Science.gov

Sample records for steel catenary risers

  1. Experimental investigation on vortex-induced vibration of steel catenary riser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yu-ting; Mao, Hai-ying; Guo, Hai-yan; Liu, Qing-hai; Li, Xiao-min

    2015-10-01

    Steel catenary riser (SCR) is the transmission device between the seabed and the floating production facilities. As developments move into deeper water, the fatigue life of the riser can become critical to the whole production system, especially due to the vortex-induced vibration (VIV), which is the key factor to operational longevity. As a result, experimental investigation about VIV of the riser was performed in a large plane pool which is 60 m long, 36 m wide and 6.5 m deep. Experiments were developed to study the influence of current speed and seabed on VIV of SCR. The results show that amplitudes of strain and response frequencies increase with the current speed both in cross-flow (CF) and in-line (IL). When the current speed is high, multi-mode response is observed in the VIV motion. The amplitudes of strain in IL direction are not much smaller than those in CF direction. The seabed has influence on the response frequencies of riser and the positions of damage for riser.

  2. The Catenary as Roulette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Reyes, Javier S.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of a parabola rolling without sliding along a straight line traces a catenary. We give some historical notes on this classical kinematical construction, observe that it was rediscovered in a recent article, and give a simpler and more geometric alternative derivation.

  3. NASA CPAS Drogue Textile Riser Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennings, Elsa J.; Petersen, Michael L.; Anderson, Brian; Johnson, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Steel cable was chosen for the lower end of the drogue and main parachute risers on NASA's Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) to protect the risers from extreme temperatures and abrasion should they contact the crew module during deployment, as was done for Apollo. Due to the weight and deployment complexity inherent in steel, there was significant interest in the possibility of substituting textile for steel for the drogue and main parachute risers. However, textile risers could be damaged when subjected to high temperature and abrasion. Investigations were consequently performed by a subset of the authors to determine whether sacrificial, non-load-bearing textile riser covers could be developed to mitigate the thermal and abrasion concerns. Multiple material combinations were tested, resulting in a cover design capable of protecting the riser against severe riser/crew module contact interactions. A feasibility study was then conducted to evaluate the performance of the textile drogue riser cover in relevant abrasive environments. This paper describes the testing performed and documents the results of this feasibility study.

  4. Catenaries in viscous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, James; Chakrabarti, Brato

    2015-11-01

    Slender structures live in fluid flows across many scales, from towed instruments to plant blades to microfluidic valves. The present work details a simple model of a flexible structure in a uniform flow. We present analytical solutions for the translating, axially flowing equilibria of strings subjected to a uniform body force and linear drag forces. This is an extension of the classical catenaries to a five-parameter family of solutions, represented as trajectories in angle-curvature ``phase space.'' Limiting cases include neutrally buoyant towed cables and freely sedimenting flexible filaments. Now at University of California, San Diego.

  5. Orion Parachute Riser Cutter Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oguz, Sirri; Salazar, Frank

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the tests and analytical approach used on the development of a steel riser cutter for the CEV Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) used on the Orion crew module. Figure 1 shows the riser cutter and the steel riser bundle which consists of six individual cables. Due to the highly compressed schedule, initial unavailability of the riser material and the Orion Forward Bay mechanical constraints, JSC primarily relied on a combination of internal ballistics analysis and LS-DYNA simulation for this project. Various one dimensional internal ballistics codes that use standard equation of state and conservation of energy have commonly used in the development of CAD devices for initial first order estimates and as an enhancement to the test program. While these codes are very accurate for propellant performance prediction, they usually lack a fully defined kinematic model for dynamic predictions. A simple piston device can easily and accurately be modeled using an equation of motion. However, the accuracy of analytical models is greatly reduced on more complicated devices with complex external loads, nonlinear trajectories or unique unlocking features. A 3D finite element model of CAD device with all critical features included can vastly improve the analytical ballistic predictions when it is used as a supplement to the ballistic code. During this project, LS-DYNA structural 3D model was used to predict the riser resisting load that was needed for the ballistic code. A Lagrangian model with eroding elements shown in Figure 2 was used for the blade, steel riser and the anvil. The riser material failure strain was fine tuned by matching the dent depth on the anvil with the actual test data. LS-DYNA model was also utilized to optimize the blade tip design for the most efficient cut. In parallel, the propellant type and the amount were determined by using CADPROG internal ballistics code. Initial test results showed a good match with LS-DYNA and CADPROG

  6. Corrosion of stainless steels in the riser during co-processing of bio-oils in a fluid catalytic cracking pilot plant

    DOE PAGES

    Brady, M. P.; Keiser, J. R.; Leonard, D. N.; ...

    2017-01-31

    Co-processing of bio-oils with conventional petroleum-based feedstocks is an attractive initial option to make use of renewable biomass as a fuel source while leveraging existing refinery infrastructures. But, bio-oils and their processing intermediates have high concentrations of organic oxygenates, which, among their other negative qualities, can result in increased corrosion issues. A range of stainless steel alloys (409, 410, 304L, 316L, 317L, and 201) was exposed at the base of the riser in a fluid catalytic cracking pilot plant while co-processing vacuum gas oil with pine-derived pyrolysis bio-oils that had been catalytically hydrodeoxygenated to ~ 2 to 28% oxygen. Wemore » studied the processing using a catalyst temperature of 704 °C, a reaction exit temperature of 520 °C, and total co-processing run times of 57–75 h. External oxide scaling 5–30 μm thick and internal attack 1–5 μm deep were observed in these short-duration exposures. The greatest extent of internal attack was observed for co-processing with the least stabilized bio-oil, and more so for types 409, 410, 304L, 316L, 317L stainless steel than for type 201. Finally, the internal attack involved porous Cr-rich oxide formation, associated with local Ni-metal enrichment and S-rich nanoparticles, primarily containing Cr or Mn. Implications for alloy selection and corrosion are discussed.« less

  7. The Hyperbolic Sine Cardinal and the Catenary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Reyes, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The hyperbolic function sinh(x)/x receives scant attention in the literature. We show that it admits a clear geometric interpretation as the ratio between length and chord of a symmetric catenary segment. The inverse, together with the use of dimensionless parameters, furnishes a compact, explicit construction of a general catenary segment of…

  8. Analysis of Breast Contour using Rotated Catenary.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juhun; Beahm, Elisabeth K; Crosby, Melissa A; Reece, Gregory P; Markey, Mia K

    2010-11-13

    Surgical reconstruction of natural-appearing breasts is a challenging task. Currently, surgical planning is limited to the surgeon's subjective assessment of breast morphology. Therefore, it is useful to develop objective measurements of breast contour. In this paper, a novel quantitative measure of the breast contour based on catenary theory is introduced. A catenary curve is fitted on the breast contour (lateral and inferior) and the key parameter determining the shape of the curve is extracted. The new catenary analysis was applied to pre- and post-operative clinical photographs of women who underwent tissue expander/implant (TE/Implant) reconstruction. A logistic regression model was developed to predict the probability that the observed contour is that of a TE/Implant reconstruction from the catenary parameter, patient age, and patient body mass index. It was demonstrated that the parameters contain useful information for distinguishing TE/Implant reconstructed breasts from pre-operative breasts.

  9. A Classroom Investigation into the Catenary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Ed

    2011-01-01

    The quest to find the equation of a catenary makes an ideal investigation for upper secondary students. In the modelling exercise that follows, no knowledge of calculus is required to gain a fairly good understanding of the nature of the curve. This investigation is best described as a scientific investigation--a "hands on" experience…

  10. Solar radiation on a catenary collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutchik, M.; Appelbaum, J.

    1992-01-01

    A tent-shaped structure with a flexible photovoltaic blanket acting as a catenary collector is presented. The shadow cast by one side of the collector produces a shadow on the other side of the collector. This self-shading effect is analyzed. The direct beam, the diffuse, and the albedo radiation on the collector are determined. An example is given for the insolation on the collector operating on Viking Lander 1 (VL1).

  11. 20. VIEW OF CATENARY, FEEDER TOWERS AND COS COB POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF CATENARY, FEEDER TOWERS AND COS COB POWER PLANT (CENTER BACKGROUND) LOOKING WEST FROM THE NORTH SIDE OF THE MIANUS RIVER BASCULE BRIDGE. NOTE THAT THE CATENARY ENDS AT BRIDGE 313. TRAINS ARE CARRIED ACROSS THE BASCULE BRIDGE BY THEIR OWN MOMENTUM AND PICK UP THE CATENARY ON THE EAST SIDE OF THE RIVER. THE FEEDER LINES CARRY POWER ACROSS THE RIVER ABOVE THE LEVEL OF THE OPENED BASCULE ON THE TOWERS TO THE LEFT AND RIGHT. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  12. 13. OBLIQUE VIEW, THREE DWARF SIGNALS, EAST OF CATENARY BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. OBLIQUE VIEW, THREE DWARF SIGNALS, EAST OF CATENARY BRIDGE 522 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  13. 12. FRONT VIEW, DETAIL, DWARF SIGNAL, EAST ON CATENARY BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FRONT VIEW, DETAIL, DWARF SIGNAL, EAST ON CATENARY BRIDGE 522 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  14. 4. OBLIQUE VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OBLIQUE VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 486 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  15. 5. DETAIL, HOME SIGNAL, WESTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 518, FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL, HOME SIGNAL, WESTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 518, FRONT VIEW - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  16. 1. FRONT VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FRONT VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 486 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  17. 3. REAR VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. REAR VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 486 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  18. Structural analysis of multiport riser 5A installation on tank 241SY101

    SciTech Connect

    Strehlow, J.P.

    1994-09-16

    The Tank 101-SY multiport riser assembly in the 241-SY-101 waste tank will replace the existing 42 inch riser with four smaller ports. Each smaller port can be used independently to access the tank interior with equipment and instruments needed to mitigate the concentration of hydrogen in the tank. This document provides a design report on the structural evaluation of the multiport riser assembly as well as its anchorage. The multiport riser assembly is a steel structure installed directly above the 42-inch riser and sealed at the existing riser flange. The assembly is structurally supported by the concrete pad placed around the 42 inch riser. The multiport riser assembly will provide two 8-inch penetrations, one 12-inch penetration and one 24-inch penetration. Each penetration will have a shielding plate. These penetrations will be used to insert equipment such as a sonic probe into the tank. In addition to normal loads, non-reactor Safety Class 1 structures, systems and components are to withstand the effects of extreme environmental loads including Design Basis Earthquake (DBE), Design Basis Wind (DBW), Design Basis Flood, Volcanic Eruptions and other abnormal loads considered on a case by case basis. Non-reactor Safety Class 2, 3 and 4 structures, systems and components are those that are not Safety Class 1 and are respectively specified as onsite safety related, occupational safety related and non-safety related items. The 241-SY-101 tank is considered as a non-reactor Safety Class 1 structure. The multiport riser assembly is considered as a non-reactor Safety Class 2 structure since it serves to contain the radioactive and toxic materials under normal operating conditions. However, the pressure relief doors provided on the assembly are considered as Safety Class 1 structures.

  19. Dynamic response analysis of the equivalent water depth truncated point of the catenary mooring line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huo-ming; Kong, Ling-bin; Guan, Wei-bing; Huang, Sai-hua; Fang, Gui-sheng

    2017-03-01

    The real-time computer-controlled actuators are used to connect the truncated parts of moorings and risers in the active hybrid model testing system. This must be able to work in model-scale real time, based on feedback input from the floater motions. Thus, mooring line dynamics and damping effects are artificially simulated in real time, based on a computer-based model of the problem. In consideration of the nonlinear characteristics of the sea platform catenary mooring line, the equations of the mooring line motion are formulated by using the lumped-mass method and the dynamic response of several points on the mooring line is investigated by the time and frequency domain analysis method. The dynamic response of the representative point on the mooring line is analyzed under the condition of two different corresponding upper endpoint movements namely sine wave excitation and random wave excitation. The corresponding laws of the dynamic response between the equivalent water depth truncated points at different locations and the upper endpoint are obtained, which can provide technical support for further study of the active hybrid model test.

  20. Diffusion of innovations dynamics, biological growth and catenary function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseo, Renato

    2016-12-01

    The catenary function has a well-known role in determining the shape of chains and cables supported at their ends under the force of gravity. This enables design using a specific static equilibrium over space. Its reflected version, the catenary arch, allows the construction of bridges and arches exploiting the dual equilibrium property under uniform compression. In this paper, we emphasize a further connection with well-known aggregate biological growth models over time and the related diffusion of innovation key paradigms (e.g., logistic and Bass distributions over time) that determine self-sustaining evolutionary growth dynamics in naturalistic and socio-economic contexts. Moreover, we prove that the 'local entropy function', related to a logistic distribution, is a catenary and vice versa. This special invariance may be explained, at a deeper level, through the Verlinde's conjecture on the origin of gravity as an effect of the entropic force.

  1. Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Mingbo; Li, Xiong; Ma, Xiaoliang; Wang, Yanqin; Zhao, Zeyu; Wang, Changtao; Hu, Chenggang; Gao, Ping; Huang, Cheng; Ren, Haoran; Li, Xiangping; Qin, Fei; Yang, Jing; Gu, Min; Hong, Minghui; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-01-01

    The catenary is the curve that a free-hanging chain assumes under its own weight, and thought to be a “true mathematical and mechanical form” in architecture by Robert Hooke in the 1670s, with nevertheless no significant phenomena observed in optics. We show that the optical catenary can serve as a unique building block of metasurfaces to produce continuous and linear phase shift covering [0, 2π], a mission that is extremely difficult if not impossible for state-of-the-art technology. Via catenary arrays, planar optical devices are designed and experimentally characterized to generate various kinds of beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). These devices can operate in an ultra-broadband spectrum because the anisotropic modes associated with the spin-orbit interaction are almost independent of the incident light frequency. By combining the optical and topological characteristics, our approach would allow the complete control of photons within a single nanometric layer. PMID:26601283

  2. UNIDENTIFIED CATENARY SUSPENSION BRIDGE, SHOWING COMPLETED SINGLE PIPE TOWERS, WOODEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    UNIDENTIFIED CATENARY SUSPENSION BRIDGE, SHOWING COMPLETED SINGLE PIPE TOWERS, WOODEN DECK LAID OVER LONGITUDINAL CABLES, AND WIRES READY FOR CABLE SPINNING. NOTE WORKER IN LEFT FOREGROUND STANDING IN ANCHORAGE PIT. BARREL VIEW. - Clear Fork of Brazos River Suspension Bridge, Spanning Clear Fork of Brazos River at County Route 179, Albany, Shackelford County, TX

  3. Transient wave propagation analysis of a pantograph- catenary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Kyohei; Masuda, Arata

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a systematic method to analyze the dynamic response of an overhead catenary with pantographs moving at constant speed. The overhead catenary is modeled as a onedimensional infinite-length string, which is periodically supported by hangers. On the other hand, the pantograph is a sub-structure moving at a constant speed, which is modeled as a lumped mass system contacting the catenary. In this study, the whole system is divided into elements in the manner of the transfer matrix method. Then, the relationship among traveling waves in every element is systematically obtained in the Laplace domain following the method of reverberation-ray matrix. Since the governing equation of the system changes periodically with time, the analysis of the temporal evolution of the system can be realized by repeating a single period analysis starting from the instant when the pantograph comes into a unit cell by means of the reverberation-ray matrix analysis followed by the inverse Laplace transform. When the pantograph reaches the opposite hanger, the whole elements are shifted backward, and the catenary response of the forehead element is used as the initial condition of the next period.

  4. Experimental investigation of deep sea riser interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huse, E.

    1996-12-31

    In future deep sea field developments the drag force and corresponding static deflections of the risers due to current can become quite large. The prevention of mechanical contact (collision) between the risers will need more careful evaluation than in moderate water depths. The paper describes a series of model experiments in a Norwegian fjord to determine criteria for on-set of collisions between the risers of a deep sea TLP. The current was modeled using the natural tidal current in the fjord. Results from the tests are summarized and used for verification of numerical calculations of collision criteria.

  5. UNIDENTIFIED CATENARY SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TRIPLE PIPE TOWERS, SHOWING HOWE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    UNIDENTIFIED CATENARY SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TRIPLE PIPE TOWERS, SHOWING HOWE PIPE TRUSS RAILING AND TRUSSED DECK BEAMS TYPICAL TO BRIDGES BUILT BY FLINN-MOYER COMPANY. NOTE THAT TOWER PIPES LIE IN ONE PLANE, UNLIKE TRIPODAL ARRANGEMENT AT CLEAR FORK OF THE BRAZOS SUSPENSION BRIDGE. ELEVATION VIEW. - Clear Fork of Brazos River Suspension Bridge, Spanning Clear Fork of Brazos River at County Route 179, Albany, Shackelford County, TX

  6. Active control strategy on a catenary-pantograph validated model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Rebollo, C.; Jimenez-Octavio, J. R.; Carnicero, A.

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic simulation methods have become essential in the design process and control of the catenary-pantograph system, overall since high-speed trains and interoperability criteria are getting very trendy. This paper presents an original hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) strategy aimed at integrating a multicriteria active control within the catenary-pantograph dynamic interaction. The relevance of HIL control systems applied in the frame of the pantograph is undoubtedly increasing due to the recent and more demanding requirements for high-speed railway systems. Since the loss of contact between the catenary and the pantograph leads to arcing and electrical wear, and too high contact forces cause mechanical wear of both the catenary wires and the strips of the pantograph, not only prescribed but also economic and performance criteria ratify such a relevance. Different configurations of the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller are proposed and applied to two different plant systems. Since this paper is mainly focused on the control strategy, both plant systems are simulation models though the methodology is suitable for a laboratory bench. The strategy of control involves a multicriteria optimisation of the contact force and the consumption of the energy supplied by the control force, a genetic algorithm has been applied for this purpose. Thus, the PID controller is fitted according to these conflicting objectives and tested within a nonlinear lumped model and a nonlinear finite element model, being the last one validated against the European Standard EN 50318. Finally, certain tests have been accomplished in order to analyse the robustness of the control strategy. Particularly, the relevance or the plant simulation, the running speed and the instrumentation time delay are studied in this paper.

  7. A photovoltaic catenary-tent array for the Martian surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Appelbaum, J.; Crutchik, M.

    1993-01-01

    To provide electrical power during an exploration mission to Mars, a deployable tent-shaped structure with a flexible photovoltaic (PV) blanket is proposed. The array is designed with a self-deploying mechanism utilizing pressurized gas expansion. The structural design for the array uses a combination of cables, beams, and columns to support and deploy the PV blanket. Under the force of gravity, a cable carrying a uniform load will take the shape of a catenary curve. A catenary-tent collector is self shading which must be taken into account in the solar radiation calculation. The shape and the area of the shadow on the array was calculated and used in the determination of the global irradiance on the array. The PV blanket shape and structure dimensions were optimized to achieve a configuration which maximizes the specific power (W/kg). The optimization was performed for three types of PV blankets (silicon, gallium arsenide over germanium, and amorphous silicon) and two types of structural materials (carbon composite and arimid fiber composite). The results show that the catenary shape of the PV blanket corresponding to zero end angle at the base with respect to the horizontal results in the highest specific power. The tent angle is determined by optimizing the specific mass and the output power for maximum specific power. The combination of carbon fiber structural material and amorphous silicon blanket produces the highest specific power.

  8. Reconstruction of Twist Torque in Main Parachute Risers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    The reconstruction of twist torque in the Main Parachute Risers of the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) has been successfully used to validate CPAS Model Memo conservative twist torque equations. Reconstruction of basic, one degree of freedom drop tests was used to create a functional process for the evaluation of more complex, rigid body simulation. The roll, pitch, and yaw of the body, the fly-out angles of the parachutes, and the relative location of the parachutes to the body are inputs to the torque simulation. The data collected by the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) was used to calculate the true torque. The simulation then used photogrammetric and IMU data as inputs into the Model Memo equations. The results were then compared to the true torque results to validate the Model Memo equations. The Model Memo parameters were based off of steel risers and the parameters will need to be re-evaluated for different materials. Photogrammetric data was found to be more accurate than the inertial data in accounting for the relative rotation between payload and cluster. The Model Memo equations were generally a good match and when not matching were generally conservative.

  9. A photovoltaic catenary-tent array for the Martian surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutchik, M.; Colozza, Anthony J.; Appelbaum, J.

    1993-08-01

    To provide electrical power during an exploration mission to Mars, a deployable tent-shaped structure with a flexible photovoltaic (PV) blanket is proposed. The array is designed with a self-deploying mechanism utilizing pressurized gas expansion. The structural design for the array uses a combination of cables, beams, and columns to support and deploy the PV blanket. Under the force of gravity a cable carrying a uniform load will take the shape of a catenary curve. A catenary-tent collector is self shadowing which must be taken into account in the solar radiation calculation. The shape and the area of the shadow on the array was calculated and used in the determination of the global radiation on the array. The PV blanket shape and structure dimension were optimized to achieve a configuration which maximizes the specific power (W/kg). The optimization was performed for four types of PV blankets (Si, GaAs/Ge, GaAs CLEFT, and amorphous Si) and four types of structure materials (Carbon composite, Aramid Fiber composite, Aluminum, and Magnesium). The results show that the catenary shape of the PV blanket, which produces the highest specific power, corresponds to zero end angle at the base with respect to the horizontal. The tent angle is determined by the combined effect of the array structure specific mass and the PV blanket output power. The combination of carbon composite structural material and GaAs CLEFT solar cells produce the highest specific power. The study was carried out for two sites on Mars corresponding to the Viking Lander locations. The designs were also compared for summer, winter, and yearly operation.

  10. A photovoltaic catenary-tent array for the Martian surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutchik, M.; Colozza, Anthony J.; Appelbaum, J.

    1993-01-01

    To provide electrical power during an exploration mission to Mars, a deployable tent-shaped structure with a flexible photovoltaic (PV) blanket is proposed. The array is designed with a self-deploying mechanism utilizing pressurized gas expansion. The structural design for the array uses a combination of cables, beams, and columns to support and deploy the PV blanket. Under the force of gravity a cable carrying a uniform load will take the shape of a catenary curve. A catenary-tent collector is self shadowing which must be taken into account in the solar radiation calculation. The shape and the area of the shadow on the array was calculated and used in the determination of the global radiation on the array. The PV blanket shape and structure dimension were optimized to achieve a configuration which maximizes the specific power (W/kg). The optimization was performed for four types of PV blankets (Si, GaAs/Ge, GaAs CLEFT, and amorphous Si) and four types of structure materials (Carbon composite, Aramid Fiber composite, Aluminum, and Magnesium). The results show that the catenary shape of the PV blanket, which produces the highest specific power, corresponds to zero end angle at the base with respect to the horizontal. The tent angle is determined by the combined effect of the array structure specific mass and the PV blanket output power. The combination of carbon composite structural material and GaAs CLEFT solar cells produce the highest specific power. The study was carried out for two sites on Mars corresponding to the Viking Lander locations. The designs were also compared for summer, winter, and yearly operation.

  11. Modeling and simulation of vortex induced vibration on the subsea riser/pipeline (GRP pipe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja Adli, Raja Nor Fauziah bt; Ibrahim, Idris

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the research work conducted to investigate the dynamics characteristics of the offshore riser pipeline due to vortex flow and to develop a model that could predict its vortex induced responses. Glass-fiber reinforced plastic (GRP) pipe is used for this study which has smaller density from the steel. A two-dimensional finite element computational method is implemented to describe the dynamic behavior of the riser. The governing equation of motion was based on Hamilton's principle, consists of the strain energy due to bending and axial deformation, kinetic energy due to both riser and internal fluid movement and also external force from currents and waves. A direct integration method namely Newmark integration scheme is proposed to solve the equation of motion. A MATLAB program code was developed to obtain the simulation results. The natural frequency and damping ratio are presented for each mode. Dynamic response of riser is shown in time-domain and the numerical results are discussed. Several parameter effects are used to investigate dynamic responses and the results show an agreement with the theory. Vortex shedding phenomenon also has been discussed in this paper. As a conclusion, the simulation results have successfully shown the vortex induced vibration responses for GRP pipeline.

  12. Early Risers. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Early Risers" is a multi-year prevention program for elementary school children demonstrating early aggressive and disruptive behavior. The intervention model includes two child-focused components and two parent/family components. The Child Skills component is designed to teach skills that enhance children's emotional and behavioral…

  13. Nonlinear analysis of wind-induced vibration of high-speed railway catenary and its influence on pantograph-catenary interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yang; Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Hongrui; Lu, Xiaobing; Zhang, Jing

    2016-06-01

    The wind-induced vibration of the high-speed catenary and the dynamic behaviour of the pantograph-catenary under stochastic wind field are firstly analysed. The catenary model is established based on nonlinear cable and truss elements, which can fully describe the nonlinearity of each wire and the initial configuration. The model of the aerodynamic forces acting on the messenger/contact wire is deduced by considering the effect of the vertical and horizontal fluctuating winds. The vertical and horizontal fluctuating winds are simulated by employing the Davenport and Panofsky spectrums, respectively. The aerodynamic coefficients of the contact/messenger wire are calculated through computational fluid dynamics. The wind-induced vibration response of catenary is analysed with different wind speeds and angles. Its frequency-domain characteristics are discussed using Auto Regression model. Finally, a pantograph model is introduced and the contact force of the pantograph-catenary under stochastic wind is studied. The results show that both the wind speed and the attack angle exert a significant effect on the wind-induced vibration. The existence of the groove on the contact wire cross-section leads to a significant change of the aerodynamic coefficient, which affects largely the aerodynamic forces applied on the catenary wires, as well as the vibration response. The vibration frequency with high spectral power mainly concentrates on the predominant frequency of the fluctuating wind and the natural frequency of catenary. The increase in the wind speed results in a significant deterioration of the current collection. The numerical example shows that a relatively stable current collection can be ensured when the wind flows at the relatively horizontal direction.

  14. J-configured offshore oil production riser

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, N.R.

    1987-11-03

    This patent describes an apparatus for use in transporting hydrocarbon fluids from subsea wellheads or a manifold to a movable production vessel comprising: a formed-in-place riser of rigid pipe and having a horizontal section, a sag bend section and an upright section. The horizontal section has means for attaching the riser to the subsea manifold. The upper end of the upright section having means for coupling the same to the production vessel. The sag bend section having only a single sag bend and defining a smooth transition between the horizontal section and the upright section. The horizontal section is adapted to frictionally engage the seabed. The sag bend section is free of any structure for connecting it to the seabed. The coupling means is the only means for connecting the upright section to the production vessel.

  15. The Effect of a Soap Film on a Catenary: Measurement of Surface Tension from the Triangular Configuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behroozi, F.; Behroozi, P. S.

    2011-01-01

    A chain assumes the well-known shape known as a catenary when it hangs loosely from two points in a gravitational field. The correct solution of the catenary was one of the early triumphs of the newly invented calculus of variations at the end of the 17th century. Here we revisit the catenary and show that, for a chain hanging from a horizontal…

  16. Dynamic analysis of a circulating fluidized bed riser

    SciTech Connect

    Panday, Rupen; Shadle, Lawrence J.; Guenther, Chris

    2012-01-01

    A linear state model is proposed to analyze dynamic behavior of a circulating fluidized bed riser. Different operating regimes were attained with high density polyethylene beads at low and high system inventories. The riser was operated between the classical choking velocity and the upper transport velocity demarcating fast fluidized and transport regimes. At a given riser superficial gas velocity, the aerations fed at the standpipe were modulated resulting in a sinusoidal solids circulation rate that goes into the riser via L-valve. The state model was derived based on the mass balance equation in the riser. It treats the average solids fraction across the entire riser as a state variable. The total riser pressure drop was modeled using Newton’s second law of motion. The momentum balance equation involves contribution from the weight of solids and the wall friction caused by the solids to the riser pressure drop. The weight of solids utilizes the state variable and hence, the riser inventory could be easily calculated. The modeling problem boils down to estimating two parameters including solids friction coefficient and time constant of the riser. It has been shown that the wall friction force acts in the upward direction in fast fluidized regime which indicates that the solids were moving downwards on the average with respect to the riser wall. In transport regimes, the friction acts in the opposite direction. This behavior was quantified based on a sign of Fanning friction factor in the momentum balance equation. The time constant of the riser appears to be much higher in fast fluidized regime than in transport conditions.

  17. Analyzing the effect of integrating riser/mooring line design

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, P.; Chandwani, R.; Larsen, I.

    1996-12-31

    The design of riser and mooring systems for a floating production system usually assumes uncoupled behavior of the two systems, and each system is analyzed for the effects of the vessel response given as input. In certain situations, such as for a floating production system, the presence of the risers can affect natural periods, damping, and slow drift response of the vessel thereby influencing the system design. This paper discusses a method for analyzing the coupled riser/mooring system with emphasis on the effect of the risers on the total system behavior.

  18. Pantograph catenary dynamic optimisation based on advanced multibody and finite element co-simulation tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massat, Jean-Pierre; Laurent, Christophe; Bianchi, Jean-Philippe; Balmès, Etienne

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents recent developments undertaken by SNCF Innovation & Research Department on numerical modelling of pantograph catenary interaction. It aims at describing an efficient co-simulation process between finite element (FE) and multibody (MB) modelling methods. FE catenary models are coupled with a full flexible MB representation with pneumatic actuation of pantograph. These advanced functionalities allow new kind of numerical analyses such as dynamic improvements based on innovative pneumatic suspensions or assessment of crash risks crossing areas that demonstrate the powerful capabilities of this computing approach.

  19. Critical design aspects of dynamic titanium alloy risers

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, C.F.; Schutz, R.W.

    1996-12-01

    Titanium alloys offer a unique, attractive combination of physical, mechanical, and corrosion properties for design of dynamic, compliant offshore risers. The Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy, in a beta-transformed condition and with minor ruthenium or palladium additions for chloride resistance above 80 C, represent logical base-case metallic materials for compliant risers. All of the technology and components needed to produce a complete, viable titanium alloy compliant riser system, including pipe, termination designs, joining methods, and coatings are available, and are reviewed in this paper.

  20. Computer simulation of FCC riser reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S. L.; Golchert, B.; Lottes, S. A.; Petrick, M.; Zhou, C. Q.

    1999-04-20

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, ICRKFLO, was developed to simulate the multiphase reacting flow system in a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) riser reactor. The code solve flow properties based on fundamental conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy for gas, liquid, and solid phases. Useful phenomenological models were developed to represent the controlling FCC processes, including droplet dispersion and evaporation, particle-solid interactions, and interfacial heat transfer between gas, droplets, and particles. Techniques were also developed to facilitate numerical calculations. These techniques include a hybrid flow-kinetic treatment to include detailed kinetic calculations, a time-integral approach to overcome numerical stiffness problems of chemical reactions, and a sectional coupling and blocked-cell technique for handling complex geometry. The copyrighted ICRKFLO software has been validated with experimental data from pilot- and commercial-scale FCC units. The code can be used to evaluate the impacts of design and operating conditions on the production of gasoline and other oil products.

  1. Riser Feeding Evaluation Method for Metal Castings Using Numerical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Nadiah

    One of the design aspects that continues to create a challenge for casting designers is the optimum design of casting feeders (risers). As liquid metal solidifies, the metal shrinks and forms cavities inside the casting. In order to avoid shrinkage cavities, risers are added to the casting shape to supply additional molten metal when shrinkage occurs during solidification. The shrinkage cavities in the casting are compensated by controlling the cooling rate to promote directional solidification. This control can be achieved by designing the casting such that the cooling begins at the sections that are farthest away from the risers and ends at the risers. Therefore, the risers will solidify last and feed the casting with the molten metal. As a result, the shrinkage cavities formed during solidification are in the risers which are later removed from the casting. Since casting designers have to usually go through iterative processes of validating the casting designs which are very costly due to expensive simulation processes or manual trials and errors on actual casting processes, this study investigates more efficient methods that will help casting designers utilize their casting experiences systematically to develop good initial casting designs. The objective is to reduce the casting design method iterations; therefore, reducing the cost involved in that design processes. The aim of this research aims at finding a method that can help casting designers design effective risers used in sand casting process of aluminum-silicon alloys by utilizing the analysis of solidification simulation. The analysis focuses on studying the significance of pressure distribution of the liquid metal at the early stage of casting solidification, when heat transfer and convective fluid flow are taken into account in the solidification simulation. The mathematical model of casting solidification was solved using the finite volume method (FVM). This study focuses to improve our

  2. Stripwise discrete vortex method for VIV analysis of flexible risers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Zong, Z.; Dong, J.; Dong, G. H.; Liu, C. F.

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents a stripwise discrete vortex method (SDVM) to study the vortex-induced vibration of flexible risers. The discrete vortex method is employed to calculate the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of each strip, and the finite volume method and increment method are used to compute the 3-D dynamics of the flexible riser. To verify the discrete vortex method for a single cylindrical strip of the entire flexible riser, a cylinder with elastic supports exerted by a 2-D uniform flow with a high Reynolds number is investigated. The 1-D transverse motion, 2-D transverse motion and 2-D stream-wise motion, as well as their influences on the wake shapes, are considered. Comparisons are made between the transverse amplitudes for the single degree of freedom and two degrees of freedom elastic-mounted systems. The relations between the lift coefficients and response amplitudes of the different mass ratios and reduced velocities are further discussed. The characteristics of the motion responses of the cylinder for different mass ratios and degree of freedoms are also discussed. Finally, the present numerical model is employed to calculate a 3-D flexible riser exerted by the uniform current, and the analysis of the numerical results shows the characteristics of the vortex-induced vibration of a flexible riser.

  3. Multifunctional two-stage riser fluid catalytic cracking process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinhong; Shan, Honghong; Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Chunyi; Yang, Chaohe

    This paper described the discovering process of some shortcomings of the conventional fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process and the proposed two-stage riser (TSR) FCC process for decreasing dry gas and coke yields and increasing light oil yield, which has been successfully applied in 12 industrial units. Furthermore, the multifunctional two-stage riser (MFT) FCC process proposed on the basis of the TSR FCC process was described, which were carried out by the optimization of reaction conditions for fresh feedstock and cycle oil catalytic cracking, respectively, by the coupling of cycle oil cracking and light FCC naphtha upgrading processes in the second-stage riser, and the specially designed reactor for further reducing the olefin content of gasoline. The pilot test showed that it can further improve the product quality, increase the diesel yield, and enhance the conversion of heavy oil.

  4. Post-riser quench improves FCC yields, profitability

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, G.P.; Silverman, M.A.

    1996-01-15

    Performance tests of a post-riser quench system have shown increases in gasoline yield; reductions in fuel gas, butadienes, and pentadienes; and improved oxidation stability of FCC gasoline. Following commercial trials in six of Amoco Petroleum Products` refineries for some 10 years, the system is now being installed by other refiners. Elimination of post-riser thermal cracking is essential to achieving the most desirable product slate. Most of Amoco`s FCC units (FCCUs) have rough-cut cyclone systems in which there is significant vapor residence time in the disengaging vessel. To overcome this problem Amoco chose to reduce the temperature in the dilute phase. This technology involves quenching the dilute phase, thereby reducing the thermal cracking rates. The approach is very effective and virtually eliminates post-riser cracking. This paper reviews this design.

  5. The Stability of the Catenary Shapes for a Hanging Cable of Unspecified Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mareno, A.; English, L. Q.

    2009-01-01

    It has long been known that when a cable of specified length is hung between two poles, it takes the shape of a catenary--a hyperbolic cosine function. In this paper, we study a variation of this problem. First, we consider a cable hanging between two poles in which one end of the cable is fixed to one pole; the other end of the cable runs over a…

  6. Solids flow mapping in gas-solid risers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhusarapu, Satish Babu

    Gas-solid risers are extensively used in many industrial processes for gas-solid reactions (e.g. coal combustion and gasification) and for solid catalyzed gas phase reactions (e.g. fluid catalytic cracking, butane oxidation to maleic anhydride). Ab initio prediction of the complex multiphase fluid dynamics in risers is not yet possible, which makes reactor modeling difficult. In particular, quantification of solids flow and mixing is important. Almost all the experimental techniques used to characterize solids flow lead to appreciable errors in measured variables in large scale, high mass flux systems. In addition, none of the experimental techniques provide all the relevant data required to develop a satisfactory solids flow model. In this study, non-invasive Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT) is employed to visualize and quantify the solids dynamics and mixing in the gas-solid riser of a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB). A single radioactive tracer particle is monitored during its multiple visits to the riser and with an assumption of ergodicity, the following flow parameters are estimated: (a) Overall solids mass flux in the CFB loop. (b) Solids residence time distribution in the riser and down-comer. (c) Lagrangian and Eulerian solids velocity fields in a fully-developed section of the riser. This includes velocity fluctuations and components of the diffusivity tensor. The existing CARPT technique is extended to large scale systems. A new algorithm, based on a cross-correlation search, is developed for position rendition from CARPT data. Two dimensional solids holdup profiles are estimated using gamma-ray computed tomography. The image quality from the tomography data is improved by implementing an alternating minimization algorithm. This work establishes for the first time a reliable database for local solids dynamic quantities such as time-averaged velocities, Reynolds stresses, eddy diffusivities and turbulent kinetic energy. In addition

  7. Unusual shapes for a catenary under the effects of surface tension and gravity: A variational treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Behroozi, F. ); Mohazzabi, P.; McCrickard, J. )

    1995-02-01

    The familiar catenary is the shape assumed by a chain or string as it hangs from two points. The mathematical equation of the catenary was first published more than three hundred years ago by Leibnitz and Huygen, among others. Here we consider the shapes assumed by a hanging string in the presence of gravity and surface tension. The surface tension is introduced by suspending the string from a thin horizontal rod while the area bounded by the string and the rod is covered with a soap film. The string then assumes new and wonderful shapes depending on the relative strength of the surface tension and the weight per unit length of the string. When surface tension dominates, the string is pulled inward, assuming a convex shape similar to the Greek letter [gamma]. On the other hand, when gravity is dominant the string is pulled outward and assumes a concave shape best described as a distorted catenary. However, when the gravitational force normal to the string matches the surface tension, the string takes a linear configuration similar to the letter [ital V]. Under suitable conditions, the string can be made to assume any of the three configurations by adjusting the separation of its end points. The equations that describe the shape of the string are derived by minimizing the total energy of the system and are presented for the three principal configurations.

