of these proteins are likely to be detrimental due to the resulting cellular stress and perturbations in important regulatory signaling pathways. The genetic data indicating the involvement of these selenoproteins in cancer etiology are discussed, as are the possible mechanisms by which these genes might promote carcinogenesis.

  3. Selenoproteins and heat shock proteins play important roles in immunosuppression in the bursa of Fabricius of chickens with selenium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Khoso, Pervez Ahmed; Yang, Zijiang; Liu, Chunpeng; Li, Shu

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) is necessary for the immune system in chicken and mediates its physiological functions through selenoproteins. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are indispensable for maintaining normal cell function and for directing the immune response. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Se deficiency on the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression levels of selenoproteins and Hsps as well as immune functions in the chicken bursa of Fabricius. Two groups of chickens, namely the control and Se-deficient (L group) groups, were reared for 55 days. The chickens were offered a basal diet, which contained 0.15 mg Se/kg in the diet fed to the control group and 0.033 mg Se/kg in the diet fed to the L group. We performed real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect the mRNA expression levels of selenoproteins and Hsps on days 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55. Western blotting was used to determine the protein expression levels of Hsps on days 35, 45 and 55, and immune functions were assessed through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on days 15, 35, and 55. The data showed that the mRNA expression levels of selenoproteins, such as Txnrd1, Txnrd2, Txnrd3, Dio1, Dio2, Dio3, GPx1, GPx2, GPx3 GPx4, Sepp1, Selo, Sel-15, Sepx1, Sels, Seli, Selu, Selh, and SPS2, were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the L group compared with the control group. Additionally, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Hsps (Hsp27, Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90) were also significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the L group. The expression levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-1β, IFN-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ were significantly lower (P < 0.05) and TNF-α was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the L group compared with the control group. Our results show that immunosuppression was accompanied by a downregulation of mRNA expression levels of selenoproteins and an upregulation of the Hsp mRNA expression levels. Thus, Se deficiency causes defects in the chicken bursa of

  4. A Novel Organic Selenium Compound Exerts Unique Regulation of Selenium Speciation, Selenogenome, and Selenoproteins in Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ling; Sun, Lv-Hui; Huang, Jia-Qiang; Briens, Mickael; Qi, De-Sheng; Xu, Shi-Wen; Lei, Xin Gen

    2017-05-01

    Background: A new organic selenium compound, 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid (SeO), displayed a greater bioavailability than sodium selenite (SeNa) or seleno-yeast (SeY) in several species.Objective: This study sought to determine the regulation of the speciation of selenium, expression of selenogenome and selenocysteine biosynthesis and degradation-related genes, and production of selenoproteins by the 3 forms of selenium in the tissues of broiler chicks.Methods: Day-old male chicks (n = 6 cages/diet, 6 chicks/cage) were fed a selenium-deficient, corn and soy-based diet [base diet (BD), 0.05 mg Se/kg] or the BD + SeNa, SeY, or SeO at 0.2 mg Se/kg for 6 wk. Plasma, livers, and pectoral and thigh muscles were collected at weeks 3 and 6 to assay for total selenium, selenomethionine, selenocysteine, redox status, and selected genes, proteins, and enzymes.Results: Although both SeY and SeO produced greater concentrations (P < 0.05) of total selenium (20-172%) and of selenomethionine (≤15-fold) in the liver, pectoral muscle, and thigh than those of SeNa, SeO further raised (P < 0.05) these concentrations by 13-37% and 43-87%, respectively, compared with SeY. Compared with the BD, only SeO enhanced (P < 0.05) the mRNA of selenoprotein (Seleno) s and methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (Msrb1) in the liver and thigh (62-98%) and thioredoxin reductase (TXRND) activity in the pectoral and thigh muscles (20-37%) at week 3. Furthermore, SeO increased (P < 0.05) the expression of glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) 3, GPX4, SELENOP, and SELENOU relative to the SeNa group by 26-207%, and the expression of Selenop, O-phosphoseryl-transfer RNA (tRNA):selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase, GPX4, and SELENOP relative to the SeY group by 23-55% in various tissues.Conclusions: Compared with SeNa or SeY, SeO demonstrated a unique ability to enrich selenomethionine and total selenium depositions, to induce the early expression of Selenos and Mrsb1 mRNA and TXRND activity, and to enhance the

  5. Selenium and selenoprotein deficiencies induce widespread pyogranuloma formation in mice, while high levels of dietary selenium decrease liver tumor size driven by TGFa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Changes in dietary selenium and selenoprotein status may influence both anti- and pro-cancer pathways, making the outcome of interventions different from one study to another. To characterize such outcomes in a defined setting, we undertook a controlled hepatocarcinogenesis study involving varying l...

  6. Selenium dietary supplementation as a mechanism to restore hepatic selenoprotein regulation in rat pups exposed to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Jotty, Karick; Ojeda, M Luisa; Nogales, Fátima; Murillo, M Luisa; Carreras, Olimpia

    2013-11-01

    Ethanol exposure during gestation and lactation decreases selenium (Se) intake, disrupting body Se balance and inducing oxidative stress in rat offspring. Selenium-supplemented diet (0.5 ppm) was administered to ethanol-exposed (20% v/v) dams during gestation and lactation. When the dams' pups were 21 days old, the pups' levels of the main hepatic selenoproteins glutathione peroxidase (GPx1 and GPx4) and selenoprotein P (SelP) were measured. The pups were divided into control (C), alcohol (A), control-selenium (CS), and alcohol-selenium (AS) groups. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of the selenium-supplemented diet on the levels of Se deposits present in the livers of their pups. Alcohol decreases hepatic Se deposits, GPx activity, and GPx1 expression; alcohol increases GPx4 and SelP expression. Se was measured by furnace graphite atomic absorption spectrometry, the antioxidant activity of GPx and concentration of hepatic phospholipids (PL) were determined by spectrophotometry, and the selenoprotein expressions were detected by Western blotting. Selenite treatment prevented alcohol's effects of diminishing the Se deposits, GPx activity, and GPx1 expression, while maintaining the high levels of the expression of GPx4 and SelP. These results suggest that depletion of hepatic Se levels in rat pups, caused by ethanol exposure to their dams, affects the synthesis of the 3 main hepatic selenoproteins in different ways, which is related to a decrease in GPx activity and PL concentration, and an increase in serum Se levels. Selenium supplementation to the dams increased the expression of GPx1, GPx4, and SelP in their pups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Selenoprotein P and selenoprotein M block Zn2+ -mediated Aβ42 aggregation and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiubo; Li, Haiping; Wang, Zhi; Qiu, Shi; Liu, Qiong; Ni, Jiazuan

    2013-06-01

    Aggregation and cytotoxicity of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide with transition metal ions in neuronal cells have been suggested to be involved in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A therapeutic strategy to combat this incurable disease is to design chemical agents to target metal-Aβ species. Selenoproteins are a group of special proteins that contain the 21st amino acid Sec in their sequence. Due to the presence of Sec, studies of this group of proteins are basically focused on their roles in regulating redox potential and scavenging reactive oxygen species. Here, we reported that the His-rich domain of selenoprotein P (SelP-H) and the Sec-to-Cys mutant selenoprotein M (SelM') are capable of binding transition metal ions and modulating the Zn(2+)-mediated Aβ aggregation, ROS production and neurotoxicity. SelM' (U48C) and SelP-H were found to coordinate 0.5 and 2 molar equivalents of Zn(2+)/Cd(2+) with micromolar and submicromolar affinities, respectively. Metal binding induced the structural changes in SelP-H and SelM' according to the circular dichorism spectra. Zn(2+) binding to Aβ42 almost completely suppressed Aβ42 fibrillization, which could be significantly restored by SelP-H and SelM', as observed by thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Interestingly, both SelP-H and SelM' inhibited Zn(2+)-Aβ42-induced neurotoxicity and the intracellular ROS production in living cells. These studies suggest that SelP and SelM may play certain roles in regulating redox balance as well as metal homeostasis.

  8. Transcriptional activation of antioxidants may compensate for selenoprotein deficiencies in Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae) injected with selK- or selM-dsRNA.

    PubMed

    Adamson, S; Browning, R; Singh, P; Nobles, S; Villarreal, A; Karim, S

    2014-08-01

    The Gulf-Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum, possesses an elaborate set of selenoproteins, which prevent the deleterious effects from oxidative stress that would otherwise occur during feeding. In the current work, we examined the role of selenoprotein K (SelK) and selenoprotein M (SelM) in feeding A. maculatum by bioinformatics, transcriptional gene expression, RNA interference and antioxidant assays. The transcriptional expression of SelK did not vary significantly in salivary glands or midguts throughout the bloodmeal. However, there was a 58-fold increase in transcript levels of SelM in tick midguts. Ticks injected with selK-dsRNA or selM-dsRNA did not reveal any observable differences in egg viability but oviposition was reduced. Surprisingly, salivary antioxidant activity was higher in selenoprotein knockouts compared with controls, which is probably the result of compensatory transcriptional expression of genes involved in combating reactive oxygen species. In fact, quantitative real-time PCR data suggest that the transcriptional expression of catalase increased in ticks injected with selM-double-stranded RNA. Additionally, the transcriptional expression of selN decreased ∼90% in both SelK/SelM knockdowns. These data indicate that SelK and SelM are salivary antioxidants but are not essential for tick survival or reproduction and are compensated by other antioxidant systems. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  9. Transcriptional activation of antioxidants may compensate for selenoprotein deficiencies in Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae) injected with selK- or selM-dsRNA

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Steven; Browning, Rebecca; Singh, Parul; Nobles, Sarah; Villarreal, Ashley; Karim, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    The Gulf-Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum, possesses an elaborate set of selenoprotein, which prevent the deleterious effects from oxidative stress that occur during feeding. In the current work, we examined the role of Selenoprotein K (SelK) and Selenoprotein M (SelM) in feeding A. maculatum by bioinformatics, transcriptional gene expression, RNA interference and antioxidant assays. The transcriptional expression of SelK does not vary significantly in salivary glands or midguts throughout the blood meal. However, there is a 58-fold increase in transcript levels of SelM in tick midguts. Ticks injected with selK-dsRNA or selM-dsRNA did not reveal any observable differences in egg viability but oviposition was reduced. Surprisingly, salivary antioxidant activity was higher in selenoprotein knockouts compared to controls, which is likely due to compensatory transcriptional expression of genes involved in combating reactive oxygen species. In fact, RT-qPCR data suggest the transcriptional expression of catalase increased in ticks injected with selM-dsRNA. Additionally, the transcriptional expression of selN decreased ~90% in both SelK/SelM knockdowns. PMID:24698418

  10. Possible correlation of selenoprotein W with inflammation factors in chicken skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Yao, Hai-Dong; Tan, Si-Ran; Zhang, Zi-Wei; Zhu, Yao-Hong; Xu, Shiwen

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible correlation of selenoprotein W (SelW) with inflammatory injury induced by dietary selenium (Se) deficiency in chicken. One-day-old male chickens were fed either a commercial diet or a Se-deficient diet for 55 days. Then, the expression levels of SelW messenger RNA (mRNA) and inflammation-related genes (NF-κB, TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, and PTGES) in chicken skeletal muscles (wing muscle, pectoral muscle, and thigh muscle) were determined at 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55 days old, respectively. In addition, the correlation between SelW mRNA expression and inflammation-related genes were assessed. The results showed that dietary Se deficiency reduced the mRNA expression of SelW in chicken wing, pectorals, and thigh muscles. In contrast, Se deficiency increased the mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related genes in chicken skeletal muscle tissues at different time points. The Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that the mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related genes were significantly negative related to SelW (p < 0.05). These data showed that Se deficiency induced the inflammatory response in chicken skeletal muscle. As one important selenoprotein gene in skeletal muscles, SelW may play a role in the regulation of inflammation reaction in Se-deficiency myopathy.

  11. Purification and characterization of rat plasma selenoprotein P

    SciTech Connect

    Motchnik, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Selenoprotein P was fractionated and characterized from {sup 75}Se-labeled plasma of rats and characterized. Using salt precipitation, affinity gel blue and diethylaminoethyl ion exchange column chromatography, selenoprotein P was 225-fold purified. The molecular weight of selenoprotein P was 98,000 and the pI was 5.4. The {sup 75}Se-containing subunit of selenoprotein P was purified to 90% homogeneity using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by electroelution. This subunit had an apparent molecular weight of 57 kDa. Reversed-phase HPLC and Sephadex G-50 chromatography of tryptic peptides of the subunit yielded several peaks of {sup 75}Se radioactivity, indicating that {sup 75}Se is present in several locations within the 57 kDa subunit of selenoprotein P. The distribution of {sup 75}Se 3, 12, and 48 h post injection of {sup 75}SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} was studied in the plasma, and homogenates and microsomes of kidney and liver of selenium-deficient and selenium-supplemented rats. There was a concurrent increase in the labeling of lower molecular weight subunits. The significance of the time-dependent {sup 75}Se distribution in the subunits is discussed.

  12. Hypermethylated-capped selenoprotein mRNAs in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Wurth, Laurence; Gribling-Burrer, Anne-Sophie; Verheggen, Céline; Leichter, Michael; Takeuchi, Akiko; Baudrey, Stéphanie; Martin, Franck; Krol, Alain; Bertrand, Edouard; Allmang, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian mRNAs are generated by complex and coordinated biogenesis pathways and acquire 5′-end m7G caps that play fundamental roles in processing and translation. Here we show that several selenoprotein mRNAs are not recognized efficiently by translation initiation factor eIF4E because they bear a hypermethylated cap. This cap modification is acquired via a 5′-end maturation pathway similar to that of the small nucle(ol)ar RNAs (sn- and snoRNAs). Our findings also establish that the trimethylguanosine synthase 1 (Tgs1) interacts with selenoprotein mRNAs for cap hypermethylation and that assembly chaperones and core proteins devoted to sn- and snoRNP maturation contribute to recruiting Tgs1 to selenoprotein mRNPs. We further demonstrate that the hypermethylated-capped selenoprotein mRNAs localize to the cytoplasm, are associated with polysomes and thus translated. Moreover, we found that the activity of Tgs1, but not of eIF4E, is required for the synthesis of the GPx1 selenoprotein in vivo. PMID:25013170

  13. Selenoprotein N in skeletal muscle: from diseases to function.

    PubMed

    Castets, Perrine; Lescure, Alain; Guicheney, Pascale; Allamand, Valérie

    2012-10-01

    Selenoprotein N (SelN) deficiency causes several inherited neuromuscular disorders collectively termed SEPN1-related myopathies, characterized by early onset, generalized muscle atrophy, and muscle weakness affecting especially axial muscles and leading to spine rigidity, severe scoliosis, and respiratory insufficiency. SelN is ubiquitously expressed and is located in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum; however, its function remains elusive. The predominant expression of SelN in human fetal tissues and the embryonic muscle phenotype reported in mutant zebrafish suggest that it is involved in myogenesis. In mice, SelN is also mostly expressed during embryogenesis and especially in the myotome, but no defect was detected in muscle development and growth in the Sepn1 knock-out mouse model. By contrast, we recently demonstrated that SelN is essential for muscle regeneration and satellite cell maintenance in mice and humans, hence opening new avenues regarding the pathomechanism(s) leading to SEPN1-related myopathies. At the cellular level, recent data suggested that SelN participates in oxidative and calcium homeostasis, with a potential role in the regulation of the ryanodine receptor activity. Despite the recent and exciting progress regarding the physiological function(s) of SelN in muscle tissue, the pathogenesis leading to SEPN1-related myopathies remains largely unknown, with several unsolved questions, and no treatment available. In this review, we introduce SelN, its properties and expression pattern in zebrafish, mice, and humans, and we discuss its potential roles in muscle tissue and the ensuing clues for the development of therapeutic options.

  14. Mars EXpress: status and recent findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Dmitri; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Cardesin, Alejandro; Duxbury, Tom; Forget, Francois; Giuranna, Marco; Holmstroem, Mats; Jaumann, Ralf; Martin, Patrick; Montmessin, Franck; Orosei, Roberto; Paetzold, Martin; Plaut, Jeff; MEX SGS Team

    2016-04-01

    Mars Express has entered its second decade in orbit in excellent health. The mission extension in 2015-2016 aims at augmenting of the surface coverage by imaging and spectral imaging instruments, continuing monitoring of the climate parameters and their variability, study of the upper atmosphere and its interaction with the solar wind in collaboration with NASA's MAVEN mission. Characterization of geological processes and landforms on Mars on a local-to-regional scale by HRSC camera constrained the martian geological activity in space and time and suggested its episodicity. Six years of spectro-imaging observations by OMEGA allowed correction of the surface albedo for presence of the atmospheric dust and revealed changes associated with the dust storm seasons. Imaging and spectral imaging of the surface shed light on past and present aqueous activity and contributed to the selection of the Mars-2018 landing sites. More than a decade long record of climatological parameters such as temperature, dust loading, water vapor, and ozone abundance was established by SPICAM and PFS spectrometers. Observed variations of HDO/H2O ratio above the subliming North polar cap suggested seasonal fractionation. The distribution of aurora was found to be related to the crustal magnetic field. ASPERA observations of ion escape covering a complete solar cycle revealed important dependences of the atmospheric erosion rate on parameters of the solar wind and EUV flux. Structure of the ionosphere sounded by MARSIS radar and MaRS radio science experiment was found to be significantly affected by the solar activity, crustal magnetic field as well as by influx of meteorite and cometary dust. The new atlas of Phobos based on the HRSC imaging was issued. The talk will give the mission status and review recent science highlights.

  15. Active sites of thioredoxin reductases: why selenoproteins?

    PubMed

    Gromer, Stephan; Johansson, Linda; Bauer, Holger; Arscott, L David; Rauch, Susanne; Ballou, David P; Williams, Charles H; Schirmer, R Heiner; Arnér, Elias S J

    2003-10-28

    Selenium, an essential trace element for mammals, is incorporated into a selected class of selenoproteins as selenocysteine. All known isoenzymes of mammalian thioredoxin (Trx) reductases (TrxRs) employ selenium in the C-terminal redox center -Gly-Cys-Sec-Gly-COOH for reduction of Trx and other substrates, whereas the corresponding sequence in Drosophila melanogaster TrxR is -Ser-Cys-Cys-Ser-COOH. Surprisingly, the catalytic competence of these orthologous enzymes is similar, whereas direct Sec-to-Cys substitution of mammalian TrxR, or other selenoenzymes, yields almost inactive enzyme. TrxRs are therefore ideal for studying the biology of selenocysteine by comparative enzymology. Here we show that the serine residues flanking the C-terminal Cys residues of Drosophila TrxRs are responsible for activating the cysteines to match the catalytic efficiency of a selenocysteine-cysteine pair as in mammalian TrxR, obviating the need for selenium. This finding suggests that the occurrence of selenoenzymes, which implies that the organism is selenium-dependent, is not necessarily associated with improved enzyme efficiency. Our data suggest that the selective advantage of selenoenzymes is a broader range of substrates and a broader range of microenvironmental conditions in which enzyme activity is possible.

  16. Exposure to monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}) leads to altered selenoprotein synthesis in a primary human lung cell model

    SciTech Connect

    Meno, Sarah R.; Nelson, Rebecca; Hintze, Korry J.; Self, William T.

    2009-09-01

    Monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}), a trivalent metabolite of arsenic, is highly cytotoxic and recent cell culture studies suggest that it might act as a carcinogen. The general consensus of studies indicates that the cytotoxicity of MMA{sup III} is a result of increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A longstanding relationship between arsenic and selenium metabolism has led to the use of selenium as a supplement in arsenic exposed populations, however the impact of organic arsenicals (methylated metabolites) on selenium metabolism is still poorly understood. In this study we determined the impact of exposure to MMA{sup III} on the regulation of expression of TrxR1 and its activity using a primary lung fibroblast line, WI-38. The promoter region of the gene encoding the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) contains an antioxidant responsive element (ARE) that has been shown to be activated in the presence of electrophilic compounds. Results from radiolabeled selenoproteins indicate that exposure to low concentrations of MMA{sup III} resulted in increased synthesis of TrxR1 in WI-38 cells, and lower incorporation of selenium into other selenoproteins. MMA{sup III} treatment led to increased mRNA encoding TrxR1 in WI-38 cells, while lower levels of mRNA coding for cellular glutathione peroxidase (cGpx) were detected in exposed cells. Luciferase activity of TrxR1 promoter fusions increased with addition of MMA{sup III}, as did expression of a rat quinone reductase (QR) promoter fusion construct. However, MMA{sup III} induction of the TRX1 promoter fusion was abrogated when the ARE was mutated, suggesting that this regulation is mediated via the ARE. These results indicate that MMA{sup III} alters the expression of selenoproteins based on a selective induction of TrxR1, and this response to exposure to organic arsenicals that requires the ARE element.

  17. Exposure to monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) leads to altered selenoprotein synthesis in a primary human lung cell model.

    PubMed

    Meno, Sarah R; Nelson, Rebecca; Hintze, Korry J; Self, William T

    2009-09-01

    Monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), a trivalent metabolite of arsenic, is highly cytotoxic and recent cell culture studies suggest that it might act as a carcinogen. The general consensus of studies indicates that the cytotoxicity of MMA(III) is a result of increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A longstanding relationship between arsenic and selenium metabolism has led to the use of selenium as a supplement in arsenic exposed populations, however the impact of organic arsenicals (methylated metabolites) on selenium metabolism is still poorly understood. In this study we determined the impact of exposure to MMA(III) on the regulation of expression of TrxR1 and its activity using a primary lung fibroblast line, WI-38. The promoter region of the gene encoding the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) contains an antioxidant responsive element (ARE) that has been shown to be activated in the presence of electrophilic compounds. Results from radiolabeled selenoproteins indicate that exposure to low concentrations of MMA(III) resulted in increased synthesis of TrxR1 in WI-38 cells, and lower incorporation of selenium into other selenoproteins. MMA(III) treatment led to increased mRNA encoding TrxR1 in WI-38 cells, while lower levels of mRNA coding for cellular glutathione peroxidase (cGpx) were detected in exposed cells. Luciferase activity of TrxR1 promoter fusions increased with addition of MMA(III), as did expression of a rat quinone reductase (QR) promoter fusion construct. However, MMA(III) induction of the TRX1 promoter fusion was abrogated when the ARE was mutated, suggesting that this regulation is mediated via the ARE. These results indicate that MMA(III) alters the expression of selenoproteins based on a selective induction of TrxR1, and this response to exposure to organic arsenicals that requires the ARE element.

  18. Processive selenocysteine incorporation during synthesis of eukaryotic selenoproteins.

    PubMed

    Fixsen, S M; Howard, Michael T

    2010-06-11

    Selenoproteins are a family of proteins that share the common feature of containing selenocysteine, the "twenty-first" amino acid. Selenocysteine incorporation occurs during translation of selenoprotein messages by redefinition of UGA codons, which normally specify termination of translation. Studies of the eukaryotic selenocysteine incorporation mechanism suggest that selenocysteine insertion is inefficient compared with termination. Nevertheless, selenoprotein P and several other selenoproteins are known to contain multiple selenocysteines. The production of full-length (FL) protein from these messages would seem to demand highly efficient selenocysteine incorporation due to the compounding effect of termination at each UGA codon. We present data demonstrating that efficient incorporation of multiple selenocysteines can be reconstituted in rabbit reticulocyte lysate translation reactions. Selenocysteine incorporation at the first UGA codon is inefficient but increases by approximately 10-fold at subsequent downstream UGA codons. We found that ribosomes in the "processive" phase of selenocysteine incorporation (i.e., after decoding the first UGA codon as selenocysteine) are fully competent to terminate translation at UAG and UAA codons, that ribosomes become less efficient at selenocysteine incorporation as the distance between UGA codons is increased, and that efficient selenocysteine incorporation is not dependent on cis-acting elements unique to selenoprotein P. Furthermore, we found that the percentage of ribosomes decoding a UGA codon as selenocysteine rather than termination can be increased by 3- to 5-fold by placing the murine leukemia virus UAG read-through element upstream of the first UGA codon or by providing a competing messenger RNA in trans. The mechanisms of selenocysteine incorporation and selenoprotein synthesis are discussed in light of these results. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of genetic variations of selenoprotein genes, plasma selenium levels, and prostate cancer aggressiveness at diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wanling; Yang, Ming; Chan, June; Sun, Tong; Mucci, Lorelei A; Penney, Kathryn L; Lee, Gwo-Shu Mary; Kantoff, Philip W

    2016-05-01

    Genetic variations in some of the selenoprotein genes, alone or together with an individual's selenium status, may influence risk or progression of prostate cancer. We investigated the impact of genetic variants of selenoproteins on plasma selenium levels and cancer aggressiveness at diagnosis in men with localized prostate cancer (PCa). The study cohort comprised 722 patients seen at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute who had localized/locally advanced PCa (i.e., stage T3 or less, N0, and M0) from 1994 to 2001. Fifty-five tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from six selenoprotein genes (TXNRD1, TXNRD2, SEP15, GPX3, SELENBP1, and SEPP1) were analyzed. Logistic regression is used to examine associations of genotypes and plasma selenium levels with risk of aggressive disease, defined as D'Amico intermediate/high risk categories. Step down permutation was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. Three hundred and forty-eight patients (48%) had aggressive disease at diagnosis. Two SNPs were associated with cancer aggressiveness at diagnosis (unadjusted P = 0.017 and 0.018, respectively). The odds ratio for aggressive disease in patients carrying TXNRD2 rs1005873-AG/GG genotypes or SELENBP1 rs10788804-AG/AA genotypes was 1.54 (95% CI = 1.08, 2.20) and 1.45 (95% CI = 1.07, 1.98), respectively, compared to TXNRD2 rs1005873-AA or SELENBP1 rs10788804-GG carriers. Four SNPs in TXNRD2 (rs1005873, rs13054371, rs3788310, and rs9606174) and the rs230820 in SEPP1 were associated with plasma selenium levels (unadjusted P < 0.05). Permutation adjusted P-values were not statistically significant for all these comparisons at the cut-off point of 0.05. We identified polymorphisms in selenoproteins that may influence the plasma selenium levels and may be associated with the risk of presenting with aggressive PCa in men with localized or locally advanced PCa. These results should be validated in other independent datasets. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Production of Selenoprotein P (Sepp1) by Hepatocytes Is Central to Selenium Homeostasis*

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kristina E.; Wu, Sen; Motley, Amy K.; Stevenson, Teri D.; Winfrey, Virginia P.; Capecchi, Mario R.; Atkins, John F.; Burk, Raymond F.

    2012-01-01

    Sepp1 is a widely expressed extracellular protein that in humans and mice contains 10 selenocysteine residues in its primary structure. Extra-hepatic tissues take up plasma Sepp1 for its selenium via apolipoprotein E receptor-2 (apoER2)-mediated endocytosis. The role of Sepp1 in the transport of selenium from liver, a rich source of the element, to peripheral tissues was studied using mice with selective deletion of Sepp1 in hepatocytes (Sepp1c/c/alb-cre+/− mice). Deletion of Sepp1 in hepatocytes lowered plasma Sepp1 concentration to 10% of that in Sepp1c/c mice (controls) and increased urinary selenium excretion, decreasing whole-body and tissue selenium concentrations. Under selenium-deficient conditions, Sepp1c/c/alb-cre+/− mice accumulated selenium in the liver at the expense of extra-hepatic tissues, severely worsening clinical manifestations of dietary selenium deficiency. These findings are consistent with there being competition for metabolically available hepatocyte selenium between the synthesis of selenoproteins and the synthesis of selenium excretory metabolites. In addition, selenium deficiency down-regulated the mRNA of the most abundant hepatic selenoprotein, glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx1), to 15% of the selenium-replete value, while reducing Sepp1 mRNA, the most abundant hepatic selenoprotein mRNA, only to 61%. This strongly suggests that Sepp1 synthesis is favored in the liver over Gpx1 synthesis when selenium supply is limited, directing hepatocyte selenium to peripheral tissues in selenium deficiency. We conclude that production of Sepp1 by hepatocytes is central to selenium homeostasis in the organism because it promotes retention of selenium in the body and effects selenium distribution from the liver to extra-hepatic tissues, especially under selenium-deficient conditions. PMID:23038251

  1. Regulation of Selenoproteins and Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases A and B1 by Age, Calorie Restriction, and Dietary Selenium in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Novoselov, Sergey V.; Kim, Hwa-Young; Hua, Deame; Lee, Byung Cheon; Astle, Clinton M.; Harrison, David E.; Friguet, Bertrand; Moustafa, Mohamed E.; Carlson, Bradley A.; Hatfield, Dolph L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Methionine residues are susceptible to oxidation, but this damage may be reversed by methionine sulfoxide reductases MsrA and MsrB. Mammals contain one MsrA and three MsrBs, including a selenoprotein MsrB1. Here, we show that MsrB1 is the major methionine sulfoxide reductase in liver of mice and it is among the proteins that are most easily regulated by dietary selenium. MsrB1, but not MsrA activities, were reduced with age, and the selenium regulation of MsrB1 was preserved in the aging liver, suggesting that MsrB1 could account for the impaired methionine sulfoxide reduction in aging animals. We also examined regulation of Msr and selenoprotein expression by a combination of dietary selenium and calorie restriction and found that, under calorie restriction conditions, selenium regulation was preserved. In addition, mice overexpressing a mutant form of selenocysteine tRNA reduced MsrB1 activity to the level observed in selenium deficiency, whereas MsrA activity was elevated in these animals. Finally, we show that selenium regulation in inbred mouse strains is preserved in an outbred aging model. Taken together, these findings better define dietary regulation of methionine sulfoxide reduction and selenoprotein expression in mice with regard to age, calorie restriction, dietary Se, and a combination of these factors. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 12, 829–838. PMID:19769460

  2. The PACAP-regulated gene selenoprotein T is highly induced in nervous, endocrine, and metabolic tissues during ontogenetic and regenerative processes.

    PubMed

    Tanguy, Yannick; Falluel-Morel, Anthony; Arthaud, Sébastien; Boukhzar, Loubna; Manecka, Destiny-Love; Chagraoui, Abdeslam; Prevost, Gaetan; Elias, Salah; Dorval-Coiffec, Isabelle; Lesage, Jean; Vieau, Didier; Lihrmann, Isabelle; Jégou, Bernard; Anouar, Youssef

    2011-11-01

    Selenoproteins contain the essential trace element selenium whose deficiency leads to major disorders including cancer, male reproductive system failure, or autoimmune thyroid disease. Up to now, 25 selenoprotein-encoding genes were identified in mammals, but the spatiotemporal distribution, regulation, and function of some of these selenium-containing proteins remain poorly documented. Here, we found that selenoprotein T (SelT), a new thioredoxin-like protein, is regulated by the trophic neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in differentiating but not mature adrenomedullary cells. In fact, our analysis revealed that, in rat, SelT is highly expressed in most embryonic structures, and then its levels decreased progressively as these organs develop, to vanish in most adult tissues. In the brain, SelT was abundantly expressed in neural progenitors in various regions such as the cortex and cerebellum but was undetectable in adult nervous cells except rostral migratory-stream astrocytes and Bergmann cells. In contrast, SelT expression was maintained in several adult endocrine tissues such as pituitary, thyroid, or testis. In the pituitary gland, SelT was found in secretory cells of the anterior lobe, whereas in the testis, the selenoprotein was present only in spermatogenic and Leydig cells. Finally, we found that SelT expression is strongly stimulated in liver cells during the regenerative process that occurs after partial hepatectomy. Taken together, these data show that SelT induction is associated with ontogenesis, tissue maturation, and regenerative mechanisms, indicating that this PACAP-regulated selenoprotein may play a crucial role in cell growth and activity in nervous, endocrine, and metabolic tissues.

  3. SECISearch3 and Seblastian: new tools for prediction of SECIS elements and selenoproteins.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Marco; Lobanov, Alexei V; Guigo, Roderic; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2013-08-01

    Selenoproteins are proteins containing an uncommon amino acid selenocysteine (Sec). Sec is inserted by a specific translational machinery that recognizes a stem-loop structure, the SECIS element, at the 3' UTR of selenoprotein genes and recodes a UGA codon within the coding sequence. As UGA is normally a translational stop signal, selenoproteins are generally misannotated and designated tools have to be developed for this class of proteins. Here, we present two new computational methods for selenoprotein identification and analysis, which we provide publicly through the web servers at http://gladyshevlab.org/SelenoproteinPredictionServer or http://seblastian.crg.es. SECISearch3 replaces its predecessor SECISearch as a tool for prediction of eukaryotic SECIS elements. Seblastian is a new method for selenoprotein gene detection that uses SECISearch3 and then predicts selenoprotein sequences encoded upstream of SECIS elements. Seblastian is able to both identify known selenoproteins and predict new selenoproteins. By applying these tools to diverse eukaryotic genomes, we provide a ranked list of newly predicted selenoproteins together with their annotated cysteine-containing homologues. An analysis of a representative candidate belonging to the AhpC family shows how the use of Sec in this protein evolved in bacterial and eukaryotic lineages.

  4. SECISearch3 and Seblastian: new tools for prediction of SECIS elements and selenoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Mariotti, Marco; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Guigo, Roderic; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2013-01-01

    Selenoproteins are proteins containing an uncommon amino acid selenocysteine (Sec). Sec is inserted by a specific translational machinery that recognizes a stem-loop structure, the SECIS element, at the 3′ UTR of selenoprotein genes and recodes a UGA codon within the coding sequence. As UGA is normally a translational stop signal, selenoproteins are generally misannotated and designated tools have to be developed for this class of proteins. Here, we present two new computational methods for selenoprotein identification and analysis, which we provide publicly through the web servers at http://gladyshevlab.org/SelenoproteinPredictionServer or http://seblastian.crg.es. SECISearch3 replaces its predecessor SECISearch as a tool for prediction of eukaryotic SECIS elements. Seblastian is a new method for selenoprotein gene detection that uses SECISearch3 and then predicts selenoprotein sequences encoded upstream of SECIS elements. Seblastian is able to both identify known selenoproteins and predict new selenoproteins. By applying these tools to diverse eukaryotic genomes, we provide a ranked list of newly predicted selenoproteins together with their annotated cysteine-containing homologues. An analysis of a representative candidate belonging to the AhpC family shows how the use of Sec in this protein evolved in bacterial and eukaryotic lineages. PMID:23783574

  5. Social Status and Anger Expression: The Cultural Moderation Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jiyoung; Kitayama, Shinobu; Markus, Hazel R.; Coe, Christopher L.; Miyamoto, Yuri; Karasawa, Mayumi; Curhan, Katherine B.; Love, Gayle D.; Kawakami, Norito; Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Ryff, Carol D.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with lower social status have been reported to express more anger, but this evidence comes mostly from Western cultures. Here, we used representative samples of American and Japanese adults and tested the hypothesis that the association between social status and anger expression depends on whether anger serves primarily to vent frustration, as in the United States, or to display authority, as in Japan. Consistent with the assumption that lower social standing is associated with greater frustration stemming from life adversities and blocked goals, Americans with lower social status expressed more anger, with the relationship mediated by the extent of frustration. In contrast, consistent with the assumption that higher social standing affords a privilege to display anger, Japanese with higher social status expressed more anger, with the relationship mediated by decision-making authority. As expected, anger expression was predicted by subjective social status among Americans and by objective social status among Japanese. Implications for the dynamic construction of anger and anger expression are discussed. PMID:24098926

  6. Social status and anger expression: the cultural moderation hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyoung; Kitayama, Shinobu; Markus, Hazel R; Coe, Christopher L; Miyamoto, Yuri; Karasawa, Mayumi; Curhan, Katherine B; Love, Gayle D; Kawakami, Norito; Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Ryff, Carol D

    2013-12-01

    Individuals with lower social status have been reported to express more anger, but this evidence comes mostly from Western cultures. Here, we used representative samples of American and Japanese adults and tested the hypothesis that the association between social status and anger expression depends on whether anger serves primarily to vent frustration, as in the United States, or to display authority, as in Japan. Consistent with the assumption that lower social standing is associated with greater frustration stemming from life adversities and blocked goals, Americans with lower social status expressed more anger, with the relationship mediated by the extent of frustration. In contrast, consistent with the assumption that higher social standing affords a privilege to display anger, Japanese with higher social status expressed more anger, with the relationship mediated by decision-making authority. As expected, anger expression was predicted by subjective social status among Americans and by objective social status among Japanese. Implications for the dynamic construction of anger and anger expression are discussed.

  7. Selenoprotein T Exerts an Essential Oxidoreductase Activity That Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Boukhzar, Loubna; Hamieh, Abdallah; Cartier, Dorthe; Tanguy, Yannick; Alsharif, Ifat; Castex, Matthieu; Arabo, Arnaud; Hajji, Sana El; Bonnet, Jean-Jacques; Errami, Mohammed; Falluel-Morel, Anthony; Chagraoui, Abdeslam; Lihrmann, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Oxidative stress is central to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanisms involved in the control of this stress in dopaminergic cells are not fully understood. There is increasing evidence that selenoproteins play a central role in the control of redox homeostasis and cell defense, but the precise contribution of members of this family of proteins during the course of neurodegenerative diseases is still elusive. Results: We demonstrated first that selenoprotein T (SelT) whose gene disruption is lethal during embryogenesis, exerts a potent oxidoreductase activity. In the SH-SY5Y cell model of dopaminergic neurons, both silencing and overexpression of SelT affected oxidative stress and cell survival. Treatment with PD-inducing neurotoxins such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or rotenone triggered SelT expression in the nigrostriatal pathway of wild-type mice, but provoked rapid and severe parkinsonian-like motor defects in conditional brain SelT-deficient mice. This motor impairment was associated with marked oxidative stress and neurodegeneration and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase activity and dopamine levels in the nigrostriatal system. Finally, in PD patients, we report that SelT is tremendously increased in the caudate putamen tissue. Innovation: These results reveal the activity of a novel selenoprotein enzyme that protects dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress and prevents early and severe movement impairment in animal models of PD. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that selenoproteins such as SelT play a crucial role in the protection of dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress and cell death, providing insight into the molecular underpinnings of this stress in PD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 557–574. PMID:26866473

  8. The Selenoproteome of Clostridium sp. OhILAs: Characterization of Anaerobic Bacterial Selenoprotein Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase A

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hwa-Young; Zhang, Yan; Lee, Byung Cheon; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Selenocysteine (Sec) is incorporated into proteins in response to UGA codons. This residue is frequently found at the catalytic sites of oxidoreductases. In the present study, we characterized the selenoproteome of an anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. (also known as Alkaliphilus oremlandii) OhILA, and identified 13 selenoprotein genes, 5 of which have not been previously described. One of the detected selenoproteins was methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA), an antioxidant enzyme that repairs oxidatively damaged methionines in a stereospecific manner. To date, little is known about MsrA from anaerobes. We characterized this selenoprotein MsrA which had a single Sec residue at the catalytic site but no cysteine (Cys) residues in the protein sequence. Its SECIS (Sec insertion sequence) element did not resemble those in Escherichia coli. Although with low translational efficiency, the expression of the Clostridium selenoprotein msrA gene in E. coli could be demonstrated by 75Se metabolic labeling, immunoblot analyses, and enzyme assays, indicating that its SECIS element was recognized by the E. coli Sec insertion machinery. We found that the Sec-containing MsrA exhibited at least a 20-fold higher activity than its Cys mutant form, indicating a critical role of Sec in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Furthermore, our data revealed that the Clostridium MsrA was inefficiently reducible by thioredoxin, which is a typical reducing agent for MsrA, suggesting the use of alternative electron donors in this anaerobic bacterium that directly act on the selenenic acid intermediate and do not require resolving Cys residues. PMID:18767149

  9. Chicken 15-kDa selenoprotein plays important antioxidative function in splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huijie; Deng, Tingquan; Fu, Jiaxing

    2014-12-01

    The 15-kDa selenoprotein (Sep15) is a thioredoxin-like protein. The expression of Sep15 is regulated by dietary selenium (Se) and plays important roles in mammals. However, the structure and function of chicken Sep15 and its response to Se are still unclear. In the present study, we replicated the chicken Se deficiency models and Sep15 deficiency models in splenocytes. Then, the homology, structure analysis, and levels of Sep15 were analyzed. In addition, the oxidative stress levels were examined in Sep15 deficiency splenocytes. The results indicated that chicken Sep15 preserved high similarity with that of other 14 animals in the coding nucleotide sequences (CDS) and deduced amino acid sequence, which suggested that chicken Sep15 may be derived from the same ancestor with other animals. The predicted structure and function showed that chicken Sep15 preserved the conserved thioredoxin-like fold CxU, which suggested an antioxidative function. Chicken Sep15 was also decreased by Se deficiency in immune organs (P < 0.05). In addition, Sep15 deficiency induced the occurrence of higher oxidative stress and enhanced the sensitivity of cells to H2O2 (P < 0.05). So the in vitro study further verified its antioxidative function. Thus, similar to its mammal homolog, chicken Sep15 preserves the typical characteristic of selenoprotein and may play some roles in the redox regulation.

  10. G-rich, a Drosophila selenoprotein, is a Golgi-resident type III membrane protein

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chang Lan; Shim, Myoung Sup; Chung, Jiyeol; Yoo, Hyun-Seung; Ha, Ji Min; Kim, Jin Young; Choi, Jinmi; Zang, Shu Liang; Hou, Xiao; Carlson, Bradley A.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Lee, Byeong Jae . E-mail: imbglmg@plaza.snu.ac.kr

    2006-10-06

    G-rich is a Drosophila melanogaster selenoprotein, which is a homologue of human and mouse SelK. Subcellular localization analysis using GFP-tagged G-rich showed that G-rich was localized in the Golgi apparatus. The fusion protein was co-localized with the Golgi marker proteins but not with an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker protein in Drosophila SL2 cells. Bioinformatic analysis of G-rich suggests that this protein is either type II or type III transmembrane protein. To determine the type of transmembrane protein experimentally, GFP-G-rich in which GFP was tagged at the N-terminus of G-rich, or G-rich-GFP in which GFP was tagged at the C-terminus of G-rich, were expressed in SL2 cells. The tagged proteins were then digested with trypsin, and analyzed by Western blot analysis. The results showed that the C-terminus of the G-rich protein was exposed to the cytoplasm indicating it is a type III microsomal membrane protein. G-rich is First selenoprotein identified in the Golgi apparatus.

  11. Selenoproteins protect against avian nutritional muscular dystrophy by metabolizing peroxides and regulating redox/apoptotic signaling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia-Qiang; Ren, Fa-Zheng; Jiang, Yun-Yun; Xiao, Chen; Lei, Xin Gen

    2015-06-01

    Nutritional muscular dystrophy (NMD) of chicks is induced by dietary selenium (Se)/vitamin E (Vit. E) deficiencies and may be associated with oxidative cell damage. To reveal the underlying mechanisms related to the presumed oxidative cell damage, we fed four groups of 1-day-old broiler chicks (n = 40/group) with a basal diet (BD; 10 μg Se/kg; no Vit. E added, -Se -Vit. E) or the BD plus all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate at 50mg/kg (-Se +Vit. E), Se (as sodium selenite) at 0.3mg/kg (+Se -Vit. E), or both of these nutrients (+Se +Vit. E) for 6 weeks. High incidences of NMD (93%) and mortality (36%) of the chicks were induced by the BD, starting at week 3. Dietary Se deficiency alone also induced muscle fiber rupture and coagulation necrosis in the pectoral muscle of chicks at week 3 and thereafter, with increased (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde, decreased (P < 0.05) total antioxidant capacity, and diminished (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase activities in the muscle. To link these oxidative damages of the muscle cells to the Se-deficiency-induced NMD, we first determined gene expression of the potential 26 selenoproteins in the muscle of the chicks at week 2 before the onset of symptoms. Compared with the +Se chicks, the -Se chicks had lower (P < 0.05) muscle mRNA levels of Gpx1, Gpx3, Gpx4, Sepp1, Selo, Selk, Selu, Selh, Selm, Sepw1, and Sep15. The -Se chicks also had decreased (P < 0.05) production of 6 selenoproteins (long-form selenoprotein P (SelP-L), GPx1, GPx4, Sep15, SelW, and SelN), but increased levels (P < 0.05) of the short-form selenoprotein P in muscle at weeks 2 and 4. Dietary Se deficiency elevated (P < 0.05) muscle p53, cleaved caspase 3, cleaved caspase 9, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), phospho-Akt, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), phospho-p38 MAPK, phospho-JNK, and phospho-ERK and decreased (P < 0.05) muscle procaspase 3, procaspase 9, and NF

  12. Effect of Low-Selenium/High-Fat Diet on Pig Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes: Perspectives from Selenoproteins, Heat Shock Proteins, and Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianqi; Yang, Tianshu; Pan, Tingru; Liu, Ci; Li, Shu

    2017-08-15

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of low selenium (Se)/high fat on the mRNA expression of selenoproteins, heat shock proteins (HSPs) and cytokines in pig peripheral blood lymphocytes. Forty crossbred boar piglets with healthy lean body weights of 10 kg were randomly divided into four treatment groups (group C, group L-Se, group H-fat, and group L-Se-H-fat) (n = 10/group) and fed with the corresponding diet for 16 weeks. The pig peripheral blood lymphocytes were extracted, and the mRNA expression of selenoproteins, HSPs, and cytokines was measured. Most mRNA levels for selenoproteins decreased in group L-Se, group H-fat, and group L-Se-H-fat, except Gpx1, Gpx2, Selt, and Selm, which were elevated in group H-fat. At the same time, low-Se/high-fat diet increased the expression of HSPs (HSP40, HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90) and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, iNOS, COX-2, NF-κB, and TNF-α) in group L-Se, group H-fat, and group L-Se-H-fat, and genes in group L-Se-H-fat showed greater increases. Also, low-Se/high-fat diet inhibits the expression of TGF-β1 and IFN-γ. In summary, a low-Se/high-fat diet can cause relevant selenoprotein expression changes and promote the expression of pro-inflammatory factors and HSPs, and low Se enhances the expression of HSPs and inflammation factors induced by high fat. This information is helpful for understanding the effects of low-Se and high-fat diet on pig peripheral blood lymphocytes.

