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Sample records for stekhiometricheskoj formule soedineniya

  1. Formulation of Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Peters, Arne

    2016-01-01

    The enduring stages of entomopathogenic nematodes of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are infective juveniles, which require a high humidity and sufficient ventilation for survival. Formulations must account for these requirements. Nematodes may be formulated inside the insects in which they reproduced or they need to be cleaned and mixed with a suitable binder to maintain humidity but allowing for gas exchange. Another method for formulation is the encapsulation in beads of Ca-alginate. Generic procedures for these formulation techniques are described. PMID:27565496

  2. Psychiatrists' use of formulation

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Patricia M.

    2016-01-01

    Both psychologists and psychiatrists are trained to write formulations of their patients' illnesses, with some differences in how they do this. Psychologists focus on psychological understanding, while psychiatrists' formulation brings together aetiology, functioning and a management plan. Mohtashemi et al's study records how some psychiatrists understand formulation and its usefulness. Time pressure was an important barrier to making a full formulation, and some believed the medical role of the psychiatrist was a priority. The study illustrates some of the challenges facing psychiatrists working in the NHS in terms of maintaining high clinical standards and a holistic approach to patient care. PMID:27512593

  3. Audits of radiopharmaceutical formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Castronovo, F.P. Jr. )

    1992-03-01

    A procedure for auditing radiopharmaceutical formulations is described. To meet FDA guidelines regarding the quality of radiopharmaceuticals, institutional radioactive drug research committees perform audits when such drugs are formulated away from an institutional pharmacy. All principal investigators who formulate drugs outside institutional pharmacies must pass these audits before they can obtain a radiopharmaceutical investigation permit. The audit team meets with the individual who performs the formulation at the site of drug preparation to verify that drug formulations meet identity, strength, quality, and purity standards; are uniform and reproducible; and are sterile and pyrogen free. This team must contain an expert knowledgeable in the preparation of radioactive drugs; a radiopharmacist is the most qualified person for this role. Problems that have been identified by audits include lack of sterility and apyrogenicity testing, formulations that are open to the laboratory environment, failure to use pharmaceutical-grade chemicals, inadequate quality control methods or records, inadequate training of the person preparing the drug, and improper unit dose preparation. Investigational radiopharmaceutical formulations, including nonradiolabeled drugs, must be audited before they are administered to humans. A properly trained pharmacist should be a member of the audit team.

  4. Formulation of natural shampoos.

    PubMed

    Mainkar, A R; Jolly, C I

    2001-02-01

    Formulating cosmetics using completely natural raw materials is a difficult task. The challenge lies in selecting materials that can be rationally justified as 'natural' and formulating them into cosmetics whose functionality is comparable with their synthetic counterparts. The present paper focuses on the formulation of completely natural shampoos, their evaluation and comparison with commercial herbal shampoos. Attention is drawn to the fact that, due to the ambiguous definition of the word 'natural', several so-called natural cosmetics are available in the Indian market. It is up to the cosmetic chemists themselves to promote and encourage the development and use of truly natural cosmetics.

  5. Reactive decontamination formulation

    DOEpatents

    Giletto, Anthony; White, William; Cisar, Alan J.; Hitchens, G. Duncan; Fyffe, James

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a universal decontamination formulation and method for detoxifying chemical warfare agents (CWA's) and biological warfare agents (BWA's) without producing any toxic by-products, as well as, decontaminating surfaces that have come into contact with these agents. The formulation includes a sorbent material or gel, a peroxide source, a peroxide activator, and a compound containing a mixture of KHSO.sub.5, KHSO.sub.4 and K.sub.2 SO.sub.4. The formulation is self-decontaminating and once dried can easily be wiped from the surface being decontaminated. A method for decontaminating a surface exposed to chemical or biological agents is also disclosed.

  6. Granulated decontamination formulations

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2007-10-02

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  7. Advanced protein formulations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei

    2015-07-01

    It is well recognized that protein product development is far more challenging than that for small-molecule drugs. The major challenges include inherent sensitivity to different types of stresses during the drug product manufacturing process, high rate of physical and chemical degradation during long-term storage, and enhanced aggregation and/or viscosity at high protein concentrations. In the past decade, many novel formulation concepts and technologies have been or are being developed to address these product development challenges for proteins. These concepts and technologies include use of uncommon/combination of formulation stabilizers, conjugation or fusion with potential stabilizers, site-specific mutagenesis, and preparation of nontraditional types of dosage forms-semiaqueous solutions, nonfreeze-dried solid formulations, suspensions, and other emerging concepts. No one technology appears to be mature, ideal, and/or adequate to address all the challenges. These gaps will likely remain in the foreseeable future and need significant efforts for ultimate resolution.

  8. Advanced protein formulations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognized that protein product development is far more challenging than that for small-molecule drugs. The major challenges include inherent sensitivity to different types of stresses during the drug product manufacturing process, high rate of physical and chemical degradation during long-term storage, and enhanced aggregation and/or viscosity at high protein concentrations. In the past decade, many novel formulation concepts and technologies have been or are being developed to address these product development challenges for proteins. These concepts and technologies include use of uncommon/combination of formulation stabilizers, conjugation or fusion with potential stabilizers, site-specific mutagenesis, and preparation of nontraditional types of dosage forms—semiaqueous solutions, nonfreeze-dried solid formulations, suspensions, and other emerging concepts. No one technology appears to be mature, ideal, and/or adequate to address all the challenges. These gaps will likely remain in the foreseeable future and need significant efforts for ultimate resolution. PMID:25858529

  9. Formulation of Automotive Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D.; Brown, A. J.; Jilbert, D.; Lamb, G.

    The formulation of lubricants for current light- and heavy-duty vehicles (passenger cars and trucks) and also motorcycles/small engines is described in terms of engine types and meeting European, US and Japanese emission control requirements. Trends in the formulation of lubricants are discussed and the importance of high and low 'SAPS' for future developments emphasised. Specification and evaluation of lubricant performance for light-vehicle gasoline and diesel, and also heavy-duty diesel engines are described. Emphasis is given to diesel engine cleanliness by soot and deposit control and the effect of emission controls on lubricant formulation. The lubricant requirements for motorcycle and small engines, primarily two-stroke cycle, and their specifications are described.

  10. Liposomal formulations for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Cipolla, David; Gonda, Igor; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2013-08-01

    No marketed inhaled products currently use sustained release formulations such as liposomes to enhance drug disposition in the lung, but that may soon change. This review focuses on the interaction between liposomal formulations and the inhalation technology used to deliver them as aerosols. There have been a number of dated reviews evaluating nebulization of liposomes. While the information they shared is still accurate, this paper incorporates data from more recent publications to review the factors that affect aerosol performance. Recent reviews have comprehensively covered the development of dry powder liposomes for aerosolization and only the key aspects of those technologies will be summarized. There are now at least two inhaled liposomal products in late-stage clinical development: ARIKACE(®) (Insmed, NJ, USA), a liposomal amikacin, and Pulmaquin™ (Aradigm Corp., CA, USA), a liposomal ciprofloxacin, both of which treat a variety of patient populations with lung infections. This review also highlights the safety of inhaled liposomes and summarizes the clinical experience with liposomal formulations for pulmonary application. PMID:23919478

  11. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  12. Explosive Formulation Code Naming SOP

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H. E.

    2014-09-19

    The purpose of this SOP is to provide a procedure for giving individual HME formulations code names. A code name for an individual HME formulation consists of an explosive family code, given by the classified guide, followed by a dash, -, and a number. If the formulation requires preparation such as packing or aging, these add additional groups of symbols to the X-ray specimen name.

  13. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  14. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  15. Operator Formulation of Classical Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Jack

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the construction of an operator formulation of classical mechanics which is directly concerned with wave packets in configuration space and is more similar to that of convential quantum theory than other extant operator formulations of classical mechanics. (Author/HM)

  16. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Carrasco, Letícia Dias de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy. PMID:25302615

  17. Simple formulation of magnetoplasmadynamic acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Sasoh, A. )

    1994-03-01

    A simple formulation of magnetoplasmadynamic acceleration has been made based on energy conservation relations and a generalized Ohm's law. An exhaust velocity is expressed using three characteristic parameters: (1) a dimensionless characteristic velocity [ital [tilde U

  18. Formulation Optimization of Arecoline Patches

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pao-Chu; Tsai, Pi-Ju; Lin, Shin-Chen; Huang, Yaw-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) including polynomial equations has been used to design an optimal patch formulation with appropriate adhesion and flux. The patch formulations were composed of different polymers, including Eudragit RS 100 (ERS), Eudragit RL 100 (ERL) and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP), plasticizers (PEG 400), and drug. In addition, using terpenes as enhancers could increase the flux of the drug. Menthol showed the highest enhancement effect on the flux of arecoline. PMID:24707220

  19. Attempted suicide: an operant formulation.

    PubMed

    Bostock, T; Williams, C L

    1975-06-01

    An alternative formulation of attempted suicide is offered, in which the phenomenon is considered within the context of social learning theory. The suicidal behaviour is viewed as an operant which is reinforced and maintained by the consequent interpersonal contingencies. The modification of the suicidal behaviour then involves alteration of the contingent consequences. This theoretical formulation is elaborated and the treatment principles and practice are outlined.

  20. Social Groupwork. A Model for Goal Formulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Rosamond P.; Gallo, Frank T.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual model for goal formulation in social groupwork, discussion of existing models and their limitations, and an attempt to formulate an encompassing groupwork model that facilitates goal formulation. (Author/PD)

  1. 40 CFR 152.43 - Alternate formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Registration Procedures § 152.43 Alternate formulations... label text of the alternate formulation product must be identical to that of the basic formulation....

  2. 40 CFR 152.43 - Alternate formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Registration Procedures § 152.43 Alternate formulations... label text of the alternate formulation product must be identical to that of the basic formulation....

  3. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  4. General formulation of transverse hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Florkowski, Wojciech

    2008-06-15

    General formulation of hydrodynamics describing transversally thermalized matter created at the early stages of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions is presented. Similarities and differences with the standard three-dimensionally thermalized relativistic hydrodynamics are discussed. The role of the conservation laws as well as the thermodynamic consistency of two-dimensional thermodynamic variables characterizing transversally thermalized matter is emphasized.

  5. Covariant Formulation of Hooke's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gron, O.

    1981-01-01

    Introducing a four-vector strain and a four-force stress, Hooke's law is written as a four-vector equation. This formulation is shown to clarify seemingly paradoxical results in connection with uniformly accelerated motion, and rotational motion with angular acceleration. (Author/JN)

  6. Case Formulation in TADS CBT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Gregory M.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Curry, John F.

    2005-01-01

    For the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS), a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) manual was developed with the aim of balancing standardization and flexibility. In this article, we describe the manual's case formulation procedures, which served as one major mechanism of flexibility in TADS CBT. We first describe the essential…

  7. Uncertainty formulations for multislit interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biniok, Johannes C. G.

    2014-12-01

    In the context of (far-field) multislit interferometry we investigate the utility of two formulations of uncertainty in accounting for the complementarity of spatial localization and fringe width. We begin with a characterization of the relevant observables and general considerations regarding the suitability of different types of measures. The detailed analysis shows that both of the discussed uncertainty formulations yield qualitatively similar results, confirming that they correctly capture the relevant tradeoff. One approach, based on an idea of Aharonov and co-workers, is intuitively appealing and relies on a modification of the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. The other approach, developed by Uffink and Hilgevoord for single- and double-slit experiments, is readily applied to multislits. However, it is found that one of the underlying concepts requires generalization and that the choice of the parameters requires more consideration than was known.

