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Sample records for steel mill cs-137

  1. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  2. EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, BUFFALO PLANT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ROLL SHOP. 8" BAR MILL DESIGNED AND BUILT BY DONNER STEEL CO. (PREDECESSOR OF REPUBLIC), 1919-1920. FOR DESCRIPTION OF ORIGINAL MILL SEE "IRON AGE", 116\\4 (23 JULY 1925): 201-204. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  3. Surface adsorption of Cs137 ions on quartz crystals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antkiw, Stephen; Waesche, H.; Senftle, F.

    1954-01-01

    Adsorption tests were made on four large synthetic and three natural quartz crystals to see if surface defects might be detected by subsequent autoradiography techniques. The adsorbent used was radioactive Cs137 in a solution of Cs 137Cl. Natural quartz crystals adsorbed more cesium than the synthetic crystals. Certain surface defects were made evident by this method, but twinning features could not be detected.

  4. The Transfer of Dissolved Cs-137 from Soil to Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Prorok, V.V.; Melnichenko, L.Yu.; Mason, C.F.V.; Ageyev, V.A.; Ostashko, V.V.

    2006-07-01

    Rapidly maturing plants were grown simultaneously at the same experimental sites under natural conditions at the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Roots of the plants were side by side in the soil. During two seasons we selected samples of the plants and of the soils several times every season. Content of Cs-137 in the plant and in the soil solution extracted from the samples of soils was measured. Results of measurements of the samples show that, for the experimental site, Cs-137 content in the plant varies with date of the sample selection. The plant:soil solution Cs-137 concentration ratio depends strongly on the date of selection and also on the type of soil. After analysis of the data we conclude that Cs-137 plant uptake is approximately proportional to the content of dissolved Cs-137 in the soil per unit of volume, and the plant:soil solution Cs-137 concentration ratio for the soil is approximately proportional to the soil moisture. (authors)

  5. Design, Development and Operational Experience of Demonstration Facility for Cs-137 Source Pencil Production at Trombay - 13283

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, S.B.; Srivastava, P.; Mishra, S.K.; Khan, S.S.; Nair, K.N.S.

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive waste management is a vital aspect of any nuclear program. The commercial feasibility of the nuclear program largely depends on the efficiency of the waste management techniques. One of such techniques is the separation of high yield radio-nuclides from the waste and making it suitable for medical and industrial applications. This will give societal benefit in addition to revenue generation. Co-60, the isotope presently being used for medical applications, needs frequent replacement because of its short half life. Cs-137, the major constituent of the nuclear waste, is a suitable substitute for Co-60 as a radioactive source because of its longer half life (28 years). Indian nuclear waste management program has given special emphasis on utilization of Cs-137 for such applications. In view of this a demonstration facility has been designed for vitrification of Cs-137 in borosilicate glass, cast in stainless steel pencils, to be used as source pencils of 300 Ci strength for blood irradiation. An induction heated metallic melter of suitable capacity has been custom designed for the application and employed for the Cs-137 pencil fabrication facility. This article describes various systems, design features, experiments and resulting modifications, observations and remote handling features necessary for the actual operation of such facility. The layout of the facility has been planned in such a way that the same can be adopted in a hot cell for commercial production of source pencils. (authors)

  6. Determination of the amount of Cs-137 in the sea water obtained from the Dardanelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataseven, D.; Şen, S.

    2017-02-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, high concentrations of Cs-137 radioisotope reached the Black Sea through dry and wet fallout. Therefore, a number of studies were performed to determine the current activity of Cs-137 near this region in the sea water and in marine organisms. Cs-137 activity was determined in the Dardanelles sea water taken from three separate locations and two different depths for each location. The old data base obtained in our previous studies was updated.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF DEPOSIT DETECTION SYSTEM IN PIPELINES OF THE STEELWORKS USING CS-137 GAMMA-RAY

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Won-Joon; Lee, Seung-Hee; Jeong, Hee-Dong

    2008-02-28

    The deposit is built up in the pipeline of the steelworks by the chemical reaction among COG (coke oven gas), BFG (blast furnace gas), moisture, and steel in the high temperature environment and obstructs the smooth gas flow. In this study a gamma-ray system is developed to detect the deposit accumulated in pipelines and calculate the accumulation rate with respect to the cross section area of pipes. Cs-137 is used as the gamma-ray source and the system is designed to apply to pipes of various diameters. This system also includes the DB for storage and display of the measurement results so that it can be used for the efficient management of the pipelines.

  8. Development of Deposit Detection System in Pipelines of the Steelworks Using CS-137 Gamma-Ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Won-Joon; Lee, Seung-Hee; Jeong, Hee-Dong

    2008-02-01

    The deposit is built up in the pipeline of the steelworks by the chemical reaction among COG (coke oven gas), BFG (blast furnace gas), moisture, and steel in the high temperature environment and obstructs the smooth gas flow. In this study a gamma-ray system is developed to detect the deposit accumulated in pipelines and calculate the accumulation rate with respect to the cross section area of pipes. Cs-137 is used as the gamma-ray source and the system is designed to apply to pipes of various diameters. This system also includes the DB for storage and display of the measurement results so that it can be used for the efficient management of the pipelines.

  9. Hanford Isotope Project strategic business analysis Cesium-137 (Cs-137)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this business analysis is to address the beneficial reuse of Cesium 137 (Cs-137) in order to utilize a valuable national asset and possibly save millions of tax dollars. Food irradiation is the front runner application along with other uses. This business analysis supports the objectives of the Department of Energy National Isotope Strategy distributed in August 1994 which describes the DOE plans for the production and distribution of isotope products and services. As part of the Department`s mission as stated in that document. ``The Department of Energy will also continue to produce and distribute other radioisotopes and enriched stable isotopes for medical diagnostics and therapeutics, industrial, agricultural, and other useful applications on a businesslike basis. This is consistent with the goals and objectives of the National Performance Review. The Department will endeavor to look at opportunities for private sector to co-fund or invest in new ventures. Also, the Department will seek to divest from ventures that can more profitably or reliably be operated by the private sector.``

  10. Transport of Cs-137 from Boreal Biomass Burning in Summer of 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strode, S. A.; Ott, L. E.; Nielsen, J. E.; Pawson, S.

    2010-12-01

    The summer of 2010 was a severe fire season in western Russia. Wildfires were detected in the Bryansk region, raising concerns that radionuclide contamination from the Chernobyl accident could be resuspended in the atmosphere. We simulate the transport of passive and particulate tracers of biomass burning from this region using the GEOS5 GOCART model driven by assimilated meteorology. Biomass burning emissions are based on MODIS fire detections. We validate the model against aerosol optical depth from MODIS. Using a range of estimates for Cs-137 emissions during wildfires, we estimate the downwind concentration and deposition of Cs-137 based on the emission ratios of Cs-137 to the simulated tracers. We discuss the sensitivity of our results to the location of the fires and the fraction of Cs-137 resuspended.

  11. Systematical Investigations of Cs - 137 Concentration in Soils in Bansko - Razlog Region

    SciTech Connect

    Kostov, L. K.; Mladenov, Ml. I.; Protochristov, Ch. N.; Stoyanov, Ch. P.; Kobilarov, R. G.; Kostova, L. G.

    2007-04-23

    Systematical investigations of Cs-137 concentration in soil in Bansko - Razlog region have been performed for the first time on a total area of about 40 km2. By means of high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy the radio-nuclide content of soil samples has been determined. The Cs-137 deposition density following the Chernobyl accident has been estimated and compared with results obtained in other countries. The additional dose rate caused by this fallout has been estimated, too.

  12. Systematical Investigations of Cs - 137 Concentration in Soils in Bansko - Razlog Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, L. K.; Kobilarov, R. G.; Kostova, L. G.; Mladenov, Ml. I.; Protochristov, Ch. N.; Stoyanov, Ch. P.

    2007-04-01

    Systematical investigations of Cs-137 concentration in soil in Bansko - Razlog region have been performed for the first time on a total area of about 40 km2. By means of high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy the radio-nuclide content of soil samples has been determined. The Cs-137 deposition density following the Chernobyl accident has been estimated and compared with results obtained in other countries. The additional dose rate caused by this fallout has been estimated, too.

  13. The inflow of Cs-137 in soil with root litter and root exudates of Scots pine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcheglov, Alexey; Tsvetnova, Olga; Popova, Evgenia

    2017-04-01

    In the model experiment on evaluation of Cs-137 inflow in the soil with litter of roots and woody plants root exudates on the example of soil and water cultures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was shown, that through 45 days after the deposit Cs-137 solution on pine needles (specific activity of solution was 3.718*106 Bk) of the radionuclide in all components of model systems has increased significantly: needles, small branches and trunk by Cs-137 surface contamination during the experiment; roots as a result of the internal distribution of the radionuclide in the plant; soil and soil solution due to the of receipt Cs-137 in the composition of root exudates and root litter. Over 99% of the total reserve of Cs-137 accumulated in the components of the soil and water systems, accounted for bodies subjected to external pollution (needles and small branches) and <0.5% - on the soil / soil solution, haven't been subjected to surface contamination. At the same contamination of soil and soil solution by Cs-137 in the model experiment more than a> 99.9% was due to root exudates

  14. Oceanic dispersion of Fukushima-derived Cs-137 simulated by multiple oceanic general circulation models.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Hideyuki; Furuno, Akiko; Kobayashi, Takuya; In, Teiji; Nakayama, Tomoharu; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Usui, Norihisa

    2017-10-09

    To understand the concentration and amount of Fukushima-derived Cs-137 in the ocean, this study simulated the oceanic dispersion of Cs-137 by atmospheric and oceanic dispersion simulations. The oceanic dispersion simulations were carried out with an oceanic dispersion model and multiple oceanic general circulation models. The Cs-137 concentrations were sensitive to ocean currents in the coastal, offshore, and open oceans. The mean Cs-137 concentrations of the multiple models relatively well agreed with the observed concentrations in the coastal and offshore oceans during the first few months after the Fukushima disaster, and in the open ocean during the first year after the disaster. The Cs-137 amounts were quantified in the coastal, offshore, and open oceans during the first year after the disaster. It was suggested that Cs-137 actively dispersed from the coastal and offshore oceans to the open ocean, and from the surface layer to the deeper layers in the North Pacific. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rebuilding Steam Turbine Generator Reduces Costs at a Steel Mill (Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC))

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Rebuilding steam turbine generator reduces costs at a steel mill. To remain competitive in the rapidly changing global marketplace, Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), the second largest producer of steel in the United States, was looking for...

  16. Spatial heterogeneity of Cs-137 soil contamination at the landscape scale of the Bryansk Region (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Alexander; Sokolov, Anton; Linnik, Vitaly

    2016-04-01

    The passage of the Chernobyl plume over the Bryansk region (Russia) in the end of April 1986 led to the deposition of radionuclides on the ground by wet and dry deposition processes. According to the results of the Cs-137 air gamma survey (AGS, grid size: 100 m x100 m), which was conducted in summer 1993, it was shown that the processes of Cs-137 lateral migration took place due to nearly a fourfold increase of Cs-137 in the lower slope as compared to the upper part of the slope during a seven-year period after the Chernobyl accident. The variability patterns of Cs-137 could be described by a stochastic or a deterministic function of the measurement location. The patterns variations could be associated with the nonlinear response of many interacting variables within the landscape system. In the test area located at a distance of about 280 km from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cs-137 surface activity typically ranges from below 7 kBq/m2 to approximately 50-60 kBq/m2 reflecting the combination of deposition due to global fallout from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, and the relatively low levels of Chernobyl deposition to the area. To model the Cs-137 distribution depending on complex landscape attributes the following information layers were used: 1) the soil map at the scale of 1:50,000; 2) SRTM elevation data acquired from the Global Land Cover Facility at a 3 arc second resolution. Fundamental difficulties in distributed erosion modelling arise from the natural complexity of landscape systems and Cs-137 spatial heterogeneity. The SRTM DEM of the test site has a grid size about 90 m, which is not sufficient for distributed hydrological modelling at the landscape scale. The scaling problem arises because of the mismatch between SRTM DEM pixel dimensions and the size of erosion network (width about 10-50 m) that concentrates Cs-137 run-off from the overlying slopes and watershed areas. To build a hydrologically correct local drain direction (LDD) with

  17. The high impact of a milling atmosphere on steel contamination.

    PubMed

    Štefanić, Goran; Krehula, Stjepko; Štefanić, Ivka

    2013-10-18

    High-energy ball-milling in an oxidative atmosphere caused gradual transition of pure zincite into zinc ferrite due to the oxidation of steel contamination. The rate of contamination increased dramatically (>3×) in an inert atmosphere due to the abrasion of milling tools by the steel chips coming from it.

  18. A clay permeable reactive barrier to remove Cs-137 from groundwater: Column experiments.

    PubMed

    De Pourcq, K; Ayora, C; García-Gutiérrez, M; Missana, T; Carrera, J

    2015-11-01

    Clay minerals are reputed sorbents for Cs-137 and can be used as a low-permeability material to prevent groundwater flow. Therefore, clay barriers are employed to seal Cs-137 polluted areas and nuclear waste repositories. This work is motivated by cases where groundwater flow cannot be impeded. A permeable and reactive barrier to retain Cs-137 was tested. The trapping mechanism is based on the sorption of cesium on illite-containing clay. The permeability of the reactive material is provided by mixing clay on a matrix of wood shavings. Column tests combined with reactive transport modeling were performed to check both reactivity and permeability. Hydraulic conductivity of the mixture (10(-4) m/s) was sufficient to ensure an adequate hydraulic performance of an eventual barrier excavated in most aquifers. A number of column experiments confirmed Cs retention under different flow rates and inflow solutions. A 1D reactive transport model based on a cation-exchange mechanism was built. It was calibrated with batch experiments for high concentrations of NH4+ and K+ (the main competitors of Cs in the exchange positions). The model predicted satisfactorily the results of the column experiments. Once validated, it was used to investigate the performance and duration of a 2 m thick barrier under different scenarios (flow, clay content, Cs-137 and K concentration).

  19. Specificity of Cs-137 redistribution in toposequence of arable soils cultivated after the Chernobyl accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey; Baranchukov, Vladimir; Berezkin, Victor; Moiseenko, Fedor; Kirov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Investigations performed after the Chernobyl accident showed high spatial variation of radionuclide contamination of the soil cover in elementary landscape geochemical systems (ELGS) that characterize catena's structure. Our studies of Cs-137 distribution along and cross the slopes of local ridges in natural forested key site revealed a cyclic character of variation of the radionuclide surface activity along the studied transections (Korobova et al, 2008; Korobova, Romanov, 2009; 2011). We hypothesized that the observed pattern reflects a specific secondary migration of Cs-137 with water, and that this process could have taken place in any ELGS. To test this hypothesis a detailed field measurement of Cs-137 surface activity was performed in ELGS in agricultural area cultivated after the Chernobyl accident but later withdrawn from land-use. In situ measurements carried out by field gamma-spectrometry were accompanied by soil core sampling at the selected points. Soil samples were taken in increments of 2 cm down to 20 cm and of 5 cm down to 40 cm. The samples were analyzed for Cs-137 in laboratory using Canberra gamma-spectrometer with HP-Ge detector. Obtained results confirmed the fact of area cultivation down to 20 cm that was clearly traced by Cs-137 profile in soil columns. At the same time, the measurements also showed a cyclic character of Cs-137 variation in a sequence of ELGS from watershed to the local depression similar to that found in woodland key site. This proved that the observed pattern is a natural process typical for matter migration in ELGS independently of the vegetation type and ploughing. Therefore, spatial aspect is believed to be an important issue for development of adequate technique for a forecast of contamination of agricultural production and remediation of the soil cover on the local scale within the contaminated areas. References Korobova, E.M., Romanov, S.L., 2009. A Chernobyl 137Cs contamination study as an example for the spatial

  20. Estimation of SX Farm Vadose Zone CS-137 Inventories from Geostatistical Analysis of Drywell and Soil Core Data

    SciTech Connect

    KNEPP, A.J.

    2000-06-02

    This report provides an estimation of the Cs-137 inventories in the soil under the SX Tank Farm based on measurements obtained from drywell and soil cores. The Cs-137 inventories are estimated separately for distinct volumes of soil associated etc.

  1. Cs-137 K-39 Distribution and Cycling in some Forest Ecosystems 25 Years after the Chernobyl Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcheglov, Alexey; Tsvetnova, Ol'ga; Klyashtorin, Alexey; Kasatskiy, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Many radioecological research conducted in forest ecosystems after the Chernobyl Accident suggest that Cs-137 distribution in the forest stand and tree components changes with the time. Downward Cs-137 fluxes were shown to prevail during first several years after the accident. It was supposed that with the course of time, the parameters of Cs-137 migration and cycling in the forests would be similar to the corresponding parameters of K-39 that is a chemical analog of Cs-137. However, our later studies showed that in the forest ecosystems on chernozem and grey forest soils (Tula Oblast of Russian Federation, 400-500 km from the ChNPP), annual return of Cs-137 to the soil with litterfall still increased its root uptake by a factor of 2-5, while the K-39 cycle was in steady state. It suggests that Cs-137 cycling parameters in these ecosystems is different from the potassium cycling even a while after the fallout. In 2008-2013 a similar study was conducted in pine and birch forests located some 100 km from the ChNPP, in Bryans Oblast of Russian Federation where the composition and physico-chemical properties of the initial fallout were similar to that in the 30-km zone of exclusion. In 2008, Cs-137 deposition in the pine and birch ecosystems was 11000 and 6000 Kbq/m2, respectively. Cs-137 content in different tree parts varied from 4 to 38 Kbq/kg, and in the pine forest decreased in the following rank: yang needles > internal bark > twigs (under 1 cm in diameter) > external bark > large brunches (over 1 cm in diameter) > wood. In the birch forest, the Cs-137 content in the tree parts decreased in the following rank: leaves > twigs > internal bark > large branches> external bark > wood. The K-39 content in the tree parts varies from 0.01% to 1 % and is ranked as above, i.e. similar to Cs-137. The average coefficient of correlation between K-39 and Cs-137 in the tree components is 0.85, at P=0.95. In the investigated ecosystems, the total mass (activity) of potassium and

  2. 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition of environmental samples across Europe: Environmental transport and source term emission applications

    DOE PAGES

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.

    2015-11-02

    135Cs/137Cs isotopic analyses represent an important tool for studying the fate and transport of radiocesium in the environment; in this work the 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition in environmental samples taken from across Europe is reported. Surface soil and vegetation samples from western Russia, Ukraine, Austria, and Hungary show consistent aged thermal fission product 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios of 0.58 ± 0.01 (age corrected to 1/1/15), with the exception of one sample of soil-moss from Hungary which shows an elevated 135Cs/137Cs ratio of 1.78 ± 0.12. With the exception of the outlier sample from Hungary, surface soil/vegetation data are in quantitative agreement withmore » values previously reported for soils within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, suggesting that radiocesium at these locations is primarily composed of homogenous airborne deposition from Chernobyl. Seawater samples taken from the Irish Sea show 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios of 1.22 ± 0.11 (age corrected to 1/1/15), suggesting aged thermal fission product Cs discharged from Sellafield. Furthermore, the differences in 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios between Sellafield, Chernobyl, and global nuclear weapons testing fallout indicate that 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios can be utilized to discriminate between and track radiocesium transport from different nuclear production source terms, including major emission sources in Europe.« less

  3. (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic composition of environmental samples across Europe: Environmental transport and source term emission applications.

    PubMed

    Snow, Mathew S; Snyder, Darin C

    2016-01-01

    (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic analyses represent an important tool for studying the fate and transport of radiocesium in the environment; in this work the (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic composition in environmental samples taken from across Europe is reported. Surface soil and vegetation samples from western Russia, Ukraine, Austria, and Hungary show consistent aged thermal fission product (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios of 0.58 ± 0.01 (age corrected to 1/1/15), with the exception of one sample of soil-moss from Hungary which shows an elevated (135)Cs/(137)Cs ratio of 1.78 ± 0.12. With the exception of the outlier sample from Hungary, surface soil/vegetation data are in quantitative agreement with values previously reported for soils within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, suggesting that radiocesium at these locations is primarily composed of homogenous airborne deposition from Chernobyl. Seawater samples taken from the Irish Sea show (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios of 1.22 ± 0.11 (age corrected to 1/1/15), suggesting aged thermal fission product Cs discharged from Sellafield. The differences in (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios between Sellafield, Chernobyl, and global nuclear weapons testing fallout indicate that (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios can be utilized to discriminate between and track radiocesium transport from different nuclear production source terms, including major emission sources in Europe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatial Distribution Of Cs-137 In Surface Soils On Some Central Rhodopes Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Hristov, Hr. G.; Srentz, A. K.; Balabanov, N. P.

    2007-04-23

    The subject of investigation are soils from region around village Kiselchovo, town Smolyan, villages Narechen, Bachkovo, Laki, Kosovo, Dobralak, Central Rhodopes region. The samples have been collected from natural soils at a depth of 0-10 cm. The samples have been analyzed for the content of technogenical radionuclide Cs-137. The measurements were taken by precise gamma ray spectrometer. Based on the conducted research an inference can be made that there are radioactive contamination (up to 30 times over the background level)

  5. Spatial Distribution Of Cs-137 In Surface Soils On Some Central Rhodopes Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, Hr. G.; Srentz, A. K.; Balabanov, N. P.

    2007-04-01

    The subject of investigation are soils from region around village Kiselchovo, town Smolyan, villages Narechen, Bachkovo, Laki, Kosovo, Dobralak, Central Rhodopes region. The samples have been collected from natural soils at a depth of 0-10 cm. The samples have been analyzed for the content of technogenical radionuclide Cs-137. The measurements were taken by precise gamma ray spectrometer. Based on the conducted research an inference can be made that there are radioactive contamination (up to 30 times over the background level).

  6. Analysis of resusupention of Cs-137 in Fukushima with box model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yuta; Hatano, Yuko; Kita, Kazuyuki; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Kajino, Mizuo; Ishizuka, Masahide

    2017-04-01

    We use the atmospheric concentration of Cs-137 measured continuously at Namie, Fukushima and compare the observational results with a two-box model. Resuspension, deposition and the vertical diffusion are considered in the model. The values of five parameters in the model are estimated by the fitting of the data, such as the resuspension rate, the dry/wet deposition rate, and the exchange rate between the mixed layer and the higher atmosphere.

  7. Radioactive Cs-137 discharge from Headwater Forested Catchment in Fukushima after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwagami, S.; Onda, Y.; Tsujimura, M.; Sakakibara, K.; Konuma, R.

    2015-12-01

    Radiocesium migration from headwater forested catchment is important perception as output from the forest which is also input to the subsequent various land use and downstream rivers after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. In this study, Cs-137 concentration of dissolved water, suspended sediment and coarse organic matter such as leaf and branch were monitored. Discharge amount of stream water, suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were measured to investigate the discharge amount of radiocesium and composition of radiocesium discharge form through the headwater stream. Observation were conducted at stream site in four headwater catchments in Yamakiya district, located ~35 km north west of FDNPP from June 2011 (suspended sediment and coarse organic matter: August 2012) to December 2014.The Cs-137 concentration of dissolved water was around 1Bq/l at June 2011. Then declined to 0.1 Bq/l at December 2011. And in December 2014, it declined to 0.01 Bq/l order. Declining trend of Cs-137 concentration in dissolved water was expressed in double exponential model. Also temporary increase was observed in dissolved Cs-137 during the rainfall event. The Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were 170-49000 Bq/kg and 350-14000 Bq/kg respectably. The Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment showed good correlation with average deposition density of catchment. The effect of decontamination works appeared in declining of Cs-137 concentration in suspended sediment. Contribution rate of Cs-137 discharge by suspended sediment was 96-99% during a year. Total annual Cs-137 discharge from the catchment were 0.02-0.3% of the deposition.

  8. Organic analyses of highly radioactive solutions requiring pretreatment by Cs-137

    SciTech Connect

    DiPrete, D.P.

    2000-01-06

    The gamma-emitting radionuclide Cs-137 is precipitated from the Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste by adding sodium tetraphenylborate (TPB). The concentrated and washed precipitate slurry containing Cs TPB is transferred to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Salt Processing Cell and hydrolyzed to yield an aqueous product (PHA) free of benzene. The PHA is highly radioactive and contains some water-soluble organic compounds that need to be analyzed for process control and process history. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were developed to analyze these compounds with instruments contained in unshielded fume hoods. Removing Cs-137 from PHA in a shielded cell prior to HPLC analyses is essential to minimize personnel radiation exposure. In this study ammonium molybdophosphate (Bio-Rad AMP-1) was used for removing Cs-137 in PHA (pH 3.8). With a two-step application of AMP slurry, a decontamination factor of 1E plus 4 was achieved for Cs removal. Two separate HPLC methods were used to analyze four polar organic compounds. The recovery of all the organic compounds were above 85 percent.

  9. Inline Monitors for Measuring Cs-137 in the SRS Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, V

    2006-04-24

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, a portion of dissolved saltcake waste will be processed through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The MCU employs the CSSX process, a continuous process that uses a novel solvent to extract cesium from waste and concentrate it in dilute nitric acid. Of primary concern is Cs-137 which makes the solution highly radioactive. Since the MCU does not have the capacity to wait for sample results while continuing to operate, the Waste Acceptance Strategy is to perform inline analyses. Gamma-ray monitors are used to: measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) before entering the DSS Hold Tank; measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent (SE) before entering the SE Hold Tank; and verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process. Since this gamma ray monitoring system application is unique, specially designed shielding was developed and software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling the monitor hardware and communicating with the host Distributed Control System. This paper presents the design, fabrication and implementation of this monitoring system.

  10. No effect of digestate amendment on Cs-137 and Sr-90 translocation in lysimeter experiments.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Khalid; Berns, Anne E; Pütz, Thomas; Burauel, Peter; Vereecken, Harry; Opitz, Thorsten; Zoriy, Myroslav; Hofmann, Diana

    2017-04-01

    The soil-plant transfer of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in different crops was determined with respect to the present-day amendment practice of using digestate from biogas fermenters. The studies were performed using large lysimeters filled with undisturbed luvisol monoliths. In contrast to the conservative tracer, Br(-), neither of the studied radionuclides showed a significant vertical translocation nor effect of the applied digestate amendment compared to a non-amended control was found. Furthermore, no significant plant uptake was measured for both nuclides in wheat or oat as indicated by the low transfer factors between soil-shoot for Cs-137 (TF 0.001-0.010) and for Sr-90 (0.10-0.51). The transfer into nutritionally relevant plant parts was even lower with transfer factors for soil-grain for Cs-137 (TF 0.000-0.001) and for Sr-90 (0.01-0.06). Hence, the amendment with biogas digestate is unfortunately not an option to further reduce plant uptake of these radionuclides in agricultural crops, but it does not increase plant uptake either.

  11. APPLICATION OF BAYESIAN AND GEOSTATISTICAL MODELING TO THE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF CS-137 AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Kara G. Eby

    2010-08-01

    At the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Cs-137 concentrations above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency risk-based threshold of 0.23 pCi/g may increase the risk of human mortality due to cancer. As a leader in nuclear research, the INL has been conducting nuclear activities for decades. Elevated anthropogenic radionuclide levels including Cs-137 are a result of atmospheric weapons testing, the Chernobyl accident, and nuclear activities occurring at the INL site. Therefore environmental monitoring and long-term surveillance of Cs-137 is required to evaluate risk. However, due to the large land area involved, frequent and comprehensive monitoring is limited. Developing a spatial model that predicts Cs-137 concentrations at unsampled locations will enhance the spatial characterization of Cs-137 in surface soils, provide guidance for an efficient monitoring program, and pinpoint areas requiring mitigation strategies. The predictive model presented herein is based on applied geostatistics using a Bayesian analysis of environmental characteristics across the INL site, which provides kriging spatial maps of both Cs-137 estimates and prediction errors. Comparisons are presented of two different kriging methods, showing that the use of secondary information (i.e., environmental characteristics) can provide improved prediction performance in some areas of the INL site.

  12. Long-term trends of plot-scale Cs-137 wash-off from various land uses in Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Onda, Yuichi; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Nakamura, Noriko; Manome, Ryo

    2016-04-01

    Understanding plot-scale Cs-137 wash-off is indispensable for predicting Cs-137 fate. However, there are only a few numbers of long-term observations and hence lack of information on temporal trends of Cs-137 wash-off leaves uncertainties on future predictions. This study shows approximately three years' observation results of plot-scale Cs-137 wash-off from various land uses after the accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. Erosion plots were established in 2011 and 2013 on two uncultivated farmlands (FL-A1, FL-B1), two cultivated farmlands (FL-A2, FL-B2), three grasslands (GL-A, GL-B, GL-C) and one Japanese cedar forest (JCdF) in Kawamata town. Each erosion plot consisted of eroding surface with length of 22.13 m and width of 5 m, surface water monitoring apparatus at the outlet of eroding surface and sediment traps. Sediment traps were connected with pipes in series and it enabled us to collect deposited sediments and suspended sediments separately. Eroded sediments as well as the data of rainfall and vegetation cover were collected almost every two weeks. Collected deposited and suspended sediment were dried, weighed and measured with HPGe type gamma detectors for Cs-137 concentrations. Standardized Cs-137 concentration, Sc (m2/kg), was calculated by dividing Cs-137 concentration by initial Cs-137 deposition. Annual soil loss ranged from 0.04 to 75 t/ha/year and the largest was from FL-A2 followed by FL-B2, FL-A1, FL-B1, GL-A, GL-B, JCdF and then GL-C. Soil erosion rate were positively correlated with mean values of vegetation cover on undisturbed soils, whereas high erosion rate were found on cultivated farmlands compared with even with similar vegetation cover to uncultivated farmlands. Concentrations of Cs-137 in eroded sediments ranged from the order of 103 to 105 Bq/kg and basically depended on the initial Cs-137 deposition. Sediment amount weighted mean values Sc ranged from 0.0062 to 0.084 m2/kg and the largest was from JCdF followed by FL-B1

  13. Transport mechanism for Pb-210, Cs-137 and Pu fallout radionuclides through fluvial-marine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. N.; Ellis, K. M.

    1982-06-01

    Pb-210, Cs-137 and Pu-239,240 sediment-depth profiles in an anoxic, unbioturbated, estuarine depositional regime at the head of the Saguenay Fjord, Que. exhibit a seasonally-modulated component caused by pulsed inputs of silts and sands during high energy, spring river discharge events superimposed on an ambient depositional pattern of finer grained clays and organic matter. A precise sediment timestratigraphy has been determined by the inverse correlation of the Pb-210 activity with the rate of river discharge during the period, 1963-1976. The historical record of Cs-137 and Pu-239,240 sediment fluxes has been reconstructed through the normalization of fallout radionuclide activities to the excess Pb-210 activity profile. Radionuclide flux geochronologies have been interpreted on the basis of a fluvial-marine transport model which distinguishes between inputs due to direct adsorption of radionuclides onto particles in the water column and inputs resulting from the erosion of particle-associated radionuclides from the drainage basin. Rate constants corresponding to residence times of one year for Cs-137 and Pu-239,240 in the water column and 1500 years for each radionuclide in the drainage basin provide reasonable agreement between the model and experimental results, although there is some evidence for a slightly longer drainage basin residence time for plutonium. Both the threshold for the initial appearance of Pu-238, derived from the atmospheric burnup of a SNAP-9A satellite reactor in 1964, and the magnitude of its isotopic dilution by drainage basin inputs of Pu-239,240 are also in agreement with model predictions.

  14. Multiscale structure of Cs-137 soil contamination on the Bryansk Region (Russia) due to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnik, Vitaly; Sokolov, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The Cs-137 contamination of the Bryansk Region occurred in the period from April 27 to May 10 into several stages. The complicated character of the soil radionuclide contamination on the Bryansk Region is caused by different nature of the radioactive fallout: dry and wet. Thus, in a number of cases Cs-137 soil pollution is directly connected with the rain intensity, which is well known, have multifractal nature. In some parts of contaminated territory the overlay of different types of fallout was observed. The radioactive contamination of the landscape is a result from nonlinear interplay of geophysical factors which intervene over a large range of scale. As a result of the fallout Cs-137 pattern can be described as a multifractal. Consequently, fields of contamination observed have an extreme spatial variability, frequently cited "hot spots" or "leopard's skin. As an estimate of background radiation levels, we relied on a dataset of air-gamma-survey of the Bryansk Region, carried out by SSC AEROGEOFIZIKA in the summer of 1993. This dataset includes geo-positioned data of Cs-137 deposition in a grid of 100x100 m with values range from 3 to 11*104 kBq/m2. Airborne gamma survey gave the smoothed values of the Cs-137 density of contamination in comparison with the data, obtained directly as a result of soil sampling. However, even in this case in the east part of the Bryansk test site we can observed the"hot spots" (by size several hundred meters) as natural phenomenon. The article presents the results of the geostatistical and multifractal analysis of the Cs-137 contamination. Scaling analysis was conducted to investigate the linkages between the spatial variability of soil Cs-137 contamination and some landscape characteristics.

  15. Retention level of Cs-137 and K-40 in some users of an Egyptian nuclear research center.

    PubMed

    Youssef, S K; Abdel-Wahab, M S; Abass, M T

    1999-06-01

    Body burden activities of Cs-137 and K-40 of about 120 humans, of composite sex, were measured using Inshas whole body counter facilities. The contained body burden activity in such distribution is found to be 3.5-10 Bq l-1 for Cs-137 and 3.39 x 10(-3) kg l-1 as well as 3.69 x 10(-3) kg l-1 for K-40 respectively for females and males. It was found, that the amount of Cs Kg l-1 K increases significantly with increase of either the body volumes and/or the total body potassium. It seemed reasonably to conjecture that, from the results of this study, the retention time of Cs-137 in body is closely connected to the amount of K-40. The discrimination factor related to the body burden content of Cs-137 to K-40 is also experimentally predicted. Moreover, the burden activities of Cs-137 and K-40 over a period of two years are scanned monthly. The results show a slight continuous increase in body burden activity of both elements. The net daily intakes of Cs-137 and K-40 are calculated using a formula developed from ICRP. The calculated results for K-40 show a variation ranging from 30 to 40 Bq per day for females and from 45 to 55 B per day for males. While for Cs-137 show a slight variation ranged from 5.2 to 6.8 Bq per day for a composite sex. The authors emphasise the importance of the periodic measurement of human population since both the consumed food chain and the environmental enclosure contained both radio elements. Accumulation of the daily ingested activity of Cs-137 and K-40, and of food eaten, showed that the predicted body burden retained activity is relatively higher by a range of 5-25% for Cs-137 and 3-15% for K-40 when compared with that detected by the whole body counter over the 24-month scanning course.

  16. Study of acute WCo, low dose rate CF-252 and CS-137 radiation on LSA ascites lymphoma in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Y.; Feola, J.M.; Magura, C.; Onomura, C.I.; Beach, J.L.

    1985-11-01

    Dose response curves were determined for the LSA lymphoma for acute WCo, low dose rate Cs-137 and Cf-252 radiations using in vivo survival time bioassay. Mean survival times increased with dose with a prominent oxygen effect noted for acute WCo and Cs-137. OER was lowest for Cf-252 where it was approximately 1.4. The RBEn for oxic LSA cells to Cf-252 neutrons was 3.1 for acute WCo and 4.2 for Cs-137. It was larger for hypoxic tumor and RBE was 5.3 for WCo and 5.8 for Cs-137. Survival curves based on survival data used a multitarget dose-response model for photon radiation and exponential dose-response for Cf-252 radiation. When LSA was irradiated in advanced tumor stages in vivo, Cf-252 was much more effective than acute WCo or LDR Cs-137 for increasing survival time. Tumor response in vivo matched the in vitro irradiated tumor data. No schedule dependence was observed for mixing of WCo and Cf-252 radiations.

  17. Analysis of time series of Cs-137 concentration in sewage sludge at Fukushima City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Helmut W.; Mack, Majvor; Shikano, Yudai; Yokoo, Yoshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    Daily routine radioisotope measurements of sewage sludge at the sewage plant of Fukushima City starting in 2011 have provided a detailed data set for the isotopes Cs-137, Cs-134 and I-131. The long-term trend for the Cs isotopes is comparable to data sets from Central Europe caused by the Chernobyl emissions in 1986 - the average Cs-137 concentration decreases faster in the first year (T1/2 < 1 yr) and slower in later years (T1/2 > 1 yr). Absolute values at Fukushima City are comparably low (mostly below 1 kBq/kg dry mass), due to the existence of separate wastewater and rainwater sewer systems, with only a small portion of rainwater and erosion products reaching the purification plant. Cs-134 data decay faster due to the shorter radioactive half-life. I-131 appears even years after the NPP releases and is assumed to originate from the common medical usage of the isotope for thyroid treatment. Short-term Cs data show a clear dependence on rainfall: each significant rainfall event causes a concentration increase in sludge of up to a factor of ten. Therefore the time series exhibits high short-term variability. Here we attempt to numerically analyse the detailed Cs-137 data set, using two separate approaches: The first method tries to connect parameters like the local surface deposition density, surface types (sealed/unsealed), rainfall statistics, rainfall-induced erosion rate, leakage rate from rainwater to wastewater sewer, transport time in the sewer and residence time in the purification plant for a basically physical approach. As not all parameters are known, values have to be assumed or can be extracted in the course of the fitting process. The second approach is purely heuristic, based on a water surface runoff and transport model. Whilst there is no ad-hoc physical meaning in the extracted parameters, they can possibly be interpreted as such when compared with physical modeling results. The combination of both methods is expected to give a deeper insight

  18. A study of Cs-137 spatial distribution in soil thin sections by digital autoradiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobova, Elena; Dogadkin, Nikolay; Shiryaev, Andrey; Kolotov, Vladimir; Turkov, Victor

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies have proved autoradiography to have high potential in detection of radiation in particles including geological objects [1-3]. We applied digital autoradiography based on usage of image plates to study Cs-137 microdistribution in thin sections of the podzolic sandy soil typical for the Chernobyl remote impact zone 25 years after the accident. The zone is noted for contamination of the so-called condensation type where the contribution of the "hot" fuel particles has been comparatively low. The initial 137Cs contamination level of the study plot approximated 40 Ci/km2. According to the soil core data twenty five years after the accident the main portion of cesium radioisotopes is still concentrated in the 10-20 cm thick surface layer. Thin sections have been prepared from the top 0-10 cm soil layer of the soil profile located on the shoulder of the relatively steep northern slope of the forested hill formed on the Iput river terrace ca 20 km to the east of the town of Novozybkov, Bryansk region. Undisturbed soil sample was impregnated with epoxy resin, then dissected in vertical triplicates and polished to obtain open surface. Autoradiography of the thin sections has clearly shown different patterns of Cs-137 distribution related to its concentration in organic material and on the surface of soil particles. High sensitivity and resolution of the applied technique enables to reveal concentration and dispersion zones on microscale level. Soil micro-morphology has shown to be helpful in deciphering soil components and properties responsible for Cs-137 retention in the soil top layer. References 1. Mihoko Hareyama, Noriyoshi Tsuchiya, Masahiro Takebe and Tadashi Chida. Two-dimensional measurement of natural radioactivity of granitic rocks by photostimulated luminescence technique Geochemical Journal, 2000, 34, 1- 9. 2. Zeissler C. J., R. M. Lindstrom, J. P. McKinley. Radioactive particle analysis by digital autoradiography. Journal of Radioanalytical and

  19. Fluctuations of the Concentration of Cs-137 Aerosol in Chernobyl,Fukushima and Kawasaki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Yohei; Hatano, Yuko; Okada, Yukiko; Hirose, Katsumi

    2017-04-01

    Statistical analysis is applied to a time series of the airborne concentration of Cs-137. In order to extract fractal characteristics of the fluctuations, we employed the Hurst analysis. Interestingly, the Hurst index is around 1/3, which is common to the Chernobyl data, Fukushima data, and Kawasaki data. The Kawasaki data is measured by the Tokyo City University, located at 40km south to Tokyo. We proposed a stochastic differential equation, based on an advection equation with winds fluctuating probabilistically. The averaged solution of the equation is compared with measured data. We found that the index of the power of the time is -4/3, which is common to the three cases, Chernobyl, Fukushima and Kawasaki.

  20. [Radioactivity monitoring of steel processing in Croatian steel mills and foundries].

    PubMed

    Sofilić, Tahir; Marjanović, Tihana; Rastovcan-Mioc, Alenka

    2006-03-01

    The last twenty years have seen a number of cases of radioactive pollution in metallurgical industry. Therefore many metal producers have implemented systematic monitoring of radioactivity in their production processes, especially in steel processing, steel being the most applied construction material with the annual world output of over billion tonnes. Learning from the experience of the best known steel producers in Europe and the world Croatian steel mills have introduced radioactivity surveillance and control systems for radioactive elements in steel scrap, semi-finished and finished products. This paper argues in favour of radioactivity surveillance and control systems in steel and steel castings production in Croatia, and describes current systems and solutions available. Since we lack our own standards and regulations to control both domestic and imported steel scrap, semi-finished products (crude steel, hot and cold rolled strip) and finished products, we need to start implementing radioactivity surveillance and control systems in our steel and steel castings production applying the current international recommendations and guidelines, until we build up our own monitoring system and adopt legislation on the national level. This paper gives an overview of the basic types of radioactivity surveillance and control systems, the most frequent requirements to be met, as well as of the measurement and information flow in their application in steel and steel castings production.

  1. Effect of Co-60 single escape peak on detection of Cs-137 in analysis of radionuclide from research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M. S.; Park, S. J.

    2006-07-01

    The effect of the single escape peak of 1173 keV gamma-rays from Co-60 on the detection of Cs-137 activity is analyzed. The single escape peak of 1173 keV gamma-rays from Co-60 is located at the 662 keV, which is very close to the energy of gamma-rays from Cs-137. This single escape peak may be mistaken for the gamma-ray peak from Cs-137 activity in the case of large area of 1173 keV peak. The detection of Cs-137 is very important to the judgment of the contamination or the leakage of the material containing the fission product like reactor pool water and in the several experiments for reactor physics such as burn-up estimation. In this work, the areas of the single escape peak of the 1173 keV gamma-rays from Co-60 are measured with several full energy peak areas by using the HPGe detector. The critical limit by which we can decide whether the net count of 662 keV peak due to Co-60 would be significant or not is deduced. For this detection system, when the area of full energy peak is larger than 4.5 million, the single escape peak of 1173 keV gamma-rays from Co-60 can be regarded as the single significant peak. Therefore, it is confirmed that the detection of the Cs-137 activity is affected by the Co-60 in this case. Conservatively, for this detection system, it is recommended that the area of 1173 keV peak of Co-60 would be less than 2 million for neglecting the effect of Co-60. (authors)

  2. SU-E-T-89: Characterization of Dental Restoration Material for Cs-137 Radiation Dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, S; Gustafson, B; Barry, K

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize the radiation-induced thermoluminescence properties of a dental restoration material and to see if the material might be feasible for use in retrospective radiation dosimetry. Retrospective, or accidental, dosimetry is the study of using nearby materials to measure radiation received by individuals. In this project we obtained samples of Ivoclar Vivadent e.max CAD material, a glass-ceramic used for making dental restorations such as full or partial crowns. The samples were machined into square chips .32 cm × .32 cm × .089 cm and annealed in the same furnace used by the dentist. The samples were exposed to a Cs-137 source using a PMMA source holder and then read in a Harshaw 3500 TLD reader. The samples were read without nitrogen gas flux using heating rates of 5 degrees C/s or 10 degrees C/s up to a maximum temperature of 400 degrees Celsius. The glow curves were analyzed using Systat PeakFIT peak-fitting software and Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. The authors gratefully thank Dr. Aaron Imdieke and the staff of River City Dental, St. Cloud, MN for the dental restoration materials and the use of their dental furnace. A sample subjected to a radiation exposure of .04 C/kg exhibits a glow curve with a prominent peak at approximately 140 degrees Celsius, which is well-modeled by the first order glow curve deconvolution formula developed by Kitis, Gomez-Ros, and Tuyn. The activation energy corresponding to this peak is approximately 1 eV. The thermoluminescent signal fades with time after exposure. Ivoclar Vivadent e.max CAD dental restoration material has the potential to be used as a material for retrospective Cs-137 radiation dosimetry. Future work could look at its thermoluminescent dosimetry properties in more detail and also at other dental restoration materials. The authors would like to thank Dr. Aaron Imdieke and the staff of River City Dental, St. Cloud, MN, for the donation of scrap dental restoration materials and

  3. Studies of antibiotic resistant mutants of Bacteroides fragilis obtained by Cs-137 ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Azghani, A.O.

    1986-01-01

    The genus Bacteroides is an obligate anaerobic bacillus normally found in the upper respiratory tract, the colon, and the genitourinary system. The project reported here was undertaken because of the high frequency of hospital infections attributed to B. fragilis, and the increased resistance of the bacteria to commonly used antibiotics. Cs-137 gamma irradiation was used to induce antibiotic resistant mutants in B. fragilis in the presence of Escherichia coli B/r membrane fragments, employed as reducing agent. Based on a dose-survival curve, an effective radiation dose of 1.54 x 10/sup 4/R (3.99 C/Kg) was used to induce mutations to rifampicin and tetracycline resistance in the test organism. The antibiotic resistant mutants of B. fragilis were utilized to reveal the mechanism by which this group of organisms becomes resistant to select chemotherapeutic agents. Studies on tetracycline resistant mutants of B. fragilis isolated after irradiation, suggest that the resistance to this antibiotic is associated with the outer membrane permeability. The difference in inhibitory action of rifampicin on RNA polymerase activity, from rifampicin sensitive and resistant strains of B. fragilis, reveals that this enzyme is a possible suitable target for inhibition of bacterial growth in anaerobes by rifampicin.

  4. Towards comprehensive characterization of Cs-137 Seeds using PRESAGE® dosimetry with optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, J.; Yang, Y.; Rankine, L.; Newton, J.; Adamovics, J.; Craciunescu, O.; Oldham, M.

    2013-06-01

    We describe a method to directly measure the radial dose and anisotropy functions of brachytherapy sources using polyurethane based dosimeters read out with optical CT. We measured the radial dose and anisotropy functions for a Cs-137 source using a PRESAGE® dosimeter (9.5cm diameter, 9.2cm height) with a 0.35cm channel drilled for source placement. The dosimeter was immersed in water and irradiated to 5.3Gy at 1cm. Pre- and post-irradiation optical CT scans were acquired with the Duke Large field of view Optical CT Scanner (DLOS) and dose was reconstructed with 0.5mm isotropic voxel size. The measured radial dose factor matched the published fit to within 3% for radii between 0.5-3.0cm, and the anisotropy function matched to within 4% except for θ near 0° and 180° and radii >3cm. Further improvements in measurement accuracy may be achieved by optimizing dose, using the high dynamic range scanning capability of DLOS, and irradiating multiple dosimeters. Initial simulations indicate an 8 fold increase in dose is possible while still allowing sufficient light transmission during optical CT. A more comprehensive measurement may be achieved by increasing dosimeter size and flipping the source orientation between irradiations.

  5. A Type-S radiation thermometer for steel mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, G. Raymond

    2003-04-01

    The need for standardization in infrared radiation thermometry has never been more significant than now, particularly in the US Steel industry. The situation must be similar to that faced by thermocouple users and makers in the last century. The technology is mature and the applications well understood by pyrometry and instrumentation specialists. Yet, neither is well understood by the majority of mill engineers. Selection of optimum devices for various mill applications requires specialized knowledge. The steel companies have trimmed staff to the point that vendors are becoming the default technology specialists. Yet the companies have no means to evaluate the competence of competing vendors and their devices. They thus default to devices & practices believed adequate instead of proven optimums. One solution is to develop a comprehensive set of standards, similar to those for thermocouples. These would include terminology, used in device specifications, along with recommended practices for use of certain device types in specific mill conditions and finally recommended practices for ancillary equipment & utilities, installation, commissioning, maintenance and periodic calibration verification.