  13. Selenium, selenoproteins and selenometabolites in mothers and babies at the time of birth.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cristina; García-Fuentes, Eduardo; Callejón-Leblic, Belén; García-Barrera, Tamara; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis; Rayman, Margaret P; Velasco, Inés

    2017-05-01

    The deficiency of Se, an essential micronutrient, has been implicated in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our study was designed to determine total serum Se, selenoproteins (extracellular glutathione peroxidase (GPx-3), selenoprotein P (SeP)), selenoalbumin (SeAlb) and selenometabolites in healthy women and their newborns at delivery. This cross-sectional study included eighty-three healthy mother-baby couples. Total Se and Se species concentrations were measured in maternal and umbilical cord sera by an in-series coupling of two-dimensional size-exclusion and affinity HPLC. Additional measurements of serum SeP concentration and of serum GPx-3 enzyme activity were carried out using ELISA. Total Se concentration was significantly higher in maternal serum than in cord serum (68·9 (sd 15·2) and 56·1 (sd 14·6) µg/l, respectively; P<0·01). There were significant correlations between selenoprotein and SeAlb concentrations in mothers and newborns, although they also showed significant differences in GPx-3 (11·2 (sd 3·7) v. 10·5 (sd 3·5) µg/l; P<0·01), SeP (42·5 (sd 9·5) v. 28·1 (sd 7·7) µg/l; P<0·01) and SeAlb (11·6 (sd 3·6) v. 14·1 (sd 4·3) µg/l; P<0·01) concentrations in maternal and cord sera, respectively. Serum GPx-3 activity and concentration were positively correlated in mothers (r 0·33; P=0·038) but not in newborns. GPx-3 activity in cord serum was significantly correlated with gestational age (r 0·44; P=0·009). SeAlb concentration was significantly higher in babies, whereas SeP and GPx-3 concentrations were significantly higher in mothers. The differences cannot be explained by simple diffusion; specific transfer mechanisms are probably involved. GPx-3 concentrations in mothers, at delivery, are related to maternal Se status, whereas the GPx-3 activity in cord serum depends on gestational age.

  14. Deletion of selenoprotein P results in impaired function of parvalbumin interneurons and alterations in fear learning and sensorimotor gating.

    PubMed

    Pitts, M W; Raman, A V; Hashimoto, A C; Todorovic, C; Nichols, R A; Berry, M J

    2012-04-19

    One of the primary lines of defense against oxidative stress is the selenoprotein family, a class of proteins that contain selenium in the form of the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine. Within this class of proteins, selenoprotein P (Sepp1) is unique, as it contains multiple selenocysteine residues and is postulated to act in selenium transport. Recent findings have demonstrated that neuronal selenoprotein synthesis is required for the development of parvalbumin (PV)-interneurons, a class of GABAergic neurons involved in the synchronization of neural activity. To investigate the potential influence of Sepp1 on PV-interneurons, we first mapped the distribution of the Sepp1 receptor, ApoER2, and parvalbumin in the mouse brain. Our results indicate that ApoER2 is highly expressed on PV-interneurons in multiple brain regions. Next, to determine whether PV-interneuron populations are affected by Sepp1 deletion, we performed stereology on several brain regions in which we observed ApoER2 expression on PV-interneurons, comparing wild-type and Sepp1(-/-) mice. We observed reduced numbers of PV-interneurons in the inferior colliculus of Sepp1(-/-) mice, which corresponded with a regional increase in oxidative stress. Finally, as impaired PV-interneuron function has been implicated in several neuropsychiatric conditions, we performed multiple behavioral tests on Sepp1(-/-) mice. Our behavioral results indicate that Sepp1(-/-) mice have impairments in contextual fear extinction, latent inhibition, and sensorimotor gating. In sum, these findings demonstrate the important supporting role of Sepp1 on ApoER2-expressing PV-interneurons.

  15. Roles of the 15-kDa selenoprotein (Sep15) in redox homeostasis and cataract development revealed by the analysis of Sep 15 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kasaikina, Marina V; Fomenko, Dmitri E; Labunskyy, Vyacheslav M; Lachke, Salil A; Qiu, Wenya; Moncaster, Juliet A; Zhang, Jie; Wojnarowicz, Mark W; Natarajan, Sathish Kumar; Malinouski, Mikalai; Schweizer, Ulrich; Tsuji, Petra A; Carlson, Bradley A; Maas, Richard L; Lou, Marjorie F; Goldstein, Lee E; Hatfield, Dolph L; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2011-09-23

    The 15-kDa selenoprotein (Sep15) is a thioredoxin-like, endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein involved in the quality control of glycoprotein folding through its interaction with UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase. Expression of Sep15 is regulated by dietary selenium and the unfolded protein response, but its specific function is not known. In this study, we developed and characterized Sep15 KO mice by targeted removal of exon 2 of the Sep15 gene coding for the cysteine-rich UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase-binding domain. These KO mice synthesized a mutant mRNA, but the shortened protein product could be detected neither in tissues nor in Sep15 KO embryonic fibroblasts. Sep15 KO mice were viable and fertile, showed normal brain morphology, and did not activate endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways. However, parameters of oxidative stress were elevated in the livers of these mice. We found that Sep15 mRNA was enriched during lens development. Further phenotypic characterization of Sep15 KO mice revealed a prominent nuclear cataract that developed at an early age. These cataracts did not appear to be associated with severe oxidative stress or glucose dysregulation. We suggest that the cataracts resulted from an improper folding status of lens proteins caused by Sep15 deficiency.

  16. Selenoprotein H Suppresses Cellular Senescence through Genome Maintenance and Redox Regulation*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ryan T. Y.; Cao, Lei; Chen, Benjamin P. C.; Cheng, Wen-Hsing

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and persistent DNA damage response contribute to cellular senescence, a degeneration process critically involving ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and p53. Selenoprotein H (SelH), a nuclear selenoprotein, is proposed to carry redox and transactivation domains. To determine the role of SelH in genome maintenance, shRNA knockdown was employed in human normal and immortalized cell lines. SelH shRNA MRC-5 diploid fibroblasts under ambient O2 displayed a distinct profile of senescence including β-galactosidase expression, autofluorescence, growth inhibition, and ATM pathway activation. Such senescence phenotypes were alleviated in the presence of ATM kinase inhibitors, by p53 shRNA knockdown, or by maintaining the cells under 3% O2. During the course of 5-day recovery, the induction of phospho-ATM on Ser-1981 and γH2AX by H2O2 treatment (20 μm) subsided in scrambled shRNA but exacerbated in SelH shRNA MRC-5 cells. Results from clonogenic assays demonstrated hypersensitivity of SelH shRNA HeLa cells to paraquat and H2O2, but not to hydroxyurea, neocarzinostatin, or camptothecin. While SelH mRNA expression was induced by H2O2 treatment, SelH-GFP did not mobilize to sites of oxidative DNA damage. The glutathione level was lower in SelH shRNA than scrambled shRNA HeLa cells, and the H2O2-induced cell death was rescued in the presence of N-acetylcysteine, a glutathione precursor. Altogether, SelH protects against cellular senescence to oxidative stress through a genome maintenance pathway involving ATM and p53. PMID:25336634

  17. Identification and characterization of a selenoprotein family containing a diselenide bond in a redox motif.

    PubMed

    Shchedrina, Valentina A; Novoselov, Sergey V; Malinouski, Mikalai Yu; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2007-08-28

    Selenocysteine (Sec, U) insertion into proteins is directed by translational recoding of specific UGA codons located upstream of a stem-loop structure known as Sec insertion sequence (SECIS) element. Selenoproteins with known functions are oxidoreductases containing a single redox-active Sec in their active sites. In this work, we identified a family of selenoproteins, designated SelL, containing two Sec separated by two other residues to form a UxxU motif. SelL proteins show an unusual occurrence, being present in diverse aquatic organisms, including fish, invertebrates, and marine bacteria. Both eukaryotic and bacterial SelL genes use single SECIS elements for insertion of two Sec. In eukaryotes, the SECIS is located in the 3' UTR, whereas the bacterial SelL SECIS is within a coding region and positioned at a distance that supports the insertion of either of the two Sec or both of these residues. SelL proteins possess a thioredoxin-like fold wherein the UxxU motif corresponds to the catalytic CxxC motif in thioredoxins, suggesting a redox function of SelL proteins. Distantly related SelL-like proteins were also identified in a variety of organisms that had either one or both Sec replaced with Cys. Danio rerio SelL, transiently expressed in mammalian cells, incorporated two Sec and localized to the cytosol. In these cells, it occurred in an oxidized form and was not reducible by DTT. In a bacterial expression system, we directly demonstrated the formation of a diselenide bond between the two Sec, establishing it as the first diselenide bond found in a natural protein.

  18. Selenoproteins and oxidative stress-induced inflammatory tumorigenesis in the gut.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Caitlyn W; Short, Sarah P; Williams, Christopher S

    2017-02-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient that is incorporated into at least 25 selenoproteins encoded by the human genome, many of which serve antioxidant functions. Because patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) demonstrate nutritional deficiencies and are at increased risk for colon cancer due to heightened inflammation and oxidative stress, selenoprotein dysfunction may contribute to disease progression. Over the years, numerous studies have analyzed the effects of selenoprotein loss and shown that they are important mediators of intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. In particular, recent work has focused on the role of selenoprotein P (SEPP1), a major selenium transport protein which also has endogenous antioxidant function. These experiments determined SEPP1 loss altered immune and epithelial cellular function in a murine model of colitis-associated carcinoma. Here, we discuss the current knowledge of SEPP1 and selenoprotein function in the setting of IBD, colitis, and inflammatory tumorigenesis.

  19. Molecular characterization and NF-κB-regulated transcription of selenoprotein S from the Bama mini-pig.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ningbo; Jing, Wenqian; Cheng, Jiayue; Cui, Wentao; Mu, Yulian; Li, Kui; Lei, Xingen

    2011-10-01

    Selenoprotein S (SelS), a member of selenoprotein family, plays important regulatory function in inflammation and metabolic diseases. SelS expression is up-regulated response to the inflammatory stimulus in many mammal cells, animal models as well as patients. In order to further understand the function of SelS gene, molecular characterization and transcriptional regulation of SelS from a Bama mini-pig were analyzed in the present study. The results showed that pig SelS encoded a protein of 190 amino acid with estimated molecular weight of 21.23 kDa and pI of 9.526. The genomic structure, promoter and deduced amino acid sequence were analyzed and found to share high similarity with those of human SelS. Pig SelS fusion protein was demonstrated to localize in the cytoplasm by fluorescence microscopy. Real-time PCR revealed the ubiquitous expression pattern of pig SelS in diverse tissues, a high level expression was observed in the liver and lung, relatively low expression in other tissues, especially in muscle. Promoter deletion analysis further suggests that an NF-κB binding site within the SelS promoter is responsible for the up-regulation of SelS transcription.

  20. Selenium and cancer chemoprevention: hypotheses integrating the actions of selenoproteins and selenium metabolites in epithelial and non-epithelial target cells.

    PubMed

    Lü, Junxuan; Jiang, Cheng

    2005-01-01

    The trace element nutrient selenium (Se) discharges its well-known nutritional antioxidant activity through the Se-dependent glutathione peroxidases. It also regulates nuclear factor activities by redox mechanisms through the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductases. Converging data from epidemiological, ecological, and clinical studies have shown that Se can decrease the risk for some types of human cancers, especially those of the prostate, lung, and colon. Mechanistic studies have indicated that the methylselenol metabolite pool has many desirable attributes of chemoprevention, targeting both cancer cells and vascular endothelial cells, whereas the hydrogen selenide pool in excess of selenoprotein synthesis can lead to DNA single strand breaks, which may be mediated by some reactive oxygen species. We propose a new paradigm based on a consideration of the post-initiation biology of avascular early lesion expansion microenvironment, physiochemistry of Se delivery, and the obligatory need for angiogenesis to sustain lesion progression. Our model integrates the roles of selenoproteins and specific Se metabolites to account for cancer risk reduction or enhancement. For future studies, speciation (profiling) methods for Se metabolites and for Se forms in foods and supplements are much needed for hypothesis testing and for the development of mechanism-based Se status markers for cancer prevention. Randomized cancer prevention trials are necessary to test the efficacy of methyl selenium compounds. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 7, 1715-1727.

  1. Selenoprotein TRXR-1 and GSR-1 are essential for removal of old cuticle during molting in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Stenvall, Jörgen; Fierro-González, Juan Carlos; Swoboda, Peter; Saamarthy, Karunakar; Cheng, Qing; Cacho-Valadez, Briseida; Arnér, Elias S. J.; Persson, Olof P.; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Tuck, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Selenoproteins, in particular thioredoxin reductase, have been implicated in countering oxidative damage occurring during aging but the molecular functions of these proteins have not been extensively investigated in different animal models. Here we demonstrate that TRXR-1 thioredoxin reductase, the sole selenoprotein in Caenorhabditis elegans, does not protect against acute oxidative stress but functions instead together with GSR-1 glutathione reductase to promote the removal of old cuticle during molting. We show that the oxidation state of disulfide groups in the cuticle is tightly regulated during the molting cycle, and that when trxr-1 and gsr-1 function is reduced, disulfide groups in the cuticle remain oxidized. A selenocysteine-to-cysteine TRXR-1 mutant fails to rescue molting defects. Furthermore, worms lacking SELB-1, the C. elegans homolog of Escherichia coli SelB or mammalian EFsec, a translation elongation factor known to be specific for selenocysteine in E. coli, fail to incorporate selenocysteine, and display the same phenotype as those lacking trxr-1. Thus, TRXR-1 function in the reduction of old cuticle is strictly selenocysteine dependent in the nematode. Exogenously supplied reduced glutathione reduces disulfide groups in the cuticle and induces apolysis, the separation of old and new cuticle, strongly suggesting that molting involves the regulated reduction of cuticle components driven by TRXR-1 and GSR-1. Using dauer larvae, we demonstrate that aged worms have a decreased capacity to molt, and decreased expression of GSR-1. Together, our results establish a function for the selenoprotein TRXR-1 and GSR-1 in the removal of old cuticle from the surface of epidermal cells. PMID:21199936

  2. Dual function of the selenoprotein PHGPx during sperm maturation.

    PubMed

    Ursini, F; Heim, S; Kiess, M; Maiorino, M; Roveri, A; Wissing, J; Flohé, L

    1999-08-27

    The selenoprotein phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) changes its physical characteristics and biological functions during sperm maturation. PHGPx exists as a soluble peroxidase in spermatids but persists in mature spermatozoa as an enzymatically inactive, oxidatively cross-linked, insoluble protein. In the midpiece of mature spermatozoa, PHGPx protein represents at least 50 percent of the capsule material that embeds the helix of mitochondria. The role of PHGPx as a structural protein may explain the mechanical instability of the mitochondrial midpiece that is observed in selenium deficiency.

  3. Regulation of the Extracellular Antioxidant Selenoprotein Plasma Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx-3) in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ottaviano, Filomena G.; Tang, Shiow-Shih; Handy, Diane E.; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx-3) is a selenocysteine-containing extracellular antioxidant protein that catalyzes the reduction of hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxides. Selenoprotein expression involves the alternate recognition of a UGA codon as a selenocysteine codon and requires signals in the 3′-untranslated region (UTR), including a selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS), as well as specific translational cofactors. To ascertain regulatory determinants of GPx-3 expression and function, we generated recombinant GPx-3 (rGPX-3) constructs with various 3′-UTR, as well as a Sec73Cys mutant. In transfected Cos7 cells, the Sec73Cys mutant was expressed at higher levels than the wild type rGPx-3, although the wild type rGPx-3 had higher specific activity, similar to plasma purified GPx-3. A 3′-UTR with only the SECIS was insufficient for wild type rGPx-3 protein expression. Selenocompound supplementation and co-transfection with SECIS binding protein 2, increased wild type rGPx-3 expression. These results demonstrate the importance of translational mechanisms in GPx-3 expression. PMID:19219623

  4. Selenoproteins and Their Impact on Human Health Through Diverse Physiological Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Moghadaszadeh, Behzad; Beggs, Alan H.

    2012-01-01

    In the last few decades, the importance of selenium in human health has been the subject of numerous studies. It is believed that the physiological effects of selenium occur mainly through the function of selenoproteins, which incorporate selenium in the form of one or more selenocysteine residues. Recent advances in understanding the complex regulation of selenoprotein synthesis and functional characterization of several members of the selenoprotein family have contributed to an improved comprehension of the role(s) of selenium in human health and the great diversity of physiological pathways influenced by this trace element. PMID:16990451

  5. Modification of Selenoprotein mRNAs by Cap Tri-methylation.

    PubMed

    Gribling-Burrer, Anne-Sophie; Eriani, Gilbert; Allmang, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Several selenoprotein mRNAs undergo 5' cap maturation events whereby their classical monomethylated m(7)G cap becomes trimethylated (m3(2,2,7)G) by the trimethylguanosine synthase 1 (Tgs1). Here, we describe immunoprecipitation methods for the detection of endogenous m3(2,2,7)G-capped selenoprotein mRNAs from total cell extracts or after polysome fractionation of cytoplasmic extracts. We have also developed a method for the in vitro cap hypermethylation of selenoprotein mRNA transcripts using purified Tgs1 enzyme.

  6. Proteomic analysis of kidneys from selenoprotein M transgenic rats in response to increased bioability of selenium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To characterize changes in global protein expression in kidneys of transgenic rats overexpressing human selenoprotein M (SelM) in response to increased bioabivility of selenium (Sel), total proteins extracted from kidneys of 10-week-old CMV/hSelM Tg and wild-type rats were separated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and measured for changes in expression. Results Ten and three proteins showing high antioxidant enzymatic activity were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in SelM-overexpressing CMV/hSelM Tg rats compared to controls based on an arbitrary 2-fold difference. Up-regulated proteins included LAP3, BAIAP2L1, CRP2, CD73 antigen, PDGF D, KIAA143 homolog, PRPPS-AP2, ZFP313, HSP-60, and N-WASP, whereas down-regulated proteins included ALKDH3, rMCP-3, and STC-1. After Sel treatment, five of the up-regulated proteins were significantly increased in expression in wild-type rats, whereas there were no changes in CMV/hSelM Tg rats. Only two of the down-regulated proteins showed reduced expression in wild-type and Tg rats after Sel treatment. Conclusions These results show the primary novel biological evidences that new functional protein groups and individual proteins in kidneys of Tg rats relate to Sel biology including the response to Sel treatment and SelM expression. PMID:23937859

  7. Proteomic analysis of kidneys from selenoprotein M transgenic rats in response to increased bioability of selenium.

    PubMed

    Goo, Jun Seo; Kim, Yo Na; Choi, Kyung Mi; Hwang, In Sik; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Young Ju; Kwak, Moon Hwa; Shim, Sun Bo; Jee, Seung Wan; Lim, Chul Joo; Seong, Je Kyung; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2013-08-12

    To characterize changes in global protein expression in kidneys of transgenic rats overexpressing human selenoprotein M (SelM) in response to increased bioabivility of selenium (Sel), total proteins extracted from kidneys of 10-week-old CMV/hSelM Tg and wild-type rats were separated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and measured for changes in expression. Ten and three proteins showing high antioxidant enzymatic activity were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in SelM-overexpressing CMV/hSelM Tg rats compared to controls based on an arbitrary 2-fold difference. Up-regulated proteins included LAP3, BAIAP2L1, CRP2, CD73 antigen, PDGF D, KIAA143 homolog, PRPPS-AP2, ZFP313, HSP-60, and N-WASP, whereas down-regulated proteins included ALKDH3, rMCP-3, and STC-1. After Sel treatment, five of the up-regulated proteins were significantly increased in expression in wild-type rats, whereas there were no changes in CMV/hSelM Tg rats. Only two of the down-regulated proteins showed reduced expression in wild-type and Tg rats after Sel treatment. These results show the primary novel biological evidences that new functional protein groups and individual proteins in kidneys of Tg rats relate to Sel biology including the response to Sel treatment and SelM expression.

  8. Selenoprotein biosynthesis defect causes progressive encephalopathy with elevated lactate.

    PubMed

    Anttonen, Anna-Kaisa; Hilander, Taru; Linnankivi, Tarja; Isohanni, Pirjo; French, Rachel L; Liu, Yuchen; Simonović, Miljan; Söll, Dieter; Somer, Mirja; Muth-Pawlak, Dorota; Corthals, Garry L; Laari, Anni; Ylikallio, Emil; Lähde, Marja; Valanne, Leena; Lönnqvist, Tuula; Pihko, Helena; Paetau, Anders; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Suomalainen, Anu; Tyynismaa, Henna

    2015-07-28

    We aimed to decipher the molecular genetic basis of disease in a cohort of children with a uniform clinical presentation of neonatal irritability, spastic or dystonic quadriplegia, virtually absent psychomotor development, axonal neuropathy, and elevated blood/CSF lactate. We performed whole-exome sequencing of blood DNA from the index patients. Detected compound heterozygous mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Structural predictions and a bacterial activity assay were performed to evaluate the functional consequences of the mutations. Mass spectrometry, Western blotting, and protein oxidation detection were used to analyze the effects of selenoprotein deficiency. Neuropathology indicated laminar necrosis and severe loss of myelin, with neuron loss and astrogliosis. In 3 families, we identified a missense (p.Thr325Ser) and a nonsense (p.Tyr429*) mutation in SEPSECS, encoding the O-phosphoseryl-tRNA:selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase, which was previously associated with progressive cerebellocerebral atrophy. We show that the mutations do not completely abolish the activity of SEPSECS, but lead to decreased selenoprotein levels, with demonstrated increase in oxidative protein damage in the patient brain. These results extend the phenotypes caused by defective selenocysteine biosynthesis, and suggest SEPSECS as a candidate gene for progressive encephalopathies with lactate elevation. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Nonradioactive Isotopic Labeling and Tracing of Selenoproteins in Cultured Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Sonet, Jordan; Mounicou, Sandra; Chavatte, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential component of genetically encoded selenoproteins, in the form of a rare amino acid, namely the selenocysteine (Sec). Radioactive (75)Se has been widely used to trace selenoproteins in vitro and in vivo (cell models and animals). Alternatively, its unique isotopic pattern can be used to detect and characterize nonradioactive Se-compounds in cellular extracts using molecular or elemental mass spectrometry at ppm levels. However, when studying trace levels of Se-compounds, such as selenoproteins (ppt levels), the distribution of the signal between its six naturally abundant isotopes reduces its sensitivity. Here, we describe the use of isotopically enriched forms of Se as an alternative strategy to radioactive (75)Se, for the labeling and tracing of selenoproteins in cultured cell lines.

  10. The protozoa dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina contains selenoproteins and the relevant translation apparatus.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Takashi; Beika, Asa; Hattori, Asuka; Kohno, Yoshinori; Kato, Koichi H; Mizutani, Takaharu

    2003-01-03

    In the phylogenetic tree, selenoproteins and the corresponding translation machinery are found in Archaea, Eubacteria, and animals, but not in fungi and higher plants. As very little is known about Protozoa, we searched for the presence of selenoproteins in the primitive dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina, belonging to the Protoctista kingdom. Four selenoproteins could be obtained from O. marina cells cultured in the presence of 75Se. Using O. marina or bovine liver cytosolic extracts, we could serylate and selenylate in vitro total O. marina tRNAs. Moreover, the existence of a tRNA(Sec) could be deduced from in vivo experiments. Lastly, an anti-serum against the specialized mammalian translation elongation factor mSelB reacted with a protein of 48-kDa molecular mass. Altogether, our data showed that O. marina contains selenoproteins and suggests that the corresponding translation machinery is related to that found in animals.

  11. Thyroid hormone status regulates the expression of secretory phospholipases.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pragya; Levesque, Tania; Boilard, Eric; Park, Edwards A

    2014-01-31

    Thyroid hormone (T3) stimulates various metabolic pathways and the hepatic actions of T3 are mediated primarily through the thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ). Hypothyroidism has been linked with low grade inflammation, elevated risk of hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis. Secretory phospholipases (sPLA2) are associated with inflammation, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Due to potential linkage between thyroid hormone and sPLA2, we investigated the effect of thyroid hormone status on the regulation of secretory phospholipases in mice, rats and human liver. T3 suppressed the expression of the sPLA2 group IIa (PLA2g2a) gene in the liver of BALB/c mice and C57BL/6 transgenic mice expressing the human PLA2g2a. PLA2g2a was elevated with hypothyroidism and high fat diets which may contribute to the low grade inflammation associated with hypothyroidism and diet induced obesity. We also examined the effects of the TRβ agonist eprotirome on hepatic gene regulation. We observed that eprotirome inhibited the expression of selected sPLA2 genes and furthermore the cytokine mediated induction PLA2g2a was suppressed. In addition, eprotirome induced genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and cholesterol clearance while inhibiting lipogenic genes. Our results indicate that in vivo thyroid hormone status regulates the abundance of sPLA2 and the inhibition of PLA2g2a by T3 is conserved across species. By regulating sPLA2 genes, T3 may impact processes associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation and TRβ agonists may ameliorate inflammation and hyperlipidemia.

  12. Thyroid hormone status regulates the expression of secretory phospholipases

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pragya; Levesque, Tania; Boilard, Eric; Park, Edwards A.

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (T3) stimulates various metabolic pathways and the hepatic actions of T3 are mediated primarily through the thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ). Hypothyroidism has been linked with low grade inflammation, elevated risk of hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis. Secretory phospholipases (sPLA2) are associated with inflammation, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Due to potential linkage between thyroid hormone and sPLA2, we investigated the effect of thyroid hormone status on the regulation of secretory phospholipases in mice, rats and human liver. T3 suppressed the expression of the sPLA2 group IIa (PLA2g2a) gene in the liver of BALB/c mice and C57BL/6 transgenic mice expressing the human PLA2g2a. PLA2g2a was elevated with hypothyroidism and high fat diets which may contribute to the low grade inflammation associated with hypothyroidism and diet induced obesity. We also examined the effects of the TRβ agonist eprotirome on hepatic gene regulation. We observed that eprotirome inhibited the expression of selected sPLA2 genes and furthermore the cytokine mediated induction PLA2g2a was suppressed. In addition, eprotirome induced genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and cholesterol clearance while inhibiting lipogenic genes. Our results indicate that in vivo thyroid hormone status regulates the abundance of sPLA2 and the inhibition of PLA2g2a by T3 is conserved across species. By regulating sPLA2 genes, T3 may impact processes associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation and TRβ agonists may ameliorate inflammation and hyperlipidemia. PMID:24440706

  13. Purification of selenoprotein P from human plasma using immunoaffinity chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Aakesson, B.; Bellew, T.; Burk, R.F. )

    1991-03-11

    Selenoprotein P was purified from rat plasma using immunoaffinity chromatography. The same approach was used with human plasma. HepG2 cells were labeled with {sup 75}Se. The labeled medium, containing proteins secreted by the cells, was added to human plasma and the {sup 75}Se was used as a marker for {gt}1,000-fold purification of the major {sup 75}Se-containing protein. This material was used to produce 2 monoclonal antibodies. In a competitive assay, human plasma, but not plasma from 5 other species, inhibited binding of {sup 75}Se by these 2 antibodies. The antibodies were coupled to agarose and columns were made. Human plasma was processed in 2 steps. Step 1 was an antibody column and step 2 was a heparin-agarose column. SDS-PAGE demonstrated bands at 61 and 55 kDa. Both bands stained with PAS. Amino acid analysis of carboxymethylated material indicated that selenocysteine was {gt}1% of the total amino acids. N-terminal sequencing revealed a strong similarity to rat selenoprotein P. Immunodepleted human plasma and control plasma were chromatographed on Sephacryl S200 and selenium was measured in the eluted fractions. Immunodepletion removed one-third of the selenium. The elution pattern of control plasma revealed a broad peak of selenium just ahead of and including the albumin peak. Most of this peak was absent from the immunodepleted serum and a graph of the difference between the 2 chromatograms was a single peak of selenium well separated from the albumin peak.

  14. Prediction of selenoprotein T structure and its response to selenium deficiency in chicken immune organs.

    PubMed

    You, Lu; Liu, Ci; Yang, Zi-Jiang; Li, Ming; Li, Shu

    2014-08-01

    Selenoprotein T (SelT) is associated with the regulation of calcium homeostasis and neuroendocrine secretion. SelT can also change cell adhesion and is involved in redox regulation and cell fixation. However, the structure and function of chicken SelT and its response to selenium (Se) remains unclear. In the present study, 150 1-day-old chickens were randomly divided into a low Se group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.020 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.2 mg/kg Se). The immune organs (spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius) were collected at 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55 days of age. We performed a sequence analysis and predicted the structure and function of SelT. We also investigated the effects of Se deficiency on the expression of SelT, selenophosphate synthetase-1 (SPS1), and selenocysteine synthase (SecS) using RT-PCR and the oxidative stress in the chicken immune organs. The data showed that the coding sequence (CDS) and deduced amino acid sequence of SelT were highly similar to those of 17 other animals. Se deficiency induced lower (P < 0.05) levels of SelT, SPS1, and SecS, reduced the catalase (CAT) activity, and increased the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical (-OH) in immune organs. In conclusion, the CDS and deduced amino acid sequence of chicken SelT are highly homologous to those of various mammals. The redox function and response to the Se deficiency of chicken SelT may be conserved. A Se-deficient diet led to a decrease in SelT, SecS, and SPS1 and induced oxidative stress in the chicken immune organs. To our knowledge, this is the first report of predictions of chicken SelT structure and function. The present study demonstrated the relationship between the selenoprotein synthases (SPS1, SecS) and SelT expression in the chicken immune organs and further confirmed oxidative stress caused by Se deficiency. Thus, the information presented in this study is helpful to

  15. Selenium Deficiency-Induced Apoptosis of Chick Embryonic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Correlations with 25 Selenoproteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingyu; Huang, Jiaqiang; Zhang, Hao; Lei, Xingen; Du, Zhongyao; Xiao, Chen; Chen, Silu; Ren, Fazheng

    2017-04-01

    Selenium deficiency is the major cause of exudative diathesis in chicks. Subcutaneous hemorrhage is one of the typical symptoms of the disease. However, the reason for the occurrence of blood exudation remains unknown. In the present study, the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were isolated from 17-day-old broiler chick embryos. Cell viability, cell apoptosis, and intracellular reactive oxygen species level under different concentrations of selenium (0-0.9 μM) were investigated. The mRNA expression levels of 25 selenoproteins and apoptosis-related genes (p53, CytC, Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Bcl-2, and Bax) were also measured. Selenium deficiency significantly decreased cell viability and increased cell apoptosis (p < 0.05). Supplementation with selenium could alleviate these changes. In general, at all levels of selenium addition, Gpx1, Gpx3, Gpx4, SepW1, and Sep15 mRNAs were all highly expressed in VSMCs, whereas Gpx2, Dio1, SepN1, SelO, and SelPb were at lower levels. There was a high correlation between Gpx2, Gpx3, Gpx4, Dio1, Txnrd1, Txnrd2, and Txnrd3 gene expression. Additionally, Gpx3, Gpx4, Dio1, Txnrd1, Txnrd2, Txnrd3, SelS, and SelPb showed a strong negative correlation with pro-apoptotic gene Caspase-3 as well as a strong positive correlation with anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2, especially SelI (r = 0.913 and r = 0.929, p < 0.01). These results suggest that selenium deficiency could induce VSMC apoptosis, and several selenoproteins may be involved in the development of apoptosis. Our findings provide information on the molecular mechanism of vascular injury by selenium deficiency.

  16. Cellular Selenoprotein mRNA Tethering via Antisense Interactions with Ebola and HIV-1 mRNAs May Impact Host Selenium Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Ethan Will; Ruzicka, Jan A.; Premadasa, Lakmini; Zhao, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of protein expression by non-coding RNAs typically involves effects on mRNA degradation and/or ribosomal translation. The possibility of virus-host mRNA-mRNA antisense tethering interactions (ATI) as a gain-of-function strategy, via the capture of functional RNA motifs, has not been hitherto considered. We present evidence that ATIs may be exploited by certain RNA viruses in order to tether the mRNAs of host selenoproteins, potentially exploiting the proximity of a captured host selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element to enable the expression of virally-encoded selenoprotein modules, via translation of in-frame UGA stop codons as selenocysteine. Computational analysis predicts thermodynamically stable ATIs between several widely expressed mammalian selenoprotein mRNAs (e.g., isoforms of thioredoxin reductase) and specific Ebola virus mRNAs, and HIV-1 mRNA, which we demonstrate via DNA gel shift assays. The probable functional significance of these ATIs is further supported by the observation that, in both viruses, they are located in close proximity to highly conserved in-frame UGA stop codons at the 3′ end of open reading frames that encode essential viral proteins (the HIV-1 nef protein and the Ebola nucleoprotein). Significantly, in HIV/AIDS patients, an inverse correlation between serum selenium and mortality has been repeatedly documented, and clinical benefits of selenium in the context of multi-micronutrient supplementation have been demonstrated in several well-controlled clinical trials. Hence, in the light of our findings, the possibility of a similar role for selenium in Ebola pathogenesis and treatment merits serious investigation. PMID:26369818

  17. Cellular Selenoprotein mRNA Tethering via Antisense Interactions with Ebola and HIV-1 mRNAs May Impact Host Selenium Biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ethan Will; Ruzicka, Jan A; Premadasa, Lakmini; Zhao, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of protein expression by non-coding RNAs typically involves effects on mRNA degradation and/or ribosomal translation. The possibility of virus-host mRNA-mRNA antisense tethering interactions (ATI) as a gain-of-function strategy, via the capture of functional RNA motifs, has not been hitherto considered. We present evidence that ATIs may be exploited by certain RNA viruses in order to tether the mRNAs of host selenoproteins, potentially exploiting the proximity of a captured host selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element to enable the expression of virally-encoded selenoprotein modules, via translation of in-frame UGA stop codons as selenocysteine. Computational analysis predicts thermodynamically stable ATIs between several widely expressed mammalian selenoprotein mRNAs (e.g., isoforms of thioredoxin reductase) and specific Ebola virus mRNAs, and HIV-1 mRNA, which we demonstrate via DNA gel shift assays. The probable functional significance of these ATIs is further supported by the observation that, in both viruses, they are located in close proximity to highly conserved in-frame UGA stop codons at the 3' end of open reading frames that encode essential viral proteins (the HIV-1 nef protein and the Ebola nucleoprotein). Significantly, in HIV/AIDS patients, an inverse correlation between serum selenium and mortality has been repeatedly documented, and clinical benefits of selenium in the context of multi-micronutrient supplementation have been demonstrated in several well-controlled clinical trials. Hence, in the light of our findings, the possibility of a similar role for selenium in Ebola pathogenesis and treatment merits serious investigation.

  18. Structure–Function Relations, Physiological Roles, and Evolution of Mammalian ER-Resident Selenoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Shchedrina, Valentina A.; Zhang, Yan; Labunskyy, Vyacheslav M.; Hatfield, Dolph L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Selenium is an essential trace element in mammals. The major biological form of this micronutrient is the amino acid selenocysteine, which is present in the active sites of selenoenzymes. Seven of 25 mammalian selenoproteins have been identified as residents of the endoplasmic reticulum, including the 15-kDa selenoprotein, type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase and selenoproteins K, M, N, S, and T. Most of these proteins are poorly characterized. However, recent studies implicate some of them in quality control of protein folding in the ER, retrotranslocation of misfolded proteins from the ER to the cytosol, metabolism of the thyroid hormone, and regulation of calcium homeostasis. In addition, some of these proteins are involved in regulation of glucose metabolism and inflammation. This review discusses evolution and structure–function relations of the ER-resident selenoproteins and summarizes recent findings on these proteins, which reveal the emerging important role of selenium and selenoproteins in ER function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 12, 839–849. PMID:19747065

  19. Chromatographic behavior of selenoproteins in rat serum detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Anan, Yasumi; Hatakeyama, Yoshiko; Tokumoto, Maki; Ogra, Yasumitsu

    2013-01-01

    Two major selenoproteins are present in mammalian serum: extracellular glutathione peroxidase (eGPx) and selenoprotein P (Sel P). The chromatographic behaviors of the two serum selenoproteins were compared in four rodent species, and the selenoproteins in rat serum were identified by measuring enzyme activity and Western blotting. The selenoproteins in rat serum showed a specific chromatographic behavior. In particular, rat eGPx was eluted faster than eGPxs of the other rodent species, although the amino-acid sequences of the rodent species were identical. The elution profiles of Se in rat serum obtained by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS-MS) and ICP-MS were compared. The tandem quadrupoles and the O₂ reaction/collision gas completely removed severe interferences with the Se speciation originating from the plasma source and the biological sample matrix. ICP-MS-MS under the O₂ mass shift mode gave us more accurate abundance ratios of Se than ICP-MS.

  20. Novel selenoproteins identified in silico and in vivo by using a conserved RNA structural motif.

    PubMed

    Lescure, A; Gautheret, D; Carbon, P; Krol, A

    1999-12-31

    Selenocysteine is incorporated into selenoproteins by an in-frame UGA codon whose readthrough requires the selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS), a conserved hairpin in the 3'-untranslated region of eukaryotic selenoprotein mRNAs. To identify new selenoproteins, we developed a strategy that obviates the need for prior amino acid sequence information. A computational screen was used to scan nucleotide sequence data bases for sequences presenting a potential SECIS secondary structure. The computer-selected hairpins were then assayed in vivo for their functional capacities, and the cDNAs corresponding to the SECIS winners were identified. Four of them encoded novel selenoproteins as confirmed by in vivo experiments. Among these, SelZf1 and SelZf2 share a common domain with mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase-2. The three proteins, however, possess distinct N-terminal domains. We found that another protein, SelX, displays sequence similarity to a protein involved in bacterial pilus formation. For the first time, four novel selenoproteins were discovered based on a computational screen for the RNA hairpin directing selenocysteine incorporation.

  1. Importance of selenium and selenoprotein for brain function: From antioxidant protection to neuronal signalling.

    PubMed

    Solovyev, Nikolay D

    2015-12-01

    Multiple biological functions of selenium manifest themselves mainly via 25 selenoproteins that have selenocysteine at their active centre. Selenium is vital for the brain and seems to participate in the pathology of disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and epilepsy. Since selenium was shown to be involved in diverse functions of the central nervous system, such as motor performance, coordination, memory and cognition, a possible role of selenium and selenoproteins in brain signalling pathways may be assumed. The aim of the present review is to analyse possible relations between selenium and neurotransmission. Selenoproteins seem to be of special importance in the development and functioning of GABAergic (GABA, γ-aminobutyric acid) parvalbumin positive interneurons of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Dopamine pathway might be also selenium dependent as selenium shows neuroprotection in the nigrostriatal pathway and also exerts toxicity towards dopaminergic neurons under higher concentrations. Recent findings also point to acetylcholine neurotransmission involvement. The role of selenium and selenoproteins in neurotransmission might not only be limited to their antioxidant properties but also to inflammation, influencing protein phosphorylation and ion channels, alteration of calcium homeostasis and brain cholesterol metabolism. Moreover, a direct signalling function was proposed for selenoprotein P through interaction with post-synaptic apoliprotein E receptors 2 (ApoER2).

  2. Selenoprotein W depletion induces a p53- and p21-dependent delay in cell cycle progression in RWPE-1 prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Wayne Chris; Printsev, Ignat; Alkan, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    The anticancer activity of selenium (Se) has been demonstrated in myriad animal and in vitro studies, yet the mechanisms remain obscure. The main form of Se in animal tissues is selenocysteine in selenoproteins, but the relative importance of selenoproteins versus smaller Se compounds in cancer protection is unresolved. Selenoprotein W (SEPW1) is a highly conserved protein ubiquitously expressed in animals, bacteria, and archaea. SEPW1 depletion causes a delay in cell cycle progression at the G1/S transition of the cell cycle in breast and prostate epithelial cells. Tumor suppressor protein p53 is a master regulator of cell cycle progression and is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancers. p53 was increased in SEPW1 silenced cells and was inversely correlated with SEPW1 mRNA in cell lines with altered SEPW1 expression. Silencing SEPW1 decreased ubiquitination of p53 and increased p53 half-life. SEPW1 silencing increased p21(Cip1/WAF1/CDKN1A), while p27 (Kip1/CDKN1B) levels were unaffected. G1-phase arrest from SEPW1 knockdown was abolished by silencing p53 or p21. Cell cycle arrest from SEPW1 silencing was not associated with activation of ATM or phosphorylation of Ser-15 in p53, suggesting the DNA damage response pathway was not involved. Silencing GPX1 had no effect on cell cycle, suggesting that G1-phase arrest from SEPW1 silencing was not due to loss of antioxidant protection. More research is required to identify the function of SEPW1 and how it affects stability of p53.

  3. Quantitative imaging of selenoprotein with multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS).

    PubMed

    Tang, Shiow-Shih; Guillermier, Christelle; Wang, Mei; Poczatek, Joseph Collin; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Loscalzo, Joseph; Lechene, Claude

    2014-11-01

    Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) allows high resolution quantitative imaging of protein and nucleic acid synthesis at the level of a single cell using stable isotope labels. We employed MIMS to determine the compartmental localization of selenoproteins tagged with stable isotope selenium compounds in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC), and to compare the efficiency of labeling (to determine the ideal selenium source) from these compounds: [(82)Se]-selenite, [(77)Se]-seleno-methionine, and [(76)Se]-methyl-selenocysteine. We found that all three selenium sources appear to be localized in the nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm in HAEC. Seleno-methionine appears to be a better source for (seleno)protein synthesis. For MIMS detection, we compared freeze-drying to thin layer vs. thin sectioning for sample preparation. MIMS provides a unique and novel way to dissect selenoprotein synthesis in cells.

  4. Selenoprotein P regulates 1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-benzo-2,5-quinone induced oxidative stress and toxicity in human keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Wusheng; Zhu, Yueming; Sarsour, Ehab H.; Kalen, Amanda L.; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet; Spitz, Douglas R.; Goswami, Prabhat C.

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites are environmental pollutants that are believed to have adverse health effects presumably by inducing oxidative stress. To determine if 1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-benzo-2,5-quinone (4-ClBQ: metabolite of 4-monochlorobiphenyl, PCB3) induced oxidative stress is associated with changes in the expression of specific antioxidant genes, mRNA levels of 92 oxidative stress-response genes were analyzed using TaqMan® Array Human Antioxidant Mechanisms (Life technologies), and results were verified by performing quantitative RT-PCR assays. The expression of selenoprotein P (sepp1) was found to be significantly downregulated (8–10-fold) in 4-ClBQ treated HaCaT human skin keratinocytes, which correlated with a significant increase in MitoSOX oxidation. Overexpression of Mn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, or treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine suppressed 4-ClBQ-induced toxicity. Sodium selenite supplementation also suppressed 4-ClBQ-induced decrease in sepp1 expression, which was associated with a significant inhibition in cell death. Furthermore, HaCaT cells overexpressing sepp1 were resistant to 4-ClBQ induced oxidative stress and toxicity. These results demonstrate that SEPP1 represents a previously unrecognized regulator of PCB induced biological effects. These results support the speculation that selenoproteins can be an attractive countermeasure for PCB induced adverse biological effects. PMID:23770201

  5. Selenoprotein P regulates 1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-benzo-2,5-quinone-induced oxidative stress and toxicity in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wusheng; Zhu, Yueming; Sarsour, Ehab H; Kalen, Amanda L; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet; Spitz, Douglas R; Goswami, Prabhat C

    2013-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites are environmental pollutants that are believed to have adverse health effects presumably by inducing oxidative stress. To determine if 1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-benzo-2,5-quinone (4-ClBQ; metabolite of 4-monochlorobiphenyl, PCB3)-induced oxidative stress is associated with changes in the expression of specific antioxidant genes, mRNA levels of 92 oxidative stress-response genes were analyzed using TaqMan Array Human Antioxidant Mechanisms (Life Technologies), and results were verified by performing quantitative RT-PCR assays. The expression of selenoprotein P (sepp1) was significantly downregulated (8- to 10-fold) in 4-ClBQ-treated HaCaT human skin keratinocytes, which correlated with a significant increase in MitoSOX oxidation. Overexpression of Mn-superoxide dismutase or catalase or treatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine suppressed 4-ClBQ-induced toxicity. Sodium selenite supplementation also suppressed 4-ClBQ-induced decrease in sepp1 expression, which was associated with a significant inhibition in cell death. Furthermore, HaCaT cells overexpressing sepp1 were resistant to 4-ClBQ-induced oxidative stress and toxicity. These results demonstrate that SEPP1 represents a previously unrecognized regulator of PCB-induced biological effects. These results support the speculation that selenoproteins can be an attractive countermeasure for PCB-induced adverse biological effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal iron status during pregnancy compared with neonatal iron status better predicts placental iron transporter expression in humans.