  8. Perfume formulation: words and chats.

    PubMed

    Ellena, Céline

    2008-06-01

    What does it mean to create fragrances with materials from chemistry and/or from nature? How are they used to display their characteristic differences, their own personality? Is it easier to create with synthetic raw materials or with essential oils? This review explains why a perfume formulation corresponds in fact to a conversation, an interplay between synthetic and natural perfumery materials. A synthetic raw material carries a single information, and usually is very linear. Its smell is uniform, clear, and faithful. Natural raw materials, on the contrary, provide a strong, complex and generous image. While a synthetic material can be seen as a single word, a natural one such as rose oil could be compared to chatting: cold, warm, sticky, heavy, transparent, pepper, green, metallic, smooth, watery, fruity... full of information. Yet, if a very small amount of the natural material is used, nothing happens, the fragrance will not change. However, if a large amount is used, the rose oil will swallow up everything else. The fragrance will smell of nothing else except rose! To formulate a perfume is not to create a culinary recipe, with only dosing the ingredients in well-balanced amounts. To formulate rather means to flexibly knit materials together with a lively stitch, meeting or repelling each other, building a pleasant form, which is neither fixed, nor solid, nor rigid. A fragrance has an overall structure, which ranges from a clear sound, made up of stable, unique, and linear items, to a background chat, comfortable and reassuring. But that does, of course, not mean that there is only one way of creating a fragrance!

  9. Controlled release liquid dosage formulation

    DOEpatents

    Benton, Ben F.; Gardner, David L.

    1989-01-01

    A liquid dual coated dosage formulation sustained release pharmaceutic having substantial shelf life prior to ingestion is disclosed. A dual coating is applied over controlled release cores to form dosage forms and the coatings comprise fats melting at less than approximately 101.degree. F. overcoated with cellulose acetate phthalate or zein. The dual coated dosage forms are dispersed in a sugar based acidic liquid carrier such as high fructose corn syrup and display a shelf life of up to approximately at least 45 days while still retaining their release profiles following ingestion. Cellulose acetate phthalate coated dosage form cores can in addition be dispersed in aqueous liquids of pH <5.

  10. Formulation and Stability of Solutions.

    PubMed

    Akers, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Ready-to-use solutions are the most preferable and most common dosage forms for injectable and topical ophthalmic products. Drugs formulated as solution almost always have chemical and physical stability challenges as well as solubility limitations and the need to prevent inadvertent microbial contamination issues. The first in this series of articles took us through a discussion of optimizing the physical stability of solutions. This article concludes this series of articles with a discussion on foreign particles, protein aggregation, and immunogenicity; optimizing microbiological activity; and osmolality (tonicity) agents, and discusses how these challenges and issues are addressed. PMID:27326440

  11. Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Moises L.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…

  12. ANTI-RHEUMATIC FORMULATIONS FROM AYURVEDA

    PubMed Central

    Raut, A. A.; Joshi, A. D.; Antarkar, D. S.; Joshi, V. R.; Vaidya, A. B.

    1991-01-01

    Rheumatic disorders like Amavata, Sandhivata and Vatarakta are elaborately described in ayurvedic literature. Preliminary survey of literature shows that about 247 formulations are recommended for these rheumatic disorders. These formulations generally include guggulu compounds, compounds of plant powders, decoctions, medicated ghees, oils, electuaries etc. Therapeutic potential of ayurvedic concepts and a brief review of Ayurvedic formulations are also discussed. PMID:22556565

  13. Parallel computing using a Lagrangian formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, May-Fun; Loh, Ching Yuen

    1991-01-01

    A new Lagrangian formulation of the Euler equation is adopted for the calculation of 2-D supersonic steady flow. The Lagrangian formulation represents the inherent parallelism of the flow field better than the common Eulerian formulation and offers a competitive alternative on parallel computers. The implementation of the Lagrangian formulation on the Thinking Machines Corporation CM-2 Computer is described. The program uses a finite volume, first-order Godunov scheme and exhibits high accuracy in dealing with multidimensional discontinuities (slip-line and shock). By using this formulation, a better than six times speed-up was achieved on a 8192-processor CM-2 over a single processor of a CRAY-2.

  14. Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teitelboim, Claudio

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * HAMILTONIAN FORMULATION OF GAUGE THEORIES (PRE-BRST) * BRST HAMILTONIAN FORMULATION OF GAUGE THEORIES * DYNAMICS OF GRAVITATIONAL FIELD * DOES THE HAMILTONIAN VANISH? GENERAL COVARIANCE AS AN "ORDINARY" GAUGE INVARIANCE * GENERALLY COVARIANT SYSTEMS * TIME AS A CANONICAL VARIABLE. ZERO HAMILTONIAN * Parametrized Systems * Zero Hamiltonian * Parametrization and Explicit Time Dependence * TIME REPARAMETRIZATION INVARIANCE * Form of Gauge Transformations * Must the Hamiltonian be Zero for a Generally Covariant System? * Simple Example of a Generally Covariant System with a Nonzero Hamiltonian * "TRUE DYNAMICS" VERSUS GAUGE TRANSFORMATIONS * Interpretation of the Formalism * Reduced Phase Space * MUST TIME FLOW? * GAUGE INDEPENDENCE OF PATH INTEGRAL FOR A PARAMETRIZED SYSTEM ILLUSTRATED. EQUIVALENCE OF THE GAUGES t = τ AND t = 0 * Reduced Phase Space Transition Amplitude as a Reduced Phase Space Path Integral * Canonical Gauge Conditions * Gauge t = 0 * Gauge t α τ * BRST CHARGE OF GRAVITATIONAL FIELD * ELEMENTS OF BRST THEORY * THE GHOST, YOU'VE COME A LONG WAY BABY * Introduction * Quantum mechanics, the art of finding and combining simple elementary processes * Ghosts necessary to keep elementary processes simple * BRST symmetry: ghosts and matter become different components of single geometrical object * BRST SYMMETRY IN CLASSICAL MECHANICS * Ghosts have role in classical mechanics * Gauge invariance and constraints * Classical mechanics over Grassmann algebra necessary * Higher order structure functions * Rank defined. Open algebras * Ghosts. Ghost number. BRST generator as generating function for structure functions * A belianization of constraints. Existence of Ω * Uniqueness of Ω * Classical BRST cohomology * QUANTUM BRST THEORY * States and operators * Ghost number * BRST invariant states * Quantum BRST cohomology * Equivalence of the BRST physical subspace with the conventional gauge

  15. A method of teaching psychodynamic case formulation.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Gavin

    2006-01-01

    In light of the paucity of literature discussing the systematic instruction of trainee psychologists in psychodynamic case formulation, the author introduces an eight-step method for teaching the theory and application of psychodynamic case formulation. The method involves clarifying the nature of psychodynamic formulations, outlining the characteristics of competent formulations, presenting a conceptually simple structure for organizing case material, exposing trainees to carefully selected written and video-recorded cases, and getting trainees to use their subjective responses to video-recorded initial clinical interviews as a source of useful hypotheses. A case study from the literature is used to demonstrate this formulation methodology. The paper concludes with a discussion of both the prerequisites for, and characteristics of, competent case formulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Potential formulation of sleep dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, A. J. K.; Robinson, P. A.

    2009-02-01

    A physiologically based model of the mechanisms that control the human sleep-wake cycle is formulated in terms of an equivalent nonconservative mechanical potential. The potential is analytically simplified and reduced to a quartic two-well potential, matching the bifurcation structure of the original model. This yields a dynamics-based model that is analytically simpler and has fewer parameters than the original model, allowing easier fitting to experimental data. This model is first demonstrated to semiquantitatively match the dynamics of the physiologically based model from which it is derived, and is then fitted directly to a set of experimentally derived criteria. These criteria place rigorous constraints on the parameter values, and within these constraints the model is shown to reproduce normal sleep-wake dynamics and recovery from sleep deprivation. Furthermore, this approach enables insights into the dynamics by direct analogies to phenomena in well studied mechanical systems. These include the relation between friction in the mechanical system and the timecourse of neurotransmitter action, and the possible relation between stochastic resonance and napping behavior. The model derived here also serves as a platform for future investigations of sleep-wake phenomena from a dynamical perspective.

  17. Postmodern string theory: Stochastic formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurilia, A.; Spallucci, E.; Vanzetta, I.

    1994-11-01

    In this paper we study the dynamics of a statistical ensemble of strings, building on a recently proposed gauge theory of the string geodesic field. We show that this stochastic approach is equivalent to the Carathéodory formulation of the Nambu-Goto action, supplemented by an averaging procedure over the family of classical string world sheets which are solutions of the equation of motion. In this new framework, the string geodesic field is reinterpreted as the Gibbs current density associated with the string statistical ensemble. Next, we show that the classical field equations derived from the string gauge action can be obtained as the semiclassical limit of the string functional wave equation. For closed strings, the wave equation itself is completely analogous to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation used in quantum cosmology. Thus, in the string case, the wave function has support on the space of all possible spatial loop configurations. Finally, we show that the string distribution induces a multiphase, or cellular structure on the spacetime manifold characterized by domains with a purely Riemannian geometry separated by domain walls over which there exists a predominantly Weyl geometry.

  18. A formulation for aircraft rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Boland, N.

    1994-12-31

    The aircraft rotation problem arises in airline operations: the flight legs to be flown by a particular type of aircraft must be sequenced, with the intention that any one aircraft could fly through the entire sequence and end up positioned so as to begin the sequence again, hence the use of the term {open_quotes}rotation{close_quotes}. A rotation must be constructed so that at regular intervals the aircraft can undergo maintenance. This requires a particular location and duration of time. For each pair of legs which can be adjacent in the rotation, there is an associated value, called the {open_quotes}through-value{close_quotes}, which represents the revenue possibilities of providing one-stop service on these legs. We model this problem on a digraph: we need to find a Hamiltonian cycle that maximizes total through-value, subject to the side constraints arising from the maintenance requirements. We present a set partitioning formulation in which column generation involves finding a shortest path in a network, subject to side constraints.

  19. A new formulation of longitudinal coherent instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.Y.; Weng, W.T.

    1993-01-01

    The quadrature response of longitudinal impedance is shown to be the effective impedance for the beam instability. The results of the application of this formulation are compared with that obtained using the Robinson-Pedersen approach and the Sacherer integral equation. The formulation is further generalized to the rigid bunch motion using signal analysis method, where a form factor shows up naturally. Finally, the formulation is applied to solve the coupled bunch instabilities. Examples of the AGS Booster and the AGS coupled bunch instabilities are used to illustrate the applications of the formulation.

  20. A new formulation of longitudinal coherent instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.Y.; Weng, W.T.

    1993-06-01

    The quadrature response of longitudinal impedance is shown to be the effective impedance for the beam instability. The results of the application of this formulation are compared with that obtained using the Robinson-Pedersen approach and the Sacherer integral equation. The formulation is further generalized to the rigid bunch motion using signal analysis method, where a form factor shows up naturally. Finally, the formulation is applied to solve the coupled bunch instabilities. Examples of the AGS Booster and the AGS coupled bunch instabilities are used to illustrate the applications of the formulation.