  6. HeLa cell tumor response to 60Co, Cs-137, Cf-252 radiations and cisplatin chemotherapy in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Y; Feola, J M; Beach, J L

    1984-07-15

    HeLa cells were implanted into athymic nude mice from tissue culture and solid tumors established (HeLa cell tumor or HCT). Large cell numbers of 1 X 10(7) were required to obtain consistent and progressive growth, and tumor growth followed a Gompertzian mode. Irradiation studies were carried out using acute Cobalt-60 (60Co), low-dose-rate (LDR) Cs-137 and LDR Cf-252. Cf-252, a neutron-emitting radioisotope, produced an immediate tumor shrinkage and regression response after a dose of 279 cGy. Acute 60Co or LDR Cs-137 irradiation with 1000 cGy had little effect on the HCT. After a dose of 2000 cGy of 60Co radiation tumor shrinkage followed a latent period of approximately 5 days. Cisplatin had no effect on the HCT in nude mice in stationary or late exponential growth.

  7. HeLa cell tumor response to 60Co, Cs-137, Cf-252 radiations and cisplatin chemotherapy in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Y.; Feola, J.M.; Beach, J.L.

    1984-07-15

    HeLa cells were implanted into athymic nude mice from tissue culture and solid tumors established (HeLa cell tumor or HCT). Large cell numbers of 1 X 10/sup 7/ were required to obtain consistent and progressive growth, and tumor growth followed a Gompertzian mode. Irradiation studies were carried out using acute Cobalt-60 (60Co), low-dose-rate (LDR) Cs-137 and LDR Cf-252. Cf-252, a neutron-emitting radioisotope, produced an immediate tumor shrinkage and regression response after a dose of 279 cGy. Acute 60Co or LDR Cs-137 irradiation with 1000 cGy had little effect on the HCT. After a dose of 2000 cGy of 60Co radiation tumor shrinkage followed a latent period of approximately 5 days. Cisplatin had no effect on the HCT in nude mice in stationary or late exponential growth.

  8. Cs-137 in milk, vegetation, soil, and water near the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site.

    PubMed

    Kakimov, Aitbek; Yessimbekov, Zhanibek; Kakimova, Zhainagul; Bepeyeva, Aigerim; Stuart, Marilyne

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate Cs-137 activity concentration in soil, water, vegetation, and cow's milk at 10 locations within three regions (Abai, Ayaguz, and Urdzhar) to the southeast of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan. Cs-137 activity concentrations, determined using a pure Ge gamma-ray spectrometer, showed that, all samples collected did not exceed the National maximum allowable limits of 10,000 Bq/kg for soil, 100 Bq/kg for cow's milk, 74 Bq/kg for vegetation, and 11 Bq/kg for water. Cs-137 is, therefore, not considered a health hazard in these regions. The highest levels of contamination were found in the Abai region, where the highest activity concentration of Cs-137 was 18.0 ± 1.0 Bq/kg in soil, 7.60 ± 0.31 Bq/kg in cow's milk, 4.00 ± 0.14 Bq/kg in the vegetation, and 3.00 ± 0.24 Bq/kg in water. The lowest levels were measured within the Urdzhar region, where 4.00 ± 0.14 Bq/kg was found in the soil, 0.30 ± 0.02 Bq/kg in the cow's milk, 1.00 ± 0.03 Bq/kg in the vegetation, and 0.20 ± 0.02 Bq/kg in the water.

  9. Decommissioning of a nuclear power plant: determination of site-specific sorption coefficients for Co-60 and Cs-137.

    PubMed

    Delakowitz, B; Meinrath, G

    1998-01-01

    Assessment of radiological risks in strategies for decommissioning of nuclear installations have to consider not only technical concepts such as cutting and decontamination techniques but, even more important, requirements for input of reliable information on the hydrological situation and retardation capabilities of relevant radionuclides specific to the respective decommissioning operation. In this paper we describe appropriate methods for obtaining site-specific sorption data and present results achieved from a case study performed as a commercial contractual work preliminary to the planned decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. A detailed mineralogical study of the sediment used in our sorption experiment highlights the necessity of a thorough sample homogenization and characterization. Batch experiments using radiotracer techniques for the determination of site-specific sorption coefficients show significant retardation for Co-60 and Cs-137 after only 2 h of equilibration between the preconditioned groundwater and sediment. Sorption is more effective in the groundwater of a deeper aquifer containing a higher amount of colloidal clay (illite) particles < 0.63 micron. The Co-60 radiotracer is more completely sorbed than the Cs-137 radiotracer. Equilibration of radionuclide distribution is slow, particularly for Co-60. Presence of EDTA reduces sorption of Co-60 efficiently while Cs-137 sorption remains unaffected.

  10. Milling and Drilling Evaluation of Stainless Steel Powder Metallurgy Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, L.J.

    2001-12-10

    Near-net-shape components can be made with powder metallurgy (PM) processes. Only secondary operations such as milling and drilling are required to complete these components. In the past and currently production components are made from powder metallurgy (PM) stainless steel alloys. process engineers are unfamiliar with the difference in machining properties of wrought versus PM alloys and have had to make parts to develop the machining parameters. Design engineers are not generally aware that some PM alloy variations can be furnished with machining additives that greatly increase tool life. Specimens from a MANTEC PM alloy property study were made available. This study was undertaken to determine the machining properties of a number of stainless steel wrought and PM alloys under the same conditions so that comparisons of their machining properties could be made and relative tool life determined.

  11. Steel mill ORC turns waste gas into electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    This article discusses the installation of a 14 MW ORC waste heat recovery plant at the Kimitsu Works of Nippon Steel Corporation. The recovery plant is composed of six basic components: a boiler, turbine, electric generator, condenser, condensate pump, and feed pump. The article describes operation of the plant in detail. According to figures released by the company, the total cost of operating the ORC on the steel mill's sintering unit is approximately 8.88 yen per HWH of electricity generated. The figure includes depreciation on the ORC, replacement parts, cost of cooling water for the exhaust gas, interest, tax, and insurance as well as cost for labor, and is computed on a rate of 230 yen to the dollar.

  12. Spark Plasma Co-Sintering of Mechanically Milled Tool Steel and High Speed Steel Powders

    PubMed Central

    Pellizzari, Massimo; Fedrizzi, Anna; Zadra, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Hot work tool steel (AISI H13) and high speed steel (AISI M3:2) powders were successfully co-sintered to produce hybrid tool steels that have properties and microstructures that can be modulated for specific applications. To promote co-sintering, which is made difficult by the various densification kinetics of the two steels, the particle sizes and structures were refined by mechanical milling (MM). Near full density samples (>99.5%) showing very fine and homogeneous microstructure were obtained using spark plasma sintering (SPS). The density of the blends (20, 40, 60, 80 wt % H13) was in agreement with the linear rule of mixtures. Their hardness showed a positive deviation, which could be ascribed to the strengthening effect of the secondary particles altering the stress distribution during indentation. A toughening of the M3:2-rich blends could be explained in view of the crack deviation and crack arrest exerted by the H13 particles. PMID:28773603

  13. New developments in microwave treatment of steel mill sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwill, J.E.; Schmitt, R.J.; Purta, D.A.

    1996-02-01

    Steel mills in the US generate approximately 1 million tons of sludge annually. This is mainly a residue of cooling water, lubricating oils, and metallic fines from hot strip rolling mills and other operations. Currently, the separation of sludge from the liquid requires large settling tanks, takes several hours of time and produces a residue that must be disposed of at high cost. The EPRI Center for Materials Production, sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), has supported development of a microwave-based treatment system. This new process, developed by Carnegie Mellon Research Institute, and patented by EPRI is 30 times faster, requires 90% less space and eliminates land-filling by producing materials of value. Electricity usage is only 0.5 kwhr/gal. A review by the American Iron and Steel Institute Waste Recycle Technology Task Force concluded that further work on the microwave technology was justified. Subsequently, additional work was undertaken toward optimizing the process for treating metallic waste sludges containing lime and polymers. This effort, cofunded by EPRI and AISI, was successfully concluded in late 1994. EPRI/CMP is proceeding to license and commercialize this technology, and to continue research to improve efficiency. A follow-on project is now being organized by CMP to confirm long term recyclability of the oil-release agent and to conduct a large scale (25-ton sample) test of the process.

  14. Biodegradation of oil in oily sludges from steel mills.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Basanta Kumar; Tiwari, Satyendra Nath; Mukherji, Suparna

    2009-02-01

    Lab-scale batch studies were conducted to determine the biodegradability of oil associated with oily sludge from a steel mill using two microbial cultures enriched in the laboratory. After 60 days of biodegradation the residual oil content in mill sludge was reduced from 4.5-5% to 2.7-3.0%, corresponding to 40-45% loss with respect to initial. The rate of degradation was different for the two enrichment cultures studied. Significant loss of oil was observed in the un-inoculated controls while loss in the azide killed controls was negligible. Bioavailability limitations and the presence of structurally complex high molecular weight hydrocarbons in lubricating oil are responsible for the slow rate of degradation. Significant loss of oil in un-inoculated controls indicated the presence of indigenous microorganisms in oily mill sludge. The association of biomass with sludge solids and presence of a high level of residual oil may adversely affect the recyclability of iron-fines associated with the sludge.

  15. 48 CFR 252.216-7007 - Economic price adjustment-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products-representation. 252.216-7007 Section 252....216-7007 Economic price adjustment—basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products... Steel, Aluminum, Brass, Bronze, or Copper Mill Products—Representation (MAR 2012) (a) Definitions....

  16. 48 CFR 252.216-7007 - Economic price adjustment-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products-representation. 252.216-7007 Section 252....216-7007 Economic price adjustment—basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products... Steel, Aluminum, Brass, Bronze, or Copper Mill Products—Representation (MAR 2012) (a) Definitions....

  17. 48 CFR 252.216-7007 - Economic price adjustment-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products-representation. 252.216-7007 Section 252....216-7007 Economic price adjustment—basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products... Steel, Aluminum, Brass, Bronze, or Copper Mill Products—Representation (MAR 2012) (a) Definitions....

  18. The dose distribution of low dose rate Cs-137 in intracavitary brachytherapy: comparison of Monte Carlo simulation, treatment planning calculation and polymer gel measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, M.; Love, P. A.; Verhaegen, F.; Nalder, C.; Bidmead, A. M.; Leach, M.; Webb, S.

    2004-12-01

    In this study, the dose distribution delivered by low dose rate Cs-137 brachytherapy sources was investigated using Monte Carlo (MC) techniques and polymer gel dosimetry. The results obtained were compared with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). The 20 mm and the 30 mm diameter Selectron vaginal applicator set (Nucletron) were used for this study. A homogeneous and a heterogeneous—with an air cavity—polymer gel phantom was used to measure the dose distribution from these sources. The same geometrical set-up was used for the MC calculations. Beyond the applicator tip, differences in dose as large as 20% were found between the MC and TPS. This is attributed to the presence of stainless steel in the applicator and source set, which are not considered by the TPS calculations. Beyond the air cavity, differences in dose of around 5% were noted, due to the TPS assuming a homogeneous water medium. The polymer gel results were in good agreement with the MC calculations for all the cases investigated.

  19. Landscape assessment of spatial Cs-137 connectivity patterns in arable land with gray loamy soils in the Bryansk Region (landscapes of the Opolje)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnik, Vitaly; Sokolov, Alexander; Saveliev, Anatoly; Mironenko, Iya

    2017-04-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl accident in 1986 landscapes of the Bryansk Region (Russia) were contaminated by Cs-137. In 1993 air-gamma survey with 100 m resolution was done in contaminated areas of the region, which revealed significant spatial heterogeneity of Cs-137 contamination. The initial "spotting" of contamination Cs-137, which in the spring of 1986 represented multi-scale complex patterns of contamination, was substantially transformed by 1993 as a result of erosion processes of various intensity. The purpose of this research was to obtain estimates of the transformation of initial Cs-137 patterns as influenced by different landscape factors. The study is based on the concept of sediment and hydrological connectivity. We apply GIS-based models considering lateral soil migration to analyze sediment cascade system. The study area is a test plot that has grey loamy soils (landscapes of the Opolje) with a size 10x16 km in the central part of the Bryansk Region, with more than 80% of the area under cultivation. Elevation levels are in the range of 140-210 m. Because of plowing, intense erosion processes have taken place. The slope angles in the lower parts of slopes reach 2-3 degrees. Maximum slopes in gullies reach 11,5 degrees. Cs-137 levels of contamination vary from 3,6 kBq/m2 to 35 3,6 kBq/m2. Over the past few decades the Cs-137 technique has been applied to determine net soil redistribution rates. It is applicable for medium long term (30 to 40 years) soil redistribution estimates. In this technique, the anthropogenic radionuclide Cs-137 is used as a sediment tracer from upland erosion studies to catchment sediment budgets, as well as to depositional areas in colluvial positions, valleys, river terraces, floodplains. The soil movement is primarily driven by water flow due to the gravity. The effect of gravity can be easily approximated using DEM derivatives. Cs-137 patterns have been investigated to estimate landscape connectivity and soil redistribution

  20. Soil-plant transfer of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in digestate amended agricultural soils- a lysimeter scale experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, Khalid; Berns, Anne E.; Pütz, Thomas; Burauel, Peter; Vereecken, Harry; Zoriy, Myroslav; Flucht, Reinhold; Opitz, Thorsten; Hofmann, Diana

    2014-05-01

    Radiocesium and radiostrontium are among the most problematic soil contaminants following nuclear fallout due to their long half-lives and high fission yields. Their chemical resemblance to potassium, ammonium and calcium facilitates their plant uptake and thus enhances their chance to reach humans through the food-chain dramatically. The plant uptake of both radionuclides is affected by the type of soil, the amount of organic matter and the concentration of competitive ions. In the present lysimeter scale experiment, soil-plant transfer of Cs-137 and Sr-90 was investigated in an agricultural silty soil amended with digestate, a residue from a biogas plant. The liquid fraction of the digestate, liquor, was used to have higher nutrient competition. Digestate application was done in accordance with the field practice with an application rate of 34 Mg/ha and mixing it in top 5 cm soil, yielding a final concentration of 38 g digestate/Kg soil. The top 5 cm soil of the non-amended reference soil was also submitted to the same mixing procedure to account for the physical disturbance of the top soil layer. Six months after the amendment of the soil, the soil contamination was done with water-soluble chloride salts of both radionuclides, resulting in a contamination density of 66 MBq/m2 for Cs-137 and 18 MBq/m2 for Sr-90 in separate experiments. Our results show that digestate application led to a detectable difference in soil-plant transfer of the investigated radionuclides, effect was more pronounced for Cs-137. A clear difference was observed in plant uptake of different plants. Pest plants displayed higher uptake of both radionuclides compared to wheat. Furthermore, lower activity values were recorded in ears compared to stems for both radionuclides.

  1. Compressed Air System Upgrade Improves Production at a Steel Mill (The U.S. Steel Mon Valley Works)

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the steel mill project.

  2. Laser milling of martensitic stainless steels using spiral trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romoli, L.; Tantussi, F.; Fuso, F.

    2017-04-01

    A laser beam with sub-picosecond pulse duration was driven in spiral trajectories to perform micro-milling of martensitic stainless steel. The geometry of the machined micro-grooves channels was investigated by a specifically conceived Scanning Probe Microscopy instrument and linked to laser parameters by using an experimental approach combining the beam energy distribution profile and the absorption phenomena in the material. Preliminary analysis shows that, despite the numerous parameters involved in the process, layer removal obtained by spiral trajectories, varying the radial overlap, allows for a controllable depth of cut combined to a flattening effect of surface roughness. Combining the developed machining strategy to a feed motion of the work stage, could represent a method to obtain three-dimensional structures with a resolution of few microns, with an areal roughness Sa below 100 nm.

  3. BINDER MODIFICATION AND DEVELOPMENT FOR BRIQUETTING STEEL MILL RESIDUES

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson

    1998-07-01

    Alternatives to the molasses-ordinary portland cement (OPC) binder as a binder for steel mill residues were extensively investigated. A large number of binder modifications were tested using a hand pelleting apparatus to identify effective compositions. The more effective compositions were evaluated in a series of three briquetting matrices using the Komarek press. Evaluations consisted of drop tests, compression tests of given and cured pellets, and tumble tests of cured pellets. Pyrolysis odor tests were performed to determine the effects of certain compositions on the disagreeable wet campfire odor produced during heating of the molasses--OPC briquettes. Several scanning electron microscope (SEM) morphology studies were conducted to examine the nature of structures formed during pelleting or briquetting.

  4. Mobilization of state program resources for a steel mill accident.

    PubMed

    Eakins, Jerry; Keaton, Harlan; Passetti, William; Cofer, Walter

    2002-05-01

    Radioactive materials in scrap metal are a serious problem for dealers and processors as well as for state radiation protection programs. Most large dealers and processors have monitoring devices that detect radiation sources at their scale house or feed to the furnaces. For example, in Florida since July 1995, a fiscal year average of 41 such alarms has been reported to the Department of Health's Bureau of Radiation Control. The majority of these alarms involve small amounts of radioactive material, usually naturally occurring radioactive material such as 226Ra, contained in luminous dials or scale associated with mining activities in the state. Occasionally, industrial devices that contain radioactive source material are found. The Bureau classifies these alarms as incidents, and inspectors are dispatched to help identify the source and determine the disposition of the material. On 13 July 2001, a steel mill in north Florida reported that a 137Cs source had been melted in their furnace. This paper describes the actions undertaken by the Bureau in assessing the extent of contamination and subsequent cleanup activities undertaken by the mill.

  5. Low (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio anomaly in the north-northwest direction from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shingo; Shinomiya, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Imaseki, Hitoshi; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Kitamura, Hisashi; Kodaira, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Oikawa, Masakazu; Miyaushiro, Norihiro; Takashima, Yoshio; Uchihori, Yukio

    2017-08-07

    A low (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio anomaly in the north-northwest (NNW) direction from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) is identified by a new analysis of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio dataset which we had obtained in 2011-2015 by a series of car-borne surveys that employed a germanium gamma-ray spectrometer. We found that the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio is slightly lower (0.95, decay-corrected to March 11, 2011) in an area with a length of about 15 km and a width of about 3 km in the NNW direction from the FDNPS than in other directions from the station. Furthermore, the area of this lower (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio anomaly corresponds to a narrow contamination band that runs NNW from the FDNPS and it is nearly parallel with the major and heaviest contamination band in the west-northwest. The plume trace with a low (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio previously found by other researchers within the 3-km radius of the FDNPS is in a part of the area with the lower (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio anomaly that we found. Our result suggests that this lower (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio anomaly is the area which was contaminated before March 13, 2011 (UTC) in association with the hydrogen explosion of Unit 1 on March 12, 2011 at 06:36 (UTC) and it was less influenced by later subsequent plumes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stochastic modeling of the migration of Cs-137 in the soil considering a power law tailing in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Hiroki; Hatano, Yuko

    2016-04-01

    We develop a theoretical model to reproduce the measured data of Cs-137 in the soil due to the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. In our past study, we derived the analytic solution under the generalized Robin boundary condition (Oka-Yamamoto solution). This is a generalization of the He-Walling solution (1996). We compared our solution with the Fukushima soil data of for 3 years after the accident and found that the concentration of Cs-137 has a discrepancy from our solution, specifically in a deep part because the depth profiles have a power law tailing. Therefore, we improved our model in the following aspect. When Cs particle (or Cs solution) migrate in the soil, the diffusion coefficient should be the results of many processes in the soil. These processes include the effect of various materials which constitute the soil (clay, litter, sand), or the variations of pore size in the soil. Hence we regard the diffusion coefficient as the stochastic variable, we derive the model. Specifically, we consider the solution of ADE to be the conditional probability C(x,t|D) in terms of the diffusion coefficient D and calculate C(x,t)=∫_(0~∞) C(x,t|D)*f(D)*dD, where f(D) is the probability density function of D. This model has a power law tailing in space like the space-fractional ADE.

  7. Estimation of Cs-137 hillslope patterns of Polesje landscapes using geo-information modeling techniques (on example of the Bryansk region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnik, Vitaly; Nenko, Kristina; Sokolov, Alexander; Saveliev, Anatoly

    2015-04-01

    In the result of Chernobyl disaster on 26 April 1986 many regions of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia were contaminated by radionuclides. Vast areas of farmlands and woodlands were contaminated in Russia. The deposited radionuclides continue to cause concern about the possible contamination of food (in particular, mushrooms and berries). But the radioactive materials are also an ideal marker for understanding of hillslope processes in natural and seminatural landscapes. Model area chosen for the research (Opolje landscapes located in the central part of the Bryansk region) is characterized by relatively low levels of Cs-137 contamination. It just 4-33 times higher than global fallout which was equal 1,75 kBq/m2 in 1986 . According the results of air gamma survey (grid size: 100 m x100 m), which was done in 1993, it was explicitly to identify that the processes of Cs-137 lateral migration took place due to nearly fourfold increase of Cs-137 in the lower slope in comparison with the surface of the watershed during a seven-year period after Chernobyl accident. Erosion processes which define Cs-137 pattern in the lowest part of hillslope depend upon such parameters as slope, hillslope forms, vegetation, land use and the roads, which intersect a streamline. GIS-modeling of Cs-137 was carried out in SAGA software. The spatial modeling resolution was equal 100x100 m according the air-gamma data. SRTM data was resampled to a grid 100x100 m. Erosion rates were the highest on the slope of southern exposure. There the processes of lateral migration are more intensive and observed within the entire slope. The main contribution in receipt of Cs-137 to floodplain on the northern slopes comes only from the lower part of the slope and gullies and ravines network. We have used geo-information modeling techniques and some kind of interpolation and statistical models to predict or understand forming of Cs-137 spatial patterns and trends in soil erosion. To study the role of some

  8. Intercomparison of Pb-210, Cs-137, Pu-239,240 and C-14-Based Chronologies of Recent Sediments - Problems and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    Short-lived naturally-occurring Pb-210 and anthropogenically-delivered Cs-137 are the two most extensively utilized chronometers over the time scale of less than a decade to 60 (Cs-137) to 120 yrs (Pb-210) in a variety of environment including terrestrial and aqueous systems and glaciers. Despite all the advances in the field, still major issues, we confront several issues on the robustness of their applications in these environments. Those include: i) how does the temporal and spatial variations of Pb-210 input to an aqueous environment affect the Pb-210 chronology? ii) how well we are able to quantify the multiple source inputs (atmospheric fallout, watershed erosional input, production of Pb-210 from the decay of SGD-derived Rn-222 and Ra-226, etc); iii) How well are we able to sort out a number of processes that affect the vertical profiles of both Cs-137 and Pb-210 which include sediment mixing (biological and/or physical), sediment focusing/erosion due to bottom currents and transport of sediments in subsurface environment and post-depositional mobility of Cs-137 and Pb-210. In this presentation, the following case studies will be discussed: 1) where there is excellent as well non-agreement between Pb-210 and Cs-137-based chronologies; 2) agreement between Cs-137-based chronology with historical time-marker from Hg mining, while no chronology obtainable from Pb-210; 3) agreement between five different methods of dating in a reservoir; 4) evidence of Cs-137 diffusion in some of the sediment cores, but not in all cores in a small reservoir; and 5) evidence of long-term remineralization based on a comparison of C-14-based ages with those of Pb-210, Cs-137 and Pu-239,240-based methods. We also show evidence Cs-137 diffusion based on a set of laboratory-based diffusion experiments under different pore water chemical conditions. A brief discussion on time resolution and error estimation on ages will be discussed. The challenges in the field of `Anthropocene

  9. Quantifying sediment retention by restored wetlands using fallout radionuclide tracer technology (Cs-137 and Be-7): The River Odense, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronvang, Brian; Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Taylor, Alex; Blake, William

    2013-04-01

    River restoration projects that allow temporary inundations of the floodplain are important for increasing the water storage potential of the landscape which can decrease flood risk to vulnerable downstream urban areas. During inundation, coarse and fine fluvial sediments are deposited on the floodplain leading to reduced organic matter and nutrient flux downstream. In this context, information on sediment accretion rates by floodplain units is required to inform restoration decisions. Sediment traps are widely used to determine contemporary accretion rates in floodplain units but there are questions about the representativeness and resolution of data. Here, we have tested the application of radionuclide tracer technology (Cs-137 and Be-7) for use in Danish river and floodplain monitoring for longer and shorter term quantification of sediment accretion rates. Prior to the wet season, a network of AstroTurf mats was placed along three transects in the study zone of the Odense floodplain. Suspended sediment traps were installed in the channel and samples were collected during period of floodplain inundation to characterise the FRN activity concentrations in deposited material. Following a series of major inundation events, shallow (3 cm) sediment cores were collected to determine Be-7 inventory relative to a non-inundated reference site. Deeper cores (30 cm) were collected, including a section core, to quantify Cs-137 inventories on the floodplain relative to a reference site. All materials were analysed for particle size and a separation experiment was undertaken to characterise the relationship between particle size and FRN concentration. Cs-137 based accretion rates were in accord with long-term direct monitoring and provided a useful context for the contemporary extreme event data. Comparison of Be-7 based accretion estimates to Astro Turf mat deposition indicated that the Be-7 approach offers to provide high resolution retrospective accretion rate data for

  10. Characterization of steel mill electric-arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Sofilić, Tahir; Rastovcan-Mioc, Alenka; Cerjan-Stefanović, Stefica; Novosel-Radović, Vjera; Jenko, Monika

    2004-06-18

    In order to make a complete characterization of electric-arc furnace (EAF) dust, as hazardous industrial waste, and to solve its permanent disposal and/or recovery, bearing in mind both the volumes formed in the Croatian steel industry and experiences of developed industrial countries, a study of its properties was undertaken. For this purpose, samples of EAF dust, taken from the regular production process in the Zeljezara Sisak Steel Mill between December 2000 and December 2001, were subjected to a series of tests. The chemical composition of EAF dust samples was investigated by means of a several different analytical methods. The results from the chemical analysis show that the approximate order of abundance of major elements in EAF dusts is as follows: Fe, Zn, Mn, Ca, Mg, Si, Pb, S, Cr, Cu, Al, C, Ni, Cd, As and Hg. Granular-metric composition of single samples was determined by applying sieve separation. Scanning electron micro-structural examination of EAF dust microstructure was performed and results indicated that all twelve EAF dusts were composed of solid spherical agglomerates with Fe, Zn, Pb, O, Si and Ca as the principal element. The investigation of grain morphology and the mineralogical composition of EAF dust were taken by combination of high resolution Auger electron spectroscopy (HR AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The analysis of XPS-spectra determined the presence of zinc in the form of ZnO phase and the presence of lead in the form of PbO phase, i.e. PbSO3/PbSO4 forms. The results of the X-ray diffraction phase analysis show that the basis of the examined EAF dust samples is made of a mixture of metal oxides, silicates and sulphates. The metal concentration, anions, pH value and conductivity in water eluates was determined in order to define the influence of EAF dust on the environment.

  11. 48 CFR 252.216-7000 - Economic price adjustment-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products. 252.216-7000 Section 252.216-7000 Federal... adjustment—basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products. As prescribed in 216.203-4-70(a)(1), use the following clause: Economic Price Adjustment—Basic Steel, Aluminum, Brass, Bronze, or...

  12. 48 CFR 252.216-7000 - Economic price adjustment-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products. 252.216-7000 Section 252.216-7000 Federal... adjustment—basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products. As prescribed in 216.203-4-70(a), use the following clause: Economic Price Adjustment—Basic Steel, Aluminum, Brass, Bronze, or...

  13. 48 CFR 252.216-7000 - Economic price adjustment-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products. 252.216-7000 Section 252.216-7000 Federal... adjustment—basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products. As prescribed in 216.203-4-70(a), use the following clause: Economic Price Adjustment—Basic Steel, Aluminum, Brass, Bronze, or...

  14. 48 CFR 252.216-7000 - Economic price adjustment-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products. 252.216-7000 Section 252.216-7000 Federal... adjustment—basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products. As prescribed in 216.203-4-70(a)(1), use the following clause: Economic Price Adjustment—Basic Steel, Aluminum, Brass, Bronze, or...

  15. 48 CFR 252.216-7000 - Economic price adjustment-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products. 252.216-7000 Section 252.216-7000 Federal... adjustment—basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products. As prescribed in 216.203-4-70(a)(1), use the following clause: Economic Price Adjustment—Basic Steel, Aluminum, Brass, Bronze, or...

  16. Lanthanides in soils of the Cherepovets steel mill impact zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladonin, D. V.

    2017-06-01

    Contents of different lanthanide forms in soddy-calcareous soils at different distances from the Cherepovets steel mill (Vologda oblast) have been studied. Increased contents of Pr and Tb are found in soils near the pollution source. Less manifested increases in the contents of other lanthanides (from La to Gd) are also observed. Along with the increase in total content, technogenic pollution increases the content of acid-soluble lanthanides and affects their degree of extraction. The residual fraction strongly bound to aluminosilicates contains 80 to 95% of lanthanides. Soil processes result in the partial binding of lanthanides with organic matter (5-18% of their total content) and Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides (0.1-5% of the total content). The individual properties of lanthanides are clearly manifested in their interaction with these soil components. The highest share of the fraction bound to organic matter contains medium lanthanides, and the highest share of the fraction bound to Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides contains heavy lanthanides.

  17. Model simulations on the long-term dispersal of Cs-137 released into the Pacific Ocean off Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Erik; Schwarzkopf, Franziska U.; Lübbecke, Joke F.; Böning, Claus W.

    2013-04-01

    A sequence of global ocean circulation models, with horizontal mesh sizes of 0.5°, 0.25° and 0.1°, are used to estimate the long-term dispersion by ocean currents and mesoscale eddies of a slowly decaying tracer (half-life of 30 years, comparable to that of Cs-137) from the local waters off the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants. The tracer was continuously injected into the coastal waters over some weeks; its subsequent spreading and dilution in the Pacific Ocean was then simulated for 10 years. The simulations do not include any data assimilation, and thus, do not account for the actual state of the local ocean currents during the release of highly contaminated water from the damaged plants in March-April 2011. An ensemble differing in initial current distributions illustrates their importance for the tracer patterns evolving during the first months, but suggests a minor relevance for the large-scale tracer distributions after 2-3 years. By then the tracer cloud has penetrated to depths of more than 400 m, spanning the western and central North Pacific between 25°N and 55°N, leading to a rapid dilution of concentrations. The rate of dilution declines in the following years, while the main tracer patch propagates eastward across the Pacific Ocean, reaching the coastal waters of North America after about 5-6 years. Tentatively assuming a value of 10 PBq for the net Cs-137 input during the first weeks after the Fukushima incident, the simulation suggests a rapid dilution of peak radioactivity values to about 10 Bq m³ during the first two years, followed by a gradual decline to 1-2 Bq m³ over the next 4-7 years. The total peak radioactivity levels would then still be about twice the pre-Fukushima values.

  18. Etching process mills PH 14-8 Mo alloy steel to precise tolerances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, B. L.; Mulland, P. W.

    1966-01-01

    Chemical milling process, which combines an aqua regia etchant with a sulfonate wetting agent, produces finishes on PH 14-8 molybdenum alloy steel to precise tolerances. This process permits precision removal of excess metal from the steel in annealed and/or aged conditions.

  19. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-04-07

    (135)Cs/(137)Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure (135)Cs, there were no (135)Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited (135)Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of (134)Cs, (135)Cs, and (137)Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace (135)Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%-52.6%. The obtained (135)Cs/(137)Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future.

  20. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    135Cs/137Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure 135Cs, there were no 135Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited 135Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of 134Cs, 135Cs, and 137Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace 135Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%–52.6%. The obtained 135Cs/137Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future. PMID:27052481

  1. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-04-01

    135Cs/137Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure 135Cs, there were no 135Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited 135Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of 134Cs, 135Cs, and 137Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace 135Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%-52.6%. The obtained 135Cs/137Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future.

  2. Mass spectrometry for the determination of fission products 135Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr: A review of methodology and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Xuemei; Long, Kaiming; Hu, Sheng; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-05-01

    The radioactive fission products 135Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr have been released into the environment by human activities such as nuclear weapon tests, nuclear fuel reprocessing and nuclear power plant accidents. Monitoring of these radionuclides is important for dose assessment. Moreover, the 135Cs/137Cs isotopic ratio can be used as an important long-term fingerprint for radioactive source identification as it varies with weapon, reactor and fuel types. In recent years, mass spectrometry has become a powerful method for the determination of 135Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr in environmental samples. Mass spectrometry is characterized by the high sensitivity and low detection limit and the relatively shorter sample preparation and analysis times compared with radiometric methods. However, the mass spectrometric determination of radiocesium and 90Sr is affected by the peak tailings of the stable nuclides 133Cs and 88Sr, respectively, and the related isobaric and polyatomic interferences. Chemical separation and optimization of the mass spectrometry instrumental setup are strongly needed prior to the mass spectrometry detection. In this paper, we have reviewed the published works about the determination of 135Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr by mass spectrometry. The mass spectrometric techniques we cover are resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS), thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For each technique, the principles or strategies used for the analysis of these radionuclides are discussed; these included the abundance sensitivity, ways to suppress the interference signals, and the instrumental setup. In particular, the chemical procedures for eliminating the interferences are also summarized. To date, triple quadrupole ICP-MS (ICP-QQQ) showed great ability for the analysis of these radionuclides and the detection limits were as low as 0.01 pg/mL levels. Finally, some investigations on the

  3. Epiphytic fruticose lichens as biomonitors for retrospective evaluation of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio in Fukushima fallout.

    PubMed

    Ramzaev, V; Barkovsky, A; Gromov, A; Ivanov, S; Kaduka, M

    2014-12-01

    In 2011-2013, sampling of epiphytic fruticose lichens of the genera Usnea, Bryoria and Alectoria was carried out on Sakhalin and Kuril Islands (the Sakhalin region, Russia) to investigate contamination of these organisms with the Fukushima-derived (134)Cs and (137)Cs. Activities of the radionuclides were determined in all 56 samples of lichens taken for the analysis. After correction for radioactive decay (on 15 March 2011), the activity concentrations ranged from 2.1 Bq kg(-1) (d.w.) to 52 Bq kg(-1) for (134)Cs and from 2.3 Bq kg(-1) to 52 Bq kg(-1) for (137)Cs. Cesium-134 and (137)Cs activities for the whole set of lichens (n = 56) were strongly positively correlated; Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated as 0.991 (P < 0.01). The activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in Usnea lichens from the Sakhalin and Kunashir islands declined with a factor of three in the period from 2011 to 2013. The average biological half-time for both cesium radionuclides in lichens of the genus Usnea is estimated as 1.3 y. The mean of 0.99 ± 0.10 and median of 0.99 were calculated for the decay corrected (134)Cs/(137)Cs activities ratios in the lichens (n = 56). The radionuclides ratio in the lichens did not depend on location of sampling site, species and the time that had passed after the Fukushima accident. The regression analysis has shown the background pre-Fukushima level of (137)Cs of 0.4 ± 0.3 Bq kg(-1), whereas the ratio between the Fukushima-borne (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the lichens was estimated as 1.04. The (134)Cs/(137)Cs activities ratio in lichens from the Sakhalin region is consistent with the ratios reported by others for the heavy contaminated areas on Honshu Island in Japan following the Fukushima accident. The activity concentrations of natural (7)Be in lichens from the Sakhalin region varied between 100 Bq kg(-1) and 600 Bq kg(-1); the activity concentrations did not exhibit temporal variations during a 2y

  4. A Comparison of In Vivo Cellular Responses to Cs-137 Gamma Rays And 320-kV X Rays

    PubMed Central

    Scott, B. R.; Gott, K. M.; Potter, C. A.; Wilder, J.

    2013-01-01

    Research reported here relates to comparing the relative effectiveness of 320-kV X rays compared to Cs-137 gamma rays for two in vivo endpoints in C.B-17 mice after whole-body exposure: (1) cytotoxicity to bone marrow cells and splenocytes evaluated at 24-hours post exposure and (2) bone marrow and spleen reconstitution deficits (repopulation shortfalls) evaluated at 6 weeks post exposure. We show that cytotoxicity dose-response relationships for bone marrow cells and splenocytes are complex, involving negative curvature (decreasing slope as dose increases), presumably implicating a mixed cell population comprised of large numbers of hypersensitive, modestly radiosensitive, and resistant cells. The radiosensitive cells appear to respond with 50% being killed by a dose < 0.5 Gy. The X-ray relative biological effectiveness (RBE), relative to gamma rays, for destroying bone marrow cells in vivo is > 1, while for destroying splenocytes it is < 1. In contrast, dose-response relationships for reconstitution deficits in the bone marrow and spleen of C.B-17 mice at 6 weeks after radiation exposure were of the threshold type with gamma rays being more effective in causing reconstitution deficit. PMID:24298223

  5. A Comparison of In Vivo Cellular Responses to Cs-137 Gamma Rays And 320-kV X Rays.

    PubMed

    Scott, B R; Gott, K M; Potter, C A; Wilder, J

    2013-01-01

    Research reported here relates to comparing the relative effectiveness of 320-kV X rays compared to Cs-137 gamma rays for two in vivo endpoints in C.B-17 mice after whole-body exposure: (1) cytotoxicity to bone marrow cells and splenocytes evaluated at 24-hours post exposure and (2) bone marrow and spleen reconstitution deficits (repopulation shortfalls) evaluated at 6 weeks post exposure. We show that cytotoxicity dose-response relationships for bone marrow cells and splenocytes are complex, involving negative curvature (decreasing slope as dose increases), presumably implicating a mixed cell population comprised of large numbers of hypersensitive, modestly radiosensitive, and resistant cells. The radiosensitive cells appear to respond with 50% being killed by a dose < 0.5 Gy. The X-ray relative biological effectiveness (RBE), relative to gamma rays, for destroying bone marrow cells in vivo is > 1, while for destroying splenocytes it is < 1. In contrast, dose-response relationships for reconstitution deficits in the bone marrow and spleen of C.B-17 mice at 6 weeks after radiation exposure were of the threshold type with gamma rays being more effective in causing reconstitution deficit.

  6. Comparison of Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Laser Machined and Milled 304 L Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R. K.; Kumar, Aniruddha; Nagpure, D. C.; Rai, S. K.; Singh, M. K.; Khooha, Ajay; Singh, A. K.; Singh, Amrendra; Tiwari, M. K.; Ganesh, P.; Kaul, R.; Singh, B.

    2016-12-01

    Machining of austenitic stainless steel components is known to introduce significant enhancement in their susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. The paper compares stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of laser machined 304 L stainless steel specimens with conventionally milled counterpart in chloride environment. With respect to conventionally milled specimens, laser machined specimens displayed more than 12 times longer crack initiation time in accelerated stress corrosion cracking test in boiling magnesium chloride as per ASTM G36. Reduced stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of laser machined surface is attributed to its predominantly ferritic duplex microstructure in which anodic ferrite phase was under compressive stress with respect to cathodic austenite.

  7. Measurement of dissolved Cs-137 in stream water, soil water and groundwater at Headwater Forested Catchment in Fukushima after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwagami, Sho; Tsujimura, Maki; Onda, Yuichi; Sakakibara, Koichi; Konuma, Ryohei; Sato, Yutaro

    2016-04-01

    Radiocesium migration from headwater forested catchment is important perception as output from the forest which is also input to the subsequent various land use and downstream rivers after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. In this study, dissolved Cs-137 concentration of stream water, soil water and groundwater were measured. Observations were conducted at headwater catchment in Yamakiya district, located 35 km northwest of FDNPP from April 2014 to November 2015. Stream water discharge was monitored and stream water samples were taken at main channel and sub channel. Stream water discharge was monitored by combination of parshallflume and v-notch weir. Stream water was sampled manually at steady state condition in 3-4 month interval and also intense few hours interval sampling were conducted during rainfall events using automated water sampler. Around the sub channel, it is found that there is a regularly saturated area at the bottom of the slope, temporary saturated area which saturate during the rainy season in summer and regularly dry area. 6 interval cameras were installed to monitor the changing situation of saturated area. Suction lysimeters were installed at three areas (regularly saturated area, temporary saturated area and dry area) for sampling soil water in depth of 0.1 m and 0.3 m. Boreholes were installed at three points along the sub channel. Three boreholes with depth of 3 m, 5 m and 10 m were installed at temporary saturated area, 20 m upstream of sub channel weir. Another three boreholes with depth of 3 m, 5 m and 10 m were installed at dry area, 40 m upstream of sub channel weir. And a borehole with depth of 20 m was installed at ridge of sub catchment, 52 m upstream of sub channel weir. Groundwater was sampled by electrically powered pump and groundwater level was monitored. Also suction-free lysimeter was installed at temporary saturated area for sampling the near surface subsurface water. Soil water samples were collected

  8. Multi-scale levels of Cs-137 contamination of landscapes of the Bryansk Region (with reference to results of air gamma survey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnik, Vitaly; Sokolov, Alexander; Sokolov, Peter

    2017-04-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl accident on April 26, 1986, large amounts of radionuclides were released into the atmosphere, resulting in high contamination in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. High variability of environmental parameters and multi-scale nature of initial fallout significantly contributed to very complicated Cs-137 patterns. The first maps of radioactive contamination due to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, built in May 1986, already identified a heterogeneous nature of the contamination zones [1]. A complex combination of factors, such as the nature of the deposition (dry, wet), various volumetric activity of radionuclides in the atmosphere during the deposition of aerosols on the earth's surface, led to the formation of multiscale fields of radionuclide contamination, where each scale correlates with "pollution spots" having their own specific nature]. Air gamma survey was conducted with a grid 100x100 m and it allowed to reveal different levels of scale "spots" of Cs-137 contamination associated with the movement of polluted air and the influence of the underlying surface - forests, river valleys. Cs-137 contamination field has an extraordinary feature - uniqueness of its spatial structure in different districts of the Bryansk region. A maximal area of "cesium" spots up to 30-50 km in size and with a contamination density of more than 1000 kBq/m2 is observed in the western part of the Bryansk Region. Their spatial structure is extremely heterogeneous, the differences in the local density of Cs-137 contamination being due to those in intensity of precipitation (wet deposition). The central part of the Bryansk Region with the density of contamination below 37 kBq/m2 (up to 3-5 kBq/m2 ) is an example of a condensing zone of "dry" deposition. With a larger scale, allowing individual elements of Cs-137 contamination to be shown in a more distinct way, it is possible to observe the relationship of contamination with a number of landscape

  9. Use of Quantity Indicators for Forecasting of Biogeochemical Behavior Sr-90 and Cs-137 in the Conditions of the Combined Pollution of Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrentyeva, G. V.; Geshel, I. V.

    2012-04-01

    From huge number of the radionuclides generated by anthropogenous activity the major value the group of biologically active radionuclides has. First of all, it Sr-90 and Cs-137 which play an important role in various radiological situations. In researches on studying of laws of behavior in environment Sr -90 and Cs-137 the basic attention was given to studying of influence of their chemical analogs Ca and K, instead of stable isotopes Sr and Cs. However, even low concentration of stable isotopes Sr and Cs in soil can influence on biogeochemical behavior of radionuclides. Objects of research: dernovo-podsolic soil, summer barley of grade, stable and radioactive isotopes Sr, Cs. Schemes of experiments provided entering of 8 doses stable Cs and Sr in the range from 0 to 500-750 mg/kg of air-dry weight of soil and 50 kBq of radionuclides on each frequency. Absorption of radionuclides by plants will be defined by two parametres of transport. The first - factor of transition (TF), which characterises level of regulation of process of carrying over of a radionuclide from soil in plants and depends on distribution of an element between the firm and liquid phase, distribution defined in the factor (Kd). The second parametre - factor of concentrating (CF) which characterises biological level of regulation of this process. The increase in quantity of stable Sr in soil leads to an active desorption Sr-90 in a soil solution on all frequency. Kd of Cs-137 on the general background of which decrease in values some increase in factor in the range of 120-225 mg of Cs/kg of soil is observed. Received Kd of radionuclides will well be co-ordinated with the revealed functional dependences between concentration Cs and Sr in soil and specific activity Cs-137 and Sr-90 in a soil solution. Comparison CF of two radionuclides shows that plants absorb Sr-90 from a soil solution actively, than Cs-137. Thus values CF of Sr-90 in the investigated interval of concentration of a stable isotope are

  10. Hitting the TARGET? A Case Study of the Experiences of Teachers in Steel Mill Learning Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Amy D.; Jeris, Laurel; Smith, Robert

    Part of a larger study on the experience of teaching in the steel mill learning environment was an inquiry focused on professional development. Teachers and coordinators were all members of the Teachers Action Research Group for Educational Technology (TARGET), a group of adult educators interested in improving learning and teaching in career…

  11. Measurement of activity of spent ionizing sources based on Cs-137 and Co-60 placed in well-type storage facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Diordiy, Mikhail N.; Nikolaev, Oleg A.; Karlina, Olga K.; Semenov, Valeriy E.; Barinova, Ella A.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper the method of activity measurement of spent radionuclide sources (SRS) based on Co-60 and Cs- 137 placed in well-type storage facilities, in order to forecast the SRS activity which can be placed at this facility is described. The distribution of the absorbed dose through the absorption material is measured with the help of the described absorption spectrometer. This information allows determining the activity of individual radionuclides with the help of mathematical methods. (authors)

  12. Utilization of (134)Cs/(137)Cs in the environment to identify the reactor units that caused atmospheric releases during the Fukushima Daiichi accident.

    PubMed

    Chino, Masamichi; Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Katata, Genki; Mikami, Satoshi; Torii, Tatsuo; Saito, Kimiaki; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu

    2016-08-22

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power reactor units that generated large amounts of airborne discharges during the period of March 12-21, 2011 were identified individually by analyzing the combination of measured (134)Cs/(137)Cs depositions on ground surfaces and atmospheric transport and deposition simulations. Because the values of (134)Cs/(137)Cs are different in reactor units owing to fuel burnup differences, the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio measured in the environment was used to determine which reactor unit ultimately contaminated a specific area. Atmospheric dispersion model simulations were used for predicting specific areas contaminated by each dominant release. Finally, by comparing the results from both sources, the specific reactor units that yielded the most dominant atmospheric release quantities could be determined. The major source reactor units were Unit 1 in the afternoon of March 12, 2011, Unit 2 during the period from the late night of March 14 to the morning of March 15, 2011. These results corresponded to those assumed in our previous source term estimation studies. Furthermore, new findings suggested that the major source reactors from the evening of March 15, 2011 were Units 2 and 3 and that the dominant source reactor on March 20, 2011 temporally changed from Unit 3 to Unit 2.

  13. Utilization of 134Cs/137Cs in the environment to identify the reactor units that caused atmospheric releases during the Fukushima Daiichi accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chino, Masamichi; Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Katata, Genki; Mikami, Satoshi; Torii, Tatsuo; Saito, Kimiaki; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu

    2016-08-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power reactor units that generated large amounts of airborne discharges during the period of March 12–21, 2011 were identified individually by analyzing the combination of measured 134Cs/137Cs depositions on ground surfaces and atmospheric transport and deposition simulations. Because the values of 134Cs/137Cs are different in reactor units owing to fuel burnup differences, the 134Cs/137Cs ratio measured in the environment was used to determine which reactor unit ultimately contaminated a specific area. Atmospheric dispersion model simulations were used for predicting specific areas contaminated by each dominant release. Finally, by comparing the results from both sources, the specific reactor units that yielded the most dominant atmospheric release quantities could be determined. The major source reactor units were Unit 1 in the afternoon of March 12, 2011, Unit 2 during the period from the late night of March 14 to the morning of March 15, 2011. These results corresponded to those assumed in our previous source term estimation studies. Furthermore, new findings suggested that the major source reactors from the evening of March 15, 2011 were Units 2 and 3 and that the dominant source reactor on March 20, 2011 temporally changed from Unit 3 to Unit 2.

