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Sample records for steelconcrete framed structures

  1. Structural Aspects of Railway Truss Bridges Affecting Transverse Shear Forces in Steel-Concrete Composite Decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siekierski, Wojciech

    2015-03-01

    At the steel-concrete interface, the horizontal shear forces that are transverse to cross beams occur due to joint action of the steel-concrete composite deck and the truss girders. Numerical analysis showed that values of the forces are big in comparison to the longitudinal shear forces. In both cases extreme force values occur near side edges of a slab. The paper studies possibilities of reduction of these shear forces by structural alterations of the following: rigidity of a concrete slab, arrangement of a wind bracing, arrangement of concrete slab expansion joints. An existing railway truss bridge span has been analysed. Numerical analysis shows that it is possible to reduce the values of shear forces transverse to cross beams. It may reach 20% near the side edges of slabs and 23% in the centre of slab width.

  2. Dynamic toughness of composite steel-concrete structure of sandwich system

    SciTech Connect

    Iwata, Setsuo; Hattori, Yoichi

    1995-12-31

    Offshore structures should have a high degree of structural safety even under extreme environmental loadings. The authors have studied a composite steel-concrete structure of sandwich system for the strength members of huge offshore structures, where concrete is placed between steel plates. In the previous paper, the authors carried out both experimental and theoretical investigations into the strength of the composite structure. It was clarified that the composite structure has various excellent properties: the ultimate load-bearing capacity of the composite structure is very high and it can absorb a great deal of energy until failure under any type of loading conditions. In the present paper, the authors carried out both experimental and theoretical investigations into the dynamic toughness of the sandwich composite structures. Experiments were carried out using the two dimensional models of composite structure under high speed loading. A nonlinear analysis was developed to predict the toughness of sandwich beam under dynamic load. In the analysis, the material non linearities of both concrete and steel with strain rate. The nonlinear analysis accurately represented the behavior and toughness of the sandwich beam structure.

  3. Numerical simulation of steel-concrete composite Virender beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qinggui; Cao, Xinming; Luo, Quanrui

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a new type of steel-concrete composite Vierendeel beam is proposed. The finite element analysis of the new type of steel-concrete composite Vierendeel beam is carried out by using ABAQUS. To compare the mechanical properties with traditional beam, the normal reinforced concrete beam with the same section size is also analyzed by using ABAQUS. The simulation results show that the material strength of the new type steel-concrete composite Vierendeel beam is fully utilized, and the flexural capacity and deformation performance of the new type of steel-concrete composite Vierendeel beam are greatly improved compared with normal reinforced concrete beam.

  4. Dynamic Study of Bicycle Frame Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sani, M. S. M.; Nazri, N. A.; Zahari, S. N.; Abdullah, N. A. Z.; Priyandoko, G.

    2016-11-01

    Bicycle frames have to bear variety of loads and it is needed to ensure the frame can withstand dynamic loads to move. This paper focusing on dynamic study for bicycle frame structure with a purpose to avoid the problem regarding loads on the structure and to ensure the structure is safe when multiple loads are applied on it. The main objectives of dynamic study are to find the modal properties using two method; finite element analysis (FEA) and experimental modal analysis (EMA). The correlation between two studies will be obtained using percentage error. Firstly, 3D model of mountain bike frame structure has been draw using computer-aided design (CAD) software and normal mode analysis using MSC Nastran Patran was executed for numerical method meanwhile modal testing using impact hammer was performed for experimental counterpart. From the correlation result, it show that percentage error between FEA and EMA were below 10% due to noise, imperfect experiment setup during perform EMA and imperfect modeling of mountain bike frame structure in CAD software. Small percentage error differences makes both of the method can be applied to obtain the dynamic characteristic of structure. It is essential to determine whether the structure is safe or not. In conclusion, model updating method is required to reduce more percentage error between two results.

  5. Construction Cluster Volume I [Wood Structural Framing].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.

    The document is the first of a series, to be integrated with a G.E.D. program, containing instructional materials at the basic skills level for the construction cluster. It focuses on wood structural framing and contains 20 units: (1) occupational information; (2) blueprint reading; (3) using leveling instruments and laying out building lines; (4)…

  6. Construction Cluster Volume I [Wood Structural Framing].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.

    The document is the first of a series, to be integrated with a G.E.D. program, containing instructional materials at the basic skills level for the construction cluster. It focuses on wood structural framing and contains 20 units: (1) occupational information; (2) blueprint reading; (3) using leveling instruments and laying out building lines; (4)…

  7. Member end releases in framed structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stallings, J. M.

    1993-02-01

    Discontinuities such as internal hinges are commonly encountered in framed structures. A general method of including discontinuities in stiffness method analyses of planar frames by the release of member end forces is developed. Modifications are made to the member stiffness matrix and equivalent joint load vector to account for the released end forces. A FORTRAN algorithm is given that makes the necessary modifications to the member stiffness matrix and equivalent joint load vector for the standard planar frame member. The algorithm allows combinations of up to three member end forces to be released (specified at zero or nonzero values). An algorithm is also given that calculates the unknown member end displacements at the released member end forces. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the uses and capabilities of the algorithms.

  8. Argument structure frames: a lexical complexity metric?

    PubMed

    Schmauder, A R

    1991-01-01

    The number of semantic argument structure frames associated with a verb has been reported to influence ease of processing during language comprehension. The present experiments tested the generality of the argument structure complexity effect with three dependent measures: eye-fixation times, naming latencies, and lexical decision latencies. Two eye-movement experiments and two experiments using cross-modal tasks failed to provide evidence supporting the argument structure complexity effect. The present experiments indicated that results reflecting verbs' argument structure complexity are not generalizable.

  9. Topology Mining for Optimization of Framed Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagishita, Takao; Ohsaki, Makoto

    A new heuristic method called Topology Mining (TM) is proposed for topology optimization of framed structures, where the problem is formulated as 0-1 mixed-integer optimization problem. TM uses the apriori algorithm, developed in the field of data mining, to efficiently extract the bar sets that frequently appears among superior solutions, and proceeds so as to preserve the sets. Hence, the process of optimization can be investigated by tracing the frequent bar sets, accordingly, the parameters for optimization can easily be adjusted. It is pointed out that the ground structure method based on nonlinear programming is not effective for finding optimal placement of braces for a given frame under local buckling constraints. We propose an integrated approach to obtain an accurate solution of this problem, where optimal placement of braces is searched by TM, and the sizing optimization is performed by nonlinear programming. Three numerical examples are solved to demonstrate the performance of TM in comparison with another heuristic method called tabu search.

  10. Structural Health Monitoring of Frame Structures Using Piezo-Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanker, R.; Bhalla, S.; Gupta, A.

    2008-07-01

    Monitoring of civil structures is crucial for their proper functioning. Any crack in a structure changes its static and dynamic behaviours. To detect the damage/crack at the initiating time itself is challenging task in modern time. This paper describes an experimental study to extract the dynamic characteristics of a frame structure using piezo-electric ceramic (PZT) transducers. Tests are conducted on steel frame to extract the natural frequencies and the experimental mode shapes. Free vibration response is first acquired in the time domain and then transformed into frequency domain using Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) analyser. Only single PZT patch is sufficient to extract the first nine modes shape of the steel frame .By using numerical model, mode shapes are extracted corresponding to each identified natural frequency. After determining natural frequencies and experimental mode shape, damages can be located by method of Naidu and Soh (2004). This approach can be used for damage/crack detection at very earlier stage.

  11. Structural frame for an electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect

    Pimlott, J.R.; Beaver, R.N.; Dang, H.D.; Morris, J.E.

    1987-05-26

    A structural frame is described adapted for use in an electrochemical cell comprising: an organic plastic member with horizontally and vertically spaced-apart shoulders protruding outwardly from opposing generally coplanar anolyte and catholyte surfaces of the plastic member; at least one electrically conductive insert extending from an exterior face of a shoulder on the catholyte surface of the plastic member, through the plastic member, to an exterior face of a shoulder on the anolyte surface of the plastic member, wherein each of the shoulders annularly encircles and supports each of the inserts; and an electrically conductive, substantially completely hydraulically impermeable anolyte cover resistant to the corrosive effects of an anolyte matingly contacted with the anolyte surface of the plastic member and adapted to minimize contact between the anolyte and the plastic member within the cell.

  12. Structural frame for an electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, R.N.; Morris, G.J.E.; Dang, H.D.; Pimlott, J.R.

    1987-05-19

    This patent describes a structural frame adapted for use in bipolar electrochemical cell comprising: an organic plastic member with horizontally and vertically spaced-apart shoulders protruding outwardly from opposing generally coplanar anolyte and catholyte surfaces of the plastic member; at least one electrically conductive insert extending from an exterior face of a shoulder on the catholyte surface of the plastic member, through the plastic member, to an exterior face of a shoulder on the anolyte surface of the plastic member. Each of the shoulders annularly encircles and supports each of the insert; and an electrically conductive, substantially completely hydraulically impermeable anolyte cover resistant to the corrosive effects of an anolyte matingly contacted with the anolyte surface of the plastic member and adapted to minimize contact between the anolyte and the plastic member within the cell.

  13. Structural frame for an electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, G.J.E.; Newton, H.G.

    1987-10-06

    A circular structural frame is described with spherical anolyte and catholyte surfaces adapted for use between electrochemical cells comprising: (a) a cell barrier member having two opposite surfaces wherein the surfaces are generally spherical anolyte and catholyte surfaces for adjacent electrochemical cells having anodes and cathodes therein; (b) at least one electrically conductive insert extending from the catholyte surface of the barrier member through the barrier member, and to the anolyte surface of the barrier member, wherein the barrier member supports the insert; (c) an electrically conductive, substantially completely hydraulically impermeable anolyte cover resistant to the corrosive effects of the anolyte matingly contacted with the anolyte surface of the barrier member and adapted to minimize contact between the anolyte and the barrier member within a first cell; and (d) an electrically conductive, substantially completely hydraulically impermeable catholyte cover resistant to the corrosive effects of the catholyte matingly contacted with the catholyte surface of the barrier member and adapted to minimize contact between the catholyte and the barrier member within a second cell.

  14. Mechanical Model of Steel-concrete Composite Joint under Sagging Bending Moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarek, Zdzisław

    2012-06-01

    In buildings with steel-concrete composite floors, joints are designed to transmit mainly hogging bending moment. In case of the large horizontal loads due to wind, earthquake or accidental events, sagging bending moments in a joint can also occur. Additionally, large deformations of the structure cause tying and prying effects. In the paper, a mechanical model based on "component method" for evaluation of characteristics of the composite joint is presented. The influence of tying and prying actions on distribution of the internal forces in a joint is also analyzed. The procedure for calculation of the characteristics of the composite joint with bolted endplate connection is elaborated too.

  15. INTERIOR; DETAIL OF ROOF FRAMING STRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR; DETAIL OF ROOF FRAMING STRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Helix House No. 2, Base of Radio Antenna Structure No. 427, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  16. 1. VARIABLEANGLE LAUNCHER (VAL) CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE SHOWING CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VARIABLE-ANGLE LAUNCHER (VAL) CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE SHOWING CAMERA TOWER STRUCTURE LOOKING SOUTH AND ARCHED OPENING FOR ROADWAY. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Framing Flames: The Structure of Argumentative Messages on the Net.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Edward A.

    1997-01-01

    Assesses the use of the strategic message structuring tactic known as framing. Analyzes 3,000 messages obtained from a diverse sampling of computer-mediated discussion groups and forums. Finds that a speaker's emotional involvement was significantly and curvilinearly related to two message framing devices (message dependency and coalition…

  18. 2. VAL CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE SHOWING CAMERA TOWER, PROJECTILE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VAL CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE SHOWING CAMERA TOWER, PROJECTILE LOADING DECK AND BREECH END OF LAUNCHER BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTH. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 21. INTERIOR DETAIL OF 1887 STRUCTURAL FRAMING, BUILDING 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. INTERIOR DETAIL OF 1887 STRUCTURAL FRAMING, BUILDING 1. - New Orleans City Railroad Company, Canal Station, Square 365, bounded by Canal, North Dupre, Iberville, & North White Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  20. 23. INTERIOR DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL FRAMING, BUILDING 2. New ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. INTERIOR DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL FRAMING, BUILDING 2. - New Orleans City Railroad Company, Canal Station, Square 365, bounded by Canal, North Dupre, Iberville, & North White Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  1. 52. CONCRETE FORMWORK FOR THE VAL CELLULAR 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. CONCRETE FORMWORK FOR THE VAL CELLULAR 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE LOOKING SOUTH, Date unknown, circa December 1946. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 7. VAL CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE SHOWING CAMERA TOWER ARCHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VAL CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE SHOWING CAMERA TOWER ARCHED OPENING FOR ROADWAY AND COUNTERWEIGHT SLOPE TAKEN FROM RESERVOIR LOOKING WEST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 51. CONCRETE FORMWORK FOR THE VAL CELLULAR 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. CONCRETE FORMWORK FOR THE VAL CELLULAR 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE LOOKING NORTHWEST, Date unknown, circa December 1946. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 6. VAL LAUNCHER BRIDGE, CARRIAGE SUPPORT, CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VAL LAUNCHER BRIDGE, CARRIAGE SUPPORT, CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE AND CAMERA TOWER LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 53. VAL CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE AFTER FORMWORK REMOVED, Date ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VAL CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE AFTER FORMWORK REMOVED, Date unknown, circa December 1946. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Damage detection in a framed building structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jun; Pines, Darryll J.

    1999-05-01

    Interest in infrastructure health monitoring and damage detection has received a considerable amount of attention over the past two decades. Previous approaches to non- destructive evaluation of structures to assess their integrity typically involved some form of human interaction. Recent advances in smart materials and structures technology has resulted in a renewed interest in developing advanced self-diagnostic capability for assessing the state of a structure without any human interaction. The goal is to reduce human interaction while at the same time monitor the integrity of a structure. With this goal in mind, many researchers have made significant strides in developing damage detection methods for civil structures based on traditional modal analysis techniques. These techniques are of the well suited for structures which can be modeled by discrete lumped-parameter elements where the presence of damage leads to some low frequency change in the global behavior of the system. On the other hand small defects such as cracks are obscured by modal approaches since such phenomena are high frequency effects not easily discovered by examining changes in modal mass, stiffness or damping parameters. This is because at high frequency modal structural models are subject to uncertainty. This uncertainty can be reduced by increasing the spatial order of discrete model, however, this increases the computational effort of modal-based damage detection schemes. On the other hand, wave propagation models of structures have higher spatial order model fidelity. Thus, they are better suited for detecting and global wave propagation models to detect damage in a discrete model of a farmed building structure, consisting of discrete structural elements. Simulated damage in the form of mass or stiffness loss is used to determine the effect on the resonant and incident wave response of the structure. Examination of the incident transfer function response of the structure reveals the

  7. Experiment study on RC frame retrofitted by the external structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunyang; Shi, Junji; Hiroshi, Kuramoto; Taguchi, Takashi; Kamiya, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    A new retrofitting method is proposed herein for reinforced concrete (RC) structures through attachment of an external structure. The external structure consists of a fiber concrete encased steel frame, connection slab and transverse beams. The external structure is connected to the existing structure through a connection slab and transverse beams. Pseudostatic experiments were carried out on one unretrofitted specimen and three retrofitted frame specimens. The characteristics, including failure mode, crack pattern, hysteresis loops behavior, relationship of strain and displacement of the concrete slab, are demonstrated. The results show that the load carrying capacity is obviously increased, and the extension length of the slab and the number of columns within the external frame are important influence factors on the working performance of the existing structure. In addition, the displacement difference between the existing structure and the outer structure was caused mainly by three factors: shear deformation of the slab, extraction of transverse beams, and drift of the conjunction part between the slab and the existing frame. Furthermore, the total deformation determined by the first two factors accounted for approximately 80% of the damage, therefore these factors should be carefully considered in engineering practice to enhance the effects of this new retrofitting method.

  8. Battery Berry Observation Station, detail, frame structure meeting older masonry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Battery Berry Observation Station, detail, frame structure meeting older masonry building on west side of structure; view east - Fort McKinley, Battery Berry Observation Station, North side of Wood Side Drive approximately 80 feet east of Spring Cove Lane, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  9. Large-scale testing of structural clay tile infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Bennett, R.M.

    1993-03-18

    A summary of large-scale cyclic static tests of structural clay tile infilled frames is given. In-plane racking tests examined the effects of varying frame stiffness, varying infill size, infill offset from frame centerline, and single and double wythe infill construction. Out-of-plane tests examined infilled frame response to inertial loadings and inter-story drift loadings. Sequential in-plane and out-of-plane loadings were performed to determine the effects of orthogonal damage and degradation on both strength and stiffness. A combined out-of-plane inertial and in-plane racking test was conducted to investigate the interaction of multi-directional loading. To determine constitutive properties of the infills, prism compression, mortar compression and various unit tile tests were performed.

  10. Shake table testing of structural clay tile infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.M.; Fowler, J.J.; Flanagan, R.D.

    1996-03-08

    Two steel frames with structural clay tile infills were tested under simulated seismic loads in both the out-of-plane and in-plane direction. Out-of-plane testing showed that infill panels separate from their bounding frame, and respond at their own natural frequency during a seismic excitation. Due to arching, the panels remain stable. In-plane seismic testing showed similar behavior patterns to previous static testing. The natural frequency was adequately predicted using a piecewise linear equivalent strut analytical method. The structure was then subjected to over one thousand cycles of loading using a sine sweep before failure.

  11. Bayesian decision and mixture models for AE monitoring of steel-concrete composite shear walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhidzadeh, Alireza; Epackachi, Siamak; Salamone, Salvatore; Whittaker, Andrew S.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an approach based on an acoustic emission technique for the health monitoring of steel-concrete (SC) composite shear walls. SC composite walls consist of plain (unreinforced) concrete sandwiched between steel faceplates. Although the use of SC system construction has been studied extensively for nearly 20 years, little-to-no attention has been devoted to the development of structural health monitoring techniques for the inspection of damage of the concrete behind the steel plates. In this work an unsupervised pattern recognition algorithm based on probability theory is proposed to assess the soundness of the concrete infill, and eventually provide a diagnosis of the SC wall’s health. The approach is validated through an experimental study on a large-scale SC shear wall subjected to a displacement controlled reversed cyclic loading.

  12. 49. VIEW OF WOOD FRAME STUCCO STRUCTURES ON CONCRETE SLABS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. VIEW OF WOOD FRAME STUCCO STRUCTURES ON CONCRETE SLABS, REPUTED HOUSES FOR PROSTITUTES, LOOKING NORTH. NOTICE SIMILAR RUIN IN BACKGROUND RIGHT. THREE OR FOUR SIMILAR RUINS ALONG RIVER ROAD NORTH OF MINE WORKINGS. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  13. Seismic response control of frame structure braced with SMA tendons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shi; Song, Gangbing; Huo, Linsheng; Gu, Haichang

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents studies of seismic response control of a frame structure braced with SMA (Shape Memory Alloy) tendons through both numerical and experimental approaches. Based on the Brinson one-dimensional constitutive law for SMAs, a two-story frame structure braced diagonally with SMA tendons is used as an example to simulate numerically the vibration control process. By considering the temperature, different initial states and thermal properties of the SMA tendon, and the variable intensity and frequency of earthquake input, the parameters of the system were analyzed during the numerically simulation. The time histories of the displacement and hysteretic loops of the SMA tendons were simulated under earthquake ground motion by using finite element method (FEM). To validate the efficiency of the simulation, a shaking table test for the frame structure was conducted. Both numerical simulation and experimental results show that the actively controlled martensite SMA tendons can effectively suppress the vibration of the multi-story frame structure during an earthquake.

  14. 73. DETAIL OF 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE LOOKING NORTH SHOWING PROJECTILE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. DETAIL OF 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE LOOKING NORTH SHOWING PROJECTILE CAR, CAMERA TOWER, CANTILEVERED WALKWAYS AND ELECTRICAL GEAR, August 17, 1948. (Original photograph in possession of Dave Willis, San Diego, California.) - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 158. Photocopy of drawing (1966 structural drawing by AETRON) FRAMING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    158. Photocopy of drawing (1966 structural drawing by AETRON) FRAMING PLAN, ELEVATIONS, SECTIONS, AND DETAILS FOR THE TRANSFER AREA SHELTER AND UNDERGROUND CHECKOUT FACILITY, SHEET S-4 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. 69. COMPLETED 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING CANTILEVERED WALKWAYS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. COMPLETED 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING CANTILEVERED WALKWAYS, 'CROWS NEST', CAMERA TOWER, COUNTERWEIGHT CAR AND ROADWAY ARCH, April 30, 1948. (Original photograph in possession of Dave Willis, San Diego, California.) - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 71. COMPLETED 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE LOOKING SOUTH SHOWING CAMERA TOWER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. COMPLETED 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE LOOKING SOUTH SHOWING CAMERA TOWER, DRIVE GEARS, COUNTERWEIGHT CAR AND CANTILEVERED WALKWAYS, July 28, 1948. (Original photograph in possession of Dave Willis, San Diego, California.) - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. Aftershock collapse vulnerability assessment of reinforced concrete frame structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raghunandan, Meera; Liel, Abbie B.; Luco, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In a seismically active region, structures may be subjected to multiple earthquakes, due to mainshock–aftershock phenomena or other sequences, leaving no time for repair or retrofit between the events. This study quantifies the aftershock vulnerability of four modern ductile reinforced concrete (RC) framed buildings in California by conducting incremental dynamic analysis of nonlinear MDOF analytical models. Based on the nonlinear dynamic analysis results, collapse and damage fragility curves are generated for intact and damaged buildings. If the building is not severely damaged in the mainshock, its collapse capacity is unaffected in the aftershock. However, if the building is extensively damaged in the mainshock, there is a significant reduction in its collapse capacity in the aftershock. For example, if an RC frame experiences 4% or more interstory drift in the mainshock, the median capacity to resist aftershock shaking is reduced by about 40%. The study also evaluates the effectiveness of different measures of physical damage observed in the mainshock-damaged buildings for predicting the reduction in collapse capacity of the damaged building in subsequent aftershocks. These physical damage indicators for the building are chosen such that they quantify the qualitative red tagging (unsafe for occupation) criteria employed in post-earthquake evaluation of RC frames. The results indicated that damage indicators related to the drift experienced by the damaged building best predicted the reduced aftershock collapse capacities for these ductile structures.

  19. Analysis of truss, beam, frame, and membrane components. [composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoell, A. C.; Robinson, E. Y.

    1975-01-01

    Truss components are considered, taking into account composite truss structures, truss analysis, column members, and truss joints. Beam components are discussed, giving attention to composite beams, laminated beams, and sandwich beams. Composite frame components and composite membrane components are examined. A description is given of examples of flat membrane components and examples of curved membrane elements. It is pointed out that composite structural design and analysis is a highly interactive, iterative procedure which does not lend itself readily to characterization by design or analysis function only.-

  20. Superelastic viscous dampers for seismically resilient steel frame structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbulut, O. E.; Meguira, B.

    2014-04-01

    This study proposes a passive control device based on superelastic behavior of shape memory alloys (SMAs) and investigates the device performance for improving response of steel frame structures subjected to multi-level seismic hazards. The device, named as Superelastic Viscous Damper (SVD), exhibits both re-centering and energy-dissipating capabilities and consists of SMA elements and a viscoelastic (VE) damper. SMA elements are mainly used as recentering unit and the viscoelastic damper is employed as energy dissipation unit. The VE damper consists of two layers of VE material bonded with three steel plates. Energy is dissipated through the shear deformation of VE material. Each SMA element forms a continuous loop; wrapping the loops around the outer two plates improves compactness and efficiency. An analytical model of a three-story benchmark steel building with the installed SVDs is developed to determine the response of the structure under a ground motion input. A neuro-fuzzy model is used to capture nonlinear behavior of the SMA elements of the SVD. Nonlinear response history analyses are conducted at MCE level seismic hazard. A suite of 22 ground motion records is employed in dynamic analysis. Peak interstory drift, peak absolute floor acceleration, and residual story drift are selected as the primary demand parameters. Results shows that SVDs can effectively mitigate dynamic response of steel frame structures under strong ground motions and enhance their post-earthquake functionality.

  1. Effect of non-structural elements on the dynamic behaviour of moment-resisting framed structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco; Auletta, Gianluca

    2015-04-01

    Effects of earthquakes on building structures have studied from many researchers on the recent scientific and technique literature. The phenomenon is clear: inertia forces are governed from structural and non-structural stiffness and masses. The distribution of seismic lateral loads and their magnitude are strongly correlated to the fundamental period of the structure. Therefore, an accurate evaluation of the fundamental period is a crucial aspect for both static and dynamic seismic analyses. In fact, the fundamental period determines the global seismic demand through the spectral acceleration directly evaluated from the linear and/or nonlinear acceleration response spectra (provided from codes or derived from detailed analyses of site effects). Recent earthquakes highlighted the significant effects derived from the interaction between structural and non-structural elements on the main dynamic parameters of a structure and on the lateral distribution of the inertial forces. Usually, non-structural elements acts together with the structural elements, adding both masses and stiffness. Using numerical and experimental campaigns, many researchers have studied the effects of infill walls on the dynamic behaviour of buildings and several simplified models have been proposed to take into account the presence of non-structural elements within linear and nonlinear numerical models. As example, Kliner and Bertero tested a 1/3 scaled structure (moment-resisting infilled frame model) and determine its behaviour during earthquakes. They found that the infills increased the stiffness of the frame in about 5 times. Consequently, in these cases the fundamental period reduces and the inertia forces generally increases. Meharabi et al. tested a 6-storey, three bay, reinforced concrete moment resisting frame, designed according to the provision of UBC-91, and they shown that the lateral force resistance of an infilled frame was higher than that of bare frame. It was concluded that a

  2. Results from large scale ultimate strength tests of K-braced jacket frame structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bolt, H.M.

    1995-12-01

    Phase 2 of the JIP Frames Project included four large scale collapse tests of K-braced frames in which both gap and overlap K joints were the critical components. The results are presented in this paper. The local failure modes differed from typical isolated component tests, yet were representative of structural damage observed following Hurricane Andrew. The frame test results therefore provide important insight to the ultimate response of offshore jacket structures.

  3. A preliminary structural analysis of space-based inflatable tubular frame structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Main, John A.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.

    1992-01-01

    The use of inflatable structures has often been proposed for aerospace and planetary applications. The advantages of such structures include low launch weight and easy assembly. The use of inflatables for applications requiring very large frame structures intended for aerospace use are proposed. In order to consider using an inflated truss, the structural behavior of the inflated frame must be examined. The statics of inflated tubes as beams was discussed in the literature, but the dynamics of these elements has not received much attention. In an effort to evaluate the vibration characteristics of the inflated beam a series of free vibration tests of an inflated fabric cantilevers were performed. Results of the tests are presented and models for system behavior posed.

  4. Design, Fabrication and Test of Composite Curved Frames for Helicopter Fuselage Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, D. W.; Krebs, N. E.; Dobyns, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of curved beam effects and their importance in designing composite frame structures are discussed. The curved beam effect induces radial flange loadings which in turn causes flange curling. This curling increases the axial flange stresses and induces transverse bending. These effects are more important in composite structures due to their general inability to redistribute stresses by general yielding, such as in metal structures. A detailed finite element analysis was conducted and used in the design of composite curved frame specimens. Five specimens were statically tested and compared with predicted and test strains. The curved frame effects must be accurately accounted for to avoid premature fracture; finite element methods can accurately predict most of the stresses and no elastic relief from curved beam effects occurred in the composite frames tested. Finite element studies are presented for comparative curved beam effects on composite and metal frames.

  5. 54. ARAII. Structural steel framing for bottom SL1 reactor building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. ARA-II. Structural steel framing for bottom SL-1 reactor building. October 16, 1957. Ineel photo no. 57-5186. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Natural frequencies of rotating disk-like structures submerged viewed from the stationary frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presas, Alexandre; Valentin, David; Egusquiza, Eduard; Valero, Carme; Seidel, Ulrich; Weber, Wilhelm

    2016-11-01

    To understand the effect of rotation in the dynamic response of pump-turbine runners, simplified models such as disk-like structures can be used. In previous researches the natural frequencies and mode shapes of rotating disk-like structures submerged and confined have been analysed from the rotating frame. Nevertheless to measure these parameters experimentally from the rotating point of view can be a difficult task, since sensors have to withstand with large forces and dynamic loads. In this paper the dynamic response of rotating disk-like structures is analysed from the stationary frame. For this purpose an experimental test rig has been used. It consists on a disk confined that rotates inside a tank. The disk is excited with a PZT attached on it and the response is measured from both rotating frame (with miniature accelerometers) and from the stationary frame (with a Laser Doppler Vibrometer). In this way the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the rotating structure can be determined from the stationary reference frame. The transmission from the rotating to the stationary frame is compared for the case that the rotating structure rotates in a low density medium (air) and in a high density medium (water).

  7. Study on the Response Coefficient of Setback Structures Compared to Regular Moment Frame Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Mirghaderi, S. Rasoul; Khafaf, Bardia; Epackachi, Siamak

    2008-07-08

    In design practice of many countries, seismic analysis and proportioning of structures are usually based upon linear elastic analysis due to reduced seismic forces by response coefficient; R. Setback structures are one of the most popular shapes of the constructed buildings. In setback structures, the shape and proportions of the building have a major effect on distribution of earthquake forces as they work their way through the building. On the other hand, geometric configuration has a profound effect on the structural-dynamic response of a building. Therefore, when a building has irregular features, such as asymmetric in height or vertical discontinuity, the traditional assumptions used in development of seismic criteria for regular buildings may not be applicable. Inelastic seismic behavior of these types of structures seems to be quite different from the regular steel moment resisting structures in which the overall ductility is localized at beam-ends.In order to investigate the seismic behavior and estimate the Response Coefficient of those structures, nonlinear static analysis (pushover) are used for three categories of setback structures namely low rise, medium rise and high rise buildings with different setbacks in their height. The Response Coefficient are calculated and compared with those taken from regular type of moment frame structures.

  8. Research of spectacle frame measurement system based on structured light method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Dong; Chen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiuda; Yan, Huimin

    2016-10-01

    Automatic eyeglass lens edging system is now widely used to automatically cut and polish the uncut lens based on the spectacle frame shape data which is obtained from the spectacle frame measuring machine installed on the system. The conventional approach to acquire the frame shape data works in the contact scanning mode with a probe tracing around the groove contour of the spectacle frame which requires a sophisticated mechanical and numerical control system. In this paper, a novel non-contact optical measuring method based on structured light to measure the three dimensional (3D) data of the spectacle frame is proposed. First we focus on the processing approach solving the problem of deterioration of the structured light stripes caused by intense specular reflection on the frame surface. The techniques of bright-dark bi-level fringe projecting, multiple exposuring and high dynamic range imaging are introduced to obtain a high-quality image of structured light stripes. Then, the Gamma transform and median filtering are applied to enhance image contrast. In order to get rid of background noise from the image and extract the region of interest (ROI), an auxiliary lighting system of special design is utilized to help effectively distinguish between the object and the background. In addition, a morphological method with specific morphological structure-elements is adopted to remove noise between stripes and boundary of the spectacle frame. By further fringe center extraction and depth information acquisition through the method of look-up table, the 3D shape of the spectacle frame is recovered.

  9. Determination of Dynamic Characteristics of the Frame Bearing Structures of the Vibrating Separating Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piven, V. V.; Umanskaya, O. L.

    2016-08-01

    Within the vibrating separating machines the vibration displacement of the members is transferred to a frame bearing structure, and over it the movement is transferred again to the suspension brackets of the sieve separating surfaces and to the foundation, on which the machine is fixed. The forced oscillations of the sieve separating surfaces ensure the separation process, and the vibration, transferred from the frame structure, disturbs this process. It is necessary to ensure the vibration displacement of the separating surfaces within the fixed limitations by means of optimal design of the frame bearing surfaces. The aim of the work is to decrease adverse vibrations towards the technological separation process. The calculated and graphical relations, acquired according to the presented methods, enable to estimate the influence of various structure solutions on vibration displacements of the structure elements at the stage of design.

  10. Hysteretic Performance Identification for a Frame Structure with MR Damper under Limited Excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bin; Zhou, Ren; He, Jia; Masri, Sami F.

    2010-05-01

    Nonlinearity exists widely in engineering structures and may arise in damaged structures, but the identification theory for nonlinear dynamic systems is far less established than that for linear systems. Most of the currently available vibration-based identification approaches for structural damage detection are based on eigenvalues and mode shapes extraction which are suitable for linear systems. For the purpose of early warning and damage prognosis, it is crucial to develop efficient and reliable identification methods for nonlinear hysteretic performance because the restoring force is the direct indicator of damage initiation and development. In this paper, a general time series data-based approach was employed to identify the nonlinear behavior of a multi-degree-of-freedom frame structure equipped with a MR damper only using the excitation force applied on limited locations and the corresponding structural response measurement. The performance of the proposed methodology was validated for a 4-story frame model structure with and without a MR damper. The system matrices of the linear frame model structure were identified firstly with a least-squares techniques and the equivalent system of the frame structure with MR damper were identified. Then the location and the hysteretic performance of the MR damper were identified and compared with the test measurements. Results show that the proposed data-based approach is efficient for nonlinear behavior identification of engineering structures.

  11. Rib Bone Graft Adjusted to Fit the Facial Asymmetry: A Frame Structure Graft.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon Ho; Choi, Jong Hwan; Hwang, Kun; Choi, Jun Ho

    2015-10-01

    The authors introduce the concept of a "frame structure graft" in which a harvested rib bone was adjusted to fit facial asymmetry. On the costochondral junction of the sixth or seventh rib, a 5 cm incision was made. Through a subperiosteal dissection, the rib bone was harvested. Using a reciprocating saw, the harvested rib was scored on its anterior surface as well as its posterior surface with a partial depth at different intervals. The harvested rib bone was placed on the skin surface of the unaffected side of the face and a curvature was created exactly matching that of the unaffected side by bending the bone using a greenstick fracture. Thereafter, the graft was adjusted to conceal the asymmetry of the deficient side. The adjusted "frame structure" was transferred to the defect through the incisions on the affected side, and the "frame structure" graft was placed on the mandible or zygoma. The graft fixation was done externally with at least 2 Kirschner wires (K-wires). From January 2005 to August 2013, a total of 30 patients (13 men, 17 women, mean age 25.6 years) received a frame structure graft. All 30 patients achieved good healing at the operation site without complications. Donor-site morbidity as pneumothorax from the rib bone harvest was not found. Merits of this frame structure graft, the authors think, are that this method could allow a similar curvature to the normal side. In addition, the procedure itself is easy.

  12. Improving stability and strength characteristics of framed structures with nonlinear behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pezeshk, Shahram

    1990-01-01

    In this paper an optimal design procedure is introduced to improve the overall performance of nonlinear framed structures. The design methodology presented here is a multiple-objective optimization procedure whose objective functions involve the buckling eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the structure. A constant volume with bounds on the design variables is used in conjunction with an optimality criterion approach. The method provides a general tool for solving complex design problems and generally leads to structures with better limit strength and stability. Many algorithms have been developed to improve the limit strength of structures. In most applications geometrically linear analysis is employed with the consequence that overall strength of the design is overestimated. Directly optimizing the limit load of the structure would require a full nonlinear analysis at each iteration which would be prohibitively expensive. The objective of this paper is to develop an algorithm that can improve the limit-load of geometrically nonlinear framed structures while avoiding the nonlinear analysis. One of the novelties of the new design methodology is its ability to efficiently model and design structures under multiple loading conditions. These loading conditions can be different factored loads or any kind of loads that can be applied to the structure simultaneously or independently. Attention is focused on optimal design of space framed structures. Three-dimensional design problems are more complicated to carry out, but they yield insight into real behavior of the structure and can help avoiding some of the problems that might appear in planar design procedure such as the need for out-of-plane buckling constraint. Although researchers in the field of structural engineering generally agree that optimum design of three-dimension building frames especially in the seismic regions would be beneficial, methods have been slow to emerge. Most of the research in this area has dealt

  13. Matrix management: not a structure, a frame of mind.

    PubMed

    Barlett, C A; Ghoshal, S

    1990-01-01

    In many of the world's leading corporations, strategic thinking has outdistanced organizational capability. As business challenges have grown more complex over the past 20 years, most companies have avoided the trap of one-dimensional strategic responses-stick to your knitting, stick to the big markets. But many of them have fallen into a second, structural trap and adopted elaborate organizational matrices that actually impair their ability to implement sophisticated strategies. Keeping a company light on its feet strategically while still coordinating its activities across divisions, functions, even continents, means eliminating parochialism, improving communications, and weaving the decision-making process into the company's social fabric. Altering formal structure from the top down is a poor way to achieve these goals. It is easier to work from the bottom up, focusing on the attitudes and behavior of individual managers. The companies that have made best use of this focus-among them NEC, Philips, and Unilever-employ three techniques to capture the capabilities and commitment of each manager: 1. They communicate a clear, consistent corporate vision. 2. They use training and career-path management to broaden individual perspectives and increase identification with corporate goals. 3. They co-opt individual energies and ambitions into the broader corporate-wide agenda. The goal is to build a matrix of corporate values and priorities in the minds of managers and let them make the judgments and negotiate the deals that make strategy pay off.

  14. Study of the seismic response of a recycled aggregate concrete frame structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changqing; Xiao, Jianzhuang

    2013-12-01

    Based on six-degree-of-freedom three-dimensional shaking table tests, the seismic response of a recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) frame was obtained. The analysis results indicate that the maximum story shear force and overturning moment reduce proportionally along the height of the model under the same earthquake wave. The story shear force, base shear coefficient and overturning moment of the structure increase progressively as the acceleration amplitude increases. The base shear coefficient is primarily controlled by the peak ground acceleration (PGA). The relationships between the PGA and the shear coefficient as well as between the PGA and the dynamic amplification factor are obtained by mathematical fitting. The dynamic amplification factor decreases rapidly at the elastic-plastic stage, but decreases slowly with the development of the elastic-plasticity stage. The results show that the RAC frame structure has reasonable deformability when compared with natural aggregate concrete frame structures. The maximum inter-story drift ratios of the RAC frame model under frequent and rare intensity 8 test phases are 1/266 and 1/29, respectively, which are larger than the allowable value of 1/500 and 1/50 according to Chinese seismic design requirements. Nevertheless, the RAC frame structure does not collapse under base excitations with PGAs from 0.066 g up to 1.170 g.

  15. The whole modeling and structural seismic analysis of frame bridge in sluice based on Midas Civil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Meng, Xiaoyi

    2017-04-01

    Frame Bridge is an important part of sluice that its structure safety has direct influence on the control and application of sluice. As demands for modern seismic design have increased, traditional static analysis cannot already satisfy the precise demand. On the basis of above considerations, a new structure analysis method of Frame Bridge is proposed based on Midas Civil. According to the typical structure of Frame Bridge, a whole modeling is established. Boundary constraints and loading conditions are setting reasonably. Based on the results of static analysis, dynamic analysis is proceeded by using standard ground motion parameters in software library. Internal forces under static and seismic condition are acquired that they can provide the scientific basis for physical design of sluice.

  16. Shaking table experimental study of recycled concrete frame-shear wall structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianwei; Cao, Wanlin; Meng, Shaobin; Yu, Cheng; Dong, Hongying

    2014-06-01

    In this study, four 1/5 scaled shaking table tests were conducted to investigate the seismic performance of recycled concrete frame-shear wall structures with different recycled aggregates replacement rates and concealed bracing detail. The four tested structures included one normal concrete model, one recycled coarse aggregate concrete model, and two recycled coarse and fine aggregate concrete models with or without concealed bracings inside the shear walls. The dynamic characteristics, dynamic response and failure mode of each model were compared and analyzed. Finite element models were also developed and nonlinear time-history response analysis was conducted. The test and analysis results show that the seismic performance of the recycled coarse aggregate concrete frame-shear wall structure is slightly worse than the normal concrete structure. The seismic resistance capacity of the recycled concrete frame-shear wall structure can be greatly improved by setting up concealed bracings inside the walls. With appropriate design, the recycled coarse aggregate concrete frame-shear wall structure and recycled concrete structure with concealed bracings inside the walls can be applied in buildings.

  17. Simplified analysis of frame structures with viscoelastic dampers considering the effect of soil-structure interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuefei; Wang, Shuguang; Du, Dongsheng; Liu, Weiqing

    2017-01-01

    In this study, simplified numerical models are developed to analyze the soil-structure interaction (SSI) effect on frame structures equipped with viscoelastic dampers (VEDs) based on pile group foundation. First, a single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillator is successfully utilized to replace the SDOF energy dissipated structure considering the SSI effect. The equivalent period and damping ratio of the system are obtained through analogical analysis using the frequency transfer function with adoption of the modal strain energy (MSE) technique. A parametric analysis is carried out to study the SSI effect on the performance of VEDs. Then the equilibrium equations of the multi degree-of-freedom (MDOF) structure with VEDs considering SSI effect are established in the frequency domain. Based on the assumption that the superstructure of the coupled system possesses the classical normal mode, the MDOF superstructure is decoupled to a set of individual SDOF systems resting on a rigid foundation with adoption of the MSE technique through formula derivation. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed methods have the advantage of reducing computational cost, however, retaining the satisfactory accuracy. The numerical method proposed herein can provide a fast evaluation of the efficiency of VEDs considering the SSI effect.

  18. Flexural Upgrading of Steel-Concrete Composite Girders Using Externally Bonded CFRP Reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, Mohammad Z.; Eshaghian, M.

    2010-04-01

    This study focuses on the flexural performance of composite steel-concrete beam girders retrofitted with CFRP. The current work is a numerical study of the load carrying capacity of a section which is strengthened by externally bonding of CFRP to the tension flange. At the primarily stage of the work, the model is verified by published experimental data. The three dimensional interactive failure Tsai-Wu criteria was implemented to retrofitted composite girder in order to identify the failure mode. Then a detailed parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of geometry parameters and material characteristics on flexural performance of a composite section.

  19. Low-frequency and wideband vibration energy harvester with flexible frame and interdigital structure

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Pengwei Wang, Yanfen; Luo, Cuixian; Li, Gang; Hu, Jie; Zhang, Wendong; Liu, Ying; Liu, Wei

    2015-04-15

    As an alternative to traditional cantilever beam structures and their evolutions, a flexible beam based, interdigital structure, vibration energy harvester has been presented and investigated. The proposed interdigital-shaped oscillator consists of a rectangular flexible frame and series of cantilever beams interdigitally bonded to it. In order to achieve low frequency and wide-bandwidth harvesting, Young’s modulus of materials, frame size and the amount of the cantilevers have been studied systematically. The measured frequency responses of the designed device (PDMS frame, quintuple piezoelectric cantilever beams) show a 460% increase in bandwidth below 80Hz. When excited at an acceleration of 1.0 g, the energy harvester achieves to a maximum open-circuit voltage of 65V, and the maximum output power 4.5 mW.

  20. Seismic retrofitting of reinforced concrete frame structures using GFRP-tube-confined-concrete composite braces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddasi B., Nasim S.; Zhang, Yunfeng; Hu, Xiaobin

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a new type of structural bracing intended for seismic retrofitting use in framed structures. This special composite brace, termed glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer (GFRP)-tube-confined-concrete composite brace, is comprised of concrete confined by a GFRP tube and an inner steel core for energy dissipation. Together with a contribution from the GFRP-tube confined concrete, the composite brace shows a substantially increased stiffness to control story drift, which is often a preferred feature in seismic retrofitting. An analysis model is established and implemented in a general finite element analysis program — OpenSees, for simulating the load-displacement behavior of the composite brace. Using this model, a parametric study of the hysteretic behavior (energy dissipation, stiffness, ductility and strength) of the composite brace was conducted under static cyclic loading and it was found that the area ratio of steel core to concrete has the greatest influence among all the parameters considered. To demonstrate the application of the composite brace in seismic retrofitting, a three-story nonductile reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure was retrofitted with the composite braces. Pushover analysis and nonlinear time-history analyses of the retrofitted RC frame structure was performed by employing a suite of 20 strong ground motion earthquake records. The analysis results show that the composite braces can effectively reduce the peak seismic responses of the RC frame structure without significantly increasing the base shear demand.

  1. Testing Absolute Plate Reference Frames and the Implications for the Generation of Geodynamic Mantle Heterogeneity Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shephard, G. E.; Bunge, H.; Schuberth, B. S.; Müller, D.; Talsma, A.; Moder, C.

    2010-12-01

    Several absolute reference frames for Cretaceous-Tertiary plate tectonic reconstructions have been proposed over the last decade. They include reference frames based on hotspot tracks displaying age progression, and assuming either fixed or moving hotspots, as well as palaeomagnetically-based reference frames, a subduction reference frame and hybrid reference frames. All these alternative reference frames imply a particular history of the location of subduction zones through time, the associated subduction history, and the evolution of mantle heterogeneity via the mixing of subducted slab material with the mantle. Therefore it is possible to evaluate the observed distribution of subducted slab material in the mantle versus that predicted by a forward geodynamic model in which the plate kinematic history given by a particular absolute plate is coupled with a mantle convection model. We present a comparison of five alternative absolute plate motion models in terms of their consequences for global deep mantle structure by utilizing the 3-D spherical finite element mantle convection code TERRA, coupled with the global plate tectonic reconstruction software GPlates. We impose global palaeo-plate boundaries and plate velocities back to 140 Ma as surface boundary conditions for each absolute rotation model and forward model the associated subduction history. The correlation of seismic tomography with the predicted present-day mantle structure from each of plate models is then assessed using well-imaged slabs. We will present and discuss a comparison of geodynamically predicted mantle heterogeneity and seismic tomography to infer the robustness of each absolute reference frame through time, thus providing additional constraints for the integration of plate tectonics and mantle dynamics.

  2. Asynchronous Communication: Investigating the Influences of Relational Elements and Background on the Framing Structure of Emails

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlAfnan, Mohammad Awad

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the influences of relational elements and the background of communicators on the framing structure of email messages that were exchanged in an educational Institute in Malaysia. The investigation revealed that social distance played a more significant role than power relations as Malaysian respondents are, generally, more…

  3. Life comparative analysis of energy consumption and CO₂ emissions of different building structural frame types.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangyong; Moon, Joon-Ho; Shin, Yoonseok; Kim, Gwang-Hee; Seo, Deok-Seok

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to quantitatively measure and compare the environmental load and construction cost of different structural frame types. Construction cost also accounts for the costs of CO₂ emissions of input materials. The choice of structural frame type is a major consideration in construction, as this element represents about 33% of total building construction costs. In this research, four constructed buildings were analyzed, with these having either reinforced concrete (RC) or steel (S) structures. An input-output framework analysis was used to measure energy consumption and CO₂ emissions of input materials for each structural frame type. In addition, the CO₂ emissions cost was measured using the trading price of CO₂ emissions on the International Commodity Exchange. This research revealed that both energy consumption and CO₂ emissions were, on average, 26% lower with the RC structure than with the S structure, and the construction costs (including the CO₂ emissions cost) of the RC structure were about 9.8% lower, compared to the S structure. This research provides insights through which the construction industry will be able to respond to the carbon market, which is expected to continue to grow in the future.

  4. Life Comparative Analysis of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions of Different Building Structural Frame Types

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangyong; Moon, Joon-Ho; Shin, Yoonseok; Kim, Gwang-Hee; Seo, Deok-Seok

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to quantitatively measure and compare the environmental load and construction cost of different structural frame types. Construction cost also accounts for the costs of CO2 emissions of input materials. The choice of structural frame type is a major consideration in construction, as this element represents about 33% of total building construction costs. In this research, four constructed buildings were analyzed, with these having either reinforced concrete (RC) or steel (S) structures. An input-output framework analysis was used to measure energy consumption and CO2 emissions of input materials for each structural frame type. In addition, the CO2 emissions cost was measured using the trading price of CO2 emissions on the International Commodity Exchange. This research revealed that both energy consumption and CO2 emissions were, on average, 26% lower with the RC structure than with the S structure, and the construction costs (including the CO2 emissions cost) of the RC structure were about 9.8% lower, compared to the S structure. This research provides insights through which the construction industry will be able to respond to the carbon market, which is expected to continue to grow in the future. PMID:24227998

  5. An Experimental Study of DLV Method in Damage Detection of Frame Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yen-Po; Chen, Yi-Hsuan; Lee, Chien-Liang

    2010-05-01

    A structural damage detection method integrating the damage locating vector (DLV) method and ARX model for system identification of frame structures from seismic acceleration responses has been explored in this paper. The concept of the DLV method is to identify the members with zero stress under some specific loading patterns derived from the changes in flexibility matrix of the structure before and after the damage state. Success of the DLV method requires clear identification of the flexibility matrix for at least the first few dominant modes. In this study, a five-storey steel frame with diagonal bracings is considered as the objective building. The damage condition of the structure is simulated by partially removing some of the diagonals. With the flexibility matrices of both the intact and damaged structure identified from seismic structural responses via shaking table tests, results indicate that the damaged locations can be successfully identified by the DLV method if sufficient modes of vibration are taken into account in the realization of the flexibility matrices. The feasibility of using DLV method for damage detection of frame structures using seismic response data is confirmed.