  1. Glass Ceramic Formulation Data Package

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Vienna, John D.; Chung, Chul-Woo

    2012-06-17

    A glass ceramic waste form is being developed for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by aqueous reprocessing of commercial used nuclear fuel (Crum et al. 2012b). The waste stream contains a mixture of transition metals, alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanides, several of which exceed the solubility limits of a single phase borosilicate glass (Crum et al. 2009; Caurant et al. 2007). A multi-phase glass ceramic waste form allows incorporation of insoluble components of the waste by designed crystallization into durable heat tolerant phases. The glass ceramic formulation and processing targets the formation of the following three stable crystalline phases: (1) powellite (XMoO4) where X can be (Ca, Sr, Ba, and/or Ln), (2) oxyapatite Yx,Z(10-x)Si6O26 where Y is alkaline earth, Z is Ln, and (3) lanthanide borosilicate (Ln5BSi2O13). These three phases incorporate the waste components that are above the solubility limit of a single-phase borosilicate glass. The glass ceramic is designed to be a single phase melt, just like a borosilicate glass, and then crystallize upon slow cooling to form the targeted phases. The slow cooling schedule is based on the centerline cooling profile of a 2 foot diameter canister such as the Hanford High-Level Waste canister. Up to this point, crucible testing has been used for glass ceramic development, with cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) targeted as the ultimate processing technology for the waste form. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will conduct a scaled CCIM test in FY2012 with a glass ceramic to demonstrate the processing behavior. This Data Package documents the laboratory studies of the glass ceramic composition to support the CCIM test. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) measured melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling to identify a processing window (temperature range) for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the

  2. Bioavailability of sustained-release theophylline formulations.

    PubMed

    Bonora Regazzi, M; Rondanelli, R; Vidale, E; Cristiani, D

    1983-05-01

    Sustained-release formulations of theophylline as well as of other drugs are designed to effect a delayed but constant release of the active principle in the gastrointestinal tract, thus ensuring more prolonged blood level curves. This study was made to assess the bioavailability of two sustained-release microencapsulated formulations and one sustained-release Diffucaps formulation, in comparison with an equivalent dose of theophylline solution. As regards bioavailability, none of the three formulations differed significantly from the reference formulation. The blood levels at steady state were estimated on the basis of data obtained after a single-dose study. All three sustained release formulations showed good results after prolonged administration in terms of peaks and troughs. The time duration at which the theophylline plasma levels remain higher than 75% of the maximum steady-state levels, following 12-h dosing interval, was evaluated: for the sustained-release microencapsulated formulations this time duration reaches 100% of the dosing interval. A multiple-dose administration of the sustained-release formulations used in this study should guarantee almost complete time coverage, with blood levels sharply exceeding the minimum threshold level of the theophylline therapeutic range.

  3. Highly concentrated foam formulation for blast mitigation

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.; Gao, Huizhen

    2010-12-14

    A highly concentrated foam formulation for blast suppression and dispersion mitigation for use in responding to a terrorism incident involving a radiological dispersion device. The foam formulation is more concentrated and more stable than the current blast suppression foam (AFC-380), which reduces the logistics burden on the user.

  4. Inherent formulation issues of kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Herbrink, M; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H; Nuijen, B

    2016-10-10

    The small molecular Kinase Inhibitor (smKI) drug class is very promising and rapidly expanding. All of these drugs are administered orally. The clear relationship between structure and function has led to drugs with a general low intrinsic solubility. The majority of the commercial pharmaceutical formulations of the smKIs are physical mixtures that are limited by the low drug solubility of a salt form. This class of drugs is therefore characterized by an impaired and variable bioavailability rendering them costly and their therapies suboptimal. New formulations are sparingly being reported in literature and patents. The presented data suggests that continued research into formulation design can help to develop more efficient and cost-effective smKI formulation. Moreover, it may also be of help in the future design of the formulations of new smKIs.

  5. "True enough" formulations: the MAPS approach.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Clinical case formulation is at the core of competent care. When appropriately constructed it is grounded in best practices and serves as an explanatory model, a prescriptive road map, and a yardstick for all interventions. Despite the key role of formulations, many clinicians struggle with their construction and usage. The author offers a new model described as the MAPS approach. This framework, which is pragmatic, driven by clinical data, and process oriented, helps clinicians develop a "true enough" core formulation focusing on the most salient clinical elements that must be addressed. Its graphic nature helps reinforce the interrelated systems nature of psychiatric work and directs the clinician to a restricted number of specific areas that both inform the "core formulation" and serve as the targets for care. This comprehensive model, which includes evaluation, formulation, treatment planning, and treatment monitoring, readily complements and dovetails with the full range of treatment approaches.

  6. Optimization in development of acetaminophen syrup formulation.

    PubMed

    Worakul, Nimit; Wongpoowarak, Wibul; Boonme, Prapaporn

    2002-03-01

    Formulation of acetaminophen syrup could be developed by an optimization technique to reduce the time and cost of study. Cosolvents were used in the formulation because of the low solubility of acetaminophen in water. They were composed of polyethylene glycol 4000, propylene glycol, sorbitol solution, and glycerin. Their effects on the solubility of acetaminophen and the pH of formulations were investigated. Effects on taste and price were calculated based on their properties. Simulation study of the effect of cosolvents upon the formulation scores was performed, using an algorithm based upon a simulated annealing concept to achieve the global optima and heuristic optimization concept to accelerate convergence. The program written as a Visual Basic module within Microsoft Access 97 was used to simulate and assess the optimal cosolvent amounts to achieve the most desirable formulations automatically according to the specified criteria. Formulators could customize the optimal formulation according to their needs and cost constraints by redefining the desirable outcomes in the source code of the program. PMID:12026227

  7. Volatilization of alachlor from polymeric formulations.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Oliver D

    2004-11-01

    Pesticides may be dispersed throughout the environment by several means, including groundwater contamination, surface water contamination, and volatilization with subsequent atmospheric transport and deposition. In earlier research primarily directed at reducing the potential for groundwater contamination, a number of herbicides were microencapsulated within several different polymers. These polymeric formulations were evaluated for efficacy in the greenhouse. In the studies described in this paper, three polymeric alachlor formulations that were the most effective in the greenhouse were evaluated in laboratory volatility studies using pure alachlor and a commercial formulation (Lasso 4EC) for comparison purposes. In a given experiment, technical alachlor, Lasso 4EC, and two polymeric formulations were applied to soil and evaluated in a contained system under 53% humidity with a fixed flow rate. Evolved alachlor was collected in ethylene glycol, recovered with C18 solid phase extraction cartridges, and analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance thin-layer chromatography with densitometry. Duration of the studies ranged from 32 to 39 days. In studies in which all formulations were uniformly incorporated in the soil, total alachlor volatilization from the polymeric microcapsules was consistently lower than that from the alachlor and Lasso 4EC formulations. In studies in which the polymeric formulations were sprinkled on the surface of the soil, microcapsules prepared with the polymer cellulose acetate butyrate released the smallest quantity of volatilized alachlor.

  8. Algorithmic Perspectives on Problem Formulations in MDO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia M.; Lewis, Robert Michael

    2000-01-01

    This work is concerned with an approach to formulating the multidisciplinary optimization (MDO) problem that reflects an algorithmic perspective on MDO problem solution. The algorithmic perspective focuses on formulating the problem in light of the abilities and inabilities of optimization algorithms, so that the resulting nonlinear programming problem can be solved reliably and efficiently by conventional optimization techniques. We propose a modular approach to formulating MDO problems that takes advantage of the problem structure, maximizes the autonomy of implementation, and allows for multiple easily interchangeable problem statements to be used depending on the available resources and the characteristics of the application problem.

  9. Decontamination formulations for disinfection and sterilization

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.; Engler, Daniel E.

    2007-09-18

    Aqueous decontamination formulations that neutralize biological pathogens for disinfection and sterilization applications. Examples of suitable applications include disinfection of food processing equipment, disinfection of areas containing livestock, mold remediation, sterilization of medical instruments and direct disinfection of food surfaces, such as beef carcasses. The formulations include at least one reactive compound, bleaching activator, inorganic base, and water. The formulations can be packaged as a two-part kit system, and can have a pH value in the range of 7-8.

  10. Measurements of Aluminum Combustion in Energetic Formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. Scott; Pangilinan, G. I.

    2004-07-01

    Aluminum combustion plays an important role in tailoring energy release rates of energetic materials. The intimate mixing between Al and oxidizers from the formulation itself or from the surrounding atmosphere is key to effecting combustion. We infer combustion processes in detonated aluminized energetic formulations PBXIH-135 and PBXN-111 in air using time-resolved spectroscopy. We recorded spectral emissions from Al and AlO emanating from the surface of each sample for up to 100 μs. We observe differences in metal combustion between the oxidizer deficient PBXIH-135 and the oxygen-rich PBXN-111. We will discuss phases of combustion that each formulation exhibits and possible reaction processes.

  11. Universal Formulation For Symmetries In Computed Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pao, S. Paul; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.

    1995-01-01

    Universal formulation for high-order symmetries in boundary conditions on flows devised. Eliminates need for special procedures to incorporate symmetries and corresponding boundary conditions into computer codes solving Navier-Stokes and Euler equations of flow.

  12. Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  13. Formulating and Solving Problems in Computational Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    Considered are the main elements of computational chemistry problems and how these elements can be used to formulate the problems mathematically. Techniques that are useful in devising an appropriate solution are also considered. (Author/TG)

  14. Liquid-Spray Formulation Of Scopolamine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Cintron, Nitza M.

    1992-01-01

    Scopolamine, fast-acting anticholinergic drug, formulated into drops administered intranasally. Formulation very useful for people who need immediate relief from motion sickness, and they can administer it to themselves. Also used in other clinical situations in which fast-acting anticholinergic medication required. Modified into such other forms as gel preparation, aqueous-base ointment, or aerosol spray or mist; also dispensed in metered-dose delivery system.

  15. Project Integration Architecture: Formulation of Semantic Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    One of several key elements of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) is the intention to formulate parameter objects which convey meaningful semantic information. In so doing, it is expected that a level of automation can be achieved in the consumption of information content by PIA-consuming clients outside the programmatic boundary of a presenting PIA-wrapped application. This paper discusses the steps that have been recently taken in formulating such semantically-meaningful parameters.

  16. The Boltzmann equation in the difference formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Szoke, Abraham; Brooks III, Eugene D.

    2015-05-06

    First we recall the assumptions that are needed for the validity of the Boltzmann equation and for the validity of the compressible Euler equations. We then present the difference formulation of these equations and make a connection with the time-honored Chapman - Enskog expansion. We discuss the hydrodynamic limit and calculate the thermal conductivity of a monatomic gas, using a simplified approximation for the collision term. Our formulation is more consistent and simpler than the traditional derivation.

  17. Stress Formulation in Three-Dimensional Elasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    The theory of elasticity evolved over centuries through the contributions of eminent scientists like Cauchy, Navier, Hooke Saint Venant, and others. It was deemed complete when Saint Venant provided the strain formulation in 1860. However, unlike Cauchy, who addressed equilibrium in the field and on the boundary, the strain formulation was confined only to the field. Saint Venant overlooked the compatibility on the boundary. Because of this deficiency, a direct stress formulation could not be developed. Stress with traditional methods must be recovered by backcalculation: differentiating either the displacement or the stress function. We have addressed the compatibility on the boundary. Augmentation of these conditions has completed the stress formulation in elasticity, opening up a way for a direct determination of stress without the intermediate step of calculating the displacement or the stress function. This Completed Beltrami-Michell Formulation (CBMF) can be specialized to derive the traditional methods, but the reverse is not possible. Elasticity solutions must be verified for the compliance of the new equation because the boundary compatibility conditions expressed in terms of displacement are not trivially satisfied. This paper presents the variational derivation of the stress formulation, illustrates the method, examines attributes and benefits, and outlines the future course of research.