  14. Pre-assessment of dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co for marine biota from discharge of Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Senlin; Zhang, Yongxing; Chen, Ling; Yan, Yuan; Cheng, Weiya; Lou, Hailin; Zhang, Yongbao

    2015-09-01

    Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant to be built in China was selected as a case for the dose pre-assessment for marine biota in this study. The concentrations of Cs and Co in organisms (turbot, yellow croaker, swimming crab, abalone, sea cucumber, and sea lettuce), seawater, and bottom sediment sampled on-site were measured by neutron activation analysis, and the site-specific transfer parameters (concentration ratios and distribution coefficients) of Cs and Co were calculated. (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co activity concentrations in the organisms and the sediment at the site were calculated with the site-specific transfer parameters and the anticipated activity concentrations in the liquid effluent of the nuclear power plant. The ERICA tool was used to estimate the dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co to the selected organisms based on the biological models developed. The total dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co to the six organisms were all <0.001 μGy h(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Utilization of 134Cs/137Cs in the environment to identify the reactor units that caused atmospheric releases during the Fukushima Daiichi accident

    PubMed Central

    Chino, Masamichi; Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Katata, Genki; Mikami, Satoshi; Torii, Tatsuo; Saito, Kimiaki; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power reactor units that generated large amounts of airborne discharges during the period of March 12–21, 2011 were identified individually by analyzing the combination of measured 134Cs/137Cs depositions on ground surfaces and atmospheric transport and deposition simulations. Because the values of 134Cs/137Cs are different in reactor units owing to fuel burnup differences, the 134Cs/137Cs ratio measured in the environment was used to determine which reactor unit ultimately contaminated a specific area. Atmospheric dispersion model simulations were used for predicting specific areas contaminated by each dominant release. Finally, by comparing the results from both sources, the specific reactor units that yielded the most dominant atmospheric release quantities could be determined. The major source reactor units were Unit 1 in the afternoon of March 12, 2011, Unit 2 during the period from the late night of March 14 to the morning of March 15, 2011. These results corresponded to those assumed in our previous source term estimation studies. Furthermore, new findings suggested that the major source reactors from the evening of March 15, 2011 were Units 2 and 3 and that the dominant source reactor on March 20, 2011 temporally changed from Unit 3 to Unit 2. PMID:27546490

  16. Estimation of total released amount of Cs-137 and Cs-134 derived from TEPCO-FNPP1 accident into the North Pacific Ocean by using optimal interpolation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Tsumune, Daisuke; Hirose, Katsumi

    2015-04-01

    The oceanic distribution of Cs-137 and Cs-134 released from the Tokyo Electric Power Company-Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (TEPCO-FNPP1) accident were investigated by using the optimal interpolation (OI) analysis. The two domains (open ocean, >141.5°E; coastal region near the TEPCO-FNPP1, <141.5°E) were set to the OI analysis. During the period from end of March to early of April 2011, extremely high activities of Cs-137 and Cs-134 in seawater were concentrated along the coast near the TEPCO-FNPP1. The high activities area spread to the region of 165°E with a latitudinal center of 40°N in the western North Pacific Ocean. Atmospheric deposition is also cause to high activities in the region between 180° and 130° W in the North Pacific Ocean. The total inventory of FNPP1-released Cs-134 in the North Pacific Ocean is estimated to be 15.2±1.8 PBq. In these, about half (8.3±1.8 PBq) of the total released Cs-134 amount existed in the coastal region near the TEPCO-FNPP1. It appeared that the total OICs134 inventory, which is defined as a total Cs-134 inventory in the coastal area near the TEPCO-FNPP1, is controlled by direct release, atmospheric deposition, and coastal current system. Leak of stagnant water induced by heavy rainfall would also cause the increase of the total OICs134 inventory. After the direct discharge of the contaminated water ceased on 6 April, 2011, the total OICs134 inventory exponentially with a half-time of 4.2±0.5 days and became to about 2.0±0.4 PBq at the middle of May 2011. Considering that the Cs-134/Cs-137 activity ratios for the FNPP1 accident were very close to one (0.99±0.03) and extremely uniform during the first month, the total amount of Cs-137 released by the TEPCO-FNPP1 accident reached to 20% of a current North Pacific inventory (60 PBq, Aoyama et al., 2012) of bomb-derived Cs-137 injected in the 1950s and early 1960s.

  17. Respiratory disease associated with community air pollution and a steel mill, Utah Valley.

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C A

    1989-01-01

    This study assessed the association between hospital admissions and fine particulate pollution (PM10) in Utah Valley during the period April 1985-February 1988. This time period included the closure and reopening of the local steel mill, the primary source of PM10. An association between elevated PM10 levels and hospital admissions for pneumonia, pleurisy, bronchitis, and asthma was observed. During months when 24-hour PM10 levels exceeded 150 micrograms/m3, average admissions for children nearly tripled; in adults, the increase in admissions was 44 per cent. During months with mean PM10 levels greater than or equal to 50 micrograms/m3 average admissions for children and adults increased by 89 and 47 per cent, respectively. During the winter months when the steel mill was open, PM10 levels were nearly double the levels experienced during the winter months when the mill was closed. This occurred even though relatively stagnant air was experienced during the winter the mill was closed. Children's admissions were two to three times higher during the winters when the mill was open compared to when it was closed. Regression analysis also revealed that PM10 levels were strongly correlated with hospital admissions. They were more strongly correlated with children's admissions than with adult admissions and were more strongly correlated with admissions for bronchitis and asthma than with admissions for pneumonia and pleurisy. PMID:2495741

  18. Applications of Optical Image Processing Technique for Steel Mill Non-contacting Conveyance System Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-Tsung; Yang, Yung-Yi; Lin, Sheng-Yang

    This paper is aimed to present the design and feasibility investigations of adopting the available on-site optical inspection system, which is commonly used for steel plate dimension measurement, to supply on-line dynamic gap measurements of a non-contacting conveyance structure in a steel mill. Adequate software and hardware implementations based on digital image processing techniques have been adapted to the entire system formulations and estimations. Results show that the system can supply accurate and rapid gap measurements and thus can fulfill the design and operational objectives.

  19. Preparation Model Based Control System For Hot Steel Strip Rolling Mill Stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouazza, S. E.; Abbassi, H. A.; Moussaoui, A. K.

    2008-06-01

    As part of a research project on El-hadjar Hot Steel Rolling Mill Plant Annaba Algeria a new Model based control system is suggested to improve the performance of the hot strip rolling mill process. In this paper off-line model based controllers and a process simulator are described. The process models are based on the laws of physics. these models can predict the future behavior and the stability of the controlled process very reliably. The control scheme consists of a control algorithm. This Model based Control system is evaluated on a simulation model that represents accurately the dynamic of the process. Finally the usefulness to the Steel Industry of the suggested method is highlighted.

  20. Surface roughness analysis of hardened steel after high-speed milling.

    PubMed

    Twardowski, Paweł; Wojciechowski, Szymon; Wieczorowski, Michał; Mathia, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The work refers to analysis of various factors affecting surface roughness after end milling of hardened steel in high-speed milling (HSM) conditions. Investigations of milling parameters (cutting speed v(c) , axial depth of cut a(p) ) and the process dynamics that influence machined surface roughness were presented, and a surface roughness model, including cutter displacements, was elaborated. The work also involved analysis of surface profile charts from the point of view of vibrations and cutting force components. The research showed that theoretic surface roughness resulting from the kinematic-geometric projection of cutting edge in the workpiece is significantly different from the reality. The dominant factor in the research was not feed per tooth f(z) (according to the theoretical model) but dynamical phenomena and feed per revolution f.

  1. Corrosivity of paper mill effluent and corrosion performance of stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Ram, Chhotu; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, A K

    2015-01-01

    Present study relates to the corrosivity of paper mill effluent and corrosion performance of stainless steel (SS) as a construction material for the effluent treatment plant (ETP). Accordingly, immersion test and electrochemical polarization tests were performed on SS 304 L, 316 L and duplex 2205 in paper mill effluent and synthetic effluent. This paper presents electrochemical polarization measurements, performed for the first time to the best of the authors' information, to see the influence of chlorophenols on the corrosivity of effluents. The corrosivity of the effluent was observed to increase with the decrease in pH and increase in Cl- content while the addition of SO4- tends to inhibit corrosion. Mill effluent was found to be more corrosive as compared to synthetic effluent and has been attributed to the presence of various chlorophenols. Corrosion performance of SS was observed to govern by the presence of Cr, Mo and N contents.

  2. Effects Of Milling On Surface Integrity Of Low-Carbon Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, Alessandro Roger; Matsumoto, Hidekasu; Yamakami, Wyser Jose; Tokimatsu, Ruis Camargo; Menezes, Miguel Angelo; Suyama, Daniel Iwao; Norcino, Adriana Bruno; Vendrame, Saimon

    2011-01-17

    This work measured the effect of milling parameters on the surface integrity of low-carbon alloy steel. The Variance Analysis showed that only depth of cut did not influence on the workpiece roughness and the Pearson's Coefficient indicated that cutting speed was more influent than tool feed. All cutting parameters introduced tensile residual stress in workpiece surface. The chip formation mechanism depended specially on cutting speed and influenced on the roughness and residual stress of workpiece.

  3. Procedures for precise measurements of (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios in environmental samples at extreme dynamic ranges and ultra-trace levels by thermal ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dunne, James A; Richards, David A; Chen, Hsin-Wei

    2017-11-01

    Determination of (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios has the potential to be a powerful tool for nuclear forensics and monitoring environmental processes. We present optimized chemical separation techniques and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) protocols to obtain precise (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios for a range of environmental sample types. We use a combination of double AMP-PAN separation and Sr-spec resin column purification to yield excellent separation from the alkali metals (Rb separation factor > 600), which normally suppress ionization of Cs. A range of emission activators for the ionization of Cs were evaluated and glucose solution yielded the optimal combination of a stable Cs(+) beam, minimal low-temperature polyatomic interferences and improved ionization efficiency. Mass-spectrometric determination of low abundance (135)Cs and (137)Cs is compromised by the presence of a very large (133)Cs(+) beam, which may be scattered and cause significant spectral interferences. These are explored using multi-static Faraday cup - ion counter methods and a range of energy filter settings. The method is evaluated using environmental samples and standards from regions affected by fallout from Chernobyl (IAEA-330) and Fukushima nuclear disasters. Where the intensity of (133)Cs(+) is large relative to (135)Cs(+) and (137)Cs(+) (< 30cps), minor polyatomic interferences need to be considered. In the absence of a standard with (135, 137)Cs/(133)Cs < 1 × 10(-8), we explored the reproducibility of (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios at these high dynamic ranges and extremely low abundance ((137)Cs ≈ 12 fg g(-1)) for sediments from an estuarine setting in SW England, UK. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioaccumulation of the artificial Cs-137 and the natural radionuclides Th-234, Ra-226, and K-40 in the fruit bodies of Basidiomycetes in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kioupi, Vasiliki; Florou, Heleny; Kapsanaki-Gotsi, Evangelia; Gonou-Zagou, Zacharoula

    2016-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of artificial Cs-137 and natural radionuclides Th-234, Ra-226, and K-40 by Basidiomycetes of several species is studied and evaluated in relation to their substratum soils. For this reason, 32 fungal samples, representing 30 species of Basidiomycetes, were collected along with their substratum soil samples, from six selected sampling areas in Greece. The fungal fruit bodies and the soil samples were properly treated and the activity concentrations of the studied radionuclides were measured by gamma spectroscopy. The measured radioactivity levels ranged as follows: Cs-137 from <0.1 to 87.2 ± 0.4 Bq kg(-1) fresh weight (F.W.), Th-234 from <0.5 ± 0.9 to 28.3 ± 25.5 Bq kg(-1) F.W., Ra-226 from <0.3 to 1.0 ± 0.5 Bq kg(-1) F.W., and K-40 from 56.4 ± 3.0 to 759.0 ± 28.3 Bq kg(-1) F.W. The analysis of the results supported that the bioaccumulation of the studied natural radionuclides and Cs-137 is dependent on the species and the functional group of the fungi. Fungi were found to accumulate Th-234 and not U-238. What is more, potential bioindicators for each radionuclide among the 32 species studied could be suggested for each habitat, based on their estimated concentration ratios (CRs). The calculation of the CRs' mean values for each radionuclide revealed a rank in decreasing order for all the species studied.

  5. Development of nano-structured duplex and ferritic stainless steels by pulverisette planetary milling followed by pressureless sintering

    SciTech Connect

    R, Shashanka Chaira, D.

    2015-01-15

    Nano-structured duplex and ferritic stainless steel powders are prepared by planetary milling of elemental Fe, Cr and Ni powder for 40 h and then consolidated by conventional pressureless sintering. The progress of milling and the continuous refinement of stainless steel powders have been confirmed by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Activation energy for the formation of duplex and ferritic stainless steels is calculated by Kissinger method using differential scanning calorimetry and is found to be 159.24 and 90.17 KJ/mol respectively. Both duplex and ferritic stainless steel powders are consolidated at 1000, 1200 and 1400 °C in argon atmosphere to study microstructure, density and hardness. Maximum sintered density of 90% and Vickers microhardness of 550 HV are achieved for duplex stainless steel sintered at 1400 °C for 1 h. Similarly, 92% sintered density and 263 HV microhardness are achieved for ferritic stainless steel sintered at 1400 °C. - Highlights: • Synthesized duplex and ferritic stainless steels by pulverisette planetary milling • Calculated activation energy for the formation of duplex and ferritic stainless steels • Studied the effect of sintering temperature on density, hardness and microstructure • Duplex stainless steel exhibits 90% sintered density and microhardness of 550 HV. • Ferritic stainless steel shows 92% sintered density and 263 HV microhardness.

  6. Distribution of the 134Cs/137Cs ratio around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant using an unmanned helicopter radiation monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, T.; Nishizawa, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Many radioactive substances were released by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident occurred on March 11, 2011 in the atmosphere. A lot of short half-life nuclides which are 131I, 132Te (132I) and 133I, etc., in addition to longer half-lived nuclides such as 134Cs and 137Cs. The estimated release amount of these nuclides from the reactor 1st to 3rd unit is reported, but it's found to be quite different in the short half-lived nuclides by the reactor units. Because the radioactivity ratio of 134Cs and 137Cs was slight different between the reactor units, it can be considered that the valuable source is obtained by the measurement of 134Cs/137Cs ratio in the environment around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station at the present stage when the nuclides with short half-lives had already decayed. We have measured high-resolution gamma-ray spectrum using an unmanned helicopter equipped with LaBr3(Ce) detector in a 3-km range from the power station which was near to the release source of the radioactive cesium. Because the LaBr3(Ce) detector has high resolution of gamma rays, the discrimination of many nuclides is possible. In addition, there is extremely much number of the data provided by the distribution measurement with the unmanned helicopter. Because a new map was illustrated by the analysis of the 134Cs/137Cs ratio, we report the outline.

  7. Control method for steel strip roughness in Two-stand temper mill rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Qingdong; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yu, Meng; Wang, Bo

    2015-05-01

    How to control surface roughness of steel strip in a narrow range for a long time has become an important question because surface roughness would significantly influence the appearance of the products. However, there are few effective solutions to solve the problem currently. In this paper, considering both asperities of work roll pressing in and squeezing the steel strip, two asperity contact models including squeezing model and pressing in model in a two-stand temper mill rolling are established by using finite element method (FEM). The simulation investigates the influences of multiple process parameters, such as work roll surface roughness, roll radius and roll force on the surface roughness of steel strip. The simulation results indicate that work rolls surface roughness and roll force play important roles in the products; furthermore, the effect of roll force in the first stand is opposite to the second. According to the analysis, a control method for steel strip surface roughness in a narrow range for a long time is proposed, which applies higher work roll roughness in the first stand and lower roll roughness in the second to make the steel strip roughness in a required narrow range. In the later stage of the production, decreasing the roll force in the first stand and increasing the roll force in the second stand guarantee the steel strip roughness relatively stable in a long time. The following experimental measurements on the surface topography and roughness of the steel strips during the whole process are also conducted. The results validate the simulation conclusions and prove the effect of the control method. The application of the proposed method in the steel strip production shows excellent performance including long service life of work roll and high finished product rate.

  8. A Study of Chip Formation Feedrates of Various Steels in Low-Speed Milling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyo, L.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Rusnaldy

    2017-05-01

    Milling is a process of metal removal by feeding the workpiece a rotating multitoothed cutter. The objective of the study was to investigate the chip characteristics (chip length, width, and thickness) during the milling process by varying the feedrates and the types of materials used based on an experimental approach. The chosen materials were AISI 1020, AISI 1045, AISI 1090, AISI D2, and AISI 4340 with a high-speed steel (HSS) as a cutter. In this work, the feedrates were varied of 5, 10, and 15 mm/minutes with the depth of cut of 0.5 mm and a low spindle speed of 70 rpm. The results show that, in general, increasing the feedrate will lead to the growth of chip length, width, and thickness for all types of materials used. Also, related to the chip shape, AISI 1020 produces the discontinuous chip which can be related to its hardness value.

  9. Regular patterns of Cs-137 distribution in natural conjugated elementary landscapes as a result of a balanced surface and depth water migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Distribution of artificial radionuclides in the environment has long been used successfully for revealing migration pathways of their stable analogues. Migration of water in natural conjugated elementary landscapes characterizing the system of top-slope-resulting depression, has a specific structure and the radionuclide tracer is inevitably reflecting it by specific sorption and exchange processes. Other important issues are the concentration levels and the difference in characteristic time of chemical element dispersion. Modern biosphere has acquired its sustainable structure within a long period of time and is formed by basic macroelements allowing the water soluble portion of elements functioning as activators of chemical exchange. Water migration is controlled by gravitation, climate and relief while fixation depends upon the parameters of surfaces and chemical composition. The resulting structure depends on specificity and duration of the process. The long-term redistribution of chemical elements in terrestrial environment has led to a distinct geochemical structure of conjugated landscapes with a specific geometry of redistribution and accumulation of chemical elements. Migration of the newly born anthropogenic radionuclides followed natural pathways in biosphere. The initial deposition of the Chernobyl's radionuclides within the elementary landscape-geochemical system was even by condition of aerial deposition. But further exchange process is controlled by the strength of fixation and migration ability of the carriers. Therefore patterns of spatial distribution of artificial radionuclides in natural landscapes are considerably different as compared to those of the long-term forming the basic structure of chemical fields in biosphere. Our monitoring of Cs-137 radial and lateral distribution in the test plots characterizing natural undisturbed conjugated elementary landscapes performed in the period from 2005 until now has revealed a stable and specifically

  10. Relevance and use of the Ag-110m: Cs-137 activity ratio for tracking the dispersion of radioactive sediment within Fukushima coastal catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepage, Hugo; Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Chartin, Caroline; Lefèvre, Irène; Bonté, Philippe; Ayrault, Sophie

    2014-05-01

    Large quantities of fallout radionuclides emitted during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident were deposited on Japanese soils, thereby leading to the formation of a 3000 km² contamination plume. Because they are strongly sorbed by fine particles, those radionuclides are likely to be redistributed by hydrosedimentary processes across catchments. As Ag-110m: Cs-137 activity ratio showed a variation in soils across the main plume, we investigated the behaviour of Silver-110 metastable (Ag-110m) and compared it to the one of the more documented radiocesium (Cs-137) to check whether this ratio may be used to track the dispersion of contaminated sediment. We analysed soil and sediment drape deposits (i.e., mud drapes deposited on channel bed sand in rivers) collected in Nov 2011, April 2012, Nov 2012 and May 2013 within coastal catchments draining the main radioactive pollution plume of Fukushima Prefecture (Japan). Several field experiments were also conducted to document radiosilver behaviour in the terrestrial environment. Results show a similar and low mobility for both elements in soils and a strong affinity with the clay fraction. Measurements conducted on sediment sequences accumulated in reservoirs tend to confirm a comparable migration and deposition of both radionuclides even after their redistribution due to erosion and deposition processes. Use of a simple mixing model based on Ag-110m: Cs-137 activity ratio values in both soil and sediment demonstrated the strong reactivity of catchments to the succession of summer typhoons and spring snowmelt. We identified a two stage sediment export cycle with (1) a partial export of contaminated sediment from inland mountain ranges - exposed initially to the highest radionuclide fallout - to the coastal plains in summer and autumn after the occurrence of violent typhoons, and (2) an amplification of the sediment flush during the spring snowmelt. Our results suggest that this contamination export

  11. Experimental Design and Data collection of a finishing end milling operation of AISI 1045 steel

    PubMed Central

    Dias Lopes, Luiz Gustavo; de Brito, Tarcísio Gonçalves; de Paiva, Anderson Paulo; Peruchi, Rogério Santana; Balestrassi, Pedro Paulo

    2016-01-01

    In this Data in Brief paper, a central composite experimental design was planned to collect the surface roughness of an end milling operation of AISI 1045 steel. The surface roughness values are supposed to suffer some kind of variation due to the action of several factors. The main objective here was to present a multivariate experimental design and data collection including control factors, noise factors, and two correlated responses, capable of achieving a reduced surface roughness with minimal variance. Lopes et al. (2016) [1], for example, explores the influence of noise factors on the process performance. PMID:26909374

  12. Structural and microstructural changes in monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} during the ball-milling with stainless steel assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanic, G. . E-mail: stefanic@irb.hr; Music, S.; Gajovic, A.

    2006-04-13

    High-energy ball-milling of monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} was performed in air using the planetary ball mill with a stainless steel milling assembly. Structural and microstructural changes during the ball-milling were monitored using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The results of line broadening analysis indicated a decrease in the crystallite size and an increase in the microstrains with the ball-milling time increased up to {approx}150 min. The results of quantitative phase analysis indicated the presence of a very small amount of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} phase in this early stage of ball-milling. The onset of m-ZrO{sub 2} {sup {yields}} t-ZrO{sub 2} transition occurred between 10 and 15 h of ball-milling, which resulted in a complete transition after 20 h of ball-milling. Further ball-milling caused a decrease of the t-ZrO{sub 2} lattice parameters followed by a probable transition into c-ZrO{sub 2}. It was concluded that the stabilization of t- and c-ZrO{sub 2} polymorphs at RT can be attributed to the incorporation of aliovalent cations (Fe{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+}) introduced into the sample due to the wear and oxidation of the milling media.

  13. Carbon recovery by fermentation of CO-rich off gases - Turning steel mills into biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Molitor, Bastian; Richter, Hanno; Martin, Michael E; Jensen, Rasmus O; Juminaga, Alex; Mihalcea, Christophe; Angenent, Largus T

    2016-09-01

    Technological solutions to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from anthropogenic sources are required. Heavy industrial processes, such as steel making, contribute considerably to GHG emissions. Fermentation of carbon monoxide (CO)-rich off gases with wild-type acetogenic bacteria can be used to produce ethanol, acetate, and 2,3-butanediol, thereby, reducing the carbon footprint of heavy industries. Here, the processes for the production of ethanol from CO-rich off gases are discussed and a perspective on further routes towards an integrated biorefinery at a steel mill is given. Recent achievements in genetic engineering as well as integration of other biotechnology platforms to increase the product portfolio are summarized. Already, yields have been increased and the portfolio of products broadened. To develop a commercially viable process, however, the extraction from dilute product streams is a critical step and alternatives to distillation are discussed. Finally, another critical step is waste(water) treatment with the possibility to recover resources.

  14. The Natural Enrichment of Stable Cesium in Weathered Micaceous Materials at the Savannah River Site, SC, and Its Implications for Cs-137 Sorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaunbrecher, L. K.; Elliott, W.; Perdrial, N.; Wampler, M.; Krogstad, E. J.; Bargar, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) on the Atlantic Coastal Plain in southwestern South Carolina is the focus of an extensive remediation project. The radioactive nuclide Cs-137 is a well-known, long-lived fission product of which large amounts have been produced, stored, and handled in US Department of Energy facilities over the past half century. Documenting the mobility of Cs-137 and its sorption by geologic materials is essential to predict long-term behavior of Cs-137 migrating from contaminated sites such as the SRS. Three uncontaminated (Cs-137 free) soil cores collected from the SRS which were used to study the uptake of Cs and other alkali metals by the SRS soils. Each core presents unique soil forming processes: Core 1-"Fuquay," a thick soil with developed horizons formed on a nearly level plateau in the Upland soil region of SRS, Core 2-"FQTRS," a young soil formed on the SRS Tobacco Road Sand, and Core 3-"FQQAL," an azonal soil formed on quaternary alluvium deposits. Stable Cs is significantly enriched with respect to K in all three soil cores and more so in Core 1 and Core 2 (Fuquay and FQTRS) relative to Core 3 (FQQAL, azonal soil). This enrichment is suspected to affect the soils' ability to sorb and retain radiocesium in contaminated areas at SRS. The enrichment may be explained by variations in the mineralogy among the cores. To test that hypothesis, each section of the cores were examined for (1) mineralogical characterization of the clay fraction, (2) natural cesium concentration, and (3) variations of the clay content. Characterization and quantification of the mineralogy of the cores revealed that significant amounts of Al-hydroxy interlayered vermiculite (HIV), with as much as 27% of 14 Å phase quantified in the clay fraction of the Fuquay core. The other minerals in the clay fraction of the Fuquay core are kaolinite and quartz, with trace amounts of gibbsite. The same minerals are present in Cores 2 and 3 along with small amounts of illite, with

  15. Estimation of erosion and sediment export from an agricultural catchment (1960 - 2000) confronting the outputs of an expert-based model and Cs-137 inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, Olivier; Nord, Guillaume; Cerdan, Olivier; Souchère, Véronique; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Bonté, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Soil erosion leads to important environmental problems (e.g. muddy floods, reservoir sedimentation) in cultivated areas of the European loess belt. This study aimed to quantify erosion and to determine the impact of rainfall seasonality and land use change on soil erosion over the last 40 years in a 94-ha cultivated catchment of Normandy (France). To this end, scenarios representative of the different land use conditions were simulated using the STREAM expert-based erosion model. A 13-yrs long sequence of rainfall events was run with this model. Results showed that erosion increased dramatically after land consolidation (+168% on average). Interannual variability of erosion is important. After land consolidation, 79% of erosion was observed in summer and autumn, even though these seasons only accounted for 58% of annual rainfall kinetic energy. The bulk of erosion was hence produced by a few intense thunderstorms during this period. Thunderstorms correspond to 5% of rainfall events, but they generate 51% of total annual erosion after land consolidation (and up to 57% of erosion before land consolidation). Confrontation of the model outputs with the erosion rates derived from Cs-137 measurements suggested that soil redistribution within the catchment was very high but that sediment exports from the catchment remained limited (sediment delivery ratio between 1 - 10%). Erosion rates derived from Cs-137 measurements showed an important and organised spatial variability, but erosion rates integrated over larger areas remained in the same order of magnitude than those simulated by the model or were slightly higher. Water erosion would hence not be the only process generating erosion within this catchment. In this context, tillage erosion cannot be neglected to calculate the sediment budget over several decades. These findings show the necessity to simulate sequences of rainfall events to obtain reliable erosion predictions. They also demonstrate the interest of

  16. High resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization of a milled oxide dispersion strengthened steel powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyer-Prost, M.; Merot, J.-S.; Ribis, J.; Le Bouar, Y.; Chaffron, L.; Legendre, F.

    2016-10-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels are promising materials for generation IV fuel claddings as their dense nano-oxide dispersion provides good creep and irradiation resistance. Even if they have been studied for years, the formation mechanism of these nano-oxides is still unclear. Here we report for the first time a High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization of an ODS milled powder. It provides clear evidence of the presence of small crystalline nanoclusters (NCs) enriched in titanium directly after milling. Small NCs (<5 nm) have a crystalline structure and seem partly coherent with the matrix. They have an interplanar spacing close to the (011) bcc iron structure. They coexist with larger crystalline spherical precipitates of 15-20 nm in size. Their crystalline structure may be metastable as they are not consistent with any Y-Ti-O or Ti-O structure. Such detailed observations in the as-milled grain powder confirm a mechanism of Y, Ti, O dissolution in the ferritic matrix followed by a NC precipitation during the mechanical alloying process of ODS materials.

  17. Investigations on Surface Milling of Hardened AISI 4140 Steel with Pulse Jet MQL Applicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Mahmood Al; Mia, Mozammel; Dhar, Nikhil Ranjan

    2016-06-01

    In this article, an experimental investigation was performed in milling hardened AISI 4140 steel of hardness 40 HRC. The machining was performed in both dry and minimal quantity lubricant (MQL) conditions, as part of neat machining, to make a strong comparison of the undertaken machining environments. The MQL was impinged int the form of pulse jet, by using the specially developed pulse-jet-attachment, to ensure that the cutting fluid can be applied in different timed pulses and quantities at critical zones. The tool wear, cutting force and surface roughness were taken as the quality responses while cutting speed, table feed rate and flow rate of the pulse were considered as influential factors. The depth of cut was kept constant at 1.50 mm because of its less significant effects and the straight oil was adopted as cutting fluid in pulse-jet-MQL. The effects of different factors, on the quality responses, are analyzed using ANOVA. It is observed that MQL applicator system exhibits overall better performance when compared to dry milling by reducing surface roughness, cutting force and prolonging tool life but a flow rate of 150 ml/h has tremendous effects on the responses. This investigation and afterward results are expected to aid the industrial practitioner and researcher to adopt the pulse-MQL in high speed milling to prolong tool life, reduce tool wear, diminish cutting force generation and promote better surface finish.

  18. Recovery of Zinc and Iron from Steel Mill Dusts by the use of a TBRC: A possible Mini-mill Solution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antrekowitsch, Jürgen; Schneeberger, Gerald

    The search for an effective mini-mill solution to treat zinc containing residues from steel industry or also cupola furnaces has a long history but has not been very successful yet due to several reasons. Some of them are: Not available technologies, the not well known and not developed product market by the steel producers, still relatively low treatment charges for the landfilling and no effective solution for an additional iron recovery. The present paper describes a process where in two subsequent steps by the use of a Top Blown Rotary Converter technology a simultaneous recovery of zinc, iron and other valuable metals should be possible. Investigations which were done in an advanced technical scale gave satisfying results. These data allowed the calculation of a mass- and energy balance. First economic considerations underline that with such a concept a feasible mini-mill solution could be established for the mentioned residues.

  19. Weirton Steel: Mill Identifies $1.4 Million in Annual Savings Following Plant-Wide Energy-Efficiency Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2004-01-01

    The Weirton Steel Corporation performed a plant-wide energy assessment of its steel mill plant in Weirton, West Virginia. Based on the assessment results, the company found strong economic justification for six projects that would reduce the use of fossil fuel, electrical energy, and water. All of the projects would save fossil fuel either for heating steam or firing the furnace. This savings totals 108,300 million British thermal units (MMBtu) annually or $1.27 million. Other yearly savings include 119 million gallons of water ($87,110) and 84,000 kilowatt-hours (kWh) or $3,357 of electrical energy. All of the projects could be applied to other steel mills and possibly other industries using steam processes and furnaces.

  20. Sediment fingerprinting by using the Ag-110m: Cs-137 ratio along the main rivers draining the Fukushima radioactive pollution plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartin, Caroline; Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie; Lepage, Hugo; Bonté, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    During the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, large quantities of radionuclides were released into the environment between 12 and 19 March 2011. Even though about 80% of these emissions were transported offshore and out over the Pacific Ocean, 20% were deposited as wet and dry deposits on soils of Fukushima Prefecture on 15-16 March. In particular, 6.4 PBq of Cs-137 were modeled to have deposited on Japanese soils over a distance of 70 km to the northwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. As most radionuclides are strongly sorbed by fine particles, and their mineralogical clay and organic matter fractions, they are likely to be redistributed within the landscape in association with soil and sediment particles transported by erosion processes and runoff. Based on a spatial analysis of the gamma-emitting radionuclides present in the environment respectively eight and thirteen months after the accident, we aim to provide a radioactive tracer to investigate the temporal evolution of the contaminant dispersion across Fukushima Prefecture. For this purpose, sediments were collected along rivers draining the main contamination plume in Fukushima Prefecture (i.e, Rivers Kutchibuto, Mano, Nitta and Ota) in November 2011 and April 2012.These campaigns directly followed the main hydro-sedimentary events that occurred in this region, i.e., the typhoon season (July and September-October) and the snowmelt (March 2012). The river sediment activities in gamma-emitting radionuclides were then compared to the initial activities measured in soils provided by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology (MEXT). The initial fallout patterns in 110mAg appeared to differ from those of the main contamination plume defined mainly by radiocaesium fallout (i.e., Cs-134+137). The Ag-110m:Cs-137 ratio was then used to trace the spatial origin of contaminated sediment collected in rivers. Sediments collected within the coastal

  1. Mechanism of Oxidation of Austenitic Stainless Steels under Conditions of Hot Rolling in Steckel Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobo, S. J.; Palmiere, E. J.; Rainforth, W. M.

    2008-10-01

    The development of oxide scales on hot-rolled austenitic stainless steels under conditions imposed by the industrial Steckel Mill operation introduces particular characteristics that impact downstream on the surface quality of the hot-rolled strip product. In this research, the development of these particular surface structures were studied on 302 austenitic stainless steel by means of laboratory process simulation involving mechanical deformation in a multipass hot rolling schedule and long interpass time inside equalizing furnaces. Surface analysis using a set of complementary techniques that included field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and glow discharge optical spectroscopy (GDOS) provided a full characterization of the resulting surface structures. These structures consisted in multiple oxide scale and metal layers that were developed after each rolling pass and heavily modified by the following rolling operation establishing a single repetitive mechanism of surface development. The mechanism of formation of these complex multilayer surface structures has been fully determined as being associated with a cyclic oxidation pattern involving successive stages of protective oxidation, chemical breakaway, and the progress of duplex oxidation.

  2. Determination of concentration factors for Cs-137 and Ra-226 in the mullet species Chelon labrosus (Mugilidae) from the South Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Antovic, Ivanka; Antovic, Nevenka M

    2011-07-01

    Concentration factors for Cs-137 and Ra-226 transfer from seawater, and dried sediment or mud with detritus, have been determined for whole, fresh weight, Chelon labrosus individuals and selected organs. Cesium was detected in 5 of 22 fish individuals, and its activity ranged from 1.0 to 1.6 Bq kg(-1). Radium was detected in all fish, and ranged from 0.4 to 2.1 Bq kg(-1), with an arithmetic mean of 1.0 Bq kg(-1). In regards to fish organs, cesium activity concentration was highest in muscles (maximum - 3.7 Bq kg(-1)), while radium was highest in skeletons (maximum - 25 Bq kg(-1)). Among cesium concentration factors, those for muscles were the highest (from seawater - an average of 47, from sediment - an average of 3.3, from mud with detritus - an average of 0.8). Radium concentration factors were the highest for skeleton (from seawater - an average of 130, from sediment - an average of 1.8, from mud with detritus - an average of 1.5). Additionally, annual intake of cesium and radium by human adults consuming muscles of this fish species has been estimated to provide, in aggregate, an effective dose of about 4.1 μSv y(-1). 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An experimental study of flank wear in the end milling of AISI 316 stainless steel with coated carbide inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odedeyi, P. B.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.; Liman, M.

    2017-05-01

    Stainless steel 316 is a difficult-to-machine iron-based alloys that contain minimum of about 12% of chromium commonly used in marine and aerospace industry. This paper presents an experimental study of the tool wear propagation variations in the end milling of stainless steel 316 with coated carbide inserts. The milling tests were conducted at three different cutting speeds while feed rate and depth of cut were at (0.02, 0.06 and 01) mm/rev and (1, 2 and 3) mm, respectively. The cutting tool used was TiAlN-PVD-multi-layered coated carbides. The effects of cutting speed, cutting tool coating top layer and workpiece material were investigated on the tool life. The results showed that cutting speed significantly affected the machined flank wears values. With increasing cutting speed, the flank wear values decreased. The experimental results showed that significant flank wear was the major and predominant failure mode affecting the tool life.

  4. Seasonal and regional contributors of 1-hydroxypyrene among children near a steel mill.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Ho; Paek, Domyung

    2009-01-01

    Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Effect of residence on children's PAH exposure was reported among children living near a polluted area. Instead of a snapshot assessment, however, a temporal history of exposure characteristics needs to be assessed in the studies of chronic disease development such as cancer. The urinary 1-OHP measurements were repeated to determine regional effect of ambient air pollution on 1-OHP levels over extended periods. Two sites were chosen: (a) one site located near the steel mill ("nearby" site) and (b) the other site located at a longer distance from the mill ("remote" site). Spot urinary 1-OHP levels were measured from 72 children for 3 consecutive days per month, repeated over 9-month period. Compared with remote site, the nearby site had increased the urinary 1-OHP level by 62.3% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 39.8-88.3%]. Other statistically significant factors that contributed to the level include sex [16.5% (95% CI, 1.2-34.1%) higher for girls than boys], consumption of charbroiled meat [16.5% (95% CI, 1.1-34.2%) higher], and an increase in PM(10) [10.1% (95% CI, 4.8-15.7%) higher for the interquartile range increment]. Controlling for covariates, the 1-OHP levels were increased in the summer and fall compared with winter. The magnitude of the effects of both seasons had diminished after adjusting for PM(10). This is the first report providing seasonal and regional contributors to environmental PAH exposure, assessed by urinary 1-OHP, with higher 1-OHP levels during summer when ambient pollution was also high.

  5. Improvement of rolling modes of long length rails on the universal rail and structural steel mill “EVRAZ ZSMK”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovatenko, A. V.; Umansky, A. A.; Kadykov, V. N.

    2016-09-01

    Using the results of theoretical and experimental research a new rolling mode of long-length rails on the universal rail-and-structural steel mill JSC “EVRAZ Consolidated West Siberian Metallurgical Plant” (“EVRAZ ZSMK”) was developed with a reduced number of passes in the breakdown stands. Experimental and industrial testing and implementation of the new rolling mode showed a high technical and economic efficiency of its use - reduction in the specific energy consumption was registered, as well as decrease in rejection of rails due to their surface defects, consumption of mill rolls and increase in mill productivity. The cost- effectiveness after implementation was more than 98 million RUB per year.

  6. Balance mathematical model for the heat regime of cold rolling of electrical steel strips in a reversing mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garber, E. A.; Aleshin, A. E.; Degtev, S. S.; Traino, A. I.

    2013-11-01

    A mathematical model is developed to describe the heat regime of a reversing cold-rolling mill that takes into account the substantial differences between the heat processes occurring in reversing and continuous mills. Model and heat balance equations are used to calculate the strip temperature in passes and the temperature and the heat profile of rolls as functions of the rolling regime parameters and the heat-transfer coefficients that characterize the heat exchange between a strip, rolls, and lubricant-cooling agents and depend on the cooling system parameters of a mill. The model can be used to find a heat regime favorable for achieving the required final magnetic properties of electrical steel. The efficiency of the factors affecting the heat regime in rolling is studied.

  7. Cs-137 geochronology, epithermal neutron activation analysis, and principal component analysis of heavy metals pollution of the Black Sea anoxic continental shelf sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duliu, O. G.; Cristache, C.; Oaie, G.; Culicov, O. A.; Frontasyeva, M. V.

    2009-04-01

    Anthropogenic Cs-137 Gamma-ray Spectroscopy assay (GrSA) performed at the National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering - Bucharest (Romania) in correlation with Epithermal Neutrons Activation Analysis (ENAA) performed at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Researches - Dubna (Russia) were used to investigate a 50 cm core containing unconsolidated sediments collected at a depth of 600 m off Romanian town of Constantza, located in the anoxic zone of the Black Sea Continental Shelf. A digital radiography showed the presence of about 265 distinct laminae, 1 to 3 mm thick, a fact attesting a stationary sedimentary process, completely free of bioturbation. After being radiographed, the core was sliced into 45 segments whose thickness gradually increased from 0.5 to 5 cm, such that the minimum thickness corresponded to the upper part of the core. From each segment two aliquots of about 0.5 g and 50 g were extracted for subsequent ENAA and Cs-137 GrSA. The Cs-137 vertical profile evidenced two maxima, one of them was very sharp and localized at a depth of 1 cm and the other very broad, almost undistinguished at about 8 cm depth, the first one being attributed to 1986 Chernobyl accident. Based on these date, we have estimated a sedimentation ratio of about 0.5 mm/year, value taken as reference for further assessment of recent pollution history. By means of ENAA we have determined the vertical content of five presumed pollutants, e.i. Zn, As, Br, Sn and Sb and of Sc, as natural, nonpolluting element. In the first case, all five elements presented a more or less similar vertical profile consisting of an almost exponential decrease for the first 10 cm below sediment surface followed by a plateau until the core base, i.e. 50 cm below surface, dependency better described by the equation: c(z) = c0 [1+k exp (-z/Z)] (1) where: where c(z) represents the concentration vertical profile; z represents depth (in absolute value); c0 represents the plateau

  8. A model for high carbon steel phase transformation and cooling behavior on run-out table of hot strip mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Heung Nam; Lee, Jae Kon

    2000-10-01

    A model was developed considering non-symmetric cooling in the thickness direction of strip on a run-out table of hot strip mill. In order to solve the one-dimensional transient heat transfer equation, including the heat evolved from phase transformation, a finite element method coupled with thermodynamic and kinetic analyses were employed. The heal capacity of each phase and the heat evolution due to phase transformation were obtained by thermodynamic analysis of the Fe-C-Mn system using a sublattice model. The phase transformation kinetics of high carbon steels was derived using continuous cooling experimente and mermodynamic analysis. By applying an inverse method, the heat transfer coefficients of the strips on the run-out table were determined from actual mill data under various cooling conditions. Using the developed model, the temperature-time variations of high carbon steels on the run-out table were calculated. The results calculated were in good agreement with the actual mill data. In addition, the quantitative phase evolution during cooling on the run-out table could also be predicted by the model. From this analysis, it was possible to design an optimum cooling pattern on the run-out table ensuring a desirable microstructure of high carbon steel and a stable cooling operation.

  9. Aided phytostabilization of a trace element-contaminated technosol developed on steel mill wastes.

    PubMed

    Oustriere, Nadège; Marchand, Lilian; Bouchardon, Jean Luc; Faure, Olivier; Moutte, Jacques; Mench, Michel

    2016-12-15

    Aided phytostabilization of a barren, alkaline metal(loid)-contaminated technosol developed on steel mill wastes, with high soluble Cr and Mo concentrations, was assessed in a pot experiment using (1) Ni/Cd-tolerant populations of Festuca pratensis Huds., Holcus lanatus L., and Plantago lanceolata L. sowed in mixed stand and (2) six soil treatments: untreated soil (UNT), ramial chipped wood (RCW, 500m(3)ha(-1)), composted sewage sludge (CSS, 120t DW ha(-1)), UNT soil amended with compost (5% w/w) and either vermiculite (5%, VOM) or iron grit (1%, OMZ), and an uncontaminated soil (CTRL). In the CSS soil, pH and soluble Cr decreased whereas soluble Cu, K, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ni and P increased. The RCW treatment enhanced soluble Fe, Mn, and Mg concentrations. After 15 weeks, shoot DW yield and shoot Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Zn, and Mg removals peaked for F. pratensis grown on the CSS soil, with lowest shoot Cr, Ni and Mo concentrations. Holcus lanatus only grew on the CTRL, UNT, and CSS soils and P. lanceolata on the CTRL soil. Best treatment, F. pratensis grown on the CSS soil, led to a dense grass cover but its shoot Mo concentration exceeded the maximum permitted concentration in forage.

  10. Native Michigan plants stimulate soil microbial species changes and PAH remediation at a legacy steel mill.

    PubMed

    Thomas, John C; Cable, Edward; Dabkowski, Robert T; Gargala, Stephanie; McCall, Daniel; Pangrazzi, Garett; Pierson, Adam; Ripper, Mark; Russell, Donald K; Rugh, Clayton L

    2013-01-01

    A 1.3-acre phytoremediation site was constructed to mitigate polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination from a former steel mill in Michigan. Soil was amended with 10% (v/v) compost and 5% (v/v) poultry litter. The site was divided into twelve 11.89 m X 27.13 m plots, planted with approximately 35,000 native Michigan perennials, and soils sampled for three seasons. Soil microbial density generally increased in subplots of Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset), Aster novae-angliae (New England aster), Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem), and Scirpus atrovirens (green bulrush) versus unplanted subplots. Using enumeration assays with root exudates, PAH degrading bacteria were greatest in soils beneath plants. Initially predominant, Arthrobacter were found capable of degrading a PAH cocktail in vitro, especially upon the addition of root exudate. Growth of some Arthrobacter isolates was stimulated by root exudate. The frequency of Arthrobacter declined in planted subplots with a concurrent increase in other species, including secondary PAH degraders Bacillus and Nocardioides. In subplots supporting only weeds, an increase in Pseudomonas density and little PAH removal were observed. This study supports the notion that a dynamic interplay between the soil, bacteria, and native plant root secretions likely contributes to in situ PAH phytoremediation.

  11. Plate Rolling Modeling at Mill 5000 of OJSC ``Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel'' for Analysis and Optimization of Temperature Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salganik, V.; Shmakov, A.; Pesin, A.; Pustovoytov, D.

    2010-06-01

    Modeling of strip deflected mode and thermal state in rolling is an integral part of the technology and perspective rolling-mill machinery such as plate mill 5000 of the OJSC "Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel". To comprehend metal behavior in the deformation zone in the rough passes during plate rolling it is essential to assess the impact of various temperature factors on variations in field of stress and strain intensities as well as temperature fields in deformation. To do such researches in consideration of various software products and adequate results one of the most effective methods nowadays is regarded as the method of finite elements. The research shows modeling of roughing rolling of a pipe steel sheet with strength category X80 according to standard API-5L. In the research of the metal deflected mode software product DEFORM 2D has been used for the isothermal and nonisothermic process. The mathematical modeling allows revealing the impact of temperature field on the metal deflected mode in the rough passes in plate rolling. Supposedly, it is deformation heating that can have more impact on the ingot temperature profile in the finishing passes in controlled rolling of the pipe steel grades. It is defined by high percent reduction, rolling speeds; more area of heat exchange surface; less thickness and lower temperature of rolling. The results can be used to develop efficient modes of plate rolling of the pipe steels.

  12. Hourly atmospheric concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs-137 at monitoring stations for suspended particulate matter in and south of Fukushima after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2013-04-01

    No data has been found of continuous monitoring of radioactive materials in the atmosphere in Fukushima area after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident on March 11, 2011, although it greatly contributes to accurate evaluation of the internal exposure dose, to reconstruction of emission time series of released radionuclides, and to validation of numerical simulations by atmospheric transport models. Then, we have challenged to retrieve the radioactivity in atmospheric aerosols collected every hour on a filter tape of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) monitoring system with beta ray attenuation method used at air pollution monitoring stations in east Japan. A test measurement for hourly atmospheric concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs-137 was successfully performed with a Ge detector for the used filter tapes during March 15-23, 2011, at three stations in Fukushima City 60 km northwest of the FD1NPP and four stations in southwest Ibaraki prefecture more than 150 km southwest of the FD1NPP. The data in Fukushima City revealed high Cs-137 concentrations of 10-30 Bq m-3 from the evening of March 15 to the early morning of March 16, when a large amount of radioactive materials was simultaneously deposited on the land surface by precipitation according to the measurement of radiation dose rate. Higher Cs-137 concentrations of 10-50 Bq m-3 were also found from the afternoon of March 20 to the morning of March 21, and which could not be detected by the radiation dose rate due to no precipitation. In contrast, much higher concentrations with the maximum of 320 Bq m-3 in southwest Ibaraki than in Fukushima City were found on the morning of March 15 and 21 under strong temperature inversion near the surface. The polluted air masses with high radioactive materials were passed away within a few hours as a plume in southwest Ibaraki, while the high Cs-137 concentrations lasted for 10-16 hours in Fukushima City where the polluted air masses after their transport

  13. Influence of mill scale and rust layer on the corrosion resistance of low-alloy steel in simulated concrete pore solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jin-jie; Ming, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic potentiodynamic polarization measurements, and scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to investigate the influence of mill scale and rust layer on the passivation capability and chloride-induced corrosion behaviors of conventional low-carbon (LC) steel and low-alloy (LA) steel in simulated concrete pore solution. The results show that mill scale exerts different influences on the corrosion resistance of both steels at various electrochemical stages. We propose that the high long-term corrosion resistance of LA steel is mainly achieved through the synergistic effect of a gradually formed compact, adherent and well-distributed Cr-enriched inner rust layer and the physical barrier protection effect of mill scale.