    PubMed

    Best, Cora M; Pressman, Eva K; Cao, Chang; Cooper, Elizabeth; Guillet, Ronnie; Yost, Olivia L; Galati, Jonathan; Kent, Tera R; O'Brien, Kimberly O

    2016-10-01

    The placenta richly expresses nonheme and heme Fe transport proteins. To address the impact of maternal and neonatal Fe status and hepcidin on the regulation of these proteins, mRNA expression and protein abundance of nonheme and heme Fe transport proteins were evaluated in placental tissue from 154 adolescents. Regression analyses found maternal Fe status was significantly associated with multiple placental nonheme and heme transporters, whereas neonatal Fe status was related to only 3 heme transporters. Across statistical analyses, maternal Fe status was consistently associated with the placental nonheme Fe importer transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1). Protein abundance of TfR1 was related to midgestation maternal serum ferritin (SF) (β = -0.32; P = 0.005) and serum TfR (β = 0.25; P = 0.024). Protein abundance of the heme importer, proton-coupled folate transporter, was related to neonatal SF (β = 0.30; P = 0.016) and serum TfR (β = -0.46; P < 0.0001). Neonatal SF was also related to mRNA expression of the heme exporter feline leukemia virus subgroup C receptor 1 (β = -0.30; P = 0.004). In summary, maternal Fe insufficiency during pregnancy predicts increased expression of the placental nonheme Fe transporter TfR1. Associations between placental heme Fe transporters and neonatal Fe status require further study.-Best, C. M., Pressman, E. K., Cao, C., Cooper, E., Guillet, R., Yost, O. L., Galati, J., Kent, T. R., O'Brien, K. O. Maternal iron status during pregnancy compared with neonatal iron status better predicts placental iron transporter expression in humans. © FASEB.

  7. Maternal iron status during pregnancy compared with neonatal iron status better predicts placental iron transporter expression in humans

    PubMed Central

    Best, Cora M.; Pressman, Eva K.; Cao, Chang; Cooper, Elizabeth; Guillet, Ronnie; Yost, Olivia L.; Galati, Jonathan; Kent, Tera R.; O’Brien, Kimberly O.

    2016-01-01

    The placenta richly expresses nonheme and heme Fe transport proteins. To address the impact of maternal and neonatal Fe status and hepcidin on the regulation of these proteins, mRNA expression and protein abundance of nonheme and heme Fe transport proteins were evaluated in placental tissue from 154 adolescents. Regression analyses found maternal Fe status was significantly associated with multiple placental nonheme and heme transporters, whereas neonatal Fe status was related to only 3 heme transporters. Across statistical analyses, maternal Fe status was consistently associated with the placental nonheme Fe importer transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1). Protein abundance of TfR1 was related to midgestation maternal serum ferritin (SF) (β = −0.32; P = 0.005) and serum TfR (β = 0.25; P = 0.024). Protein abundance of the heme importer, proton-coupled folate transporter, was related to neonatal SF (β = 0.30; P = 0.016) and serum TfR (β = −0.46; P < 0.0001). Neonatal SF was also related to mRNA expression of the heme exporter feline leukemia virus subgroup C receptor 1 (β = −0.30; P = 0.004). In summary, maternal Fe insufficiency during pregnancy predicts increased expression of the placental nonheme Fe transporter TfR1. Associations between placental heme Fe transporters and neonatal Fe status require further study.—Best, C. M., Pressman, E. K., Cao, C., Cooper, E., Guillet, R., Yost, O. L., Galati, J., Kent, T. R., O’Brien, K. O. Maternal iron status during pregnancy compared with neonatal iron status better predicts placental iron transporter expression in humans. PMID:27402672

  8. Minimising Immunohistochemical False Negative ER Classification Using a Complementary 23 Gene Expression Signature of ER Status

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiyuan; Eklund, Aron C.; Juul, Nicolai; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Workman, Christopher T.; Richardson, Andrea L.; Szallasi, Zoltan; Swanton, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Background Expression of the oestrogen receptor (ER) in breast cancer predicts benefit from endocrine therapy. Minimising the frequency of false negative ER status classification is essential to identify all patients with ER positive breast cancers who should be offered endocrine therapies in order to improve clinical outcome. In routine oncological practice ER status is determined by semi-quantitative methods such as immunohistochemistry (IHC) or other immunoassays in which the ER expression level is compared to an empirical threshold[1], [2]. The clinical relevance of gene expression-based ER subtypes as compared to IHC-based determination has not been systematically evaluated. Here we attempt to reduce the frequency of false negative ER status classification using two gene expression approaches and compare these methods to IHC based ER status in terms of predictive and prognostic concordance with clinical outcome. Methodology/Principal Findings Firstly, ER status was discriminated by fitting the bimodal expression of ESR1 to a mixed Gaussian model. The discriminative power of ESR1 suggested bimodal expression as an efficient way to stratify breast cancer; therefore we identified a set of genes whose expression was both strongly bimodal, mimicking ESR expression status, and highly expressed in breast epithelial cell lines, to derive a 23-gene ER expression signature-based classifier. We assessed our classifiers in seven published breast cancer cohorts by comparing the gene expression-based ER status to IHC-based ER status as a predictor of clinical outcome in both untreated and tamoxifen treated cohorts. In untreated breast cancer cohorts, the 23 gene signature-based ER status provided significantly improved prognostic power compared to IHC-based ER status (P = 0.006). In tamoxifen-treated cohorts, the 23 gene ER expression signature predicted clinical outcome (HR = 2.20, P = 0.00035). These complementary ER signature-based strategies estimated that

  9. Metal transcription factor-1 regulation via MREs in the transcribed regions of selenoprotein H and other metal- responsive genes

    PubMed Central

    Stoytcheva, Zoia R.; Vladimirov, Vladimir; Douet, Vanessa; Stoychev, Ilko; Berry, Marla J.

    2009-01-01

    Selenoprotein H is a redox-sensing DNA binding protein that upregulates genes involved in antioxidant responses. Given the known links between oxidative stress and heavy metals, we investigated the potential for regulation of selenoprotein H by metals. In silico analysis of the selenoprotein H genes from nine species reveals multiple predicted metal response elements (MREs). To validate MRE function, we investigated the effects of zinc or cadmium addition and metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) knockout on selenoprotein H mRNA levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to directly assess physical binding of the transcription factor to MREs in the human and mouse selenoprotein H genes. The results reported herein show that selenoprotein H is a newly identified target for MTF-1. Further, whereas nearly all prior studies of MREs focused on those located in promoters, we demonstrate binding of MTF-1 to MREs located downstream of the transcription start sites in the human and murine selenoprotein H genes. Finally, we identified MREs in downstream sequences in 15 additional MTF-1 regulated genes lacking promoter MREs, and demonstrated MTF-1 binding in three of these genes. This regulation via sequences downstream of promoters highlights a new direction for identifying previously unrecognized target genes for MTF-1. PMID:19913599

  10. Lack of Association between Selenium Status and Disease Severity and Activity in Patients with Graves' Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dehina, Nora; Hofmann, Peter Josef; Behrends, Thomas; Eckstein, Anja; Schomburg, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is of importance for regular functioning of the immune system and thyroid gland, and may have a health effect in mild Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Objective As the Se status declines in inflammation, we analyzed whether GO activity or severity affects the Se status of patients. Methods Serum Se and selenoprotein P (SePP) concentrations were retrospectively determined in 84 consecutive GO patients before treatment and compared to their clinical activity score (CAS) and severity of eye changes (NOSPECS) status, and to the concentrations of autoantibodies targeting the TSH receptor (TRAK) or the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R-aAB). Results Serum Se and SePP were linearly associated, indicating a suboptimal Se status of our patients. In comparison to data from other European cohorts, the majority of GO patients had a relatively poor Se status ([Se] ± SD; 70.0 ± 23.8 µg/l), below the threshold needed for full expression of selenoproteins. TRAK were inversely associated with Se concentrations, while IGF1R-aAB titers were not associated with Se. Neither Se nor SePP concentrations differed between GO patients with severe versus mild or active versus inactive disease, or showed significant associations with the CAS or NOSPECS values. Conclusion GO patients are at risk of a low Se status, yet disease severity or activity does not seem to affect Se or SePP concentrations directly. However, as the retrospective nature of the analysis does not allow conclusions on a potential causative role of Se on Graves' disease or GO risk, these results neither support nor discourage adjuvant Se supplementation attempts. PMID:27099840

  11. UGA codon position-dependent incorporation of selenocysteine into mammalian selenoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Turanov, Anton A.; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2013-01-01

    It is thought that the SelenoCysteine Insertion Sequence (SECIS) element and UGA codon are sufficient for selenocysteine (Sec) insertion. However, we found that UGA supported Sec insertion only at its natural position or in its close proximity in mammalian thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1). In contrast, Sec could be inserted at any tested position in mammalian TR3. Replacement of the 3′-UTR of TR3 with the corresponding segment of a Euplotes crassus TR restricted Sec insertion into the C-terminal region, whereas the 3′-UTR of TR3 conferred unrestricted Sec insertion into E. crassus TR, in which Sec insertion is normally limited to the C-terminal region. Exchanges of 3′-UTRs between mammalian TR1 and E. crassus TR had no effect, as both proteins restricted Sec insertion. We further found that these effects could be explained by the use of selenoprotein-specific SECIS elements. Examination of Sec insertion into other selenoproteins was consistent with this model. The data indicate that mammals evolved the ability to limit Sec insertion into natural positions within selenoproteins, but do so in a selenoprotein-specific manner, and that this process is controlled by the SECIS element in the 3′-UTR. PMID:23716634

  12. Determination of the distribution of selenium between selenoprotein P, glutathione peroxidase and albumin in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Whanger, P.D.; Butler, J.A.; Deagen, J.T. )

    1991-03-11

    A chromatographic method was developed to determine the distribution of selenium between selenoprotein P, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and albumin, using two small columns of heparin-Sepharose CL-6B (white) and Reactive Blue 2-Sepharose CL-6B (blue) linked together in tandem. One ml of plasma was diluted to 10 ml with 0.02 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, the equilibration buffer, and applied to the white column. This was eluted at flow rate of 30 ml per hour. GSHp-Px was not retained by either column but selenoprotein P was retained by the white column and albumin by the blue column. After the two columns were separated, selenoprotein P was eluted for 90 min from the white column with a solution containing 500 units of heparin per ml. The albumin was eluted for 55 min from the blue column with 1.4 M NaCl. This method indicated that over 50% of the selenium in plasma from rats, monkeys, humans and sheep was with selenoprotein P, even during deficiency. From 15 to 22% of the selenium was associated with GSH-Px. The percentage of selenium with albumin was dependent upon the selenomethionine content of the diet.

  13. Selenoprotein P Inhibits Radiation-Induced Late Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation and Normal Cell Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Eckers, Jaimee C.; Kalen, Amanda L.; Xiao, Wusheng; Sarsour, Ehab H.; Goswami, Prabhat C.

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Radiation is a common mode of cancer therapy whose outcome is often limited because of normal tissue toxicity. We have shown previously that the accumulation of radiation-induced late reactive oxygen species (ROS) precedes cell death, suggesting that metabolic oxidative stress could regulate cellular radiation response. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether selenoprotein P (SEPP1), a major supplier of selenium to tissues and an antioxidant, regulates late ROS accumulation and toxicity in irradiated normal human fibroblasts (NHFs). Methods and Materials: Flow cytometry analysis of cell viability, cell cycle phase distribution, and dihydroethidium oxidation, along with clonogenic assays, were used to measure oxidative stress and toxicity. Human antioxidant mechanisms array and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were used to measure gene expression during late ROS accumulation in irradiated NHFs. Sodium selenite addition and SEPP1 overexpression were used to determine the causality of SEPP1 regulating late ROS accumulation and toxicity in irradiated NHFs. Results: Irradiated NHFs showed late ROS accumulation (4.5-fold increase from control; P<.05) that occurs after activation of the cell cycle checkpoint pathways and precedes cell death. The mRNA levels of CuZn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxiredoxin 3, and thioredoxin reductase 1 increased approximately 2- to 3-fold, whereas mRNA levels of cold shock domain containing E1 and SEPP1 increased more than 6-fold (P<.05). The addition of sodium selenite before the radiation treatment suppressed toxicity (45%; P<.05). SEPP1 overexpression suppressed radiation-induced late ROS accumulation (35%; P<.05) and protected NHFs from radiation-induced toxicity (58%; P<.05). Conclusion: SEPP1 mitigates radiation-induced late ROS accumulation and normal cell injury.

  14. Selenoprotein T is required for pathogenic bacteria avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Romanelli-Cedrez, Laura; Carrera, Inés; Otero, Lucía; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Mariotti, Marco; Alkema, Mark J; Salinas, Gustavo

    2017-03-24

    Selenoprotein T (SELENOT) is an endoplasmatic reticulum (ER)-associated redoxin that contains the amino acid selenocysteine (Sec, U) within a CXXU motif within a thioredoxin-like fold. Its precise function in multicellular organisms is not completely understood although it has been shown in mammals to be involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis, antioxidant and neuroendocrine functions. Here, we use the model organism C. elegans to address SELENOT function in a whole organism throughout its life cycle. C. elegans possess two genes encoding SELENOT protein orthologues (SELT-1.1 and SELT-1.2), which lack Sec and contain the CXXC redox motif instead. Our results show that a Sec→Cys replacement and a gene duplication were two major evolutionary events that occurred in the nematode lineage. We find that worm SELT-1.1 localizes to the ER and is expressed in different cell types, including the nervous system. In contrast, SELT-1.2 exclusively localizes in the cytoplasm of the AWB neurons. We find that selt-1.1 and selt-1.2 single mutants as well as the double mutant are viable, but the selt-1.1 mutant is compromised under rotenone-induced oxidative stress. We demonstrate that selt-1.1, but not selt-1.2, is required for avoidance to the bacterial pathogens Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Aversion to the noxious signal 2-nonanone is also significantly impaired in selt-1.1, but not in selt-1.2 mutant animals. Our results suggest that selt-1.1 would be a redox transducer required for nociception and optimal organismal fitness. The results highlight C. elegans as a valuable model organism to study SELENOT-dependent processes.

  15. Selenoprotein P inhibits radiation-induced late reactive oxygen species accumulation and normal cell injury.

    PubMed

    Eckers, Jaimee C; Kalen, Amanda L; Xiao, Wusheng; Sarsour, Ehab H; Goswami, Prabhat C

    2013-11-01

    Radiation is a common mode of cancer therapy whose outcome is often limited because of normal tissue toxicity. We have shown previously that the accumulation of radiation-induced late reactive oxygen species (ROS) precedes cell death, suggesting that metabolic oxidative stress could regulate cellular radiation response. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether selenoprotein P (SEPP1), a major supplier of selenium to tissues and an antioxidant, regulates late ROS accumulation and toxicity in irradiated normal human fibroblasts (NHFs). Flow cytometry analysis of cell viability, cell cycle phase distribution, and dihydroethidium oxidation, along with clonogenic assays, were used to measure oxidative stress and toxicity. Human antioxidant mechanisms array and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were used to measure gene expression during late ROS accumulation in irradiated NHFs. Sodium selenite addition and SEPP1 overexpression were used to determine the causality of SEPP1 regulating late ROS accumulation and toxicity in irradiated NHFs. Irradiated NHFs showed late ROS accumulation (4.5-fold increase from control; P<.05) that occurs after activation of the cell cycle checkpoint pathways and precedes cell death. The mRNA levels of CuZn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxiredoxin 3, and thioredoxin reductase 1 increased approximately 2- to 3-fold, whereas mRNA levels of cold shock domain containing E1 and SEPP1 increased more than 6-fold (P<.05). The addition of sodium selenite before the radiation treatment suppressed toxicity (45%; P<.05). SEPP1 overexpression suppressed radiation-induced late ROS accumulation (35%; P<.05) and protected NHFs from radiation-induced toxicity (58%; P<.05). SEPP1 mitigates radiation-induced late ROS accumulation and normal cell injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Selenoprotein P in seminal fluid is a novel biomarker of sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, Marten; Gralla, Oliver; Behrends, Thomas; Scharpf, Marcus; Endermann, Tobias; Rijntjes, Eddy; Pietschmann, Nicole; Hollenbach, Birgit; Schomburg, Lutz

    2014-01-17

    Hepatically-derived selenoprotein P (SePP) transports selenium (Se) via blood to other tissues including the testes. Male Sepp-knockout mice are infertile. SePP-mediated Se transport to Sertoli cells is needed for supporting biosynthesis of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4) in spermatozoa. GPX4 becomes a structural component of sperm midpiece during sperm maturation, and its expression correlates to semen quality. We tested whether SePP is also present in seminal plasma, potentially correlating to fertility parameters. Semen quality was assessed by sperm density, morphology and motility. SePP was measured by an immunoluminometric assay, and trace elements were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. SePP levels were considerably lower in seminal plasma as compared to serum (0.4±0.1 mg/l vs. 3.5±1.0 mg/l); Se concentrations showed a similar but less pronounced difference (48.9±20.7 μg/l vs. 106.7±17.3 μg/l). Se and Zn correlated positively in seminal fluid but not in serum. Seminal plasma SePP concentrations were independent of serum SePP concentrations, but correlated positively to sperm density and fraction of vital sperm. SePP concentrations in seminal plasma of vasectomized men were similar to controls indicating that accessory sex glands are a testes-independent source of SePP. This notion was corroborated by histochemical analyses localizing SePP in epithelial cells of seminal vesicles. We conclude that SePP is not only involved in Se transport to testes supporting GPX4 biosynthesis but it also becomes secreted into seminal plasma, likely important to protect sperm during storage, genital tract passage and final journey.

  17. Nonverbal expressions of status and system legitimacy: an interactive influence on race bias.

    PubMed

    Weisbuch, Max; Slepian, Michael L; Eccleston, Collette P; Ambady, Nalini

    2013-11-01

    A voluminous literature has examined how primates respond to nonverbal expressions of status, such as taking the high ground, expanding one's posture, and tilting one's head. We extend this research to human intergroup processes in general and interracial processes in particular. Perceivers may be sensitive to whether racial group status is reflected in group members' nonverbal expressions of status. We hypothesized that people who support the current status hierarchy would prefer racial groups whose members exhibit status-appropriate nonverbal behavior over racial groups whose members do not exhibit such behavior. People who reject the status quo should exhibit the opposite pattern. These hypotheses were supported in three studies using self-report (Study 1) and reaction time (Studies 2 and 3) measures of racial bias and two different status cues (vertical position and head tilt). For perceivers who supported the status quo, high-status cues (in comparison with low-status cues) increased preferences for White people over Black people. For perceivers who rejected the status quo, the opposite pattern was observed.

  18. Mice lacking selenoprotein P and selenocysteine lyase exhibit severe neurological dysfunction, neurodegeneration, and audiogenic seizures.

    PubMed

    Byrns, China N; Pitts, Matthew W; Gilman, Christy A; Hashimoto, Ann C; Berry, Marla J

    2014-04-04

    Selenoproteins are a unique family of proteins, characterized by the co-translational incorporation of selenium as selenocysteine, which play key roles in antioxidant defense. Among selenoproteins, selenoprotein P (Sepp1) is particularly distinctive due to the fact that it contains multiple selenocysteine residues and has been postulated to act in selenium transport. Within the brain, Sepp1 delivers selenium to neurons by binding to the ApoER2 receptor. Upon feeding a selenium-deficient diet, mice lacking ApoER2 or Sepp1 develop severe neurological dysfunction and exhibit widespread brainstem neurodegeneration, indicating an important role for ApoER2-mediated Sepp1 uptake in normal brain function. Selenocysteine lyase (Scly) is an enzyme that plays an important role in selenium homeostasis, in that it catalyzes the decomposition of selenocysteine and allows selenium to be recycled for additional selenoprotein synthesis. We previously reported that constitutive deletion of Scly results in neurological deficits only when mice are challenged with a low selenium diet. To gain insight into the relationship between Sepp1 and Scly in selenium metabolism, we created novel transgenic mice constitutively lacking both genes (Scly(-/-)Sepp1(-/-)) and characterized the neurobehavioral phenotype. We report that deletion of Scly in conjunction with Sepp1 further aggravates the phenotype of Sepp1(-/-) mice, as these mice needed supraphysiological selenium supplementation to survive, and surviving mice exhibited impaired motor coordination, audiogenic seizures, and brainstem neurodegeneration. These findings provide the first in vivo evidence that Scly and Sepp1 work cooperatively to maintain selenoprotein function in the mammalian brain.

  19. Selenoprotein N Was Required for the Regulation of Selenium on the Uterine Smooth Muscle Contraction in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jingxuan; Li, Chengye; Gu, Gaoqin; Wang, Qi; Guo, Mengyao

    2017-08-23

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient affecting various aspects of health. The balance of the Se concentration has an important protective and promoter effect on physiological function in inducing muscular disorders in smooth muscle. Selenoprotein N (SelN) is closely related to Ca(2+) release. The present study aimed to determine the effects and mechanism of action of dietary Se on uterine smooth muscle contraction via SelN using a mouse model. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis was performed to detect mRNA levels. Western blotting was performed to detect protein levels. The results of the immunohistochemical analysis showed that Se had an effect on the uterine smooth muscle. The Se-supplement increased the release of Ca(2+), Ca(2+)-calmodulin (CaM) expression, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) expression, and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation but did not affect ROCK and RhoA in uterine smooth muscle. Furthermore, the lack of Se showed an opposite impact. The effects of Se regulation were closely related to SelN. The interference of mouse SelN was performed on the uterine smooth muscle cell. Additionally, the results displayed the regulation of Se on the release of Ca(2+), CaM expression, MLCK expression, and MLC phosphorylation were significant inhibited, and there was no effect on ROCK and RhoA. In conclusion, Se played an important role in regulating the process of contraction in uterine smooth muscle with SelN.

  20. Cross-Cultural Evidence that the Nonverbal Expression of Pride Is an Automatic Status Signal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Jessica L.; Shariff, Azim F.; Zhao, Wanying; Henrich, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    To test whether the pride expression is an implicit, reliably developing signal of high social status in humans, the authors conducted a series of experiments that measured implicit and explicit cognitive associations between pride displays and high-status concepts in two culturally disparate populations--North American undergraduates and Fijian…

  1. Cross-Cultural Evidence that the Nonverbal Expression of Pride Is an Automatic Status Signal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Jessica L.; Shariff, Azim F.; Zhao, Wanying; Henrich, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    To test whether the pride expression is an implicit, reliably developing signal of high social status in humans, the authors conducted a series of experiments that measured implicit and explicit cognitive associations between pride displays and high-status concepts in two culturally disparate populations--North American undergraduates and Fijian…

  2. A tale of two toxicities: malformed selenoproteins and oxidative stress both contribute to selenium stress in plants.

    PubMed

    Van Hoewyk, Doug

    2013-10-01

    Despite selenium's toxicity in plants at higher levels, crops supply most of the essential dietary selenium in humans. In plants, inorganic selenium can be assimilated into selenocysteine, which can replace cysteine in proteins. Selenium toxicity in plants has been attributed to the formation of non-specific selenoproteins. However, this paradigm can be challenged now that there is increasingly abundant evidence suggesting that selenium-induced oxidative stress also contributes to toxicity in plants. This Botanical Briefing summarizes the evidence indicating that selenium toxicity in plants is attributable to both the accumulation of non-specific selenoproteins and selenium-induced oxidative stress. Evidence is also presented to substantiate the claim that inadvertent selenocysteine replacement probably impairs or misfolds proteins, which supports the malformed selenoprotein hypothesis. The possible physiological ramifications of selenoproteins and selenium-induced oxidative stress are discussed. Malformed selenoproteins and oxidative stress are two distinct types of stress that drive selenium toxicity in plants and could impact cellular processes in plants that have yet to be thoroughly explored. Although challenging, deciphering whether the extent of selenium toxicity in plants is imparted by selenoproteins or oxidative stress could be helpful in the development of crops with fortified levels of selenium.

  3. SelenoDB 2.0: annotation of selenoprotein genes in animals and their genetic diversity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Romagné, Frédéric; Santesmasses, Didac; White, Louise; Sarangi, Gaurab K.; Mariotti, Marco; Hübler, Ron; Weihmann, Antje; Parra, Genís; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Guigó, Roderic; Castellano, Sergi

    2014-01-01

    SelenoDB (http://www.selenodb.org) aims to provide high-quality annotations of selenoprotein genes, proteins and SECIS elements. Selenoproteins are proteins that contain the amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) and the first release of the database included annotations for eight species. Since the release of SelenoDB 1.0 many new animal genomes have been sequenced. The annotations of selenoproteins in new genomes usually contain many errors in major databases. For this reason, we have now fully annotated selenoprotein genes in 58 animal genomes. We provide manually curated annotations for human selenoproteins, whereas we use an automatic annotation pipeline to annotate selenoprotein genes in other animal genomes. In addition, we annotate the homologous genes containing cysteine (Cys) instead of Sec. Finally, we have surveyed genetic variation in the annotated genes in humans. We use exon capture and resequencing approaches to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms in more than 50 human populations around the world. We thus present a detailed view of the genetic divergence of Sec- and Cys-containing genes in animals and their diversity in humans. The addition of these datasets into the second release of the database provides a valuable resource for addressing medical and evolutionary questions in selenium biology. PMID:24194593

  4. A tale of two toxicities: malformed selenoproteins and oxidative stress both contribute to selenium stress in plants

    PubMed Central

    Van Hoewyk, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite selenium's toxicity in plants at higher levels, crops supply most of the essential dietary selenium in humans. In plants, inorganic selenium can be assimilated into selenocysteine, which can replace cysteine in proteins. Selenium toxicity in plants has been attributed to the formation of non-specific selenoproteins. However, this paradigm can be challenged now that there is increasingly abundant evidence suggesting that selenium-induced oxidative stress also contributes to toxicity in plants. Scope This Botanical Briefing summarizes the evidence indicating that selenium toxicity in plants is attributable to both the accumulation of non-specific selenoproteins and selenium-induced oxidative stress. Evidence is also presented to substantiate the claim that inadvertent selenocysteine replacement probably impairs or misfolds proteins, which supports the malformed selenoprotein hypothesis. The possible physiological ramifications of selenoproteins and selenium-induced oxidative stress are discussed. Conclusions Malformed selenoproteins and oxidative stress are two distinct types of stress that drive selenium toxicity in plants and could impact cellular processes in plants that have yet to be thoroughly explored. Although challenging, deciphering whether the extent of selenium toxicity in plants is imparted by selenoproteins or oxidative stress could be helpful in the development of crops with fortified levels of selenium. PMID:23904445

  5. Mutations in the selenocysteine insertion sequence–binding protein 2 gene lead to a multisystem selenoprotein deficiency disorder in humans

    PubMed Central

    Schoenmakers, Erik; Agostini, Maura; Mitchell, Catherine; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Papp, Laura; Rajanayagam, Odelia; Padidela, Raja; Ceron-Gutierrez, Lourdes; Doffinger, Rainer; Prevosto, Claudia; Luan, Jian’an; Montano, Sergio; Lu, Jun; Castanet, Mireille; Clemons, Nick; Groeneveld, Matthijs; Castets, Perrine; Karbaschi, Mahsa; Aitken, Sri; Dixon, Adrian; Williams, Jane; Campi, Irene; Blount, Margaret; Burton, Hannah; Muntoni, Francesco; O’Donovan, Dominic; Dean, Andrew; Warren, Anne; Brierley, Charlotte; Baguley, David; Guicheney, Pascale; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Coles, Alasdair; Gaston, Hill; Todd, Pamela; Holmgren, Arne; Khanna, Kum Kum; Cooke, Marcus; Semple, Robert; Halsall, David; Wareham, Nicholas; Schwabe, John; Grasso, Lucia; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Ogunko, Arthur; Dattani, Mehul; Gurnell, Mark; Chatterjee, Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Selenium, a trace element that is fundamental to human health, is incorporated into some proteins as selenocysteine (Sec), generating a family of selenoproteins. Sec incorporation is mediated by a multiprotein complex that includes Sec insertion sequence–binding protein 2 (SECISBP2; also known as SBP2). Here, we describe subjects with compound heterozygous defects in the SECISBP2 gene. These individuals have reduced synthesis of most of the 25 known human selenoproteins, resulting in a complex phenotype. Azoospermia, with failure of the latter stages of spermatogenesis, was associated with a lack of testis-enriched selenoproteins. An axial muscular dystrophy was also present, with features similar to myopathies caused by mutations in selenoprotein N (SEPN1). Cutaneous deficiencies of antioxidant selenoenzymes, increased cellular ROS, and susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation–induced oxidative damage may mediate the observed photosensitivity. Reduced levels of selenoproteins in peripheral blood cells were associated with impaired T lymphocyte proliferation, abnormal mononuclear cell cytokine secretion, and telomere shortening. Paradoxically, raised ROS in affected subjects was associated with enhanced systemic and cellular insulin sensitivity, similar to findings in mice lacking the antioxidant selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1). Thus, mutation of SECISBP2 is associated with a multisystem disorder with defective biosynthesis of many selenoproteins, highlighting their role in diverse biological processes. PMID:21084748

  6. Can an angry woman get ahead? Status conferral, gender, and expression of emotion in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Brescoll, Victoria L; Uhlmann, Eric Luis

    2008-03-01

    Three studies examined the relationships among anger, gender, and status conferral. As in prior research, men who expressed anger in a professional context were conferred higher status than men who expressed sadness. However, both male and female evaluators conferred lower status on angry female professionals than on angry male professionals. This was the case regardless of the actual occupational rank of the target, such that both a female trainee and a female CEO were given lower status if they expressed anger than if they did not. Whereas women's emotional reactions were attributed to internal characteristics (e.g., "she is an angry person,"she is out of control"), men's emotional reactions were attributed to external circumstances. Providing an external attribution for the target person's anger eliminated the gender bias. Theoretical implications and practical applications are discussed.

  7. Manipulating the appearance of a badge of status causes changes in true badge expression

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Cody J.; Dale, James; Quinn, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Signals of dominance and fighting ability (i.e. status signals) are found in a wide range of taxa and are used to settle disputes between competitive rivals. Most previous research has considered status-signal phenotype as an attribute of the individual; however, it is more likely that signal expression is an emergent property that also incorporates aspects of the social environment. Furthermore, because an individual's signal phenotype is likely to influence its social interactions, the relationships between status signals, social environment and individual quality are probably much more complex than previously appreciated. Here, we explore the dynamic relationship between social interactions and signal expression in a previously undescribed status signal, the frontal shield of the pukeko (Porphyrio porphyrio melanotus: Aves). We demonstrate that frontal shield size is a strong predictor of dominance status within social groups, even after controlling for potentially confounding variables. Then, we evaluate the relationship between social interactions and signal expression by testing whether manipulating apparent shield size influences (i) dominance interactions and (ii) future signal expression. By showing that decreasing apparent shield size causes both an increase in the amount of aggression received and a decrease in an individual's true shield size, we provide the first evidence of dynamic feedback between signal expression and social interactions. Our study provides important insight into the role of receiver-dependent (i.e. social) costs in maintaining signal honesty and demonstrates a unique approach to studying status signalling applicable to future studies on dynamic morphological signals. PMID:24285201

  8. Early childhood stuttering III: initial status of expressive language abilities.

    PubMed

    Watkins, R V; Yairi, E; Ambrose, N G

    1999-10-01

    This investigation evaluated the expressive language abilities of 84 preschool-age children who stuttered, 62 who recovered from stuttering, and 22 who persisted in stuttering. The participants were identical to those identified in E. Yairi and N. G. Ambrose (1999) and E. Paden, E. Yairi, and N. G. Ambrose (1999). A range of lexical, morphological, and syntactic measures--calculated from spontaneous language samples of approximately 250-300 utterances in length collected relatively near stuttering onset--were used to examine the children's expressive language skills. For the purpose of analysis and comparison to normative data, children were grouped into three age intervals, in terms of the age at which they entered the study (2- to 3-year-olds, 3- to 4-year-olds, and 4- to 5-year-olds). Findings revealed similarity in the expressive language abilities of children whose stuttering persisted as opposed to abated at all age intervals. In addition, persistent and recovered stutterers displayed expressive language abilities near or above developmental expectations, based on comparison with normative data, at all age intervals. Children who entered the study at the youngest age level consistently demonstrated expressive language abilities well above normative expectations; this pattern was found for both persistent and recovered groups. These findings provide relatively limited information to assist in the early differentiation of persistence in or recovery from stuttering, but they do shed light on theoretical issues regarding the nature and character of early stuttering and potential associations with language learning.

  9. Hormone Receptor and ERBB2 Status in Gene Expression Profiles of Human Breast Tumor Samples

    PubMed Central

    Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Hassell, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of large publically available repositories of human breast tumor gene expression profiles provides an important resource to discover new breast cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets. For example, knowledge of the expression of the estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors (ER and PR), and that of the ERBB2 in breast tumor samples enables choice of therapies for the breast cancer patients that express these proteins. Identifying new biomarkers and therapeutic agents affecting the activity of signaling pathways regulated by the hormone receptors or ERBB2 might be accelerated by knowledge of their expression levels in large gene expression profiling data sets. Unfortunately, the status of these receptors is not invariably reported in public databases of breast tumor gene expression profiles. Attempts have been made to employ a single probe set to identify ER, PR and ERBB2 status, but the specificity or sensitivity of their prediction is low. We enquired whether estimation of ER, PR and ERBB2 status of profiled tumor samples could be improved by using multiple probe sets representing these three genes and others with related expression. We used 8 independent datasets of human breast tumor samples to define gene expression signatures comprising 24, 51 and 14 genes predictive of ER, PR and ERBB2 status respectively. These signatures, as demonstrated by sensitivity and specificity measures, reliably identified hormone receptor and ERBB2 expression in breast tumors that had been previously determined using protein and DNA based assays. Our findings demonstrate that gene signatures can be identified which reliably predict the expression status of the estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors and that of ERBB2 in publically available gene expression profiles of breast tumor samples. Using these signatures to query transcript profiles of breast tumor specimens may enable discovery of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for particular subtypes of

  10. Early Childhood Stuttering III: Initial Status of Expressive Language Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Ruth V.; Yairi, Ehud; Ambrose, Nicoline Grinager

    1999-01-01

    A study compared the expressive language abilities of 22 preschool children whose stuttering persisted and 62 who recovered over a four-year period. Findings revealed similarity in the abilities of children whose stuttering persisted as opposed to abated at all ages. All stutterers displayed abilities near or above developmental expectations. (CR)

  11. Se Enhances MLCK Activation by Regulating Selenoprotein T (SelT) in the Gastric Smooth Muscle of Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Ping; Zhou, Jing-Xuan; Wang, Qi; Gu, Gao-Qin; Yang, Shi-Jin; Li, Cheng-Ye; Qiu, Chang-Wei; Deng, Gan-Zhen; Guo, Meng-Yao

    2016-09-01

    Selenium (Se), a nutritionally essential trace element, is associated with health and disease. Selenoprotein T (SelT) was identified as a redoxin protein with a selenocystein, localizing in the endoplasmic reticulum. The myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin light chain (MLC) play key roles in the contraction process of smooth muscle. The present study was to detect the effect and mechanism of SelT on the contraction process of gastric smooth muscle. The WT rats were fed with different Se concentration diets, and Se and Ca(2+) concentrations were detected in the gastric smooth muscle. Western blot and qPCR were performed to determine SelT, CaM, MLCK, and MLC expressions. MLCK activity was measured by identifying the rates of [γ-32P]ATP incorporated into the MLC. The results showed Se and Ca(2+) concentrations were enhanced with Se intake in gastric smooth muscle tissues. With increasing Se, SelT, CaM, MLCK and MLC expressions increased, and MLCK and MLC activation improved in gastric smooth muscle tissue. The SelT RNA interference experiments showed that Ca(2+) release, MLCK activation, and MLC phosphorylation were regulated by SelT. Se affected the gastric smooth muscle constriction by regulating Ca(2+) release, MLCK activation, and MLC phosphorylation through SelT. Se plays a major role in regulating the contraction processes of gastric smooth muscle with the SelT.

  12. Gene expression signatures for colorectal cancer microsatellite status and HNPCC

    PubMed Central

    Kruhøffer, M; Jensen, J L; Laiho, P; Dyrskjøt, L; Salovaara, R; Arango, D; Birkenkamp-Demtroder, K; Sørensen, F B; Christensen, L L; Buhl, L; Mecklin, J-P; Järvinen, H; Thykjaer, T; Wikman, F P; Bech-Knudsen, F; Juhola, M; Nupponen, N N; Laurberg, S; Andersen, C L; Aaltonen, L A; Ørntoft, T F

    2005-01-01

    The majority of microsatellite instable (MSI) colorectal cancers are sporadic, but a subset belongs to the syndrome hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Microsatellite instability is caused by dysfunction of the mismatch repair (MMR) system that leads to a mutator phenotype, and MSI is correlated to prognosis and response to chemotherapy. Gene expression signatures as predictive markers are being developed for many cancers, and the identification of a signature for MMR deficiency would be of interest both clinically and biologically. To address this issue, we profiled the gene expression of 101 stage II and III colorectal cancers (34 MSI, 67 microsatellite stable (MSS)) using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. From these data, we constructed a nine-gene signature capable of separating the mismatch repair proficient and deficient tumours. Subsequently, we demonstrated the robustness of the signature by transferring it to a real-time RT-PCR platform. Using this platform, the signature was validated on an independent test set consisting of 47 tumours (10 MSI, 37 MSS), of which 45 were correctly classified. In a second step, we constructed a signature capable of separating MMR-deficient tumours into sporadic MSI and HNPCC cases, and validated this by a mathematical cross-validation approach. The demonstration that this two-step classification approach can identify MSI as well as HNPCC cases merits further gene expression studies to identify prognostic signatures. PMID:15956967

  13. Selenoprotein K form an intermolecular diselenide bond with unusually high redox potential.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Zhengqi; Rozovsky, Sharon

    2014-09-17

    Selenoprotein K (SelK) is a membrane protein involved in antioxidant defense, calcium regulation and the ER-associated protein degradation pathway. We found that SelK exhibits a peroxidase activity with a rate that is low but within the range of other peroxidases. Notably, SelK reduced hydrophobic substrates, such as phospholipid hydroperoxides, which damage membranes. Thus, SelK might be involved in membrane repair or related pathways. SelK was also found to contain a diselenide bond-the first intramolecular bond of that kind reported for a selenoprotein. The redox potential of SelK was -257 mV, significantly higher than that of diselenide bonds in small molecules or proteins. Consequently, SelK can be reduced by thioredoxin reductase. These finding are essential for understanding SelK activity and function. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Studies on selenoproteins in bovine kidneys by gel chromatography and neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Chatt, A.; Jayawickreme, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    Selenium at low concentrations has been claimed to be an element which is essential for life and growth. In recent years, selenium attracted increasing interest from researchers around the world because of its possible biological functions in preventing cancer, enhancing the immune system, slowing the aging process, and stimulating sexual activity. In living matter, selenium is mainly incorporated with macromolecules. Much of the metabolic behavior, biological effects, and involvement in homeostatic mechanism of this element may very well depend on the presence of the particular type of selenoproteins in the system. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) in conjunction with several bioanalytical techniques can be used to characterize metalloproteins in general. In a recent study, the distribution of trace elements in subcellular fractions of bovine kidney has been reported. The present work deals with the application of NAA together with other techniques to the isolation and characterization of selenoproteins in bovine kidneys with particular emphasis on the NAA method developed.

  15. Anger and advancement versus sadness and subjugation: the effect of negative emotion expressions on social status conferral.

    PubMed

    Tiedens, L Z

    2001-01-01

    Four studies examined status conferral (decisions about who should be granted status). The studies show that people confer more status to targets who express anger than to targets who express sadness. In the 1st study, participants supported President Clinton more when they viewed him expressing anger about the Monica Lewinsky scandal than when they saw him expressing sadness about the scandal. This effect was replicated with an unknown politician in Study 2. The 3rd study showed that status conferral in a company was correlated with peers' ratings of the workers' anger. In the final study, participants assigned a higher status position and a higher salary to a job candidate who described himself as angry as opposed to sad. Furthermore, Studies 2-4 showed that anger expressions created the impression that the expresser was competent and that these perceptions mediated the relationship between emotional expressions and status conferral.

  16. Overexpression of Selenoprotein SelK in BGC-823 Cells Inhibits Cell Adhesion and Migration.

    PubMed

    Ben, S B; Peng, B; Wang, G C; Li, C; Gu, H F; Jiang, H; Meng, X L; Lee, B J; Chen, C L

    2015-10-01

    Effects of human selenoprotein SelK on the adhesion and migration ability of human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells using Matrigel adhesion and transwell migration assays, respectively, were investigated in this study. The Matrigel adhesion ability of BGC-823 cells that overexpressed SelK declined extremely significantly (p < 0.01) compared with that of the cells not expressing the protein. The migration ability of BGC-823 cells that overexpressed SelK also declined extremely significantly (p < 0.01). On the other hand, the Matrigel adhesion ability and migration ability of the cells that overexpressed C-terminally truncated SelK did not decline significantly. The Matrigel adhesion ability and migration ability of human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells that overexpressed SelK did not show significant change (p > 0.05) with the cells that overexpressed the C-terminally truncated protein. In addition to the effect on Matrigel adhesion and migration, the overexpression of SelK also caused a loss in cell viability (as measured by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay) and induced apoptosis as shown by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The cytosolic free Ca2+ level of these cells was significantly increased as detected by flow cytometry. But the overexpression of SelK in HEK-293 cells caused neither significant loss in cell viability nor apoptosis induction. Only the elevation of cytosolic free Ca2+ level in these cells was significant. Taken together, the results suggest that the overexpression of SelK can inhibit human cancer cell Matrigel adhesion and migration and cause both the loss in cell viability and induction of apoptosis. The release of intracellular Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum might be a mechanism whereby the protein exerted its impact. Furthermore, only the full-length protein, but not C-terminally truncated form, was capable of producing such impact. The embryonic cells were not influenced by the

  17. Simultaneous speciation of selenoproteins and selenometabolites in plasma and serum by dual size exclusion-affinity chromatography with online isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    García-Sevillano, M A; García-Barrera, T; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2014-04-01

    A method for the simultaneous speciation of selenoproteins and selenometabolites in mouse plasma has been developed based on in series two-dimensional size exclusion and affinity high-performance liquid chromatography (2D/SE-AF-HPLC), using two columns of each type, and hyphenation to inductively coupled plasma-(quadrupole) mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS). The method allows the quantitative determination of selenoprotein P (SeP), extracellular glutathione peroxidase (eGPx), selenoalbumin (SeAlb), and selenometabolites in mouse plasma using species-unspecific isotope dilution (SUID). The 2D chromatographic separation is proposed to remove typical spectral interferences in plasma from chloride and bromide on (77)Se ((40)Ar(37)Cl) and (82)Se ((81)Br(1)H). In addition, the approach increases chromatographic resolution allowing the separation of eGPx from Se metabolites of low molecular mass. The method is robust, reliable, and fast with a typical chromatographic runtime less than 20 min. Precision in terms of relative standard deviation (n = 5) is in the order of 4 %, and detection limits are in the range of 0.2 to 1.0 ng Se g(-1). Method accuracy for determination of total protein bound to Se was assessed by analyzing human serum reference material (BCR-637) certified for total Se content, and latterly applied to mouse plasma (Mus musculus). In summary, a reliable speciation method for the analysis of eGPx, selenometabolites, SeP, and SeAlb in plasma/serum samples is proposed for the first time and is applicable to the evaluation of Se status in human in clinical studies and other mammals for environmental or toxicological assessment.

  18. Protective Action of Se-Supplement Against Acute Alcoholism Is Regulated by Selenoprotein P (SelP) in the Liver.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenbiao; Guo, Yingfang; Qiu, Changwei; Deng, Ganzhen; Guo, Mengyao

    2017-02-01

    Acute alcoholism is a major cause of cirrhosis and liver failure around the world. Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient promoting liver health in humans and animals. Selenoprotein P (SelP) is a glycoprotein secreted within the liver, which interacts with cytokines and the growth factor pathway to provide protection for hepatic cells. The present study was conducted to confirm the effect and mechanism of Se and SelP action in livers affected by acute alcoholism. In this study, a mouse model of acute alcoholism, as well as a hepatocyte model, was successfully established. The Se content of the liver was detected by atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry. The expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The protein expression of inflammatory factors was detected by ELISA. The other proteins were analyzed by western blotting. The results showed that pathological damage to the liver was gradually weakened by Se-supplementation, which was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and TUNEL staining. Se-supplementation inhibited expression of pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-1β and promoted production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in the liver with acute alcoholism. Se-supplementation also prevented the apoptosis of hepatocytes by suppressing the cleavage of caspases-9, 3, 6, 7, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Through correlational analysis, it was determined that the effects of Se-supplement were closely related to SelP expression, inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis molecule production. The sienna of SelP further confirmed the protective action of Se-supplementation on the liver and that the mechanism of SelP involves the regulation of inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis molecules in acute alcoholism. These findings provide information regarding a new potential target for the treatment of acute alcoholism.

  19. Detection of Selenoproteins by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP MS) in Immobilized pH Gradient (IPG) Strips.

    PubMed

    Sonet, Jordan; Mounicou, Sandra; Chavatte, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    In contrast to other trace elements that are cofactors of enzymes and removed from proteins under denaturing conditions, Se is covalently bound to proteins when incorporated into selenoproteins, since it is a component of selenocysteine aminoacid. It implies that selenoproteins can undergo several biochemical separation methods in stringent and chaotropic conditions and still maintain the presence of selenium in the primary sequence. This feature has been used to develop a method for the detection of trace levels of human selenoproteins in cell extracts without the use of radioactive isotopes. The selenoproteins are separated as a function of their isoelectric point (pI) using iso-electrofocusing (IEF) electrophoretic strips and detected by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP MS). This method, therefore referred to as IEF-LA-ICP MS, allowed the detection of several selenoproteins in human cell lines, including Gpx1, Gpx4, TXNRD1, TXNRD2, and SELENOF.