  18. Microbiological quality of pediatric oral liquid formulations.

    PubMed

    Cabañas Poy, Maria Josep; Cañete Ramírez, Carme; González di Lauro, Sabina X; Rodríguez Garrido, Virginia; Roig Carbajosa, Gloria; Fernández-Polo, Aurora; Clemente Bautista, Susana

    2016-09-01

    The oral administration of drugs to the pediatric population involves the extemporaneous preparation of liquid formulations. These formulations have studies on their physicochemical stability, but they often lack microbiological studies. The objective of this study is to check the microbiological quality of five oral liquid formulations prepared with different excipients, which represent five major combinations, in two conditions: kept unopened until the day of the test, and in a multi-dose vial opened daily. The formulations were prepared according to standard operating procedures. Half of each batch was packaged in vials that remained closed until the day of testing, and the other half in a single container which was opened daily. Both the vials and the containers had been previously sterilized. Microbiological tests were performed weekly during the first month of the study, and then every two weeks, until the expiration date. The microbiological quality of oral liquid formulations is determined by the Royal Spanish Pharmacopoeia. The conclusion was that none of the formulations prepared that were packaged in sterilized containers became contaminated, either in unopened vials or in multi-dose containers when they were opened daily.

  19. A generalized anisotropic deformation formulation for geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Z.; Rougier, Esteban; Knight, E. E.; Munjiza, A.; Viswanathan, H.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM) has been applied to analyze the deformation of anisotropic geomaterials. In the most general case geomaterials are both non-homogeneous and non-isotropic. With the aim of addressing anisotropic material problems, improved 2D FDEM formulations have been developed. These formulations feature the unified hypo-hyper elastic approach combined with a multiplicative decomposition-based selective integration for volumetric and shear deformation modes. This approach is significantly different from the co-rotational formulations typically encountered in finite element codes. Unlike the co-rotational formulation, the multiplicative decomposition-based formulation naturally decomposes deformation into translation, rotation, plastic stretches, elastic stretches, volumetric stretches, shear stretches, etc. This approach can be implemented for a whole family of finite elements from solids to shells and membranes. This novel 2D FDEM based material formulation was designed in such a way that the anisotropic properties of the solid can be specified in a cell by cell basis, therefore enabling the user to seed these anisotropic properties following any type of spatial variation, for example, following a curvilinear path. In addition, due to the selective integration, there are no problems with volumetric or shear locking with any type of finite element employed.

  20. Second-quantized formulation of geometric phases

    SciTech Connect

    Deguchi, Shinichi; Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2005-07-15

    The level crossing problem and associated geometric terms are neatly formulated by the second-quantized formulation. This formulation exhibits a hidden local gauge symmetry related to the arbitrariness of the phase choice of the complete orthonormal basis set. By using this second-quantized formulation, which does not assume adiabatic approximation, a convenient exact formula for the geometric terms including off-diagonal geometric terms is derived. The analysis of geometric phases is then reduced to a simple diagonalization of the Hamiltonian, and it is analyzed both in the operator and path-integral formulations. If one diagonalizes the geometric terms in the infinitesimal neighborhood of level crossing, the geometric phases become trivial (and thus no monopole singularity) for arbitrarily large but finite time interval T. The integrability of Schroedinger equation and the appearance of the seemingly nonintegrable phases are thus consistent. The topological proof of the Longuet-Higgins' phase-change rule, for example, fails in the practical Born-Oppenheimer approximation where a large but finite ratio of two time scales is involved and T is identified with the period of the slower system. The difference and similarity between the geometric phases associated with level crossing and the exact topological object such as the Aharonov-Bohm phase become clear in the present formulation. A crucial difference between the quantum anomaly and the geometric phases is also noted.

  1. The formulation makes the honey bee poison.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Christopher A; Chen, Jing; Fine, Julia D; Frazier, Maryann T; Frazier, James L

    2015-05-01

    Dr. Fumio Matsumura's legacy embraced a passion for exploring environmental impacts of agrochemicals on non-target species such as bees. Why most formulations are more toxic to bees than respective active ingredients and how pesticides interact to cause pollinator decline cannot be answered without understanding the prevailing environmental chemical background to which bees are exposed. Modern pesticide formulations and seed treatments, particularly when multiple active ingredients are blended, require proprietary adjuvants and inert ingredients to achieve high efficacy for targeted pests. Although we have found over 130 different pesticides and metabolites in beehive samples, no individual pesticide or amount correlates with recent bee declines. Recently we have shown that honey bees are sensitive to organosilicone surfactants, nonylphenol polyethoxylates and the solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), widespread co-formulants used in agrochemicals and frequent pollutants within the beehive. Effects include learning impairment for adult bees and chronic toxicity in larval feeding bioassays. Multi-billion pounds of formulation ingredients like NMP are used and released into US environments. These synthetic organic chemicals are generally recognized as safe, have no mandated tolerances, and residues remain largely unmonitored. In contrast to finding about 70% of the pesticide active ingredients searched for in our pesticide analysis of beehive samples, we have found 100% of the other formulation ingredients targeted for analysis. These 'inerts' overwhelm the chemical burden from active pesticide, drug and personal care ingredients with which they are formulated. Honey bees serve as an optimal terrestrial bioindicator to determine if 'the formulation and not just the dose makes the poison'. PMID:25987217

  2. The formulation makes the honey bee poison.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Christopher A; Chen, Jing; Fine, Julia D; Frazier, Maryann T; Frazier, James L

    2015-05-01

    Dr. Fumio Matsumura's legacy embraced a passion for exploring environmental impacts of agrochemicals on non-target species such as bees. Why most formulations are more toxic to bees than respective active ingredients and how pesticides interact to cause pollinator decline cannot be answered without understanding the prevailing environmental chemical background to which bees are exposed. Modern pesticide formulations and seed treatments, particularly when multiple active ingredients are blended, require proprietary adjuvants and inert ingredients to achieve high efficacy for targeted pests. Although we have found over 130 different pesticides and metabolites in beehive samples, no individual pesticide or amount correlates with recent bee declines. Recently we have shown that honey bees are sensitive to organosilicone surfactants, nonylphenol polyethoxylates and the solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), widespread co-formulants used in agrochemicals and frequent pollutants within the beehive. Effects include learning impairment for adult bees and chronic toxicity in larval feeding bioassays. Multi-billion pounds of formulation ingredients like NMP are used and released into US environments. These synthetic organic chemicals are generally recognized as safe, have no mandated tolerances, and residues remain largely unmonitored. In contrast to finding about 70% of the pesticide active ingredients searched for in our pesticide analysis of beehive samples, we have found 100% of the other formulation ingredients targeted for analysis. These 'inerts' overwhelm the chemical burden from active pesticide, drug and personal care ingredients with which they are formulated. Honey bees serve as an optimal terrestrial bioindicator to determine if 'the formulation and not just the dose makes the poison'.

  3. Sterile Filtration of Highly Concentrated Protein Formulations: Impact of Protein Concentration, Formulation Composition, and Filter Material.

    PubMed

    Allmendinger, Andrea; Mueller, Robert; Huwyler, Joerg; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Fischer, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Differences in filtration behavior of concentrated protein formulations were observed during aseptic drug product manufacturing of biologics dependent on formulation composition. The present study investigates filtration forces of monoclonal antibody formulations in a small-scale set-up using polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethersulfone (PES) filters. Different factors like formulation composition and protein concentration related to differences in viscosity, as well as different filtration rates were evaluated. The present study showed that filtration behavior was influenced by the presence or absence of a surfactant in the formulation, which defines the interaction between filter membrane and surface active formulation components. This can lead to a change in filter resistance (PES filter) independent on the buffer system used. Filtration behavior was additionally defined by rheological non-Newtonian flow behavior. The data showed that high shear rates resulting from small pore sizes and filtration pressure up to 1.0 bar led to shear-thinning behavior for highly concentrated protein formulations. Differences in non-Newtonian behavior were attributed to ionic strength related to differences in repulsive and attractive interactions. The present study showed that the interplay of formulation composition, filter material, and filtration rate can explain differences in filtration behavior/filtration flux observed for highly concentrated protein formulations thus guiding filter selection.

  4. Psychiatrists' use of formulation: Commentary on … Psychiatrists' understanding and use of psychological formulation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Patricia M

    2016-08-01

    Both psychologists and psychiatrists are trained to write formulations of their patients' illnesses, with some differences in how they do this. Psychologists focus on psychological understanding, while psychiatrists' formulation brings together aetiology, functioning and a management plan. Mohtashemi et al's study records how some psychiatrists understand formulation and its usefulness. Time pressure was an important barrier to making a full formulation, and some believed the medical role of the psychiatrist was a priority. The study illustrates some of the challenges facing psychiatrists working in the NHS in terms of maintaining high clinical standards and a holistic approach to patient care.

  5. Current status of amorphous formulation and other special dosage forms as formulations for early clinical phases.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Kohsaku

    2009-09-01

    Although most chemists in the pharmaceutical industry have a good understanding on favorable physicochemical properties for drug candidates, formulators must still deal with many challenging candidates. On the other hand, formulators are not allowed to spend much time on formulation development for early phases of the clinical studies. Thus, it is basically difficult to apply special dosage form technologies to the candidates for the first-in-human formulations. Despite the availability of numerous reviews on oral special dosage forms, information on their applicability as the early phase formulation has been limited. This article describes quick review on the oral special dosage forms that may be applied to the early clinical formulations, followed by discussion focused on the amorphous formulations, which still has relatively many issues to be proved for the general use. The major problems that inhibit the use of the amorphous formulation are difficulty in the manufacturing and the poor chemical/physical stability. Notably, the poor physical stability can be critical, because of not the poor stability itself but the difficulty in the timely evaluation in the preclinical developmental timeframes. Research directions of the amorphous formulations are suggested to utilize this promising technology without disturbing the preclinical developmental timelines.

  6. Sterile Filtration of Highly Concentrated Protein Formulations: Impact of Protein Concentration, Formulation Composition, and Filter Material.

    PubMed

    Allmendinger, Andrea; Mueller, Robert; Huwyler, Joerg; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Fischer, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Differences in filtration behavior of concentrated protein formulations were observed during aseptic drug product manufacturing of biologics dependent on formulation composition. The present study investigates filtration forces of monoclonal antibody formulations in a small-scale set-up using polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethersulfone (PES) filters. Different factors like formulation composition and protein concentration related to differences in viscosity, as well as different filtration rates were evaluated. The present study showed that filtration behavior was influenced by the presence or absence of a surfactant in the formulation, which defines the interaction between filter membrane and surface active formulation components. This can lead to a change in filter resistance (PES filter) independent on the buffer system used. Filtration behavior was additionally defined by rheological non-Newtonian flow behavior. The data showed that high shear rates resulting from small pore sizes and filtration pressure up to 1.0 bar led to shear-thinning behavior for highly concentrated protein formulations. Differences in non-Newtonian behavior were attributed to ionic strength related to differences in repulsive and attractive interactions. The present study showed that the interplay of formulation composition, filter material, and filtration rate can explain differences in filtration behavior/filtration flux observed for highly concentrated protein formulations thus guiding filter selection. PMID:26149748

  7. HIGH-LEVEL WASTE GLASS FORMULATION MODEL SENSITIVITY STUDY 2009 GLASS FORMULATION MODEL VERSUS 1996 GLASS FORMULATION MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    BELSHER JD; MEINERT FL

    2009-12-07

    This document presents the differences between two HLW glass formulation models (GFM): The 1996 GFM and 2009 GFM. A glass formulation model is a collection of glass property correlations and associated limits, as well as model validity and solubility constraints; it uses the pretreated HLW feed composition to predict the amount and composition of glass forming additives necessary to produce acceptable HLW glass. The 2009 GFM presented in this report was constructed as a nonlinear optimization calculation based on updated glass property data and solubility limits described in PNNL-18501 (2009). Key mission drivers such as the total mass of HLW glass and waste oxide loading are compared between the two glass formulation models. In addition, a sensitivity study was performed within the 2009 GFM to determine the effect of relaxing various constraints on the predicted mass of the HLW glass.