  14. Revitalizing America's Mills: A Report on Brownfields Mill Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report focuses on mills -- former textile, wood, paper, iron, and steel mills. The report describes the challenges and opportunities of mill sites with case studies highlighting some of the most creative solutions from across the country.

  15. Estimation of calcium, magnesium, cadmium, and lead in biological samples from paralyzed quality control and production steel mill workers.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kazi, Naveed; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Shah, Faheem

    2015-06-01

    The determination of trace and toxic metals in the biological samples of human beings is an important clinical screening procedure. The aim of the present study was to compare the level of essential trace and toxic elements cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), lead (Pb), and magnesium (Mg) in biological samples (whole blood, urine, and scalp hair) of male paralyzed production (PPW) and quality control workers (PQW) of a steel mill, age ranged (35-55 years). For comparison purposes, healthy age-matched exposed referent subjects (EC), working in steel mill and control subjects (NEC), who were not working in industries and lived far away from the industrial areas, were selected as control subjects. The concentrations of electrolytes and toxic elements in biological samples were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference materials. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Cd and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair, blood, and urine samples of PPW and PQW as compared to NEC and EC (p < 0.001), whereas the concentrations of Ca and Mg were found to be lower in the scalp hair and blood but higher in the urine samples of PPW and PQW. The results show the need for immediate improvements in workplace, ventilation, and industrial hygiene practices.

  16. Genetic based sensorless hybrid intelligent controller for strip loop formation control between inter-stands in hot steel rolling mills.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, S; Palanisamy, V; Duraiswamy, K

    2008-04-01

    Safe operating environment is essential for all complex industrial processes. The safety issues in steel rolling mill when the hot strip passes through consecutive mill stands have been considered in this paper. Formation of sag in strip is a common problem in the rolling process. The excessive sag can lead to scrap runs and damage to machinery. Conventional controllers for mill actuation system are based on a rolling model. The factors like rise in temperature, aging, wear and tear are not taken into account while designing a conventional controller. Therefore, the conventional controller cannot yield a requisite controlled output. In this paper, a new Genetic-neuro-fuzzy hybrid controller without tension sensor has been proposed to optimize the quantum of excessive sag and reduce it. The performance of the proposed controller has been compared with the performance of fuzzy logic controller, Neuro-fuzzy controller and conventional controller with the help of data collected from the plant. The simulation results depict that the proposed controller has superior performance than the other controllers.

  17. Flank wear analysing of high speed end milling for hardened steel D2 using Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazza Faizi Al-Hazza, Muataz; Ibrahim, Nur Asmawiyah bt; Adesta, Erry T. Y.; Khan, Ahsan Ali; Abdullah Sidek, Atiah Bt.

    2017-03-01

    One of the main challenges for any manufacturer is how to decrease the machining cost without affecting the final quality of the product. One of the new advanced machining processes in industry is the high speed hard end milling process that merges three advanced machining processes: high speed milling, hard milling and dry milling. However, one of the most important challenges in this process is to control the flank wear rate. Therefore a analyzing the flank wear rate during machining should be investigated in order to determine the best cutting levels that will not affect the final quality of the product. In this research Taguchi method has been used to investigate the effect of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut and determine the best level s to minimize the flank wear rate up to total length of 0.3mm based on the ISO standard to maintain the finishing requirements.

  18. 137Cs activities and 135Cs/137Cs isotopic ratios from soils at Idaho National Laboratory: a case study for contaminant source attribution in the vicinity of nuclear facilities.

    PubMed

    Snow, Mathew S; Snyder, Darin C; Clark, Sue B; Kelley, Morgan; Delmore, James E

    2015-03-03

    Radiometric and mass spectrometric analyses of Cs contamination in the environment can reveal the location of Cs emission sources, release mechanisms, modes of transport, prediction of future contamination migration, and attribution of contamination to specific generator(s) and/or process(es). The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) represents a complicated case study for demonstrating the current capabilities and limitations to environmental Cs analyses. (137)Cs distribution patterns, (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios, known Cs chemistry at this site, and historical records enable narrowing the list of possible emission sources and release events to a single source and event, with the SDA identified as the emission source and flood transport of material from within Pit 9 and Trench 48 as the primary release event. These data combined allow refining the possible number of waste generators from dozens to a single generator, with INL on-site research and reactor programs identified as the most likely waste generator. A discussion on the ultimate limitations to the information that (135)Cs/(137)Cs ratios alone can provide is presented and includes (1) uncertainties in the exact date of the fission event and (2) possibility of mixing between different Cs source terms (including nuclear weapons fallout and a source of interest).

  19. Final Environmental Impact Statement Permit Application by United States Steel Corp. Proposed Lake Front Steel Mill, Conneaut, Ohio. Volume 1,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    iron ore pellets, 2.8 million tons of iron ore, 1.4 million tons of limestone, approximately 6.0 million tons of coal and oil , and an average of...would produce 4.9 million tons of hot-rolled sheets and . oils and 1.52 million tons of steel plate which would aid the U. S. Steel Corporation in...400 million cubic feet by 1986. Total consumption of distillate oil by plant-induced secondary development is estimated to reach a maxi- mum of

  20. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Permit Application by United States Steel Corp., Proposed Lake Front Steel Mill, Conneaut, OH. Volume 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    but could result in an increase of 5,000 pet - requires the projection of the increased population tnat will result by 1990 within sons in the city’s...and dimension of gill nets, duration of gill stocks as the intake is In a nursery ara. Pet sets at each location. and the size of fishes collected...limited amt of-air pollution should he pet fot inffj that will csga pollutiOn to Or water ad sir resulting in grest by this mill. Coaidarl the quality

  1. Influence of minimum quantity lubrication parameters on tool wear and surface roughness in milling of forged steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lutao; Yuan, Songmei; Liu, Qiang

    2012-05-01

    The minimum quantity of lubrication (MQL) technique is becoming increasingly more popular due to the safety of environment. Moreover, MQL technique not only leads to economical benefits by way of saving lubricant costs but also presents better machinability. However, the effect of MQL parameters on machining is still not clear, which needs to be overcome. In this paper, the effect of different modes of lubrication, i.e., conventional way using flushing, dry cutting and using the minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) technique on the machinability in end milling of a forged steel (50CrMnMo), is investigated. The influence of MQL parameters on tool wear and surface roughness is also discussed. MQL parameters include nozzle direction in relation to feed direction, nozzle elevation angle, distance from the nozzle tip to the cutting zone, lubricant flow rate and air pressure. The investigation results show that MQL technique lowers the tool wear and surface roughness values compared with that of conventional flood cutting fluid supply and dry cutting conditions. Based on the investigations of chip morphology and color, MQL technique reduces the cutting temperature to some extent. The relative nozzle-feed position at 120°, the angle elevation of 60° and distance from nozzle tip to cutting zone at 20 mm provide the prolonged tool life and reduced surface roughness values. This fact is due to the oil mists can penetrate in the inner zones of the tool edges in a very efficient way. Improvement in tool life and surface finish could be achieved utilizing higher oil flow rate and higher compressed air pressure. Moreover, oil flow rate increased from 43.8 mL/h to 58.4 mL/h leads to a small decrease of flank wear, but it is not very significant. The results obtained in this paper can be used to determine optimal conditions for milling of forged steel under MQL conditions.

  2. Associations between urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress and air pollutants observed in a randomized crossover exposure to steel mill emissions.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Guillaume; Rigden, Marc; Kauri, Lisa Marie; Shutt, Robin; Mahmud, Mamun; Cakmak, Sabit; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Thomson, Errol M; Vincent, Renaud; Broad, Gayle; Liu, Ling; Dales, Robert

    2017-04-01

    The effects of industrial air pollution on human health have not been as thoroughly investigated as those of urban air pollution which originates mostly from automotive transport. To better assess the health impacts of point sources of industrial air pollution, a randomized crossover exposure study was conducted. Sixty one young and healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to spend five consecutive eight-hour days near a steel mill or at a location five kilometres away. After a nine or sixteen-day washout period, volunteers spent another five consecutive days at the second site. Meteorological conditions and air pollutants were monitored at both exposure sites. On each exposure day, the first morning urine was collected along with a second urine sample obtained immediately before leaving the exposure site at the end of the day. Urinary levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage), malondialdehyde (MDA, a biomarker of lipid peroxidation), 8-isoprostane (8-IsoP, a bioactive metabolite resulting from the peroxidation of arachidonic acid) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF, involved in response to oxidative stress) were measured. According to mixed-effects linear regression models, intra-individual variations in 8-OHdG urinary levels were significantly associated with exposure site, but surprisingly, lower levels were observed at the steel mill site. Delayed, temporally-defined associations with specific air pollutants were observed for 8-OHdG, 8-IsoP and VEGF. However, these associations were subtle, presented complex patterns and their biological consequences remain unclear. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. On the usability of frequency distributions and source attribution of Cs-137 detections encountered in the IMS radio-nuclide network for radionuclide event screening and climate change monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, A.; Wotawa, G.; Zähringer, M.

    2009-04-01

    Under the provisions of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), airborne radioactivity is measured by means of high purity Germanium gamma ray detectors deployed in a global monitoring network. Almost 60 of the scheduled 80 stations have been put in provisional operations by the end of 2008. Each station daily sends the 24 hour samples' spectroscopic data to the Vienna based Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the CTBT Organization (CTBTO) for review for treaty-relevant nuclides. Cs-137 is one of these relevant isotopes. Its typical minimum detectable concentration is in the order of a few Bq/m3. However, this isotope is also known to occur in atmospheric trace concentrations, due to known non CTBT relevant processes and sources related to, for example, the re-suspension of cesium from historic nuclear tests and/or the Chernobyl reactor disaster, temporarily enhanced by bio-mass burning (Wotawa et al. 2006). Properly attributed cesium detections can be used as a proxy to detect Aeolian dust events (Igarashi et al, 2001) that potentially carry cesium from all aforementioned sources but are also known to play an important role for the radiative forcing in the atmosphere (shadow effect), at the surface (albedo) and the carbon dioxide cycle when interacting with oceanic phytoplankton (Mikami and Shi, 2005). In this context this paper provides a systematic attribution of recent Cs-137 detections in the PTS monitoring network in order to Characterize those stations which are regularly affected by Cs-137 Provide input for procedures that distinguish CTBT relevant detection from other sources (event screening) Explore on the capability of certain stations to use their Cs-137 detections as a proxy to detect aeolian dust events and to flag the belonging filters to be relevant for further investigations in this field (-> EGU-2009 Session CL16/AS4.6/GM10.1: Aeolian dust: initiator, player, and recorder of environmental change). References Igarashi, Y., M

  4. Study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric particulate matter of an urban area with iron and steel mills.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Helvécio C; Cardeal, Zenilda L

    2012-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed from ambient air particulate matter <10 µm (PM(10) ) and the total suspended particulate (TSP) phase continuously for a period of six months (May-October 2010) at five sampling sites located in the urban area of Divinópolis (Minas Gerais), southeastern Brazil, near iron and steel mills. The carcinogenic potency of priority PAHs relative to benzo[a]pyrene was estimated for a period of six months. Benzo[a]pyrene equivalents were 7.52 ng/m(3) for the study period. The estimated risk of lifetime lung cancer was 6.5 × 10(-4) . A model based on the diagnostic ratio and principal component analysis was applied for source apportionment. Considering the entire study period, the burning of biomass and fuel oil accounted for about 70% of the PAH profile. An inventory was performed during the monitoring period, with 37 companies representing major industries located in the urban area. The observations were consistent with the distribution of sources and indicated that the iron and steel sector was the largest contributor.

  5. Lipoid pneumonia caused by oil mist exposure from a steel rolling tandem mill.

    PubMed

    Cullen, M R; Balmes, J R; Robins, J M; Smith, G J

    1981-01-01

    Five of nine active tandem mill operators exposed at work to aerosolized hydrocarbon mist were referred for evaluation of respiratory complaints. The worker with the longest exposure had reduced lung volumes; he was admitted to the hospital for detailed study. Exercise studies revealed work load limited by ventilation and arterial oxygen desaturation. Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy revealed evidence of lipoid pneumonia. Assessment of the mill revealed levels of respirable oil mist by personal samplers throughout the area far below the currently accepted standard of 5 mg/M3. These findings confirm a 20-year-old hypothesis of J.G. Jones regarding the hazard of oil mist in this industrial setting.

  6. Lipoid pneumonia caused by oil mist exposure from a steel rolling tandem mill

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, M.R.; Balmes, J.R.; Robins, J.M.; Smith, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    Five of nine active tandem mill operators exposed at work to aerosolized hydrocarbon mist were referred for evaluation of respiratory complaints. The worker with the longest exposure had reduced lung volumes; he was admitted to the hospital for detailed study. Exercise studies revealed work load limited by ventilation and arterial oxygen desaturation. Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy revealed evidence of lipoid pneumonia. Assessment of the mill revealed levels of respirable oil mist by personal samplers throughout the area far below the currently accepted standard of 5 mg/M3. These findings confirm a 20-year-old hypothesis of J.G. Jones regarding the hazard of oil mist in this industrial setting.

  7. Risk-Based Remediation Approach for Cs-137 Contaminated Sediment/Soils at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Lower Three Runs Tail (U) - 13348 - SRNS-RP-2012-00546

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Candice; Bergren, Christopher; Blas, Susan; Kupar, James

    2013-07-01

    Lower Three Runs is a large blackwater stream that runs through the eastern and southern portion of the Savannah River Site. The Lower Three Runs watershed includes two SRS facility areas: P Area (P Reactor) and R Area (R Reactor) that provided effluent discharges to Lower Three Runs. During reactor operations, effluent discharges were well above natural (pre-industrial) or present day stream discharges. The watershed contains a 2,500-acre mainstream impoundment (PAR Pond), several smaller pre-cooler ponds, and a canal system that connects the pre-cooler ponds and discharges surface water to PAR Pond. From the PAR Pond dam, Lower Three Runs flows approximately 36 kilometers braiding through bottom-land/flood-plain forests before it enters the Savannah River. About eight kilometers downstream from the PAR Pond dam, the SRS boundary narrows (termed the Lower Three Runs tail) providing a limited buffer of DOE property for the Lower Three Runs stream and associated flood-plain. Previous screening characterization efforts revealed Cs-137 contamination in the sediment/soils of the flood-plain. As a part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act stimulus package, a comprehensive characterization effort was executed on the sediment/soils of the Lower Three Runs tail flood-plain providing a comprehensive look at the contaminant signature of the area. As a follow-up to that characterization, a regulatory decision Core Team, comprised of members of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, Environmental Protection Agency - Region IV, and DOE, conducted negotiations on a risk-based approach to address the level of contamination found in the tail flood-plain as an early action that provided a long-term solution to exposure scenarios. For evaluation purposes, the adolescent trespasser was selected as the most likely human receptor for the Lower Three Runs tail portion because of the natural attractiveness of the area for recreational activities (i

  8. Variation in Mechanical Properties and Heterogeneity in Microstructure of High-Strength Ferritic Steel During Mill Trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, M.; Barat, K.; Das, S. K.; Ravi Kumar, B.; Pramanick, A. K.; Chakraborty, J.; Das, G.; Hadas, S.; Bharathy, S.; Ray, S. K.

    2014-06-01

    HS600 and HS800 are two new generation, high-strength advanced ferritic steels that find widespread application in automobiles. During commercial production of the same grades with different thicknesses, it has been found that mechanical properties like tensile strength and stretchability varied widely and became inconsistent. In the current endeavor, two different thicknesses have been chosen from a mill trial sample of HS600 and HS800. An in-depth structural characterization was carried out for all four alloys to explain the variation in their respective mechanical and shear punch properties. The carbon content was smaller and Ti + Mo quantity was higher in case of HS800 with respect to HS600. The microstructure of both steels consisted of the dispersion of (Ti,Mo)C in a ferrite matrix. The grain size of HS800 was little larger than HS600 due to an increased coiling temperature (CT) of the former in comparison to the latter. It was found that in case of same grade of steel with a different thickness, a variation in microstructure occurred due to change in strain, CT, and cooling rate. The strength and stretch formability of these two alloys were predominantly governed by a microalloyed carbide. In this respect, carbides with a size range above 5 nm were responsible for loosing coherency with ferrite matrix. In case of HS600, both ≤5 and >5-nm size (Ti,Mo)C precipitates shared a nearly equal fraction of microalloyed precipitates. However, for HS800, >5-nm size (Ti,Mo)C carbide was substantially higher than ≤5-nm size alloy carbides. The ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of HS800 was superior to that of HS600 owing to a higher quantity of microalloyed carbide with a decreased column width and interparticle distance. A higher degree of in-coherency of HS800 made the alloy prone to crack formation with low stretchability.

  9. Oxide Fracture Mechanisms in Descaling of Steel Strips on the Hot Strip Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Minghao; Liu, Bo; Grenier, Claire; Montmitonnet, Pierre; Picard, Michel; Borean, Jean-Luc

    2011-05-01

    The descaling operation on a Hot Strip Mill (HSM) uses high pressure water jets to remove the thick, hard and brittle oxide scale, in order to avoid oxide embedding into the metal which degrades surface finish. A thermal and mechanical analysis of the impact of the water jets has been performed by the Finite Element Method (FEM). The differential contraction of the oxide and metal under this brutal cooling are described, with the resulting network of cracks and the oxide flakes. The main process parameters are disclosed.

  10. Detection of surface defects on raw milled steel blocks using range imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernkopf, Franz; Pernkopf, Friedrich; O'Leary, Paul

    2002-03-01

    This paper shows an efficient and reliable method for the detection of surface defects with a three dimensional characteristic whereby the surface reflection properties are altering strongly. Due to this fact traditional intensity imaging techniques yield inferior performance. Therefore, light sectioning in conjunction with fast imaging sensors is applied to gather the range image of the steel block. Two different approaches for defect detection are treated, whereby the first algorithm is based on a line-wise examination of the acquired profiles by unwrapping the surface using spline interpolation. The noise in the unwrapped orthogonal distance may be reduced by applying statistical measures. The second method refers to surface segments and is based on the mean square error between the segment and its approximation gained from singular value decomposition. Due to vibrations the acquired profiles are arbitrary located within a range of a few millimeters which requires a geometric transformation to reconstruct the three dimensional surface of the steel block.

  11. Stainless-Steel Ball-Milling Method for Hydro-/Deutero-genation using H2O/D2O as a Hydrogen/Deuterium Source.

    PubMed

    Sawama, Yoshinari; Kawajiri, Takahiro; Niikawa, Miki; Goto, Ryota; Yabe, Yuki; Takahashi, Tohru; Marumoto, Takahisa; Itoh, Miki; Kimura, Yuuichi; Monguchi, Yasunari; Kondo, Shin-ichi; Sajiki, Hironao

    2015-11-01

    A one-pot continuous-flow method for hydrogen (deuterium) generation and subsequent hydrogenation (deuterogenation) was developed using a stainless-steel (SUS304)-mediated ball-milling approach. SUS304, especially zero-valent Cr and Ni as constituents of the SUS304, and mechanochemical processing played crucial roles in the development of the reactions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Shape description and analysis of range data for milled steel blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernkopf, Franz; O'Leary, Paul

    2003-05-01

    Range imaging based on fast light-sectioning techniques is used to acquire the three dimensional shape of a steel block with its embedded flaws. The aim of the paper is the computation of suitable features for describing the characteristics of sequentially acquired profiles. The features should discriminate well between flaws, the intact surface, and pseudo errors caused by inhomogeneous surface properties such as, e.g., a strongly changing reflection factor. The orthogonal distance from the planar curve to its spline approximation serves as a suitable descriptor. In addition, the multi-scale curvature is useful since the defects are characterized as local perturbations of a relatively smooth curve. Since the embedded flaws on the surface of the steel block are existent in neighboring profiles, a measure for evaluating the local perturbations with respect to subsequent profiles is presented. Therefore, a kernel is used for weighting the neighborhood of a defect. The shape of the kernel might be Gaussian, however, a special kernel was developed for emphasizing a preference direction of the flaws.

  13. Simultaneous determination of radiocesium ((135)Cs, (137)Cs) and plutonium ((239)Pu, (240)Pu) isotopes in river suspended particles by ICP-MS/MS and SF-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liguo; Zheng, Jian; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Pan, Shaoming; Wang, Zhongtang; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-10-01

    Due to radioisotope releases in the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, long-term monitoring of radiocesium ((135)Cs and (137)Cs) and Pu isotopes ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) in river suspended particles is necessary to study the transport and fate of these long-lived radioisotopes in the land-ocean system. However, it is expensive and technically difficult to collect samples of suspended particles from river and ocean. Thus, simultaneous determination of multi-radionuclides remains as a challenging topic. In this study, for the first time, we report an analytical method for simultaneous determination of radiocesium and Pu isotopes in suspended particles with small sample size (1-2g). Radiocesium and Pu were sequentially pre-concentrated using ammonium molybdophosphate and ferric hydroxide co-precipitation, respectively. After the two-stage ion-exchange chromatography separation from the matrix elements, radiocesium and Pu isotopes were finally determined by ICP-MS/MS and SF-ICP-MS, respectively. The interfering elements of U ((238)U(1)H(+) and (238)U(2)H(+) for (239)Pu and (240)Pu, respectively) and Ba ((135)Ba(+) and (137)Ba(+) for (135)Cs and (137)Cs, respectively) were sufficiently removed with the decontamination factors of 1-8×10(6) and 1×10(4), respectively, with the developed method. Soil reference materials were utilized for method validation, and the obtained (135)Cs/(137)Cs and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios, and (239+240)Pu activities showed a good agreement with the certified/information values. In addition, the developed method was applied to analyze radiocesium and Pu in the suspended particles of land water samples collected from Fukushima Prefecture after the FDNPP accident. The (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios (0.329-0.391) and (137)Cs activities (23.4-152Bq/g) suggested radiocesium contamination of the suspended particles mainly originated from the accident-released radioactive contaminates, while similar Pu contamination of suspended

  14. Evaluation of arsenic, cobalt, copper and manganese in biological Samples of Steel mill workers by electrothermal atomic absorption Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Afridi, H I; Kazi, T G; Kazi, N G; Jamali, M K; Arain, M B; Sirajuddin; Kandhro, G A; Shah, A Q; Baig, J A

    2009-02-01

    The determination of trace and toxic elements in biological samples (blood, urine and scalp hair samples) of human beings is an important clinical test. The aim of our present study was to determine the concentration of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn), in biological samples of male production workers (PW) and quality control workers (QW) of steel mill, with aged 25-55 years, to assess the possible influence of environmental exposure. For comparison purpose, the same biological samples of unexposed healthy males of same age group were collected as control subjects. The determination of all elements in biological samples was carried out by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. The accuracy of the As, Cu, Co and Mn measurements was tested by simultaneously analyzing certified reference materials (CRMs) and for comparative purposes conventional wet acid digestion method was used on the same CRMs. No significant differences were observed between the analytical results and the certified values, using both methods (paired t-test at P > 0.05). The results indicate that concentrations of As, Cu, Co and Mn in all three biological samples of the exposed workers (QW and PW) were significantly higher than those of the controls. The possible correlation of these elements with the etiology of different physiological disorders is discussed. The results were also demonstrated the need of attention for improvements in workplace, ventilation and industrial hygiene practices.

  15. [Evaluation of health status in inhabitants of the protected zone near a steel mill. II. Overweight and obesity].

    PubMed

    Kolarzyk, E; Stepniewski, M; Targosz, D; Kieć, E; Wiater, M; Nyzio, B

    1990-01-01

    In the group of 232 inhabitants of the protective zone of Nowa Huta the Steel-Mill (181 women and 51 men) incidence of overweight and obesity was estimated using the Quetelet and Wot indices. The results were compared with appropriate data obtained for 37 men and 100 women, matched with age and occupation, inhabitants of Tokarnia village, known by favorable microclimate, rarely encountered in polluted areas of southern Poland. It was found that overweight and obesity was present in the group of the protective zone statistically more often than in Tokarnia. The differences were more pronounced for women than for men. Concentrations of serum cholesterol and triglycerides were also compared. Distribution of cholesterol in examined groups was similar to the distribution of the Quetelet index, differences of arithmetic means being statistically significant, whereas concentration of triglycerides was remarkably similar in all groups under investigation. In this paper rarely used method of data presentation was applied. From histograms of given parameter normalised curves were derived and served as a representation of parameter distribution in the studied population. This method grossly alleviated task of comparison and evaluation of obtained data.

  16. Elevated iron levels in hair from steel mill workers in Karachi, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Jamall, I.S.; Jaffer, R.A.

    1987-10-01

    Over the last two decades, much interest has been focused on the use of trace metals in human hair to diagnose nutritional deficiencies of these metals or toxicities of metals such as lead or organic mercury. Although the diagnostic value of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead and mercury levels in human hair have been well established, little information is available on the significance of iron (Fe) levels in hair to diagnose nutritional deficiency or toxicity of this metal. The present study was conducted to determine if occupational exposure in the steel industry resulted in alterations i the levels of Fe, Zn, and Cu in hair and could thus serve as a simple tool for monitoring exposure to potentially hazardous levels of these metals.

  17. Application of orthogonal array technique and particle swarm optimization approach in surface roughness modification when face milling AISI1045 steel parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azadi Moghaddam, Masoud; Kolahan, Farhad

    2016-12-01

    Face milling is an important and common machining operation because of its versatility and capability to produce various surfaces. Face milling is a machining process of removing material by the relative motion between a work piece and rotating cutter with multiple cutting edges. It is an interrupted cutting operation in which the teeth of the milling cutter enter and exit the work piece during each revolution. This paper is concerned with the experimental and numerical study of face milling of AISI1045. The proposed approach is based on statistical analysis on the experimental data gathered using Taguchi design matrix. Surface roughness is the most important performance characteristics of the face milling process. In this study the effect of input face milling process parameters on surface roughness of AISI1045 steel milled parts have been studied. The input parameters are cutting speed ( v), feed rate ( f z ) and depth of cut ( a p ). The experimental data are gathered using Taguchi L9 design matrix. In order to establish the relations between the input and the output parameters, various regression functions have been fitted on the data based on output characteristics. The significance of the process parameters on the quality characteristics of the process was also evaluated quantitatively using the analysis of variance method. Then, statistical analysis and validation experiments have been carried out to compare and select the best and most fitted models. In the last section of this research, mathematical model has been developed for surface roughness prediction using particle swarm optimization (PSO) on the basis of experimental results. The model developed for optimization has been validated by confirmation experiments. It has been found that the predicted roughness using PSO is in good agreement with the actual surface roughness.

  18. Evaluation of toxic metals in biological samples (scalp hair, blood and urine) of steel mill workers by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan I; Kazi, Tasneem G; Jamali, Mohammad K; Kazi, Gul H; Arain, Mohammad B; Jalbani, Nusrat; Shar, Ghulam Q; Sarfaraz, Raja A

    2006-10-01

    The determination of toxic metals in the biological samples of human beings is an important clinical screening procedure. This study aimed to assess the possible influence of environmental exposure on production workers (PW) and quality control workers (QCW) of a steel mill, all male subjects aged 25-55 years. In this investigation, the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni and Cr were determined in biological samples (blood, urine and scalp hair samples) from these steel mill workers in relation to controlled unexposed healthy subjects of the same age group. After pre-treatment with nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide, the samples were digested via a microwave oven, and for comparison purposes, the same samples were digested by the conventional wet acid digestion method. The samples digested were subjected to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). To assess the reliability of these methods, critical factors, such as detection limit(s), calibration range(s), accuracy and precision, were studied. Quality control for these procedures was established with certified sample of human hair, urine and whole blood. The results indicate that the level of lead, cadmium and nickel in scalp hair, blood and urine samples were significantly higher in both groups of exposed workers (QW and PW) than those of the controls. The possible connection of these elements with the etiology of disease is discussed. The results also show the need for immediate improvements in workplace ventilation and industrial hygiene practices.

  19. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

    2005-08-01

    Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

  20. Determining the turnover time of mercury-contaminated fine-grained sediment in the gravel bed of the South River, Virginia using Pb-210, Be-7 and Cs-137

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomraning, S. N.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Jurk, D.

    2010-12-01

    Fine-grained sediment and associated contaminants mediate important geochemical cycles in the hyporheic zone of gravel-bed rivers, but the turnover time of fine particles in these environments has rarely been measured. We analyzed the activities of Pb-210, Cs-137 and Be-7 in samples from four cores obtained on November 2, 2009 from a representative section of the bed composed of a mixture of sand, pebbles, and cobbles. The median grain size is 25.5 mm, the 84th percentile grain diameter is 57.8 mm, and 5.7% of the bed is composed of sediment smaller than 2 mm (sand sized or smaller sediment). The cores were sampled at five centimeter depth increments and each sample was sieved to extract the silt- and clay-sized particles. After freeze-drying the samples, equivalent depth intervals from all the cores were combined to yield a spatially averaged sample with depth intervals of 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm, 10-15 cm, 15-20 cm and 20-25 cm. Radionuclide activities were measured using a Canberra low energy germanium detector (model GL2020R). Activities of Pb-210 at the time of deposition were estimated from suspended sediment samples collected during a high flow event (recurrence interval 0.24 years) that occurred on November 13, 2009. At a depth of 2.5 cm, the Pb-210 dating indicates that the silt-clay fine fraction of the hyporheic zone is 21.3 years old; fine sediment at a depth of 17.5 cm is 29.3 years old. Assuming that the time-averaged bed elevation has not changed over time, and that sediment at depth is periodically removed by scour and subsequently replaced by fill, methods of reservoir theory suggest that the turnover time of silt- and clay-sized particles in the hyporheic zone is about two years. Because deep scour events are apparently relatively rare, approximately 21 years are required to rework 90% of the bed. These results have important implications for contaminant remediation. Even if all ongoing sources of mercury to the South River are removed, several decades

  1. Comparison of optimised germanium gamma spectrometry and multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of 134Cs, 137Cs and 154Eu single ratios in highly burnt UO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, S.; Günther-Leopold, I.; Murphy, M. F.; Jatuff, F.; Chawla, R.

    2008-05-01

    Non-destructive and destructive methods have been compared to validate their corresponding assessed accuracies in the measurement of 134Cs/137Cs and 154Eu/137Cs isotopic concentration ratios in four spent UO2 fuel samples with very high (52 and 71 GWd/t) and ultra-high (91 and 126 GWd/t) burnup values, and about 10 (in the first three samples) and 4 years (in the latter sample) cooling time. The non-destructive technique tested was high-resolution gamma spectrometry using a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) and a special tomographic station for the handling of highly radioactive 400 mm spent fuel segments that included a tungsten collimator, lead filter (to enhance the signal to Compton background ratio and reduce the dead time) and paraffin wax (to reduce neutron damage). The non-destructive determination of these isotopic concentration ratios has been particularly challenging for these segments because of the need to properly derive non-Gaussian gamma-peak areas and subtract the background from perturbing capture gammas produced by the intrinsic high-intensity neutron emissions from the spent fuel. Additionally, the activity distribution within each pin was determined tomographically to correct appropriately for self-attenuation and geometrical effects. The ratios obtained non-destructively showed a 1σ statistical error in the range 1.9-2.9%. The destructive technique used was a high-performance liquid chromatographic separation system, combined online to a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HPLC-MC-ICP-MS), for the analysis of dissolved fuel solutions. During the mass spectrometric analyses, special care was taken in the optimisation of the chromatographic separation for Eu and the interfering element Gd, as also in the mathematical correction of the 154Gd background from the 154Eu signal. The ratios obtained destructively are considerably more precise (1σ statistical error in the range 0.4-0.8% for most of the samples, but up to

  2. Comparison of the Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide Levels in Adolescents at Three Schools Located Three Different Distances from a Large Steel Mill

    PubMed Central

    Acat, Murat; Yazıcı, Onur; Turğut, Mahmut; Çakar, Murat; Yaşar, Zehra; Deniz, Sami; Çetinkaya, Erdoğan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. Exposure to ambient metals and air pollutants in urban environments has been associated with impaired lung health and inflammation in the lungs. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a reliable marker of airway inflammation. In this study, we aimed to compare the FeNO levels of three schools that have different distances from iron and steel industry zone for assessing the effects of heavy metals and air pollution on their respiratory health. Methods. Pulmonary function test and FeNO measurements were evaluated in 387 adolescents in three schools which have different distance from plant. Results. FeNO levels were significantly higher in School I (n = 142; 18.89 ± 12.3 ppb) and School II (n = 131; 17.68 ± 7.7 ppb) than School III (n = 114; 4.28 ± 3.9 ppb). Increased FeNO concentration was related to the distance of iron and steel industry zone in young adults. Conclusion. The FeNO concentrations in school children were inversely proportional to the distance from the steel mill. There are needed some studies that can evaluate the safe distance and legislation must consider these findings. PMID:28265181

  3. Comparison of the Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide Levels in Adolescents at Three Schools Located Three Different Distances from a Large Steel Mill.

    PubMed

    Acat, Murat; Aydemir, Yusuf; Yazıcı, Onur; Turğut, Mahmut; Çörtük, Mustafa; Çakar, Murat; Yaşar, Zehra; Deniz, Sami; Çetinkaya, Erdoğan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. Exposure to ambient metals and air pollutants in urban environments has been associated with impaired lung health and inflammation in the lungs. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a reliable marker of airway inflammation. In this study, we aimed to compare the FeNO levels of three schools that have different distances from iron and steel industry zone for assessing the effects of heavy metals and air pollution on their respiratory health. Methods. Pulmonary function test and FeNO measurements were evaluated in 387 adolescents in three schools which have different distance from plant. Results. FeNO levels were significantly higher in School I (n = 142; 18.89 ± 12.3 ppb) and School II (n = 131; 17.68 ± 7.7 ppb) than School III (n = 114; 4.28 ± 3.9 ppb). Increased FeNO concentration was related to the distance of iron and steel industry zone in young adults. Conclusion. The FeNO concentrations in school children were inversely proportional to the distance from the steel mill. There are needed some studies that can evaluate the safe distance and legislation must consider these findings.

  4. 6. REMAINS OF 48' MILL SHIPPING BUILDING. THE END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF 48' MILL SHIPPING BUILDING. THE END OF THE MILL TABLE IS VISIBLE IN THE MIDDLE OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  5. 7. VIEW OF 46 X 110 BLOOMING AND SLABBING MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF 46 X 110 BLOOMING AND SLABBING MILL ROLL HOUSING IN THE PRIMARY MILL BUILDING LOOKING EAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Primary Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  6. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6: MICROSTRUCTURAL ENGINEERING IN HOT-STRIP MILLS Part 2 of 2: Constitutive Behavior Modeling of Steels Under Hot-Rolling Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yi-Wen Cheng; Patrick Purtscher

    1999-07-30

    This report describes the development of models for predicting (1) constitutive behaviors and (2) mechanical properties of hot-rolled steels as functions of chemical composition, microstructural features, and processing variables. The study includes the following eight steels: A36, DQSK, HSLA-V, HSLA-Nb, HSLA-50/Ti-Nb, and two interstitial-free (IF) grades. These developed models have been integrated into the Hot-Strip Mill Model (HSMM), which simulates the hot strip rolling mills and predicts the mechanical properties of hot-rolled products. The HSMM model has been developed by the University of British Columbia-Canada as a part of project on the microstructural engineering in hot-strip mills.

  7. Optimization of multi response in end milling process of ASSAB XW-42 tool steel with liquid nitrogen cooling using Taguchi-grey relational analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norcahyo, Rachmadi; Soepangkat, Bobby O. P.

    2017-06-01

    A research was conducted for the optimization of the end milling process of ASSAB XW-42 tool steel with multiple performance characteristics based on the orthogonal array with Taguchi-grey relational analysis method. Liquid nitrogen was applied as a coolant. The experimental studies were conducted under varying the liquid nitrogen cooling flow rates (FL), and the end milling process variables, i.e., cutting speed (Vc), feeding speed (Vf), and axial depth of cut (Aa). The optimized multiple performance characteristics were surface roughness (SR), flank wear (VB), and material removal rate (MRR). An orthogonal array, signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, grey relational analysis, grey relational grade, and analysis of variance were employed to study the multiple performance characteristics. Experimental results showed that flow rate gave the highest contribution for reducing the total variation of the multiple responses, followed by cutting speed, feeding speed, and axial depth of cut. The minimum surface roughness, flank wear, and maximum material removal rate could be obtained by using the values of flow rate, cutting speed, feeding speed, and axial depth of cut of 0.5 l/minute, 109.9 m/minute, 440 mm/minute, and 0.9 mm, respectively.

  8. Flank wears Simulation by using back propagation neural network when cutting hardened H-13 steel in CNC End Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazza, Muataz Hazza F. Al; Adesta, Erry Y. T.; Riza, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    High speed milling has many advantages such as higher removal rate and high productivity. However, higher cutting speed increase the flank wear rate and thus reducing the cutting tool life. Therefore estimating and predicting the flank wear length in early stages reduces the risk of unaccepted tooling cost. This research presents a neural network model for predicting and simulating the flank wear in the CNC end milling process. A set of sparse experimental data for finish end milling on AISI H13 at hardness of 48 HRC have been conducted to measure the flank wear length. Then the measured data have been used to train the developed neural network model. Artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to predict the flank wear length. The neural network contains twenty hidden layer with feed forward back propagation hierarchical. The neural network has been designed with MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox. The results show a high correlation between the predicted and the observed flank wear which indicates the validity of the models.

  9. Hydrogenous Gas Production through Reactions among Supercritical Water, Ironmaking Sludge, and Steelmaking Slag and Recycling of Wastes from Integrated Steel Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Shoji

    Automobile Shredder Residue (ASR) and Refuse derived fuels (not carbonized and carbonized: YRDF and RDF) as carbonaceous wastes were reacted isothermally with sub-supercritical water (600-695°C, 200 atm) together with a CO2 fixation reagent Ca(OH)2 inside a closed metallic tube reactor (7cm3). Product gas mainly consisted of hydrogen gas and a little methane gas except YRDF. As a whole, gas generated more in order ASR, YRDF, and RDF. Addition of catalysis NaOH or KOH made product gas increase more. KOH was more effective to product gas than NaOH. X-ray diffraction followed that Ca(OH)2 and CaCO3 existed mainly in residues after reaction tests with a CO2 fixation reagent Ca(OH)2 or CaO. Therefore, it was supposed that an overall chemical reaction took place as shown below. BOF steelmaking slag for CO2 fixation provided maximum gas generation 1.42 times as much as molar carbon in a RDF sample with KOH. C + H2O + Ca(OH)2 = CaCO3 + 2H2 Two kinds of wastes from integrated steel mills (sludge from mill scale and activated sludge) were each reacted with supercritical water (600-650°C, 200 atm). Both sludges were effective to generate hydrogenous gas. It was found that harmful cyan in the latter sludge mostly decomposed after reaction. Also, the crushing strength after curing the steelmaking slag bearing residue briquette was not as high as that from Portland cement.

  10. Study on anaerobic treatment of hazardous steel-mill waste rolling oil (SmWRO) for multi-benefit disposal route.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huanhuan; Li, Zifu; Yin, Fubin; Kao, William; Yin, Yi; Bai, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Steel-mill waste rolling oil (SmWRO) is considered as hazardous substance with high treatment and disposal fees. Anaerobic process could not only transform the hazardous substance into activated sludge, but also generate valuable biogas. This study aimed at studying the biochemical methane potential of SmWRO under inoculum to substrate VS ratios (ISRs) of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 using septic tank sludge as inoculum in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, with blank tests for control. Specific biogas yield (mL/g VS(added)), net biogas yield (mL/g VS(removed)) and VS removal were analyzed. The ANOVA results indicated great influence of ISR and temperature on studied parameters. ISR of 1.5 at 55°C and ISR of 1.5 and 2 at 35°C were suggested with the highest specific biogas yield (262-265 and 303mL/g VS(added)). Kinetic analysis showed that Gompertz model fit the experimental data best with the least RMSE and largest R(2). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of a Powder Metallurgical Hot Work Tool Steel with Harmonic Structure by Mechanical Milling and Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deirmina, Faraz; Pellizzari, Massimo; Federici, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Commercial AISI-H13 gas atomized powders (AT) were mechanically milled (MM) to refine both the particle size and the microstructure. Different volume fractions of coarser grained (CG) AT powders were mixed with the ultra-fine grained (UFG) MM and consolidated by spark plasma sintering to obtain bulks showing a harmonic structure (i.e. a 3D interconnected network of UFG areas surrounding the CG atomized particles). The low sintering temperature, 1373.15 K (1100 °C) and the short sintering time (30 minutes) made it possible to obtain near full density samples while preserving the refined microstructure induced by MM. A combination of high hardness and significantly improved fracture toughness is achieved by the samples containing 50 to 80 vol pct MM, essentially showing harmonic structure. The design allows to easily achieve specific application oriented properties by varying the MM volume fraction in the initial mixture. Hardness is governed by the fine-grained MM matrix and improved toughening is due to (1) deviatory effect of AT particles and (2) energy dissipation as a result of the decohesion in MM regions or AT and MM interface.

  12. Production of a Powder Metallurgical Hot Work Tool Steel with Harmonic Structure by Mechanical Milling and Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deirmina, Faraz; Pellizzari, Massimo; Federici, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    Commercial AISI-H13 gas atomized powders (AT) were mechanically milled (MM) to refine both the particle size and the microstructure. Different volume fractions of coarser grained (CG) AT powders were mixed with the ultra-fine grained (UFG) MM and consolidated by spark plasma sintering to obtain bulks showing a harmonic structure ( i.e. a 3D interconnected network of UFG areas surrounding the CG atomized particles). The low sintering temperature, 1373.15 K (1100 °C) and the short sintering time (30 minutes) made it possible to obtain near full density samples while preserving the refined microstructure induced by MM. A combination of high hardness and significantly improved fracture toughness is achieved by the samples containing 50 to 80 vol pct MM, essentially showing harmonic structure. The design allows to easily achieve specific application oriented properties by varying the MM volume fraction in the initial mixture. Hardness is governed by the fine-grained MM matrix and improved toughening is due to (1) deviatory effect of AT particles and (2) energy dissipation as a result of the decohesion in MM regions or AT and MM interface.

  13. "2sDR": Process Development of a Sustainable Way to Recycle Steel Mill Dusts in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rösler, Gernot; Pichler, Christoph; Antrekowitsch, Jürgen; Wegscheider, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    Significant amounts of electric arc furnace dust originating from steel production are recycled every year by the Waelz process, despite the fact that this type of process has several disadvantages. One alternative method would be the recovery of very high-quality ZnO as well as iron and even chromium in the two-step dust recycling process, which was invented to treat special waste for the recovery of heavy metal-containing residues. The big advantage of that process is that various types of residues, especially dusts, can be treated in an oxidizing first step for cleaning, with a subsequent reducing step for the metal recovery. After the treatment, three different fractions—dust, slag, and an iron alloy, can be used without any limitations. This study focuses on the development of the process along with some thermodynamic considerations. Moreover, a final overview of mass balances of an experiment performed in a 100-kg top blowing rotary converter with further developments is provided.

  14. 6. FLYWHEEL FOR THE 32/28 STRUCTURAL MILL. THE SMALL ELECTRIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FLYWHEEL FOR THE 32/28 STRUCTURAL MILL. THE SMALL ELECTRIC MOTOR IN FOREGROUND MAY HAVE BEEN USED TO HELP START THE MILL. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Structural Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  15. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ENGINE ROOM CONTAINING THE MESTA-CORLISS STEAM ENGINE, IS LOCATED AT THE FAR END OF THE MILL AS SEEN TO THE FAR RIGHT (THE BUILDING WITH THE SHED ROOF). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  16. Northwest view of steel plate "cans" in bay 7 of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northwest view of steel plate "cans" in bay 7 of the main pipe mill building. Historian for scale. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  17. 21. DIAGONAL VIEW OF THE 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE. SPARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DIAGONAL VIEW OF THE 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE. SPARE VERTICAL ROLLS ARE VISIBLE TO THE LEFT AND RIGHT OF THE ENGINE. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  18. 32. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE ADMISSION BOX (?), STEAM VALVE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE ADMISSION BOX (?), STEAM VALVE, AND REVERSING MECHANISM LIFTING CYLINDER. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  19. 18. OPERATOR'S SIDE OF 48' MILL STAND SHOWING DIALS, VERTICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. OPERATOR'S SIDE OF 48' MILL STAND SHOWING DIALS, VERTICAL ROLL SCREWDOWN, AND VIEW THROUGH HOUSING TO PINION STAND. Martin Stupich, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 17. ENGINE SIDE OF 48' MILL STAND SHOWING POWER CONNECTIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. ENGINE SIDE OF 48' MILL STAND SHOWING POWER CONNECTIONS TO PINION STAND AND VERTICAL ROLL SCREWDOWN MECHANISM. Martin Stupich, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  1. 10. SCALEBREAKER FOR THE 160' PLATE MILL. DELIVERY ROLL TABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SCALEBREAKER FOR THE 160' PLATE MILL. DELIVERY ROLL TABLE (ON THE RIGHT) WAS PAINTED BRIGHT YELLOW JUST BEFORE PHOTOGRAPH WAS TAKEN. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 160" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  2. 15. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE OF THE 22' BAR MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE OF THE 22' BAR MILL SHIPPING BUILDING No. 1 AT THE 10' SUTTON BAR STRAIGHTENER. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, 22-Inch Bar Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  3. VIEW WESTLEFTNO 1 WIRE MILL BUILDING 4 (1871) RIGHTNO 3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST-LEFT-NO 1 WIRE MILL BUILDING 4 (1871) RIGHT-NO 3 WIRE MILL BUILDING 9 (1876) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  4. VIEW NORTHEASTLEFTBUILDING 9 NO 3 WIRE MILL (1876) RIGHTBUILDING 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHEAST-LEFT-BUILDING 9 NO 3 WIRE MILL (1876) RIGHT-BUILDING 4 NO 1 WIRE MILL (1871) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  5. 10. LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE 21' MILL INSPECTION BUILDING, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE 21' MILL INSPECTION BUILDING, WITH PATTERN STORAGE BUILDING ON THE RIGHT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Primary Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  6. 30. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE CRANKSHAFT, BALANCE WHEEL, AND REVERSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE CRANKSHAFT, BALANCE WHEEL, AND REVERSING MECHANISM. Martin Stupich, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  7. Profiles in garbage: Steel cans

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1998-02-01

    Steel mills are the largest market for steel cans. Integrated mills use the basic oxygen process to manufacture tinplate, appliances, car bodies, and steel framing. Electric arc furnaces use 100% scrap to produce steel shapes such as railroad ties and bridge spans. Electric arc furnaces are more geographically diverse and tend to have smaller capacities than basic oxygen furnaces. Detinners remove the tin from steel cans for resale to tin using industries. With less tin use in steel cans, the importance of the detinning market has declined substantially. Foundries use scrap as a raw material in making castings and molds for industrial users.