  8. Nonlinear modelling of high-speed catenary based on analytical expressions of cable and truss elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yang; Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Hongrui; Lu, Xiaobing; Zhang, Jing

    2015-10-01

    Due to the intrinsic nonlinear characteristics and complex structure of the high-speed catenary system, a modelling method is proposed based on the analytical expressions of nonlinear cable and truss elements. The calculation procedure for solving the initial equilibrium state is proposed based on the Newton-Raphson iteration method. The deformed configuration of the catenary system as well as the initial length of each wire can be calculated. Its accuracy and validity of computing the initial equilibrium state are verified by comparison with the separate model method, absolute nodal coordinate formulation and other methods in the previous literatures. Then, the proposed model is combined with a lumped pantograph model and a dynamic simulation procedure is proposed. The accuracy is guaranteed by the multiple iterative calculations in each time step. The dynamic performance of the proposed model is validated by comparison with EN 50318, the results of the finite element method software and SIEMENS simulation report, respectively. At last, the influence of the catenary design parameters (such as the reserved sag and pre-tension) on the dynamic performance is preliminarily analysed by using the proposed model.

  9. A biomechanical evaluation of staircase riser heights and tread depths during stair-climbing.

    PubMed

    Mital, A; Fard, H F; Khaledi, H

    1987-08-01

    Several different staircase riser heights and tread depths were investigated in order to determine riser height and tread depth that minimized moments acting at the ankle, knee, and hipjoints while walking upstairs. The results indicated that joint moments were minimized when the riser height was 102 mm. For the tread depth, least moments were obtained when the depth was 305 mm.

  10. 241-SY-101 mulitport riser acceptance for beneficial use

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, R.E.

    1995-10-02

    This document formally demonstrates that the Acceptance for Beneficial USE (ABU) process for the SY tank farm Multiport Riser assembly has been properly completed in accordance with the ABU checklist. For each item required on the ABU checklist, a bibliography of the documentation prepared and released to satisfy the requirement is provided

  11. Camera-based measurement for transverse vibrations of moving catenaries in mine hoists using digital image processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jiannan; Xiao, Xingming; Liu, Yao

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a novel, non-contact, sensing method to measure the transverse vibrations of hoisting catenaries in mine hoists. Hoisting catenaries are typically moving cables and it is not feasible to use traditional methods to measure their transverse vibrations. In order to obtain the transverse displacements of an arbitrary point in a moving catenary, by superposing a mask image having the predefined reference line perpendicular to the hoisting catenaries on each frame of the processed image sequence, the dynamic intersecting points with a grey value of 0 in the image sequence could be identified. Subsequently, by traversing the coordinates of the pixel with a grey value of 0 and calculating the distance between the identified dynamic points from the reference, the transverse displacements of the selected arbitrary point in the hoisting catenary can be obtained. Furthermore, based on a theoretical model, the reasonability and applicability of the proposed camera-based method were confirmed. Additionally, a laboratory experiment was also carried out, which then validated the accuracy of the proposed method. The research results indicate that the proposed camera-based method is suitable for the measurement of the transverse vibrations of moving cables.

  12. Evaluating hillslope diffusion and terrace riser degradation in New Zealand and Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Brian A.; Burbank, Douglas W.

    2010-06-01

    The relationship of sediment flux to surface slope is a predominant control on the evolution of transport-limited hillslopes. Although both linear and nonlinear sediment flux models have been proposed and widely debated, this functional relationship remains one of the outstanding questions in geomorphology. We examine degradation of fluvial terrace risers in New Zealand and Idaho in order to test the linear diffusion model and to better understand the relationship between sediment flux and slope. We implement three techniques based on the linear diffusion model, as well as a geometric scaling method that uses proportional relationships in riser geometry rather than a specific transport equation model, to assess rates of degradation. We show that techniques that utilize the riser midpoint slope as the primary metric of degradation, as opposed to the full scarp profile, offer the simplest and most reliable assessment of riser degradation. Our findings suggest that the linear diffusion model does not accurately describe terrace riser degradation, except for low-angle risers for which linear and nonlinear forms are indistinguishable. Results from the geometric scaling method show that degradation rates in both regions differ by a factor of two between equator- and pole-facing risers and that diffusion ages of Idaho risers are approximately 2 times those of New Zealand risers. Similar geometric trends in riser evolution from both regions reveal that terrace riser degradation is governed by a widely applicable relationship between sediment flux and slope.

  13. Use of lift gas in an FCC reactor riser

    SciTech Connect

    Hammershaimb, H. U.; Lomas, D. A.

    1984-10-30

    A process for converting normally liquid hydrocarbons with an active fluid catalytic cracking catalyst which comprises: passing an upflowing suspension of hot regenerated active fluid catalytic cracking catalyst in a lift gas comprising hydrocarbons including not more than 10 mole % C/sub 3/ and heavier hydrocarbons through a lower portion of a vertically orientated riser conversion zone at a velocity of from about 1.8 to less than 12.2 meters per second, and for a residence time from about 0.5 to about 15 seconds, the ratio of catalyst to hydrocarbon in said lift gas being greater than 80; and introducing the normally liquid hydrocarbons into the upflowing suspension at a locus in the riser conversion zone downstream of the lower portion to form a catalyst-hydrocarbon mixture wherein the temperature and residence time are sufficient to effect the desired conversion. The process is particularly useful for the treatment of a heavy residual feedstock.

  14. Promoting stair use: single versus multiple stair-riser messages.

    PubMed

    Webb, Oliver J; Eves, Frank F

    2005-09-01

    Message banners attached to stair risers produced a significant increase in pedestrian stair use, exceeding effects previously reported for conventional posters. Multiple instances of the same message banner, however, were as effective as banners featuring different messages. Therefore, greater visibility, rather than message variety, appears to account for the superiority of the banner format. Our findings indicate the feasibility of simple stair-use promotion campaigns based around the repetition of a single message.

  15. A CFD study of gas-solid jet in a CFB riser flow

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen; Guenther, Chris

    2012-03-01

    Three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations of a gas–solid jet in a high-density riser flow were conducted. The impact of gas–solid injection on the riser flow hydrodynamics was investigated with respect to voidage, tracer mass fractions, and solids velocity distribution. The behaviors of a gas–solid jet in the riser crossflow were studied through the unsteady numerical simulations. Substantial separation of the jetting gas and solids in the riser crossflow was observed. Mixing of the injected gas and solids with the riser flow was investigated and backmixing of gas and solids was evaluated. In the current numerical study, both the overall hydrodynamics of riser flow and the characteristics of gas–solid jet were reasonably predicted compared with the experimental measurements made at NETL.

  16. Comparison of optical and electrical measurements of the pantograph-catenary contact force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocciolone, Marco; Bucca, Giuseppe; Collina, Andrea; Comolli, Lorenzo

    2010-09-01

    In railway engineering the monitoring of contact force between pantograph and catenary gives information about the interaction between the two systems and it is useful to check the status of the overhead line. Indeed the failure of the catenary is one of the main causes of out of order problems. This study was conducted in a test campaign on an underground train instrumented with sensors able to monitor the line status. One of the more important measured quantities is the pantograph contact force, and two measurement systems were implemented: one optical and another electrical. The optical one was based on FBG sensors applied on the pantograph collector strip; the electrical one was based on two load cells positioned at the sides of the collector strip. The in-line measurements show that the optical solution is very promising, providing very reliable results that can be successfully used in the monitoring application, allowing the determination of the critical point in the line. The thermal compensation of any FBG sensors is a known problem and here is no exception: a thermal compensator was used to get also mean value measurements and the results are discussed.

  17. Buckling of risers in tension due to internal pressure: nonmovable boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Bernitsas, M.M.; Kokkinis, T.

    1983-01-01

    Open-ended tubular columns may buckle globally as Euler columns due to the action of internal fluid pressure even while they are in tension along their entire length. Hydraulic columns, marine drilling, and production risers are prone to such static instability. This work explains this phenomenon, defines the critical riser length for which this instability may occur, and provides graphs with values of the critical length which can readily be used for design purposes. Risers with nonmovable boundaries are considered. 17 references.

  18. Flow Regime Study in a High Density Circulating Fluidized Bed Riser with an Abrupt Exit

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, J.S.; Shadle, L.J.; Yue, P.C.; Monazam, E.R.

    2007-01-01

    Flow regime study was conducted in a 0.3 m diameter, 15.5 m height circulating fluidized bed (CFB) riser with an abrupt exit at the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy. Local particle velocities were measured at various radial positions and riser heights using an optical fiber probe. On-line measurement of solid circulating rate was continuously recorded by the Spiral. Glass beads of mean diameter 61 μm and particle density of 2,500 kg/m3 were used as bed material. The CFB riser was operated at various superficial gas velocities ranging from 3 to 7.6 m/s and solid mass flux from 20 to 550 kg/m2-s. At a constant riser gas velocity, transition from fast fluidization to dense suspension upflow (DSU) regime started at the bottom of the riser with increasing solid flux. Except at comparatively low riser gas velocity and solid flux, the apparent solid holdup at the top exit region was higher than the middle section of the riser. The solid fraction at this top region could be much higher than 7% under high riser gas velocity and solid mass flux. The local particle velocity showed downward flow near the wall at the top of the riser due to its abrupt exit. This abrupt geometry reflected the solids and, therefore, caused solid particles traveling downward along the wall. However, at location below, but near, the top of the riser the local particle velocities were observed flowing upward at the wall. Therefore, DSU was identified in the upper region of the riser with an abrupt exit while the fully developed region, lower in the riser, was still exhibiting core-annular flow structure. Our data were compared with the flow regime boundaries proposed by Kim et al. [1] for distinguishing the dilute pneumatic transport, fast fluidization, and DSU.

  19. Analysis of dynamic interaction between catenary and pantograph with experimental verification and performance evaluation in new high-speed line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin Hee; Park, Tae Won; Oh, Hyuck Keun; Kim, Young Guk

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the dynamic interaction between the catenary and pantograph of a high-speed train is the one of the most important technical issues in the railway industry. This is because the catenary-pantograph system plays a crucial role in providing electric power to the railway vehicle for stable operation. The aim of the present paper is to estimate the current-collection performance of this system by using numerical analysis, in particular, the flexible multibody dynamic analysis technique. To implement large deformable catenary wires, an absolute nodal coordinate formulation is used for the cable element. Additionally, an efficient contact element and an interactive model for the catenary-pantograph system are introduced. Each developed model is then used for analytical and experimental verification. Actual on-line test results of existing high-speed railway vehicles are presented and used to verify the analysis model. Finally, the performance characteristics of a new 400 km/h-class high-speed line are estimated and evaluated on the basis of international standards.

  20. Failure assessment of aluminum liner based filament-wound hybrid riser subjected to internal hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikshit, Vishwesh; Seng, Ong Lin; Maheshwari, Muneesh; Asundi, A.

    2015-03-01

    The present study describes the burst behavior of aluminum liner based prototype filament-wound hybrid riser under internal hydrostatic pressure. The main objective of present study is to developed an internal pressure test rig set-up for filament-wound hybrid riser and investigate the failure modes of filament-wound hybrid riser under internal hydrostatic burst pressure loading. The prototype filament-wound hybrid riser used for burst test consists of an internal aluminum liner and outer composite layer. The carbon-epoxy composites as part of the filament-wound hybrid risers were manufactured with [±55o] lay-up pattern with total composite layer thickness of 1.6 mm using a CNC filament-winding machine. The burst test was monitored by video camera which helps to analyze the failure mechanism of the fractured filament-wound hybrid riser. The Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor was used to monitor and record the strain changes during burst test of prototype filament-wound hybrid riser. This study shows good improvements in burst strength of filament-wound hybrid riser compared to the monolithic metallic riser. Since, strain measurement using FBG sensors has been testified as a reliable method, we aim to further understand in detail using this technique.

  1. Guided-waves technique for inspecting the health of wall-covered building risers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, Peter W.; Chen, J. M.; Wan, X.

    2015-03-01

    The inspection technique uses guided ultrasonic waves (GW) has been proven effective in detecting pipes' defects. However, as of today, the technique has not attracted much market attention because of insufficient field tests and lack of traceable records with proven results in commercial applications. In this paper, it presents the results obtained by using GW to inspect the defects occurred in real gas risers that are commonly installed in tall buildings. The purpose of having risers is to deliver gas from any building external piping system to each household unit of the building. The risers extend from the external wall of the building, penetrate thorough the concrete wall, into the kitchen or bathroom of each household unit. Similar to in-service pipes, risers are prone to corrosion due to water leaks into the concrete wall. However, the corrosion occurs in the section of riser, which is covered by the concrete wall, is difficult to be inspected by conventional techniques. Hence, GW technique was employed. The effectiveness of GW technique was tested by laboratory and on-site experiments using real risers gathered from tall buildings. The experimental results show that GW can partially penetrate thorough the riser's section that is covered by wall. The integrity of the wall-covered section of a riser can be determined by the reflected wave signals generated by the corroded area that may exit inside the wall-covered section. Based on the reflected wave signal, one can determine the health of the wall-covered riser.

  2. Deep-water riser fatigue monitoring systems based on acoustic telemetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baojun; Wang, Haiyan; Shen, Xiaohong; Yan, Yongsheng; Yang, Fuzhou; Hua, Fei

    2014-12-01

    Marine risers play a key role in the deep and ultra-deep water oil and gas production. The vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of marine risers constitutes an important problem in deep water oil exploration and production. VIV will result in high rates of structural failure of marine riser due to fatigue damage accumulation and diminishes the riser fatigue life. In-service monitoring or full scale testing is essential to improve our understanding of VIV response and enhance our ability to predict fatigue damage. One marine riser fatigue acoustic telemetry scheme is proposed and an engineering prototype machine has been developed to monitor deep and ultra-deep water risers' fatigue and failure that can diminish the riser fatigue life and lead to economic losses and eco-catastrophe. Many breakthroughs and innovation have been achieved in the process of developing an engineering prototype machine. Sea trials were done on the 6th generation deep-water drilling platform HYSY-981 in the South China Sea. The inclination monitoring results show that the marine riser fatigue acoustic telemetry scheme is feasible and reliable and the engineering prototype machine meets the design criterion and can match the requirements of deep and ultra-deep water riser fatigue monitoring. The rich experience and field data gained in the sea trial which provide much technical support for optimization in the engineering prototype machine in the future.

  3. An optimized FBG-based fatigue monitoring strategy on deepwater risers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuan; Ren, Peng; Zhou, Zhi; Ou, Jinping

    2014-11-01

    For the sake of the increasing demands of oil and gas essential, scientists and engineers have exerted great efforts in obtaining natural resources deposited in the deep water. Risers, as the channel between platform and wellhead, play a key role in oil and gas transportation. Subjected to coarse environmental conditions and uncertain loading patterns, risers would display complex dynamic behaviors which could result in severe fatigue damages. Recently, riser response is commonly measured using passive and durable Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) strain sensors for industry safety, especially for Integrity Management (IM). However, for technique difficulties as well as economical consideration, it is impossible to execute distributed fatigue monitoring on the whole riser, which makes it essential to find out an optimized method utilizing the least number of sensors and reconstruct the global response of risers. This paper propose a method which combines H2 norms and Kalman filter to give optimal state estimation of risers based on limited FBG-based dynamic strain information. The H2 norms are used to give guideline for optimized sensor placement. Meanwhile, Kalman filter realize the global response reconstruction of risers as well as minimize the environmental disturbance. The accuracy and efficiency of the method has been verified by a numerical case. This study provides an FBG-based early warning technique for industry application of deepwater risers in future.

  4. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Pad B Catenary Capability Analysis and Technical Exchange Meeting (TEM) Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Timmy R.; Kichak, Robert; Rakov, Vladimir; Kithil, Richard, Jr.; Sargent, Noel B.

    2009-01-01

    The existing lightning protection system at Pad 39B for the Space Shuttle is an outgrowth of a system that was put in place for the Apollo Program. Dr. Frank Fisher of Lightning Technologies was a key participant in the design and implementation of that system. He conveyed to the NESC team that the catenary wire provision was put in place quickly (as assurance against possible vehicle damage causing critical launch delays) rather than being implemented as a comprehensive system designed to provide a high degree of guaranteed protection. Also, the technology of lightning protection has evolved over time with considerable work being conducted by groups such as the electric utilities companies, aircraft manufacturers, universities, and others. Several accepted present-day methods for analysis of lightning protection were used by Drs. Medelius and Mata to study the expected lightning environment for the Pad 39B facility and to analyze the degree of protection against direct lightning attachment to the Space Shuttle. The specific physical configuration directly affects the vulnerability, so cases that were considered included the RSS next to and rolled back from the Space Shuttle, and the GOx Vent Arm both extended and withdrawn from the ET. Elements of the lightning protection system at Pad 39B are shown in Figure 6.0-1 and consist of an 80 foot insulating mast on top of the Fixed Support Structure (FSS), a catenary wire system that runs from the mast in a North/South direction to grounds 1000 feet away on each side of the mast, the RSS which can either be next to or away from the Space Shuttle, and a GOx vent that can either be extended or retracted from the top of the ET.

  5. Schools of Authentic and Inclusive Learning. Research Institute on Secondary Education Reform (RISER) for Youth with Disabilities Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley-Maxwell, Cheryl; Phelps, L. Allen; Braden, Jeff; Warren, Valli

    This brief provides an overview of the foundation and framework for the Research Institute on Secondary Education Reform (RISER) for Youth with Disabilities. RISER focuses on secondary schools engaged in reform efforts that include students with disabilities and seeks to identify restructuring practices that benefit all students. RISERs goal is to…

  6. Program for catenary-pantograph analysis, PrOSA statement of methods and validation according EN 50318

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finner, Lars; Poetsch, Gero; Sarnes, Bernhard; Kolbe, Michael

    2015-03-01

    DB Systemtechnik is a high-performing, customer-driven service provider that, as well as authoritatively serving the Deutsche Bahn Group by dint of its specialist knowledge is also increasingly active on the global railway market. Development and testing of pantograph models and catenary systems have been part of the company's essential activity fields from the beginning. Therefore, an efficient and high-performing simulation tool is indispensable. That is why DB Systemtechnik spent high efforts to develop the program PrOSA in cooperation with the Heinz-Nixdorf-Institut (HNI) of the university Paderborn to simulate the interaction of pantograph and catenary. This article gives an overview of the most relevant properties of PrOSA. Furthermore, it is described how the benchmark requirements were implemented and processed.

  7. Analysis of Current Harmonics in 3kV DC Catenary Caused by Specific Current Harmonics of an Asynchronous Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, Mirosław

    2010-01-01

    The mathematical model of vehicle supply system as well as the mathematical model of main circuit of locomotive with asynchronous motors have been described in this article. The necessity of analysis of disturbances caused by distorted current run of drive motors emerged together with the introduction of high power vehicles with power electronic converters. Analysis of the compatibility of traction high current circuits with circuits of the signal and traffic control systems requires the knowledge of current spectrum in a catenary, which has been taken by a vehicle. The author has described the algebraic method of calculating of the spectrum amplitudes in a catenary. It does not require laborious and time-consuming simulations of a system, which considerably decreases preliminary costs of designation and dimensioning of a vehicle drive system.

  8. W3MAMCAT: a world wide web based tool for mammillary and catenary compartmental modeling and expert system distinguishability.

    PubMed

    Russell, Solomon; Distefano, Joseph J

    2006-07-01

    W(3)MAMCAT is a new web-based and interactive system for building and quantifying the parameters or parameter ranges of n-compartment mammillary and catenary model structures, with input and output in the first compartment, from unstructured multiexponential (sum-of-n-exponentials) models. It handles unidentifiable as well as identifiable models and, as such, provides finite parameter interval solutions for unidentifiable models, whereas direct parameter search programs typically do not. It also tutorially develops the theory of model distinguishability for same order mammillary versus catenary models, as did its desktop application predecessor MAMCAT+. This includes expert system analysis for distinguishing mammillary from catenary structures, given input and output in similarly numbered compartments. W(3)MAMCAT provides for universal deployment via the internet and enhanced application error checking. It uses supported Microsoft technologies to form an extensible application framework for maintaining a stable and easily updatable application. Most important, anybody, anywhere, is welcome to access it using Internet Explorer 6.0 over the internet for their teaching or research needs. It is available on the Biocybernetics Laboratory website at UCLA: www.biocyb.cs.ucla.edu.

  9. Experimental study and modelling of overheating of electrical catenary-pantograph interface for trains supplied with power in station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bausseron, Thomas; Baucour, Philippe; Glises, Raynal; Verschelde, Sylvain; Chamagne, Didier

    2015-06-01

    For railroads and trains, there have been many incidents involving catenary overheating at the contact with the pantograph when a train is supplied with power while standing still. The overheating of the catenary-pantograph interface can sometimes cause the contact wire to break. In order to anticipate the occurrence of such costly problems, the FEMTO-ST Institute has carried out theoretical and experimental studies in collaboration with the French National Railway Company (SNCF) to better understand this phenomenon. First, a 2D transient electrical model was developed for the contact wire. This allows the current distribution in the wire to be estimated to obtain an accurate measure of the internal heat generation. The heat produced by the interface was considered and split between the catenary and pantograph with an analytical model. Finally, the heat transfer equation for the wire under particular boundary conditions was solved for the entire finite difference network based on Euler's implicit method. The transient modelling results of the wire heating were compared with earlier experimental values, and a parametric study was performed.

  10. An optical sensor for the detection of leaks from subsea pipelines and risers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McStay, D.; Kerlin, J.; Acheson, R.

    2007-07-01

    An optical sensor for the rapid detection of detect leaks of oil, hydraulic fluids or leak detection chemicals from underwater pipelines and risers is reported. The sensor is designed to be deployed on ROVs or AUVs for the rapid survey of underwater pipelines and risers. The system employs ultra-bright LEDs to project a sensing light beam into the water to allow real time detection of ppm concentration plumes of material leaking from pipelines or riser in real time. Typically the system is deployed on an ROV which inspects a pipeline at a height of 2-3m.

  11. Dynamic responses of a riser under combined excitation of internal waves and background currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Min; Yu, Chenglong

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the dynamic responses of a riser under the combined excitation of internal waves and background currents are studied. A modified Taylor-Goldstein equation is used to calculate the internal waves vertical structures when background currents exist. By imposing rigid-lid boundary condition, the equation is solved by Thompson-Haskell method. Based on the principle of virtual work, a nonlinear differential equation for riser motions is established combined with the modified Morison formula. Using Newmark-β method, the motion equation is solved in time domain. It is observed that the internal waves without currents exhibit dominated effect on dynamic response of a riser in the first two modes. With the effects of the background currents, the motion displacements of the riser will increase significantly in both cases that wave goes along and against the currents. This phenomenon is most obviously observed at the motions in the first mode

  12. Boundary control design for extensible marine risers in three dimensional space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, K. D.

    2017-02-01

    A design of boundary controllers is proposed for (practical) exponential stabilization of extensible marine risers in three-dimensional (3D) space under sea loads. The design removes flaws in existing works. Two Lyapunov-type theorems are developed for study of existence and uniqueness, and stability of nonlinear evolution systems in Hilbert space. These theorems have their potential use in control design and stability analysis for flexible systems including marine risers.

  13. Frequency domain response of a parametrically excited riser under random wave forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Song; Zhang, Wen-Shou; Lin, Jia-Hao; Yue, Qian-Jin; Kennedy, D.; Williams, F. W.

    2014-01-01

    Floating Production, Drilling, Storage and Offloading units represent a new technology with a promising future in the offshore oil industry. An important role is played by risers, which are installed between the subsea wellhead and the Tension Leg Deck located in the middle of the moon-pool in the hull. The inevitable heave motion of the floating hull causes a time-varying axial tension in the riser. This time dependent tension may have an undesirable influence on the lateral deflection response of the riser, with random wave forces in the frequency domain. To investigate this effect, a riser is modeled as a Bernoulli-Euler beam. The axial tension is expressed as a static part, along with a harmonic dynamic part. By linearizing the wave drag force, the riser's lateral deflection is obtained through a partial differential equation containing a time-dependent coefficient. Applying the Galerkin method, the equation is reduced to an ordinary differential equation that can be solved using the pseudo-excitation method in the frequency domain. Moreover, the Floquet-Liapunov theorem is used to estimate the stability of the vibration system in the space of parametric excitation. Finally, stability charts are obtained for some numerical examples, the correctness of the proposed method is verified by comparing with Monte-Carlo simulation and the influence of the parametric excitation on the frequency domain responses of the riser is discussed.

  14. Flow Mapping in a Gas-Solid Riser via Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT)

    SciTech Connect

    Muthanna Al-Dahhan; Milorad P. Dudukovic; Satish Bhusarapu; Timothy J. O'hern; Steven Trujillo; Michael R. Prairie

    2005-06-04

    Statement of the Problem: Developing and disseminating a general and experimentally validated model for turbulent multiphase fluid dynamics suitable for engineering design purposes in industrial scale applications of riser reactors and pneumatic conveying, require collecting reliable data on solids trajectories, velocities ? averaged and instantaneous, solids holdup distribution and solids fluxes in the riser as a function of operating conditions. Such data are currently not available on the same system. Multiphase Fluid Dynamics Research Consortium (MFDRC) was established to address these issues on a chosen example of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor, which is widely used in petroleum and chemical industry including coal combustion. This project addresses the problem of lacking reliable data to advance CFB technology. Project Objectives: The objective of this project is to advance the understanding of the solids flow pattern and mixing in a well-developed flow region of a gas-solid riser, operated at different gas flow rates and solids loading using the state-of-the-art non-intrusive measurements. This work creates an insight and reliable database for local solids fluid-dynamic quantities in a pilot-plant scale CFB, which can then be used to validate/develop phenomenological models for the riser. This study also attempts to provide benchmark data for validation of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes and their current closures. Technical Approach: Non-Invasive Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT) technique provides complete Eulerian solids flow field (time average velocity map and various turbulence parameters such as the Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy, and eddy diffusivities). It also gives directly the Lagrangian information of solids flow and yields the true solids residence time distribution (RTD). Another radiation based technique, Computed Tomography (CT) yields detailed time averaged local holdup profiles at

  15. Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

    2002-02-18

    This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the

  16. Study and Test of a New Bundle-Structure Riser Stress Monitoring Sensor Based on FBG

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Yang, Dexing; Qin, Chuan; Jiang, Yajun; Sheng, Leixiang; Jia, Xiangyun; Bai, Yang; Shen, Xiaohong; Wang, Haiyan; Deng, Xin; Xu, Liangbin; Jiang, Shiquan

    2015-01-01

    To meet the requirements of riser safety monitoring in offshore oil fields, a new Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG)-based bundle-structure riser stress monitoring sensor has been developed. In cooperation with many departments, a 49-day marine test in water depths of 1365 m and 1252 m was completed on the “HYSY-981” ocean oil drilling platform. No welding and pasting were used when the sensor was installed on risers. Therefore, the installation is convenient, reliable and harmless to risers. The continuous, reasonable, time-consistent data obtained indicates that the sensor worked normally under water. In all detailed working conditions, the test results show that the sensor can do well in reflecting stresses and bending moments both in and in magnitude. The measured maximum stress is 132.7 MPa, which is below the allowable stress. In drilling and testing conditions, the average riser stress was 86.6 MPa, which is within the range of the China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) mechanical simulation results. PMID:26610517

  17. Study and Test of a New Bundle-Structure Riser Stress Monitoring Sensor Based on FBG.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Yang, Dexing; Qin, Chuan; Jiang, Yajun; Sheng, Leixiang; Jia, Xiangyun; Bai, Yang; Shen, Xiaohong; Wang, Haiyan; Deng, Xin; Xu, Liangbin; Jiang, Shiquan

    2015-11-24

    To meet the requirements of riser safety monitoring in offshore oil fields, a new Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG)-based bundle-structure riser stress monitoring sensor has been developed. In cooperation with many departments, a 49-day marine test in water depths of 1365 m and 1252 m was completed on the "HYSY-981" ocean oil drilling platform. No welding and pasting were used when the sensor was installed on risers. Therefore, the installation is convenient, reliable and harmless to risers. The continuous, reasonable, time-consistent data obtained indicates that the sensor worked normally under water. In all detailed working conditions, the test results show that the sensor can do well in reflecting stresses and bending moments both in and in magnitude. The measured maximum stress is 132.7 MPa, which is below the allowable stress. In drilling and testing conditions, the average riser stress was 86.6 MPa, which is within the range of the China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) mechanical simulation results.

  18. FEM analysis of deepwater drilling risers under the operability and hang-off working conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wei; Gao, Feng; Bai, Yong

    2009-06-01

    In recent years, numerous exploration activities of oil and gas industry have been conducted in ultra deep water. The global offshore industry is building systems today for drilling in even deeper water, progressively using new technologies, and significantly extending existing technologies. This is the general trend in the offshore oil and gas industry. So the technology of ultra-deepwater risers, which is the main tool in drilling oil, is more and more standard. This paper manly focuses on the global analysis of the drilling risers. And it is divided into two parts, operability analysis and hang-off analysis that are used to check the design of the riser. In this paper, the rotation angle and stress of the riser in the drilling mode are calculated to determine the operability envelop. The number of the buoyancy modules has been determined and according to the API standard, all the worked out values have been checked out. From all the above, it is concluded that the operability envelop is relatively small under harsh condition and the number of the buoyancy modules is a little large. And above all, the design of this riser is successful.

  19. Effect of tension fluctuation on the dynamic behavior of marine risers

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, A.K.

    1996-12-31

    The main purpose of the paper is to show how periodic fluctuation of the top tension affects the dynamic behavior of rigid risers when under the combined action of regular waves, current and vessel motion. The nodal displacements of the riser associated with finite difference discretization are computed in the frequency domain using an iterative procedure which is capable of accurate multi-harmonic treatment of the nonlinear drag load and the load associated with the time dependent component of the tension. This procedure is applicable also to constant tension cases, and is explained in some detail. The example problems included in the paper are designed to illustrate the additional response harmonics generated as a result of interaction of the frequencies of tension fluctuation and riser curvature.

  20. Moving from Science to Service: Transposing and Sustaining the Early Risers Prevention Program in a Community Service System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomquist, Michael L.; August, Gerald J.; Horowitz, Jason L.; Lee, Susanne S.; Jensen, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes an effort to transpose and sustain the evidence-based Early Risers "Skills for Success" conduct problems prevention program in a real world community service system. The Early Risers program had previously been implemented by a local agency within the context of research-based operations. In the current initiative,…

  1. Marine riser protector for use on offshore oil drilling rigs in icy waters

    SciTech Connect

    Yashima, N.

    1985-03-19

    An apparatus for protecting a marine riser extending downwardly from a platform of an offshore station above a sea level toward a sea bottom. A tubular protector is removably mounted on the underside of the platform in surrounding relation to the marine riser in the vicinity of the sea level. According to another embodiment, a tubular protector has an upper portion in the shape of a truncated cone for contact with ice floes and a lower portion shaped as a grid-like truncated cone flaring downwardly for diverting ice floes away from the tubular protector.

  2. Acoustic and Perceptual Measures of SATB Choir Performances on Two Types of Portable Choral Riser Units in Three Singer-Spacing Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, James F.; Manternach, Jeremy N.; Brunkan, Melissa C.

    2013-01-01

    Under controlled conditions, we assessed acoustically (long-term average spectra) and perceptually (singer survey, listener survey) six performances of an soprano, alto, tenor, and bass (SATB) choir ("N" = 27) as it sang the same musical excerpt on two portable riser units (standard riser step height, taller riser step height) with…

  3. Tools for Inspecting and Sampling Waste in Underground Radioactive Storage Tanks with Small Access Riser Openings

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, T.A.

    1998-12-17

    Underground storage tanks with 2 inches to 3 inches diameter access ports at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site have been used to store radioactive solvents and sludge. In order to close these tanks, the contents of the tanks need to first be quantified in terms of volume and chemical and radioactive characteristics. To provide information on the volume of waste contained within the tanks, a small remote inspection system was needed. This inspection system was designed to provide lighting and provide pan and tilt capabilities in an inexpensive package with zoom abilities and color video. This system also needed to be utilized inside of a plastic tent built over the access port to contain any contamination exiting from the port. This system had to be build to travel into the small port opening, through the riser pipe, into the tank evacuated space, and out of the riser pipe and access port with no possibility of being caught and blocking the access riser. Long thin plates were found in many access riser pipes that blocked the inspection system from penetrating into the tank interiors. Retrieval tools to clear the plates from the tanks using developed sampling devices while providing safe containment for the samples. This paper will discuss the inspection systems, tools for clearing access pipes, and solvent sampling tools developed to evaluate the tank contents of the underground solvent storage tanks.

  4. Riser Pattern: Another Determinant of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Komori, Takahiro; Eguchi, Kazuo; Saito, Toshinobu; Hoshide, Satoshi; Kario, Kazuomi

    2016-10-01

    Paradoxical increase in blood pressure (BP) during sleep, exceeding those of awake BP, is called the "riser" BP pattern, and known as an abnormal circadian BP rhythm, has been reported to be associated with adverse cardiovascular prognoses. However, the significance of ambulatory BP in heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has never been reported. Here, we tested our hypothesis that abnormal circadian BP rhythm is associated with HFpEF. The authors enrolled 508 patients with hospitalized HF (age 68±13 years; 315 men, 193 women). There were 232 cases of HFpEF and 276 cases of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The riser BP pattern was significantly more frequent in the HFpEF (28.9%) group compared with the HFrEF group (19.9%). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, the riser BP pattern was associated with HFpEF (odds ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-2.91; P=.041) independent of the other covariates. In conclusion, the riser BP pattern was associated with HFpEF.

  5. The Early Risers Preventive Intervention: Testing for Six-year Outcomes and Mediational Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernat, Debra H.; August, Gerald J.; Hektner, Joel M.; Bloomquist, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    We examined effects of the Early Risers "Skills for Success" early-age-targeted prevention program on serious conduct problems following 5 years of continuous intervention and one year of follow-up. We also examined if intervention effects on proximally-targeted variables found after 3 years mediated intervention effects on conduct…

  6. Tension and drag forces of flexible risers undergoing vortex-induced vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Lei-jian; Fu, Shi-xiao; Li, Man; Gao, Yun; Ma, Lei-xin

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the variation in the tension and the distribution of drag force coefficients along flexible risers under vortex-induced vibration (VIV) in a uniform flow for Reynolds numbers ( Re) up to 2.2×105. The results show that the mean tension is proportional to the square of the incoming current speed, and the tension coefficient of a flexible riser undergoing VIV can be up to 12. The mean drag force is uniformly and symmetrically distributed along the axes of the risers undergoing VIV. The corresponding drag coefficient can vary between 1.6 and 2.4 but is not a constant value of 1.2, as it is for a fixed cylinder in the absence of VIV. These experimental results are used to develop a new empirical prediction model to estimate the drag force coefficient for flexible risers undergoing VIV for Reynolds number on the order of 105, which accounts for the effects of the incoming current speed, the VIV dominant modal number and the frequency.

  7. Riser Difference Evaluation from Ultrasonic Wall Thickness Inspection of Thirteen Double-Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Weier, Dennis R.; Pardini, Allan F.

    2010-03-15

    PNNL has performed an analysis of ultrasonic thickness measurements taken on Hanford's double-shell tanks (DSTs) approximately eight years apart. The analysis was performed to determine whether significant differences exist between ultrasonic thickness measurements made in two opposite risers in Hanford DSTs that have been examined twice.

  8. A flexible-segment-model-based dynamics calculation method for free hanging marine risers in re-entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xue-song; Wang, Sheng-wei

    2012-03-01

    In re-entry, the drilling riser hanging to the holding vessel takes on a free hanging state, waiting to be moved from the initial random position to the wellhead. For the re-entry, dynamics calculation is often done to predict the riser motion or evaluate the structural safety. A dynamics calculation method based on Flexible Segment Model (FSM) is proposed for free hanging marine risers. In FSM, a riser is discretized into a series of flexible segments. For each flexible segment, its deflection feature and external forces are analyzed independently. For the whole riser, the nonlinear governing equations are listed according to the moment equilibrium at nodes. For the solution of the nonlinear equations, a linearization iteration scheme is provided in the paper. Owing to its flexibility, each segment can match a long part of the riser body, which enables that good results can be obtained even with a small number of segments. Moreover, the linearization iteration scheme can avoid widely used Newton-Rapson iteration scheme in which the calculation stability is influenced by the initial points. The FSM-based dynamics calculation is timesaving and stable, so suitable for the shape prediction or real-time control of free hanging marine risers.

  9. Bench and Riser Soil Water Content on Semiarid Hillslopes with Terracettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinse, R.; Corrao, M.; Eitel, J.; Link, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    Microtopographic features known as terracettes are found throughout many semiarid rangelands. These path-like features roughly perpendicular to the slope are frequently traversed by grazing animals on steep hillslopes. The soil properties and hydrologic function, however, are virtually unknown. This research aimed to identify differences in soil properties between terracette bench and riser features, and their influence on soil water content for two terracetted sites and two non-terracetted control sites (grazed and ungrazed) in Eastern Washington State. Measurements of volumetric water content (θ_v), bulk density, soil texture, saturated hydraulic conductivity, pH, and ECa_a were collected along with compaction, vegetative cover and cattle density throughout the 2013 and 2014 field seasons. Results show small but significant volumetric water content differences between terracette benches and risers in the upper 10 cm with benches exhibiting higher mean θ_v than risers throughout the year. Soil bulk density on benches (1600 kg m-3^{-3}) was significantly higher than that of risers (1300 kg m-3^{-3}) with no differences in soil texture. The saturated hydraulic conductivity on benches was roughly half of that for risers. No significant soil differences were noted below 20 cm depth. Terracetted sites showed greater field-averaged θ_v compared to non-terracetted sites suggesting a positive trend with animal stocking rates. Higher water content on terracette benches is attributed to shifts in pore size distribution with compaction, and a reduction in root-water uptake due to plant-root impedance. This increased soil water does not however increase forage production as it is not accessible to plants.

  10. A fast rise-rate, adjustable-mass-bit gas puff valve for energetic pulsed plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Loebner, Keith T. K. Underwood, Thomas C.; Cappelli, Mark A.

    2015-06-15

    A fast rise-rate, variable mass-bit gas puff valve based on the diamagnetic repulsion principle was designed, built, and experimentally characterized. The ability to hold the pressure rise-rate nearly constant while varying the total overall mass bit was achieved via a movable mechanical restrictor that is accessible while the valve is assembled and pressurized. The rise-rates and mass-bits were measured via piezoelectric pressure transducers for plenum pressures between 10 and 40 psig and restrictor positions of 0.02-1.33 cm from the bottom of the linear restrictor travel. The mass-bits were found to vary linearly with the restrictor position at a given plenum pressure, while rise-rates varied linearly with plenum pressure but exhibited low variation over the range of possible restrictor positions. The ability to change the operating regime of a pulsed coaxial plasma deflagration accelerator by means of altering the valve parameters is demonstrated.