  8. Subscale Testing of Prompt Agent Defeat Formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milby, Christopher; Stamatis, Demitrios; Daniels, Amber; Svingala, Forrest; Lightstone, Jim; Miller, Kendra; Bensman, Misty; Bohmke, Matthew

    2015-06-01

    There is a need to improve the current bioagent defeat systems with formulations that produce lower peak pressure, impulse, sustained high temperatures, and release of biocidal species for prompt defeat applications. In this work, explosive charge configurations similar to fuel-air explosives were detonated in a semi-enclosed chamber configuration. Binder type and fuel-to-oxidizer ratios were varied to observe the effects on combustion performance. Thermocouple measurements and high-speed video were used to monitor the combustion of the dispersed formulation. The down-selected formulations were then tested in a sub-scale vented agent defeat system developed to evaluate performance of formulations against aerosolized Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) spores. Diagnostics such as thermocouples, piezoelectric pressure gauges, and pyrometry were utilized to characterize the detonation event. Biological sampling with surface coupons, liquid impingement, and filters of the post detonation environment were utilized to determine spore survivability and rank the relative effectiveness of each formulation. Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited

  9. Formulation development of allopurinol suppositories and injectables.

    PubMed

    Lee, D K; Wang, D P

    1999-11-01

    Allopurinol was formulated into injectable and suppository dosage forms. The injectable formulation was prepared by dissolving allopurinol in a cosolvent system consisting of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and propylene glycol (v/v = 50/50). The stability of allopurinol in the cosolvent system was studied under accelerated storage conditions, and results indicate first-order degradation kinetics with an activation energy of 24.3 kcal/mol. The development of suppository dosage forms was performed by formulating allopurinol with polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixtures of different molecular weights. In vitro release profiles of suppositories formulated with different polyethylene bases were obtained in the pH 7.4 buffer solution using the USP 23 paddle method at 100 rpm. Results indicate that the release rate of the suppository formulations containing PEG 1500/PEG 4000 at the ratio (w/w) of 2.5/10 to 10/2.5 appeared to be similar. However, the addition of sodium lauryl sulfate in the suppository decreased the release rate of allopurinol significantly. A future study to establish in vitro/in vivo correlation (iv/ivc) is suggested.

  10. A new oral testosterone undecanoate formulation.

    PubMed

    Köhn, Frank-Michael; Schill, Wolf-Bernhard

    2003-11-01

    Testosterone undecanoate has been available on the market for more than 20 years. This testosterone ester is used worldwide for oral treatment of male hypogonadism. So far, testosterone undecanoate has been dissolved in oleic acid, leading to inconvenient storage conditions. It will now be available in a new formulation with castor oil and propylene glycol laurate instead of oleic acid, thus improving storage conditions markedly (stable at room temperature for approximately 3 years). Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have demonstrated bioequivalence of the old and the new formulation of testosterone undecanoate. Therefore, the results of studies that were performed with the old formulation can be transferred to the clinical use of the new formulation. Controlled studies have shown its efficacy in the treatment of symptoms associated with reduced serum testosterone levels. In these cases testosterone undecanoate improves bone mineral density, quality of life, muscle mass, libido and mood. Further studies will help evaluate the efficacy and safety of the new formulation in the treatment of elderly men with late-onset hypogonadism. PMID:14579074

  11. Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets

    PubMed Central

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit

    2014-01-01

    The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w): Avicel 48.70%, silicon dioxide 0.27%, stearic acid (1.00%), magnesium stearate 2.45%, and dicalcium phosphate 18.69%, in addition to potassium iodide 28.89% (130 mg/tablet). This formulation was scaled-up using two tablet presses, a single-punch press and a rotary mini tablet press. The final scaled-up formulation was subjected to a variety of quality control tests, including photo-stability testing. The results indicate that potassium iodide tablets prepared by a rotary mini tablet press had good pharmaceutical characteristics and a shelf-life of 25 days when stored at room temperature protected from light. PMID:25685048

  12. Long Term Storage of Lyophilized Liposomal Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Payton, N.M.; Wempe, M.F.; Xu, Y.; Anchordoquy, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Because aqueous liposomal formulations containing multiply unsaturated lipids are susceptible to chemical degradation, these formulations are often lyophilized. Despite their limited chemical stability, interest in the use of multiply unsaturated lipids to promote intracellular delivery has increased considerably in recent years. The goal of the current study was to examine the long term storage stability of lyophilized formulations containing lipids with increasing levels of unsaturation, and various strategies which can be employed to improve stability. Aqueous lipid-trehalose formulations containing 1,2-dilinolenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLinPC) or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) were lyophilized and stored at temperatures ranging from 4°C to 60°C. We observed that the lipid degradation rate increased as the storage temperature and unsaturation level were increased. Even the cleanest sugars which are available commercially contain iron contaminants, and it was observed that the chelation of these iron contaminants significantly improved the stability of DLPC during storage. However, the glass transition temperature of the sugar which was included in the formulation, the reduction of the oxygen in the aqueous sample prior to lyophilization, the inclusion of helper lipids (i.e., cholesterol), and the rate of freezing did not significantly improve stability. PMID:25308534

  13. Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets.

    PubMed

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit

    2015-01-01

    The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w): Avicel 48.70%, silicon dioxide 0.27%, stearic acid (1.00%), magnesium stearate 2.45%, and dicalcium phosphate 18.69%, in addition to potassium iodide 28.89% (130 mg/tablet). This formulation was scaled-up using two tablet presses, a single-punch press and a rotary mini tablet press. The final scaled-up formulation was subjected to a variety of quality control tests, including photo-stability testing. The results indicate that potassium iodide tablets prepared by a rotary mini tablet press had good pharmaceutical characteristics and a shelf-life of 25 days when stored at room temperature protected from light. PMID:25685048

  14. Self-Setting Calcium Orthophosphate Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2013-01-01

    In early 1980s, researchers discovered self-setting calcium orthophosphate cements, which are bioactive and biodegradable grafting bioceramics in the form of a powder and a liquid. After mixing, both phases form pastes, which set and harden forming either a non-stoichiometric calcium deficient hydroxyapatite or brushite. Since both of them are remarkably biocompartible, bioresorbable and osteoconductive, self-setting calcium orthophosphate formulations appear to be promising bioceramics for bone grafting. Furthermore, such formulations possess excellent molding capabilities, easy manipulation and nearly perfect adaptation to the complex shapes of bone defects, followed by gradual bioresorption and new bone formation. In addition, reinforced formulations have been introduced, which might be described as calcium orthophosphate concretes. The discovery of self-setting properties opened up a new era in the medical application of calcium orthophosphates and many commercial trademarks have been introduced as a result. Currently such formulations are widely used as synthetic bone grafts, with several advantages, such as pourability and injectability. Moreover, their low-temperature setting reactions and intrinsic porosity allow loading by drugs, biomolecules and even cells for tissue engineering purposes. In this review, an insight into the self-setting calcium orthophosphate formulations, as excellent bioceramics suitable for both dental and bone grafting applications, has been provided. PMID:24956191

  15. Formulations for children: problems and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor, Hannah K; Marriott, John F

    2015-01-01

    Paediatric formulation design is complex as there is a need to understand the developmental physiological changes that occur during childhood and their impact on the absorption of drugs. Paediatric dose adjustments are usually based on achieving pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic profiles equivalent to those achieved in adult populations. However, differences in the way in which children handle adult products or the use of bespoke paediatric formulations can result in unexpected pharmacokinetic drug profiles with altered clinical efficacy. Differences in drug formulations need to be understood by healthcare professionals involved in the prescribing, administration or dispensing of drugs to children such that appropriate advice is given to ensure that therapeutic outcomes are achieved. This issue is not confined to oral medicines but is applicable for all routes of administration encountered in paediatric therapy. PMID:25855822

  16. Majorization formulation of uncertainty in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Partovi, M. Hossein

    2011-11-15

    Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is formulated for a set of generalized measurements within the framework of majorization theory, resulting in a partial uncertainty order on probability vectors that is stronger than those based on quasientropic measures. The theorem that emerges from this formulation guarantees that the uncertainty of the results of a set of generalized measurements without a common eigenstate has an inviolable lower bound which depends on the measurement set but not the state. A corollary to this theorem yields a parallel formulation of the uncertainty principle for generalized measurements corresponding to the entire class of quasientropic measures. Optimal majorization bounds for two and three mutually unbiased bases in two dimensions are calculated. Similarly, the leading term of the majorization bound for position and momentum measurements is calculated which provides a strong statement of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in direct operational terms. Another theorem provides a majorization condition for the least-uncertain generalized measurement of a given state with interesting physical implications.

  17. Nanoparticle formulation of ormeloxifene for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sheema; Chauhan, Neeraj; Yallapu, Murali M.; Ebeling, Mara C.; Balakrishna, Swathi; Ellis, Robert T.; Thompson, Paul A.; Balabathula, Pavan; Behrman, Stephen W.; Zafar, Nadeem; Singh, Man Mohan; Halaweish, Fathi T.; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most prevalent cancer with about an 85% mortality rate; thus, an utmost need exists to discover new therapeutic modalities that would enhance therapy outcomes of this disease with minimal or no side effects. Ormeloxifene (ORM), a synthetic molecule, has exhibited potent anti-cancer effects through inhibition of important oncogenic and proliferation signaling pathways. However, the anti-cancer efficacy of ORM can be further improved by developing its nanoformulation, which will also offer tumor specific targeted delivery. Therefore, we have developed a novel ORM encapsulated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticle (NP) formulation (PLGA-ORM NP). This formulation was characterized for particle size, chemical composition, and drug loading efficiency, using various physico-chemical methods (TEM, FT-IR, DSC, TGA, and HPLC). Because of its facile composition, this novel formulation is compatible with antibody/aptamer conjugation to achieve tumor specific targeting. The particle size analysis of this PLGA-ORM formulation (~ 100 nm) indicates that this formulation can preferentially reach and accumulate in tumors by the Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) effect. Cellular uptake and internalization studies demonstrate that PLGA-ORM NPs escape lysosomal degradation, providing efficient endosomal release to cytosol. PLGA-ORM NPs showed remarkable anti-cancer potential in various pancreatic cancer cells (HPAF-II, BxPC-3, Panc-1, MiaPaca) and a BxPC-3 xenograft mice model resulting in increased animal survival. PLGA-ORM NPs suppressed pancreatic tumor growth via suppression of Akt phosphorylation and expression of MUC1, HER2, PCNA, CK19 and CD31. This study suggests that the PLGA-ORM formulation is highly efficient for the inhibition of pancreatic tumor growth and thus can be valuable for the treatment of pancreatic cancer in the future. PMID:25890768

  18. From the Berkovits formulation to the Witten formulation in open superstring field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iimori, Yuki; Noumi, Toshifumi; Okawa, Yuji; Torii, Shingo

    2014-03-01

    The Berkovits formulation of open superstring field theory is based on the large Hilbert space of the superconformal ghost sector. We discuss its relation to the Witten formulation based on the small Hilbert space. We introduce a one-parameter family of conditions for partial gauge fixing of the Berkovits formulation such that the cubic interaction of the theory under the partial gauge fixing reduces to that of the Witten formulation in a singular limit. The local picture-changing operator at the open-string midpoint in the Witten formulation is regularized in our approach, and the divergence in on-shell four-point amplitudes coming from collision of picture-changing operators is resolved. The quartic interaction inherited from the Berkovits formulation plays a role of adjusting different behaviors of the picture-changing operators in the s channel and in the t channel of Feynman diagrams with two cubic vertices, and correct amplitudes in the world-sheet theory are reproduced. While gauge invariance at the second order in the coupling constant is obscured in the Witten formulation by collision of picture-changing operators, it is well defined in our approach and is recovered by including the quartic interaction inherited from the Berkovits formulation.