  20. Estrogenic status modulates aryl hydrocarbon receptor - mediated hepatic gene expression and carcinogenicity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Estrogenic status is thought to influence the cancer risk in women and has been reported to affect toxicity of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in animals. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of estradiol (E2) on hepatic gene expression changes mediated by 7,...

  1. Expression of acetylcholinesterase 1 is associated with brood rearing status in the honey bee, Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Kyungmun; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2017-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase 1 (AmAChE1) of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, has been suggested to have non-neuronal functions. A systematic expression profiling of AmAChE1 over a year-long cycle on a monthly basis revealed that AmAChE1 was predominantly expressed in both head and abdomen during the winter months and was moderately expressed during the rainy summer months. Interestingly, AmAChE1 expression was inhibited when bees were stimulated for brood rearing by placing overwintering beehives in strawberry greenhouses with a pollen diet, whereas it resumed when the beehives were moved back to the cold field, thereby suppressing brood rearing. In early spring, pollen diet supplementation accelerated the induction of brood-rearing activity and the inhibition of AmAChE1 expression. When active beehives were placed in a screen tent in late spring, thereby artificially suppressing brood-rearing activity, AmAChE1 was highly expressed. In contrast, AmAChE1 expression was inhibited when beehives were allowed to restore brood rearing by removing the screen, supporting the hypothesis that brood rearing status is a main factor in the regulation of AmAChE1 expression. Since brood rearing status is influenced by various stress factors, including temperature and diet shortage, our finding discreetly suggests that AmAChE1 is likely involved in the stress response or stress management. PMID:28045085

  2. Expression of acetylcholinesterase 1 is associated with brood rearing status in the honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Kyungmun; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2017-01-03

    Acetylcholinesterase 1 (AmAChE1) of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, has been suggested to have non-neuronal functions. A systematic expression profiling of AmAChE1 over a year-long cycle on a monthly basis revealed that AmAChE1 was predominantly expressed in both head and abdomen during the winter months and was moderately expressed during the rainy summer months. Interestingly, AmAChE1 expression was inhibited when bees were stimulated for brood rearing by placing overwintering beehives in strawberry greenhouses with a pollen diet, whereas it resumed when the beehives were moved back to the cold field, thereby suppressing brood rearing. In early spring, pollen diet supplementation accelerated the induction of brood-rearing activity and the inhibition of AmAChE1 expression. When active beehives were placed in a screen tent in late spring, thereby artificially suppressing brood-rearing activity, AmAChE1 was highly expressed. In contrast, AmAChE1 expression was inhibited when beehives were allowed to restore brood rearing by removing the screen, supporting the hypothesis that brood rearing status is a main factor in the regulation of AmAChE1 expression. Since brood rearing status is influenced by various stress factors, including temperature and diet shortage, our finding discreetly suggests that AmAChE1 is likely involved in the stress response or stress management.

  3. Androgen receptor expression predicts different clinical outcomes for breast cancer patients stratified by hormone receptor status

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Zheng, Yi-Zi; Liu, Yi-Rong; Lang, Guan-Tian; Qiao, Feng; Hu, Xin; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In this study we sought to correlate androgen receptor (AR) expression with tumor progression and disease-free survival (DFS) in breast cancer patients. We investigated AR expression in 450 breast cancer patients. We found that breast cancers expressing the estrogen receptor (ER) are more likely to co-express AR compared to ER-negative cancers (56.0% versus 28.1%, P < 0.001). In addition, we found that AR expression is correlated with increased DFS in patients with luminal breast cancer (P < 0.001), and decreased DFS in TNBC (triple negative breast cancer, P = 0.014). In addition, patients with HR+ tumors (Hormone receptor positive tumors) expressing low levels of AR have the lowest DFS among all receptor combinations. We also propose a novel prognostic model using AR receptor status, BRCA1, and present data showing that our model is more predictive of disease free survival compared to the traditional TMN staging system. PMID:27285752

  4. Longitudinal selenium status in healthy British adults: assessment using biochemical and molecular biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Sunde, Roger A.; Paterson, Elaine; Evenson, Jacqueline K.; Barnes, Kimberly M.; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Gordon, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Human selenium (Se) requirements are currently based on biochemical markers of Se status. In rats, tissue glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx1) mRNA levels can be used effectively to determine Se requirements; blood Gpx1 mRNA levels decrease in Se-deficient rats, so molecular biology-based markers have potential for human nutrition assessment. To study the efficacy of molecular biology markers for assessing Se status in humans, we conducted a longitudinal study on 39 subjects (age 45 ± 11) in Reading, UK. Diet diaries (5 day) and blood were obtained from each subject at 2, 8, 17 and 23 weeks, and plasma Se, glutathione peroxidase (Gpx3) enzyme activity, and selenoprotein mRNA levels were determined. There were no significant longitudinal effects on Se biomarkers. Se intake averaged 48 ± 14 μg/d. Plasma Se concentrations averaged 1.13 ± 0.16 μmol/l. Plasma Se v. energy-corrected Se intake (ng Se/kJ/d) was significantly correlated, but neither Gpx3 activity v. Se intake (ng Se/kJ/d) nor Gpx3 activity v. plasma Se was significantly correlated. Collectively, this indicates that subjects were on the plateaus of the response curves. Selenoprotein mRNAs were quantitated in total RNA isolated from whole blood, but mRNA levels for Gpx1, selenoprotein H, and selenoprotein W (all highly regulated by Se in rodents), as well selenoprotein P, Gpx3, and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase were also not significantly correlated with plasma Se. Thus selenoprotein molecular biomarkers, as well as traditional biochemical markers, are unable to further distinguish differences in Se status in these Se replete subjects. The efficacy of molecular biomarkers to detect Se deficiency needs to be tested in Se-deficient populations. PMID:18598587

  5. A Machine Learned Classifier That Uses Gene Expression Data to Accurately Predict Estrogen Receptor Status

    PubMed Central

    Bastani, Meysam; Vos, Larissa; Asgarian, Nasimeh; Deschenes, Jean; Graham, Kathryn; Mackey, John; Greiner, Russell

    2013-01-01

    Background Selecting the appropriate treatment for breast cancer requires accurately determining the estrogen receptor (ER) status of the tumor. However, the standard for determining this status, immunohistochemical analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples, suffers from numerous technical and reproducibility issues. Assessment of ER-status based on RNA expression can provide more objective, quantitative and reproducible test results. Methods To learn a parsimonious RNA-based classifier of hormone receptor status, we applied a machine learning tool to a training dataset of gene expression microarray data obtained from 176 frozen breast tumors, whose ER-status was determined by applying ASCO-CAP guidelines to standardized immunohistochemical testing of formalin fixed tumor. Results This produced a three-gene classifier that can predict the ER-status of a novel tumor, with a cross-validation accuracy of 93.17±2.44%. When applied to an independent validation set and to four other public databases, some on different platforms, this classifier obtained over 90% accuracy in each. In addition, we found that this prediction rule separated the patients' recurrence-free survival curves with a hazard ratio lower than the one based on the IHC analysis of ER-status. Conclusions Our efficient and parsimonious classifier lends itself to high throughput, highly accurate and low-cost RNA-based assessments of ER-status, suitable for routine high-throughput clinical use. This analytic method provides a proof-of-principle that may be applicable to developing effective RNA-based tests for other biomarkers and conditions. PMID:24312637

  6. Retinol status and expression of retinol-related proteins in methionine-choline deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Takitani, Kimitaka; Koh, Maki; Inoue, Akiko; Kishi, Kanta; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Retinol and its derivative, retinoic acid, have pleiotropic functions including vision, immunity, hematopoiesis, reproduction, cell differentiation/growth, and development. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common diseases in developed countries and encompasses a broad spectrum of forms, ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis, which develops further to cirrhosis. Retinol status has an important role in liver homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the retinol status and expression of retinol-related proteins, including enzymes and binding proteins, in methionine-choline deficient (MCD) rats as a model of NAFLD. We examined retinol levels in the plasma and liver and gene expression for β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (BCMO), lecithIn: retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), ALDH1A2, and cellular retinol binding protein (CRBP)-I in MCD rats. The plasma retinol levels in MCD rats were lower than those in the controls, whereas hepatic retinol levels in MCD rats were higher. BCMO expression in the intestine and liver in MCD rats was lower, whereas that in the testes and the kidneys was higher than in control rats. Expression of LRAT, CRBP-I, ALDH1A1, and ALDH1A2 in the liver of MCD rats was also higher. Altered expression of retinol-related proteins may affect retinol status in NAFLD.

  7. Longitudinal Changes in Serum Levels of Angiopoietin-Like Protein 6 and Selenoprotein P After Gastric Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jisun; Park, Hye Soon; Lee, Seul Ki; Jang, Yeon Jin; Lee, Yeon Ji; Heo, Yoonseok

    2016-04-01

    Bariatric surgery has beneficial effects on weight loss and metabolic profiles. Recent evidence suggests that liver-derived hepatokines play a role in the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. However, few studies have reported longitudinal changes in hepatokines after gastric bypass surgery. We investigated changes in the serum levels of angiopoietin-like protein 6 (Angptl6) and selenoprotein P after gastric bypass surgery. We followed 10 patients who were treated with gastric bypass for weight loss. We measured metabolic parameters and the serum levels of Angptl6 and selenoprotein P before, 1 month after, and 9 months after surgery. We investigated the changes in those hepatokines after surgery and the associations between changes in Angptl6 and selenoprotein P, respectively, and metabolic parameters. Body mass index decreased linearly. Levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and Angptl6 were significantly lower 1 and 9 months after surgery. Fasting plasma glucose was normal throughout the study. Fasting insulin decreased 1 month after surgery but increased 9 months post-surgery. Levels of selenoprotein P increased linearly. Significant correlations were detected between the levels of Angptl6 and LDL cholesterol and fasting insulin. Changes in Angptl6 levels were significantly correlated with changes in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Selenoprotein P levels were inversely correlated with GGT, and changes in selenoprotein P were inversely correlated with changes in homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Our results suggest that gastric bypass may alter the serum levels of hepatokines independent of weight loss, and these changes are related to certain hepatic metabolic changes.

  8. The TGA codons are present in the open reading frame of selenoprotein P cDNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.E.; Lloyd, R.S.; Read, R.; Burk, R.F. )

    1991-03-11

    The TGA codon in DNA has been shown to direct incorporation of selenocysteine into protein. Several proteins from bacteria and animals contain selenocysteine in their primary structures. Each of the cDNA clones of these selenoproteins contains one TGA codon in the open reading frame which corresponds to the selenocysteine in the protein. A cDNA clone for selenoprotein P (SeP), obtained from a {gamma}ZAP rat liver library, was sequenced by the dideoxy termination method. The correct reading frame was determined by comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with the amino acid sequence of several peptides from SeP. Using SeP labelled with {sup 75}Se in vivo, the selenocysteine content of the peptides was verified by the collection of carboxymethylated {sup 77}Se-selenocysteine as it eluted from the amino acid analyzer and determination of the radioactivity contained in the collected samples. Ten TGA codons are present in the open reading frame of the cDNA. Peptide fragmentation studies and the deduced sequence indicate that selenium-rich regions are located close to the carboxy terminus. Nine of the 10 selenocysteines are located in the terminal 26% of the sequence with four in the terminal 15 amino acids. The deduced sequence codes for a protein of 385 amino acids. Cleavage of the signal peptide gives the mature protein with 366 amino acids and a calculated mol wt of 41,052 Da. Searches of PIR and SWISSPROT protein databases revealed no similarity with glutathione peroxidase or other selenoproteins.

  9. NF-κB expression and its association with nutritional status in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Farage, Najla E; Stockler-Pinto, Milena B; Leal, Viviane O; Cardozo, Ludmila Lmf; Carraro-Eduardo, José Carlos; Fouque, Denis; Mafra, Denise

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association among the expressions of pro- and anti-inflammatory nuclear factors (nuclear factor-kappaB, NF-κB and nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2, Nrf2) and nutritional status in HD patients. This cross-sectional study included eighty-three HD patients. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and processed for the evaluation of NF-κB and Nrf2 RNAm expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Muscle mass was estimated by creatinine index (CI) and percentage of body fat (%BF) by anthropometry. Seven-point subjective global assessment was also used to evaluate the nutritional status. The NF-κB expression was negatively correlated with CI (r = -0.54, p = 0.0001), serum albumin (r = -0.32, p = 0.02) and %BF (r = -0.61, p = 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that NF-κB expression was independently associated with CI (β: -0.8, p = 0.013) and %BF (β: -0.42, p = 0.04). There was no correlation among Nrf2 and anthropometric and biochemical variables. The classical NF-κB activation seems to be associated with poor nutritional status in HD patients; however, the exact underlying mechanisms deserve further studies.

  10. The expression of kainate receptor subunits in hippocampal astrocytes after experimentally induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Jay R; Takahashi, D Koji; Thomson, Kyle E; Wilcox, Karen S

    2013-10-01

    Astrocytes have emerged as active participants of synaptic transmission and are increasingly implicated in neurologic disorders including epilepsy. Adult glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive hippocampal astrocytes are not known for ionotropic glutamate receptor expression under basal conditions. Using a chemoconvulsive status epilepticus (SE) model of temporal lobe epilepsy, we show by immunohistochemistry and colocalization analysis that reactive hippocampal astrocytes express kainate receptor (KAR) subunits after SE. In the CA1 region, GluK1, GluK2/3, GluK4, and GluK5 subunit expression was observed in GFAP-positive astrocytes during the seizure-free or "latent" period 1 week after SE. At 8 weeks after SE, a time after SE when spontaneous behavioral seizures occur, the GluK1 and GluK5 subunits remained expressed at significant levels. Kainate receptor subunit expression was found in astrocytes in the hippocampus and surrounding cortex but not in GFAP-positive astrocytes of striatum, olfactory bulb, or brainstem. To examine hippocampal KAR expression more broadly, astroglial-enriched tissue fractions were prepared from dissected hippocampi and were found to have greater GluK4 expression after SE than controls. These results demonstrate that astrocytes begin to express KARs after seizure activity and suggest that their expression may contribute to the pathophysiology of epilepsy.

  11. Over-expression of laminin correlates to recovery of vasogenic edema following status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y-J; Kim, J-Y; Ko, A-R; Kang, T-C

    2014-09-05

    In the present study, we addressed the question of whether the up-regulation of laminin expression represents the astroglio-vascular responses to status epilepticus (SE) in the rat brain to better understand the role of vasogenic edema in epileptogenic insult. In the hippocampus, vasogenic edema was observed in the hippocampus 12h after SE when astroglial degeneration was undetected. Vasogenic edema in the hippocampus was more severe in the CA1 region where astroglial loss was absent than in the dentate gyrus showing astroglial degeneration. In the piriform cortex (PC), vasogenic edema was accompanied by appearance of astroglial degeneration 12h after SE. Laminin expression in the hippocampus and the PC was increased 3 days and 4 days after SE, respectively. Laminin expression was up-regulated in the hippocampus and the PC with concomitant reduction of SMI-71 (the endothelial barrier antigen) expression. Four weeks after SE, laminin expression was reduced in vessels showing strong SMI-71 expression within vasogenic edema lesion. Inhibition of SE-induced vasogenic edema formation by BQ788 effectively prevented laminin over-expression. Therefore, our findings indicate that laminin over-expression may be one of consequences from vasogenic edema rather than astroglial loss, and that laminin over-expression may promote migration of astrocytes to damaged or newly generated vessels to repair brain-blood barrier (BBB) disruption accompanied by the reconstruction of endothelial barrier. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlation of MGMT promoter methylation status with gene and protein expression levels in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Miyuki; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli Mieko; Camargo, Anamaria Aranha; Moura, Ricardo Pereira; de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Cabrera, Hector Navarro; Begnami, Marcos; Rosemberg, Sérgio; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Marie, Suely Kazue Nagahashi

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: 1) To correlate the methylation status of the O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter to its gene and protein expression levels in glioblastoma and 2) to determine the most reliable method for using MGMT to predict the response to adjuvant therapy in patients with glioblastoma. BACKGROUND: The MGMT gene is epigenetically silenced by promoter hypermethylation in gliomas, and this modification has emerged as a relevant predictor of therapeutic response. METHODS: Fifty-one cases of glioblastoma were analyzed for MGMT promoter methylation by methylation-specific PCR and pyrosequencing, gene expression by real time polymerase chain reaction, and protein expression by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: MGMT promoter methylation was found in 43.1% of glioblastoma by methylation-specific PCR and 38.8% by pyrosequencing. A low level of MGMT gene expression was correlated with positive MGMT promoter methylation (p = 0.001). However, no correlation was found between promoter methylation and MGMT protein expression (p = 0.297). The mean survival time of glioblastoma patients submitted to adjuvant therapy was significantly higher among patients with MGMT promoter methylation (log rank = 0.025 by methylation-specific PCR and 0.004 by pyrosequencing), and methylation was an independent predictive factor that was associated with improved prognosis by multivariate analysis. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: MGMT promoter methylation status was a more reliable predictor of susceptibility to adjuvant therapy and prognosis of glioblastoma than were MGMT protein or gene expression levels. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing methods were both sensitive methods for determining MGMT promoter methylation status using DNA extracted from frozen tissue. PMID:22012047

  13. Survival Benefit of Exercise Differs by Tumor IRS1 Expression Status in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hanyuda, Akiko; Kim, Sun A; Martinez-Fernandez, Alejandro; Qian, Zhi Rong; Yamauchi, Mai; Nishihara, Reiko; Morikawa, Teppei; Liao, Xiaoyun; Inamura, Kentaro; Mima, Kosuke; Cao, Yin; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Chan, Andrew T.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Shivdasani, Ramesh A.; Ogino, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Background High level physical activity is associated with lower colorectal cancer mortality, likely through insulin sensitization. IRS1 (insulin receptor substrate 1) is a mediator of insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathways, and its down-regulation is associated with insulin resistance. Therefore, we hypothesized that tumor IRS1 expression status might modify cellular sensitivity to insulin and IGF, and the prognostic association of physical activity. Methods We assessed IRS1 expression level in 371 stage I–III rectal and colon cancers in the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study by immunohistochemistry. In survival analysis, Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess an interaction between post-diagnosis physical activity (ordinal scale of sex-specific quartiles Q1 to Q4) and IRS1 expression (ordinal scale of negative, low, and high), controlling for potential confounders including microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, LINE-1 methylation level, and KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutation status. Results There was a statistically significant interaction between post-diagnosis physical activity and tumor IRS1 expression in colorectal cancer-specific mortality analysis (Pinteraction=0.005). Multivariable hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for higher post-diagnosis physical activity (Q3–Q4 vs. Q1–Q2) was 0.15 (0.02–1.38) in IRS1-negative group, 0.45 (0.19–1.03) in IRS1-low group, and 1.32 (0.50–3.53) in IRS1-high group. Conclusions The association of post-diagnosis physical activity with colorectal carcinoma patient survival may differ by tumor IRS1 expression level. If validated, tumor IRS1 expression status may serve as a predictive marker to identify subgroups of patients who might gain greater survival benefit from increased level of exercise. PMID:26577117

  14. Ego identity status and expressive writing among high school and college students.

    PubMed

    Waterman, A S; Archer, S

    1979-09-01

    Several studies were conducted to assess the relationship between expressive writing (poetry writing and journal keeping) and ego identity development among high school and college students. In three independent comparisons, poetry writers were more likely than students not writing poetry to have previously resolved identity crises (i.e., to be in the identity achiever status). There were also indications that students who had never written poetry were more likely to be in the foreclosure and identity diffusion statuses. No differences in identity development were found between students keeping personal journals and those who had not kept journals. A comparison was made of the themes most frequently chosen as the subject for each type of expressive writing and the functions such writings were believed to be serving. Possible explanations for why poetry writing, but not journal keeping, is related to ego identity formation are discussed.

  15. Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus alters hippocampal PKC expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian Xin; Liu, Yong; Tang, Feng Ru

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the protein expression of different protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms (PKC-alpha, PKC-beta1, PKC-beta2, PKC-gamma, PKC-delta, PKC-epsilon, PKC-eta and PKC-zeta) in the hippocampus of normal control mice and progressive changes in PKC isoforms expression during and after pilocarpine induced status epilepticus (PISE). We showed the reduced expression of PKC-delta, PKC-eta and PKC-zeta in interneurons in the CA1 area and in the hilus of the dentate gyrus during or after PISE. Increased expression of PKC-alpha and PKC-beta1 was demonstrated in the stratum pyramidale of CA3 area, and PKC-epsilon was up-regulated in the stratum lucidum of the CA3 area during or after PISE. Our results suggest that hippocampal PKC isoforms may play different roles in seizure generation, and be targets for development of anti-convulsive drugs.

  16. Dynamic evolution of selenocysteine utilization in bacteria: a balance between selenoprotein loss and evolution of selenocysteine from redox active cysteine residues

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Romero, Hector; Salinas, Gustavo; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2006-01-01

    Background Selenocysteine (Sec) is co-translationally inserted into protein in response to UGA codons. It occurs in oxidoreductase active sites and often is catalytically superior to cysteine (Cys). However, Sec is used very selectively in proteins and organisms. The wide distribution of Sec and its restricted use have not been explained. Results We conducted comparative genomics and phylogenetic analyses to examine dynamics of Sec decoding in bacteria at both selenium utilization trait and selenoproteome levels. These searches revealed that 21.5% of sequenced bacteria utilize Sec, their selenoproteomes have 1 to 31 selenoproteins, and selenoprotein-rich organisms are mostly Deltaproteobacteria or Firmicutes/Clostridia. Evolutionary histories of selenoproteins suggest that Cys-to-Sec replacement is a general trend for most selenoproteins. In contrast, only a small number of Sec-to-Cys replacements were detected, and these were mostly restricted to formate dehydrogenase and selenophosphate synthetase families. In addition, specific selenoprotein gene losses were observed in many sister genomes. Thus, the Sec/Cys replacements were mostly unidirectional, and increased utilization of Sec by existing protein families was counterbalanced by loss of selenoprotein genes or entire selenoproteomes. Lateral transfers of the Sec trait were an additional factor, and we describe the first example of selenoprotein gene transfer between archaea and bacteria. Finally, oxygen requirement and optimal growth temperature were identified as environmental factors that correlate with changes in Sec utilization. Conclusion Our data reveal a dynamic balance between selenoprotein origin and loss, and may account for the discrepancy between catalytic advantages provided by Sec and the observed low number of selenoprotein families and Sec-utilizing organisms. PMID:17054778

  17. Neural endocannabinoid CB1 receptor expression, social status, and behavior in male European starlings.

    PubMed

    DeVries, M Susan; Cordes, Melissa A; Rodriguez, Jonathan D; Stevenson, Sharon A; Riters, Lauren V

    2016-08-01

    Many species modify behavior in response to changes in resource availability or social status; however, the neural mechanisms underlying these modifications are not well understood. Prior work in male starlings demonstrates that status-appropriate changes in behavior involve brain regions that regulate social behavior and vocal production. Endocannabinoids are ubiquitously distributed neuromodulators that are proposed to play a role in adjusting behavior to match social status. As an initial step to provide insight into this hypothesis we observed flocks of male starlings in outdoor aviaries during the breeding season. We used quantitative real-time PCR to measure expression of endocannabinoid CB1 receptors in brain regions involved in social behavior and motivation (lateral septum [LS], ventral tegmental area [VTA], medial preoptic nucleus [POM]) and vocal behavior (Area X and robust nucleus of the arcopallium; RA). Males with nesting sites sang to females and displaced other males more than males without nesting sites. They also had higher levels of CB1 receptor expression in LS and RA. CB1 expression in LS correlated positively with agonistic behaviors. CB1 expression in RA correlated positively with singing behavior. CB1 in VTA also correlated positively with singing when only singing birds were considered. These correlations nicely map onto the well-established role of LS in agonistic behavior and the known role of RA in song production and VTA in motivation and song production. Studies are now needed to precisely characterize the role of CB1 receptors in these regions in the production of status-appropriate social behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression of neuropeptide W in rat stomach mucosa: regulation by nutritional status, glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Caminos, Jorge E; Bravo, Susana B; García-Rendueles, María E R; Ruth González, C; Garcés, Maria F; Cepeda, Libia A; Lage, Ricardo; Suárez, Miguel A; López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos

    2008-02-07

    Neuropeptide W (NPW) is a recently identified neuropeptide that binds to G-protein-coupled receptor 7 (GPR7) and 8 (GPR8). In rodent brain, NPW mRNA is confined to specific nuclei in hypothalamus, midbrain and brainstem. Expression of NPW mRNA has also been confirmed in peripheral organs such as stomach. Several reports suggested that brain NPW is implicated in the regulation of energy and hormonal homeostasis, namely the adrenal and thyroid axes; however the precise physiological role and regulation of peripheral NPW remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of nutritional status on the regulation of NPW in stomach mucosa. Our results show that in this tissue, NPW mRNA and protein expression is negatively regulated by fasting and food restriction, in all the models we studied: males, females and pregnant females. Next, we examined the effect of glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones on NPW mRNA expression in the stomach mucosa. Our data showed that NPW expression is decreased in this tissue after glucocorticoid treatment or hyperthyroidism. Conversely, hypothyroidism induces a marked increase in the expression of NPW in rat stomach. Overall, these data indicate that stomach NPW is regulated by nutritional and hormonal status.

  19. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: clinical significance of p53 expression, MDM2 amplification, and KIT mutation status.

    PubMed

    Wallander, Michelle L; Layfield, Lester J; Tripp, Sheryl R; Schmidt, Robert L

    2013-07-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical behavior is best predicted by size and mitotic count (risk index). KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA) mutations have therapeutic and prognostic value but few other prognostically significant molecular markers have been identified. We investigated the prognostic value of p53 protein expression and MDM2 gene amplification in a series of GISTs. Thirty-five GISTs were tested for KIT and PDGFRA mutations, p53 protein expression (high >10% positive by immunohistochemistry) and MDM2 gene amplification (ratio >1.8). Mitotic index (>5/50 HPF), MDM2 amplification status, p53 protein expression, tumor size, and KIT/PDGFRA mutational status were correlated with clinical outcome. Only a single (3%) GIST was amplified for MDM2. p53 protein expression, mitotic index, and KIT/PDGFRA mutations did not correlate with recurrence or metastasis (P=0.20, 0.50, and 0.08, respectively) but tumor size did (P=0.04). Risk assessment (size and mitotic index) showed a weak association with clinical behavior (P=0.19). MDM2 amplification is uncommon in GISTs. Although high p53 expression occurred in 35% of cases, it did not correlate with clinical behavior. Only GIST size predicted clinical outcome.

  20. SREBP-1c expression in Schwann cells is affected by diabetes and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    de Preux, Anne-Sophie; Goosen, Katinka; Zhang, Weixian; Sima, Anders A F; Shimano, Hitoshi; Ouwens, D Margriet; Diamant, Michaela; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Rozing, Jan; Lemke, Greg; Beckmann, Jacques S; Smit, August B; Verheijen, Mark H G; Chrast, Roman

    2007-08-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that the sterol response element binding proteins (SREBP)-1 and SREBP-2, which are the key regulators of storage lipid and cholesterol metabolism respectively, are highly expressed in Schwann cells of adult peripheral nerves. In order to evaluate the role of Schwann cell SREBPs in myelination and functioning of peripheral nerves we have determined their expression during development, after fasting and refeeding, and in a rodent model of diabetes. Our results show that SREBP-1c and SREBP-2, unlike SREBP-1a, are the major forms of SREBPs present in peripheral nerves. The expression profile of SREBP-2 follows the expression of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, while SREBP-1c is co-expressed with genes involved in storage lipid metabolism. In addition, the expression of SREBP-1c in the endoneurial compartment of peripheral nerves depends on nutritional status and is disturbed in type 1 diabetes. In line with this, insulin elevates the expression of SREBP-1c in primary cultured Schwann cells by activating the SREBP-1c promoter. Taken together, these findings reveal that SREBP-1c expression in Schwann cells responds to metabolic stimuli including insulin and that this response is affected in type 1 diabetes mellitus. This suggests that disturbed SREBP-1c regulated lipid metabolism may contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

  1. Increased calcineurin expression after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus is associated with brain focal edema and astrogliosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinzhi; Li, Xiaolin; Chen, Liguang; Xue, Ping; Yang, Qianqian; Wang, Aihua

    2015-07-28

    Calcineurin plays an important role in the development of neuronal excitability, modulation of receptor's function and induction of apoptosis in neurons. It has been established in kindling models that status epilepticus induces brain focal edema and astrocyte activation. However, the role of calcineurin in brain focal edema and astrocyte activation in status epilepticus has not been fully understood. In this study, we employed a model of lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and detected calcineurin expression in hippocampus by immunoblotting, brain focal edema by non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-7T) and astrocyte expression by immunohistochemistry. We found that the brain focal edema was seen at 24 h after status epilepticus, and astrocyte expression was obviously seen at 7 d after status epilepticus. Meanwhile, calcineurin expression was seen at24 h and retained to 7 d after status epilepticus. A FK506, a calcineurin inhibitor, remarkably suppressed the status epilepticus-induced brain focal edema and astrocyte expression. Our data suggested that calcineurin overexpression plays a very important role in brain focal edema and astrocyte expression. Therefore, calcineurin may be a novel candidate for brain focal edema occurring and intracellular trigger of astrogliosis in status epilepticus.

  2. Identification of EGFR expression status association with metastatic lymph node density (ND) by expression microarray analysis of advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Ema, Akira; Waraya, Mina; Yamashita, Keishi; Kokubo, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Hirosuke; Hoshi, Keika; Shinkai, Yoshiko; Kawamata, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kazunori; Nishimiya, Hiroshi; Katada, Natsuya; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic lymph node density (ND) has been reproducibly proven to be a prognostic factor in gastric cancer. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this aggressiveness are underexplored. Here, we aimed to identify molecules associated with this unique phenotype. Tumor specimens from patients with stage III gastric cancer with high or low ND (n = 4 for both) were compared at the mRNA level using Affymetrix microarray (harboring 54,675 genes). The expression data were prioritized, and genes that correlated with ND were selected. Ultimately, the EGFR was validated as such a candidate molecule in patients with primary advanced gastric cancer who underwent standard treatment (n = 167). Expression data of the microarray were prioritized based on gene expression ratio and frequency of gene expression. The first priority genes to be selected were genes that are known to be amplified in cancer, which included NKX2.1, CHST9, CTNND2, SLC25A27, FGFR2, EGFR, and PTGER1. Of these genes, the EGFR gene was of particular interest. EGFR expression in primary gastric cancer was examined using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The Student's t-test elucidated a significant difference in EGFR expression between IHC 2+/3+ and IHC 1+ according to ND (P = 0.0035). The Chi-square test also indicated a significant difference between high and low levels of EGFR immunohistochemical staining (IHC2+/3+ and IHC1+, respectively) and ND status (P = 0.0023). According to the least squares method, as ND increased, the risk that EGFR staining levels changed from IHC 1+ to IHC 2+ also increased. In this study, we determined that high EGFR expression may underlie the aggressive mechanism of advanced gastric cancer with high ND. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Identification of EGFR expression status association with metastatic lymph node density (ND) by expression microarray analysis of advanced gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ema, Akira; Waraya, Mina; Yamashita, Keishi; Kokubo, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Hirosuke; Hoshi, Keika; Shinkai, Yoshiko; Kawamata, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kazunori; Nishimiya, Hiroshi; Katada, Natsuya; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic lymph node density (ND) has been reproducibly proven to be a prognostic factor in gastric cancer. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this aggressiveness are underexplored. Here, we aimed to identify molecules associated with this unique phenotype. Tumor specimens from patients with stage III gastric cancer with high or low ND (n = 4 for both) were compared at the mRNA level using Affymetrix microarray (harboring 54,675 genes). The expression data were prioritized, and genes that correlated with ND were selected. Ultimately, the EGFR was validated as such a candidate molecule in patients with primary advanced gastric cancer who underwent standard treatment (n = 167). Expression data of the microarray were prioritized based on gene expression ratio and frequency of gene expression. The first priority genes to be selected were genes that are known to be amplified in cancer, which included NKX2.1, CHST9, CTNND2, SLC25A27, FGFR2, EGFR, and PTGER1. Of these genes, the EGFR gene was of particular interest. EGFR expression in primary gastric cancer was examined using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The Student's t-test elucidated a significant difference in EGFR expression between IHC 2+/3+ and IHC 1+ according to ND (P = 0.0035). The Chi-square test also indicated a significant difference between high and low levels of EGFR immunohistochemical staining (IHC2+/3+ and IHC1+, respectively) and ND status (P = 0.0023). According to the least squares method, as ND increased, the risk that EGFR staining levels changed from IHC 1+ to IHC 2+ also increased. In this study, we determined that high EGFR expression may underlie the aggressive mechanism of advanced gastric cancer with high ND. PMID:25154973

  4. Nutritional status alters saccharin intake and sweet receptor mRNA expression in rat taste buds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Yan, Jianqun; Suo, Yi; Li, Jinrong; Wang, Qian; Lv, Bo

    2010-04-14

    Sweet taste usually signifies the presence of caloric food. It is commonly accepted that a close association exists among sweet taste perception, preference, and nutritional status. However, the mechanisms involved remain unknown. To investigate whether nutritional status affects the preference for palatable solutions and alters sweet taste receptor gene expression in rats, we measured saccharin intake and preference using a two-bottle preference test, and changes in body weight, plasma leptin levels, and gene expression for the sweet taste receptor in taste buds in high-fat diet-induced obese rats and chronically diet-restricted rats. We found that the consumption and preference ratios for 0.01 and 0.04 M saccharin were significantly lower in the high-fat diet-induced obese rats than in the normal diet rats, while the serum leptin levels were markedly increased in obese rats. Consistent with the changes in saccharin intake, the gene expression level of the sweet taste receptor T1R3 was significantly decreased in the high-fat diet-induced obese rats compared with the control rats. By contrast, the chronically diet-restricted rats showed remarkably enhanced consumption and preference for 0.04 M saccharin. The serum leptin concentration was decreased, and the gene expression of the leptin receptor was markedly increased in the taste buds. In conclusion, our results suggest that nutritional status alters saccharin preference and the expression of T1R3 in taste buds. These processes may be involved in the mechanisms underlying the modulation of peripheral sweet taste sensitivity, in which leptin plays a role. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Selenoprotein gene variants, toenail selenium levels, and risk for advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Geybels, Milan S; van den Brandt, Piet A; Schouten, Leo J; van Schooten, Frederik J; van Breda, Simone G; Rayman, Margaret P; Green, Fiona R; Verhage, Bas A J

    2014-03-01

    Lower selenium levels have been associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa), and genetic variation in the selenoprotein genes selenoprotein P (SEPP1) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) is thought to modify this relationship. We investigated whether the association between toenail selenium levels and advanced PCa risk in the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study is modified by common genetic variation in SEPP1 and GPX1. Toenail clippings were used to determine selenium levels and to isolate DNA for genotyping. This case-cohort study, which included 817 case subjects with advanced PCa and 1048 subcohort members, was analyzed with Cox regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Three genetic variants were associated with advanced (stage III/IV or IV) PCa risk: SEPP1 rs7579 (lower risk; P trend = .01), GPX1 rs17650792 (higher risk; P trend = .03), and GPX1 rs1800668 (lower risk; P trend = .005). Toenail selenium levels were inversely associated with advanced PCa risk, independently of common genetic variation in SEPP1 and GPX1.

  6. Regulation of selenocysteine incorporation into the selenium transport protein, selenoprotein P.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Sumangala P; Shah, Ravi; Copeland, Paul R

    2014-09-05

    Selenoproteins are unique as they contain selenium in their active site in the form of the 21st amino acid selenocysteine (Sec), which is encoded by an in-frame UGA stop codon. Sec incorporation requires both cis- and trans-acting factors, which are known to be sufficient for Sec incorporation in vitro, albeit with low efficiency. However, the abundance of the naturally occurring selenoprotein that contains 10 Sec residues (SEPP1) suggests that processive and efficient Sec incorporation occurs in vivo. Here, we set out to study native SEPP1 synthesis in vitro to identify factors that regulate processivity and efficiency. Deletion analysis of the long and conserved 3'-UTR has revealed that the incorporation of multiple Sec residues is inherently processive requiring only the SECIS elements but surprisingly responsive to the selenium concentration. We provide evidence that processive Sec incorporation is linked to selenium utilization and that reconstitution of known Sec incorporation factors in a wheat germ lysate does not permit multiple Sec incorporation events, thus suggesting a role for yet unidentified mammalian-specific processes or factors. The relationship between our findings and the channeling theory of translational efficiency is discussed. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Selenoprotein P protects cells from lipid hydroperoxides generated by 15-LOX-1

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Colleen; Moos, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Reactive lipid hydroperoxides formed by lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases can contribute to disease through cellular oxidative damage. Several selenoproteins have lipid hydroperoxidase activity including glutathione peroxidase 4, thioredoxin reductase, and selenoprotein P (SelP). SelP is an extracellular glycoprotein that functions both in selenium distribution and has antioxidant activity. The major objective of this study was to determine if SelP, at physiological concentrations and in selenium replete media, possessed hydroperoxidase activity directed at lipid hydroperoxides generated from the metabolism of arachidonic acid by 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1). SelP displayed in vitro lipid hydroperoxidase activity of 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HpETE), attenuated 15-HpETE oxidation in cellular assays, and in a transcellular assay when 15-LOX-1 is metabolically active. These results suggest that SelP can function as an antioxidant enzyme against reactive lipid intermediates formed during inflammation, but SelP has modest activity. Nevertheless, this effect may help protect cells against the oxidative damage induced by these lipid metabolites. PMID:20826080

  8. Selenoprotein P Is the Major Selenium Transport Protein in Mouse Milk

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kristina E.; Motley, Amy K.; Winfrey, Virginia P.; Burk, Raymond F.

    2014-01-01

    Selenium is transferred from the mouse dam to its neonate via milk. Milk contains selenium in selenoprotein form as selenoprotein P (Sepp1) and glutathione peroxidase-3 (Gpx3) as well as in non-specific protein form as selenomethionine. Selenium is also present in milk in uncharacterized small-molecule form. We eliminated selenomethionine from the mice in these experiments by feeding a diet that contained sodium selenite as the source of selenium. Selenium-replete dams with deletion of Sepp1 or Gpx3 were studied to assess the effects of these genes on selenium transfer to the neonate. Sepp1 knockout caused a drop in milk selenium to 27% of the value in wild-type milk and a drop in selenium acquisition by the neonates to 35%. In addition to decreasing milk selenium by eliminating Sepp1, deletion of Sepp1 causes a decline in whole-body selenium, which likely also contributes to the decreased transfer of selenium to the neonate. Deletion of Gpx3 did not decrease milk selenium content or neonate selenium acquisition by measurable amounts. Thus, when the dam is fed selenium-adequate diet (0.25 mg selenium/kg diet), milk Sepp1 transfers a large amount of selenium to neonates but the transfer of selenium by Gpx3 is below detection by our methods. PMID:25068390

  9. Biological interaction between transition metals (Ag, Cd and Hg), selenide/sulfide and selenoprotein P.

    PubMed

    Sasakura, C; Suzuki, K T

    1998-09-01

    The interaction between transition metals (Ag+, Cd2+ and Hg2+) and selenium (Se) in the bloodstream was studied in vitro by means of the HPLC--inductively coupled argon plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP MS) method. Transition metal ions and selenide (produced in vitro from selenite in the presence of glutathione) or sulfide (Na2S) formed a (metal-Se/S) complex, which then bound to a plasma protein, selenoprotein P (Sel P), to form a ternary complex, (metal-Se/S)-Sel P. The molar ratios of metals to Se were 1:1 for Hg/Se and Cd/Se, but either 1:1 or 2:1 for Ag/Se, depending on the ratio of their doses. The results indicate that the interaction between transition metals and Se occurs through the general mechanism, i.e., transition metal ions and selenide form the unit complex (metal-Se)n, and then the complex binds to selenoprotein P to form the ternary complex ¿(metal-Se)n¿m--seleno-protein P in the bloodstream.

  10. Low socioeconomic status, adverse gene expression profiles, and clinical outcomes in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Jennifer M.; Rizzo, J. Douglas; Logan, Brent R.; Wang, Tao; Arevalo, Jesusa M.G.; Ma, Jeffrey; Cole, Steve W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with adverse outcomes among unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients, but the biological mechanisms contributing to this health disparity are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined whether social environment affects expression of a stress-related gene expression profile known as the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA), which involves up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes and down-regulation of genes involved in type I IFN response and antibody synthesis. Experimental Design We compared pre-transplant leukocyte CTRA gene expression between a group of 78 high vs. low SES recipients of unrelated donor HCT for acute myelogenous leukemia in first remission. Post hoc exploratory analyses also evaluated whether CTRA gene expression was associated with poor clinical outcomes. Results Peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected pre-HCT from low SES individuals demonstrated significant CTRA up-regulation compared to matched HCT recipients of high SES. Promoter-based bioinformatics implicated distinct patterns of transcription factor activity including increased CREB signaling and decreased IRF and GR signaling. High expression of the CTRA gene profile was also associated with increased relapse risk and decreased leukemia-free survival. Conclusions Low SES is associated with increased expression of the CTRA gene profile, and CTRA gene expression is associated with adverse HCT clinical outcomes. These findings provide a biologic framework within which to understand how social environmental conditions may influence immune function and clinical outcomes in allogeneic HCT. PMID:26286914

  11. Nuclear BMI-1 expression in laryngeal carcinoma correlates with lymph node pathological status.

    PubMed

    Allegra, Eugenia; Puzzo, Lidia; Zuccalà, Valeria; Trapasso, Serena; Vasquez, Enrico; Garozzo, Aldo; Caltabiano, Rosario

    2012-10-02

    The main cause of treatment failure and death in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma is metastasis to the regional lymph nodes. The current clinical staging criteria fail to differentiate patients with occult metastasis from patients without metastasis. Identifying molecular markers of the disease might improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis and development of laryngeal carcinoma and may help improve clinical staging and treatment. Sixty-four previously untreated patients who underwent surgical excision of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with neck dissection were included in this study. The expression of B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI-1) was examined immunohistochemically on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary tissue specimens. Nuclear expression of BMI-1 (nBMI-1) was detected in 32 of the 64 tumors (50%), cytoplasmic expression of BMI-1 (cBMI-1) was detected in 22 (34.4%), and 10 tumors (15.6%) showed no BMI-1 immunoreactivity. High nBMI-1 expression levels (≥ 10) were detected in 28 of the 32 (87.5%) nBMI-1-positive patients. Multivariate analysis including age at diagnosis, grade, tumor location, TNM status, and nBMI-1 expression showed that a high nBMI-1 expression level was an independent prognostic factor for lymph node metastasis. The expression of BMI-1 in patients with laryngeal carcinoma seems to correlate with lymph node metastasis.

  12. Nuclear BMI-1 expression in laryngeal carcinoma correlates with lymph node pathological status

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The main cause of treatment failure and death in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma is metastasis to the regional lymph nodes. The current clinical staging criteria fail to differentiate patients with occult metastasis from patients without metastasis. Identifying molecular markers of the disease might improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis and development of laryngeal carcinoma and may help improve clinical staging and treatment. Methods Sixty-four previously untreated patients who underwent surgical excision of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with neck dissection were included in this study. The expression of B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI-1) was examined immunohistochemically on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary tissue specimens. Results Nuclear expression of BMI-1 (nBMI-1) was detected in 32 of the 64 tumors (50%), cytoplasmic expression of BMI-1 (cBMI-1) was detected in 22 (34.4%), and 10 tumors (15.6%) showed no BMI-1 immunoreactivity. High nBMI-1 expression levels (≥10) were detected in 28 of the 32 (87.5%) nBMI-1-positive patients. Multivariate analysis including age at diagnosis, grade, tumor location, TNM status, and nBMI-1 expression showed that a high nBMI-1 expression level was an independent prognostic factor for lymph node metastasis. Conclusion The expression of BMI-1 in patients with laryngeal carcinoma seems to correlate with lymph node metastasis. PMID:23031716

  13. The status of Fas and Fas ligand expression can predict recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Y; Monden, M; Takeda, T; Eguchi, H; Umeshita, K; Nagano, H; Nakamori, S; Dono, K; Sakon, M; Nakamura, M; Tsujimoto, M; Nakahara, M; Nakao, K; Yokosaki, Y; Matsuura, N

    2000-01-01

    The status of Fas and Fas ligand (Fas L) expression was investigated in this study for 103 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). We studied the expression of the following three factors, Fas and Fas L expression in carcinoma cells and Fas L expression in stromal mononuclear cells (defined as stromal Fas L index). Fas expression in HCC cells was significantly decreased in cases with poor differentiation (P< 0.0001) and of larger size (P = 0.0058). Fas L expression in carcinoma cells was observed exclusively in moderately or poorly differentiated cases. Furthermore, each factor had prognostic significance for disease-free survival (DFS) (P< 0.0001, P = 0.0222 and 0.0027 respectively). We then scored the results of each factor and defined the total score as ‘Fas-Fas L risk score’. The P -value of the score for DFS was even lower than that of the clinical stage by multivariate analysis. These results suggest that the evaluation of Fas and Fas ligand expression potentially has a significant prognostic value for DFS of HCC patients, in addition to the clinical stage, and can be regarded as a new prognostic marker. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10735508

  14. Apolipoprotein E receptor-2 (ApoER2) mediates selenium uptake from selenoprotein P by the mouse testis.

    PubMed

    Olson, Gary E; Winfrey, Virginia P; Nagdas, Subir K; Hill, Kristina E; Burk, Raymond F

    2007-04-20

    Selenium is a micronutrient that is essential for the production of normal spermatozoa. The selenium-rich plasma protein selenoprotein P (Sepp1) is required for maintenance of testis selenium and for fertility of the male mouse. Sepp1 trafficking in the seminiferous epithelium was studied using conventional methods and mice with gene deletions. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated that Sepp1 is present in vesicle-like structures in the basal region of Sertoli cells, suggesting that the protein is taken up intact. Sepp1 affinity chromatography of a testicular extract followed by mass spectrometry-based identification of bound proteins identified apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) as a candidate testis Sepp1 receptor. In situ hybridization analysis identified Sertoli cells as the only cell type in the seminiferous epithelium with detectable ApoER2 expression. Testis selenium levels in apoER2(-/-) males were sharply reduced from those in apoER2(+/+) males and were comparable with the depressed levels found in Sepp1(-/-) males. However, liver selenium levels were unchanged by deletion of apoER2. Immunocytochemistry did not detect Sepp1 in the Sertoli cells of apoER2(-/-) males, consistent with a defect in the receptor-mediated Sepp1 uptake pathway. Phase contrast microscopy revealed identical sperm defects in apoER2(-/-) and Sepp1(-/-) mice. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated an interaction of testis ApoER2 with Sepp1. These data demonstrate that Sertoli cell ApoER2 is a Sepp1 receptor and a component of the selenium delivery pathway to spermatogenic cells.