  11. Physical simulation of the response of the Enserch Garden Banks 388 FPF/free standing rigid riser to wind, waves, and current

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.Y.; Johnson, T.L.; Johnson, R.P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes large scale hydrodynamic model tests of the Enserch Exploration Garden Banks 388 Floating Production Facility (FPF). This unique facility consists of a semi-submersible connected to a template on the sea floor 2,096 feet below the surface through a buoyant, free standing ``rigid`` riser. The top of the riser and its manifold are located well below the surface to minimize the forces exerted on the riser by waves. Numerous flexible conductors connect the semi-submersible to the manifold on the top of the riser. The emphasis of the model test program was to confirm the estimates of: The structural response of the buoyant, rigid production riser and an adjacent drilling riser; The relative displacements between the semisubmersible and the production riser; The relative displacements between the production riser and drilling riser; and The forces which must be endured by the tensioners and flexible hoses which join the semi-submersible to the production riser. The paper describes the planning and preparation of the model components, the unique aspects of the simulation of the environments and the structural properties of the models, the execution of the experiments and the handling of the large number of measurements necessary to characterize the response of the multi-component system. Finally, the data analysis tools which were employed to provide an understanding of the responses of the system are discussed. 22 figs., 1 tab.

  12. MP-Pic simulation of CFB riser with EMMS-based drag model

    SciTech Connect

    Li, F.; Song, F.; Benyahia, S.; Wang, W.; Li, J.

    2012-01-01

    MP-PIC (multi-phase particle in cell) method combined with the EMMS (energy minimization multi- scale) drag force model was implemented with the open source program MFIX to simulate the gas–solid flows in CFB (circulatingfluidizedbed) risers. Calculated solid flux by the EMMS drag agrees well with the experimental value; while the traditional homogeneous drag over-predicts this value. EMMS drag force model can also predict the macro-and meso-scale structures. Quantitative comparison of the results by the EMMS drag force model and the experimental measurements show high accuracy of the model. The effects of the number of particles per parcel and wall conditions on the simulation results have also been investigated in the paper. This work proved that MP-PIC combined with the EMMS drag model can successfully simulate the fluidized flows in CFB risers and it serves as a candidate to realize real-time simulation of industrial processes in the future.

  13. Experimental Study on Gas-Solid Flow Charcteristics in a CFB Riser Of 54M in Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, N.; Yang, H. R.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, R. Q.; Cao, J. N.; Liu, Q.; Lu, J. F.; Yue, G. X.

    Understanding the height effect on the gas-solid flow characteristics in a CFB riser is important as more and more large capacity CFB boilers are used and to be developed. In this study, a cold CFB test rig with a riser of 240mm in LD. and 38m and 54m in height was built. The influences of operating conditions, such as solid inventory and fluidizing gas velocity, on the axial voidage profile along the riser were assessed. When the gas velocity exceeds the transport velocity, the S-shaped profile of voidage in the riser was established. At the same time, the voidage in top-dilute section reached the saturation carrying capacity, and the solids circulation rate did not vary with the height of the riser nor the solids inventory. It was also found the critical solids inventory for the saturation carrying capacity increases as the riser height increases. When the height was changed from 38m to 54m, the critical solids inventory increased about 25% from about 40kg to about 50kg, and pressure drop in the furnace also increased about 25%.

  14. A general kinetic-flow coupling model for FCC riser flow simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S. L.

    1998-05-18

    A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code has been developed for fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) riser flow simulation. Depending on the application of interest, a specific kinetic model is needed for the FCC flow simulation. This paper describes a method to determine a kinetic model based on limited pilot-scale test data. The kinetic model can then be used with the CFD code as a tool to investigate optimum operating condition ranges for a specific FCC unit.

  15. Stress wave propagation analysis on vortex-induced vibration of marine risers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua-jun; Wang, Chao; Liu, Fu-shun; Hu, Sau-Lon James

    2017-03-01

    To analyze the stress wave propagation associated with the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a marine riser, this paper employed a multi-signal complex exponential method. This method is an extension of the classical Prony's method which decomposes a complicated signal into a number of complex exponential components. Because the proposed method processes multiple signals simultaneously, it can estimate the "global" dominating frequencies (poles) shared by those signals. The complex amplitude (residues) corresponding to the estimated frequencies for those signals is also obtained in the process. As the signals were collected at different locations along the axial direction of a marine riser, the phenomena of the stress wave propagation could be analyzed through the obtained residues of those signals. The Norwegian Deepwater Program (NDP) high mode test data were utilized in the numerical studies, including data sets in both the in-line (IL) and cross-flow (CF) directions. It was found that the most dominant component in the IL direction has its stress wave propagation along the riser being dominated by a standing wave, while that in the CF direction dominated by a traveling wave.

  16. Riser-cable development for ocean-thermal-energy conversion plants. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    Developmental testing and analysis of OTEC riser cables and component materials has been undertaken. Two full-size riser cables have been manufactured and tested, one using cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation, the other using self-contained, oil filled (SCOF) insulation. These cables and their components have been subjected to testing which simulates handling and insulation prior to OTEC service, as well as the electrical and mechanical loads predicted in service. Results of testing and analyses to date indicate that the XLPE cable has significant potential in the OTEC riser application. The cable has performed well in mechanical and electrical testing. The results for the SCOF cable are mixed. The SCOF cable collapses due to pressure at depths typical of OTEC service; slippage may occur within the insulation or between the conductor and insulation which could result in early cable failure. Particular attention must be paid to alleviating these problems in future cable design efforts. Implications of these findings for cable and system development are presented for use by OTEC platform designers. These findings are subject to change as additional test data are obtained.

  17. Experimental investigation for liquid holdup reduction of subsea riser with surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Liu, L.; Bao, Q. B.; Zhou, F. D.

    2010-03-01

    The principal pressure drop in a subsea riser is generally the gravitational pressure drop component due to liquid holdup. Surfactant is a kind of Chemical compound related to flow improvement. Gas-liquid two-phase flow in subsea riser with zero and small liquid flow rates was simulated in two vertical tubes with diameters of 40 mm and 65 mm, respectively. Liquid holdup reduction of subsea riser was investigated with surfactant. The simulation was conducted at low pressure, using air as the gas phase and water as the liquid phase. Pressure drop was measured by using differential pressure transducer and holdup was obtained by trapping the liquid in the pipe section. Different trace amounts of surfactant were used in this vertical two-phase flow system. The liquid holdups were measured at different surfactant concentrations and different gas-liquid flow ratios. Liquid holdups with and without surfactant additives are compared and analyzed. How the foamer influences the two-phase flow pattern was observed and the range of foamer concentration corresponding to the best holdup reduction was obtained.

  18. Upgrading naphtha in a multiple riser fluid catalytic cracking operation employing a catalyst mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, J.A.; Owen, H.; Schipper, P.H.

    1989-05-16

    A process is described for producing gasoline comprising contacting a hydrocarbon feed having an initial boiling-point of at least 400/sup 0/F., a 50% boiling of at least 500/sup 0/F. and an end boiling point of at least 600/sup 0/F., in a first riser, with a two component catalyst under fluid catalytic cracking conditions. At least one component of the catalyst is stripped in a stripping unit to remove entrained hydrocarbons, and regenerated wherein the two component catalyst comprises a first catalyst component selected from the group consisting of an amorphous cracking catalyst and a large pore cracking catalyst, whereby a product comprising olefins and naphtha is produced. Ethylene introduced together with the two component catalyst to a second riser, for contacting ethylene with a second catalyst component which is a shape selective medium pore crystalline silicate zeolite to produce products heavier than ethylene and to increase the temperature of the catalyst to an optimum temperature for upgrading naphtha; and naphtha is introduced to the second riser, down stream of the point of ethylene introduction, for contact with the catalyst at the optimum temperature and the naphtha is upgraded to gasoline product.

  19. Drilling Fluid Contamination during Riser Drilling Quantified by Chemical and Molecular Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, F.; Lever, M. A.; Morono, Y.; Hoshino, T.

    2012-12-01

    Stringent contamination controls are essential to any type of microbiological investigation, and are particularly challenging in ocean drilling, where samples are retrieved from hundreds of meters below the seafloor. In summer 2012, Integrated Ocean Drilling Expedition 337 aboard the Japanese vessel Chikyu pioneered the use of chemical tracers in riser drilling while exploring the microbial ecosystem of coalbeds 2 km below the seafloor off Shimokita, Japan. Contamination tests involving a perfluorocarbon tracer that had been successfully used during past riserless drilling expeditions were complemented by DNA-based contamination tests. In the latter, likely microbial contaminants were targeted via quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays using newly designed, group-specific primers. Target groups included potential indicators of (a) drilling mud viscosifiers (Xanthomonas, Halomonas), (b) anthropogenic wastewater (Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Methanobrevibacter), and (c) surface seawater (SAR 11, Marine Group I Archaea). These target groups were selected based on past evidence suggesting viscosifiers, wastewater, and seawater as the main sources of microbial contamination in cores retrieved by ocean drilling. Analyses of chemical and molecular tracers are in good agreement, and indicate microorganisms associated with mud viscosifiers as the main contaminants during riser drilling. These same molecular analyses are then extended to subseafloor samples obtained during riserless drilling operations. General strategies to further reduce the risk of microbial contamination during riser and riserless drilling operations are discussed.

  20. Experimental Plan for Crystal Accumulation Studies in the WTP Melter Riser

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.; Fowley, M.

    2015-04-28

    This experimental plan defines crystal settling experiments to be in support of the U.S. Department of Energy – Office of River Protection crystal tolerant glass program. The road map for development of crystal-tolerant high level waste glasses recommends that fluid dynamic modeling be used to better understand the accumulation of crystals in the melter riser and mechanisms of removal. A full-scale version of the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melter riser constructed with transparent material will be used to provide data in support of model development. The system will also provide a platform to demonstrate mitigation or recovery strategies in off-normal events where crystal accumulation impedes melter operation. Test conditions and material properties will be chosen to provide results over a variety of parameters, which can be used to guide validation experiments with the Research Scale Melter at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and that will ultimately lead to the development of a process control strategy for the full scale WTP melter. The experiments described in this plan are divided into two phases. Bench scale tests will be used in Phase 1 (using the appropriate solid and fluid simulants to represent molten glass and spinel crystals) to verify the detection methods and analytical measurements prior to their use in a larger scale system. In Phase 2, a full scale, room temperature mockup of the WTP melter riser will be fabricated. The mockup will provide dynamic measurements of flow conditions, including resistance to pouring, as well as allow visual observation of crystal accumulation behavior.

  1. Stress-riser fractures of the hip after sliding screw plate fixation.

    PubMed

    DiMaio, F R; Haher, T R; Splain, S H; Mani, V J

    1992-10-01

    Fractures occurring after fixation of intertrochanteric femur fractures have been described previously in the literature. Terms such as "stress-riser fracture" and "Young's modulus fracture" have been applied. The prevalence of these fracture types has increased, and so has use of the sliding screw plate device for fixation of intertrochanteric hip fractures. The object of this paper is to describe, by case examples, types of stress-related fractures of the proximal femur in association with the sliding screw plate and to define each biomechanical type in review.

  2. Nonlinear Analysis of a Bolted Marine Riser Connector Using NASTRAN Substructuring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    Results of an investigation of the behavior of a bolted, flange type marine riser connector is reported. The method used to account for the nonlinear effect of connector separation due to bolt preload and axial tension load is described. The automated multilevel substructing capability of COSMIC/NASTRAN was employed at considerable savings in computer run time. Simplified formulas for computer resources, i.e., computer run times for modules SDCOMP, FBS, and MPYAD, as well as disk storage space, are presented. Actual run time data on a VAX-11/780 is compared with the formulas presented.

  3. Bed inventory overturn in a circulating fluid bed riser with pant-leg structure

    SciTech Connect

    Jinjing Li; Wei Wang; Hairui Yang; Junfu Lv; Guangxi Yue

    2009-05-15

    The special phenomenon, nominated as bed inventory overturn, in circulating fluid bed (CFB) riser with pant-leg structure was studied with model calculation and experimental work. A compounded pressure drop mathematic model was developed and validated with the experimental data in a cold experimental test rig. The model calculation results agree well with the measured data. In addition, the intensity of bed inventory overturn is directly proportional to the fluidizing velocity and is inversely proportional to the branch point height. The results in the present study provide significant information for the design and operation of a CFB boiler with pant-leg structure. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Offshore North Sea pipeline and riser loss of containment study (PARLOC) -- applications and limitations in the assessment of operating risks

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.L.M.; Smart, D.; Al-Hassan, T.

    1996-05-01

    Since the Piper Alpha disaster in 1988, there has been an urgent requirement to prevent such tragedies occurring by the introduction of higher safety standards and by improving the confidence in the statistical information available for the assessment of the risks of loss of containment associated with operation of North Sea pipelines. In order to achieve the latter, two databases have been compiled: (1) a pipeline database containing details of pipelines and risers installed in the North Sea; (2) an incident database containing details of reported occurrences (covering the period from 1975 to end 1993), which directly resulted or threatened to result in loss of containment from a pipeline or riser, The data has been compiled from information obtained from: U.K., Norwegian, Dutch and Danish Regulatory Authorities; Operators in the U.K., Dutch and Danish Sectors; reports from previous studies made available to the study; published sources. The databases have been used to perform assessments of factors affecting the frequency of incidents, such as: incident cause; part of pipeline or riser affected; pipeline or riser diameter, length, contents, age, type; whether the line is trenched or buried, piggy-backed or not; hydrotest pressure; location of pipeline or riser in the North Sea. The PARLOC study identifies potential hazards and provides an indication of likely loss of containment frequency associated with the operation of North Sea pipelines and risers. Furthermore, PARLOC provides a continually updated key reference for comparative risk assessment and ultimately for the implementation of risk control as part of an overall risk management program.

  5. Evaluation of axial and lateral modal superposition for general 3D drilling riser analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Burgdorf, O. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    A 3D partially non-linear transient fully-coupled riser analysis method is evaluated which uses modal superposition of independently extracted lateral and axial modes. Many lateral modes are combined with a lesser number axial modes to minimize adverse time step requirements typically induced by axial flexibility in direct time integration of beam-column elements. The reduced computer time option enables much faster parametric analysis of hang-off, as well as other connected drilling environments normally examined. Axial-lateral coupling is explicitly enforced and, resonance fidelity is preserved when excitation is near or coincident with axial natural periods. Reasonable correlation is shown with envelopes of test case dynamic responses published by API. Applicability of the method is limited by linearity assumptions indigenous to modal representation of dynamic deflections relative to a mean deflected shape. Sensitivities of incipient buckling during hang-off to axial damping and stiffness are described for an example 6,000 ft. deep composite drilling riser system.

  6. Numerical simulation of thermal-hydraulic processes in the riser chamber of installation for clinker production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsuk, Grzegorz; Dobrowolski, Bolesław; Nowosielski, Grzegorz; Wydrych, Jacek; Duda, Jerzy

    2016-03-01

    Clinker burning process has a decisive influence on energy consumption and the cost of cement production. A new problem is to use the process of decarbonization of alternative fuels from waste. These issues are particularly important in the introduction of a two-stage combustion of fuel in a rotary kiln without the typical reactor-decarbonizator. This work presents results of numerical studies on thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the riser chamber, which will be designed to burn fuel in the system where combustion air is supplied separately from the clinker cooler. The mathematical model is based on a combination of two methods of motion description: Euler description for the gas phase and Lagrange description for particles. Heat transfer between particles of raw material and gas was added to the numerical calculations. The main aim of the research was finding the correct fractional distribution of particles. For assumed particle distribution on the first stage of work, authors noted that all particles were carried away by the upper outlet to the preheater tower, what is not corresponding to the results of experimental studies. The obtained results of calculations can be the basis for further optimization of the design and operating conditions in the riser chamber with the implementation of the system.

  7. Impact Of Particle Agglomeration On Accumulation Rates In The Glass Discharge Riser Of HLW Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A. A.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Matyas, J.; Owen, A. T.; Jansik, D. P.; Lang, J. B.

    2012-11-12

    The major factor limiting waste loading in continuous high-level radioactive waste (HLW) melters is an accumulation of particles in the glass discharge riser during a frequent and periodic idling of more than 20 days. An excessive accumulation can produce robust layers a few centimeters thick, which may clog the riser, preventing molten glass from being poured into canisters. Since the accumulation rate is driven by the size of particles we investigated with x-ray microtomography, scanning electron microscopy, and image analysis the impact of spinel forming components, noble metals, and alumina on the size, concentration, and spatial distribution of particles, and on the accumulation rate. Increased concentrations of Fe and Ni in the baseline glass resulted in the formation of large agglomerates that grew over the time to an average size of ~185+-155 {mu}m, and produced >3 mm thick layer after 120 h at 850 deg C. The noble metals decreased the particle size, and therefore significantly slowed down the accumulation rate. Addition of alumina resulted in the formation of a network of spinel dendrites which prevented accumulation of particles into compact layers.

  8. First Riser Logging in Scientific Ocean Drilling: Operational Planning and results/reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanada, Yoshinori; Kyaw Thu, Moe; Kido, Yukari; Kawamura, Yoshihisa; Hino, Ryota; Eguchi, Nabuhisa; Toczko, Sean; Takahashi, Kyoma; 319 Science Party, Iodp

    2010-05-01

    The first wireline logging, downhole stress measurement, and two-ship walkaway VSP (Vertical Seismic Profiling) were conducted in the riser drilled hole during IODP Expedition 319 in 2009. The hole C0009 is first riser drilling hole in ODP/IODP history by JAMSTEC D/V Chikyu. The expedition 319 is one of series of NanTroSEIZE Project, which goal is to reveal earthquake mechanism in Nankai trough seismogenic zone in Japan. The hole C0009 is drilled at TD 1603.7mbsf under 2054m sea water. Sampling cores, cutting analysis, gas monitoring, wireline logging, downhole stress measurement, and two-ship walkaway VSP (Vertical Seismic Profiling) were conducted. This presentation report the operational planning, results and reality. IODP standard wireline logging items: natural gamma-ray, resistivity, density, porosity, sonic velocity, resistivity image were measured. The advantages of riser dilled hole against riserless drilled hole for wireline logging are 1) stable hole condition, 2) accurate environmental correction by controlled drilling mud, and 3) large variation of tool selection because of regular hole size instead of slimhole by conventional IODP riser drilling. A couple of new tools were used for new measurement and improvement of the data quality. The SonicScanner (trademark of Schulumberger) successfully measured compressional and share velocity in very low velocities at the soft sediment, where it has been difficult to measure them with conventional DSI tool. The stress and pore pressure in the borehole were measured with the wireline logging tool, (Schlumberger MDT). The single probe tool enable to measure temporal formation fluid pressure. The double packer tool enable to fracture test by sealing and pumping in the borehole. These in-situ measurement and stress experiment data are very important to understand physical properties and mechanism of fault zone. Super long offset walkaway VSP was conducted to reveal detail subsurface structure and velocity

  9. Early Risers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Chistina

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author features Bard High School Early College, the first public school in the country to offer a free, full-time college curriculum--and all the credits that go with it--to high schoolers. In Bard's four-year program, students race through high school requirements in 9th and 10th grades, then take college courses in 11th and…

  10. 75 FR 26091 - Safety Zone; Riser for DEEPWATER HORIZON at Mississippi Canyon 252 Outer Continental Shelf MODU...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... safety zone around the riser will significantly reduce the threat of collisions, oil spills, and releases... is needed to protect persons and vessels in the vicinity of the oil spill. Discussion of Rule The...-54W. The regulation will reduce significantly the threat of collisions, allisions, oil spills,...

  11. Parent Participation within Community Center or In-Home Outreach Delivery Models of the Early Risers Conduct Problems Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomquist, Michael L; August, Gerald J.; Lee, Susanne S.; Piehler, Timothy F.; Jensen, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    A variety of predictors of parent participation in prevention programming have been identified in past research, but few studies have investigated how those predictors may vary by implementation context. Patterns of parent participation were examined in the Early Risers Conduct Problems Prevention Program using two family-focused service delivery…

  12. Secondary School Reform, Inclusion, and Authentic Assessment. Research Institute on Secondary Education Reform (RISER) for Youth with Disabilities Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braden, Jeffery P.; Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Buckley, Jacquelyn A.

    The Research Institute on Secondary Education Reform for Youth with Disabilities (RISER) has identified Schools of Authentic and Inclusive Learning (SAIL) to explore whether and how secondary students with disabilities are included in secondary education reform. In this brief, the literature describing the intersection of reform, inclusion, and…

  13. Tibial plateau fracture following gracilis-semitendinosus anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: The tibial tunnel stress-riser.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, R O; Cohen, D; Barton-Hanson, N

    2006-06-01

    Tibial plateau fractures following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are extremely rare. This is the first reported case of a tibial plateau fracture following four-strand gracilis-semitendinosus autograft ACL reconstruction. The tibial tunnel alone may behave as a stress riser which can significantly reduce bone strength.

  14. Two cases of malignant hypertension with reversible diffuse leukoencephalopathy exhibiting a reversible nocturnal blood pressure "riser" pattern.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Kazuo; Kasahara, Kentaro; Nagashima, Akinori; Mor, Tadashi; Nii, Takanobu; Ibaraki, Kazuo; Kario, Kazuomi; Shimada, Kazuyuki

    2002-05-01

    We report two cases of malignant hypertension with reversible diffuse leukoencephalopathy demonstrating a nocturnal blood pressure (BP) rising pattern ("riser" pattern). Case 1 was a 54-year-old man diagnosed with malignant hypertension who presented with diffuse leukoencephalopathy and nocturnal BP rise during the acute phase. These abnormal findings diminished after treatment of hypertension. Case 2 was a 50-year-old woman diagnosed with malignant hypertension in association with leukoencephalopathy, heart failure and acute renal failure. She also presented with a "riser" pattern during the acute phase. In contrast to case 1, the leukoencephalopathy and "riser" pattern in case 2 were not improved even after 1 month of treatment. Following intensive antihypertensive treatment, renal failure was improved in case 1, but renal failure was not improved after 1 month in case 2. In conclusion, a possible explanation of this phenomenon is that a causative volume overload due to renal dysfunction produced the temporal leukoencephalopathy-like brain edema and "riser" pattern in these cases.

  15. Analytical and numerical models to predict the behavior of unbonded flexible risers under torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shao-fei; Xue, Hong-xiang; Tang, Wen-yong

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents analytical and numerical models to predict the behavior of unbonded flexible risers under torsion. The analytical model takes local bending and torsion of tensile armor wires into consideration, and equilibrium equations of forces and displacements of layers are deduced. The numerical model includes lay angle, cross-sectional profiles of carcass, pressure armor layer and contact between layers. Abaqus/Explicit quasi-static simulation and mass scaling are adopted to avoid convergence problem and excessive computation time caused by geometric and contact nonlinearities. Results show that local bending and torsion of helical strips may have great influence on torsional stiffness, but stress related to bending and torsion is negligible; the presentation of anti-friction tapes may have great influence both on torsional stiffness and stress; hysteresis of torsion-twist relationship under cyclic loading is obtained by numerical model, which cannot be predicted by analytical model because of the ignorance of friction between layers.

  16. 45-Day safety screening for Tank 241-C-103 push mode sample, riser 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, K.E.

    1994-12-16

    This is the 45-Day report for the Tank 241-C-103 (C-103) push-mode core sampling characterization effort. Problems encountered with the push-mode sampling truck following removal of the first segment from riser 2 resulted in a long delay before resumption of sampling, therefore it was decided to begin the 45-day clock and issue a report based on receipt of this first segment. If subsequent segments are removed from tank C-103, a revision of this report or a new report will be issued to include any new data. Included are copies of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) scans as requested in Reference 1. Also included is a copy of any immediate notification documentation. Other pertinent documentation will be included in the C-103 216-day report.

  17. Design and analysis of tapered stress joint for Top Tensioned Riser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ri-xi; Zhang, Qi; Huang, Yi

    2012-09-01

    Stress Joint (SJ) plays a key role in the Top Tensioned Riser (TTR) system for deep water engineering. A preliminary design method of tapered SJ is proposed in the paper, which could help designers obtain accurate design data. After a further sensitive analysis is carried out, the related parameters choice and control methods are recommended in the engineering practice. By taking the extreme environment conditions into consideration, the effects of bending stress reduction and curve control are analyzed, and the 3-D FE models are established by ABQOUS for numerical evaluation to verify the correctness of design results. At last, dynamic analysis and fatigue analysis, based on actual project, are carried out with designed stress joint. The analysis results prove the feasibility and guidance of this method in the practical engineering applications.

  18. Static analysis of offshore risers with a geometrically-exact 3D beam model subjected to unilateral contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, Alfredo Gay; Martins, Clóvis A.; Pimenta, Paulo M.

    2014-01-01

    In offshore applications there are elements that can be modeled as long beams, such as umbilical cables, flexible and rigid pipes and hoses, immersed in the sea water, suspended from the floating unit to the seabed. The suspended part of these elements is named "riser" and is subjected to the ocean environment loads, such as waves and sea current. This work presents a structural geometrically-exact 3D beam model, discretized using the finite element method for riser modeling. An updated Lagrangian framework for the rotation parameterization has been used for the description of the exact kinematics. The goal is to perform a complete static analysis, considering the oceanic loads and the unilateral contact with the seabed, extending the current standard analysis for situations in which very large rotations occurs, in particular, large torsion. Details of the nonlinear 3D model and loads from oceanic environment are discussed, including the contact unilateral constraint.

  19. SEGREGATION IN SMALL STEEL CASTINGS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Carbon segregation in small castings often occurs near riser necks. Systematic studies were continued to determine effect on segregation of such...intensity of carbon segregation under ’neck-down’ risers varies directly as the neck length and inversely as the neck diameter. The degree of segregation

  20. Evolution of terrace risers along the upper Rhine graben inferred from morphologic dating methods: evidence of climatic and tectonic forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nivière, B.; Marquis, Guy

    2000-06-01

    We show that morphologic dating techniques that have been applied successfully in arid and semi-arid areas are also suitable for slowly evolving scarps that are usually found in temperate climate environments. We have attempted two morphologic approaches, based on diffusion, to relate the present-day shape of an abandoned terrace riser to its age. The first assumes a model of scarp degradation based on a diffusive process (the D method). The second evaluates the state of scarp degradation using the slope distribution (the SD method) along a topographic profile. By using a manmade scarp of known age, we have obtained a mass diffusivity close to 1.4m2ka-1 when the area experiences a temperate climate characterized by a continuous vegetation cover. However, this value decreases during glacial episodes, probably on account of the permafrost. Even though the SD method requires an age correction that can be easily computed, only this method reveals that at several profiles a later scarp reactivation event has occurred. Indeed, along several profiles, the slope distribution was best fitted by two offset Gaussian curves, suggesting that some scarps have undergone a complex evolution that cannot be modelled with a single diffusive process. This scarp reactivation may correspond to a new incisive episode and allows one to estimate the vertical incision rate along the terrace riser. Applied to a Wurmian terrace riser of the upper Rhine valley (NE France), this approach reveals that the vertical incision rate ranges from 0.2 to 0.85mmyr-1 between 35 and 15ka and that the terrace bevelling occurred during two episodes related to climatic forcing. Moreover, we can identify a component of tectonic forcing evidenced by an increase to the north of vertical incision rate and Rhine stream-power. Another major result is showing that this terrace riser is not isochronous along its strike and that younger portions result from lateral incision of a 30ka pre-existing scarp.

  1. Faulted terrace risers place new constraints on the late Quaternary slip rate for the central Altyn Tagh fault, northwest Tibet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, R.D.; Cowgill, E.; Arrowsmith, J.R.; Chen, X.; Sharp, W.D.; Cooper, K.M.; Wang, X.-F.

    2011-01-01

    The active, left-lateral Altyn Tagh fault defines the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau in western China. To clarify late Quaternary temporal and spatial variations in slip rate along the central portion of this fault system (85??-90??E), we have more than doubled the number of dated offset markers along the central Altyn Tagh fault. In particular, we determined offset-age relations for seven left-laterally faulted terrace risers at three sites (Kelutelage, Yukuang, and Keke Qiapu) spanning a 140-km-long fault reach by integrating surficial geologic mapping, topographic surveys (total station and tripod-light detection and ranging [T-LiDAR]), and geochronology (radiocarbon dating of organic samples, 230Th/U dating of pedogenic carbonate coatings on buried clasts, and terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclide exposure age dating applied to quartz-rich gravels). At Kelutelage, which is the westernmost site (37.72??N, 86.67??E), two faulted terrace risers are offset 58 ?? 3 m and 48 ?? 4 m, and formed at 6.2-6.1 ka and 5.9-3.7 ka, respectively. At the Yukuang site (38.00??N, 87.87??E), four faulted terrace risers are offset 92 ?? 12 m, 68 ?? 6 m, 55 ?? 13 m, and 59 ?? 9 m and formed at 24.2-9.5 ka, 6.4-5.0 ka, 5.1-3.9 ka, and 24.2-6.4 ka, respectively. At the easternmost site, Keke Qiapu (38.08??N, 88.12??E), a faulted terrace riser is offset 33 ?? 6 m and has an age of 17.1-2.2 ka. The displacement-age relationships derived from these markers can be satisfied by an approximately uniform slip rate of 8-12 mm/yr. However, additional analysis is required to test how much temporal variability in slip rate is permitted by this data set. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  2. Aircraft Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-19

    NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 AIRCRAFT STEELS by E. U. Lee R. Taylor C. Lei H. C. Sanders 19 February 2009...MARYLAND NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 19 February 2009 AIRCRAFT STEELS by E. U. Lee R. Taylor C. Lei H. C. Sanders...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 ii SUMMARY Five high strength and four stainless steels have been studied, identifying their

  3. Moving from science to service: transposing and sustaining the Early Risers prevention program in a community service system.

    PubMed

    Bloomquist, Michael L; August, Gerald J; Horowitz, Jason L; Lee, Susanne S; Jensen, Cheryl

    2008-07-01

    This paper summarizes an effort to transpose and sustain the evidence-based Early Risers "Skills for Success" conduct problems prevention program in a real world community service system. The Early Risers program had previously been implemented by a local agency within the context of research-based operations. In the current initiative, responsibility for funding and operating the program was transferred from program developers to a local community agency and county service system. There is a description of how the local community partnership adopted the program and real world program evaluation data pertaining to costs and implementation of the program over 2 years (N = 168 children) is presented. It is demonstrated that the local community system provided ongoing funding and that the agency implemented the program with acceptable exposure and participation. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors carefully assess multiple elements of fidelity and share important lessons regarding community-based implementation, obstacles, and collaboration. The article should be of interest to anyone considering a replication of the evidence-based Early Risers program and also to a broader audience of researchers and practitioners involved in translational research.

  4. Can evidence-based prevention programs be sustained in community practice settings? The Early Risers' Advanced-Stage Effectiveness Trial.

    PubMed

    August, Gerald J; Bloomquist, Michael L; Lee, Susanne S; Realmuto, George M; Hektner, Joel M

    2006-06-01

    This study evaluated institutional sustainability of the Early Risers "Skills for Success" conduct problems prevention program. In a previous early-stage effectiveness trial Early Risers had been successfully implemented by a nonprofit community agency with guidance, supervision, technical assistance and fiscal support/oversight provided by program developers. The current advanced-stage effectiveness trial applied a randomized, control group design to determine whether this community agency could replicate earlier positive findings with a new cohort of participants, but with less direct involvement of program developers. An intent-to-intervene strategy was used to compare children randomly assigned to Early Risers or a no-intervention comparison group. Compared to results obtained in an early-stage effectiveness trial, program attendance rates were much lower and only one positive outcome was replicated. Failure to replicate program effects was not attributed to poor program implementation, because data collected pertaining to exposure, adherence and quality of delivery were acceptable, and a participation analysis showed that families who attended at higher levels did benefit. It was difficulties that the community agency experienced in engaging families in program components at recommended levels that primarily accounted for the results. Possible organizational barriers that impeded sustainability included unreliable transportation, poor collaboration between the agency and the local public school system, high staff turnover, agency downsizing, and fiduciary responsibility and accountability. It was concluded that both program developers and program providers need to be proactive in planning for sustainability.

  5. Yield improvement and defect reduction in steel casting

    SciTech Connect

    Kent Carlson

    2004-03-16

    This research project investigated yield improvement and defect reduction techniques in steel casting. Research and technology development was performed in the following three specific areas: (1) Feeding rules for high alloy steel castings; (2) Unconventional yield improvement and defect reduction techniques--(a) Riser pressurization; and (b) Filling with a tilting mold; and (3) Modeling of reoxidation inclusions during filling of steel castings. During the preparation of the proposal for this project, these areas were identified by the High Alloy Committee and Carbon and Low Alloy Committee of the Steel Founders' Society of America (SFSA) as having the highest research priority to the steel foundry industry. The research in each of the areas involved a combination of foundry experiments, modeling and simulation. Numerous SFSA member steel foundries participated in the project through casting trials and meetings. The technology resulting from this project will result in decreased scrap and rework, casting yield improvement, and higher quality steel castings produced with less iteration. This will result in considerable business benefits to steel foundries, primarily due to reduced energy and labor costs, increased capacity and productivity, reduced lead-time, and wider use and application of steel castings. As estimated using energy data provided by the DOE, the technology produced as a result of this project will result in an energy savings of 2.6 x 10{sup 12} BTU/year. This excludes the savings that were anticipated from the mold tilting research. In addition to the energy savings, and corresponding financial savings this implies, there are substantial environmental benefits as well. The results from each of the research areas listed above are summarized.

  6. Effect of Riser Geometry Structure on Local Flow Pattern in a Rectangular Circulating Fluidized Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Chen; Wang, Qinhui; Luo, Zhongyang; Zhang, Ximei; Cheng, Leming; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    By using a high-speed video camera and particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique, the local flow properties of the solid-gas two phases flow were studied in a plexiglass rectangular CFB cold model with the a riser of 1.5×0.864×4.9m3. Measurements were carried out with transparent spherical glass bead between 0.1-0.425mm as bed materials and cold air as flow medium. The experimental results showed that the secondary air has an important influence on the particle velocity distribution. Because of the secondary air penetrating effect, the particle lateral movement was acute. In the dilute region, the outlet and the comer effect induced the defluxion of the particles movement and the core-annular distribution was broken. The closer to the outlet, the stronger the lateral velocity is. The obstruct of hanging screen reduced the furnace outlet effects between the hanging screen and the front wall, where the particle movement in the area was controlled by the gas flow and the constrain of the wall. High particle concentration areas were formed in the junction between the screen and the front wall and in the comer between the wall and the front wall.

  7. Fracture mechanics correlation of boron/aluminum coupons containing stress risers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adsit, N. R.; Waszczak, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of boron/aluminum near stress risers has been studied and reported. This effort was directed toward defining the tensile behavior of both unidirectional and (0/ plus or minus 45) boron/aluminum using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). The material used was 5.6-mil boron in 6061 aluminum, consolidated using conventional diffusion bonding techniques. Mechanical properties are reported for both unidirectional and (0/ plus or minus 45) boron/aluminum, which serve as control data for the fracture mechanics predictions. Three different flawed specimen types were studied. In each case the series of specimens remained geometrically similar to eliminate variations in finite size correction factors. The fracture data from these tests were reduced using two techniques. They both used conventional LEFM methods, but the existence of a characteristic flaw was assumed in one case and not the other. Both the data and the physical behavior of the specimens support the characteristic flaw hypothesis. Cracks were observed growing slowly in the (0/ plus or minus 45) laminates, until a critical crack length was reached at which time catastrophic failure occurred.

  8. Tibial plateau fracture after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: Role of the interference screw resorption in the stress riser effect.

    PubMed

    Thaunat, Mathieu; Nourissat, Geoffroy; Gaudin, Pascal; Beaufils, Philippe

    2006-06-01

    We report a case of tibial plateau fracture after previous anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using patellar tendon autograft and bioabsorbable screws 4 years previously. The fracture occurred through the tibial tunnel. The interference screw had undergone complete resorption and the tunnel widening had increased. The resorption of the interference screw did not simultaneously promote and foster the growth of surrounding bone tissue. Therefore, the area of reactive tissue left by the screw resorption in an enlarged bone tunnel may lead to vulnerability of the tibial plateau. Stress risers would occur following ACL reconstruction if either resorption is not complete or bony integration is not complete.

  9. A study of the spray injection Reynolds number effects on gasoline yields of an FCC riser reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, B. J.; Zhou, C. Q.; Chang, S. L.; Lottes, S. A.

    2000-04-03

    A computational analysis of the combined effects of feed oil injection parameters in a commercial-scale fluidized catalytic cracking riser reactor was performed using a three-phase, multiple species kinetic cracking computer code. The analysis showed that the injection operating parameters (droplet diameter and injection velocity) had strong impacts on the gasoline yields of the FCC unit. A spray injection Reynolds number combining the two parameters was defined. A correlation between the spray injection Reynolds number and the gasoline product yields for various feed injection conditions was developed. A range of spray injection Reynolds number for the maximum gasoline yield was identified.

  10. IODP Expedition 338: Riser and Riserless Drilling Along the NanTroSEIZE Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, M.; Moore, G. F.; Dugan, B.; Kanagawa, K.; Toczko, S.