  19. Effects of Formulation Variables and Storage Conditions on Light Protected Vitamin B12 Mixed Parenteral Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Valizadeh, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this research the effect of vitamin B1 and B6 on cyanocobalamin stability in commercial light protected parenteral formulations and upon adding stabilizing agents will be investigated and best formulation composition and proper storage condition will be introduced. Methods: In this research some additives such as co solvents and tonicity adjusters, surfactants, antioxidants and chelating agents as well as buffer solutions, were used to improve the stability of the parenteral mixed formulations of B12 in the presence of other B vitamins (B1 and B6). Screening tests and accelerated stability tests were performed according to ICH guidelines Q1A (R2). Results: Shelf life evaluation revealed the best formulation and the proper storage condition. The results indicated the first kinetic models for all tested formulations and the optimum pH value was determined to be 5.8. There was no evidence of B12 loss when mixed with B1 and B6 in a medical syringe at room temperature for maximum of 8 hours. Conclusion: It is necessary to formulate vitamin B12 mixed parenteral solutions using proper phosphate buffers (pH=5.8) and to indicate “Store in refrigerator” on the mixed parenteral formulations of vitamin B12 with other B vitamins, which has not been expressed on the label of tested Brand formulations at the time of this study. PMID:25436187

  20. Nonlocal formulation of spin Coulomb drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, I.; Ullrich, C. A.

    2013-10-01

    The spin Coulomb drag (SCD) effect occurs in materials and devices where charged carriers with different spins exchange momentum via Coulomb scattering. This causes frictional forces between spin-dependent currents that lead to intrinsic dissipation, which may limit spintronics applications. A nonlocal formulation of SCD is developed which is valid for strongly inhomogeneous systems such as nanoscale spintronics devices. This nonlocal formulation of SCD is successfully applied to linewidths of intersubband spin plasmons in semiconductor quantum wells, where experiments have shown that the local approximation fails.

  1. Boson formulation of fermion field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Y.K.

    1984-04-15

    The nonperturbative connection between a canonical Fermi field and a canonical Bose field in two dimensions is developed and its validity verified according to the tenets of quantum field theory. We advocate the point of view that a boson formulation offers a unifying theme in understanding the structure of many theories. This is illustrated by the boson formulation of a multifermion theory with chiral and internal symmetries. Many features of the massless theory, such as dynamical mass generation with asymptotic-freedom behavior, hidden chiral symmetry, and connections with models of apparently different internal symmetries, are readily transparent through such fermion-boson metamorphosis.

  2. Formulation of custom sized LX-15 granules

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, T.W.

    1980-04-01

    LX-15 is a booster explosive formulation consisting of 95% HNS I and 5% Kel F-800 developed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The purpose of this effort was to develop formulation techniques for the production of custom size granules that are amenable for processing in automatic weighing equipment. This report details processes whereby 0.4 and 1.5 kg size batches are produced, meeting those requirements. Efforts to date have found that granule size is dependent on batch/vessel size, water-to-solvent ratio and the degree of vessel agitation.

  3. From Molecular Insights to Novel Catalysts Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolla, Eranda; Linic, Suljo

    First-principles methods can be utilized to obtain elementary step mechanisms for chemical reactions on model systems. In this chapter, we will illustrate how this molecular information can be employed to motivate novel heterogeneous catalyst formulations. We will discuss a few examples where first-principles studies on idealized model systems were utilized, along with various experimental tools, to identify alloy catalysts that exhibit improved performance in a number of catalytic processes. We will emphasize the role of molecular approaches in the formulation of these catalysts.

  4. Kit systems for granulated decontamination formulations

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2010-07-06

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field. The formulation can be pre-mixed and pre-packaged as a multi-part kit system, where one or more of the parts are packaged in a powdered, granulated form for ease of handling and mixing in the field.

  5. Dissolution of three insensitive munitions formulations.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan; Park, Eileen; Bullion, Katherine; Dontsova, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    The US military fires live munitions during training. To save soldiers lives both during training and war, the military is developing insensitive munitions (IM) that minimize unintentional detonations. Some of the compounds in the IM formulation are, however, very soluble in water, raising environmental concerns about their fate and transport. We measured the dissolution of three of these IM formulations, IMX101, IMX104 and PAX21 using laboratory drip tests and studied the accompanying changes in particle structure using micro computed tomography. Our laboratory drip tests mimic conditions on training ranges, where spatially isolated particles of explosives scattered by partial detonations are dissolved by rainfall. We found that the constituents of these IM formulations dissolve sequentially and in the order predicted by their aqueous solubility. The order of magnitude differences in solubility among their constituents produce water solutions whose compositions and concentrations vary with time. For IMX101 and IMX104, that contain 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), the solutions also vary in pH. The good mass balances measured for the drip tests indicate that the formulations are not being photo-or bio-transformed under laboratory conditions. PMID:25043961

  6. Structural design using equilibrium programming formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scotti, Stephen J.

    1995-01-01

    Solutions to increasingly larger structural optimization problems are desired. However, computational resources are strained to meet this need. New methods will be required to solve increasingly larger problems. The present approaches to solving large-scale problems involve approximations for the constraints of structural optimization problems and/or decomposition of the problem into multiple subproblems that can be solved in parallel. An area of game theory, equilibrium programming (also known as noncooperative game theory), can be used to unify these existing approaches from a theoretical point of view (considering the existence and optimality of solutions), and be used as a framework for the development of new methods for solving large-scale optimization problems. Equilibrium programming theory is described, and existing design techniques such as fully stressed design and constraint approximations are shown to fit within its framework. Two new structural design formulations are also derived. The first new formulation is another approximation technique which is a general updating scheme for the sensitivity derivatives of design constraints. The second new formulation uses a substructure-based decomposition of the structure for analysis and sensitivity calculations. Significant computational benefits of the new formulations compared with a conventional method are demonstrated.

  7. A Generalized Fluid Formulation for Turbomachinery Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkle, Charles L.; Sankaran, Venkateswaran; Dorney, Daniel J.; Sondak, Douglas L.

    2003-01-01

    A generalized formulation of the equations of motion of an arbitrary fluid are developed for the purpose of defining a common iterative algorithm for computational procedures. The method makes use of the equations of motion in conservation form with separate pseudo-time derivatives used for defining the numerical flux for a Riemann solver and the convergence algorithm. The partial differential equations are complemented by an thermodynamic and caloric equations of state of a complexity necessary for describing the fluid. Representative solutions with a new code based on this general equation formulation are provided for three turbomachinery problems. The first uses air as a working fluid while the second uses gaseous oxygen in a regime in which real gas effects are of little importance. These nearly perfect gas computations provide a basis for comparing with existing perfect gas code computations. The third case is for the flow of liquid oxygen through a turbine where real gas effects are significant. Vortex shedding predictions with the LOX formulations reduce the discrepancy between perfect gas computations and experiment by approximately an order of magnitude, thereby verifying the real gas formulation as well as providing an effective case where its capabilities are necessary.

  8. 40 CFR 152.85 - Formulators' exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formulators' exemption. 152.85 Section 152.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Satisfaction of Data Requirements and Protection...

  9. Update on tamper-resistant drug formulations.

    PubMed

    Romach, M K; Schoedel, K A; Sellers, E M

    2013-06-01

    An expert panel convened in 2005 by the College on Problems of Drug Dependence (CPDD) to consider strategies to reduce the risk of prescription medication abuse concluded that drug formulation plays a significant role in determining risk of abuse. Efforts on the part of the pharmaceutical industry to develop drugs that deter abuse have focused primarily on opioid formulations resistant to common forms of tampering, most notably crushing or dissolving the tablet to accelerate release. Several opioid formulations developed to be tamper resistant have been approved, but the US Food and Drug Administration has not approved explicit label claims of abuse deterrence and has stated that any such claim will require substantial postmarketing data. Drug development efforts in this area raise questions about the relative impact of abuse-deterrent formulations, not only on individuals who might abuse a medication, but also on patients who are compliant with therapy. This review discusses progress since the 2005 CPDD meeting with an emphasis on opioids. Articles cited in the review were identified via a PubMed search covering the period between January 1, 2000, and October 5, 2011. Scientific work presented by the authors and their colleagues at meetings held through May 2012 also was included. Published literature suggests that development of abuse-deterrent products will require broad public health support and continued encouragement from regulatory authorities so that such products will become the expected standard of care for certain drug classes.

  10. Dissolution of three insensitive munitions formulations.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan; Park, Eileen; Bullion, Katherine; Dontsova, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    The US military fires live munitions during training. To save soldiers lives both during training and war, the military is developing insensitive munitions (IM) that minimize unintentional detonations. Some of the compounds in the IM formulation are, however, very soluble in water, raising environmental concerns about their fate and transport. We measured the dissolution of three of these IM formulations, IMX101, IMX104 and PAX21 using laboratory drip tests and studied the accompanying changes in particle structure using micro computed tomography. Our laboratory drip tests mimic conditions on training ranges, where spatially isolated particles of explosives scattered by partial detonations are dissolved by rainfall. We found that the constituents of these IM formulations dissolve sequentially and in the order predicted by their aqueous solubility. The order of magnitude differences in solubility among their constituents produce water solutions whose compositions and concentrations vary with time. For IMX101 and IMX104, that contain 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), the solutions also vary in pH. The good mass balances measured for the drip tests indicate that the formulations are not being photo-or bio-transformed under laboratory conditions.

  11. State-Space Formulation for Circuit Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Marin, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new state-space approach for temporal analysis of electrical circuits. The method systematically obtains the state-space formulation of nondegenerate linear networks without using concepts of topology. It employs nodal/mesh systematic analysis to reduce the number of undesired variables. This approach helps students to…

  12. Beyond antigens and adjuvants: formulating future vaccines.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Tyson J; Zmolek, Andrew C; Irvine, Darrell J

    2016-03-01

    The need to optimize vaccine potency while minimizing toxicity in healthy recipients has motivated studies of the formulation of vaccines to control how, when, and where antigens and adjuvants encounter immune cells and other cells/tissues following administration. An effective subunit vaccine must traffic to lymph nodes (LNs), activate both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system, and persist for a sufficient time to promote a mature immune response. Here, we review approaches to tailor these three aspects of vaccine function through optimized formulations. Traditional vaccine adjuvants activate innate immune cells, promote cell-mediated transport of antigen to lymphoid tissues, and promote antigen retention in LNs. Recent studies using nanoparticles and other lymphatic-targeting strategies suggest that direct targeting of antigens and adjuvant compounds to LNs can also enhance vaccine potency without sacrificing safety. The use of formulations to regulate biodistribution and promote antigen and inflammatory cue co-uptake in immune cells may be important for next-generation molecular adjuvants. Finally, strategies to program vaccine kinetics through novel formulation and delivery strategies provide another means to enhance immune responses independent of the choice of adjuvant. These technologies offer the prospect of enhanced efficacy while maintaining high safety profiles necessary for successful vaccines.