  15. Selenoprotein W redox-regulated Ca2+ channels correlate with selenium deficiency-induced muscles Ca2+ leak

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Wenchao; Liu, Wei; Yang, Jie; Sattar, Hamid; Zhao, Jinxin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency induces Ca2+ leak and calcification in mammal skeletal muscles; however, the exact mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, both Se-deficient chicken muscle models and selenoprotein W (SelW) gene knockdown myoblast and embryo models were used to study the mechanism. The results showed that Se deficiency-induced typical muscular injuries accompanied with Ca2+ leak and oxidative stress (P < 0.05) injured the ultrastructure of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and mitochondria; decreased the levels of the Ca2+ channels, SERCA, SLC8A, CACNA1S, ORAI1, STIM1, TRPC1, and TRPC3 (P < 0.05); and increased the levels of Ca2+ channel PMCA (P < 0.05). Similarly, SelW knockdown also induced Ca2+ leak from the SR and cytoplasm; increased mitochondrial Ca2+ levels and oxidative stress; injured SR and mitochondrial ultrastructure; decreased levels of SLC8A, CACNA1S, ORA1, TRPC1, and TRPC3; and caused abnormal activities of Ca2+ channels in response to inhibitors in myoblasts and chicken embryos. Thus, both Se deficiency and SelW knockdown induced Ca2+ leak, oxidative stress, and Ca2+ channel reduction. In addition, Ca2+ levels and the expression of the Ca2+ channels, RyR1, SERCA, CACNA1S, TRPC1, and TRPC3 were recovered to normal levels by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) treatment compared with SelW knockdown cells. Thus, with regard to the decreased Ca2+ channels, SelW knockdown closely correlated Se deficiency with Ca2+ leak in muscles. The redox regulation role of SelW is crucial in Se deficiency-induced Ca2+ leak in muscles. PMID:27557522

  16. Ttyh1 protein is expressed in glia in vitro and shows elevated expression in activated astrocytes following status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Wiernasz, Elzbieta; Kaliszewska, Aleksandra; Brutkowski, Wojciech; Bednarczyk, Joanna; Gorniak, Malgorzata; Kaza, Beata; Lukasiuk, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    In a previous study, we showed that Ttyh1 protein is expressed in neurons in vitro and in vivo in the form of punctuate structures, which are localized to neuropil and neuronal somata. Herein, we provide the first description of Ttyh1 protein expression in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia in vitro. Moreover, using double immunofluorescence, we show Ttyh1 protein expression in activated astrocytes in the hippocampus following amygdala stimulation-induced status epilepticus. We demonstrate that in migrating astrocytes in in vitro wound model Ttyh1 concentrates at the edges of extending processes. These data suggest that Ttyh1 not only participates in shaping neuronal morphology, as previously described, but may also play a role in the function of activated glia in brain pathology. To localize Ttyh1 expression in the cellular compartments of neurons and astrocytes, we performed in vitro double immunofluorescent staining using markers for the following subcellular structures: endoplasmic reticulum (GRP78), Golgi apparatus (GM130), clathrin-coated vehicles (clathrin), early endosomes (Rab5 and APPL2), recycling endosomes (Rab11), trans-Golgi network (TGN46), endoplasmic reticulum membrane (calnexin), late endosomes and lysosomes (LAMP1) and synaptic vesicles (synaptoporin and synaptotagmin 1). We found that Ttyh1 is present in the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and clathrin-coated vesicles (clathrin) in both neurons and astrocytes and also in late endosomes or lysosomes in astrocytes. The presence of Ttyh1 was negligible in early endosomes, recycling endosomes, trans-Golgi network, endoplasmic reticulum membrane and synaptic vesicles.

  17. Prognostic value of p16 expression irrespective of human papillomavirus status in patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yuki; Yoshida, Masafumi; Omura, Go; Kobayashi, Kenya; Fujimoto, Chisato; Ando, Mizuo; Sakamoto, Takashi; Asakage, Takahiro; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2015-09-01

    In a previous study, we reported the value of p16 expression and alcohol consumption in oropharyngeal carcinoma in Japan. We now report the clinical significance of human papillomavirus status and p16 expression in oropharyngeal carcinoma in Japan. Over a 9-year period, a retrospective case comparison study of the pathology database was conducted at the University of Tokyo to identify tumor samples of oropharyngeal carcinoma. We performed immunohistochemistry for the p16 protein, in situ hybridization for human papillomavirus-deoxyribonucleic acid and polymerase chain reaction for the human papillomavirus-deoxyribonucleic acid oncogene E6 in oropharyngeal carcinoma in Japanese patients. We evaluated the human papillomavirus status in patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma to determine its prevalence and association with prognosis. We defined human papillomavirus(+) and human papillomavirus(-) oropharyngeal carcinoma cohorts as those with and without polymerase chain reaction for the human papillomavirus-deoxyribonucleic acid oncogene E6 or in situ hybridization-human papillomavirus. In oropharyngeal carcinoma, the prevalences of p16(+)human papillomavirus(+), p16(+)human papillomavirus(-), p16(-)human papillomavirus(+) and p16(-)human papillomavirus(-) were 32% (48/150), 7% (10/150), 2% (3/150) and 59% (89/150), respectively. Low tobacco and alcohol consumption, tonsil or base of tongue localization, but not age, were associated with p16(+)human papillomavirus(+). Low alcohol consumption was associated with p16(+)human papillomavirus(-). There was a significant difference in overall survival between p16(+)human papillomavirus(-) and p16(-)human papillomavirus(-) (P = 0.03). In multivariate Cox regression models, p16 was the independent prognostic factor, regardless of human papillomavirus status. p16 expression was a reliable prognostic biomarker regardless of human papillomavirus status. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved

  18. The Relationship between RUNX3 Expression, Nursing Strategies and Nutritional Status in Elderly Patients with Advanced Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Wen; Teng, Wenhui; Shi, Xinyan; Liu, Xiaozhen; Cui, Zheng; Tian, Zibin

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between nutritional status and expression of RUNX3 in gastric cancer cells and to investigate the effects of nursing strategies on the nutritional status of elderly patients with advanced gastric cancer. Forty-eight elderly patients admitted at Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University with advanced gastric cancer and 30 healthy controls were selected as subjects from 2014-15. The correlation between RNX3 gene expression and nutritional status of the gastric cancer patients was investigated. The patients with advanced gastric cancer who had low expression of RUNX3 gene were treated with holistic nursing while routine nursing was taken for those patients who had normal or high expression of RUNX3 gene. The nutritional statuses of these patients were evaluated after 3 months of nursing. After a follow-up of 1 year, the influence of different nursing methods on the survival time was evaluated. Compared with normal gastric tissue, the expression of RUNX3 gene and protein in tissues of advanced gastric cancer were significantly decreased (P<0.01). Compared with patients with normal or high expressions of RUNX3, the nutritional statuses of advanced gastric cancer patients with low expressions of RUNX3 were lower (P<0.01). The nutritional statuses of patients with low expressions of RUNX3 were notably improved after holistic nursing, becoming equivalent to those with normal or high expression of RUNX3 who received routine nursing (P>0.05). The survival time of patients with low expression of RUNX3 who received holistic nursing were similar to patients with normal or high expression of RUNX3 who received routine nursing (P>0.05). RUNX3 is correlated with the occurrence and development of advanced gastric cancer. The low nutritional status of elderly advanced gastric cancer patients with low expressions of RUNX3 can be significantly enhanced by holistic nursing, thereby prolonging survival time.

  19. Profiling status epilepticus-induced changes in hippocampal RNA expression using high-throughput RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Katelin F.; Sakamoto, Kensuke; Pelz, Carl; Impey, Soren; Obrietan, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening condition that can give rise to a number of neurological disorders, including learning deficits, depression, and epilepsy. Many of the effects of SE appear to be mediated by alterations in gene expression. To gain deeper insight into how SE affects the transcriptome, we employed the pilocarpine SE model in mice and Illumina-based high-throughput sequencing to characterize alterations in gene expression from the induction of SE, to the development of spontaneous seizure activity. While some genes were upregulated over the entire course of the pathological progression, each of the three sequenced time points (12-hour, 10-days and 6-weeks post-SE) had a largely unique transcriptional profile. Hence, genes that regulate synaptic physiology and transcription were most prominently altered at 12-hours post-SE; at 10-days post-SE, marked changes in metabolic and homeostatic gene expression were detected; at 6-weeks, substantial changes in the expression of cell excitability and morphogenesis genes were detected. At the level of cell signaling, KEGG analysis revealed dynamic changes within the MAPK pathways, as well as in CREB-associated gene expression. Notably, the inducible expression of several noncoding transcripts was also detected. These findings offer potential new insights into the cellular events that shape SE-evoked pathology. PMID:25373493

  20. Effect of selenium on connexin expression, angiogenesis, and antioxidant status in diabetic wound healing.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Surabhi; Mishra, Manish; Kumar, Hemant; Tripathi, Kamlakar; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Pandey, Haushila Prasad; Singh, Rakesh Kumar

    2011-12-01

    This study was done to analyze the effect of selenium on antioxidant status and expression of different connexins in diabetic wound healing. The levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxide, and connexins were analyzed in wound tissues taken from diabetic and non-diabetic mice before and after sodium selenite administration. The mRNA transcript levels of Cx 26, 30.3, 31, 31.1, and 43 were significantly elevated in diabetic wounds as compared to the non-diabetic wounds. After selenium administration, the expression of connexins along with serum glucose decreases more significantly in diabetic wounds as compared to non-diabetic wounds. In diabetic wounds, the low levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and extracellular superoxide dismutase were restored to normal level following selenium administration. The lipid peroxidation decreased significantly in diabetic mice post-selenium administration. The histopathological analysis revealed that administration of selenium improves angiogenesis at the wound site. The results of this study demonstrate that selenium, acting as an essential component of the antioxidant system, normalizes the antioxidant status, and as an insulin mimetic compound, downregulates connexin expressions and induces angiogenesis. Together, these effects of selenium accelerate wound healing in diabetic conditions.

  1. HLA expression and HLA type associations in relation to EBV status in Hispanic Hodgkin lymphoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Luke B.; Veenstra, Rianne N.; Loo, Eric Y.; Hwang, Amie E.; Siddiqi, Imran N.; Visser, Lydia; Hepkema, Bouke G.; Nolte, Ilja M.; van den Berg, Anke; Cozen, Wendy; Diepstra, Arjan

    2017-01-01

    A proportion of classical Hodgkin lymphomas harbor the Epstein Barr virus (EBV). We previously demonstrated that associations between Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles and susceptibility to EBV+ classical Hodgkin lymphoma differ between European and Chinese populations. Data on Hispanic populations is missing. Here we examined the association between HLA type, tumor cell HLA expression and other characteristics in Hispanic Hodgkin lymphoma patients. Hispanic Hodgkin lymphoma patients diagnosed at the Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical Center from 2000–2012 were included (n = 65). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue was analyzed for EBV by in situ hybridization and for HLA class I and class II expression by immunohistochemistry. HLA typing was performed by HLA-A specific quantitative PCR of genomic DNA from tissue. Thirty patients (46%) had EBV+ tumors. Expression of HLA class I (p = 0.0006) was significantly associated with EBV+ tumor status in Hispanic patients, similar to Europeans and Chinese. A positive association between HLA class II expression and EBV+ tumor status, as present in large studies in Europeans, was not found (p = 0.06). The prevalences of the specific European HLA-A*01 risk and European HLA-A*02 protective types were not significantly associated with EBV+ tumors among these Hispanic patients, however numbers were too low to draw firm conclusions. The HLA-A*02:07 allele, that is associated with EBV+ Hodgkin lymphoma in Chinese, was absent. In conclusion, the association between EBV positivity in tumor cells and HLA class I expression appears to be consistent across different populations. Larger studies in Hispanics are needed to evaluate HLA allele susceptibility associations. PMID:28334025

  2. HLA expression and HLA type associations in relation to EBV status in Hispanic Hodgkin lymphoma patients.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Luke B; Veenstra, Rianne N; Loo, Eric Y; Hwang, Amie E; Siddiqi, Imran N; Visser, Lydia; Hepkema, Bouke G; Nolte, Ilja M; van den Berg, Anke; Cozen, Wendy; Diepstra, Arjan

    2017-01-01

    A proportion of classical Hodgkin lymphomas harbor the Epstein Barr virus (EBV). We previously demonstrated that associations between Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles and susceptibility to EBV+ classical Hodgkin lymphoma differ between European and Chinese populations. Data on Hispanic populations is missing. Here we examined the association between HLA type, tumor cell HLA expression and other characteristics in Hispanic Hodgkin lymphoma patients. Hispanic Hodgkin lymphoma patients diagnosed at the Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical Center from 2000-2012 were included (n = 65). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue was analyzed for EBV by in situ hybridization and for HLA class I and class II expression by immunohistochemistry. HLA typing was performed by HLA-A specific quantitative PCR of genomic DNA from tissue. Thirty patients (46%) had EBV+ tumors. Expression of HLA class I (p = 0.0006) was significantly associated with EBV+ tumor status in Hispanic patients, similar to Europeans and Chinese. A positive association between HLA class II expression and EBV+ tumor status, as present in large studies in Europeans, was not found (p = 0.06). The prevalences of the specific European HLA-A*01 risk and European HLA-A*02 protective types were not significantly associated with EBV+ tumors among these Hispanic patients, however numbers were too low to draw firm conclusions. The HLA-A*02:07 allele, that is associated with EBV+ Hodgkin lymphoma in Chinese, was absent. In conclusion, the association between EBV positivity in tumor cells and HLA class I expression appears to be consistent across different populations. Larger studies in Hispanics are needed to evaluate HLA allele susceptibility associations.

  3. Association of MicroRNA Expression with Microsatellite Instability Status in Colorectal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Earle, Jonathan S.L.; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Romans, Angela; Abraham, Ronald; Ensor, Joe; Yao, Hui; Hamilton, Stanley R.

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA), small noncoding RNAs, are potential diagnostic and prognostic markers, as well as therapeutic targets. miRNA profiles of colorectal carcinomas have not been studied extensively in the context of microsatellite instability (MSI) status. We therefore evaluated 55 paired colorectal adenocarcinomas (CRC) and non-neoplastic mucosa samples using a panel of 24 miRNAs selected by literature review and prior studies in our laboratory. Stem-loop reverse transcriptase quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction assays were done on RNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue of resection specimens. When miRNA expression was compared with clinicopathologic features and MSI status, eleven miRNAs (miR-183, -31, -20, -25, -92, -93, -17, -135a, -203, -133b, and -223) were over-expressed in CRC relative to mucosa, and nine (miR-192, -215, -26b, -143, -145, -191, -196a, -16, and let-7a) were under-expressed in CRC. Relative expression of miR-92, -223, -155, -196a, -31, and -26b were significantly different among MSI subgroups, and miR-31 and miR-223 were overexpressed in CRC of patients with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer syndrome (Lynch syndrome). Our findings indicate that miRNA expression in CRC is associated with MSI subgroups, including low MSI and HNPCC-associated cancers, and that miRNAs may have posttranscriptional gene regulatory roles in these MSI subgroups and possible effects on the clinicopathologic and biomarker characteristics. PMID:20413677

  4. Silencing Status Epilepticus-Induced BDNF Expression with Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 Based Amplicon Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Falcicchia, Chiara; Trempat, Pascal; Binaschi, Anna; Perrier-Biollay, Coline; Roncon, Paolo; Soukupova, Marie; Berthommé, Hervé; Simonato, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been found to produce pro- but also anti-epileptic effects. Thus, its validity as a therapeutic target must be verified using advanced tools designed to block or to enhance its signal. The aim of this study was to develop tools to silence the BDNF signal. We generated Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) derived amplicon vectors, i.e. viral particles containing a genome of 152 kb constituted of concatameric repetitions of an expression cassette, enabling the expression of the gene of interest in multiple copies. HSV-1 based amplicon vectors are non-pathogenic and have been successfully employed in the past for gene delivery into the brain of living animals. Therefore, amplicon vectors should represent a logical choice for expressing a silencing cassette, which, in multiple copies, is expected to lead to an efficient knock-down of the target gene expression. Here, we employed two amplicon-based BDNF silencing strategies. The first, antisense, has been chosen to target and degrade the cytoplasmic mRNA pool of BDNF, whereas the second, based on the convergent transcription technology, has been chosen to repress transcription at the BDNF gene. Both these amplicon vectors proved to be effective in down-regulating BDNF expression in vitro, in BDNF-expressing mesoangioblast cells. However, only the antisense strategy was effective in vivo, after inoculation in the hippocampus in a model of status epilepticus in which BDNF mRNA levels are strongly increased. Interestingly, the knocking down of BDNF levels induced with BDNF-antisense was sufficient to produce significant behavioral effects, in spite of the fact that it was produced only in a part of a single hippocampus. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a reliable effect of amplicon vectors in knocking down gene expression in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, this approach may find broad applications in neurobiological studies. PMID:26954758

  5. Silencing Status Epilepticus-Induced BDNF Expression with Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 Based Amplicon Vectors.

    PubMed

    Falcicchia, Chiara; Trempat, Pascal; Binaschi, Anna; Perrier-Biollay, Coline; Roncon, Paolo; Soukupova, Marie; Berthommé, Hervé; Simonato, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been found to produce pro- but also anti-epileptic effects. Thus, its validity as a therapeutic target must be verified using advanced tools designed to block or to enhance its signal. The aim of this study was to develop tools to silence the BDNF signal. We generated Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) derived amplicon vectors, i.e. viral particles containing a genome of 152 kb constituted of concatameric repetitions of an expression cassette, enabling the expression of the gene of interest in multiple copies. HSV-1 based amplicon vectors are non-pathogenic and have been successfully employed in the past for gene delivery into the brain of living animals. Therefore, amplicon vectors should represent a logical choice for expressing a silencing cassette, which, in multiple copies, is expected to lead to an efficient knock-down of the target gene expression. Here, we employed two amplicon-based BDNF silencing strategies. The first, antisense, has been chosen to target and degrade the cytoplasmic mRNA pool of BDNF, whereas the second, based on the convergent transcription technology, has been chosen to repress transcription at the BDNF gene. Both these amplicon vectors proved to be effective in down-regulating BDNF expression in vitro, in BDNF-expressing mesoangioblast cells. However, only the antisense strategy was effective in vivo, after inoculation in the hippocampus in a model of status epilepticus in which BDNF mRNA levels are strongly increased. Interestingly, the knocking down of BDNF levels induced with BDNF-antisense was sufficient to produce significant behavioral effects, in spite of the fact that it was produced only in a part of a single hippocampus. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a reliable effect of amplicon vectors in knocking down gene expression in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, this approach may find broad applications in neurobiological studies.

  6. Adult granulosa cell tumours (GCT): clinicopathological outcomes including FOXL2 mutational status and expression.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Roseanne; Wilson, Michelle; Cheng, Wei-Tzu; Payne, Kathryn; Cohen, Paul A; Fong, Peter; Shelling, Andrew N

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this research was to use nucleic acids isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue to investigate the diagnostic potential and prognostic significance of FOXL2 in adult-type GCTs, particularly as a marker of identifying early stage patients that are likely to relapse. We performed a retrospective review of GCT patients referred to the Auckland Gynae-Oncology Multidisciplinary Team from 1955 to 2012. Baseline characteristics, clinical course, histopathology and survival data was recorded. Using nucleic acids extracted from FFPE tumour blocks, FOXL2 mutation status and expression was determined by DNA sequencing and RT-qPCR, respectively, and correlated with clinical data. 57 adult GCT patients were identified, however FFPE tumour blocks were available for only 37 of these patients. Sequencing results confirmed the presence of the FOXL2 mutation in 70% of patients. FOXL2 mutation positive adult tumours showed a trend towards higher FOXL2 expression than wildtype adult tumours, particularly in stage I patients (p=0.051). In addition, patients with homozygous FOXL2 mutations had a significantly higher relapse rate (p=0.04). There was no significant correlation between FOXL2 mutation status or FOXL2 expression and any other clinical variables. FFPE tumour blocks are a valuable resource of molecular information, especially when studying rare tumours such as GCTs. The FOXL2 mutation appears to have some diagnostic potential, however additional work in a larger cohort needs to be completed to confirm the prognostic significance of this gene mutation, and its expression. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Selenoprotein P neutralizes lipopolysaccharide and participates in hepatic cell endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongzhong; Banerjee, Shuvojit; Huang, Ping; Wang, Xinning; Gladson, Candece L; Heston, Warren D; Foster, Charles B

    2016-12-01

    Low serum selenium or selenoprotein P (SePP) levels have been repetitively observed in severe sepsis. The role of SePP in sepsis is incompletely characterized. To test the hypothesis that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) interacts with SePP, we investigated the interaction between LPS and the histidine-rich (His-rich) regions of SePP. We demonstrate that both purified SePP and synthetic peptides corresponding to the His-rich motifs neutralized LPS. In addition, we used a hepatocyte model to study the fate of SePP in response to LPS or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Our findings indicate that ER stress increases the cellular level of SePP and promotes its nuclear localization. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  8. Increased selenoprotein P in choroid plexus and cerebrospinal fluid in Alzheimer's disease brain.

    PubMed

    Rueli, Rachel H L H; Parubrub, Arlene C; Dewing, Andrea S T; Hashimoto, Ann C; Bellinger, Miyoko T; Weeber, Edwin J; Uyehara-Lock, Jane H; White, Lon R; Berry, Marla J; Bellinger, Frederick P

    2015-01-01

    Subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have elevated brain levels of the selenium transporter selenoprotein P (Sepp1). We investigated if this elevation results from increased release of Sepp1 from the choroid plexus (CP). Sepp1 is significantly increased in CP from AD brains in comparison to non-AD brains. Sepp1 localizes to the trans-Golgi network within CP epithelia, where it is processed for secretion. The cerebrospinal fluid from AD subjects also contains increased levels Sepp1 in comparison to non-AD subjects. These findings suggest that AD pathology induces increased levels of Sepp1 within CP epithelia for release into the cerebrospinal fluid to ultimately increase brain selenium.

  9. Selenoprotein N is required for ryanodine receptor calcium release channel activity in human and zebrafish muscle.

    PubMed

    Jurynec, Michael J; Xia, Ruohong; Mackrill, John J; Gunther, Derrick; Crawford, Thomas; Flanigan, Kevin M; Abramson, Jonathan J; Howard, Michael T; Grunwald, David Jonah

    2008-08-26

    Mutations affecting the seemingly unrelated gene products, SepN1, a selenoprotein of unknown function, and RyR1, the major component of the ryanodine receptor intracellular calcium release channel, result in an overlapping spectrum of congenital myopathies. To identify the immediate developmental and molecular roles of SepN and RyR in vivo, loss-of-function effects were analyzed in the zebrafish embryo. These studies demonstrate the two proteins are required for the same cellular differentiation events and are needed for normal calcium fluxes in the embryo. SepN is physically associated with RyRs and functions as a modifier of the RyR channel. In the absence of SepN, ryanodine receptors from zebrafish embryos or human diseased muscle have altered biochemical properties and have lost their normal sensitivity to redox conditions, which likely accounts for why mutations affecting either factor lead to similar diseases.

  10. Exposure to Silver Nanoparticles Inhibits Selenoprotein Synthesis and the Activity of Thioredoxin Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Milan; Singh, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Background: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver (Ag)-based materials are increasingly being incorporated into consumer products, and although humans have been exposed to colloidal Ag in many forms for decades, this rise in the use of Ag materials has spurred interest into their toxicology. Recent reports have shown that exposure to AgNPs or Ag ions leads to oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and reduced cell proliferation. Previous studies have shown that Ag accumulates in tissues as silver sulfides (Ag2S) and silver selenide (Ag2Se). Objectives: In this study we investigated whether exposure of cells in culture to AgNPs or Ag ions at subtoxic doses would alter the effective metabolism of selenium, that is, the incorporation of selenium into selenoproteins. Methods: For these studies we used a keratinocyte cell model (HaCat) and a lung cell model (A549). We also tested (in vitro, both cellular and chemical) whether Ag ions could inhibit the activity of a key selenoenzyme, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Results: We found that exposure to AgNPs or far lower levels of Ag ions led to a dose-dependent inhibition of selenium metabolism in both cell models. The synthesis of protein was not altered under these conditions. Exposure to nanomolar levels of Ag ions effectively blocked selenium metabolism, suggesting that Ag ion leaching was likely the mechanism underlying observed changes during AgNP exposure. Exposure likewise inhibited TrxR activity in cultured cells, and Ag ions were potent inhibitors of purified rat TrxR isoform 1 (cytosolic) (TrxR1) enzyme. Conclusions: Exposure to AgNPs leads to the inhibition of selenoprotein synthesis and inhibition of TrxR1. Further, we propose these two sites of action comprise the likely mechanism underlying increases in oxidative stress, increases endoplasmic reticulum stress, and reduced cell proliferation during exposure to Ag. PMID:21965219

  11. Glutathione enzyme and selenoprotein polymorphisms associate with mercury biomarker levels in Michigan dental professionals

    PubMed Central

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Wang, Yi; Gillespie, Brenda; Werner, Robert; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a potent toxicant of concern to both the general public and occupationally exposed workers (e.g., dentists). Recent studies suggest that several genes mediating the toxicokinetics of mercury are polymorphic in humans and may influence inter-individual variability in mercury accumulation. This work hypothesizes that polymorphisms in key glutathione synthesizing enzyme, glutathione s-transferase, and selenoprotein genes underlie inter-individual differences in mercury body burden as assessed by analytical mercury measurement in urine and hair, biomarkers of elemental mercury and methylmercury, respectively. Urine and hair samples were collected from a population of dental professionals (n=515), and total mercury content was measured. Average urine (1.06±1.24 ug/L) and hair mercury levels (0.49±0.63 ug/g) were similar to national U.S. population averages. Taqman assays were used to genotype DNA from buccal swab samples at 15 polymorphic sites in genes implicated in mercury metabolism. Linear regression modeling assessed the ability of polymorphisms to modify the relationship between mercury biomarker levels and exposure sources (e.g., amalgams, fish consumption). Five polymorphisms were significantly associated with urine mercury levels (GSTT1 deletion), hair mercury levels (GSTP1-105, GSTP1-114, GSS 5’), or both (SEPP1 3’UTR). Overall, this study suggests that polymorphisms in selenoproteins and glutathione-related genes may influence elimination of mercury in the urine and hair or mercury retention following exposures to elemental mercury (via dental amalgams) and methylmercury (via fish consumption). PMID:21967774

  12. Secretor status and ABH antigens expression in patients with oral lesions.

    PubMed

    Campi, Carlos; Escovich, Livia; Valdés, Vanina; García Borrás, Silvia; Racca, Liliana; Racca, Amelia; Cotorruelo, Carlos; Biondi, Claudia

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the secretor status of patients with oral pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions and ABH antigens expression in fixed tissue sections of these patients. To reveal A, B and H antigens in tissue sections of patients with precancerous and cancerous oral lesions (n= 54) we used a modified specific red cell adherence technique (SRCA-test). Normal endothelial cells expressed ABH antigens, the presence of indicator erythrocytes at the lumen of the blood vessels served as a built in positive control. The test results were graded from negative adherence to very strongly positive adherence. Negative adherence was defined as a complete absence of adhered indicator erythrocytes. A strongly positive reaction was defined as a sheet of indicator erythrocytes adhered to the epithelia cells. In 31 of the 54 samples analyzed the test showed slightly positive results on atypical areas, and there was a complete antigen deletion in areas histologically affected by neoplasia. Sixteen samples showed a total absence of ABH antigens in both histologically normal and pathological areas. As a working hypothesis, we propose that areas of SRCA-test negative epithelium are closely related to invasive carcinomas and may be their precursor lesions. Further it is suggested that areas of blood group isoantigen negative epithelium showing atypia, or in some instances near normal histology, may give rise to relatively low grade carcinomas. Considering these results we suggest the use of this method to monitor probable preneoplastic lesions in risk population, specially in those with no secretor status.

  13. Dynamic Change in Cells Expressing IL-1β in Rat Hippocampus after Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Satoru; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Otsubo, Hiroshi; Yamano, Tsunekazu; Shintaku, Haruo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The time course of cytokine dynamics after seizure remains controversial. Here we evaluated the changes in the levels and sites of interleukin (IL)-1β expression over time in the hippocampus after seizure. METHODS Status epilepticus (SE) was induced in adult Wistar rats by means of intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid (KA). Subsequently, the time courses of cellular localization and IL-1β concentration in the hippocampus were evaluated by means of immunohistochemical and quantitative assays. RESULTS On day 1 after SE, CA3 pyramidal cells showed degeneration and increased IL-1β expression. In the chronic phase (>7 days after SE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)—positive reactive astrocytes—appeared in CA1 and became IL-1β immunoreactive. Their IL-1β immunoreactivity increased in proportion to the progressive hypertrophy of astrocytes that led to gliosis. Quantitative analysis showed that hippocampal IL-1β concentration progressively increased during the acute and chronic phases. CONCLUSION IL-1β affects the hippocampus after SE. In the acute phase, the main cells expressing IL-1β were CA3 pyramidal cells. In the chronic phase, the main cells expressing IL-1β were reactive astrocytes in CA1. PMID:25210490

  14. [Oral and written affective expression in children of low socioeconomic status].

    PubMed

    Larraguibel, M; Lolas Stepke, F

    1991-06-01

    Descriptive data on affective expression of 58 children (33 girls and 25 boys) of low socioeconomic status (Graffar index), with ages between 8 and 12 are presented. Intelligence was assessed by means of Raven Progressive Matrixes Test, all subjects exhibiting mean level. Evaluated were the six forms of anxiety and the four hostility forms defined by the Gottschalk method of verbal content analysis. Hope scores, positive and negative, were also obtained from the same verbal samples. The oral sample consisted in speech produced spontaneously during 5 minutes, in response to a standard instruction, and the written sample consisted in brief stories produced under standardized conditions during 15 minutes. The most frequently expressed form of anxiety was separation anxiety, while the most frequently expressed form of hostility was directed outwards covert hostility. "Positive" hope was expressed more frequently than "negative" hope. Data are discussed in terms of their contribution to the establishment of population norms in Spanish-speaking populations for the psychological constructs explored. It is concluded that the method of content analysis of verbal behavior may represent a useful tool for the study of child psychology in different contexts.

  15. Cryptochrome expression in the eye of migratory birds depends on their migratory status.

    PubMed

    Fusani, Leonida; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Frigato, Elena; Foà, Augusto

    2014-03-15

    Most passerine birds are nocturnal migrants. When kept in captivity during the migratory periods, these species show a migratory restlessness, or Zugunruhe. Recent studies on Sylvia warblers have shown that Zugunruhe is an excellent proxy of migratory disposition. Passerine birds can use the Earth's geomagnetic field as a compass to keep their course during their migratory flight. Among the candidate magnetoreceptive mechanisms are the cryptochromes, flavoproteins located in the retina that are supposed to perceive the magnetic field through a light-mediated process. Previous work has suggested that expression of Cryptochrome 1 (Cry1) is increased in migratory birds compared with non-migratory species. Here we tested the hypothesis that Cry1 expression depends on migratory status. Blackcaps Sylvia atricapilla were caught before fall migration and held in registration cages. When the birds were showing robust Zugunruhe, we applied a food deprivation protocol that simulates a long migratory flight. When the birds were refed after 2 days, their Zugunruhe decreased substantially, as is expected from birds that would interrupt migration for a refuelling stopover. We found that Cry1 expression was higher at night than during daytime in birds showing Zugunruhe, whereas in birds that underwent the fasting-and-refeeding protocol and reduced their levels of Zugunruhe, night Cry1 expression decreased to daytime levels. Our work shows that Cry1 expression is dependent on the presence of Zugunruhe and not on species-specific or seasonal factors, or on the birds being active versus inactive. These results support the hypothesis that cryptochromes underlie magnetoreceptive mechanisms in birds.

  16. Decreased plasma thiol antioxidant barrier and selenoproteins as potential biomarkers for ongoing methylmercury intoxication and an individual protective capacity.

    PubMed

    Usuki, Fusako; Fujimura, Masatake

    2016-04-01

    Manifestation of methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity depends on individual susceptibility to MeHg, as well as MeHg burden level. Therefore, biomarkers that reflect the protective capacity against MeHg are needed. The critical role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of MeHg cytotoxicity has been demonstrated. Because MeHg has high affinity for selenohydryl groups, sulfhydryl groups, and selenides, and causes posttranscriptional defects in selenoenzymes, proteins with selenohydryl and sulfhydryl groups should play a critical role in mediating MeHg-induced oxidative stress. Here, plasma oxidative stress markers and selenoproteins were investigated in MeHg-intoxicated rats showing neuropathological changes after 4 weeks of MeHg exposure. The thiol antioxidant barrier (-SHp) level significantly decreased 2 weeks after MeHg exposure, which is an early stage at which no systemic oxidative stress, histopathological changes, or clinical signs were detected. Diacron reactive oxidant metabolite (d-ROM) levels significantly increased 3 weeks after MeHg exposure, indicating the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress. Rats treated with lead acetate or cadmium chloride showed no changes in levels of -SHp and d-ROM. Selenoprotein P1 abundance significantly decreased in MeHg-treated rats, whereas it significantly increased in rats treated with Pb or Cd. Plasma selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPx3) activity also significantly decreased after MeHg exposure, whereas plasma non-selenoenzyme glutathione reductase activity significantly increased in MeHg-treated rats. The results suggest that decreased capacity of -SHp and selenoproteins (GPx3 and selenoprotein P) can be useful biomarkers of ongoing MeHg cytotoxicity and the individual protective capacity against the MeHg body burden.

  17. Steroid receptor expression in the fish inner ear varies with sex, social status, and reproductive state

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gonadal and stress-related steroid hormones are known to influence auditory function across vertebrates but the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for steroid-mediated auditory plasticity at the level of the inner ear remain unknown. The presence of steroid receptors in the ear suggests a direct pathway for hormones to act on the peripheral auditory system, but little is known about which receptors are expressed in the ear or whether their expression levels change with internal physiological state or external social cues. We used qRT-PCR to measure mRNA expression levels of multiple steroid receptor subtypes (estrogen receptors: ERα, ERβa, ERβb; androgen receptors: ARα, ARβ; corticosteroid receptors: GR2, GR1a/b, MR) and aromatase in the main hearing organ of the inner ear (saccule) in the highly social African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, and tested whether these receptor levels were correlated with circulating steroid concentrations. Results We show that multiple steroid receptor subtypes are expressed within the main hearing organ of a single vertebrate species, and that expression levels differ between the sexes. We also show that steroid receptor subtype-specific changes in mRNA expression are associated with reproductive phase in females and social status in males. Sex-steroid receptor mRNA levels were negatively correlated with circulating estradiol and androgens in both males and females, suggesting possible ligand down-regulation of receptors in the inner ear. In contrast, saccular changes in corticosteroid receptor mRNA levels were not related to serum cortisol levels. Circulating steroid levels and receptor subtype mRNA levels were not as tightly correlated in males as compared to females, suggesting different regulatory mechanisms between sexes. Conclusions This is the most comprehensive study of sex-, social-, and reproductive-related steroid receptor mRNA expression in the peripheral auditory system of any single

  18. The Relation Between Promoter Chromatin Status, Xyr1 and Cellulase Ex-pression in Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Mello-de-Sousa, Thiago M; Rassinger, Alice; Derntl, Christian; Poças-Fonseca, Marcio J; Mach, Robert L; Mach-Aigner, Astrid R

    2016-04-01

    The ascomycete Trichoderma reesei is used for the production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes in industrial scale. The interplay of the transactivator Xyr1 and the repressor Cre1 mainly regulates the expression of these enzymes. During induc-ing conditions, such as in the presence of sophorose, the transcription of the two major cellulase-encoding genes, cbh1 and cbh2, is activated as well as the expression of xyr1. In the presence of D-glucose carbon catabolite repression mediated by Cre1 takes place and the expression of Xyr1 and the plant cell wall-degrading enzymes is down-regulated. In this study we compare the chromatin status of xyr1, cbh1, and cbh2 promoters in the wild-type strain and the Cre1-deficient strain Rut-C30. Chromatin rearrangement occurs in the xyr1 promoter during induction on sophorose. Chromatin opening and protein-DNA interactions in the xyr1 promoter were detected especially in a region located 0.9 kb upstream the translation start co-don, which bears several putative Cre1-binding sites and a CCAAT-box. Moreover, the xyr1 promoter is overall more acces-sible in a cre1-truncated background, no matter which carbon source is present. This makes the xyr1 regulatory sequence a good target for promoter engineering aiming at the enhancement of cellulase production.

  19. Intragenic DNA methylation status down-regulates bovine IGF2 gene expression in different developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Zhen; Zhan, Zhao-Yang; Sun, Yu-Jia; Cao, Xiu-Kai; Li, Ming-Xun; Wang, Jing; Lan, Xian-Yong; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-25

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in mammals and has an essential and important role in muscle development. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a fetal growth and differentiation factor that plays an important role in muscle growth and in myoblast proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of IGF2 and the methylation pattern on the differentially methylated region (DMR) of the last exon of IGF2 in six tissues with two different developmental stages. The DNA methylation pattern was compared using bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BSP) and combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA). The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis indicated that IGF2 has a broad tissue distribution and the adult bovine group showed significant lower mRNA expression levels than that in the fetal bovine group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Moreover, the DNA methylation level analysis showed that the adult bovine group exhibited a significantly higher DNA methylation levels than that in the fetal bovine group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). These results indicate that IGF2 expression levels were negatively associated with the methylation status of the IGF2 DMR during the two developmental stages. Our results suggest that the methylation pattern in this DMR may be a useful parameter to investigate as a marker-assisted selection for muscle developmental in beef cattle breeding program and as a model for studies in other species.

  20. Early embryonic failure: Expression and imprinted status of candidate genes on human chromosome 21

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, L.S.; Bennett, P.R.; Moore, G.E.

    1994-09-01

    Two cases of maternal uniparental (hetero)disomy for human chromosome 21 (mUPD21) have been identified in a systematic search for UPD in 23 cases of early embryonic failure (EEF). Bi-parental origin of the other chromosome pairs was confirmed using specific VNTR probes or dinucleotide repeat analysis. Both maternally and paternally derived isochromosomes 21q have previously been identified in two individuals with normal phenotypes. Full UPD21 has a different mechanism of origin than uniparental isochromosome 21q and its effect on imprinted genes and phenotypic outcome will therefore not necessarily be the same. EEF associated with mUPD21 suggests that developmentally important genes on HSA 21 may be imprinted such that they are only expressed from either the maternally or paternally derived alleles. We have searched for monoallelic expression of candidate genes on HSA 21 in human pregnancy (CBS, IFNAR, COL6A1) using intragenic DNA polymorphisms. These genes were chosen either because their murine homologues lie in imprinted regions or because they are potentially important in embryogenesis. Once imprinted candidate genes have been identified, their methylation status and expression in normal, early embryonic failure and uniparental disomy 21 pregnancies will be studied. At the same time, a larger number of cases of EEF are being examined to further investigate the incidence of UPD21 in this group.

  1. Thyroid Hormone Status Interferes with Estrogen Target Gene Expression in Breast Cancer Samples in Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Conde, Sandro José; Luvizotto, Renata de Azevedo Melo; de Síbio, Maria Teresa; Nogueira, Célia Regina

    2014-01-01

    We investigated thyroid hormone levels in menopausal BrC patients and verified the action of triiodothyronine on genes regulated by estrogen and by triiodothyronine itself in BrC tissues. We selected 15 postmenopausal BrC patients and a control group of 18 postmenopausal women without BrC. We measured serum TPO-AB, TSH, FT4, and estradiol, before and after surgery, and used immunohistochemistry to examine estrogen and progesterone receptors. BrC primary tissue cultures received the following treatments: ethanol, triiodothyronine, triiodothyronine plus 4-hydroxytamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, estrogen, or estrogen plus 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Genes regulated by estrogen (TGFA, TGFB1, and PGR) and by triiodothyronine (TNFRSF9, BMP-6, and THRA) in vitro were evaluated. TSH levels in BrC patients did not differ from those of the control group (1.34 ± 0.60 versus 2.41 ± 1.10 μU/mL), but FT4 levels of BrC patients were statistically higher than controls (1.78 ± 0.20 versus 0.95 ± 0.16 ng/dL). TGFA was upregulated and downregulated after estrogen and triiodothyronine treatment, respectively. Triiodothyronine increased PGR expression; however 4-hydroxytamoxifen did not block triiodothyronine action on PGR expression. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen, alone or associated with triiodothyronine, modulated gene expression of TNFRSF9, BMP-6, and THRA, similar to triiodothyronine treatment. Thus, our work highlights the importance of thyroid hormone status evaluation and its ability to interfere with estrogen target gene expression in BrC samples in menopausal women. PMID:24701358

  2. Mast cell phenotype, TNFα expression and degranulation status in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shikotra, A.; Ohri, C. M.; Green, R. H.; Waller, D. A.; Bradding, P.

    2016-01-01

    Mast cell infiltration of tumour islets represents a survival advantage in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The phenotype and activation status of these mast cells is unknown. We investigated the mast cell phenotype in terms of protease content (tryptase-only [MCT], tryptase + chymase [MCTC]) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) expression, and extent of degranulation, in NSCLC tumour stroma and islets. Surgically resected tumours from 24 patients with extended survival (ES; mean survival 86.5 months) were compared with 25 patients with poor survival (PS; mean survival 8.0 months) by immunohistochemistry. Both MCT and MCTC in tumour islets were higher in ES (20.0 and 5.6 cells/mm2 respectively) compared to PS patients (0.0 cells/mm2) (p < 0.0001). Both phenotypes expressed TNFα in the islets and stroma. In ES 44% of MCT and 37% of MCTC expressed TNFα in the tumour islets. MCT in the ES stroma were more degranulated than in those with PS (median degranulation index = 2.24 versus 1.73 respectively) (p = 0.0022), and ES islet mast cells (2.24 compared to 1.71, p < 0.0001). Since both MCT and MCTC infiltrating tumour islets in ES NSCLC patients express TNFα, the cytotoxic activity of this cytokine may confer improved survival in these patients. Manipulating mast cell microlocalisation and functional responses in NSCLC may offer a novel approach to the treatment of this disease. PMID:27922077

  3. CD25 expression status improves prognostic risk classification in AML independent of established biomarkers: ECOG phase 3 trial, E1900

    PubMed Central

    Gönen, Mithat; Sun, Zhuoxin; Figueroa, Maria E.; Patel, Jay P.; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Racevskis, Janis; Ketterling, Rhett P.; Fernandez, Hugo; Rowe, Jacob M.; Tallman, Martin S.; Melnick, Ari; Levine, Ross L.

    2012-01-01

    We determined the prognostic relevance of CD25 (IL-2 receptor-α) expression in 657 patients (≤ 60 years) with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated in the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group trial, E1900. We identified CD25POS myeloblasts in 87 patients (13%), of whom 92% had intermediate-risk cytogenetics. CD25 expression correlated with expression of stem cell antigen CD123. In multivariate analysis, controlled for prognostic baseline characteristics and daunorubicin dose, CD25POS patients had inferior complete remission rates (P = .0005) and overall survival (P < .0001) compared with CD25NEG cases. In a subset of 396 patients, we integrated CD25 expression with somatic mutation status to determine whether CD25 impacted outcome independent of prognostic mutations. CD25 was positively correlated with internal tandem duplications in FLT3 (FLT3-ITD), DNMT3A, and NPM1 mutations. The adverse prognostic impact of FLT3-ITDPOS AML was restricted to CD25POS patients. CD25 expression improved AML prognostication independent of integrated, cytogenetic and mutational data, such that it reallocated 11% of patients with intermediate-risk disease to the unfavorable-risk group. Gene expression analysis revealed that CD25POS status correlated with the expression of previously reported leukemia stem cell signatures. We conclude that CD25POS status provides prognostic relevance in AML independent of known biomarkers and is correlated with stem cell gene-expression signatures associated with adverse outcome in AML. PMID:22855599

  4. Lung Adenocarcinoma With MUC4 Expression Is Associated With Smoking Status, HER2 Protein Expression, and Poor Prognosis: Clinicopathologic Analysis of 338 Cases.