    2013-12-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 338 provided new constraints on the Kumano Basin sediments, the accretionary prism inner wedge, the seaward extension of the megasplay fault, the architecture and mechanics of landslides, and the alteration of oceanic basement of the incoming Philippine Sea plate. This was accomplished through riser and riserless drilling, logging while drilling (LWD), and cuttings and core analysis. Cuttings and LWD analyses at Hole C0002F reveal two lithologic units in the prism inner wedge which are separated by a prominent fault zone at ~1640 mbsf. Mud-gases from the inner prism show high concentrations at the top of the wedge that decrease, but become more thermogenic, with depth. These data are from the previously unaccessed deeper part of the Nankai accretionary prism. Riserless coring at Site C0002 provided data across the gas hydrate zone of the Kumano Basin, across the Kumano Basin-accretionary prism unconformity, and in the uppermost accretionary prism. Within the Kumano basin section, gas and porewater geochemistry documents microbial methane gas in hydrates that are disseminated in sandy layers. Multiple penetrations of the Kumano Basin-accretionary prism boundary and 3D seismic data show that the boundary is erosive and complex. LWD (Site C0018) and coring and LWD (Site C0021) augment existing data to better understand submarine landslide dynamics and mass-transport deposit (MTD) emplacement processes. Previous coring at Site C0018 identified six MTDs, but only two MTD intervals were detected in resistivity images that show high angle, randomly oriented bedding. Site C0021, located more proximal to the MTD source, provides constraint on MTD variability. Correlation across the sites reveals a thick MTD with an erosional base characterized by a shear zone in muddy sediments vs. a translational basal surface within coarse volcaniclastic sand in the proximal and distal/lateral areas, respectively. LWD data and cores from

  11. Combined action of uniform flow and oscillating flow around marine riser at low Keulegan-Carpenter number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yue; Huang, Weiping; Zhao, Jingli

    2014-06-01

    With the increase of petroleum and gas production in deep ocean, marine risers of circular cylinder shape are widely used in the offshore oil and gas platform. In order to research the hydrodynamic performance of marine risers, the dynamic mesh technique and User-Defined Function (UDF) are used to simulate the circular cylinder motion. The motion of a transversely oscillating circular cylinder in combination of uniform flow and oscillating flow is simulated. The uniform flow and oscillating flow both are in x direction. SIMPLE algorithm is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. The User-Defined Function is used to control the cylinder transverse vibration and the inlet flow. The lift and drag coefficient changing with time and the map of vorticity isolines at different phase angle are obtained. Force time histories are shown for uniform flow at Reynolds number (Re) of 200 and for the combination of uniform and oscillating flows. With the increase of amplitude of oscillating flow in combined flow, the change of lift amplitude is not sensitive to the the change of cylinder oscillating frequency. Lift amplitude increases with the increase of oscillating flow amplitude in the combined flow, but there is no definite periodicity of the lift coefficient. The drag and inertia force coefficients change when the maximum velocity of the oscillating flow increases in the combined flow. The vortex shedding near the circular cylinder shows different characteristics.

  12. Effect of catalyst additives on the production of biofuels from palm oil cracking in a transport riser reactor.

    PubMed

    Chew, Thiam Leng; Bhatia, Subhash

    2009-05-01

    Catalytic cracking of crude palm oil (CPO) and used palm oil (UPO) were studied in a transport riser reactor for the production of biofuels at a reaction temperature of 450 degrees C, with residence time of 20s and catalyst-to-oil ratio (CTO) of 5 gg(-1). The effect of HZSM-5 (different Si/Al ratios), beta zeolite, SBA-15 and AlSBA-15 were studied as physically mixed additives with cracking catalyst Rare earth-Y (REY). REY catalyst alone gave 75.8 wt% conversion with 34.5 wt% of gasoline fraction yield using CPO, whereas with UPO, the conversion was 70.9 wt% with gasoline fraction yield of 33.0 wt%. HZSM-5, beta zeolite, SBA-15 and AlSBA-15 as additives with REY increased the conversion and the yield of organic liquid product. The transport riser reactor can be used for the continuous production of biofuels from cracking of CPO and UPO over REY catalyst.

  13. Extreme hydrodynamic load calculations for fixed steel structures

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, P.R. de; Vugts, J.; Gudmestad, O.T.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the expected differences between the planned ISO code for design of offshore structures and the present Standard Norwegian Practice (SNP), concerning the extreme hydrodynamic design load calculation for fixed steel space frame structures. Since the ISO code is expected to be similar to the API RP2A LRFD code, the provisions of API RP2A LRFD are used to represent the ISO standard. It should be noted that the new ISO code may include NewWave theory, in addition to the wave theories recommended by the API. Design loads and associated failure probabilities resulting from the application of the code provisions are compared for a typical North Sea structure, the Europipe riser platform 16/11-E.

  14. Maintenance Effects of an Evidence-Based Prevention Innovation for Aggressive Children Living in Culturally Diverse Urban Neighborhoods: The Early Risers Effectiveness Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Gerald J.; Lee, Susanne S.; Bloomquist, Michael L.; Realmuto, George M.; Hektner, Joel M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study assessed the ability of the Early Risers' Skills for Success Program to maintain program effects 1 year post intervention. Participants were 327 kindergarten and first-grade children who screened positive for aggressive behavior and who were randomized to program and control conditions. Program children participated in 2…

  15. The Relationship of an Ecological Model of Career Development to Authentic Learning. Research Institute on Secondary Education Reform (RISER) for Youth with Disabilities Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collet-Klingenberg, Lana L.; Hanley-Maxwell, Cheryl; Stuart, Shannon

    This brief discusses how the Research Institute on Secondary Education Reform (RISER) for Youth with Disabilities model, Schools of Authentic Inclusive Learning (SAIL), and career development constructs and processes intersect. The brief provides an overview of SAIL, of authentic and inclusive learning, and of career development theory, while…

  16. Development of Millimeter-Wave Velocimetry and Acoustic Time-of-Flight Tomography for Measurements in Densely Loaded Gas-Solid Riser Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Fort, James A.; Pfund, David M.; Sheen, David M.; Pappas, Richard A.; Morgen, Gerald P.

    2007-04-01

    The MFDRC was formed in 1998 to advance the state-of-the-art in simulating multiphase turbulent flows by developing advanced computational models for gas-solid flows that are experimentally validated over a wide range of industrially relevant conditions. The goal was to transfer the resulting validated models to interested US commercial CFD software vendors, who would then propagate the models as part of new code versions to their customers in the US chemical industry. Since the lack of detailed data sets at industrially relevant conditions is the major roadblock to developing and validating multiphase turbulence models, a significant component of the work involved flow measurements on an industrial-scale riser contributed by Westinghouse, which was subsequently installed at SNL. Model comparisons were performed against these datasets by LANL. A parallel Office of Industrial Technology (OIT) project within the consortium made similar comparisons between riser measurements and models at NETL. Measured flow quantities of interest included volume fraction, velocity, and velocity-fluctuation profiles for both gas and solid phases at various locations in the riser. Some additional techniques were required for these measurements beyond what was currently available. PNNL’s role on the project was to work with the SNL experimental team to develop and test two new measurement techniques, acoustic tomography and millimeter-wave velocimetry. Acoustic tomography is a promising technique for gas-solid flow measurements in risers and PNNL has substantial related experience in this area. PNNL is also active in developing millimeter wave imaging techniques, and this technology presents an additional approach to make desired measurements. PNNL supported the advanced diagnostics development part of this project by evaluating these techniques and then by adapting and developing the selected technology to bulk gas-solids flows and by implementing them for testing in the SNL riser

  17. Advances of two-stage riser catalytic cracking of heavy oil for maximizing propylene yield (TMP) process.

    PubMed

    Chaohe, Yang; Xiaobo, Chen; Jinhong, Zhang; Chunyi, Li; Honghong, Shan

    Two-stage riser catalytic cracking of heavy oil for maximizing propylene yield (TMP) process proposed by State Key Laboratory of Heavy oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, can remarkably enhance the propylene yield and minimize the dry gas and coke yields, and obtain high-quality light oils (gasoline and diesel). It has been commercialized since 2006. Up to now, three TMP commercial units have been put into production and other four commercial units are under design and construction. The commercial data showed that taking paraffinic based Daqing (China) atmospheric residue as the feedstock, the propylene yield reached 20.31 wt%, the liquid products yield (the total yield of liquefied petroleum gas, gasoline, and diesel) was 82.66 wt%, and the total yield of dry gas and coke was 14.28 wt%. Moreover, the research octane number of gasoline could be up to 96.

  18. Steel Rattler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trudo, Robert A.; Stotts, Larry G.

    1997-07-01

    Steel Rattler is a multi-phased project to determine the feasibility of using commercial off-the-shelf components in an advanced acoustic/seismic unattended ground sensor. This project is supported by the Defense Intelligence Agency through Sandia National Laboratories as the lead development agency. Steel Rattler uses advanced acoustic and seismic detection algorithms to categorize and identify various heavy vehicles down to the number of cylinders in the engine. This detection is accomplished with the capabilities of new, high-speed digital signal processors which analyze both acoustic and seismic data. The resulting analysis is compared against an onboard library of known vehicles and a statistical match is determined. An integrated thermal imager is also employed to capture digital thermal images for subsequent compression and transmission. Information acquired by Steel Rattler in the field is transmitted in small packets by a built-in low-power satellite communication system. The ground station receivers distribute the coded information to multiple analysis sites where the information is reassembled into coherent messages and images.

  19. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOEpatents

    Blandford, Joseph W.

    1994-01-01

    A well tender system for controlling, separating, storing and offloading well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations. The system comprises a vertically aligned series of tethered cylindrical tanks which are torsionally stabilized by flexible catenary production riser and export riser bundles, and serviced by separate catenary pipe bundles. Piles are secured to the seabed, each pile assembly being pivotally connected to a lower rigid tendon, which is in turn connected to tendons arranged about the periphery of the interconnected cylindrical tanks.

  20. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOEpatents

    Blandford, Joseph W.

    1992-01-01

    A well tender system for controlling, separating, storing and offloading well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations. The system comprises a vertically aligned series of tethered cylindrical tanks which are torsionally stabilized by flexible catenary production riser and expert riser bundles, and serviced by separate catenary pipe bundles. Piles are secured to the seabed, each pile assembly being pivotally connected to a lower rigid tendon, which is in turn connected to tendons arranged about the periphery of the interconnected cylindrical tanks.

  1. Supertough Stainless Bearing Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Gregory B.

    1995-01-01

    Composition and processing of supertough stainless bearing steel designed with help of computer-aided thermodynamic modeling. Fracture toughness and hardness of steel exceeds those of other bearing steels like 440C stainless bearing steel. Developed for service in fuel and oxidizer turbopumps on Space Shuttle main engine. Because of strength and toughness, also proves useful in other applications like gears and surgical knives.

  2. Prediction of magnitude of minimum horizontal stress from extended leak-off test conducted by the riser vessel CHIKYU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, W.; Masago, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Kawamura, Y.; Saito, S.; Kinoshita, M.

    2007-12-01

    By means of introduction of the drilling vessel 'CHIKYU', riser drilling operations using mud fluid will be carried out in NanTroSEIZE Stage 2 for the first time as an oceanic scientific-drilling. For determining drilling operation parameter such as a mud density, a downhole experiment, leak-off test (LOT) or extended leak-off test (XLOT), is going to be implemented next to casing and cementing at each casing shoe during the drilling process. Data of the downhole experiment aimed for operation can also be used for an important scientific application to obtain in-situ stress information which is necessary for various cases of scientific drillings such as seismogenic zone drillings etc. In order to examine feasibility of the application of the LOT or XLOT data, we analyzed an example of XLOT conducted by the riser vessel CHIKYU during its Shimokita shakedown cruise, 2006; and then estimated magnitude of minimum principal stress in horizontal plane, Shmin. Moreover, we will propose the test procedures to possibly improve the quality of stress result from the applications of LOT or XLOT. The XLOT of Shimokita cruise was conducted under following conditions; 1180 m water depth, 525 mbsf (meter below seafloor) depth, 1030 kg/m3 fluid density (seawater) and 80 litter/min injection flow-rate. Estimated magnitude of the Shmin is equal to 18.3 MPa based on the assumption that fracture closure pressure balances with the minimum principal stress perpendicular to the fracture plane. For comparison, the vertical stress magnitude at the depth was estimated from density profile of core samples retrieved from the same borehole; and was equal to 20 MPa approximately. These two values can be considered to be not disagreement. Therefore, we can say that the XLOT data is valuable and practical for estimating the magnitude of minimum horizontal stress. From the viewpoint of determining stress magnitude, the XLOT is more essential rather than the LOT because it might be hardly to obtain

  3. Two-year outcomes of the Early Risers prevention trial with formerly homeless families residing in supportive housing.

    PubMed

    Gewirtz, Abigail H; DeGarmo, David S; Lee, Susanne; Morrell, Nicole; August, Gerald

    2015-04-01

    This article reports 2-year outcomes from a cluster randomized, controlled trial of the Early Risers (ER) program implemented as a selective preventive intervention in supportive housing settings for homeless families. Based on the goals of this comprehensive prevention program, we predicted that intervention participants receiving ER services would show improvement in parenting and child outcomes relative to families in treatment-as-usual sites. The sample included 270 children in 161 families, residing in 15 supportive housing sites; multimethod, multi-informant assessments conducted at baseline and yearly thereafter included parent and teacher report of child adjustment, parent report of parenting self-efficacy, and parent-child observations that yielded scores of effective parenting practices. Data were modeled in HLM7 (4-level model accounting for nesting of children within families and families within housing sites). Two years' postbaseline, intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses indicated that parents in the ER group showed significantly improved parenting self-efficacy, and parent report indicated significant reductions in ER group children's depression. No main effects of ITT were shown for observed parenting effectiveness. However, over time, average levels of parenting self-efficacy predicted observed effective parenting practices, and observed effective parenting practices predicted improvements in both teacher- and parent-report of child adjustment. This is the first study to our knowledge to demonstrate prevention effects of a program for homeless families residing in family supportive housing.

  4. Modeling of porosity formation and feeding flow during casting of steel and aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhiping

    Porosity is one of the most important defects in metal casting. To quantitatively predict the porosity formation during casting two numerical models are developed for steel and aluminum alloys respectively. For steel, a multi-phase model is developed that predicts melt pressure, feeding flow, porosity (both microscopic and macroscopic), and riser pipe formation during casting. The phases included in the model are solid, liquid, porosity, and air. An energy equation is solved to determine solid fraction. A multi-phase momentum equation, which is valid everywhere in the solution domain, is derived. A pressure equation is then derived from this momentum equation and a mixture continuity equation developed that accounts for all phases. The partial pressure of a gas species dissolved in the melt is determined using the species concentration, which is found by solving a species conservation equation that accounts for convection. Porosity forms once the gas pressure exceeds the sum of the melt pressure and the capillary pressure. The amount of porosity that forms is determined from the mixture continuity equation. The riser pipe is determined from an air continuity equation. A pore size model, which considers the effects of the solidifying steel microstructure on pore size, is incorporated into the multi-phase model. The multi-phase model is applied to one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional simulations. The results clearly illustrate the basic physical phenomena involved and predict microporosity and macroporosity distributions, as well as a riser pipe. For aluminum alloys a gas microsegregation model is developed to quantitatively predict porosity, coupled with the calculations of the pressure field, feeding flow, and distribution of dissolved gas species throughout the casting. The effects of dendritic and eutectic microstructure on the pore shape and size are considered in a pore size model. The model is applied to one-dimensional simulations of A319

  5. Ultrahigh carbon steels, Damascus steels, and superplasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Sherby, O.D.; Wadsworth, J.

    1997-04-01

    The processing properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) have been studied at Stanford University over the past twenty years. These studies have shown that such steels (1 to 2.1% C) can be made superplastic at elevated temperature and can have remarkable mechanical properties at room temperature. It was the investigation of these UHCSs that eventually brought us to study the myths, magic, and metallurgy of ancient Damascus steels, which in fact, were also ultrahigh carbon steels. These steels were made in India as castings, known as wootz, possibly as far back as the time of Alexander the Great. The best swords are believed to have been forged in Persia from Indian wootz. This paper centers on recent work on superplastic UHCSs and on their relation to Damascus steels. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Measurement of Gas Velocities in the Presence of Solids in the Riser of a Cold Flow Circulating Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Spenik, J.; Ludlow, J.C.; Compston, R.; Breault, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    The local gas velocity and the intensity of the gas turbulence in a gas/solid flow are a required measurement in validating the gas and solids flow structure predicted by computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models in fluid bed and transport reactors. The high concentration and velocities of solids, however, make the use of traditional gas velocity measurement devices such as pitot tubes, hot wire anemometers and other such devices difficult. A method of determining these velocities has been devised at the National Energy Technology Laboratory employing tracer gas. The technique developed measures the time average local axial velocity gas component of a gas/solid flow using an injected tracer gas which induces changes in the heat transfer characteristics of the gas mixture. A small amount of helium is injected upstream a known distance from a self-heated thermistor. The thermistor, protected from the solids by means of a filter, is exposed to gases that are continuously extracted from the flow. Changes in the convective heat transfer characteristics of the gas are indicated by voltage variations across a Wheatstone bridge. When pulsed injections of helium are introduced to the riser flow the change in convective heat transfer coefficient of the gas can be rapidly and accurately determined with this instrument. By knowing the separation distance between the helium injection point and the thermistor extraction location as well as the time delay between injection and detection, the gas velocity can easily be calculated. Variations in the measured gas velocities also allow the turbulence intensity of the gas to be estimated.

  7. Welding Rustproof Steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmann, W

    1929-01-01

    The following experimental results will perhaps increase the knowledge of the process of welding rustproof steels. The experiments were made with two chrome-steel sheets and with two chrome-steel-nickel sheets having the composition shown in Table I.

  8. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  9. Modeling right-lateral offset of a Late Pleistocene terrace riser along the Polaris fault using ground based LiDAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howle, J. F.; Bawden, G. W.; Hunter, L. E.; Rose, R. S.

    2009-12-01

    High resolution (centimeter level) three-dimensional point-cloud imagery of offset glacial outwash deposits were collected by using ground based tripod LiDAR (T-LiDAR) to characterize the cumulative fault slip across the recently identified Polaris fault (Hunter et al., 2009) near Truckee, California. The type-section site for the Polaris fault is located 6.5 km east of Truckee where progressive right-lateral displacement of middle to late Pleistocene deposits is evident. Glacial outwash deposits, aggraded during the Tioga glaciation, form a flat lying ‘fill’ terrace on both the north and south sides of the modern Truckee River. During the Tioga deglaciation melt water incised into the terrace producing fluvial scarps or terrace risers (Birkeland, 1964). Subsequently, the terrace risers on both banks have been right-laterally offset by the Polaris fault. By using T-LiDAR on an elevated tripod (4.25 m high), we collected 3D high-resolution (thousands of points per square meter; ± 4 mm) point-cloud imagery of the offset terrace risers. Vegetation was removed from the data using commercial software, and large protruding boulders were manually deleted to generate a bare-earth point-cloud dataset with an average data density of over 240 points per square meter. From the bare-earth point cloud we mathematically reconstructed a pristine terrace/scarp morphology on both sides of the fault, defined coupled sets of piercing points, and extracted a corresponding displacement vector. First, the Polaris fault was approximated as a vertical plane that bisects the offset terrace risers, as well as bisecting linear swales and tectonic depressions in the outwash terrace. Then, piercing points to the vertical fault plane were constructed from the geometry of the geomorphic elements on either side of the fault. On each side of the fault, the best-fit modeled outwash plane is projected laterally and the best-fit modeled terrace riser projected upward to a virtual intersection in

  10. Safety Investigation of Liquid-Metal-Cooled Nuclear Systems with Heat Exchanger in the Risers of Simple Flow-Path Pool Design

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsson, Johan; Wider, Hartmut U.

    2005-12-15

    Safety investigations were performed on 600- and 1426-MW(thermal) liquid-metal-cooled reactors with the heat exchangers (HXs) located in the risers of simple flow-path pool designs. This includes both critical reactors and accelerator-driven systems (ADSs) using liquid-metal coolants. For the 600-MW(thermal) ADS, the safety implications were examined for vessel sizes of two heights (11 and 15 m) and two diameters (6 and 10 m). Then, the reference design of 11-m height and 6-m diameter was compared with a similar design, but with the HXs located in the downcomers. The transients investigated were total-loss-of-power (TLOP), unprotected-loss-of-flow (ULOF), protected-loss-of-flow, and unprotected loss-of-heat-sink accidents. The 600-MW(thermal) ADS of 11-m height and 6-m diameter peaks at 1041 K after 29 h during a TLOP accident. If the diameter is increased to 10 m, it will peak after 55 h at a 178 K lower temperature thanks to its larger thermal inertia. The difference between locating the HXs in the risers and the downcomers is insignificant for this accident type. With the HXs in the risers, the temperature peaks at 1045 K after 28 h. During a ULOF accident in an ADS at full power, the core outlet temperature stabilizes at 1010 K, which is 337 K above the nominal outlet temperature. When the vessel height is increased to 15 m, the natural convection is improved, and the core outlet temperature stabilizes at 911 K. A Pb-cooled 1426-MW(thermal) reactor of 11-m height and 12-m diameter is also shown to be sufficiently coolable during a TLOP accident; i.e., it peaks at 1093 K after 49 h. In a pool-type design with a simple flow path, the use of HXs in the risers and flaps at their inlets that prevent a flow reversal will have significant safety advantages in case of HX tube failures. Steam or gas bubbles exiting from the secondary circuit cannot be dragged into the core region by the liquid-metal coolant. Instead, they would rise with the coolant and exit through the

  11. The steel scrap age.

    PubMed

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Milford, Rachel L; Müller, Daniel B; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-04-02

    Steel production accounts for 25% of industrial carbon emissions. Long-term forecasts of steel demand and scrap supply are needed to develop strategies for how the steel industry could respond to industrialization and urbanization in the developing world while simultaneously reducing its environmental impact, and in particular, its carbon footprint. We developed a dynamic stock model to estimate future final demand for steel and the available scrap for 10 world regions. Based on evidence from developed countries, we assumed that per capita in-use stocks will saturate eventually. We determined the response of the entire steel cycle to stock saturation, in particular the future split between primary and secondary steel production. During the 21st century, steel demand may peak in the developed world, China, the Middle East, Latin America, and India. As China completes its industrialization, global primary steel production may peak between 2020 and 2030 and decline thereafter. We developed a capacity model to show how extensive trade of finished steel could prolong the lifetime of the Chinese steelmaking assets. Secondary steel production will more than double by 2050, and it may surpass primary production between 2050 and 2060: the late 21st century can become the steel scrap age.

  12. Methods of forming steel

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Burch, Joseph V.

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

  13. Maraging Steel Machining Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-23

    APR 2007 2. REPORT TYPE Technical, Success Story 3. DATES COVERED 01-12-2006 to 23-04-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maraging Steel Machining...consumers of cobalt-strengthened maraging steel . An increase in production requires them to reduce the machining time of certain operations producing... maraging steel ; Success Stories 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 1 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 1 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

  14. Welding irradiated stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.; Chandler, G.T.; Nelson, D.Z.; Franco-Ferreira, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Conventional welding processes produced severe underbead cracking in irradiated stainless steel containing 1 to 33 appm helium from n,a reactions. A shallow penetration overlay technique was successfully demonstrated for welding irradiated stainless steel. The technique was applied to irradiated 304 stainless steel that contained 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at the same and lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking was minimal compared to conventional welding methods. However, cracking in the irradiated material was greater than in tritium charged and aged material at the same helium concentrations. The overlay technique provides a potential method for repair or modification of irradiated reactor materials.

  15. Life after High School: Which Postschool Outcomes Matter for Students with and without Disabilities in Restructured High Schools? Research Institute on Secondary Education Reform (RISER) for Youth with Disabilities Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Marianne; Phelps, L. Allen

    The Research Institute on Secondary Education Reform for Youth with Disabilities (RISER) has been studying three significantly restructured high schools that have included students with disabilities and their parents in the design and/or implementation of school reform efforts. Each of these schools has operated for 3-12 years with its new,…

  16. Vertical Seismic Profiling at riser drilling site in the rupture area of the 1944 Tonankai Earthquake, Japan (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, R.; Kinoshita, M.; Araki, E.; Byrne, T. B.; McNeill, L. C.; Saffer, D. M.; Eguchi, N. O.; Takahashi, K.; Toczko, S.

    2009-12-01

    A series of scientific drilling expeditions is in operation in the Nankai Trough to reveal the faulting mechanism of the magathrust earthquakes, through clarifying composition, fine structure, mechanical behavior, and environmental variables of the seismogenic faults. In the studied area, extensive seismic surveys for site characterization have been made to image detailed geometry of the fault complex in the accretionary prism as well as Vp distribution around the faults. Although these previous surveys provided invaluable information for understanding seismotectonic processes in this subduction zone, more complete knowledge is needed to be acquired to predict dynamic behavior of the faults, such as geometrical irregularities in short wavelength, Vs and seismic attenuation which are sensitive to fluid distribution in and around fault zones. It is expected that estimation of these parameters would be improved considerably by a seismic exploration using a vertical array of seismographs installed in a deep borehole (VSP: vertical seismic profiling). In July 2009, we made a VSP at one of the drilling sites located just above the rupture area of the 1994 Tonankai Earthquake (M 8.1), during the IODP Exp.319. The well site of our VSP was made by the riser drilling of D/V Chikyu. The seismic array, lowered from Chikyu into the hole, was composed of a three-component accelerometer and vertical separation of the array elements was 15.12 m. The VSP was composed of offset VSP and zero-offset VSP. In the offset VSP, a tuned airgun array towed by R/V Kairei was shot along one straight line (walk-away VSP) and another circular line (walk-around VSP) and seismic signals were recorded by an array consisting of 16 elements installed from 907 to 1,135 m in depth from seafloor. The object of the walk-away VSP is to obtain fine image of the faults using reflection arrivals with less attenuation. It is also expected to obtain spatial variation of Vs from arrival time tomography of

  17. Accretion process of sediments below Kumano basin by analyzing cuttings from IODP Exp.319, the first riser drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, K.; Sakaguchi, A.; Kitamura, Y.; Saito, S.

    2012-12-01

    The structure, stress condition and rock properties of accreted sediments in the Nankai Trough have been studied by reflection seismology and deep sea drillings. Accretion processes have been suggested by onland geological studies that the sediments are circulated with undergoing lithification and deformation along thrusts in shallow subduction zone driven by the plate motion. However the process in the modern Nankai Trough has yet to be elucidated. We discuss the accretion process of the shallow Nankai Trough accretionary prism below Kumano basin by clarifying thermal structure and materials by vitrinite measurement and whole rock chemical analyses, respectively, using cuttings samples from IODP The Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) the first scientific riser drilling Expedition 319 at Site C0009. Cuttings were collected with an interval of every 5 m from 703.9 to 1604 m and cores were recovered from 1509.7 m to 1593.9 m below sea floor (mbsf). Due to poor consolidation of drilled sediments, cuttings samples typically consist of sand and silt floating in a matrix of mixed sedimentary and drilling muds, and solid rock chips were not retrieved above 802.7 mbsf. Visual description based on macro- and micro-scopic observation, XRD and XRF analysis, rocks properties and the age of washed cuttings (i.e. grains without mud) were made throughout the hole, which allowed to establish some indexes to estimate lithology. Four lithologic units (Unit I - IV) were defined at Site C0009 based on compositional and textural variations of cuttings samples, which are believed to closely reflect lithologic changes of drilled sequences, and show good consistency with logging data. Unit IV is believed to be accreted sediment by mainly age and the textural change of sediments. Dissoluble component ratios (TiO2/P2O5) and clay content ratios in the samples analyzed by XRF and XRD are different from that in basin sediment, which might support Unit IV are accreted

  18. Coated 4340 Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-26

    the effects of three coating systems on the mechanical property, fatigue, and...defined striations or striations-like features were formed in air, Figure A-13(b). On the other hand, intergranular cracking and formation of brittle...steel, in air. Their respective effects on the fatigue resistance of bare 4340 steel were similar in both of the employed environments, air and

  19. Steel Industry Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidtke, N. W.; Averill, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from steel industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) coke production; (2) iron and steel production; (3) rolling operations; and (4) surface treatment. A list of 133 references is also presented. (NM)

  20. EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, BUFFALO PLANT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ROLL SHOP. 8" BAR MILL DESIGNED AND BUILT BY DONNER STEEL CO. (PREDECESSOR OF REPUBLIC), 1919-1920. FOR DESCRIPTION OF ORIGINAL MILL SEE "IRON AGE", 116\\4 (23 JULY 1925): 201-204. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  1. Experimental study of the vortex-induced vibration of drilling risers under the shear flow with the same shear parameter at the different Reynolds numbers.

    PubMed

    Liangjie, Mao; Qingyou, Liu; Shouwei, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    A considerable number of studies for VIV under the uniform flow have been performed. However, research on VIV under shear flow is scarce. An experiment for VIV under the shear flow with the same shear parameter at the two different Reynolds numbers was conducted in a deep-water offshore basin. Various measurements were obtained by the fiber bragg grating strain sensors. Experimental data were analyzed by modal analysis method. Results show several valuable features. First, the corresponding maximum order mode of the natural frequency for shedding frequency is the maximum dominant vibration mode and multi-modal phenomenon is appeared in VIV under the shear flow, and multi-modal phenomenon is more apparent at the same shear parameter with an increasing Reynolds number under the shear flow effect. Secondly, the riser vibrates at the natural frequency and the dominant vibration frequency increases for the effect of the real-time tension amplitude under the shear flow and the IL vibration frequency is the similar with the CF vibration frequency at the Reynolds number of 1105 in our experimental condition and the IL dominant frequency is twice the CF dominant frequency with an increasing Reynolds number. In addition, the displacement trajectories at the different locations of the riser appear the same shape and the shape is changed at the same shear parameter with an increasing Reynolds number under the shear flow. The diagonal displacement trajectories are observed at the low Reynolds number and the crescent-shaped displacement trajectories appear with an increasing Reynolds number under shear flow in the experiment.

  2. Experimental Study of the Vortex-Induced Vibration of Drilling Risers under the Shear Flow with the Same Shear Parameter at the Different Reynolds Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Liangjie, Mao; Qingyou, Liu; Shouwei, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    A considerable number of studies for VIV under the uniform flow have been performed. However, research on VIV under shear flow is scarce. An experiment for VIV under the shear flow with the same shear parameter at the two different Reynolds numbers was conducted in a deep-water offshore basin. Various measurements were obtained by the fiber bragg grating strain sensors. Experimental data were analyzed by modal analysis method. Results show several valuable features. First, the corresponding maximum order mode of the natural frequency for shedding frequency is the maximum dominant vibration mode and multi-modal phenomenon is appeared in VIV under the shear flow, and multi-modal phenomenon is more apparent at the same shear parameter with an increasing Reynolds number under the shear flow effect. Secondly, the riser vibrates at the natural frequency and the dominant vibration frequency increases for the effect of the real-time tension amplitude under the shear flow and the IL vibration frequency is the similar with the CF vibration frequency at the Reynolds number of 1105 in our experimental condition and the IL dominant frequency is twice the CF dominant frequency with an increasing Reynolds number. In addition, the displacement trajectories at the different locations of the riser appear the same shape and the shape is changed at the same shear parameter with an increasing Reynolds number under the shear flow. The diagonal displacement trajectories are observed at the low Reynolds number and the crescent-shaped displacement trajectories appear with an increasing Reynolds number under shear flow in the experiment. PMID:25118607

  3. Damascus steel ledeburite class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhanov, D. A.; Arkhangelsky, L. B.; Plotnikova, N. V.

    2017-02-01

    Discovered that some of blades Damascus steel has an unusual nature of origin of the excess cementite, which different from the redundant phases of secondary cementite, cementite of ledeburite and primary cementite in iron-carbon alloys. It is revealed that the morphological features of separate particles of cementite in Damascus steels lies in the abnormal size of excess carbides having the shape of irregular prisms. Considered three hypotheses for the formation of excess cementite in the form of faceted prismatic of excess carbides. The first hypothesis is based on thermal fission of cementite of a few isolated grains. The second hypothesis is based on the process of fragmentation cementite during deformation to the separate the pieces. The third hypothesis is based on the transformation of metastable cementite in the stable of angular eutectic carbide. It is shown that the angular carbides are formed within the original metastable colony ledeburite, so they are called “eutectic carbide”. It is established that high-purity white cast iron is converted into of Damascus steel during isothermal soaking at the annealing. It was revealed that some of blades Damascus steel ledeburite class do not contain in its microstructure of crushed ledeburite. It is shown that the pattern of carbide heterogeneity of Damascus steel consists entirely of angular eutectic carbides. Believe that Damascus steel refers to non-heat-resistant steel of ledeburite class, which have similar structural characteristics with semi-heat-resistant die steel or heat-resistant high speed steel, differing from them only in the nature of excess carbide phase.

  4. Cobalt free maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Floreen, S.

    1984-04-17

    The subject invention is directed to ferrous-base alloys, particularly to a cobalt-free maraging steel of novel chemistry characterized by a desired combination of strength and toughness, notwithstanding that cobalt is non-essential.

  5. Structural Amorphous Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z. P.; Liu, C. T.; Thompson, J. R.; Porter, W. D.

    2004-06-01

    Recent advancement in bulk metallic glasses, whose properties are usually superior to their crystalline counterparts, has stimulated great interest in fabricating bulk amorphous steels. While a great deal of effort has been devoted to this field, the fabrication of structural amorphous steels with large cross sections has remained an alchemist’s dream because of the limited glass-forming ability (GFA) of these materials. Here we report the discovery of structural amorphous steels that can be cast into glasses with large cross-section sizes using conventional drop-casting methods. These new steels showed interesting physical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, along with high thermal stability. The underlying mechanisms for the superior GFA of these materials are discussed.

  6. Glass Stronger than Steel

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Yarris, Lynn

    2011-03-28

    A new type of damage-tolerant metallic glass, demonstrating a strength and toughness beyond that of steel or any other known material, has been developed and tested by a collaboration of researchers from Berkeley Lab and Caltech.

  7. Joining Steel Armor - Intermix

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    TARADCOM a d ki Lk A el B~ 0el RWET0 TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12311 JOINING STEEL ARMOR - INTERMIX March 1979 U U * S* ’ "U .by B. . A.SCEV * U...authorized documents. O "if TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12311 JOINING STEEL ARMOR - INTERMIX BY B. A. SCHEVO March 1979 AMS: 3197..6D.4329 TARADCOM ARMOR AND...Intermix Process ...... ........ 3 Test Procedures - Intermix Armor ........ ......... 4 Mock Hull ................. ..................... 5 Results

  8. Life after Steel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Bobby Curran grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Baltimore, finished high school, and followed his grandfather's steel-toed bootprints straight to Sparrows Point, a 3,000-acre sprawl of industry on the Chesapeake Bay. College was not part of the plan. A gritty but well-paying job at the RG Steel plant was Mr. Curran's ticket to a secure…

  9. Ferrium M54 Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-18

    15 to 18% (reference 1). Beyond this range the alloy becomes more noble than steel and loses its sacrificial protection property . Therefore, Zn-14...for a 7075-T651 aluminum alloy , which was subjected to biaxial fatigue loading in 3.5% NaCl solution (reference 27). NAWCADPAX/TIM-2014/292...Edition, Properties and Selection: Iron, Steels, and High- Performance Alloys , ASM International, 1990, p. 395. 8. G. L. Spencer and D. J. Duquette

  10. Fractographic Analysis of Weld Metal and HAZ Regions of API X-80 Steel Subjected to Simulation of the Reel-Lay Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrão, M. A. N.; Bastian, F. L.

    2014-10-01

    The reel-lay method is a process commonly used for rigid riser installation. During this process, riser materials are subjected to high strain levels and associated plastic damage which can affect their structural integrity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the fracture surfaces at weld metal and heat-affected zone regions of API X-80 steel three-point bend specimens, SE(B), subjected to reel-lay method simulations. The pre-existence of circumferential planar defects at 12 o'clock position was considered and the J-integral was used to simulate the reel-lay condition at the defects. Different strain levels considering conditions less and more severe than the real one were also studied. The results showed a great influence of J magnitude on fracture surface morphology. The increase of J magnitude led to a greater local surface damage on the specimens and stable crack growth during reel-lay simulation. High loading conditions should be avoided in the operation in order to prevent further structural damage of the materials.

  11. Articles comprising ferritic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, James M.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture comprises a ferritic stainless steel that includes a near-surface region depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the ferritic stainless steel. The article has a reduced tendency to form an electrically resistive silica layer including silicon derived from the steel when the article is subjected to high temperature oxidizing conditions. The ferritic stainless steel is selected from the group comprising AISI Type 430 stainless steel, AISI Type 439 stainless steel, AISI Type 441 stainless steel, AISI Type 444 stainless steel, and E-BRITE.RTM. alloy, also known as UNS 44627 stainless steel. In certain embodiments, the article of manufacture is a fuel cell interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell.

  12. View northwest, wharf A, sheet steel bulkhead, steel lift tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest, wharf A, sheet steel bulkhead, steel lift tower - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  13. Superclean steel development

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, R.H.; McNaughton, W.P. )

    1989-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute has actively encouraged and sponsored a number of research projects to develop a superclean 3.5NiCrMoV steel for low pressure turbine rotors. Such steel is highly resistant to temper embrittlement and will thus facilitate increased efficiency in electricity generation through the use of higher operating temperatures and improvements in design. The objective of this interim report was to integrate the results that have been generated to date worldwide in the pursuit of superclean steel. The report contains detailed findings that enable the interested utility to evaluate how the results affect utility decision making. A companion document has been written to summarize the findings from this technical report. The results indicate that steels with impurity contents typical of the superclean specification can be manufactured for production rotors with properties that equal or exceed those for conventional 3.5NiCrMoV rotors in every detail. Of particular interest are the results that the superclean steels appear to be virtually resistant to temper embrittlement to a temperature of 500 {degrees}C. 109 refs., 51 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Trends in steel technology. [Dual phase and HSLA steels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Dual phase steels, composite products, and microalloyed steels are making inroads in the automotive industry applications for bumpers, automotive parts, bodies, mechanical parts, suspension and steering equipment and truck bumpers. New steels are also used to support solar mirrors and cells, in corrosive environments in the oil and gas industry, fusion reactors, and pressure vessels in nuclear power plants. (FS)

  15. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  16. Stainless steel tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, T.

    1995-12-31

    There is currently no recognized code or standard for the design, fabrication and construction of atmospheric and low pressure stainless steel tanks. At the present time these tanks are being designed to individual specifications, manufacturers standards or utilizing other codes and standards that may not be entirely applicable. Recognizing the need, the American Petroleum Institute will be publishing a new appendix to the API STD 650 Standard which will cover stainless steel tanks. The new Appendix was put together by a Task Group of selected individuals from the API Subcommittee of Pressure Vessels and Tanks from the Committee on Refinery Equipment. This paper deals with the development and basis of the new appendix. The new appendix will provide a much needed standard to cover the material, design, fabrication, erection and testing requirements for vertical, cylindrical, austenitic stainless steel aboveground tanks in nonrefrigerated service.