  13. 40 CFR 152.85 - Formulators' exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., toxicology, residue chemistry, exposure, environmental fate, and ecological effects. (2) The data to which... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formulators' exemption. 152.85 Section 152.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE...

  14. Aerosol characterization of nebulized intranasal glucocorticoid formulations.

    PubMed

    Berlinski, A; Waldrep, J C

    2001-01-01

    Inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs) are the mainstay of long-term therapy for asthma. The lack of suitable preparations in the United States has induced clinicians to use intranasal (IN) GC formulations as "nebulizer suspensions" for off-label therapy. However, no data are available regarding aerosol production and characteristics. The aim of this study was to characterize drug outputs and aerodynamic profiles of four nebulized IN GC formulations with further analysis of flunisolide (Flu), and to test the influence of different delivery system/formulation combinations. The aerodynamic profiles and drug outputs were determined by impaction and chemical analysis. The solution output was determined by the gravimetric technique. Triamcinole acetonide (TAA), fluticasone propionate (Flut), beclomethasone dipropionate (Bec), and Flu (550, 500, 840, and 250 microg, respectively) diluted to 4 mL with saline solution were tested with the Sidestream (SID) and Aero-Tech II (AT2) nebulizers. Subsequently, Flu was tested with four additional nebulizers (Pari LC + [PARI] Acorn II, Hudson T Up-draft II, and Raindrop). All the aerosols were heterodisperse and had a particle size range optimal for peripheral airway deposition (1.85 to 3.67 microm). Flu had the highest drug output in the respirable range (22.8 and 20.3 microg/min with the AT and SID, respectively). Flu was 5-11 times more efficiently nebulized than the other formulations tested. No differences were detected in the solution outputs (0.25 to 0.3 mL/min). In subsequent testing of Flu, the PARI, AT, and SID showed the best performances. The LC+ achieved the highest drug and solution output (27.4 microg/min and 0.89 mL/min, respectively). In conclusion, Flu showed the best aerosol performance characteristics. These data do not endorse the off-label utilization of nebulized IN GC, but underscores the importance of in vitro testing before selecting any formulation/nebulizer combinations for clinical use.

  15. Cyclosporine A-Nanosuspension: Formulation, Characterization and In Vivo Comparison with a Marketed Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Nakarani, Mahendra; Patel, Priyal; Patel, Jayvadan; Patel, Pankaj; Murthy, Rayasa S. R.; Vaghani, Subhash S.

    2010-01-01

    Cyclosporine A-nanosuspensions were prepared using zirconium oxide beads as a milling media, Poloxamer 407 as a stabilizer and distilled water as an aqueous medium using the Pearl Milling technique. The optimized formulation was characterized in terms of particle size distribution, surface morphology, drug-surfactant interaction, drug content, saturation solubility, osmolarity, and stability. The nanoparticles consisting of Poloxamer-bound cyclosporin A with a mean diameter of 213 nm revealed a spherical shape and 5.69 fold increased saturation solubility as compared to the parent drug. The formulation was found to be iso-osmolar with blood and stable up to 3 months at 2–8°C. In-vivo studies were carried out in albino rats and the pharmacokinetic parameters were compared with a marketed formulation, which indicated better results of the prepared formulation than the marketed one. PMID:21179351

  16. Cyclosporine a-nanosuspension: formulation, characterization and in vivo comparison with a marketed formulation.

    PubMed

    Nakarani, Mahendra; Patel, Priyal; Patel, Jayvadan; Patel, Pankaj; Murthy, Rayasa S R; Vaghani, Subhash S

    2010-01-01

    Cyclosporine A-nanosuspensions were prepared using zirconium oxide beads as a milling media, Poloxamer 407 as a stabilizer and distilled water as an aqueous medium using the Pearl Milling technique. The optimized formulation was characterized in terms of particle size distribution, surface morphology, drug-surfactant interaction, drug content, saturation solubility, osmolarity, and stability. The nanoparticles consisting of Poloxamer-bound cyclosporin A with a mean diameter of 213 nm revealed a spherical shape and 5.69 fold increased saturation solubility as compared to the parent drug. The formulation was found to be iso-osmolar with blood and stable up to 3 months at 2â8ÂC. In-vivo studies were carried out in albino rats and the pharmacokinetic parameters were compared with a marketed formulation, which indicated better results of the prepared formulation than the marketed one. PMID:21179351

  17. Dynamical and Hamiltonian Formulation of General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giulini, Domenico

    Einstein's theory of General Relativity describes spacetime as a solution of a set of non-linear partial differential equations. These equations are initially not in the form of evolution equations and it is hence not clear how to formulate and solve initial-value problems, as would be physically highly desirable. In this contribution it will be shown how to cast Einstein's equations into the form of a constrained Hamiltonian system. This will allow to formulate and solve initial-value problems, integrate Einstein's equations by numerical codes, characterize dynamical degrees of freedom, and characterize isolated systems and their conserved quantities, like energy, momentum, and angular momentum. Moreover, this reformulation of General Relativity is also the starting point for various attempts to subject the gravitational field to the program of canonical quantization. The exposition given here is, to some degree, self contained. It attempts to comprehensively account for all the relevant geometric constructions, including the relevant symplectic geometry of constrained Hamiltonian systems.

  18. Gauge-Invariant Formulation of Circular Dichroism.

    PubMed

    Raimbault, Nathaniel; de Boeij, Paul L; Romaniello, Pina; Berger, J A

    2016-07-12

    Standard formulations of magnetic response properties, such as circular dichroism spectra, are plagued by gauge dependencies, which can lead to unphysical results. In this work, we present a general gauge-invariant and numerically efficient approach for the calculation of circular dichroism spectra from the current density. First we show that in this formulation the optical rotation tensor, the response function from which circular dichroism spectra can be obtained, is independent of the origin of the coordinate system. We then demonstrate that its trace is independent of the gauge origin of the vector potential. We also show how gauge invariance can be retained in practical calculations with finite basis sets. As an example, we explain how our method can be applied to time-dependent current-density-functional theory. Finally, we report gauge-invariant circular dichroism spectra obtained using the adiabatic local-density approximation. The circular dichroism spectra we thus obtain are in good agreement with experiment. PMID:27295541

  19. Coherent states formulation of polymer field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Man, Xingkun; Villet, Michael C.; Delaney, Kris T.; Orland, Henri; Fredrickson, Glenn H.

    2014-01-14

    We introduce a stable and efficient complex Langevin (CL) scheme to enable the first direct numerical simulations of the coherent-states (CS) formulation of polymer field theory. In contrast with Edwards’ well-known auxiliary-field (AF) framework, the CS formulation does not contain an embedded nonlinear, non-local, implicit functional of the auxiliary fields, and the action of the field theory has a fully explicit, semi-local, and finite-order polynomial character. In the context of a polymer solution model, we demonstrate that the new CS-CL dynamical scheme for sampling fluctuations in the space of coherent states yields results in good agreement with now-standard AF-CL simulations. The formalism is potentially applicable to a broad range of polymer architectures and may facilitate systematic generation of trial actions for use in coarse-graining and numerical renormalization-group studies.

  20. Orodispersible drug formulations for children and elderly.

    PubMed

    Slavkova, Marta; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2015-07-30

    Various orodispersible drug formulations have been recently introduced into the market. Oral lyophilisates and orodispersible granules, tablets or films have enriched the therapeutic options. In particular, the paediatric and geriatric population may profit from the advantages like convenient administration, lack of swallowing, ease of use. Until now, only a few novel products made it to the market as the development and production usually is more expensive than for conventional oral drug dosage forms like tablets or capsules. The review reports the recent advances, existing and upcoming products, and the significance of formulating patient-friendly oral dosage forms. The preparation of the medicines can be performed both in pharmaceutical industry and in community pharmacies. Recent advances, e.g. drug printing technologies, may facilitate this process for community or hospital pharmacies. Still, regulatory guidelines and pharmacopoeial monographs lack appropriate methods, specifications and global harmonization to foster the development of innovative orodispersible drug dosage forms.

  1. New Variational Formulations of Hybrid Stress Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, T. H. H.; Sumihara, K.; Kang, D.

    1984-01-01

    In the variational formulations of finite elements by the Hu-Washizu and Hellinger-Reissner principles the stress equilibrium condition is maintained by the inclusion of internal displacements which function as the Lagrange multipliers for the constraints. These versions permit the use of natural coordinates and the relaxation of the equilibrium conditions and render considerable improvements in the assumed stress hybrid elements. These include the derivation of invariant hybrid elements which possess the ideal qualities such as minimum sensitivity to geometric distortions, minimum number of independent stress parameters, rank sufficient, and ability to represent constant strain states and bending moments. Another application is the formulation of semiLoof thin shell elements which can yield excellent results for many severe test cases because the rigid body nodes, the momentless membrane strains, and the inextensional bending modes are all represented.

  2. Use of the cultural formulation with refugees.

    PubMed

    Rohlof, Hans; Knipscheer, Jeroen W; Kleber, Rolf J

    2009-09-01

    This article discusses the experiences of mental health professionals who applied the Cultural Formulation (CF) of the DSM-IV for assessment of psychopathology and treatment needs of refugees in the Netherlands. The CF approach proved to be a useful tool in the assessment and diagnostic phase of clinical treatment. However, patients reported problems with defining their own culture and providing explanations of illness and therapists had difficulty identifying culturally-based difficulties in the clinical relationship. Additional information was needed about working with interpreters, therapists' attitudes towards the culture of the patient and towards their own culture, patients' previous experiences with discrimination and inaccessibility of care, gender issues, and specific cultures and subcultures. A more structured approach to conducting the CF is recommended. We developed the "Cultural Formulation Interview" for this purpose. The adaptations are aimed at improving the CF for use with refugee populations, as well as for more general use in transcultural psychiatry.

  3. Intrinsic formulation of the equation of Szebehely

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puel, F.

    1984-03-01

    The first-order linear partial differential equation developed by Szebehely (1974) for the potentials generating one-given-parameter family of plane orbits, expanded by Broucke (1980), Mertens (1981), and Erdi (1982) to the 3D case, is investigated analytically. An intrinsic formulation permitting the use of various coordinate systems is obtained for the plane case, and analogous techniques are applied in separate treatments of the 3D and N-dimensional cases.

  4. Ising formulations of many NP problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    We provide Ising formulations for many NP-complete and NP-hard problems, including all of Karp's 21 NP-complete problems. This collects and extends mappings to the Ising model from partitioning, covering and satisfiability. In each case, the required number of spins is at most cubic in the size of the problem. This work may be useful in designing adiabatic quantum optimization algorithms.

  5. Supergroup formulation of Plebanski theory of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, C.; Rosales, E.

    2009-04-20

    General relativity can be formulated as a SU(2) BF-theory with constraints, as shown by Plebanski. Jacobson has given a SL(2, C) invariant fermionic extension of it, from which supergravity turns out [6]. We present a supersymmetric, Sp(2|1) invariant extension of the theory of Plebanski. Consistency requires that the constraints are properly generalized, resulting as well the action of supergravity.

  6. Gurson's Model: ALE Formulation and Strain Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunda, Luiz A. B.; Creus, Guillermo J.

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents a brief review of Gurson's damage model, employed to describes the strength degradation in ductile metals submitted to large plastic deformations. The damage model is applied using finite elements and an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation (ALE), to ensure a better quality to the finite elements mesh. The study of the combined application of ALE and Gurson approach to damage modeling and strain localization is the object of this paper.