  6. Evaluation of Structural Robustness against Column Loss: Methodology and Application to RC Frame Buildings.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yihai; Main, Joseph A; Noh, Sam-Young

    2017-08-01

    A computational methodology is presented for evaluating structural robustness against column loss. The methodology is illustrated through application to reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings, using a reduced-order modeling approach for three-dimensional RC framing systems that includes the floor slabs. Comparisons with high-fidelity finite-element model results are presented to verify the approach. Pushdown analyses of prototype buildings under column loss scenarios are performed using the reduced-order modeling approach, and an energy-based procedure is employed to account for the dynamic effects associated with sudden column loss. Results obtained using the energy-based approach are found to be in good agreement with results from direct dynamic analysis of sudden column loss. A metric for structural robustness is proposed, calculated by normalizing the ultimate capacities of the structural system under sudden column loss by the applicable service-level gravity loading and by evaluating the minimum value of this normalized ultimate capacity over all column removal scenarios. The procedure is applied to two prototype 10-story RC buildings, one employing intermediate moment frames (IMFs) and the other employing special moment frames (SMFs). The SMF building, with its more stringent seismic design and detailing, is found to have greater robustness.

  7. Evaluation of Structural Robustness against Column Loss: Methodology and Application to RC Frame Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yihai; Main, Joseph A.; Noh, Sam-Young

    2017-01-01

    A computational methodology is presented for evaluating structural robustness against column loss. The methodology is illustrated through application to reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings, using a reduced-order modeling approach for three-dimensional RC framing systems that includes the floor slabs. Comparisons with high-fidelity finite-element model results are presented to verify the approach. Pushdown analyses of prototype buildings under column loss scenarios are performed using the reduced-order modeling approach, and an energy-based procedure is employed to account for the dynamic effects associated with sudden column loss. Results obtained using the energy-based approach are found to be in good agreement with results from direct dynamic analysis of sudden column loss. A metric for structural robustness is proposed, calculated by normalizing the ultimate capacities of the structural system under sudden column loss by the applicable service-level gravity loading and by evaluating the minimum value of this normalized ultimate capacity over all column removal scenarios. The procedure is applied to two prototype 10-story RC buildings, one employing intermediate moment frames (IMFs) and the other employing special moment frames (SMFs). The SMF building, with its more stringent seismic design and detailing, is found to have greater robustness. PMID:28890599

  8. An assessment of the geotemperature conditions of Bazhenov oil generation (Koltogor mezodepression and its framing structures)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotskiy, V. V.; Isaev, V. I.; Fomin, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    The thermal history of oil source rocks of Bazhenov deposits was reconstructed in 8 cross-sections of representative wells of Koltogor mezodepression and the structures framing it. The tectonic history and geotemperature were reconstructed for well profiles, some located in the depression zone and others in the positive structures. A comparative analysis of the geotemperature conditions accompanying the generation of Bazhenov oils was performed.

  9. Study on the frame body structure of micro-electric vehicle based on frontal crash safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yaoquan; Zhang, Sanchuan

    2017-08-01

    In order to research the safety of skeleton type body of micro-electric vehicles in the frontal collision, the method of finite element modeling and simulation are used to analyze frame body that is fitted with the energy absorption structure, the simulation results show that On the basis of absorbing the most energy and the least of body acceleration, the absorbent structure parameters can be optimized, the optimized parameters are length 180 mm, wall thickness 3 mm and materials Q460.

  10. Fire development and wall endurance in sandwich and wood-frame structures

    Treesearch

    Carlton A. Holmes; Herbert W. Eickner; John J. Brenden; Curtis C. Peters; Robert H. White

    1980-01-01

    Large-scale fire tests were conducted on seven 16- by 24-foot structures. Four of these structures were of sandwich construction with cores of plastic or paper honeycomb and three were of wood-frame construction. The wasss were loaded to a computer design loading, and the fire endurance determined under a fire exposure from a typical building contents loading of 4-1/2...

  11. Research on seismic behavior and filling effect of a new CFT column-CFT beam frame structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Shima, Hiroshi

    2009-12-01

    Concrete filled-steel tube (CFT) structure is popularly used in practical structures nowadays. Self-compacting concrete (SCC) was employed to construct a new CFT column-CFT beam frame structure (hereinafter cited as new CFT frame structure) in this research. Three specimens, two CFT column-CFT beam joints and one hollow steel column-I beam joint were tested to investigate seismic behavior of the new CFT frame structure. The experimental results showed that SCC can be successfully compacted into the new CFT frame structure joints in the lab, and the joints provided adequate seismic behavior. In order to further assess filling effect of SCC in the long steel tube, scale column-beam subassembly made of acrylics plate was employed and concrete visual model experiment was done. The results showed that the concrete was able to be successfully cast into the subassembly which indicated that the new CFT frame structure is possible to be constructed in the real building.

  12. Research on seismic behavior and filling effect of a new CFT column-CFT beam frame structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Shima, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    Concrete filled-steel tube (CFT) structure is popularly used in practical structures nowadays. Self-compacting concrete (SCC) was employed to construct a new CFT column-CFT beam frame structure (hereinafter cited as new CFT frame structure) in this research. Three specimens, two CFT column-CFT beam joints and one hollow steel column-I beam joint were tested to investigate seismic behavior of the new CFT frame structure. The experimental results showed that SCC can be successfully compacted into the new CFT frame structure joints in the lab, and the joints provided adequate seismic behavior. In order to further assess filling effect of SCC in the long steel tube, scale column-beam subassembly made of acrylics plate was employed and concrete visual model experiment was done. The results showed that the concrete was able to be successfully cast into the subassembly which indicated that the new CFT frame structure is possible to be constructed in the real building.

  13. Vision-based stress estimation model for steel frame structures with rigid links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyo Seon; Park, Jun Su; Oh, Byung Kwan

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a stress estimation model for the safety evaluation of steel frame structures with rigid links using a vision-based monitoring system. In this model, the deformed shape of a structure under external loads is estimated via displacements measured by a motion capture system (MCS), which is a non-contact displacement measurement device. During the estimation of the deformed shape, the effective lengths of the rigid link ranges in the frame structure are identified. The radius of the curvature of the structural member to be monitored is calculated using the estimated deformed shape and is employed to estimate stress. Using MCS in the presented model, the safety of a structure can be assessed gauge-freely. In addition, because the stress is directly extracted from the radius of the curvature obtained from the measured deformed shape, information on the loadings and boundary conditions of the structure are not required. Furthermore, the model, which includes the identification of the effective lengths of the rigid links, can consider the influences of the stiffness of the connection and support on the deformation in the stress estimation. To verify the applicability of the presented model, static loading tests for a steel frame specimen were conducted. By comparing the stress estimated by the model with the measured stress, the validity of the model was confirmed.

  14. Beware of high stresses in ``A`` frame supported two-level bus structures

    SciTech Connect

    Thaik, A.

    1995-10-01

    Rigid-bus structures in many low profile, high voltage transmission substations consist of two-level bus assemblies of tubular conductors with one bus assembly supporting the other bus assembly with rigid tubular ``A`` frames at the crossover points. The lower-level bus is normally supported by a single porcelain post insulator under the ``A`` frame. Rigid ``A`` frames not only support the upper-level bus assembly, but also make the electrical connections between the two buses. This paper addresses the stress problem in the lower-level bus of the two-level bus structure. It presents the results of the structural analysis of a sample two-level bus structure using a simple structural method based on the Three Moment Theorem and equilibrium equations. A spreadsheet template is used to perform the mathematical calculations. The spreadsheet first calculates the maximum allowable bus span length in accordance with the IEEE Standard 605 and then determines the internal stress on the upper and lower-level bus conductors in the two-level rigid bus structures.

  15. Active tendon control of reinforced concrete frame structures subjected to near-fault effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigdeli, Sinan Melih; Boduroǧlu, M. Hasan

    2013-10-01

    A reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure was controlled with active tendons under the excitation of near-fault ground motions. Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) type controllers were used and the controller was tuned by using a numerical algorithm. In order to prevent brittle fracture of the structure, the aim of the control is to reduce maximum base shear force. The RC structure was investigated for different characteristic strengths of concrete and the approach is applicable for the structure with 14 MPa concrete strength or higher.

  16. Analysis of dynamic testing performed on structural clay tile infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Joele Johnston

    1994-12-18

    The behavior of two structural clay tile infilled frames subjected to dynamic loading is investigated. The testing was performed by USACERL using a biaxial shake table machine on which two framed infills were spaced nine feet apart and connected by steel trusses and an eight inch concrete roof slab. The infills were composed of structural clay tile block which were laid with the cores horizontal. The specimen was loaded in both the out-of-plane and in-plane directions using a site specific time history record. The testing focused on determining frame and panel load-deflection behavior, acceleration amplification, and frequency degradation characteristics. The out-of-plane tests resulted in little degradation of frequency which means there was little loss of stiffness. There was no evidence of the infill {open_quotes}walking-out{close_quotes} of the steel frame; in fact the infill still had substantial stability after completion of the out-of-plane tests. As a result of the gradual increase in ground motion in the in-plane testing, the stiffness of the specimen gradually decreased. Strength and stiffness characteristics obtained from the dynamic testing were comparable to results and behavior seen in static tests. Degradation in the panel was much more rapid under the stronger ground motions which were produced during the sine sweep tests.

  17. Effects of non-structural components and soil-structure interaction on the seismic response of framed structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditommaso, Rocco; Auletta, Gianluca; Iacovino, Chiara; Nigro, Antonella; Carlo Ponzo, Felice

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, several nonlinear numerical models of reinforced concrete framed structures have been defined in order to evaluate the effects of non-structural elements and soil-structure interaction on the elastic dynamic behaviour of buildings. In the last few years, many and various studies have highlighted the significant effects derived from the interaction between structural and non-structural components on the main dynamic characteristics of a building. Usually, structural and non-structural elements act together, adding both masses and stiffness. The presence of infill panels is generally neglected in the design process of structural elements, although these elements can significantly increase the lateral stiffness of a structure leading to a modification in the dynamic properties. Particularly, at the Damage Limit State (where an elastic behaviour is expected), soil-structure interaction effects and non-structural elements may further affect the elastic natural period of buildings, changing the spectral accelerations compared with those provided by seismic codes in case of static analyses. In this work, a parametric study has been performed in order to evaluate the elastic fundamental period of vibration of buildings as a function of structural morphology (height, plan area, ratio between plan dimensions), infills presence and distribution and soil characteristics. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded by the Italian Department of Civil Protection within the project DPC-RELUIS 2016 - RS4 ''Seismic observatory of structures and health monitoring'' and by the "Centre of Integrated Geomorphology for the Mediterranean Area - CGIAM" within the Framework Agreement with the University of Basilicata "Study, Research and Experimentation in the Field of Analysis and Monitoring of Seismic Vulnerability of Strategic and Relevant Buildings for the purposes of Civil Protection and Development of Innovative Strategies of Seismic Reinforcement".

  18. Structural Solutions for Low-Cost Bamboo Frames: Experimental Tests and Constructive Assessments.

    PubMed

    Sassu, Mauro; De Falco, Anna; Giresini, Linda; Puppio, Mario Lucio

    2016-05-07

    Experimental tests and constructive assessments are presented for a simple bamboo framed structure with innovative low-cost and low technology joints, specifically conceived for small buildings in developing countries. Two full scale one-storey bamboo frames have been designed by using the simplest joints solution among three different tested typologies. The entire building process is based on low-technology and natural materials: bamboo canes, wooden cylinders, plywood plates and canapé rods. The first full scale specimen (Unit A) is a one-storey single deck truss structure subjected to monotonic collapse test; the second full scale specimen (Unit B) is a one-storey double deck truss structure used to evaluate the construction time throughout assembling tests. The first full scale specimen showed ductility in collapse and ease in strengthening; the second one showed remarkable ease and speed in assembling structural elements. Finally several constructive solutions are suggested for the design of simple one-storey buildings; they are addressed to four purposes (housing, school, chapel, health center) by the composition of the proposed full scale bamboo frames. Ease of use and maintenance with a low level of technology contribute to application in developing countries although not exclusively.

  19. Signal processing and damage detection in a frame structure excited by chaotic input force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvino, Liming W.; Pines, Darryll J.; Todd, Michael D.; Nichols, Jonathan

    2003-07-01

    This paper discusses the development of a general time-frequency data analysis method, the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Hilbert Spectrum, and its application to structural health monitoring. The focus of this work is on feature extraction from structural response time series data. This is done by tracking unique characteristics of the adaptive decomposition components and developing a damage index based on previously introduced fundamental relationships connecting the instantaneous phase of a measured time series to the structural mass and stiffness parameters. Damage detection applications are investigated for a laboratory experiment of a simple frame (a model of a multi-story building) where damage is incurred by removing bolts at various locations. The frame is excited by a low dimensional deterministic chaos input as well as by broadband random signal. The time series output of the frame response is then analyzed with the EMD method. The time-frequency features and instantaneous phase relationships are extracted and examined for changes which may occur due to damage. These results are compared to results from other newly developed detection algorithms based on geometric properties of a chaotic attractor. Our results illustrate that the EMD and instantaneous phase detection approach, based on time-frequency analysis along with simple physics-based models, can be used to determine the presence and location of structural damage and permits the development of a reliable damage detection methodology.

  20. Structural Solutions for Low-Cost Bamboo Frames: Experimental Tests and Constructive Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Sassu, Mauro; De Falco, Anna; Giresini, Linda; Puppio, Mario Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Experimental tests and constructive assessments are presented for a simple bamboo framed structure with innovative low-cost and low technology joints, specifically conceived for small buildings in developing countries. Two full scale one-storey bamboo frames have been designed by using the simplest joints solution among three different tested typologies. The entire building process is based on low-technology and natural materials: bamboo canes, wooden cylinders, plywood plates and canapé rods. The first full scale specimen (Unit A) is a one-storey single deck truss structure subjected to monotonic collapse test; the second full scale specimen (Unit B) is a one-storey double deck truss structure used to evaluate the construction time throughout assembling tests. The first full scale specimen showed ductility in collapse and ease in strengthening; the second one showed remarkable ease and speed in assembling structural elements. Finally several constructive solutions are suggested for the design of simple one-storey buildings; they are addressed to four purposes (housing, school, chapel, health center) by the composition of the proposed full scale bamboo frames. Ease of use and maintenance with a low level of technology contribute to application in developing countries although not exclusively. PMID:28773472

  1. Soil-structure Interaction in the Seismic Response of Coupled Wall-frame Structures on Pile Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonari, S.; Dezi, F.; Leoni, G.

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a study on the seismic response of coupled wall-frame structures founded on piles. A complete soil-structure interaction analysis is carried out with reference to a case study. Three different soils and seven real accelerograms are considered. Local site response analyses are performed in order to evaluate the incoming free-field motion at different depths and the ground motion amplifications. A numerical model, accounting for the pile-soil-pile interaction and for material and radiation damping, is used to evaluate the impedance matrix and the foundation input motion. The domain decomposition technique is adopted to perform time-domain seismic analyses introducing Lumped Parameter Models to take into account the impedance of the soil-structure system. Applications show that the rocking phenomena affect the behaviour of the structure by changing the base shear distribution within the wall and the frame and by increasing the structural displacements.

  2. Crash fatality risk and unibody versus body-on-frame structure in SUVs.

    PubMed

    Ossiander, Eric M; Koepsell, Thomas D; McKnight, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    In crashes between cars and SUVs, car occupants are more likely to be killed than if they crashed with another car. An increasing proportion of SUVs are built with unibody, rather than truck-like body-on-frame construction. Unibody SUVs are generally lighter, less stiff, and less likely to roll over than body-on-frame SUVs, but whether unibody structure affects risk of death in crashes is unknown. To determine whether unibody SUVs differ from body-on-frame SUVs in the danger they pose to occupants of other vehicles and in the self-protection they offer to their own occupants. Case-control study of crashes between one compact SUV and one other passenger vehicle in the US during 1995-2008, in which the SUV was model year 1996-2006. Cases were all decedents in fatal crashes, one control was selected from each non-fatal crash. Occupants of passenger vehicles that crashed with compact unibody SUVs were at 18% lower risk of death compared to those that crashed with compact body-on-frame SUVs (adjusted odds ratio 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.73-0.94)). Occupants of compact unibody SUVs were also at lower risk of death compared to occupants of body-on-frame SUVs (0.86 (0.72-1.02)). In two-vehicle collisions involving compact SUVs, unibody structure was associated with lower risk of death both in occupants of other vehicles in the crash, and in SUVs' own occupants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Response of Low-Rise Frame Structures to Dynamic Soil Motions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    p , , ’.. OPY AD-A218 332 FROM: AFIT/CI 31 Jan 90 SUBJ: Review of Thesis/Disseration for Public Release TO: PA Request you review the attached for...soil stiffness and damping. Within acceptable design tolerances, they may reduce the problem of progressive loss of soil-structure contact (uplift...codes can allow convenient improvement of space frame models with acceptable computational effort for purposes of research. As implemented in ANSYS and

  4. Strengthening and repair of steel-concrete composite girders using CFRP laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakkolizadeh, Mohammadreza

    The use of advanced composite materials for rehabilitation and repair of deteriorating infrastructure has been embraced worldwide. The conventional techniques for strengthening of substandard bridges are costly, time consuming and labor intensive. A total of 38 specimens made of steel and carbon fibers were prepared and tested to investigate the possibility of galvanic corrosion. Two simulated aggressive environments and three different amounts of epoxy coating were used. Potentiodynamic polarization and galvanic corrosion tests were conducted. The results of the experiments showed the existence of galvanic corrosion however the rate of such corrosion could be decreased significantly by epoxy coating. A total of 21 specimens made of S 5 x 10 A36 steel beams were prepared and tested to determine the effectiveness of CFRP patch on fatigue life of notched beam. The results showed that not only CFRP patch tends to extend the fatigue life of a detail more than three times, but also it decreases the crack growth rate significantly. To investigate the effectiveness of the epoxy bonded CFRP sheets in repair and retrofit of composite girders, a total of six large-scale steel-concrete composite girders made of W 14 x 30 A36 steel beam and 7.5 cm. thick by 91 cm wide concrete slab were prepared and tested. Three different numbers of CFRP layers and three different damage level in Range were considered. The retrofitting test results showed that epoxy bonded CFRP Sheet increased the ultimate load carrying capacity of composite girders and the behavior can be conservatively predicted by traditional methods. The repair test results showed that epoxy bonded CFRP sheet could restore the ultimate load carrying capacity and stiffness of damaged steel-concrete composite girders. The ultimate capacity of the repaired beam was predicted by traditional methods of analysis of steel-concrete composite beams, which was fairly conservative. Guidelines and procedures for design of Steel

  5. The sound insulations of metal-framed partitions having structural loadbearing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumb, G. D.

    1994-12-01

    The sound insulations were measured of several single and double leaf partitions. The partitions had metal frames and were capable of supporting significant structural loads. The purpose of the work was to design structural partitions that were cheaper to build than the existing masonry walls used for the construction of large studios. For some of the double leaf tests, one of the leaves was blockwork and the other was metal-framed, for the remainder of the double leaf tests, both leaves were metal-framed. Each of the partitions tested was suitable for use in different types of studio construction. The addition of glass wool insulation batts to the cavities of the partitions resulted in large increases in the measured sound insulations. The glass wool damps the motion of the boards and absorbs sound that has been transmitted into the cavities. The levels of sound insulation achieved from the partitions should be adequate for certain types of low cost studio construction. The partitions are considerably lighter than masonry walls. Therefore, the loadbearing requirements of the surrounding building will be reduced. Provided that the reductions in sound insulations are acceptable, the potential cost savings resulting from the use of lightweight structural partitions rather than masonry walls are very large.

  6. Static design of steel-concrete lining for traffic tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojtasik, Karel; Mohyla, Marek; Hrubesova, Eva

    2017-09-01

    Article summarizes the results of research focused on the structural design of traffic tunnel linings that have been achieved in the framework of a research project TE01020168 that supports The Technology Agency of Czech Republic. This research aim is to find and develop a process for design structure parameters of tunnel linings. These are now mostly build up by a shotcrete technology. The shotcrete is commonly endorsed either with steel girders or steel fibres. Since the installation a lining structure is loaded while strength and deformational parameters of shotcrete start to rise till the setting time elapses. That’s reason why conventional approaches of reinforced concrete are not suitable. As well as there are other circumstances to step in shown in this article. Problem is solved by 3D analysis using numerical model that takes into account all the significant features of a tunnel lining construction process inclusive the interaction between lining structure with rock massive. Analysis output is a view into development of stress-strain state in respective construction parts of tunnel lining the whole structure around, including impact on stability of rock massive. The proposed method comprises all features involved in tunnel fabrication including geotechnics and construction technologies.

  7. Prediction of the Fundamental Period of Infilled RC Frame Structures Using Artificial Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Asteris, Panagiotis G; Tsaris, Athanasios K; Cavaleri, Liborio; Repapis, Constantinos C; Papalou, Angeliki; Di Trapani, Fabio; Karypidis, Dimitrios F

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental period is one of the most critical parameters for the seismic design of structures. There are several literature approaches for its estimation which often conflict with each other, making their use questionable. Furthermore, the majority of these approaches do not take into account the presence of infill walls into the structure despite the fact that infill walls increase the stiffness and mass of structure leading to significant changes in the fundamental period. In the present paper, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to predict the fundamental period of infilled reinforced concrete (RC) structures. For the training and the validation of the ANN, a large data set is used based on a detailed investigation of the parameters that affect the fundamental period of RC structures. The comparison of the predicted values with analytical ones indicates the potential of using ANNs for the prediction of the fundamental period of infilled RC frame structures taking into account the crucial parameters that influence its value.

  8. Formal structures, the concepts of covariance, invariance, equivalent reference frames, and the principle Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, W. A.; Scanavini, M. E. F.; de Alcantara, L. P.

    1990-02-01

    In this paper a given spacetime theory T is characterized as the theory of a certain species of structure in the sense of Bourbaki [1]. It is then possible to clarify in a rigorous way the concepts of passive and active covariance of T under the action of the manifold mapping group G M . For each T, we define also an invariance group G I T and, in general, G I T ≠ G M . This group is defined once we realize that, for each τ ∈ ModT, each explicit geometrical object defining the structure can be classified as absolute or dynamical [2]. All spacetime theories possess also implicit geometrical objects that do not appear explicitly in the structure. These implicit objects are not absolute nor dynamical. Among them there are the reference frame fields, i.e., “timelike” vector fields X ∈ TU,U subseteq M M, where M is a manifold which is part of ST, a substructure for each τ ∈ ModT, called spacetime. We give a physically motivated definition of equivalent reference frames and introduce the concept of the equivalence group of a class of reference frames of kind X according to T, G X T. We define that T admits a weak principle of relativity (WPR) only if G X T ≠ identity for some X. If G X T = G I T for some X, we say that T admits a strong principle of relativity (PR). The results of this paper generalize and clarify several results obtained by Anderson [2], Scheibe [3], Hiskes [4], Recami and Rodrigues [5], Friedman [6], Fock [7], and Scanavini [8]. Among the novelties here, there is the realization that the definitions of G I T and G X T can be given only when certain boundary conditions for the equations of motion of T can be physically realizable in the domain U U subseteq M M, where a given reference frame is defined. The existence of physically realizable boundary conditions for each τ ∈ ModT (in ∂ U), in contrast with the mathematically possible boundary condition, is then seen to be essential for the validity of a principle of relativity for T

  9. Effects of the local resonance on the wave propagation in periodic frame structures: generalized Newtonian mechanics.

    PubMed

    Chesnais, Céline; Boutin, Claude; Hans, Stéphane

    2012-10-01

    This work is devoted to the study of the wave propagation in infinite two-dimensional structures made up of the periodic repetition of frames. Such materials are highly anisotropic and, because of lack of bracing, can present a large contrast between the shear and compression deformabilities. Moreover, when the thickness to length ratio of the frame elements is small, these elements can resonate in bending at low frequencies when compressional waves propagate in the structure. The frame size being small compared to the wavelength of the compressional waves, the homogenization method of periodic discrete media is extended to situations with local resonance, and it is applied to identify the macroscopic behavior at the leading order. In particular, the local resonance in bending leads to an effective mass different from the real mass and to the generalization of the Newtonian mechanics at the macroscopic scale. Consequently, compressional waves become dispersive and frequency bandgaps occur. The physical origin of these phenomena at the microscopic scale is also presented. Finally, a method is proposed for the design of such materials.

  10. The inner structure of collisionless magnetic reconnection: The electron-frame dissipation measure and Hall fields

    SciTech Connect

    Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex; Black, Carrie; Kuznetsova, Masha

    2011-12-15

    It was recently proposed that the electron-frame dissipation measure, the energy transfer from the electromagnetic field to plasmas in the electron's rest frame, identifies the dissipation region of collisionless magnetic reconnection [Zenitani et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 195003 (2011)]. The measure is further applied to the electron-scale structures of antiparallel reconnection, by using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The size of the central dissipation region is controlled by the electron-ion mass ratio, suggesting that electron physics is essential. A narrow electron jet extends along the outflow direction until it reaches an electron shock. The jet region appears to be anti-dissipative. At the shock, electron heating is relevant to a magnetic cavity signature. The results are summarized to a unified picture of the single dissipation region in a Hall magnetic geometry.

  11. Estimation of Cyclic Interstory Drift Capacity of Steel Framed Structures and Future Applications for Seismic Design

    PubMed Central

    Bojórquez, Edén; Reyes-Salazar, Alfredo; Ruiz, Sonia E.; Terán-Gilmore, Amador

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have been devoted to calibrate damage indices for steel and reinforced concrete members with the purpose of overcoming some of the shortcomings of the parameters currently used during seismic design. Nevertheless, there is a challenge to study and calibrate the use of such indices for the practical structural evaluation of complex structures. In this paper, an energy-based damage model for multidegree-of-freedom (MDOF) steel framed structures that accounts explicitly for the effects of cumulative plastic deformation demands is used to estimate the cyclic drift capacity of steel structures. To achieve this, seismic hazard curves are used to discuss the limitations of the maximum interstory drift demand as a performance parameter to achieve adequate damage control. Then the concept of cyclic drift capacity, which incorporates information of the influence of cumulative plastic deformation demands, is introduced as an alternative for future applications of seismic design of structures subjected to long duration ground motions. PMID:25089288

  12. Estimation of cyclic interstory drift capacity of steel framed structures and future applications for seismic design.

    PubMed

    Bojórquez, Edén; Reyes-Salazar, Alfredo; Ruiz, Sonia E; Terán-Gilmore, Amador

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have been devoted to calibrate damage indices for steel and reinforced concrete members with the purpose of overcoming some of the shortcomings of the parameters currently used during seismic design. Nevertheless, there is a challenge to study and calibrate the use of such indices for the practical structural evaluation of complex structures. In this paper, an energy-based damage model for multidegree-of-freedom (MDOF) steel framed structures that accounts explicitly for the effects of cumulative plastic deformation demands is used to estimate the cyclic drift capacity of steel structures. To achieve this, seismic hazard curves are used to discuss the limitations of the maximum interstory drift demand as a performance parameter to achieve adequate damage control. Then the concept of cyclic drift capacity, which incorporates information of the influence of cumulative plastic deformation demands, is introduced as an alternative for future applications of seismic design of structures subjected to long duration ground motions.

  13. Dynamic Shape Reconstruction of Three-Dimensional Frame Structures Using the Inverse Finite Element Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gherlone, Marco; Cerracchio, Priscilla; Mattone, Massimiliano; Di Sciuva, Marco; Tessler, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A robust and efficient computational method for reconstructing the three-dimensional displacement field of truss, beam, and frame structures, using measured surface-strain data, is presented. Known as shape sensing , this inverse problem has important implications for real-time actuation and control of smart structures, and for monitoring of structural integrity. The present formulation, based on the inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM), uses a least-squares variational principle involving strain measures of Timoshenko theory for stretching, torsion, bending, and transverse shear. Two inverse-frame finite elements are derived using interdependent interpolations whose interior degrees-of-freedom are condensed out at the element level. In addition, relationships between the order of kinematic-element interpolations and the number of required strain gauges are established. As an example problem, a thin-walled, circular cross-section cantilevered beam subjected to harmonic excitations in the presence of structural damping is modeled using iFEM; where, to simulate strain-gauge values and to provide reference displacements, a high-fidelity MSC/NASTRAN shell finite element model is used. Examples of low and high-frequency dynamic motion are analyzed and the solution accuracy examined with respect to various levels of discretization and the number of strain gauges.

  14. Generation And Understanding Of Natural Language Using Information In A Frame Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Walton A.

    1989-03-01

    Many expert systems and relational database systems store factual information in the form of attributes values of objects. Problems arise in transforming from that attribute (frame) database representation into English surface structure and in transforming the English surface structure into a representation that references information in the frame database. In this paper we consider mainly the generation process, as it is this area in which we have made the most significant progress. In its interaction with the user, the expert system must generate questions, declarations, and uncertain declarations. Attributes such as COLOR, LENGTH, and ILLUMINATION can be referenced using the template: " of " for both questions and declarations. However, many other attributes, such as RATTLES, in "What is RATTLES of the light bulb?", and HAS_STREP_THROAT in, "HAS_STREP_THROAT of Dan is true." do not fit this template. We examined over 300 attributes from several knowledge bases and have grouped them into 16 classes. For each class there is one "question" template, one "declaration" template, and one "uncertain declaration" template for generating English surface structure. The internal databases identifiers (e.g., HAS_STREP_THROAT and DISEASE_35) must also be replaced by output synonyms. Classifying each attribute in combination with synonym translation remarkably improved the English surface structure that the system generated. In the area of understanding, synonym translation and knowledge of the attribute properties, such as legal values, has resulted in a robust database query capability.

  15. In situ measurement of Cl- concentrations and pH at the reinforcing steel/concrete interface by combination sensors.

    PubMed

    Du, Rong-Gui; Hu, Rong-Gang; Huang, Ruo-Shuang; Lin, Chang-Jian

    2006-05-01

    This paper presents an in situ, nondestructive method of monitoring Cl- concentrations and pH values at the steel/concrete interface. The Ag/AgCl electrodes prepared by the electrochemical anodization and the Ir/IrO2 electrodes prepared by thermal oxidation in carbonate served as Cl- concentration and pH sensors, respectively. The potentiometric response of the Ag/AgCl electrode to the logarithm of Cl- concentrations ranging from 1 x 10(-4) to 2 M in saturated Ca(OH)2 solution simulating the inner electrolytic medium of concrete shows good linearity. The Ir/IrO2 electrode also exhibits an ideal Nernstian response in the range of pH 1-14. The Ag/AgCl and Ir/IrO2 electrodes were combined into a multiplex Cl-/pH sensor, and the sensor was embedded in concrete close to the steel/concrete interface to realize an in situ and long-term measurement of Cl- concentrations and pH values. The results indicate that the combined sensor is robust and sensitive enough to in situ measure Cl- concentrations and pH quantitatively at the steel/concrete interface, which is of indispensable importance to the study of corrosion and protection of the steel in concrete.

  16. Frame Structures Made Easy with Creo Parametric's Advanced Framework Extension (AFX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Corey; LaPha, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Creo Parametric 2.0's Advanced Framework Extension (AFX, formerly known as EFX) is a powerful add-on that allows users to rapidly model frame structures with ease. This presentation will briefly demonstrate how these types of models can be created quickly using AFX, and how it can reduce modeling time through the use of library items. It will also describe how AFX can be installed, configured, and properly administered, including the use of standard and custom shape libraries, along with incorporating company-specific Windchill libraries.

  17. Computational procedures for evaluating the sensitivity derivatives of vibration frequencies and Eigenmodes of framed structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetterman, Timothy L.; Noor, Ahmed K.

    1987-01-01

    Computational procedures are presented for evaluating the sensitivity derivatives of the vibration frequencies and eigenmodes of framed structures. Both a displacement and a mixed formulation are used. The two key elements of the computational procedure are: (a) Use of dynamic reduction techniques to substantially reduce the number of degrees of freedom; and (b) Application of iterative techniques to improve the accuracy of the derivatives of the eigenmodes. The two reduction techniques considered are the static condensation and a generalized dynamic reduction technique. Error norms are introduced to assess the accuracy of the eigenvalue and eigenvector derivatives obtained by the reduction techniques. The effectiveness of the methods presented is demonstrated by three numerical examples.

  18. Plexus structure imaging with thin slab MR neurography: rotating frames, fly-throughs, and composite projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raphael, David T.; McIntee, Diane; Tsuruda, Jay S.; Colletti, Patrick; Tatevossian, Raymond; Frazier, James

    2006-03-01

    We explored multiple image processing approaches by which to display the segmented adult brachial plexus in a three-dimensional manner. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) 1.5-Tesla scans with STIR sequences, which preferentially highlight nerves, were performed in adult volunteers to generate high-resolution raw images. Using multiple software programs, the raw MRN images were then manipulated so as to achieve segmentation of plexus neurovascular structures, which were incorporated into three different visualization schemes: rotating upper thoracic girdle skeletal frames, dynamic fly-throughs parallel to the clavicle, and thin slab volume-rendered composite projections.

  19. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of Novel Steel/Concrete Composite Vessel for Stationary Storage of High-Pressure Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jy-An John; Ren, Fei

    2012-09-01

    A novel, low-cost, high-pressure, steel/concrete composite vessel (SCCV) technology for stationary storage of compressed gaseous hydrogen (CGH2) is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) sponsored by DOE s Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program. The SCCV technology uses commodity materials including structural steels and concretes for achieving cost, durability and safety requirements. In particular, the hydrogen embrittlement of high-strength low-alloy steels, a major safety and durability issue for current industry-standard pressure vessel technology, is mitigated through the use of a unique layered steel shell structure. This report presents the cost analysis results of the novel SCCV technology. A high-fidelity cost analysis tool is developed, based on a detailed, bottom-up approach which takes into account the material and labor costs involved in each of the vessel manufacturing steps. A thorough cost study is performed to understand the SCCV cost as a function of the key vessel design parameters, including hydrogen pressure, vessel dimensions, and load-carrying ratio. The major conclusions include: The SCCV technology can meet the technical/cost targets set forth by DOE s FCT Program for FY2015 and FY2020 for all three pressure levels (i.e., 160, 430 and 860 bar) relevant to the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. Further vessel cost reduction can benefit from the development of advanced vessel fabrication technologies such as the highly automated friction stir welding (FSW). The ORNL-patented multi-layer, multi-pass FSW can not only reduce the amount of labor needed for assembling and welding the layered steel vessel, but also make it possible to use even higher strength steels for further cost reductions and improvement of vessel structural integrity. It is noted the cost analysis results demonstrate the significant cost advantage attainable by the SCCV technology for different pressure levels when compared to the

  20. Trajectory tracking and vibration control in a space frame flexible structure with a PZT stack actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Perez, Oscar A.; Silva-Navarro, G.; Peza-Solís, J. F.; Trujillo-Franco, L. G.

    2015-04-01

    This work deals with the robust asymptotic output tracking control problem of the tip position of a space frame flexible structure, mounted on a rigid revolute servomechanism actuated and controlled with a dc motor. The structure is also affected by undesirable vibrations due to excitation of its first lateral vibration modes and possible variations of the tip mass. The overall flexible structure is modeled by using finite element methods and this is validated via experimental modal analysis techniques. The tip position of the structure is estimated from acceleration and strain gauge measurements. The asymptotic output tracking problem is formulated and solved by means of Passivity-Based and Sliding-Mode Control techniques, applied to the dc motor coupled to the rigid part of the structure, and those undesirable vibrations are simultaneously attenuated by an active vibration control using Positive Position Feedback control schemes implemented on a PZT stack actuator properly located into the mechanical structure. The investigation also addresses the trajectory tracking problem of fast motions, with harmonic excitations close to the first vibration modes of the structure. The overall dynamic performance is evaluated and validated by numerical and experimental results.

  1. The FP4026 Research Database on the fundamental period of RC infilled frame structures.

    PubMed

    Asteris, Panagiotis G

    2016-12-01

    The fundamental period of vibration appears to be one of the most critical parameters for the seismic design of buildings because it strongly affects the destructive impact of the seismic forces. In this article, important research data (entitled FP4026 Research Database (Fundamental Period-4026 cases of infilled frames) based on a detailed and in-depth analytical research on the fundamental period of reinforced concrete structures is presented. In particular, the values of the fundamental period which have been analytically determined are presented, taking into account the majority of the involved parameters. This database can be extremely valuable for the development of new code proposals for the estimation of the fundamental period of reinforced concrete structures fully or partially infilled with masonry walls.

  2. Negative hallucinations, dreams and hallucinations: The framing structure and its representation in the analytic setting.

    PubMed

    Perelberg, Rosine Jozef

    2016-12-01

    This paper explores the meaning of a patient's hallucinatory experiences in the course of a five times a week analysis. I will locate my understanding within the context of André Green's ideas on the role of the framing structure and the negative hallucination in the structuring of the mind. The understanding of the transference and countertransference was crucial in the creation of meaning and enabling the transformations that took place in the analytic process. Through a detailed analysis of a clinical example the author examines Bion's distinction between hysterical hallucinations and psychotic hallucinations and formulates her own hypothesis about the distinctions between the two. The paper suggests that whilst psychotic hallucinations express a conflict between life and death, in the hysterical hallucination it is between love and hate. The paper also contains some reflections on the dramatic nature of the analytic encounter.

  3. A neural network for controlling the configuration of frame structure with elastic members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsutsumi, Kazuyoshi

    1989-01-01

    A neural network for controlling the configuration of frame structure with elastic members is proposed. In the present network, the structure is modeled not by using the relative angles of the members but by using the distances between the joint locations alone. The relationship between the environment and the joints is also defined by their mutual distances. The analog neural network attains the reaching motion of the manipulator as a minimization problem of the energy constructed by the distances between the joints, the target, and the obstacles. The network can generate not only the final but also the transient configurations and the trajectory. This framework with flexibility and parallelism is very suitable for controlling the Space Telerobotic systems with many degrees of freedom.

  4. Prediction of the Fundamental Period of Infilled RC Frame Structures Using Artificial Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Asteris, Panagiotis G.; Tsaris, Athanasios K.; Cavaleri, Liborio; Repapis, Constantinos C.; Papalou, Angeliki; Di Trapani, Fabio; Karypidis, Dimitrios F.

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental period is one of the most critical parameters for the seismic design of structures. There are several literature approaches for its estimation which often conflict with each other, making their use questionable. Furthermore, the majority of these approaches do not take into account the presence of infill walls into the structure despite the fact that infill walls increase the stiffness and mass of structure leading to significant changes in the fundamental period. In the present paper, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to predict the fundamental period of infilled reinforced concrete (RC) structures. For the training and the validation of the ANN, a large data set is used based on a detailed investigation of the parameters that affect the fundamental period of RC structures. The comparison of the predicted values with analytical ones indicates the potential of using ANNs for the prediction of the fundamental period of infilled RC frame structures taking into account the crucial parameters that influence its value. PMID:27066069

  5. Damage detection and quantification using mode curvature variation on framed structures: analysis of the preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacovino, Chiara; Ditommaso, Rocco; Auletta, Gianluca; Ponzo, Felice C.

    2017-04-01

    Continuous monitoring based on vibrational identification methods is increasingly employed for the evaluation of the state of health of existing buildings after strong motion earthquake. Different damage identification methods are based on the variations of damage indices defined in terms modal (eigenfrequencies, mode shapes, and modal damping) and/or non-modal parameters. Most of simplified methods for structural health monitoring and damage detection are based on the evaluation of the dynamic characteristics evolution associated to the fundamental mode of vibration of a monitored structure. Aim of this work is the upgrade of an existing method for damage localization on framed structures during a moderate/destructive earthquake. The existing version of the method is based on the comparison of the geometric characteristics (with particular reference to the mode curvature) exhibited by the structures, related to fundamental mode of vibration, before and during an earthquake. The approach is based on the use of a nonlinear filter, the band-variable filter, based on the Stockwell Transform able to extract the nonlinear response of each mode of vibration. The new version of the method provides the possibility to quantify a possible damage occurred on the monitored structure linking the mode curvature variation with the maximum inter-story drift. This paper shows the preliminary results obtained from several simulations on nonlinear numerical models of reinforced concrete framed structures, designed for only gravity loads, without and with the presence of infill panels. Furthermore, a correlation between maximum mode curvature difference and maximum inter-story drift has been defined for the different numerical models in order to quantify the structural damage. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded by the Italian Department of Civil Protection within the project DPC-RELUIS 2016 - RS4 ''Seismic observatory of structures and health monitoring'' and by the

  6. Blank Optimization For The Sheet Hydroforming Of A Frame-Shaped Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolazzi, M.; Geiger, M.

    2004-06-01

    Sheet hydroforming is an innovative technology for the production of sheet components with a high strength/weight ratio and is therefore particularly suitable for the automotive industry as an alternative to deep drawing. In the hydroforming process, where there is no solid punch to ensure a uniform material flow from the flange, the blank holder force and the initial blank shape are the only parameters which can influence the contact pressure distribution in the flange and thus the material draw-in. For this reason the precise definition of the blank shape is crucial for the success of the hydroforming process. In this work an analytical model and the FE-analysis have been used in the definition of the initial blank contour in case of frame-shaped structures. First an analytical model, developed for the stretch flanging, was successfully applied to the expansion of the inner hole during the hydroforming of a frame-shaped part. The model has been then applied to the definition of the initial blank shape for a more complex part and finally refined by FE-analysis. The optimized blank obtained in this way has been finally used in the hydroforming trials.

  7. Self-centering seismic retrofit scheme for reinforced concrete frame structures: SDOF system study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Hu, Xiaobin

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents the results of a parametric study of self-centering seismic retrofit schemes for reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings. The self-centering retrofit system features flag-shaped hysteresis and minimal residual deformation. For comparison purpose, an alternate seismic retrofit scheme that uses a bilinear-hysteresis retrofit system such as buckling-restrained braces (BRB) is also considered in this paper. The parametric study was carried out in a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system framework since a multi-story building structure may be idealized as an equivalent SDOF system and investigation of the performance of this equivalent SDOF system can provide insight into the seismic response of the multi-story building. A peak-oriented hysteresis model which can consider the strength and stiffness degradation is used to describe the hysteretic behavior of RC structures. The parametric study involves two key parameters — the strength ratio and elastic stiffness ratio between the seismic retrofit system and the original RC frame. An ensemble of 172 earthquake ground motion records scaled to the design basis earthquake in California with a probability of exceedance of 10% in 50 years was constructed for the simulation-based parametric study. The effectiveness of the two seismic retrofit schemes considered in this study is evaluated in terms of peak displacement ratio, peak acceleration ratio, energy dissipation demand ratio and residual displacement ratio between the SDOF systems with and without retrofit. It is found from this parametric study that RC structures retrofitted with the self-centering retrofit scheme (SCRS) can achieve a seismic performance level comparable to the bilinear-hysteresis retrofit scheme (BHRS) in terms of peak displacement and energy dissipation demand ratio while having negligible residual displacement after earthquake.

  8. Wing walls for enhancing the seismic performance of reinforced concrete frame structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weisong; Guo, Xun; Xu, Weixiao; Yuan, Xin

    2016-06-01

    A building retrofitted with wing walls in the bottom story, which was damaged during the 2008 M8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in China, is introduced and a corresponding 1/4 scale wing wall-frame model was subjected to shake table motions to study the seismic behavior of this retrofitted structural system. The results show that wing walls can effectively protect columns from damage by moving areas that bear reciprocating tension and compression to the sections of the wing walls, thus achieving an extra measure of seismic fortification. A `strong column-weak beam' mechanism was realized, the flexural rigidity of the vertical member was strengthened, and a more uniform distribution of deformation among all the stories was measured. In addition, the joint between the wing walls and the beams suffered severe damage during the tests, due to an area of local stress concentration. A longer area of intensive stirrup is suggested in the end of the beams.

  9. Passive energy dissipation enhancement of linear frame structures by the damped cable system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorace, S.; Terenzi, G.

    2013-10-01

    The Damped Cable System (DCS) is an innovative seismic protection technology of frame structures that incorporates pre-stressed steel cables linked to fluid viscous spring-dampers fixed to the foundation, at their lower ends, and to the top floor, or one of the upper floors, at their upper ends. The cables have sliding contacts with the floor slabs, to which they are joined by steel deviators. This determines a high-dissipative dynamic coupling between DCS and structure, capable of remarkably enhancing the seismic performance of the latter. An extensive research activity has been developed by the authors on the system, which included laboratory and field testing campaigns, structural modelling and assessment, and the formulation of design procedures. In this paper attention is focused on the finite element model of the DCS, conceived to be easily generated by commercial structural analysis programs, and validated by comparison with the results of the experimental surveys carried out. The model was ultimately updated, and its computational performance is examined by application to a demonstrative case study, constituted by a steel school built in the late 1960s.

  10. Performance evaluation of a novel rotational damper for structural reinforcement steel frames subjected to lateral excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanati, M.; Khadem, S. E.; Mirzabagheri, S.; Sanati, H.; Khosravieh, M. Y.

    2014-03-01

    In this study, a novel rotational damper called a Rotational Friction Viscoelastic Damper (RFVD) is introduced. Some viscoelastic pads are added to the Rotational Friction Damper (RFD) in addition to the friction discs used in this conventional device. Consequently, the amount of energy dissipated by the damper increases in low excitation frequencies. In fact, the input energy to the structure is simultaneously dissipated in the form of friction and heat by frictional discs and viscoelastic pads. In order to compare the performance of this novel damper with the earlier types, a set of experiments were carried out. According to the test results, the RFVD showed a better performance in dissipating input energy to the structure when compared to the RFD. The seismic behavior of steel frames equipped with these dampers was also numerically evaluated based on a nonlinear time history analysis. The numerical results verified the performance of the dampers in increasing the energy dissipation and decreasing the energy input to the structural elements. In order to achieve the maximum dissipated energy, the dampers need to be installed in certain places called critical points in the structure. An appropriate approach is presented to properly find these points. Finally, the performance of the RFVDs installed at these critical points was investigated in comparison to some other configurations and the validity of the suggested method in increasing the energy dissipation was confirmed.

  11. Viscous-Fluid-Spring Damper Retrofit of a Steel Moment Frame Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Saif; Van Benschoten, Paul; Al Satari, Mohamed; Lin, Silian

    2008-07-01

    The subject building is a peculiar pre-Northridge steel moment resisting frame building. Upon investigating the existing lateral resisting system, numerous significant deficiencies were identified; inherent lack of redundancy, poor geometry and inadequate stiffness of the lateral resisting system. All of which resulted in an extremely soft 5-story structure with a primary torsional mode of vibration at T1 = 5.46 s. Significant structural modifications were deemed necessary to meet the "life-safety" performance objective as outlined in rehabilitation standards such as ASCE 41. Both increased stiffness and damping were required to adequately retrofit the building. Furthermore, adjacent building separation as well as deformation compatibility issues needed to be addressed and resolved. A three-dimensional computer model of the building was created using ETABS mathematically simulating the building's dynamic characteristics in its current condition. Multiple seismic retrofit systems were investigated such as Buckling Restrained Braced Frames (BRBF's). However, based on the performance effectiveness and constructability of the retrofit schemes studied, the Viscous-Fluid-Spring Damper (VFSD) system was proposed as the "optimum" solution for the building. The VFSD, was chosen because it combines the relatively compact size and minimally invasive constructability with the required properties (an elastomeric spring in parallel with a nonlinear velocity dependent viscous damper). A site-specific response spectrum was developed for the Design Basis Earthquake (DBE, 475 year return period) event, and three pairs of representative earthquake horizontal ground motion time-histories were scaled to match this DBE. The proposed scheme reduced the building maximum inter-story drift ratio from 5.4% to about 1%. Similarly, the maximum roof displacement was reduced by about 70% (23" to 7").

  12. Experimental and analytical study on seismic behavior of steel-concrete multienergy dissipation composite shear walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hongying; Cao, Wanlin; Wu, Haipeng; Qiao, Qiyun; Yu, Chuanpeng

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a steel-concrete multi-energy dissipation composite shear wall, comprised of steel-reinforced concrete (SRC) columns, steel plate (SP) deep beams, a concrete wall and energy dissipation strips, is proposed. In order to study the multi-energy dissipation behavior and restorability after an earthquake, two stages of low cyclic loading tests were carried out on ten test specimens. In the first stage, test on five specimens with different number of SP deep beams was carried out, and the test lasted until the displacement drift reached 2%. In the second stage, thin SPs were welded to both sides of the five specimens tested in the first stage, and the same test was carried out on the repaired specimens (designated as new specimens). The load-bearing capacity, stiffness, ductility, hysteretic behavior and failure characteristics were analyzed for both stages and the results are discussed herein. Extrapolating from these results, strength calculation models and formulas are proposed herein and simulations using ABAQUS carried out; they show good agreement with the test results. The study demonstrates that SRC columns, SP deep beams, concrete wall and energy dissipation strips cooperate well and play an important role in energy dissipation. In addition, this study shows that the shear wall has good recoverability after an earthquake, and that the welding of thin SP's to repair a deformed wall is a practicable technique.