  17. A-3 steel work completed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center engineers celebrated a key milestone in construction of the A-3 Test Stand on April 9 - completion of structural steel work. Workers with Lafayette (La.) Steel Erector Inc. placed the last structural steel beam atop the stand during a noon ceremony attended by more than 100 workers and guests.

  18. Active tectonics in southern Xinjiang, China: Analysis of terrace riser and normal fault scarp degradation along the Hotan-Qira fault system

    SciTech Connect

    Avouac, J.P.; Peltzer, G. |

    1993-12-01

    The northern piedmont of the western Kunlun mountains (Xinjiang, China) is marked at its easternmost extremity, south of the Hotan-Qira oases, by a set of normal faults trending N50E for nearly 70 km. Conspicuous on Landsat and SPOT images, these faults follow the southeastern border of a deep flexural basin and may be related to the subsidence of the Tarim platform loaded by the western Kunlun northward overthrust. The Hotan-Qira normal fault system vertically offsets the piedmont slope by 70 m. Highest fault scarps reach 20 m and often display evidence for recent reactivations about 2 m high. Successive stream entrenchments in uplifted footwallls have formed inset terraces. We have leveled topographic profiles across fault scarps and transverse abandoned terrace risers. The state of degradation of each terrace edge has been characterized by a degradation coefficient tau, derived by comparison with analytical erosion models. Edges of highest abandoned terraces yield a degradation coefficient of 33 +/- 4 sq.m. Profiles of cumulative fault scarps have been analyzed in a similar way using synthetic profiles generated with a simple incremental fault scarp model.

  19. Active tectonics in southern Xinjiang, China: Analysis of terrace riser and normal fault scarp degradation along the Hotan-Qira fault system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Peltzer, Gilles

    1993-01-01

    The northern piedmont of the western Kunlun mountains (Xinjiang, China) is marked at its easternmost extremity, south of the Hotan-Qira oases, by a set of normal faults trending N50E for nearly 70 km. Conspicuous on Landsat and SPOT images, these faults follow the southeastern border of a deep flexural basin and may be related to the subsidence of the Tarim platform loaded by the western Kunlun northward overthrust. The Hotan-Qira normal fault system vertically offsets the piedmont slope by 70 m. Highest fault scarps reach 20 m and often display evidence for recent reactivations about 2 m high. Successive stream entrenchments in uplifted footwallls have formed inset terraces. We have leveled topographic profiles across fault scarps and transverse abandoned terrace risers. The state of degradation of each terrace edge has been characterized by a degradation coefficient tau, derived by comparison with analytical erosion models. Edges of highest abandoned terraces yield a degradation coefficient of 33 +/- 4 sq.m. Profiles of cumulative fault scarps have been analyzed in a similar way using synthetic profiles generated with a simple incremental fault scarp model.

  20. Microbial-Influenced Corrosion of Corten Steel Compared with Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel in Oily Wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri, Hamidreza; Alavi, Seyed Abolhasan; Fotovat, Meysam

    2015-07-01

    The microbial corrosion behavior of three important steels (carbon steel, stainless steel, and Corten steel) was investigated in semi petroleum medium. This work was done in modified nutrient broth (2 g nutrient broth in 1 L oily wastewater) in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mixed culture (as a biotic media) and an abiotic medium for 2 weeks. The behavior of corrosion was analyzed by spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods and at the end was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the degree of corrosion of Corten steel in mixed culture, unlike carbon steel and stainless steel, is less than P. aeruginosa inoculated medium because some bacteria affect Corten steel less than other steels. According to the experiments, carbon steel had less resistance than Corten steel and stainless steel. Furthermore, biofilm inhibits separated particles of those steels to spread to the medium; in other words, particles get trapped between biofilm and steel.

  1. Braze alloy spreading on steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siewert, T. A.; Heine, R. W.; Lagally, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Auger electron microscopy (AEM) were employed to observe elemental surface decomposition resulting from the brazing of a copper-treated steel. Two types of steel were used for the study, stainless steel (treated with a eutectic silver-copper alloy), and low-carbon steel (treated with pure copper). Attention is given to oxygen partial pressure during the processes; a low enough pressure (8 x 10 to the -5th torr) was found to totally inhibit the spreading of the filler material at a fixed heating cycle. With both types of steel, copper treatment enhanced even spreading at a decreased temperature.

  2. 77 FR 30589 - SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver Infrastructure Fund North America LP, and Patriot Funding LLC--Control Exemption--Patriot Rail Corp., et al. SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP (SRIP LP), SteelRiver...

  3. Ferritic steel melt and FLiBe/steel experiment : melting ferritic steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Smith, Brandon M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan

    2004-11-01

    In preparation for developing a Z-pinch IFE power plant, the interaction of ferritic steel with the coolant, FLiBe, must be explored. Sandia National Laboratories Fusion Technology Department was asked to drop molten ferritic steel and FLiBe in a vacuum system and determine the gas byproducts and ability to recycle the steel. We tried various methods of resistive heating of ferritic steel using available power supplies and easily obtained heaters. Although we could melt the steel, we could not cause a drop to fall. This report describes the various experiments that were performed and includes some suggestions and materials needed to be successful. Although the steel was easily melted, it was not possible to drip the molten steel into a FLiBe pool Levitation melting of the drop is likely to be more successful.

  4. History of ultrahigh carbon steels

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, J.; Sherby, O.D.

    1997-06-20

    The history and development of ultrahigh carbon steels (i.e., steels containing between 1 and 2.l percent C and now known as UHCS) are described. The early use of steel compositions containing carbon contents above the eutectoid level is found in ancient weapons from around the world. For example, both Damascus and Japanese sword steels are hypereutectoid steels. Their manufacture and processing is of interest in understanding the role of carbon content in the development of modern steels. Although sporadic examples of UHCS compositions are found in steels examined in the early part of this century, it was not until the mid-1970s that the modern study began. This study had its origin in the development of superplastic behavior in steels and the recognition that increasing the carbon content was of importance in developing that property. The compositions that were optimal for superplasticity involved the development of steels that contained higher carbon contents than conventional modern steels. It was discovered, however, that the room temperature properties of these compositions were of interest in their own right. Following this discovery, a period of intense work began on understanding their manufacture, processing, and properties for both superplastic forming and room temperature applications. The development of superplastic cast irons and iron carbides, as well as those of laminated composites containing UHCS, was an important part of this history.

  5. Biodegradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in a packed-bed biofilm reactor equipped with an internal net draft tube riser for aeration and liquid circulation.

    PubMed

    Jesús, A Gómez-De; Romano-Baez, F J; Leyva-Amezcua, L; Juárez-Ramírez, C; Ruiz-Ordaz, N; Galíndez-Mayer, J

    2009-01-30

    For the aerobic biodegradation of the fungicide and defoliant 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), a bench-scale packed-bed bioreactor equipped with a net draft tube riser for liquid circulation and oxygenation (PB-ALR) was constructed. To obtain a high packed-bed volume relative to the whole bioreactor volume, a high A(D)/A(R) ratio was used. Reactor's downcomer was packed with a porous support of volcanic stone fragments. PB-ALR hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer behavior was evaluated and compared to the observed behavior of the unpacked reactor operating as an internal airlift reactor (ALR). Overall gas holdup values epsilon(G), and zonal oxygen mass transfer coefficients determined at various airflow rates in the PB-ALR, were higher than those obtained with the ALR. When comparing mixing time values obtained in both cases, a slight increment in mixing time was observed when reactor was operated as a PB-ALR. By using a mixed microbial community, the biofilm reactor was used to evaluate the aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCP. Three bacterial strains identified as Burkholderia sp., Burkholderia kururiensis and Stenotrophomonas sp. constituted the microbial consortium able to cometabolically degrade the 2,4,6-TCP, using phenol as primary substrate. This consortium removed 100% of phenol and near 99% of 2,4,6-TCP. Mineralization and dehalogenation of 2,4,6-TCP was evidenced by high COD removal efficiencies ( approximately 95%), and by the stoichiometric release of chloride ions from the halogenated compound ( approximately 80%). Finally, it was observed that the microbial consortium was also capable to metabolize 2,4,6-TCP without phenol as primary substrate, with high removal efficiencies (near 100% for 2,4,6-TCP, 92% for COD and 88% for chloride ions).

  6. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  7. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  8. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  9. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  10. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  11. Stainless Steel Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Buchenauer, Dean A.; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2015-09-01

    An understanding of the behavior of hydrogen isotopes in materials is critical to predicting tritium transport in structural metals (at high pressure), estimating tritium losses during production (fission environment), and predicting in-vessel inventory for future fusion devices (plasma driven permeation). Current models often assume equilibrium diffusivity and solubility for a class of materials (e.g. stainless steels or aluminum alloys), neglecting trapping effects or, at best, considering a single population of trapping sites. Permeation and trapping studies of the particular castings and forgings enable greater confidence and reduced margins in the models. For FY15, we have continued our investigation of the role of ferrite in permeation for steels of interest to GTS, through measurements of the duplex steel 2507. We also initiated an investigation of the permeability in work hardened materials, to follow up on earlier observations of unusual permeability in a particular region of 304L forgings. Samples were prepared and characterized for ferrite content and coated with palladium to prevent oxidation. Issues with the poor reproducibility of measurements at low permeability were overcome, although the techniques in use are tedious. Funding through TPBAR and GTS were secured for a research grade quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and replacement turbo pumps, which should improve the fidelity and throughput of measurements in FY16.

  12. High Fragmentation Steel Production Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    phase of the project entailed the purchase and metallurgical characterization of two heats of HF-1 steel from different vendors. Performed by...At>-A 13^ nzt AD AD-E401 117 CONTRACTOR REPORT ARLCD-CR-83049 HIGH FRAGMENTATION STEEL PRODUCTION PROCESS ^"fP-PTTMirj A 1 James F. Kane...Report 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER High Fragmentation Steel Production Process 7. AUTHORfs; James F. Kane, Ronald L. Kivak, Colin C. MacCrindle

  13. Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiong; Pu, Mingbo; Zhao, Zeyu; Ma, Xiaoliang; Jin, Jinjin; Wang, Yanqin; Gao, Ping; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-01-01

    Non-diffracting Bessel beams, including zero-order and high-order Bessel Beams which carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), enable a variety of important applications in optical micromanipulation, sub-diffraction imaging, high speed photonics/quantum communication, etc. The commonly used ways to create Bessel beams, including an axicon or a digital hologram written to a spatial light modulator (SLM), have great challenges to operate at the nanoscale. Here we theoretically design and experimentally demonstrate one kind of planar Bessel beam generators based on metasurfaces with analytical structures perforated in ultra-thin metallic screens. Continuous phase modulation between 0 to 2π is realized with a single element. In addition, due to the dispersionless phase shift stemming from spin-orbit interaction, the proposed device can work in a wide wavelength range. The results may find applications in future optical communication, nanofabrication and super-resolution imaging, etc. PMID:26843142

  14. Process for dezincing galvanized steel

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, W.A.; Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1998-07-14

    A process is described for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75 C and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (1) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (2) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (3) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (4) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte. 1 fig.

  15. Process for dezincing galvanized steel

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, William A.; Dudek, Frederick J.; Daniels, Edward J.

    1998-01-01

    A process for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75.degree. C. and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (i) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (ii) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (iii) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (iv) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte.

  16. High strength, tough alloy steel

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Gareth; Rao, Bangaru V. N.

    1979-01-01

    A high strength, tough alloy steel is formed by heating the steel to a temperature in the austenite range (1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.) to form a homogeneous austenite phase and then cooling the steel to form a microstructure of uniformly dispersed dislocated martensite separated by continuous thin boundary films of stabilized retained austenite. The steel includes 0.2-0.35 weight % carbon, at least 1% and preferably 3-4.5% chromium, and at least one other substitutional alloying element, preferably manganese or nickel. The austenite film is stable to subsequent heat treatment as by tempering (below 300.degree. C.) and reforms to a stable film after austenite grain refinement.

  17. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Gun Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    8217s HY80 and HY130 steels were checked for the critical hydrogen concentrations which were determined to be 6 ppm for HY8O steel 8 and 3 ppm for HY130...JOTC FILE COPY AD-A188 972 AD 1 TECHNICAL REPORT ARCCB-TR-87030 HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT OF GUN STEEL F’ GERALD L. SPFNCER DTIC DEC 1 5 1987 NOVEMBER...PtEtIOC COVERED HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEHENT OF GUN STEEL Final OG EOTNME 6. PERFORMINGORO EOTNME 7. A*JTNOR(s) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) Gerald L

  18. Reduction in Energy Consumption & Variability in Steel Foundry Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Peters

    2005-05-04

    This project worked to improve the efficiency of the steel casting industry by reducing the variability that occurs because of process and product variation. The project focused on the post shakeout operations since roughly half of the production costs are in this area. These improvements will reduce the amount of variability, making it easier to manage the operation and improve the competitiveness. The reduction in variability will also reduce the need for many rework operations, which will result in a direct reduction of energy usage, particularly by the reduction of repeated heat treatment operations. Further energy savings will be realized from the reduction of scrap and reduced handling. Field studies were conducted at ten steel foundries that represented the U.S. steel casting industry, for a total of over 100 weeks of production observation. These studies quantified the amount of variability, and looked toward determining the source. A focus of the data collected was the grinding operations since this is a major effort in the cleaning room, and it represents the overall casting quality. The grinding was divided into two categories, expected and unexpected. Expected grinding is that in which the location of the effort is known prior to making the casting, such as smoothing parting lines, gates, and riser contacts. Unexpected grinding, which was approximately 80% of the effort, was done to improve the surfaces at weld repair locations, to rectify burnt on sand, and other surface anomalies at random locations. Unexpected grinding represents about 80% of the grinding effort. By quantifying this effort, the project raised awareness within the industry and the industry is continuing to make improvements. The field studies showed that the amount of variation of grinding operations (normalized because of the diverse set of parts studied) was very consistent across the industry. The field studies identified several specific sources that individually contributed to

  19. The industrial ecology of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Considine, Timothy J.; Jablonowski, Christopher; Considine, Donita M.M.; Rao, Prasad G.

    2001-03-26

    This study performs an integrated assessment of new technology adoption in the steel industry. New coke, iron, and steel production technologies are discussed, and their economic and environmental characteristics are compared. Based upon detailed plant level data on cost and physical input-output relations by process, this study develops a simple mathematical optimization model of steel process choice. This model is then expanded to a life cycle context, accounting for environmental emissions generated during the production and transportation of energy and material inputs into steelmaking. This life-cycle optimization model provides a basis for evaluating the environmental impacts of existing and new iron and steel technologies. Five different plant configurations are examined, from conventional integrated steel production to completely scrap-based operations. Two cost criteria are used to evaluate technology choice: private and social cost, with the latter including the environmental damages associated with emissions. While scrap-based technologies clearly generate lower emissions in mass terms, their emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are significantly higher. Using conventional damage cost estimates reported in the literature suggests that the social costs associated with scrap-based steel production are slightly higher than with integrated steel production. This suggests that adopting a life-cycle viewpoint can substantially affect environmental assessment of new technologies. Finally, this study also examines the impacts of carbon taxes on steel production costs and technology choice.

  20. MINOS Detector Steel Magnetic Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Trendler and Walter F. Jaskierny

    1999-03-03

    Magnetic measurements were made on one steel plate of the MINOS far detector. The conventionally used technique of measuring sense coil voltage induced by step changes in excitation current voltage was successful in providing stable, repeatable measurements. Measurements were made at several locations on the steel and the results are presented.

  1. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Structural Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Somerday, Brian P.; San Marchi, Christopher W

    2014-08-01

    Carbon-manganese steels are candidates for the structural materials in hydrogen gas pipelines; however, it is well known that these steels are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Decades of research and industrial experience have established that hydrogen embrittlement compromises the structural integrity of steel components. This experience has also helped identify the failure modes that can operate in hydrogen containment structures. As a result, there are tangible ideas for managing hydrogen embrittlement in steels and quantifying safety margins for steel hydrogen containment structures. For example, fatigue crack growth aided by hydrogen embrittlement is a well-established failure mode for steel hydrogen containment structures subjected to pressure cycling. This pressure cycling represents one of the key differences in operating conditions between current hydrogen pipelines and those anticipated in a hydrogen delivery infrastructure. Applying structural integrity models in design codes coupled with measurement of relevant material properties allows quantification of the reliability/integrity of steel hydrogen pipelines subjected to pressure cycling. Furthermore, application of these structural integrity models is aided by the development of physics-based predictive models, which provide important insights such as the effects of microstructure on hydrogen-assisted fatigue crack growth. Successful implementation of these structural integrity and physics-based models enhances confidence in the design codes and enables decisions about materials selection and operating conditions for reliable and efficient steel hydrogen pipelines.

  2. 2169 Steel Waveform Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furnish, M.; Alexander, C.; Reinhart, W.; Brown, J.

    2013-06-01

    In support of efforts to develop multiscale models of materials, we performed eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn). These experiments provided shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were used, with samples 1 to 5 mm thick. The study focused on dynamic strength determination via the release/reshock paths. Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allowed release information to be determined from these free surface samples as well. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Connections: Superplasticity, Damascus Steels, Laminated Steels, and Carbon Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadsworth, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a description is given of the connections that evolved from the initial development of a family of superplastic plain carbon steels that came to be known as Ultra-High Carbon Steels (UHCS). It was observed that their very high carbon contents were similar, if not identical, to those of Damascus steels. There followed a series of attempts to rediscover how the famous patterns found on Damascus steels blades were formed. At the same time, in order to improve the toughness at room temperature of the newly-developed UHCS, laminated composites were made of alternating layers of UHCS and mild steel (and subsequently other steels and other metals). This led to a study of ancient laminated composites, the motives for their manufacture, and the plausibility of some of the claims relating to the number of layers in the final blades. One apparently ancient laminated composite, recovered in 1837 from the great pyramid of Giza which was constructed in about 2750 B.C., stimulated a carbon dating study of ancient steels. The modern interest in "Bladesmithing" has connections back to many of these ancient weapons.

  4. Occupational Profiles in the European Steel Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Hans-Werner; And Others

    The steel industry in Europe has faced great changes, with resulting layoffs and restructuring. Now that the most basic changes seem to be over, it has become evident that the remaining steel industry requires more highly trained workers than was the case previously. Although steel maintenance employees were always highly skilled, steel production…

  5. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  6. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  7. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  8. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  9. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  10. Improving the toughness of ultrahigh strength steel

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, Koji

    2002-01-01

    The ideal structural steel combines high strength with high fracture toughness. This dissertation discusses the toughening mechanism of the Fe/Co/Ni/Cr/Mo/C steel, AerMet 100, which has the highest toughness/strength combination among all commercial ultrahigh strength steels. The possibility of improving the toughness of this steel was examined by considering several relevant factors.

  11. Hypereutectoid high-speed steels

    SciTech Connect

    Kremnev, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    Half of the tungsten and molybdenum contained in R6M5 and R18 steels is concentrated in the undissolved eutectic carbides hindering austenitic grain gowth in hardening and providing the necessary strength and impact strength. This article describes the tungsten-free low-alloy high-speed steel 11M5F with a chemical composition of 1.03-1.10% C, 5.2-5.7% Mo, 3.8-4.2% Cr, 1.3-1.7% V, 0.3-0.6% Si, and 0.3% Ce. The properties of 11M5F and R6M5 steels are examined and compared. The results of production and laboratory tests of the cutting properties of tools of the steels developed showed their high effectiveness, especially of 11M5F steel with 1% A1. The life of tools of the tungsten-free steels is two or three times greater than the life of tools of R6M5 steel.

  12. Welding tritium exposed stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Stainless steels that are exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to buildup of decay helium within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for tritium containment systems, methods for welding on tritium exposed material will become important for repair or modification of the systems. Solid-state resistance welding and low-penetration overlay welding have been shown to mitigate helium embrittlement cracking in tritium exposed 304 stainless steel. These processes can also be used on stainless steel containing helium from neutron irradiation, such as occurs in nuclear reactors.

  13. Method for welding chromium molybdenum steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.

    1986-09-16

    A process is described for welding chromium-molybdenum steels which consist of: subjecting the steel to normalization by heating to above the transformation temperature and cooling in air; subjecting the steel to a partial temper by heating to a temperature less than a full temper; welding the steel using an appropriate filler metal; subjecting the steel to a full temper by heating to a temperature sufficient to optimize strength, reduce stress, increase ductility and reduce hardness.

  14. 2169 steel waveform experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.

    2012-11-01

    In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mmthick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.

  15. Fatigue handbook: Offshore steel structures

    SciTech Connect

    Almarnaess, A.

    1985-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Overview of Offshore Steel Structures; Loads on Ocean Structures; Fracture Mechanics As a Tool in Fatigue Analysis; Basic Fatigue Properties of Welded Joints; Significance of Defects; Improving the Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints; Effects of Marine Environment and Cathodic Protection on Fatigue of Structural Steels Fatigue of Tubular Joints; Unstable Fracture; Fatigue Life Calculations; and Fatigue in Building Codes Background and Applications.

  16. Wear of steel by rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gent, A. N.; Pulford, C. T. R.

    1978-01-01

    Wear of a steel blade used as a scraper to abrade rubber surfaces has been found to take place much more rapidly on a cis-polyisoprene (natural rubber) surface than on a cis-polybutadiene surface, and much more rapidly in an inert atmosphere than in air. These observations are attributed to the direct attack upon steel of free-radical species generated by mechanical rupture of elastomer molecules during abrasion.

  17. ELECTROMAGNETIC INSPECTION OF HARDENED STEEL.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    heat treat methods (no carbon added to the surface), and (2) The determination of through hardness or tempering temperature history of Stentor tool...effectiveness of phase sensitive and harmonic eddy current test methods for determining tempering temperature history of 4340 and Stentor tool steels was...showed that tempering temperature history of 4340 and Stentor steel can be determined for all temperatures (265 F to 820 F) used for specimen preparation on this program.

  18. Development of New Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Buck

    2005-08-30

    A new family of innovative martensitic stainless steels, 521-A, 521-B, and 521-C has been developed by Advanced Steel Technology, LLC (Trafford, PA) as high strength fastener (bolt) materials for use at moderate temperatures in turbine engines, including steam turbines, gas turbines, and aircraft engines. The primary objective of the development program was to create a martensitic stainless steel with high strength at moderate temperatures, and which could replace the expensive nickel-based superalloy IN 718 in some fasteners applications. A secondary objective was to replace conventional 12Cr steels such as AISI 422 used as blades, buckets and shafts that operate at intermediate temperatures in turbine engines with stronger steel. The composition of the new alloys was specifically designed to produce excellent mechanical properties while integrating heat treatment steps into production to reduce energy consumption during manufacturing. As a result, production costs and energy consumption during production of rolled bar products is significantly lower than conventional materials. Successful commercialization of the new alloys would permit the installed cost of certain turbine engines to be reduced without sacrificing high availability or operational flexibility, thereby enhancing the global competitiveness of U.S. turbine engine manufacturers. Moreover, the domestic specialty steel industry would also benefit through increased productivity and reduced operating costs, while increasing their share of the international market for turbine engine fasteners, blades, buckets and shafts.

  19. A microstructure sensitive study of rolling contact fatigue in bearing steels: A numerical and experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandkar, Anup Surendra

    Bearings are an integral part of machine components that transmit rotary power such as cars, motors, engines etc. Safe bearing operation is essential to avoid serious failures and accidents, which necessitates their timely replacement. This calls for an accurate bearing life prediction methods. Based on the Lundberg-Palmgen (LP) model, current life models consistently under predict bearings lives. Improvement in life prediction requires understanding of the bearing failure mechanism i.e. Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF). The goal of this research is to develop a mechanistic framework required for an improved bearing life prediction model. Such model should account for metal plasticity, influence of microstructural features and cyclically evolving stressstrain fields induced during RCF. To achieve this, elastic-plastic finite element (FE) study is undertaken to investigate the response of M50-NiL bearing steel during RCF. Specifically, a microstructure sensitive study of the influence of non-metallic inclusions on RCF response of bearings is presented. M50-NiL microstructure consists of carbides which are orders of magnitude smaller than bearing dimensions. To account for this size difference, a multi-scale FE modeling approach is employed. The FE results reveal that hard carbide particles act as local stress risers, alter surrounding stressstrain fields and cause micro-scale yielding of steel matrix. Moreover, they introduce a shear stress cycle with non-zero mean stress, which promotes micro-plastic strain accumulation via ratcheting mechanism. Localized ratcheting is primarily responsible for cyclic hardening within the RCF affected region. Such evolution of subsurface hardness can be used to quantify RCF induced damage. To investigate this further, cyclic hardening response of the RCF affected region is simulated. The results show good agreement with the experimental observations. The cyclic stress-strain fields obtained from these simulations and the knowledge of

  20. Review on cold-formed steel connections.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Huei; Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Tahir, Mahmood Md; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed.

  1. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Md Tahir, Mahmood; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed. PMID:24688448

  2. 38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN BOILER PLANT LOCATED EAST OF MAIN STEEL PLANT, 1909. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  3. Nickel release from stainless steels.

    PubMed

    Haudrechy, P; Mantout, B; Frappaz, A; Rousseau, D; Chabeau, G; Faure, M; Claudy, A

    1997-09-01

    In 1994, a study of nickel release and allergic contact dermatitis from nickel-plated metals and stainless steels was published in this journal. It was shown that low-sulfur stainless steel grades like AISI 304, 316L or 430 (S < or = 0.007%) release less than 0.03 microgram/cm2/week of nickel in acid artificial sweat and elicit no reactions in patients already sensitized to nickel. In contrast, nickel-plated samples release around 100 micrograms/cm2/week of Ni and high-sulfur stainless steel (AISI 303-S approximately 0.3%) releases about 1.5 micrograms/cm2/week in this acid artificial sweat. Applied on patients sensitized to nickel, these metals elicit positive reactions in 96% and 14%, respectively, of the patients. The main conclusion was that low-sulfur stainless steels like AISI 304, 316L or 430, even when containing Ni, should not elicit nickel contact dermatitis, while metals having a mean corrosion resistance like a high-sulfur stainless steel (AISI 303) or nickel-plated steel should be avoided. The determining characteristic was in fact the corrosion resistance in chloride media, which, for stainless steels, is connected, among other factors, to the sulfur content. Thus, a question remained concerning the grades with an intermediate sulfur content, around 0.03%, which were not studied. They are the object of the study presented in this paper. 3 tests were performed: leaching experiments, dimethylglyoxime and HNO3 spot tests, and clinical patch tests; however, only stainless steels were tested: a low-sulfur AISI 304 and AISI 303 as references and 3 grades with a sulfur content around 0.03%: AISI 304L, AISI 304L added with Ca, AISI 304L+Cu. Leaching experiments showed that the 4 non-resulfurised grades released less than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week in acid sweat while the reulfurized AISI 303 released around or more than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week. This is explained by the poorer corrosion resistance of the resulfurized grade. Yet all these grades had the same

  4. 29 CFR 1926.754 - Structural steel assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Structural steel assembly. 1926.754 Section 1926.754 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.754 Structural steel...) Tripping hazards. Shear connectors (such as headed steel studs, steel bars or steel lugs), reinforcing...

  5. 46 CFR 56.60-5 - Steel (High temperature applications).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steel (High temperature applications). 56.60-5 Section... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-5 Steel (High temperature applications). (a) (Reproduces 124.2... steel, plain nickel-alloy steel, carbon-manganese-alloy steel, manganese-vanadium-alloy steel,...

  6. 46 CFR 56.60-5 - Steel (High temperature applications).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steel (High temperature applications). 56.60-5 Section... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-5 Steel (High temperature applications). (a) (Reproduces 124.2... steel, plain nickel-alloy steel, carbon-manganese-alloy steel, manganese-vanadium-alloy steel,...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.754 - Structural steel assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Structural steel assembly. 1926.754 Section 1926.754 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.754 Structural steel...) Tripping hazards. Shear connectors (such as headed steel studs, steel bars or steel lugs), reinforcing...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.754 - Structural steel assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Structural steel assembly. 1926.754 Section 1926.754 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.754 Structural steel...) Tripping hazards. Shear connectors (such as headed steel studs, steel bars or steel lugs), reinforcing...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.754 - Structural steel assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Structural steel assembly. 1926.754 Section 1926.754 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.754 Structural steel...) Tripping hazards. Shear connectors (such as headed steel studs, steel bars or steel lugs), reinforcing...

  10. 46 CFR 56.60-5 - Steel (High temperature applications).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steel (High temperature applications). 56.60-5 Section... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-5 Steel (High temperature applications). (a) (Reproduces 124.2... steel, plain nickel-alloy steel, carbon-manganese-alloy steel, manganese-vanadium-alloy steel,...

  11. 46 CFR 56.60-5 - Steel (High temperature applications).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steel (High temperature applications). 56.60-5 Section... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-5 Steel (High temperature applications). (a) (Reproduces 124.2... steel, plain nickel-alloy steel, carbon-manganese-alloy steel, manganese-vanadium-alloy steel,...

  12. 46 CFR 56.60-5 - Steel (High temperature applications).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel (High temperature applications). 56.60-5 Section... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-5 Steel (High temperature applications). (a) (Reproduces 124.2... steel, plain nickel-alloy steel, carbon-manganese-alloy steel, manganese-vanadium-alloy steel,...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.754 - Structural steel assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Structural steel assembly. 1926.754 Section 1926.754 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.754 Structural steel...) Tripping hazards. Shear connectors (such as headed steel studs, steel bars or steel lugs), reinforcing...

  14. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Workers erect the first fabricated steel girders to arrive at the A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center. Steel work began at the construction site Oct. 29 and is scheduled to continue into next spring.

  15. High-temperature brazing of stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Heisman, R. M.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Prevention of iron contamination of platens is eliminated by placing alumina/silica ceramic-fiber blankets between platens and carbon-steel plate. Carbon-steel plates provide rigidity and improve heat transfer.

  16. Corrosion control of steel-reinforced concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, D. D. L.

    2000-10-01

    The methods and materials for corrosion control of steel-reinforced concrete are reviewed. The methods are steel surface treatment, the use of admixtures in concrete, surface coating on concrete, and cathodic protection.

  17. ESF GROUND SUPPORT - STRUCTURAL STEEL ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    T. Misiak

    1996-06-26

    The purpose and objective of this analysis are to expand the level of detail and confirm member sizes for steel sets included in the Ground Support Design Analysis, Reference 5.20. This analysis also provides bounding values and details and defines critical design attributes for alternative configurations of the steel set. One possible configuration for the steel set is presented. This analysis covers the steel set design for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) entire Main Loop 25-foot diameter tunnel.

  18. Copper-Nickel Cladding on Stainless Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    steel,. Monel (65Ni/35Cu) alloy consumables should be used as they can tolerate more iron dilution from the steel than the 70-30 copper-nickel alloy ...Cooper Alloys , 400 , K-500 Stainless Steel - Tyles 302, 304, 321, 347 N ickel 200 Silver Braze Alloys Nickel-Chromium Alloy 600 Nickel-Aluminum Bronze 70...cladding of austenitic stainless steels may also offer some ballistic, non-magnetic, and electromagnetic signature advantages over current hull alloys and

  19. Corrosion Behavior of Steel Fibrous Concrete

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    Crvtaiue wi ,rerse sido it necessaty m’d Identify by block number) steel fibrous concrete corrosion cracked fibrous concrete 20 ABST RACT (Continue...dissolved gas in liq- Although chloride ions affect the rate of steel corro- uids. sion in concrete , corrosion can occur without them. Verbeck has...repcrted that steel subjected to a concrete Corrosion of steel will not occur without water. Not environment normally develops a protective oxide film

  20. Recycling steel automatically - through resource recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, W.J.

    1997-12-01

    Last year, more than 55 percent of all steel cans were recycled. But no matter how effective the local recycling programs may be, some steel cans and other steel products are overlooked and appear in MSW. This missed steel fraction is automatically recycled by resource recovery facilities through magnetic separation. More than three-fourths of the operating resource recovery plants magnetically separate steel cans and other discarded steel items either pre- or post-combustion. Recovering ferrous scrap clearly reduces the post-combustion material that is landfilled and heightens the facilities` environmental performance. Both the resource recovery and steel industries must heighten public awareness of the benefits of automatic steel recycling. Magnetic separation at resource recovery facilities is a simple method of diverting what would otherwise be relegated as solid waste to the landfill. It should be recognized as an increasingly important and valued part of the resource recovery and steel industries` overall recycling efforts. This paper will discuss the status of steel can recycling in the United States, describe how recovered ferrous is beneficiated before recycling by the steel industry, and make recommendations for heightening awareness of the steel recycling contribution made by resource recovery facilities.

  1. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Fabricated steel began arriving by truck Oct. 24 for construction of the A-3 Test Stand that will be used to test the engine for the nation's next generation of moon rockets. Within days workers from Lafayette Steel Erector Inc. began assembling the 16 steel stages needed on the foundation and footings poured in the previous year.

  2. Steeling and Resilience in Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heise, Donalyn

    2014-01-01

    Steel is an incredibly strong alloy of iron and carbon. Due to its incredible strength and durability, this resilient material is commonly used for constructing buildings. The transitive verb "steeling" is defined in Miriam-Webster dictionary as "to fill with resolution or determination, as in, she 'steeled herself to face the…

  3. Metallography of maraging 350 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, S.M.; Merten, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    A technique for etching maraging 350 steel with Glyceregia is described. Surface activation procedures are integral to this technique. Microstructural features revealed by this technique are compared with those obtained with Kalling's reagent, Fry's reagent, and 5% Nital, three etchants commonly used to reveal microstructures of maraging steels. Features which may be simultaneously revealed using Glyceregia include prior austenite grain boundaries, martensitic structure, precipitates, titanium carbo-nitrides, and reverted austenite. The other etchants examined in this investigation typically reveal only a few of the microstructural features detailed above at any one time. 11 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Teaching Steel Connections Using an Interactive Virtual Steel Sculpture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moaveni, Saeed; Chou, Karen C.

    2015-01-01

    Steel connections play important roles in the integrity of a structure, and many structural failures are attributed to connection failures. Connections are the glue that holds a structure together. The failures of the Hartford Coliseum in 1977, the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Kansas City in 1980, and the I-35W Bridge in Minneapolis in 2007 are all…

  5. Superhard Nanocrystalline Homometallic Stainless Steel on Steel for Seamless Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, Eric J.; Hafley, R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work is to deposit nanocrystalline stainless steel onto steel substrates (homometallic) for enhanced wear and corrosion resistance. Homometallic coatings provide superior adhesion, and it has been shown that ultrafine-grained materials exhibit the increased hardness and decreased permeability desired for protective coatings. Nanocrystals will be produced by controlling nucleation and growth and use of an ion beam during deposition by e-beam evaporation or sputtering. Phase I is depositing 31 6L nanocrystalline stainless steel onto 31 6L stainless steel substrates. These coatings exhibit hardnesses comparable to those normally obtained for ceramic coatings such ZrO2, and possess the superior adhesion of seamless, homometallic coatings. Hardening the surface with a similar material also enhances adhesion, by avoiding problems associated with thermal and lattice mismatch. So far we have deposited nanocrystalline homometallic 316L stainless steel coatings by varying the ions and the current density of the ion beams. For all deposition conditions we have produced smooth, uniform, superhard coatings. All coatings exhibit hardness of at least 200% harder than that of bulk materials. Our measurements indicate that there is a direct relationship between nanohardness and the current density of the ion beam. Stress measurements indicate that stress in the films is increasingly proportional to current density of the ion beam. TEM, XPS, and XRD results indicate that the coated layers consist of FCC structure nanocrystallites with a dimension of about 10 to 20 nm. The Ni and Mo concentration of these coating are lower than those of bulk 316L but the concentration of Cr is higher.

  6. Bearing steels in the 21. century

    SciTech Connect

    Tsubota, Kazuichi; Sato, Toshio; Kato, Yoshiyuki; Hiraoka, Kazuhiko; Hayashi, Ryoji

    1998-12-31

    Oxygen content of bearing steel will be reduced to below 3 ppm in the year 2000 if the current trend for the reduction of oxygen in the steel continues. As a result, size of oxide inclusions will become smaller and the fatigue life will be doubled. From the viewpoint of life prediction, cleanliness evaluation methods currently used are not effective. Inclusion Rating Method by Statistics of Extreme is useful for both cleanliness evaluation and fatigue life prediction. Bearings made of suitably heat treated carbon steels or low alloy steels, which possess equivalent fatigue properties to bearing steels, will increase owing to the requirement for lower cost and better formability.

  7. Reduced-activation steels: Future development for improved creep strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klueh, R. L.

    2008-08-01

    Reduced-activation steels for fusion applications were developed in the 1980s to replace the elevated-temperature commercial steels first considered. The new steels were patterned after the commercial steels, with the objective that the new steels have yield stress and ultimate tensile strength and impact toughness in a Charpy test comparable to or better than the steels they replaced. That objective was achieved in reduced-activation steels developed in Japan, Europe, and the United States. Although tensile and impact toughness of the reduced-activation steels exceed those of the commercial steels they were patterned after, their creep-rupture properties are inferior to some commercial steels they replaced. They are even more inferior to commercial steels developed since the 1980s. In this paper, compositional differences between reduced-activation steels and new commercial steels are examined, and compositions are proposed for development of new-and-improved reduced-activation steels.

  8. Dendritic inhomogeneity of stainless maraging steels

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnikova, S.I.; Drobot, A.V.; Shmelev, A.Y.; Vukelich, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    The authors investigated dendritic inhomogeneity in industrial ingots 630 mm (steel I) in diameter and 500 mm (steel II) in diameter. The variation in the degree of dendritic inhomogeneity was investigated over the height of the ingots and across the sections on an MS-46 microprobe. It was established that the elements can be placed in the following order in accordance with the degree of reduction in the liquation factor: titanium, molybdenum, nickel, chromium, and cobalt. Titanium and molybdenum exhibit forward liquation in both steels, and chromium in steel II. The distribution of nickel and chromium in the steel I ingots and cobalt in the steel II ingots is unconventional. Dendritic inhomogeneity, which must be considered in assigning the heat treatment for finished articles, develops during the crystallization of stainless maraging steels.

  9. STEFINS: a steel freezing integral simulation program

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, M.V.