    PubMed

    Rokutan-Kurata, Mariyo; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Sumiyoshi, Shinji; Sonobe, Makoto; Menju, Toshi; Momose, Masanobu; Koyama, Mizuki; Shigeto, Shohei; Fujimoto, Masakazu; Zhang, Meng; Morita, Satoshi; Date, Hiroshi; Haga, Hironori

    2017-07-01

    MUC4 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that plays a role in the cell growth signaling pathway and has been studied in various organ malignancies. This study aimed to analyze MUC4 expression in resected lung adenocarcinomas (ADCs) to define the clinicopathologic characteristics of MUC4-positive cancers. Immunohistochemical MUC4 analysis was performed using tissue microarray slides containing 338 lung ADCs. Associations between MUC4 expression and the following clinicopathologic parameters were evaluated: sex; age; smoking status; tumor stage; tumor grade; lymphovascular invasion; pleural invasion; TTF-1 and HNF4α expression; EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and HER2 mutation status; and ALK and ROS1 fusion status. Ninety-four tumors (27.8%) were MUC4 positive. Most patients with MUC4-positive tumors were male (P < .001) and smokers (P = .006). Moreover, MUC4 expression was significantly associated with solid ADCs (P < .001) and vascular invasion (P = .001). MUC4 expression inversely correlated with TTF-1 expression (P = .020) and EGFR mutations (P = .004). Interestingly, MUC4 expression correlated with HER2 protein expression (P = .042), although MUC4 expression did not correlate with HER2 DNA amplification or HER2 gene mutations. Patients with MUC4-positive tumors had significantly worse prognoses compared to patients with MUC4-negative tumors (P = .025). The present study showed that MUC4-positive lung ADCs correlated with male smokers, solid ADCs, negative TTF-1 expression, the EGFR wild-type gene, HER2 protein expression, and poorer prognoses. These results suggest that MUC4-positive lung ADC may be a distinct subtype found in patients with smoking-related poor outcomes, mediated by HER2 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. IgM+ Memory B Cell Expression Predicts HIV-Associated Cryptococcosis Status

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Krishanthi; Metzger, Brian; Hanau, Lawrence H.; Guh, Alice; Rucker, Lisa; Badri, Sheila; Pirofski, Liise-anne

    2009-01-01

    Background The role of B cells in resistance to Cryptococcus neoformans disease (i.e., cryptococcosis) is unknown. Given evidence that IgM+ memory B cells are required for immunity to other encapsulated pathogens, we hypothesized that these cells might contribute to resistance to cryptococcosis. Methods We compared levels of IgM expression on memory B cells in 29 HIV-infected individuals who had a history of cryptococcosis (the HIV+CN+ group) with levels in 30 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected subjects who had no history of cryptococcosis (the HIV+CN− group) and 20 HIV-uninfected subjects who had no history of cryptococcosis (the HIV− group) (cohort 1). We also determined levels of IgM expression on memory B cells in banked samples obtained before cryptococcosis onset from 31 participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, of whom 8 had HIV infection and subsequently developed cryptococcosis (the HIV+CN+ group), 8 had HIV infection and did not develop cryptococcosis (the HIV+CN− group), and 15 did not have HIV infection and did not develop cryptococcosis (the HIV− group) (cohort 2). Results In cohort 1, the percentage of memory B cells that expressed IgM was lower among HIV+CN+ subjects, compared with HIV+CN− subjects (P < .01) and HIV− subjects (P <.05); expression of IgM on ≤50% of memory B cells was a significant predictor of C. neoformans disease status (odds ratio, 5.5; P = .03). In cohort 2, the percentage of memory B cells that expressed IgM was lower in HIV+CN+ subjects than in HIV+CN− subjects (P = .02) and HIV− subjects (P < .01); an IgM+ memory B cell percentage of ≤38.5% was a significant predictor of future development of cryptococcosis (odds ratio, 14; P = .02). Conclusions These findings suggest that HIV-infected persons in whom the percentage of memory B cells that express IgM is decreased might be at greater risk for the development of cryptococcosis. PMID:19527168

  6. Cellular methylation regulates hepatocyte expression of selenoprotein P and gluconeogenic enzymes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is a methyl donor whose levels are altered in disease, relative to its product, SAH. SAM is also required for metabolism of the nutrient Se. We previously found a positive correlation between Se and Vitamin B12/folic acid but a negative correlation between Se and homocyste...

  7. Identification of microRNAs with Dysregulated Expression in Status Epilepticus Induced Epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Mykaella Andrade; Marques, Thalita Ewellyn Batista Sales; Octacílio-Silva, Shirley; de Arroxelas-Silva, Carmem Lúcia; Pereira, Marília Gabriella Alves Goulart; Peixoto-Santos, José Eduardo; Kandratavicius, Ludmyla; Leite, João Pereira; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Castro, Olagide Wagner; Duzzioni, Marcelo; Passos, Geraldo Aleixo; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of miRNA in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) pathogenesis has increasingly become a focus of epigenetic studies. Despite advances, the number of known miRNAs with a consistent expression response during epileptogenesis is still small. Addressing this situation requires additional miRNA profiling studies coupled to detailed individual expression analyses. Here, we perform a miRNA microarray analysis of the hippocampus of Wistar rats 24 hours after intra-hippocampal pilocarpine-induced Status Epilepticus (H-PILO SE). We identified 73 miRNAs that undergo significant changes, of which 36 were up-regulated and 37 were down-regulated. To validate, we selected 5 of these (10a-5p, 128a-3p, 196b-5p, 352 and 324-3p) for RT-qPCR analysis. Our results confirmed that miR-352 and 196b-5p levels were significantly higher and miR-128a-3p levels were significantly lower in the hippocampus of H-PILO SE rats. We also evaluated whether the 3 miRNAs show a dysregulated hippocampal expression at three time periods (0h, 24h and chronic phase) after systemic pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (S-PILO SE). We demonstrate that miR-128a-3p transcripts are significantly reduced at all time points compared to the naïve group. Moreover, miR-196b-5p was significantly higher only at 24h post-SE, while miR-352 transcripts were significantly up-regulated after 24h and in chronic phase (epileptic) rats. Finally, when we compared hippocampi of epileptic and non-epileptic humans, we observed that transcript levels of miRNAs show similar trends to the animal models. In summary, we successfully identified two novel dysregulated miRNAs (196b-5p and 352) and confirmed miR-128a-3p downregulation in SE-induced epileptogenesis. Further functional assays are required to understand the role of these miRNAs in MTLE pathogenesis. PMID:27695061

  8. Expression of prostaglandin E₂ receptor subtypes in the canine lower urinary tract varies according to the gonadal status and gender.

    PubMed

    Ponglowhapan, S; Church, D B; Khalid, M

    2010-11-01

    Locally-synthesised prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) is pivotal for the function of the lower urinary tract (LUT). This study aimed at investigating the expression and distribution pattern of the four PGE₂ receptor (EP) subtypes in the LUT of intact and gonadectomised male and female dogs. Expression for EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 and their mRNA (EP2, EP3, and EP4) was investigated. Twenty clinically healthy dogs were allotted into 4 groups based on their gonadal status and gender including 5 intact males, 5 anoestrous females, 4 castrated males, and 6 spayed females. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed variation in the expression of mRNA and protein for the EP subtypes among tissue layers (epithelium, sub-epithelial stroma, and muscle), regions (body and neck of the bladder as well as proximal and distal urethra) and between gonadal statuses and genders. The expression for the four EPs was intense in the luminal epithelium, intermediate to low in the muscle and the sub-epithelial stroma regardless of gonadal status or gender. Higher expression of all EPs and their mRNAs was observed in the proximal urethra compared to other regions in intact dogs. However, in gonadectomised dogs, the expression did not differ among different regions and was generally lower than in intact dogs particularly in the proximal urethra. Differences in the expression between genders were found and depended on EP subtypes. In conclusion, the results have shown that four subtypes of EP receptors and their mRNAs are present in the canine LUT and their expression was affected by the gonadal status and the gender. The results lead to suggest that an impaired LUT function post-neutering may partly be associated with differences in PGE₂ receptor expression between intact and gonadectomised dogs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Glutathione enzyme and selenoprotein polymorphisms associate with mercury biomarker levels in Michigan dental professionals

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Wang, Yi; Gillespie, Brenda; Werner, Robert; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2011-12-15

    Mercury is a potent toxicant of concern to both the general public and occupationally exposed workers (e.g., dentists). Recent studies suggest that several genes mediating the toxicokinetics of mercury are polymorphic in humans and may influence inter-individual variability in mercury accumulation. This work hypothesizes that polymorphisms in key glutathione synthesizing enzyme, glutathione s-transferase, and selenoprotein genes underlie inter-individual differences in mercury body burden as assessed by analytical mercury measurement in urine and hair, biomarkers of elemental mercury and methylmercury, respectively. Urine and hair samples were collected from a population of dental professionals (n = 515), and total mercury content was measured. Average urine (1.06 {+-} 1.24 ug/L) and hair mercury levels (0.49 {+-} 0.63 ug/g) were similar to national U.S. population averages. Taqman assays were used to genotype DNA from buccal swab samples at 15 polymorphic sites in genes implicated in mercury metabolism. Linear regression modeling assessed the ability of polymorphisms to modify the relationship between mercury biomarker levels and exposure sources (e.g., amalgams, fish consumption). Five polymorphisms were significantly associated with urine mercury levels (GSTT1 deletion), hair mercury levels (GSTP1-105, GSTP1-114, GSS 5 Prime ), or both (SEPP1 3 Prime UTR). Overall, this study suggests that polymorphisms in selenoproteins and glutathione-related genes may influence elimination of mercury in the urine and hair or mercury retention following exposures to elemental mercury (via dental amalgams) and methylmercury (via fish consumption). -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explore the influence of 15 polymorphisms on urine and hair Hg levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urine and hair Hg levels in dental professionals were similar to the US population. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GSTT1 and SEPP1 polymorphisms associated with urine Hg levels. Black

  10. Genetic variation in selenoprotein genes, lifestyle, and risk of colon and rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Martha L; Lundgreen, Abbie; Welbourn, Bill; Corcoran, Christopher; Wolff, Roger K

    2012-01-01

    Associations between selenium and cancer have directed attention to role of selenoproteins in the carcinogenic process. We used data from two population-based case-control studies of colon (n = 1555 cases, 1956 controls) and rectal (n = 754 cases, 959 controls) cancer. We evaluated the association between genetic variation in TXNRD1, TXNRD2, TXNRD3, C11orf31 (SelH), SelW, SelN1, SelS, SepX, and SeP15 with colorectal cancer risk. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, several associations were observed. Two SNPs in TXNRD3 were associated with rectal cancer (rs11718498 dominant OR 1.42 95% CI 1.16,1.74 pACT 0.0036 and rs9637365 recessive 0.70 95% CI 0.55,0.90 pACT 0.0208). Four SNPs in SepN1 were associated with rectal cancer (rs11247735 recessive OR 1.30 95% CI 1.04,1.63 pACT 0.0410; rs2072749 GGvsAA OR 0.53 95% CI 0.36,0.80 pACT 0.0159; rs4659382 recessive OR 0.58 95% CI 0.39,0.86 pACT 0.0247; rs718391 dominant OR 0.76 95% CI 0.62,0.94 pACT 0.0300). Interaction between these genes and exposures that could influence these genes showed numerous significant associations after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Two SNPs in TXNRD1 and four SNPs in TXNRD2 interacted with aspirin/NSAID to influence colon cancer; one SNP in TXNRD1, two SNPs in TXNRD2, and one SNP in TXNRD3 interacted with aspirin/NSAIDs to influence rectal cancer. Five SNPs in TXNRD2 and one in SelS, SeP15, and SelW1 interacted with estrogen to modify colon cancer risk; one SNP in SelW1 interacted with estrogen to alter rectal cancer risk. Several SNPs in this candidate pathway influenced survival after diagnosis with colon cancer (SeP15 and SepX1 increased HRR) and rectal cancer (SepX1 increased HRR). Findings support an association between selenoprotein genes and colon and rectal cancer development and survival after diagnosis. Given the interactions observed, it is likely that the impact of cancer susceptibility from genotype is modified by lifestyle.

  11. Influence of DFNB1 status on expressive language in deaf children with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Angeli, Simon I; Suarez, Hamlet; Lopez, Alina; Balkany, Thomas J; Liu, Xue Z

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the language growth of children with connexin-related deafness (DFNB1) who received cochlear implants versus the language growth of implanted children with non-DFNB1 deafness. A prospective longitudinal observational study and analysis. Two tertiary referral centers. There were 37 children with severe-to-profound hearing loss who received cochlear implants before the age of 5 years. A standardized language measure, the section for expressive language of the Reynell Developmental Language Scale was used to assess expressive language skills at 2 times postimplantation (14 and 57 mo postimplantation). Molecular screening for DFNB1 gene variants. Language quotient (LQ) scores (i.e., age-equivalent score obtained on the Reynell Developmental Language Scale divided by the child's chronological age), results of genotyping. The mean language age at the second time interval (mean ± standard deviation, 51.8 ± 13 mo) was greater than at the first testing session (mean ± standard deviation, 19 ± 8 mo, p < 0.001, Wilcoxon signed rank test). When divided by genotype, DFNB1 children exhibited a higher LQ and less variability in scores than non-DFNB1 children at the second testing interval (Wilcoxon sign rank test, p = 0.0034). A regression analysis (linear-fit by least squares) conducted on 26 children with preimplantation audiometric data showed that DFNB1 status was the independent variable with greater predictive effect on LQ at the second testing interval, followed by age at implantation (R2 = 0.35, p = 0.0479). Deaf children who received cochlear implants before the age of 5 years and use oral communication show substantial improvement in language abilities. In this study, DFNB1 children who use cochlear implants show greater gains in expressive language than non-DFNB1 children, independent of residual hearing, age at implantation, and duration of implant use.

  12. Gene Expression Biomarkers Provide Sensitive Indicators of in Planta Nitrogen Status in Maize[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaofeng S.; Wu, Jingrui; Ziegler, Todd E.; Yang, Xiao; Zayed, Adel; Rajani, M.S.; Zhou, Dafeng; Basra, Amarjit S.; Schachtman, Daniel P.; Peng, Mingsheng; Armstrong, Charles L.; Caldo, Rico A.; Morrell, James A.; Lacy, Michelle; Staub, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last several decades, increased agricultural production has been driven by improved agronomic practices and a dramatic increase in the use of nitrogen-containing fertilizers to maximize the yield potential of crops. To reduce input costs and to minimize the potential environmental impacts of nitrogen fertilizer that has been used to optimize yield, an increased understanding of the molecular responses to nitrogen under field conditions is critical for our ability to further improve agricultural sustainability. Using maize (Zea mays) as a model, we have characterized the transcriptional response of plants grown under limiting and sufficient nitrogen conditions and during the recovery of nitrogen-starved plants. We show that a large percentage (approximately 7%) of the maize transcriptome is nitrogen responsive, similar to previous observations in other plant species. Furthermore, we have used statistical approaches to identify a small set of genes whose expression profiles can quantitatively assess the response of plants to varying nitrogen conditions. Using a composite gene expression scoring system, this single set of biomarker genes can accurately assess nitrogen responses independently of genotype, developmental stage, tissue type, or environment, including in plants grown under controlled environments or in the field. Importantly, the biomarker composite expression response is much more rapid and quantitative than phenotypic observations. Consequently, we have successfully used these biomarkers to monitor nitrogen status in real-time assays of field-grown maize plants under typical production conditions. Our results suggest that biomarkers have the potential to be used as agronomic tools to monitor and optimize nitrogen fertilizer usage to help achieve maximal crop yields. PMID:21980173

  13. Fasting and glucose effects on pituitary leptin expression. Is leptin a local signal for nutrient status?

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Christopher; Akhter, Noor; Johnson, Brandy W.; Iruthayanathan, Mary; Syed, Farhan; Kudo, Akihiko; Zhou, Yi-Hong; Childs, Gwen V.

    2007-01-01

    Leptin, a potent anorexigenic hormone is found in the anterior pituitary. The aim of this study was to determine if and how pituitary leptin-bearing cells were regulated by nutritional status. Male rats showed 64% reductions in pituitary leptin mRNA, but not serum leptin, 24 h after fasting, accompanied by significant 30-50% reductions in growth hormone (GH), prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH), and 70-80% reductions in target cells for gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) or growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH). There was a 2—fold increase in corticotropes. Subsets (22%) of pituitary cells co-expressed leptin and GH and <5% co-expressed leptin and LH, prolactin, TSH, or ACTH. Fasting resulted in significant 55-75% losses in cells with leptin proteins or mRNA and GH or LH. To determine if restoration of serum glucose could rescue leptin, LH and GH, additional fasted rats were given 10% glucose water for 24 h. Restoring serum glucose in fasted rats resulted in pituitary cell populations with normal levels of leptin, GH, and LH cells. Similarly, LH and GH cells were restored, in vitro, after populations from fasted rats were treated for as little as 1 h in 10-100 pg/ml leptin. These correlative changes in pituitary leptin, LH and GH, coupled with leptin’s rapid restoration of GH and LH, in vitro, suggest that pituitary leptin may signal nutritional changes. Collectively, the findings suggest that pituitary leptin expression could be coupled to glucose sensors like glucokinase, to facilitate rapid responses by the neuroendocrine system to nutritional cues. PMID:17595338

  14. Selenoprotein P and apolipoprotein E receptor-2 interact at the blood-brain barrier and also within the brain to maintain an essential selenium pool that protects against neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Burk, Raymond F.; Hill, Kristina E.; Motley, Amy K.; Winfrey, Virginia P.; Kurokawa, Suguru; Mitchell, Stuart L.; Zhang, Wanqi

    2014-01-01

    Selenoprotein P (Sepp1) and its receptor, apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (apoER2), account for brain retaining selenium better than other tissues. The primary sources of Sepp1 in plasma and brain are hepatocytes and astrocytes, respectively. ApoER2 is expressed in varying amounts by tissues; within the brain it is expressed primarily by neurons. Knockout of Sepp1 or apoER2 lowers brain selenium from ∼120 to ∼50 ng/g and leads to severe neurodegeneration and death in mild selenium deficiency. Interactions of Sepp1 and apoER2 that protect against this injury have not been characterized. We studied Sepp1, apoER2, and brain selenium in knockout mice. Immunocytochemistry showed that apoER2 mediates Sepp1 uptake at the blood-brain barrier. When Sepp1−/− or apoER2−/− mice developed severe neurodegeneration caused by mild selenium deficiency, brain selenium was ∼35 ng/g. In extreme selenium deficiency, however, brain selenium of ∼12 ng/g was tolerated when both Sepp1 and apoER2 were intact in the brain. These findings indicate that tandem Sepp1-apoER2 interactions supply selenium for maintenance of brain neurons. One interaction is at the blood-brain barrier, and the other is within the brain. We postulate that Sepp1 inside the blood-brain barrier is taken up by neurons via apoER2, concentrating brain selenium in them.—Burk, R. F., Hill, K. E., Motley, A. K., Winfrey, V. P., Kurokawa, S., Mitchell, S. L., Zhang, W. Selenoprotein P and apolipoprotein E receptor-2 interact at the blood-brain barrier and also within the brain to maintain an essential selenium pool that protects against neurodegeneration. PMID:24760755

  15. Expression of the potential therapeutic target CXXC5 in primary acute myeloid leukemia cells - high expression is associated with adverse prognosis as well as altered intracellular signaling and transcriptional regulation

    PubMed Central

    Bruserud, Øystein; Reikvam, Håkon; Fredly, Hanne; Skavland, Jørn; Hagen, Karen-Marie; van Hoang, Tuyen Thy; Brenner, Annette K.; Kadi, Amir; Astori, Audrey; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore; Pendino, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The CXXC5 gene encodes a transcriptional activator with a zinc-finger domain, and high expression in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells is associated with adverse prognosis. We now characterized the biological context of CXXC5 expression in primary human AML cells. The global gene expression profile of AML cells derived from 48 consecutive patients was analyzed; cells with high and low CXXC5 expression then showed major differences with regard to extracellular communication and intracellular signaling. We observed significant differences in the phosphorylation status of several intracellular signaling mediators (CREB, PDK1, SRC, STAT1, p38, STAT3, rpS6) that are important for PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling and/or transcriptional regulation. High CXXC5 expression was also associated with high mRNA expression of several stem cell-associated transcriptional regulators, the strongest associations being with WT1, GATA2, RUNX1, LYL1, DNMT3, SPI1, and MYB. Finally, CXXC5 knockdown in human AML cell lines caused significantly increased expression of the potential tumor suppressor gene TSC22 and genes encoding the growth factor receptor KIT, the cytokine Angiopoietin 1 and the selenium-containing glycoprotein Selenoprotein P. Thus, high CXXC5 expression seems to affect several steps in human leukemogenesis, including intracellular events as well as extracellular communication. PMID:25605239

  16. The subcellular location of selenoproteins and the impact on their function.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Alan M

    2015-05-22

    Most human selenium containing proteins contain selenium in the form of the amino acid selenocysteine, which is encoded in the corresponding mRNA as a UGA codon. Only a few non-selenocysteine containing selenoproteins are present and the nature of the association with selenium is not well understood. This review focuses on two selenocysteine-containing proteins that are members of the glutathione peroxidase family, GPx-1 and GPx-4, and the selenium-associated protein referred to as Selenium Binding Protein 1. Each of these proteins have been described to reside in two or more cellular compartments, and in the case of GPx-1 and SBP1, interact with each other. The enzymatic activity of GPx-1 and GPx-4 have been well described, but it is less clear how their cellular location impacts the health related phenotypes associated with activities, while no catalytic function is assigned to SBP1. The distribution of these proteins is presented as is the possible consequences of that compartmentalization.

  17. Selenoprotein P and Yunnan endemic sudden cardiac death--an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Li, X Z; Wang, T; Zhou, L W; Feng, H Q; Gao, L; Pei, J R; Lin, C; Jiang, C X

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the role of selenoprotein P (SePP) in the etiology of the endemic sudden cardiac death in Yunnan, China. The levels of SePP of 124 subjects and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) of 119 subjects were measured. The subjects were from the old and new endemic areas and non-endemic areas. The levels of SePP and GPx of the subjects of the old endemic area were significantly higher than those of the subjects of the new endemic area and the non-endemic areas, respectively. The Pearson's correlation among SePP, GPx, and the number of the incident cases of the disease were statistically significant. These correlations show that there is an inverse relationship among the number of patients and the levels of SePP (r  =  - 0.9800, P  =  0.0200) and GPx (r  =  - 0.961, P  =  0.009). The results show that selenium deficiency might play an important role in the incidence of the disease.

  18. Polymorphisms in the selenoprotein S gene: lack of association with autoimmune inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Alfonso; Santiago, Jose Luis; Varadé, Jezabel; Márquez, Ana; Lamas, José Ramón; Mendoza, Juan Luis; de la Calle, Hermenegildo; Díaz-Rubio, Manuel; de la Concha, Emilio G; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Urcelay, Elena

    2008-01-01

    Background Selenoprotein S (SelS) protects the functional integrity of the endoplasmic reticulum against the deleterious effects of metabolic stress. SEPS1/SelS polymorphisms have been involved in the increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6 in macrophages. We aimed at investigating the role of the SEPS1 variants previously associated with higher plasma levels of these cytokines and of the SEPS1 haplotypes in the susceptibility to develop immune-mediated diseases characterized by an inflammatory component. Results Six polymorphisms distributed through the SEPS1 gene (rs11327127, rs28665122, rs4965814, rs12917258, rs4965373 and rs2101171) were genotyped in more than two thousand patients suffering from type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis or inflammatory bowel diseases and 550 healthy controls included in the case-control study. Conclusion Lack of association of SEPS1 polymorphisms or haplotypes precludes a major role of this gene increasing predisposition to these inflammatory diseases. PMID:18625033

  19. Morphology and expression status investigations of specific surface markers on B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Niu, Suli; Chan, Ryan; Berini, Pierre; Wang, Chen; Zou, Shan

    2013-11-01

    The morphology of cells and expression status of specific surface markers [cluster of differentiation (CD)], such as CD5, CD19, CD20, CD38, and CD45, have long been considered as the essential indicators for the diagnosis and prognosis of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Clinically, it is difficult to simultaneously obtain cell morphology and distribution of surface markers with flow cytometry, especially for some surrogate markers such as CD38. Here, as an alternative and complementary prognostic method, fluorescence microscopy and image processing method are introduced to directly visualize the cells from patients and to quantitatively determine the expression status of surface markers. In this study, the morphological parameters of B-CLL cells were measured to establish the correlation between the cellular morphology and the surface marker expression. It was clear that the CD38+ and CD38- B-CLL cells from the same CD38+ patients had hardly any size differences; however, an increase in perimeter was observed for CD38- patients. Moreover, the expression level of the receptors on the cell was independent of the cell size. There was no evidence showing that the expression intensities of CD19 and CD38 were related to each other for the CD38+ B-CLL cells. On the same cells, CD5 was more selectively expressed on the cell membrane; however, the expression patterns suggested that the cell membrane of CD38- B-CLL cells contained the least expression level of CD19.

  20. Selenoprotein A component of the glycine reductase complex from Clostridium purinolyticum: nucleotide sequence of the gene shows that selenocysteine is encoded by UGA.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, G E; Stadtman, T C

    1991-01-01

    The gene encoding the selenoprotein A component of glycine reductase was isolated from Clostridium purinolyticum. The nucleotide sequence of this gene (grdA) was determined. The opal termination codon (TGA) was found in-frame at the position corresponding to the location of the selenocysteine residue in the gene product. A comparison of the nucleotide sequences and secondary mRNA structures corresponding to the selenoprotein A gene and the fdhF gene of Escherichia coli formate dehydrogenase shows that there is a similar potential for regulation of the specific insertion of selenocysteine at the UGA codon. PMID:1825826

  1. Selenoprotein A component of the glycine reductase complex from Clostridium purinolyticum: nucleotide sequence of the gene shows that selenocysteine is encoded by UGA.

    PubMed

    Garcia, G E; Stadtman, T C

    1991-03-01

    The gene encoding the selenoprotein A component of glycine reductase was isolated from Clostridium purinolyticum. The nucleotide sequence of this gene (grdA) was determined. The opal termination codon (TGA) was found in-frame at the position corresponding to the location of the selenocysteine residue in the gene product. A comparison of the nucleotide sequences and secondary mRNA structures corresponding to the selenoprotein A gene and the fdhF gene of Escherichia coli formate dehydrogenase shows that there is a similar potential for regulation of the specific insertion of selenocysteine at the UGA codon.

  2. Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2D and optic nerve atrophy further expand the spectrum associated with selenoprotein biosynthesis deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pavlidou, Efterpi; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Phadke, Rahul; Hargreaves, Iain P; Batten, Leigh; McElreavy, Kenneth; Pitt, Matthew; Mankad, Kshitij; Wilson, Clare; Cutrupi, Maria Concetta; Ruggieri, Martino; McCormick, David; Saggar, Anand; Kinali, Maria

    2016-05-01

    The term Pontocerebellar hypoplasias collectively refers to a group of rare, heterogeneous and progressive disorders, which are frequently inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and usually have a prenatal onset. Mutations in the SEPSECS gene, leading to deficiency in selenoprotein biosynthesis, have been identified in recent times as the molecular etiology of different pre/perinatal onset neurological phenotypes, including cerebello-cerebral atrophy, Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2D and progressive encephalopathy with elevated lactate. These disorders share a similar spectrum of central (e.g., brain neurodegeneration with grey and white matter both involved) and peripheral (e.g., spasticity due to axonal neuropathy) nervous system impairment. We hereby describe a 9-year-old boy with (i) a typical Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2D phenotype (e.g. profound mental retardation, spastic quadriplegia, ponto-cerebellar hypoplasia and progressive cerebral atrophy); (ii) optic nerve atrophy and (iii) mild secondary mitochondrial myopathy detected by muscle biopsy and respiratory chain enzyme analysis. We performed whole exome sequencing which identified a homozygous mutation of the SEPSECS gene (c.1001T > C), confirming the clinical suspect of Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2D. This report further corroborates the notion of a potential secondary mitochondrial dysfunction in the context of selenoprotein biosynthesis deficiency and also adds optic nerve atrophy as a new potential clinical feature within the SEPSECS-associated clinical spectrum. These findings suggest the presence of a possible shared genetic etiology among similar clinical entities characterized by the combination of progressive cerebello-cerebral and optic nerve atrophy and also stress the biological importance of selenoproteins in the regulation of neuronal and metabolic homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Selenium and its relationship with selenoprotein P and glutathione peroxidase in children and adolescents with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Nourbakhsh, Mitra; Ahmadpour, Fatemeh; Chahardoli, Behnam; Malekpour-Dehkordi, Zahra; Nourbakhsh, Mona; Hosseini-Fard, Seyed Reza; Doustimotlagh, Amirhossein; Golestani, Abolfazl; Razzaghy-Azar, Maryam

    2016-03-01

    The essential trace element selenium (Se) is required for thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. Selenoproteins contain selenocysteine and are responsible for biological functions of selenium. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is one of the major selenoproteins which protects the thyroid cells from oxidative damage. Selenoprotein P (SePP) is considered as the plasma selenium transporter to tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum Se and SePP levels, and GPx activity in erythrocytes of children and adolescents with treated Hashimoto's thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, and normal subjects. Blood samples were collected from 32 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 20 with hypothyroidism, and 25 matched normal subjects. All the patients were under treatment with levothyroxine and at the time of analysis all of the thyroid function tests were normal. GPx enzyme activity was measured by spectrophotometry at 340 nm. Serum selenium levels were measured by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption. SePP, TPOAb (anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody), and TgAb (anti-thyroglobulin antibody) were determined by ELISA kits. T4, T3, T3 uptake and TSH were also measured. Neither GPx activity nor SePP levels were significantly different in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis or hypothyroidism compared to normal subjects. Although GPx and SePP were both lower in patients with hypothyroidism compared to those with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and normal subjects but the difference was not significant. Serum Se levels also did not differ significantly in patients and normal subjects. We did not find any correlation between GPx or SePP with TPOAb or TgAb but SePP was significantly correlated with Se. Results show that in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis or hypothyroidism who have been under treatment with levothyroxine and have normal thyroid function tests, the GPx, SePP and Se levels are not significantly different.

  4. A polymorphism in the promoter region of the selenoprotein S gene (SEPS1) contributes to Hashimoto's thyroiditis susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Santos, Liliana R; Durães, Cecília; Mendes, Adélia; Prazeres, Hugo; Alvelos, Maria Inês; Moreira, Carla Susete; Canedo, Paulo; Esteves, César; Neves, Celestino; Carvalho, Davide; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2014-04-01

    The association between selenium and inflammation and the relevance of selenoproteins in follicular thyroid cell physiology have pointed to a putative role of selenoproteins in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of a promoter variation in SEPS1, the selenoprotein S gene, in the risk for developing Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). A case-control study was performed to assess the association of genetic variation in the SEPS1 gene (SEPS1 -105G/A single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs28665122) and HT. The study was conducted in north Portugal, Porto, in the period of 2007-2013. A total of 997 individuals comprising 481 HT patients and 516 unrelated controls were enrolled in the study. Genetic variants were discriminated by real-time PCR using TaqMan single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assays. There is a significant association between the SEPS1 -105 GA and AA genotypes and HT [odds ratio (OR) 2.24, confidence interval (CI) 1.67-3.02, P < 5.0 × 10(-7), and OR 2.08, CI 1.09-3.97, P = .0268, respectively]. The A allele carriers are in higher proportion in the patient group than in the control population (46.2% vs 28.1%, P < 5.0 × 10(-7)) with an OR (CI) of 2.22 (1.67-2.97). The proportion of patients carrying the A allele is significantly higher in male patients with HT, representing a 3.94 times increased risk (P = 7.9 × 10(-3)). Our findings support the existence of a link between SEPS1 promoter genetic variation and HT risk.

  5. The 811 C/T polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of the selenoprotein 15-kDa (Sep15) gene and breast cancer in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Watrowski, Rafał; Castillo-Tong, Dan Cacsire; Fabjani, Gerhild; Schuster, Eva; Fischer, Michael; Zeillinger, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The 15-kDa selenoprotein (Sep15) is a selenocysteine-containing oxidoreductase in the endoplasmic reticulum that participates in disulfide-bond formation and protein folding control. The 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) contains two exclusively linked, polymorphic sites at positions 811 (C/T) and 1125 (G/A), which result in two functional haplotypes: 811C/1125G or 811T/1125A. The 811T/1125A variant occurs significantly more often in African-Americans as compared to Caucasians and has been linked to increased breast cancer risk in black women. We studied the 811C/T (rs5845) Sep15 gene polymorphism in 182 Caucasian women-83 breast cancer cases and 99 healthy controls-by pyrosequencing and polymerase chain reaction. Associations between allelic variants and clinico-pathological variables (e.g., age, stage of disease, tumor type, grading, and receptor status) were investigated. The genotype distribution in breast cancer patients (CC 63.9 %, CT 33.7 %, TT 2.4 %) and controls (69.7 %, CT 28.3 %, TT 2 %) showed no significant difference (OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.41-1.42, p = 0.4). The overall low prevalence of the T allele was in accordance with that reported for Caucasians in previous studies. There was no significant association between 811C/T Sep15 polymorphism and any of clinico-pathological parameters. In conclusion, we are the first to report on 811C/T SEP 15 polymorphism in white breast cancer patients. Genotype variation within the 3'-UTR of the SEP 15 gene showed no association with breast cancer risk or clinico-pathological parameters in Caucasian women.

  6. The source of circulating selenoprotein S and its association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shan-Shan; Men, Li-Li; Wu, Jia-Ling; Huang, Li-Wei; Xing, Qian; Yao, Jun-Jie; Wang, Yong-Bo; Song, Gui-Rong; Guo, Hui-Shu; Sun, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Yu-Hong; Li, Hua; Du, Jian-Ling

    2016-04-28

    Selenoprotein S (SelS) is a transmembrane protein that is expressed in the liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, pancreatic islets, kidney, and blood vessels. In addition to its transmembrane localization, SelS is also secreted from hepatoma HepG2 cells (but not L6 skeletal muscle cells, 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Min6 pancreatic β cells and human embryonic kidney 293 cells) and has been detected in the serum of some human subjects, with a detection rate of 31.1 %. These findings prove that serum SelS is secreted by hepatocytes. However, whether vascularly expressed SelS can be secreted has not been reported. Transmembrane SelS has been suggested to play different roles in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetes mellitus (DM) and atherosclerosis (AS), but the association of secreted SelS with DM and macroangiopathy remains unclear. Supernatants were collected from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HA/VSMCs) and human hepatoma HepG2 cells that were untransfected or transfected with the indicated plasmid and concentrated for western blotting. Serum samples were collected from 158 human subjects with or without type 2 DM (T2DM) and/or AS. Serum SelS levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Secreted SelS was only detected in the supernatants of hepatoma HepG2 cells. The SelS detection rate among the 158 human serum samples was 100 %, and the average SelS level was 64.81 ng/dl. The serum SelS level in the isolated DM subjects was lower than the level in the healthy control subjects (52.66 ± 20.53 vs 70.40 ± 21.38 ng/dl). The serum SelS levels in the DM complicated with SAS subjects (67.73 ± 21.41 ng/dl) and AS subjects (71.69 ± 27.00 ng/dl) were significantly increased compared with the serum SelS level in the isolated DM subjects. There was a positive interaction effect between T2DM and AS on the serum SelS level (P = 0.002). Spearman correlation analysis showed that the serum Sel

  7. KRAS driven expression signature has prognostic power superior to mutation status in non‐small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Ádám; Pongor, Lőrinc Sándor; Szabó, András; Santarpia, Mariacarmela

    2016-01-01

    KRAS is the most frequently mutated oncogene in non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the prognostic role of KRAS mutation status in NSCLC still remains controversial. We hypothesize that the expression changes of genes affected by KRAS mutation status will have the most prominent effect and could be used as a prognostic signature in lung cancer. We divided NSCLC patients with mutation and RNA‐seq data into KRAS mutated and wild type groups. Mann‐Whitney test was used to identify genes showing altered expression between these cohorts. Mean expression of the top five genes was designated as a “transcriptomic fingerprint” of the mutation. We evaluated the effect of this signature on clinical outcome in 2,437 NSCLC patients using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Mutation of KRAS was most common in adenocarcinoma. Mutation status and KRAS expression were not correlated to prognosis. The transcriptomic fingerprint of KRAS include FOXRED2, KRAS, TOP1, PEX3 and ABL2. The KRAS signature had a high prognostic power. Similar results were achieved when using the second and third set of strongest genes. Moreover, all cutoff values delivered significant prognostic power (p < 0.01). The KRAS signature also remained significant (p < 0.01) in a multivariate analysis including age, gender, smoking history and tumor stage. We generated a “surrogate signature” of KRAS mutation status in NSCLC patients by computationally linking genotype and gene expression. We show that secondary effects of a mutation can have a higher prognostic relevance than the primary genetic alteration itself. PMID:27859136

  8. ALK gene copy number gain and immunohistochemical expression status using three antibodies in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Sewha

    2016-03-17

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene aberrations-such as mutations, amplifications, and copy number gains-represent a major genetic predisposition to neuroblastoma (NB). This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between ALK gene copy number status, ALK protein expression, and clinicopathological parameters. We retrospectively retrieved 30 cases of poorly differentiated NB and constructed tissue microarrays (TMAs). ALK copy number changes were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays, and ALK immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing was performed using three different antibodies (ALK1, D5F3, and 5A4 clones). ALK amplification and copy number gain were observed in 10% (3/30) and 53.3% (16/30) of the cohort, respectively. There were positive correlations between ALK copy number and IHC positive rate in ALK1 and 5A4 antibodies (p= < 0.001 and 0.019, respectively). ALK1, D5F3, and 5A4 antibodies equally showed 100% sensitivity in detecting ALK amplification. However, the sensitivity for detecting copy number gain differed among the three antibodies, with 75% sensitivity in D5F3 and 0% sensitivity in ALK1. ALK-amplified NBs were correlated with synchronous MYCN amplification and chromosome 1p deletion. ALK IHC positivity was frequently observed in INSS stage IV and high-risk group patients. In conclusion, this study identified that an increase in the ALK copy number is a frequent genetic alteration in poorly differentiated NB. ALK-amplified NBs showed consistent ALK IHC positivity with all kinds of antibodies. In contrast, the detection performance of ALK copy number gain was antibody dependent, with the D5F3 antibody showing the best sensitivity.

  9. [Oil pollution status expressed as the fraction of dissolved and dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons].

    PubMed

    Acuña-González, Jenaro; Vargas-Zamora, José A; Gómez-Ramírez, Eddy; García-Céspedes, Jairo

    2004-12-01

    Four coastal ecosystems with contrasting characteristics were sampled in Costa Rica (2000-2002). Oil pollution status, expressed as the fraction of dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons related to chrysene equivalents, was determined by the molecular fluorescence analytical technique. A total of 130 water samples were taken, from the Caribbean (Moín Bay), and from the Pacific (Bahía Culebra, Gulf of Nicoya and Dulce Gulf). On one occasion, seven samples along the Puntarenas estuary were also analysed. In Moín the mean and standard deviation were 0.10 microg x L(-1) +/- 0.18 micro x L(-1), ranging from non detectable (nd) to 0.65 microg x L(-1). For the Pacific ecosystems the total range was from nd to 0.37 microg x L(-1). In Bahia Culebra no fluorescence signals were obtained. In the Gulf of Nicoya the mean and standard deviation were 0.04 microg x L(-1) +/- 0.09 microg x L(-1), from nd to 0.33 microg x L(-1). Values in Dulce Gulf were 0.05 microg x L(-1) +/- 0.11 microg x L(-1), from nd to 0.37 microg x L(-1). Along the Puntarenas estuary the range was 0.17 to 5.91 microg x L(-1), with a mean of 1.21 microg x L(-1) and a standard deviation of +/- 2.10 microg x L(-1). The four coastal ecosystems had concentrations below the 10 microg x L(-1) limit for polluted oceanic areas. The Puntarenas estuary reflects the influence of antropogenic activities from and around the City of Puntarenas. These levels are considered low for inshore waters.

  10. ALK Gene Copy Number Gain and Immunohistochemical Expression Status Using Three Antibodies in Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Sewha

    2017-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase ( ALK) gene aberrations-such as mutations, amplifications, and copy number gains-represent a major genetic predisposition to neuroblastoma (NB). This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between ALK gene copy number status, ALK protein expression, and clinicopathological parameters. We retrospectively retrieved 30 cases of poorly differentiated NB and constructed tissue microarrays (TMAs). ALK copy number changes were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays, and ALK immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing was performed using three different antibodies (ALK1, D5F3, and 5A4 clones). ALK amplification and copy number gain were observed in 10% (3/30) and 53.3% (16/30) of the cohort, respectively. There were positive correlations between ALK copy number and IHC-positive rate in ALK1 and 5A4 antibodies ( P < 0.001 and P = 0.019, respectively). ALK1, D5F3, and 5A4 antibodies equally showed 100% sensitivity in detecting ALK amplification. However, the sensitivity for detecting copy number gain differed among the three antibodies, with 75% sensitivity in D5F3 and 0% sensitivity in ALK1. ALK-amplified NBs were correlated with synchronous MYCN amplification and chromosome 1p deletion. ALK IHC positivity was frequently observed in INSS stage IV and high-risk group patients. In conclusion, this study identified that an increase in the ALK copy number is a frequent genetic alteration in poorly differentiated NB. ALK-amplified NBs showed consistent ALK IHC positivity with all kinds of antibodies. In contrast, the detection performance of ALK copy number gain was antibody dependent, with the D5F3 antibody showing the best sensitivity.

  11. Selenoprotein S is required for clearance of C99 through endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jun Ki; Park, Ki Jun; Lee, Jea Hwang; Ko, Kwan Young; Kang, Seongman; Kim, Ick Young

    2017-04-29

    Amyloid beta precursor protein (APP) is normally cleaved by α-secretase, but can also be cleaved by β-secretase (BACE1) to produce C99 fragments in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. C99 is subsequently cleaved to amyloid β (Aβ), the aggregation of which is known to cause Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, C99 removing is for preventing the disease. Selenoprotein S (SelS) is an ER membrane protein participating in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), one of the stages in resolving ER stress of misfolded proteins accumulated in the ER. ERAD has been postulated as one of the processes to degrade C99; however, it remains unclear if the degradation depends on SelS. In this study, we investigated the effect of SelS on C99 degradation. We observed that both SelS and C99 were colocalized in the membrane fraction of mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a (N2a) cells. While the level of SelS was increased by ER stress, the level of C99 was decreased. However, despite the induction of ER stress, there was no change in the amount of C99 in SelS knock-down cells. The interaction of C99 with p97(VCP), an essential component of the ERAD complex, did not occur in SelS knock-down cells. The ubiquitination of C99 was decreased in SelS knock-down cells. We also found that the extracellular amount of Aβ(1-42) was relatively higher in SelS knock-down cells than in control cells. These results suggest that SelS is required for C99 degradation through ERAD, resulting in inhibition of Aβ production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Status Epilepticus Impairs Synaptic Plasticity in Rat Hippocampus and Is Followed by Changes in Expression of NMDA Receptors.

    PubMed

    Postnikova, T Y; Zubareva, O E; Kovalenko, A A; Kim, K K; Magazanik, L G; Zaitsev, A V

    2017-03-01

    Cognitive deficits and memory loss are frequent in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Persistent changes in synaptic efficacy are considered as a cellular substrate underlying memory processes. Electrophysiological studies have shown that the properties of short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity in the cortex and hippocampus may undergo substantial changes after seizures. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for these changes are not clear. In this study, we investigated the properties of short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity in rat hippocampal slices 24 h after pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced status epilepticus. We found that the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in CA1 pyramidal cells is reduced compared to the control, while short-term facilitation is increased. The experimental results do not support the hypothesis that status epilepticus leads to background potentiation of hippocampal synapses and further LTP induction becomes weaker due to occlusion, as the dependence of synaptic responses on the strength of input stimulation was not different in the control and experimental animals. The decrease in LTP can be caused by impairment of molecular mechanisms of neuronal plasticity, including those associated with NMDA receptors and/or changes in their subunit composition. Real-time PCR demonstrated significant increases in the expression of GluN1 and GluN2A subunits 3 h after PTZ-induced status epilepticus. The overexpression of obligate GluN1 subunit suggests an increase in the total number of NMDA receptors in the hippocampus. A 3-fold increase in the expression of the GluN2B subunit observed 24 h after PTZ-induced status epilepticus might be indicative of an increase in the proportion of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors. Increased expression of the GluN2B subunit may be a cause for reducing the magnitude of LTP at hippocampal synapses after status epilepticus.

  13. Oxidant and enzymatic antioxidant status (gene expression and activity) in the brain of chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanpour, Hossein; Khalaji-Pirbalouty, Valiallah; Nasiri, Leila; Mohebbi, Abdonnaser; Bahadoran, Shahab

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate oxidant and antioxidant status of the brain (hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain) in chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension, the measurements of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, antioxidant capacity, enzymatic activity, and gene expression (for catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutases) were done. There were high lipid peroxidation/protein oxidation and low antioxidant capacity in the hindbrain of cold-induced pulmonary hypertensive chickens compared to control ( P < 0.05). In the hypertensive chickens, superoxide dismutase activity was decreased (forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain), while catalase activity was increased (forebrain and midbrain) ( P < 0.05). Glutathione peroxidase activity did not change. Relative gene expression of catalase and superoxide dismutases (1 and 2) was downregulated, while glutathione peroxidase was upregulated in the brain of the cold-induced pulmonary hypertensive chickens. Probably, these situations in the oxidant and antioxidant status of the brain especially hindbrain may change its function at cardiovascular center and sympathetic nervous system to exacerbate pulmonary hypertension.