  8. Waste product profile: Steel cans

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1996-07-01

    Steel cans are made from tinplate steel, which is produced in basic oxygen furnaces. A thin layer of tin is applied to the can`s inner and outer surfaces to prevent rusting and protect food and beverage flavors. As a result, steel cans are often called tin cans. Steel mills are the largest market for steel cans. Integrated mills use the basic oxygen process to manufacture tinplate, appliances, car bodies, and steel framing. Electric arc furnaces use 100% scrap to produce steel shapes such as railroad ties and bridge spans. Electric arc furnaces are more geographically diverse and tend to have smaller capacities than basic oxygen furnaces. Detinners remove the tin from steel cans for resale to tin using industries. Continued decreases in the amount of tin used in steel cans has lessened the importance of this market. Foundries use scrap as a raw material in making castings and molds for industrial users.

  9. 2. SOUTH FACADE OF THE 48' PLATE MILL BUILDINGS SHOWING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH FACADE OF THE 48' PLATE MILL BUILDINGS SHOWING, LEFT TO RIGHT, TWO FURNACE BAYS, THE MAIN MILL BUILDINGS, AND THE REMAINS OF THE SHIPPING BUILDING. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  10. Simulation of the longitudinal thickness deviation of the steel strips hot rolled in the continuous group of a broad-strip mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garber, E. A.; Pospelov, I. D.; Traino, A. I.; Savinykh, A. F.; Nikolaev, N. Yu.; Mishnev, P. A.

    2012-09-01

    A model for the formation of longitudinal thickness deviation in hot-rolled strips as a function of the rolling parameters and an algorithm for optimizing the rolling conditions for the criterion of the minimum longitudinal thickness deviation are developed and implemented in the form of computer programs. This optimization is performed by the redistribution of percent reductions over the stands of the finishing group in a broad-strip hot-rolling mill. As a result of the application and industrial tests of the developed computer programs on a 2000 rolling mill, the longitudinal thickness deviation of hot-rolled strips is decreased by a factor of 1.87.

  11. DOSE TO CURIE DETERMINATION FOR CONTAINERS WITH MEASURABLE CS-137

    SciTech Connect

    RATHBUN LA; ANDERSON JD; SWAN RJ

    2010-12-03

    The Next Generation Retrieval (NGR) project will retrieve suspect transuranic (TRU) waste containers from Trenches 17 and 27 in the 218-E-12B (12B) burial ground. The trenches were in operation from May 1970 through October 1972. A portion of the retrieved containers that will require shipment to and acceptance at a treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facility and the containers will be either remote-handled (RH) and/or contact-handled (CH). The method discussed in this document will be used for the RH and some of the CH containers to determine the radionuclide inventory. Waste disposition (shipment and TSD acceptance) requires that the radioactive content be characterized for each container. Source-term estimates using high resolution, shielded, gamma-ray scan assay techniques cannot be performed on a number of RH and other containers with high dose rates from {sup 137}Cs-{sup 137m}Ba. This document provides the method to quantify the radioactive inventory of fission product gamma emitters within the containers based on the surface dose rate measurements taken in the field with hand-held survey instruments.

  12. Plutonium and Cs-137 in autopsy tissues in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Popplewell, D S; Ham, G J; Dodd, N J; Shuttler, S D

    1988-03-01

    Tissues removed at autopsy from members of the general public contain significantly higher concentrations of plutonium and 137Cs in west Cumbrians than in people from three other regions of Great Britain. Several autopsy cases from Cumbria showed unusually high values of plutonium. Subsequently it was found that the subjects had been former employees of British Nuclear Fuels.

  13. Cs-137 concentration in reindeer and its fodder plants.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, K; Rahola, T

    1989-09-01

    Radionuclides, especially the long-lived 137Cs (physical half-life 30 years), are accumulated efficiently in the northern, subarctic, lichen-reindeer-man foodchain. Until the Chernobyl accident the fallout nuclides studied originated from nuclear weapons tests. After this accident some fresh fallout was deposited in Finnish Lapland. Lichens grow very slowly and collect nutrients very efficiently from air, rain and snow. During winter the basic fodder plants for reindeer are lichens and some winter-green plants, shrubs and dry leaves. During the bare-ground season, the reindeer eat various grasses, herbs and leaves etc. Lichens constitute 30-50 per cent of the entire vegetable mass consumed by the reindeer in a year. The highest 137Cs-concentration 2500 Bq/kg dry weight was found in lichen in the middle of the 1960s. In 1985 the concentration had decreased to about 240 Bq/kg dry weight. After the Chernobyl accident the 137Cs-concentration in lichen varied from 200 to 2000 Bq/kg dry weight in Finnish Lapland. In reindeer fodder plant samples collected in the 1980s before the Chernobyl accident the 137Cs-concentration varied from 5 to 970 Bq/kg dry weight. The highest 137Cs-concentration in reindeer meat, about 2500 Bq/kg fresh weight, was found in 1965 and thereafter decreased to about 300 Bq/kg fresh weight in the winter before the Chernobyl accident. After the accident the mean 137Cs-concentration in reindeer meat from the 1986-87 slaughtering period was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight and in 1987-88, 630 Bq/kg fresh weight.

  14. Validation of the Hot Strip Mill Model

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Shulkosky; David Rosberg; Jerrud Chapman

    2005-03-30

    The Hot Strip Mill Model (HSMM) is an off-line, PC based software originally developed by the University of British Columbia (UBC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) under the AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program. The HSMM was developed to predict the temperatures, deformations, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip or plate rolled in a hot mill. INTEG process group inc. undertook the current task of enhancing and validating the technology. With the support of 5 North American steel producers, INTEG process group tested and validated the model using actual operating data from the steel plants and enhanced the model to improve prediction results.

  15. 23. VIEW OF EAST END OF MILL. THE FOUR GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF EAST END OF MILL. THE FOUR GENERAL LEVELS OF THE MILL ARE SHOWN STEPPING DOWN THE HILLSIDE FROM SOUTH TO NORTH. THE 100-TON STEEL ORE BIN AND STEPHENS-ADAMSON 15TON INCLINED BUCKET ELEVATOR ARE ON THE CRUSHING LEVEL AT RIGHT. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT THE OTHER LEVELS ARE MILLING, LEACHING AND PRECIPITATION. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  16. 7 CFR 58.419 - Curd mill and miscellaneous equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., shovels, scoops, paddles, strainers, and miscellaneous equipment shall be stainless steel or of material... of the curd mill should be of stainless steel. All pieces of equipment shall be so constructed that... metal particles. The wires in the curd knives shall be stainless steel, kept tight and replaced...

  17. 7 CFR 58.419 - Curd mill and miscellaneous equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., shovels, scoops, paddles, strainers, and miscellaneous equipment shall be stainless steel or of material... of the curd mill should be of stainless steel. All pieces of equipment shall be so constructed that... metal particles. The wires in the curd knives shall be stainless steel, kept tight and replaced...

  18. Geological and physicochemical controls of the spatial distribution of partition coefficients for radionuclides (Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60, Pu-239,240 and Am-241) at a site of nuclear reactors and radioactive waste disposal (St. Petersburg region, Russian Federation).

    PubMed

    Rumynin, Vyacheslav G; Nikulenkov, Anton M

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents a study of the sorption properties of sediments of different geological ages and lithological types, governing radionuclide retention in the subsurface (up to 160 m beneath the surface) within the area of potential influence of the Northwestern Center of Atomic Energy (NWCAE), St. Petersburg region, RF. The focus of this work is mostly on the sedimentary rocks of two types, i.e., weakly cemented sandstone and lithified clay formations of Cambrian and Vendian series. The first lithological unit is associated with a groundwater reservoir (Lomonosov aquifer), and the second one, with both a relative aquitard in the upper part of the Vendian formation (Kotlin clay) and a regional aquifer (Gdov aquifer) in the lower part of the formation. The main mechanisms responsible for the variability of the sorption distribution coefficient (Kd, defined as the ratio of the concentration of solute on solid phase to its concentration in solution at equilibrium) was identified for radionuclides such as Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60, Pu-239,240, and Am-241. It was shown that the main factors contributing to the chemical heterogeneity of the Cambrian sandstone were related to the presence of secondary minerals (iron and magnesium oxides and hydroxides produced by the weathering process) in trace amounts, forming correlated layer structures. The statistical analysis of nonlinear isotherms confirmed this conclusion. For the Vendian formation, a determinate trend was established in the Kd change over depth as a result of temporal trends in the sedimentation process and pore-water chemistry. The geostatistical characteristics and the spatial correlation models for describing linear sorption of different radionuclides are not identical, and the exhibition of chemical heterogeneity of sedimentary rock of a particular lithological type depends on radionuclide chemistry. Moreover, variogram analysis for some Kd data sets (both in Cambrian and Vendian formations) demonstrates the

  19. 21. View northwest under bridge showing steel girders, cross beams, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View northwest under bridge showing steel girders, cross beams, bracing, and walkway of west approach span. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  20. 20. View southwest under bridge showing steel girder, cross beams, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View southwest under bridge showing steel girder, cross beams, and bracing of bascule leaves. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  1. 33. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, 1800HORSEPOWER CORLISS STEAM ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, 1800-HORSEPOWER CORLISS STEAM ENGINE AND FLYWEEL FOR 22-INCH MILL, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  2. Large-Scale Evaluation of Nickel Aluminide Rools In A Heat-Treat Furnace at Bethlehem Steel's (now ISG) Burns Harbor Plate Mill

    SciTech Connect

    John Mengel; Anthony Martocci; Larry Fabina; RObert Petrusha; Ronald Chango

    2003-09-01

    At Bethlehem Steel Burns Harbor Plate Division (now ISG Burns Harbor Plate Inc.)'s annealing furnace, new nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls provide greater high-temperature strength and wear resistance compared to the conventional H series cast austenitic alloys currently used in the industry, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem (ISG) partnered under a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology's Emerging Technology Deployment Program to demonstrate and evaluate the nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated energy efficient large commercial annealing furnace system.

  3. Roll mill for milling coal

    SciTech Connect

    Brundiek, H.; Werner, L.

    1984-02-21

    A roll mill, more specially for coal, has a turning pan and a number of rolls running thereon for producing a milling effect. Each roll is supported on a rocker arm, able to be turned about a horizontal axis which is roughly tangential to the pan. The rocker arm and the roll on it are forced down against the pan by a hydraulic cylinder joined with a fork which, in turn, is joined with the rocker arm for turning it about the turnpin. The fork may be unjoined from the rocker arm for upkeep work on the roll. Each rocker arm has a gas-tight cover structure which is part of the casing of the mill.

  4. Diamond machining of steel molds for optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohr, Roland

    2016-08-01

    The requirement of ultra precision diamond machining of lens molds in steel is identified. A solution for this type of machining is presented and results of such a machining in steel compared to standard milling and polishing process are shown.

  5. Looking northwest at central boiler house, with 16" skelp mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northwest at central boiler house, with 16" skelp mill furnace building in foreground. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Central Boiler House, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  6. VIEW SOUTHEASTBUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHEAST-BUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING MACHINE - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  7. VIEW NORTHWESTBUILDING 35 CLINTON STREET WIRE MILL (1899) John ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHWEST-BUILDING 35 CLINTON STREET WIRE MILL (1899) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  8. VIEW SOUTHSOUTH CLINTON AVENUE BUILDING 35 CLINTON ST. WIRE MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH-SOUTH CLINTON AVENUE BUILDING 35 CLINTON ST. WIRE MILL (1899) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  9. Investigation of the influence of the chemical composition of HSLA steel grades on the microstructure homogeneity during hot rolling in continuous rolling mills using a fast layer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtchen, M.; Rimnac, A.; Warczok, P.; Kozeschnik, E.; Bernhard, C.; Bragin, S.; Kawalla, R.; Linzer, B.

    2016-03-01

    The newly developed LaySiMS simulation tool provides new insight for inhomogeneous material flow and microstructure evolution in an endless strip production (ESP) plant. A deepened understanding of the influence of inhomogeneities in initial material state, temperature profile and material flow and their impact on the finished product can be reached e.g. by allowing for variable layer thickness distributions in the roll gap. Coupling temperature, deformation work and work hardening/recrystallization phenomena accounts for covering important effects in the roll gap. The underlying concept of the LaySiMS approach will be outlined and new insight gained regarding microstructural evolution, shear and inhomogeneous stress and strain states in the roll gap as well as local residual stresses will be presented. For the case of thin slab casting and direct rolling (TSDR) the interrelation of inhomogeneous initial state, micro structure evolution and dissolution state of micro alloying elements within the roughing section of an ESP line will be discussed. Special emphasis is put on the influence of the local chemical composition arising from direct charging on throughthickness homogeneity of the final product. It is concluded that, due to the specific combination of large reductions in the high reduction mills (HRM) and the highly inhomogeneous inverse temperature profile, the ESP-concept provides great opportunities for homogenizing the microstructure across the strip thickness.

  10. 22. GENERAL VIEW OF MILL FROM SOUTHEAST. PROMINENT ARE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. GENERAL VIEW OF MILL FROM SOUTHEAST. PROMINENT ARE THE 100-TON STEEL CRUSHED UNOXIDIZED ORE BIN, CENTER LEFT; STEPHENS-ADAMSON 15 TON/HR INCLINED BUCKET ELEVATOR IN FRONT OF THE STEEL ORE BIN; AND THE BAKER COOLER, LOWER RIGHT. THESE MACHINES AND OTHERS IN THE AREA WERE PART OF THE UNOXIDIZED ORE CIRCUIT. THE ROASTER IS OUT OF THE PICTURE TO THE RIGHT (EAST). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  11. View looking east in the main pipe mill building at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking east in the main pipe mill building at the operators pulpit of the east-west reelers, no. 2 seamless line. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  12. 7. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST INSIDE OF 22' BAR MILL MOTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST INSIDE OF 22' BAR MILL MOTOR ROOM AT MOTOR/GEAR DRIVE ASSEMBLY FOR THE THREE HIGH, 28 ROUGHING ROLL STAND. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, 22-Inch Bar Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  13. 8. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE OF THE 22' BAR MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE OF THE 22' BAR MILL MOTOR ROOM AT THE REVERSING MOTOR/GEAR DRIVE ASSEMBLY FOR THE TWO-HIGH 22 FINISHING ROLL STANDS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, 22-Inch Bar Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 6. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH INSIDE OF 22' BAR MILL MOTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH INSIDE OF 22' BAR MILL MOTOR ROOM AT MOTOR/GEAR DRIVE ASSEMBLY FOR THE THREE HIGH, 28 ROUGHING ROLL STAND. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, 22-Inch Bar Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  15. DISCHARGE END OF 8" MILL REHEATING FURNACE, SHOWING MOTOROPERATED PEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISCHARGE END OF 8" MILL REHEATING FURNACE, SHOWING MOTOR-OPERATED PEEL BAR PUSHER WITH PINCH ROLLS FOR MOVING BILLETS ENDWISE OUT THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE FURNACE TOWARD THE CONTINUOUS ROUGHING TRAIN. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  16. Large-scale Evaluation of Nickel Aluminide Rolls in a Heat-Treat Furnace at Bethelehem Steel's (Now ISG) Burns Harbor Plate Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Mengel, J.

    2003-12-16

    At Bethlehem Steel Burns Harbor Plate Division (now ISG Burns Harbor Plate Inc.)'s annealing furnace, new nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls provide greater high-temperature strength and wear resistance compared to the conventional H series cast austenitic alloys currently used in the industry. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem (ISG) partnered under a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology's Emerging Technology Deployment Program to demonstrate and evaluate the nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated energy efficient large commercial annealing furnace system. Many challenges were involved in this project, including developing welding procedures for joining nickel aluminide intermetallic alloys with H-series austenitic alloys, developing commercial cast roll manufacturing specifications, working with several commercial suppliers to produce a quantity of high quality, reproducible nickel aluminide rolls for a large steel industrial annealing furnace, installing and demonstrating the capability of the rolls in this furnace, performing processing trials to evaluate the benefits of new equipment and processes, and documenting the findings. Updated furnace equipment including twenty-five new automated furnace control dampers have been installed replacing older design, less effective units. These dampers, along with upgraded flame-safety control equipment and new AC motors and roll-speed control equipment, are providing improved furnace control and additional energy efficiency. Energy data shows up to a 34% energy reduction from baseline after the installation of upgraded furnace damper controls along with up to a 34% reduction in greenhouse gases, potential for an additional 3 to 6% energy reduction per campaign of light-up and shutdown, and a 46% energy reduction from baseline for limited trials of a combination of improved damper control and straight-through plate processing. The straight-through processing

  17. 8" MILL CONTINUOUS ROUGHING TRAIN, SHOWING PULPIT (R), STANDS #0,1,2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8" MILL CONTINUOUS ROUGHING TRAIN, SHOWING PULPIT (R), STANDS #0,1,2, TRANSFER TABLE B, AND STANDS #3,4,5,(L). STEEL BEING ROLLED MOVES FROM RIGHT TO LEFT. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  18. Investigation of respirable particulate matter pollutants on air-breathing zone workers in the Beam Rolling Mills Factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group), Ahvaz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Masoud; Gadgil, Alaka S.; Ghole, Vikram S.; Jaafarzadeh, Neemat; Gore, Sharad D.; Aberomand, Mohammad; Shabab, Mitra

    2008-01-01

    Workers of iron and steel factories are exposed to a wide range of pollutants depending on the particular process, the materials involved, the effectiveness of monitoring and the control measures. Adverse effects are determined by the physical state and propensities of the pollutant involved, the intensity and duration of the exposure, the extent of pollutant accumulation in the body and the sensitivity of the individual to its effects. The main aim of this study is to assess the levels of the indoor respirable particulate matter (RPM) and to compare the health condition of exposed workers, with nonexposed employees group. Line 630 has only one furnace of 40 tons and line 650 has two furnaces of 20 and 40 tons capacity due to which the mean of the RPM concentrations in the breathing zone was significantly different (P < 0.05) in line 650 but not in line 630 as compared with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Hygiene's (3 mg/m3). The average of the RPM concentrations in production line 650 is higher than that of production line 630, with the 95% confidence interval in saw cabin station number 1 of production line 650. PMID:20040982

  19. Wheat Fields, Flour Mills, and Railroads: A Web of Interdependence. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koman, Rita G.

    By 1860 much of the beauty of St. Anthony Falls in Minneapolis (Minnesota) had been destroyed, as mills on both sides of the river used the power of the falls to turn millions of bushels of wheat into flour. Steel rails linked bonanza farms hundreds of miles to the west to the mills. The mills, the farms, and the railroads depended on each other…

  20. 45. FINISHING STANDS, 98INCH CONTINUOUS HOT STRIP MILL, WORLD'S LARGEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. FINISHING STANDS, 98-INCH CONTINUOUS HOT STRIP MILL, WORLD'S LARGEST AT THE TIME OF INSTALLATION IN 1937. THE MILL WAS REPLACED BY A NEW 84-INCH MILL IN 1971 AND IS SEEN HERE PARTIALLY DISMANTLED IN PREPARATION FOR DEMOLITION. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  1. VIEW EASTLEFTBUILDING 4NO 1 WIRE MILL (1871) RIGHTBUILDING 25NO 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW EAST-LEFT-BUILDING 4-NO 1 WIRE MILL (1871) RIGHT-BUILDING 25-NO 2 WIRE MILL (c.1853) RIGHT-BUILDING 23 WIRE MILL & PATENTING (1853 & 1900)-BEHIND 25 CENTER-PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE (C.1873) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  2. Wear mechanisms of milling inserts: Dry and wet cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, J.; Tung, S.C.; Barber, G.C.

    1998-07-01

    There is less literature on wear of milling tools than on wear of turning tools because milling is one of the most complicated machining operations. The intermittent milling action creates mechanical and thermal surges that distinguish milling from single-point machining. A systematic tool life study for face milling inserts was conducted with and without coolant. Workpieces made of 4140 steel were cut by C5 grade carbide inserts under various cutting conditions. The comparison between dry and wet cutting shows that caution should be taken when applying a coolant for milling operations. Special tests should be carried out in evaluating potential coolant candidates. It is not always true that coolant enhances tool life for milling. Wear mechanisms are presented by means of war maps. Identified wear mechanisms are: micro-attrition, micro-abrasion, mechanical fatigue, thermal fatigue, thermal pitting, and edge chipping.

  3. View of interior of abandoned section of rail mill where ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of interior of abandoned section of rail mill where the roof has been removed (note the steel frame structure that supported the traveling crane); looking south - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  4. 7 CFR 58.419 - Curd mill and miscellaneous equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., shovels, scoops, paddles, strainers, and miscellaneous equipment shall be stainless steel or of material approved in the 3-A Sanitary Standards for Plastic and Rubber-like Material. The product contact surfaces of the curd mill should be of stainless steel. All pieces of equipment shall be so constructed that...

  5. 7 CFR 58.419 - Curd mill and miscellaneous equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., shovels, scoops, paddles, strainers, and miscellaneous equipment shall be stainless steel or of material approved in the 3-A Sanitary Standards for Plastic and Rubber-like Material. The product contact surfaces of the curd mill should be of stainless steel. All pieces of equipment shall be so constructed that...

  6. 7 CFR 58.419 - Curd mill and miscellaneous equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., shovels, scoops, paddles, strainers, and miscellaneous equipment shall be stainless steel or of material approved in the 3-A Sanitary Standards for Plastic and Rubber-like Material. The product contact surfaces of the curd mill should be of stainless steel. All pieces of equipment shall be so constructed that...

  7. Demonstration of a silicon nitride attrition mill for production of fine pure Si and Si3N4 powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, T. P.; Glasgow, T. K.; Orth, N. W.

    1984-01-01

    To avoid metallic impurities normally introduced by milling ceramic powders in conventional steel hardware, an attrition mill (high-energy stirred ball mill) was constructed with the wearing parts (mill body, stirring arms, and media) made from silicon nitride. Commercial silicon and Si3N4 powders were milled to fine uniform particles with only minimal contamination - primarily from wear of the sintered Si3N4 media.

  8. Study of Hard Milling Surfaces Via Nondestructive Magnetic Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čilliková, Mária; Neslušan, Miroslav; Mičietová, Anna; Kejzlar, Pavel

    2016-12-01

    Grinding operations are sometimes replaced with hard turning or milling cycles. Mechanism of chip separation during grinding and the corresponding surface integrity remarkably differs from hard turning or milling. For this reason, this paper deals with application of Barkhausen noise for evaluation of surface anisotropy after hard milling. Experiments were carried out on bearing steel 100CrMn6 hardened on 45, 55, 62 HRC and one series without heat treatment. The analysis contains comparison of RMS values for the different hardness and tool wear after hard milling and also discusses the specific mechanism of BW motion in the case of cyclic magnetization.

  9. 30. STEEL INGOTS RECEIVE THEIR FIRST ROLLING ON THE 44INCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. STEEL INGOTS RECEIVE THEIR FIRST ROLLING ON THE 44-INCH BLOOMING MILL, SHOWN HERE. BLOOMS THEN TRAVEL ON ROLLERS DIRECTLY TO THE 21-INCH MILL AND/OR THE 18-INCH MILL FOR FURTHER REDUCTION INTO BILLETS. BLOOMING MILL WAS BUILT FOR THE CORRIGAN, McKINNEY CO. BY THE UNITED ENGINEERING & FOUNDRY CO. OF PITTSBURGH. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  10. The interrelationship between environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in integrated paper and steel plants

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the interrelationships between plant-level productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental improvements for integrated pulp and paper mills and integrated steel mills in the US. Integrated paper and steel plants are defined as those facilities that use some form of onsite raw material to produce final products (for example, paper and paperboard or finished steel). Fully integrated pulp and paper mills produce onsite the pulp used to manufacture paper from virgin wood fiber, secondary fiber, or nonwood fiber. Fully integrated steel mills process steel from coal, iron ore, and scrap inputs and have onsite coke oven facilities.

  11. 36. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, 1000HORSEPOWER CORLISS STEAM ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, 1000-HORSEPOWER CORLISS STEAM ENGINE AND FLYWHEEL FOR 14-INCH MILL, 1910. (From the Jefferson County Historical society Collection, Townsend, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  12. 77 FR 67593 - Steel Import Monitoring and Analysis System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... International Trade Administration 19 CFR Part 360 RIN 0625-AA93 Steel Import Monitoring and Analysis System... modifications to the regulations for the Steel Import Monitoring and Analysis (SIMA) System that would extend... as possible certain steel mill imports into the United States and make the import data...

  13. 12. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (MONADNOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (MONADNOCK CHILEAN) FROM EAST, c. 1912. ELEVATOR No. 1 ADJACENT TO MILL. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  14. Method of Making Steel Strapping and Strip

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-10

    Fact sheet written for the Inventions and Innovation Program about a new method for making steel strapping and strip from rod stock produced from scrap steel. There is a large movement in the American steel industry to utilize more recycled steel. Recycled steel melted in the electric arc furnaces of mini-mills is being used as the source of raw materials for an increasing number of products, largely due to its lower price. However, conventional processes for producing steel strapping and cold-rolled strip steel restrict manufacturers from using more than 50% recycled steel. In addition, steel strapping and cold-rolled strip steel traditionally require many production steps. They are produced from primary steel that has been cast into slab, heated, rolled to achieve the desired thickness, and slit to the desired width. The slitting process produces microcracks along the edge of the strapping or strip, which reduce tensile strength. A new continuous process produces steel strapping and 1/2 inch to 6 inch strip steel from the rod and strip stock made from scrap steel in mini-mills. The new process creates steel strapping and strip with improved strength and quality due to the absence of microcracks caused by the conventional slitting process. The finished product is cheaper because of the lower cost associated with using rod ad lower conversion costs. In addition, the higher tensile strength of the product allows for thinner strapping. The process represents a new approach to producing any steel strapping used for bundling and packaging items for storage or transport. In addition, this innovative new process can be used to produce cold-rolled strip steel, a basic raw material for automobile parts, hardware, office equipment, and many other products.

  15. VIEW EASTLEFTNO 1 WIRE MILL BUILDING 4 (1871) POWER HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW EAST-LEFT-NO 1 WIRE MILL BUILDING 4 (1871) POWER HOUSE BUILDING 3 (1880) BOILER HOUSE BUILDING 2 (1872)-3 STORY MAIN OFFICE BUILDING 1 (1879) CENTER-PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE (c.1873) RIGHT-NO 2 WIRE MILL BUILDING 25 (c.1853) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  16. Biomass torrefaction mill

    DOEpatents

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  17. Casing window milling with abrasive fluid jet

    SciTech Connect

    Vestavik, O.M.; Fidtje, T.H.; Faure, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    Methods for through tubing re-entry drilling of multilateral wells has a large potential for increasing hydrocarbon production and total recovery. One of the bottle-necks of this technology is initiation of the side-track by milling a window in the casing downhole. A new approach to this problem has been investigated in a joint industry project. An experimental set-up has been built for milling a 4 inch window in a 7 inch steel casing at surface in the laboratory. A specially designed bit developed at RIF using abrasive jet cutting technology has been used for the window milling. The bit has an abrasive jet beam which is always directed in the desired side-track direction, even if the bit is rotating uniformly. The bit performs the milling with a combined mechanical and hydraulic jet action. The method has been successfully demonstrated. The experiments has shown that the window milling can be performed with very low WOB and torque, and that only small side forces are required to perform the operation. Casing milling has been performed without a whipstock, a cement plug has been the only support for the tool. The tests indicate that milling operations can be performed more efficiently with less time and costs than what is required with conventional techniques. However, the method still needs some development of the downhole motor for coiled tubing applications. The method can be used both for milling and drilling giving the advantage of improved rate of penetration, improved bit life and increased horizontal reach. The method is planned to be demonstrated downhole in the near future.

  18. 75 FR 71463 - Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised... of Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina, to apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance... yarn produced by Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina Woodland Mills...

  19. 46. 84INCH STRIP MILL. SLABS ROLLED AT THE PLANT'S SLABBING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. 84-INCH STRIP MILL. SLABS ROLLED AT THE PLANT'S SLABBING MILL ARE REHEATED IN ONE OF TWO CONTINUOUS FURNACES, THEN PUSHED OUT ONTO A CONVEYOR THAT CARRIES THEM TO THE ROUGHING AND FINISHING STANDS. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  20. VIEW WESTBUILDING 23WIRE MILL & PATENTING (c.1853 & c.1900)CENTER BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST-BUILDING 23-WIRE MILL & PATENTING (c.1853 & c.1900)-CENTER BUILDING 25- NO 2 WIRE MILL (c.1853) BEHIND 23 TO RIGHT - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  1. 31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: View down at the mill from top of the mill's circular masonry enclosure. Mill animals circling above the mill, on top of the enclosure, dragged booms radiating from the drive shaft to power the mill. The drive-shaft is no longer in its upright positon but is lying next to the mill in the foreground. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  2. VIEW OF TENNESSEE COAL & IRON (TCI) U.S. STEEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TENNESSEE COAL & IRON (TCI) - U.S. STEEL, ENSLEY RAIL MILL SITE. POWERHOUSE IN LEFT BACKGROUND, MIXER IN RIGHT FOREGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  3. 12. VIEW TO SOUTH, BRICK SKINNER SALT ROASTER AND STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW TO SOUTH, BRICK SKINNER SALT ROASTER AND STEEL SKINNER SALT ROASTER. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  4. 13. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, BRICK SKINNER SALT ROASTER AND STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, BRICK SKINNER SALT ROASTER AND STEEL SKINNER SALT ROASTER. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  5. 70. PRIMARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER No. 2 FROM NORTHWEST. MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. PRIMARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER No. 2 FROM NORTHWEST. MILL DISCHARGED INTO LAUNDER WHICH PIERCED THE SIDE OF THE CLASSIFIER PAN. WOOD LAUNDER WITHIN CLASSIFIER VISIBLE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS). HORIZONTAL WOOD PLANKING BEHIND MILL IS FEED BOX. MILL SOLUTION PIPING RUNS ALONG BASE OF WEST SIDE OF CLASSIFIER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  6. Interior of rail mill, now an iron foundry; Foundrymen are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of rail mill, now an iron foundry; Foundrymen are pouring the molten iron into the ladle which will then be positioned for pouring into the molds (the final products are ingot molds) - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  7. BRASS MILL #72 SLITTER, OPERATED BY JOSEPH WAGNER, FORMERLY AN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRASS MILL #72 SLITTER, OPERATED BY JOSEPH WAGNER, FORMERLY AN EMPLOYEE OF REPUBLIC STEEL IN BUFFALO. BRASS STRIP FROM THE SLITTE IS USED ON THE BUFFALO PLANT'S CONTINUOUS SEAMLESS TUBE LINE. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  8. 52. SLABBING AND BLOOMING MILLS AND FOUNDRY (IN FOREGROUND), AS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. SLABBING AND BLOOMING MILLS AND FOUNDRY (IN FOREGROUND), AS SEEN FROM THE CLARK AVENUE BRIDGE. AT RIGHT, REAR, IS THE BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE. VIEW LOOKING NORTH. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  9. 6. FF coal pulverizer (ball mill inside). GG building in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FF coal pulverizer (ball mill inside). GG building in background did preliminary crushing; pulverizer to left, coal conveyor and air cleaning towers to right; conveyor on left brought crushed coal to FF. Looking north/northeast - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  10. 78 FR 76279 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... PRC companies: Hunan Valin Xiangtan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd. (``Hunan Valin''), Shanghai Pudong Iron and Steel Co. (``Shanghai Pudong''), and the company grouping Bao/Baoshan Iron and Steel Corp., Baoshan... hot-rolled iron and non-alloy steel universal mill plates (i.e., flat-rolled products rolled on four...

  11. Agile Thermal Management STT-RX. Catalytic Influence of Ni-based Additives on the Dehydrogentation Properties of Ball Milled MgH2 (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    whereas the clamp speed is 1060 cycles per minute. The hydrides were milled in a 65-cm3 stainless steel vial using 15 stainless steel grinding balls ... balls in the high-energy vibratory mill combines strong shearing and impact forces in various proportions to increase the free energy of the system by...the dehydrogentation properties of ball milled MgH2 (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F

  12. Effects of Processing and Powder Size on Microstructure and Reactivity in Arrested Reactive Milled Al + Ni

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Four stainless steel vials were used at random to reduce the dependence of milling on any contaminant deposits or difference in roughness on the inside...surfaces. It is shown in Ref. [32] that contamination is an order of magnitude less when using stainless steel vials and grinding media: 0.35% Fe... contamination was reported for 8 h of continuous milling [21]. Each ball-milling experiment is performed with a molar ratio of Ni0.5Al0.5 with three differ

  13. VIEW SOUTHEAST LEFTBUILDING 25NO 2 WIRE MILL (c. 1853) CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHEAST LEFT-BUILDING 25-NO 2 WIRE MILL (c. 1853) CENTER BUILDING 27 PATTERN SHOP (c.1853) NEXT BUILDING 28 BLACKSMITH SHOP (1885) NEXT BUILDING 32 MACHINE SHOP (1890) EXTREME RIGHT-DOBBINS BUILDING (NOT AM STEEL & WIRE) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  14. Compound taper milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, N. R.

    1969-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive milling machine tapers panels from a common apex to a uniform height at panel edge regardless of the panel perimeter configuration. The machine consists of an adjustable angled beam upon which the milling tool moves back and forth above a rotatable table upon which the workpiece is held.

  15. Bay Mills' Bold Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It's a long, long way from Bay Mills Community College, near the shores of frigid Lake Superior, to Detroit. But distance, time and demographics aside, the school and the city are united by Bay Mills' status as the nation's only tribally controlled college that authorizes quasi-public schools, known officially as public school academies. And it's…

  16. Bay Mills' Bold Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It's a long, long way from Bay Mills Community College, near the shores of frigid Lake Superior, to Detroit. But distance, time and demographics aside, the school and the city are united by Bay Mills' status as the nation's only tribally controlled college that authorizes quasi-public schools, known officially as public school academies. And it's…

  17. Microstructure Engineering in Hot Strip Mills, Part 1 of 2: Integrated mathematical Model

    SciTech Connect

    J.K. Brimacombe; I.V. Samaraseker; E.B. Hawbolt; T.R. Meadowcroft; M. Militzer; W.J. Pool; D.Q. Jin

    1998-09-30

    This report describes the work of developing an integrated model used to predict the thermal history, deformation, roll forces, microstructural evaluation and mechanical properties of steel strip in a hot-strip mill. This achievement results from a join research effort that is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AISI) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. DOE and fifteen North American steel makers.

  18. In-Orbit Construction with a Helical Seam Pipe Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilhooley, N.

    The challenges of building large structures in space, and in particular a torus habitat, require novel processes. One potential method is to manufacture helical seam (also called spiral) pipe in orbit using a pipe mill. These machines turn rolls of steel or alloy into fully formed, welded and inspected pipe, pressure vessels and silos of various diameters. Pipe mills are highly automated and efficient in a factory environment and are increasingly being used for in-situ repair. By constructing in-orbit (on-orbit assembly) the launch vehicle can supply full payloads of compact, robust rolls of material; and the installation design is less restricted by fairing constraints and modular limitations. The use of a pipe mill is discussed as a possible construction method, for comparison an example design envelope is shown and further pipe mill products are considered.

  19. Coiling Temperature Control in Hot Strip Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanari, Hiroyuki; Fujiyama, Hiroaki

    Coiling temperature is one of the most significant factors in products of hot strip mill to determine material properties such as strength, toughness of steel, so it is very important to achieve accurate coiling temperature control (CTC). Usually there are a few pyrometers on the run out table in hot strip mill, therefore temperature model and its adapting system have large influences on the accuracy of CTC. Also unscheduled change of rolling speed has a bad effect to keep coiling temperature as its target. Newly developed CTC system is able to get very accurate coiling temperature against uncertain factors and disturbances by adopting easily identified temperature model, learning method and dynamic set up function. The features of the CTC system are discussed with actual data, and the effectiveness of the system is shown by actual control results.

  20. 102. VIEW OF PILOT MILL INTERIOR, MILLING LEVEL FROM WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. VIEW OF PILOT MILL INTERIOR, MILLING LEVEL FROM WEST. BALL MILL FOUNDATION IN FOREGROUND, SLOPED CLASSIFIER BED AND CALCINE BIN ADJACENT, WITH CRUSHER IN BACKGROUND. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  1. 32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: End of mill into which cane was fed between top and bottom roll. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  2. Relationship between Rice Sample Milling Conditions and Milling Quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of milling conditions on milling quality of medium grain rough rice M202. Using a McGill No. 3 mill, the conditions studied were milling weight and duration, and polishing weight and duration. This research examined the relationships among the...

  3. 13. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (ALLIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (ALLIS CHALMERS BALL MILL) FROM EAST, c. 1919. ELECTRIC MOTOR AND DRIVE SHAFT CLEARLY VISIBLE. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  4. 9. Monadnock Mills complex from the south. Mill No. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Monadnock Mills complex from the south. Mill No. 1 is in the center, with the Wheel and Pump House and Mill No. 2 to the left, and the Clothroom Building/Bleach House to the right. - Monadnock Mills, 15 Water Street, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  5. 77 FR 28568 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; North American Stainless, (Stainless Steel), Ghent, KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... Steel), Ghent, KY Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as... authority to establish a special-purpose subzone at the stainless steel mill of North American Stainless... subzone status for activity related to the manufacturing and distribution of stainless steel at...

  6. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... management program at all mills involved in producing steel, plate, coil, skelp, and/or rolling pipe to be... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional design requirements for steel pipe...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.112 Additional design requirements for steel pipe...

  7. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... management program at all mills involved in producing steel, plate, coil, skelp, and/or rolling pipe to be... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional design requirements for steel pipe...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.112 Additional design requirements for steel pipe...

  8. 33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: From above the mill showing the three 15' x 22' horizontal rolls, mill frame or cheeks, portland cement foundation, and lower part of vertical drive shaft lying next mill in foreground. The loose metal piece resting on top of the mill frame matched the indented portion of the upper frame to form a bracket and bearing for the drive shaft when it was in its proper upright position. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  9. 30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1885-1870. View: Masonry-lined passage-way leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away. Bridges over the passageways, no longer in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  10. Ball-milled sulfur-doped graphene materials contain metallic impurities originating from ball-milling apparatus: their influence on the catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Chua, Chun Kiang; Sofer, Zdeněk; Khezri, Bahareh; Webster, Richard D; Pumera, Martin

    2016-07-21

    Graphene materials have found applications in a wide range of devices over the past decade. In order to meet the demand for graphene materials, various synthesis methods are constantly being improved or invented. Ball-milling of graphite to obtain graphene materials is one of the many versatile methods to easily obtain bulk quantities. In this work, we show that the graphene materials produced by ball-milling are spontaneously contaminated with metallic impurities originating from the grinding bowls and balls. Ball-milled sulfur-doped graphene materials obtained from two types of ball-milling apparatus, specifically made up of stainless steel and zirconium dioxide, were investigated. Zirconium dioxide-based ball-milled sulfur-doped graphene materials contain a drastically lower amount of metallic impurities than stainless steel-based ball-milled sulfur-doped graphene materials. The presence of metallic impurities is demonstrated by their catalytic effects toward the electrochemical catalysis of hydrazine and cumene hydroperoxide. The general impression toward ball-milling of graphite as a versatile method for the bulk production of 'metal-free' graphene materials without the need for post-processing and the selection of ball-milling tools should be cautioned. These findings would have wide-reaching implications for graphene research.

  11. The Milling Assistant

    SciTech Connect

    Burd, W.C.

    1989-09-01

    A knowledge based computer program that assists programmers of Numerically Controlled (NC) machine tools is described. The program uses part features identified by the NC programmer at a CAD/CAM graphics display and a set of manufacturing rules to select machining parameters and produce NC part programs. An expert system determines the correct NC sequence and the machining parameters. Both milled and point-to-point features are programmed by the Milling Assistant. Examples are included to illustrate the problem domain. Extensions to the Milling Assistant are described. 11 refs.

  12. 1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Large rectangular piece lying in front of the mill is the top of the mill frame appearing in its proper place in 1928 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  13. 13. VIEW OF THE MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING THE MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING THE MILL, TRESTLES, A WAREHOUSE AT THE RIGHT SIDE TO THE PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE THE PIPE IN THE LOWER CENTER FOREGROUND. THIS IS A RUIN OF THE TAILING LINE THAT RAN FROM THE MILL TO THE CYANIDE PLANT ABOUT 1800 FEET NORTH OF THE MILL. DETERIORATED PIECES OF THE WOOD TRESTLE THAT CARRIED THE PIPE ARE SCATTERED AROUND THE PIPE. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  14. Ion Milling of Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don A.; Herren, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    The ion milling of sapphire is a complicated operation due to several characteristics of the material itself. It is a relatively hard transparent nonconductive crystalline material that does not transfer heat nearly as well as metals that have been successfully ion milled in the past. This investigation involved designing an experimental arrangement, using existing ion milling equipment, as the precursor to figuring the surface of sapphire and other insulating optical materials. The experimental arrangement employs a laser probe beam to constantly monitor the stresses being induced in the material, as it is being ion milled. The goal is to determine if the technique proposed would indeed indicate the stress being induced in the material so that these stresses can be managed to prevent failure of the optic.

  15. Ion Milling of Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don A.; Herren, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    The ion milling of sapphire is a complicated operation due to several characteristics of the material itself. It is a relatively hard transparent nonconductive crystalline material that does not transfer heat nearly as well as metals that have been successfully ion milled in the past. This investigation involved designing an experimental arrangement, using existing ion milling equipment, as the precursor to figuring the surface of sapphire and other insulating optical materials. The experimental arrangement employs a laser probe beam to constantly monitor the stresses being induced in the material, as it is being ion milled. The goal is to determine if the technique proposed would indeed indicate the stress being induced in the material so that these stresses can be managed to prevent failure of the optic.

  16. Pitt Mill Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Oder, R.R.; Borzone, L.A.

    1990-05-01

    Results of a technical and economic evaluation of application of the Pitt Mill to fine coal grinding are presented. The Pitt Mill is a vertically oriented, batch operated, intermediate energy density (0. 025 kW/lb media), stirred ball mill. The mill grinds coal from coarse sizes (typically 3/16 inch or 4 mesh topsize) to the 10 micron to 20 micron mean particle diameter size range in a single step using a shallow grinding bed containing inexpensive, readily available, course grinding media. Size reduction is efficient because of rapid product circulation through the grinding bed caused by action of a novel circulation screw mounted on the agitator shaft. When a dispersant is employed, the grinding can be carried out to 50% to 60% solids concentration. Use of coarse grinding media offers the possibility of enhanced mineral liberation because size reduction is achieved more by impact shattering than by attrition. The batch method offers the possibility of very close control over product particle size distribution without overproduction of fines. A two- phase program was carried out. In the first phase, Grinding Studies, tests were run to determine a suitable configuration of the Pitt Mill. Machine design parameters which were studied included screw configuration, media type, agitator RPM, time, media size, and slurry chamber aspect ratio. During the last part of this phase of the program, tests were carried out to compare the results of grinding Pocahontas seam, Pittsburgh {number sign}8, and East Kentucky Mingo County coals by the Pitt Mill and by a two-stage grinding process employing a Netzsch John mill to feed a high energy density (0.05 kW/Lb media) disc mill. 22 refs., 25 tabs.

  17. Remediation of oil-contaminated sand by coal agglomeration using ball milling.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yu-Jen; Shen, Yun-Hwei

    2011-10-01

    The mechanical shear force provided by a less energy intensive device (usually operating at 20-200 rpm), a ball mill, was used toperform coal agglomeration and its effects on remediation of a model fuel oil-contaminated sand were evaluated. Important process parameters such as the amount of coal added, milling time, milling speed and the size of milling elements are discussed. The results suggested that highly hydrophobic oil-coal agglomerates, formed by adding suitable amounts of coal into the oil-contaminated sand, could be mechanically liberated from cleaned sand during ball milling and recovered as a surface coating on the steel balls. Over 90% removal of oil from oil-contaminated sand was achieved with 6 wt% of coal addition and an optimum ball milling time of 20 min and speed of 200 rpm. This novel process has considerable potential for cleaning oil-contaminated sands.

  18. The construction of the milling process simulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ślusarczyk, Ł.

    2016-09-01

    The paper has aimed at presentation of the possibilities of using computer-based techniques into scope of machine cutting processes, and mostly of analytical and numerical modeling of the milling process for austenitic high-alloy chromium-nickel steel X 5 CrNi 18-10 and verification of the results experiments. The study was mostly focused on measuring and assessment of deformations in the given sample with the specific load. The simulations were executed in modern computer simulation software which supports such activities. These include: NX by Siemens and Simulia Abaqus. The selection of parameters was based on the real values measured during the milling process.

  19. Contamination risk of stable isotope samples during milling.

    PubMed

    Isaac-Renton, M; Schneider, L; Treydte, K

    2016-07-15

    Isotope analysis of wood is an important tool in dendrochronology and ecophysiology. Prior to mass spectrometry analysis, wood must be homogenized, and a convenient method involves a ball mill capable of milling samples directly in sample tubes. However, sample-tube plastic can contaminate wood during milling, which could lead to biological misinterpretations. We tested possible contamination of whole wood and cellulose samples during ball-mill homogenization for carbon and oxygen isotope measurements. We used a multi-factorial design with two/three steel milling balls, two sample amounts (10 mg, 40 mg), and two milling times (5 min, 10 min). We further analyzed abrasion by milling empty tubes, and measured the isotope ratios of pure contaminants. A strong risk exists for carbon isotope bias through plastic contamination: the δ(13) C value of polypropylene deviated from the control by -6.77‰. Small fibers from PTFE filter bags used during cellulose extraction also present a risk as the δ(13) C value of this plastic deviated by -5.02‰. Low sample amounts (10 mg) showed highest contamination due to increased abrasion during milling (-1.34‰), which is further concentrated by cellulose extraction (-3.38‰). Oxygen isotope measurements were unaffected. A ball mill can be used to homogenize samples within test tubes prior to oxygen isotope analysis, but not prior to carbon or radiocarbon isotope analysis. There is still a need for a fast, simple and contamination-free sample preparation procedure. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Fabrication of stainless steel foil utilizing chromized steel strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loria, Edward A.

    1980-10-01

    Stainless steel foil has properties which are, in many respects, unmatched by alternative thin films. The high strength to weight ratio and resistance to corrosion and oxidation at elevated temperatures are generally advantageous. The aerospace and automotive industries have used Type 430 and 304 foil in turbine engine applications. Foil around 2 mils (5.1 × 10-3 cm) thick has been appropriate for the recuperator or heat exchanger and this product has also been used in honeycomb and truss-core structures. Further, such foil has been employed as a wrap to protect tool steel parts from contamination during heat treating. A large part of the high cost of producing stainless steel foil by rolling is due to the complicated and expensive rolling mill and annealing equipment involved. A method will be described which produces (solid) stainless steel foil from chromized (coated) steel which can be cheaper than the conventional processing stainless steel, such as Type 430, from ingot to foil. Also, the material is more ductile and less work hardenable during processing to foil and consequently intermediate annealing treatments are eliminated and scrap losses minimized.