  13. Numerical analysis of composite STEEL-CONCRETE SECTIONS using integral equation of Volterra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partov, Doncho; Kantchev, Vesselin

    2011-09-01

    The paper presents analysis of the stress and deflections changes due to creep in statically determinate composite steel-concrete beam. The mathematical model involves the equation of equilibrium, compatibility and constitutive relationship, i.e. an elastic law for the steel part and an integral-type creep law of Boltzmann — Volterra for the concrete part. On the basis of the theory of the viscoelastic body of Arutyunian-Trost-Bažant for determining the redistribution of stresses in beam section between concrete plate and steel beam with respect to time "t", two independent Volterra integral equations of the second kind have been derived. Numerical method based on linear approximation of the singular kernal function in the integral equation is presented. Example with the model proposed is investigated. The creep functions is suggested by the model CEB MC90-99 and the "ACI 209R-92 model. The elastic modulus of concrete E c (t) is assumed to be constant in time `t'. The obtained results from the both models are compared.

  14. Numerical analysis of composite STEEL-CONCRETE SECTIONS using integral equation of Volterra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partov, Doncho; Kantchev, Vesselin

    2011-09-01

    The paper presents analysis of the stress and deflections changes due to creep in statically determinate composite steel-concrete beam. The mathematical model involves the equation of equilibrium, compatibility and constitutive relationship, i.e. an elastic law for the steel part and an integral-type creep law of Boltzmann — Volterra for the concrete part. On the basis of the theory of the viscoelastic body of Arutyunian-Trost-Bažant for determining the redistribution of stresses in beam section between concrete plate and steel beam with respect to time "t", two independent Volterra integral equations of the second kind have been derived. Numerical method based on linear approximation of the singular kernal function in the integral equation is presented. Example with the model proposed is investigated. The creep functions is suggested by the model CEB MC90-99 and the "ACI 209R-92 model. The elastic modulus of concrete Ec(t) is assumed to be constant in time `t'. The obtained results from the both models are compared.

  15. Concurrent multi-scale design optimization of composite frame structures using the Heaviside penalization of discrete material model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jun; Duan, Zunyi; Lund, Erik; Zhao, Guozhong

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the concurrent multi-scale optimization design of frame structure composed of glass or carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminates. In the composite frame structure, the fiber winding angle at the micro-material scale and the geometrical parameter of components of the frame in the macro-structural scale are introduced as the independent variables on the two geometrical scales. Considering manufacturing requirements, discrete fiber winding angles are specified for the micro design variable. The improved Heaviside penalization discrete material optimization interpolation scheme has been applied to achieve the discrete optimization design of the fiber winding angle. An optimization model based on the minimum structural compliance and the specified fiber material volume constraint has been established. The sensitivity information about the two geometrical scales design variables are also deduced considering the characteristics of discrete fiber winding angles. The optimization results of the fiber winding angle or the macro structural topology on the two single geometrical scales, together with the concurrent two-scale optimization, is separately studied and compared in the paper. Numerical examples in the paper show that the concurrent multi-scale optimization can further explore the coupling effect between the macro-structure and micro-material of the composite to achieve an ultra-light design of the composite frame structure. The novel two geometrical scales optimization model provides a new opportunity for the design of composite structure in aerospace and other industries.

  16. Parametric Modelling of As-Built Beam Framed Structure in Bim Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Koehl, M.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2017-02-01

    A complete documentation and conservation of a historic timber roof requires the integration of geometry modelling, attributional and dynamic information management and results of structural analysis. Recently developed as-built Building Information Modelling (BIM) technique has the potential to provide a uniform platform, which provides possibility to integrate the traditional geometry modelling, parametric elements management and structural analysis together. The main objective of the project presented in this paper is to develop a parametric modelling tool for a timber roof structure whose elements are leaning and crossing beam frame. Since Autodesk Revit, as the typical BIM software, provides the platform for parametric modelling and information management, an API plugin, able to automatically create the parametric beam elements and link them together with strict relationship, was developed. The plugin under development is introduced in the paper, which can obtain the parametric beam model via Autodesk Revit API from total station points and terrestrial laser scanning data. The results show the potential of automatizing the parametric modelling by interactive API development in BIM environment. It also integrates the separate data processing and different platforms into the uniform Revit software.

  17. [Structure characteristics of natural nests and its implication to artificial nest frame design for Ciconia boyciana].

    PubMed

    Wei, Yi-qing; Cui, Guo-fa

    2014-12-01

    Artificial nest can improve the breeding success of birds in the field, and it has been proved to be more effective to endangered species. We surveyed the structure characteristics of natural nest and the status of the use of artificial nests for oriental white stork, Ciconia boyciana, in Honghe National Nature Reserve, Heilongjiang Province. Differences were investigated among the structure characteristics of the used and unused artificial nests, and natural nests based on one-way ANOVA. It was observed that significant differences in the diameter of nest branch, the vertical an- gle between nest branch, the height of the jointthe height of the nest above ground exited in different nest types. On account of the structure characteristics of the natural nests of C. boyciana, the suitable diameter of nest pillar for artificial nest frame should be 15.0-25.0 cm with the height of 5.0-12.0 m, which would be better if they were constructed by some acid-resistant materials, e.g., cement. The number of nest stands should be 3-4 individuals with the diameter of 9.0-12.0 cm, the vertical angle of 45 degrees-60 degrees, and the length of 90.0-140.0 cm.

  18. Mobile marine operations structure

    SciTech Connect

    Bhalaik, A.; Braddick, P.W.; Brittin, D.S.; Johnson, G.L.

    1988-02-16

    The process of fabricating a marine operations structure having a central core and first and second ice walls circumferentially positioned about the central core for fracturing ice features, with the second ice wall above and contiguous with the first ice wall, wherein the first and second ice walls are constructed according to the process is described comprising the steps of: providing a sloping support base system comprising radial bulkheads and circumferentially-positioned web frame series integrally connecting ice wall plating to the bulkheads and web frames series; integrally affixing an exposed cross grid system of interlocking and reinforcing members to the exterior surfaces of the ice wall plating to form first and second ice wall preforms with the members projecting outward from the plating; installing a slip-form adjacent to the ice wall preforms and exteriorly of the plating; pouring cement/aggregate slurry onto the ice wall preforms between the plating and the slip-form to cover the cross grid of interlocking and reinforcing members; moving the slip-form upwards as the void spaces between the slip-form and the ice wall plating are filled with cement/aggregate slurry; and permitting the cement/aggregate slurry to harden to form an orthotropic composite steel/concrete ice wall with an exposed concrete surface.

  19. Evaluation of collapse resistance of RC frame structures for Chinese schools in seismic design categories B and C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Baoxin; Lu, Xinzheng; Ye, Lieping; Shi, Wei

    2011-09-01

    According to the Code for Seismic Design of Buildings (GB50011-2001), ten typical reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures, used as school classroom buildings, are designed with different seismic fortification intensities (SFIs) (SFI=6 to 8.5) and different seismic design categories (SDCs) (SDC=B and C). The collapse resistance of the frames with SDC=B and C in terms of collapse fragility curves are quantitatively evaluated and compared via incremental dynamic analysis (IDA). The results show that the collapse resistance of structures should be evaluated based on both the absolute seismic resistance and the corresponding design seismic intensity. For the frames with SFI from 6 to 7.5, because they have relatively low absolute seismic resistance, their collapse resistance is insufficient even when their corresponding SDCs are upgraded from B to C. Thus, further measures are needed to enhance these structures, and some suggestions are proposed.

  20. Active vibration control by piezoceramic actuators on a jet aircraft partial frame structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecce, Leonardo; Viscardi, Massimo; Cantoni, Stefania

    1996-04-01

    During the last five years, the Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering of the University of Naples, has carried out a lot of work, especially on the experimental side, focused on assessing the feasibility of an active vibration and noise control approach, based on the use of piezoceramic actuators and sensors bonded to different structural elements. This paper concerns an application of this technique relative to a partially curved stiff frame of a medium civil transport jet aircraft. The general procedure, as previously assessed on different test articles, requires as first step, the dynamic characterization of the test article, to best point out the target of control procedure in terms of deformed shapes relative to the frequency of most interest. The use of PZT piezoactuators to be bonded on the structure guarantee at the same time high actuators forces in front of a low weight increment. The hearth of the MIMO (Multi Input Multi Output) feedforward control algorithm that is usually applied, is then represented by an ANN (Artificial Neural Network) control algorithm that use the evaluation of experimental FRF as measured by reference accelerometer, to calculate the optimum control forces to be applied to the actuators to minimize a target cost function. Experimental results provided over 32 dB of overall vibration level reduction in a single controlled mode shape, without any spillover effect.

  1. Seismic protection of frame structures via semi-active control: modeling and implementation issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattulli, Vincenzo; Lepidi, Marco; Potenza, Francesco

    2009-12-01

    Theoretical and practical issues concerning the multi-faceted task of mitigating the latero-torsional seismic response of a prototypal frame structure with asymmetric mass distribution are approached. Chevron braces with embedded magnetorheological dampers acting on the interstory drift are used to ensure additional energy dissipation. The semi-active control strategy employed to govern the modification of the damper characteristics via feedback is based on the selection of optimal forces according to a H2/LQG criterion, with respect to which the actual forces are regulated by a clipped-optimal logic. A dynamic observer is used to estimate the state through a non-collocated placement of the acceleration sensors. Several aspects to be addressed throughout the complex process including the design, modelization, and implementation phases of semi-active protection systems are discussed. Finally, experimental results obtained to mitigate the motion induced by ground excitation in a large-scale laboratory prototype, simulating the seismic response of a two-story building, are summarized.

  2. Structural redundancy of dual and steel moment frame systems under seismic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Seung-Han

    The extensive investigation of structural failure after Northridge earthquake showed poor structural performance due to brittle member behavior and improper design. For example, the brittle steel connection fractures were totally unexpected of the highly regarded "ductile" systems. The lack of system ductile capacity and redundancy could lead to system instability and collapse. Since then, the design for redundancy has become a serious concern of both researchers and practitioners. Most reliability and redundancy studies in the past, however, have been limited to ideal simple systems. Structural redundancy under stochastic loads such as earthquakes has not been thoroughly investigated and hence not well understood or clearly defined, which could lead to misunderstandings and confusions among structural engineers. In this study, the redundancy of five-story and ten-story one-way and two-way dual systems of RC shear walls and three-story and nine-story special moment resisting frames (SMRF) is investigated in terms of system reliability. Major factors affecting redundancy considered include structural configuration (number of bays in lateral load resistance system, number and layout of shear walls, and so on), ductility capacity, uncertainty and correlation of shear wall strength. The redundancy of truly ductile SMRF systems of different configurations is also examined. A 4 x 4 bay and a 6 x 6 bay buildings of the same floor area but different numbers and sizes of beams and columns are designed and analyzed. In addition, three SMRF, 1 x 1, 2 x 2, and 3 x 3 bay systems, with torsion are investigated to examine the effect of ductile and brittle beam-column connection behaviors. The proposed uniform-risk redundancy factor is then compared with the reliability and redundancy factor (rho) in the 1996 SEAOC Blue Book, NEHRP 97, and UBC 97, which depends on the system configuration only. The results show the inadequacies of the latter approach in describing the redundancy

  3. Coursework selection: a frame of reference approach using structural equation modelling.

    PubMed

    Dickhäuser, Oliver; Reuter, Martin; Hilling, Christine

    2005-12-01

    Choice behaviour has far-reaching consequences on students' educational careers. Previous models on course selection for example, the model of achievement-related choices (Wigfield & Eccles, 2000) and of self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1997), stress the importance of ability perceptions (self-concept of ability) as major determinants of choice. This article suggests a model of course selection, which assumes that comparisons within an internal frame of reference (as proposed by Marsh, 1986, for the association between achievement and self-concepts) can also be applied to the association between self-concepts and course selection. It is therefore hypothesized that course selection is not only positively influenced by the self-concept with respect to the corresponding subject, but also negatively with respect to alternative subjects. Moreover, it should be tested whether the effects of previous achievement on course selection are completely mediated by the self-concepts. These assumptions were empirically tested using a sample of 296 students from secondary school classes, who were specializing in, for example, chemistry or biology in the following school term. Self-concepts and course selection were assessed via questionnaire. The postulated models were tested using a structural equation modelling approach for ordinal variables. The core assumption, that course selection is determined by dimensional comparisons, was supported by significant negative paths from self-concepts on the selection of non-corresponding subjects. Furthermore, the effects of previous achievement on selection were completely mediated by self-concepts. Previous models of choice behaviour should be extended, by considering not only the selected alternatives, but also the unselected ones. The finding that the influence of achievement on choice is completely mediated by self-concepts, demonstrates that subjective interpretations of previous achievement determine subsequent behaviour.

  4. D Visualization of a Timber Frame Historic Building: Partite Usage and its Impact on the Structural System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günay, S.

    2017-08-01

    Throughout their lifetime, historic buildings might be altered for different kind of usage for different purposes. If this new function or new usage requires utilization of the building in separate units, this separation might affect the historic building's functionality and structure and as a result its overall condition. Yorguc Pasa Mansion conservation project was prepared as a part of the Middle East Technical University (METU) Master's Program in Documentation and Conservation of Historic Monuments and Sites for the historic Yorguc Pasa Mansion. The mansion is a 19th century Ottoman Period timber frame building in Amasya, a Black Sea Region city in Turkey that has traces from different civilizations such as Hittites, Greeks, Romans and Ottomans. This paper aims to discuss the affects of the partite usage on structural conditions of timber frame buildings with the case study of Amasya Yorguc Pasa Mansion through the 3D visualized structural systems.

  5. Detection of earthquake-induced damage in a framed structure using a finite element model updating procedure.

    PubMed

    Yu, Eunjong; Kim, Seung-Nam; Park, Taewon; Lee, Sang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Damage of a 5-story framed structure was identified from two types of measured data, which are frequency response functions (FRF) and natural frequencies, using a finite element (FE) model updating procedure. In this study, a procedure to determine the appropriate weightings for different groups of observations was proposed. In addition, a modified frame element which included rotational springs was used to construct the FE model for updating to represent concentrated damage at the member ends (a formulation for plastic hinges in framed structures subjected to strong earthquakes). The results of the model updating and subsequent damage detection when the rotational springs (RS model) were used were compared with those obtained using the conventional frame elements (FS model). Comparisons indicated that the RS model gave more accurate results than the FS model. That is, the errors in the natural frequencies of the updated models were smaller, and the identified damage showed clearer distinctions between damaged and undamaged members and was more consistent with observed damage.

  6. Detection of Earthquake-Induced Damage in a Framed Structure Using a Finite Element Model Updating Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Nam; Park, Taewon; Lee, Sang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Damage of a 5-story framed structure was identified from two types of measured data, which are frequency response functions (FRF) and natural frequencies, using a finite element (FE) model updating procedure. In this study, a procedure to determine the appropriate weightings for different groups of observations was proposed. In addition, a modified frame element which included rotational springs was used to construct the FE model for updating to represent concentrated damage at the member ends (a formulation for plastic hinges in framed structures subjected to strong earthquakes). The results of the model updating and subsequent damage detection when the rotational springs (RS model) were used were compared with those obtained using the conventional frame elements (FS model). Comparisons indicated that the RS model gave more accurate results than the FS model. That is, the errors in the natural frequencies of the updated models were smaller, and the identified damage showed clearer distinctions between damaged and undamaged members and was more consistent with observed damage. PMID:24574888

  7. Damping characteristics of friction damped braced frame and its effectiveness in the mega-sub controlled structure system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yeda; Zhang, Xunan; Sheldon, Cherry

    2007-06-01

    Based on energy dissipation and structural control principle, a new structural configuration, called the mega-sub controlled structure (MSCS) with friction damped braces (FDBs), is first presented. Meanwhile, to calculate the damping coefficient in the slipping state a new analytical method is proposed. The damping characteristics of one-storey friction damped braced frame (FDBF) are investigated, and the influence of the structural parameters on the energy dissipation and the practical engineering design are discussed. The nonlinear dynamic equations and the analytical model of the MSCS with FDBs are established. Three building structures with different structural configurations, which were designed with reference to the conventional mega-sub structures such as used in Tokyo City Hall, are comparatively investigated. The results illustrate that the structure presented in the paper has excellent dynamic properties and satisfactory control effectiveness.

  8. Frames, Content Organization, and Themes in Student Expository Essays: An Analysis of Discourse Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hult, Christine A.

    To examine the relationship between writers' knowledge of expository frames--conventions accepted by both writers and readers in association with a particular type of discourse--and writing skill, 60 persuasive essays were analyzed for content organization. The essays, evaluated as either above average or average on a high school writing…

  9. Wake structure of axial-flow hydrokinetic turbines in tri-frame arrangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawdhary, Saurabh; Yang, Xiaolei; Hill, Craig; Khosronejad, Ali; Guala, Michele; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2015-11-01

    Marine and hydro-kinetic (MHK) energy hold promise for future of sustainable energy generation. Tri-frame of turbines, three turbines mounted on vertices of a triangle, are an effective way to build a power producing array of hydrokinetic turbines in marine environment. Large eddy simulation (LES) is used to simulate the flow past a tri-frame and characterize its wake. Full geometry of all three turbines in the tri-frame is resolved using the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary (CURVIB) method of Kang et al. (2011). High fidelity solution of flow field is obtained owing to the inclusion of detailed geometry of the turbines. Excellent agreement is obtained with the experiments conducted in a flume at Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL). The wake evolution of the three turbines is compared to that of an isolated single turbine. The differences in wake dynamics are highlighted to elucidate the importance of turbine wake interaction in an array. The simulations indicate lower levels of TKE and lower levels of momentum deficit in the wake of the upstream turbine of tri-frame compared to the other turbines. Analysis of the far wake recovery is useful for the optimal MHK array design. This work was supported by NSF grant IIP-1318201. The simulations were carried out at the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  10. Study on interface and frame structure of SWAT and MODFLOW models coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Jinggang; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Huicheng

    2010-05-01

    coupling, must be implemented first in the SWAT and MODFLOW models coupling. Currently, the HRU-CELL conversion method under AVSWAT2000 has been described in relative literatures, but the method has been implemented only in the small watershed of about 200 square kilometers. There are not applied case studies in the large watershed which covers an area of more than 10000 square kilometers when the computing time of simulation will be of importance, and the HRU-CELL conversion method under ArcSWAT2005 that is the premium edition of AVSWAT2000 has not been involved. Therefore, an HRU-CELL conversion method applicable for large watersheds under ArcSWAT2005 and the frame structure of SWAT-MODFLOW coupled model are given. The HRU-CELL conversion method is applied to the co-simulation of surface water and groundwater of Hun-River and Taizi-River Basin, the area of which is 27327 square kilometers and the effectiveness of the SWAT-MODFLOW coupled model in the water cycle simulations of large watersheds is verified to lay the foundation for the quantitative evaluation of the impact of climate changes and human activities on watershed water sources variation and the obtainment of responding regularity and mechanism of watershed water circulation to climate changes and human activities. Key words: SWAT; MODFLOW; HRU-CELL conversion; interface; frame structure

  11. Framing attention in Japanese and american comics: cross-cultural differences in attentional structure.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Neil; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Grossman, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books - the narrative frames in sequential images - highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics) with mainstream Japanese "manga" to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer's integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention.

  12. Framing Attention in Japanese and American Comics: Cross-Cultural Differences in Attentional Structure

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Neil; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Grossman, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books – the narrative frames in sequential images – highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics) with mainstream Japanese “manga” to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer’s integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention. PMID:23015794

  13. Quantum frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Matthew J.

    2014-02-01

    The framework of quantum frames can help unravel some of the interpretive difficulties i the foundation of quantum mechanics. In this paper, I begin by tracing the origins of this concept in Bohr's discussion of quantum theory and his theory of complementarity. Engaging with various interpreters and followers of Bohr, I argue that the correct account of quantum frames must be extended beyond literal space-time reference frames to frames defined by relations between a quantum system and the exosystem or external physical frame, of which measurement contexts are a particularly important example. This approach provides superior solutions to key EPR-type measurement and locality paradoxes.

  14. Frame modal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guyan, R. J.; Heckenlaible, R. N.

    1971-01-01

    Computer model calculates natural frequencies and modal displacements of three-dimensional frame structures, and generates stiffness and mass matrices. Structures may be divided into several substructures prior to calculation of modal characteristics.

  15. Optimal size, shape, and control design in dynamics of planar frame structures under large displacements and rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gams, M.; Saje, M.; Planinc, I.; Kegl, M.

    2010-01-01

    Size, shape, and drive optimization procedures are combined with an energy-conserving time-integration scheme for the dynamic analysis of planar geometrically non-linear frame structures undergoing large overall motions. The solution method is based on the finite-element formulation, employing the classical displacement-based planar beam finite elements described in an inertial frame. Finite axial, bending, and shear strains are taken into account. If the system is conservative, the energy and momenta conservation in the discrete system during motion is guaranteed. Size, shape, and drive design variables are introduced into the model. Shape parameterization is achieved by the design element technique, using Bezier patches. The sensitivity analysis is performed by the discrete approach and the analytical direct differentiation method. A gradient-based optimization method, using an automatically adjustable convex approximation technique, is employed. The efficiency and the applicability of the approach are demonstrated via numerical examples. The shape and the driving function of a load-moving robot arm are optimized to reduce oscillations in its final position. The shape of a steel frame is optimized to reduce oscillations after an idealized ground motion jerk.

  16. Expanding the frame of "voluntariness" in informed consent: structural coercion and the power of social and economic context.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jill A

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces the term "structural coercion" to underscore the ways in which broader social, economic, and political contexts act upon individuals to compel them to enroll as subjects in clinical research. The paper challenges the adequacy of the concepts of "coercion" and "undue influence" in determining when research participation is voluntary. Acknowledging structural coercion shifts the frame of ethical deliberation away from specific individuals and specific studies to see important patterns in research participation by salient demographic characteristics. The effects of structural coercion manifest themselves in particular research settings, but unlike the conventional form of coercion, it is not rooted in the researcher-participant relationship or linked to particular study protocols. By extracting voluntariness from entrenched conceptions of the researcher-participant dyad, this paper proposes approaches to minimize the effects of structural coercion while creating new ethical imaginaries for review boards and researchers alike.

  17. Frame Games: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiagaragan, Sivasailam; Stolovitch, Harold D.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an overview of frame games developed to provide a content-free instructional structure on which can be loaded locally relevant content. Included are an analysis and comparison of selected games on the basis of eight important characteristics, overall evaluations of selected games, and advantages and disadvantages of frame games. (CMV)

  18. The rest-frame ultraviolet structure of 0.5 < z < 1.5 galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Nicholas A.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; De Mello, Duilia F.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Rafelski, Marc; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Coe, Dan; Grogin, Norman; Gawiser, Eric; Ravindranath, Swara; Scarlata, Claudia

    2014-08-10

    We present the rest-frame UV wavelength dependence of the Petrosian-like half-light radius (r{sub 50}), and the concentration parameter for a sample of 198 star-forming galaxies at 0.5 < z < 1.5. We find a ∼5% decrease in r{sub 50} from 1500 Å to 3000 Å, with half-light radii at 3000 Å ranging from 0.6 kpc to 6 kpc. We also find a decrease in concentration of ∼0.07 (1.9 < C{sub 3000} < 3.9). The lack of a strong relationship between r{sub 50} and wavelength is consistent with a model in which clumpy star formation is distributed over length scales comparable to the galaxy's rest-frame optical light. While the wavelength dependence of r{sub 50} is independent of size at all redshifts, concentration decreases more sharply in the far-UV (∼1500 Å) for large galaxies at z ∼ 1. This decrease in concentration is caused by a flattening of the inner ∼20% of the light profile in disk-like galaxies, indicating that the central regions have different UV colors than the rest of the galaxy. We interpret this as a bulge component with older stellar populations and/or more dust. The size-dependent decrease in concentration is less dramatic at z ∼ 2, suggesting that bulges are less dusty, younger, and/or less massive than the rest of the galaxy at higher redshifts.

  19. Deep mantle structure as a reference frame for movements in and on the Earth

    PubMed Central

    Torsvik, Trond H.; van der Voo, Rob; Doubrovine, Pavel V.; Burke, Kevin; Steinberger, Bernhard; Ashwal, Lewis D.; Trønnes, Reidar G.; Webb, Susan J.; Bull, Abigail L.

    2014-01-01

    Earth’s residual geoid is dominated by a degree-2 mode, with elevated regions above large low shear-wave velocity provinces on the core–mantle boundary beneath Africa and the Pacific. The edges of these deep mantle bodies, when projected radially to the Earth’s surface, correlate with the reconstructed positions of large igneous provinces and kimberlites since Pangea formed about 320 million years ago. Using this surface-to-core–mantle boundary correlation to locate continents in longitude and a novel iterative approach for defining a paleomagnetic reference frame corrected for true polar wander, we have developed a model for absolute plate motion back to earliest Paleozoic time (540 Ma). For the Paleozoic, we have identified six phases of slow, oscillatory true polar wander during which the Earth’s axis of minimum moment of inertia was similar to that of Mesozoic times. The rates of Paleozoic true polar wander (<1°/My) are compatible with those in the Mesozoic, but absolute plate velocities are, on average, twice as high. Our reconstructions generate geologically plausible scenarios, with large igneous provinces and kimberlites sourced from the margins of the large low shear-wave velocity provinces, as in Mesozoic and Cenozoic times. This absolute kinematic model suggests that a degree-2 convection mode within the Earth’s mantle may have operated throughout the entire Phanerozoic. PMID:24889632

  20. Deep Mantle Structure As a Reference Frame for Absolute Plate Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torsvik, T. H.; Van Der Voo, R.; Doubrovine, P. V.; Burke, K. C.; Steinberger, B. M.; Domeier, M.

    2014-12-01

    Since the Pangea supercontinent formed some 320 million years ago, the majority of large igneous provinces and diamond-bearing rocks (kimberlites) near Earth's surface can be sourced to plumes erupting from the margins of two large thermochemical reservoirs at the core-mantle boundary. Using this surface to core-mantle boundary correlation to locate continents in longitude and a new iterative approach for defining a paleomagnetic reference frame corrected for true polar wander, we present a model for plate motion back to earliest Paleozoic time (540 Ma). We have identified six phases of slow, oscillatory true polar wander during the Paleozoic. True polar wander rates (<1 Degree/Myr) are compatible to those in the Mesozoic but plate velocities are on average twice as high. We show that a geologically reasonable model that reconstructs continents in longitude in such a way that large igneous provinces and kimberlites are positioned above the plume generation zones at the times of their formation can be successfully applied to the entire Phanerozoic. Our model is a kinematic model for only the continents. The next step in improving it will be developing a model for the entire lithosphere, including synthetic oceanic lithosphere. This is challenging, but we will demonstrate a full-plate model back to the Late Paleozoic (410 Ma).

  1. Deep mantle structure as a reference frame for movements in and on the Earth.

    PubMed

    Torsvik, Trond H; van der Voo, Rob; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Burke, Kevin; Steinberger, Bernhard; Ashwal, Lewis D; Trønnes, Reidar G; Webb, Susan J; Bull, Abigail L

    2014-06-17

    Earth's residual geoid is dominated by a degree-2 mode, with elevated regions above large low shear-wave velocity provinces on the core-mantle boundary beneath Africa and the Pacific. The edges of these deep mantle bodies, when projected radially to the Earth's surface, correlate with the reconstructed positions of large igneous provinces and kimberlites since Pangea formed about 320 million years ago. Using this surface-to-core-mantle boundary correlation to locate continents in longitude and a novel iterative approach for defining a paleomagnetic reference frame corrected for true polar wander, we have developed a model for absolute plate motion back to earliest Paleozoic time (540 Ma). For the Paleozoic, we have identified six phases of slow, oscillatory true polar wander during which the Earth's axis of minimum moment of inertia was similar to that of Mesozoic times. The rates of Paleozoic true polar wander (<1°/My) are compatible with those in the Mesozoic, but absolute plate velocities are, on average, twice as high. Our reconstructions generate geologically plausible scenarios, with large igneous provinces and kimberlites sourced from the margins of the large low shear-wave velocity provinces, as in Mesozoic and Cenozoic times. This absolute kinematic model suggests that a degree-2 convection mode within the Earth's mantle may have operated throughout the entire Phanerozoic.

  2. Space-Frame Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    The space-frame antenna is a conceptual antenna structure that would be lightweight, deployable from compact stowage, and capable of deforming itself to a size, shape, and orientation required for a specific use. The space-frame antenna would be a trusslike structure consisting mostly of a tetrahedral mesh of nodes connected by variable-length struts. The deformation of the antenna to a desired size, shape, and orientation would be effected through coordinated lengthening and shorting of the struts.

  3. Structural organization of an RNA catalyst with the random energy model as a reference frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Ariel

    1992-06-01

    We investigate the kinetics of refolding of a catalytic RNA species along a folding pathway which starts at a biologically active structure and ends in the most stable structure, or global free energy minimum. The RNA species studied is not a purely informational molecule, since it is spliced in vivo. We show that the kinetic barriers involved in the relaxation of the active structure are considerably larger than those of a purely informational RNA. Our results attempt at establishing a kinetic criterion to distinguish between a catalytic and a coding RNA species on the basis of their folding.

  4. The visual framing of graphics when used in preventative health digital news packages: exploring the use of a narrative structure as the message infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Sontag, Jennah M; Barnes, Spencer R

    2017-09-26

    Visual framing can improve health-message effectiveness. Narrative structure provides a template needed for determining how to frame visuals to maximise message effectiveness. Participants (N = 190) were assigned to a message condition determined by segments (establisher, initial, peak), graphic (static, animated) and cancer (lung, melanoma). ANOVAs revealed that melanoma was more believable than lung cancer with static graphics at the establisher and peak; narratives were more believable with animated graphics at the peak segment; melanoma elicited greater positive attitudes; graphics in the peak influenced greatest intentions. Animated graphics visually framed to emphasise information at the establisher and peak segments suggest maximum effectiveness.

  5. Semiactive Control Using MR Dampers of a Frame Structure under Seismic Excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Gattulli, Vincenzo; Lepidi, Marco; Potenza, Francesco; Carneiro, Rubia

    2008-07-08

    The paper approaches the multifaceted task of semiactively controlling the seismic response of a prototypal building model, through interstorey bracings embedding magnetorheological dampers. The control strategy is based on a synthetic discrete model, purposely formulated in a reduced space of significant dynamic variables, and consistently updated to match the modal properties identified from the experimental response of the modeled physical structure. The occurrence of a known eccentricity in the mass distribution, breaking the structural symmetry, is also considered. The dissipative action of two magnetorheological dampers is governed by a clipped-optimal control strategy. The dampers are positioned in order to deliver two eccentric and independent forces, acting on the first-storey displacements. This set-up allows the mitigation of the three-dimensional motion arising when monodirectional ground motion is imposed on the non-symmetric structure. Numerical investigations on the model response to natural accelerograms are presented. The effectiveness of the control strategy is discussed through synthetic performance indexes.

  6. Semiactive Control Using MR Dampers of a Frame Structure under Seismic Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattulli, Vincenzo; Lepidi, Marco; Potenza, Francesco; Carneiro, Rùbia

    2008-07-01

    The paper approaches the multifaceted task of semiactively controlling the seismic response of a prototypal building model, through interstorey bracings embedding magnetorheological dampers. The control strategy is based on a synthetic discrete model, purposely formulated in a reduced space of significant dynamic variables, and consistently updated to match the modal properties identified from the experimental response of the modeled physical structure. The occurrence of a known eccentricity in the mass distribution, breaking the structural symmetry, is also considered. The dissipative action of two magnetorheological dampers is governed by a clipped-optimal control strategy. The dampers are positioned in order to deliver two eccentric and independent forces, acting on the first-storey displacements. This set-up allows the mitigation of the three-dimensional motion arising when monodirectional ground motion is imposed on the non-symmetric structure. Numerical investigations on the model response to natural accelerograms are presented. The effectiveness of the control strategy is discussed through synthetic performance indexes.

  7. Organizing DNA origami tiles into larger structures using preformed scaffold frames.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhao; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2011-07-13

    Structural DNA nanotechnology utilizes DNA molecules as programmable information-coding polymers to create higher order structures at the nanometer scale. An important milestone in structural DNA nanotechnology was the development of scaffolded DNA origami in which a long single-stranded viral genome (scaffold strand) is folded into arbitrary shapes by hundreds of short synthetic oligonucleotides (staple strands). The achievable dimensions of the DNA origami tile units are currently limited by the length of the scaffold strand. Here we demonstrate a strategy referred to as "superorigami" or "origami of origami" to scale up DNA origami technology. First, this method uses a collection of bridge strands to prefold a single-stranded DNA scaffold into a loose framework. Subsequently, preformed individual DNA origami tiles are directed onto the loose framework so that each origami tile serves as a large staple. Using this strategy, we demonstrate the ability to organize DNA origami nanostructures into larger spatially addressable architectures.

  8. The probability distribution of extreme wave load on space frame ocean structures

    SciTech Connect

    Tromans, P.S.; Dam, J. van

    1996-12-31

    The authors investigate different methods for calculating probability distributions of wave loads on fixed jacket structures. The first method is based on transformation of variables between crest elevation and wave force; the second is a first order reliability study in discrete components of the directional power spectrum of the ocean surface. Both approaches are simplified by representing the structure as a set of vertical columns and the wave kinematics by stretched linear theories. The methods are tested against time domain simulations of loads generated by random directional wave force models and against measured loads on a North Sea jacket.

  9. Applying Structural Systems Thinking to Frame Perspectives on Social Work Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringfellow, Erin J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Innovation will be key to the success of the Grand Challenges Initiative in social work. A structural systems framework based in system dynamics could be useful for considering how to advance innovation. Method: Diagrams using system dynamics conventions were developed to link common themes across concept papers written by social work…

  10. Applying Structural Systems Thinking to Frame Perspectives on Social Work Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringfellow, Erin J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Innovation will be key to the success of the Grand Challenges Initiative in social work. A structural systems framework based in system dynamics could be useful for considering how to advance innovation. Method: Diagrams using system dynamics conventions were developed to link common themes across concept papers written by social work…

  11. A Saxon Fish Weir and Undated Fish Trap Frames Near Ashlett Creek, Hampshire, UK: Static Structures on a Dynamic Foreshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John P.; Caira, Gianni; Opdebeeck, Johan; Papadopoulou, Chryssanthi; Tsiairis, Vassilis

    2017-04-01

    The remains of a wooden V-shaped fish weir and associated structures have been discovered near Ashlett Creek on the tidal mudflats of Southampton Water in Hampshire, southern Britain. Radiocarbon dating of oak roundwood stakes taken from the main weir structure date it to the middle Saxon period. Clusters of as-yet undated roundwood posts within the catchment area of the weir are interpreted as the frames for fish traps that are assumed to pre- or post-date the operational period of the weir itself. The weir is contemporary with wooden V-shaped fish weirs found elsewhere in southern and central Britain, and also Ireland, but its circular catchment `pound' remains restricted, in these islands, to the Solent and Severn estuaries: it has a close parallel with another Saxon-era weir on the nearby Isle of Wight. It also shows striking structural similarities with examples in use today in Basse Normandy, on the southern shore of the English Channel. The paper discusses the function and operation of the weir, and places it in its social and historical context. Regressive cartography demonstrates that the structures have become exposed as a result of saltmarsh retreat in this area of Southampton Water since the nineteenth century. The radiocarbon dates returned for the posts demonstrate that this transgression of the marsh must have been preceded by a prolonged period of progradation, which covered and preserved the site; its subsequent re-exposure has negative implications for its survival.

  12. Development of Real-Time Frame Selector 2 and the Characteristic Convective Structure in the Emerging Flux Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozu, Hiromichi; Kitai, Reizaburo; Funakoshi, Yasuhiro

    2005-02-01

    A new image-grabbing system, Real-Time Frame Selector 2 (RTFS2), was developed and installed in the Domeless Solar Telescope at Hida Observatory. The purpose of this system is to acquire high-quality images in ground-based observations. We observed the emerging flux region NOAA 8582 in the G-band wavelengths from 20:59 UT to 23:32 UT on 1999 June 11 with RTFS2. Simultaneous Hα line center and wing wavelength observations with a Lyot filter system showed emerging flux loops and surge activities in this region. We applied a Local Correlation Tracking Method to the G-band data set in order to derive the horizontal convective structure in the upper convective zone. In addition to a meso-scale convective structure, we found divergent-flow structures under emerging flux loops, which were stable during the whole observation period, and located at the middle of the foot points of each flux loop. We suggest that the divergent-flow structure is a newly found characteristic of emerging flux regions.

  13. The structural behaviour of the steel or composite concrete and steel frames and the connections of frame members during the fire: A literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leino, Tapio

    1993-01-01

    Fire safety is discussed in general terms, together with some other factors affecting the fire resistance of a structure and structural elements. Neither the development of fire nor temperature dependent material properties are discussed. Many research reports presented dealing with the behavior of structures and structural elements during fire as well as the behavior of connections in a fire contain valuable advice on how to design structures and element connections so that in the case of fire they are better protected, both with regard to the users of the building and the fire brigade. Studies concerning real fires and experience obtained from large scale fire tests are presented. A report in which the real need and possibilities for repairing structures or structural elements after a fire are discussed is presented. The repair methods are also presented.

  14. Sub structure on-line tests on braced frames with self-returning joint mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae-hyouk; Ohi, Kenichi

    2006-03-01

    A Ni-Ti-Co alloy exhibits shape memory effect, pseudo-elasticity, and these transition properties depending on the temperature when used. This paper examined a first-step application of such an alloy to an earthquake resistant structural system by making and testing a pseudo-elastic bracing system. Substructure pseudo-dynamic tests were performed to examine the behavior of pseudo-elastic bracing system during an earthquake when combined with fictitious hysteretic dampers. A pseudo-elastic bracing system is better to be used with other hysteretic elements such as a hysteretic damper. A damper provides energy dissipation within small displacement levels, and a pseudo-elastic bracing system works in turn as a back-up/fail-safe system when an accidental failure of damper or damper interface occurs, and also it helps to pull back the structure to the original position by uninstalling the damper after earthquake.

  15. Organizing DNA Origami Tiles Into Larger Structures Using Pre-formed Scaffold Frames

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhao; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Structural DNA nanotechnology utilizes DNA molecules as programmable information-coding polymers to create higher order structures at the nanometer scale. An important milestone in structural DNA nanotechnology was the development of scaffolded DNA origami in which a long single-stranded viral genome (scaffold strand) is folded into arbitrary shapes by hundreds of short synthetic oligonucleotides (staple strands). The achievable dimensions of the DNA origami tiles units are currently limited by the length of the scaffold strand. Here we demonstrate a strategy referred to as ‘super-origami’ or ‘origami of origami’ to scale up DNA origami technology. First, this method uses a collection of bridge strands to pre-fold a single stranded DNA scaffold into a loose framework. Subsequently, pre-formed individual DNA origami tiles are directed onto the loose framework so that each origami tile serves as a large staple. Using this strategy, we demonstrate the ability to organize DNA origami nanostructures into larger spatially addressable architectures. PMID:21682348

  16. Feasibility Study of Endo- and Exo-skeletal Framed Structures with Envelopes for LTA Platforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-15

    W911NF- 10 -1-0020 622618 Form Approved OMB NO. 0704-0188 56760-EG-II.1 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10 . SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ARO...Grant #: W911NF- 10 -1-0020 Short Term Innovative Research To Col. Young Reed, Program Manager Army Research Office Research Triangle...13.74 0.0408 0.254 0.081 0.068 0.067 0.065 Altitude, ft Air Density, lb/ft^3 Atm Pressure, in. Hg * * includes 10 % wt. of endoskeleton structure

  17. Framing the structural role of mathematics in physics lectures: A case study on electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karam, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    Physics education research has shown that students tend to struggle when trying to use mathematics in a meaningful way in physics (e.g., mathematizing a physical situation or making sense of equations). Concerning the possible reasons for these difficulties, little attention has been paid to the way mathematics is treated in physics instruction. Starting from an overall distinction between a technical approach, which involves an instrumental (tool-like) use of mathematics, and a structural one, focused on reasoning about the physical world mathematically, the goal of this study is to characterize the development of the latter in didactic contexts. For this purpose, a case study was conducted on the electromagnetism course given by a distinguished physics professor. The analysis of selected teaching episodes with the software Videograph led to the identification of a set of categories that describe different strategies used by the professor to emphasize the structural role of mathematics in his lectures. As a consequence of this research, an analytic tool to enable future comparative studies between didactic approaches regarding the way mathematics is treated in physics teaching is provided.

  18. A phylogenetically conserved RNA structure in the poliovirus open reading frame inhibits the antiviral endoribonuclease RNase L.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-Qiu; Townsend, Hannah L; Jha, Babal Kant; Paranjape, Jayashree M; Silverman, Robert H; Barton, David J

    2007-06-01

    RNase L is an antiviral endoribonuclease that cleaves viral mRNAs after single-stranded UA and UU dinucleotides. Poliovirus (PV) mRNA is surprisingly resistant to cleavage by RNase L due to an RNA structure in the 3C(Pro) open reading frame (ORF). The RNA structure associated with the inhibition of RNase L is phylogenetically conserved in group C enteroviruses, including PV type 1 (PV1), PV2, PV3, coxsackie A virus 11 (CAV11), CAV13, CAV17, CAV20, CAV21, and CAV24. The RNA structure is not present in other human enteroviruses (group A, B, or D enteroviruses). Coxsackievirus B3 mRNA and hepatitis C virus mRNA were fully sensitive to cleavage by RNase L. HeLa cells expressing either wild-type RNase L or a dominant-negative mutant RNase L were used to examine the effects of RNase L on PV replication. PV replication was not inhibited by RNase L activity, but rRNA cleavage characteristic of RNase L activity was detected late during the course of PV infection, after assembly of intracellular virus. Rather than inhibiting PV replication, RNase L activity was associated with larger plaques and better cell-to-cell spread. Mutations in the RNA structure associated with the inhibition of RNase L did not affect the magnitude of PV replication in HeLa cells expressing RNase L, consistent with the absence of observed RNase L activity until after virus assembly. Thus, PV carries an RNA structure in the 3C protease ORF that potently inhibits the endonuclease activity of RNase L, but this RNA structure does not prevent RNase L activity late during the course of infection, as virus assembly nears completion.

  19. Controlling the stoichiometry and strand polarity of a tetramolecular G-quadruplex structure by using a DNA origami frame

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Arivazhagan; Endo, Masayuki; Hidaka, Kumi; Lan Thao Tran, Phong; Mergny, Jean-Louis; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Guanine-rich oligonucleotides often show a strong tendency to form supramolecular architecture, the so-called G-quadruplex structure. Because of the biological significance, it is now considered to be one of the most important conformations of DNA. Here, we describe the direct visualization and single-molecule analysis of the formation of a tetramolecular G-quadruplex in KCl solution. The conformational changes were carried out by incorporating two duplex DNAs, with G–G mismatch repeats in the middle, inside a DNA origami frame and monitoring the topology change of the strands. In the absence of KCl, incorporated duplexes had no interaction and laid parallel to each other. Addition of KCl induced the formation of a G-quadruplex structure by stably binding the duplexes to each other in the middle. Such a quadruplex formation allowed the DNA synapsis without disturbing the duplex regions of the participating sequences, and resulted in an X-shaped structure that was monitored by atomic force microscopy. Further, the G-quadruplex formation in KCl solution and its disruption in KCl-free buffer were analyzed in real-time. The orientation of the G-quadruplex is often difficult to control and investigate using traditional biochemical methods. However, our method using DNA origami could successfully control the strand orientations, topology and stoichiometry of the G-quadruplex. PMID:23863846

  20. Applying Structural Systems Thinking to Frame Perspectives on Social Work Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Stringfellow, Erin J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Innovation will be key to the success of the Grand Challenges Initiative in social work. A structural systems framework based in system dynamics could be useful for considering how to advance innovation. Method Diagrams using system dynamics conventions were developed to link common themes across concept papers written by social work faculty members and graduate students (N = 19). Results Transdisciplinary teams and ethical partnerships with communities and practitioners will be needed to responsibly develop high-quality innovative solutions. A useful next step would be to clarify to what extent factors that could “make or break” these partnerships arise from within versus outside of the field of social work and how this has changed over time. Conclusions Advancing innovation in social work will mean making decisions in a complex, ever-changing system. Principles and tools from methods that account for complexity, such as system dynamics, can help improve this decision-making process. PMID:28298877

  1. Applying Structural Systems Thinking to Frame Perspectives on Social Work Innovation.

    PubMed

    Stringfellow, Erin J

    2017-03-01

    Innovation will be key to the success of the Grand Challenges Initiative in social work. A structural systems framework based in system dynamics could be useful for considering how to advance innovation. Diagrams using system dynamics conventions were developed to link common themes across concept papers written by social work faculty members and graduate students (N = 19). Transdisciplinary teams and ethical partnerships with communities and practitioners will be needed to responsibly develop high-quality innovative solutions. A useful next step would be to clarify to what extent factors that could "make or break" these partnerships arise from within versus outside of the field of social work and how this has changed over time. Advancing innovation in social work will mean making decisions in a complex, ever-changing system. Principles and tools from methods that account for complexity, such as system dynamics, can help improve this decision-making process.

  2. Frame junction vibration transmission with a modified frame deformation model.

    PubMed

    Moore, J A

    1990-12-01

    A previous paper dealt with vibration transmission through junctions of connected frame members where the allowed frame deformations included bending, torsion, and longitudinal motions [J.A. Moore, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 2766-2776 (1990)]. In helicopter and aircraft structures the skin panels can constitute a high impedance connection along the length of the frames that effectively prohibits in-plane motion at the elevation of the skin panels. This has the effect of coupling in-plane bending and torsional motions within the frame. This paper discusses the transmission behavior through frame junctions that accounts for the in-plane constraint in idealized form by assuming that the attached skin panels completely prohibit inplane motion in the frames. Also, transverse shear deformation is accounted for in describing the relatively deep web frame constructions common in aircraft structures. Longitudinal motion in the frames is not included in the model. Transmission coefficient predictions again show the importance of out-of-plane bending deformation to the transmission of vibratory energy in an aircraft structure. Comparisons are shown with measured vibration transmission data along the framing in the overhead of a helicopter airframe, with good agreement. The frame junction description has been implemented within a general purpose statistical energy analysis (SEA) computer code in modeling the entire airframe structure including skin panels.

  3. Current and Future Applications of Mechanical Fasteners for Light-Frame Wood Structures: Proceedings of Mechanical Fasteners Plenary Session at the Forest Products Research Society Annual Meeting

    Treesearch

    Leslie H. Groom; [Compiler

    1993-01-01

    The title of this publication-"Current and Future Applications of Mechanical Fasteners for Light-Frame Wood Structures" is the theme of this plenary session from the 1991 annual meeting of the Forest Products Research Society (FPRS). This theme was chosen to address current issues in the forest products industry: changing design codes, fastener performance,...

  4. Structural analysis and evolution of the Hadong-Sancheong-Hwagae area in the Yeongnam massif, Korea: a NS-trend tectonic frame in the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deok-Seon, Lee; Ji-Hoon, Kang

    2016-04-01

    The Hadong-Sancheong-Hwagae area in the Jirisan province of the Yeongnam massif, Korea, is mainly composed of Precambrian Hadong anorthosite complex (HAC), Precambrian Jirisan metamorphic rock complex (JMRC), Jurassic˜Triassic granitoids which intrude them, and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks which unconformably cover them. Lithofacies distribution and tectonic frame of the Precambrian constituent rocks mainly show a NS trend, unlike a general NE trend of those in the Korean Peninsula. To unravel the geological structures associated with the NS-trend tectonic frame which was built in the HAC and JMRC, we researched the structural characteristics of each deformation phase based on the geometric and kinematic features and the forming sequence of rock structures of the multi-deformed HAC and JMRC. The results indicate that the pre-Late Paleozoic geological structures of this area were formed at least through the following three times of ductile deformation phases. The D1 deformation happened due to the large-scale top-to-the SE shearing, and formed sheath or A-type folds and a regional NE trend of tectonic frame in the HAC and JMRC. The D2 deformation occurred under the EW-directed tectonic compression, and formed a regional NS trend of active and passive folds and Hadong ductile shear zone over 2.3˜1.4 km width, and transposed most of D1 tectonic frame into D1-2 composite tectonic frame. The extensive Hadong shear zone, which was formed in the mylonitization process accompanying the passive folding, was persistently developed along the eastern boundary of HAC and JMRC which corresponds to a limb of passive fold on a geological map scale. It produced a very strong mylonitic structure and stretching lineation. The NE-trend D1 structural elements were mainly reoriented into NS trend by the powerful active and passive folding. The D3 deformation occurred under the NS-trend tectonic compression environment, and formed EW-trend kink or open folds, and partially rearranged

  5. Cracking in Concrete near Joints in Steelconcrete Composite Slab / Zarysowanie Płyty Żelbetowej W Strefie Przywęzłowej Stropu Zespolonego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedośpiał, Marcin; Knauff, Michał; Barcewicz, Wioleta

    2015-03-01

    In this paper results of the experimental tests of four full-scale composite steel-concrete elements are reported. In the steel-concrete composite elements, a steel beam was connected with a slab cast on profiled sheeting, by shear studs. The end-plates were (the thickness of 8 mm, 10 mm and 12 mm) thinner than in ordinary design. Joints between the column and the beams have been designed as semi-rigid, i.e. the deformations of endplates affect the distribution of forces in the adjacent parts of the slab. The paper presents the theory of cracking in reinforced concrete and steel-concrete composite members (according to the codes), view of crack pattern on the surface of the slabs and a comparison of the tests results and the code calculations. It was observed, that some factors influencing on crack widths are not taken in Eurocode 4 (which is based on Eurocode 2 with taking into account the phenomenon called "tension stiffening"). W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań czterech elementów zespolonych. Kształtownik stalowy połączony był z betonowym stropem wykonanym na blasze fałdowej. W modelu zastosowano cienkie blachy czołowe (o grubości 8 mm, 10 mm i 12 mm), cieńsze niż zwykle przyjmowane w praktyce projektowej. Połączenie to zaprojektowano jako podatne tzn. takie, w którym odkształcenia blach czołowych mają istotny wpływ na rozkład sił w połączeniu. Przedstawiono normową teorię dotyczącą zarysowania elementów żelbetowych i zespolonych, obraz zarysowania stropu oraz porównano otrzymane wyniki z obliczeniami wykonanymi wg aktualnych norm. Zauważono, iż nie wszystkie czynniki obliczania szerokości rys w konstrukcjach zespolonych są zdefiniowane w normie projektowania konstrukcji zespolonych (która w tej kwestii odwołuje się do normy projektowania konstrukcji żelbetowych z uwzględnieniem zjawiska "tension stiffening").