    1980-09-01

    STEFINS (STEel Freezing INtegral Simulation) is a computer program for the calculation of the rate of solidification of molten steel on solid steel. Such computations arize when investigating core melt accidents in fast reactors. In principle this problem involves a coupled two-dimensional thermal and hydraulic approach. However, by physically reasonable assumptions a decoupled approach has been developed. The transient solidification of molten steel on a cold wall is solved in the direction normal to the molten steel flow and independent from the solution for the molten steel temperature and Nusselt number along the direction of flow. The solutions to the applicable energy equations have been programmed in cylindrical and slab geometries. Internal gamma heating of steel is included.

  10. Thermal Linear Expansion of Nine Selected AISI Stainless Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-01

    stainless steels. The nine selected stainless steels are AISI 303, 304, 304L, 316, 317, 321, 347, 410 , and 430. The recoended values Include the...point of the stainless steels. The nine selected stainless steels are AISI 303, 304, 304L, 316, 317, 321, 347, 410 , and 430. The recommended values...Stainless Steel..................................26 8. AISI 410 Stainless Steel..................................29 9. AISI 430 Stainless Steel

  11. Comparative Structural Strength Research of Hardened Carbon Steel and Hot-Rolled Alloy Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolov, A. V.; Zhakupov, A. N.; Kanayev, A. T.; Sikach, I. A.; Tugumov, K. K.

    2016-08-01

    Experiments on quantitative evaluation of fatigue strength showed that St5ps and St5sp carbon steels with A400 strength class can be fully applied for erection of constructions and buildings having cyclical loads during operation. Study of corrosion resistance of hardened carbon steel in comparison with hot-rolled alloy steel consists in difference in structures and hence, difference in intensity of electric and chemical processes featuring presence of steel in concrete. Structure of St5sp steel with A400 strength class in surface area has significantly less corrosion rate than ferritic-perlitic structure of 35GS steel with A400 strength class.

  12. [Radioactivity monitoring of steel processing in Croatian steel mills and foundries].

    PubMed

    Sofilić, Tahir; Marjanović, Tihana; Rastovcan-Mioc, Alenka

    2006-03-01

    The last twenty years have seen a number of cases of radioactive pollution in metallurgical industry. Therefore many metal producers have implemented systematic monitoring of radioactivity in their production processes, especially in steel processing, steel being the most applied construction material with the annual world output of over billion tonnes. Learning from the experience of the best known steel producers in Europe and the world Croatian steel mills have introduced radioactivity surveillance and control systems for radioactive elements in steel scrap, semi-finished and finished products. This paper argues in favour of radioactivity surveillance and control systems in steel and steel castings production in Croatia, and describes current systems and solutions available. Since we lack our own standards and regulations to control both domestic and imported steel scrap, semi-finished products (crude steel, hot and cold rolled strip) and finished products, we need to start implementing radioactivity surveillance and control systems in our steel and steel castings production applying the current international recommendations and guidelines, until we build up our own monitoring system and adopt legislation on the national level. This paper gives an overview of the basic types of radioactivity surveillance and control systems, the most frequent requirements to be met, as well as of the measurement and information flow in their application in steel and steel castings production.

  13. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of HSLA-100 Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    13 Figure 4. High Strength Bainite Strength Components .................... 20 Figure 5. Bainitic Steel Tempering and DBTT ...21 Figure 6. Tempered Bainite Steel Yield Stress and DBTT .................. 21 Figure 7. HSLA-100 Steel Yield Strength versus Aging...Energy at -84°C ............... 31 Figure 14. HSLA-100 Steel Lot GQH DBTT ............................ 31 Figure 15. HSLA-100 Steel Lot GQH Ductility

  14. Bond characteristics of steel fiber and deformed reinforcing steel bar embedded in steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslani, Farhad; Nejadi, Shami

    2012-09-01

    Steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) is a relatively new composite material which congregates the benefits of the self-compacting concrete (SCC) technology with the profits derived from the fiber addition to a brittle cementitious matrix. Steel fibers improve many of the properties of SCC elements including tensile strength, ductility, toughness, energy absorption capacity, fracture toughness and cracking. Although the available research regarding the influence of steel fibers on the properties of SFRSCC is limited, this paper investigates the bond characteristics between steel fiber and SCC firstly. Based on the available experimental results, the current analytical steel fiber pullout model (Dubey 1999) is modified by considering the different SCC properties and different fiber types (smooth, hooked) and inclination. In order to take into account the effect of fiber inclination in the pullout model, apparent shear strengths (τ (app)) and slip coefficient (β) are incorporated to express the variation of pullout peak load and the augmentation of peak slip as the inclined angle increases. These variables are expressed as functions of the inclined angle (ϕ). Furthurmore, steel-concrete composite floors, reinforced concrete floors supported by columns or walls and floors on an elastic foundations belong to the category of structural elements in which the conventional steel reinforcement can be partially replaced by the use of steel fibers. When discussing deformation capacity of structural elements or civil engineering structures manufactured using SFRSCC, one must be able to describe thoroughly both the behavior of the concrete matrix reinforced with steel fibers and the interaction between this composite matrix and discrete steel reinforcement of the conventional type. However, even though the knowledge on bond behavior is essential for evaluating the overall behavior of structural components containing reinforcement and steel fibers

  15. Bond characteristics of steel fiber and deformed reinforcing steel bar embedded in steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslani, Farhad; Nejadi, Shami

    2012-09-01

    Steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) is a relatively new composite material which congregates the benefits of the self-compacting concrete (SCC) technology with the profits derived from the fiber addition to a brittle cementitious matrix. Steel fibers improve many of the properties of SCC elements including tensile strength, ductility, toughness, energy absorption capacity, fracture toughness and cracking. Although the available research regarding the influence of steel fibers on the properties of SFRSCC is limited, this paper investigates the bond characteristics between steel fiber and SCC firstly. Based on the available experimental results, the current analytical steel fiber pullout model (Dubey 1999) is modified by considering the different SCC properties and different fiber types (smooth, hooked) and inclination. In order to take into account the effect of fiber inclination in the pullout model, apparent shear strengths ( τ ( app)) and slip coefficient ( β) are incorporated to express the variation of pullout peak load and the augmentation of peak slip as the inclined angle increases. These variables are expressed as functions of the inclined angle ( ϕ). Furthurmore, steel-concrete composite floors, reinforced concrete floors supported by columns or walls and floors on an elastic foundations belong to the category of structural elements in which the conventional steel reinforcement can be partially replaced by the use of steel fibers. When discussing deformation capacity of structural elements or civil engineering structures manufactured using SFRSCC, one must be able to describe thoroughly both the behavior of the concrete matrix reinforced with steel fibers and the interaction between this composite matrix and discrete steel reinforcement of the conventional type. However, even though the knowledge on bond behavior is essential for evaluating the overall behavior of structural components containing reinforcement and steel fibers

  16. Longer Life for Steel Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    IC 531 is a coating manufactured and marketed by Inorganic Coatings, Inc. The coating was developed by Goddard to protect structures at Kennedy Space Center. It is a high ratio potassium silicate formula. The coating is water based, nontoxic, and nonflammable. It generates no volatile organic compounds nor hazardous chemical waste, and bonds to steel in 30 minutes. At the present time, no one can say for sure how long IC 531's effective lifetime is. Some of the original Goddard test applications of 1976 are still going strong after lengthy exposure to the Sun, salt and moisture. Says IC in company literature: 'IC 531 offers virtually permanent protection for steel. We predict it will protect structures for well beyond 25 years. If necessary, it is infinitely maintainable; if damaged, it can easily be touched up with more IC 531.'

  17. Underwater wet welding of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, S.; Liu, S.; Olson, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    Underwater wet welding is conducted directly in water with the shielded metal arc (SMA) and flux cored arc (FCA) welding processes. Underwater wet welding has been demonstrated as an acceptable repair technique down to 100 meters (325 ft.) in depth, but wet welds have been attempted on carbon steel structures down to 200 meters (650 ft.). The primary purpose of this interpretive report is to document and evaluate current understanding of metallurgical behavior of underwater wet welds so that new welding consumables can be designed and new welding practices can be developed for fabrication and repair of high strength steel structures at greater depths. First the pyrometallurgical and physical metallurgy behaviors of underwater weldments are discussed. Second, modifications of the welding consumables and processes are suggested to enhance the ability to apply wet welding techniques.

  18. Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-10-01

    ITP conducted a study on energy use and potential savings, or "bandwidth" study, in major steelmaking processes. Intended to provide a realistic estimate of the potential amount of energy that can be saved in an industrial process, the "bandwidth" refers to the difference between the amount of energy that would be consumed in a process using commercially available technology versus the minimum amount of energy needed to achieve those same results based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study (PDF 133 KB) also estimates steel industry energy use in the year 2010, and uses that value as a basis for comparison against the minimum requirements. This energy savings opportunity for 2010 will aid focus on longer term R&D.

  19. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  20. Light microscopy of carbon steels

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, L.E.

    1998-12-31

    Containing over 1,200 representative micrographs and the information and explanatory text that makes them really useful: composition, condition, etchant, and magnification, and more than 100 graphs and tables, this how to book not only gives everyday working examples, but also discusses the relationship between the constitution, metallurgy, and microstructure of various carbon steel products. Written by a renowned expert in metallography, this definitive work is a must for all those working in this area. Contents include: nomenclature of phases and constituents; phase transformations; low-carbon irons and steels; annealing and normalizing; spheroidization and graphitization; austenitization; transformation of austenite; tempering of martensite; welding; surface oxidation, decarburation; and oxidation scaling; glossary of terms; etching methods; conversion tables.

  1. Welding of high chromium steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W B

    1928-01-01

    A brief description is given of different groups of high chromium steels (rustless iron and stainless steels) according to their composition and more generally accepted names. The welding procedure for a given group will be much the same regardless of the slight variations in chemical composition which may exist within a certain group. Information is given for the tensile properties (yield point and ultimate strength) of metal sheets and welds before and after annealing on coupons one and one-half inches wide. Since welds in rustless iron containing 16 to 18 percent chromium and 7 to 12 percent nickel show the best combination of strength and ductility in the 'as welded' or annealed condition, it is considered the best alloy to use for welded construction.

  2. Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-09-01

    The Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis (PDF 347 KB) identifies opportunities for developing advanced technologies and estimates both the necessary funding and the potential payoff. This analysis determines what portion of the energy bandwidth can be captured through the adoption of state-of-the-art technology and practices. R&D opportunities for addressing the remainder of the bandwidth are characterized and plotted on a marginal opportunity curve.

  3. Nano-composite stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; Blue, Craig A.; Peter, William H.; Chen, Wei; Aprigliano, Louis F.

    2015-07-14

    A composite stainless steel composition is composed essentially of, in terms of wt. % ranges: 25 to 28 Cr; 11 to 13 Ni; 7 to 8 W; 3.5 to 4 Mo; 3 to 3.5 B; 2 to 2.5 Mn; 1 to 1.5 Si; 0.3 to 1.7 C; up to 2 O; balance Fe. The composition has an austenitic matrix phase and a particulate, crystalline dispersed phase.

  4. A study of Damascus steel

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, P.

    1995-02-16

    The Damascus sword has been an article of fascination for many years to blade collectors and metallurgists alike. The blades were given their name by Europeans who encountered these blades which originated from Damascus, Syria. They are best known for the appearance of the blade face. Genuine Damascus blades show swirling patterns of alternating light and dark regions which are due to the microstructure of the steel. The microstructure consists of arrays of well rounded cementite patterns in a matrix of either pearlite, bainite, or martensite. When this structure is etched the matrix will turn dark leaving the cementite particles light. Although many blades were produced over the centuries, while some of the process is known the making of a genuine Damascus blade today is generally considered a lost art. Many scientists have studied the subject in an attempt to understand the complex process by which the clustered arrays of cementite particles develop in the steel blades. The most prominent theories to date are presented in the General Introduction to this thesis. The thesis is divided into four main parts. In the first part, four proposed mechanisms of cementite cluster sheet formation as they relate to the banding theory are introduced. Experiments to investigate these mechanisms are presented. In Part II, collaborative research focused on the methodology of the reconstructed process for making Damascus steel is presented. In the third part, a study into the graphitization of the reconstructed blades is presented. In Part IV, experimental attempts at producing Damascus steel ingots in the laboratory are presented.

  5. Preparation and characterization of 304 stainless steel/Q235 carbon steel composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wenning; Feng, Lajun; Feng, Hui; Cao, Ying; Liu, Lei; Cao, Mo; Ge, Yanfeng

    The composite material of 304 stainless steel reinforced Q235 carbon steel has been prepared by modified hot-rolling process. The resulted material was characterized by scanning electron microscope, three-electrode method, fault current impact method, electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization curve measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that metallurgical bond between the stainless steel layer and carbon steel substrate has been formed. The composite material exhibited good electrical conductivity and thermal stability. The average grounding resistance of the composite material was about 13/20 of dip galvanized steel. There has no surface crack and bubbling formed after fault current impact. The composite material led to a significant decrease in the corrosion current density in soil solution, compared with that of hot dip galvanized steel and bare carbon steel. On the basis polarization curve and EIS analyses, it can be concluded that the composite material showed improved anti-corrosion property than hot-dip galvanized steel.

  6. 77 FR 67400 - RG Steel Wheeling, LLC, a Division of RG Steel, LLC, Doing Business as Wheeling Corrugating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Employment and Training Administration RG Steel Wheeling, LLC, a Division of RG Steel, LLC, Doing Business as..., 2012, applicable to workers of RG Steel Wheeling, LLC, a division of RG Steel, LLC, doing business as... RG Steel, LLC, doing business as Wheeling Corrugating Company, Beech Bottom, West Virginia,...

  7. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  8. Recycling steel. Conducting a waste audit.

    PubMed

    Crawford, G

    1996-01-01

    This is the second in a series of three articles regarding steel can recycling from foodservice operations of healthcare facilities. This article highlights the basic methods of recycling steel cans, and includes information on conducting a waste audit and negotiating with a hauler regarding the benefits of recycling. The previous article discussed how steel is recycled across the country. The next article will convey a case history of actual foodservice recycling practice from a healthcare facility.

  9. Nonmetallic Inclusions in HSLA Steel Weldments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    lowering the DBTT . Nickel prevents the hot shortness phenomenon often observed in copper-bearing steels . Nickel is also an austenite stabilizer. By lowering... STEEL WELDMENTS by Brent A. Douglas December, 1989 Thesis Advisor Alan G. Fox Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 90 ,-. S...ACCESSION NO. II. TITLE (Incude Security Claw fication) Nonmetallic Inclusions In HSLA Steel Weldments IZ. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Douglas, Brent A. 138

  10. Evaluation of the Benefits of HSLA Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    quenched and tempered steels , such as HY80 and HY1OO, require preheat and interpass temperature controls during welding of plates thicker than 1/2 inch...interpass tempera- tures and heat input limitations. Strict adherence to these requirements is mandatory to avoid cracking in hydrogen- sensitive steels ...requirement and excellent weldability of this steel will probably lower produc- tion costs and cracking -related repairs enough to overcome the slight

  11. Bending Properties of Al-Steel and Steel-Steel Composite Metal Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Judith A.; Vendra, Lakshmi J.; Rabiei, Afsaneh

    2010-11-01

    The performance of new composite metal foams (CMFs) under bending was evaluated with simultaneous acoustic emission (AE) monitoring on samples processed by cast and powder metallurgy (PM) techniques. The results showed high maximum strength in all samples up to 86 MPa with more ductile failure in PM samples. Acoustic emission behavior confirmed that the dominating failure mechanism of cast CMF is the brittle fracture of intermetallic phases that mostly exist at the interface of the steel spheres with the aluminum matrix, whereas in PM samples (100 pct steel), the failure is governed by the propagation of preexisting microporosities in the matrix resulting in a complete ductile failure. SEM imaging of the fracture surfaces supported these findings.

  12. Modified 43XX Steels for High Toughness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    AL AMMRC TR 80-20 MODIFIED 43XX STEELS FOR HIGH TOUGHNESS T CS.,•, °x ,•, o o,,o,,,sD T I W4 AftELECTE APRIL 1980 J N.J. Kar, V.F. Zackay and E.R...carried out. Isohra tasomions in these steels resulted inn bbaainni 11-v DI FOR Z 47 RITIOW OF I NOV695 IS OBSOLETE UCASFE SECURITY UCLASSIFIEDINOFTI PAGE...this investigation for Si-modified AISI 4330 steel appear to be superior to those for unmodified AISI 4340 and 300-M steels , whilst the strength-tough

  13. Fracture Characteristics of Structural Steels and Weldments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    constrctionTECHNICAL REPORT`M.170 engineringNovember 1975 research laboratory FRACTURE CHARACTERISTICS OF STRUCTURAL STEELS AND WELDMENTS by J...microscope structure steel steel weldments 2 0. AUS51RA.Y’ Ztiu is~~g e ".C f ,e owl mod Idwisf~yb 6405 ". b mbef This5 tepof I p)wnh~t tlie tiIodings...CLALUVICA1IOli Of UAE(.0’ LINCLASSTFI~n SECURITY CLASSIFICATION Of THIS PAQE(1h.M Data EntWOO4 The hydrogen-enibrittled, high-strength steels exhibited

  14. Corrosion of stainless steel, 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Sedriks, A.J.

    1996-10-01

    The book describes corrosion characteristics in all the major and minor groups of stainless steels, namely, in austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, duplex, and precipitation hardenable steels. Several chapters are spent on those special forms of corrosion that are investigated in the great detail in stainless steels, namely, pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking. The influences of thermal treatment (heat affected zone cases), composition, and microstructure on corrosion are given good coverage. Corrosive environments include high temperature oxidation, sulfidation as well as acids, alkalis, various different petroleum plant environments, and even human body fluids (stainless steels are commonly used prosthetic materials).

  15. Recycling steel automatically -- through resource recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, G.L.

    1996-12-31

    More than three-fourths of the operating resource recovery plants magnetically separate steel cans and other discarded steel items either pre- or post-combustion. This last year, 121 resource recovery facilities combusted about 14% of the solid waste for communities across the US. Automatic recycling of steel clearly reduces the post-combustion material that is landfilled and heightens the facilities environmental performance through tangible recycling achievement. Even though about one out of every six steel cans is recycled automatically through resource recovery, not many people are aware of automatic recycling of steel cans through resource recovery. How many people know that their local resource recovery plant is insuring that virtually all of their food, beverage and general purpose cans--including paint and aerosol--are being recycled so easily and efficiently? Magnetic separation at resource recovery facilities is a fundamentally simple and desirable method of diverting what would otherwise be relegated as solid waste to the landfill. It should be recognized as an increasingly important and valued part of the resource recovery and steel industries overall recycling efforts. This paper will provide the latest information on steel recycled automatically from resource recovery facilities within the total context of all recycling accomplished annually by the steel industry. Most important, recommendations are provided for building public awareness of the automatic steel recycling contribution made so solidly by resource recovery facilities.

  16. 30. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACE CHARGING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACE CHARGING CREW, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Colletion, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  17. 37. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HOUSE INSIDE PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HOUSE INSIDE PLANT AT TIME OF ITS OPENING, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  18. North and west facades of crucible steel building; looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North and west facades of crucible steel building; looking southeast - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Crucible Steel Plant, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  19. FINAL REPORT: Reduction in Energy Consumption and Variability in Steel Foundry Operations

    SciTech Connect

    F. Peters

    2005-05-24

    This project worked to improve the efficiency of the steel casting industry by reducing the variability that occurs because of process and product variation. The project focused on the post shakeout operations since roughly half of the production costs are in this area. These improvements will reduce the amount of variability, making it easier to manage the operation and improve the competitiveness. The reduction in variability will also reduce the need for many rework operations, which will result in a direct reduction of energy usage, particularly by the reduction of repeated heat treatment operations. Further energy savings will be realized from the reduction of scrap and reduced handling. Field studies were conducted at ten steel foundries that represented the U.S. steel casting industry, for a total of over 100 weeks of production observation. These studies quantified the amount of variability, and looked toward determining the source. A focus of the data collected was the grinding operations since this is a major effort in the cleaning room, and it represents the overall casting quality. The grinding was divided into two categories, expected and unexpected. Expected grinding is that in which the location of the effort is known prior to making the casting, such as smoothing parting lines, gates, and riser contacts. Unexpected grinding, which was approximately 80% of the effort, was done to improve the surfaces at weld repair locations, to rectify burnt on sand, and other surface anomalies at random locations. Unexpected grinding represents about 80% of the grinding effort. By quantifying this effort, the project raised awareness within the industry and the industry is continuing to make improvements. The field studies showed that the amount of variation of grinding operations (normalized because of the diverse set of parts studied) was very consistent across the industry. The field studies identified several specific sources that individually contributed to

  20. Steel shear walls, behavior, modeling and design

    SciTech Connect

    Astaneh-Asl, Abolhassan

    2008-07-08

    In recent years steel shear walls have become one of the more efficient lateral load resisting systems in tall buildings. The basic steel shear wall system consists of a steel plate welded to boundary steel columns and boundary steel beams. In some cases the boundary columns have been concrete-filled steel tubes. Seismic behavior of steel shear wall systems during actual earthquakes and based on laboratory cyclic tests indicates that the systems are quite ductile and can be designed in an economical way to have sufficient stiffness, strength, ductility and energy dissipation capacity to resist seismic effects of strong earthquakes. This paper, after summarizing the past research, presents the results of two tests of an innovative steel shear wall system where the boundary elements are concrete-filled tubes. Then, a review of currently available analytical models of steel shear walls is provided with a discussion of capabilities and limitations of each model. We have observed that the tension only 'strip model', forming the basis of the current AISC seismic design provisions for steel shear walls, is not capable of predicting the behavior of steel shear walls with length-to-thickness ratio less than about 600 which is the range most common in buildings. The main reasons for such shortcomings of the AISC seismic design provisions for steel shear walls is that it ignores the compression field in the shear walls, which can be significant in typical shear walls. The AISC method also is not capable of incorporating stresses in the shear wall due to overturning moments. A more rational seismic design procedure for design of shear walls proposed in 2000 by the author is summarized in the paper. The design method, based on procedures used for design of steel plate girders, takes into account both tension and compression stress fields and is applicable to all values of length-to-thickness ratios of steel shear walls. The method is also capable of including the effect of

  1. Clean steel technology -- Fundamental to the development of high performance steels

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.D.

    1999-07-01

    The use of clean steel technology (low sulfur with calcium treatment for inclusion shape control) is a fundamental building block in the development of high performance plate steels. A brief review will be presented of the benefits of calcium treatment and its effect on non-metallic inclusions (sulfides and oxides) and reducing sulfur levels. During the past thirty years the requirements for low sulfur levels have been reduced from 0.010% maximum to 0.001% maximum. The effects of clean steel practices on specific properties will be reviewed including tensile ductility, Charpy V-notch and fracture toughness, fatigue crack propagation and hydrogen-induced-cracking resistance. Traditional low sulfur plate steel applications have included pressure vessels. offshore platforms, plastic injection molds and line-pipe skelp. More recent applications will be discussed including bridge steels, high strength structural steels to 130 ksi (897 MPa) minimum yield strength, 9% nickel steels for cryogenic applications, and military armor.

  2. Corrosion Behavior of IF Steel in Various Media and Its Comparison with Mild Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, G. P.; Moon, A. P.; Sengupta, S.; Deo, G.; Sangal, S.; Mondal, K.

    2015-05-01

    The present work discusses corrosion behavior of an interstitial-free (IF) steel in 0.6 M NaCl, 1 M NaOH, and 1 M HCl solutions, and its comparison with mild steel (MS). Dynamics polarization and AC Impedance Spectroscopy explain different polarization behaviors of the steel samples. All the steels were exposed to open atmosphere for 100 days, and to 0.6 M NaCl salt fog for 30 days. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Raman and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy were used to characterize microstructure of the steels, rust constituents, and morphologies. Corrosion behavior of the steels has close relation with the morphology and constituents of the rusts. It has been observed that the corrosion in the IF and MS steels is uniform in nature.

  3. Help for the Steel Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-01-01

    A collaboration between NASA Lewis Research Center (LRC) and Gladwin Engineering resulted in the adaptation of aerospace high temperature metal technology to the continuous casting of steel. The continuous process is more efficient because it takes less time and labor. A high temperature material, once used on the X-15 research plane, was applied to metal rollers by a LRC developed spraying technique. Lewis Research Center also supplied mold prototype of metal composites, reducing erosion and promoting thermal conductivity. Rollers that previously cracked due to thermal fatigue, lasted longer. Gladwin's sales have increased, and additional NASA-developed innovations are anticipated.

  4. Chromizing of 3Cr Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, Vilupanur; Harrison, Bradley; Koch, Jordan; Ly, Alexander; Schissler, Andrew; Pint, Bruce A; Haynes, James A

    2011-01-01

    Grade 315 steel (Fe-2.9 Cr-1.7 W-0.7 Mo-0.3 Mn-0.3 Si-0.2 V-0.1 Ni-0.13 C-0.01 N) was chromized by the halide-activated pack cementation (HAPC) process. Key process parameters, i.e., coating temperatures and pack compositions, were investigated. Ammonium chloride-activated packs in the 700-1000 C range produced coatings nominally in the 1-8 {micro}m range, as determined by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Coatings applied in the 900-1000 C temperature range resulted in Cr-rich coatings. The predominant phase in the coating was identified as Cr23C6 by X-ray diffraction. In addition, the presence of chromium nitride, Cr2N, was observed in the coating. The power generation industry is faced with an ever-increasing demand for energy while simultaneously having to reduce carbon emissions. These goals can be facilitated by increasing plant efficiency through the use of higher operating temperatures and pressures. Traditional construction materials, e.g., the ferritic Grade 22 high strength low alloy steel, are limited to operations below {approx} 550 C. Therefore, new materials are required for future plants designed to operate up to 650 C and possibly higher. These new materials need to have improved tensile strength, ductility, toughness, corrosion resistance, and creep properties at elevated temperatures. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is investigating the oxidation and creep behavior of various coatings on Grade 315 steel (Fe-2.9 Cr-1.7 W-0.7 Mo-0.3 Mn-0.3 Si-0.2 V-0.1 Ni-0.13 C-0.01 N), a super-bainitic steel developed for superior creep properties. Thin, chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) aluminide coatings were used to compensate for the reduced corrosion and oxidation resistance that resulted from the low chromium content of the alloy. However, the aluminized Grade 315 alloys performed less-than-favorably under conditions relevant to fossil boilers, leading to the conclusion that higher chromium contents are required for the formation of

  5. Diffusion brazing nickel-plated stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    To bond parts, sandwich assembly is made up of aluminum core, aluminum face sheet with brazing alloy interface, and nickel plated stainless steel part. Sandwich is placed between bottom and top glide sheet that is placed in stainless steel retort where assembly is bonded at 580 C.

  6. Technological properties of steels of martensitic class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiner, L. M.; Greben'kov, S. K.; Zakirova, M. G.; Tolchina, I. V.; Ryaposov, I. V.

    2011-03-01

    Process, design, and ecological advantages of low-carbon martensitic steels (LCMS) are presented as compared to medium-carbon heat-treatable structural steels with a structure of tempered sorbite. The factors ensuring high manufacture adaptability in all stages of the production cycle are considered. Technological properties of widely used commercial weldable LCMS are analyzed.

  7. Method for welding chromium molybdenum steels

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K.

    1986-01-01

    Chromium-molybdenum steels exhibit a weakening after welding in an area adjacent to the weld. This invention is an improved method for welding to eliminate the weakness by subjecting normalized steel to a partial temper prior to welding and subsequently fully tempering the welded article for optimum strength and ductility.

  8. History dependence of magnetomechanical properties of steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melquiond, F.; Mouroux, A.; Jouglar, J.; Vuillermoz, P. L.; Weinstock, H.

    1996-05-01

    Magnetomechanical measurements using a superconducting SQUID magnetic gradiometer and a tensile-testing machine have been performed on a variety of steel specimens to determine the change in magnetization due to applied stress and the possible application of the observed behavior as a new form of nondestructive evaluation in steel. This study builds on earlier related measurements.

  9. A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. ); Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J. )

    1992-01-01

    In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

  10. A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J.

    1992-08-01

    In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

  11. Chem I Supplement: Chemistry of Steel Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Neal

    1980-01-01

    Provides information about the chemistry of steel making applicable to teaching secondary school science. Generalized chemical reactions describe the manufacture of steel from iron ore. Also discussed are raw materials, processing choices, and how various furnaces (blast, direct reduction, open hearth, basic oxygen, electric) work. (CS)

  12. Mineral resource of the month: steel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenton, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    About 96 million metric tons of steel was produced in the United States last year — more than any other metal. And the $3.46 billion of iron and steel scrap exported was also the highest of any metal scrap export, helping to reduce the U.S. trade deficit.

  13. African Drum and Steel Pan Ensembles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunkett, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to develop both African drum and steel pan ensembles providing information on teacher preparation, instrument choice, beginning the ensemble, and lesson planning. Includes additional information for the drum ensembles. Lists references and instructional materials, sources of drums and pans, and common note layout/range for steel pan…

  14. Ellie Mannette: Master of the Steel Drum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svaline, J. Marc

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Elliot ("Ellie") Mannette who has played a major role in the development and application of steel drums. States that he has spent most of his life designing and teaching the steel drums. Covers interview topics and background information on Mannette. (CMK)

  15. METHOD FOR JOINING ALUMINUM TO STAINLESS STEEL

    DOEpatents

    Lemon, L.C.

    1960-05-24

    Aluminum may be joined to stainless steel without the use of flux by tinning the aluminum with a tin solder containing 1% silver and 1% lead, tinning the stainless steel with a 50% lead 50% tin solder, and then sweating the tinned surfaces together.

  16. Low Mn alloy steel for cryogenic service

    DOEpatents

    Morris, J.W. Jr.; Niikura, M.

    A ferritic cryogenic steel which has a relatively low (about 4 to 6%) manganese content and which has been made suitable for use at cryogenic temperatures by a thermal cycling treatment followed by a final tempering. The steel includes 4 to 6% manganese, 0.02 to 0.06% carbon, 0.1 to 0.4% molybdenum and 0 to 3% nickel.

  17. Forming "dynamic" membranes on stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, C. A.; Gaddis, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    "Dynamic" zirconium polyacrylic membrane is formed directly on stainless steel substrate without excessive corrosion of steel. Membrane is potentially useful in removal of contaminated chemicals from solution through reversed osmosis. Application includes use in filtration and desalination equipment, and in textile industry for separation of dyes from aqueous solvents.

  18. Hydrogen transport in iron and steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louthan, M. R., Jr.; Derrick, R. G.; Donovan, J. A.; Caskey, G. R., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The permeabilities of protium, deuterium, and tritium in foil specimens of Marz grade iron, 4130 steel, Armco iron, HP-9-4-20, and T-1 steels were studied at hydrogen pressures between 0.02 and 0.5 MPa over the temperature range 260-700 K. The permeability was measured by a pressure-rise method, deuterium counting with a detector, and radioactivity counting. Good agreement is found between the measurement techniques used. It is shown that the permeabilities of protium, deuterium, and tritium in iron and T-1 steel at temperatures as low as 260 K are in good agreement with the equation proposed by Gonzalez (1967). However, the permeabilities of HP-9-4-20 and 4130 steel to hydrogen are typically lower than predicted. The isotope effect on hydrogen permeability of HP-9-4-20, 4130 and T-1 steels, and high-purity iron can be estimated by an inverse square root of mass correction.

  19. An understanding of HSLA-65 plate steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, K.

    2006-02-01

    HSLA-65 plate steels can be produced using one of five plate manufacturing techniques: normalizing, controlled rolling (CR), controlled rolling followed by accelerated cooling (CR-AC), direct quenching and tempering (DQT), or conventional quenching and tempering (Q&T). The HSLA-65 steels are characterized by low carbon content and low alloy content, and they exhibit a low carbon equivalent that allows improved plate weldability. These characteristics in turn (a) provide the steel plate with a refined microstructure that ensures high strength and toughness; (b) eliminate or substantially reduce the need for preheating during welding; (c) resist susceptibility to hydrogen-assisted cracking (HAC) in the weld heat affected zone (HAZ) when fusion (arc) welded using low heat-input conditions; and (d) depending on section thickness, facilitate high heat-input welding (about 2 kJ/mm) without significant loss of strength or toughness in the HAZ. However, application of this plate manufacturing process and of these controls produces significant differences in the metallurgical structure and range of mechanical properties of the HSLA-65 plate steels both among themselves and versus conventional higher strength steel (HSS) plates. For example, among the HSLA-65 plate steels, those produced by Q&T exhibit minimal variability in mechanical properties, especially in thicker plates. Besides variability in mechanical properties depending on plate thickness, the CR and CR-AC plate steels exhibit a relatively higher yield strength to ultimate tensile strength (YS/UTS) ratio than do DQT and Q&T steels. Such differences in processing and properties of HSLA-65 plate steels could potentially affect the selection and control of various secondary fabrication practices, including arc welding. Consequently, fabricators must exercise extreme caution when transferring allowable limits of certified secondary fabrication practices from one type of HSLA-65 plate steel to another, even for the

  20. Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Casuccio; Michael Potter; Fred Schwerer; Dr. Richard J. Fruehan; Dr. Scott Story

    2005-12-30

    The objective of this study was to develop the Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCATTM) to permit steelmakers to evaluate the quality of the steel through the analysis of individual inclusions. By characterizing individual inclusions, determinations can be made as to the cleanliness of the steel. Understanding the complicating effects of inclusions in the steelmaking process and on the resulting properties of steel allows the steel producer to increase throughput, better control the process, reduce remelts, and improve the quality of the product. The ASCAT (Figure 1) is a steel-smart inclusion analysis tool developed around a customized next-generation computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (NG-CCSEM) hardware platform that permits acquisition of inclusion size and composition data at a rate never before possible in SEM-based instruments. With built-in customized ''intelligent'' software, the inclusion data is automatically sorted into clusters representing different inclusion types to define the characteristics of a particular heat (Figure 2). The ASCAT represents an innovative new tool for the collection of statistically meaningful data on inclusions, and provides a means of understanding the complicated effects of inclusions in the steel making process and on the resulting properties of steel. Research conducted by RJLG with AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) and SMA (Steel Manufactures of America) members indicates that the ASCAT has application in high-grade bar, sheet, plate, tin products, pipes, SBQ, tire cord, welding rod, and specialty steels and alloys where control of inclusions, whether natural or engineered, are crucial to their specification for a given end-use. Example applications include castability of calcium treated steel; interstitial free (IF) degasser grade slag conditioning practice; tundish clogging and erosion minimization; degasser circulation and optimization; quality assessment/steel cleanliness; slab, billet

  1. Superstrength of nanograined steel with nanoscale intermetallic precipitates transformed from shock-compressed martensitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hailiang; Yan, Ming; Lu, Cheng; Tieu, Anh Kiet; Li, Huijun; Zhu, Qiang; Godbole, Ajit; Li, Jintao; Su, Lihong; Kong, Charlie

    2016-11-01

    An increasing number of industrial applications need superstrength steels. It is known that refined grains and nanoscale precipitates can increase strength. The hardest martensitic steel reported to date is C0.8 steel, whose nanohardness can reach 11.9 GPa through incremental interstitial solid solution strengthening. Here we report a nanograined (NG) steel dispersed with nanoscale precipitates which has an extraordinarily high hardness of 19.1 GPa. The NG steel (shock-compressed Armox 500T steel) was obtained under these conditions: high strain rate of 1.2 μs-1, high temperature rise rate of 600 Kμs-1 and high pressure of 17 GPa. The mean grain size achieved was 39 nm and reinforcing precipitates were indexed in the NG steel. The strength of the NG steel is expected to be ~3950 MPa. The discovery of the NG steel offers a general pathway for designing new advanced steel materials with exceptional hardness and excellent strength.

  2. Superstrength of nanograined steel with nanoscale intermetallic precipitates transformed from shock-compressed martensitic steel

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hailiang; Yan, Ming; Lu, Cheng; Tieu, Anh Kiet; Li, Huijun; Zhu, Qiang; Godbole, Ajit; Li, Jintao; Su, Lihong; Kong, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of industrial applications need superstrength steels. It is known that refined grains and nanoscale precipitates can increase strength. The hardest martensitic steel reported to date is C0.8 steel, whose nanohardness can reach 11.9 GPa through incremental interstitial solid solution strengthening. Here we report a nanograined (NG) steel dispersed with nanoscale precipitates which has an extraordinarily high hardness of 19.1 GPa. The NG steel (shock-compressed Armox 500T steel) was obtained under these conditions: high strain rate of 1.2 μs−1, high temperature rise rate of 600 Kμs−1 and high pressure of 17 GPa. The mean grain size achieved was 39 nm and reinforcing precipitates were indexed in the NG steel. The strength of the NG steel is expected to be ~3950 MPa. The discovery of the NG steel offers a general pathway for designing new advanced steel materials with exceptional hardness and excellent strength. PMID:27892460

  3. 46 CFR 72.05-20 - Stairways, ladders, and elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... landings of all Types 1, 2, and 3 stairways shall be of solid steel construction. Risers shall be of... width of the stairs, the depth of the tread, or the height of the risers in any flight. Where variation in height of riser or depth of tread in different flights is necessary, such variations shall...

  4. Microstructural Characterization of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum-Steel Joints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    and around particle inclusions within the WZ. In the case of FSW aluminum to steel , the structure often seen is one of steel particles dispersed...the microstructure and mechanical performance of dissimilar FSWs between aluminum and steel , this study focuses on the characterization of the...MICROSTRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FRICTION STIR WELDED ALUMINUM - STEEL JOINTS By ERIN ELIZABETH PATTERSON A thesis submitted in

  5. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  6. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2...

  7. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its dome must be enclosed by the vessel's hull structure or a separate steel cover. (b) The steel cover...

  8. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  9. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its dome must be enclosed by the vessel's hull structure or a separate steel cover. (b) The steel cover...

  10. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  11. 19 CFR 360.101 - Steel import licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Steel import licensing. 360.101 Section 360.101 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.101 Steel import licensing. (a) In general. (1) All imports of basic steel...

  12. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  13. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  14. 19 CFR 360.101 - Steel import licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Steel import licensing. 360.101 Section 360.101 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.101 Steel import licensing. (a) In general. (1) All imports of basic steel...

  15. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its dome must be enclosed by the vessel's hull structure or a separate steel cover. (b) The steel cover...

  16. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  17. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  18. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  19. 19 CFR 360.101 - Steel import licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Steel import licensing. 360.101 Section 360.101 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.101 Steel import licensing. (a) In general. (1) All imports of basic steel...