  1. 34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Side view of mill. Vertical drive shaft lying on ground in foreground. When drive-shaft was in upright position its bevel gear was meshed with the bevel gear of the top roll, transmitting the animals'circular motion around the drive shaft to the horizontal rolls. The foundation is of portland cement. The heavy timber mill bed, between the mill and the portland cement foundation has rolled away. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  2. The effect of Cs-137 short-range spatial variability on soil after the Chernobyl disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynenko, Vladimir; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Linnik, Vitaly

    2014-05-01

    After the Chernobyl accident of 1986, large areas of Russia were contaminated by 137Cs. Post-depositional redistribution of 137Cs fallout across the land surface resulting from mechanical, physical, chemical, and biological processes operating in the soil system and the grain size selectivity associated with soil erosion and sediment transport processes. Therefore of uppermost importance are data on evaluating 137Cs variability at short distances, obtained at the early period after the accident. Measurements of 137Cs deposit at the territory of Russia exposed to radioactive contamination were mainly conducted with the help of air-gamma survey, and were verified by soil sampling on test plots with size 10x10 m with control soil sampling using "envelope" method of fivefold soil sampling (1 sampling at the centre and 4 along the edges of the plot under study). Presented here are evaluation data of 137Cs contamination, obtained in the Bryansk, Yaroslav and Rostov regions in 1991. Test plots were selected at the distance of 50-100 m away from a road on matted areas with undisturbed soil structure. Test routes of sampling were made perpendicularly to directions crossing basic traces of radioactive contamination. Sampling measurements were carried out at Canberra and Ortec gamma spectrometers. Each of the 5 samples of the "envelope" was measured separately, soil mixing was not applied. 137Cs value for the Bryansk Region varied from 2,6 kBq/m2 to 2294 kBq/m2, at the territories of the Yaroslav and Rostov regions 137Cs value varied from 0,44 kBq/m2 to 5,1 kBq/m2 and 0,56 kBq/m2 to 22,2 kBq/m2, respectively. Statistical analysis of 137Cs deposit at different plots is a solid argumentation in favour of nonuniform distribution in various landscapes and at a different distance from the Chernobyl NPP. Such nonuniformity of 137Cs soil contamination in the limits of 10 m of the plot is most likely to be related to initial aerosol contamination nonuniformity at the moment of deposition.

  3. Patterns of Cs-137 and Sr-90 distribution in conjugated landscape systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobova, E.

    2012-04-01

    The main goal of the study was to reveal spatial patterns of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in soils and plants of conjugated landscapes and to use 137Cs as a tracer for natural migration and accumulation processes in the environment. The studies were based on presumptions that: 1) the environment consisted of interrelated bio- and geochemical fields of hierarchical structure depending on the level and age of factors responsible for spatial distribution of chemical elements; 2)distribution of technogenic radionuclides in natural landscapes depended upon the location and type of the initial source and radionuclide involvement in natural pathways controlled by the state and mobility of the typomorphic elements and water migration. Case studies were undertaken in areas subjected to contamination after the Chernobyl accident and in the estuary zones of the Yenisey and Pechora rivers. First observations in the Chernobyl remote zone in 1987-1989 demonstrated relation between the dose rate, 137Cs, 134Cs, 144Ce, 106Ru, 125Sb in soil cover and the location of the measured plot in landscape toposequence. Later study of 137Cs and 90Sr concentration and speciation confirmed different patterns of their distribution dependent upon the radioisotope, soil features and vegetation cover corresponding to the local landscape and landuse structure. Certain patterns in distribution and migration of 137Cs and 90Sr in soils and local food chain were followed in private farms situated in different landscape position [1]. Detailed study of 137Cs activity in forested site with a pronounced relief 20 and 25 years after the Chernobyl accident showed its stable polycentric structure in soils, mosses and litter which was sensitive to meso- and micro-relief features [2]. Radionuclide contamination of the lower Yenisey and Pechora studied along meridian landscape transects proved both areas be subjected to global 137Cs pollution while the Yenisey floodplain received additional regional contamination transported by the river [3]. Local zones of enhanced 137Cs accumulation in soil samples and some plant species were found in island systems, and the Yenisey upper delta island in particular. Hydromica identified in samples was considered significant for 137Cs accumulation in floodplain soils. The distinct tendency of secondary redistribution of the global 137Cs fallout in soils due to wind and water transport and subsequent accumulation, 137Cs accumulation in topsoil and slightly over the permafrost table were characteristic for both catchments. Therefore 137Cs proved to be an effective isotope tracer for studying and mapping technogenic contamination and the recent processes of water and particulate mass transport on the global, regional and local scales. Obtained results may be useful for monitoring, eco-geochemical evaluation and regionalizing of the areas contaminated by artificial radionuclides. 1. Korobova E.M., Ermakov A., Linnik V., 1998. Applied Geochemistry 13, .7, 803-814. 2. E.M. Korobova, S.L. Romanov, 2009. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 99, 1-8. 3. E.M. Korobova, N.G. Ukraintseva, V.V. Surkov, J.E. Brown, W. Standring and A.P. Borisov, 2009. Eds: Mattia N. Gallo, Marco N. Ferrari. River Pollution Research Progress. Nova Science Publishers, Inc. N-Y, 91-156.

  4. Simulating sediment and Cs 137 transfer and deposition in dams of Fukushima prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Akihiro; Yamaguchi, Masaaki; Sato, Haruo; Yui, Mikazu

    2014-05-01

    Sediment and cesium 137 discharged into dams and reservoirs and accumulated onto dam and reservoir beds in eastern Fukushima prefecture after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident are simulated by a simple and fast simulation model which we developed by utilizing the universal soil loss equation and the geographical information system. Modeling of soil erosion, transport and deposition, and cesium 137 dispersion were implemented to simulate cesium 137 transport and its future distribution based on the 100m-size grid system. Raster based calculation protocols are formulated using ModelBuider function included in ArcEditor of version 10.0. We applied this model to various dams and reservoirs of eastern Fukushima prefecture and simulated results are compared with some of the measurement data that have been achieved thus far since the FDNPP accident. In the present calculations, we assumed the amount of water into a dam or reservoir is equivalent to the amount of water out from the dam or reservoir. Any operational controls that may have taken in each dam or reservoir are ignored. Annual soil loss from each dam basin, annual soil inflow into each dam, annual soil deposition in each dam, and annual soil discharge from each dam are simulated. Concentrations of radio-cesium 137 in the deposited sediments for the Ogaki dam and Ogi dam, for examples, were calculated and compared with rough estimates of the corresponding values based on the field survey results, and reasonable agreement was observed. Also, the annual soil deposition on the Ogi dam bed is simulated and again compared with rough estimate of the corresponding value based on the field survey, and the order of magnitude was matched. Furthermore, we simulated the effect of decontamination in Ogaki dam basin as an example and it was shown that an intensive decontamination for particular land use area could effectively decrease the discharged amount of radioactive cesium.

  5. Statistical analysis of content of Cs-137 in soils in Bansko-Razlog region

    SciTech Connect

    Kobilarov, R. G.

    2014-11-18

    Statistical analysis of the data set consisting of the activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in soils in Bansko–Razlog region is carried out in order to establish the dependence of the deposition and the migration of {sup 137}Cs on the soil type. The descriptive statistics and the test of normality show that the data set have not normal distribution. Positively skewed distribution and possible outlying values of the activity of {sup 137}Cs in soils were observed. After reduction of the effects of outliers, the data set is divided into two parts, depending on the soil type. Test of normality of the two new data sets shows that they have a normal distribution. Ordinary kriging technique is used to characterize the spatial distribution of the activity of {sup 137}Cs over an area covering 40 km{sup 2} (whole Razlog valley). The result (a map of the spatial distribution of the activity concentration of {sup 137}Cs) can be used as a reference point for future studies on the assessment of radiological risk to the population and the erosion of soils in the study area.

  6. TG-43 U1 based dosimetric characterization of model 67-6520 Cs-137 brachytherapy source

    SciTech Connect

    Meigooni, Ali S.; Wright, Clarissa; Koona, Rafiq A.; Awan, Shahid B.; Granero, Domingo; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Ballester, Facundo

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: Brachytherapy treatment has been a cornerstone for management of various cancer sites, particularly for the treatment of gynecological malignancies. In low dose rate brachytherapy treatments, {sup 137}Cs sources have been used for several decades. A new {sup 137}Cs source design has been introduced (model 67-6520, source B3-561) by Isotope Products Laboratories (IPL) for clinical application. The goal of the present work is to implement the TG-43 U1 protocol in the characterization of the aforementioned {sup 137}Cs source. Methods: The dosimetric characteristics of the IPL {sup 137}Cs source are measured using LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters in a Solid Water phantom material and calculated using Monte Carlo simulations with the GEANT4 code in Solid Water and liquid water. The dose rate constant, radial dose function, and two-dimensional anisotropy function of this source model were obtained following the TG-43 U1 recommendations. In addition, the primary and scatter dose separation (PSS) formalism that could be used in convolution/superposition methods to calculate dose distributions around brachytherapy sources in heterogeneous media was studied. Results: The measured and calculated dose rate constants of the IPL {sup 137}Cs source in Solid Water were found to be 0.930({+-}7.3%) and 0.928({+-}2.6%) cGy h{sup -1} U{sup -1}, respectively. The agreement between these two methods was within our experimental uncertainties. The Monte Carlo calculated value in liquid water of the dose rate constant was {Lambda}=0.948({+-}2.6%) cGy h{sup -1} U{sup -1}. Similarly, the agreement between measured and calculated radial dose functions and the anisotropy functions was found to be within {+-}5%. In addition, the tabulated data that are required to characterize the source using the PSS formalism were derived. Conclusions: In this article the complete dosimetry of the newly designed {sup 137}Cs IPL source following the AAPM TG-43 U1 dosimetric protocol and the PSS formalism is provided.

  7. State of Fukushima nuclear fuel debris tracked by Cs137 in cooling water.

    PubMed

    Grambow, B; Mostafavi, M

    2014-11-01

    It is still difficult to assess the risk originating from the radioactivity inventory remaining in the damaged Fukushima nuclear reactors. Here we show that cooling water analyses provide a means to assess source terms for potential future releases. Until now already about 34% of the inventories of (137)Cs of three reactors has been released into water. We found that the release rate of (137)Cs has been constant for 2 years at about 1.8% of the inventory per year indicating ongoing dissolution of the fuel debris. Compared to laboratory studies on spent nuclear fuel behavior in water, (137)Cs release rates are on the higher end, caused by the strong radiation field and oxidant production by water radiolysis and by impacts of accessible grain boundaries. It is concluded that radionuclide analyses in cooling water allow tracking of the conditions of the damaged fuel and the associated risks.

  8. Pu-239+240 and Cs-137 in Montenegro soil: their correlation and origin.

    PubMed

    Antovic, Nevenka M; Vukotic, Perko; Svrkota, Nikola; Andrukhovich, Sergey K

    2012-08-01

    The (239+240)Pu activity concentrations in soil from Montenegro (six samples from three localities) have been measured for the first time. The alpha and gamma-spectrometric measurements are used to determine the (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratio, and it was found to be with an average of 0.02 and standard deviation of 0.007. This average activity ratio was applied to estimate (239+240)Pu in soil samples from the other 21 localities at which (137)Cs activity concentrations were measured. In this research obtained (either experimentally or estimated) (239+240)Pu activity concentrations (0.036-8.265 Bq kg(-1)) are comparable with those measured in some other European countries. On the basis of the results obtained in the present study and a survey of relevant literature, it is possible to conclude that Chernobyl contribution to (137)Cs contamination of Montenegro soils is dominant, whilst Pu contamination comes from the global fallout of nuclear weapon tests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Conditioning and Repackaging of Spent Radioactive Cs-137 and Co-60 Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13490

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, M.A.; Selim, Y.T.; El-Zakla, T.

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive Sealed sources (RSSs) are widely use all over the world in medicine, agriculture, industry, research, etc. The accidental misuse and exposure to RSSs has caused significant environmental contamination, serious injuries and many deaths. The high specific activity of the materials in many RSSs means that the spread of as little as microgram quantities can generate significant risk to human health and inhibit the use of buildings and land. Conditioning of such sources is a must to protect humans and environment from the hazard of ionizing radiation and contamination. Conditioning is also increase the security of these sources by decreasing the probability of stolen and/or use in terrorist attacks. According to the law No.7/2010, Egyptian atomic energy authority represented in the hot laboratories and waste management center (centralized waste facility, HLWMC) has the responsibility of collecting, conditioning, storing and management of all types of radioactive waste from all Egyptian territory including spent radioactive sealed sources (SRSSs). This paper explains the conditioning procedures for two of the most common SRSSs, Cs{sup 137} and Co{sup 60} sources which make up more than 90% of the total spent radioactive sealed sources stored in our centralized waste facility as one of the major activities of hot laboratories and waste management center. Conditioning has to meet three main objectives, be acceptable for storage, enable their safe transport, and comply with disposal requirements. (authors)

  10. Uncertainty assessment method for the Cs-137 fallout inventory and penetration depth.

    PubMed

    Papadakos, G N; Karangelos, D J; Petropoulos, N P; Anagnostakis, M J; Hinis, E P; Simopoulos, S E

    2017-05-01

    Within the presented study, soil samples were collected in year 2007 at 20 different locations of the Greek terrain, both from the surface and also from depths down to 26 cm. Sampling locations were selected primarily from areas where high levels of (137)Cs deposition after the Chernobyl accident had already been identified by the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the National Technical University of Athens during and after the year of 1986. At one location of relatively higher deposition, soil core samples were collected following a 60 m by 60 m Cartesian grid with a 20 m node-to-node distance. Single or pair core samples were also collected from the remaining 19 locations. Sample measurements and analysis were used to estimate (137)Cs inventory and the corresponding depth migration, twenty years after the deposition on Greek terrain. Based on these data, the uncertainty components of the whole sampling-to-results procedure were investigated. A cause-and-effect assessment process was used to apply the law of error propagation and demonstrate that the dominating significant component of the combined uncertainty is that due to the spatial variability of the contemporary (2007) (137)Cs inventory. A secondary, yet also significant component was identified to be the activity measurement process itself. Other less-significant uncertainty parameters were sampling methods, the variation in the soil field density with depth and the preparation of samples for measurement. The sampling grid experiment allowed for the quantitative evaluation of the uncertainty due to spatial variability, also by the assistance of the semivariance analysis. Denser, optimized grid could return more accurate values for this component but with a significantly elevated laboratory cost, in terms of both, human and material resources. Using the hereby collected data and for the case of a single core soil sampling using a well-defined sampling methodology quality assurance, the uncertainty component due to spatial variability was evaluated to about 19% for the (137)Cs inventory and up to 34% for the (137)Cs penetration depth. Based on the presented results and also on related literature, it is argued that such high uncertainties should be anticipated for single core samplings conducted using similar methodology and employed as (137)Cs inventory and penetration depth estimators.

  11. 12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. Masonry-lined passageway leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away after milling. Bridges over the passageways, not in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. View shows area prior to substantial overgrowth existing in 1978 views of the area. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  12. 68. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER AT MIDDLE LEFT. PRIMARY MILL SURGE TANK AND LAUNDERS AT MIDDLE BOTTOM. STAIR TO TROJAN CLASSIFIER LEVEL BEHIND CRANE BENT, UPPER RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS TO PRIMARY THICKENERS RISE VERTICALLY AT MIDDLE RIGHT AND RUN HORIZONTALLY ACROSS TOP OF VIEW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  13. 168. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    168. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER AT MIDDLE LEFT. PRIMARY MILL SURGE TANK AND LAUNDERS AT MIDDLE BOTTOM. STAIR TO TROJAN CLASSIFIER LEVEL BEHIND CRANE BENT, UPPER RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS TO PRIMARY THICKENERS RISE VERTICALLY AT MIDDLE RIGHT AND RUN HORIZONTALLY ACROSS TOP OF VIEW - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  14. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice. ...

  15. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice. ...

  16. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice. ...

  17. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice. ...

  18. 2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING WASTE WEIR AT MILL RIVER. MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING WASTE WEIR AT MILL RIVER. MILL RIVER CULVERT (HAER NY-112) IS VISIBLE IN UPPER RIGHT HAND CORNER. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  19. 71. VIEW OF MILL FLOOR FROM WEST. SECONDARY MILL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. VIEW OF MILL FLOOR FROM WEST. SECONDARY MILL IN LOWER CENTER; BARREN SOLUTION TANK AT MIDDLE RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES AT TOP OF VIEW RUN FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS ON LEFT TO PRIMARY THICKENERS ON RIGHT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  20. 2. INTERIOR VIEW OF MILL, SHOWING THE TWOHIGH HANDOPERATED MILLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR VIEW OF MILL, SHOWING THE TWO-HIGH HAND-OPERATED MILLS (ON THE LEFT HAND SIDE), PRIOR TO THEIR OPERATION; THIS PHOTO WAS TAKEN FROM THE OVERHEAD CRANE - American Brass Company, Kenosha Works, Hot Roll Mill, Kenosha, Kenosha County, WI

  1. Mössbauer study of EUROFER and VVER steel reactor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmann, E.; Horváth, Á.; Alves, L.; Silva, J. F.; Gomes, U.; Souza, C.; Homonnay, Z.

    2013-04-01

    57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry were used to study EUROFER or VVER ferritic reactor steels mechanically alloyed with TaC or NbC. Significant changes were found in the Mössbauer spectra and in the corresponding hyperfine field distributions between the ball milled pure steel and that alloyed with TaC or NbC. Spectral differences were also found in the case of use of same carbides with different origin, too. The observed spectral changes as an effect of ball milling of the reactor material steels with carbides can be associated with change in short range order of the constituents of steel.

  2. Interior of rail mill, now an iron foundry; The submarine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of rail mill, now an iron foundry; The submarine car in the distance is filled with molten iron that will be poured into a ladle which will, in turn, be poured into the molds lining the center of the building - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  3. 42. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR THE CARBIDE MILL ROOM, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  4. Aircraft Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-19

    NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 AIRCRAFT STEELS by E. U. Lee R. Taylor C. Lei H. C. Sanders 19 February 2009...MARYLAND NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 19 February 2009 AIRCRAFT STEELS by E. U. Lee R. Taylor C. Lei H. C. Sanders...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 ii SUMMARY Five high strength and four stainless steels have been studied, identifying their

  5. Larix P. Mill.: larch

    Treesearch

    Raymond C. Shearer

    2008-01-01

    The larches - Larix P. Mill. - of the world are usually grouped into 10 species that are widely distributed over much of the mountainous, cooler regions of the Northern Hemisphere (Hora 1981; Krussmann 1985; Ostenfeld and Larsen 1930; Rehder 1940; Schmidt 1995). Some species dominate at the northern limits of boreal forests and others occur above subalpine forests (...

  6. Indiana Corn Dry Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this project is to perform engineering, project design, and permitting for the creation and commercial demonstration of a corn dry mill biorefinery that will produce fuel-grade ethanol, distillers dry grain for animal feed, and carbon dioxide for industrial use.

  7. Low carbon dual phase steels for high strength wire

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.; Ahn, J.H.

    1985-08-01

    This paper shows that dual phase steels can be designed and processed as new, economical low carbon steels for cold drawing into high tensile strength steel wires. Current work indicates wires of tensile strengths up to 400,000 psi can be obtained. Potential applications for dual phase steel wire include bead wire, tire cord, wire rope and prestressed concrete. It should be possible to produce wire rods in existing rod mills by adapting the controlled rolling and quenching procedures outlined in this paper.

  8. 2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761899. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1899. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Top roll and one bottom roll, mill housing or cheeks, and spur pinion gears. The broken projection on the mill beside the bottom roll indicates the location of the cane tray. The cane juice crushed from the cane flowed into the juice tray below the bottom rolls. It then flowed into a wooden gutter and through a short tunnel in the mill's masonry enclosure and on to the boiling house for further processing. The opening at the base of the masency wall (In the photograph) is where the gutter ran from the mill to the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  9. Effect of milling temperature and post-milling cooling procedures on rice milling quality appraisals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research was to study the effects of different milling conditions and post-milling handling procedures on appraised milling quality of rough rice. Samples of medium grain rough rice (M202) with moisture content (MC) of 11.5±0.2% were used for this study. To create different mil...

  10. Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline ZrO2-7%Y2O3 powders for thermal barrier coatings by high-energy ball milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, Kirsten; Zhao, Lidong; Schlaefer, Thomas; Warda, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    High-energy ball milling is an effective method to produce nanocrystalline oxides. In this study, a conventional ZrO2-7%Y2O3 spray powder was ball-milled to produce nanocrystalline powders with high levels of crystalline disorders for deposition of thermal barrier coatings. The powder was milled both with 100Cr6 steel balls and with ZrO2-3%Y2O3 ceramic balls as grinding media. The milling time was varied in order to investigate the effect of the milling time on the crystallite size. The powders were investigated in terms of their crystallite sizes and morphologies by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that under given milling conditions the powder was already nanostructured after 40 min milling. The crystallite size decreased significantly with increasing milling time within first 120 min. After that, a further increase of milling time did not lead to a significant reduction of the crystallite size. Ball-milling led to lattice microstrains. Milling with the steel balls resulted in finer nano-sized crystal grains, but caused the contamination of the powder. The nano-sized crystal grains coarsened during the heat-treatment at 1250°C.

  11. Mechanical alloying of lanthana-bearing nanostructured ferritic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Somayeh Paseban; Indrajit Charit; Yaqiao Q. Wu; Jatuporn Burns; Kerry N. Allahar; Darryl P. Butt; James I. Cole

    2013-09-01

    A novel nanostructured ferritic steel powder with the nominal composition Fe–14Cr–1Ti–0.3Mo–0.5La2O3 (wt.%) was developed via high energy ball milling. La2O3 was added to this alloy instead of the traditionally used Y2O3. The effects of varying the ball milling parameters, such as milling time, steel ball size and ball to powder ratio, on the mechanical properties and micro structural characteristics of the as-milled powder were investigated. Nanocrystallites of a body-centered cubic ferritic solid solution matrix with a mean size of approximately 20 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Nanoscale characterization of the as-milled powder by local electrode atom probe tomography revealed the formation of Cr–Ti–La–O-enriched nanoclusters during mechanical alloying. The Cr:Ti:La:O ratio is considered “non-stoichiometric”. The average size (radius) of the nanoclusters was about 1 nm, with number density of 3.7 1024 m3. The mechanism for formation of nanoclusters in the as-milled powder is discussed. La2O3 appears to be a promising alternative rare earth oxide for future nanostructured ferritic steels.

  12. Vibration in textile mills.

    PubMed

    Sorainen, E

    1988-12-01

    The vibration in nine halls of the six weaving mills was measured in 1978-80. The measurements were taken at regular intervals in the working area of the weavers, which was the wooden support attached to the machine or the floor of the textile mill. The accelerometer was mounted with screws onto the working area, and all vibration samples were analyzed immediately, in situ. The vibration of the floor was tangent to or exceeded slightly the "reduced comfort boundary" specified in International Standard ISO 2631/1 (1985) only in the areas where the floor was not against the ground. The greatest amount of vibration occurred on the supports which had been attached to the machines. On these supports the vibration in places exceeded the "fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary."

  13. Mills, Bernard Yarnton (1920-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Australian engineer and astronomer, born near Sydney, and worked with the Australian CSIR Division of Radiophysics. He measured the position of Cygnus A and identified a faint nebulosity as its origin, confirmed by a more accurate position by F. G. Smith and 200 in photographs by W BAADE and R MINKOWSKI showing Cygnus A as a peculiar galaxy. Mills built a cross-type radio interferometer at the...

  14. Shear Roll Mill Reactivation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-13

    pneumatically operated paste dumper and belt conveyor system, the loss in weight feeder system, the hydraulically operated shear roll mill, the pellet...out feed belt conveyor , and the pack out system comprised of the metal detector, scale, and pack out empty and full drum roller conveyors . Page | 4...feed hopper and conveyor supplying the loss in weight feeder were turned on, and it was verified that these items functioned as designed. The

  15. Ion Milling of Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don A.

    2002-01-01

    The ion figuring system at the Marshall Space Flight Center has been successfully used for at least three previous investigations into the ion milling of metals. The research was directed toward improving the surface quality of X-ray directing optics. These studies were performed on surfaces that were already hand polished to an excellent surface quality and were intended to remove the residual unwanted figure left by those techniques. The ion milling was typically carried out on test surfaces or mandrels that were several centimeters in width and length. The good thermal conductivity of the metal samples allowed the ion beam to be directed onto the sample for an indefinite period of time. This is not true of sapphire or most electrical insulators and problems have arisen in recent attempts to ion mill thin samples of sapphire. The failure and fracture of the material was likely due to thermal stresses and the relatively low thermal conductivity of sapphire (compared to most metals), These assumed stresses actually provided the key as to how they might be monitored. A thermal gradient in the sapphire sample will induce an effective index of refraction change and because of the shape constraint and the crystal structure and simple thermal expansion, this index change will be nonuniform across the sample. In all but simple cubic crystal structures, this leads to a spatially nonuniform optical retardance induced on any polarized optical beam traversing the sample, and it is this retardance that can be monitored using standard polarimetric procedures.

  16. Ion Milling of Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don A.

    2002-01-01

    The ion figuring system at the Marshall Space Flight Center has been successfully used for at least three previous investigations into the ion milling of metals. The research was directed toward improving the surface quality of X-ray directing optics. These studies were performed on surfaces that were already hand polished to an excellent surface quality and were intended to remove the residual unwanted figure left by those techniques. The ion milling was typically carried out on test surfaces or mandrels that were several centimeters in width and length. The good thermal conductivity of the metal samples allowed the ion beam to be directed onto the sample for an indefinite period of time. This is not true of sapphire or most electrical insulators and problems have arisen in recent attempts to ion mill thin samples of sapphire. The failure and fracture of the material was likely due to thermal stresses and the relatively low thermal conductivity of sapphire (compared to most metals), These assumed stresses actually provided the key as to how they might be monitored. A thermal gradient in the sapphire sample will induce an effective index of refraction change and because of the shape constraint and the crystal structure and simple thermal expansion, this index change will be nonuniform across the sample. In all but simple cubic crystal structures, this leads to a spatially nonuniform optical retardance induced on any polarized optical beam traversing the sample, and it is this retardance that can be monitored using standard polarimetric procedures.

  17. Occupational noise in rice mills.

    PubMed

    Prasanna Kumar, G V; Dewangan, K N; Sarkar, Amaresh; Kumari, Amrita; Kar, Banani

    2008-01-01

    A major occupational hazard for the workers in rice mills is the noise during the operation of various machines. A noise survey was conducted in the workrooms of eight renowned rice mills of the north-eastern region of India established during the period between 1980 and 1985. The rice mills were selected on the basis of the outcome of a walk-through noise survey involving several rice mills of the region. A noise survey map of each rice mill was drawn to identify the predominant noise sources and the causes of high noise in the workrooms of the rice mill. The sound-pressure level (SPL) in the workrooms of the rice mill varied from 78 to 92 dBA. The paddy cleaner, rubber roll sheller, compartment separator, rice cleaner, auxiliary sieve shaker and an electric motor without enclosure were found to be the predominant noise sources in the workrooms of the mill. The causes of high noise in the rice mills may be attributed to the use of a long flat belt drive, crank-and-pitman mechanism, absence of an electric motor enclosure, poor machine maintenance and inadequate acoustic design of the workroom of the rice mill. About 26% of the total labourers were found to be exposed to higher levels of noise than 85 dBA. Subjective response indicated that about 26% of the total labourers felt noise interferes in their work and about 49% labourers were of opinion that noise interferes with their conversation. Noise from machines in the rice mills was found to be the major occupational hazard for the rice mill workers. The predominant noise sources need to be identified and the causes of high noise need to be studied to undertake the appropriate measures to reduce the noise level. To identify the predominant noise sources and their distributions in rice mills, to study the causes of high levels of noise in rice mills and to examine the response of the workers towards noise. A noise survey was conducted in eight renowned rice mills of the north-eastern region of India. The mills were

  18. Optimization of Milling Parameters Employing Desirability Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J. L. S.; Rubio, J. C. Campos; Abrão, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    The principal aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of tool material (one cermet and two coated carbide grades), cutting speed and feed rate on the machinability of hardened AISI H13 hot work steel, in order to identify the cutting conditions which lead to optimal performance. A multiple response optimization procedure based on tool life, surface roughness, milling forces and the machining time (required to produce a sample cavity) was employed. The results indicated that the TiCN-TiN coated carbide and cermet presented similar results concerning the global optimum values for cutting speed and feed rate per tooth, outperforming the TiN-TiCN-Al2O3 coated carbide tool.

  19. Stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Lula, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses the stainless steels for high-strength, heat-resistant or corrosion-resistant applications. It is a treatment of the properties and selection of stainless steels. Up-to-date information covers physical, mechanical and chemical properties of all stainless grades, including the new ferritic and duplex grades. The book covers physical metallurgy as well as processing and service characteristics, including service in corrosive environments. It deals with wrought and cast stainless steels and reviews fabrication from cold-forming to powder metallurgy.

  20. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  1. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  2. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  3. The world iron and steel industry and its impact on Indiana iron and steel and electric utility industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Thomas Cheong-Yuen

    In this research, a large scale mathematical programming model is developed to represent steel production and distribution. This model is used to investigate how technological changes, environmental restrictions, and government trade policies will affect future production location and relocation, world energy consumption, environmental pollution, and international trade in steel. Future potential relocation of production capacity of the world iron and steel industry will have substantial impacts on the North American electric utility industry, especially in Indiana. Given that the iron and steel industry is among the most energy intensive industries in North America, the electricity consumption of Indiana in particular is expected to change significantly as the industry adjusts to the changing environment. This research models the iron and steel industry in its use of two types of mills: integrated mills and mini-mills. Integrated mills use complex and capital intensive production processes to produce steel from iron ore, using a combination of the blast furnace and basic oxygen furnace. Mini-mills use electric melters which convert mainly scrap or directly reduced iron to steel. The model can reflect the trade and energy consequences of a chosen pattern of steel production, as well as the constraints on the pollutant generation. It also reflects various government trade policies to protect domestic steel production, such as quotas and protective tariffs. In addition, the model minimizes the total cost of steel production and transportation by evaluating the geographic patterns of the following factors: (1) iron and steel production; (2) new facility construction; (3) trade patterns. These factors are each subject to various constraints, such as demands, environmental restrictions, and government trade policies, imposed on the pattern of production. Optimization is performed for a single target year far enough in the future to allow construction of new capacity

  4. HOT METAL BRIDGE (NOTE: BUILDERS: JONES AND LAUGHLIN STEEL CA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT METAL BRIDGE (NOTE: BUILDERS: JONES AND LAUGHLIN STEEL CA. 1890), SOUTH PORTAL. THREE PIN CONNECTED CAMELBACK TRUSS SPANS, ONE SKEWED THROUGH TRUSS SPAN ON NORTH SIDE TRUSS BRIDGE, EAST OF HOT METAL BRIDGE BUILT BY AMERICAN BRIDGE COMPANY CA. 1910. (RIVETED MULTI-SPAN TRUSS). - Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh Works, Morgan Billet Mill Engine, 550 feet north of East Carson Street, opposite South Twenty-seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  5. 75 FR 32362 - Certain Steel Grating from the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Department by Ningbo Jiulong. See Letter to Secretary Locke from Timothy C. Brightbill, Certain Steel Grating... Secretary Locke from Gregory S. Menegaz, Certain Steel Grating from the People's Republic of China - Minor... mill test certificates provided by Ningbo Jiulong to the Department. See Letter to Secretary Locke from...

  6. 41. 44INCH SOAKING PITS. A MORGAN CRANE LOWERS THE STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. 44-INCH SOAKING PITS. A MORGAN CRANE LOWERS THE STEEL INGOT INTO A 'SOAKING PIT,' WHERE IT IS HEATED TO A UNIFORM TEMPERATURE PRIOR TO ROLLING. THE INGOT RECEIVES ITS FIRST ROLLING ON THE 44-INCH BLOOMING MILL. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. Conventional machining of ESR 4340 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niji, K. K.

    1980-07-01

    This program involved the study of conventional machining of heat treated ESR 4340 steel (Rc 54-57). Initial effort involved a survey of available data regarding the machining of high strength steels with hardnesses of Rc 50 and above. A machining program was conducted, determining optimum tools and conditions for turning, drilling, face milling, end milling, and grinding operations. Effects of various parameters includng cutting speeds, feeds, depths of cut, and cutting fluids on tool life was determined. All the operations were found to be extremely difficult and applicaton of conventional procedures is not feasible. Tool lives remained short despite reductions in speeds and feeds. Conventional grinding methods induced detrimental residual tensile stresses along the surface, resulting in cracking, lapping, and untempered martensitic structures. Low stress grinding techniques were found to be applicable to this material when proper dressing procedures and reduced rates were used.

  8. Effect of attrition milling on the reaction sintering of silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, T. P.; Glasgow, T. K.; Yeh, H. C.

    1978-01-01

    Silicon powder was ground in a steel attrition mill under nitrogen. Air exposed powder was compacted, prefired in helium, and reaction sintered in nitrogen-4 v/o hydrogen. For longer grinding times, oxygen content, surface area and compactability of the powder increased; and both alpha/beta ratio and degreee of nitridation during sintering increased. Iron content remained constant.

  9. Effect of attrition milling on the reaction sintering of silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, T. P.; Glasgow, T. K.; Yeh, H. C.

    1978-01-01

    Silicon powder was ground in a steel attrition mill under nitrogen. Air-exposed powder was compacted, prefired in helium, and reaction-sintered in nitrogen-4 v/o hydrogen. For longer grinding times, oxygen content, surface area and compactability of the powder increased; and both alpha/beta ratio and degree of nitridation during sintering increased. Iron content remained constant.

  10. 37. 21INCH BILLET MILL. BILLET AT THIS POINT HAS BEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. 21-INCH BILLET MILL. BILLET AT THIS POINT HAS BEEN SCARPED (1/8-INCH REMOVED FROM ALL FOUR SIDES IN ORDER TO ELIMINATE DEFECTS AND ROUGH EDGES) AND SHED (TRIMMED EVENLY AT THE ENDS). - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  11. Compressed Air System Improvements Increase Production at a Tin Mill (Weirton Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    In 1999, Weirton Steel completed a project in which the compressed air system at their tin mill in Weirton, West Virginia was completely overhauled. The installation of new compressors, the addition of air treatment equipment, and the repair of leaks significantly reduced compressor shutdowns, production downtime, and product rejects.

  12. VIEW SOUTHBUILDING 25LEFTNO 2 WIRE MILL (c. 1853) BUILDING 40CENTERWIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH-BUILDING 25-LEFT-NO 2 WIRE MILL (c. 1853) BUILDING 40-CENTER-WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) BUILDING 27-RIGHT-PATTERN SHOP (1853) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  13. Microstructural evolution and some mechanical properties of nanosized yttrium oxide dispersion strengthened 13Cr steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tich Nguyen, Van; Phuong Doan, Dinh; BaoTrung Tran, Tran; Duong Luong, Van; Nguyen, Van An; Phan, Anh Tu

    2010-09-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels, manufactured by a mechanical alloying method, during the past few years, appear to be promising candidates for structural applications in nuclear power plants. The purpose of this work is to elaborate the manufacturing processes of ODS 13Cr steel with the addition of 1.0 wt% yttrium oxide through the powder metallurgy route using the high energy ball mill. Microstructural analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and hardness testing have been used to optimize the technological parameters of milling, hot isostatic pressing and heat-treatment processes. The steel hardness increases with decreasing particle size of 13Cr ODS steel. The best hardness was obtained from more than 70 h of milling in the two tanks planetary ball mill or 30 h of milling in the one tank planetary ball mill and hot isostatic pressing at 1150 °C . The particle size of the steel is less than 100 nm, and the density and hardness are about 7.3 g cm-3 and 490 HB, respectively. Report submitted to the 5th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology IWAMSN, Hanoi, 9-12 November 2010.

  14. Effect of ferrite on cast stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Nadezhdin, A.; Cooper, K. ); Timbers, G. . Kraft Pulp Division)

    1994-09-01

    Premature failure of stainless steel castings in bleach washing service is attributed to poor casting quality high porosity and to a high ferrite content, which makes the castings susceptible to corrosion by hot acid chloride solutions. A survey of the chemical compositions and ferrite contents of corrosion-resistant castings in bleach plants at three pulp mills found high [delta]-ferrite levels in the austenitic matrix due to the improper balance between austenite and ferrite stabilizers.

  15. 75 FR 32366 - Certain Steel Grating From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at Less...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... chemical properties of any steel that it purchases; and (4) irregularities in the mill test certificates... Register. The Department will instruct CBP to require a cash deposit or the posting of a bond equal to...

  16. 1. 'Saltbox' mill worker house located in Dixie Mill village ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 'Saltbox' mill worker house located in Dixie Mill village area of LaGrange at 613 Arthur St. The saltbox house form is unusual in the LaGrange area and perhaps indicates the influence of Northern investors. - 613 Arthur Street (House), 613 Arthur Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  17. 252. Mabry Mill. View of the mill and the NPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    252. Mabry Mill. View of the mill and the NPS dredged reflecting pond which illustrates how the parkway has manipulated the landscape to make it more picturesque. Looking north-northwest from interpretative trail. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  18. 9. VIEW OF MILLING AND LATHE MACHINES, MILLING AND LATHE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF MILLING AND LATHE MACHINES, MILLING AND LATHE MACHINES WERE USED TO FORM COMPONENTS INTO THEIR FINAL SHAPE. IN THE FOUNDRY, ENRICHED URANIUM WAS CAST INTO SPHERICAL SHAPES OR INGOT FROM WHICH WEAPONS COMPONENTS WERE FABRICATED. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. 83. Mabry Mill. View of the mill and its dredged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. Mabry Mill. View of the mill and its dredged reflecting pond illustrating how the parkway has manipulated the landscape to make it more picturesque. Looking north-northwest from interpretative trail. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  20. 50. VIEW OF CRUSHER ADDITION FROM EAST. SHOWS 100TON STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. VIEW OF CRUSHER ADDITION FROM EAST. SHOWS 100-TON STEEL UNOXIDIZED ORE BIN, STEPHENS-ADAMSON 15 TON/HR INCLINED BUCKET ELEVATOR, AND DUST COLLECTION BIN IN UPPER RIGHT QUADRANT. THE ROD MILL CIRCUIT STOOD IN FRONT OF THE BUCKET ELEVATOR AND BEHIND THE BAKER COOLER (LEFT CENTER). MILL SOLUTION TANKS WERE IN FRONT OF THE CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN (CENTER), AND THE MILL FLOOR WAS THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN (RIGHT). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  1. Pillsbury Mills LLC Removal Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pillsbury Mills LLC removal site is located at 1525 E. Phillips St., Springfield, IL. Residential properties are located immediately across the street on the north and east perimeters. The site is a former Pillsbury grain mill on about 18 acres.

  2. Preparation of barium hexaferrite powders using oxidized steel scales waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septiani, Ardita; Idayanti, Novrita; Kristiantoro, Tony

    2016-02-01

    Research on preparation of barium hexaferrite powders has been done using Hot Strip Mill scales as raw materials. Hot Strip Mill scales are oxidized steel scales waste from steel industrial process. The method used for preparing the barium hexaferrite powders was solid state reaction method. Oxidized steel scales were milled using ball mill for 10 hours, then screened through a 250 mesh sieve to obtain powders with maximum size of 63 µm. Powders were roasted at 600°C temperature for 4 hours to obtain hematite (Fe2O3) phase. Roasted powders were then mixed with barium carbonate, and were subsequently milled for 16 hours. After mixing, powders were calcined with an increasing rate of 10°C/min and maintained at 1100°C for 3 hours. Calcination process was performed to acquire barium hexaferrite phase. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) characterization in conjunction with RIR analysis showed that 85 wt. % of barium hexaferrite is formed. The magnetic properties of powders were characterized using Permagraph. It is found the value of remanent induction is 1.09 kG, coercivity of 2.043 kOe, and the maximum energy product of 0.25 MGOe.

  3. 4. VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST ELEVATION WITH STEEL SASH AND STUCCO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST ELEVATION WITH STEEL SASH AND STUCCO WALL FINISH, LOOKING SOUTH; 1906-1910 ONE-STORY SHED ADDITION WITH ROOF MONITOR IS IN FOREGROUND LEFT - Massachusetts Mills, Cloth Room-Section 15, 95 Bridge Street, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  4. Recent developments in semiprocessed cold rolled magnetic lamination steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilinski, E. J.

    2006-09-01

    Over the past 10 years the magnetic property performance of semi-processed cold rolled magnetic lamination steels in North America have approached those of nonoriented, semi-processed silicon steel. This improvement was accomplished via higher alloy levels in conjunction with hot band annealing. New temper rolling strategies can produce weakly oriented steels tailored to specific applications, such as small transformers used in fluorescent lighting ballasts. Recently, production trials for 0.0138 in product cold rolled on tin mills has been undertaken. Efforts to further improve properties through a better understanding of texture control and via implementation of new production processes, such as thin slab or strip casting, continue.

  5. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice..., but any device or method which gives equivalent results may be used. 4 These limits do not apply to...

  6. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice..., but any device or method which gives equivalent results may be used. 4 These limits do not apply to...

  7. 35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Bevel gear at lower end of vertical drive shaft in foreground turned bevel gear of top roll when the vertical drive shaft was in place in the brass-bearing socket in the middle ground of the photograph. The bolts above the top roll and at the side of the two bottom rolls adjusted the pressure and position of the rolls' brass bearings. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  8. Dimensional Accuracy of Micro-Electro Discharge Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeakub Ali, Mohammad; Rahman, Mohamed Abd; Nur Zuhaida Zunairi, Siti; Banu, Asfana

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates the dimensional accuracy and tool wear rate (TWR) in micro electro discharge (micro-ED) milling of stainless steel (S304) workpiece and tungsten as the tool electrode with control parameter; voltage and feed rate. Dimensional accuracy is represented by the difference of micro-channel width between the two ends of the channel. The TWR and the micro-channel width data are analyzed and empirical model are developed. The optimum values for minimum TWR and minimum micro-channel width are found to be 91 V voltage and 10 μm/s feed rate.

  9. Determining energy costs for milling solid matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guangbin, Yu., Dr.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Marakhovskii, M. B.; Aleksina, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    The article provides findings of analytical research into the process of milling friable matter in a ball mill. We have received an expression to determine energy cost of milling with the account of the method of milling and the characteristics of the material to be ground.

  10. 7 CFR 868.205 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milling requirements. 868.205 Section 868.205... Application of Standards § 868.205 Milling requirements. In determining milling yield (see § 868.202(f)) in rough rice, the degree of milling shall be equal to, or better than, that of the interpretive line...

  11. 7 CFR 868.256 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milling requirements. 868.256 Section 868.256... Governing Application of Standards § 868.256 Milling requirements. In determining milling yield (see § 868.252(g)) in brown rice for processing, the degree of milling shall be equal to, or better than, that of...

  12. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milling requirements. 868.306 Section 868.306 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard...

  13. Processing and structure of a Nitrogen Alloyed Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Austenitic Stainless Steel by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yingli; Zhou, Zhangjian

    2013-03-01

    Pure metallic powders of Fe, Cr, Ni, W, Ti and nano-Y2O3 powders were mechanical alloyed by high energy mechanical milling under N2 atmosphere to develop a nitrogen contained oxide dispersion strengthened austenitic steel powders. The compositions of the mixed powders are Fe-18Cr-8Ni-2W-1Ti-0.35Y2O3. The effects of milling time on nitrogen absorption were investigated. The nitrogen contents in the as-milled powders reached 0.31 wt% after milling for 60 hours and nearly 0.8 wt% after milling for 150 hours. The as-milled powders were then annealed under vacuum at 1173K and 1373 K to promote the formation of the resultant equilibrium phases. Fully austenitic structure was achieved after annealing at 1173K.

  14. 78 FR 4385 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Dongkuk Steel Mill Co., Ltd. (DSM) in the home market which were made at below-cost prices. For a full.... and TCC Steel Corp.) is to assign the rate calculated for DSM, which is the sole company selected for... 351.310(c). Assessment Rates If DSM's weighted-average dumping margin is above de minimis in the...

  15. Chalk Line Mill, Anniston, AL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Chalk Line Mill property was the site of a textile mill which operated from 1887 until 1994. Demolition activities in 2004 removed most of the structures on-site, but also left large, unsightly piles of debris scattered across this 14-acre property. The City applied for and received a $200,000 Brownfields cleanup grant in 2007 to address contamination on the property and the Appalachian Regional Commission provided an additional $150,000 in funding.

  16. Byssinosis among jute mill workers.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Bhaskar P; Saiyed, Habibullah N; Mukherjee, Ashit K

    2003-07-01

    Although byssinosis in jute mill workers remains controversial, studies in a few jute mills in West-Bengal, India, revealed typical byssinotic syndrome associated with acute changes in FEV1 on the first working day after rest. The present study on 148 jute mill workers is reported to confirm the occurrence of byssinosis in jute mill workers. Work related respiratory symptoms; acute and chronic pulmonary function changes among exposed workers were studied on the basis of standard questionnaire and spirometric method along with dust level, particle mass size distributions and gram-negative bacterial endotoxins. The pulmonary function test (PFT) changes were defined as per the recommendation of World Health Organization and of Bouhys et al. Total dust in jute mill air were monitored by high volume sampling, technique (Staplex, USA), Andersen cascade impactor was used for particle size distribution and personal exposure level was determined by personal sampler (Casella, London). Endotoxin in airborne jute dust was analysed by Lymulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) "Gel Clot" technique. Batching is the dustiest process in the mill. Size distribution showed that about 70-80% dust in diameter of < 10 microm, 40-50%, < 5 microm and 10-20%, < 2 microm. Mean endotoxin levels found in hatching, spinning and weaving, and beaming were 2.319 microg/m3, 0.956 microg/ m3, 0.041 microg/m3 respectively and are comparable to the values obtained up to date in Indian cotton mills. Respiratory morbidity study reported typical byssinotic symptoms along with acute post shift FEV1 changes (31.8%) and chronic changes in FEV1 (43.2%) among exposed workers. The group with higher exposure showed significantly lower FVC, FEV1, PEFR and FEF25-75% values. The study confirmed the findings of the earlier studies and clearly indicated that the Indian jute mill workers are also suffering from byssinosis as observed in cotton, flask and hemp workers.

  17. Brookside Mills, Knox County, TN

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Brookside Mills, located in Knox County, TN, was a textile mill that was founded in 1885 and at its peak employed over 1,000 people. Its former uses included fabric weaving, dying, and sewing operations. It was at some point a department store, and during a portion of its history, coal was used as an energy source. Weaving operations continued in some form at the Brookside factory until 1969. In 1996 the buildings were demolished.

  18. Uranium mill tailings stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-02-01

    Uranium mill tailings pose a potential radiation health hazard to the public. Therefore, stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is needed to minimize radon exhalation and other environmental hazards. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing U tailings is the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other hazardous materials within uranium tailings. This approach is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Results of these studies indicate that a radon flux reduction of greater than 99% can be obtained using either a poured-on/sprayed-on seal (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick) or an admixture seal (2.5 to 12.7 cm thick) containing about 18 wt % residual asphalt. A field test was carried out in June 1979 at the Grand Junction tailings pile in order to demonstrate the sealing process. A reduction in radon flux ranging from 4.5 to greater than 99% (76% average) was achieved using a 15.2-cm (6-in.) admix seal with a sprayed-on top coat. A hydrostatic stabilizer was used to apply the admix. Following compaction, a spray coat seal was applied over the admix as the final step in construction of a radon seal. Overburden was applied to provide a protective soil layer over the seal. Included in part of the overburden was a herbicide to prevent root penetration.

  19. Design of Water-Drip Cooling Facilities for Heat Treatment of Mill Rollers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudin, Yu. V.; Maisuradze, M. V.; Anufriev, N. P.