  6. The influence of cross-order terms in interface mobilities for structure-borne sound source characterization: Frame-like structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonhoff, H. A.; Petersson, B. A. T.

    2009-01-01

    The applicability of interface mobilities for structure-borne sound source characterization critically depends on the admissibility of neglecting the cross-order terms. Following on from a previous study [H.A. Bonhoff, B.A.T. Petersson, Journal of Sound and Vibration 311 (2008) 473-484], the influence of the cross-order terms is investigated for frame-like structures under the assumption of a uniform force-order distribution. Considering the complex power, the cross-order terms are significant from intermediate frequencies on upwards. At lower frequencies, the cross-order terms can come into play for cases where the in-phase motion of the structure along the interface is constrained. The frequency characteristics of the influence of cross-order terms for the zero-order source descriptor and coupling function are similar to those of the complex power. For non-zero source descriptor and coupling function orders, the quality of the equal-order approximation mainly depends on the presence of low-order cross-order interface mobilities. By analyzing the symmetry of an interface system, it is possible to predict which cross-order terms are equal to zero. The equal-order approximation manages to capture the main trends and overall characteristics and offers an acceptable estimate for engineering practice.

  7. Connection Capacity of the Transition Zone in Steel-Concrete Hybrid Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozioł, Piotr; Kożuch, Maciej; Lorenc, Wojciech; Rowiński, Sławomir

    2017-06-01

    The problem of transition zone of structural steel element connected to concrete is discussed in the following paper. This zone may be located for instance in specific bridge composite girder. In such case the composite beam passes smoothly into concrete beam. Because of several dowels usage in the transition zone, the problem of uneven force distribution were discussed through analogy to bolted and welded connections. The authors present innovative solution of transition zone and discuss the results, with emphasis put on the transition zone structural response in term of bending capacity, failure model and force distribution on the connection length. The article wider the already executed experimental test and presents its newest results.

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1002 - Protective frames (roll-over protective structures, known as ROPS) for wheel-type agricultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... produced by using a 4,410-lb (2,000-kg) weight acting as a pendulum. The impact face of the weight shall be... the center of gravity of the pendulum will swing, or more than one restraining cable shall give a... to the side on the same frame. The pendulum dropped from the height (see the definition of “H”...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.1002 - Protective frames (roll-over protective structures, known as ROPS) for wheel-type agricultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... produced by using a 4,410-lb (2,000-kg) weight acting as a pendulum. The impact face of the weight shall be... the center of gravity of the pendulum will swing, or more than one restraining cable shall give a... to the side on the same frame. The pendulum dropped from the height (see the definition of “H”...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1002 - Protective frames (roll-over protective structures, known as ROPS) for wheel-type agricultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... produced by using a 4,410-lb (2,000-kg) weight acting as a pendulum. The impact face of the weight shall be... the center of gravity of the pendulum will swing, or more than one restraining cable shall give a... to the side on the same frame. The pendulum dropped from the height (see the definition of “H”...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.1002 - Protective frames (roll-over protective structures, known as ROPS) for wheel-type agricultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... produced by using a 4,410-lb (2,000-kg) weight acting as a pendulum. The impact face of the weight shall be... the center of gravity of the pendulum will swing, or more than one restraining cable shall give a... to the side on the same frame. The pendulum dropped from the height (see the definition of “H”...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1002 - Protective frames (roll-over protective structures, known as ROPS) for wheel-type agricultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... produced by using a 4,410-lb (2,000-kg) weight acting as a pendulum. The impact face of the weight shall be... the center of gravity of the pendulum will swing, or more than one restraining cable shall give a... to the side on the same frame. The pendulum dropped from the height (see the definition of “H”...

  13. Frame for a firearm

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, David L [Idaho Falls, ID; Watson, Richard W [Blackfoot, ID

    2008-03-04

    A firearm frame which is adapted to be disposed in operative relationship as a component part of a firearm, the firearm having disposed in operative relationships each with one or more of the others, a barrel, a receiver, and at least one firing mechanism; wherein the barrel and receiver form operative parts of a movable assembly and the at least one firing mechanism is disposed in a substantially stationary operative relationship therewith; the firearm frame including at least one elongated support structure discrete from the barrel and receiver, the elongated support structure being adapted to directly support the movable assembly in an operative movable relationship therewith; whereby at least one of the barrel and receiver is in direct contact with and movable on the elongated support structure; and, a firing mechanism support structure connected to the at least one elongated support structure, the firing mechanism support structure being adapted to have the firing mechanism connected thereto; the firearm frame also directly supporting the movable assembly and the firing mechanism in corresponding movable and stationary operative relationships each with the other.

  14. Reference Frames and Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford

    1989-01-01

    Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

  15. Reference Frames and Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford

    1989-01-01

    Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

  16. A prospective interrupted time series study of interventions to improve the quality, rating, framing and structure of goal-setting in community-based brain injury rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Hassett, Leanne; Simpson, Grahame; Cotter, Rachel; Whiting, Diane; Hodgkinson, Adeline; Martin, Diane

    2015-04-01

    To investigate whether the introduction of an electronic goals system followed by staff training improved the quality, rating, framing and structure of goals written by a community-based brain injury rehabilitation team. Interrupted time series design. Two interventions were introduced six months apart. The first intervention comprised the introduction of an electronic goals system. The second intervention comprised a staff goal training workshop. An audit protocol was devised to evaluate the goals. A random selection of goal statements from the 12 months prior to the interventions (Time 1 baseline) were compared with all goal statements written after the introduction of the electronic goals system (Time 2) and staff training (Time 3). All goals were de-identified for client and time-period, and randomly ordered. A total of 745 goals (Time 1 n = 242; Time 2 n = 283; Time 3 n = 220) were evaluated. Compared with baseline, the introduction of the electronic goals system alone significantly increased goal rating, framing and structure (χ(2) tests 144.7, 18.9, 48.1, respectively, p < 0.001). The addition of staff training meant that the improvement in goal quality, which was only a trend at Time 2, was statistically significant at Time 3 (χ(2) 15.0, p ≤ 001). The training also led to a further significant increase in the framing and structuring of goals over the electronic goals system (χ(2) 11.5, 12.5, respectively, p ≤ 0.001). An electronic goals system combined with staff training improved the quality, rating, framing and structure of goal statements. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Mars Science Laboratory Frame Manager for Centralized Frame Tree Database and Target Pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Leger, Chris; Peters, Stephen; Carsten, Joseph; Diaz-Calderon, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The FM (Frame Manager) flight software module is responsible for maintaining the frame tree database containing coordinate transforms between frames. The frame tree is a proper tree structure of directed links, consisting of surface and rover subtrees. Actual frame transforms are updated by their owner. FM updates site and saved frames for the surface tree. As the rover drives to a new area, a new site frame with an incremented site index can be created. Several clients including ARM and RSM (Remote Sensing Mast) update their related rover frames that they own. Through the onboard centralized FM frame tree database, client modules can query transforms between any two frames. Important applications include target image pointing for RSM-mounted cameras and frame-referenced arm moves. The use of frame tree eliminates cumbersome, error-prone calculations of coordinate entries for commands and thus simplifies flight operations significantly.

  18. Mars Science Laboratory Frame Manager for Centralized Frame Tree Database and Target Pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Leger, Chris; Peters, Stephen; Carsten, Joseph; Diaz-Calderon, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The FM (Frame Manager) flight software module is responsible for maintaining the frame tree database containing coordinate transforms between frames. The frame tree is a proper tree structure of directed links, consisting of surface and rover subtrees. Actual frame transforms are updated by their owner. FM updates site and saved frames for the surface tree. As the rover drives to a new area, a new site frame with an incremented site index can be created. Several clients including ARM and RSM (Remote Sensing Mast) update their related rover frames that they own. Through the onboard centralized FM frame tree database, client modules can query transforms between any two frames. Important applications include target image pointing for RSM-mounted cameras and frame-referenced arm moves. The use of frame tree eliminates cumbersome, error-prone calculations of coordinate entries for commands and thus simplifies flight operations significantly.

  19. Experimental investigations on steel-concrete composite columns for varying parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparna, V.; Vivek, D.; Neelima, Kancharla; Karthikeyan, B.

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the experimental investigations on steel tubes filled with different types of concrete are presented. Steel tubes filled with fibre reinforced concrete using lathe waste and steel tube with concerned confined with steel mesh were investigated. The combinations were compared with steel tubes with conventional concrete. A total of 4 concrete filled steel tube (CFST) combinations were made with tubes of diameter 100 mm with wall thickness 1.6 mm and a height of 300 mm. Axial compression test to examine the resisting capacity of the columns and push-out test for noting the bond strength were performed. Coupon tests were also conducted to determine the mechanical properties of steel. The structural behaviour of the composite columns was evaluated from on the test results. It was observed that steel tube filled fibre reinforced possessed better bond strength and resistance to axial load.

  20. Computer-Aided Structural Engineering (CASE) Project: Investigation and Design of U-Frame Structures Using Program CUFRBC. Volume C. User’s Guide for Channels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    a two-dimensional frame analysis of a 1-ft slice of the U-frame. Z The soil loa ing on the walls may be obtained by empirical coefficients, active...drains and anchors may be included, and the program offers a variety of options concerning the computation of soil pressures. Thus, the program has...Program. C. METHODS The soil loading on the walls may be obtained by empirical coeffi- cients, active or passive wedge analyses with corrections for

  1. Fatigue experience from tests carried out with forged beam and frame structures in the development of the Saab aircraft Viggen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsson, S. E.

    1972-01-01

    A part of the lower side of the main wing at the joint of the main spar with the fuselage frame was investigated. This wing beam area was simulated by a test specimen consisting of a spar boom of AZ 74 forging (7075 aluminum alloy modified with 0.3 percent Ag) and a portion of a honeycomb sandwich panel attached to the boom flange with steel bolts. The cross section was reduced to half scale. However, the flange thickness, the panel height, and the bolt size were full scale. Further, left and right portions of the fuselage frame intended to carry over the bending moment of the main wing were tested. Each of these frame halves consisted of a forward and a rear forging (7079 aluminum alloy, overaged) connected by an outer and inner skin (Alclad 7075) creating a box beam. These test specimens were full scale and were constructed principally of ordinary aircraft components. The test load spectrum was common to both types of specimens with regard to percentage levels. It consisted of maneuver and gust loads, touchdown loads, and loads due to ground roughness. A load history of 200 hours of flight with 15,000 load cycles was punched on a tape. The loads were randomized in groups according to the flight-by-flight principle. The highest positive load level was 90 percent of limit load and the largest negative load was -27 percent. A total of 20 load levels were used. Both types of specimens were provided with strain gages and had a nominal stress of about 300 MN/sq m in some local areas. As a result of the tests, steps were taken to reduce the risk of fatigue damage in aircraft. Thus stress levels were lowered, radii were increased, and demands on surface finish were sharpened.

  2. Using Hyperspectral Frame Images from Unmanned Airborne Vehicle for Detailed Measurement of Boreal Forest 3D Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Raquel A.; Tommaselli, Antonio M. G.; Honkavaara, Eija

    2016-10-01

    Objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of using multi-image matching and information extracted from image classification to improve strategies in generation of point clouds of 3D forest scene. Image data sets were collected by a Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPI) based hyperspectral frame camera on-board a UAV in a boreal forest area. The results of the new method are analysed and compared with commercial software and LiDAR data. Experiments showed that the point clouds generated with the proposed algorithm fitted better with the LiDAR data at the ground level, which is favourable for digital terrain model (DTM) extraction.

  3. Prediction of seismic collapse risk of steel moment frame mid-rise structures by meta-heuristic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jough, Fooad Karimi Ghaleh; Şensoy, Serhan

    2016-12-01

    Different performance levels may be obtained for sideway collapse evaluation of steel moment frames depending on the evaluation procedure used to handle uncertainties. In this article, the process of representing modelling uncertainties, record to record (RTR) variations and cognitive uncertainties for moment resisting steel frames of various heights is discussed in detail. RTR uncertainty is used by incremental dynamic analysis (IDA), modelling uncertainties are considered through backbone curves and hysteresis loops of component, and cognitive uncertainty is presented in three levels of material quality. IDA is used to evaluate RTR uncertainty based on strong ground motion records selected by the k-means algorithm, which is favoured over Monte Carlo selection due to its time saving appeal. Analytical equations of the Response Surface Method are obtained through IDA results by the Cuckoo algorithm, which predicts the mean and standard deviation of the collapse fragility curve. The Takagi-Sugeno-Kang model is used to represent material quality based on the response surface coefficients. Finally, collapse fragility curves with the various sources of uncertainties mentioned are derived through a large number of material quality values and meta variables inferred by the Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy model based on response surface method coefficients. It is concluded that a better risk management strategy in countries where material quality control is weak, is to account for cognitive uncertainties in fragility curves and the mean annual frequency.

  4. Seismic fragility assessment of RC frame structure designed according to modern Chinese code for seismic design of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, D.; Tesfamariam, S.; Stiemer, S. F.; Qin, D.

    2012-09-01

    Following several damaging earthquakes in China, research has been devoted to find the causes of the collapse of reinforced concrete (RC) building sand studying the vulnerability of existing buildings. The Chinese Code for Seismic Design of Buildings (CCSDB) has evolved over time, however, there is still reported earthquake induced damage of newly designed RC buildings. Thus, to investigate modern Chinese seismic design code, three low-, mid- and high-rise RC frames were designed according to the 2010 CCSDB and the corresponding vulnerability curves were derived by computing a probabilistic seismic demand model (PSDM).The PSDM was computed by carrying out nonlinear time history analysis using thirty ground motions obtained from the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center. Finally, the PSDM was used to generate fragility curves for immediate occupancy, significant damage, and collapse prevention damage levels. Results of the vulnerability assessment indicate that the seismic demands on the three different frames designed according to the 2010 CCSDB meet the seismic requirements and are almost in the same safety level.

  5. Efficient Restoration of the Dystrophin Gene Reading Frame and Protein Structure in DMD Myoblasts Using the CinDel Method

    PubMed Central

    Iyombe-Engembe, Jean-Paul; Ouellet, Dominique L; Barbeau, Xavier; Rousseau, Joël; Chapdelaine, Pierre; Lagüe, Patrick; Tremblay, Jacques P

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a great revolution in biology. This technology allows the modification of genes in vitro and in vivo in a wide variety of living organisms. In most Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, expression of dystrophin (DYS) protein is disrupted because exon deletions result in a frame shift. We present here the CRISPR-induced deletion (CinDel), a new promising genome-editing technology to correct the DMD gene. This strategy is based on the use of two gRNAs targeting specifically exons that precede and follow the patient deletion in the DMD gene. This pair of gRNAs induced a precise large additional deletion leading to fusion of the targeted exons. Using an adequate pair of gRNAs, the deletion of parts of these exons and the intron separating them restored the DMD reading frame in 62% of the hybrid exons in vitro in DMD myoblasts and in vivo in electroporated hDMD/mdx mice. Moreover, adequate pairs of gRNAs also restored the normal spectrin-like repeat of the dystrophin rod domain; such restoration is not obtained by exon skipping or deletion of complete exons. The expression of an internally deleted DYS protein was detected following the formation of myotubes by the unselected, treated DMD myoblasts. Given that CinDel induces permanent reparation of the DMD gene, this treatment would not have to be repeated as it is the case for exon skipping induced by oligonucleotides. PMID:26812655

  6. Electronic Structure of Rh(2)(&mgr;-CO)(CO)(2)(H(2)PCH(2)PH(2))(2). An Example of a Non-A-Frame Structure.

    PubMed

    Bo, Carles; Costas, Miquel; Poblet, Josep M.; Rohmer, Marie-Mad.; Benard, Marc

    1996-05-22

    Calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock configuration interaction (HF-CI) methodology have been carried out to investigate the rhodium-rhodium coupling in Rh(2)(CO)(2)(dppm)(2), 1 (dppm = Ph(2)PCH(2)PPh(2)) and in Rh(2)(&mgr;-CO)(CO)(2)(dppm)(2), 2. DFT geometries, obtained with the Dgauss program, are in good agreement with those determined from X-ray, but HF geometries, calculated using the same basis sets, yield bond distances systematically too long. Calculations indicate that the rhodium atoms in 1 are linked by a single bond. The insertion of a semibridging carbonyl between the two metal atoms leads to a shortening of the rhodium-rhodium distance and also to a noticeable weakening of the metal-metal interaction. Both effects, and also the stabilization of the HOMO of 2, are related to an observed change from square planar to tetrahedral of the ligand environment of the Rh atom proximal to the inserted CO. Both MO analysis and bond characterization from the topology of the charge density confirm the existence of a bonding interaction between the semibridging carbonyl and the distal rhodium atom. The electronic structures of the dicationic complex [Rh(2)(CO)(3)(dppm)(2)](2+) and of the A-frame-like, isoelectronic system Rh(2)Br(2)(&mgr;-CO) (dppm)(2) are also discussed. The electron deformation density is derived from 2 by means of several methodological approaches, namely, HF, HF-CI, DFT, and DFT + gradient corrections. The HF deformation density obtained in the plane containing the metals and the three CO ligands is discussed, as well as the "correlation density" obtained from the difference maps DFT - HF and CI - HF.

  7. [The framing effect: medical implications].

    PubMed

    Mazzocco, Ketti; Cherubini, Paolo; Rumiati, Rino

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, many studies explored how the way information is presented modifies choices. This sort of effect, referred to as "framing effects", typically consists of the inversion of choices when presenting structurally identical decision problems in different ways. It is a common assumption that physicians are unaffected (or less affected) by the surface description of a decision problem, because they are formally trained in medical decision making. However, several studies showed that framing effects occur even in the medical field. The complexity and variability of these effects are remarkable, making it necessary to distinguish among different framing effects, depending on whether the effect is obtained by modifying adjectives (attribute framing), goals of a behavior (goal framing), or the probability of an outcome (risky choice framing). A further reason for the high variability of the framing effects seems to be the domain of the decision problem, with different effects occurring in prevention decisions, disease-detection decisions, and treatment decisions. The present work reviews the studies on framing effects, in order to summarize them and clarify their possible role in medical decision making.

  8. Evaluation and the Framing of Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Ernest R.

    2017-01-01

    Racial framing can have strong effects on programs, policies, and even evaluations. Racial framing developed as a justification for the exploitation of minorities and has been a primary causal factor in the persistence of racism. By being aware of its pattern, structure, origins, and how racial framing generates effects, we can significantly…

  9. Popcorn Story Frames from a Multicultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLella, Carol Ann

    Popcorn story frames from a multicultural perspective are holistic outlines that in the reading/writing process facilitate comprehension for all cultures learning to read and write stories. Popcorn story frames are structured and modeled in a horizontal fashion just like popcorn pops in a horizontal fashion. The frames are designed for learners…

  10. The complete nucleotide sequence of PEBV RNA2 reveals the presence of a novel open reading frame and provides insights into the structure of tobraviral subgenomic promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Goulden, M G; Lomonossoff, G P; Davies, J W; Wood, K R

    1990-01-01

    The 3374 nucleotide sequence of RNA2 from the British PEBV strain SP5 has been determined. The RNA includes three open reading frames flanked by 5' and 3' noncoding regions of 509 and 480 nucleotides. The open reading frames specify coat protein, a 29.6K product homologous to the 29.1K product of TRV(TCM) RNA2 and a 23K product not homologous to any previously described protein. The homology demonstrated between the coat proteins of PRV, TRV and PEBV indicates a common evolutionary origin for these proteins. Upstream of each ORF are located sequences homologous to those with which subgenomic RNAs of other tobraviruses start. Subgenomic RNAs for the expression of the three ORFs may start at these points. On all five tobraviral RNA2 molecules sequenced to date, these sequences were found upstream of the coat protein ORF in association with a strongly-conserved potential secondary structural element. Similar potential structures were identified upstream of other tobraviral ORFs. These structures may contribute to the activity of the tobraviral subgenomic promoter. Images PMID:2388830

  11. Pushover Analysis of GFRP Pultruded Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalegno, C.; Russo, S.

    2015-11-01

    Results of a pushover analysis of GFRP pultruded frames aimed at the evaluation of their overall ductility are presented. It is assumed that the dissipation capacity of the frame structures is concentrated in joints due to their nonlinear behavior induced by progressive damage, while a brittle-elastic behavior is assumed for frame members. A two-storey one-bay GFRP pultruded frame is considered for a case study in which the column-base and beam-column joints are modeled with nonlinear rotational springs with different moment-rotation laws derived from experimental results available in the literature. For comparison, frames with hinged connections and moment-resisting frames are also analyzed. Finally, the results obtained are compared with those for a similar steel frame. The final results bear witness, in particular, to the absence of a significant ductility of pultruded frames and the relevant influence of the characteristics of bracings on their structural response.

  12. Ethical considerations for a better collaboration between architects and structural engineers: design of buildings with reinforced concrete frame systems in earthquake zones.

    PubMed

    Hurol, Yonca

    2014-06-01

    Architects design building structures, although structural design is the profession of structural engineers. Thus, it is better for architects and structural engineers to collaborate starting from the initial phases of the architectural design. However, this is not very common because of the contradictory design processes and value systems held within the two professions. This article provides a platform upon which architects and structural engineers can resolve the value conflicts between them by analysing phases of the structural design of reinforced concrete frame systems in architecture, the criteria of the structural design for each phase and determining the conflicting values for each criterion. The results shown in the article demonstrate that the architectural design of structures is a complex process, which is based on contradictory values and value systems. Finally, the article suggests to architects and structural engineers to use Value Sensitive Design and to choose an appropriate team leader in order to resolve the unethical conflict between them and to avoid any unreasonable decision making.

  13. Limit Analysis of Geometrically Hardening Composite Steel-Concrete Systems / Stany Graniczne Geometrycznie Wzmacniających Się Konstrukcji Zespolonych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawdin, Piotr; Urbańska, Krystyna

    2015-03-01

    The paper considers some results of creating load-carrying composite systems that have uprated strength, rigidity and safety, and therefore are called geometrically (self-) hardening systems. The optimization mathematic models of structures as discrete mechanical systems withstanding dead load, monotonic or low cyclic static and kinematic actions are proposed. To find limit parameters of these actions the extreme energetic principle is suggested what result in the bilevel mathematic programming problem statement. The limit parameters of load actions are found on the first level of optimization. On the second level the power of the constant load with equilibrium preloading is maximized and/or system cost is minimized. The examples of using the proposed methods are presented and geometrically hardening composite steel-concrete system are taken into account. W pracy przedstawiono sposoby projektowania konstrukcji, które ze względu na swoją geometrię oraz topologię posiadają podwyższoną nośność, sztywność i bezpieczeństwo. Systemy takie nazwano geometrycznie (samo-) wzmacniającymi się. Zaproponowano optymalizacyjne modele matematyczne konstrukcji jako dyskretne systemy mechaniczne będące pod obciążeniem stałym, zmiennym monotoniczne lub niskocyklowym, statycznym lub kinematycznym. Dla znalezienia granicznych parametrów obciążeń wprowadzona została ekstremalna zasada energetyczna, przedstawiona jako problem dwupoziomowego programowania matematycznego. Graniczne parametry obciążeń szukane są na pierwszym poziomie optymalizacji. Na drugim poziomie minimalizowany jest koszt systemu i/lub maksymalizowana jest moc stałego równoważącego obciążenia z dociążeniem. Ponadto w pracy przeanalizowano numerycznie i analitycznie zachowanie konstrukcji geometrycznie wzmacniających się na przykładzie konstrukcji zespolonych stalowobetonowych. Pierwszy przykład dotyczy konstrukcji belkowo-prętowej z podciągiem, belkę stanowi stalowy dwuteownik

  14. Aircraft Wood Structures, Covering and Finishing Methods (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics 2 (Air Frame): 9065.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with aircraft wood structures and related Federal Aviation Agency requirements. Topics outlined are identification of defects on wood samples, defining terms used on wood structures, inspecting wood structure together with servicing and repair of wood…

  15. Fabric panel clean change-out frame

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ronald M.

    1995-01-31

    A fabric panel clean change-out frame, for use on a containment structure having rigid walls, is formed of a compression frame and a closure panel. The frame is formed of elongated spacers, each carrying a plurality of closely spaced flat springs, and each having a hooked lip extending on the side of the spring facing the spacer. The closure panel is includes a perimeter frame formed of flexible, wedge-shaped frame members that are receivable under the springs to deflect the hooked lips. A groove on the flexible frame members engages the hooked lips and locks the frame members in place under the springs. A flexible fabric panel is connected to the flexible frame members and closes its center.

  16. Putting Safety in the Frame

    PubMed Central

    O’Keeffe, Valerie Jean; Thompson, Kirrilly Rebecca; Tuckey, Michelle Rae; Blewett, Verna Lesley

    2015-01-01

    Current patient safety policy focuses nursing on patient care goals, often overriding nurses’ safety. Without understanding how nurses construct work health and safety (WHS), patient and nurse safety cannot be reconciled. Using ethnography, we examine social contexts of safety, studying 72 nurses across five Australian hospitals making decisions during patient encounters. In enacting safe practice, nurses used “frames” built from their contextual experiences to guide their behavior. Frames are produced by nurses, and they structure how nurses make sense of their work. Using thematic analysis, we identify four frames that inform nurses’ decisions about WHS: (a) communicating builds knowledge, (b) experiencing situations guides decisions, (c) adapting procedures streamlines work, and (d) team working promotes safe working. Nurses’ frames question current policy and practice by challenging how nurses’ safety is positioned relative to patient safety. Recognizing these frames can assist the design and implementation of effective WHS management. PMID:28462311

  17. Vibrations of elastically restrained frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarracín, Carlos Marcelo; Grossi, Ricardo Oscar

    2005-07-01

    This paper deals with the determination of eigenfrequencies of a frame which consists of a beam supported by a column and is submitted to intermediate elastic constraints. The ends of the frame are elastically restrained against rotation and translation. The individual members of the frame are assumed to be governed by the transverse and axial vibration theory of an Euler-Bernoulli beam. The boundary and eigenvalue problem which governs the dynamical behavior of the frame structure is derived using the techniques of calculus of variations. Exact values of eigenfrequencies are determined by the application of the separation of variables method. Also, results are obtained by the use of the finite element method. The natural frequencies and mode shapes are presented for a wide range of values of the restraint parameters. Several particular cases are presented and some of these have been compared with those available in the literature.

  18. Nonlinear pushover analysis of infilled concrete frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao Hsun; Tuan, Yungting Alex; Hsu, Ruo Yun

    2006-12-01

    Six reinforced concrete frames with or without masonry infills were constructed and tested under horizontal cyclic loads. All six frames had identical details in which the transverse reinforcement in columns was provided by rectangular hoops that did not meet current ACI specifications for ductile frames. For comparison purposes, the columns in three of these frames were jacketed by carbon-fiber-reinforced-polymer (CFRP) sheets to avoid possible shear failure. A nonlinear pushover analysis, in which the force-deformation relationships of individual elements were developed based on ACI 318, FEMA 356, and Chen’s model, was carried out for these frames and compared to test results. Both the failure mechanisms and impact of infills on the behaviors of these frames were examined in the study. Conclusions from the present analysis provide structural engineers with valuable information for evaluation and design of infilled concrete frame building structures.

  19. Open reading frame sequencing and structure-based alignment of polypeptides encoded by RT1-Bb, RT1-Ba, RT1-Db, and RT1-Da alleles.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Ruth A; Moustakas, Antonis K; Lobaton, Suzanne D

    2004-11-01

    MHC class II genes are major genetic components in rats developing autoimmunity. The majority of rat MHC class II sequencing has focused on exon 2, which forms the first external domain. Sequence of the complete open reading frame for rat MHC class II haplotypes and structure-based alignment is lacking. Herein, the complete open reading frame for RT1-Bbeta, RT1-Balpha, RT1-Dbeta, and RT1-Dalpha was sequenced from ten different rat strains, covering eight serological haplotypes, namely a, b, c, d, k, l, n, and u. Each serological haplotype was unique at the nucleotide level of the sequenced RT1-B/D region. Within individual genes, the number of alleles identified was seven, seven, six, and three and the degree of amino-acid polymorphism between allotypes for each gene was 22%, 16%, 19%, and 0.4% for RT1-Bbeta, RT1-Balpha, RT1-Dbeta, and RT1-Dalpha, respectively. The extent and distribution of amino-acid polymorphism was comparable with mouse and human MHC class II. Structure-based alignment identified the beta65-66 deletion, the beta84a insertion, the alpha9a insertion, and the alpha1a-1c insertion in RT1-B previously described for H2-A. Rat allele-specific deletions were found at RT1-Balpha76 and RT1-Dbeta90-92. The mature RT1-Dbeta polypeptide was one amino acid longer than HLA-DRB1 due to the position of the predicted signal peptide cleavage site. These data are important to a comprehensive understanding of MHC class II structure-function and for mechanistic studies of rat models of autoimmunity.

  20. Automating Frame Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Franklin, Lyndsey; Tratz, Stephen C.; Danielson, Gary R.; Mileson, Nicholas D.; Riensche, Roderick M.; McGrath, Liam

    2008-04-01

    Frame Analysis has come to play an increasingly stronger role in the study of social movements in Sociology and Political Science. While significant steps have been made in providing a theory of frames and framing, a systematic characterization of the frame concept is still largely lacking and there are no rec-ognized criteria and methods that can be used to identify and marshal frame evi-dence reliably and in a time and cost effective manner. Consequently, current Frame Analysis work is still too reliant on manual annotation and subjective inter-pretation. The goal of this paper is to present an approach to the representation, acquisition and analysis of frame evidence which leverages Content Analysis, In-formation Extraction and Semantic Search methods to provide a systematic treat-ment of a Frame Analysis and automate frame annotation.

  1. Structural performance of light-frame roof assemblies. I, Truss assemblies designed for high variability and wood failure

    Treesearch

    R.W. Wolfe; Monica McCarthy

    1989-01-01

    The first report of a three-part series that covers results of a full-scale roof assemblies research program. The focus of this report is the structural performance of truss assemblies comprising trusses with abnormally high stiffness variability and critical joint strength. Results discussed include properties of truss members and connections. individual truss...

  2. 3,4-Bis(1-adamantyl)-1,2-dithiete: the first structurally characterized dithiete unsupported by a ring or benzenoid frame.

    PubMed

    Donahue, J P; Holm, R H

    1998-08-15

    The structure determination of 3,4-bis(1-adamantyl)-1,2-dithiete, (C10H15)2C2S2 or C22H30S2, reported herein is the first crystallographic characterization of a 1,2-dithiete molecule unsupported by a benzenoid frame. Two independent molecules exist in the asymmetric unit separated by a pseudo-inversion center. The S2C2 four-membered dithiete ring is planar, with a trapezoidal shape enforced by the longer disulfide bond [average 2.086 (2) A] compared with the olefinic bond [average 1.363 (6) A]. The adamantyl substituents differ from one another by adopting slightly different rotational conformations with respect to the dithiete ring. The quaternary C atoms of the adamantyl groups deviate only slightly from the plane of the dithiete ring (average displacement of 0.023 A).

  3. Strategy and Issue Frames in Election Campaign Coverage: A Social Cognitive Account of Framing Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, June Woong

    1997-01-01

    Examines how news frames in campaign coverage affect an individual's interpretation of campaigns. Conceptualizes framing effects in terms of a construction of a mental model and emphasizes how news interpretation is influenced by news texts and by interpreter's social knowledge. Explores message structures of the strategy and issue frames, and…

  4. Frame Dominance in Infants with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hapsburg, Deborah; Davis, Barbara L.; MacNeilage, Peter F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: According to the frames then content (f/c) hypothesis (P. F. MacNeilage & B. L. Davis, 1990), the internal structure of syllables with consonant plus vowel structure (CV) during canonical babbling is determined primarily by production system properties related to rhythmic mandibular oscillations ("motor frames"). The purpose of this study…

  5. Adding HDLC Framing to CCSDS Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Parise, Ron

    2004-01-01

    Current Space IP missions use High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) framing to provide standard serial link interfaces over a space link. HDLC is the standard framing technique used by all routers over clock and data serial lines and is also the basic framing used in all Frame Relay services which are widely deployed in national and international communication networks. In late 2003 a presentation was made to CCSDS committees to initiate discussion on including HDLC in the CCSDS recommendations for space systems. This presentation will summarize the differences between variable length HDLC frames and fixed length CCSDS frames. It will also discuss where and how HDLC framing would fit into the overall CCSDS structures.

  6. Space-Frame Lunar Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    The space-frame lunar lander was originally intended to (1) land on rough lunar terrain, (2) deform itself to conform to the terrain so as to be able to remain there in a stable position and orientation, and (3) if required, further deform itself to perform various functions. In principle, the space-frame lunar lander could be used in the same way on Earth, as might be required, for example, to place meteorological sensors or a radio-communication relay station on an otherwise inaccessible mountain peak. the space-frame lunar lander would include a truss-like structure consisting mostly of a tetrahedral mesh of nodes connected by variable-length struts, the lengths of which would be altered in coordination to impart the desired overall size and shape to the structure. Thrusters (that is, small rocket engines), propellant tanks, a control system, and instrumentation would be mounted in and on the structure (see figure). Once it had landed and deformed itself to the terrain through coordinated variations in the lengths of the struts, the structure could be further deformed into another space-frame structure

  7. FRAME: the early days.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Andrew N

    2009-12-01

    The article reviews the early history of FRAME from the perspective of its first "Scientific Administrator". The roles of Mrs Hegarty the founder, and other early contributors to FRAME's development are described. In addition, the article discusses FRAME's strategic approach to the subject and how Mrs Hegarty's background influenced the development of that approach.

  8. Effects of Topography and Geology on Shaking Damage to Wood Frame Residential Structures During the 2003 San Simeon Earthquake, Western San Luis Obispo County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrink, T. P.; Wills, C. J.; Real, C. R.; Manson, M. W.

    2009-12-01

    A statistical evaluation of shake damage to wood-frame houses caused by the 2003 M6.5 San Simeon earthquake indicates that both the rate and severity of damage, independent of structure type, is significantly greater on hilltops compared to hill slopes when underlain by Cretaceous or Tertiary sedimentary rocks. This increase in damage is interpreted to be the result of topographic amplification. An increase in the damage rate is found for all structures built on Plio-Pleistocene rocks independent of topographic position, and this is interpreted as the result of amplified shaking caused by geologic site response. Damage rate and severity to houses built on Tertiary rocks suggest that amplification due to both topographic position and geologic site response may be occurring in these rocks, but effects from other topographic parameters cannot be ruled out. In particular, higher slope curvature on hilltops, a characteristic feature of hills and ridges underlain by Tertiary rocks, also correlates with higher damage frequency. For all geologic and topographic conditions, houses with raised foundations are more frequently damaged than those with slab foundations. However, the severity of damage to houses on raised foundations is only significantly greater for those on hill slopes underlain by Tertiary rocks. Structures with some damage-resistant characteristics experienced greater damage severity on hilltops, suggesting a spectral response to topographic amplification.

  9. Effects of topographic position and geology on shaking damage to residential wood-framed structures during the 2003 San Simeon earthquake, western San Luis obispo county, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCrink, T.P.; Wills, C.J.; Real, C.R.; Manson, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    A statistical evaluation of shaking damage to wood-framed houses caused by the 2003 M6.5 San Simeon earthquake indicates that both the rate and severity of damage, independent of structure type, are significantly greater on hilltops compared to hill slopes when underlain by Cretaceous or Tertiary sedimentary rocks. This increase in damage is interpreted to be the result of topographic amplification. An increase in the damage rate is found for all structures built on Plio-Pleistocene rocks independent of topographic position, and this is interpreted to be the result of amplified shaking caused by geologic site response. Damage rate and severity to houses built on Tertiary rocks suggest that amplification due to both topographic position and geologic site response may be occurring in these rocks, but effects from other topographic parameters cannot be ruled out. For all geologic and topographic conditions, houses with raised foundations are more frequently damaged than those with slab foundations. However, the severity of damage to houses on raised foundations is only significantly greater for those on hill slopes underlain by Tertiary rocks. Structures with some damage-resistant characteristics experienced greater damage severity on hilltops, suggesting a spectral response to topographic amplification. ?? 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  10. Short Time Impulse Response Function (STIRF) for automatic evaluation of the variation of the dynamic parameters of reinforced concrete framed structures during strong earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco

    2015-04-01

    the results provided in this study, the methodology seems to be able to evaluate fast variations (over time) of dynamic parameters of a generic reinforced concrete framed structure. Further analyses are necessary to better calibrate the length of the moving time-window (in order to minimize the spurious frequency within each Interferometric Response Function evaluated on both weak and strong motion phases) and to verify the possibility to use the STIRF to analyse the nonlinear behaviour of general systems. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded by the Italian Civil Protection Department within the project DPC-RELUIS 2014 - RS4 ''Seismic observatory of structures and health monitoring''. References R. Ditommaso, F.C. Ponzo (2015). Automatic evaluation of the fundamental frequency variations and related damping factor of reinforced concrete framed structures using the Short Time Impulse Response Function (STIRF). Engineering Structures, 82 (2015), 104-112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2014.10.023.

  11. Pyramidal space frame and associated methods

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Ryan Michael; White, David; Farr, Jr, Adrian Lawrence

    2016-07-19

    A space frame having a high torsional strength comprising a first square bipyramid and two planar structures extending outward from an apex of the first square bipyramid to form a "V" shape is disclosed. Some embodiments comprise a plurality of edge-sharing square bipyramids configured linearly, where the two planar structures contact apexes of all the square bipyramids. A plurality of bridging struts, apex struts, corner struts and optional internal bracing struts increase the strength and rigidity of the space frame. In an embodiment, the space frame supports a solar reflector, such as a parabolic solar reflector. Methods of fabricating and using the space frames are also disclosed.

  12. Framing Effects: Dynamics and Task Domains

    PubMed

    Wang

    1996-11-01

    The author examines the mechanisms and dynamics of framing effects in risky choices across three distinct task domains (i.e., life-death, public property, and personal money). The choice outcomes of the problems presented in each of the three task domains had a binary structure of a sure thing vs a gamble of equal expected value; the outcomes differed in their framing conditions and the expected values, raging from 6000, 600, 60, to 6, numerically. It was hypothesized that subjects would become more risk seeking, if the sure outcome was below their aspiration level (the minimum requirement). As predicted, more subjects preferred the gamble when facing the life-death choice problems than facing the counterpart problems presented in the other two task domains. Subjects' risk preference varied categorically along the group size dimension in the life-death domain but changed more linearly over the expected value dimension in the monetary domain. Framing effects were observed in 7 of 13 pairs of problems, showing a positive frame-risk aversion and negative frame-risk seeking relationship. In addition, two types of framing effects were theoretically defined and empirically identified. A bidirectional framing effect involves a reversal in risk preference, and occurs when a decision maker's risk preference is ambiguous or weak. Four bidirectional effects were observed; in each case a majority of subjects preferred the sure outcome under a positive frame but the gamble under a negative frame. In contrast, a unidirectional framing effect refers to a preference shift due to the framing of choice outcomes: A majority of subjects preferred one choice outcome (either the sure thing or the gamble) under both framing conditions, with positive frame augmented the preference for the sure thing and negative frame augmented the preference for the gamble. These findings revealed some dynamic regularities of framing effects and posed implications for developing predictive and testable

  13. Design the Cost Approach in Trade-Off's for Structural Components, Illustrated on the Baseline Selection of the Engine Thrust Frame of Ariane 5 ESC-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appolloni, L.; Juhls, A.; Rieck, U.

    2002-01-01

    Designing for value is one of the very actual upcoming methods for design optimization, which broke into the domain of aerospace engineering in the late 90's. In the frame of designing for value two main design philosophies exist: Design For Cost and Design To Cost. Design To Cost is the iterative redesign of a project until the content of the project meets a given budget. Designing For Cost is the conscious use of engineering process technology to reduce life cycle cost while satisfying, and hopefully exceeding, customer demands. The key to understanding cost, and hence to reducing cost, is the ability to measure cost accurately and to allocate it appropriately to products. Only then can intelligent decisions be made. Therefore the necessity of new methods as "Design For Value" or "Design For Competitiveness", set up with a generally multidisciplinary approach to find an optimized technical solution driven by many parameters, depending on the mission scenario and the customer/market needs. Very often three, but not more than five parametric drivers are sufficient. The more variable exist, the higher is in fact the risk to find just a sub-optimized local and not the global optimum, and the less robust is the found solution against change of input parameters. When the main parameters for optimization have been identified, the system engineer has to communicate them to all design engineers, who shall take care of these assessment variables during the entire design and decision process. The design process which has taken to the definition of the feasible structural concepts for the Engine Thrust Frame of the Ariane 5 Upper Cryogenic Stage ESC-B follows these most actual design philosophy methodologies, and combines a design for cost approach, to a design to cost optimization loop. Ariane 5 is the first member of a family of heavy-lift launchers. It aims to evolve into a family of launchers that responds to the space transportation challenges of the 21st century. New

  14. INTRINSIC SHAPE OF STAR-FORMING BzK GALAXIES. II. REST-FRAME ULTRAVIOLET AND OPTICAL STRUCTURES IN GOODS-SOUTH AND SXDS

    SciTech Connect

    Yuma, Suraphong; Ohta, Kouji; Yabe, Kiyoto

    2012-12-10

    We study the statistical intrinsic shape of star-forming BzK galaxies (sBzK galaxies) at z {approx} 2 in both rest-frame UV and rest-frame optical wavelengths. The sBzK galaxies are selected down to K{sub AB} = 24.0 mag in the GOODS-S and Subaru-XMM Deep Survey (SXDS) fields, where high-resolution images from the Hubble Space Telescope are publicly available. Of all 1028 galaxies in GOODS-S, 57% (583) show a single component in the Advanced Camera for Surveys/F850LP image. As Wide Field Camera (WFC3)/F160W images cover only part of GOODS-S and SXDS, 724/1028 and 2500/29835 sBzK galaxies in GOODS-S and SXDS, respectively, have WFC3 coverage. Of the sBzK galaxies in the WFC3/F160W images, 86% (626) and 82% (2044) appear as a single component in the GOODS-S and SXDS, respectively. A larger fraction of single-component objects in the F850LP images represents multiple star-forming regions in galaxies, while they are not so obvious in the F160W image which appears smoother. Most of the single-component sBzK galaxies show Sersic indices of n = 0.5-2.5, in agreement with those of local disk galaxies. Their effective radii are 1.0-3.0 kpc and 1.5-4.0 kpc in F850LP and F160W images, respectively, regardless of the observed fields. The stellar surface mass density of the sBzK galaxies is also comparable to that of the local disk galaxies. However, the intrinsic shape of sBzK galaxies is not a round disk as seen in the local disk galaxies. By comparing apparent axial ratio (b/a) distributions of the sBzK galaxies with those of local disk galaxies by assuming tri-axial model with axes A > B > C, we found that their intrinsic face-on B/A ratios peak at B/A = 0.70 and B/A = 0.77-0.79 in the rest-frame UV and optical, respectively, and are statistically more bar-like than those of the local disk galaxies. The intrinsic edge-on C/A ratios in both rest-frame UV and optical wavelengths peak at 0.26, which is slightly larger than those of the local disk galaxies. Possible origins of

  15. Impact resistance of metal skin-carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminate structures for the production of lightweight vehicles body frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quagliato, Luca; Dongwook, Kim; Changsoon, Jang; Naksoo, Kim; Seokmoo, Hong

    2017-05-01

    The research presented in this paper deals, in the first part, with the material characterization of an innovative class of material, made of steel skin and sheet molding compound core, the last one realized with vinyl-ester resin and chopped carbon fibers. Utilizing the results of the material characterization, the case of an automotive B-pillar is taken into account in order to test and prove the reliability of the utilization of this innovative typology of material, instead of the standard steel. The steel skin - SMC hybrid laminate structures are realized by means of stamping process under warm forming condition, in order to favorite the curing of the SMC layers. The result presented along the paper will show that the steel skin - SMC material not only have better specific resistance that those of both standard and high strength steel but also better crashworthiness properties, in comparison to the considered steel. Based on the results of the numerical simulations, a useful way thought which to estimate the crash worthiness property is proposed in this paper and the results will show how the B-pillar realized with steel skin - SMC has a higher impact resistance, in comparison the steel one with the same weight and reduced thickness.

  16. A new frame-based registration algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, C. H.; Whalen, R. T.; Beaupre, G. S.; Sumanaweera, T. S.; Yen, S. Y.; Napel, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for frame registration. Our algorithm requires only that the frame be comprised of straight rods, as opposed to the N structures or an accurate frame model required by existing algorithms. The algorithm utilizes the full 3D information in the frame as well as a least squares weighting scheme to achieve highly accurate registration. We use simulated CT data to assess the accuracy of our algorithm. We compare the performance of the proposed algorithm to two commonly used algorithms. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is comparable to the best existing techniques with knowledge of the exact mathematical frame model. For CT data corrupted with an unknown in-plane rotation or translation, the proposed technique is also comparable to the best existing techniques. However, in situations where there is a discrepancy of more than 2 mm (0.7% of the frame dimension) between the frame and the mathematical model, the proposed technique is significantly better (p < or = 0.05) than the existing techniques. The proposed algorithm can be applied to any existing frame without modification. It provides better registration accuracy and is robust against model mis-match. It allows greater flexibility on the frame structure. Lastly, it reduces the frame construction cost as adherence to a concise model is not required.

  17. A new frame-based registration algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, C. H.; Whalen, R. T.; Beaupre, G. S.; Sumanaweera, T. S.; Yen, S. Y.; Napel, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for frame registration. Our algorithm requires only that the frame be comprised of straight rods, as opposed to the N structures or an accurate frame model required by existing algorithms. The algorithm utilizes the full 3D information in the frame as well as a least squares weighting scheme to achieve highly accurate registration. We use simulated CT data to assess the accuracy of our algorithm. We compare the performance of the proposed algorithm to two commonly used algorithms. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is comparable to the best existing techniques with knowledge of the exact mathematical frame model. For CT data corrupted with an unknown in-plane rotation or translation, the proposed technique is also comparable to the best existing techniques. However, in situations where there is a discrepancy of more than 2 mm (0.7% of the frame dimension) between the frame and the mathematical model, the proposed technique is significantly better (p < or = 0.05) than the existing techniques. The proposed algorithm can be applied to any existing frame without modification. It provides better registration accuracy and is robust against model mis-match. It allows greater flexibility on the frame structure. Lastly, it reduces the frame construction cost as adherence to a concise model is not required.

  18. VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.

  19. VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.

  20. The architecture and dynamics of developing mind: experiential structuralism as a frame for unifying cognitive developmental theories.

    PubMed

    Demetriou, A; Efklides, A; Platsidou, M

    1993-01-01

    This Monograph presents a theory of cognitive development. The theory argues that the mind develops across three fronts. The first refers to a general processing system that defines the general potentials of mind to develop cognitive strategies and skills. The second refers to a hypercognitive system that governs self-understanding and self-regulation. The third involves a set of specialized structural systems (SSSs) that are responsible for the representation and processing of different reality domains. There are specific forces that are responsible for this organization of mind. These are expressed in the Monograph in terms of a set of five organizational principles. The developmental course of the major systems is outlined. Developmental change is ascribed by the theory to the interaction between the various systems. Different types of development require different change mechanisms. Five studies are presented that provide empirical support for these postulates. Study 1 demonstrated the organizational power of principles and SSSs. Study 2 showed that the SSSs constrain the effect of learning. Study 3 established that the hypercognitive system does function as the interface between tasks and SSS-specific processes or between SSSs and general cognitive functions such as attention and memory. Study 4 investigated the relations between one of the components of the processing system, storage, and two different SSSs expressed via two different symbolic systems, namely, the numeric and the imaginal. Finally, Study 5 examined the interaction between the components of the processing system and the relations between each of these components and one SSS, namely, the quantitative-relational SSS. The theoretical implications of these studies with regard to general issues, such as the nature of representation, the causation of cognitive change, and individual differences in cognitive development, are discussed in the concluding chapter.