  20. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  1. 19 CFR 360.101 - Steel import licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Steel import licensing. 360.101 Section 360.101 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.101 Steel import licensing. (a) In general. (1) All imports of basic steel...

  2. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  3. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  4. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  5. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  6. 75 FR 8746 - Certain Steel Grating From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... COMMISSION Certain Steel Grating From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of certain steel gratings... ``certain steel grating, consisting of two or more pieces of steel, including load- bearing pieces and...

  7. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  8. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  9. 19 CFR 360.101 - Steel import licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Steel import licensing. 360.101 Section 360.101 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.101 Steel import licensing. (a) In general. (1) All imports of basic steel...

  10. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its dome must be enclosed by the vessel's hull structure or a separate steel cover. (b) The steel cover...

  11. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  12. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its dome must be enclosed by the vessel's hull structure or a separate steel cover. (b) The steel cover...

  13. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  14. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  15. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  16. Austenite grain coarsening in microalloyed steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuddy, L. J.; Raley, J. C.

    1983-10-01

    A uniform, fine-grain structure is essential in steels, particularly for strip and plate, that are to meet demands for high strength and toughness. To produce such microstructures, every step of the high-temperature processing of the steel must be carefully controlled, beginning with grain coarsening that occurs during reheating for slab rolling. Extremely coarse or nonuniform grain structures in the reheated slab are difficult to refine by subsequent hot working. Accordingly, the grain-coarsening behavior of laboratory heats of C-Mn-Si base steels and of such steels with additions of Al, V, Ti, or Nb was examined to understand the principles governing the behavior of this class of steels. The grain-coarsening temperature (the temperature at which abnormal or discontinuous growth occurs) varies with the type and concentration of the microalloy addition; an approximate relation is presented. Generally the grain-coarsening temperature increases with, but is lower than, the temperature required for complete dissolution of the microalloy carbide or nitride present. Thus, steels containing the very insoluble TiN coarsen at much higher temperatures than steels containing the more soluble VCN. These results agree qualitatively with predictions of models of grain-boundary pinning by precipitate particles.

  17. Recycling galvanized steel: Operating experience and benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Morgan, W.A.

    1993-08-01

    In response to the increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last decade and the problems associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The dezinced ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap, with a design capacity of 48,000 tonnes annually, has been in operation in East Chicago, Indiana since early in 1993. The first 450 t of scrap degalvanized in the pilot plant have residual zinc below 0.01% and sodium dragout below 0.01%. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials, environmental compliance, and opportunity costs to steel- and iron-makers. Availability of clean degalvanized scrap may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant and EAF shops to produce flat products without use of high quality scrap alternatives such as DRI, pig iron, or iron carbide. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap. The quantities of zinc available by the year 2000 from prompt and obsolete automotive scrap win approach 25% of zinc consumed in the major automotive production centers of the world. Zinc recycling from galvanized steel scrap, either before or after scrap melting, will have to be implemented.

  18. Alloy dissolution in argon stirred steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Darryl Scott

    Alloying is required for the production of all steel products from small castings to large beams. Addition of large quantities of bulk alloys can result in alloy segregation and inconsistent alloy recovery. The objective of this research was to better understand alloy dissolution in liquid steel especially as it relates to Missouri S&Ts' patented continuous steelmaking process. A 45-kilogram capacity ladle with a single porous plug was used to evaluate the effect of four experimental factors on alloy dissolution: alloy species, alloy size or form, argon flow rate, and furnace tap temperature. Four alloys were tested experimentally including Class I low carbon ferromanganese, nickel and tin (as a surrogate for low melting alloys) and Class II ferroniobium. The alloys ranged in size and form from granular to 30 mm diameter lumps. Experimental results were evaluated using a theoretically based numerical model for the steel shell period, alloy mixing (Class I) and alloy dissolution (Class II). A CFD model of the experimental ladle was used to understand steel motion in the ladle and to provide steel velocity magnitudes for the numerical steel shell model. Experiments and modeling confirmed that smaller sized alloys have shorter steel shell periods and homogenize faster than larger particles. Increasing the argon flow rate shortened mixing times and reduced the delay between alloy addition and the first appearance of alloy in the melt. In addition, for every five degree increase in steel bath temperature the steel shell period was shortened by approximately four percent. Class II ferroniobium alloy dissolution was an order of magnitude slower than Class I alloy mixing.

  19. Steel Creek wildlife: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Giffin, M.A.; Patterson, K.K.

    1988-03-01

    Reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek below L-Lake were assessed in monthly or quarterly sampling programs. Thirty-eight species of reptiles or amphibians were collected during 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment, and in the delta and channel. Juvenile turtles and alligators, and larval amphibians were observed or collected during the study, indicating continued reproduction in Steel Creek. The reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek show no indication of any effect due to the impoundment of the lake or the operation of L-Reactor. Waterfowl and associated birds in Steel Creek below L-Lake were observed, in conjunction with other sampling programs, during winter--spring and fall--winter migrations. Nine species of waterfowl and five species of associated birds were observed in 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment and in the delta and channel.

  20. Modernization of Controls Improves Productivity and Reduces Energy Costs at a Large Steel Plant (Weirton Steel Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-04-01

    In 1996 and 1997, Weirton Steel upgraded the utilities control systems at its main steel manufacturing plant in Weirton, WV. In response to increasing energy costs and the need to remain competitive in the steel industry, Weirton Steel commissioned a comprehensive energy management study of the facility, which provided the basis for an energy management control strategy.

  1. Ultrahigh Carbon Steels and Their Laminates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT 11LitME NT NO. No. NO. NO I I TITLE tiAtluda Seca.r.ty Ck~iaialasonJ Ultrahigh Carbon Steels and their laminates...PROM Aug. 1984 To- Fe~r--9O February 1, 1906 1S. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION Amore coinpetc tte of tie-program is: Low Density and Tough Steels with High...Hardenabihzty: Processing, Testing and Evaluation of UHC steels and their laminates 17 COSATI CODES Is.. SUBJECT TERMS (CoAtInai" on uvwrue iroleemary

  2. Thermal embrittlement of reactor vessel steels

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, W.R.; Nanstad, R.K.; Alexander, D.J.; Stoller, R.E.; Wang, J.A.; Odette, G.R.

    1995-06-01

    As a result of observations of possible thermal embrittlement from recent studies with welds removed from retired steam generators of the Palisades Nuclear Plant (PNP), an assessment was made of thermal aging of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under nominal reactor operating conditions. Discussions are presented on (1) data from the literature regarding relatively low-temperature thermal embrittlement of RPV steels; (2)relevant data from the US power reactor-embrittlement data base (PR-EDB); and (3)potential mechanisms of thermal embrittlement in low-alloy steels.

  3. Direct Alloying of Steel with Nickel Concentrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nokhrina, O. I.; Rozhikhina, I. D.; Proshunin, I. E.

    2016-08-01

    A technology of alloying steel with nickel reduced from nickel concentrate is analysed and developed. Limits of reduction concentration areas are defined. An optimal composition of nickel concentrate pellets and a method of feeding them into the furnace are deduced from experiments. It is proved that when pellets made of nickel concentrate and coke are added into the charge during steel smelting by the technology of alloyed scrap remelting, nickel recovery achieves 92-95%. The technology was tested by smelting DSP-40 steel.

  4. Strain hardening of steel EP836

    SciTech Connect

    Lyadskaya, A.A.; Lappa, R.M.; Spuskanyuk, V.Z.

    1986-03-01

    The authors investigate the effect of different combinations of cold hydraulic pressing and heat treatment on the physical and mechanical properties of steel EP836 (03N17K10V10MT), containing 0.03% C, 16-17% Ni, 10-11.5% Co, 9.5-11.5% W, 1% Ti, 1% Mo, and 0.15% A1. Deformation of the unaged steel resulted in insignificant hardening without a decrease in plasticity; this agrees with the results of investigations of other steels of this class.

  5. Tritiated Water Interaction with Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2007-05-01

    Experiments conducted to study tritium permeation of stainless steel at ambient and elevated temperatures revealed that HT converts relatively quickly to HTO. Further, the HTO partial pressure contributes essentially equally with elemental tritium gas in driving permeation through the stainless steel. Such permeation appears to be due to dissociation of the water molecule on the hot stainless steel surface. There is an equilibrium concentration of HTO vapor above adsorbed gas on the walls of the experimental apparatus evident from freezing transients. The uptake process of tritium from the carrier gas involves both surface adsorption and isotopic exchange with surface bound water.

  6. Steel pressure vessels for hydrostatic pressures to 50 kilobars.

    PubMed

    Lavergne, A; Whalley, E

    1978-07-01

    Cylindrical steel pressure vessels are described that can be used for hydrostatic pressures up to 50 kilobars. Monoblock vessels of 350 maraging steel can be used to 40 kilobars and compound vessels with an inner vessel of 350 maraging steel and an outer vessel of 300 maraging steel to 50 kilobars. Neither requires the cylinder to be end loaded, and so they are much easier to use than the more usual compound vessels with a tungsten carbide inner and steel outer vessel.

  7. Ultrasonic attenuation in pearlitic steel.

    PubMed

    Du, Hualong; Turner, Joseph A

    2014-03-01

    Expressions for the attenuation coefficients of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves are developed for steel with pearlitic microstructure. This type of lamellar duplex microstructure influences attenuation because of the lamellar spacing. In addition, longitudinal attenuation measurements were conducted using an unfocused transducer with 10 MHz central frequency on the cross section of a quenched railroad wheel sample. The dependence of longitudinal attenuation on the pearlite microstructure is observed from the changes of longitudinal attenuation from the quenched tread surface to deeper locations. The results show that the attenuation value is lowest and relatively constant within the quench depth, then increases linearly. The experimental results demonstrate a reasonable agreement with results from the theoretical model. Ultrasonic attenuation provides an important non-destructive method to evaluate duplex microstructure within grains which can be implemented for quality control in conjunction with other manufacturing processes.

  8. Microstructural characterization in dissimilar friction stir welding between 304 stainless steel and st37 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Jafarzadegan, M.; Feng, A.H.; Abdollah-zadeh, A.; Saeid, T.; Shen, J.; Assadi, H.

    2012-12-15

    In the present study, 3 mm-thick plates of 304 stainless steel and st37 steel were welded together by friction stir welding at a welding speed of 50 mm/min and tool rotational speed of 400 and 800 rpm. X-ray diffraction test was carried out to study the phases which might be formed in the welds. Metallographic examinations, and tensile and microhardness tests were used to analyze the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joint. Four different zones were found in the weld area except the base metals. In the stir zone of the 304 stainless steel, a refined grain structure with some features of dynamic recrystallization was evidenced. A thermomechanically-affected zone was characterized on the 304 steel side with features of dynamic recovery. In the other side of the stir zone, the hot deformation of the st37 steel in the austenite region produced small austenite grains and these grains transformed to fine ferrite and pearlite and some products of displacive transformations such as Widmanstatten ferrite and martensite by cooling the material after friction stir welding. The heat-affected zone in the st37 steel side showed partially and fully refined microstructures like fusion welding processes. The recrystallization in the 304 steel and the transformations in the st37 steel enhanced the hardness of the weld area and therefore, improved the tensile properties of the joint. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FSW produced sound welds between st37 low carbon steel and 304 stainless steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SZ of the st37 steel contained some products of allotropic transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material in the SZ of the 304 steel showed features of dynamic recrystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The finer microstructure in the SZ increased the hardness and tensile strength.

  9. Evaluation of Direct Diode Laser Deposited Stainless Steel 316L on 4340 Steel Substrate for Aircraft Landing Gear Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2010-4149 EVALUATION OF DIRECT DIODE LASER DEPOSITED STAINLESS STEEL 316L ON 4340 STEEL SUBSTRATE FOR AIRCRAFT LANDING GEAR...March 2010 – 01 March 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EVALUATION OF DIRECT DIODE LASER DEPOSITED STAINLESS STEEL 316L ON 4340 STEEL SUBSTRATE FOR...Code) N/A Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 Evaluation of Direct Diode Laser Deposited Stainless Steel 316L on

  10. TiC reinforced cast chromium steels

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Omer N.; Rawers, James C.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Schrems, Karol K.

    2003-11-01

    A series of new titanium carbide reinforced cast chromium steels were developed for wear applications. Objective of the program was to enhance wear resistant alloys and, if possible, improve mechanical properties. The new steels which were melted in a vacuum induction furnace contained 12 Cr, 3-5 Ti, 1-2 C in weight percent. Alloying with Ti changed the precipitate microstructure from Cr carbide to TiC dispersed in a martensitic matrix. Yield strength and impact resistance improved with Ti alloying. Wear rates of the cast Cr/TiC steels, (determined from high- and low-stress abrasion tests, erosion test, and scratch tests) were generally lower than both the as-cast and heat-treated AISI type 440°C steel and were often further reduced by increasing the Ti alloy concentration. The exceptions were the erosion test for which all materials had similar wear rate.

  11. TiC reinforced cast Cr steels

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, O.N.; Hawk, J.A.; Schrems, K.K.

    2006-06-01

    A new class of materials, namely TiC-reinforced cast chromium (Cr) steels, was developed for applications requiring high abrasion resistance and good fracture toughness. The research approach was to modify the carbide structure of commercial AISI 440C steel for better fracture resistance while maintaining the already high abrasion resistance. The new alloys contained 12Cr, 2.5–4.5Ti, and 1–1.5C (wt.%) and were melted in a vacuum induction furnace. Their microstructure was composed primarily of a martensitic matrix with a dispersion of TiC precipitates. Modification of TiC morphology was accomplished through changing the cooling rate during solidification. Wear rates of the TiC-reinforced Cr steels were comparable to that of AISI 440C steel, but the impact resistance was much improved.

  12. Steel - Structural, reinforcing; Pressure vessel, railway

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book contains specifications for structural steel used in various constructions; concrete reinforcement; plate and forgings for boilers and pressure vesseles; rails, axles, wheels and other accessories for railway service.

  13. High performance corrosion-resistant structural steels

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, F.B.; Ferry, B.N.; Beblo, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    A new corrosion-resistant structural steel named Duracorr was developed for low maintenance when compared to conventional structural steels. The new stainless steel is a dual phase composition between the established 12% Cr, ferritic T409 and martensitic T410 grades. Attractive combinations of hardness, strength, toughness, weldability and formability are derived from a microstructure that is a dual phase mixture of ferrite and martensite. The Duracorr composition, UNS S41003, provides for a microstructure of ferrite and austenite to be present throughout the hot rolling process. Cooling to room temperature causes transformation of the austenite to martensite. Subsequent tempering of the steel creates minimum mechanical properties of 275 MPa (40 ksi) yield strength and 455 MPa (66 ksi) tensile strength with room temperature longitudinal Charpy impact values typically greater than 34 J (25 ft-lbs).

  14. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho

    2010-06-15

    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  15. Abbreviated annealing of high-speed steel

    SciTech Connect

    Zablotskii, V.K.; Bartel, G.P.

    1987-07-01

    The authors investigate the structural and phase transformations during the heating, holding, and cooling of high-speed steels of two basic groups: tungsten (R18, R12, R12F3, and R12F4K5) and tungsten-molybdenum (R6M5, 10R6M5, R6M5K5, R8M3, 10R8M3, and R8M3K6S) steels in the forged state. They propose a cooling regime with complete alpha-gamma recrystallization whose implementation at a Soviet steel plant has made it possible to reduce the duration of heat treatment and increase productivity by 20% in cutting the annealed high-speed steels.

  16. Clean Cast Steel Technology, Phase IV

    SciTech Connect

    Charles E. Bates

    2003-02-24

    The objective of the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program was to improve casting product quality by removing or minimizing oxide defects and to allow the production of higher integrity castings for high speed machining lines. Previous research has concentrated on macro-inclusions that break, chip, or crack machine tool cutters and drills and cause immediate shutdown of the machining lines. The overall goal of the project is to reduce the amount of surface macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions have been identified by industrial sponsors as a major barrier to improving the quality and marketability of steel castings.

  17. Precise carbon control of fabricated stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen, R.J.

    1975-12-01

    A process is described for controlling the carbon content of fabricated stainless steel components including the steps of heat treating the component in hydrogen atmospheres of varying dewpoints and carbon potentials.

  18. Stainless Steel to Titanium Bimetallic Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaluzny, J. A.; Grimm, C.; Passarelli, D.

    2015-01-01

    In order to use stainless steel piping in an LCLS-II (Linac Coherent Light Source Upgrade) cryomodule, stainless steel to titanium bimetallic transitions are needed to connect the stainless steel piping to the titanium cavity helium vessel. Explosion bonded stainless steel to titanium transition pieces and bimetallic transition material samples have been tested. A sample transition tube was subjected to tests and x-ray examinations between tests. Samples of the bonded joint material were impact and tensile tested at room temperature as well as liquid helium temperature. The joint has been used successfully in horizontal tests of LCLS-II cavity helium vessels and is planned to be used in LCLS-II cryomodules. Results of material sample and transition tube tests will be presented.

  19. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho

    2010-06-01

    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  20. Hydrogen compatibility handbook for stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1983-06-01

    This handbook compiles data on the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of stainless steels and discusses this data within the context of current understanding of hydrogen compatibility of metals. All of the tabulated data derives from continuing studies of hydrogen effects on materials that have been conducted at the Savannah River Laboratory over the past fifteen years. Supplementary data from other sources are included in the discussion. Austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, and precipitation hardenable stainless steels have been studied. Damage caused by helium generated from decay of tritium is a distinctive effect that occurs in addition to the hydrogen isotopes protium and deuterium. The handbook defines the scope of our current knowledge of hydrogen effects in stainless steels and serves as a guide to selection of stainless steels for service in hydrogen.

  1. Ion-beam nitriding of steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salik, J.

    1984-01-01

    The application of the ion beam technique to the nitriding of steels is described. It is indicated that the technique can be successfully applied to nitriding. Some of the structural changes obtained by this technique are similar to those obtained by ion nitriding. The main difference is the absence of the iron nitride diffraction lines. It is found that the dependence of the resultant microhardness on beam voltage for super nitralloy is different from that of 304 stainless steel.

  2. Thermal treatment of dissimilar steels' welded joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikulina, A. A.; Denisova, A. S.; Gradusov, I. N.; Ryabinkina, P. A.; Rushkovets, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper combinations of chrome-nickel steel and high-carbon steel, produced by flash butt welding after heat treatment, are investigated. Light and electron microscopic studies show that the welded joints after heat treatment have a complex structure consisting of several phases as initial welded joints. A martensite structure in welded joints after thermal treatment at 300... 800 °C has been found.

  3. High strength and high toughness steel

    DOEpatents

    Parker, Earl R.; Zackay, Victor F.

    1979-01-01

    A structural steel which possess both high strength and high toughness and has particular application of cryogenic uses. The steel is produced by the utilization of thermally induced phase transformation following heating in a three-phase field in iron-rich alloys of the Fe-Ni-Ti system, with a preferred composition of 12% nickel, 0.5% titanium, the remainder being iron.

  4. High strength, high ductility low carbon steel

    DOEpatents

    Koo, Jayoung; Thomas, Gareth

    1978-01-01

    A high strength, high ductility low carbon steel consisting essentially of iron, 0.05-0.15 wt% carbon, and 1-3 wt% silicon. Minor amounts of other constituents may be present. The steel is characterized by a duplex ferrite-martensite microstructure in a fibrous morphology. The microstructure is developed by heat treatment consisting of initial austenitizing treatment followed by annealing in the (.alpha. + .gamma.) range with intermediate quenching.

  5. Stainless Steels’ Resistance to Hydroerosion,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-30

    Omel’chenko, engineer, S. L. Millichenko, A. G. Aleksandrov, Candidates of Technical Sciences Thanks to a high corrosion resistance stainless steels have...has great significance. The resistance to hydroerosion of several of the most common types of stainless steels which have roughly the same corrosion ...the failure is first localized in the ferrite phase and occurs by means of plastic deformation and the development of fatigue micro- cracks both

  6. Diffraction Measurements on CPF Steel Fatigue Samples

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-05-30

    I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I - 535 - Diffraction Measurements on CPF Steel Fatigue Samples by Percy Clark*, Tom...to the formation of a detectable fatigue crack, a series of hourglass shaped specimens were fabricated from 350WT steel , cyclically loaded to...were made between these experiments and earlier less successful similar experiments conducted on HY80 samples. The limitations and potential for the

  7. Occupational rhinitis due to steel welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Castano, Roberto; Suarthana, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to welding fumes is a recognized respiratory hazard. Occupational asthma but not occupational rhinitis has been documented in workers exposed to steel welding fumes. We report a 26-year-old male with work-related rhinitis symptoms as well as lower airways symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma and metal fume fever associated with exposure to steel welding fumes. The diagnosis of occupational rhinitis was confirmed by specific inhalation challenge.

  8. Ion-beam nitriding of steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salik, J.

    1985-01-01

    The application of the ion beam technique to the nitriding of steels is described. It is indicated that the technique can be successfully applied to nitriding. Some of the structural changes obtained by this technique are similar to those obtained by ion nitriding. The main difference is the absence of the iron nitride diffraction lines. It is found that the dependence of the resultant microhardness on beam voltage for super nitralloy is different from that of 304 stainless steel.

  9. Improved High Strength Armor Steel through Texturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    80 I 14 02w INTRODUCTION During metal manufacturing processing, such as rolling of sheet and plate, the polycrystalline aggregate of the material...of the quenched martensite has been documented by previous investigators including Kula and Dhosi who ob- served that thermomechanical processing can...textured armor steel exhibits improved ballistic resistance to conventionally uncontrolled rolled steels of equal hardness at normal obliquity. This

  10. Laser Rewelding of 304L Stainless Steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, Michael Christopher; Rodelas, Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    Laser welding of 304L stainless steel during component fabrication has been found to alter the chemical composition of the steel due to material evaporation. During repair or rework, or during potential reuse/ rewelding of certain components, the potential exists to alter the composition to the extent that the material becomes prone to solidification cracking. This work aims to characterize the extent of this susceptibility in order to make informed decisions regarding rewelding practice and base metal chemistry allowances.

  11. Regularities of bainitic steel deformation transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, V. E.; Nikitina, E. N.; Ivanov, Yu F.; Aksenova, K. V.

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative analysis of defect and carbide subsystems evolution in medium-carbon bainitic steel subjected to compressive strain up to 36% was performed by means of transmission electron diffraction microscopy. Dislocation substructure and carbide phase parameters dependence on degree of deformation are identified, possible reasons of staging in their changes are discussed. It is suggested that the reason for bainitic steel softening at high (over 15%) degrees of deformation is activation of deformation microtwinning process.

  12. Stainless steel recycle FY94 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, K.J.

    1994-10-28

    The Materials Technology Section (MTS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was asked to demonstrate the practicality of recycling previously contaminated stainless steel components such as reactor heat exchanger heads, process water piping and slug buckets into 208 liters (55 gallon) drums and 2.8 cubic meter (100 ft{sup 3}) storage boxes. Radioactively contaminated stainless steel scrap will be sent to several industrial partners where it will be melted, decontaminated/cast into ingots, and rolled into plate and sheet and fabricated into the drums and boxes. As part of this recycle initiative, MTS was requested to demonstrate that radioactively contaminated Type 304L stainless steel could be remelted and cast to meet the applicable ASTM specification for fabrication of drums and boxes. In addition, MTS was requested to develop the technical basis of melt decontamination and establish practicality of using this approach for value added products. The findings presented in this investigation lead to the following conclusions: recycle of 18 wt% Cr-8 wt% Ni alloy can be achieved by melting Type 304 stainless steel in a air vacuum induction furnace; limited melt decontamination of the contaminated stainless steel was achieved, surface contamination was removed by standard decontamination techniques; carbon uptake in the as-cast ingots resulted from the graphite susceptor used in this experiment and is unavoidable with this furnace configuration. A new furnace optimized for melting stainless steel has been installed and is currently being tested for use in this program.

  13. Steels with controlled hardenability for induction hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepelyakovskii, K. Z.

    1980-07-01

    Steels of the CH and LH type developed in the Soviet Union permit the use of a new method of induction hardening — bulk-surface hardening — and efficient utilization of the high-strength conditions (σb = 230-250 kgf/mm2). These steels make it possible to improve the structural strength, operating characteristics, service life, and reliability of critical heavily loaded machine parts. At the same time, CH steels make it possible to reduce by a factor of 2-3 the quantity of alloying elements, reduce the electrical energy for heat treatment, and completely exclude the cost of quenching oil for heat treatment in automatic equipment with high labor productivity, while retaining good working conditions. All this leads to substantial savings in production and operation. For example, when transmission gears (cylindrical and conical) are manufactured from LH steels the annual savings amount to more than 700,000 rubles at two automobile plants. Machine parts of CH steels — half axles and bearings in railway cars —have saved respectively six and four million rubles annually. The introduction of controlled-hardenability steels for induction hardening is a necessary condition for technological progress in machine construction and metallurgy.

  14. Development of Steel Foam Materials and Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Kremer; Anthony Liszkiewicz; James Adkins

    2004-10-20

    In the past few years there has been a growing interest in lightweight metal foams. Demands for weight reduction, improved fuel efficiency, and increased passenger safety in automobiles now has manufacturers seriously considering the use of metal foams, in contrast to a few years ago, when the same materials would have been ruled out for technical or economical reasons. The objective of this program was to advance the development and use of steel foam materials, by demonstrating the advantages of these novel lightweight materials in selected generic applications. Progress was made in defining materials and process parameters; characterization of physical and mechanical properties; and fabrication and testing of generic steel foam-filled shapes with compositions from 2.5 wt.% to 0.7 wt.% carbon. A means of producing steel foam shapes with uniform long range porosity levels of 50 to 60 percent was demonstrated and verified with NDE methods. Steel foam integrated beams, cylinders and plates were mechanically tested and demonstrated advantages in bend stiffness, bend resistance, and crush energy absorption. Methods of joining by welding, adhesive bonding, and mechanical fastening were investigated. It is important to keep in mind that steel foam is a conventional material in an unconventional form. A substantial amount of physical and mechanical properties are presented throughout the report and in a properties database at the end of the report to support designer's in applying steel foam in unconventional ways.

  15. Ultrahigh Ductility, High-Carbon Martensitic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shengwei; Liu, Yu; Hao, Qingguo; Zuo, Xunwei; Rong, Yonghua; Chen, Nailu

    2016-10-01

    Based on the proposed design idea of the anti-transformation-induced plasticity effect, both the additions of the Nb element and pretreatment of the normalization process as a novel quenching-partitioning-tempering (Q-P-T) were designed for Fe-0.63C-1.52Mn-1.49Si-0.62Cr-0.036Nb hot-rolled steel. This high-carbon Q-P-T martensitic steel exhibits a tensile strength of 1890 MPa and elongation of 29 pct accompanied by the excellent product of tensile and elongation of 55 GPa pct. The origin of ultrahigh ductility for high-carbon Q-P-T martensitic steel is revealed from two aspects: one is the softening of martensitic matrix due to both the depletion of carbon in the matensitic matrix during the Q-P-T process by partitioning of carbon from supersaturated martensite to retained austenite and the reduction of the dislocation density in a martensitic matrix by dislocation absorption by retained austenite effect during deformation, which significantly enhances the deformation ability of martensitic matrix; another is the high mechanical stability of considerable carbon-enriched retained austenite, which effectively reduces the formation of brittle twin-type martensite. This work verifies the correctness of the design idea of the anti-TRIP effect and makes the third-generation advanced high-strength steels extend to the field of high-carbon steels from low- and medium-carbon steels.

  16. Microstructural studies of advanced austenitic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, J. A.; Ren, Jyh-Ching

    1989-11-15

    This report presents the first complete microstructural and analytical electron microscopy study of Alloy AX5, one of a series of advanced austenitic steels developed by Maziasz and co-workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for their potential application as reheater and superheater materials in power plants that will reach the end of their design lives in the 1990's. The advanced steels are modified with carbide forming elements such as titanium, niobium and vanadium. When combined with optimized thermo-mechanical treatments, the advanced steels exhibit significantly improved creep rupture properties compared to commercially available 316 stainless steels, 17--14 Cu--Mo and 800 H steels. The importance of microstructure in controlling these improvements has been demonstrated for selected alloys, using stress relaxation testing as an accelerated test method. The microstructural features responsible for the improved creep strengths have been identified by studying the thermal aging kinetics of one of the 16Ni--14Cr advanced steels, Alloy AX5, in both the solution annealed and the solution annealed plus cold worked conditions. Time-temperature-precipitation diagrams have been developed for the temperature range 600 C to 900 C and for times from 1 h to 3000 h. 226 refs., 88 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Ion-nitriding of austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, O.; Hertz, D.; Lebrun, J.P.; Michel, H.

    1995-12-31

    Although ion-nitriding is an extensively industrialized process enabling steel surfaces to be hardened by nitrogen diffusion, with a resulting increase in wear, seizure and fatigue resistance, its direct application to stainless steels, while enhancing their mechanical properties, also causes a marked degradation in their oxidation resistance. However, by adaption of the nitriding process, it is possible to maintain the improved wear resistant properties while retaining the oxidation resistance of the stainless steel. The controlled diffusion permits the growth of a nitrogen supersaturated austenite layer on parts made of stainless steel (AISI 304L and 316L) without chromium nitride precipitation. The diffusion layer remains stable during post heat treatments up to 650 F for 5,000 hrs and maintains a hardness of 900 HV. A very low and stable friction coefficient is achieved which provides good wear resistance against stainless steels under diverse conditions. Electrochemical and chemical tests in various media confirm the preservation of the stainless steel characteristics. An example of the application of this process is the treatment of Reactor Control Rod Cluster Assemblies (RCCAs) for Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactors.

  18. Effects of interactive particles on steel weldability

    SciTech Connect

    Eijk, C. van der; Grong, O.; Babu, S.S.; David, S.A.

    1998-11-01

    The concept of intragranular ferrite nucleation by specific inclusions is well known from steel weld metals. In this paper it is shown that the idea can be transferred to steel metallurgy. Control of the inclusion composition and thus the nucleation potency with respect to ferrite can readily be achieved by the choice of an appropriate deoxidation procedure. Thermodynamic (Thermo-Calc) calculations in addition to X-ray mappings and microprobe analysis are employed to understand and predict the inclusion formation in the steels. Three different steels, two of them Ti-deoxidized, and one Al-Ca-deoxidized, have been subjected to weld thermal simulation at different peak temperatures and cooling programs followed by Charpy-V notch testing at {minus}40 C to reveal differences in the HAZ toughness. The results from these tests show that the titanium deoxidized steels exhibit excellent toughness in the grain coarsened HAZ after high heat input weld simulation because of a refinement of the microstructure. This observation is in contrast to the more traditional behavior of the conventional Al-Ca deoxidized steels, which show no evidence of intragranular ferrite formation.

  19. Utilization of structural steel in buildings

    PubMed Central

    Moynihan, Muiris C.; Allwood, Julian M.

    2014-01-01

    Over one-quarter of steel produced annually is used in the construction of buildings. Making this steel causes carbon dioxide emissions, which climate change experts recommend be reduced by half in the next 37 years. One option to achieve this is to design and build more efficiently, still delivering the same service from buildings but using less steel to do so. To estimate how much steel could be saved from this option, 23 steel-framed building designs are studied, sourced from leading UK engineering firms. The utilization of each beam is found and buildings are analysed to find patterns. The results for over 10 000 beams show that average utilization is below 50% of their capacity. The primary reason for this low value is ‘rationalization’—providing extra material to reduce labour costs. By designing for minimum material rather than minimum cost, steel use in buildings could be drastically reduced, leading to an equivalent reduction in ‘embodied’ carbon emissions. PMID:25104911

  20. Demonstrating Nonhexavelent Chrome Steel Conversion Coatings on Stryker High Hard Armor Steel Hatches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    protection against armor-piercing threats, these steels corrode rapidly without the use of a good corrosion protective coating ...stress corrosion cracking. • Provides a more robust process that will protect against deficiencies in the inorganic coating process. Advantages...of other systems provide good protection against armor-piercing threats. However, these steels corrode rapidly without good corrosion protective

  1. EMPLACEMENT DRIFT INVERT-LOW STEEL EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    M. E. Taylor and D. H. Tang

    2000-09-29

    This technical report evaluates and develops options for reducing the amount of steel in the emplacement drift invert. Concepts developed in the ''Invert Configuration and Drip Shield Interface'' were evaluated to determine material properties required for the proposed invert concepts. Project requirements documents prescribe the use of a carbon steel frame for the invert with a granular material of crushed tuff as ballast. The ''Invert Configuration and Drip Shield Interface'' developed three concepts: (1) All-Ballast Invert; (2) Modified Steel Invert with Ballast; and (3) Steel Tie with Ballast Invert. Analysis of the steel frame members, runway beams, and guide beams, for the modified steel invert with ballast, decreased the quantity of steel in the emplacement drift invert, however a substantial steel support frame for the gantry and waste package/pallet assembly is still required. Use of one of the other two concepts appears to be an alternative to the steel frame and each of the concepts uses considerably less steel materials. Analysis of the steel tie with ballast invert shows that the bearing pressure on the ballast under the single steel tie, C 9 x 20, loaded with the waste package/pallet assembly, drip shield, and backfill exceeds the upper bound of the allowable bearing capacity for tuff used in this study. The single tie, C 10 x 20, will also fail for the same loading condition except for the tie length of 4.2 meters and longer. Analysis also shows that with two ties, C 9 or 10 x 20's, the average ballast pressure is less than the allowable bearing capacity. Distributing the waste package/pallet, drip shield, and backfill loads to two steel ties reduces the contact bearing pressure. Modifying the emplacement pallet end beams to a greater width, reducing the tie spacing, and increasing the width of the ties would ensure that the pallet beams are always supported by two steel ties. Further analysis is required to determine compatible tie size and spacing

  2. 76 FR 33239 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China; Initiation of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... International Trade Administration High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China; Initiation...'') petition concerning imports of high pressure steel cylinders (``steel cylinders'') from the People's... Petitions for the Imposition of Antidumping and Countervailing Duties Against High Pressure Steel...

  3. 77 FR 37384 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... International Trade Administration High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China... duty order on high pressure steel cylinders (``steel cylinders'') from the People's Republic of China.... See High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China: Final...

  4. High Mn austenitic stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge, TN; Santella, Michael L [Knoxville, TN; Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN; Liu, Chain-tsuan [Knoxville, TN

    2010-07-13

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy includes, in weight percent: >4 to 15 Mn; 8 to 15 Ni; 14 to 16 Cr; 2.4 to 3 Al; 0.4 to 1 total of at least one of Nb and Ta; 0.05 to 0.2 C; 0.01 to 0.02 B; no more than 0.3 of combined Ti+V; up to 3 Mo; up to 3 Co; up to 1W; up to 3 Cu; up to 1 Si; up to 0.05 P; up to 1 total of at least one of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; less than 0.05 N; and base Fe, wherein the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, nanometer scale sized particles distributed throughout the microstructure, the particles including at least one of NbC and TaC, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure that is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  5. Protective riser-conductor for offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, D. A.; Albers, G. P.

    1985-07-09

    A protective sleeve for fitting about the periphery of the leg of an offshore structure. The sleeve comprises means for carrying and enclosing a plurality of conductors. It further includes one or more inner rings; an outer jacket is fixedly spaced from the rings to define longitudinal passages within which the respective conductors are fixedly positioned. The sleeve is capable of deflecting packed ice and floating objects which represent possible sources of damage to the structure or to conductors.

  6. Reduced J-tube riser pull force

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, P.E.

    1991-07-30

    This patent describes a method for reducing the force required to move a pipe through a J-tube attached to an offshore platform. It comprises covering the pipe with at least one of a slippery coating and a slippery surface, each comprising hydrophilic polymer; reacting a polyol with the hydrophilic polymer to make the hydrophilic polymer slippery; and moving the pipe through the J-tube attached to the off-shore platform.

  7. Keep Laptop Cool with Simple Custom Riser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rynone, William

    2012-01-01

    Although the author's netbook computer--a diminished capacity laptop computer--uses less power than its big brother, when working with it on his lap, his thighs are roasted, even in the winter. When using the unit on a flat surface, such as a table top, the bottom surface of the computer and table top become quite warm--and it is generally…

  8. Early Risers Benefit from Scholars Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Maria L.; Russell, Ernest L.

    1987-01-01

    The 7 O'Clock Scholars Program for gifted and talented students at Pontiac (Michigan) Central Senior High School brings speakers from a nearby university to speak to interested high school students during 50-minute sessions before regular classes begin. (PGD)

  9. From Band Rooms to Choral Risers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, William Lee

    1999-01-01

    Offers suggestions for instrumentalists who have become choral instructors explaining that their first goal should be to learn how to identify and understand an ideal vocal sound. Finds that the hardest aspect of choral instruction is developing a teaching approach. Offers five steps to assist instrumentalists in molding their own approach. (CMK)

  10. Mechanical properties of irradiated 9Cr-2WVTa steel

    SciTech Connect

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J.; Rieth, M.

    1998-09-01

    An Fe-9Cr-2W-0.25V-0.07Ta-0.1C (9Cr-2WVTa) steel has excellent strength and impact toughness before and after irradiation in the Fast Flux Test Facility and the High Flux Reactor (HFR). The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) increased only 32 C after 28 dpa at 365 C in FFTF, compared to a shift of {approx}60 C for a 9Cr-2WV steel--the same as the 9Cr-2WVTa steel but without tantalum. This difference occurred despite the two steels having similar tensile but without tantalum. This difference occurred despite the two steels having similar tensile properties before and after irradiation. The 9Cr-2WVTa steel has a smaller prior-austenite grain size, but otherwise microstructures are similar before irradiation and show similar changes during irradiation. The irradiation behavior of the 9Cr-2WVTa steel differs from the 9Cr-2WV steel and other similar steels in two ways: (1) the shift in DBTT of the 9Cr-2WVTa steel irradiated in FFTF does not saturate with fluence by {approx}28 dpa, whereas for the 9Cr-2WV steel and most similar steels, saturation occurs at <10 dpa, and (2) the shift in DBTT for 9Cr-2WVTa steel irradiated in FFTF and HFR increased with irradiation temperature, whereas it decreased for the 9Cr-2WV steel, as it does for most similar steels. The improved properties of the 9Cr-2WVTa steel and the differences with other steels were attributed to tantalum in solution.