  14. Selenoprotein W depletion induces a p53- and p21-dependent delay in cell cycle progression in RWPE-1 prostate epithelial cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The anticancer activity of selenium (Se) has been demonstrated in myriad animal and in vitro studies, yet the mechanisms remain obscure. The relative importance of small selenium compounds versus selenoproteins in the cancer-protective activity of Se is unresolved, but the main form of Se in animal ...

  15. miRNA Expression Profile after Status Epilepticus and Hippocampal Neuroprotection by Targeting miR-132

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M.; Bray, Isabella; Sanz-Rodriguez, Amaya; Engel, Tobias; McKiernan, Ross C.; Mouri, Genshin; Tanaka, Katsuhiro; Sano, Takanori; Saugstad, Julie A.; Simon, Roger P.; Stallings, Raymond L.; Henshall, David C.

    2011-01-01

    When an otherwise harmful insult to the brain is preceded by a brief, noninjurious stimulus, the brain becomes tolerant, and the resulting damage is reduced. Epileptic tolerance develops when brief seizures precede an episode of prolonged seizures (status epilepticus). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. We investigated how prior seizure preconditioning affects the miRNA response to status epilepticus evoked by intra-amygdalar kainic acid in mice. The miRNA was extracted from the ipsilateral CA3 subfield 24 hours after focal-onset status epilepticus in animals that had previously received either seizure preconditioning (tolerance) or no preconditioning (injury), and mature miRNA levels were measured using TaqMan low-density arrays. Expression of 21 miRNAs was increased, relative to control, after status epilepticus alone, and expression of 12 miRNAs was decreased. Increased miR-132 levels were matched with increased binding to Argonaute-2, a constituent of the RNA-induced silencing complex. In tolerant animals, expression responses of >40% of the injury-group-detected miRNAs differed, being either unchanged relative to control or down-regulated, and this included miR-132. In vivo microinjection of locked nucleic acid-modified oligonucleotides (antagomirs) against miR-132 depleted hippocampal miR-132 levels and reduced seizure-induced neuronal death. Thus, our data strongly suggest that miRNAs are important regulators of seizure-induced neuronal death. PMID:21945804

  16. Five biopsy specimens from the proximal part of the tumor reliably determine HER2 protein expression status in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Naoyuki; Gotoda, Takuji; Hara, Megumi; Hale, Matthew D; Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Matsubayashi, Jun; Kono, Shin; Kusano, Chika; Itoi, Takao; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Grabsch, Heike I

    2016-04-01

    National guidelines recommend trastuzumab for treatment of patients with metastatic HER2-positive gastric cancer (GC). There is currently no guideline indicating the number of biopsy specimens and the location from which they should be obtained to reliably determine the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status in GC. The aim of this pilot study was (a) to quantify HER2-positive tumor cells in different tumor regions to assess the spatial heterogeneity of HER2 expression and (b) to establish the required number of biopsy specimens and the location from which they should be obtained within the tumor to achieve concordance between HER2 expression status in the biopsy specimens and the resection specimen. HER2 expression was quantified in six different regions of 24 HER2-positive GC and in six virtual biopsy specimens from different luminal regions. Intratumoral regional heterogeneity and concordance between HER2 status in the biopsy specimens and the resection specimen were analyzed. HER2-positive cells were more frequent in the luminal tumor surface compared with deeper layers (p < 0.001). GCs with differentiated histological features were more commonly HER2 positive (p < 0.001). Assessment of HER2 expression status in five biopsy specimens was sufficient to achieve 100 % concordance between the biopsy specimens and the resection specimen. This is the first study to suggest preferential HER2 positivity at the luminal surface in GC and to establish a minimum number of biopsy specimens needed to obtain a biopsy HER2 result which is identical to that from the whole tumor. Our study suggests that HER2 testing in five tumor-containing endoscopic biopsy specimens from the proximal (oral) part of the tumor is advisable. The results from this pilot study require validation in a prospective study.

  17. Selenoprotein H is an essential regulator of redox homeostasis that cooperates with p53 in development and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Andrew G.; Tsomides, Allison; Kim, Andrew J.; Saunders, Diane; Hwang, Katie L.; Evason, Kimberley J.; Heidel, Jerry; Brown, Kristin K.; Yuan, Min; Lien, Evan C.; Lee, Byung Cheon; Nissim, Sahar; Dickinson, Bryan; Chhangawala, Sagar; Chang, Christopher J.; Asara, John M.; Houvras, Yariv; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Goessling, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Selenium, an essential micronutrient known for its cancer prevention properties, is incorporated into a class of selenocysteine-containing proteins (selenoproteins). Selenoprotein H (SepH) is a recently identified nucleolar oxidoreductase whose function is not well understood. Here we report that seph is an essential gene regulating organ development in zebrafish. Metabolite profiling by targeted LC-MS/MS demonstrated that SepH deficiency impairs redox balance by reducing the levels of ascorbate and methionine, while increasing methionine sulfoxide. Transcriptome analysis revealed that SepH deficiency induces an inflammatory response and activates the p53 pathway. Consequently, loss of seph renders larvae susceptible to oxidative stress and DNA damage. Finally, we demonstrate that seph interacts with p53 deficiency in adulthood to accelerate gastrointestinal tumor development. Overall, our findings establish that seph regulates redox homeostasis and suppresses DNA damage. We hypothesize that SepH deficiency may contribute to the increased cancer risk observed in cohorts with low selenium levels. PMID:27588899

  18. Genome-wide analysis of expression modes and DNA methylation status at sense-antisense transcript loci in mouse.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yutaka; Numata, Koji; Murata, Shinya; Osada, Yuko; Saito, Rintaro; Nakaoka, Hajime; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Watanabe, Kazufumi; Kato, Hidemasa; Abe, Kuniya; Kiyosawa, Hidenori

    2010-12-01

    The functionality of sense-antisense transcripts (SATs), although widespread throughout the mammalian genome, is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the SATs expression and its associated promoter DNA methylation status by surveying 12 tissues of mice to gain insights into the relationship between expression and DNA methylation of SATs. We have found that sense and antisense expression positively correlate in most tissues. However, in some SATs with tissue-specific expression, the expression level of a transcript from a CpG island-bearing promoter is low when the promoter DNA methylation is present. In these circumstances, the expression level of its opposite-strand transcript, especially when it is poly(A)-negative was coincidentally higher. These observations suggest that, albeit the general tendency of sense-antisense simultaneous expression, some antisense transcripts have coordinated expression with its counterpart sense gene promoter methylation. This cross-strand relationship is not a privilege of imprinted genes but seems to occur widely in SATs.

  19. Aspirin Use and Colorectal Cancer Survival According to Tumor CD274 (Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 1) Expression Status.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Cao, Yin; Qian, Zhi Rong; Masugi, Yohei; Nowak, Jonathan A; Yang, Juhong; Song, Mingyang; Mima, Kosuke; Kosumi, Keisuke; Liu, Li; Shi, Yan; da Silva, Annacarolina; Gu, Mancang; Li, Wanwan; Keum, NaNa; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Giovannucci, Edward L; Giannakis, Marios; Rodig, Scott J; Freeman, Gordon J; Nevo, Daniel; Wang, Molin; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Nishihara, Reiko; Ogino, Shuji

    2017-06-01

    Purpose Blockade of the programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, PD-1) immune checkpoint pathway can improve clinical outcomes in various malignancies. Evidence suggests that aspirin (a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) not only prolongs colorectal cancer survival, but can also activate T cell-mediated antitumor immunity and synergize with immunotherapy through inhibition of prostaglandin E2 production. We hypothesized that the survival benefit associated with aspirin might be stronger in colorectal carcinoma with a lower CD274 (PDCD1 ligand 1, PD-L1) expression level that resulted in lower signaling of the immune checkpoint pathway. Patients and Methods Using data from 617 patients with rectal and colon cancer in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, we examined the association of postdiagnosis aspirin use with patient survival in strata of tumor CD274 expression status measured by immunohistochemistry. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models to control for potential confounders, including disease stage, microsatellite instability status, CpG island methylator phenotype, long interspersed nucleotide element-1 methylation, cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2), and CDX2 expression, and KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations. Results The association of postdiagnosis aspirin use with colorectal cancer-specific survival differed by CD274 expression status ( Pinteraction < .001); compared with aspirin nonusers; multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for regular aspirin users were 0.16 (95% CI, 0.06 to 0.41) in patients with low CD274 and 1.01 (95% CI, 0.61 to 1.67) in patients with high CD274. This differential association seemed consistent in patients with microsatellite-stable or PIK3CA wild-type disease and in strata of PTGS2 expression, CDX2 expression, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, or prediagnosis aspirin use status. Conclusion The association of aspirin use with colorectal cancer survival is stronger in patients with

  20. Tumor LDH-A expression and serum LDH status are two metabolic predictors for triple negative breast cancer brain metastasis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tieying; Liu, Zhaoliang; Xuan, Qijia; Wang, Zhuozhong; Ma, Wenjie; Zhang, Qingyuan

    2017-07-20

    There are limited therapeutic methods for triple negative breast cancer in the clinic, which is easy to progress into the brain to form metastatic lesions and evolve into the terminal stage. Because both the primary cancer and the brain metastasis have high glycolysis, we hypothesize that lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which catalyzes the final step of glycolysis, may be a predictor, as well as a treatment target, for breast cancer brain metastasis. Therefore, the expression of LDH-A was detected on 119 triple negative breast cancer tissues with immunohistochemistry, and the serum LDH levels were also measured. Our results showed that the LDH-A expression inside the tumor was significantly higher than the matched normal tissues. Tumor LDH-A expression, serum LDH status, and the slope of serum LDH status were closely associated with triple negative breast cancer brain metastasis and brain metastasis free survival. This study indicates that tumor LDH and serum LDH status are two predictors for triple negative breast cancer brain metastasis.

  1. EGFR High Expression, but not KRAS Status, Predicts Sensitivity of Pancreatic Cancer Cells to Nimotuzumab Treatment In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chenfei; Zhu, Liangjun; Ji, Jun; Ding, Fangmi; Wang, Chao; Cai, Qu; Yu, Yingyan; Zhu, Zhenggang; Zhang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Nimotuzumab is shown to be efficacious in advanced pancreatic cancer treatment, but its predictive marker has not been established. To investigate the impact of EGFR and KRAS status on antitumor efficacy of nimotuzumab and to explore its underlying mechanism. EGFR expressions of pancreatic cancer cell lines, BxPC3, Panc-1, and Patu-8988, were analyzed by Western blot and immunocytochemistry, and KRAS status was determined by gene sequencing. Anti-tumor effect of nimotuzumab were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The expressions of related molecules in EGFR pathway and IL-6 was analyzed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and/or real-time PCR. BxPC3 cells had wild type KRAS and high-level EGFR; Panc-1 cells had mutant KRAS (G13A) and low-level EGFR; Patu-8988 cells had mutant KRAS (G12V) and high-level EGFR. Nimotuzumab did not affect cell proliferation or apoptosis in vitro. Growth of BxPC3 and Patu-8988 xenografts were significantly inhibited by nimotuzumab, but not Panc-1 xenografts, compared with that of the control group. Expression of EGFR in BxPC3 and Patu-8988 xenografts was significantly reduced by nimotuzumab. The IL-6 expression in BxPC3 and Patu-8988 xenografts was higher than that in Panc-1 xenografts in the control group, and was significantly reduced by nimotuzumab. Pancreatic cancer cells with EGFR high expression were more sensitive to nimotuzumab in vivo. KRAS status had no impact on anti-tumor efficacy of nimotuzumab in pancreatic cancer cells.

  2. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in the canine lower urinary tract with regard to the effects of gonadal status and gender.

    PubMed

    Ponglowhapan, S; Church, D B; Khalid, M

    2009-05-01

    As pituitary gonadotrophins can induce prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and receptors for LH and FSH are present in the canine lower urinary tract (LUT), the objectives of this study were to (i) investigate the expression of COX-2, a key rate-limiting enzyme in PG production, in the canine LUT and (ii) determine if COX-2 expression differs between gender, gonadal status (intact and gonadectomised) and LUT regions. Four regions (body and neck of the bladder as well as proximal and distal urethra) of the LUT were obtained from 20 clinically healthy dogs (5 intact males, 5 intact anoestrous females, 4 castrated males, 6 spayed females). In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine the presence of COX-2 mRNA and protein, respectively. The mRNA and protein expression was semi-quantitatively assessed. The scoring system combined both the distribution and intensity of positive staining and was carried out separately on the three tissue layers (epithelium, sub-epithelial stroma and muscle) for each of four regions of the LUT. In comparison to intact dogs, lower expression (P<0.001) of COX-2 and its mRNA in gonadectomised males and females was observed in all tissue layers of each region of the LUT except in the distal urethra where there was no difference in mRNA expression between gonadal statuses. Regardless of region and tissue layer, intact females expressed more (P<0.05) COX-2 and its mRNA than intact males. However, in gonadectomised dogs, mRNA expression of COX-2 did not differ between genders; males had higher (P<0.001) protein level of COX-2 compared to females. In conclusion, both COX-2 and its mRNA were expressed in the canine LUT and COX-2-regulated PG synthesis in the canine LUT may differ between gonadal statuses and genders. The lower expression of COX-2 in gonadectomised dogs may impair normal function of the LUT and probably implicated in the development of neutering-induced urinary incontinence in the dog.

  3. GXD: a Gene Expression Database for the laboratory mouse: current status and recent enhancements

    PubMed Central

    Ringwald, Martin; Eppig, Janan T.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.; the Gene Expression Database Group

    2000-01-01

    The Gene Expression Database (GXD) is a community resource of gene expression information for the laboratory mouse. The database is designed as an open-ended system that can integrate different types of expression data. New expression data are made available on a daily basis. Thus, GXD provides increasingly complete information about what transcripts and proteins are produced by what genes; where, when and in what amounts these gene products are expressed; and how their expression varies in different mouse strains and mutants. GXD is integrated with the Mouse Genome Database (MGD). Continuously refined interconnections with sequence databases and with databases from other species place the gene expression information in the larger biological and analytical context. GXD is accessible through the Mouse Genome Informatics Web site at http://www. informatics.jax.org/ or directly at http://www.informatics. jax.org/menus/expression_menu.shtml PMID:10592197

  4. IL-8 expression and its possible relationship with estrogen-receptor-negative status of breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Freund, Ariane; Chauveau, Corine; Brouillet, Jean-Paul; Lucas, Annick; Lacroix, Matthieu; Licznar, Anne; Vignon, Françoise; Lazennec, Gwendal

    2003-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) status is an important parameter in breast cancer management as ER-positive breast cancers have a better prognosis than ER-negative tumors. This difference comes essentially from the lower aggressiveness and invasiveness of ER-positive tumors. Here, we demonstrate, that IL-8 was clearly overexpressed in most ER-negative breast, ovary cell lines and breast tumor samples tested, whereas no significant IL-8 level could be detected in ER-positive breast or ovarian cell lines. We have also cloned human IL-8 from ER-negative MDA-MB-231 cells and we show that IL-8 produced by breast cancer cells is identical to monocyte-derived IL-8. Interestingly, the invasion potential of ER-negative breast cancer cells is associated at least in part with expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), but not with IL-8 receptors levels. Moreover, IL-8 increases the invasiveness of ER-positive breast cancer cells by 2 fold, thus confirming the invasion-promoting role of IL-8. On the other hand, exogenous expression of estrogen receptors in ER-negative cells led to a decrease of IL-8 levels. In summary, our data show that IL-8 expression is negatively linked to ER-status of breast and ovarian cancer cells. We also support the idea that IL-8 expression is associated with a higher invasiveness potential of cancer cells in vitro, which suggests that IL-8 could be a novel marker of tumor aggressiveness. PMID:12527894

  5. Modulation of intestinal gene expression by dietary zinc status: effectiveness of cDNA arrays for expression profiling of a single nutrient deficiency.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, R K; Moore, J B; Green, C L; Cousins, R J

    2001-11-20

    Mammalian nutritional status affects the homeostatic balance of multiple physiological processes and their associated gene expression. Although DNA array analysis can monitor large numbers of genes, there are no reports of expression profiling of a micronutrient deficiency in an intact animal system. In this report, we have tested the feasibility of using cDNA arrays to compare the global changes in expression of genes of known function that occur in the early stages of rodent zinc deficiency. The gene-modulating effects of this deficiency were demonstrated by real-time quantitative PCR measurements of altered mRNA levels for metallothionein 1, zinc transporter 2, and uroguanylin, all of which have been previously documented as zinc-regulated genes. As a result of the low level of inherent noise within this model system and application of a recently reported statistical tool for statistical analysis of microarrays [Tusher, V.G., Tibshirani, R. & Chu, G. (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 5116-5121], we demonstrate the ability to reproducibly identify the modest changes in mRNA abundance produced by this single micronutrient deficiency. Among the genes identified by this array profile are intestinal genes that influence signaling pathways, growth, transcription, redox, and energy utilization. Additionally, the influence of dietary zinc supply on the expression of some of these genes was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. Overall, these data support the effectiveness of cDNA array expression profiling to investigate the pleiotropic effects of specific nutrients and may provide an approach to establishing markers for assessment of nutritional status.

  6. Modulation of intestinal gene expression by dietary zinc status: Effectiveness of cDNA arrays for expression profiling of a single nutrient deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Raymond K.; Moore, J. Bernadette; Green, Calvert L.; Cousins, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Mammalian nutritional status affects the homeostatic balance of multiple physiological processes and their associated gene expression. Although DNA array analysis can monitor large numbers of genes, there are no reports of expression profiling of a micronutrient deficiency in an intact animal system. In this report, we have tested the feasibility of using cDNA arrays to compare the global changes in expression of genes of known function that occur in the early stages of rodent zinc deficiency. The gene-modulating effects of this deficiency were demonstrated by real-time quantitative PCR measurements of altered mRNA levels for metallothionein 1, zinc transporter 2, and uroguanylin, all of which have been previously documented as zinc-regulated genes. As a result of the low level of inherent noise within this model system and application of a recently reported statistical tool for statistical analysis of microarrays [Tusher, V.G., Tibshirani, R. & Chu, G. (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 5116–5121], we demonstrate the ability to reproducibly identify the modest changes in mRNA abundance produced by this single micronutrient deficiency. Among the genes identified by this array profile are intestinal genes that influence signaling pathways, growth, transcription, redox, and energy utilization. Additionally, the influence of dietary zinc supply on the expression of some of these genes was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. Overall, these data support the effectiveness of cDNA array expression profiling to investigate the pleiotropic effects of specific nutrients and may provide an approach to establishing markers for assessment of nutritional status. PMID:11717422

  7. Altered cellular redox status, sirtuin abundance and clock gene expression in a mouse model of developmentally primed NASH.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Kimberley D; Szczepankiewicz, Dawid; Sihota, Kiran K; Ravindraanandan, Manoj; Thomas, Hugh; Lillycrop, Karen A; Burdge, Graham C; Hanson, Mark A; Byrne, Christopher D; Cagampang, Felino R

    2016-07-01

    We have previously shown that high fat (HF) feeding during pregnancy primes the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatits (NASH) in the adult offspring. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Since the endogenous molecular clock can regulate hepatic lipid metabolism, we investigated whether exposure to a HF diet during development could alter hepatic clock gene expression and contribute to NASH onset in later life. Female mice were fed either a control (C, 7%kcal fat) or HF (45%kcal fat) diet. Offspring were fed either a C or HF diet resulting in four offspring groups: C/C, C/HF, HF/C and HF/HF. NAFLD progression, cellular redox status, sirtuin expression (Sirt1, Sirt3), and the expression of core clock genes (Clock, Bmal1, Per2, Cry2) and clock-controlled genes involved in lipid metabolism (Rev-Erbα, Rev-Erbβ, RORα, and Srebp1c) were measured in offspring livers. Offspring fed a HF diet developed NAFLD. However HF fed offspring of mothers fed a HF diet developed NASH, coupled with significantly reduced NAD(+)/NADH (p<0.05, HF/HF vs C/C), Sirt1 (p<0.001, HF/HF vs C/C), Sirt3 (p<0.01, HF/HF vs C/C), perturbed clock gene expression, and elevated expression of genes involved lipid metabolism, such as Srebp1c (p<0.05, C/HF and HF/HF vs C/C). Our results suggest that exposure to excess dietary fat during early and post-natal life increases the susceptibility to develop NASH in adulthood, involving altered cellular redox status, reduced sirtuin abundance, and desynchronized clock gene expression. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Exercise Increases Cystathionine-γ-lyase Expression and Decreases the Status of Oxidative Stress in Myocardium of Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhiping; Wang, Yujun; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Ni, Xin; Lu, Jianqiang

    2016-01-01

    Exercise could be a therapeutic approach for cardiovascular dysfunction induced by estrogen deficiency. Our previous study has shown that estrogen maintains cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) expression and inhibits oxidative stress in the myocardium of female rats. In the present study, we investigated whether exercise improves CSE expression and oxidative stress status and ameliorates isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiac damage in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The results showed that treadmill training restored the ovariectomy-induced reduction of CSE and estrogen receptor (ER)α and decrease of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and increase of malondialdehyde (MDA). The level of CSE was positively correlated to T-AOC and ERα while inversely correlated to MDA. OVX rats showed increases in the serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the percentage of TUNEL staining in myocardium upon ISO insult compared to sham rats. Exercise training significantly reduced the serum levels of LDH and CK and the percentage of TUNEL staining in myocardium upon ISO insult in OVX rats. In cultured cardiomyocytes, ISO treatment decreased cell viability and increased LDH release, while overexpression of CSE increased cell viability and decreased LDH release in the cells upon ISO insult. The results suggest that exercise training improves the oxidative stress status and ameliorates the cardiac damage induced by oxidative stress in OVX rats. The improvement of oxidative stress status by exercise might be at least partially due to upregulation of CSE/H2S signaling.

  9. Gene expression profiles in peripheral lymphocytes by arsenic exposure and skin lesion status in a Bangladeshi population.

    PubMed

    Argos, Maria; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Parvez, Faruque; Jasmine, Farzana; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Ahsan, Habibul

    2006-07-01

    Millions of individuals worldwide are chronically exposed to arsenic through their drinking water. In this study, the effect of arsenic exposure and arsenical skin lesion status on genome-wide gene expression patterns was evaluated using RNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study. Affymetrix HG-U133A GeneChip (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) arrays were used to measure the expression of approximately 22,000 transcripts. Our primary statistical analysis involved identifying differentially expressed genes between participants with and without arsenical skin lesions based on the significance analysis of microarrays statistic with an a priori defined 1% false discovery rate to minimize false positives. To better characterize differential expression, we also conducted Gene Ontology and pathway comparisons in addition to the gene-specific analyses. Four-hundred sixty-eight genes were differentially expressed between these two groups, from which 312 differentially expressed genes were identified by restricting the analysis to female never-smokers. We also explored possible differential gene expression by arsenic exposure levels among individuals without manifest arsenical skin lesions; however, no differentially expressed genes could be identified from this comparison. Our findings show that microarray-based gene expression analysis is a powerful method to characterize the molecular profile of arsenic exposure and arsenic-induced diseases. Genes identified from this analysis may provide insights into the underlying processes of arsenic-induced disease and represent potential targets for chemoprevention studies to reduce arsenic-induced skin cancer in this population.

  10. ESTROGENIC STATUS MODULATES DMBA-MEDIATED HEPATIC GENE EXPRESSION: MICROARRAY-BASED ANALYSIS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Estrogenic status in women influences the metabolism and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The objective of this study was to examine the influence of estradiol (E2) on 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), a ligand for aryl hydrocarbon receptor, mediated changes on gene expressio...

  11. ALK gene expression status in pleural effusion predicts tumor responsiveness to crizotinib in Chinese patients with lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Wu, Xiaonan; Han, Xiaohong; Cheng, Gang; Mu, Xinlin; Zhang, Yuhui; Cui, Di; Liu, Chang; Liu, Dongge; Shi, Yuankai

    2016-01-01

    Objective The relationship between anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) expression in malignant pleural effusion (MPE) samples detected only by Ventana immunohistochemistry (IHC) ALK (D5F3) and the efficacy of ALK-tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy is uncertain. Methods Ventana anti-ALK (D5F3) rabbit monoclonal primary antibody testing was performed on 313 cell blocks of MPE samples from Chinese patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to verify the ALK gene status in Ventana IHC ALK (D5F3)-positive samples. The follow-up clinical data on patients who received crizotinib treatment were recorded. Results Of the 313 MPE samples, 27 (8.6%) were confirmed as ALK expression-positive, and the Ventana IHC ALK (D5F3)-positive rate was 17.3% (27/156) in wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) MPE samples. Twenty-three of the 27 IHC ALK (D5F3)-positive samples were positive by FISH. Of the 11 Ventana IHC ALK (D5F3)-positive patients who received crizotinib therapy, 2 patients had complete response (CR), 5 had partial response (PR) and 3 had stable disease (SD). Conclusions The ALK gene expression status detected by the Ventana IHC ALK (D5F3) platform in MPE samples may predict tumor responsiveness to crizotinib in Chinese patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:28174489

  12. Role of selenium in spermatogenesis: differential expression of cjun and cfos in tubular cells of mice testis.

    PubMed

    Shalini, Sonia; Bansal, Mohinder P

    2006-11-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential dietary trace element, involved in the process of male reproduction. Best known as an antioxidant, it acts through various selenoproteins viz. glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase and selenoprotein P. The aim of the present study was to identify the underlying molecular mechanism of Se in regulating spermatogenesis. Different Se status: deficient, adequate and excess Se, were generated in male Balb/c mice by feeding yeast based Se deficient diet, and deficient diet supplemented with Se as sodium selenite (0.2 and 1 ppm Se) respectively for a period of 4 and 8 weeks. Se levels and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were significantly reduced in the Se deficient mice and enhanced in Se supplemented group. Reduction in the number of post-meiotic germ cells viz. spermatids and spermatozoa, were observed in the deficient groups indicating loss in fertility and reproductive ability. cjun and cfos (components of transcription factor AP1) regulate cellular growth and differentiation and also exert a regulatory role in steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis. Changes in the mRNA expression of cjun and cfos were observed. Concomitant with this, western blot revealed that the protein expression profile for both these genes was significantly altered in the Se deficient and Se excess groups. Further immunohistochemical analysis showed that, both these genes had identical cellular localization indicating that they do not work alone but act synergistically as AP1. cjun and cfos expression was greater in the early mitotic stages-spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the Se adequate controls. It decreased in the meiotic stages and then again peaked around the later stages-elongating spermatids and spermatozoa. However in the Se deficient mice, weaker expression was observed in the spermatogonia with a complete absence of expression near the lumen. No visible changes in cjun/cfos expression and immunohistochemical localization were observed in

  13. Neuropilin 1 expression correlates with differentiation status of epidermal cells and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Shahrabi-Farahani, Shokoufeh; Wang, Lili; Zwaans, Bernadette M. M.; Santana, Jeans M.; Shimizu, Akio; Takashima, Seiji; Kreuter, Michael; Coultas, Leigh; D'Amore, Patricia A.; Arbeit, Jeffrey M.; Akslen, Lars A.; Bielenberg, Diane R.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropilins (NRP) are cell surface receptors for VEGF and SEMA3 family members. The role of NRP in neurons and endothelial cells has been investigated, but the expression and role of NRP in epithelial cells is much less clear. Herein, the expression and localization of neuropilin 1 (NRP1) was investigated in human and mouse skin and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Results indicated that NRP1 mRNA and protein was expressed in the suprabasal epithelial layers of skin sections. NRP1 staining did not overlap with that of keratin 14 (K14) or proliferating cell nuclear antigen, but did colocalize with staining for keratin 1, indicating that differentiated keratinocytes express NRP1. Similar to the expression of NRP1, VEGF-A was expressed in suprabasal epithelial cells, whereas Nrp2 and VEGFR2 were not detectable in the epidermis. The expression of NRP1 correlated with a high degree of differentiation in human SCC specimens, human SCC xenografts, and mouse K14-HPV16 transgenic SCC. UVB irradiation of mouse skin induced Nrp1 upregulation. In vitro, Nrp1 was upregulated in primary keratinocytes in response to differentiating media or EGF-family growth factors. In conclusion, the expression of NRP1 is regulated in the skin and is selectively produced in differentiated epithelial cells. NRP1 may function as a reservoir to sequester VEGF ligand within the epithelial compartment, thereby modulating its bioactivity. PMID:24791743

  14. Neuropilin 1 expression correlates with differentiation status of epidermal cells and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Shahrabi-Farahani, Shokoufeh; Wang, Lili; Zwaans, Bernadette M M; Santana, Jeans M; Shimizu, Akio; Takashima, Seiji; Kreuter, Michael; Coultas, Leigh; D'Amore, Patricia A; Arbeit, Jeffrey M; Akslen, Lars A; Bielenberg, Diane R

    2014-07-01

    Neuropilins (NRPs) are cell surface receptors for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and SEMA3 (class 3 semaphorin) family members. The role of NRPs in neurons and endothelial cells has been investigated, but the expression and role of NRPs in epithelial cells is much less clear. Herein, the expression and localization of NRP1 was investigated in human and mouse skin and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Results indicated that NRP1 mRNA and protein was expressed in the suprabasal epithelial layers of the skin sections. NRP1 staining did not overlap with that of keratin 14 (K14) or proliferating cell nuclear antigen, but did co-localize with staining for keratin 1, indicating that differentiated keratinocytes express NRP1. Similar to the expression of NRP1, VEGF-A was expressed in suprabasal epithelial cells, whereas Nrp2 and VEGFR2 were not detectable in the epidermis. The expression of NRP1 correlated with a high degree of differentiation in human SCC specimens, human SCC xenografts, and mouse K14-HPV16 transgenic SCC. UVB irradiation of mouse skin induced Nrp1 upregulation. In vitro, Nrp1 was upregulated in primary keratinocytes in response to differentiating media or epidermal growth factor-family growth factors. In conclusion, the expression of NRP1 is regulated in the skin and is selectively produced in differentiated epithelial cells. NRP1 may function as a reservoir to sequester VEGF ligand within the epithelial compartment, thereby modulating its bioactivity.

  15. The Prognostic Value of HPV Status and p16 Expression in Patients with Carcinoma of the Anal Canal

    PubMed Central

    Roldán Urgoiti, Gloria B.; Gustafson, Karla; Klimowicz, Alexander C.; Petrillo, Stephanie K.; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Doll, Corinne M.

    2014-01-01

    Background In anal cancer studies, the detection frequency of high-risk HPV (human papillomavirus) is variable, depending on the method used. There are limited data reporting results of different HPV detection techniques in the same clinical series, and very few correlating results with clinical outcome. Objectives To evaluate tumor expression of p16/HPV16 using three different methods, and to determine their association with clinical outcome in patients with anal canal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Design This retrospective study included patients with anal canal SCC treated with definitive radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy at a single institution between 1992 and 2005. Formalin-fixed paraffin–embedded tumor samples from 53 of the 89 (60%) patient pre-treatment biopsies were adequate for tissue microarray construction. HPV status was determined using: p16 expression by conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative IHC (AQUA), HPV genotype analysis by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and HPV linear array sub-typing. Expression status was correlated with clinical outcome. Results 80% (28/35) of patient tumors had high p16 expression using conventional IHC. HPV16 CISH was positive in 81% (34/42) of tumors, and 78% (28/36) of tumors were HPV subtype 16. HPV16 CISH correlated with p16 evaluated by conventional IHC (correlation coefficient 0.46; p = 0.01) and by p16 AQUA score (correlation coefficient 0.49; p = 0.001). A subset of cases (15%) had very high p16 quantitative IHC scores (>244) and were associated with a higher incidence of local or distant recurrence (p = 0.04). Conclusions The vast majority (80%) of anal canal SCC in our series were positive for HPV16/p16, regardless of the testing method used. The exploratory analysis of automated quantitative IHC scoring was the only technique to define a subset of patients with a worse prognosis by p16 expression status on univariate analysis. Further exploration of the molecular

  16. Dietary zinc status reversibly alters both the feeding behaviors of the rats and gene expression patterns in diencephalon.

    PubMed

    Okada, Shinji; Abuyama, Moe; Yamamoto, Ryo; Kondo, Takashi; Narukawa, Masataka; Misaka, Takumi

    2012-01-01

    Nutritional status influences feeding behaviors, food preferences, and taste sensations. For example, zinc-deficient rats have been reported to show reduced and cyclic food intake patterns with increased preferences for NaCl. Although some impairments of the central nervous and endocrine systems have been speculated to be involved in these phenomena, the effects of short-term zinc deficiency on the brain have not been well examined to date. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the gene expression patterns in the rat diencephalon, which is a portion of the brain that includes the hypothalamus and thalamus, after short-term zinc deficiency and also during zinc recovery. The rats showed reduced and cyclic food intake patterns with increased salt preferences after a 10-day dietary zinc deficiency. A comparative analysis of their diencephalons using cDNA microarrays revealed that approximately 1% of the genes expressed in the diencephalons showed significantly altered expression levels. On the other hand, a 6-day zinc supplementation following the deprivation allowed for the recovery to initial food intake behaviors and salt preferences. The expression levels of most of the genes that had been altered by exposure to zinc deficient conditions were also recovered. These results show that feeding behaviors, taste preferences and gene expression patterns in the diencephalon respond quickly to changing zinc levels. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Amyloid protein-mediated differential DNA methylation status regulates gene expression in Alzheimer's disease model cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, Hye Youn; Choi, Eun Nam; Ahn Jo, Sangmee; Oh, Seikwan; Ahn, Jung-Hyuck

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in Alzheimer's disease model cell line. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integrated analysis of CpG methylation and mRNA expression profiles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identify three Swedish mutant target genes; CTIF, NXT2 and DDR2 gene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of Swedish mutation on alteration of DNA methylation and gene expression. -- Abstract: The Swedish mutation of amyloid precursor protein (APP-sw) has been reported to dramatically increase beta amyloid production through aberrant cleavage at the beta secretase site, causing early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). DNA methylation has been reported to be associated with AD pathogenesis, but the underlying molecular mechanism of APP-sw-mediated epigenetic alterations in AD pathogenesis remains largely unknown. We analyzed genome-wide interplay between promoter CpG DNA methylation and gene expression in an APP-sw-expressing AD model cell line. To identify genes whose expression was regulated by DNA methylation status, we performed integrated analysis of CpG methylation and mRNA expression profiles, and identified three target genes of the APP-sw mutant; hypomethylated CTIF (CBP80/CBP20-dependent translation initiation factor) and NXT2 (nuclear exporting factor 2), and hypermethylated DDR2 (discoidin domain receptor 2). Treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2 Prime -deoxycytidine restored mRNA expression of these three genes, implying methylation-dependent transcriptional regulation. The profound alteration in the methylation status was detected at the -435, -295, and -271 CpG sites of CTIF, and at the -505 to -341 region in the promoter of DDR2. In the promoter region of NXT2, only one CpG site located at -432 was differentially unmethylated in APP-sw cells. Thus, we demonstrated the effect of the APP-sw mutation on alteration of DNA methylation and subsequent gene expression. This epigenetic regulatory mechanism may

  18. The methylation status and expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase is significantly high in oral carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Kazuya; Yada, Naomi; Sato, Shinobu; Habu, Manabu; Hayakawa, Mana; Takahashi, Osamu; Sasaguri, Masaaki; Takenaka, Shigeori; Yoshioka, Izumi; Matsuo, Kou; Tominaga, Kazuhiro

    2017-09-01

    Telomerase activity is present in most cancers and is tightly regulated by the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Hypermethylation in the promoter region of hTERT contributes to the regulation of hTERT expression. In this study, we investigated the methylation and expression of hTERT in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), oral leukoplakia, and normal oral mucosa. Furthermore, we investigated the significance of hTERT to the clinicopathological findings of OSCC. 35 OSCC, 50 oral leukoplakia (epithelial dysplasia n = 25, squamous cell hyperplasia n = 25), and 10 normal oral mucosa samples were investigated through methylation-specific PCR. Immunohistochemistry was analyzed in 35 OSCC, 50 oral leukoplakia, and 4 normal oral mucosa samples. The methylation and expression of hTERT increased from normal oral mucosa to oral leukoplakia to OSCC. In OSCC, all samples were methylated. However, partial methylation (20%) or unmethylation (80%), but never complete methylation, was observed in normal oral mucosa. Additionally, hTERT expression correlated with cervical lymph node metastasis. These results suggested that the methylation and expression of hTERT is high in oral carcinogenesis and may play an important role in oral cancer. hTERT expression may also be predictive of cervical lymph node metastasis. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Expression status of cyclase‑associated protein 2 as a prognostic marker for human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lihua; Peng, Sida; Huang, Qunai; Liu, Yu; Jiang, Hua; Li, Xi; Wang, Jiani

    2016-10-01

    Cyclase-associated protein 2 (CAP2) protein is reported to be upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, data regarding its expression pattern and clinical relevance in breast cancer are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate CAP2 expression and its prognostic significance in breast cancer. CAP2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels was examined by real‑time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting in 10 paired breast cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues. The expression level of CAP2 protein in normal breast epithelial cells and breast cancer cell lines was quantified by western blotting. CAP2 protein expression was analyzed in paraffin‑embedded breast cancer samples, paired adjacent non‑tumor and normal breast tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. Statistical analyses were also performed to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of CAP2 expression. The results showed that the expression of CAP2 mRNA and protein was higher in breast cancer than that noted in the adjacent normal tissues in 10 paired samples. The expression level of CAP2 protein in breast cancer cell lines was higher than that in normal breast epithelial cells. In paraffin‑embedded tissue samples, the expression of CAP2 was higher in breast cancer than that found in the adjacent non‑cancerous tissues and normal breast tissues. Compared with the adjacent non‑cancerous tissues, overexpression of CAP2 was detected in 29.4% (37/126) of the patients. Overexpression of CAP2 was significantly associated with progesterone receptor (PR) expression (p<0.05), and decreased overall survival (OS) (p<0.05). In multivariate analysis, expression of CAP2 was an independent prognostic factor for OS [hazard ratio (HR), 4.821; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.442‑9.518; p<0.001]. CAP2 is upregulated in breast cancer and is associated with the expression of PR and patient survival. CAP2 may serve as a prognostic indicator for patients

  20. Epigenetic Regulation of Inflammatory Gene Expression in Macrophages by Selenium

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Vivek; Ravindra, Kodihalli C.; Liao, Chang; Kaushal, Naveen; Carlson, Bradley A.; Prabhu, K. Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins by histone acetyltransferases plays a pivotal role in the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Given the importance of dietary selenium in mitigating inflammation, we hypothesized that selenium supplementation may regulate inflammatory gene expression at the epigenetic level. The effect of selenium towards histone acetylation was examined in both in vitro and in vivo models of inflammation by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and immunoblotting. Our results indicated that selenium supplementation, as selenite, decreased acetylation of histone H4 at K12 and K16 in COX-2 and TNF promoters, and of the p65 subunit of the redox sensitive transcription factor NFκB in primary and immortalized macrophages. On the other hand, selenomethionine had a much weaker effect. Selenite treatment of HIV-1 infected human monocytes also significantly decreased the acetylation of H4 at K12 and K16 on the HIV-1 promoter, supporting the downregulation of proviral expression by selenium. A similar decrease in histone acetylation was also seen in the colonic extracts of mice treated with dextran sodium sulfate that correlated well with the levels of selenium in the diet. Bone marrow-derived macrophages from Trspfl/flCreLysM mice that lack expression of selenoproteins in macrophages confirmed the important role of selenoproteins in the inhibition of histone H4 acetylation. Our studies suggest that the ability of selenoproteins to skew the metabolism of arachidonic acid to contribute, in part, to their ability to inhibit histone acetylation. In summary, our studies suggest a new role for selenoproteins in the epigenetic modulation of pro-inflammatory genes. PMID:25458528

  1. Epigenetic regulation of inflammatory gene expression in macrophages by selenium.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Vivek; Ravindra, Kodihalli C; Liao, Chang; Kaushal, Naveen; Carlson, Bradley A; Prabhu, K Sandeep

    2015-02-01

    Acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins by histone acetyltransferases plays a pivotal role in the expression of proinflammatory genes. Given the importance of dietary selenium in mitigating inflammation, we hypothesized that selenium supplementation may regulate inflammatory gene expression at the epigenetic level. The effect of selenium towards histone acetylation was examined in both in vitro and in vivo models of inflammation by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and immunoblotting. Our results indicated that selenium supplementation, as selenite, decreased acetylation of histone H4 at K12 and K16 in COX-2 and TNFα promoters, and of the p65 subunit of the redox sensitive transcription factor NFκB in primary and immortalized macrophages. On the other hand, selenomethionine had a much weaker effect. Selenite treatment of HIV-1-infected human monocytes also significantly decreased the acetylation of H4 at K12 and K16 on the HIV-1 promoter, supporting the down-regulation of proviral expression by selenium. A similar decrease in histone acetylation was also seen in the colonic extracts of mice treated with dextran sodium sulfate that correlated well with the levels of selenium in the diet. Bone-marrow-derived macrophages from Trsp(fl/fl)Cre(LysM) mice that lack expression of selenoproteins in macrophages confirmed the important role of selenoproteins in the inhibition of histone H4 acetylation. Our studies suggest that the ability of selenoproteins to skew the metabolism of arachidonic acid contributes, in part, to their ability to inhibit histone acetylation. In summary, our studies suggest a new role for selenoproteins in the epigenetic modulation of proinflammatory genes.

  2. Development of a new column switching method for simultaneous speciation of selenometabolites and selenoproteins in human serum.

    PubMed

    García-Sevillano, M A; García-Barrera, T; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2013-11-29

    A method for the simultaneous speciation of selenoproteins and selenometabolites in human serum has been developed on the basis of in series three dimensional chromatography: size exclusion, affinity and anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography (3D/SE-AF-AEC-HPLC), using different columns of each type and hyphenation to inductively coupled plasma-(quadrupole) mass spectrometry (ICP-qMS). The method allows the quantitative simultaneous analysis of selenoprotein P (SeP), extracellular glutathione peroxidase (eGPx), selenoalbumin (SeAlb), selenite and selenate in human serum using species-unspecific isotope dilution (SUID). The 3D chromatographic separation is proposed to remove typical spectral interferences in this matrix from chloride and bromide on (77)Se ((40)Ar(37)Cl), (80)Se ((79)Br(1)H) and (82)Se ((81)Br(1)H). In addition, a previous method based on 2D/SE-AF-HPLC is proposed as a simple alternative when low molecular mass selenium species are absent in the samples. The method is robust, reliable and fast with typical chromatographic runtime less than 35min. Detection limits are in the range of 0.2-1.3ng of Seg(-1). Method accuracy for determination of total protein-bound to Se was assessed by analyzing an human serum reference material (BCR-637) certified for total Se content and method reliability checked in samples of human serum providing results in good agreement with the total selenium concentration. In addition, the application of the method to commercial human serum and plasma reference materials for quality control analysis, certified for total Se, has provided, for the first time, indicative levels of selenium containing proteins in these samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Juvenile immune status affects the expression of a sexually selected trait in field crickets.

    PubMed

    Jacot, A; Scheuber, H; Kurtz, J; Brinkhof, M W G

    2005-07-01

    Parasite-mediated sexual selection theory presumes that variation in sexual traits reliably reflects variation in parasite resistance among available mates. One mechanism that may warrant signal honesty involves costs of immune system activation in the case of a parasitic infection. We investigated this hypothesis in male field crickets Gryllus campestris, whose attractiveness to females depends on characteristics of the sound-producing harp that are essentially fixed following adult eclosion. During the nymphal stage, males subjected to one of two feeding regimes were challenged with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to investigate condition-dependent effects on harp development as compared to other adult traits. Nymphal nutritional status positively affected adult body size, condition, and harp size. However, nymphal immune status affected harp size only, with LPS-males having smaller harps than control-injected males. In addition, the harps of LPS-males showed a lesser degree of melanization, indicating an enhanced substrate use by the melanin-producing enzyme cascade of the immune system. Thus, past immune status is specifically mirrored in sexual traits, suggesting a key role for deployment costs of immunity in parasite-mediated sexual selection.