  1. A clinical protocol for analysis of the structural integrity of the Medtronic CoreValve System frame and its application in patients with 1-year minimum follow-up.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Nicolo; Grube, Eberhard; Gerckens, Ulrich; Schuler, Gerhard; Linke, Axel; den Heijer, Peter; Kovacs, Jan; Spyt, Tom; Laborde, Jean-Claude; Morel, Marie-Angele; Nuis, Rutger-Jan; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; de Jaegere, Peter; Serruys, Patrick W

    2010-01-01

    The optimal clinical protocol to detect fractures of transcatheter aortic valves is unknown. To the best of our knowledge, there are no published reports describing stent or frame fractures following transcatheter aortic valve implantation. The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to determine the optimal fluoroscopic protocol to identify potential fractures of the Medtronic CoreValve frame; and (2) to implement this protocol in the analysis of the fluoroscopic films of patients implanted with the CoreValve device with 1-year minimum follow-up. Considering the resolution of fluoroscopy (approximately 0.2 mm), we used a 0.2 mm diamond-cutter to create a single fracture in a single strut of two CoreValve frames. An intact CoreValve prosthesis was used as control. These prostheses were subsequently implanted in post-mortem heart specimens. A protocol involving still frames and rotational (left-right and cranial-caudal) fluoroscopic imaging was then applied to the heart specimens. The experimentally induced fractures were detectable on the rotational cine runs (left-right and cranial-caudal); in some of the fixed acquisition sequences, however, the fractures were undetectable. The fluoroscopic protocol was retrospectively applied to the films of 58 patients who underwent implantation with the CoreValve System between October 2005 and August 2008 and had at least 1-year follow-up. The mean and median follow-up times were 22 months and 24 months, respectively (range 12 to 36 months). Rotational cine films (only left-right lateral) were available in 39 patients (60%). No frame fractures of the CoreValve frame were identified. Rotational cine runs in the left-right and cranial-caudal directions should be mandatory in the clinical assessment of the structural integrity of the CoreValve frame. No frame fractures were identified in 58 patients implanted with the Medtronic CoreValve device with 2-year mean follow-up.

  2. Alternative approximation concepts for space frame synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    A method for space frame synthesis based on the application of a full gamut of approximation concepts is presented. It is found that with the thoughtful selection of design space, objective function approximation, constraint approximation and mathematical programming problem formulation options it is possible to obtain near minimum mass designs for a significant class of space frame structural systems while requiring fewer than 10 structural analyses. Example problems are presented which demonstrate the effectiveness of the method for frame structures subjected to multiple static loading conditions with limits on structural stiffness and strength.

  3. Pilotless Frame Synchronization Using LDPC Code Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Christopher; Vissasenor, John

    2009-01-01

    A method of pilotless frame synchronization has been devised for low- density parity-check (LDPC) codes. In pilotless frame synchronization , there are no pilot symbols; instead, the offset is estimated by ex ploiting selected aspects of the structure of the code. The advantag e of pilotless frame synchronization is that the bandwidth of the sig nal is reduced by an amount associated with elimination of the pilot symbols. The disadvantage is an increase in the amount of receiver data processing needed for frame synchronization.

  4. Multiple frame cluster tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadaleta, Sabino; Klusman, Mike; Poore, Aubrey; Slocumb, Benjamin J.

    2002-08-01

    Tracking large number of closely spaced objects is a challenging problem for any tracking system. In missile defense systems, countermeasures in the form of debris, chaff, spent fuel, and balloons can overwhelm tracking systems that track only individual objects. Thus, tracking these groups or clusters of objects followed by transitions to individual object tracking (if and when individual objects separate from the groups) is a necessary capability for a robust and real-time tracking system. The objectives of this paper are to describe the group tracking problem in the context of multiple frame target tracking and to formulate a general assignment problem for the multiple frame cluster/group tracking problem. The proposed approach forms multiple clustering hypotheses on each frame of data and base individual frame clustering decisions on the information from multiple frames of data in much the same way that MFA or MHT work for individual object tracking. The formulation of the assignment problem for resolved object tracking and candidate clustering methods for use in multiple frame cluster tracking are briefly reviewed. Then, three different formulations are presented for the combination of multiple clustering hypotheses on each frame of data and the multiple frame assignments of clusters between frames.

  5. That Article: Frame Relay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Compares Frame Relay with digital and analog alternatives for connecting sites on a Wide Area Network. Cost considerations, the concepts on which the technology is based, its carrying capacity, the use of CD-ROM and Graphical User Interface (GUI) on Frame Relay, and engineering bandwidth limitations are covered. (KRN)

  6. The Frame Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Michael Todd; Cox, Dana C.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore framing, a non-multiplicative technique commonly employed by students as they construct similar shapes. When students frame, they add (or subtract) a "border" of fixed width about a geometric object. Although the approach does not yield similar shapes in general, the mathematical underpinnings of…

  7. That Article: Frame Relay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Compares Frame Relay with digital and analog alternatives for connecting sites on a Wide Area Network. Cost considerations, the concepts on which the technology is based, its carrying capacity, the use of CD-ROM and Graphical User Interface (GUI) on Frame Relay, and engineering bandwidth limitations are covered. (KRN)

  8. Section at Frame 19 Looking Forward, Section at Frame 25 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section at Frame 19 Looking Forward, Section at Frame 25 Looking Forward, Section at Frame 31 Looking Forward, Section at Frame 45 Looking Forward, Section Through Corrugated Cargo Tank Mid-Ship, Section at Frame 73 Looking Forward - Mission Santa Ynez, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  9. Test Frame for Gravity Offload Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Alexander R.

    2005-01-01

    Advances in space telescope and aperture technology have created a need to launch larger structures into space. Traditional truss structures will be too heavy and bulky to be effectively used in the next generation of space-based structures. Large deployable structures are a possible solution. By packaging deployable trusses, the cargo volume of these large structures greatly decreases. The ultimate goal is to three dimensionally measure a boom's deployment in simulated microgravity. This project outlines the construction of the test frame that supports a gravity offload system. The test frame is stable enough to hold the gravity offload system and does not interfere with deployment of, or vibrations in, the deployable test boom. The natural frequencies and stability of the frame were engineered in FEMAP. The test frame was developed to have natural frequencies that would not match the first two modes of the deployable beam. The frame was then modeled in Solidworks and constructed. The test frame constructed is a stable base to perform studies on deployable structures.

  10. Stability of walking frames.

    PubMed

    Deathe, A B; Pardo, R D; Winter, D A; Hayes, K C; Russell-Smyth, J

    1996-02-01

    Biomechanical tools were used to assess stability for 11 patients who, following the surgical amputation of one lower limb, required the assistance of a walking frame to ambulate. The Walker Tipping Index (WTI), as derived from the forces applied to the walking frame, was developed specifically for this study to examine the relationship between stability and walking frame height during ambulation. However, the WTI may be useful as a criterion of stability to assist clinicians in their evaluation of walker use in a variety of patient populations. Walker stability was examined as subjects, wearing their prostheses, completed 30-sec walking trials in each of the normal, high, and low walking frame height conditions. Adjusting the height of the walker to one setting (3 cm) above or below normal appears to redistribute the load of walking between the upper and lower extremities without adversely affecting stability.

  11. Celestial Reference Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2013-03-01

    Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for

  12. Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2013-09-01

    Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for

  13. Space VLBI and the Radio Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlot, P.

    2009-08-01

    The current radio reference frame is defined by the VLBI positions of several hundreds of extragalactic sources measured with sub-milliarcsecond accuracy. We discuss whether space VLBI can be used to improve the accuracy of the frame, either directly by conducting absolute astrometric observations using space VLBI baselines, or in an indirect way by making available VLBI images of the reference frame sources with increased angular resolution. The VSOP-2 project, in its present state, is found to have the necessary capabilities for accurate absolute astrometry although there may be limitations due to scheduling constraints. Space VLBI images are essential for pinpointing accurately a stable reference feature within the extended structure of each source. In this respect, the VSOP-2 project may have a significant impact on the definition of the radio reference frame if targeting such reference frame sources on a regular basis.

  14. From "Wiggly Structures" to "Unshaky Towers": Problem Framing, Solution Finding, and Negotiation of Courses of Actions During a Civil Engineering Unit for Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    1995-01-01

    Investigated problem- and solution-related activity of (n=28) fourth and fifth graders in ill-defined and open-ended settings. In the course of their negotiations, students demonstrated an uncanny competence to frame and reframe problems and solutions and to decide courses of actions of different complexities in spite of the ambiguous nature of…

  15. From "Wiggly Structures" to "Unshaky Towers": Problem Framing, Solution Finding, and Negotiation of Courses of Actions During a Civil Engineering Unit for Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    1995-01-01

    Investigated problem- and solution-related activity of (n=28) fourth and fifth graders in ill-defined and open-ended settings. In the course of their negotiations, students demonstrated an uncanny competence to frame and reframe problems and solutions and to decide courses of actions of different complexities in spite of the ambiguous nature of…

  16. Frame-Guided Assembly of Amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuanchen; Liu, Dongsheng

    2015-12-07

    Frame-guided assembly, a recently discovered strategy for amphiphilic assembly, is discussed as a strategy for constructing vesicle assemblies with programmed geometries and dimensions under identical surrounding conditions. The strategy is inspired by the cytoskeletal-membrane protein-lipid bilayer structure and shows great potential in the understanding and controlling of the amphiphilic assembly process. Both the principles and basic requirements are discussed, along with recently reported examples. The prospects and potential investigations of frame-guided assembly are also proposed.

  17. Frame dragging and superenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, L.; Di Prisco, A.; Carot, J.

    2007-08-15

    We show that the vorticity appearing in stationary vacuum spacetimes is always related to the existence of a flow of superenergy on the plane orthogonal to the vorticity vector. This result, together with the previously established link between vorticity and superenergy in radiative (Bondi-Sachs) spacetimes, strengthens further the case for this latter quantity as the cause of frame dragging.

  18. Framing for Scientific Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berland, Leema K.; Hammer, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, research on students' scientific argumentation has progressed to a recognition of nascent resources: Students can and do argue when they experience the need and possibility of persuading others who may hold competing views. Our purpose in this article is to contribute to this progress by applying the perspective of framing to the…

  19. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  20. Aluminum space frame technology

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, S.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the increased application of aluminum to the construction of automobile frames. The topics of the article include a joint venture between Audi and Alcoa, forms in which aluminum is used, new alloys and construction methods, meeting rigidity and safety levels, manufacturing techniques, the use of extrusions, die casting, joining techniques, and pollution control during manufacturing.

  1. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  2. Comparing Organizational Sampling Frames.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalleberg, Arne L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compares costs and effectiveness of five organizational sampling frames (direct enumeration, unemployment insurance (UI) forms, Dun and Bradstreet's Market Identifier (DMI) files, telephone directory white pages, and chamber of commerce membership directories) at identifying a population of business organizations in Durham County, North Carolina.…

  3. Popcorn Story Frames.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLella, Carol Ann

    This paper presents "popcorn story frames"--holistic outlines that facilitate comprehension when reading and writing stories, useful for outlining stories read and for creating outlines for original student stories--that are particularly useful for elementary and intermediate school students. "Popcorn" pops in a horizontal…

  4. Framing for Scientific Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berland, Leema K.; Hammer, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, research on students' scientific argumentation has progressed to a recognition of nascent resources: Students can and do argue when they experience the need and possibility of persuading others who may hold competing views. Our purpose in this article is to contribute to this progress by applying the perspective of framing to the…

  5. Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K. L.; Stewart, R. E.; Steele, P. T.; Vernon, S. P.; Hsing, W. W.; Remington, B. A.

    2013-10-07

    A high speed solid-state framing camera has been developed which can operate over a wide range of photon energies. This camera measures the two-dimensional spatial profile of the flux incident on a cadmium selenide semiconductor at multiple times. This multi-frame camera has been tested at 3.1 eV and 4.5 keV. The framing camera currently records two frames with a temporal separation between the frames of 5 ps but this separation can be varied between hundreds of femtoseconds up to nanoseconds and the number of frames can be increased by angularly multiplexing the probe beam onto the cadmium selenide semiconductor.

  6. Recursive adaptive frame integration limited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.

    2006-05-01

    Recursive Frame Integration Limited was proposed as a way to improve frame integration performance and mitigate issues related to high data rate needed for conventional frame integration. The technique applies two thresholds - one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate - and allows a non-linear integration process that, along with Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) gain, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability. However, Recursive Frame Integration Limited may have performance issues when single frame SNR is really low. Recursive Adaptive Frame Integration Limited is proposed as a means to improve limited integration performance with really low single frame SNR. It combines the benefits of nonlinear recursive limited frame integration and adaptive thresholds with a kind of conventional frame integration.

  7. Nanosecond frame cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A M; Wilkins, P R

    2001-01-05

    The advent of CCD cameras and computerized data recording has spurred the development of several new cameras and techniques for recording nanosecond images. We have made a side by side comparison of three nanosecond frame cameras, examining them for both performance and operational characteristics. The cameras include; Micro-Channel Plate/CCD, Image Diode/CCD and Image Diode/Film; combinations of gating/data recording. The advantages and disadvantages of each device will be discussed.

  8. Optical loop framing

    SciTech Connect

    Kalibjian, R.; Chong, Y.P.; Prono, D.S.; Cavagnolo, H.R.

    1984-06-01

    The ATA provides an electron beam pulse of 70-ns duration at a 1-Hz rate. Our present optical diagnostics technique involve the imaging of the visible light generated by the beam incident onto the plant of a thin sheet of material. It has already been demonstrated that the light generated has a sufficiently fast temporal reponse in performing beam diagnostics. Notwithstanding possible beam emittance degradation due to scattering in the thin sheet, the observation of beam spatial profiles with relatively high efficiencies has provided data complementary to that obtained from beam wall current monitors and from various x-ray probes and other electrical probes. The optical image sensor consists of a gated, intensified television system. The gate pulse of the image intensifier can be appropriately delayed to give frames that are time-positioned from the head to the tail of the beam with a minimum gate time of 5-ns. The spatial correlation of the time frames from pulse to pulse is very good for a stable electron beam; however, when instabilities do occur, it is difficult to properly assess the spatial composition of the head and the tail of the beam on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Multiple gating within a pulse duration becomes desirable but cannot be performed because the recycle time (20-ms) of the TV system is much longer than the beam pulse. For this reason we have developed an optical-loop framing technique that will allow the recording of two frames within one pulse duration with our present gated/intensified TV system.

  9. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli

    2010-01-31

    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial

  10. Pseudo-set framing.

    PubMed

    Barasz, Kate; John, Leslie K; Keenan, Elizabeth A; Norton, Michael I

    2017-10-01

    Pseudo-set framing-arbitrarily grouping items or tasks together as part of an apparent "set"-motivates people to reach perceived completion points. Pseudo-set framing changes gambling choices (Study 1), effort (Studies 2 and 3), giving behavior (Field Data and Study 4), and purchase decisions (Study 5). These effects persist in the absence of any reward, when a cost must be incurred, and after participants are explicitly informed of the arbitrariness of the set. Drawing on Gestalt psychology, we develop a conceptual account that predicts what will-and will not-act as a pseudo-set, and defines the psychological process through which these pseudo-sets affect behavior: over and above typical reference points, pseudo-set framing alters perceptions of (in)completeness, making intermediate progress seem less complete. In turn, these feelings of incompleteness motivate people to persist until the pseudo-set has been fulfilled. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Trestle Reflected Framing Plan, Trestle Deck Plan, Trestle Framing Plan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Trestle Reflected Framing Plan, Trestle Deck Plan, Trestle Framing Plan - Denver & Rio Grande Railroad, San Juan Extension, Wolf Creek Trestle, Crossing Wolf Creek at Milepost 339.78, Chama, Rio Arriba County, NM

  12. Electrically insulating and sealing frame

    DOEpatents

    Guthrie, Robin J.

    1983-11-08

    A combination gas seal and electrical insulator having a closed frame shape interconnects a fuel cell stack and a reactant gas plenum of a fuel cell generator. The frame can be of rectangular shape including at least one slidable spline connection in each side to permit expansion or contraction consistent with that of the walls of the gas plenum and fuel cell stack. The slidable spline connections in the frame sides minimizes lateral movement between the frame side members and sealing material interposed between the frame and the fuel cell stack or between the frame and the reactant gas plenum.

  13. MedlinePlus FAQ: Framing

    MedlinePlus

    ... URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/faq/framing.html I'd like to link to MedlinePlus, ... as HealthDay. Our license agreements do not permit framing of their content from our site. For more ...

  14. Conformal frame dependence of inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2015-04-01

    Physical equivalence between different conformal frames in scalar-tensor theory of gravity is a known fact. However, assuming that matter minimally couples to the metric of a particular frame, which we call the matter Jordan frame, the matter point of view of the universe may vary from frame to frame. Thus, there is a clear distinction between gravitational sector (curvature and scalar field) and matter sector. In this paper, focusing on a simple power-law inflation model in the Einstein frame, two examples are considered; a super-inflationary and a bouncing universe Jordan frames. Then we consider a spectator curvaton minimally coupled to a Jordan frame, and compute its contribution to the curvature perturbation power spectrum. In these specific examples, we find a blue tilt at short scales for the super-inflationary case, and a blue tilt at large scales for the bouncing case.

  15. The Levels of Visual Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Lulu; Dimitrova, Daniela V.

    2011-01-01

    While framing research has centered mostly on the evaluations of media texts, visual news discourse has remained relatively unexamined. This study surveys the visual framing techniques and methods employed in previous studies and proposes a four-tiered model of identifying and analyzing visual frames: (1) visuals as denotative systems, (2) visuals…

  16. The Levels of Visual Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Lulu; Dimitrova, Daniela V.

    2011-01-01

    While framing research has centered mostly on the evaluations of media texts, visual news discourse has remained relatively unexamined. This study surveys the visual framing techniques and methods employed in previous studies and proposes a four-tiered model of identifying and analyzing visual frames: (1) visuals as denotative systems, (2) visuals…

  17. VIOLENT FRAMES IN ACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-11-17

    We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.

  18. Cognitive framing in action.

    PubMed

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition.

  19. Identifying Issue Frames in Text

    PubMed Central

    Sagi, Eyal; Diermeier, Daniel; Kaufmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Framing, the effect of context on cognitive processes, is a prominent topic of research in psychology and public opinion research. Research on framing has traditionally relied on controlled experiments and manually annotated document collections. In this paper we present a method that allows for quantifying the relative strengths of competing linguistic frames based on corpus analysis. This method requires little human intervention and can therefore be efficiently applied to large bodies of text. We demonstrate its effectiveness by tracking changes in the framing of terror over time and comparing the framing of abortion by Democrats and Republicans in the U.S. PMID:23874909

  20. A large frame gyrolaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allegrini, Maria; Belfi, Jacopo; Beverini, Nicolò; Bosi, Filippo; Carelli, Giorgio; di Virgilio, Angela; Maccioni, Enrico; Sorrentino, Fiodor

    2009-05-01

    A large frame ring laser gyroscope optimized for very high rotational sensitivity has been designed and built. It can be used for fine control of the interferometer mirrors alignment for the Earth based third generation gravitational antenna. Another foreseen application is geophysical monitoring of the Earth rotational motion. Presently, the ring laser optical cavity is a square with 1.60 m of side with 4 mirrors of reflectivity near 99.999%. The mechanical drawing allows easy scaling of the square area from the present 2m^2 value down to 0.81 m^2. Without optimization of the isolation system from the vibration noise of the environment, preliminary recording of the power spectral noise indicates a rotational resolution near to 10^8 rad/(sHz^1/2) at 1 Hz. Exploitation for a three dimensional sensor, composed by three independent gyroscopes, is in progress.

  1. Damage evaluation on a multi-story framed structures: comparison of results retrieved from algorithms based on modal and non-modal parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auletta, Gianluca; Ditommaso, Rocco; Iacovino, Chiara; Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Pina Limongelli, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Continuous monitoring based on vibrational identification methods is increasingly employed with the aim of evaluate the state of the health of existing structures and infrastructures and to evaluate the performance of safety interventions over time. In case of earthquakes, data acquired by means of continuous monitoring systems can be used to localize and quantify a possible damage occurred on a monitored structure using appropriate algorithms based on the variations of structural parameters. Most of the damage identification methods are based on the variation of few modal and/or non-modal parameters: the former, are strictly related to the structural eigenfrequencies, equivalent viscous damping factors and mode shapes; the latter, are based on the variation of parameters related to the geometric characteristics of the monitored structure whose variations could be correlated related to damage. In this work results retrieved from the application of a curvature evolution based method and an interpolation error based method are compared. The first method is based on the evaluation of the curvature variation (related to the fundamental mode of vibration) over time and compares the variations before, during and after the earthquake. The Interpolation Method is based on the detection of localized reductions of smoothness in the Operational Deformed Shapes (ODSs) of the structure. A damage feature is defined in terms of the error related to the use of a spline function in interpolating the ODSs of the structure: statistically significant variations of the interpolation error between two successive inspections of the structure indicate the onset of damage. Both methods have been applied using both numerical data retrieved from nonlinear FE models and experimental tests on scaled structures carried out on the shaking table of the University of Basilicata. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded by the Italian Civil Protection Department within the project DPC

  2. Semiclassical framed BPS states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory W.; Royston, Andrew B.; Van den Bleeken, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    We provide a semiclassical description of framed BPS states in four-dimensional {N}=2 super Yang-Mills theories probed by 't Hooft defects, in terms of a supersymmetric quantum mechanics on the moduli space of singular monopoles. Framed BPS states, like their ordinary counterparts in the theory without defects, are associated with the L 2 kernel of certain Dirac operators on moduli space, or equivalently with the L 2 cohomology of related Dolbeault operators. The Dirac/Dolbeault operators depend on two Cartan-valued Higgs vevs. We conjecture a map between these vevs and the Seiberg-Witten special coordinates, consistent with a one-loop analysis and checked in examples. The map incorporates all perturbative and nonperturbative corrections that are relevant for the semiclassical construction of BPS states, over a suitably defined weak coupling regime of the Coulomb branch. We use this map to translate wall crossing formulae and the no-exotics theorem to statements about the Dirac/Dolbeault operators. The no-exotics theorem, concerning the absence of nontrivial SU(2) R representations in the BPS spectrum, implies that the kernel of the Dirac operator is chiral, and further translates into a statement that all L 2 cohomology of the Dolbeault operator is concentrated in the middle degree. Wall crossing formulae lead to detailed predictions for where the Dirac operators fail to be Fredholm and how their kernels jump. We explore these predictions in nontrivial examples. This paper explains the background and arguments behind the results announced in the short note [1].

  3. Mitogenetic structure of brown bears (Ursus arctos L.) in northeastern Europe and a new time frame for the formation of European brown bear lineages.

    PubMed

    Saarma, Urmas; Ho, Simon Y W; Pybus, Oliver G; Kaljuste, Marju; Tumanov, Igor L; Kojola, Ilpo; Vorobiev, Alex A; Markov, Nikolai I; Saveljev, Alexander P; Valdmann, Harri; Lyapunova, Elena A; Abramov, Alexei V; Männil, Peep; Korsten, Marju; Vulla, Egle; Pazetnov, Sergei V; Pazetnov, Valentin S; Putchkovskiy, Stanislav V; Rõkov, Alexander M

    2007-01-01

    We estimated the phylogenetic relationships of brown bear maternal haplotypes from countries of northeastern Europe (Estonia, Finland and European Russia), using sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of 231 bears. Twenty-five mtDNA haplotypes were identified. The brown bear population in northeastern Europe can be divided into three haplogroups: one with bears from all three countries, one with bears from Finland and Russia, and the third composed almost exclusively of bears from European Russia. Four haplotypes from Finland and European Russia matched exactly with haplotypes from Slovakia, suggesting the significance of the current territory of Slovakia in ancient demographic processes of brown bears. Based on the results of this study and those from the recent literature, we hypothesize that the West Carpathian Mountains have served either as one of the northernmost refuge areas or as an important movement corridor for brown bears of the Eastern lineage towards northern Europe during or after the last ice age. Bayesian analyses were performed to investigate the temporal framework of brown bear lineages in Europe. The molecular clock was calibrated using Beringian brown bear sequences derived from radiocarbon-dated ancient samples, and the estimated mutation rate was 29.8% (13.3%-47.6%) per million years. The whole European population and Western and Eastern lineages formed about 175,000, 70,000 and 25,000 years before present, respectively. Our approach to estimating the time frame of brown bear evolution demonstrates the importance of using an appropriate mutation rate, and this has implications for other studies of Pleistocene populations.

  4. From ``wiggly structures'' to ``unshaky towers'': problem framing, solution finding, and negotiation of courses of actions during a civil engineering unit for elementary students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    1995-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate problem- and solution-related activity of elementary students in ill-defined and open-ended settings. One Grade 4/5 class of 28 students engaged in the activities of the “Engineering for Children: Structures” curriculum, designed as a vehicle for introducing science concepts, providing ill-defined problem solving contexts, and fostering positive attitudes towards science and technology. Data included video recordings, ethnographic field notes, student produced artefacts (projects and engineering logbooks), and interviews with teachers and observers. These data supported the notion of problems, solutions, and courses of actions as entities with flexible ontologies. In the course of their negotiations, students demonstrated an uncanny competence to frame and reframe problems and solutions and to decide courses of actions of different complexities in spite of the ambiguous nature of (arte)facts, plans, and language. A case study approach was chosen as the literary device to report these general findings. The discussion focuses on the inevitably ambiguous nature of (arte)facts, plans, and language and the associated notion of “interpretive flexibility.” Suggestions are provided for teachers on how to deal with interpretive flexibility without seeking recourse to the didactic approaches of direct teaching. But what happens when problems and solutions are negotiable, when there are no longer isolated problems which one tries to solve but problems which maintain complex linkages with ensembles of other problems and diverse constraints, or when problems and solutions are simultaneously invented? (Lestel, 1989, p. 692, my translation)

  5. Framing the Game: Examining Frame Choice in Bargaining.

    PubMed

    Blount; Larrick

    2000-01-01

    This article introduces the study of frame choice in negotiation. Here, the selection of a procedural frame is treated as a dependent variable-a choice that bargainers make in addition to determining their offers. The empirical focus of the article is on whether, when given a choice between two alternative versions of the ultimatum bargaining game, negotiators choose the description that maximizes their expected payoffs. For example, in one frame-choice task, negotiators assigned to the Player 1 role were asked to select between framing the game as "Player 1 proposes a division and Player 2 accepts or rejects it" or "Player 1 makes a claim from a common pool and Player 2 makes a counterclaim." Past research has shown that the second frame leads to higher expected payoffs for Player 1 than does the first. Across four studies and three established framing effects, it is found that participants consistently fail to select the procedural frames that optimize monetary outcomes. Subsequent analyses suggest that this tendency is due to two factors: (a) nonmonetary motivations, such as fairness and respect, that influence frame-choice preferences and (b) cognitive limitations that inhibit the ability to accurately predict the effect of alternative procedural frames on opponents' responses Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  6. Towards ICRF3:preparing the VLBI frame for future synergy with the Gaia frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlot, Patrick; Bourda, Géraldine

    2012-08-01

    The European space astrometric mission Gaia to be launched in 2013 will produce a QSO - based celestial reference frame with unprecedented position accuracy and sky density. By the end of the decade, two highly - accurate reference frames will thus cohabit, the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) derived from Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data and the Gaia optical frame, both with individual source position accuracies below 100 microarcseconds. For consistency be tween optical and radio positions, it will be fundamental to align the two frames with the highest possible accuracy. This is important not only for continuity of celestial frames but also to exploit at best their synergies for astrophysics. The latter includes probing the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) jets properties and the physics of these objects by comparing the spatial location of the optical and radio emission re gions. The alignment between the VLBI and Gaia frames requires a large number of sources common to the two frames, i.e. radio - loud QSOs with position accurately known from both VLBI and Gaia. This implies that the sources must be brighter than magnitude 18 (so that their Gaia positions may be derived with the highest accuracy) and have compact VLBI structure on milliarcsecond scales (for highly - accurate VLBI positions). In this paper, we review the current source potential for this alignment based on the ICRF2 and an ongoing dedicated VLBI project aimed at finding additional weaker extragalactic radio sources for this purpose. We also stress that these sources must be monitored during the mission (especially their VLBI position stability and structure) in order to control their relevance for the alignment, and present the observations we envision to this end in the framework of the IVS and other VLBI networks.

  7. Identification and localization of bound internal water in the solution structure of interleukin 1. beta. by heteronuclear three-dimensional sup 1 H rotating-frame Overhauser sup 15 N- sup 1 H multiple quantum coherence NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Clore, G.M.; Bax, A.; Wingfield, P.T.; Gronenborn, A.M. )

    1990-06-19

    The presence and location of bound internal water molecules in the solution structure of interleukin 1{beta} have been investigated by means of three-dimensional {sup 1}H rotating-frame Overhauser {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N multiple quantum coherence spectroscopy (ROESY-HMQC). In this experiment through-space rotating-frame Overhauser (ROE) interactions between NH protons and bound water separated by {le}3.5{angstrom} are clearly distinguished from chemical exchange effects, as the cross-peaks for these two processes are of opposite sign. The identification of ROEs between NH protons and water is rendered simple by spreading out the spectrum into a third dimensional according to the {sup 15}N chemical shift of the directly bonded nitrogen atoms. By this means, the problems that prevent, in all but a very few limited cases, the interpretation, identification, and assignment of ROE peaks between NH protons and water in a 2D {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H ROESY spectrum of a large protein such as interleukin 1{beta}, namely, extensive NH chemical shift degeneracy and ROE peaks obscured by much stronger chemical exchange peaks, are completely circumvented. We demonstrate the existence of 15 NH protons that are close to bound water molecules. From an examination of the crystal structure of interleukin, the results can be attributed to 11 water molecules that are involved in interactions bridging hydrogen-bonding interactions with backbone amide and carbonyl groups which stabilize the 3-fold pseudosymmetric topology of interleukin 1{beta} and thus constitute an integral part of the protein structure in solution.

  8. SINS/zC-SINF Survey of z ˜ 2 Galaxy Kinematics: Rest-frame Morphology, Structure, and Colors from Near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacchella, S.; Lang, P.; Carollo, C. M.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Renzini, A.; Shapley, A. E.; Wuyts, S.; Cresci, G.; Genzel, R.; Lilly, S. J.; Mancini, C.; Newman, S. F.; Tacconi, L. J.; Zamorani, G.; Davies, R. I.; Kurk, J.; Pozzetti, L.

    2015-04-01

    We present the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) J- and H-band imaging for 29 galaxies on the star-forming main sequence at z ˜ 2, which have adaptive optics Very Large Telescope SINFONI integral field spectroscopy from our SINS/zC-SINF program. The SINFONI Hα data resolve the ongoing star formation and the ionized gas kinematics on scales of 1-2 kpc; the near-IR images trace the galaxies’ rest-frame optical morphologies and distributions of stellar mass in old stellar populations at a similar resolution. The global light profiles of most galaxies show disk-like properties well described by a single Sérsic profile with n˜ 1, with only ˜ 15% requiring a high n\\gt 3 Sérsic index, all more massive than {{10}10} {{M}⊙ }. In bulge+disk fits, about 40% of galaxies have a measurable bulge component in the light profiles, with ˜ 15% showing a substantial bulge-to-total ratio (B/T) B/T≳ 0.3. This is a lower limit to the frequency of z ˜ 2 massive galaxies with a developed bulge component in stellar mass because it could be hidden by dust and/or outshined by a thick actively star-forming disk component. The galaxies’ rest-optical half-light radii range between 1 and 7 kpc, with a median of 2.1 kpc, and lie slightly above the size-mass relation at these epochs reported in the literature. This is attributed to differences in sample selection and definitions of size and/or mass measurements. The {{(u-g)}rest} color gradient and scatter within individual z ˜ 2 massive galaxies with ≳ {{10}11} {{M}⊙ } are as high as in z = 0 low-mass, late-type galaxies and are consistent with the high star formation rates of massive z ˜ 2 galaxies being sustained at large galactocentric distances. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  9. Flexible sliding frame for gait enhancing mechatronic system (GEMS).

    PubMed

    Younbaek Lee; Byungjung Choi; Jongwon Lee; Minhyung Lee; Se-Gon Roh; Jeonghun Kim; Hyundo Choi; Yong-Jae Kim

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a novel flexible sliding thigh frame for a gait enhancing mechatronic system. With its two-layered unique structure, the frame is flexible in certain locations and directions, and stiff at certain other locations, so that it can fît well to the wearer's thigh and transmit the assisting torque without joint loading. The paper describes the basic mechanics of this 3D flexible frame and its stiffness characteristics. We implemented the 3D flexible frame on a gait enhancing mechatronic system and conducted experiments. The performance of the proposed mechanism is verified by simulation and experiments.

  10. Virtual Frame Buffer Interface Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Thomas L.

    1990-01-01

    Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as generic frame buffer with specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write codes that run unmodified on all supported hardware. Converts generic commands to actual device commands. Consists of definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines called by application programs. Developed in FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX 11/780 or DEC VAX 11/750 computer under VMS 4.X.

  11. Virtual Frame Buffer Interface Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Thomas L.

    1990-01-01

    Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as generic frame buffer with specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write codes that run unmodified on all supported hardware. Converts generic commands to actual device commands. Consists of definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines called by application programs. Developed in FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX 11/780 or DEC VAX 11/750 computer under VMS 4.X.

  12. Paleoproterozoic structural frame of the Yetti domain (Eglab shield, Algeria): Emplacement conditions of the Tinguicht late pluton from magnetic fabric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merabet, Nacer-eddine; Mahdjoub, Yamina; Henry, Bernard; Abtout, Abdeslam; Maouche, Said; Kahoui, Mohamed; Lamali, Atmane; Ayache, Mohamed

    2016-02-01

    The Tinguicht pluton is part of the ˜2.07 Ga post-collisional magmatic suites that intruded the Yetti Paleoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary series of the western part of the Eglab Shield (West African Craton). It represents one of the most recent units of these suites. This pluton, with a NW-SE elliptic shape, is unfoliated, and its deformational structures are practically restricted to fracturing and faulting. New structural, microstructural and aeromagnetic data are presented in order to analyze in particular the relationship between the Tinguicht pluton emplacement and the related NNW-SSE major mega-shear zone, separating the Yetti and Eglab domains. To constrain the context of the regional post-collisional evolution of the Eglab shield, a structural analysis was performed by mapping the magnetic structures (foliation and lineation) using AMS. The combination of the results of all the used approaches leads to a new and enriched image of this granitic pluton and of its tectonic emplacement context. The elliptic shape of the granitic body and the AMS strain pattern are consistent with the presence of a NNW-SSE major structure. NNW-SSE is also one of the major directions highlighted by the aeromagnetic data. This study thus evidences the role of the pre-existing major shear zones in controlling emplacement of post-collisional Paleoproterozoic plutons like Tinguicht, as shown for Drissa pluton in the Eglab domain earlier.

  13. Using Story Frames To Develop Reading Comprehension in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oja, Leslie Anne

    Repeated readings, story retellings, and dramatic reentactments allow students to become more aware of stories and more familiar with the structure of the stories. Another comprehension strategy is a cloze procedure called the story frame. A story frame uses phrases such as: "This story begins when"; "and then";…

  14. Modeling limits of the EMV analysis program CONCEPT by example of the influence of a helicopter structure on a frame antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauber, Wolfgang

    Examinations showed that the EMV (German acronym for electromagnetic compatibility) program CONCEPT can be perfectly used for solutions where wavelengths are much greater than helicopter dimensions. The emphasis is put on the necessity of carrying out the right model in the case of ill conducting helicopter structure modeling. The selection of rod radius is shown to be difficult. It is made easier by using alternating current resistance, in particular for good conducting structures. For complex arrangements, a large computer is to be used for the verification and the determination of exact values.

  15. Backreaction of frame dragging

    SciTech Connect

    Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Rebelo, Carmen; Warnick, Claude M.

    2009-10-15

    The backreaction on black holes due to dragging heavy, rather than test, objects is discussed. As a case study, a five-dimensional regular black Saturn system where the central black hole has vanishing intrinsic angular momentum, J{sup BH}=0, is considered. It is shown that there is a correlation between the sign of two response functions. One is interpreted as a moment of inertia of the black ring in the black Saturn system. The other measures the variation of the black ring horizon angular velocity with the central black hole mass, for fixed ring mass and angular momentum. The two different phases defined by these response functions collapse, for small central black hole mass, to the thin and fat ring phases. In the fat phase, the zero area limit of the black Saturn ring has reduced spin j{sup 2}>1, which is related to the behavior of the ring angular velocity. Using the 'gravitomagnetic clock effect', for which a universality property is exhibited, it is shown that frame dragging measured by an asymptotic observer decreases, in both phases, when the central black hole mass increases, for fixed ring mass and angular momentum. A close parallelism between the results for the fat phase and those obtained recently for the double Kerr solution is drawn, considering also a regular black Saturn system with J{sup BH}{ne}0.

  16. Corrosion process and structural performance of a 17 year old reinforced concrete beam stored in chloride environment

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, T. Castel, A. Francois, R.

    2007-11-15

    The long-term corrosion process of reinforced concrete beams is studied in this paper. The reinforced concrete elements were stored in a chloride environment for 17years under service loading in order to be representative of real structural conditions. At different stages, cracking maps were drawn, total chloride contents were measured and mechanical tests were performed. Results show that the bending cracks and their width do not influence significantly the service life of the structure. The chloride threshold at the reinforcement depth, used by standards as a single parameter to predict the end of the initiation period, is a necessary but not a sufficient parameter to define service life. The steel-concrete interface condition is also a determinant parameter. The bleeding of concrete is an important cause of interface de-bonding which leads to an early corrosion propagation of the reinforcements. The structural performance under service load (i.e.: stiffness in flexure) is mostly affected by the corrosion of the tension reinforcement (steel cross-section and the steel-concrete bond reduction). Limit-state service life design based on structural performance reduction in terms of serviceability shows that the propagation period of the corrosion process is an important part of the reinforced concrete service life.

  17. FRAMES and Other IEM Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    A presentation package is developed that describes the FRAMES software technology system. The philosophy of FRAMES is discussed; its components and editors are reviewed; its relationship to integrated environmental modeling technologies; such as D4EM and SuperMUSE, are described;...

  18. Putting a Frame on Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Robin R.; Berube, William B.; Perry, Suzanne M.; Stader, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Teachers are learning more about the theories that support conceptual frameworks as a learning tool. A literature review revealed that frame theory is an accepted principle used to describe how the brain organizes experiences and new information. Frame theory supports the understanding that individuals can organize their thoughts to better…

  19. FRAMES and Other IEM Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    A presentation package is developed that describes the FRAMES software technology system. The philosophy of FRAMES is discussed; its components and editors are reviewed; its relationship to integrated environmental modeling technologies; such as D4EM and SuperMUSE, are described;...

  20. Eckart frames for planar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hua

    2003-04-01

    Explicit analytic expressions of Eckart frames for planar molecules in Radau, Jacobi and bond coordinates have been presented. The orientation of the frame axis system with respect to the molecular plane at equilibrium is specified by an angle θ1e.

  1. RAM-Based frame synchronizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niswander, J. K.; Stattel, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Frame synchronizer for serial telemetry is rapidly reconfigured for changing formats. Synchronizer generates signals marking data-word boundaries, beginning of each frame, and beginning of each paragraph. Also derived are search, check, and lock status signals. Existing unit is assembled from standard random-access memory elements and MOS and low-power-Schottky logic.

  2. Framing the patent troll debate.

    PubMed

    Risch, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The patent troll debate has reached a fevered pitch in the USA. This editorial seeks to frame the debate by pointing out the lack of clarity in defining patent trolls and their allegedly harmful actions. It then frames the debate by asking currently unanswered questions: Where do troll patents come from? What are the effects of troll assertions? Will policy changes improve the system?

  3. Putting a Frame on Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Robin R.; Berube, William B.; Perry, Suzanne M.; Stader, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Teachers are learning more about the theories that support conceptual frameworks as a learning tool. A literature review revealed that frame theory is an accepted principle used to describe how the brain organizes experiences and new information. Frame theory supports the understanding that individuals can organize their thoughts to better…

  4. Stress Analysis of Circular Frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahlbusch, H; Wegner, W

    1941-01-01

    The stresses in circular frames of constant bending stiffnesses, as encountered in thin-wall shells, are investigated from the point of view of finite depth of sectional area of frame. The solution is carried out for four fundamental load conditions. The method is illustrated on a worked out example.

  5. Calculating body frame size (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Images ... boned category. Determining frame size: To determine the body frame size, measure the wrist with a tape measure and use the following chart to determine whether the person is small, medium, or large boned. Women: Height under 5'2" Small = wrist size less ...

  6. Behavior of Frame-Stiffened Composite Panels with Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory and The Boeing Company have worked to develop new low-cost, light-weight composite structures for aircraft. A Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept has been developed which offers advantages over traditional metallic structures. In this concept, a stitched carbon-epoxy material system has been developed with the potential for reducing the weight and cost of transport aircraft structure by eliminating fasteners, thereby reducing part count and labor. Stitching and the use of thin skins with rod-stiffeners to move loading away from the morevulnerable outer surface produces a structurally efficient, damage tolerant design. This study focuses on the behavior of PRSEUS panels loaded in the frame direction and subjected to severe damage in the form of a severed central frame in a three-frame panel. Experimental results for a pristine two-frame panel and analytical predictions for pristine two-frame and three-frame panels as well as damaged three-frame panels are described.

  7. An experimental investigation on the ultimate strength of epoxy repaired braced partial infilled RC frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Shailendra Kumar Damodar; Kute, Sunil

    2014-09-01

    Due to earthquake, buildings are damaged partially or completely. Particularly structures with soft storey are mostly affected. In general, such damaged structures are repaired and reused. In this regard, an experimental investigation was planned and conducted on models of single-bay, single-storey of partial concrete infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames up to collapse with corner, central and diagonal steel bracings. Such collapsed frames were repaired with epoxy resin and retested. The initiative was to identify the behaviour, extent of restored ultimate strength and deflection of epoxy-retrofitted frames in comparison to the braced RC frames. The performance of such frames has been considered only for lateral loads. In comparison to bare RC frames, epoxy repaired partial infilled frames have significant increase in the lateral load capacity. Central bracing is more effective than corner and diagonal bracing. For the same load, epoxy repaired frames have comparable deflection than similar braced frames.

  8. Automated Detection of Uninformative Frames in Pulmonary Optical Endomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Perperidis, Antonios; Akram, Ahsan; Altmann, Yoann; McCool, Paul; Westerfeld, Jody; Wilson, David; Dhaliwal, Kevin; McLaughlin, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Optical endomicroscopy (OEM) is a novel real-time imaging technology that provides endoscopic images at a microscopic level. The nature of OEM data, as acquired in clinical use, gives rise to the presence of uninformative frames (i.e., pure-noise and motion-artefacts). Uninformative frames can comprise a considerable proportion (up to > 25%) of a dataset, increasing the resources required for analyzing the data (both manually and automatically), as well as diluting the results of any automated quantification analysis. There is, therefore, a need to automatically detect and remove as many of these uninformative frames as possible while keeping frames with structural information intact. This paper employs Gray Level Cooccurrence Matrix texture measures and detection theory to identify and remove such frames. The detection of pure-noise and motion-artefacts frames is treated as two independent problems. Pulmonary OEM frame sequences of the distal lung are employed for the development and assessment of the approach. The proposed approach identifies and removes uninformative frames with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 92.6%. The detection algorithm is accurate and robust in pulmonary OEM frame sequences. Conditional to appropriate model refinement, the algorithms can become applicable in other organs.

  9. Numerical validation of the 'Pop-Down tectonics' as a structural frame for hot lithospheres with particular reference to the Hearne craton (Canadian Shield)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poh, Jonathan; Yamato, Philippe; Gapais, Denis; Duretz, Thibault; Ledru, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The formation of the architecture of the main cratons of the Canadian Shield has been debated over the past three decades. Understanding the role of tangential Vs. vertical tectonics in the Rae craton is of great interest as the role of inherited structure is fundamental for the subsequent drainage of fluids and the formation of high to ultra-high grade unconformity-type uranium deposits. These deposits are located in the vicinity of the intersection between the unconformity at the base of the Paleoproterozoic Athabasca sedimentary basin (1.75-1.5 Ga) and the graphite-rich metasediments of the Wollaston-Mudjatik transition zone, one of the main fault system of the Rae Craton related to the Trans-Hudson orogeny (1.82-1.78 Ga). A new tectonic model, Pop-down tectonics, was proposed as the primary driving process to concentrate supracrustal materials, strains, fluid transfers and metal transport in permeability enhanced deformation zones. The sub-vertical structural patterns with regional horizontal shortening seen in the tectonic model appear to be consistent with field evidences and has the potential for sustaining strong fluid-rock interactions. In the light of previous analogue modelling studies, we test the viability of the Pop-down tectonics model in a thermo-mechanical framework. The numerical experiments are based on a series of 2D visco-elasto-plastic thermo-mechanical models. We employ various thermal and rheological parameters derived from laboratory experiments. The geometry, thermicity and kinematics of the models are further constrained by applying existing geophysical and geological data. We impose a fixed upper mantle temperature of 1330 °C and a thin crust ranging from 30 - 40 km. The outcome of the models will provide insights into the mechanical processes controlling the deformation of hot lithospheres in convergent settings.

  10. Framed School--Frame Factors, Frames and the Dynamics of Social Interaction in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to show how the Goffman frame perspective can be used in an analysis of school and education and how it can be combined, in such analysis, with the frame factor perspective. The latter emphasizes factors that are determined outside the teaching process, while the former stresses how actors organize their experiences and define…

  11. 10. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF SWITCHING EQUIPMENT AND METAL FRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF SWITCHING EQUIPMENT AND METAL FRAME SUPPORT STRUCTURE ON ROOF OF POWERHOUSE #1. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  12. View of parking (resting) frame that supported the Shuttle assembly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of parking (resting) frame that supported the Shuttle assembly when the hydrodynamic supports were not engaged (removed from structure). - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  13. 39. VAL, DETAIL OF INTERIOR ROOM OF CONCRETE 'A' FRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. VAL, DETAIL OF INTERIOR ROOM OF CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE SHOWING NATURAL ROCK PROTRUDING THROUGH SLAB AT STORAGE ROOM. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 36. VAL, DETAIL OF TYPICAL INTERIOR OF CONCRETE 'A' FRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. VAL, DETAIL OF TYPICAL INTERIOR OF CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE SHOWING PAINTED CONCRETE WALLS, CONCRETE STAIRS AND INTERIOR WOOD DOOR. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Optimization of a space spectrograph main frame and frequency response analysis of the frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin-yu; Chen, Zhi-yuan; Yang, Shi-mo

    2009-07-01

    A space spectrograph main structure is optimized and examined in order to satisfy the space operational needs. The space spectrograph will be transported into its operational orbit by the launch vehicle and it will undergo dynamic environment in the spacecraft injection period. The unexpected shocks may cause declination of observation accuracy and even equipment damages. The main frame is one of the most important parts because its mechanical performance has great influence on the operational life of the spectrograph, accuracy of observation, etc. For the reason of cost reduction and stability confirming, lower weight and higher structure stiffness of the frame are simultaneously required. Structure optimization was conducted considering the initial design modal analysis results. The base modal frequency raised 10.34% while the whole weight lowered 8.63% compared to the initial design. The purpose of this study is to analyze the new design of main frame mechanical properties and verify whether it can satisfy strict optical demands under the dynamic impact during spacecraft injection. For realizing and forecasting the frequency response characteristics of the main structure in mechanical environment experiment, dynamic analysis of the structure should be performed simulating impulse loads from the bottom base. Therefore, frequency response analysis (FRA) of the frame was then performed using the FEA software MSC.PATRAN/NASTRAN. Results of shock response spectrum (SRS) responses from the base excitations were given. Stress and acceleration dynamic responses of essential positions in the spacecraft injection course were also calculated and spectrometer structure design was examined considering stiffness / strength demands. In this simulation, maximum stresses of Cesic material in two acceleration application cases are 45.1 and 74.1 MPa, respectively. They are all less than yield strengths. As is demonstrated from the simulation, strength reservation of the frame is

  16. Compressive Testing of Stitched Frame and Stringer Alternate Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leone, Frank A., Jr.; Jegley, Dawn C.

    2016-01-01

    A series of single-frame and single-stringer compression tests were conducted at NASA Langley Research Center on specimens harvested from a large panel built using the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept. Different frame and stringer designs were used in fabrication of the PRSEUS panel. In this report, the details of the experimental testing of single-frame and single-stringer compression specimens are presented, as well as discussions on the performance of the various structural configurations included in the panel.

  17. Framing Obesity: How News Frames Shape Attributions and Behavioral Responses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Krakow, Melinda; John, Kevin K; Liu, Miao; Weaver, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Based on a public health model of obesity, this study set out to examine whether a news article reporting the obesity issue in a societal versus individual frame would increase perceptions of societal responsibilities for the obesity problem and motivate responsibility-taking behaviors. Responsibility-taking behaviors were examined at 3 levels: personal, interpersonal, and societal. Data from a Web-based experiment revealed significant framing effects on behaviors via causal and treatment responsibility attributions. The societal frame increased societal causal and treatment attribution, which led to greater likelihoods of interpersonal and social responsibility-taking behaviors as well as personal behaviors. Our findings suggest that news framing can be an effective venue for raising awareness of obesity as a societal issue and mobilizing collective efforts.

  18. Integrating Anisakis spp. parasites data and host genetic structure in the frame of a holistic approach for stock identification of selected Mediterranean Sea fish species.