  11. Hydrogen trapping in high-strength steels

    SciTech Connect

    Pound, B.G.

    1998-10-09

    Hydrogen trapping in three high-strength steels -- AerMet 100 and AISI 4340 and H11 -- was studied using a potentiostatic pulse technique. Irreversible trapping constants (k) and hydrogen entry fluxes were determined for these alloys in 1 mol/1 acetic acid/1 mol/1 sodium acetate. The order of the k values for the three steels and two 18Ni maraging steels previously studies inversely parallels their threshold stress intensities for stress corrosion cracking (K{sub 1SCC}). Irreversible trapping in AerMet 100 varies with aging temperature and appears to depend on the type of carbide (Fe{sub 3}C or M{sub 2}C) present. For 4340 steel, k can be correlated with K{sub 1SCC} over a range of yield strengths. The change in k is consistent with a change in the principal type of irreversible trap from matrix boundaries to incoherent Fe{sub 3}C. The principal irreversible traps in H11 at high yield strengths are thought to be similar to those in 4340 steel.

  12. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.

    1985-10-01

    A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast-duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. Data from room-temperature Charpy-impact tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 350, 400, and 450/sup 0/C are presented and compared with results from other studies. Microstructures of cast-duplex stainless steels subjected to long-term aging either in the laboratory or in reactor service have been characterized. The results indicate that at least two processes contribute to the low-temperature embrittleent of duplex stainless steels, viz., weakening of the ferrite/austenite phase boundary by carbide precipitation and embrittlement of ferrite matrix by the formation of additional phases such as G-phase, Type X, or the ..cap alpha..' phase. Carbide precipitation has a significant effect on the onset of embrittlement of CF-8 and -8M grades of stainless steels aged at 400 or 450/sup 0/C. The existing correlations do not accurately represent the embrittlement behavior over the temperature range 300 to 450/sup 0/C. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Dislocation substructure in fatigued duplex stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, J. . Lab. de Mecanique de Lille Inst. of Physical Metallurgy, Brno . Academy of Sciences); Degallaix, S. . Lab. de Mecanique de Lille); Kruml, T. . Academy of Sciences)

    1993-12-15

    Cyclic plastic straining of crystalline materials results in the formation of specific dislocation structures. Considerable progress in mapping and understanding internal dislocation structures has been achieved by studying single crystal behavior: however, most structural materials have a polycrystalline structure and investigations of polycrystals in comparison to single crystal behavior of simple metals prove to be very useful in understanding more complex materials. There are some classes of materials, however, with complicated structure which do not have a direct equivalent in single crystalline form. Moreover, the specific dimensions and shapes of individual crystallites play an important role both in the cyclic stress-strain response of these materials and in the formation of their interior structure in cyclic straining. Austenitic-ferritic duplex stainless steel, which is a kind of a natural composite, is a material of this type. The widespread interest in the application of duplex steels is caused by approximately doubled mechanical properties and equal corrosion properties, when compared with classical austenitic stainless steels. Fatigue resistance of these steels as well as the surface damage evolution in cyclic straining have been studied; however, much less is known about the internal substructure development in cyclic straining. In this study the dislocation arrangement in ferritic and austenitic grains of the austenitic-ferritic duplex steel alloyed with nitrogen and cyclically strained with two strain amplitudes, is reported and compared to the dislocation arrangement found in single and polycrystals of austenitic and ferritic materials of a similar composition and with the surface relief produced in cyclic plastic straining.

  14. High Strength, Weldable Precipitation Aged Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Alexander D.

    1987-03-01

    The family of plate steels represented by ASTM Specification A7101 is finding increasing applications. These low carbon, Cu-Ni-Cr-Mo-Cb, copper precipitation hardened steels have been identified by a number of designations over the years. During early development in the late 1960's and first commercial production in 1970, the steels were known as IN-787 (trademark of International Nickel Company).2 ASTM specifications were subsequently developed for structural (A710) and pressure vessel (A736) applications over ten years ago. More recent interest and application of this family of steels by the U.S. Navy has lead to development of a military specification MIL-S-24645 (SH),3 also initially known as "HSLA-80." Significant tonnage is being produced for the U.S. Navy as a replacement for HY80 (MIL-S-16216) in cruiser deck, bulkhead and hull applications.4 In these applications, the enhanced weldability and requirement of no preheat at this high strength and toughness level has been the main motivation for its use. Over the past 15 years, A710 type steels have also been used in a variety of applications, including off-shore platforms, pressure vessels, arctic linepipe valves and off-highway mining truck frames.

  15. Superplastic forming of stainless steel automotive components

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, B.; Elmer, J.; Carol, L.

    1997-02-06

    Exhaust emission standards are governmentally controlled standards, which are increasingly stringent, forcing alternate strategies to meet these standards. One approach to improve the efficiency of the exhaust emission equipment is to decrease the time required to get the catalytic converter to optimum operating temperature. To accomplish this, automotive manufacturers are using double wall stainless steel exhaust manifolds to reduce heat loss of the exhaust gases to the converter. The current method to manufacture double wall stainless steel exhaust components is to use a low-cost alloy with good forming properties and extensively form, cut, assemble, and weld the pieces. Superplastic forming (SPF) technology along with alloy improvements has potential at making this process more cost effective. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and USCAR Low Emission Partnership (LEP) worked under a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) to evaluate material properties, SPF behavior, and welding behavior of duplex stainless steel alloy for automotive component manufacturing. Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has a separate CRADA with the LEP to use SPF technology to manufacture a double wall stainless steel exhaust component. As a team these CRADAs developed and demonstrated a technical plan to accomplish making double wall stainless steel exhaust manifolds.

  16. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

    1990-12-01

    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  17. Bearing and gear steels for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1990-01-01

    Research in metallurgy and processing for bearing and gear steels has resulted in improvements in rolling-element bearing and gear life for aerospace application by a factor of approximately 200 over that obtained in the early 1940's. The selection and specification of a bearing or gear steel is dependent on the integration of multiple metallurgical and physical variables. For most aerospace bearings, through-hardened VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel is the material of preference. For gears, the preferential material is case-carburized VAR AISI 9310. However, the VAR processing for this material is being replaced by VIM-VAR processing. Since case-carburized VIM-VAR M-50NiL incorporates the desirable qualities of both the AISI M-50 and AISI 9310 materials, optimal life and reliability can be achieved in both bearings and gears with a single steel. Hence, this material offers the promise of a common steel for both bearings and gears for future aerospace applications.

  18. 3. INTERIOR VIEW OF SMOKEHOUSE UNIT; NOTE STAINLESS STEEL NOZZLES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR VIEW OF SMOKEHOUSE UNIT; NOTE STAINLESS STEEL NOZZLES THAT INTRODUCED SMOKE INTO UNIT; FLOOR IS UNPAINTED STEEL - Rath Packing Company, Smokehouse-Hog Chilling Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  19. Diamond machining of steel molds for optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohr, Roland

    2016-08-01

    The requirement of ultra precision diamond machining of lens molds in steel is identified. A solution for this type of machining is presented and results of such a machining in steel compared to standard milling and polishing process are shown.

  20. 1. VIEW NORTHEASTWEST AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHEAST-WEST AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD CARPENTER SHOP. - Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, Carpenter Shop, 1201-1321 Hudson Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  1. 4. VIEW EASTSOUTH ELEVATION OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW EAST-SOUTH ELEVATION OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD BLACKSMITH SHOP/BOILER SHOP. - Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, Blacksmith Shop-Boiler Shop, 1201-1321 Hudson Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  2. 1. VIEW WESTEAST ELEVATION OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW WEST-EAST ELEVATION OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD BLACKSMITH SHOP/BOILER SHOP. - Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, Blacksmith Shop-Boiler Shop, 1201-1321 Hudson Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  3. Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ke; Ren, Yibin

    2010-01-01

    The adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the human body have prompted the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also much improves steel properties. Here we review the harmful effects associated with nickel in medical stainless steels, the advantages of nitrogen in stainless steels, and emphatically, the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steels for medical applications. By combining the benefits of stable austenitic structure, high strength and good plasticity, better corrosion and wear resistances, and superior biocompatibility compared to the currently used 316L stainless steel, the newly developed high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steel is a reliable substitute for the conventional medical stainless steels. PMID:27877320

  4. 5. SOUTHERN END OF INTERIOR OF STEEL FRAMEWORK TRAIN SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTHERN END OF INTERIOR OF STEEL FRAMEWORK TRAIN SHED LOOKING SE TO CAVED IN SHED, CENTER, AND BRICK AND STEEL SHED. - Western Railway of Alabama Montgomery Rail Shops, 701 North Perry Street, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

  5. View of steel warehouses (building 710 second in on right); ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of steel warehouses (building 710 second in on right); camera facing south. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Steel Warehouse Type, Between James & Humphreys Drives south of Embarcadero, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  6. View of steel warehouses (from left: building 807, 808, 809, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of steel warehouses (from left: building 807, 808, 809, 810, 811); camera facing east. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Steel Warehouse Type, Between James & Humphreys Drives south of Embarcadero, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  7. View of steel warehouses, building 710 north sidewalk; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of steel warehouses, building 710 north sidewalk; camera facing east. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Steel Warehouse Type, Between James & Humphreys Drives south of Embarcadero, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  8. View of steel warehouses on Ellsberg Drive, building 710 full ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of steel warehouses on Ellsberg Drive, building 710 full building at center; camera facing southeast. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Steel Warehouse Type, Between James & Humphreys Drives south of Embarcadero, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  9. First Structural Steel Erected at NSLS-II

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Ten steel columns were incorporated into the ever-growing framework for the National Synchrotron Light Source II last week, the first structural steel erected for the future 400,000-square-foot facility.

  10. View of steel warehouses (building 710 second in on left); ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of steel warehouses (building 710 second in on left); camera facing west. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Steel Warehouse Type, Between James & Humphreys Drives south of Embarcadero, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  11. View of steel warehouses at Gilmore Avenue (building 710 second ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of steel warehouses at Gilmore Avenue (building 710 second in on left); camera facing east. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Steel Warehouse Type, Between James & Humphreys Drives south of Embarcadero, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  12. First Structural Steel Erected at NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-14

    Ten steel columns were incorporated into the ever-growing framework for the National Synchrotron Light Source II last week, the first structural steel erected for the future 400,000-square-foot facility.

  13. 76 FR 18781 - Certain Steel Wheels From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Steel Wheels From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... the United States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of certain steel...

  14. 20. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHWEST FURNACE 2, SHOWING STEEL FRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHWEST FURNACE 2, SHOWING STEEL FRAME BOXES FOR COUNTERWEIGHTS, AND FURNACE HEATING PIPES AT RIGHT. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  15. 19. 1500 CUBIC FEET CAPACITY SCRAP STEEL CHARGING BOX ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. 1500 CUBIC FEET CAPACITY SCRAP STEEL CHARGING BOX ON THE CHARGING AISLE OF THE BOP SHOP LOOKING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  16. Symbiosis of Steel, Energy, and CO2 Evolution in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunjoung; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Sohn, Il

    2016-09-01

    This study looks at the energy intensity of the steel industry and the greenhouse gas intensity involved with the production of steel. Using several sources of steel production data and the corresponding energy sources used provides a time-series analysis of the greenhouse gas (GHG) and energy intensity from 1990 to 2014. The impact of the steel economy with the gross domestic product (GDP) provides indirect importance of the general manufacturing sector within Korea and in particular the steel industry. Beyond 2008, the shift in excess materials production and significant increase in total imports have led to an imbalance in the Korean steel market and continue to inhibit the growth of the domestic steel market. The forecast of the GHG and energy intensity along with the steel production up to 2030 is provided using the auto regressive integrated moving average analysis.

  17. Northwest view of steel plate "cans" in bay 7 of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northwest view of steel plate "cans" in bay 7 of the main pipe mill building. Historian for scale. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  18. Diffusion bonding between ODS ferritic steel and F82H steel for fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Sanghoon; Kim, Byungjun; Kasada, Ryuta; Kimura, Akihiko

    2012-07-01

    Diffusion bonding techniques were employed to join high Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel (Fe-15Cr-2W-0.2Ti-0.35Y2O3) and F82H steel under uni-axial hydrostatic pressure using a high vacuum hot press, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints were investigated. The dissimilar joints were bonded by solid-state diffusion bonding (SSDB) and liquid phase diffusion bonding (LPDB). After bonding process, heat treatments were conducted to utilize the phase transformation of F82H steel for recovering the martensitic structure. Tensile tests with miniaturized specimens were carried out to investigate and compare the bonding strengths of each joint. Microstructure was observed for the bonding interface, and fracture mode was investigated after the tensile tests. LPDB joint of interfacial F82H steel fully recovered to martensite phase by post-joining heat treatments, while SSDB joint had ferrite phases at the interface even after heat treatment, which is considered to be due to decarburization of F82H steel during the bonding process. Therefore it is considered that the insert material plays a role as diffusion barrier of carbon during LPDB process. Microstructure observations and tensile tests of the joints revealed that the LPDB joints possess suitable tensile properties which are comparable to that of F82H steel. This indicates that LPDB is more promising method to bond ODS-FS and F82H steel than SSDB.

  19. Investigation of the plastic fracture of high strength steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, T. B.; Low, J. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    This investigation deals in detail with the three recognized stages of plastic fracture in high strength steels, namely, void initiation, void growth, and void coalescence. The particular steels under investigation include plates from both commercial purity and high purity heats of AISI 4340 and 18 Ni, 200 grade maraging steels. A scanning electron microscope equipped with an X-ray energy dispersive analyzer, together with observations made using light microscopy, revealed methods of improving the resistance of high strength steels to plastic fracture.

  20. Enhanced Inclusion Removal from Steel in the Tundish

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Bradt; M.A.R. Sharif

    2009-09-25

    The objective of this project was to develop an effective chemical filtering system for significantly reducing the content of inclusion particles in the steel melts exiting the tundish for continuous casting. This project combined a multi-process approach that aimed to make significant progress towards an "inclusion free" steel by incorporating several interdependent concepts to reduce the content of inclusions in the molten steel exiting the tundish for the caster. The goal is to produce "cleaner" steel.

  1. Enhanced Incluison Removal from Steel in the Tundish

    SciTech Connect

    R.C. Bradt; M.A.R. Sharif

    2009-09-25

    The objective of this project was to develop an effective chemical filtering system for significantly reducing the content of inclusion particles in the steel melts exiting the tundish for continuous casting. This project combined a multi-process approach that aimed to make significant progress towards an "inclusion free" steel by incorporating several interdependent concepts to reduce the content of inclusions in the molten steel exiting the tundish for the caster. The goal is to produce "cleaner" steel.

  2. Corrosion inhibition of reinforcing steel by using acrylic latex

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.X.; Lin, W.W.; Ceng, S.A.; Zhang, J.Q.

    1998-05-01

    Acrylic latex was introduced into steel-reinforcing steel concrete as concrete admixtures or rebar coatings in order to prevent corrosion of steel reinforcements. The results showed that applying the latex by both methods took effect in different ways, while the latter was more noticeable. The corrosion prevention mechanism and the surface state of the steel rebar were also explored, based on which suggestions for enhancing the corrosion-resistant ability were made.

  3. Effect of rust on the wettability of steel by water

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, W.; Chung, D.D.L.

    1998-04-01

    Rust, as formed on steel by immersion of low-carbon steel in water, was found to improve the wettability of steel by water. The advancing contact angle decreased from 87{degree} to 32{degree}, and the receding contact angle decreased from 81{degree} to 29{degree}. Cleansing of steel by acetone also helped improve the wettability, but the advancing angle only decreased from 87{degree} to 73{degree}, and the receding angle only decreased from 81{degree} to 41{degree}.

  4. High Strength Steel Weldment Reliability: Weld Metal Hydrogen Trapping.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-02-01

    additions to welding consumables to control weld metal hydrogen and thus reduce susceptibility to cold cracking in high strength steel weldments. 14...applying weld metal hydrogen trapping to improve the resistance to hydrogen cracking in welding of high strength steels . Hydrogen cracking in high...requirements which are necessary to prevent hydrogen cracking in high strength steel welding. Common practices to prevent hydrogen cracking in steel

  5. Heat Treatment and Properties of Iron and Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    specified as an added element to a standard steel. • Silicon: Because of the technological nature of the process , acid bessemer steels are not...Heat treatment of steels 9 5.1. Annealing ~ 10 a. Full annealing I__ 10 b. Process annealing 10 c. Spheroidizing . 10 5.2. Normalizing 10...treatment of iron and steel and for directions and explanations of such processes . This Monograph has been prepared to answer such inquiries and to give

  6. Application of RST in the steel industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, R. V.; Maringer, R. E.

    1982-05-01

    The rapid solidification technology (RST) involves quenching molten metals at rates of perhaps 102 to 1010 degrees C per second. First reported in 1960, RST has experienced rapid growth during the last decade and is now established on the commercial market-place. This has resulted from the simple facts that unusual properties result from RST, that relatively easy techniques are available to produce large quantities of material, and that applications for these materials have been recognized. Ferrous-base materials produced by RST methods include staple fibers of mild and stainless steel for incorporation into concrete and castable refractories, powder metallurgy tool steels, and amorphous strip for power transformers. Research results suggest that RST will have a strong continuing influence on ferrous powder metallurgy, on the direct casting of strip and foil of carbon and stainless steel, and on core materials for motor and transformers.

  7. Fracture mechanism of borated stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    He, J.Y.; Soliman, S.E.; Baratta, A.J.; Balliett, T.A.

    2000-05-01

    The mechanical properties and fracture mechanism of irradiated and unirradiated boron containing Type 304 stainless steel are studied. Four different batches with different boron weight percentages are used. One of these batches was manufactured by a conventional wrought technique, while the others were manufactured by a powder metallurgy technique. The irradiated specimens were subjected to a fluence level of 5 x 10{sup 19} or 1 {times} 10{sup 21} n/m{sup 2}. The mechanical and fracture tests were performed at temperatures of 233, 298, and 533 K. No significant effects on the mechanical properties or fracture behavior were observed as a result of neutron irradiation and/or temperature. The ductility and toughness of the borated steel were found to decrease with increasing boron content. The effect of boride on void nucleation and linkage was found to play an important role in the fracture behavior of borated steel.

  8. Microstructure and cleavage in lath martensitic steels.

    PubMed

    Morris, John W; Kinney, Chris; Pytlewski, Ken; Adachi, Y

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we discuss the microstructure of lath martensitic steels and the mechanisms by which it controls cleavage fracture. The specific experimental example is a 9Ni (9 wt% Ni) steel annealed to have a large prior austenite grain size, then examined and tested in the as-quenched condition to produce a relatively coarse lath martensite. The microstructure is shown to approximate the recently identified 'classic' lath martensite structure: prior austenite grains are divided into packets, packets are subdivided into blocks, and blocks contain interleaved laths whose variants are the two Kurjumov-Sachs relations that share the same Bain axis of the transformation. When the steel is fractured in brittle cleavage, the laths in the block share {100} cleavage planes and cleave as a unit. However, cleavage cracks deflect or blunt at the boundaries between blocks with different Bain axes. It follows that, as predicted, the block size governs the effective grain size for cleavage.

  9. Residual stress measurements in carbon steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S.; Min, N.

    1986-01-01

    External dc magnetic field-induced changes in natural velocity of Rayleigh surface waves were measured in steel specimens under various stress conditions. The low field slopes of curves representing the fractional changes of natural velocity were proved to provide correct stress information in steels with different metallurgical properties. The slopes of curves under uniaxial compression, exceeding about one third of the yield stress, fell below zero in all the specimens when magnetized along the stress axis. The slopes under tension varied among different steels but remained positive in any circumstances. The stress effect was observed for both applied and residual stress. A physical interpretation of these results is given based on the stress-induced domain structure changes and the delta epsilon effect. Most importantly, it is found that the influence of detailed metallurgical properties cause only secondary effects on the obtained stress information.

  10. Solidification Sequence of Spray-Formed Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zepon, Guilherme; Ellendt, Nils; Uhlenwinkel, Volker; Bolfarini, Claudemiro

    2016-02-01

    Solidification in spray-forming is still an open discussion in the atomization and deposition area. This paper proposes a solidification model based on the equilibrium solidification path of alloys. The main assumptions of the model are that the deposition zone temperature must be above the alloy's solidus temperature and that the equilibrium liquid fraction at this temperature is reached, which involves partial remelting and/or redissolution of completely solidified droplets. When the deposition zone is cooled, solidification of the remaining liquid takes place under near equilibrium conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM) were used to analyze the microstructures of two different spray-formed steel grades: (1) boron modified supermartensitic stainless steel (SMSS) and (2) D2 tool steel. The microstructures were analyzed to determine the sequence of phase formation during solidification. In both cases, the solidification model proposed was validated.

  11. Ultrasonic Spectroscopy of Stainless Steel Sandwich Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgriff, Laura M.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Hebsur, Mohan G.; Baaklini, George Y.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2003-01-01

    Enhanced, lightweight material systems, such as 17-4PH stainless steel sandwich panels are being developed for use as fan blades and fan containment material systems for next generation engines. In order to improve the production for these systems, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, such as ultrasonic spectroscopy, are being utilized to evaluate the brazing quality between the 17-4PH stainless steel face plates and the 17-4PH stainless steel foam core. Based on NDE data, shear tests are performed on sections representing various levels of brazing quality from an initial batch of these sandwich structures. Metallographic characterization of brazing is done to corroborate NDE findings and the observed shear failure mechanisms.

  12. Microstructure and cleavage in lath martensitic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, John W., Jr.; Kinney, Chris; Pytlewski, Ken; Adachi, Y.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we discuss the microstructure of lath martensitic steels and the mechanisms by which it controls cleavage fracture. The specific experimental example is a 9Ni (9 wt% Ni) steel annealed to have a large prior austenite grain size, then examined and tested in the as-quenched condition to produce a relatively coarse lath martensite. The microstructure is shown to approximate the recently identified ‘classic’ lath martensite structure: prior austenite grains are divided into packets, packets are subdivided into blocks, and blocks contain interleaved laths whose variants are the two Kurjumov-Sachs relations that share the same Bain axis of the transformation. When the steel is fractured in brittle cleavage, the laths in the block share {100} cleavage planes and cleave as a unit. However, cleavage cracks deflect or blunt at the boundaries between blocks with different Bain axes. It follows that, as predicted, the block size governs the effective grain size for cleavage.

  13. Neutron Irradiation Resistance of RAFM Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Gaganidze, Ermile; Dafferner, Bernhard; Aktaa, Jarir

    2008-07-01

    The neutron irradiation resistance of the reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel EUROFER97 and international reference steels (F82H-mod, OPTIFER-Ia, GA3X and MANET-I) have been investigated after irradiation in the Petten High Flux Reactor up to 16.3 dpa at different irradiation temperatures (250-450 deg. C). The embrittlement behavior and hardening are investigated by instrumented Charpy-V tests with sub-size specimens. Neutron irradiation-induced embrittlement and hardening of EUROFER97 was studied under different heat treatment conditions. Embrittlement and hardening of as-delivered EUROFER97 steel are comparable to those of reference steels. Heat treatment of EUROFER97 at a higher austenitizing temperature substantially improves the embrittlement behaviour at low irradiation temperatures. Analysis of embrittlement vs. hardening behavior of RAFM steels within a proper model in terms of the parameter C={delta}DBTT/{delta}{sigma} indicates hardening-dominated embrittlement at irradiation temperatures below 350 deg. C with 0.17 {<=} C {<=} 0.53 deg. C/MPa. Scattering of C at irradiation temperatures above 400 deg. C indicates non hardening embrittlement. A role of He in a process of embrittlement is investigated in EUROFER97 based steels, that are doped with different contents of natural B and the separated {sup 10}B-isotope (0.008-0.112 wt.%). Testing on small scale fracture mechanical specimens for determination of quasi-static fracture toughness will be also presented in a view of future irradiation campaigns. (authors)

  14. Mechanical Property Characterization of ESR (Electroslag Remelted) 4353 Steel with a Comparison to ESR 4340 Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    IThe ESR 4J53 steel exhibits Charpy impact energy values of 12.4 ftib for 400 and 4504 tempers, which decrease to 9.2 ft&,jb for a 5000f temper as a...temperature or hard- ness, the ESR 4340 steel has greater Charpy impact energy and fracture tough- ness( KI )i. -w N .: UNCLASS IF I ED S Cul...pertinent for the consideration of high strength steels for Army applications include tensile -4 properties, hardness, Charpy V-notch impact energy

  15. Structure and properties of a steel/white-cast-iron bimetal produced by method of carbonizing the steel melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapozhnikov, S. Z.

    1985-11-01

    Centrifugal bimetallization by the method of carbonizing the steel melt makes it possible to obtain a steel/white-cast-iron composition with a cladding layer close to the eutectic in terms of composition.

  16. Guidelines for structural bolting in accordance with the AISC (American Institute of Steel Construction) eighth edition manual of steel construction''

    SciTech Connect

    Western, J.L.; Johns, D.M.

    1990-05-11

    This paper specifies the usage of structural bolts in terms of their design, selection and application, in accordance with the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Eighth Edition. Manual of Steel Construction.'' 1 tab.

  17. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Hot Isostatically Pressed-Produced Stainless Steel/High Alloy Tool Steel Compound Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindwall, Greta; Flyg, Jesper; Frisk, Karin; Sandberg, Odd

    2011-05-01

    Consolidation of tool steel powders and simultaneous joining to a stainless 316L steel are performed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Two tool steel grades are considered: a high vanadium alloyed carbon tool steel, and a high vanadium and chromium alloyed nitrogen tool steel. The boundary layer arising during diffusion bonding is in focus and, in particular, the diffusion of carbon and nitrogen over the joint. Measurements of the elemental concentration profiles and corrosion tests by the double loop-electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) method are performed. Comparative calculations with the DICTRA software are performed and are found to be in agreement with the experimental results. It is found that the carbon tool steel grade has a more critical influence on the corrosion resistance of the stainless 316L steel in comparison to the nitrogen tool steel grade.

  18. Study of hot hardness characteristics of tool steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, J. L.; Dietrich, M. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1972-01-01

    Hardness measurements of tool steel materials in electric furnace at elevated temperatures and low oxygen environment are discussed. Development of equation to predict short term hardness as function of intial room temperature hardness of steel is reported. Types of steel involved in the process are identified.

  19. Complex alloy steel for heavily loaded carburized gear wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tel'dekov, V. A.; Merilova, E. A.; Shevchuk, V. P.

    1987-05-01

    The tendency of steel 18KhGN2MFB towards internal oxidation and austenite grain growth during CHT is markedly lower than for steel 20KhNZA normally used for gear wheels. Steel 18KhGN2MFB has sufficiently high hardenability for the carburized and carbonitrided layers.

  20. Explosive welding technique for joining aluminum and steel tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, M. E.

    1975-01-01

    Silver sheet is wrapped around aluminum portion of joint. Mylar powder box is wrapped over silver sheet. Explosion welds silver to aluminum. Stainless-steel tube is placed over silver-aluminum interface. Mylar powder box, covered with Mylar tape, is wrapped around steel member. Explosion welds steel to silver-aluminum interface.

  1. Welding of Aluminum Alloys to Steels: An Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    95] K. Kimapong1, T. Watanabe, Effect of welding process parameters on mechanical property of FSW lap joint between aluminum alloy and steel ...UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release. 1 UNCLASSIFIED Welding of aluminum alloys to steels : an overview M. Mazar...welding methods for joining aluminum alloys to steels . The microstructural development, mechanical properties and application of the joints are discussed

  2. 75 FR 41889 - Certain Steel Grating From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Steel Grating From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... steel grating from China, provided for in subheading 7308.90.70 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the... imports of certain steel gratings from China were being subsidized within the meaning of section 703(b)...

  3. Micronutrient availability from steel slag amendment in pine bark substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steel slag is a byproduct of the steel industry that can be used as a liming agent, but also has a high mineral nutrient content. While micronutrients are present in steel slag, it is not known if the mineral form of the micronutrients would render them available for plant uptake. The objective of...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3350 - Gold or stainless steel cusp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gold or stainless steel cusp. 872.3350 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3350 Gold or stainless steel cusp. (a) Identification. A gold or stainless steel cusp is a prefabricated device made of austenitic alloys or...

  5. 19 CFR 360.104 - Steel import monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Steel import monitoring. 360.104 Section 360.104 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.104 Steel import monitoring. (a) Throughout the duration of the licensing...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 178 - Specifications for Steel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specifications for Steel A Appendix A to Part 178... to Part 178—Specifications for Steel Table 1 Designation Chemical composition, percent-ladle analysis... be 1.40 percent. 6 Rephosphorized Grade 3 steels containing no more than 0.15 percent phosphorus...

  7. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  8. 21 CFR 878.4495 - Stainless steel suture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stainless steel suture. 878.4495 Section 878.4495...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4495 Stainless steel suture. (a) Identification. A stainless steel suture is a needled or unneedled nonabsorbable surgical suture composed of...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.858 - Removal of steel construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Removal of steel construction. 1926.858 Section 1926.858... of steel construction. (a) When floor arches have been removed, planking in accordance with § 1926.855(b) shall be provided for the workers engaged in razing the steel framing. (b) Cranes,...

  10. 19 CFR 360.104 - Steel import monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Steel import monitoring. 360.104 Section 360.104 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.104 Steel import monitoring. (a) Throughout the duration of the licensing...

  11. 49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service lines: Steel. 192.371 Section 192.371 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be operated at less than 100 p.s.i. (689...

  12. 78 FR 7451 - Clad Steel Plate From Japan; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... COMMISSION Clad Steel Plate From Japan; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on clad steel plate from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... contained in USITC Publication 4370 (January 2013), entitled Clad Steel Plate from Japan: Investigation...

  13. 21 CFR 878.4495 - Stainless steel suture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stainless steel suture. 878.4495 Section 878.4495...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4495 Stainless steel suture. (a) Identification. A stainless steel suture is a needled or unneedled nonabsorbable surgical suture composed of...

  14. 49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service lines: Steel. 192.371 Section 192.371 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be operated at less than 100 p.s.i. (689...

  15. 78 FR 78382 - Steel Nails From China; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... COMMISSION Steel Nails From China; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... order on steel nails from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury... contained in USITC Publication 4442 (December 2013), entitled Steel Nails from China: Investigation No....

  16. 77 FR 64545 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... COMMISSION Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China Scheduling of the final phase of countervailing duty and... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of drawn stainless steel... merchandise as ``drawn stainless steel sinks with single or multiple drawn bowls, with or without drain...

  17. 30 CFR 56.7050 - Tool and drill steel racks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tool and drill steel racks. 56.7050 Section 56... Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7050 Tool and drill steel racks. Receptacles or racks shall be provided for drill steel and tools stored or carried on drills....

  18. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  19. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  20. 77 FR 28404 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... retarded, by reason of imports from China of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheadings 7217.20.30... retarded, by reason of imports from Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheadings...

  1. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  2. 30 CFR 57.7050 - Tool and drill steel racks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tool and drill steel racks. 57.7050 Section 57... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7050 Tool and drill steel racks. Receptacles or racks shall be provided for drill steel and tools stored or carried on drills....

  3. 21 CFR 872.3350 - Gold or stainless steel cusp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gold or stainless steel cusp. 872.3350 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3350 Gold or stainless steel cusp. (a) Identification. A gold or stainless steel cusp is a prefabricated device made of austenitic alloys or...

  4. 76 FR 19382 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading 7217.20.30 and 7217.20.45 of the Harmonized...., Nashville, TN; National Standard, LLC, Niles, MI; and Oklahoma Steel and Wire Co., Inc., Madill,...

  5. 19 CFR 360.104 - Steel import monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Steel import monitoring. 360.104 Section 360.104 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.104 Steel import monitoring. (a) Throughout the duration of the licensing...

  6. 30 CFR 57.7050 - Tool and drill steel racks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tool and drill steel racks. 57.7050 Section 57... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7050 Tool and drill steel racks. Receptacles or racks shall be provided for drill steel and tools stored or carried on drills....

  7. 30 CFR 57.7050 - Tool and drill steel racks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tool and drill steel racks. 57.7050 Section 57... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7050 Tool and drill steel racks. Receptacles or racks shall be provided for drill steel and tools stored or carried on drills....

  8. 30 CFR 57.7050 - Tool and drill steel racks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tool and drill steel racks. 57.7050 Section 57... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7050 Tool and drill steel racks. Receptacles or racks shall be provided for drill steel and tools stored or carried on drills....

  9. Web-Based Interactive Steel Sculpture for the Google Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Karen C.; Moaveni, Saeed

    2009-01-01

    In almost all the civil engineering programs in the United States, a student is required to take at least one design course in either steel or reinforced concrete. One of the topics covered in an introductory steel design course is the design of connections. Steel connections play important roles in the integrity of a structure, and many…

  10. 30 CFR 56.7050 - Tool and drill steel racks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tool and drill steel racks. 56.7050 Section 56... Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7050 Tool and drill steel racks. Receptacles or racks shall be provided for drill steel and tools stored or carried on drills....

  11. 21 CFR 872.3350 - Gold or stainless steel cusp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gold or stainless steel cusp. 872.3350 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3350 Gold or stainless steel cusp. (a) Identification. A gold or stainless steel cusp is a prefabricated device made of austenitic alloys or...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 178 - Specifications for Steel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specifications for Steel A Appendix A to Part 178... to Part 178—Specifications for Steel Table 1 Designation Chemical composition, percent-ladle analysis... be 1.40 percent. 6 Rephosphorized Grade 3 steels containing no more than 0.15 percent phosphorus...

  13. 76 FR 38697 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... COMMISSION High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... injured by reason of imports from China of high pressure steel cylinders, provided for in subheading 7311... pressure steel cylinders from China. Accordingly, effective May 11, 2011, the Commission...

  14. 30 CFR 56.7050 - Tool and drill steel racks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tool and drill steel racks. 56.7050 Section 56... Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7050 Tool and drill steel racks. Receptacles or racks shall be provided for drill steel and tools stored or carried on drills....

  15. 77 FR 1504 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on stainless steel wire rod From India would be likely to lead to continuation or... contained in USITC Publication 4300 (January 2012), entitled Stainless Steel Wire Rod From...

  16. 49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service lines: Steel. 192.371 Section 192.371 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be operated at less than 100 p.s.i. (689...

  17. 19 CFR 360.104 - Steel import monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Steel import monitoring. 360.104 Section 360.104 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.104 Steel import monitoring. (a) Throughout the duration of the licensing...

  18. 75 FR 27428 - Safety Standards for Steel Erection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1926 Safety Standards for Steel Erection AGENCY... technical amendment adds a nonmandatory note to the OSHA standards governing steel erection. The note... employers engaged in activities covered by OSHA's steel erection standards. DATES: Effective date: May...

  19. 30 CFR 57.7050 - Tool and drill steel racks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tool and drill steel racks. 57.7050 Section 57... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7050 Tool and drill steel racks. Receptacles or racks shall be provided for drill steel and tools stored or carried on drills....

  20. 21 CFR 872.3350 - Gold or stainless steel cusp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gold or stainless steel cusp. 872.3350 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3350 Gold or stainless steel cusp. (a) Identification. A gold or stainless steel cusp is a prefabricated device made of austenitic alloys or...

  1. 19 CFR 360.104 - Steel import monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Steel import monitoring. 360.104 Section 360.104 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.104 Steel import monitoring. (a) Throughout the duration of the licensing...

  2. 30 CFR 56.7050 - Tool and drill steel racks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tool and drill steel racks. 56.7050 Section 56... Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7050 Tool and drill steel racks. Receptacles or racks shall be provided for drill steel and tools stored or carried on drills....

  3. 29 CFR 1926.858 - Removal of steel construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Removal of steel construction. 1926.858 Section 1926.858... of steel construction. (a) When floor arches have been removed, planking in accordance with § 1926.855(b) shall be provided for the workers engaged in razing the steel framing. (b) Cranes,...

  4. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.858 - Removal of steel construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Removal of steel construction. 1926.858 Section 1926.858... of steel construction. (a) When floor arches have been removed, planking in accordance with § 1926.855(b) shall be provided for the workers engaged in razing the steel framing. (b) Cranes,...

  6. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  7. 49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service lines: Steel. 192.371 Section 192.371 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be operated at less than 100 p.s.i. (689...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3350 - Gold or stainless steel cusp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gold or stainless steel cusp. 872.3350 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3350 Gold or stainless steel cusp. (a) Identification. A gold or stainless steel cusp is a prefabricated device made of austenitic alloys or...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 178 - Specifications for Steel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specifications for Steel A Appendix A to Part 178.... 178, App. A Appendix A to Part 178—Specifications for Steel Table 1 [Open-hearth, basic oxygen, or electric steel of uniform quality. The following chemical composition limits are based on ladle...

  10. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 178 - Specifications for Steel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specifications for Steel A Appendix A to Part 178... to Part 178—Specifications for Steel Table 1 Designation Chemical composition, percent-ladle analysis... be 1.40 percent. 6 Rephosphorized Grade 3 steels containing no more than 0.15 percent phosphorus...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.858 - Removal of steel construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal of steel construction. 1926.858 Section 1926.858... of steel construction. (a) When floor arches have been removed, planking in accordance with § 1926.855(b) shall be provided for the workers engaged in razing the steel framing. (b) Cranes,...

  13. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  14. 21 CFR 878.4495 - Stainless steel suture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stainless steel suture. 878.4495 Section 878.4495...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4495 Stainless steel suture. (a) Identification. A stainless steel suture is a needled or unneedled nonabsorbable surgical suture composed of...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.858 - Removal of steel construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Removal of steel construction. 1926.858 Section 1926.858... of steel construction. (a) When floor arches have been removed, planking in accordance with § 1926.855(b) shall be provided for the workers engaged in razing the steel framing. (b) Cranes,...

  16. 21 CFR 878.4495 - Stainless steel suture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stainless steel suture. 878.4495 Section 878.4495...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4495 Stainless steel suture. (a) Identification. A stainless steel suture is a needled or unneedled nonabsorbable surgical suture composed of...

  17. Virtual Steel Connection Sculpture--Student Learning Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Karen C.; Moaveni, Saeed; Drane, Denise

    2016-01-01

    A Virtual Steel Connection Sculpture was developed through a grant from the National Science Foundation. The Virtual Sculpture is an interactive tool that shows students and anyone interested in connections how steel members are connected. This tool is created to complement students' steel design courses. The features of this educational tool,…

  18. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  19. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  20. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...