  4. High-throughput recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli: current status and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The ease of genetic manipulation, low cost, rapid growth and number of previous studies have made Escherichia coli one of the most widely used microorganism species for producing recombinant proteins. In this post-genomic era, challenges remain to rapidly express and purify large numbers of proteins for academic and commercial purposes in a high-throughput manner. In this review, we describe several state-of-the-art approaches that are suitable for the cloning, expression and purification, conducted in parallel, of numerous molecules, and we discuss recent progress related to soluble protein expression, mRNA folding, fusion tags, post-translational modification and production of membrane proteins. Moreover, we address the ongoing efforts to overcome various challenges faced in protein expression in E. coli, which could lead to an improvement of the current system from trial and error to a predictable and rational design. PMID:27581654

  5. Expression of CD64 on Circulating Neutrophils Favoring Systemic Inflammatory Status in Erythema Nodosum Leprosum.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Veronica; Prata, Rhana Berto da Silva; Barbosa, Mayara Garcia de Mattos; Mendes, Mayara Abud; Brandão, Sheila Santos; Amadeu, Thaís Porto; Rodrigues, Luciana Silva; Ferreira, Helen; Costa, Fabrício da Mota Ramalho; Dos Santos, Jessica Brandão; Pacheco, Fabiana Dos Santos; Machado, Alice de Miranda; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Hacker, Mariana de Andrea; Sales, Anna Maria; Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes

    2016-08-01

    Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL) is an immune reaction in leprosy that aggravates the patient´s clinical condition. ENL presents systemic symptoms of an acute infectious syndrome with high leukocytosis and intense malaise clinically similar to sepsis. The treatment of ENL patients requires immunosuppression and thus needs to be early and efficient to prevent both disabilities and permanent nerve damage. Some patients experience multiple episodes of ENL and prolonged use of immunosuppressive drugs may lead to serious adverse effects. Thalidomide treatment is extremely effective at ameliorating ENL symptoms. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the efficacy of thalidomide in ENL, including the inhibition of TNF production. Given its teratogenicity, thalidomide is prohibitive for women of childbearing age. A rational search for molecular targets during ENL episodes is essential to better understand the disease mechanisms involved, which may also lead to the discovery of new drugs and diagnostic tests. Previous studies have demonstrated that IFN-γ and GM-CSF, involved in the induction of CD64 expression, increase during ENL. The aim of the present study was to investigate CD64 expression during ENL and whether thalidomide treatment modulated its expression. Leprosy patients were allocated to one of five groups: (1) Lepromatous leprosy, (2) Borderline leprosy, (3) Reversal reaction, (4) ENL, and (5) ENL 7 days after thalidomide treatment. The present study demonstrated that CD64 mRNA and protein were expressed in ENL lesions and that thalidomide treatment reduced CD64 expression and neutrophil infiltrates-a hallmark of ENL. We also showed that ENL blood neutrophils exclusively expressed CD64 on the cell surface and that thalidomide diminished overall expression. Patient classification based on clinical symptoms found that severe ENL presented high levels of neutrophil CD64. Collectively, these data revealed that ENL neutrophils express CD64, presumably

  6. Expression of CD64 on Circulating Neutrophils Favoring Systemic Inflammatory Status in Erythema Nodosum Leprosum

    PubMed Central

    Prata, Rhana Berto da Silva; Barbosa, Mayara Garcia de Mattos; Mendes, Mayara Abud; Brandão, Sheila Santos; Amadeu, Thaís Porto; Rodrigues, Luciana Silva; Ferreira, Helen; Costa, Fabrício da Mota Ramalho; dos Santos, Jessica Brandão; Pacheco, Fabiana dos Santos; Machado, Alice de Miranda; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Hacker, Mariana de Andrea; Sales, Anna Maria; Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL) is an immune reaction in leprosy that aggravates the patient´s clinical condition. ENL presents systemic symptoms of an acute infectious syndrome with high leukocytosis and intense malaise clinically similar to sepsis. The treatment of ENL patients requires immunosuppression and thus needs to be early and efficient to prevent both disabilities and permanent nerve damage. Some patients experience multiple episodes of ENL and prolonged use of immunosuppressive drugs may lead to serious adverse effects. Thalidomide treatment is extremely effective at ameliorating ENL symptoms. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the efficacy of thalidomide in ENL, including the inhibition of TNF production. Given its teratogenicity, thalidomide is prohibitive for women of childbearing age. A rational search for molecular targets during ENL episodes is essential to better understand the disease mechanisms involved, which may also lead to the discovery of new drugs and diagnostic tests. Previous studies have demonstrated that IFN-γ and GM-CSF, involved in the induction of CD64 expression, increase during ENL. The aim of the present study was to investigate CD64 expression during ENL and whether thalidomide treatment modulated its expression. Leprosy patients were allocated to one of five groups: (1) Lepromatous leprosy, (2) Borderline leprosy, (3) Reversal reaction, (4) ENL, and (5) ENL 7 days after thalidomide treatment. The present study demonstrated that CD64 mRNA and protein were expressed in ENL lesions and that thalidomide treatment reduced CD64 expression and neutrophil infiltrates—a hallmark of ENL. We also showed that ENL blood neutrophils exclusively expressed CD64 on the cell surface and that thalidomide diminished overall expression. Patient classification based on clinical symptoms found that severe ENL presented high levels of neutrophil CD64. Collectively, these data revealed that ENL neutrophils express CD64, presumably

  7. Promoter-specific expression and imprint status of marsupial IGF2.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Jessica M; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Pask, Andrew J; Shaw, Geoff; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2012-01-01

    In mice and humans, IGF2 has multiple promoters to maintain its complex tissue- and developmental stage-specific imprinting and expression. IGF2 is also imprinted in marsupials, but little is known about its promoter region. In this study, three IGF2 transcripts were isolated from placental and liver samples of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. Each transcript contained a unique 5' untranslated region, orthologous to the non-coding exons derived from promoters P1-P3 in the human and mouse IGF2 locus. The expression of tammar IGF2 was predominantly from the P2 promoter, similar to humans. Expression of IGF2 was higher in pouch young than in the adult and imprinting was highly tissue and developmental-stage specific. Interestingly, while IGF2 was expressed throughout the placenta, imprinting seemed to be restricted to the vascular, trilaminar region. In addition, IGF2 was monoallelically expressed in the adult mammary gland while in the liver it switched from monoalleleic expression in the pouch young to biallelic in the adult. These data suggest a complex mode of IGF2 regulation in marsupials as seen in eutherian mammals. The conservation of the IGF2 promoters suggests they originated before the divergence of marsupials and eutherians, and have been selectively maintained for at least 160 million years.

  8. Promoter-Specific Expression and Imprint Status of Marsupial IGF2

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, Jessica M.; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Pask, Andrew J.; Shaw, Geoff; Renfree, Marilyn B.

    2012-01-01

    In mice and humans, IGF2 has multiple promoters to maintain its complex tissue- and developmental stage-specific imprinting and expression. IGF2 is also imprinted in marsupials, but little is known about its promoter region. In this study, three IGF2 transcripts were isolated from placental and liver samples of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. Each transcript contained a unique 5' untranslated region, orthologous to the non-coding exons derived from promoters P1–P3 in the human and mouse IGF2 locus. The expression of tammar IGF2 was predominantly from the P2 promoter, similar to humans. Expression of IGF2 was higher in pouch young than in the adult and imprinting was highly tissue and developmental-stage specific. Interestingly, while IGF2 was expressed throughout the placenta, imprinting seemed to be restricted to the vascular, trilaminar region. In addition, IGF2 was monoallelically expressed in the adult mammary gland while in the liver it switched from monoalleleic expression in the pouch young to biallelic in the adult. These data suggest a complex mode of IGF2 regulation in marsupials as seen in eutherian mammals. The conservation of the IGF2 promoters suggests they originated before the divergence of marsupials and eutherians, and have been selectively maintained for at least 160 million years. PMID:22848567

  9. Chronic methamphetamine treatment reduces the expression of synaptic plasticity genes and changes their DNA methylation status in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Min-Chih; Hsu, Shih-Hsin; Chen, Chia-Hsiang

    2015-12-10

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant that may cause long-lasting synaptic dysfunction and abnormal gene expression. We aimed to explore the differential expression of synaptic plasticity genes in chronic METH-treated mouse brain. We used the RT(2) Profiler PCR Array and the real-time quantitative PCR to characterize differentially expressed synaptic plasticity genes in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus of chronic METH-treated mice compared with normal saline-treated mice. We further used pyrosequencing to assess DNA methylation changes in the CpG region of the five immediate early genes (IEGs) in chronic METH-treated mouse brain. We detected six downregulated genes in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus of chronic METH-treated mice, including five IEGs (Arc, Egr2, Fos, Klf10, and Nr4a1) and one neuronal receptor gene (Grm1), compared with normal saline-treated group, but only four genes (Arc, Egr2, Fos, and Nr4a1) were confirmed to be different. Furthermore, we found several CpG sites of the Arc and the Fos that had significant changes in DNA methylation status in the frontal cortex of chronic METH-treated mice, while the klf10 and the Nr4a1 that had significant changes in the hippocampus. Our results show that chronic administration of METH may lead to significant downregulation of the IEGs expression in both the frontal cortex and the hippocampus, which may partly account for the molecular mechanism of the action of METH. Furthermore, the changes in DNA methylation status of the IEGs in the brain indicate that an epigenetic mechanism-dependent transcriptional regulation may contribute to METH addiction, which warrants additional study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ovarian reserve status in young women is associated with altered gene expression in membrana granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Skiadas, Christine C; Duan, Shenghua; Correll, Mick; Rubio, Renee; Karaca, Nilay; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S; Quackenbush, John; Racowsky, Catherine

    2012-07-01

    Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) is a challenging diagnosis of infertility, as there are currently no tests to predict who may become affected with this condition, or at what age. We designed the present study to compare the gene expression profile of membrana granulosa cells from young women affected with DOR with those from egg donors of similar age and to determine if distinct genetic patterns could be identified to provide insight into the etiology of DOR. Young women with DOR were identified based on FSH level in conjunction with poor follicular development during an IVF cycle (n = 13). Egg donors with normal ovarian reserve (NOR) comprised the control group (n = 13). Granulosa cells were collected following retrieval, RNA was extracted and microarray analysis was conducted to evaluate genetic differences between the groups. Confirmatory studies were undertaken with quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Multiple significant differences in gene expression were observed between the DOR patients and egg donors. Two genes linked with ovarian function, anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR), were further analyzed with qRT-PCR in all patients. The average expression of AMH was significantly higher in egg donors (adjusted P-value = 0.01), and the average expression of LHCGR was significantly higher in DOR patients (adjusted P-value = 0.005). Expression levels for four additional genes, progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (PGRMC2), prostaglandin E receptor 3 (subtype EP3) (PTGER3), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and StAR-related lipid transfer domain containing 4 (StarD4), were validated in a group consisting of five NOR and five DOR patients. We conclude that gene expression analysis has substantial potential to determine which young women may be affected with DOR. More importantly, our analysis suggests that DOR patients fall into two distinct subgroups based on gene expression profiles, indicating that different

  11. Ovarian reserve status in young women is associated with altered gene expression in membrana granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Skiadas, Christine C.; Duan, Shenghua; Correll, Mick; Rubio, Renee; Karaca, Nilay; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S.; Quackenbush, John; Racowsky, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) is a challenging diagnosis of infertility, as there are currently no tests to predict who may become affected with this condition, or at what age. We designed the present study to compare the gene expression profile of membrana granulosa cells from young women affected with DOR with those from egg donors of similar age and to determine if distinct genetic patterns could be identified to provide insight into the etiology of DOR. Young women with DOR were identified based on FSH level in conjunction with poor follicular development during an IVF cycle (n = 13). Egg donors with normal ovarian reserve (NOR) comprised the control group (n = 13). Granulosa cells were collected following retrieval, RNA was extracted and microarray analysis was conducted to evaluate genetic differences between the groups. Confirmatory studies were undertaken with quantitative RT–PCR (qRT–PCR). Multiple significant differences in gene expression were observed between the DOR patients and egg donors. Two genes linked with ovarian function, anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR), were further analyzed with qRT–PCR in all patients. The average expression of AMH was significantly higher in egg donors (adjusted P-value = 0.01), and the average expression of LHCGR was significantly higher in DOR patients (adjusted P-value = 0.005). Expression levels for four additional genes, progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (PGRMC2), prostaglandin E receptor 3 (subtype EP3) (PTGER3), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and StAR-related lipid transfer domain containing 4 (StarD4), were validated in a group consisting of five NOR and five DOR patients. We conclude that gene expression analysis has substantial potential to determine which young women may be affected with DOR. More importantly, our analysis suggests that DOR patients fall into two distinct subgroups based on gene expression profiles, indicating that different

  12. Satellite DNA methylation status and expression of selected genes in Bos indicus blastocysts produced in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Urrego, R; Bernal-Ulloa, S M; Chavarría, N A; Herrera-Puerta, E; Lucas-Hahn, A; Herrmann, D; Winkler, S; Pache, D; Niemann, H; Rodriguez-Osorio, N

    2017-01-31

    Bovine embryos produced in vivo and in vitro differ with respect to molecular profiles, including epigenetic marks and gene expression profiles. This study investigated the CpG methylation status in bovine testis satellite I (BTS) and Bos taurus alpha satellite I (BTαS) DNA sequences, and concomitantly the relative abundance of transcripts, critically involved in DNA methylation (DNMT1 and DNMT3A), growth and development (IGF2R) and pluripotency (POU5F1) in Bos indicus embryos produced in vitro or in vivo. Results revealed that methylation of BTS were higher (P < 0.05) in embryos produced in vitro compared with their in vivo produced counterparts, while the methylation status of BTαS was similar in both groups. There were no significant differences in transcript abundance for DNMT3A, IGF2R and POU5F1 between blastocysts produced in vivo and in vitro. However, a significantly lower amount of DNMT1 transcripts was found in the in vitro cultured embryos (P < 0.05) compared with their in vivo derived counterparts. In conclusion, this study reported only minor changes in the expression of developmentally important genes and satellite DNA methylation related to the in vitro embryo production system.

  13. CpG promoter methylation status is not a prognostic indicator of gene expression in beryllium challenge.

    PubMed

    Tooker, Brian C; Ozawa, Katherine; Newman, Lee S

    2016-05-01

    -methylation may be necessary to allow expression of metal-induced TNFα and that promoter hyper-methylation in the IFNγ promoter may interfere with expression. Also, at the dozen CpG sites investigated in the promoter regions of both genes, beryllium had no impact on promoter methylation status, despite its ability to induce pro-inflammatory cytokine expression.

  14. Fighting experience alters brain androgen receptor expression dependent on testosterone status

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng-Yu; Earley, Ryan L.; Huang, Shu-Ping; Hsu, Yuying

    2014-01-01

    Contest decisions are influenced by the outcomes of recent fights (winner–loser effects). Steroid hormones and serotonin are closely associated with aggression and therefore probably also play important roles in mediating winner–loser effects. In mangrove rivulus fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus, individuals with higher testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone and cortisol levels are more capable of winning, but titres of these hormones do not directly mediate winner–loser effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of winning/losing experiences on brain expression levels of the receptor genes for androgen (AR), oestrogen α/β (ERα/β), glucocorticoid (GR) and serotonin (5-HT1AR). The effect of contest experience on AR gene expression depended on T levels: repeated losses decreased, whereas repeated wins increased AR gene expression in individuals with low T but not in individuals with medium or high T levels. These results lend strong support for AR being involved in mediating winner–loser effects, which, in previous studies, were more detectable in individuals with lower T. Furthermore, the expression levels of ERα/β, 5-HT1AR and GR genes were higher in individuals that initiated contests against larger opponents than in those that did not. Overall, contest experience, underlying endocrine state and hormone and serotonin receptor expression patterns interacted to modulate contest decisions jointly. PMID:25320171

  15. Current status of viral expression systems in plants and perspectives for oral vaccines development.

    PubMed

    Salazar-González, Jorge A; Bañuelos-Hernández, Bernardo; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2015-02-01

    During the last 25 years, the technology to produce recombinant vaccines in plant cells has evolved from modest proofs of the concept to viable technologies adopted by some companies due to significant improvements in the field. Viral-based expression strategies have importantly contributed to this success owing to high yields, short production time (which is in most cases free of tissue culture steps), and the implementation of confined processes for production under GMPs. Herein the distinct expression systems based on viral elements are analyzed. This review also presents the outlook on how these technologies have been successfully applied to the development of plant-based vaccines, some of them being in advanced stages of development. Perspectives on how viral expression systems could allow for the development of innovative oral vaccines constituted by minimally-processed plant biomass are discussed.

  16. Photoperiodic effects on seasonal physiology, reproductive status and hypothalamic gene expression in young male F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Tavolaro, F M; Thomson, L M; Ross, A W; Morgan, P J; Helfer, G

    2015-02-01

    Seasonal or photoperiodically sensitive animals respond to altered day length with changes in physiology (growth, food intake and reproductive status) and behaviour to adapt to predictable yearly changes in the climate. Typically, different species of hamsters, voles and sheep are the most studied animal models of photoperiodism. Although laboratory rats are generally considered nonphotoperiodic, one rat strain, the inbred Fischer 344 (F344) rat, has been shown to be sensitive to the length of daylight exposure by changing its physiological phenotype and reproductive status according to the season. The present study aimed to better understand the nature of the photoperiodic response in the F344 rat. We examined the effects of five different photoperiods on the physiological and neuroendocrine responses. Young male F344 rats were held under light schedules ranging from 8 h of light/day to 16 h of light/day, and then body weight, including fat and lean mass, food intake, testes weights and hypothalamic gene expression were compared. We found that rats held under photoperiods of ≥ 12 h of light/day showed increased growth and food intake relative to rats held under photoperiods of ≤ 10 h of light/day. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis confirmed that these changes were mainly the result of a change in lean body mass. The same pattern was evident for reproductive status, with higher paired testes weight in photoperiods of ≥ 12 h of light/day. Accompanying the changes in physiological status were major changes in hypothalamic thyroid hormone (Dio2 and Dio3), retinoic acid (Crabp1 and Stra6) and Wnt/β-Catenin signalling genes (sFrp2 and Mfrp). Our data demonstrate that a photoperiod schedule of 12 h of light/day is interpreted as a stimulatory photoperiod by the neuroendocrine system of young male F344 rats.

  17. Changes in the expression of the human adenine nucleotide translocase isoforms condition cellular metabolic/proliferative status

    PubMed Central

    Mampel, Teresa; Viñas, Octavi

    2016-01-01

    Human cells express four mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase (hANT) isoforms that are tissue-specific and developmentally regulated. hANT1 is mainly expressed in terminally differentiated muscle cells; hANT2 is growth-regulated and is upregulated in highly glycolytic and proliferative cells; and hANT3 is considered to be ubiquitous and non-specifically regulated. Here, we studied how the expression of hANT isoforms is regulated by proliferation and in response to metabolic stimuli, and examined the metabolic consequences of their silencing and overexpression. In HeLa and HepG2 cells, expression of hANT3 was upregulated by shifting metabolism towards oxidation or by slowed growth associated with contact inhibition or growth-factor deprivation, indicating that hANT3 expression is highly regulated. Under these conditions, changes in hANT2 mRNA expression were not observed in either HeLa or HepG2 cells, whereas in SGBS preadipocytes (which, unlike HeLa and HepG2 cells, are growth-arrest-sensitive cells), hANT2 mRNA levels decreased. Additionally, overexpression of hANT2 promoted cell growth and glycolysis, whereas silencing of hANT3 decreased cellular ATP levels, limited cell growth and induced a stress-like response. Thus, cancer cells require both hANT2 and hANT3, depending on their proliferation status: hANT2 when proliferation rates are high, and hANT3 when proliferation slows. PMID:26842067

  18. Differential MicroRNA Expression Between Gastric Cancer Tissue and Non-cancerous Gastric Mucosa According to Helicobacter pylori Status

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Nayoung; Park, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hee Jin; Chang, Hyun; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, Dong Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key post-translational mechanisms which can regulate gene expression in gastric carcinogenesis. To identify miRNAs responsible for gastric carcinogenesis, we compared expression levels of miRNAs between gastric cancer tissue and non-cancerous gastric mucosa according to Helicobacter pylori status. Methods Total RNA was extracted from the cancerous regions of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of H. pylori-positive (n = 8) or H. pylori-negative (n = 8) patients with an intestinal type of gastric cancer. RNA expression was analyzed using a 3,523 miRNA profiling microarray based on the Sanger miRBase. Validation analysis was performed using TaqMan miRNA assays for biopsy samples from 107 patients consisted of control and gastric cancer with or without H. pylori. And then, expression levels of miRNAs were compared according to subgroups. Results A total of 156 miRNAs in the aberrant miRNA profiles across the miRNA microarray showed differential expression (at least a 2-fold change, P < 0.05) in cancer tissue, compared to noncancerous mucosa in both of H. pylori-negative and -positive samples. After 10 promising miRNAs were selected, validations by TaqMan miRNA assays confirmed that two miRNAs (hsa-miR-135b-5p and hsa-miR-196a-5p) were significantly increased and one miRNA (hsa-miR-145-5p) decreased in cancer tissue compared to non-cancerous gastric mucosa at H. pylori-negative group. For H. pylori-positive group, three miRNAs (hsa-miR-18a-5p, hsa-miR-135b-5p, and hsa-miR-196a-5p) were increased in cancer tissue. hsa-miR-135b-5p and hsa-miR-196a-5p were increased in gastric cancer in both of H. pylori-negative and -positive. Conclusions miRNA expression of the gastric cancer implies that different but partially common gastric cancer carcinogenic mechanisms might exist according to H. pylori status. PMID:28382284

  19. Influence of the forms and levels of dietary selenium on antioxidant status and oxidative stress-related parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry.

    PubMed

    Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Godin, Simon; Liu, Haokun; Antony Jesu Prabhu, Philip; Bouyssière, Brice; Bueno, Maïté; Tacon, Philippe; Médale, Françoise; Kaushik, Sadasivam J

    2015-06-28

    Se is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth, development and antioxidant defence. The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of dietary Se sources and levels on the antioxidant status of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry. First-feeding fry (initial body weight: 91 mg) were fed either a plant- or fishmeal-based diet containing 0·5 or 1·2 mg Se/kg diet supplemented or not with 0·3 mg Se/kg diet supplied as Se-enriched yeast or sodium selenite for 12 weeks at 17°C. Growth and survival of rainbow trout fry were not significantly affected by dietary Se sources and levels. Whole-body Se was raised by both Se sources and to a greater extent by Se-yeast. The reduced:oxidised glutathione ratio was raised by Se-yeast, whereas other lipid peroxidation markers were not affected by dietary Se. Whole-body Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity was enhanced in fish fed Se-yeast compared to fish fed sodium selenite or non-supplemented diets. Activity and gene expression of this enzyme as well as gene expression of selenoprotein P (SelP) were reduced in fish fed the non-supplemented plant-based diet. Catalase, glutamate-cysteine ligase and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expressions were reduced by Se-yeast. These results suggest the necessity to supplement plant-based diets with Se for rainbow trout fry, and highlight the superiority of organic form of Se to fulfil the dietary Se requirement and sustain the antioxidant status of fish. GPX and SelP expression proved to be good markers of Se status in fish.

  20. CTIP2 Expression in Human Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Is Linked to Poorly Differentiated Tumor Status

    PubMed Central

    Ganguli-Indra, Gitali; Wasylyk, Christine; Liang, Xiaobo; Millon, Regine; Leid, Mark; Wasylyk, Bohdan; Abecassis, Joseph; Indra, Arup

    2009-01-01

    Background We have demonstrated earlier that CTIP2 is highly expressed in mouse skin during embryogenesis and in adulthood. CTIP2 mutant mice die at birth with epidermal differentiation defects and a compromised epidermal permeability barrier suggesting its role in skin development and/or homeostasis. CTIP2 has also been suggested to function as tumor suppressor in cells, and several reports have described a link between chromosomal rearrangements of CTIP2 and human T cell acute lymphoblast leukemia (T-ALL). The aim of the present study was to look into the pattern of CTIP2 expression in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC). Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we analyzed CTIP2 expression in human HNSCC cell lines by western blotting, in paraffin embedded archival specimens by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and in cDNA samples of human HNSCC by qRT-PCR. Elevated levels of CTIP2 protein was detected in several HNSCC cell lines. CTIP2 staining was mainly detected in the basal layer of the head and neck normal epithelium. CTIP2 expression was found to be significantly elevated in HNSCC (p<0.01), and increase in CTIP2 expression was associated with poorly differentiated tumor status. Nuclear co-localization of CTIP2 protein and cancer stem cell (CSC) marker BMI1 was observed in most, if not all of the cells expressing BMI1 in moderately and poorly differentiated tumors. Conclusions/Significance We report for the first time expression of transcriptional regulator CTIP2 in normal human head and neck epithelia. A statistically significant increase in the expression of CTIP2 was detected in the poorly differentiated samples of the human head and neck tumors. Actual CTIP2, rather than the long form of CTIP2 (CTIP2L) was found to be more relevant to the differentiation state of the tumors. Results demonstrated existence of distinct subsets of cancer cells, which express CTIP2 and underscores the use of CTIP2 and BMI1 co-labeling to distinguish tumor

  1. Expression of the HMGI(Y) gene products in human neuroblastic tumours correlates with differentiation status

    PubMed Central

    Giannini, G; Kim, C J; Marcotullio, L Di; Manfioletti, G; Cardinali, B; Cerignoli, F; Ristori, E; Zani, M; Frati, L; Screpanti, I; Gulino, A

    2000-01-01

    HMGI and HMGY are splicing variants of the HMGI(Y) gene and together with HMGI-C, belong to a family of DNA binding proteins involved in maintaining active chromatin conformation and in the regulation of gene transcription. The expression of the HMGI(Y) gene is maximal during embryonic development, declines in adult differentiated tissues and is reactivated in most transformed cells in vitro and in many human cancers in vivo. The HMGI(Y) genomic locus is frequently rearranged in mesenchymal tumours, suggesting a biological role for HMGI(Y) gene products in tumour biology. HMGIs are both target and modulators of retinoic acid activity. In fact, HMGI(Y) gene expression is differentially regulated by retinoic acid in retinoid-sensitive and -resistant neuroblastoma cells, while HMGI-C participates in conferring retinoic acid resistance in some neuroblastoma cells. In this paper we show that HMGI and HMGY isoforms are equally regulated by retinoic acid in neuroblastoma cell lines at both RNA and protein levels. More importantly our immunohistochemical analysis shows that, although HMGI(Y) is expressed in all neuroblastic tumours, consistently higher levels are observed in less differentiated neuroblastomas compared to more differentiated ganglioneuromas, indicating that HMGI(Y) expression should be evaluated as a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker in neuroblastic tumours. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11076660

  2. Baseline gene expression in conjunction with GSTM1 status predicts ozone exposure response

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution exposure causes increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality and has been linked to the deaths of 7 million people every year by the World Health Organization. Approximately 40% of the population lack expression of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione S-transfer...

  3. Identification of the two KIT isoforms and their expression status in canine hemangiosarcomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chen; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Hsu, Wei-Li; Chang, Shih-Chieh

    2016-07-16

    KIT is a tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor. High expression of KIT has been found in several tumors including canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA). This study investigated the correlation of KIT expression and c-kit sequence mutations in canine HSAs and benign hemangiomas (HAs). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining confirmed KIT expression in 94.4 % (34/36) of HSAs that was significantly higher than 0 % in HAs (0/16). Sequencing the entire c-kit coding region of HSAs and normal canine cerebellums (NCCs) revealed GNSK-deletion in exon 9. As for exon 9 genotyping by TA-cloning strategy, GNSK-deletion c-kit accounted for 48.6 % (68/140) colonies amplified from12 KIT-positive HSAs, a significantly higher frequency than 14.1 % (9/64) of colonies amplified from six NCCs. Due to the distinct expression pattern revealed by IHC, KIT might be used to distinguish benign or malignant vascular endothelial tumors. Moreover, the high incidence of GNSK-deletion c-kit in canine HSAs implicates KIT isoforms as possibly participating in the tumorigenesis of canine HSAs.

  4. Emotional Expression at Work and at Home: Domain, Status, or Individual Characteristics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lively, Kathryn J.; Powell, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Using the emotions module of the 1996 General Social Survey, we examine strategies that individuals use to express emotion. We focus on anger, one of the emotions most problematic or potentially disruptive to human interaction. Relying on insights from three theoretical approaches to emotion--the cultural perspective, the structural perspective,…

  5. Thyroid hormone status affects expression of daily torpor and gene transcription in Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Bank, Jonathan H H; Kemmling, Julia; Rijntjes, Eddy; Wirth, Eva K; Herwig, Annika

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) play a key role in regulation of seasonal as well as acute changes in metabolism. Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) adapt to winter by multiple changes in behaviour and physiology including spontaneous daily torpor, a state of hypometabolism and hypothermia. We investigated effects of systemic TH administration and ablation on the torpor behaviour in Djungarian hamsters adapted to short photoperiod. Hyperthyroidism was induced by giving T4 or T3 and hypothyroidism by giving methimazole (MMI) and sodium perchlorate via drinking water. T3 treatment increased water, food intake and body mass, whereas MMI had the opposite effect. Continuous recording of body temperature revealed that low T3 serum concentrations increased torpor incidence, lowered Tb and duration, whereas high T3 serum concentrations inhibited torpor expression. Gene expression of deiodinases (dio) and uncoupling proteins (ucp) were analysed by qPCR in hypothalamus, brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle. Expression of dio2, the enzyme generating T3 by deiodination of T4, and ucps, involved in thermoregulation, indicated a tissue specific response to treatment. Torpor per se decreased dio2 expression irrespective of treatment or tissue, suggesting low intracellular T3 concentrations during torpor. Down regulation of ucp1 and ucp3 during torpor might be a factor for the inhibition of BAT thermogenesis. Hypothalamic gene expression of neuropeptide Y, propopiomelanocortin and somatostatin, involved in feeding behaviour and energy balance, were not affected by treatment. Taken together our data indicate a strong effect of thyroid hormones on torpor, suggesting that lowered intracellular T3 concentrations in peripheral tissues promote torpor.

  6. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in pregnancy: Interference of pregnancy status with p16 and Ki-67 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Ciavattini, Andrea; Sopracordevole, Francesco; Di Giuseppe, Jacopo; Moriconi, Lorenzo; Lucarini, Guendalina; Mancioli, Francesca; Zizzi, Antonio; Goteri, Gaia

    2017-01-01

    To date, there are evidence-based guidelines available for cervical dysplasia diagnosed in pregnancy. Certain functional biomarkers have proven useful in the prediction of regressing and non-regressing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions in non-pregnant women. In the present study, Ki-67 and p16 immunostaining were evaluated in different grades of CIN lesions diagnosed in pregnant or non-pregnant women with the aim to identify any differences in order to better understand the behavior of CIN in pregnancy. The current retrospective case-control study included 17 pregnant patients that conceived naturally with first-time onset of CIN occurring at no later than 16 gestational weeks. The control group included 17 non-pregnant patients matched for age, parity and number of previous sexual partners. Exclusion criteria included previous cervical treatment, immunocompromised status, chronic hepatitis B and/or C and cigarette smoking. p16 and Ki-67 protein expression were respectively detected using the CINtec Histology kit and monoclonal antibodies against Ki-67. p16 and Ki-67 staining were analyzed using a classification system based on the distribution of positivity on a semi-quantitative three point-scale. p16 and Ki-67 immune reactivity correlated positively with the grade of epithelial dysplasia in the total cohort of pregnant and non-pregnant patients; expression increased linearly from CIN1 to CIN3. Furthermore, the association between p16 immunostaining and CIN grade was significant in non-pregnant patients but not in pregnant patients. In pregnant patients, positivity for Ki-67 was less intense than in non-pregnant patients. These results appear to suggest that pregnancy status interferes with the expression of cellular proteins involved in cell-cycle regulation and the carcinogenic process induced by high-risk human papilloma virus, exhibiting increased variability in their staining.

  7. Methylation status and transcriptional expression of the MHC class I loci in human trophoblast cells from term placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Guillaudeux, T.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Girr, M.

    1995-04-01

    Of the various molecular regulatory mechanisms that may be used by human trophoblast cells to down-regulate expression of HLA class I genes, we chose to investigate the methylation of DNA, generally associated with inhibition of transcription. We analyzed the methylation status of different HLA class I loci in villous and extravillous cytotrophoblast cells and in vitro-differentiated syncytiotrophoblast, purified from human term placenta, as well as in the human trophoblast-derived JAR and JEG-3 cell lines. We then compared methylation status and transcriptional activity. An inverse relationship was established between JAR and JEG-3: HLA-A, -B, and -G are methylated and repressed in JAR, whereas in JEG-3, HLA-A is methylated and repressed but HLA-B and -G are partially methylated and transcribed. HLA-E is unmethylated and transcribed in both cell lines. Apart from HLA-E, which is always unmethylated and transcribed, no such relationship exists for the other class I loci in trophoblast cells. Whereas nonclassical HLA-G and classical HLA-A and -B class I genes are undermethylated in both cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast, they are clearly transcribed in the former but minimally transcribed in the latter subpopulation. Thus, the down-regulation of class I gene expression in the in vitro-differentiated synctiotrophoblast is unlikely to be caused by DNA methylation. Furthermore, there is no detectable expression of any class I molecule at the cell surface of either trophoblast cell subpopulation, suggesting a negative control on translation and/or on the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane. 50 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in pregnancy: Interference of pregnancy status with p16 and Ki-67 protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Ciavattini, Andrea; Sopracordevole, Francesco; Di Giuseppe, Jacopo; Moriconi, Lorenzo; Lucarini, Guendalina; Mancioli, Francesca; Zizzi, Antonio; Goteri, Gaia

    2017-01-01

    To date, there are evidence-based guidelines available for cervical dysplasia diagnosed in pregnancy. Certain functional biomarkers have proven useful in the prediction of regressing and non-regressing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions in non-pregnant women. In the present study, Ki-67 and p16 immunostaining were evaluated in different grades of CIN lesions diagnosed in pregnant or non-pregnant women with the aim to identify any differences in order to better understand the behavior of CIN in pregnancy. The current retrospective case-control study included 17 pregnant patients that conceived naturally with first-time onset of CIN occurring at no later than 16 gestational weeks. The control group included 17 non-pregnant patients matched for age, parity and number of previous sexual partners. Exclusion criteria included previous cervical treatment, immunocompromised status, chronic hepatitis B and/or C and cigarette smoking. p16 and Ki-67 protein expression were respectively detected using the CINtec Histology kit and monoclonal antibodies against Ki-67. p16 and Ki-67 staining were analyzed using a classification system based on the distribution of positivity on a semi-quantitative three point-scale. p16 and Ki-67 immune reactivity correlated positively with the grade of epithelial dysplasia in the total cohort of pregnant and non-pregnant patients; expression increased linearly from CIN1 to CIN3. Furthermore, the association between p16 immunostaining and CIN grade was significant in non-pregnant patients but not in pregnant patients. In pregnant patients, positivity for Ki-67 was less intense than in non-pregnant patients. These results appear to suggest that pregnancy status interferes with the expression of cellular proteins involved in cell-cycle regulation and the carcinogenic process induced by high-risk human papilloma virus, exhibiting increased variability in their staining. PMID:28123559

  9. An insight into the functional role of thioredoxin reductase, a selenoprotein, in maintaining normal native microbiota in the Gulf Coast tick (Amblyomma maculatum).

    PubMed

    Budachetri, K; Karim, S

    2015-10-01

    Tick selenoproteins have been associated with antioxidant activity in ticks. Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), also a selenoprotein, belongs to the pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase family of proteins and is an important antioxidant. Molecular interactions between native microbiota and tick hosts have barely been investigated to date. In this study, we determined the functional role of TrxR in tick feeding and in maintenance of the native microbial community. TrxR transcript levels remained high and microbial load was reduced throughout tick attachment to the vertebrate host. RNA interference (RNAi) showed that depletion of TrxR activity did not interfere with tick haematophagy or phenotype but did reduce the viability of the microbiome within the tick tissues, presumably by perturbing redox homeostasis. The transcriptional activity of various antioxidant genes remained unaffected whereas the antioxidant genes Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) and selenoprotein M (SelM) were significantly down-regulated in salivary glands of the ticks subjected to RNAi. The perturbed TrxR enzymatic activity in the knocked-down tick tissues negatively affected the bacterial load as well. Furthermore, we observed the altered bacterial profiles in TrxR-silenced tick tissues. Taken together, these results indicate an essential functional role for TrxR in maintaining the bacterial community associated with ticks. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Human selenoprotein P and S variant mRNAs with different numbers of SECIS elements and inferences from mutant mice of the roles of multiple SECIS elements.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sen; Mariotti, Marco; Santesmasses, Didac; Hill, Kristina E; Baclaocos, Janinah; Aparicio-Prat, Estel; Li, Shuping; Mackrill, John; Wu, Yuanyuan; Howard, Michael T; Capecchi, Mario; Guigó, Roderic; Burk, Raymond F; Atkins, John F

    2016-11-01

    Dynamic redefinition of the 10 UGAs in human and mouse selenoprotein P (Sepp1) mRNAs to specify selenocysteine instead of termination involves two 3' UTR structural elements (SECIS) and is regulated by selenium availability. In addition to the previously known human Sepp1 mRNA poly(A) addition site just 3' of SECIS 2, two further sites were identified with one resulting in 10-25% of the mRNA lacking SECIS 2. To address function, mutant mice were generated with either SECIS 1 or SECIS 2 deleted or with the first UGA substituted with a serine codon. They were fed on either high or selenium-deficient diets. The mutants had very different effects on the proportions of shorter and longer product Sepp1 protein isoforms isolated from plasma, and on viability. Spatially and functionally distinctive effects of the two SECIS elements on UGA decoding were inferred. We also bioinformatically identify two selenoprotein S mRNAs with different 5' sequences predicted to yield products with different N-termini. These results provide insights into SECIS function and mRNA processing in selenoprotein isoform diversity.

  11. Human selenoprotein P and S variant mRNAs with different numbers of SECIS elements and inferences from mutant mice of the roles of multiple SECIS elements

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sen; Mariotti, Marco; Santesmasses, Didac; Hill, Kristina E.; Baclaocos, Janinah; Aparicio-Prat, Estel; Li, Shuping; Mackrill, John; Wu, Yuanyuan; Howard, Michael T.; Capecchi, Mario; Guigó, Roderic; Burk, Raymond F.

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic redefinition of the 10 UGAs in human and mouse selenoprotein P (Sepp1) mRNAs to specify selenocysteine instead of termination involves two 3′ UTR structural elements (SECIS) and is regulated by selenium availability. In addition to the previously known human Sepp1 mRNA poly(A) addition site just 3′ of SECIS 2, two further sites were identified with one resulting in 10–25% of the mRNA lacking SECIS 2. To address function, mutant mice were generated with either SECIS 1 or SECIS 2 deleted or with the first UGA substituted with a serine codon. They were fed on either high or selenium-deficient diets. The mutants had very different effects on the proportions of shorter and longer product Sepp1 protein isoforms isolated from plasma, and on viability. Spatially and functionally distinctive effects of the two SECIS elements on UGA decoding were inferred. We also bioinformatically identify two selenoprotein S mRNAs with different 5′ sequences predicted to yield products with different N-termini. These results provide insights into SECIS function and mRNA processing in selenoprotein isoform diversity. PMID:27881738

  12. Gene Expression and DNA Methylation Status of Glutathione S-Transferase Mu1 and Mu5 in Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shou-Chieh; Huang, Chin-Chin; Shen, Cheng-Huang; Lin, Lei-Chen; Zhao, Pei-Wen; Chen, Shih-Ying; Deng, Yu-Chiao; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is highly recurrent after therapy, which has an enormous impact on the health and financial condition of the patient. It is worth developing diagnostic tools for bladder cancer. In our previous study, we found that the bladder carcinogen BBN increased urothelial global DNA CpG methylation and decreased GSTM1 protein expression in mice. Here, the correlation of BBN-decreased GSTM1 and GSTM gene CpG methylation status was analyzed in mice bladders. BBN treatment decreased the protein and mRNA expression of GSTM1, and the CpG methylation ratio of GSTM1 gene promoter was slightly increased in mice bladders. Unlike mouse GSTM1, the human GSTM1 gene tends to be deleted in bladder cancers. Among 7 human bladder cancer cell lines, GSTM1 gene is really null in 6 cell lines except one, T24 cells. The CpG methylation level of GSTM1 was 9.9% and 5-aza-dC did not significantly increase GSTM1 protein and mRNA expression in T24 cells; however, the GSTM5 gene was CpG hypermethylated (65.4%) and 5-aza-dC also did not affect the methylation ratio and mRNA expression. However, in other cell lines without GSTM1, 5-aza-dC increased GSTM5 expression and decreased its CpG DNA methylation ratio from 84.6% to 61.5% in 5637, and from 97.4% to 75% in J82 cells. In summary, two biomarkers of bladder tumor were provided. One is the GSTM1 gene which is down-regulated in mice bladder carcinogenesis and is usually deleted in human urothelial carcinoma, while the other is the GSTM5 gene, which is inactivated by DNA CpG methylation. PMID:27404495

  13. The gene expression landscape of breast cancer is shaped by tumor protein p53 status and epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Gene expression data derived from clinical cancer specimens provide an opportunity to characterize cancer-specific transcriptional programs. Here, we present an analysis delineating a correlation-based gene expression landscape of breast cancer that identifies modules with strong associations to breast cancer-specific and general tumor biology. Methods Modules of highly connected genes were extracted from a gene co-expression network that was constructed based on Pearson correlation, and module activities were then calculated using a pathway activity score. Functional annotations of modules were experimentally validated with an siRNA cell spot microarray system using the KPL-4 breast cancer cell line, and by using gene expression data from functional studies. Modules were derived using gene expression data representing 1,608 breast cancer samples and validated in data sets representing 971 independent breast cancer samples as well as 1,231 samples from other cancer forms. Results The initial co-expression network analysis resulted in the characterization of eight tightly regulated gene modules. Cell cycle genes were divided into two transcriptional programs, and experimental validation using an siRNA screen showed different functional roles for these programs during proliferation. The division of the two programs was found to act as a marker for tumor protein p53 (TP53) gene status in luminal breast cancer, with the two programs being separated only in luminal tumors with functional p53 (encoded by TP53). Moreover, a module containing fibroblast and stroma-related genes was highly expressed in fibroblasts, but was also up-regulated by overexpression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition factors such as transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) and Snail in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells. Strikingly, the stroma transcriptional program related to less malignant tumors for luminal disease and aggressive lymph node positive disease among

  14. The MBD7 complex promotes expression of methylated transgenes without significantly altering their methylation status.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongming; Palanca, Ana Marie S; Won, So Youn; Gao, Lei; Feng, Ying; Vashisht, Ajay A; Liu, Li; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Liu, Xigang; Wu, Xiuyun; Li, Shaofang; Le, Brandon; Kim, Yun Ju; Yang, Guodong; Li, Shengben; Liu, Jinyuan; Wohlschlegel, James A; Guo, Hongwei; Mo, Beixin; Chen, Xuemei; Law, Julie A

    2017-04-28

    DNA methylation is associated with gene silencing in eukaryotic organisms. Although pathways controlling the establishment, maintenance and removal of DNA methylation are known, relatively little is understood about how DNA methylation influences gene expression. Here we identified a METHYL-CpG-BINDING DOMAIN 7 (MBD7) complex in Arabidopsis thaliana that suppresses the transcriptional silencing of two LUCIFERASE (LUC) reporters via a mechanism that is largely downstream of DNA methylation. Although mutations in components of the MBD7 complex resulted in modest increases in DNA methylation concomitant with decreased LUC expression, we found that these hyper-methylation and gene expression phenotypes can be genetically uncoupled. This finding, along with genome-wide profiling experiments showing minimal changes in DNA methylation upon disruption of the MBD7 complex, places the MBD7 complex amongst a small number of factors acting downstream of DNA methylation. This complex, however, is unique as it functions to suppress, rather than enforce, DNA methylation-mediated gene silencing.

  15. Aquaporin expression in response to different water stress intensities and recovery in Richter-110 (Vitis sp.): relationship with ecophysiological status.

    PubMed

    Galmés, Jeroni; Pou, Alícia; Alsina, Maria Mar; Tomàs, Magdalena; Medrano, Hipólito; Flexas, Jaume

    2007-08-01

    Aquaporins seem essential for the regulation of plant water status and expenses. Richter-110 is a Vitis hybrid (Vitis berlandieri x rupestris) reputed to be strongly drought-tolerant. Three irrigation treatments were established in Richter-110 plants growing outdoors defined by the resulting maximum stomatal conductance (g (s)), and ensuring water stress situations not severe enough as to stop photosynthesis and growth: well-watered plants (g (s) about 250 mmol H(2)O m(-2) s(-1)), moderate water stress (g (s) about 150 mmol H(2)O m(-2) s(-1)) and severe water stress (g (s) about 50 mmol H(2)O m(-2) s(-1)). Plants under water stress were kept at constant water availability for 7 days to check for possible acclimation. Finally, plants were re-watered, and allowed to recover, for 3 days. Stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, xylem abscisic acid (ABA) content and root and stem hydraulic conductivity were determined. The relative amounts of expression of mRNA encoding seven putative aquaporins were determined in roots and leaves by RT-PCR. The decrease in stomatal conductance with moderate and severe water stress was associated with increasing ABA contents, but not with the leaf water potential and hydraulic conductivities, which remained unchanged during the entire experiment. Aquaporin gene expression varied depending on which aquaporin, water stress level and the plant organ. We suggest that aquaporin expression was responsive to water stress as part of the homeostasis, which resulted in constant leaf water potential and hydraulic conductivity.

  16. Expression Status of UBE2Q2 in Colorectal Primary Tumors and Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Shafiee, Sayed Mohammad; Seghatoleslam, Atefeh; Nikseresht, Mohsen; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid; Alizadeh-Naeeni, Mahvash; Safaei, Akbar; Owji, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in various malignancies, including colorectal cancer, is established. This pathway mediates the degradation of damaged proteins and regulates growth and stress response. The novel human gene, UBE2Q2, with a putative ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme activity, is reported to be overexpressed in some malignancies. We sought to investigate the expression levels of the UBE2Q2 gene in colorectal cell lines as well as in cancerous and normal tissues from patients with colorectal cancer. Methods: Levels of UBE2Q2 mRNA in cell lines were assessed by Real-Time PCR. Western blotting was employed to investigate the levels of the UBE2Q2 protein in 8 colorectal cell lines and 43 colorectal tumor samples. Results: Expression of UBE2Q2 was observed at the level of both mRNA and protein in colorectal cell lines, HT29/219, LS180, SW742, Caco2, HTC116, SW48, SW480, and SW1116. Increased levels of UBE2Q2 immunoreactivity was observed in the 65.11% (28 out of 43) of the colorectal carcinoma tissues when compared with their corresponding normal tissues. Difference between the mean intensities of UBE2Q2 bands from cancerous and normal tissues was statistically significant at P<0.001 (paired t test). Conclusion: We showed the expression pattern of the novel human gene, UBE2Q2, in 8 colorectal cell lines. Overexpression of UBE2Q2 in the majority of the colorectal carcinoma samples denotes that it may have implications for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. PMID:24753643