    PubMed

    Mattiucci, S; Cimmaruta, R; Cipriani, P; Abaunza, P; Bellisario, B; Nascetti, G

    2015-01-01

    The unique environment of the Mediterranean Sea makes fish stock assessment a major challenge. Stock identification of Mediterranean fisheries has been based mostly from data on biology, morphometrics, artificial tags, otolith shape and fish genetics, with less effort on the use of parasites as biomarkers. Here we use some case studies comparing Mediterranean vs Atlantic fish stocks in a multidisciplinary framework. The generalized Procrustes Rotation (PR) was used to assess the association between host genetics and larval Anisakis spp. datasets on demersal (hake) and pelagic (horse mackerel, swordfish) species. When discordant results emerged, they were due to the different features of the data. While fish population genetics can detect changes over an evolutionary timescale, providing indications on the cohesive action of gene flow, parasites are more suitable biomarkers when considering fish stocks over smaller temporal and spatial scales, hence giving information of fish movements over their lifespan. Future studies on the phylogeographic analysis of parasites suitable as biomarkers, and that of their fish host, performed on the same genes, will represent a further tool to be included in multidisciplinary studies on fish stock structure.

  19. Orwell Framed for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Tracy

    2005-01-01

    Tracy Sutherland, a secondary school teacher, gives her opinion of the American public education that keeps changing so often that it finally loses its sight of the overall structure. She has taken George Orwell's book "Animal Farm" as examples in helping students apply the issues from the book in real life.

  20. Orwell Framed for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Tracy

    2005-01-01

    Tracy Sutherland, a secondary school teacher, gives her opinion of the American public education that keeps changing so often that it finally loses its sight of the overall structure. She has taken George Orwell's book "Animal Farm" as examples in helping students apply the issues from the book in real life.

  1. Multiple reference frames in haptic spatial processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volčič, R.

    2008-08-01

    in the vicinity of the haptic stimuli parametrically modulated the magnitude of the deviations. The influence of the hand-centered reference frame was shown also in the haptic mental rotation task where participants were quicker in judging the parity of objects when these were aligned with respect to the hands than when they were physically aligned. Similarly, in the visuo-haptic cross-modal mental rotation task the parity judgments were influenced by the orientation of the exploring hand with respect to the viewing direction. This effect was shown to be modulated also by an intervening temporal delay that supposedly counteracts the influence of the hand-centered reference frame. We suggest that the hand-centered reference frame is embedded in a hierarchical structure of reference frames where some of these emerge depending on the demands and the circumstances of the surrounding environment and the needs of an active perceiver.

  2. Translational and Structural Requirements of the Early Nodulin Gene enod40, a Short-Open Reading Frame-Containing RNA, for Elicitation of a Cell-Specific Growth Response in the Alfalfa Root Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Carolina; Johansson, Christina; Charon, Celine; Manyani, Hamid; Sautter, Christof; Kondorosi, Adam; Crespi, Martin

    2001-01-01

    A diversity of mRNAs containing only short open reading frames (sORF-RNAs; encoding less than 30 amino acids) have been shown to be induced in growth and differentiation processes. The early nodulin gene enod40, coding for a 0.7-kb sORF-RNA, is expressed in the nodule primordium developing in the root cortex of leguminous plants after infection by symbiotic bacteria. Ballistic microtargeting of this gene into Medicago roots induced division of cortical cells. Translation of two sORFs (I and II, 13 and 27 amino acids, respectively) present in the conserved 5′ and 3′ regions of enod40 was required for this biological activity. These sORFs may be translated in roots via a reinitiation mechanism. In vitro translation products starting from the ATG of sORF I were detectable by mutating enod40 to yield peptides larger than 38 amino acids. Deletion of a Medicago truncatula enod40 region between the sORFs, spanning a predicted RNA structure, did not affect their translation but resulted in significantly decreased biological activity. Our data reveal a complex regulation of enod40 action, pointing to a role of sORF-encoded peptides and structured RNA signals in developmental processes involving sORF-RNAs. PMID:11113209

  3. Translational and structural requirements of the early nodulin gene enod40, a short-open reading frame-containing RNA, for elicitation of a cell-specific growth response in the alfalfa root cortex.

    PubMed

    Sousa, C; Johansson, C; Charon, C; Manyani, H; Sautter, C; Kondorosi, A; Crespi, M

    2001-01-01

    A diversity of mRNAs containing only short open reading frames (sORF-RNAs; encoding less than 30 amino acids) have been shown to be induced in growth and differentiation processes. The early nodulin gene enod40, coding for a 0.7-kb sORF-RNA, is expressed in the nodule primordium developing in the root cortex of leguminous plants after infection by symbiotic bacteria. Ballistic microtargeting of this gene into Medicago roots induced division of cortical cells. Translation of two sORFs (I and II, 13 and 27 amino acids, respectively) present in the conserved 5' and 3' regions of enod40 was required for this biological activity. These sORFs may be translated in roots via a reinitiation mechanism. In vitro translation products starting from the ATG of sORF I were detectable by mutating enod40 to yield peptides larger than 38 amino acids. Deletion of a Medicago truncatula enod40 region between the sORFs, spanning a predicted RNA structure, did not affect their translation but resulted in significantly decreased biological activity. Our data reveal a complex regulation of enod40 action, pointing to a role of sORF-encoded peptides and structured RNA signals in developmental processes involving sORF-RNAs.

  4. Framing as a Theory of Media Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    1999-01-01

    Systematizes the fragmented approaches to framing in political communication and integrates them into a comprehensive model. Classifies previous approaches to framing research along two dimensions: media frames versus audience frames; and the way frames are operationalized (independent variable or dependent variable). Identifies four key processes…

  5. Frames and counter-frames giving meaning to dementia: a framing analysis of media content.

    PubMed

    Van Gorp, Baldwin; Vercruysse, Tom

    2012-04-01

    Media tend to reinforce the stigmatization of dementia as one of the most dreaded diseases in western society, which may have repercussions on the quality of life of those with the illness. The persons with dementia, but also those around them become imbued with the idea that life comes to an end as soon as the diagnosis is pronounced. The aim of this paper is to understand the dominant images related to dementia by means of an inductive framing analysis. The sample is composed of newspaper articles from six Belgian newspapers (2008-2010) and a convenience sample of popular images of the condition in movies, documentaries, literature and health care communications. The results demonstrate that the most dominant frame postulates that a human being is composed of two distinct parts: a material body and an immaterial mind. If this frame is used, the person with dementia ends up with no identity, which is in opposition to the Western ideals of personal self-fulfilment and individualism. For each dominant frame an alternative counter-frame is defined. It is concluded that the relative absence of counter-frames confirms the negative image of dementia. The inventory might be a help for caregivers and other professionals who want to evaluate their communication strategy. It is discussed that a more resolute use of counter-frames in communication about dementia might mitigate the stigma that surrounds dementia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dawn Framing Camera Ceres Atlases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roatsch, T.; Kersten, E.; Matz, K.-D.; Jaumann, R.; Joy, S.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2017-06-01

    The Dawn mission mapped the surface of Ceres over a period of 15 months. Imaging data from the Dawn Framing Camera were collected in three primary mapping phases: Survey, High Altitude Mapping Orbit, and Low Altitude Mapping Orbit.

  7. Design of a new type spectacle frames scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Guan, Dong; Zhang, Xiuda; Yan, Huimin

    2016-10-01

    The spectacle frames scanner is an important part in the non-modeling lens-edger system, for its function to measure the profile of the spectacle frames and elicit its 3D data for lens-edging. We propose a new spectacle frames scanner based on multi-linear structured light which is a non-contact type. The experiment devices of the proposed system include a portable projector, a 12mm prime lens and an area array CCD camera. The technology of binary stripes and single-camera image collection are used in the new scanner. The original stripes are modulated by the spectacle frames, so we can collect the images and demodulate the 3D data of the spectacle frames based on trigonometry theory. The factors that influence the measurement accuracy of the scanner system are analyzed and the relationship between structure parameters and measurement error of the system has been determined. According to the result of the simulation, we determine the optimal structure parameters of the spectacle frames scanner system. Experiment result for resin frames with high reflectivity is given.

  8. Putting Safety in the Frame: Nurses' Sensemaking at Work.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, Valerie Jean; Thompson, Kirrilly Rebecca; Tuckey, Michelle Rae; Blewett, Verna Lesley

    2015-01-01

    Current patient safety policy focuses nursing on patient care goals, often overriding nurses' safety. Without understanding how nurses construct work health and safety (WHS), patient and nurse safety cannot be reconciled. Using ethnography, we examine social contexts of safety, studying 72 nurses across five Australian hospitals making decisions during patient encounters. In enacting safe practice, nurses used "frames" built from their contextual experiences to guide their behavior. Frames are produced by nurses, and they structure how nurses make sense of their work. Using thematic analysis, we identify four frames that inform nurses' decisions about WHS: (a) communicating builds knowledge, (b) experiencing situations guides decisions, (c) adapting procedures streamlines work, and (d) team working promotes safe working. Nurses' frames question current policy and practice by challenging how nurses' safety is positioned relative to patient safety. Recognizing these frames can assist the design and implementation of effective WHS management.

  9. Multi-Frame Object Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    was originally developed by Intel, but is now sup- ported by Willow Garage and Itseez [13]. The library includes many applications including facial...apply two- dimensional features to each frame of a multi-frame sample in the same locations and sum the results, as shown in the following equation and...Dataset We created a synthetic dataset that depicts a circular object undergoing a diagonal back-and- forth motion. 200 sequences, each spanning three

  10. Smooth affine shear tight frames: digitization and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Xiaosheng

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we mainly discuss one of the recent developed directional multiscale representation systems: smooth affine shear tight frames. A directional wavelet tight frame is generated by isotropic dilations and translations of directional wavelet generators, while an affine shear tight frame is generated by anisotropic dilations, shears, and translations of shearlet generators. These two tight frames are actually connected in the sense that the affine shear tight frame can be obtained from a directional wavelet tight frame through subsampling. Consequently, an affine shear tight frame indeed has an underlying filter bank from the MRA structure of its associated directional wavelet tight frame. We call such filter banks affine shear filter banks, which can be designed completely in the frequency domain. We discuss the digitization of affine shear filter banks and their implementations: the forward and backward digital affine shear transforms. Redundancy rate and computational complexity of digital affine shear transforms are also investigated in this paper. Numerical experiments and comparisons in image/video processing show the advantages of digital affine shear transforms over many other state-of-art directional multiscale representation systems.

  11. Language use depending on news frame and immigrant origin.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Itziar; Igartua, Juan-José; Moral, Félix; Palacios, Elena; Acosta, Tania; Muñoz, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of the media on individuals' specific language use in relation to a news story on immigration: the influence of the news frame and group cue. Abstraction, complexity of language use, and negative affective language were evaluated. The 523 participants were randomly distributed to each of the four experimental conditions: news frame (crime versus economic contribution) by group cue (geographical origin of the immigrants involved: Moroccans versus Latin Americans). Through content analysis of the ideas and reflections that arose after the participants read the different news stories, using the Linguistic Category Model (LCM; Semin & Fiedler, 1991) to measure abstract language and the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC; Pennebaker, Booth, & Francis, 2007) to analyze complex language and negative affective language, it emerged that abstract language and negative affective language were more frequent in the participants assigned to the news frame on crime. Complex language was more commonly used when the news frame referred to the economic contribution of immigrants. Regression analyses showed the mediating role of attitude to immigration in the effects of news frame on negative affective language. The bootstrap method was used to assess the magnitude of the indirect effect. A significant mediator effect was also found through structural equation modeling. Analyses of covariance showed one interaction between news frame and group cue: Among those who read the news story in a frame linking immigration to crime and Moroccan origin, abstract language was more characteristic. The results are discussed from the theoretical perspective of framing.

  12. Composite lightweight non-metallic vehicle frame

    SciTech Connect

    Pabst, R.D.

    1986-03-04

    A non-metallic ladder type automotive frame is described having beam elements formed of composite plastic materials. The frame consists of: paired opposed elongate lateral beams interconnected by plural cross beams, each of the beams and cross beams having, a rigid lower density core formed by foaming plastic material in a peripheral mold to create a structure having closed cells and a graduated density that is greatest at the periphery of the core, and a higher density peripheral skin formed of polymeric matrix material adhered to the core and embedding reinforcing fiber in the form of woven cloth, plural layers of the cloth, covering the peripheral surfaces of the beams and additional layers of the cloth covering top and bottom portions of the beams, and means of releasably fastening automotive components to at least some of the beams.

  13. Testing and analysis of curved frame specimens made from a Long Discontinuous Fiber (LDF) material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    1993-01-01

    A long discontinuous fiber (LDF) material may be useful for constructing composite parts with complex curvature. Graphite-thermoplastic LDF curved frame specimens were studied to investigate the behavior of curved frame structures made from this material form. Experimental results for three curved frame specimens loaded in a four-point-bending configuration and finite-element predictions of strains and displacements are presented.

  14. Identifying Acquisition Framing Assumptions Through Structured Deliberation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    idea generation tasks in a meta-analysis of the electronic group brainstorming literature,” Computers in Human Behavior , 23(3), 1549-1581. (IHI...Merit of Group Interaction in Creative Idea Generation Tasks in a Meta-Analysis of the Electronic Group Brainstorming Literature,” Computers in Human Behavior , Vol

  15. The primary structure and expression of the second open reading frame of the polymerase gene of the coronavirus MHV-A59; a highly conserved polymerase is expressed by an efficient ribosomal frameshifting mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Bredenbeek, P J; Pachuk, C J; Noten, A F; Charité, J; Luytjes, W; Weiss, S R; Spaan, W J

    1990-01-01

    Sequence analysis of a substantial part of the polymerase gene of the murine coronavirus MHV-A59 revealed the 3' end of an open reading frame (ORF1a) overlapping with a large ORF (ORF1b; 2733 amino acids) which covers the 3' half of the polymerase gene. The expression of ORF1b occurs by a ribosomal frameshifting mechanism since the ORF1a/ORF1b overlapping nucleotide sequence is capable of inducing ribosomal frameshifting in vitro as well as in vivo. A stem-loop structure and a pseudoknot are predicted in the nucleotide sequence involved in ribosomal frameshifting. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence of MHV ORF1b with the amino acid sequence deduced from the corresponding gene of the avian coronavirus IBV demonstrated that in contrast to the other viral genes this ORF is extremely conserved. Detailed analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence revealed sequence elements which are conserved in many DNA and RNA polymerases. Images PMID:2159623

  16. f3: Full Frame Fotometry for Kepler Full Frame Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montet, Benjamin T.

    2017-05-01

    Light curves from the Kepler telescope rely on "postage stamp" cutouts of a few pixels near each of 200,000 target stars. These light curves are optimized for the detection of short-term signals like planet transits but induce systematics that overwhelm long-term variations in stellar flux. Longer-term effects can be recovered through analysis of the Full Frame Images, a set of calibration data obtained monthly during the Kepler mission. The Python package f3 analyzes the Full Frame Images to infer long-term astrophysical variations in the brightness of Kepler targets, such as magnetic activity or sunspots on slowly rotating stars.

  17. "Speaking for another": the management of participant frames in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Kingston, Debbie; Schultz, Misty

    2004-05-01

    A sociolinguistic analysis of an interaction between a woman with aphasia and a nonaphasic speaking partner was conducted to investigate participant framing in aphasia. Participant frames, or the stances that people take in conversation, help conversational participants structure their talk and collaboratively negotiate meaning (I. Goffman, 1974). This analysis revealed a configuration in which a person with severe aphasia enlisted her speaking partner to speak for her. That is, the interaction was framed such that the nonaphasic speaking partner served as the "spokesperson" for messages that were authored by the person with aphasia. The clinical requirements of adopting a "speaking for another" framework are discussed.

  18. Hamiltonian approach to frame dragging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Kenneth J.

    2008-07-01

    A Hamiltonian approach makes the phenomenon of frame dragging apparent “up front” from the appearance of the drag velocity in the Hamiltonian of a test particle in an arbitrary metric. Hamiltonian (1) uses the inhomogeneous force equation (4), which applies to non-geodesic motion as well as to geodesics. The Hamiltonian is not in manifestly covariant form, but is covariant because it is derived from Hamilton’s manifestly covariant scalar action principle. A distinction is made between manifest frame dragging such as that in the Kerr metric, and hidden frame dragging that can be made manifest by a coordinate transformation such as that applied to the Robertson-Walker metric in Sect. 2. In Sect. 3 a zone of repulsive gravity is found in the extreme Kerr metric. Section 4 treats frame dragging in special relativity as a manifestation of the equivalence principle in accelerated frames. It answers a question posed by Bell about how the Lorentz contraction can break a thread connecting two uniformly accelerated rocket ships. In Sect. 5 the form of the Hamiltonian facilitates the definition of gravitomagnetic and gravitoelectric potentials.

  19. Alternative approximation concepts for space frame synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    A structural synthesis methodology for the minimum mass design of 3-dimensionall frame-truss structures under multiple static loading conditions and subject to limits on displacements, rotations, stresses, local buckling, and element cross-sectional dimensions is presented. A variety of approximation concept options are employed to yield near optimum designs after no more than 10 structural analyses. Available options include: (A) formulation of the nonlinear mathematcal programming problem in either reciprocal section property (RSP) or cross-sectional dimension (CSD) space; (B) two alternative approximate problem structures in each design space; and (C) three distinct assumptions about element end-force variations. Fixed element, design element linking, and temporary constraint deletion features are also included. The solution of each approximate problem, in either its primal or dual form, is obtained using CONMIN, a feasible directions program. The frame-truss synthesis methodology is implemented in the COMPASS computer program and is used to solve a variety of problems. These problems were chosen so that, in addition to exercising the various approximation concepts options, the results could be compared with previously published work.

  20. Frame Synchronization Without Attached Sync Markers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method to synchronize codeword frames without making use of attached synchronization markers (ASMs). Instead, the synchronizer identifies the code structure present in the received symbols, by operating the decoder for a handful of iterations at each possible symbol offset and forming an appropriate metric. This method is computationally more complex and doesn't perform as well as frame synchronizers that utilize an ASM; nevertheless, the new synchronizer acquires frame synchronization in about two seconds when using a 600 kbps software decoder, and would take about 15 milliseconds on prototype hardware. It also eliminates the need for the ASMs, which is an attractive feature for short uplink codes whose coding gain would be diminished by the overheard of ASM bits. The lack of ASMs also would simplify clock distribution for the AR4JA low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes and adds a small amount to the coding gain as well (up to 0.2 dB).

  1. Frame Synchronization Without Attached Sync Markers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method to synchronize codeword frames without making use of attached synchronization markers (ASMs). Instead, the synchronizer identifies the code structure present in the received symbols, by operating the decoder for a handful of iterations at each possible symbol offset and forming an appropriate metric. This method is computationally more complex and doesn't perform as well as frame synchronizers that utilize an ASM; nevertheless, the new synchronizer acquires frame synchronization in about two seconds when using a 600 kbps software decoder, and would take about 15 milliseconds on prototype hardware. It also eliminates the need for the ASMs, which is an attractive feature for short uplink codes whose coding gain would be diminished by the overheard of ASM bits. The lack of ASMs also would simplify clock distribution for the AR4JA low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes and adds a small amount to the coding gain as well (up to 0.2 dB).

  2. Framing and Frame Shifting in a Higher Education Merger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pick, David

    2003-01-01

    Late in 1996, Kalgoorlie College and the Western Australian School of Mines in Western Australia were merged to form an expanded campus of Curtin University, based in the state capital city of Perth. This paper uses a frame analytical approach to examining how differing and competing interpretations and commitments affected how the merger was…

  3. Examining the Linkage Between FRAMES and GMS

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Gene; Castleton, Karl J.

    2006-02-13

    Because GMS provides so many features, of which some are also addressed by FRAMES, it could represent a platform to link to FRAMES, or FRAMES could represent a platform to link to GMS. The focus of this summary is to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the potential linkage direction and provide recommendations for the linkage between FRAMES and GMS.

  4. 49 CFR 393.201 - Frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.201 Frames. (a) The frame or chassis of each commercial motor vehicle shall not be cracked, loose, sagging or... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frames. 393.201 Section 393.201 Transportation...

  5. An ontology for tactical behaviors derived from verb frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esterline, Albert C., Jr.; BouSaba, Chafic W.

    2008-04-01

    We present an initial ontology for tactical behaviors conducted by unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). We focus on activities, which are the denotations of verbs, notably 'move' but also 'look (for)' and several others. These take collective subjects, allowing activities to be attributed to units at various hierarchical levels. The semantics of verbs must consider the denotations of their grammatical complements; that is, we must consider entire verb frames. The thematic relations of the noun-phrase complements are critical, but prepositions also play an important role. FrameNet is an online lexical database of frames derived from text corpora. Our other major resource is Levin's classification of verbs according to how changes in their frames affect their meanings. Although natural languages have a large variety of words for aspects of tactical behaviors, there is motivation to get by with as few basic verbs as possible. A variety of meanings can often be associated with a verb by altering its frame, and we can impose co-reference constraints on combinations of frames to generate structures denoting more complex activities. A simple grammar is developed for the verbs of interest. Protege-Frames ontologies include classes that inherit from linguistically inspired classes but capture domain-specific notions.

  6. Framing the ultimatum game: the contribution of simulation.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Lotto, Lorella; Sarlo, Michela; Civai, Claudia; Rumiati, Rino; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2013-01-01

    It has now become widely accepted that economic decisions are influenced by cognitive and emotional processes. In the present study, we aimed at disentangling the neural mechanisms associated with the way in which the information is formulated, i.e., framing effect, in terms of gain or loss, which influences people's decisions. Participants played a fMRI version of the Ultimatum Game (UG) where we manipulated bids through two different frames: the expression "I give you" (gain) focusing on money the respondent would receive if she/he agreed with the proponent, and the expression "I take" (loss) focusing on the money that would be removed from the respondent in the event that she/he accepted the offer. Neuroimaging data revealed a frame by response interaction, showing an increase of neural activity in the right rolandic operculum/insular cortex, the anterior cingulate, among other regions, for accepting the frame "I take" vs. rejecting, as compared to accepting the frame "I give you" vs. rejecting. In addition, the left occipito-temporal junction was activated for "I take" vs. "I give you" for offer 5, corresponding to the equal offer made unpleasant by the presence of the frame "I take," where is the proposer that takes the money. Our data extend the current understanding of the neural substrates of social decision making, by disentangling the structures sensitive to the way in which the information is formulated (i.e., framing effect), in terms of gain or loss.

  7. Error framing effects on performance: cognitive, motivational, and affective pathways.

    PubMed

    Steele-Johnson, Debra; Kalinoski, Zachary T

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose was to examine whether positive error framing, that is, making errors salient and cuing individuals to see errors as useful, can benefit learning when task exploration is constrained. Recent research has demonstrated the benefits of a newer approach to training, that is, error management training, that includes the opportunity to actively explore the task and framing errors as beneficial to learning complex tasks (Keith & Frese, 2008). Other research has highlighted the important role of errors in on-the-job learning in complex domains (Hutchins, 1995). Participants (N = 168) from a large undergraduate university performed a class scheduling task. Results provided support for a hypothesized path model in which error framing influenced cognitive, motivational, and affective factors which in turn differentially affected performance quantity and quality. Within this model, error framing had significant direct effects on metacognition and self-efficacy. Our results suggest that positive error framing can have beneficial effects even when tasks cannot be structured to support extensive exploration. Whereas future research can expand our understanding of error framing effects on outcomes, results from the current study suggest that positive error framing can facilitate learning from errors in real-time performance of tasks.

  8. Performance-based plastic design method for steel concentric braced frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banihashemi, M. R.; Mirzagoltabar, A. R.; Tavakoli, H. R.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a performance-based plastic design (PBPD) methodology for the design of steel concentric braced frames. The design base shear is obtained based on energy-work balance equation using pre-selected target drift and yield mechanism. To achieve the intended yield mechanism and behavior, plastic design is applied to detail the frame members. For validity, three baseline frames (3, 6, 9-story) are designed according to AISC (Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, 2005) seismic provisions (baseline frames). Then, the frames are redesigned based on the PBPD method. These frames are subjected to extensive nonlinear dynamic time-history analyses. The results show that the PBPD frames meet all the intended performance objectives in terms of yield mechanisms and target drifts, whereas the baseline frames show very poor response due to premature brace fractures leading to unacceptably large drifts and instability.

  9. Using quasar physics to improve the celestial reference frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabala, Stanislav; Plank, Lucia; McCallum, Jamie; Boehm, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    Radio-loud quasars making up the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) are dynamic objects with significant structure that changes on timescales of months and years. This is a problem for reference frame stability, as realised through the geodetic and astrometric Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique, which has so far largely treated quasars as point sources in analysis. I will describe the source structure simulator recently implemented in the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) package, and quantify the effects of various levels of source structure on the celestial and terrestrial reference frames, and Earth Orientation Parameters linking these two frames. We find that even relatively modest levels of quasar structure can produce systematic effects that affect derived quasar positions significantly in excess of the noise floor of the present ICRF realisation, ICRF2.I will also discuss the observed relationship between astrophysical properties of quasars, their structure and geodetic stability. By simulating quasar structure and evolution in VieVS, we have devised various quasar mitigation strategies. These include: (1) astrophysically-based quasar selection techniques; (2) scheduling sources by taking into account quasar structure; and (3) analyzing geodetic and astrometric VLBI observations using knowledge of quasar structure. I will describe our simulation results, and outline promising quasar structure mitigation strategies.

  10. Handedness differences in information framing.

    PubMed

    Jasper, John D; Fournier, Candice; Christman, Stephen D

    2014-02-01

    Previous research has shown that strength of handedness predicts differences in sensory illusions, Stroop interference, episodic memory, and beliefs about body image. Recent evidence also suggests handedness differences in the susceptibility to common decision biases such as anchoring and sunk cost. The present paper extends this line of work to attribute framing effects. Sixty-three undergraduates were asked to advise a friend concerning the use of a safe allergy medication during pregnancy. A third of the participants received negatively-framed information concerning the fetal risk of the drug (1-3% chance of having a malformed child); another third received positively-framed information (97-99% chance of having a normal child); and the final third received no counseling information and served as the control. Results indicated that, as predicted, inconsistent (mixed)-handers were more responsive than consistent (strong)-handers to information changes and readily update their beliefs. Although not significant, the data also suggested that only inconsistent handers were affected by information framing. Theoretical implications as well as ongoing work in holistic versus analytic processing, contextual sensitivity, and brain asymmetry will be discussed.

  11. Frame Rate and Human Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.

  12. Dawn Framing Camera Views Carina

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-04

    This view in the southern constellation Carina was acquired on December 13, 2007 as part of the characterization tests of the Framing Camera. The cluster of stars in the center is NGC 3532, and the nebula in the lower right is the Eta Carina Nebula.

  13. SEOS frame camera applications study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A research and development satellite is discussed which will provide opportunities for observation of transient phenomena that fall within the fixed viewing circle of the spacecraft. The evaluation of possible applications for frame cameras, for SEOS, are studied. The computed lens characteristics for each camera are listed.

  14. Gold plating on spectacle frames.

    PubMed

    Kenny, I; Mitchell, J W; Walsh, G

    1997-05-01

    An investigation was carried out into the thickness and standard of application of the plating and lacquer coatings applied to three metal spectacle frames. All conform to BS 6625 (1991) for plating thickness, but there was considerable variation in regularity and porosity.

  15. Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Kenneth J.; Boboltz, David; Fey, Alan Lee; Gaume, Ralph A.; Zacharias, Norbert

    2004-01-01

    The Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects Key Science program will investigate the underlying physics of SIM grid objects. Extragalactic objects in the SIM grid will be used to tie the SIM reference frame to the quasi-inertial reference frame defined by extragalactic objects and to remove any residual frame rotation with respect to the extragalactic frame. The current realization of the extragalactic frame is the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The ICRF is defined by the radio positions of 212 extragalactic objects and is the IAU sanctioned fundamental astronomical reference frame. This key project will advance our knowledge of the physics of the objects which will make up the SIM grid, such as quasars and chromospherically active stars, and relates directly to the stability of the SIM reference frame. The following questions concerning the physics of reference frame tie objects will be investigated.

  16. Closed-form approach to checking frame design

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, A.

    1995-04-05

    This brief report contains calculations of deflections and stresses of the support frame on the XMM project. The goal is to provide an independent view of structural integrity of the frame utilizing a noncomputer approach to design based on elementary closed form solutions and approximate models of mechanical and structural behavior. It is recognized that full confidence can only be assured when computer generated results pertaining to the critical areas and features of the integrating structure can be enveloped by the bracketing solutions. Although the computer solutions have come from the three independent sources, this report utilizes the numerical values from the LLNL studies represented by the computer runs and analysis of the critical elements of the frame. Since the frame geometry, deformation patterns, and the nature of loading are highly complex, this study is restricted to simplified models of selected areas of the structure which can be handled by the conventional formulas and reasonable approximations. This report contains some comments related to material properties, stress concentration, and elements of fracture mechanics directly applicable to frame analysis and design. Such topics and parameters fall usually outside the finite element modeling, but they can have a crucial influence on the mechanical and structural performance of the systems at hand.

  17. The Operational Principle and Problem Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Michael

    In the problem frames approach to software development as its name indicates analysis of theproblem precedes construction of thesolution. The problem analysis rests on certain ideas of structure and simplicity, including a general recommendation that composition should be postponed until the parts to be composed are well understood in their preliminary isolated forms. These ideas are discussed in the light of Michael Polanyi's notion of theoperational principle of a machine orcontrivance, and his account of the relationship between scientific knowledge and understanding of machines. Criteria are suggested for simplicity in problem decomposition. The outline structure of the associated development approach is sketched, and the relationship between formal development methods and problem structuring is clarified.

  18. Light-frame wall and floor systems : analysis and performance

    Treesearch

    G. Sherwood; R. C. Moody

    1989-01-01

    This report describes methods of predicting the performance of light-frame wood structures with emphasis on floor and wall systems. Methods of predicting structural performance, fire safety, and environmental concerns including thermal, moisture, and acoustic performance are addressed in the three major sections.

  19. Turbulence modeling in non-inertial frames of reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speziale, Charles G.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of an arbitrary change of frame on the structure of turbulence models is examined from a fundamental theoretical standpoint. It is proven, as a rigorous consequence of the Navier-Stokes equations, that turbulence models must be form invariant under arbitrary translational accelerations of the reference frame and should only be affected by rotations through the intrinsic mean vorticity. A direct application of the invariance property along with the Taylor-Proudman Theorem, material frame-indifference in the limit of two-dimensional turbulence and Rapid Distortion Theory is shown to yield powerful constraints on the allowable form of turbulence models. Most of the commonly used turbulence models are demonstrated to be in serious violation of these constraints and consequently are inconsistent with the Navier-Stokes equations in non-inertial frames. Alternative models with improved non-inertial properties are developed and some simple applications to rotating turbulent flows are considered.

  20. Nine Frames as Jupiter Turns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This sequence of nine true-color, narrow-angle images shows the varying appearance of Jupiter as it rotated through more than a complete 360-degree turn. The smallest features seen in this sequence are no bigger than about 380 kilometers (about 236 miles). Rotating more than twice as fast as Earth, Jupiter completes one rotation in about 10 hours. These images were taken on Oct. 22 and 23, 2000. From image to image (proceeding left to right across each row and then down to the next row), cloud features on Jupiter move from left to right before disappearing over the edge onto the nightside of the planet. The most obvious Jovian feature is the Great Red Spot, which can be seen moving onto the dayside in the third frame (below and to the left of the center of the planet). In the fourth frame, taken about 1 hour and 40 minutes later, the Great Red Spot has been carried by the planet's rotation to the east and does not appear again until the final frame, which was taken one complete rotation after the third frame.

    Unlike weather systems on Earth, which change markedly from day to day, large cloud systems in Jupiter's colder, thicker atmosphere are long-lived, so the two frames taken one rotation apart have a very similar appearance. However, when this sequence of images is eventually animated, strong winds blowing eastward at some latitudes and westward at other latitudes will be readily apparent. The results of such differential motions can be seen even in the still frames shown here. For example, the clouds of the Great Red Spot rotate counterclockwise. The strong westward winds northeast of the Great Red Spot are deflected around the spot and form a wake of turbulent clouds downstream (visible in the fourth image), just as a rock in a rapidly flowing river deflects the fluid around it.

    The equatorial zone on Jupiter is currently bright white, indicating the presence of clouds much like cirrus clouds on Earth, but made of ammonia instead of water ice. This

  1. Nine Frames as Jupiter Turns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This sequence of nine true-color, narrow-angle images shows the varying appearance of Jupiter as it rotated through more than a complete 360-degree turn. The smallest features seen in this sequence are no bigger than about 380 kilometers (about 236 miles). Rotating more than twice as fast as Earth, Jupiter completes one rotation in about 10 hours. These images were taken on Oct. 22 and 23, 2000. From image to image (proceeding left to right across each row and then down to the next row), cloud features on Jupiter move from left to right before disappearing over the edge onto the nightside of the planet. The most obvious Jovian feature is the Great Red Spot, which can be seen moving onto the dayside in the third frame (below and to the left of the center of the planet). In the fourth frame, taken about 1 hour and 40 minutes later, the Great Red Spot has been carried by the planet's rotation to the east and does not appear again until the final frame, which was taken one complete rotation after the third frame.

    Unlike weather systems on Earth, which change markedly from day to day, large cloud systems in Jupiter's colder, thicker atmosphere are long-lived, so the two frames taken one rotation apart have a very similar appearance. However, when this sequence of images is eventually animated, strong winds blowing eastward at some latitudes and westward at other latitudes will be readily apparent. The results of such differential motions can be seen even in the still frames shown here. For example, the clouds of the Great Red Spot rotate counterclockwise. The strong westward winds northeast of the Great Red Spot are deflected around the spot and form a wake of turbulent clouds downstream (visible in the fourth image), just as a rock in a rapidly flowing river deflects the fluid around it.

    The equatorial zone on Jupiter is currently bright white, indicating the presence of clouds much like cirrus clouds on Earth, but made of ammonia instead of water ice. This

  2. A guide frame for the Taylor Spatial Frame.

    PubMed

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios D; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Kanellopoulos, Nikolaos D; Magnissalis, Evangellos A; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2009-08-01

    The Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF) is a versatile multiplanar external fixator that combines ease of application with computer accuracy to effectively reduce fractures and correct all aspects of deformity in reconstructive orthopaedic surgery. However, postapplication adjustments depend on adequate anteroposterior and lateral radiographic measurements to yield the most accurate output from the program. These radiographs need to be taken in an orthogonal plane to the reference ring. We describe a noninvasive technique using a specifically designed radiolucent frame that can be attached to the TSF to guide the surgeon and radiologist in obtaining lateral and anteroposterior radiographs, with the reference ring perfectly orthogonal in single exposures for each radiographic view. By using this guiding frame, reproducible and consistent x-rays oriented orthogonally to the reference ring at different points in the correction may be achieved, thus eliminating the need for repeat radiographs and radiation exposure for patients, radiologists, and surgeons. In this manner, the mounting parameters and the orientation of the bony deformity will be consistent. This should lead to enhanced accuracy of the TSF correction.

  3. A Possible Approach to Inclusion of Space and Time in Frame Fields of Quantum Representations of Real and Complex Numbers

    DOE PAGES

    Benioff, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Tmore » his work is based on the field of reference frames based on quantum representations of real and complex numbers described in other work. Here frame domains are expanded to include space and time lattices. Strings of qukits are described as hybrid systems as they are both mathematical and physical systems. As mathematical systems they represent numbers. As physical systems in each frame the strings have a discrete Schrodinger dynamics on the lattices.he frame field has an iterative structure such that the contents of a stage j frame have images in a stage j - 1 (parent) frame. A discussion of parent frame images includes the proposal that points of stage j frame lattices have images as hybrid systems in parent frames.he resulting association of energy with images of lattice point locations, as hybrid systems states, is discussed. Representations and images of other physical systems in the different frames are also described.« less

  4. Self-organized architectures from assorted DNA-framed nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenyan; Halverson, Jonathan; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, Alexei V.; Gang, Oleg

    2016-09-01

    The science of self-assembly has undergone a radical shift from asking questions about why individual components self-organize into ordered structures, to manipulating the resultant order. However, the quest for far-reaching nanomanufacturing requires addressing an even more challenging question: how to form nanoparticle (NP) structures with designed architectures without explicitly prescribing particle positions. Here we report an assembly concept in which building instructions are embedded into NPs via DNA frames. The integration of NPs and DNA origami frames enables the fabrication of NPs with designed anisotropic and selective interactions. Using a pre-defined set of different DNA-framed NPs, we show it is possible to design diverse planar architectures, which include periodic structures and shaped meso-objects that spontaneously emerge on mixing of the different topological types of NP. Even objects of non-trivial shapes, such as a nanoscale model of Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man, can be self-assembled successfully.

  5. Self-organized architectures from assorted DNA-framed nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenyan; Halverson, Jonathan; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, Alexei V.; Gang, Oleg

    2016-06-13

    The science of self-assembly has undergone a radical shift from asking questions about why individual components self-organize into ordered structures, to manipulating the resultant order. However, the quest for far-reaching nanomanufacturing requires addressing an even more challenging question: how to form nanoparticle (NP) structures with designed architectures without explicitly prescribing particle positions. Here we report an assembly concept in which building instructions are embedded into NPs via DNA frames. The integration of NPs and DNA origami frames enables the fabrication of NPs with designed anisotropic and selective interactions. Using a pre-defined set of different DNA-framed NPs, we show it is possible to design diverse planar architectures, which include periodic structures and shaped meso-objects that spontaneously emerge on mixing of the different topological types of NP. Even objects of non-trivial shapes, such as a nanoscale model of Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man, can be self-assembled successfully.

  6. Self-organized architectures from assorted DNA-framed nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenyan; Halverson, Jonathan; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, Alexei V; Gang, Oleg

    2016-09-01

    The science of self-assembly has undergone a radical shift from asking questions about why individual components self-organize into ordered structures, to manipulating the resultant order. However, the quest for far-reaching nanomanufacturing requires addressing an even more challenging question: how to form nanoparticle (NP) structures with designed architectures without explicitly prescribing particle positions. Here we report an assembly concept in which building instructions are embedded into NPs via DNA frames. The integration of NPs and DNA origami frames enables the fabrication of NPs with designed anisotropic and selective interactions. Using a pre-defined set of different DNA-framed NPs, we show it is possible to design diverse planar architectures, which include periodic structures and shaped meso-objects that spontaneously emerge on mixing of the different topological types of NP. Even objects of non-trivial shapes, such as a nanoscale model of Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man, can be self-assembled successfully.

  7. Limiting Impact Force Due to Yielding and Buckling of the Plates and Internal Structural Frame at the Bow of a Barge during Its Head-on Impact with a Bullnose or Cellular Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    Locks and Dam. ERDC/ITL TR-09-3 16 The proposed flexible approach walls at Lock and Dams 22 and 25 consist of precast concrete beams supported...bow of a barge during a head-on impact with a bullnose at the end of a lock wall or with a concrete -filled cell structure. It uses a central...the barge during a head-on impact with a bullnose type structure such as those found at the end of a lock wall or with a concrete -filled cell

  8. Ultra-fast framing camera tube

    DOEpatents

    Kalibjian, Ralph

    1981-01-01

    An electronic framing camera tube features focal plane image dissection and synchronized restoration of the dissected electron line images to form two-dimensional framed images. Ultra-fast framing is performed by first streaking a two-dimensional electron image across a narrow slit, thereby dissecting the two-dimensional electron image into sequential electron line images. The dissected electron line images are then restored into a framed image by a restorer deflector operated synchronously with the dissector deflector. The number of framed images on the tube's viewing screen is equal to the number of dissecting slits in the tube. The distinguishing features of this ultra-fast framing camera tube are the focal plane dissecting slits, and the synchronously-operated restorer deflector which restores the dissected electron line images into a two-dimensional framed image. The framing camera tube can produce image frames having high spatial resolution of optical events in the sub-100 picosecond range.

  9. General relativistic ? orthonormal frame approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Elst, Henk; Uggla, Claes

    1997-09-01

    The dynamical equations of an extended 1 + 3 orthonormal frame approach to the relativistic description of spacetime geometries are explicitly presented and discussed in detail. In particular, the Bianchi identities for the Weyl curvature tensor occur in a fully expanded form, as they are given a central role in the extended formalism. It is shown how one can naturally introduce local coordinates, both in the 1 + 3 threading and the ADM 3 + 1 slicing context. By specializing the general 1 + 3 dynamical equations it is demonstrated how a number of problems of interest can be obtained. In particular, the simplest choices of spatial frames for spatially homogeneous cosmological models, locally rotationally symmetric spacetime geometries, cosmological models with an Abelian isometry group 0264-9381/14/9/021/img6 and `silent' dust cosmological models are discussed.

  10. Lattice QCD in rotating frames.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Arata; Hirono, Yuji

    2013-08-23

    We formulate lattice QCD in rotating frames to study the physics of QCD matter under rotation. We construct the lattice QCD action with the rotational metric and apply it to the Monte Carlo simulation. As the first application, we calculate the angular momenta of gluons and quarks in the rotating QCD vacuum. This new framework is useful to analyze various rotation-related phenomena in QCD.

  11. Plans for an accurate alignment of the VLBI frame and the future Gaia frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourda, G.; Charlot, P.

    2012-12-01

    The European space astrometry mission Gaia will construct a dense optical QSO-based celestial reference frame. For consistency between optical and radio positions, it will be fundamental to align the Gaia and VLBI frames with the highest accuracy. A proper alignment is also important in the framework of astrophysics, for example to probe properly the AGN jets properties and the physics of these objects. The VLBI-Gaia frame alignment requires quasars that are bright at optical wavelength, that have a compact radio core, and that do not exhibit complex structures. In this paper, we draw prospects for this alignment, based on the ICRF2 catalogue and an ongoing dedicated VLBI project designed to observe additional weaker extragalactic radio sources for this purpose. The list of suitable sources will have to be monitored to check the relevance of the sources for the alignment, especially in terms of position stability and structures. Accordingly, we present the observations we envision in the framework of the IVS and other VLBI networks, before and during the Gaia mission.

  12. The Kepler Full Frame Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotson, Jessie L.; Batalha, Natalie; Bryson, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Clarke, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's exoplanet discovery mission Kepler provides uninterrupted 1-min and 30-min optical photometry of a 100 square degree field over a 3.5 yr nominal mission. Downlink bandwidth is filled at these short cadences by selecting only detector pixels specific to 105 preselected stellar targets. The majority of the Kepler field, comprising 4 x 10(exp 6) m_v < 20 sources, is sampled at much lower 1-month cadence in the form of a full-frame image. The Full Frame Images (FFIs) are calibrated by the Science Operations Center at NASA Ames Research Center. The Kepler Team employ these images for astrometric and photometric reference but make the images available to the astrophysics community through the Multimission Archive at STScI (MAST). The full-frame images provide a resource for potential Kepler Guest Observers to select targets and plan observing proposals, while also providing a freely-available long-cadence legacy of photometric variation across a swathe of the Galactic disk.

  13. Monolithic LTCC seal frame and lid

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, Daniel S.; Peterson, Kenneth A.; Stockdale, Dave; Duncan, James Brent; Riggs, Bristen

    2016-06-21

    A method for forming a monolithic seal frame and lid for use with a substrate and electronic circuitry comprises the steps of forming a mandrel from a ceramic and glass based material, forming a seal frame and lid block from a ceramic and glass based material, creating a seal frame and lid by forming a compartment and a plurality of sidewalls in the seal frame and lid block, placing the seal frame and lid on the mandrel such that the mandrel fits within the compartment, and cofiring the seal frame and lid block.

  14. Image denoising using a tight frame.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lixin; Papadakis, Manos; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A; Konstantinidis, Ioannis; Kouri, Donald; Hoffman, David

    2006-05-01

    We present a general mathematical theory for lifting frames that allows us to modify existing filters to construct new ones that form Parseval frames. We apply our theory to design nonseparable Parseval frames from separable (tensor) products of a piecewise linear spline tight frame. These new frame systems incorporate the weighted average operator, the Sobel operator, and the Laplacian operator in directions that are integer multiples of 45 degrees. A new image denoising algorithm is then proposed, tailored to the specific properties of these new frame filters. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm on a diverse set of images with very encouraging results.

  15. Framing effects on metacognitive monitoring and control

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Bridgid

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments explored the contribution of framing effects on metamemory judgments. In Experiment 1, participants studied word pairs. After each presentation, they made an immediate judgment of learning (JOL), framed in terms of either remembering or forgetting. In the remember frame, participants made judgments about how likely it was that they would remember each pair on the upcoming test. In the forget frame, participants made judgments about how likely it was that they would forget each pair. Confidence differed as a result of the frame. Forget frame JOLs, equated to the remember frame JOL scale by a 1-judgment conversion, were lower and demonstrated a smaller overconfidence bias than did remember frame JOLs. When judgments were made at a delay, framing effects did not occur. In Experiment 2, people chose to restudy more items when choices were made within a forget frame. In Experiment 3, people studied Spanish–English vocabulary pairs ranging in difficulty. The framing effect was replicated with judgments and choices. Moreover, forget frame participants included more easy and medium items to restudy. These results demonstrated the important consequences of framing effects on assessment and control of study. PMID:18604963

  16. Seismic Performance Evaluation of Concentrically Braced Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Po-Chien

    Concentrically braced frames (CBFs) are broadly used as lateral-load resisting systems in buildings throughout the US. In high seismic regions, special concentrically braced frames (SCBFs) where ductility under seismic loading is necessary. Their large elastic stiffness and strength efficiently sustains the seismic demands during smaller, more frequent earthquakes. During large, infrequent earthquakes, SCBFs exhibit highly nonlinear behavior due to brace buckling and yielding and the inelastic behavior induced by secondary deformation of the framing system. These response modes reduce the system demands relative to an elastic system without supplemental damping. In design the re reduced demands are estimated using a response modification coefficient, commonly termed the R factor. The R factor values are important to the seismic performance of a building. Procedures put forth in FEMAP695 developed to R factors through a formalized procedure with the objective of consistent level of collapse potential for all building types. The primary objective of the research was to evaluate the seismic performance of SCBFs. To achieve this goal, an improved model including a proposed gusset plate connection model for SCBFs that permits accurate simulation of inelastic deformations of the brace, gusset plate connections, beams and columns and brace fracture was developed and validated using a large number of experiments. Response history analyses were conducted using the validated model. A series of different story-height SCBF buildings were designed and evaluated. The FEMAP695 method and an alternate procedure were applied to SCBFs and NCBFs. NCBFs are designed without ductile detailing. The evaluation using P695 method shows contrary results to the alternate evaluation procedure and the current knowledge in which short-story SCBF structures are more venerable than taller counterparts and NCBFs are more vulnerable than SCBFs.

  17. Reference frames in learning from maps and navigation.

    PubMed

    Meilinger, Tobias; Frankenstein, Julia; Watanabe, Katsumi; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Hölscher, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    In everyday life, navigators often consult a map before they navigate to a destination (e.g., a hotel, a room, etc.). However, not much is known about how humans gain spatial knowledge from seeing a map and direct navigation together. In the present experiments, participants learned a simple multiple corridor space either from a map only, only from walking through the virtual environment, first from the map and then from navigation, or first from navigation and then from the map. Afterwards, they conducted a pointing task from multiple body orientations to infer the underlying reference frames. We constructed the learning experiences in a way such that map-only learning and navigation-only learning triggered spatial memory organized along different reference frame orientations. When learning from maps before and during navigation, participants employed a map- rather than a navigation-based reference frame in the subsequent pointing task. Consequently, maps caused the employment of a map-oriented reference frame found in memory for highly familiar urban environments ruling out explanations from environmental structure or north preference. When learning from navigation first and then from the map, the pattern of results reversed and participants employed a navigation-based reference frame. The priority of learning order suggests that despite considerable difference between map and navigation learning participants did not use the more salient or in general more useful information, but relied on the reference frame established first.

  18. Modal analysis of collimation frame fabricated by titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Liu, Zhaohui; Li, Zhiguo

    2017-02-01

    Collimation frame is the key supporting component of Space two-dimensional turntable. Its stiffness characteristics are vital for the performance of turntable. In order to reduce weight and improve rigidity, a lightweight collimation frame is designed. Compared with some commonly used aerospace materials, titanium alloy is chosen as the material of collimation frame for its excellent advantages. Modal analysis of the collimation frame is realized by using finite element analysis software MSC. Patran /Nastran to verify whether the stiffness of frame meet the design requirements. The results of analysis show that the first natural frequency of collimation frame is 169.5Hz, which satisfies the design requirement of stiffness. Then, modal experiment is conducted to verify the correctness of the results obtained from finite element modal analysis. The results of experiment show that simulation and experiment results agree well, which further confirm the correctness of the finite element modal analysis. Therefore, it proves that the selection of material and the design of structure are feasible.

  19. From Game Protection to Wildlife Management: Frame Shifts, Organizational Development, and Field Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brulle, Robert J.; Benford, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    One enduring question in social movements research is the relationship between cultural representations and organizational structure. In this article, we examine the development of different discursive frames over time, and how such frame shifts affect movement structure and practices. This approach seeks to illuminate the dialectical interplay…

  20. From Game Protection to Wildlife Management: Frame Shifts, Organizational Development, and Field Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brulle, Robert J.; Benford, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    One enduring question in social movements research is the relationship between cultural representations and organizational structure. In this article, we examine the development of different discursive frames over time, and how such frame shifts affect movement structure and practices. This approach seeks to illuminate the dialectical interplay…

  1. 100-ps framing-camera tube.