    2013-07-01

    Water-drip cooling devices based on centrifugal jet atomizers are studied experimentally. Their main operating characteristics such as the irrigation density, the uniformity of the distribution of irrigation over the cooled surface, the dependence of the heat transfer factor on the surface temperature, etc. are determined. The effect of the design and production parameters of the quenching facilities on their operating characteristics and mode of cooling of large steel articles is considered for mill rollers as an example. The results of the tests are used to design cooling facilities and heat treatment processes for mill rollers with the use of water-drip quenching.

  20. 8. VIEW OF THE MILL (FEATURE B27) AND MILL TAILINGS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE MILL (FEATURE B-27) AND MILL TAILINGS, FACING EAST. PHOTO TAKEN FROM TOP OF THE TAILINGS. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  1. 7. VIEW TO EAST, MILL WAREHOUSE, DRYERS, GRINDING/ROD MILL, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW TO EAST, MILL WAREHOUSE, DRYERS, GRINDING/ROD MILL, AND MECHANIC SHED. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  2. Steel Rattler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trudo, Robert A.; Stotts, Larry G.

    1997-07-01

    Steel Rattler is a multi-phased project to determine the feasibility of using commercial off-the-shelf components in an advanced acoustic/seismic unattended ground sensor. This project is supported by the Defense Intelligence Agency through Sandia National Laboratories as the lead development agency. Steel Rattler uses advanced acoustic and seismic detection algorithms to categorize and identify various heavy vehicles down to the number of cylinders in the engine. This detection is accomplished with the capabilities of new, high-speed digital signal processors which analyze both acoustic and seismic data. The resulting analysis is compared against an onboard library of known vehicles and a statistical match is determined. An integrated thermal imager is also employed to capture digital thermal images for subsequent compression and transmission. Information acquired by Steel Rattler in the field is transmitted in small packets by a built-in low-power satellite communication system. The ground station receivers distribute the coded information to multiple analysis sites where the information is reassembled into coherent messages and images.

  3. Effect of Addition of Mill Scale on Sintering of Iron Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe; Pinson, David; Chew, Sheng; Monaghan, Brian J.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Webster, Nathan A. S.; Rogers, Harold; Zhang, Guangqing

    2016-10-01

    Iron-rich (65 to 70 pct total Fe) mill scale generated during processing by steel mills can be recycled by using it as a ferrous raw material in the sintering process. The effect of mill scale addition on the phase formation of sintered specimens from an industrial sinter blend containing 0 to 15 wt pct mill scale was examined, and the mineral phases formed during sintering under various conditions ( T = 1523 K to 1598 K [1250 °C to 1325 °C] and gas compositions of pO2 = 0.5, 5 and 21 kPa) were quantitatively measured. For samples sintered in air (pO2 = 21 kPa), there was negligible effect of mill scale addition on the phases formed. The oxidation of the mill scale was complete, and phases such as Silico-Ferrite of Calcium and Aluminum (SFCA), SFCA-I, and hematite dominated. Under lower oxygen partial pressures (pO2 = 0.5 or 5 kPa), and throughout the temperature range examined, the mill scale was converted to magnetite, with the extent of reaction controlled by the hematite-magnetite conversion kinetics. When sintered in the gas mixture with pO2 = 5 kPa, an increase in the mill scale content from 0 to 15 wt pct resulted in a decrease of hematite and total SFCA phases and a corresponding increase in the amount of magnetite which formed. The oxidation of wustite in mill scale to magnetite decreased the local partial pressure of O2 and increased sintering temperature, which promoted the decomposition of hematite.

  4. Sensitivity of whole wood stable carbon and oxygen isotope values to milling procedures.

    PubMed

    Riechelmann, Dana F C; Maus, Michael; Dindorf, Willi; Schöne, Bernd R; Scholz, Denis; Esper, Jan

    2014-06-30

    Milling of wood samples is a widely applied preparation method for pooling tree-rings from different trees or periods of several years for determination of δ(13)C and δ(18)O values. In this study, whole wood samples were milled using different procedures in order to evaluate potential effects of this preparation method on δ(13)C and δ(18)O values. Subsamples of a 5 cm(3) wood piece of a single tree-ring from a lowland white fir were used. The samples were milled with different setups: (i) two and three stainless-steel balls, (ii) 3, 5 and 8 min milling time, and (iii) discontinuous and continuous milling. The δ(13)C values were measured using an elemental analyser connected to an IsoPrime mass spectrometer and δ(18)O values using a Thermo Scientific MAT 253 mass spectrometer and a TC/EA connected by a ConFlo IV. The results show that varying the milling procedure does not alter the δ(13)C and δ(18)O values in comparison to non-milled blank samples. For shorter milling times, an increased variance of δ(18)O values is recorded, probably caused by isotopic gradient between early- and latewood portions of the tree-ring and thereby biasing the insufficiently homogenised samples. No overheating effects on the δ(13)C and δ(18)O values were detected. Milling of wood samples for carbon and oxygen isotope analyses is an appropriate preparation method. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

    1999-09-03

    A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be

  6. Machining of Christmas tree parts of 06Kh20N8M3D2L corrosion-resistant steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinov, S.R.; Balaoglanov, M.M.; Baluyants, E.G.

    1983-09-01

    To address the problem of corrosion cracking, equipment has been developed of 06Kh20N8M3D21 austenitic-ferritic corrosion-resistant multiply alloyed steel. But as this steel is difficult to machine investigations were made to determine the parameters and conditions for machining Christmas tree parts made of this steel. Turning, drilling, thread cutting, and milling are specified. The optimum conditions for machining Christmas tree parts were established in tests. The tests also showed that the coefficient of machinability of the steel is 3 or 4 times less than that of 20KhGSL steel, which is normally used for Christmas tree production.

  7. RADIONUCLIDE INVENTORY AND DISTRIBUTION: FOURMILE BRANCH, PEN BRANCH, AND STEEL CREEK IOUS

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R.; Phifer, M.

    2014-04-29

    radionuclide inventory of each DOE-added radionuclide for the compartments of each IOU by applying the representative, central value concentration to the mass of contaminated soil • Totaling the inventory for all compartments associated with each of the IOUs Using this approach the 2013 radionuclide inventories for each sub-compartment associated with each of the three IOUs were computed, by radionuclide. The inventories from all IOU compartments were then rolled-up into a total inventory for each IOU. To put the computed estimate of radionuclide activities within FMB, PB, and SC IOUs into context, attention was drawn to Cs-137, which was the radionuclide with the largest contributor to the calculated dose to a member of the public at the perimeter of SRS within the 2010 SRS CA (SRNL 2010). The total Cs-137 activity in each of the IOUs was calculated to be 9.13, 1.5, and 17.4 Ci for FMB, PB, and SC IOUs, respectively. Another objective of this investigation was to address the degree of uncertainty associated with the estimated residual radionuclide activity that is calculated for the FMB, PB, and SC IOUs. Two primary contributing factors to overall uncertainty of inventory estimates were identified and evaluated. The first related to the computation of the mass of contaminated material in a particular IOU compartment and the second to the uncertainty associated with analytical counting errors. The error ranges for the mass of contaminated material in each IOU compartment were all calculated to be approximately +/- 9.6%, or a nominal +/-10%. This nominal value was added to the uncertainty associated with the analytical counting errors that were associated with each radionuclide, individually. This total uncertainty was then used to calculate a maximum and minimum estimated radionuclide inventories for each IOU.

  8. Noise exposure in oil mills

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, G. V. Prasanna; Dewangan, K. N.; Sarkar, Amaresh

    2008-01-01

    Context: Noise of machines in various agro-based industries was found to be the major occupational hazard for the workers of industries. The predominant noise sources need to be identified and the causes of high noise need to be studied to undertake the appropriate measures to reduce the noise level in one of the major agro-based industries, oil mills. Aims: To identify the predominant noise sources in the workrooms of oil mills. To study the causes of noise in oil mills. To measure the extent of noise exposure of oil mill workers. To examine the response of workers towards noise, so that appropriate measures can be undertaken to minimize the noise exposure. Settings and Design: A noise survey was conducted in the three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India. Materials and Methods: Information like output capacity, size of power source, maintenance condition of the machines and workroom configurations of the oil mills was collected by personal observations and enquiry with the owner of the mill. Using a Sound Level Meter (SLM) (Model-824, Larson and Davis, USA), equivalent SPL was measured at operator's ear level in the working zone of the workers near each machine of the mills. In order to study the variation of SPL in the workrooms of the oil mill throughout its operation, equivalent SPL was measured at two appropriate locations of working zone of the workers in each mill. For conducting the noise survey, the guidelines of Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS) were followed. Grid points were marked on the floor of the workroom of the oil mill at a spacing of 1 m × 1 m. SPL at grid points were measured at about 1.5 m above the floor. The direction of the SLM was towards the nearby noisy source. To increase accuracy, two replications were taken at each grid point. All the data were recorded for 30 sec. At the end of the experiment, data were downloaded to a personal computer. With the help of utility software of Larson and Davis

  9. Einstein-Yang-Mills from pure Yang-Mills amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandan, Dhritiman; Plefka, Jan; Schlotterer, Oliver; Wen, Congkao

    2016-10-01

    We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons and gravitons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary multiplicities and polarizations involving up to three gravitons and up to two color traces are reduced to partial amplitudes of pure Yang-Mills theory. In fact, the double-trace identities apply to Einstein-Yang-Mills extended by a dilaton and a B-field. Our results generalize recent work of Stieberger and Taylor for the single graviton case with a single color trace. As the derivation is made in the dimension-agnostic Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism, our results are valid for external bosons in any number of spacetime dimensions. Moreover, they generalize to the superamplitudes in theories with 16 supercharges.

  10. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

    1990-12-01

    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  11. Modelling Of Residual Stresses Induced By High Speed Milling Process

    SciTech Connect

    Desmaison, Olivier; Mocellin, Katia; Jardin, Nicolas

    2011-05-04

    Maintenance processes used in heavy industries often include high speed milling operations. The reliability of the post-process material state has to be studied. Numerical simulation appears to be a very interesting way to supply an efficient residual stresses (RS) distribution prediction.Because the adiabatic shear band and the serrated chip shaping are features of the austenitic stainless steel high speed machining, a 2D high speed orthogonal cutting model is briefly presented. This finite element model, developed on Forge registered software, is based on data taken from Outeiro and al.'s paper [1]. A new behaviour law fully coupling Johnson-Cook's constitutive law and Latham and Cockcroft's damage model is detailed in this paper. It ensures results that fit those found in literature.Then, the numerical tools used on the 2D model are integrated to a 3D high speed milling model. Residual stresses distribution is analysed, on the surface and into the depth of the material. Various revolutions and passes of the two teeth hemispheric mill on the workpiece are simulated. Thus the sensitivity of the residual stresses generation to the cutting conditions can be discussed. In order to validate the 3D model, a comparison of the cutting forces measured by EDF R and D to those given by numerical simulations is achieved.

  12. Modelling Of Residual Stresses Induced By High Speed Milling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmaison, Olivier; Mocellin, Katia; Jardin, Nicolas

    2011-05-01

    Maintenance processes used in heavy industries often include high speed milling operations. The reliability of the post-process material state has to be studied. Numerical simulation appears to be a very interesting way to supply an efficient residual stresses (RS) distribution prediction. Because the adiabatic shear band and the serrated chip shaping are features of the austenitic stainless steel high speed machining, a 2D high speed orthogonal cutting model is briefly presented. This finite element model, developed on Forge® software, is based on data taken from Outeiro & al.'s paper [1]. A new behaviour law fully coupling Johnson-Cook's constitutive law and Latham and Cockcroft's damage model is detailed in this paper. It ensures results that fit those found in literature. Then, the numerical tools used on the 2D model are integrated to a 3D high speed milling model. Residual stresses distribution is analysed, on the surface and into the depth of the material. Various revolutions and passes of the two teeth hemispheric mill on the workpiece are simulated. Thus the sensitivity of the residual stresses generation to the cutting conditions can be discussed. In order to validate the 3D model, a comparison of the cutting forces measured by EDF R&D to those given by numerical simulations is achieved.

  13. Gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill

    DOEpatents

    Sadler, III, Leon Y.

    1997-01-01

    A gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill is provided for comminuting solid ticles. The mill includes a housing enclosing a porous fluidizing gas diffuser plate, a baffled rotor and stator, a hollow drive shaft with lateral vents, and baffled gas exhaust exit ports. In operation, fluidizing gas is forced through the mill, fluidizing the raw material and milling media. The rotating rotor, stator and milling media comminute the raw material to be ground. Small entrained particles may be carried from the mill by the gas through the exit ports when the particles reach a very fine size.

  14. Comparative research of plasma-assisted milling and traditional milling in synthesizing AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sen; Wang, Wenchun; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Dezheng

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, traditional milling and discharge plasma-assisted milling are employed to synthesize aluminum nitride (AlN) powder at nanometer scale by milling the mixture of aluminum and lithium hydroxide monohydrate. AlN powders can be generated in traditional milling and plasma-assisted milling in an hour milling time. Differential thermal analysis curves show that the reaction temperature of the powders treated by plasma-assisted milling is lower than that of traditional milling. These results indicate that plasma-assisted milling has higher efficiency in the synthesis of AlN, getting smaller crystallite size and activating powder. Moreover, an optical emission spectrum is employed to demonstrate the active species in plasma. The different formation process of AlN in the two-milling process, and the promotion effects of plasma in the milling process are discussed.

  15. Travel to Steel Warehouse Inc., Southbend, Indiana. Trip report, May 4, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, N.F.

    1995-07-01

    On May 4, 1995 the author visited a steel plate and coil, cold reduction facility at Steel Warehouse Inc. located in South Bend, Indiana about 150 miles from Argonne. Some very interesting facts were learned about cold reduction of hot rolled steel during this visit. The company selected is only a cold reduction mill and buys steel from a number of steel producers. The author spent a total of about three hours with these people, and this included a tour of their pickling line, the small cold reduction mill which at present is limited to 15.5 in width maximum, and their large cold reduction mill which produces sheet and coil up to 72 in. wide. Some of the things that were learned, that will have an impact on the production of the Atlas steel plates are given here. (1) Hot rolled coils have some inherent, interesting, characteristics that must be taken into consideration when being cold reduced. (2) The monitoring of the coil thickness is only done along the center line of the coil, this has a serious impact on QC of plates cut from this coil for a number of reasons. (3) Hot rolled coils of steel in this particular instance may come from a number of different sources. This could cause problems if magnetic permeability is a serious issue. It was the author`s impression that this facility is fairly typical of what one might expect from any similar facility.

  16. Heat-treatment with induction heating of pipes within the pipe welding mill

    SciTech Connect

    Zgura, A.A.; Krichevskii, E.M.; Rudenko, V.A.; Lysyak, A.V.; Kumanev, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    The parameters of induction heat-treatment were determined for pipes from steels 10Kh18N10T and 12Kh18N10T. Mechanical properties of the base metal and the weld were determined by metallography. Induction heat treatment of corrosion-resistant steel pipes in the line of an argon-arc welding mill was found to produce a fine-grain structure of the base metal and weld, ensured that the mechanical properties satisfied all specifications, reduced time and consumption of the etching solution during chemical processing, required no additional personnel, reduced oxidation of the metal and saved energy.

  17. National Steel Pellet Company`s secondary grinding circuit modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Wennen, J.E.; Nordstrom, W.J.; Murr, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    National Steel Pellet Company (NSPC) conducted pilot scale testing and computer simulation studies which indicates that the capacity of the secondary grinding mill could be increased and that concentrate grade improvement could be expected with improved classification in the grinding circuit. Based on these studies, a decision was made to modify one secondary ball mill line at NSPC to include both cyclone and screen classification with magnetic separation applied to the circulating load. This paper will briefly discuss the studies leading to the decision to modify the circuit, the design of the modified circuit and the initial start-up and operating experience.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of ODS austenitic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yingli; Zhou, Zhangjian; Li, Ming; He, Pei

    2011-10-01

    Pure Fe, Cr, Ni, W, Ti elemental powders and nano-Y 2O 3 powders (the compositions of the mixed powders are Fe-18Cr-8Ni-2W-1Ti-0.35Y 2O 3) were processed by high energy mechanical milling. The as milled powders were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing for 3 h at 1423 K under a pressure of 200 MPa. The microstructure of the fabricated ODS austenitic steels and chemical composition of the oxide particles were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry. The dispersed fine oxides were determined to be Y-Ti-O oxides. The tensile properties were improved significantly by oxide dispersion strengthening but the ductility deteriorated.

  19. ONLINE SAG MILL PULSE MEASUREMENT AND OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti

    2006-06-24

    The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment.

  20. Assessment of corrosion in a sulfur dioxide vapor emission reduction system for a pulp mill

    SciTech Connect

    Dreisig, R.C.; Beavers, J.A.; Caudill, D.L.

    1996-08-01

    This paper reviews efforts to mitigate corrosion with pulp mill vent odorous gases as they are conveyed to a boiler for thermal oxidation. These moisture laden gases emanate from a sulfite batch operated pulp mill and are sent to a neighboring spent sulfite fueled boiler to comply with the 1990 Clean Air Act. It was recognized early during project definition that sulfuric acid dew point corrosion was a major concern with carbon steel (CS) tubular air heaters. Corrosion studies were conducted in the field prior to and after project startup to determine if heat exchange surfaces were at risk of wastage. Various types of measurements were used such as polarization resistance, weight loss coupons, solution resistance, and electrical resistance to monitor corrosion of CS and 316L stainless steel (SS).

  1. 4. VIEW OF THE ROAD TO THE MILL, FACING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF THE ROAD TO THE MILL, FACING SOUTH. THE MILL (FEATURE B-27) IS SHOWN IN THE BACKGROUND. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Mill, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  2. 4. APPROACH OF CARRS MILL ROAD TO THE SOUTH PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. APPROACH OF CARRS MILL ROAD TO THE SOUTH PORTAL OF THE MITCHELLS MILL BRIDGE; VIEW TO NORTH. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  3. 72. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER FROM NORTHWEST. WOOD FEED BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER FROM NORTHWEST. WOOD FEED BOX BEHIND MILL, BARREN SOLUTION TANK BEHIND TRAVELING CRANE TRUSS AND ABOVE MILL. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  4. Elevation, west portal. Sign on portal reads Watson Mill Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation, west portal. Sign on portal reads Watson Mill Bridge, est. 1885. - Watson Mill Bridge, Spanning South Fork Broad River, Watson Mill Road, Watson Mill Bridge State Park, Comer, Madison County, GA

  5. High yttria ferritic ODS steels through powder forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Deepak; Prakash, Ujjwal; Dabhade, Vikram V.; Laha, K.; Sakthivel, T.

    2017-05-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are being developed for future nuclear reactors. ODS Fe-18%Cr-2%W-0.2%Ti steels with 0, 0.35, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% Y2O3 (all compositions in weight%) dispersion were fabricated by mechanical alloying of elemental powders. The powders were placed in a mild steel can and forged in a stream of hydrogen gas at 1473 K. The steels were forged again to final density. The strength of ODS steel increased with yttria content. Though this was accompanied by a decrease in tensile elongation, all the steels showed significant ductility. The ductility in high yttria alloys may be attributed to improved inter-particle bonding between milled powders due to reduction of surface oxides by hydrogen. This may permit development of ODS steels with yttria contents higher than the conventional limit of 0.5%. It is suggested that powder forging is a promising route to fabricate ODS steels with high yttria contents and improved ductility.

  6. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-04-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  7. Soil Carbon 4 per mille

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minasny, Budiman; van Wesemael, Bas

    2017-04-01

    The '4 per mille Soils for Food Security and Climate' was launched at the COP21 aiming to increase global soil organic matter stocks by 4 per mille (or 0.4 %) per year as a compensation for the global emissions of greenhouse gases by anthropogenic sources. This paper surveyed the soil organic carbon (SOC) stock estimates and sequestration potentials from 20 regions in the world (New Zealand, Chile, South Africa, Australia, Tanzania, Indonesia, Kenya, Nigeria, India, China Taiwan, South Korea, China Mainland, United States of America, France, Canada, Belgium, England & Wales, Ireland, Scotland, and Russia) and asked whether the 4 per mille initiative is feasible. This study highlights region specific efforts and scopes for soil carbon sequestration. Reported soil C sequestration rates generally show that under best management practices, 4 per mille or even higher sequestration rates can be accomplished. High C sequestration rates (up to 10 per mille) can be achieved for soils with low initial SOC stock (topsoil less than 30 t C ha-1), and at the first twenty years after implementation of best management practices. In addition, areas that have reached equilibrium but not at their saturation level will not be able to further increase their sequestration. We found that most studies on SOC sequestration globally only consider topsoil (up to 0.3 m depth), as it is considered to be most affected by management techniques. The 4 per mille initiative was based on a blanket calculation of the whole global soil profile C stock, however the potential to increase SOC is mostly on managed agricultural lands. If we consider 4 per mille on global topsoil of agricultural land, SOC sequestration is about 3.6 Gt C per year, which effectively offset 40% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. As a strategy for climate change mitigation, soil carbon sequestration buys time over the next ten to twenty years while other effective sequestration and low carbon technologies become

  8. Austenite grain growth kinetics in Al-killed plain carbon steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Militzer, Matthias; Hawbolt, E. Bruce; Ray Meadowcroft, T.; Giumelli, Alan

    1996-11-01

    Austenite grain growth kinetics have been investigated in three Al-killed plain carbon steels. Experimental results have been validated using the statistical grain growth model by Abbruzzese and Lücke, which takes pinning by second-phase particles into account. It is shown that the pinning force is a function of the pre-heat-treatment schedule. Extrapolation to the conditions of a hot-strip mill indicates that grain growth occurs without pinning during conventional processing. Analytical relations are proposed to simulate austenite grain growth for Al-killed plain carbon steels for any thermal path in a hot-strip mill.

  9. Mechanosynthesis of A Ferritic ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) Steel Containing 14% Chromium and Its Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivai, A. K.; Dimyati, A.; Adi, W. A.

    2017-05-01

    One of the advanced materials for application at high temperatures which is aggressively developed in the world is ODS (Oxide Dispersion strengthened) steel. ODS ferritic steels are one of the candidate materials for future nuclear reactors in the world (Generation IV reactors) because it is able to be used in the reactor above 600 °C. ODS ferritic steels have also been developed for the interconnect material of SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell) which will be exposed to about 800 °C of temperature. The steel is strengthened by dispersing homogeneously of oxide particles (ceramic) in nano-meter sized in the matrix of the steel. Synthesis of a ferritic ODS steel by dispersion of nano-particles of yttrium oxide (yttria: Y2O3) as the dispersion particles, and containing high-chromium i.e. 14% has been conducted. Synthesis of the ODS steels was done mechanically (mechanosynthesis) using HEM (High Energy ball Milling) technique for 40 and 100 hours. The resulted samples were characterized using SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive Spectroscope), and XRD (X-ray diffraction) to analyze the microstructure characteristics. The results showed that the crystal grains of the sample with 100 hours milling time was much smaller than the sample with 40 hours milling time, and some amount of alloy was formed during the milling process even for 40 hours milling time. Furthermore, the structure analysis revealed that some amount of iron atom substituted by a slight amount of chromium atom as a solid solution. The quantitative analysis showed that the phase mostly consisted of FeCr solid-solution with the structure was BCC (body-centered cubic).

  10. Uranium Mines and Mills Location Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Uranium Mines and Mills location database identifies and shows the location of active and inactive uranium mines and mills, as well as mines which principally produced other minerals, but were known to have uranium in the ore.

  11. The SHOLO mill: return on investment versus mill design

    Treesearch

    Hugh W. Reynolds; Charles J. Gatchell; Charles J. Gatchell

    1971-01-01

    The newly developed SHOLO (from SHOrt Log) process can be used to convert low-grade hardwood logs into parts for standard warehouse pallets and pulp chips. Should you build a SHOLO mill? This paper has been prepared to help you decide.

  12. Influencing Factors and Workpiece's Microstructure in Laser-Assisted Milling of Titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedenmann, R.; Liebl, S.; Zaeh, M. F.

    Today's lightweight components have to withstand increasing mechanical and thermal loads. Therefore, advanced materials substitute conventional materials like steel or aluminum alloys. Using these high-performance materials the associated costs become prohibitively high. This paper presents the newest fundamental investigations on the hybrid process 'laser-assisted milling' which is an innovative technique to process such materials. The focus is on the validation of a numerical database for a CAD/CAM process control unit which is calculated by using simulation. Prior to that, the influencing factors on a laser-assisted milling process are systematically investigated using Design of Experiments (DoE) to identify the main influencing parameters coming from the laser and the milling operation.

  13. Preparation of magnesium ferrite nanoparticles by ultrasonic wave-assisted aqueous solution ball milling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ding; Li, Dian-yi; Zhang, Ying-zhe; Kang, Zhi-tao

    2013-11-01

    Magnesium ferrite, MgFe2O4 nanoparticles with high saturation magnetization were successfully synthesized using ultrasonic wave-assisted ball milling. In this study, the raw materials were 4MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·5H2O and Fe2O3 powders and the grinding media was stainless steel ball. The average particle diameter of the product MgFe2O4 powders was 20 nm and the saturation magnetization of them reached 54.8 emu/g. The different results of aqueous solution ball milling with and without ultrasonic wave revealed that it was the coupling effect of ultrasonic wave and mechanical force that played an important role during the synthesis of MgFe2O4. In addition, the effect of the frequency of the ultrasonic wave on the ball milling process was investigated.

  14. 1. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT MAIN ELEVATION OF STARK MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT MAIN ELEVATION OF STARK MILL, A REINFORCED CONCRETE MILL BUILT BY NEW ENGLAND SOUTHERN MILLS IN 1923-24. THE MILL WAS DESIGNED BY LOCKWOOD GREENE ENGINEERS, AND CONTAINED 35,000 SPINDLES FOR MAKING TIRE FABRICS. PART OF THE WEAVING WOULD TAKE PLACE AT HOGANSVILLE MILL (BUILT c. 1900), ANOTHER NEW ENGLAND SOUTHERN MILL NEARBY, UNTIL THE DEMOLITION OF THAT MILL IN THE 1970s. - Stark Mill, 117 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  15. Construction and Fielding of TRS (Thermal Radiation Simulation) Units for the MILL RACE High Explosive Event.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-18

    liter container that has been pressure tested to 350 psi. A second container, made of carbon steel, surrounds the inner shell. Perlite insulation has...unit was examined for LOX flow characteristics, mixed cold flow characteristics, and finally for burn characteristics. Modifications of pressure... modification prior to its use in the field. These problems were resolved before the last dry run and all cameras performed well during the MILL RACE event

  16. Development of alignment-guidance device for grooved roll mill using parallel projection imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Toshifumi; Iwata, Teruhisa; Yamagami, Daisaku; Takagi, Keiji

    2013-04-01

    The accuracy in the arrangement of grooved rolls for the finishing rolling mill is of large importance for the good roundness of the bar steel product supplied to the precision machinery components such as the bearing of the high speed motor. Combining telecentric optics, silhouette image processing techniques, and statistical data processing allowed the development of the quantitative alignment guidance technique of the grooved rolls. The developed system demonstrated a high measuring accuracy and was seen to have practical use.

  17. Factors contributing to milling quality differences in MY3, a 'RiceCAP' project milling population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A unique California long grain milling population is being phenotyped for milling and fissuring characteristics within the RiceCAP project. Low milling parent of this population has difference in grain shape, degree of chalkiness, and amylose content, as compared to the high milling parent. Contri...

  18. Supertough Stainless Bearing Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Gregory B.

    1995-01-01

    Composition and processing of supertough stainless bearing steel designed with help of computer-aided thermodynamic modeling. Fracture toughness and hardness of steel exceeds those of other bearing steels like 440C stainless bearing steel. Developed for service in fuel and oxidizer turbopumps on Space Shuttle main engine. Because of strength and toughness, also proves useful in other applications like gears and surgical knives.

  19. Use of charcoals and broiler litter biochar for removal of radioactive cesium (Cs-134 plus Cs-137) from contaminated water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Various charcoals (used in food processing and water treatment) and broiler litter biochar were examined for ability to adsorb water-soluble low-level radioactive cesium (ca. 200-250 Bq/kg) extracted from contaminated wheat bran. Among the materials tested, steam activated broiler litter biochar was...

  20. Plants as Bio-monitor Agents: Foliar Deposition of Be-7, Pb-210, K-40 and Cs-137

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, Antonio Carlos de; Brito, Lavinia C.; Tanizaki, Kenny F.; Lima, Rafaela; Paschoa, Anselmo S.; Franco, Marcia

    2008-08-07

    Leaves of Eremanthus crotonoides, Allagoptera arenaria, Byrsonima sericea, Tibouchina sp, Tocoyena bullata and Clusia hilariana were collected under the same climatic in an area of restinga in the Northeast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The activity concentrations of selected radionuclides in the leaves samples were determined. The results obtained have shown a high concentration of {sup 7}Be and {sup 40}K in E. crotonoides, {sup 210}Pb in T. bullata and {sup 137}Cs in Tibouchina sp. The high activity concentration of {sup 7}Be in E. crotonoides can be explained by the presence of trichomes in the leaves. E. crotonoides and T. bullata reveal high foliar deposition of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb, respectively, thus these species can be used as bio-monitors to evaluate the concentration and dispersion of radionuclides in environmental studies.

  1. Effective environmental half-lives of Sr90 and Cs137 in the coastal seawater of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasamatsu, Fujio; Inatomi, Naohiko

    1998-01-01

    The effective environmental half-lives of 137Cs and 90Sr together with their variations in concentrations in the coastal seawater of Japan were examined based on results of long-term and systematic measurements during 1984-1994. Concentrations of these radionuclides in surface water from 12 areas in the region of the Kuroshio and the Tsushima Currents along Japan were similar and higher than in surface waters of the cold current of Oyashio. Relatively constant concentrations were observed in seawater above 200 m depth that appears to be well mixed, as generally assumed, with sharp gradient below 200 m depth. The observed mean concentrations of 137Cs in coastal waters of Japan decreased from 3.1 ± 0.2 mBq/L in the surface mixed layer (0-200 m depth) to 1.8 ± 0.2 mBq/L at 500 m depth (a decrease of 58%). The observed mean concentration of 90Sr in coastal waters of Japan decreased from 2.2 ± 0.2 mBq/L at the surface mixed layer to 1.4 ± 0.2 mBq/L at 500 m depth (a decrease of 64%). The vertical distribution of 137Cs/90Sr activity ratio ranged from 1.45 at surface to 1.31 at a depth of 450-500 m, suggesting a possible difference in the behavior between 90Sr and 137Cs in coastal seawater. Concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in the surface mixed layer were 3.3 ± 0.4 mBq/L (n=40) and 4.3 ± 0.5 mBq/L (n=40), respectively, in 1984. The concentrations dropped fairly steadily from 1984 to 1994, except for a clear increase of 137Cs in the spring of 1986 (5.0 ± 1.1 mBq/L, n=34) due to Chernobyl deposit. The concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in 1994 were 2.2 ± 0.2 mBq/L (n=51) and 3.1 ± 0.2 mBq/L (n=51), respectively. Effective environmental half-lives of 90Sr and 137Cs of the surface mixed layer in the Tsushima Current system are calculated to be 17.3 years (95% confidence interval 16.1-18.7 years) during 1984-1994 and 18.7 years (13.4-31.2 years) during 1987-1994, respectively.

  2. Migration of Sr-20, Cs-137, and Pu-239/240 in Canyon below Los Alamos outfall

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.M.; Mason, C.F.V.; Boak, J.M.; Longmire, P.A.

    1996-04-01

    Technical Area-21 (TA-21) of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is on a mesa bordered by two canyons DP Canyon and Los Alamos (LA) Canyon. DP Canyon is a small semiarid watershed with a well defined channel system where the stream flow is ephemeral. TA-21 has had a complex history of waste disposal as research to determine the chemical and metallurgical properties of nuclear materials occurred here from 1945-1978. Due to these operations, the TA-21 mesa top and bordering canyons have been monitored and characterized by the LANL Environmental Restoration Program. Results identify radionuclide values at outfall. 21-011 (k) which exceed Screening Action Levels, and points along DP Canyon which exceed regional background levels. The radiocontaminants considered in this study are strontium-90, cesium-137, and plutonium-239. This research examines sediment transport and speciation of radionuclide contaminant migration from a source term named SWMU 21-011 (k) down DP Canyon. Three dimensional surface plots of data from 1977-1994 are used to portray the transport and redistribution of radioactive contaminants in an alluvial stream channel. An overall decrease in contamination concentration since 1983 has been observed which could be due to more stringent laboratory controls and also to the removal of main plutonium processing laboratories to another site.

  3. Geostatistical mapping of Cs-137 contamination depth in building structures by integrating ISOCS measurements of different spatial supports

    SciTech Connect

    Boden, S.; Jacques, D.; Rogiers, B.

    2013-07-01

    Reliable methods to determine the contamination depth in nuclear building structures are very much needed for minimizing the radioactive waste volume and the decontamination workload. This paper investigates the geostatistical integration of in situ gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements of different spatial supports. A case study is presented from the BR3 decommissioning project, yielding an estimated reduction of waste volume of ∼35%, and recommendations are made for future application of the proposed methodology. (authors)

  4. Volume I. Environmental effects on contents of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in milk. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-03

    Milk, animal fodders, soils, humans, livestock, and wildlife on or near 55 dairy farms in Utah were assayed for radionuclide content. Effects of soil chemistry, water supply, plant type, farming practices, geographic location, altitude, rainfall, and other ecological differences were sought by intensive analysis. Although many analyses have not been completed, several cause-effect relationships have been defined. Wet-lands yield more /sup 137/Cs, /sup 131/I, or /sup 90/Sr to milk under like conditions of fallout intensity than dry-lands. In most cases, the station with the highest yield is also practicing wet grazing. /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs content of milk is enhanced by sandy soils. Increased altitude and higher rainfall lead to higher yields of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs in milk. Levels of /sup 137/Cs in milk increase from south to north, and Utah can be divided into several regions, each having a characteristic level of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs in milk, meat, and fodders. Poor pastures (over-grazed to the extent that stem bases are eaten and much soil is exposed) yield more /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr than improved pastures. Feeding green chop alfalfa or putting the animals on the meadows causes marked but temporary increases in the /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs content of the milk. However, the annual yield for two stations of similar ecology in the same geographic area is essentially the same. Experimental details are presented in Volume I. The appendices in Volume II are made up primarily of the data compiled at the 78 stations.

  5. [Effects of natural zeolite-clinoptilollite on processes of removal of Cs-137 from the rat body].

    PubMed

    Krasnopërova, A P; Lonin, A Iu

    1999-01-01

    The selectivity of natural and synthetic zeolites to 137Cs in experiments in vitro has been investigated. The influence of natural zeolite-clinoptilolite on the dynamics of withdrawal of 137Cs from rats' organism was estimated.

  6. Uptake and Retention of Cs137 by a Blue-Green Alga in Continuous Flow and Batch Culture Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, J.R.

    2003-02-18

    Since routine monitoring data show that blue-green algae concentrate radioactivity from water by factors as great as 10,000, this study was initiated to investigate the uptake and retention patterns of specific radionuclides by the dominant genera of blue-green algae in the reactor effluents. Plectonema purpureum was selected for this study.

  7. Using Cs-137, C-14 and biomarker compounds to identify reasons for C and N losses in resampled profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baisden, W. T.; Parfitt, R. L.; Schipper, L. A.; Filley, T. R.; Ross, C.

    2008-12-01

    A New Zealand data set of archived and resampled pasture soil profiles has identified a systematic pattern large soil C and N losses and gains that appear to be related to land-use intensity. We use isotope and organic geochemistry techniques in selected archived and resampled soil horizons to identify reasons for the observed large soil C and N losses and gains in intensive flat non-allophanic pasture and hill country soil profiles, respectively. These techniques allow us to examine 3 of the ~10 hypotheses proposed to explain the large losses initially observed in intensive pasture soils. These three hypotheses are: (1) soil C and N changes may be due to erosion and deposition; (2) pre-European forest-derived organic matter is being lost; and (3) changes in litter quality are reducing the amount of plant C and N stabilized in soil. To test hypothesis (1), we use 137Cs, accumulated in the soil clay fraction from nuclear fallout between 1945 and 1965. Measurements comparing archived (post-1965) and resampled horizons show losses or gains of 137Cs, which we interpret as erosion and deposition, respectively. Apparent wind erosion of up to ~6 cm of surface soil explains large surface soil C losses in 2 flat profiles, while apparent deposition explains soil C gains in two hill country profiles. Measurements of 14C assist in the evaluation of hypothesis (2) by suggesting that, after accounting for 137Cs-estimated erosion or deposition, surface soils are mainly losing C fixed since bomb 14C was injected into the atmosphere (post-1950). In contrast, soil C losses below 40 cm depth are dominated by C derived from pre-European forests. Biomarker compounds, particularly lignin-derivatives, allow us to evaluate hypotheses (2) and (3). Results to date suggest that failure to stabilize grass-derived C is more important than losses of forest-derived C in explaining soil C losses in the upper 30 cm. More broadly, biomarker and 137Cs measurements suggest that steady-state assumptions must be carefully applied in models of C and N in New Zealand pasture soils, and will be inappropriate in some circumstances. Based on these studies of 3-5 selected profiles, we examine approaches to broaden the use of these techniques to identify reasons for C and N losses and gains as the resampling of archived New Zealand soil profiles continues.

  8. Machine Shop. Module 6: Milling. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walden, Charles H.

    This document consists of materials for a 12-unit course on the following topics: (1) introduction to milling; (2) structure and accessories; (3) safety and maintenance; (4) cutting-tool variables; (5) basic set-up activities; (6) squaring a workpiece; (7) hole-making operations; (8) form milling; (9) machining keyways; (10) milling angular…

  9. 43 CFR 3596.1 - Milling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling § 3596.1 Milling. The operator/lessee shall conduct milling... the reduction, concentration or separation of mineral substances by mechanical or chemical processes... and waste generated shall be in accordance with the approved practices....

  10. 43 CFR 3596.1 - Milling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling § 3596.1 Milling. The operator/lessee shall conduct milling... the reduction, concentration or separation of mineral substances by mechanical or chemical processes... and waste generated shall be in accordance with the approved practices....

  11. 43 CFR 3596.1 - Milling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling § 3596.1 Milling. The operator/lessee shall conduct milling... the reduction, concentration or separation of mineral substances by mechanical or chemical processes... and waste generated shall be in accordance with the approved practices....

  12. 43 CFR 3596.1 - Milling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Milling. 3596.1 Section 3596.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling § 3596.1 Milling. The operator/lessee shall conduct...

  13. Machine Shop. Module 6: Milling. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walden, Charles H.

    This document consists of materials for a 12-unit course on the following topics: (1) introduction to milling; (2) structure and accessories; (3) safety and maintenance; (4) cutting-tool variables; (5) basic set-up activities; (6) squaring a workpiece; (7) hole-making operations; (8) form milling; (9) machining keyways; (10) milling angular…

  14. Experimental characterization of compaction and sintering of nanocrystalline copper steel powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junaid, Olalekan Rilwan

    The effect of ball milling on the compaction and sintering of nanocrystalline FC-0205 powder was studied in this work. As-received micron-sized FC-0205 powder was subjected to High Energy Ball Milling (HEBM) in an argon atmosphere at different milling time of 0, 8, 16, 20 and 24 hours to obtain nanocrystalline structures. Unmilled, 8 and 16 hour milled powder were compacted using uniaxial die compression at a pressure ranging from 274 MPa to 775 MPa to obtain a relative density from 74% to 95%. The steel powder compacts were sintered at temperatures ranging from 400 °C (752 °F) to 1120 °C (2048 °F) in a controlled atmosphere. Microscopy analysis using Optical Microscope (OM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) was performed on the milled powder, and on the green and sintered compacts to examine the grain size, morphology and agglomeration.

  15. Extracting lignins from mill wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Addition of quaternary ammonium compound and activated charcoal to pulp and mill wastes precipitates lignins in sludge mixture. Methanol dissolves lignins for separation from resulting slurry. Mineral acid reprecipitates lignins in filtered solution. Quaternary ammonium compound, activated charcoal, as well as water may be recovered and recycled from this process.

  16. Extracting lignins from mill wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Addition of quaternary ammonium compound and activated charcoal to pulp and mill wastes precipitates lignins in sludge mixture. Methanol dissolves lignins for separation from resulting slurry. Mineral acid reprecipitates lignins in filtered solution. Quaternary ammonium compound, activated charcoal, as well as water may be recovered and recycled from this process.

  17. Low-cost boring mill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibdon, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Portable unit and special fixture serve as boring mill. Machine, fabricated primarily from scrap metal, was designed and set up in about 12 working days. It has reduced setup and boring time by 66 percent as compared with existing boring miles, thereby making latter available for other jobs. Unit can be operated by one man.

  18. Simulation for Rough Mill Options

    Treesearch

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    1992-01-01

    How is rough mill production affected by lumber length? Lumber grade? Cutting quality? Cutting sizes? How would equipment purchase plans be prioritized? How do personnel shifts affect system productivity? What effect would a reduction in machine set-up time have on material flow? Simulation modeling is being widely used in many industries to provide valuable insight...

  19. Low-cost boring mill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibdon, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Portable unit and special fixture serve as boring mill. Machine, fabricated primarily from scrap metal, was designed and set up in about 12 working days. It has reduced setup and boring time by 66 percent as compared with existing boring miles, thereby making latter available for other jobs. Unit can be operated by one man.

  20. The automatic lumber planing mill

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1957-01-01

    It is probable that a truly automatic planning operation could be devised if some of the variables commonly present in the mill-run lumber were eliminated and the remaining variables kept under close control. This paper will deal with the more general situation faced by mostl umber manufacturing plants. In other words, it will be assumed that the incoming lumber has...

  1. J. S. Mill on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Mill may be said either to have written rather little on education or to have written a very great deal. He himself distinguished between a "narrow" and a "wider" sense of education, the former limited to what happens in formal educational settings, the latter embracing all the influences that make us who and what we are. He wrote rather little on…

  2. Friction stir processing on carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, Sergei Yu.; Melnikov, Alexander G.; Rubtsov, Valery E.

    2014-11-14

    Friction stir processing of medium carbon steel samples has been carried out using a milling machine and tools made of cemented tungsten carbide. Samples have been machined from 40 and 40X steels. The tools have been made in the shape of 5×5×1.5 mm and 3×3×1.5 mm tetrahedrons. The microstructure of stirred zone has been obtained using the smaller tool and consists of fine recrystallized 2-3 μm grains, whereas the larger tool has produced the 'onion-like' structures comprising hard quenched 'white' 500-600 MPa layers with 300-350 MPa interlayers of bainite needles. The mean values of wear intensity obtained after measuring the wear scar width were 0.02 mm/m and 0.001 mm/m for non-processed and processed samples, respectively.

  3. Economic feasibility of radioactive scrap steel recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, F.; Balhiser, R.; Rosholt, D.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, government and commercial nuclear operators treated radioactive scrap steel (RSS) as a liability and disposed of it by burial; this was an accepted and economical solution at that time. Today, environmental concerns about burial are changing the waste disposal picture by (a) causing burial costs to soar rapidly, (b) creating pressure to close existing burial sites, and (c) making it difficult and expensive to open and operate burial facilities. To exacerbate the problem, planned dismantling of nuclear facilities will substantially increase volumes of RSS {open_quotes}waste{close_quotes} over the next 30 yr. This report describes a project with the intention of integrating the current commercial mini-mill approach of recycling uncontaminated steel with radiological controls to design a system that can process contaminated metals at prices significantly below the current processors or burial costs.

  4. Improvement of the technique of calculating the energy-force parameters of pinch-pass mills for increasing the efficiency of producing cold-rolled strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garber, E. A.; Timofeeva, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    New propositions are introduced into the technique of energy-force calculation of pinch-pass mills in order to determine the energy-force and technological parameters of skin rolling of cold-rolled steel strips at the minimum errors. The application of these propositions decreases the errors of calculating the forces and torques in a working stand by a factor of 3-5 as compared to the calculation according to the well-known technique, saves the electric power in the existing mills, and demonstrates the possibility of decreasing the dimensions of working stands and the power of the rolling mill engine.

  5. Metal powder reactions in ball milling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arias, A.

    1976-01-01

    On milling chromium powder in three metal chlorides and either chromium or nickel powders in ten organic liquids representative of nine different functional groups, the powders always reacted with the liquids and became contaminated with elements from them. The milled powders had specific surface areas ranging from 0.14 to 37 sq m/g, and the total contamination with elements from the milling liquid ranged from 0.01 to 56 wt%. In most milling runs, compounds resulting from substitution, addition, or elimination reactions formed in or from the milling liquid, and in most runs with organic liquids H2, CH4, and CO2 were generated.

  6. Influence of Milling Process on Efavirenz Solubility.

    PubMed

    Zaini, Erizal; Wahyu, Deni; Octavia, Maria Dona; Fitriani, Lili

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the milling process on the solubility of efavirenz. Milling process was done using Nanomilling for 30, 60, and 180 min. Intact and milled efavirenz were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), spectroscopy infrared (IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and solubility test. The X-ray diffractogram showed a decline on peak intensity of milled efavirenz compared to intact efavirenz. The SEM graph depicted the change from crystalline to amorphous habit after milling process. The IR spectrum showed there was no difference between intact and milled efavirenz. Thermal analysis which performed by DSC showed a reduction on endothermic peak after milling process which related to decreasing of crystallinity. Solubility test of intact and milled efavirenz was conducted in distilled water free CO2 with 0.25% sodium lauryl sulfate media and measured using high-performance liquid chromatography method with acetonitrile: distilled water (80:20) as mobile phases. The solubility was significantly increased (P < 0.05) after milling processes, which the intact efavirenz was 27.12 ± 2.05, while the milled efavirenz for 30, 60, and 180 min were 75.53 ± 1.59, 82.34 ± 1.23, and 104.75 ± 0.96 μg/mL, respectively. Based on the results, the solubility of efavirenz improved after milling process.

  7. Reducing the Variability of HSLA Sheet Steels (TRP 9807)

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Anthony J. DeArdo

    2004-03-12

    The sensitivity of the yield strength of a 70 ksi HSLA steel to changes in processing variables was investigated using a laboratory hot-rolling mill. Along with a detailed examination of the hot-rolled microstructures, auxiliary experiments were conducted to determine how the decomposition of the austenite phase and the occurrence of ultra-fine precipitate formation could account for the yield strength variability. A set of guidelines was recommended for the reduction of the yield strength variability.

  8. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6 Microstructure Engineering in Hot Strip Mills, Part 1 of 2: Integrated Mathematical Model

    SciTech Connect

    J.K. Brimacombe; I.V. Samarasekera; E.B. Hawbolt; T.R. Meadowcroft; M. Militzer; W.J. Pool; D.Q. Jin

    1999-07-31

    This report describes the work of developing an integrated model used to predict the thermal history, deformation, roll forces, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip in a hot-strip mill. This achievement results from a joint research effort that is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AIS) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. DOE and fifteen North American Steelmakers.

  9. Ultrahigh carbon steels, Damascus steels, and superplasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Sherby, O.D.; Wadsworth, J.

    1997-04-01

    The processing properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) have been studied at Stanford University over the past twenty years. These studies have shown that such steels (1 to 2.1% C) can be made superplastic at elevated temperature and can have remarkable mechanical properties at room temperature. It was the investigation of these UHCSs that eventually brought us to study the myths, magic, and metallurgy of ancient Damascus steels, which in fact, were also ultrahigh carbon steels. These steels were made in India as castings, known as wootz, possibly as far back as the time of Alexander the Great. The best swords are believed to have been forged in Persia from Indian wootz. This paper centers on recent work on superplastic UHCSs and on their relation to Damascus steels. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Effects of focused ion beam milling on austenite stability in ferrous alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Knipling, K.E.; Rowenhorst, D.J.; Fonda, R.W.; Spanos, G.