    PubMed

    Kalibjian, R

    1978-07-01

    The optoelectronic framing-camera tube described is capable of recording two-dimensional image frames with high spatial resolution in the <100-ps range. Framing is performed by streaking a two-dimensional electron image across narrow slits. The resulting dissected electron line images from the slits are restored into framed images by a restorer deflector operating synchronously with the dissector deflector. The number of framed images on the tube's viewing screen equals the number of dissecting slits in the tube. Performance has been demonstrated in a prototype tube by recording 135-ps-duration framed images of 2.5-mm patterns at the cathode. The limitation in the framing speed is in the external drivers for the deflectors and not in the tube design characteristics. Faster frame speeds in the <100-ps range can be obtained by use of faster deflection drivers.

  2. Framing, truth telling and the problem with non‐directive counselling

    PubMed Central

    Kirklin, D

    2007-01-01

    In this paper several reasons as to why framing issues should be of greater interest to both medical ethicists and healthcare professionals are suggested: firstly, framing can help in explaining health behaviours that can, from the medical perspective, appear perverse; secondly, framing provides a way of describing the internal structure of ethical arguments; and thirdly, an understanding of framing issues can help in identifying clinical practices, such as non‐directive counselling, which may, inadvertently, be failing to meet their own stated ethical aims. The effect of framing on how individuals interpret information and how healthcare choices are influenced by framing are described. Next, the role of framing in ethical discourse is discussed with specific reference to Judith Jarvis Thomson's philosophical mind experiment about abortion and the violinist. Finally, the implications of this analysis are examined for the practice of non‐directive counselling, which aims at communicating information in a neutral, value‐free way and thereby protecting patient autonomy. PMID:17209114

  3. Framing, truth telling and the problem with non-directive counselling.

    PubMed

    Kirklin, D

    2007-01-01

    In this paper several reasons as to why framing issues should be of greater interest to both medical ethicists and healthcare professionals are suggested: firstly, framing can help in explaining health behaviours that can, from the medical perspective, appear perverse; secondly, framing provides a way of describing the internal structure of ethical arguments; and thirdly, an understanding of framing issues can help in identifying clinical practices, such as non-directive counselling, which may, inadvertently, be failing to meet their own stated ethical aims. The effect of framing on how individuals interpret information and how healthcare choices are influenced by framing are described. Next, the role of framing in ethical discourse is discussed with specific reference to Judith Jarvis Thomson's philosophical mind experiment about abortion and the violinist. Finally, the implications of this analysis are examined for the practice of non-directive counselling, which aims at communicating information in a neutral, value-free way and thereby protecting patient autonomy.

  4. Mechanical Energy Change in Inertial Reference Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanbari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical energy change of a system in an inertial frame of reference equals work done by the total nonconservative force in the same frame. This relation is covariant under the Galilean transformations from inertial frame S to S', where S' moves with constant velocity relative to S. In the presence of nonconservative forces, such as normal…

  5. Non-Syntactic Antecedents and Frame Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gensler, Orin

    A polemic is made for frame semantics and the linguistic phenomenon of anaphoric reference without noun phrase (NP) antecedent is examined within this frame. Non-syntactic anaphora is that which does not point out into the real world but rather points back into the discourse in a frame which has been built up between the speaker and hearer in a…

  6. Frames of Reference in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The classic film "Frames of Reference" effectively illustrates concepts involved with inertial and non-inertial reference frames. In it, Donald G. Ivey and Patterson Hume use the cameras perspective to allow the viewer to see motion in reference frames translating with a constant velocity, translating while accelerating, and rotating--all with…

  7. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing the...

  8. Simultaneous message framing and error detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, A. H., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Circuitry simultaneously inserts message framing information and detects noise errors in binary code data transmissions. Separate message groups are framed without requiring both framing bits and error-checking bits, and predetermined message sequence are separated from other message sequences without being hampered by intervening noise.

  9. Information Leakage from Logically Equivalent Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Shlomi; McKenzie, Craig R. M.

    2006-01-01

    Framing effects are said to occur when equivalent frames lead to different choices. However, the equivalence in question has been incompletely conceptualized. In a new normative analysis of framing effects, we complete the conceptualization by introducing the notion of information equivalence. Information equivalence obtains when no…

  10. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing the...

  11. A Frame Analysis of Barth's "Menelaiad".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, C. Janene

    Frame analysis is an approach to social situations that can be applied profitably to literature and performance. A frame is the reality status of a situation; keys are the characteristics that define a frame. Most literary works are keying on real life frameworks. Literary works that are based on other literary works, such as parodies, are…

  12. 21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spectacle frame. 886.5842 Section 886.5842 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5842 Spectacle frame. (a) Identification. A spectacle frame is a device made of metal or plastic intended to hold prescription spectacle lenses worn by...

  13. Frames of Reference in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The classic film "Frames of Reference" effectively illustrates concepts involved with inertial and non-inertial reference frames. In it, Donald G. Ivey and Patterson Hume use the cameras perspective to allow the viewer to see motion in reference frames translating with a constant velocity, translating while accelerating, and rotating--all with…

  14. Algebraic and geometric spread in finite frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Emily J.

    2015-08-01

    When searching for finite unit norm tight frames (FUNTFs) of M vectors in FN which yield robust representations, one is concerned with finding frames consisting of frame vectors which are in some sense as spread apart as possible. Algebraic spread and geometric spread are the two most commonly used measures of spread. A frame with optimal algebraic spread is called full spark and is such that any subcollection of N frame vectors is a basis for FN. A Grassmannian frame is a FUNTF which satisfies the Grassmannian packing problem; that is, the frame vectors are optimally geometrically spread given fixed M and N. A particular example of a Grassmannian frame is an equiangular frame, which is such that the absolute value of all inner products of distinct vectors is equal. The relationship between these two types of optimal spread is complicated. The folk knowledge for many years was that equiangular frames were full spark; however, this is now known not to hold for an infinite class of equiangular frames. The exact relationship between these types of spread will be further explored in this talk, as well as Plücker coordinates and coherence, which are measures of how much a frame misses being optimally algebraically or geometrically spread.

  15. Influence of framing on medical decision making

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jun; Huang, Yonghua; Wei, Yazhou; Zhang, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the robustness of the framing effect in a variety of contexts, especially in medical decision making. Unfortunately, research is still inconsistent as to how so many variables impact framing effects in medical decision making. Additionally, much attention should be paid to the framing effect not only in hypothetical scenarios but also in clinical experience. PMID:27034630

  16. Mechanical Energy Change in Inertial Reference Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanbari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical energy change of a system in an inertial frame of reference equals work done by the total nonconservative force in the same frame. This relation is covariant under the Galilean transformations from inertial frame S to S', where S' moves with constant velocity relative to S. In the presence of nonconservative forces, such as normal…

  17. One frame subnanosecond spectroscopy camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silkis, E. G.; Titov, V. D.; Fel'Dman, G. G.; Zhilkina, V. M.; Petrokovich, O. A.; Syrtsev, V. N.

    1991-04-01

    The recording of ultraweak spectra is presently undertaken by a high-speed multichannel-spectrum camera (HSMSC) with a subnanosec-range time resolution in its photon-counting mode. This HSMSC's photodetector is a one-frame streak tube equipped with a grid shutter which is connected via fiber-optic contact to a linear CCD. The grain furnished by the streak tube on the basis of a microchannel plate is sufficiently high for recording single photoelectron signals. The HSMSC is compact and easy to handle.

  18. Frame fungi on insulated windows.

    PubMed

    Käpylä, M

    1985-11-01

    Insulated windows (fixed triple glass window elements), became common in Finland during and after the energy crisis. Moisture tends to condense along the edges causing mold growth on the frames. Nine houses with insulated glass windows and eight with other types of window were studied. Fungus samples were taken from the window edges and from the inside air and cultivated on malt extract agar. In five of the houses with insulated windows there was visible mold growth on the window edges. The predominant fungus was Aureobasidium pullulans. With other types of windows there was only one case of visible mold. The concentrations of fungi were about the same in the air of houses with both types of windows. Aureobasidium was rare in the air samples. Thus, window frame molds seem to contribute very little to airborne fungus concentrations. In situ trials were done to control the mold growth with disinfectants. Repeated spraying with aldehydes or quaternary ammonium chlorides in alcohols proved to be successful.

  19. Onboard centralized frame tree database for intelligent space operations of the Mars Science Laboratory Rover.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won S; Diaz-Calderon, Antonio; Peters, Stephen F; Carsten, Joseph L; Leger, Chris

    2014-11-01

    Planetary surface science operations performed by robotic space systems frequently require pointing cameras at various objects and moving a robotic arm end effector tool toward specific targets. Earlier NASA Mars Exploration Rovers did not have the ability to compute actual coordinates for given object coordinate frame names and had to be provided with explicit coordinates. Since it sometimes takes hours to more than a day to get final approval of certain calculated coordinates for command uplink via the Earth-based mission operations procedures, a highly desired enhancement for future rovers was to have the onboard automated capability to compute the coordinates for a given frame name. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission is the first to have a centralized coordinate transform database to maintain the knowledge of spatial relations. This onboard intelligence significantly simplifies communication and control between Earth-based human mission operators and the robotic rover on Mars by supporting higher level abstraction of commands using object and target names instead of coordinates. More specifically, the spatial relations of many object frames are represented hierarchically in a tree data structure, called the frame tree. Individual frame transforms are populated by their respective modules that have specific knowledge of the frames. Through this onboard centralized frame tree database, client modules can query transforms between any two frames and support spacecraft commands that use any frames maintained in the frame tree. Various operational examples in the MSL mission that have greatly benefitted from this onboard centralized frame tree database are presented.

  20. Effects of floor location on response of composite fuselage frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.; Jones, Lisa E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental and analytical results are presented which show the effect of floor placement on the structural response and strength of circular fuselage frames constructed of graphite-epoxy composite material. The research was conducted to study the behavior of conventionally designed advanced composite aircraft components. To achieve desired new designs which incorporate improved energy absorption capabilities requires an understanding of how these conventional designs behave under crash type loadings. Data are presented on the static behavior of the composite structure through photographs of the frame specimen, experimental strain distributions, and through analytical data from composite structural models. An understanding of this behavior can aid dynamist in predicting the crash behavior of these structures and may assist the designer achieve improved designs for energy absorption and crash behavior of future structures.

  1. Effects of floor location on response of composite fuselage frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.; Jones, Lisa E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental and analytical results are presented which show the effect of floor placement on the structural response and strength of circular fuselage frames constructed of graphite-epoxy composite material. The research was conducted to study the behavior of conventionally designed advanced composite aircraft components. To achieve desired new designs which incorporate improved energy absorption capabilities requires an understanding of how these conventional designs behave under crash type loadings. Data are presented on the static behavior of the composite structure through photographs of the frame specimen, experimental strain distributions, and through analytical data from composite structural models. An understanding of this behavior can aid the dynamist in predicting the crash behavior of these structures and may assist the designer in achieving improved designs for energy absorption and crash behavior of future structures.

  2. 29. VAL, DETAIL OF THE TOP OF CONCRETE 'A' FRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VAL, DETAIL OF THE TOP OF CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE LOOKING SOUTH SHOWING CANTILEVERED WALKWAYS, DRIVE GEAR AND PROJECTILE LOADING CAR. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Energy efficiency in light-frame wood construction

    Treesearch

    Gerald E. Sherwood; Gunard Hans

    1979-01-01

    This report presents information needed for design and construction of energy-efficient light-frame wood structures. The opening section discusses improving the thermal performance of a house by careful planning and design. A second section of the report provides technical information on the thermal properties of construction materials, and on the basic engineering...

  4. The Frame Constraint on Experimentally Elicited Speech Errors in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Akie; Inoue, Tomoyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The so-called syllable position effect in speech errors has been interpreted as reflecting constraints posed by the frame structure of a given language, which is separately operating from linguistic content during speech production. The effect refers to the phenomenon that when a speech error occurs, replaced and replacing sounds tend to be in the…

  5. Recursive Frame Analysis: A Practitioner's Tool for Mapping Therapeutic Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeney, Hillary; Keeney, Bradford; Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    Recursive frame analysis (RFA), both a practical therapeutic tool and an advanced qualitative research method that maps the structure of therapeutic conversation, is introduced with a clinical case vignette. We present and illustrate a means of mapping metaphorical themes that contextualize the performance taking place in the room, recursively…

  6. Message framing in social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Kao, Danny Tengti; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Sui-Min; Zhang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Online social networking sites represent significant new opportunities for Internet advertisers. However, results based on the real world cannot be generalized to all virtual worlds. In this research, the moderating effects of need for cognition (NFC) and knowledge were applied to examine the impact of message framing on attitudes toward social networking sites. A total of 216 undergraduates participated in the study. Results reveal that for social networking sites, while high-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages, low-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages. In addition, low-knowledge individuals demonstrate more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages; however, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-knowledge individuals. Furthermore, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-NFC individuals with high knowledge. In contrast, low-NFC individuals with low knowledge hold more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages.

  7. "Think" versus "feel" framing effects in persuasion.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Nicole D; Tormala, Zakary L

    2010-04-01

    Three studies explored think ("I think . . . ") versus feel ("I feel . . . ") message framing effects on persuasion.The authors propose a matching hypothesis, suggesting that think framing will be more persuasive when the target attitude or message recipient is cognitively oriented, whereas feel framing will be more persuasive when the target attitude or message recipient is affectively oriented. Study 1 presented cognitively and affectively oriented individuals with a think- or feel-framed message. Study 2 primed cognitive or affective orientation and then presented a think- or feel-framed message. Study 3 presented male and female participants with an advertisement containing think- or feel-framed arguments. Results indicated that think (feel) framing was more persuasive when the target attitude or recipient was cognitively (affectively) oriented. Moreover, Study 2 demonstrated that this matching effect was mediated by processing fluency. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  8. A multi-frame, megahertz CCD imager

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Jacob A; Balzer, Stephen J; Watson, Scott A

    2008-01-01

    A high-efficiency, high-speed imager has been fabricated capable of framing rates of 2 MHz. This device utilizes a 512 x 512 pixel charge coupled device (CCD) with a 25cmZ active area, and incorporates an electronic shutter technology designed for back-illuminated CCD's, making this the largest and fastest back-illuminated CCD in the world. Characterizing an imager capable of this frame rate presents unique challenges. High speed LED drivers and intense radioactive sources are needed to perform basic measurements. We investigate properties normally associated with single-frame CCD's such as read noise, gain, full-well capacity, detective quantum efficiency (DQE), sensitivity, and linearity. In addition, we investigate several properties associated with the imager's multi-frame operation such as transient frame response and frame-to-frame isolation while contrasting our measurement techniques and results with more conventional devices.

  9. Numeracy and framing bias in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyunmi; Wong, John B; Mendiratta, Anil; Heiman, Gary A; Hamberger, Marla J

    2011-01-01

    Patients with epilepsy are frequently confronted with complex treatment decisions. Communicating treatment risks is often difficult because patients may have difficulty with basic statistical concepts (i.e., low numeracy) or might misconceive the statistical information based on the way information is presented, a phenomenon known as "framing bias." We assessed numeracy and framing bias in 95 adults with chronic epilepsy and explored cognitive correlates of framing bias. Compared with normal controls, patients with epilepsy had significantly poorer performance on the Numeracy scale (P=0.02), despite a higher level of education than normal controls (P<0.001). Compared with patients with higher numeracy, patients with lower numeracy were significantly more likely to exhibit framing bias. Abstract problem solving performance correlated with the degree of framing bias (r=0.631, P<0.0001), suggesting a relationship between aspects of executive functioning and framing bias. Poor numeracy and susceptibility framing bias place patients with epilepsy at risk for uninformed decisions.

  10. Automatic detection of informative frames from wireless capsule endoscopy images.

    PubMed

    Bashar, M K; Kitasaka, T; Suenaga, Y; Mekada, Y; Mori, K

    2010-06-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a new clinical technology permitting visualization of the small bowel, the most difficult segment of the digestive tract. The major drawback of this technology is the excessive amount of time required for video diagnosis. We therefore propose a method for generating smaller videos by detecting informative frames from original WCE videos. This method isolates useless frames that are highly contaminated by turbid fluids, faecal materials and/or residual foods. These materials and fluids are presented in a wide range of colors, from brown to yellow, and/or have bubble-like texture patterns. The detection scheme therefore consists of two steps: isolating (Step-1) highly contaminated non-bubbled (HCN) frames and (Step-2) significantly bubbled (SB) frames. Two color representations, viz., local color moments in Ohta space and the HSV color histogram, are attempted to characterize HCN frames, which are isolated by a support vector machine (SVM) classifier in Step-1. The rest of the frames go to Step-2, where a Gauss Laguerre transform (GLT) based multiresolution texture feature is used to characterize the bubble structures in WCE frames. GLT uses Laguerre Gauss circular harmonic functions (LG-CHFs) to decompose WCE images into multiresolution components. An automatic method of segmentation was designed to extract bubbled regions from grayscale versions of the color images based on the local absolute energies of their CHF responses. The final informative frames were detected by using a threshold on the segmented regions. An automatic procedure for selecting features based on analyzing the consistency of the energy-contrast map is also proposed. Three experiments, two of which use 14,841 and 37,100 frames from three videos and the rest uses 66,582 frames from six videos, were conducted for justifying the proposed method. The two combinations of the proposed color and texture features showed excellent average detection accuracies (86

  11. Multi-frame blind deconvolution using sparse priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wende; Feng, Huajun; Xu, Zhihai; Li, Qi

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for multi-frame blind deconvolution. Two sparse priors, i.e., the natural image gradient prior and an l1-norm based prior are used to regularize the latent image and point spread functions (PSFs) respectively. An alternating minimization approach is adopted to solve the resulted optimization problem. We use both gray scale blurred frames from a data set and some colored ones which are captured by a digital camera to verify the robustness of our approach. Experimental results show that the proposed method can accurately reconstruct PSFs with complex structures and the restored images are of high quality.

  12. FRAMES Software System: Linking to the Statistical Package R

    SciTech Connect

    Castleton, Karl J.; Whelan, Gene; Hoopes, Bonnie L.

    2006-12-11

    This document provides requirements, design, data-file specifications, test plan, and Quality Assurance/Quality Control protocol for the linkage between the statistical package R and the Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) Versions 1.x and 2.0. The requirements identify the attributes of the system. The design describes how the system will be structured to meet those requirements. The specification presents the specific modifications to FRAMES to meet the requirements and design. The test plan confirms that the basic functionality listed in the requirements (black box testing) actually functions as designed, and QA/QC confirms that the software meets the client’s needs.

  13. MHD Turbulence Sheared in Fixed and Rotating Frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassinos, S. C.; Knaepen, B.; Wray, A.

    2004-01-01

    We consider homogeneous turbulence in a conducting fluid that is exposed to a uniform external magnetic field while being sheared in fixed and rotating frames. We take both the frame-rotation axis and the applied magnetic field to be aligned in the direction normal to the plane of the mean shear. Here a systematic parametric study is carried out in a series of Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) in order to clarify the main effects determining the structural anisotropy and stability of the flow.

  14. Finite element analysis of electric bicycle frame geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahyono, Sukmaji Indro; Anwar, Miftahul; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Triyono, Teguh; Hapid, Abdul; Kaleg, Sunarto

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model of electric trike frames. The model of electric trike frame is a standard bicycle frame with addition modification on the back side for battery pack component and passenger loads. The electric motor is driven to put in front wheel for easy maintenance. Due to gain maximum safety in the passenger area and easy assembling, the frame is manufactured by circular steel tube in the front side and square steel tube in the back side. FEA simulation has been investigating proper model based on steel tube profile. The profiles is circular and oval steel tube 1.65mm thickness, (1, 1 ½, and 1 ½) inch diameter in front and square steel tube 2 mm thickness, (30×30, 40×40 and 50×50) mm size in the back. The support tube of the electric bicycle frame is similar to the National Standard road bicycle (SNI).The validation of this simulation is using experiment method and adaption method for optimizing iteration time and accuracy. The result of the simulation is a factor of safety. Von misses stress distribution from simulation result is showed the critical are in joining tube under driver of the frame structure. The oval tube is reached safety factor better than the circular tube, and it's had a better performance against the vertical load. The best variable is variable 3 oval tube 56.6×40 mm diagonal size with 1.65 thickness. It maximum passenger load is 700Kg. It can be a recommendation to redesign future frame of the electric bicycle.

  15. Technological viewpoints (frames) about electronic prescribing in physician practices

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ritu; DesRoches, Catherine M; Fischer, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    Objective Physician practices may adopt and use electronic prescribing (eRx) in response to mandates, incentives, and perceived value of the technology. Yet, for the most part, diffusion has been limited and geographically confined, and even when adopted, use of eRx in many practices has been low. One explanation for this phenomenon is that decision-makers in the practices possess different technological viewpoints (frames) related to eRx and these frames have formed the basis for the adoption decision, expectations about the technology, and patterns of use. In this study eRx technological frames were examined. Design Focus groups, direct observation, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with physicians, practice managers, nurses, and other medical staff. Measurements Focus groups were observed, taped, transcribed, and analyzed to reveal themes. These themes guided the observational visits and subsequent interviews. A triangulation process was used to confirm the findings. Results Seven frames emerged from the qualitative analysis ranging from positive to neutral to negative: (1) eRx as an efficiency and effectiveness enhancing tool; (2) eRx as the harbinger of new practices; (3) eRx as core to the clinical workflow; (4) eRx as an administrative tool; (5) eRx: the artifact; (6) eRx as a necessary evil; and (7) eRx as an unwelcome disruption. Conclusion Frames provide a unique perspective within which to explore the adoption and use of eRx and may explain why perceptions of value vary greatly. Some frames facilitate effective use of eRx while others impose barriers. Electronic prescribing can be viewed as a transitional technology on the path to greater digitization at the physician practice level. Understanding the impact of technological frames on the effectiveness of eRx use may provide lessons for the implementation of future health information technology innovations. PMID:20595310

  16. Moving frames and prolongation algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, F. B.

    1982-01-01

    Differential ideals generated by sets of 2-forms which can be written with constant coefficients in a canonical basis of 1-forms are considered. By setting up a Cartan-Ehresmann connection, in a fiber bundle over a base space in which the 2-forms live, one finds an incomplete Lie algebra of vector fields in the fields in the fibers. Conversely, given this algebra (a prolongation algebra), one can derive the differential ideal. The two constructs are thus dual, and analysis of either derives properties of both. Such systems arise in the classical differential geometry of moving frames. Examples of this are discussed, together with examples arising more recently: the Korteweg-de Vries and Harrison-Ernst systems.

  17. Parallel integrated frame synchronizer chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghuman, Parminder Singh (Inventor); Solomon, Jeffrey Michael (Inventor); Bennett, Toby Dennis (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A parallel integrated frame synchronizer which implements a sequential pipeline process wherein serial data in the form of telemetry data or weather satellite data enters the synchronizer by means of a front-end subsystem and passes to a parallel correlator subsystem or a weather satellite data processing subsystem. When in a CCSDS mode, data from the parallel correlator subsystem passes through a window subsystem, then to a data alignment subsystem and then to a bit transition density (BTD)/cyclical redundancy check (CRC) decoding subsystem. Data from the BTD/CRC decoding subsystem or data from the weather satellite data processing subsystem is then fed to an output subsystem where it is output from a data output port.

  18. Quantum decoherence in noninertial frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jieci; Jing, Jiliang

    2010-09-01

    Quantum decoherence, which appears when a system interacts with its environment in an irreversible way, plays a fundamental role in the description of quantum-to-classical transitions and has been successfully applied in some important experiments. Here, we study the decoherence in noninertial frames. It is shown that the decoherence and loss of the entanglement generated by the Unruh effect will influence each other remarkably. It is interesting to note that, in the case of the total system under decoherence, the sudden death of entanglement may appear for any acceleration. However, in the case of only Rob’s qubit undergoing decoherence, sudden death may only occur when the acceleration parameter is greater than a “critical point.”

  19. Relation of the frame in a portable rod-and-frame apparatus to judgements of perceived verticality.

    PubMed

    Blowers, G H

    1977-02-01

    To assess the effect of the frame on the mean error in the portable rod-and-frame 18 subjects were tested once with frame present and once without it. 11 frame-dependent subjects produced smaller mean error without the frame; 7 frame-independent subjects were not significantly affected by removal of the frame. Nyborg's statistical method of differentiating frame-dependent and frame-independent subjects appears validated.

  20. Iterative support detection-based split Bregman method for wavelet frame-based image inpainting.

    PubMed

    He, Liangtian; Wang, Yilun

    2014-12-01

    The wavelet frame systems have been extensively studied due to their capability of sparsely approximating piece-wise smooth functions, such as images, and the corresponding wavelet frame-based image restoration models are mostly based on the penalization of the l1 norm of wavelet frame coefficients for sparsity enforcement. In this paper, we focus on the image inpainting problem based on the wavelet frame, propose a weighted sparse restoration model, and develop a corresponding efficient algorithm. The new algorithm combines the idea of iterative support detection method, first proposed by Wang and Yin for sparse signal reconstruction, and the split Bregman method for wavelet frame l1 model of image inpainting, and more important, naturally makes use of the specific multilevel structure of the wavelet frame coefficients to enhance the recovery quality. This new algorithm can be considered as the incorporation of prior structural information of the wavelet frame coefficients into the traditional l1 model. Our numerical experiments show that the proposed method is superior to the original split Bregman method for wavelet frame-based l1 norm image inpainting model as well as some typical l(p) (0 ≤ p < 1) norm-based nonconvex algorithms such as mean doubly augmented Lagrangian method, in terms of better preservation of sharp edges, due to their failing to make use of the structure of the wavelet frame coefficients.

  1. Compressive Behavior of Frame-Stiffened Composite Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yovanof, Nicolette P.; Jegley, Dawn C.

    2011-01-01

    New technologies are being developed under NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program aimed at reducing fuel burn and emissions in large commercial aircraft. A Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept is being developed which offers advantages over traditional metallic structure. In this concept a stitched carbon-epoxy material system is employed with the potential for reducing the weight and cost of transport aircraft structure by eliminating fasteners and producing a more damage tolerant design. In addition, by adding unidirectional carbon rods to the top of stiffeners and minimizing the interference between the sandwich frames and the rod-stiffened stringers, the panel becomes more structurally efficient. This document describes the results of experimentation on a PRSEUS panel in which the frames are loaded in unidirectional compression beyond the local buckling of the skin of a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft. A comparison with analytical predictions and the relationship between these test results and the global aircraft design is presented.

  2. Undersampled MR Image Reconstruction with Data-Driven Tight Frame

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianbo; Wang, Shanshan; Peng, Xi; Liang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Undersampled magnetic resonance image reconstruction employing sparsity regularization has fascinated many researchers in recent years under the support of compressed sensing theory. Nevertheless, most existing sparsity-regularized reconstruction methods either lack adaptability to capture the structure information or suffer from high computational load. With the aim of further improving image reconstruction accuracy without introducing too much computation, this paper proposes a data-driven tight frame magnetic image reconstruction (DDTF-MRI) method. By taking advantage of the efficiency and effectiveness of data-driven tight frame, DDTF-MRI trains an adaptive tight frame to sparsify the to-be-reconstructed MR image. Furthermore, a two-level Bregman iteration algorithm has been developed to solve the proposed model. The proposed method has been compared to two state-of-the-art methods on four datasets and encouraging performances have been achieved by DDTF-MRI. PMID:26199641

  3. Lightweight design for servo frame based on lattice material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xin; Li, Guoxi; Liu, Encai; Gong, Jingzhong

    2017-06-01

    Lattice material infilling is an important way to achieve lightweight. Focusing on the problems of non-uniform arrangement and the finite element analysis (FEA) of lattice material in the parts, a lightweight design method based on lattice material is proposed with the spacecraft servo frame as the design object. Modal analysis and topology optimization are carried out according to the boundary conditions. The optimized density results are used to guide the design of lattice material parameters and arrangement. The equivalent mechanical properties of lattice material are obtained through the standard specimens experiments. The equivalent material FEA model of the lightweight servo frame is established, and the performance of the lightweight structure is tested by FEA simulation and experiment. The results show that under the impact condition, the lightweight servo frame meets the performance requirements and the simulation method through the equivalent material model is validated.

  4. Seismic response of reinforced concrete frames at different damage levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-González, Merangeli; Vidot-Vega, Aidcer L.

    2017-03-01

    Performance-based seismic engineering is focused on the definition of limit states to represent different levels of damage, which can be described by material strains, drifts, displacements or even changes in dissipating properties and stiffness of the structure. This study presents a research plan to evaluate the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) moment resistant frames at different performance levels established by the ASCE 41-06 seismic rehabilitation code. Sixteen RC plane moment frames with different span-to-depth ratios and three 3D RC frames were analyzed to evaluate their seismic behavior at different damage levels established by the ASCE 41-06. For each span-to-depth ratio, four different beam longitudinal reinforcement steel ratios were used that varied from 0.85 to 2.5% for the 2D frames. Nonlinear time history analyses of the frames were performed using scaled ground motions. The impact of different span-to-depth and reinforcement ratios on the damage levels was evaluated. Material strains, rotations and seismic hysteretic energy changes at different damage levels were studied.

  5. Minimum stiffness criteria for ring frame stiffeners of space launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Linus; Schröder, Kai-Uwe

    2016-12-01

    Frame stringer-stiffened shell structures show high load carrying capacity in conjunction with low structural mass and are for this reason frequently used as primary structures of aerospace applications. Due to the great number of design variables, deriving suitable stiffening configurations is a demanding task and needs to be realized using efficient analysis methods. The structural design of ring frame stringer-stiffened shells can be subdivided into two steps. One, the design of a shell section between two ring frames. Two, the structural design of the ring frames such that a general instability mode is avoided. For sizing stringer-stiffened shell sections, several methods were recently developed, but existing ring frame sizing methods are mainly based on empirical relations or on smeared models. These methods do not mandatorily lead to reliable designs and in some cases the lightweight design potential of stiffened shell structures can thus not be exploited. In this paper, the explicit physical behaviour of ring frame stiffeners of space launch vehicles at the onset of panel instability is described using mechanical substitute models. Ring frame stiffeners of a stiffened shell structure are sized applying existing methods and the method suggested in this paper. To verify the suggested method and to demonstrate its potential, geometrically non-linear finite element analyses are performed using detailed finite element models.

  6. Framing effects: behavioral dynamics and neural basis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongming; Wang, X T; Zhu, Liqi

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the neural basis of framing effects using life-death decision problems framed either positively in terms of lives saved or negatively in terms of lives lost in large group and small group contexts. Using functional MRI we found differential brain activations to the verbal and social cues embedded in the choice problems. In large group contexts, framing effects were significant where participants were more risk seeking under the negative (loss) framing than under the positive (gain) framing. This behavioral difference in risk preference was mainly regulated by the activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, including the homologue of the Broca's area. In contrast, framing effects diminished in small group contexts while the insula and parietal lobe in the right hemisphere were distinctively activated, suggesting an important role of emotion in switching choice preference from an indecisive mode to a more consistent risk-taking inclination, governed by a kith-and-kin decision rationality.

  7. Do framing effects reveal irrational choice?

    PubMed

    Mandel, David R

    2014-06-01

    Framing effects have long been viewed as compelling evidence of irrationality in human decision making, yet that view rests on the questionable assumption that numeric quantifiers used to convey the expected values of choice options are uniformly interpreted as exact values. Two experiments show that when the exactness of such quantifiers is made explicit by the experimenter, framing effects vanish. However, when the same quantifiers are given a lower bound (at least) meaning, the typical framing effect is found. A 3rd experiment confirmed that most people spontaneously interpret the quantifiers in standard framing tests as lower bounded and that their interpretations strongly moderate the framing effect. Notably, in each experiment, a significant majority of participants made rational choices, either choosing the option that maximized expected value (i.e., lives saved) or choosing consistently across frames when the options were of equal expected value.

  8. Staying Power: The Relationship of Public School Superintendent Tenure to Leadership Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliff, Doyne Scott

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the types of leadership frames ("human resource," "structural," "political," and "symbolic") (Bolman & Deal, 1997) most often used by public school superintendents in Texas, the relationship of leadership frames to the length of superintendent tenure in a single school district, and…

  9. Asteroid Ida - Five Frame Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This view of the asteroid 243 Ida is a mosaic of five image frames acquired by the Galileo spacecraft's solid-state imaging system at ranges of 3,057 to 3,821 kilometers (1,900 to 2,375 miles) on August 28, 1993, about 3-1/2 minutes before the spacecraft made its closest approach to the asteroid. Galileo flew about 2,400 kilometers (1,500 miles) from Ida at a relative velocity of 12.4 km/sec (28,000 mph). Asteroid and spacecraft were 441 million kilometers (274 million miles) from the Sun. Ida is the second asteroid ever encountered by a spacecraft. It appears to be about 52 kilometers (32 miles) in length, more than twice as large as Gaspra, the first asteroid observed by Galileo in October 1991. Ida is an irregularly shaped asteroid placed by scientists in the S class (believed to be like stony or stony iron meteorites). It is a member of the Koronis family, presumed fragments left from the breakup of a precursor asteroid in a catastrophic collision. This view shows numerous craters, including many degraded craters larger than any seen on Gaspra. The extensive cratering seems to dispel theories about Ida's surface being geologically youthful. This view also seems to rule out the idea that Ida is a double body. The south pole is believed to be in the darkside near the middle of the asteroid. The camera's clear filter was used to produce this extremely sharp picture. Spatial resolution is 31 to 38 meters (roughly 100 feet) per pixel. A 30-frame mosaic was taken to assure capturing Ida; its position was somewhat uncertain before the Galileo encounter. Galileo shuttered and recorded a total of 150 images in order to capture Ida 21 different times during a five hour period (about one rotation of the asteroid). Color filters were used at many of these times to allow reconstruction of color images. Playback to Earth of the remaining images is planned for April through June 1994. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995

  10. A corpus driven approach applying the "frame semantic" method for modeling functional status terminology.

    PubMed

    Ruggieri, Alexander P; Pakhomov, Serguei V; Chute, Christopher G

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to unearth semantic models that could prove fruitful to functional-status terminology development we applied the "frame semantic" method, derived from the linguistic theory of thematic roles currently exemplified in the Berkeley "FrameNet" Project. Full descriptive sentences with functional-status conceptual meaning were derived from structured content within a corpus of questionnaire assessment instruments commonly used in clinical practice for functional-status assessment. Syntactic components in those sentences were delineated through manual annotation and mark-up. The annotated syntactic constituents were tagged as frame elements according to their semantic role within the context of the derived functional-status expression. Through this process generalizable "semantic frames" were elaborated with recurring "frame elements". The "frame semantic" method as an approach to rendering semantic models for functional-status terminology development and its use as a basis for machine recognition of functional status data in clinical narratives are discussed.

  11. Gabor frame sets of invariance: a Hamiltonian approach to Gabor frame deformations.

    PubMed

    Faulhuber, Markus

    In this work we study families of pairs of window functions and lattices which lead to Gabor frames which all possess the same frame bounds. To be more precise, for every generalized Gaussian g, we will construct an uncountable family of lattices [Formula: see text] such that each pairing of g with some [Formula: see text] yields a Gabor frame, and all pairings yield the same frame bounds. On the other hand, for each lattice we will find a countable family of generalized Gaussians [Formula: see text] such that each pairing leaves the frame bounds invariant. Therefore, we are tempted to speak about Gabor Frame Sets of Invariance.

  12. Functional influences on orienting a reference frame.

    PubMed

    Carlson-Radvansky, L A; Tang, Z

    2000-07-01

    Spatial relational terms like above are defined with respect to a reference frame. Reference frames are imposed on reference objects and define the space in which to search for a located object. Reference frames have a number of parameters that must be set during spatial term assignment, including origin, scale, and orientation. Previous research has shown that a functional relationship between objects in the scene influences the selection of a reference frame (Carlson-Radvansky & Radvansky, 1996). However, because this work operated at the level of the reference frame, generalizing across various spatial terms, it is unclear how function had its influence. One possibility is that function influences how the parameters of a reference frame are set. Consistent with this idea, Carlson-Radvansky, Covey, and Lattanzi (1999) showed an influence of function on where the origin of a reference frame was imposed. The present paper demonstrates that function also influences how the orientation of the axes of a reference frame is set. The implications for setting multiple parameters of a reference frame are discussed.

  13. Zonal function network frames on the sphere.

    PubMed

    Mhaskar, H N; Narcowich, F J; Ward, J D

    2003-03-01

    We introduce a class of zonal function network frames suitable for analyzing data collected at scattered sites on the surface of the unit sphere of a Euclidean space. Our frames consist of zonal function networks and are well localized. The frames belonging to higher and higher scale wavelet spaces have more and more vanishing polynomial moments. The main technique is applicable in the general setting of separable Hilbert spaces, in which context, we study the construction of new frames by perturbing an orthonormal basis.

  14. Network-based H.264/AVC whole frame loss visibility model and frame dropping methods.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yueh-Lun; Lin, Ting-Lan; Cosman, Pamela C

    2012-08-01

    We examine the visual effect of whole frame loss by different decoders. Whole frame losses are introduced in H.264/AVC compressed videos which are then decoded by two different decoders with different common concealment effects: frame copy and frame interpolation. The videos are seen by human observers who respond to each glitch they spot. We found that about 39% of whole frame losses of B frames are not observed by any of the subjects, and over 58% of the B frame losses are observed by 20% or fewer of the subjects. Using simple predictive features which can be calculated inside a network node with no access to the original video and no pixel level reconstruction of the frame, we developed models which can predict the visibility of whole B frame losses. The models are then used in a router to predict the visual impact of a frame loss and perform intelligent frame dropping to relieve network congestion. Dropping frames based on their visual scores proves superior to random dropping of B frames.

  15. Effect of framing on adolescents' decision making.

    PubMed

    Chien, Y C; Lin, C; Worthley, J

    1996-12-01

    92 young adolescents were tested using Tversky and Kahneman's (1981) decision problems for framing effects. A notable number of young adolescents tested were not influenced by the context of the decision problems, thus they selected the same response option for positively and negatively framed problems. Parallel information was not available in Tversky and Kahneman's study for adults because they used a between-subjects design. However, for present adolescents who selected different response options for different framing problems, the response pattern exhibited by them resembled the general pattern exhibited by the adults tested in Tversky and Kahneman's study-negative frames led them to accept risk to avoid certain loss; positive frames prevented them from risking what they were certain to gain. Boys and girls were similar in their susceptibility to framing effects as were honors students in mathematics as compared to nonhonors students. Although the positive vs negative framing only influenced some of the young adolescents tested in this study, because the influence was consistent, researchers and educators interested in adolescents' decisions involving risky choices might use framing principles to design and assess cognitive interventions for high-risk behaviors among young adolescents.

  16. Teaching the Dynamics of Framing Competitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinke, Eike Mark

    2012-01-01

    Framing theory is one of the most thriving and complex fields of communication theory, and as such it has grown to be an integral part of many political communication, public opinion, and communication theory courses. Part of the complexity stems from scholars' efforts to develop accounts of framing processes that are closer to the "real world" of…

  17. Framing in the Field: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Strategic Frame Analysis can inform the daily practice of policy advocates by bringing an evidence-based communications approach to their work. This case study of FrameWorks' decade-long association with the national Kids Count Network shares stories from advocates who are transforming their communications strategies, resulting in more effective…

  18. Framing Behaviours in Novice Interaction Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotz, Nicole; Sharp, Helen; Woodroffe, Mark; Blyth, Richard; Rajah, Dino; Ranganai, Turugare

    2015-01-01

    Framing design problems and solutions has been recognised in design studies as a central designerly activity. Some recent findings with expert designers relate framing practices to problem-solution co-evolution and analogy use, two further widely recognised design strategies. We wanted to understand if interaction design novices also use…

  19. Framing in the Field: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Strategic Frame Analysis can inform the daily practice of policy advocates by bringing an evidence-based communications approach to their work. This case study of FrameWorks' decade-long association with the national Kids Count Network shares stories from advocates who are transforming their communications strategies, resulting in more effective…

  20. A Framing Primer for Community College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nausieda, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to be a tool for community college leaders, as well as campus members, to positively and effectively utilize framing on their campuses. The fictional case of Maggie Pascal at Midwestern Community College illustrates the process of framing the change of a new partnership with Wind Energy Corporation to internal…

  1. A Relational Frame Theory Account of Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilardaga, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The current paper proposes a Relational Frame Theory (RFT, Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001a) conceptualization of empathy and perspective taking that follows previous literature outlining a relationship between those phenomena and general functioning. Deictic framing, a relational operant investigated by RFT researchers, constitutes the…

  2. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED MATTER OR SPECIAL... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for...

  3. Recursive frame integration of limited data: RAFAIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.; Soli, Robert A.

    2005-08-01

    Real time infrared imaging and tracking usually requires a high probability of target detection along with a low false alarm rate, achievable only with a high "Signal-to-Noise Ratio" (SNR). Frame integration--summing of non-correlated frames--is commonly used to improve the SNR. But conventional frame integration requires significant processing to store full frames and integrate intermediate results, normalize frame data, etc. It may drive acquisition of highly specialized hardware, faster processors, dedicated frame integration circuit cards and extra memory cards. Non-stationary noise, low frequency noise correlation, non-ergodic noise, scene dynamics, or pointing accuracy may also limit performance. Recursive frame integration of limited data--RAFAIL, is proposed as a means to improve frame integration performance and mitigate the issues. The technique applies two thresholds--one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate--and allows a non-linear integration process that, along with optimal noise management, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability.

  4. A Framing Primer for Community College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nausieda, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to be a tool for community college leaders, as well as campus members, to positively and effectively utilize framing on their campuses. The fictional case of Maggie Pascal at Midwestern Community College illustrates the process of framing the change of a new partnership with Wind Energy Corporation to internal…

  5. Spatial Reference Frame of Incidentally Learned Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.

    2013-01-01

    Visual attention prioritizes information presented at particular spatial locations. These locations can be defined in reference frames centered on the environment or on the viewer. This study investigates whether incidentally learned attention uses a viewer-centered or environment-centered reference frame. Participants conducted visual search on a…

  6. Simple circuit positions film frames in projector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, R. H.

    1965-01-01

    Individual frames on a photographic film strip in a projector are automatically positioned by a simple circuit. The circuit uses a photodiode that senses frame registry position and a relay that stops the film-advance motor to suspend the film at point of registry.

  7. A Frame Analysis of New Yorker Cartoons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragan, Sandra L.

    Frame analysis of 85 cartoons from "The New Yorker" magazine was used to discover the significant keys, or metacommunicative characterizers, of cartoon humor. It was hypothesized that these keys/characterizers function to cue the readers so that they frame the message of the cartoon in a way that permits a humorous interpretation of the cartoon's…

  8. Integrated seat frame and back support

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Leo

    1999-01-01

    An integrated seating device comprises a seat frame having a front end and a rear end. The seat frame has a double wall defining an exterior wall and an interior wall. The rear end of the seat frame has a slot cut therethrough both the exterior wall and the interior wall. The front end of the seat frame has a slot cut through just the interior wall thereof. A back support comprising a generally L shape has a horizontal member, and a generally vertical member which is substantially perpendicular to the horizontal member. The horizontal member is sized to be threaded through the rear slot and is fitted into the front slot. Welded slat means secures the back support to the seat frame to result in an integrated seating device.

  9. Multipliers for continuous frames in Hilbert spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balazs, P.; Bayer, D.; Rahimi, A.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we examine the general theory of continuous frame multipliers in Hilbert space. These operators are a generalization of the widely used notion of (discrete) frame multipliers. Well-known examples include anti-Wick operators, STFT multipliers or Calderón-Toeplitz operators. Due to the possible peculiarities of the underlying measure spaces, continuous frames do not behave quite as their discrete counterparts. Nonetheless, many results similar to the discrete case are proven for continuous frame multipliers as well, for instance compactness and Schatten-class properties. Furthermore, the concepts of controlled and weighted frames are transferred to the continuous setting. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’.

  10. Geodetic precession or dragging of inertial frames

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, N. ); Shahid-Saless, B. )

    1990-08-15

    In metric theories of gravity the principle of general covariance allows one to describe phenomena by means of any convenient choice of coordinate system. In this paper it is shown that in an appropriately chosen coordinate system, geodetic precession of a gyroscope orbiting a spherically symmetric, spinning mass can be recast as a Lense-Thirring frame-dragging effect without invoking spatial curvature. The origin of this reference frame moves around the source but the frame axes point in fixed directions. The drag can be interpreted to arise from the orbital angular momentum of the source around the origin of the reference frame. In this reference frame the effects of geodetic precession and Lense-Thirring drag due to intrinsic angular momentum of the source have the same origin, namely, gravitomagnetism.

  11. Informative-frame filtering in endoscopy videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yong Hwan; Hwang, Sae; Oh, JungHwan; Lee, JeongKyu; Tavanapong, Wallapak; de Groen, Piet C.; Wong, Johnny

    2005-04-01

    Advances in video technology are being incorporated into today"s healthcare practice. For example, colonoscopy is an important screening tool for colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy allows for the inspection of the entire colon and provides the ability to perform a number of therapeutic operations during a single procedure. During a colonoscopic procedure, a tiny video camera at the tip of the endoscope generates a video signal of the internal mucosa of the colon. The video data are displayed on a monitor for real-time analysis by the endoscopist. Other endoscopic procedures include upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, enteroscopy, bronchoscopy, cystoscopy, and laparoscopy. However, a significant number of out-of-focus frames are included in this type of videos since current endoscopes are equipped with a single, wide-angle lens that cannot be focused. The out-of-focus frames do not hold any useful information. To reduce the burdens of the further processes such as computer-aided image processing or human expert"s examinations, these frames need to be removed. We call an out-of-focus frame as non-informative frame and an in-focus frame as informative frame. We propose a new technique to classify the video frames into two classes, informative and non-informative frames using a combination of Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Texture Analysis, and K-Means Clustering. The proposed technique can evaluate the frames without any reference image, and does not need any predefined threshold value. Our experimental studies indicate that it achieves over 96% of four different performance metrics (i.e. precision, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy).

  12. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen, Arild; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This document reports the findings of a market and research review related to state-of-the-art highly insulating window frames. The market review focuses on window frames that satisfy the Passivhaus requirements (window U-value less or equal to 0.8 W/m{sup 2}K ), while other examples are also given in order to show the variety of materials and solutions that may be used for constructing window frames with a low thermal transmittance (U-value). The market search shows that several combinations of materials are used in order to obtain window frames with a low U-value. The most common insulating material seems to be Polyurethane (PUR), which is used together with most of the common structural materials such as wood, aluminum, and PVC. The frame research review also shows examples of window frames developed in order to increase the energy efficiency of the frames and the glazings which the frames are to be used together with. The authors find that two main tracks are used in searching for better solutions. The first one is to minimize the heat losses through the frame itself. The result is that conductive materials are replaced by highly thermal insulating materials and air cavities. The other option is to reduce the window frame area to a minimum, which is done by focusing on the net energy gain by the entire window (frame, spacer and glazing). Literature shows that a window with a higher U-value may give a net energy gain to a building that is higher than a window with a smaller U-value. The net energy gain is calculated by subtracting the transmission losses through the window from the solar energy passing through the windows. The net energy gain depends on frame versus glazing area, solar factor, solar irradiance, calculation period and U-value. The frame research review also discusses heat transfer modeling issues related to window frames. Thermal performance increasing measures, surface modeling, and frame cavity modeling are among the topics discussed. The

  13. Gravity Gradients Frame Oceanus Procellarum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-01

    Topography of Earth moon generated from data NASA LRO, with the gravity anomalies bordering the Procellarum region superimposed in blue. The border structures are shown using gravity gradients calculated with data from NASA GRAIL mission.

  14. Frame and edge seal technology: A state of the art survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyholt, Marit; Andresen, Inger; Hugdal, Berit; Aschehoug, Oeyvind

    1994-04-01

    In windows, the glazing is traditionally mounted in an operable or fixed frame, made of wood, metal (steel or aluminum), or PVC. The glazing component in solar collectors and solar walls is also typically mounted in a frame. The purpose of the frame is to protect the vulnerable edge of the glazing and give structural stability, which is especially important in operable windows. Sealed multipane glazings are almost exclusively fabricated with a metal (aluminum or galvanized steel) spacer bar along the edges. New advanced glazings will require new types of frame and edge seal products. As the insulation properties of the glazing itself reach a performance close to that of well-insulated opaque walls, the thermal bridging caused by the spacer bars and the frames will be unacceptable, even for wooden windows. The new glazings will also integrate other functions, which again will influence the design of the frames. There are already quite a few new technological developments in this field. New materials and products for the edge seal and the frame are being developed, and computer calculations gradually take over the manual analysis and laboratory testing of new products. The objective of this IEA Task 18 Case Study is to investigate the influence of the frame and glazing edge seal on the total U-value of a glazing system, to develop improved test and calculation methods, and to design, construct, and test low thermal loss frames for use in advanced glazing applications.

  15. A Cost Effective Block Framing Scheme for Underwater Communication

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Soo-Young; Park, Soo-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the Selective Multiple Acknowledgement (SMA) method, based on Multiple Acknowledgement (MA), is proposed to efficiently reduce the amount of data transmission by redesigning the transmission frame structure and taking into consideration underwater transmission characteristics. The method is suited to integrated underwater system models, as the proposed method can handle the same amount of data in a much more compact frame structure without any appreciable loss of reliability. Herein, the performance of the proposed SMA method was analyzed and compared to those of the conventional Automatic Repeat-reQuest (ARQ), Block Acknowledgement (BA), block response, and MA methods. The efficiency of the underwater sensor network, which forms a large cluster and mostly contains uplink data, is expected to be improved by the proposed method. PMID:22247689

  16. Dynamic response of a frame with SMA bracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuangshuang; Rajapakse, R. K. N. D.

    2003-08-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic response of a frame structure with pre-strained SMA bracing elements. The constitutive model proposed by Brinson is used to simulate the axial response of SMA bracing elements. A non-linear transient finite element model incorporated with Newmark's time integration scheme is used to analyze the dynamic response of a structure. The time histories of displacements and hysteresis loops of SMA tendons are computed under harmonic loading. The effect of forcing amplitude and initial pre-strains of SMA tendons on transient dynamic response of a structure is discussed. The suitability of pseudoelastic SMA for energy dissipation is briefly discussed.

  17. Demonstration of a Model Averaging Capability in FRAMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, P. D.; Castleton, K. J.

    2009-12-01

    Uncertainty in model structure can be incorporated in risk assessment using multiple alternative models and model averaging. To facilitate application of this approach to regulatory applications based on risk or dose assessment, a model averaging capability was integrated with the Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) version 2 software. FRAMES is a software platform that allows the non-parochial communication between disparate models, databases, and other frameworks. Users have the ability to implement and select environmental models for specific risk assessment and management problems. Standards are implemented so that models produce information that is readable by other downstream models and accept information from upstream models. Models can be linked across multiple media and from source terms to quantitative risk/dose estimates. Parameter sensitivity and uncertainty analysis tools are integrated. A model averaging module was implemented to accept output from multiple models and produce average results. These results can be deterministic quantities or probability distributions obtained from an analysis of parameter uncertainty. Output from alternative models is averaged using weights determined from user input and/or model calibration results. A model calibration module based on the PEST code was implemented to provide FRAMES with a general calibration capability. An application illustrates the implementation, user interfaces, execution, and results of the FRAMES model averaging capabilities.

  18. On avoiding framing effects in experienced decision makers.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Dhami, Mandeep K

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) demonstrate the effect of positive-negative framing on experienced criminal justice decision makers, (b) examine the debiasing effect of visually structured risk messages, and (c) investigate whether risk perceptions mediate the debiasing effect of visual aids on decision making. In two phases, 60 senior police officers estimated the accuracy of a counterterrorism technique in identifying whether a known terror suspect poses an imminent danger and decided whether they would recommend the technique to policy makers. Officers also rated their confidence in this recommendation. When information about the effectiveness of the counterterrorism technique was presented in a numerical format, officers' perceptions of accuracy and recommendation decisions were susceptible to the framing effect: The technique was perceived to be more accurate and was more likely to be recommended when its effectiveness was presented in a positive than in a negative frame. However, when the information was represented visually using icon arrays, there were no such framing effects. Finally, perceptions of accuracy mediated the debiasing effect of visual aids on recommendation decisions. We offer potential explanations for the debiasing effect of visual aids and implications for communicating risk to experienced, professional decision makers.

  19. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) composite fan frame design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, S. C.

    1978-01-01

    An advanced composite frame which is flight-weight and integrates the functions of several structures was developed for the over the wing (OTW) engine and for the under the wing (UTW) engine. The composite material system selected as the basic material for the frame is Type AS graphite fiber in a Hercules 3501 epoxy resin matrix. The frame was analyzed using a finite element digital computer program. This program was used in an iterative fashion to arrive at practical thicknesses and ply orientations to achieve a final design that met all strength and stiffness requirements for critical conditions. Using this information, the detail design of each of the individual parts of the frame was completed and released. On the basis of these designs, the required tooling was designed to fabricate the various component parts of the frame. To verify the structural integrity of the critical joint areas, a full-scale test was conducted on the frame before engine testing. The testing of the frame established critical spring constants and subjected the frame to three critical load cases. The successful static load test was followed by 153 and 58 hours respectively of successful running on the UTW and OTW engines.

  20. Bioprospecting open reading frames for peptide effectors.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ling; Scott, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Recent successes in the development of small-molecule antagonists of protein-protein interactions designed based on co-crystal structures of peptides bound to their biological targets confirm that short peptides derived from interacting proteins can be high-value ligands for pharmacologic validation of targets and for identification of druggable sites. Evolved sequence space is likely to be enriched for interacting peptides, but identifying minimal peptide effectors within genomic sequence can be labor intensive. Here we describe the use of incremental truncation to diversify genetic material on the scale of open reading frames into comprehensive libraries of constituent peptides. The approach is capable of generating peptides derived from both continuous and discontinuous sequence elements, and is compatible with the expression of free linear or backbone cyclic peptides, with peptides tethered to amino- or carboxyl-terminal fusion partners or with the expression of peptides displayed within protein scaffolds (peptide aptamers). Incremental truncation affords a valuable source of molecular diversity to interrogate the druggable genome or evaluate the therapeutic potential of candidate genes.

  1. Self-organized architectures from assorted DNA-framed nanoparticles

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Wenyan; Halverson, Jonathan; Tian, Ye; ...

    2016-06-13

    The science of self-assembly has undergone a radical shift from asking questions about why individual components self-organize into ordered structures, to manipulating the resultant order. However, the quest for far-reaching nanomanufacturing requires addressing an even more challenging question: how to form nanoparticle (NP) structures with designed architectures without explicitly prescribing particle positions. Here we report an assembly concept in which building instructions are embedded into NPs via DNA frames. The integration of NPs and DNA origami frames enables the fabrication of NPs with designed anisotropic and selective interactions. Using a pre-defined set of different DNA-framed NPs, we show it ismore » possible to design diverse planar architectures, which include periodic structures and shaped meso-objects that spontaneously emerge on mixing of the different topological types of NP. Even objects of non-trivial shapes, such as a nanoscale model of Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man, can be self-assembled successfully.« less

  2. Wavelet frames and admissibility in higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Führ, Hartmut

    1996-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the relations between discrete and continuous wavelet transforms on k-dimensional Euclidean space. We start with the construction of continuous wavelet transforms with the help of square-integrable representations of certain semidirect products, thereby generalizing results of Bernier and Taylor. We then turn to frames of L2(Rk) and to the question, when the functions occurring in a given frame are admissible for a given continuous wavelet transform. For certain frames we give a characterization which generalizes a result of Daubechies to higher dimensions.

  3. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOEpatents

    Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

    1994-01-18

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

  4. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Michael B.; Epstein, Jonathan S.; Lloyd, W. Randolph

    1994-01-01

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed crosshead, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame.

  5. Weighing both sides: morality, mortality, and framing contests over obesity.

    PubMed

    Saguy, Abigail C; Riley, Kevin W

    2005-10-01

    Despite recent and growing media attention surrounding obesity in the United States, the so-called obesity epidemic remains a highly contested scientific and social fact. This article examines the contemporary obesity debate through systematic examination of the claims and claimants involved in the controversy. We argue that four primary groups-antiobesity researchers, antiobesity activists, fat acceptance researchers, and fat acceptance activists-are at the forefront of this controversy and that these groups are fundamentally engaged in framing contests over the nature and consequences of excess body weight. While members of the fat acceptance groups embrace a body diversity frame, presenting fatness as a natural and largely inevitable form of diversity, members of the antiobesity camp frame higher weights as risky behavior akin to smoking, implying that body weight is under personal control and that people have a moral and medical responsibility to manage their weight. Both groups sometimes frame obesity as an illness, which limits blame by suggesting that weight is biologically or genetically determined but simultaneously stigmatizes fat bodies as diseased. While the antiobesity camp frames obesity as an epidemic to increase public attention, fat acceptance activists argue that concern over obesity is distracting attention from a host of more important health issues for fat Americans. We examine the strategies claimants use to establish their own credibility or discredit their opponents, and explain how the fat acceptance movement has exploited structural opportunities and cultural resources created by AIDS activism and feminism to wield some influence over U.S. public health approaches. We conclude that notions of morality play a central role in the controversy over obesity, as in many medical disputes, and illustrate how medical arguments about body weight can be used to stymie rights claims and justify morality-based fears.

  6. Framing effect following bilateral amygdala lesion.

    PubMed

    Talmi, Deborah; Hurlemann, René; Patin, Alexandra; Dolan, Raymond J

    2010-05-01

    A paradigmatic example of an emotional bias in decision making is the framing effect, where the manner in which a choice is posed--as a potential loss or a potential gain--systematically biases an ensuing decision. Two fMRI studies have shown that the activation in the amygdala is modulated by the framing effect. Here, contrary to an expectation based on these studies, we show that two patients with Urbach-Wiethe (UW) disease, a rare condition associated with congenital, complete bilateral amygdala degeneration, exhibit an intact framing effect. However, choice preference in these patients did show a qualitatively distinct pattern compared to controls evident in an increased propensity to gamble, indicating that loss of amygdala function does exert an overall influence on risk-taking. These findings suggest either that amygdala does contribute to decision making but does not play a causal role in framing, or that UW is not a pure lesion model of amygdala function.

  7. 21 CFR 886.5842 - Spectacle frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... frame is a device made of metal or plastic intended to hold prescription spectacle lenses worn by a patient to correct refractive errors. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

  8. 49 CFR 393.201 - Frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., broken, or missing. (c) The frame rail flanges between the axles shall not be bent, cut or notched... recommendations. (e) No holes shall be drilled in the top or bottom rail flanges, except as specified by the...

  9. Independent Study Unit on Accelerated Reference Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poultney, S. K.

    1973-01-01

    Presents a list of topics, research areas, references, and laboratory equipment which is prepared to facilitate general-science students' understanding of physics aspects in accelerated reference frames after their study of circular motion and Galilean relativity in mechanics. (CC)

  10. Atwood's Machine: Experiments in an Accelerating Frame.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chee, Chia Teck; Hong, Chia Yee

    1999-01-01

    Experiments in an accelerating frame are hard to perform. Illustrates how simple computer software allows sufficiently rapid and accurate measurements to be made on an arrangement of weights and pulleys known as Atwood's machine. (Author/CCM)

  11. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Criteria and Procedures for Determining Eligibility for Access to Classified Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for...

  12. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Criteria and Procedures for Determining Eligibility for Access to Classified Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for...

  13. Frame-layer rate control algorithm for H.264 based on improved frame MAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ziguan; Liu, Ningzhong

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we present an improved frame layer rate control algorithm for H.264/AVC video coding standard. An important step in many existing rate control algorithms is to determine the target bits for each P frame. In the standard rate control scheme of H.264, the target bit number is a weighted combination of remaining bits and bits calculated from buffer regulation. The problem is that the remaining bits are allocated to all non-coded frames equally. This will cause non-uniform image quality over a video sequence. To overcome this disadvantage, first we define frame complexity ratio (FC ratio) as a measure for global frame encoding complexity and then allocate initial target bit according to its FC ratio. We define FC ratio as a weighted combination of motion complexity and texture complexity which can predict current frame complexity more accurately using the statistics of previously encoded frame and the texture information of current frame. Experiment results show that our improved algorithm can acquire more accurate quantization parameter (QP) for each P frame through the quadratic rate-distortion (R-D) model, achieve an average PSNR gain of about 0.28 dB and meanwhile effectively alleviate the buffer's fluctuating range and frame PSNR variation.

  14. Seismic performance and global ductility of RC frames rehabilitated with retrofitted joints by CFRP laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakharifar, M.; Sharbatdar, M. K.; Lin, Z.; Dalvand, A.; Sivandi-Pour, A.; Chen, G.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a new FRP retrofitting scheme to strengthen local beam-column joints in reinforced concrete (RC) frames. The new retrofitting scheme was proposed following a preliminary study of four different existing retrofitting schemes. A numerical simulation was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of FRP-strengthened reinforced concrete frames by bridging behavior of local joints to the whole structure. Local confinement effects due to varying retrofitting schemes in the joints were simulated in the frame model. The seismic behavior factor was used to evaluate the seismic performance of the strengthened RC frames. The results demonstrated that the new proposed retrofitting scheme was robust and promising, and finite element analysis appropriately captured the strength and global ductility of the frame due to upgrading of the local joints.

  15. Complications with use of the Stryker frame.

    PubMed

    Slabaugh, P B; Nickel, V L

    1978-12-01

    Roentgenograms were made of two patients with acute dislocations of the cervical spine who were undergoing treatment on Stryker frames with cervical traction. Losses of reduction were evident when the patients were turned from the supine to the prone position. The pulmonary vital capacity of patients with complete traumatic quadriplegia consistently decreased when they were turned to the prone position. Prolonged supine positioning of patients on the Stryker frame also caused occipital decubitus ulcers.

  16. Celestial Reference Frames at Multiple Radio Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    In 1997 the IAU adopted the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) built from S/X VLBI data. In response to IAU resolutions encouraging the extension of the ICRF to additional frequency bands, VLBI frames have been made at 24, 32, and 43 gigahertz. Meanwhile, the 8.4 gigahertz work has been greatly improved with the 2009 release of the ICRF-2. This paper discusses the motivations for extending the ICRF to these higher radio bands. Results to date will be summarized including evidence that the high frequency frames are rapidly approaching the accuracy of the 8.4 gigahertz ICRF-2. We discuss current limiting errors and prospects for the future accuracy of radio reference frames. We note that comparison of multiple radio frames is characterizing the frequency dependent systematic noise floor from extended source morphology and core shift. Finally, given Gaia's potential for high accuracy optical astrometry, we have simulated the precision of a radio-optical frame tie to be approximately10-15 microarcseconds ((1-sigma) (1-standard deviation), per component).

  17. Line defects and (framed) BPS quivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirafici, Michele

    2013-11-01

    The BPS spectrum of certain = 2 supersymmetric field theories can be determined algebraically by studying the representation theory of BPS quivers. We introduce methods based on BPS quivers to study line defects. The presence of a line defect opens up a new BPS sector: framed BPS states can be bound to the defect. The defect can be geometrically described in terms of laminations on a curve. To a lamination we associate certain elements of the Leavitt path algebra of the BPS quiver and use them to compute the framed BPS spectrum. We also provide an alternative characterization of line defects by introducing framed BPS quivers. Using the theory of (quantum) cluster algebras, we derive an algorithm to compute the framed BPS spectra of new defects from known ones. Line defects are generated from a framed BPS quiver by applying certain sequences of mutation operations. Framed BPS quivers also behave nicely under a set of "cut and join" rules, which can be used to study how = 2 systems with defects couple to produce more complicated ones. We illustrate our formalism with several examples.

  18. Representation of the inverse of a frame multiplier.

    PubMed

    Balazs, P; Stoeva, D T

    2015-02-15

    Certain mathematical objects appear in a lot of scientific disciplines, like physics, signal processing and, naturally, mathematics. In a general setting they can be described as frame multipliers, consisting of analysis, multiplication by a fixed sequence (called the symbol), and synthesis. In this paper we show a surprising result about the inverse of such operators, if any, as well as new results about a core concept of frame theory, dual frames. We show that for semi-normalized symbols, the inverse of any invertible frame multiplier can always be represented as a frame multiplier with the reciprocal symbol and dual frames of the given ones. Furthermore, one of those dual frames is uniquely determined and the other one can be arbitrarily chosen. We investigate sufficient conditions for the special case, when both dual frames can be chosen to be the canonical duals. In connection to the above, we show that the set of dual frames determines a frame uniquely. Furthermore, for a given frame, the union of all coefficients of its dual frames is dense in [Formula: see text]. We also introduce a class of frames (called pseudo-coherent frames), which includes Gabor frames and coherent frames, and investigate invertible pseudo-coherent frame multipliers, allowing a classification for frame-type operators for these frames. Finally, we give a numerical example for the invertibility of multipliers in the Gabor case.

  19. Representation of the inverse of a frame multiplier☆

    PubMed Central

    Balazs, P.; Stoeva, D.T.

    2015-01-01

    Certain mathematical objects appear in a lot of scientific disciplines, like physics, signal processing and, naturally, mathematics. In a general setting they can be described as frame multipliers, consisting of analysis, multiplication by a fixed sequence (called the symbol), and synthesis. In this paper we show a surprising result about the inverse of such operators, if any, as well as new results about a core concept of frame theory, dual frames. We show that for semi-normalized symbols, the inverse of any invertible frame multiplier can always be represented as a frame multiplier with the reciprocal symbol and dual frames of the given ones. Furthermore, one of those dual frames is uniquely determined and the other one can be arbitrarily chosen. We investigate sufficient conditions for the special case, when both dual frames can be chosen to be the canonical duals. In connection to the above, we show that the set of dual frames determines a frame uniquely. Furthermore, for a given frame, the union of all coefficients of its dual frames is dense in ℓ2. We also introduce a class of frames (called pseudo-coherent frames), which includes Gabor frames and coherent frames, and investigate invertible pseudo-coherent frame multipliers, allowing a classification for frame-type operators for these frames. Finally, we give a numerical example for the invertibility of multipliers in the Gabor case. PMID:25843976

  20. An analytical and experimental investigation of the response of the curved, composite frame/skin specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moas, Eduardo; Boitnott, Richard L.; Griffin, O. Hayden, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Six-foot diameter, semicircular graphite/epoxy specimens representative of generic aircraft frames were loaded quasi-statistically to determine their load response and failure mechanisms for large deflections that occur in airplanes crashes. These frame/skin specimens consisted of a cylindrical skin section co-cured with a semicircular I-frame. The skin provided the necessary lateral stiffness to keep deformations in the plane of the frame in order to realistically represent deformations as they occur in actual fuselage structures. Various frame laminate stacking sequences and geometries were evaluated by statically loading the specimen until multiple failures occurred. Two analytical methods were compared for modeling the frame/skin specimens: a two-dimensional shell finite element analysis and a one-dimensional, closed-form, curved beam solution derived using an energy method. Flange effectivities were included in the beam analysis to account for the curling phenomenon that occurs in thin flanges of curved beams. Good correlation was obtained between experimental results and the analytical predictions of the linear response of the frames prior to the initial failure. The specimens were found to be useful for evaluating composite frame designs.

  1. Framed 4-graphs: Euler tours, Gauss circuits and rotating circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Il'yutko, Denis P

    2011-09-30

    We consider connected finite 4-valent graphs with the structure of opposite edges at each vertex (framed 4-graphs). For any of such graphs there exist Euler tours, in travelling along which at each vertex we turn from an edge to a nonopposite one (rotating circuits); and at the same time, it is not true that for any such graph there exists an Euler tour passing from an edge to the opposite one at each vertex (a Gauss circuit). The main result of the work is an explicit formula connecting the adjacency matrices of the Gauss circuit and an arbitrary Euler tour. This formula immediately gives us a criterion for the existence of a Gauss circuit on a given framed 4-graph. It turns out that the results are also valid for all symmetric matrices (not just for matrices realisable by a chord diagram). Bibliography: 24 titles.

  2. Identifying objectives and alternative actions to frame a decision problem.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, Michael C.; Walshe, Terry

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the role of objectives and alternative actions in framing a natural resource management decision problem, with particular attention to thresholds. We outline a number of considerations in developing objectives and measurable attributes, including when utility thresholds may be needed to express the decision-makers’ values.We also discuss the development of a set of alternative actions, and how these might give rise to decision thresholds, particularly when the predictive models contain ecological thresholds. Framing of a decision problem plays a central role in decision analysis because it helps determine the needs for a predictive ecological model, the type of solution method required, and the value and structure of a monitoring system.

  3. The Frame Constraint on Experimentally Elicited Speech Errors in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Saito, Akie; Inoue, Tomoyoshi

    2017-06-01

    The so-called syllable position effect in speech errors has been interpreted as reflecting constraints posed by the frame structure of a given language, which is separately operating from linguistic content during speech production. The effect refers to the phenomenon that when a speech error occurs, replaced and replacing sounds tend to be in the same position within a syllable or word. Most of the evidence for the effect comes from analyses of naturally occurring speech errors in Indo-European languages, and there are few studies examining the effect in experimentally elicited speech errors and in other languages. This study examined whether experimentally elicited sound errors in Japanese exhibits the syllable position effect. In Japanese, the sub-syllabic unit known as "mora" is considered to be a basic sound unit in production. Results showed that the syllable position effect occurred in mora errors, suggesting that the frame constrains the ordering of sounds during speech production.

  4. Locking Corners Speed Solar-Array Frame Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olah, S.; Sampson, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    Mitered corners of solar-array frames joined together by single angle brace and two springs. Locking corner braces and mating frame members pushed together by hand or assembled automatically. Fastening system used to assemble window screens and picture frames.

  5. Introducing COCOS: codon consequence scanner for annotating reading frame changes induced by stop-lost and frame shift variants.

    PubMed

    Butkiewicz, Mariusz; Haines, Jonathan L; Bush, William S

    2017-01-25

    : Reading frame altering genomic variants can impact gene expression levels and the structure of protein products, thus potentially inducing disease phenotypes. Current annotation approaches report the impact of such variants in the context of altered DNA sequence only; attributes of the resulting transcript, reading frame and translated protein product are not reported. To remedy this shortcoming, we present a new genetic annotation approach termed Codon Consequence Scanner (COCOS). Implemented as an Ensembl variant effect predictor (VEP) plugin, COCOS captures amino acid sequence alterations stemming from variants that produce an altered reading frame, such as stop-lost variants and small insertions and deletions (InDels). To highlight its significance, COCOS was applied to data from the 1000 Genomes Project. Transcripts affected by stop-lost variants introduce a median of 15 amino acids, while InDels have a more extensive impact with a median of 66 amino acids being incorporated. Captured sequence alterations are written out in FASTA format and can be further analyzed for impact on the underlying protein structure.

  6. Semiflexible filament networks viewed as fluctuating beam frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Tianxiang; Purohit, Prashant

    2012-02-01

    We present a new method combining structural and statistical mechanics to study the entropic elasticity of semiflexible filament networks. We view a filament network as a frame structure and use structural mechanics to determine its static equilibrium configuration under applied loads in the first step. To account for thermal motion around this static equilibrium state, we then approximate the potential energy of the deformed frame structure up to the second order in kinematic variables and obtaina deformation-dependent stiffness matrix characterizing the flexibility of the network. Using statistical mechanics, we then evaluate the partition function, free energy and thermo-mechanical properties of the network in terms of the stiffness matrix. We show that penalty methods commonly used in finite elements to account for constraints, are applicable even when statistical and structural mechanics are combined in our method. We apply our framework to understand the expansion, shear, uniaxial tension and compression behavior of some simple filament networks. We are able to capture the stress-stiffening behavior due to filament reorientation and stretching out of thermal fluctuations, as well as the reversible stress-softening behavior due to filament buckling.

  7. Failure at Frame-Stringer Intersections in PRSEUS Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    2012-01-01

    NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory and The Boeing Company have worked to develop new low-cost, light-weight composite structures for aircraft. A Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept has been developed which offers advantages over traditional metallic structures. In this concept a stitched carbon-epoxy material system has been developed with the potential for reducing the weight and cost of transport aircraft structure by eliminating fasteners, thereby reducing part count and labor. By adding unidirectional carbon rods to the top of stiffeners, the panel becomes more structurally efficient. This combination produces a more damage tolerant design. This study focuses on the intersection between the rod-stiffener and the foam-filled frame in a PRSEUS specimen. Compression loading is considered, which induces stress concentrations at the intersection point that can lead to failures. An experiment with accompanying analysis for a single-frame specimen is described, followed by a parametric study of simple reinforcements to reduce strains in the intersection region.

  8. A genetic scale of reading frame coding.

    PubMed

    Michel, Christian J

    2014-08-21

    The reading frame coding (RFC) of codes (sets) of trinucleotides is a genetic concept which has been largely ignored during the last 50 years. A first objective is the definition of a new and simple statistical parameter PrRFC for analysing the probability (efficiency) of reading frame coding (RFC) of any trinucleotide code. A second objective is to reveal different classes and subclasses of trinucleotide codes involved in reading frame coding: the circular codes of 20 trinucleotides and the bijective genetic codes of 20 trinucleotides coding the 20 amino acids. This approach allows us to propose a genetic scale of reading frame coding which ranges from 1/3 with the random codes (RFC probability identical in the three frames) to 1 with the comma-free circular codes (RFC probability maximal in the reading frame and null in the two shifted frames). This genetic scale shows, in particular, the reading frame coding probabilities of the 12,964,440 circular codes (PrRFC=83.2% in average), the 216 C(3) self-complementary circular codes (PrRFC=84.1% in average) including the code X identified in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes (PrRFC=81.3%) and the 339,738,624 bijective genetic codes (PrRFC=61.5% in average) including the 52 codes without permuted trinucleotides (PrRFC=66.0% in average). Otherwise, the reading frame coding probabilities of each trinucleotide code coding an amino acid with the universal genetic code are also determined. The four amino acids Gly, Lys, Phe and Pro are coded by codes (not circular) with RFC probabilities equal to 2/3, 1/2, 1/2 and 2/3, respectively. The amino acid Leu is coded by a circular code (not comma-free) with a RFC probability equal to 18/19. The 15 other amino acids are coded by comma-free circular codes, i.e. with RFC probabilities equal to 1. The identification of coding properties in some classes of trinucleotide codes studied here may bring new insights in the origin and evolution of the genetic code.

  9. Evaluation of a metal fuselage frame selectively reinforced with filamentary composites for space shuttle application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oken, S.; Skoumal, D. E.; Straayer, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The development of metal structures reinforced with filamentary composites as a weight saving feature of the space shuttle components is discussed. A frame was selected for study that was representative of the type of construction used in the bulk frames of the orbiter vehicle. Theoretical and experimental investigations were conducted. Component tests were performed to evaluate the critical details used in the designs and to provide credibility to the weight saving results. A model frame was constructed of the reinforced metal material to provide a final evaluation of the construction under realistic load conditions.

  10. Relativistic effects in local inertial frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, Neil; Bertotti, Bruno

    1986-01-01

    The concept of a generalized Fermi frame is introduced with the aim of describing the relativistic effects due to a third, distant body (such as the sun) upon the motion of an earth satellite. This extends Fermi's construction of a local inertial frame to the case in which there are local gravitating masses. This is done in the slow-motion, weak-field approximation by splitting the metric into an external part and a local part; Fermi's construction of local inertial coordinates defined with respect to the external metric is then used to transform the complete metric. The results show that the main relativistic effects on an earth satellite are due to the nonlinear correction in the earth's own Schwarzschild field. There are much smaller relativistic corrections in the tidal field of the sun, and an earth-sun interaction term. The spatial axes of the local frame also undergo geodetic precession. Particular care must be taken with respect to the definition of the time coordinate in the generalized Fermi frame in order that the unit of time be consistent with readings of reasonable physical clocks on earth's surface. Also discussed more rigorously is the generalized Fermi frame for a system of two bodies revolving in circular orbits around a common barycenter.

  11. Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames

    SciTech Connect

    Kamalov, Timur F.

    2010-12-22

    Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.

  12. Use of reinforced inorganic cement materials for spark wire and drift chamber wire frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The results of a survey, materials test, and analysis study directed toward the development of an inorganic glass-fiber reinforced cement material for use in the construction of space qualified spark wire frames and drift chamber frames are presented. The purpose for this research was to evaluate the feasibility of using glass fiber reinforced cement (GFRC) for large dimensioned structural frames for supporting a number of precisely located spark wires in multiple planes. A survey of the current state of the art in fiber reinforced cement materials was made; material sample mixes were made and tested to determine their laboratory performances. Tests conducted on sample materials showed that compressive and flexural strengths of this material could approach values which would enable fabrication of structural spark wire frames.

  13. Harmonic finite-element thermoelastic analysis of space frames and trusses

    SciTech Connect

    Givoli, D.; Rand, O. )

    1993-09-01

    A numerical procedure is devised for the thermoelastic analysis of three-dimensional frame- or truss-type space structures exposed to solar radiation. Thin-walled frame or truss members with cross sections of arbitrary shape are considered. Tension-compression, bending, shear, and torsional effects due to the temperature distribution induced by the solar radiation are all taken into account. The procedure proposed involves finite element discretization in the axial direction and a harmonic analysts in the circumferential direction of each member. This procedure is an extension of the one employed previously to obtain the temperature field in trusses. A multibay frame structure serves as a model to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. The temperature, displacement, and stress fields in the frame are found in various cases. 23 refs.

  14. Aircraft engine with inter-turbine engine frame supported counter rotating low pressure turbine rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seda, Jorge F. (Inventor); Dunbar, Lawrence W. (Inventor); Gliebe, Philip R. (Inventor); Szucs, Peter N. (Inventor); Brauer, John C. (Inventor); Johnson, James E. (Inventor); Moniz, Thomas (Inventor); Steinmetz, Gregory T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An aircraft gas turbine engine assembly includes an inter-turbine frame axially located between high and low pressure turbines. Low pressure turbine has counter rotating low pressure inner and outer rotors with low pressure inner and outer shafts which are at least in part rotatably disposed co-axially within a high pressure rotor. Inter-turbine frame includes radially spaced apart radially outer first and inner second structural rings disposed co-axially about a centerline and connected by a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart struts. Forward and aft sump members having forward and aft central bores are fixedly joined to axially spaced apart forward and aft portions of the inter-turbine frame. Low pressure inner and outer rotors are rotatably supported by a second turbine frame bearing mounted in aft central bore of aft sump member. A mount for connecting the engine to an aircraft is located on first structural ring.

  15. A novel key-frame extraction approach for both video summary and video index.

    PubMed

    Lei, Shaoshuai; Xie, Gang; Yan, Gaowei

    2014-01-01

    Existing key-frame extraction methods are basically video summary oriented; yet the index task of key-frames is ignored. This paper presents a novel key-frame extraction approach which can be available for both video summary and video index. First a dynamic distance separability algorithm is advanced to divide a shot into subshots based on semantic structure, and then appropriate key-frames are extracted in each subshot by SVD decomposition. Finally, three evaluation indicators are proposed to evaluate the performance of the new approach. Experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves good semantic structure for semantics-based video index and meanwhile produces video summary consistent with human perception.

  16. A Novel Key-Frame Extraction Approach for Both Video Summary and Video Index

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shaoshuai; Xie, Gang; Yan, Gaowei

    2014-01-01

    Existing key-frame extraction methods are basically video summary oriented; yet the index task of key-frames is ignored. This paper presents a novel key-frame extraction approach which can be available for both video summary and video index. First a dynamic distance separability algorithm is advanced to divide a shot into subshots based on semantic structure, and then appropriate key-frames are extracted in each subshot by SVD decomposition. Finally, three evaluation indicators are proposed to evaluate the performance of the new approach. Experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves good semantic structure for semantics-based video index and meanwhile produces video summary consistent with human perception. PMID:24757431

  17. Hamiltonian deformations of Gabor frames: First steps.

    PubMed

    de Gosson, Maurice A

    2015-03-01

    Gabor frames can advantageously be redefined using the Heisenberg-Weyl operators familiar from harmonic analysis and quantum mechanics. Not only does this redefinition allow us to recover in a very simple way known results of symplectic covariance, but it immediately leads to the consideration of a general deformation scheme by Hamiltonian isotopies (i.e. arbitrary paths of non-linear symplectic mappings passing through the identity). We will study in some detail an associated weak notion of Hamiltonian deformation of Gabor frames, using ideas from semiclassical physics involving coherent states and Gaussian approximations. We will thereafter discuss possible applications and extensions of our method, which can be viewed - as the title suggests - as the very first steps towards a general deformation theory for Gabor frames.

  18. Hamiltonian deformations of Gabor frames: First steps

    PubMed Central

    de Gosson, Maurice A.

    2015-01-01

    Gabor frames can advantageously be redefined using the Heisenberg–Weyl operators familiar from harmonic analysis and quantum mechanics. Not only does this redefinition allow us to recover in a very simple way known results of symplectic covariance, but it immediately leads to the consideration of a general deformation scheme by Hamiltonian isotopies (i.e. arbitrary paths of non-linear symplectic mappings passing through the identity). We will study in some detail an associated weak notion of Hamiltonian deformation of Gabor frames, using ideas from semiclassical physics involving coherent states and Gaussian approximations. We will thereafter discuss possible applications and extensions of our method, which can be viewed – as the title suggests – as the very first steps towards a general deformation theory for Gabor frames. PMID:25892903

  19. Microlens frames for laser diode arrays

    DOEpatents

    Skidmore, J.A.; Freitas, B.L.

    1999-07-13

    Monolithic microlens frames enable the fabrication of monolithic laser diode arrays and are manufactured inexpensively with high registration, and with inherent focal length compensation for any lens diameter variation. A monolithic substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost microlens array. The substrate is wet-etched or sawed with a series of v-grooves. The v-grooves can be created by wet-etching, by exploiting the large etch-rate selectivity of different crystal planes. The v-grooves provide a support frame for either cylindrical or custom-shaped microlenses. Because the microlens frames are formed by photolithographic semiconductor batch-processing techniques, they can be formed inexpensively over large areas with precise lateral and vertical registration. The v-groove has an important advantage for preserving the correct focus for lenses of varying diameter. 12 figs.

  20. Microlens frames for laser diode arrays

    DOEpatents

    Skidmore, Jay A.; Freitas, Barry L.

    1999-01-01

    Monolithic microlens frames enable the fabrication of monolithic laser diode arrays and are manufactured inexpensively with high registration, and with inherent focal length compensation for any lens diameter variation. A monolithic substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost microlens array. The substrate is wet-etched or sawed with a series of v-grooves. The v-grooves can be created by wet-etching, by exploiting the large etch-rate selectivity of different crystal planes. The v-grooves provide a support frame for either cylindrical or custom-shaped microlenses. Because the microlens frames are formed by photolithographic semiconductor batch-processing techniques, they can be formed inexpensively over large areas with precise lateral and vertical registration. The v-groove has an important advantage for preserving the correct focus for lenses of varying diameter.

  1. FRAMES-2.0 Software System: Frames 2.0 Pest Integration (F2PEST)

    SciTech Connect

    Castleton, Karl J.; Meyer, Philip D.

    2009-06-17

    The implementation of the FRAMES 2.0 F2PEST module is described, including requirements, design, and specifications of the software. This module integrates the PEST parameter estimation software within the FRAMES 2.0 environmental modeling framework. A test case is presented.

  2. All Frames Are Not Created Equal: A Typology and Critical Analysis of Framing Effects.

    PubMed

    Levin; Schneider; Gaeth

    1998-11-01

    Accentuate the positive or accentuate the negative? The literature has been mixed as to how the alternative framing of information in positive or negative terms affects judgments and decisions. We argue that this is because different studies have employed different operational definitions of framing and thus have tapped different underlying processes. We develop a typology to distinguish between three different kinds of valence framing effects. First we discuss the standard risky choice framing effect introduced by Tversky and Kahneman (1981) to illustrate how valence affects willingness to take a risk. Then we discuss attribute framing, which affects the evaluation of object or event characteristics, and goal framing, which affects the persuasiveness of a communication. We describe the distinctions, provide a number of examples of each type, and discuss likely theoretical mechanisms underlying each type of framing effect. Our typology helps explain and resolve apparent confusions in the literature, ties together studies with common underlying mechanisms, and serves as a guide to future research and theory development. We conclude that a broader perspective, focused on the cognitive and motivational consequences of valence-based encoding, opens the door to a deeper understanding of the causes and consequences of framing effects. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  3. BioFrameNet: A FrameNet Extension to the Domain of Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolbey, Andrew Eric

    2009-01-01

    In this study I introduce BioFrameNet, an extension of the Berkeley FrameNet lexical database to the domain of molecular biology. I examine the syntactic and semantic combinatorial possibilities exhibited in the lexical items used in this domain in order to get a better understanding of the grammatical properties of the language used in scientific…

  4. BioFrameNet: A FrameNet Extension to the Domain of Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolbey, Andrew Eric

    2009-01-01

    In this study I introduce BioFrameNet, an extension of the Berkeley FrameNet lexical database to the domain of molecular biology. I examine the syntactic and semantic combinatorial possibilities exhibited in the lexical items used in this domain in order to get a better understanding of the grammatical properties of the language used in scientific…

  5. Strategic Framing Study Circles: Toward a Gold Standard of Framing Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This article explains how communities of practice have been developed as part of FrameWorks' field-building efforts. Strategic Framing Study Circles, as they are known, have been conducted with four statewide coalitions, one group of national organizations, and an emerging regional coalition. The goal of each community of practice is to build…

  6. All framing effects are not created equal: Low convergent validity between two classic measurements of framing.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-07-20

    Human risk-taking attitudes can be influenced by two logically equivalent but descriptively different frames, termed the framing effect. The classic hypothetical vignette-based task (Asian disease problem) and a recently developed reward-based gambling task have been widely used to assess individual differences in the framing effect. Previous studies treat framing bias as a stable trait that has genetic basis. However, these two paradigms differ in terms of task domain (loss vs. gain) and task context (vignette-based vs. reward-based) and the convergent validity of these measurements remains unknown. Here, we developed a vignette-based task and a gambling task in both gain and loss domains and tested correlations of the framing effect among these tasks in 159 young adults. Our results revealed no significant correlation between the vignette-based task in the loss domain and the gambling task in the gain domain, indicating low convergent validity. The current findings raise the question of how to measure the framing effect precisely, especially in individual difference studies using large samples and expensive neuroscience methods. Our results suggest that the framing effect is influenced by both task domain and task context and future research should be cautious about the operationalization of the framing effect.

  7. All framing effects are not created equal: Low convergent validity between two classic measurements of framing

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Human risk-taking attitudes can be influenced by two logically equivalent but descriptively different frames, termed the framing effect. The classic hypothetical vignette-based task (Asian disease problem) and a recently developed reward-based gambling task have been widely used to assess individual differences in the framing effect. Previous studies treat framing bias as a stable trait that has genetic basis. However, these two paradigms differ in terms of task domain (loss vs. gain) and task context (vignette-based vs. reward-based) and the convergent validity of these measurements remains unknown. Here, we developed a vignette-based task and a gambling task in both gain and loss domains and tested correlations of the framing effect among these tasks in 159 young adults. Our results revealed no significant correlation between the vignette-based task in the loss domain and the gambling task in the gain domain, indicating low convergent validity. The current findings raise the question of how to measure the framing effect precisely, especially in individual difference studies using large samples and expensive neuroscience methods. Our results suggest that the framing effect is influenced by both task domain and task context and future research should be cautious about the operationalization of the framing effect. PMID:27436680

  8. Formative evaluation of a frame-based model of locative relationships in human anatomy.

    PubMed

    Bean, C A

    1997-01-01

    The verb structure of narrative text in a gross anatomy textbook was analyzed to identify locative relationships. The 169 locative indicators were organized semantically to construct a frame-based model. The validity and coverage of the model was assessed and compared with the UMLS Semantic Net Relations using a novel test set of 71 indicators. All mapped directly to the frame model, while 60% mapped directly to UMLS.

  9. Formative evaluation of a frame-based model of locative relationships in human anatomy.

    PubMed Central

    Bean, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    The verb structure of narrative text in a gross anatomy textbook was analyzed to identify locative relationships. The 169 locative indicators were organized semantically to construct a frame-based model. The validity and coverage of the model was assessed and compared with the UMLS Semantic Net Relations using a novel test set of 71 indicators. All mapped directly to the frame model, while 60% mapped directly to UMLS. PMID:9357701

  10. Seismic Rehabilitation of RC Frames by Using Steel Panels

    SciTech Connect

    Mowrtage, Waiel

    2008-07-08

    Every major earthquake in Turkey causes a large number of building suffer moderate damage due to poor construction. If a proper and fast retrofit is not applied, the aftershocks, which may sometimes come days or weeks after the main shock, can push a moderately damaged building into a major damage or even total collapse. This paper presents a practical retrofit method for moderately damaged buildings, which increases the seismic performance of the structural system by reducing the displacement demand. Fabricated steel panels are used for the retrofit. They are light-weight, easy to handle, and can be constructed very quickly. Moreover, they are cheap, and do not need formwork or skilled workers. They can be designed to compensate for the stiffness and strength degradation, and to fit easily inside a moderately damaged reinforced concrete frame.To test the concept, a half-scale, single-story 3D reinforced concrete frame specimen was constructed at the shake-table laboratories of the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute of Bogazici University, and subjected to recorded real earthquake base accelerations. The amplitudes of base accelerations were increased until a moderate damage level is reached. Then, the damaged RC frames was retrofitted by means of steel panels and tested under the same earthquake. The seismic performance of the specimen before and after the retrofit was evaluated using FEMA356 standards, and the results were compared in terms of stiffness, strength, and deformability. The results have confirmed effectiveness of the proposed retrofit scheme.

  11. Extending the K-band celestial frame emphasizing Southern hemisphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Witt, A.; Bertarini, A.; Horiuchi, S.; Jacobs, C.; Jung, T.; Lovel, J.; McCallum, J.; Quick, J.; Sohn, B. W.; Ojha, R.

    2014-12-01

    K-band radio observations have the potential to form the basis for the most accurate celestial reference frame (CRF) ever constructed. We present a new collaboration to observe southern hemisphere extra-galactic radio sources at 22 GHz (K-band). The aim of this project is to densify the ICRF at that frequency and to provide calibrators for astronomy. Relative to the standard S/X observing bands, at K-band sources are expected to exhibit more compact source morphology and reduced core shift. This reduction of astrophysical systematics should be advantageous in tying the VLBI radio frame to the Gaia optical frame. Initial fringe demonstrations were carried out on 23 August 2013 between telescopes in Australia, Korea and South Africa. The Korea to South Africa baselines will extend K-band CRF coverage down to about -45° declination. Observations between Australia and South Africa will extend coverage to the south polar cap and thus gain full sky coverage for the K-band CRF. The second phase of our plan includes more extensive astrometric observations to complete sky coverage at K-band as well as observations using a larger network of telescopes in an effort to image source structure.

  12. Seismic Rehabilitation of RC Frames by Using Steel Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mowrtage, Waiel

    2008-07-01

    Every major earthquake in Turkey causes a large number of building suffer moderate damage due to poor construction. If a proper and fast retrofit is not applied, the aftershocks, which may sometimes come days or weeks after the main shock, can push a moderately damaged building into a major damage or even total collapse. This paper presents a practical retrofit method for moderately damaged buildings, which increases the seismic performance of the structural system by reducing the displacement demand. Fabricated steel panels are used for the retrofit. They are light-weight, easy to handle, and can be constructed very quickly. Moreover, they are cheap, and do not need formwork or skilled workers. They can be designed to compensate for the stiffness and strength degradation, and to fit easily inside a moderately damaged reinforced concrete frame. To test the concept, a half-scale, single-story 3D reinforced concrete frame specimen was constructed at the shake-table laboratories of the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute of Bogazici University, and subjected to recorded real earthquake base accelerations. The amplitudes of base accelerations were increased until a moderate damage level is reached. Then, the damaged RC frames was retrofitted by means of steel panels and tested under the same earthquake. The seismic performance of the specimen before and after the retrofit was evaluated using FEMA356 standards, and the results were compared in terms of stiffness, strength, and deformability. The results have confirmed effectiveness of the proposed retrofit scheme.

  13. Problem-Framing: A perspective on environmental problem-solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardwell, Lisa V.

    1991-09-01

    The specter of environmental calamity calls for the best efforts of an involved public. Ironically, the way people understand the issues all too often serves to discourage and frustrate rather than motivate them to action. This article draws from problem-solving perspectives offered by cognitive psychology and conflict management to examine a framework for thinking about environmental problems that promises to help rather than hinder efforts to address them. Problem-framing emphasizes focusing on the problem definition. Since how one defines a problem determines one's understanding of and approach to that problem, being able to redefine or reframe a problem and to explore the “problem space” can help broaden the range of alternatives and solutions examined. Problem-framing incorporates a cognitive perspective on how people respond to information. It explains why an emphasis on problem definition is not part of people's typical approach to problems. It recognizes the importance of structure and of having ways to organize that information on one's problem-solving effort. Finally, problem-framing draws on both cognitive psychology and conflict management for strategies to manage information and to create a problem-solving environment that not only encourages participation but can yield better approaches to our environmental problems.

  14. Effectiveness of cigarette warning labels: examining the impact of graphics, message framing, and temporal framing.

    PubMed

    Nan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiaoquan; Yang, Bo; Iles, Irina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of cigarette warning labels, with a specific focus on the impact of graphics, message framing (gain vs. loss), and temporal framing (present-oriented vs. future-oriented) among nonsmokers in the United States. A controlled experiment (N = 253) revealed that graphic warning labels were perceived as more effective, stronger in argument strength, and were generally liked more compared to text-only labels. In addition, loss-framed labels, compared to their gain-framed counterparts, were rated higher in perceived effectiveness, argument strength, and liking. No significant difference was observed between the present- and future-oriented frames on any of the dependent variables. Implications of the findings for antismoking communication efforts are discussed.

  15. Ray Effect Mitigation Through Reference Frame Rotation

    DOE PAGES

    Tencer, John

    2016-05-01

    The discrete ordinates method is a popular and versatile technique for solving the radiative transport equation, a major drawback of which is the presence of ray effects. Mitigation of ray effects can yield significantly more accurate results and enhanced numerical stability for combined mode codes. Moreover, when ray effects are present, the solution is seen to be highly dependent upon the relative orientation of the geometry and the global reference frame. It is an undesirable property. A novel ray effect mitigation technique of averaging the computed solution for various reference frame orientations is proposed.

  16. Ray Effect Mitigation Through Reference Frame Rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Tencer, John

    2016-05-01

    The discrete ordinates method is a popular and versatile technique for solving the radiative transport equation, a major drawback of which is the presence of ray effects. Mitigation of ray effects can yield significantly more accurate results and enhanced numerical stability for combined mode codes. Moreover, when ray effects are present, the solution is seen to be highly dependent upon the relative orientation of the geometry and the global reference frame. It is an undesirable property. A novel ray effect mitigation technique of averaging the computed solution for various reference frame orientations is proposed.

  17. Partitioning Kripke frames of finite height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudinov, A. V.; Shapirovsky, I. B.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we prove the finite model property and decidability of a family of modal logics. A binary relation R is said to be pretransitive if R^*=\\bigcupi≤slant m R^i for some m≥slant 0, where R^* is the transitive reflexive closure of R. By the height of a frame (W,R) we mean the height of the preorder (W,R^*). We construct special partitions (filtrations) of pretransitive frames of finite height, which implies the finite model property and decidability of their modal logics.

  18. Notes for Brazil sampling frame evaluation trip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, R. (Principal Investigator); Hicks, D. R. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Field notes describing a trip conducted in Brazil are presented. This trip was conducted for the purpose of evaluating a sample frame developed using LANDSAT full frame images by the USDA Economic and Statistics Service for the eventual purpose of cropland production estimation with LANDSAT by the Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting Project of the AgRISTARS program. Six areas were analyzed on the basis of land use, crop land in corn and soybean, field size and soil type. The analysis indicated generally successful use of LANDSAT images for purposes of remote large area land use stratification.

  19. Echo-planar rotating-frame imaging.

    PubMed

    Casanova, F; Robert, H; Perlo, J; Pusiol, D

    2003-06-01

    A new rotating-frame imaging method that produces a complete cross section of an object in a single experiment is reported. The echo planar rotating frame imaging (EPROFI) technique uses two perpendicular RF gradients for two-dimensional spatial encoding and fully exploits the formation of rotary echoes for fast sampling of spatial frequencies. The acquisition scheme yields the Fourier transform of the spin distribution on Cartesian coordinates for straightforward image reconstruction. Implementation of the technique on a low-field portable NMR probe is described and results are presented for test objects with different geometries.

  20. Measuring with laser Doppler vibrometer on moving frame (LDVMF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Siamand; Li, Zili; Dollevoet, Rolf

    2014-05-01

    Structural dynamic gives insight into structural properties such as mass, eigenfrequencies, eigenmodes, modal damping and strain distribution and can be utilized in structural health monitoring, dynamic sub-structuring, etc. In this context structural vibration is measured and used. The measurement is done by means of conventional sensors such as accelerometers or non destructively using Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV), for instance. The non-destructive, non-contact measurement techniques preserve the integrity of the structure and don't add mass and stiffness to the structure under test. When one deals with civil structures such as rail and road ways, pipelines and catenary the importance of these techniques becomes more evident as they allow standoff measurement on a moving frame. Nevertheless when LDV is employed due to the relative in-plane motion between the LDV and the target speckle noise is generated which degrades the signal quality and makes this application not very straightforward but challenging. One of the first Laser Doppler Vibrometer on moving frame is adopted to measure and monitor the ground vibration, aiming at detection of buried land mines. The major addressed difficulty in this application is the speckle noise present in the acquired signal. In general the signal quality and the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) are a function of the laser spot size and wave length, measurement distance, relative velocity and sampling frequency. A trade-off between these factors, which are not always intuitive would help to minimize the noise floor due to the speckle noise. In this paper a test rig is presented which allows to study the speckle noise at different measurement ranges, between 1.8 and 2.8 m, and different velocities, up to 150 km/h. The results might serve as a guideline to the design process of a LDVMF.