    2010-01-15

    The susceptibility of fcc austenite to transform to bcc during focused ion beam milling was studied in three commercial stainless steels. The alloys investigated, in order of increasing austenite stability, were: (i) a model maraging steel, Sandvik 1RK91; (ii) an AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel; and (iii) AL-6XN, a super-austenitic stainless steel. Small trenches were milled across multiple austenite grains in each alloy using a 30 kV Ga{sup +} ion beam at normal incidence to the specimen surface. The ion beam dose was controlled by varying the trench depth and the beam current. The factors influencing the transformation of fcc austenite to bcc (listed in order of decreasing influence) were found to be: (i) alloy composition (i.e., austenite stability), (ii) ion beam dose (or trench depth), and (iii) crystallographic orientation of the austenite grains. The ion beam current had a negligible influence on the FIB-induced transformation of austenite in these alloys.

  11. Microstructural refinement and strengthening of Cu-4 Cr-2 Nb alloy by mechanical milling

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.R.; Groza, J.R.; Ulmer, D.G.

    1997-07-15

    Lately, a variety of dispersion strengthened (DS) copper alloys that provide a good combination of thermal/electrical conductivity and mechanical strength have been developed. Strengthening is usually achieved by the introduction of a ceramic, refractory metal or intermetallic secondary phase. Cu-Cr-Nb is one such DS alloy in which strengthening is provided by Cr{sub 2}Nb intermetallic particles. Mechanical milling of as-atomized Cu-4 Cr-2 Nb alloy powders substantially increases the mechanical strength (hardness) of the starting material. This is achieved through a drastic grain size, as well as large precipitate size refinement. A more uniform precipitate distribution is also attained. Whether milling is performed with steel or WC vial and balls the hardness saturates at approximately 100 HRB after about 4 hr milling. However, this benefit of MM was offset by an equally severe decrease in electrical conductivity. This decrease is attributed to impurities/contamination from the milling media introduced into the milled powder, primarily, Fe and C, or, WC and Co.

  12. Full Stand Modeling and Tension Control for the Hot Strip Finishing Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byoung Joon; Choi, Ju Yong; Chang, Yu Shin; Lee, Man Hyung

    We describe a looper controller design for a hot strip finishing mill in steel plants. The main function of the looper system is to balance the mass flow of the strip by accumulating material in the middle of the stands. Another function is to control the strip tension which influences the width of the strip. To ensure strip quality, it is very important to control the tension of the hot strip finishing mill. However, because there is a mutual interaction between the looper angle and the strip tension, it is difficult to control the looper system. Previous researches examined only the operation of a single stand. But it is not sufficient to examine the operation and effect of whole stands because the operation is wholly interdependent. In this paper, we present a full model of the hot strip finishing mill in order to more effectively control strip tension. We propose several control methods for the full-stand hot strip finishing mill, denoted as conventional PI, PI with cross gain, and coefficient diagram method (CDM) PID control. In the real plants, there are some problems by using higher order controllers such as LQ, LQG and H∞. By comparison, the PID controller is very simple and easy to apply to all real plants. To that end, we present our findings on PID controls and their potential use in the hot strip finishing mill.

  13. Milling Process FEM Simulation for Identification of Material Parameters Directly from Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Maurel, A.; Fontaine, M.; Thibaud, S.; Michel, G.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-05-17

    An identification procedure for the determination of material parameters that are used for the FEM simulation of milling processes is proposed. This procedure is based on the coupling of a numerical identification procedure and FEM simulations of milling operations. The experimental data result directly from measurements performed during milling experiments. A special device has been instrumented and calibrated to perform force and torque measurements, directly during machining experiments in using a piezoelectric dynamometer and a high frequency charge amplifier. The forces and torques are stored and low pass filtered if necessary, and these data provide the main basis for the identification procedure which is based on coupling 3D FEM simulations of milling and optimization/identification algorithms. The identification approach is mainly based on the Surfaces Response Method in the material parameters space, coupled to a sensitivity analysis. A Moving Least Square Approximation method is used to accelerate the identification process. The material behaviour is described from Johnson-Cook law. A fracture model is also added to consider chip formation and separation. The FEM simulations of milling are performed using explicit ALE based FEM code. The inverse identification method is here applied on a 304L stainless steel and the first results are presented.

  14. Milling Process FEM Simulation for Identification of Material Parameters Directly from Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurel, A.; Fontaine, M.; Thibaud, S.; Michel, G.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-05-01

    An identification procedure for the determination of material parameters that are used for the FEM simulation of milling processes is proposed. This procedure is based on the coupling of a numerical identification procedure and FEM simulations of milling operations. The experimental data result directly from measurements performed during milling experiments. A special device has been instrumented and calibrated to perform force and torque measurements, directly during machining experiments in using a piezoelectric dynamometer and a high frequency charge amplifier. The forces and torques are stored and low pass filtered if necessary, and these data provide the main basis for the identification procedure which is based on coupling 3D FEM simulations of milling and optimization/identification algorithms. The identification approach is mainly based on the Surfaces Response Method in the material parameters space, coupled to a sensitivity analysis. A Moving Least Square Approximation method is used to accelerate the identification process. The material behaviour is described from Johnson-Cook law. A fracture model is also added to consider chip formation and separation. The FEM simulations of milling are performed using explicit ALE based FEM code. The inverse identification method is here applied on a 304L stainless steel and the first results are presented.

  15. 2. South facade of the Monadnock Mills complex looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. South facade of the Monadnock Mills complex looking east down Water Street. Mill No. 2 is in the center of the photo, Mill No. 1 is to the right. The tower in Mill No. 1 retains its original design. The tower in Mill No. 2 was altered when an elevator was installed. The shed monitor in Mill No. 2 was constructed in 1879. - Monadnock Mills, 15 Water Street, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  16. An ambitwistor Yang Mills Lagrangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, L. J.; Skinner, D.

    2006-04-01

    We introduce a Chern-Simons Lagrangian for Yang-Mills theory as formulated on ambitwistor space via the Ward, Isenberg, Yasskin, Green, Witten construction. The Lagrangian requires the selection of a codimension-2 Cauchy-Riemann submanifold which is naturally picked out by the choice of space-time reality structure and we focus on the choice of Euclidean signature. The action is shown to give rise to a space-time action that is equivalent to the standard one, but has just cubic vertices. We identify the ambitwistor propagators and vertices and work out their corresponding expressions on space-time and momentum space. It is proposed that this formulation of Yang-Mills theory underlies the recursion relations of Britto, Cachazo, Feng and Witten and provides the generating principle for twistor diagrams for gauge theory.

  17. Rolling Mill Hill, Nashville, TN

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Rolling Mill Hill was the home to Nashville General Hospital from 1890 to the 1990s and encompassed several buildings and structures. These existing buildings of historical significance were re-used in the form of apartments. The original Trolley Barns on the site are now artists’ lofts and are home to several companies and non-profit offices. Nance Place, which entails additional buildings built on-site, is a Tax Credit Workforce Housing Development and is Platinum LEED certified.

  18. Mill Glaze: Myth or Reality?

    Treesearch

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, a condition called “mill glaze” (also called planer’s glaze) has sometimes been blamed for the failure of a coating on smooth flat-grained siding and some other wood products. The exact cause of this problem has been a subject of controversy. Many people believe that the coating fails as a result of the planing and/or drying processes. They...

  19. Online SAG Mill Pluse Measurement and Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti

    2007-06-30

    The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment. An instrumented load cell package that can measure the force of impacts inside the grinding chamber of a mill is developed here. The signal from the instrumented load cell package is interpreted in terms of a histogram termed as an impact spectrum which is a plot of the number of impacts at a specific energy level against the energy. It reflects on the average force regime of the mill. The instrumented load cell package was calibrated against the ultra fast load cell which has been unanimously accepted as a standard to measure single breakage events. The load cell package was successfully used to produce impact spectra in an 8.5 inch lab scale mill. The mill speed and the ball size were varied to study

  20. Effect of Process Parameters on Microstructure and Hardness of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened 18Cr Ferritic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagini, M.; Vijay, R.; Rajulapati, Koteswararao V.; Rao, K. Bhanu Sankara; Ramakrishna, M.; Reddy, A. V.; Sundararajan, G.

    2016-08-01

    Pre-alloyed ferritic 18Cr steel (Fe-18Cr-2.3W-0.3Ti) powder was milled with and without nano-yttria in high-energy ball mill for varying times until steady-state is reached. The milled powders were consolidated by upset forging followed by hot extrusion. Microstructural changes were examined at all stages of processing (milling, upset forging, and extrusion). In milled powders, crystallite size decreases and hardness increases with increasing milling time reaching a steady-state beyond 5 hours. The size of Y2O3 particles in powders decreases with milling time and under steady-state milling conditions; the particles either dissolve in matrix or form atomic clusters. Upset forged sample consists of unrecrystallized grain structure with few pockets of fine recrystallized grains and dispersoids of 2 to 4 nm. In extruded and annealed rods, the particles are of cuboidal Y2Ti2O7 at all sizes and their size decreased from 15 nm to 5 nm along with significant increase in number density. The oxide particles in ODS6 are of cuboidal Y2Ti2O7 with diamond cubic crystal structure ( Fd bar{3} m) having a lattice parameter of 10.1 Å and are semicoherent with the matrix. The hardness values of extruded and annealed samples predicted by linear summation model compare well with measured values.

  1. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  2. Welding Rustproof Steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmann, W

    1929-01-01

    The following experimental results will perhaps increase the knowledge of the process of welding rustproof steels. The experiments were made with two chrome-steel sheets and with two chrome-steel-nickel sheets having the composition shown in Table I.

  3. 75 FR 49524 - Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated July 22, 2010,...

  4. High-resolution thermal scanning for hot-strip mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmsten, Dag; Houis, Rene

    1990-03-01

    Until recently, very few choices were available to a hot-strip mill operator desiringinfrared scanning. Measurements were often made using either portable non linescanning/imaging systems or slow linescanners originally designed for cement applications.3 Since then, important changes have taken place and the summer/fall of 1989 saw the introduction of no less than four different opto-mechanical linescanners as well as the increasing use at high object temperatures of various near-IR (CCD) linear-arrays in lieu of more traditional (mid) IR scanners. In comparison to earlier systems most, if not all, scanners provided higher spatial resolution (typically 2000 IR-points per line), higher scanning rate (typically20 - 100 Hz) and drastically improved measurement accuracy (at least for the opto-mechanical scanners, see below). This article will outline some of the results obtained in a typical steel mill environment with one of the highperformance linescanners of the new breed, and comments will be made on the emerging CCD-technology. For those interested in other line scanning applications with different object characteristics and surface temperature, some indications will also be given of the possibility to project the results obtained on other usages.

  5. Mathematical Modeling of Thermofrictional Milling Process Using ANSYS WB Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherov, K. T.; Sikhimbayev, M. R.; Sherov, A. K.; Donenbayev, B. S.; Rakishev, A. K.; Mazdubai, A. B.; Musayev, M. M.; Abeuova, A. M.

    2017-06-01

    This article presents ANSYS WB-based mathematical modelling of the thermofrictional milling process, which allowed studying the dynamics of thermal and physical processes occurring during the processing. The technique used also allows determination of the optimal cutting conditions of thermofrictional milling for processing various materials, in particular steel 40CN2MA, 30CGSA, 45, 3sp. In our study, from among a number of existing models of cutting fracture, we chose the criterion first proposed by prof. V. L. Kolmogorov. In order to increase the calculations performance, a mathematical model was proposed, that used only two objects: a parallelepiped-shaped workpiece and a cutting insert in the form of a pentagonal prism. In addition, the work takes into account the friction coefficient between a cutting insert and a workpiece taken equal to 0.4 mm. To determine the temperature in the subcontact layer of the workpiece, we introduced the coordinates of nine characteristic points with the same interval in the local coordinate system. As a result, the temperature values were obtained for different materials at the studied points during the cutter speed change. The research results showed the possibility of controlling thermal processes during processing by choosing the optimum cutting modes.

  6. 1. VIEW FROM ROOF OF MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT STARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM ROOF OF MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT STARK MILL HOUSING ON CORINTH ROAD. THESE FRONT GABLE BUNGALOWS WERE BUILT AS OVERSEERS HOUSES FOR NEW ENGLAND SOUTHERN MILLS IN HOGANSVILLE IN 1923-1924. THE MILL ENGINEERS FOR STARK MILL, LOCKWOOD GREENE COMPANY, ALSO BUILT THE NEW WORKER HOUSING. - 110 Corinth Road (House), 110 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  7. 10. View of the Monadnock Mills complex showing (left to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View of the Monadnock Mills complex showing (left to right) Mill No. 3 (1892), the Weave Shed (1876), and Mill No. 2 (1853). The Office Building is visible in the foreground, with Mill No. 5 to its left. - Monadnock Mills, 15 Water Street, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  8. 3. Interior of the attic of Mill No. 1, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Interior of the attic of Mill No. 1, looking west. Unlike Mill No. 2 or the Sugar River Grist Mill, there were no iron tension members in this roof truss design. The structural framing members and the roof sheathing have been encased in finish millwork. - Monadnock Mills, Mill No. 1, 13-17 Water Street, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  9. Imaging the transformation of hot strip steel using magnetic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, E.; Bell, Cathy; Morris, Peter F.; Peyton, A. J.

    2001-07-01

    In the production of steel strip, the temperature distribution and cooling rates along the mill run-out table have a significant effect on the steel microstructure and hence on final material properties, e.g., yield strength, tensile strength, and ductility. Noncontacting optical temperature sensors are typically used to implement feedback control of cooling, but water spray and surface emissivity irregularities can adversely affect these sensors. Ideally, the control of cooling path should account for the progress of dynamic transformation at required points rather than the strip temperature alone. There are several reports describing the use of magnetic sensors to monitor transformation. These sensors exploit the change in the electromagnetic properties as the steel progresses through transformation, for example the austenitic phase is paramagnetic and the ferritic phase is ferromagnetic below the Curie point. Previous work has concentrated on the operation and design of individual transformation sensors. This paper now describes the use of an array of electromagnetic sensors to image the progression of transformation along a sample steel block on a pilot scale industrial mill. The paper will describe the underlying physical principles, the design of the system, and present images showing the progress of transformation along one surface of the sample.

  10. Bioremediation of paper and pulp mill effluents.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, K

    2003-11-01

    Pulp and paper mill effluents pollute water, air and soil, causing a major threat to the environment. Several methods have been attempted by various researchers throughout the world for the removal of colour from pulp and paper mill effluents. The biological colour removal process uses several classes of microorganisms--bacteria, algae and fungi--to degrade the polymeric lignin derived chromophoric material. White rot fungi such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Corius versicolor, Trametes versicolor etc., are efficient in decolourizing paper and pulp mill effluents. Gliocladium virens, a saprophytic soil fungus decolourised paper and pulp mill effluents by 42% due to the production of hemicellulase, lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase.

  11. Structural evolution of ball-milled permalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzózka, K.; Olekšáková, D.; Kollár, P.; Szumiata, T.; Górka, B.; Gawroński, M.

    Two series of Fe19.8sNi80.2 samples obtained by ball milling and differing in the form of starting material were investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy. In the case of milled elemental powder, strong structural evolution was stated: both α and Γ phases arise and a small amount of pure iron is present as well. The annealing of as-milled powder at 490°C causes faster forming of Γ-(Ni-Fe) phase. Only slight changes in atomic order were stated in the series of milled polycrystalline ribbon.

  12. Multiple chatter frequencies in milling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insperger, T.; Stépán, G.; Bayly, P. V.; Mann, B. P.

    2003-04-01

    Analytical and experimental identifications of the chatter frequencies in milling processes are presented. In the case of milling, there are several frequency sets arising from the vibration signals, as opposed to the single well-defined chatter frequency of the unstable turning process. Frequency diagrams are constructed analytically and attached to the stability charts of mechanical models of high-speed milling. The corresponding quasiperiodic solutions of the governing time-periodic delay-differential equations are also identified with some milling experiments in the case of highly intermittent cutting.

  13. Structural evolution of ball-milled permalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzózka, K.; Olekšáková, D.; Kollár, P.; Szumiata, T.; Górka, B.; Gawroński, M.

    2006-02-01

    Two series of Fe19.8Ni80.2 samples obtained by ball milling and differing in the form of starting material were investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy. In the case of milled elemental powder, strong structural evolution was stated: both α and γ phases arise and a small amount of pure iron is present as well. The annealing of as-milled powder at 490°C causes faster forming of γ-(Ni Fe) phase. Only slight changes in atomic order were stated in the series of milled polycrystalline ribbon.

  14. Grain Refinement in Dual-Phase Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, K.; Hazra, S. S.; Militzer, M.

    2009-09-01

    Deformation-induced ferrite transformation (DIFT) was applied in laboratory tests to produce fine-grained dual-phase (DP) steels. Four different chemistries were investigated, starting from a conventional DP 600 chemistry of 0.06 wt pct C-1.9 wt pct Mn-0.16 wt pct Mo and subsequently varying Nb and Mo additions. For all investigated steels, ultrafine ferrite (UFF) with a grain size of 1 to 2 μm can be obtained when a sufficient amount of deformation ( e.g., a true strain of 0.6 or above in axisymmetric compression) is applied to an austenite microstructure with a grain size in the range of 10 to 20 μm at 25 °C to 50 °C above the austenite-to-ferrite transformation start temperature ( Ar 3) characteristic for the given cooling condition. Rapid post-deformation cooling at rates of approximately 100 °C/s yields the desired UFF-martensite microstructure. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) mapping reveals a high percentage (approximately 40 pct) of low-angle boundaries in these microstructures, except for the steel that is just microalloyed with Nb. The steel with the plain-carbon-base chemistry was subjected to hot torsion simulations of a hot strip rolling processing schedules that incorporate a DIFT pass after a conventional seven-stand finish mill schedule. Executing the DIFT pass at 650 °C to 675 °C produced an UFF microstructure, illustrating the potential for the design of novel thermomechanical processing paths to produce hot-rolled ultrafine DP steels.

  15. Feasibility analysis of recycling radioactive scrap steel

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, F.; Balhiser, B.; Cignetti, N.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to: (1) establish a conceptual design that integrates commercial steel mill technology with radioactive scrap metal (RSM) processing to produce carbon and stainless steel sheet and plate at a grade suitable for fabricating into radioactive waste containers; (2) determine the economic feasibility of building a micro-mill in the Western US to process 30,000 tons of RSM per year from both DOE and the nuclear utilities; and (3) provide recommendations for implementation. For purposes of defining the project, it is divided into phases: economic feasibility and conceptual design; preliminary design; detail design; construction; and operation. This study comprises the bulk of Phase 1. It is divided into four sections. Section 1 provides the reader with a complete overview extracting pertinent data, recommendations and conclusions from the remainder of the report. Section 2 defines the variables that impact the design requirements. These data form the baseline to create a preliminary conceptual design that is technically sound, economically viable, and capitalizes on economies of scale. Priorities governing the design activities are: (1) minimizing worker exposure to radionuclide hazards, (2) maximizing worker safety, (3) minimizing environmental contamination, (4) minimizing secondary wastes, and (5) establishing engineering controls to insure that the plant will be granted a license in the state selected for operation. Section 3 provides details of the preliminary conceptual design that was selected. The cost of project construction is estimated and the personnel needed to support the steel-making operation and radiological and environmental control are identified. Section 4 identifies the operational costs and supports the economic feasibility analysis. A detailed discussion of the resulting conclusions and recommendations is included in this section.

  16. Influence of mechanical activation of steel powder on its properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaulina, O. Yu; Darenskaia, E. A.; Myachin, Y. V.; Vasilyeva, I. E.; Kulkov, S. N.

    2017-02-01

    It has been studied properties of stainless steel based powders after mechanical activation using planetary ball milling technique. It have been shown that after one minute mechanical activation porosity of sintered steel is less than 5%, which is less than the porosity of the sintered steel powder without mechanical activation. The sample without activation has austenite state, which changes after activation toaustenite and ferrite mixtures. X-ray analysis confirmed that the mechanical activation leads to a change in the phase state of the samples: the samples without activation of the FCC structure (γ-Fe), after activation - FCC (γ-Fe) and BCC (α-Fe). The hardness increases at increasing activation time from 800 MPa for the sample without mechanical activation to 1250 MPa for the sample with the activation time of 10 minutes.

  17. Effect of temperature on the passivation behavior of steel rebar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shan-meng; Cao, Bei; Wu, Yin-shun; Ma, Ke

    2014-05-01

    Steel rebar normally forms an oxide or rusty skin before it is embedded into concrete and the passivation properties of this skin will be heavily influenced by temperature. To study the effect of temperature on the passivation properties of steel rebar under different surface conditions, we conducted scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and electrochemical measurements, such as measurements of the free corrosion potential and polarization curves of HPB235 steel rebar. These measurements identified three kinds of surfaces: polished, oxide skin, and rusty skin. Our results show that the passivation properties of all the surface types decrease with the increase of temperature. Temperature has the greatest effect on the rusty-skin rebar and least effect on the polished steel rebar, because of cracks and crevices on the mill scale on the steel rebar's surface. The rusty-skin rebar exhibits the highest corrosion rate because crevice corrosion can accelerate the corrosion of the steel rebar, particularly at high temperature. The results also indicate that the threshold temperatures of passivation for the oxide-skin rebar and the rusty-skin rebar are 37°C and 20°C, respectively.

  18. The steel scrap age.

    PubMed

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Milford, Rachel L; Müller, Daniel B; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-04-02

    Steel production accounts for 25% of industrial carbon emissions. Long-term forecasts of steel demand and scrap supply are needed to develop strategies for how the steel industry could respond to industrialization and urbanization in the developing world while simultaneously reducing its environmental impact, and in particular, its carbon footprint. We developed a dynamic stock model to estimate future final demand for steel and the available scrap for 10 world regions. Based on evidence from developed countries, we assumed that per capita in-use stocks will saturate eventually. We determined the response of the entire steel cycle to stock saturation, in particular the future split between primary and secondary steel production. During the 21st century, steel demand may peak in the developed world, China, the Middle East, Latin America, and India. As China completes its industrialization, global primary steel production may peak between 2020 and 2030 and decline thereafter. We developed a capacity model to show how extensive trade of finished steel could prolong the lifetime of the Chinese steelmaking assets. Secondary steel production will more than double by 2050, and it may surpass primary production between 2050 and 2060: the late 21st century can become the steel scrap age.

  19. Methods of forming steel

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Burch, Joseph V.

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

  20. Quenched and Partitioned Microstructures Produced via Gleeble Simulations of Hot-Strip Mill Cooling Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, G. A.; Speer, J. G.; Matlock, D. K.

    2011-12-01

    Previous researchers reported on quenched and partitioned (Q&P) microstructures produced via carbon partitioning from martensite into austenite during isothermal annealing after quenching to develop a partially martensitic initial structure. However, the thermal profile used in previous studies is not well suited to creating Q&P microstructures directly from a hot-strip mill. In this work, the commonly employed Q&P thermal profile ( i.e., having an isothermal partitioning step) was modified to evaluate nonisothermal partitioning that might instead occur during cooling of a wound coil. Thus, it was possible to assess the potential for creating Q&P microstructures and properties directly off of the hot mill. Gleeble thermal simulations representative of a hot-strip mill cooling practice were used to create dual-phase, Q&P, transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP), and conventional microstructures by varying the quench/coiling temperatures (CTs) using a 0.19C-1.59Mn-1.63Si (wt pct) steel. Microstructural and mechanical property data indicate that hot rolling might be a viable processing route for high-strength Q&P steels.

  1. Yang-Mills instanton sheaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Sheng-Hong; Lee, Jen-Chi; Tsai, I.-Hsun

    2017-02-01

    The SL(2 , C) Yang-Mills instanton solutions constructed recently by the biquaternion method were shown to satisfy the complex version of the ADHM equations and the monad construction. Moreover, we discover that, in addition to the holomorphic vector bundles on CP3 similar to the case of SU(2) ADHM construction, the SL(2 , C) instanton solutions can be used to explicitly construct instanton sheaves on CP3. Presumably, the existence of these instanton sheaves is related to the singularities of the SL(2 , C) instantons on S4 which do not exist for SU(2) instantons.

  2. Effect of preheat on residual stress distributions in arc-welded mild steel plates

    SciTech Connect

    Adedayo, S.M.; Adeyemi, M.B.

    2000-02-01

    Residual stress distribution in the longitudinal and transverse directions on a 6-mm-thick arc-welded mild steel plate was experimentally examined with and without initial preheat. Stress measurements were completed by monitoring strain changes on mounted strain gauges resulting from successive milling of the welded plate specimens. Machining stresses were also compensated for by carrying out measurements of strain changes due to milling operation of a stress-free unwelded annealed mild steel plate. High tensile residual stresses exist close to the weld line in both longitudinal and transverse stresses. Maximum longitudinal residual stress values existing close to the weld line are reduced (between 50 and 75%) due to the effect of initial metal preheat of 200 C of the welded steel plate.

  3. Mechanosynthesis of zinc ferrite in hardened steel vials: Influence of ZnO on the appearance of Fe(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Verdier, Thomas; Nachbaur, Virginie; Jean, Malick . E-mail: malick.jean@univ-rouen.fr

    2005-11-15

    Nanocrystalline ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel powders are synthesized by high-energy ball milling, starting from a powder mixture of hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and zincite (ZnO). The millings are performed under air using hardened steel vials and balls. X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectrometry are used to characterize the powders. A spinel phase begins to appear after 3 h of milling and the synthesis is achieved after 9 h. Phase transformation is accompanied by a contamination due to iron coming from the milling tools. A redox reaction is also observed between Fe(III) and metallic iron during milling, leading to a spinel phase containing some Fe(II). The mechanism for the appearance of this phase is studied: ZnO seems to have a non-negligeable influence on the synthesis, by creating an intermediate wuestite-type phase solid solution with FeO.

  4. VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  5. 2. VIEW NORTHEAST, SOUTH FRONT OF DAYVILLE MILLS COMPLEX LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW NORTHEAST, SOUTH FRONT OF DAYVILLE MILLS COMPLEX LOOKING ACROSS ROUTE 101, MAIN MILL BUILDING - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  6. 41. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC SURVEY OF INDIANA COTTON MILLS, CANNELTON, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC SURVEY OF INDIANA COTTON MILLS, CANNELTON, INDIANA, SHOWING LOCATION OF ALL STRUCTURES IN THE CANNELTON MILL COMPLEX - Cannelton Cotton Mill, Front & Fourth Streets, Cannelton, Perry County, IN

  7. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE CRUSHING MILL LOOKING TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE CRUSHING MILL LOOKING TOWARD THE EAST WALL OF THE CRYSTALLIZER WING. FENESTRA WINDOWS IN CRUSHING MILL WALL. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  8. 30. Credit JTL. Second floor, view of Eureka Milling Separator, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Credit JTL. Second floor, view of Eureka Milling Separator, by S. Howes Co., (Silver Creek, NY); separated out undersired grains and impurities prior to milling. - Bunker Hill Mill, County Route 26, Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, WV

  9. 21. Credit WS. Ground floor, Midget Marvel milling machine, a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Credit WS. Ground floor, Midget Marvel milling machine, a 25 barrel day machine by the Anglo American Mill Co. (Owensboro, KY), without covers, exposing rollers and sifters. - Bunker Hill Mill, County Route 26, Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, WV

  10. 1. Mill exterior, high grade chute partially restored on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Mill exterior, high grade chute partially restored on the outside of mill building center of picture. Looking northeast from below bridge. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  11. INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR BRIDGE BETWEEN PLANING MILL AND CAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR BRIDGE BETWEEN PLANING MILL AND CAR MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD PLANING MILL. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Planing Mill, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  12. 5. DETAIL OF ROD MILL BASE AND CONVEYOR BELT SUPPORT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL OF ROD MILL BASE AND CONVEYOR BELT SUPPORT, EAST VIEW. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Grinding Rod Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  13. Partial Southwest Elevation Mill #5 West (Part 3), Partial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Partial Southwest Elevation - Mill #5 West (Part 3), Partial Southwest Elevation - Mill #5 West (with Section of Courtyard) (Parts 1 & 2) - Boott Cotton Mills, John Street at Merrimack River, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  14. CLOSE UP VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH UNLOADER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSE UP VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH UNLOADER AND CRUSHING MILL WING IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  15. Partial Northeast Elevation Mill #5 East & #5 West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Partial Northeast Elevation - Mill #5 East & #5 West (Part 4), Typical Floor - Partial Plan Mill #5 East & #5 West (Part 4) - Boott Cotton Mills, John Street at Merrimack River, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  16. 6. VIEW TO WEST, SAMPLING BUILDING, MECHANIC SHED, MILL WAREHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW TO WEST, SAMPLING BUILDING, MECHANIC SHED, MILL WAREHOUSE, DRYERS, AND GRINDING/ROD MILL. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  17. 11. STOVE NUT USED IN THE MILL WHEN THE BRAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. STOVE NUT USED IN THE MILL WHEN THE BRAKE WHEEL DROVE ONE PAIR OF MILLSTONES DIRECTLY; FOUND ON THE FIRST FLOOR OF THE WINDMILL AT WATERMILL - Windmill at Water Mill, Montauk Highway & Halsey Lane, Water Mill, Suffolk County, NY

  18. 2. DISTANT VIEW OF THE SITE LOOKING TOWARDS MILL VALLEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DISTANT VIEW OF THE SITE LOOKING TOWARDS MILL VALLEY AND SAN FRANCISCO IN THE DISTANCE, LOOKING WEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  19. 1. NORTHWEST VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES, WITH MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES, WITH MILL BUILDING IN BACKGROUND - Juniata Mill Complex, Mill Camp Shed, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  20. Spheroidizing of medium carbon steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, James Michael

    2000-11-01

    An investigation has been made of spheroidization of medium carbon steels used in the bolt industry. Two process cycles were considered. One was the intercritical cycle, widely used in industry, in which the steel was heated above the A1 temperature for approximately 2 hours and then cooled to 688°C (1270°F) and held for various periods. The other was a subcritical cycle that involved heating to 704°C (1300°F) for various times. Wire samples were 0.4-in. diameter AISI 1541, considered high in manganese and difficult to spheroidize. Although AISI 4037 is considered easier to spheroidize, this alloy was also tested due to its extensive industrial use. It was found that the intercritical cycle produced a somewhat faster drop in hardness. However, one hour of the subcritical cycle yielded greater ductility than 32 hours of the intercritical process, as measured by tensile tests. Similar ductility results were achieved using a new flare test. The level of spheroidization was defined in this study to be the percentage of carbide particles with aspect ratios less than 3. The subcritical cycle produced the same level of spheroidization in 1/2 hour as that reached by the intercritical cycle in 32 hours. Faster spheroidization of cementite plates in the subcritical process appears to be due to the fine pearlite generated by the current practice of rapid cooling off the hot mill. This advantage is lost in the intercritical process because the original pearlite is dissolved above the A1 temperature.

  1. Highly Accurate Dynamic Control of Strip Cooling Pattern on Run-out Table in Hot Strip Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Shigemasa; Tachibana, Hisayoshi

    In the hot strip mill, the quality of the strip greatly depends on the cooling process between the last stand in the finishing mill and the coilers. Therefore, it is important to carefully control the temperature in the cooling process to regulate the quality of the steel. To realize high temperature accuracy, a new control system for run-out table cooling has been developed. The features of the new control system are as follows: (i) Newly developed feedback control using no vernier banks, which is constructed by using the dynamic control function. (ii) Newly developed dynamic control of cooling pattern, which achieves aimed cooling process during acceleration/deceleration of the strip on the run-out table. This system has been in operation successfully since July 2004 at Kashima Steel Works and improved the accuracy of coiling temperature considerably.

  2. 1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF KEX PLANT, FORMER CALLAWAY MILLS UNITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF KEX PLANT, FORMER CALLAWAY MILLS UNITY COTTON MILL (A. FRANCIS WALKER, 1900-01) FROM DUNSON STREET. UNITY COTTON MILL WAS THE FIRST OF SEVERAL TEXTILE MILLS BUILT BY THE CALLAWAY MILLS GROUP IN SOUTHWEST LAGRANGE DURING THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY. NOTE REMAINING PORTION OF ORIGINAL WATER TANK TOWER IN MIDDLE OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Unity Cotton Mill, 815 Leeman Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  3. Uranium mill ore dust characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Knuth, R.H.; George, A.C.

    1980-11-01

    Cascade impactor and general air ore dust measurements were taken in a uranium processing mill in order to characterize the airborne activity, the degree of equilibrium, the particle size distribution and the respirable fraction for the /sup 238/U chain nuclides. The sampling locations were selected to limit the possibility of cross contamination by airborne dusts originating in different process areas of the mill. The reliability of the modified impactor and measurement techniques was ascertained by duplicate sampling. The results reveal no significant deviation from secular equilibrium in both airborne and bulk ore samples for the /sup 234/U and /sup 230/Th nuclides. In total airborne dust measurements, the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides were found to be depleted by 20 and 25%, respectively. Bulk ore samples showed depletions of 10% for the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides. Impactor samples show disequilibrium of /sup 226/Ra as high as +-50% for different size fractions. In these samples the /sup 226/Ra ratio was generally found to increase as particle size decreased. Activity median aerodynamic diameters of the airborne dusts ranged from 5 to 30 ..mu..m with a median diameter of 11 ..mu..m. The maximum respirable fraction for the ore dusts, based on the proposed International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) definition of pulmonary deposition, was < 15% of the total airborne concentration. Ore dust parameters calculated for impactor duplicate samples were found to be in excellent agreement.

  4. Yang Mills Chern Simons supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, H.; Pope, C. N.; Sezgin, E.

    2004-06-01

    N = (1, 0) supergravity in six dimensions admits AdS3 × S3 as a vacuum solution. We extend our recent results presented in Lü et al (2002 Preprint hep-th/0212323), by obtaining the complete N = 4 Yang Mills Chern Simons supergravity in D = 3, up to quartic fermion terms, by S3 group manifold reduction of the six-dimensional theory. The SU(2) gauge fields have Yang Mills kinetic terms as well as topological Chern Simons mass terms. There is in addition a triplet of matter vectors. After diagonalization, these fields describe two triplets of topologically-massive vector fields of opposite helicities. The model also contains six scalars, described by a GL(3, R)/SO(3) sigma model. It provides the first example of a three-dimensional gauged supergravity that can be obtained by a consistent reduction of string theory or M-theory and that admits AdS3 as a vacuum solution. There are unusual features in the reduction from six-dimensional supergravity, owing to the self-duality condition on the 3-form field. The structure of the full equations of motion in N = (1, 0) supergravity in D = 6 is also elucidated, and the role of the self-dual field strength as torsion is exhibited.

  5. The critical analysis of austenitic manganese steel T130Mn135 used for castings in the mining industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josan, A.; Pinca Bretotean, C.; Putan, V.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the critical analysis of making technology of austenitic manganese steel T130Mn135, used for castings of the type Mills hammer at a Romanian foundry. Are analyzed 11 charges of steel for castings and is determined the diagram of the heat treatment. After the applying of the heat treatment results a single-phase structure, consisting of homogeneous austenite. For all the 11 charges is presented the variation of chemical composition.

  6. Vertical boring mill capacity is increased

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. J.

    1968-01-01

    Commercially available vertical boring mill with a nominal capacity to 27 feet in diameter of workpiece has been modified in-shop to handle work up to 36 feet in diameter. Capacity was increased by adding extension saddles to the mill support columns on each side.

  7. Numerical robust stability estimation in milling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhu, Limin; Ding, Han; Xiong, Youlun

    2012-09-01

    The conventional prediction of milling stability has been extensively studied based on the assumptions that the milling process dynamics is time invariant. However, nominal cutting parameters cannot guarantee the stability of milling process at the shop floor level since there exists many uncertain factors in a practical manufacturing environment. This paper proposes a novel numerical method to estimate the upper and lower bounds of Lobe diagram, which is used to predict the milling stability in a robust way by taking into account the uncertain parameters of milling system. Time finite element method, a milling stability theory is adopted as the conventional deterministic model. The uncertain dynamics parameters are dealt with by the non-probabilistic model in which the parameters with uncertainties are assumed to be bounded and there is no need for probabilistic distribution densities functions. By doing so, interval instead of deterministic stability Lobe is obtained, which guarantees the stability of milling process in an uncertain milling environment. In the simulations, the upper and lower bounds of Lobe diagram obtained by the changes of modal parameters of spindle-tool system and cutting coefficients are given, respectively. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective and can obtain satisfying bounds of Lobe diagrams. The proposed method is helpful for researchers at shop floor to making decision on machining parameters selection.

  8. 43 CFR 3832.30 - Mill sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mill sites. 3832.30 Section 3832.30 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Mill Sites § 3832.30...

  9. The effects of lifter configurations and mill speeds on the mill power draw and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, Husni; Taylor, Patrick; Spiller, D. Erik

    2017-01-01

    Grinding mills used in the mining industries are the most energy-intensive operation and require a large number of wear resistant materials as well. The 1-m mill was used to investigate the effects of three lifter configurations, namely Hi (High), Rail and Hi-Lo (High-Low), and mill speeds on the mill performance. The MillTraj software was also utilized to simulate the outermost charge trajectories of the mill. At the given operating conditions, the power draw of Hi lifter was slightly lower than that of the Rail and the Hi-Lo and thus, the Hi lifter showed improvement in the mill efficiency. The product size distributions of the different lifters are very close and the size distribution of Hi-Lo lifter is slightly finer than those of the other lifters. At 74% critical speed, the size distributions of the Rail and Hi-Lo lifters were finer than at 70% critical speed, while that of Hi lifter otherwise occurs. At 80% critical speed, the size distributions of the lifters were coarser than at 74% critical speed. In this case, the outer charge trajectories of each lifter could go down on the mill shell rather than on the toe of the mill charge, resulting in ineffective grinding. Increasing face angles and/or mill charge would allow the mill to be operated at higher speeds.

  10. SQA(TM): Surface Quality Assured Steel Bar Program

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Tzyy-Shuh; Shi, Jianjun; Zhou, Shiyu

    2009-03-03

    OG Technologies, Inc. (OGT) has led this SQA (Surface Quality Assured Steel Bar) program to solve the major surface quality problems plaguing the US special quality steel bars and rods industry and their customers, based on crosscutting sensors and controls technologies. Surface defects in steel formed in a hot rolling process are one of the most common quality issues faced by the American steel industry, accounting for roughly 50% of the rejects or 2.5% of the total shipment. Unlike other problems such as the mechanical properties of the steel product, most surface defects are sporadic and cannot be addressed based on sampling techniques. This issue hurts the rolling industry and their customers in their process efficiency and operational costs. The goal of this program is to develop and demonstrate an SQA prototype, with synergy of HotEye® and other innovations, that enables effective rolling process control and efficient quality control. HotEye®, OGT’s invention, delivers high definition images of workpieces at or exceeding 1,450°C while the workpieces travel at 100 m/s. The elimination of surface defect rejects will be achieved through the integration of imaging-based quality assessment, advanced signal processing, predictive process controls and the integration with other quality control tools. The SQA program team, composed of entities capable of and experienced in (1) research, (2) technology manufacturing, (3) technology sales and marketing, and (4) technology end users, is very strong. There were 5 core participants: OGT, Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), University of Wisconsin (UW), Charter Steel (Charter) and ArcelorMittal Indiana Harbor (Inland). OGT served as the project coordinator. OGT participated in both research and commercialization. GIT and UW provided significant technical inputs to this SQA project. The steel mills provided access to their rolling lines for data collection, design of experiments, host of technology test and

  11. 1. ELEVATION OF BUILDING 223, LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST. Mill Valley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ELEVATION OF BUILDING 223, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Civil Engineering Administration Office, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  12. Amorphization of sugar hydrates upon milling.

    PubMed

    Willart, J F; Dujardin, N; Dudognon, E; Danède, F; Descamps, M

    2010-07-19

    The possibility to amorphize anhydrous crystalline sugars, like lactose, trehalose and glucose, by mechanical milling was previously reported. We test here the possibility to amorphize the corresponding crystalline hydrates: lactose monohydrate, trehalose dihydrate and glucose monohydrate using fully identical milling procedures. The results show that only the first hydrate amorphizes while the other two remain structurally invariant. These different behaviours are attributed to the plasticizing effect of the structural water molecules which can decrease the glass transition temperature below the milling temperature. The results reveal clearly the fundamental role of the glass transition in the solid-state amorphization process induced by milling, and they also explain why crystalline hydrates are systematically more difficult to amorphize by milling than their anhydrous counterpart. The investigations have been performed by differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction.

  13. Research on strip hysteretic behavior and mill vertical vibration system nonlinear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaobin; Zang, Yong; Jin, Ke

    2016-10-01

    Rolling mill vibration is a technical problem in the iron and steel industry for many years and has serious impact and harm on production. There were serious vibrations in the middle mills when rolling thin container strip for the compact strip production (CSP) strip hot rolling process. This paper studied the hysteretic characteristic of rolled strip and established the vertical vibration system single-degree-of-freedom dynamics model of the F3 mill rollers. The influence of parameters on the system characteristics was studied, such as the linear damping coefficient, linear stiffness coefficient, nonlinear displacement coefficient, nonlinear velocity coefficient and exciting force, and then, the vibration source and vibration-restraining measure were studied from the roll gap. The results show that with increasing linear stiffness, damping and hysteresis coefficient, it can reduce the possibility of chaotic system; the linear stiffness coefficient had the greatest influence, and hysteresis damping coefficient had minimal influence on chaotic threshold. In order to reduce rolling mill vibration amplitude, we should reduce the external excitation force firstly, and in order to improve the dynamic performance of the system, we should control the speed of nonlinear coefficient values. The contrast experiments were carried out at the production scene finally.

  14. Inverse Method for Identification of Material Parameters Directly from Milling Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Maurel, A.; Michel, G.; Thibaud, S.; Fontaine, M.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-04-07

    An identification procedure for the determination of material parameters that are used for the FEM simulation of High Speed Machining processes is proposed. This procedure is based on the coupling of a numerical identification procedure and FEM simulations of milling operations. The experimental data result directly from measurements performed during milling experiments. A special device has been instrumented and calibrated to perform force and torque measures, directly during machining experiments in using a piezoelectric dynamometer and a high frequency charge amplifier. The forces and torques are stored and low pass filtered if necessary, and these data provide the main basis for the identification procedure which is based on coupling 3D FEM simulations of milling and optimization/identification algorithms. The identification approach is mainly based on the Surfaces Response Method in the material parameters space, coupled to a sensitivity analysis. A Moving Least Square Approximation method is used to accelerate the identification process. The material behaviour is described from Johnson-Cook law. A fracture model is also added to consider chip formation and separation. The FEM simulations of milling are performed using explicit ALE based FEM code. The inverse method of identification is here applied on a 304L stainless steel and the first results are presented.

  15. Inverse Method for Identification of Material Parameters Directly from Milling Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurel, A.; Michel, G.; Thibaud, S.; Fontaine, M.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-04-01

    An identification procedure for the determination of material parameters that are used for the FEM simulation of High Speed Machining processes is proposed. This procedure is based on the coupling of a numerical identification procedure and FEM simulations of milling operations. The experimental data result directly from measurements performed during milling experiments. A special device has been instrumented and calibrated to perform force and torque measures, directly during machining experiments in using a piezoelectric dynamometer and a high frequency charge amplifier. The forces and torques are stored and low pass filtered if necessary, and these data provide the main basis for the identification procedure which is based on coupling 3D FEM simulations of milling and optimization/identification algorithms. The identification approach is mainly based on the Surfaces Response Method in the material parameters space, coupled to a sensitivity analysis. A Moving Least Square Approximation method is used to accelerate the identification process. The material behaviour is described from Johnson-Cook law. A fracture model is also added to consider chip formation and separation. The FEM simulations of milling are performed using explicit ALE based FEM code. The inverse method of identification is here applied on a 304L stainless steel and the first results are presented.

  16. Surface texture generation during cylindrical milling in the aspect of cutting force variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojciechowski, S.; Twardowski, P.; Pelic, M.

    2014-03-01

    The work presented here concentrates on surface texture analysis, after cylindrical milling of hardened steel. Cutting force variations occurring in the machining process have direct influence on the cutter displacements and thus on the generated surface texture. Therefore, in these experiments, the influence of active number of teeth (zc) on the cutting force variations was investigated. Cutting forces and cutter displacements were measured during machining process (online) using, namely piezoelectric force dynamometer and 3D laser vibrometer. Surface roughness parameters were measured using stylus surface profiler. The surface roughness model including cutting parameters (fz, D) and cutting force variations was also developed. The research revealed that in cylindrical milling process, cutting force variations have immediate influence on surface texture generation.

  17. Experimental investigation of machining parameter under MQL milling of SS304

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatade, Vivek T.; Patil, Vikas T.; Kuppan, P.; Balan, A. S. S.; Oyyaravelu, R.

    2016-09-01

    Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) or near dry machining has been recognized by many researchers and industrialist in order to move one step ahead towards the green manufacturing. MQL assisted machining reduces the harmful environmental impact caused by flood coolant and machining cost. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the impact of oxygen as a carrier gas in MQL during end milling of austenitic stainless steel grade SS304. Also, the machining performance under conventional MQL with air and dry machining have been studied. The evaluation was done on tool wear, surface roughness and cutting forces under two distinct cutting speeds i.e. 75 m/min and 100 m/min. Investigation brings to light that presence of oxygen is susceptible in the case of machining of SS304, it provides extra protective oxide layer near the tool chip interface. Consequently, increased tool life, reduced surface roughness and cutting forces when compared to conventional MQL assisted milling.

  18. Simulation of rolling friction in the working stands of wide-strip mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garber, E. A.; Samarin, S. N.; Traino, A. I.; Ermilov, V. V.

    2007-04-01

    The energy consumed for rolling friction in the interroll contact area in the working stands of cold-rolling and pinch-pass mils intended for the production of wide steel strips has been analyzed. The coefficients and power of rolling friction are obtained for the first time using the databases of the process control systems of operating mills and simulating these quantities. A statistically reliable regression relation is obtained between the coefficient of rolling friction and the significant parameters of rolling and skin rolling (i.e., the interroll force, the roll speed, and the roll body roughness). The power fraction consumed for rolling friction is found to reach 60 80% of the total power of the main drive of working stands for skin rolling and 30 50% for cold rolling. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account these power losses in designing mills and developing technological cold-rolling conditions.

  19. Maraging Steel Machining Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-23

    APR 2007 2. REPORT TYPE Technical, Success Story 3. DATES COVERED 01-12-2006 to 23-04-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maraging Steel Machining...consumers of cobalt-strengthened maraging steel . An increase in production requires them to reduce the machining time of certain operations producing... maraging steel ; Success Stories 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 1 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 1 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

  20. Surface acquisition through virtual milling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Marshal L.

    1993-01-01

    Surface acquisition deals with the reconstruction of three dimensional objects from a set of data points. The most straightforward techniques require human intervention, a time consuming proposition. It is desirable to develop a fully automated alternative. Such a method is proposed in this paper. It makes use of surface measurements obtained from a 3-D laser digitizer - an instrument which provides the (x,y,z) coordinates of surface data points from various viewpoints. These points are assembled into several partial surfaces using a visibility constraint and a 2-D triangulation technique. Reconstruction of the final object requires merging these partial surfaces. This is accomplished through a procedure that emulates milling, a standard machining operation. From a geometrical standpoint the problem reduces to constructing the intersection of two or more non-convex polyhedra.