  7. Gurson's Model: ALE Formulation and Strain Localization

    SciTech Connect

    Cunda, Luiz A. B. da; Creus, Guillermo J.

    2007-05-17

    This paper presents a brief review of Gurson's damage model, employed to describes the strength degradation in ductile metals submitted to large plastic deformations. The damage model is applied using finite elements and an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation (ALE), to ensure a better quality to the finite elements mesh. The study of the combined application of ALE and Gurson approach to damage modeling and strain localization is the object of this paper.

  8. Calixarene cleansing formulation for uranium skin contamination.

    PubMed

    Phan, Guillaume; Semili, Naïma; Bouvier-Capely, Céline; Landon, Géraldine; Mekhloufi, Ghozlene; Huang, Nicolas; Rebière, François; Agarande, Michelle; Fattal, Elias

    2013-10-01

    An oil-in-water cleansing emulsion containing calixarene molecule, an actinide specific chelating agent, was formulated in order to improve the decontamination of uranium from the skin. Commonly commercialized cosmetic ingredients such as surfactants, mineral oil, or viscosifying agents were used in preparing the calixarene emulsion. The formulation was characterized in terms of size and apparent viscosity measurements and then was tested for its ability to limit uranyl ion permeation through excoriated pig-ear skin explants in 24-h penetration studies. Calixarene emulsion effectiveness was compared with two other reference treatments consisting of DTPA and EHBP solutions. Application of calixarene emulsion induced the highest decontamination effect with an 87% decrease in uranium diffusion flux. By contrast, EHBP and DTPA solutions only allowed a 50% and 55% reduction of uranium permeation, respectively, and had the same effect as a simple dilution of the contamination by pure water. Uranium diffusion decrease was attributed to uranyl ion-specific chelation by calixarene within the formulation, since no significant effect was obtained after application of the same emulsion without calixarene. Thus, calixarene cleansing emulsion could be considered as a promising treatment in case of accidental contamination of the skin by highly diffusible uranium compounds. PMID:23982616

  9. Formulation of benzoporphyrin derivatives in Pluronics.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Rubinah K; Chansarkar, Namrata; Sharif, Isha; Hioka, Noboru; Dolphin, David

    2003-03-01

    This study investigates the potential of Pluronics for the formulation of tetrapyrrole-based photosensitizers, with a particular focus on B-ring benzoporphyrin derivatives. The B-ring derivatives have a high tendency to aggregate in aqueous solutions, and this poses a significant formulation problem. Pluronics are ABA-type triblock copolymers composed of a central hydrophobic polypropylene oxide section with two hydrophilic polyethylene oxide sections of equal length at either end. Out of a range of different commercially available block copolymers studied, it was found that the longer the hydrophobic block, the better the stabilization of tetrapyrrolic drugs in monomeric form in aqueous suspensions. Of these the best performance was observed in the micelle-forming Pluronic P123. Micelle size determination by laser light scattering confirmed that particle size in stable Pluronic formulations was around 20 nm. Pluronics such as L122 formed emulsions spontaneously without the need for emulsion stabilizers; emulsions were highly stable at ambient temperatures over several days and also highly effective as potential drug delivery agents.

  10. Three-dimensional formulation of dislocation climb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yejun; Xiang, Yang; Quek, Siu Sin; Srolovitz, David J.

    2015-10-01

    We derive a Green's function formulation for the climb of curved dislocations and multiple dislocations in three-dimensions. In this new dislocation climb formulation, the dislocation climb velocity is determined from the Peach-Koehler force on dislocations through vacancy diffusion in a non-local manner. The long-range contribution to the dislocation climb velocity is associated with vacancy diffusion rather than from the climb component of the well-known, long-range elastic effects captured in the Peach-Koehler force. Both long-range effects are important in determining the climb velocity of dislocations. Analytical and numerical examples show that the widely used local climb formula, based on straight infinite dislocations, is not generally applicable, except for a small set of special cases. We also present a numerical discretization method of this Green's function formulation appropriate for implementation in discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) simulations. In DDD implementations, the long-range Peach-Koehler force is calculated as is commonly done, then a linear system is solved for the climb velocity using these forces. This is also done within the same order of computational cost as existing discrete dislocation dynamics methods.

  11. Formulation of benzoporphyrin derivatives in Pluronics.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Rubinah K; Chansarkar, Namrata; Sharif, Isha; Hioka, Noboru; Dolphin, David

    2003-03-01

    This study investigates the potential of Pluronics for the formulation of tetrapyrrole-based photosensitizers, with a particular focus on B-ring benzoporphyrin derivatives. The B-ring derivatives have a high tendency to aggregate in aqueous solutions, and this poses a significant formulation problem. Pluronics are ABA-type triblock copolymers composed of a central hydrophobic polypropylene oxide section with two hydrophilic polyethylene oxide sections of equal length at either end. Out of a range of different commercially available block copolymers studied, it was found that the longer the hydrophobic block, the better the stabilization of tetrapyrrolic drugs in monomeric form in aqueous suspensions. Of these the best performance was observed in the micelle-forming Pluronic P123. Micelle size determination by laser light scattering confirmed that particle size in stable Pluronic formulations was around 20 nm. Pluronics such as L122 formed emulsions spontaneously without the need for emulsion stabilizers; emulsions were highly stable at ambient temperatures over several days and also highly effective as potential drug delivery agents. PMID:12685658

  12. Phytoconstituents as photoprotective novel cosmetic formulations

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, S.; Kaur, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    Phytoconstituents are gaining popularity as ingredients in cosmetic formulations as they can protect the skin against exogenous and endogenous harmful agents and can help remedy many skin conditions. Exposure of skin to sunlight and other atmospheric conditions causes the production of reactive oxygen species, which can react with DNA, proteins, and fatty acids, causing oxidative damage and impairment of antioxidant system. Such injuries damage regulation pathways of skin and lead to photoaging and skin cancer development. The effects of aging include wrinkles, roughness, appearance of fine lines, lack of elasticity, and de- or hyperpigmentation marks. Herbal extracts act on these areas and produce healing, softening, rejuvenating, and sunscreen effects. We have selected a few photoprotective phytoconstituents, such as curcumin, resveratrol, tea polyphenols, silymarin, quercetin and ascorbic acid, and have discussed the considerations to be undertaken for the development of herbal cosmetic formulations that could reduce the occurrence of skin cancer and delay the process of photoaging. This article is aimed at providing specific and compiled knowledge for the successful preparation of photoprotective herbal cosmetic formulations. PMID:22228936

  13. Formulation, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of topical microbicides.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jessica L; Kashuba, Angela D M

    2012-08-01

    The development of safe topical microbicides that effectively prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major goal in curbing the human immunodeficiency virus pandemic. A number of past failures resulting from mucosal toxicity or lack of efficacy have informed the field. Products that caused toxicity to the female genital tract mucosa, and thereby increased the likelihood of HIV acquisition, included nonoxynol 9, cellulose sulfate, and C31 G vaginal gel Savvy. Topical products that were ineffective in preventing HIV infection include BufferGel, Carraguard, and PRO 2000. Antiretroviral drugs such as tenofovir and dapivirine formulated into microbicide products have shown promise, but there is much to learn about ideal product formulation and acceptability, and drug distribution and disposition (pharmacokinetics). Current formulations for water-soluble molecules include vaginally or rectally applied gels, vaginal rings, films and tablets. Dosing strategies (e.g. coitally dependent or independent) will be based on the pharmacokinetics of the active ingredient and the tolerance for less than perfect adherence. PMID:22306523

  14. A formulation and analysis of combat games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, M.; Ardema, M. D.; Rajan, N.

    1984-01-01

    Combat which is formulated as a dynamical encounter between two opponents, each of whom has offensive capabilities and objectives is outlined. A target set is associated with each opponent in the event space in which he endeavors to terminate the combat, thereby winning. If the combat terminates in both target sets simultaneously, or in neither, a joint capture or a draw, respectively, occurs. Resolution of the encounter is formulated as a combat game; as a pair of competing event constrained differential games. If exactly one of the players can win, the optimal strategies are determined from a resulting constrained zero sum differential game. Otherwise the optimal strategies are computed from a resulting nonzero sum game. Since optimal combat strategies may frequently not exist, approximate or delta combat games are also formulated leading to approximate or delta optimal strategies. The turret game is used to illustrate combat games. This game is sufficiently complex to exhibit a rich variety of combat behavior, much of which is not found in pursuit evasion games.

  15. A formulation and analysis of combat games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, M.; Ardema, M. D.; Rajan, N.

    1985-01-01

    Combat is formulated as a dynamical encounter between two opponents, each of whom has offensive capabilities and objectives. With each opponent is associated a target in the event space in which he endeavors to terminate the combat, thereby winning. If the combat terminates in both target sets simultaneously or in neither, a joint capture or a draw, respectively, is said to occur. Resolution of the encounter is formulated as a combat game; namely, as a pair of competing event-constrained differential games. If exactly one of the players can win, the optimal strategies are determined from a resulting constrained zero-sum differential game. Otherwise the optimal strategies are computed from a resulting non-zero-sum game. Since optimal combat strategies frequencies may not exist, approximate of delta-combat games are also formulated leading to approximate or delta-optimal strategies. To illustrate combat games, an example, called the turret game, is considered. This game may be thought of as a highly simplified model of air combat, yet it is sufficiently complex to exhibit a rich variety of combat behavior, much of which is not found in pursuit-evasion games.

  16. Calixarene cleansing formulation for uranium skin contamination.

    PubMed

    Phan, Guillaume; Semili, Naïma; Bouvier-Capely, Céline; Landon, Géraldine; Mekhloufi, Ghozlene; Huang, Nicolas; Rebière, François; Agarande, Michelle; Fattal, Elias

    2013-10-01

    An oil-in-water cleansing emulsion containing calixarene molecule, an actinide specific chelating agent, was formulated in order to improve the decontamination of uranium from the skin. Commonly commercialized cosmetic ingredients such as surfactants, mineral oil, or viscosifying agents were used in preparing the calixarene emulsion. The formulation was characterized in terms of size and apparent viscosity measurements and then was tested for its ability to limit uranyl ion permeation through excoriated pig-ear skin explants in 24-h penetration studies. Calixarene emulsion effectiveness was compared with two other reference treatments consisting of DTPA and EHBP solutions. Application of calixarene emulsion induced the highest decontamination effect with an 87% decrease in uranium diffusion flux. By contrast, EHBP and DTPA solutions only allowed a 50% and 55% reduction of uranium permeation, respectively, and had the same effect as a simple dilution of the contamination by pure water. Uranium diffusion decrease was attributed to uranyl ion-specific chelation by calixarene within the formulation, since no significant effect was obtained after application of the same emulsion without calixarene. Thus, calixarene cleansing emulsion could be considered as a promising treatment in case of accidental contamination of the skin by highly diffusible uranium compounds.

  17. On the spectral formulation of Granger causality.

    PubMed

    Chicharro, D

    2011-12-01

    Spectral measures of causality are used to explore the role of different rhythms in the causal connectivity between brain regions. We study several spectral measures related to Granger causality, comprising the bivariate and conditional Geweke measures, the directed transfer function, and the partial directed coherence. We derive the formulation of dependence and causality in the spectral domain from the more general formulation in the information-theory framework. We argue that the transfer entropy, the most general measure derived from the concept of Granger causality, lacks a spectral representation in terms of only the processes associated with the recorded signals. For all the spectral measures we show how they are related to mutual information rates when explicitly considering the parametric autoregressive representation of the processes. In this way we express the conditional Geweke spectral measure in terms of a multiple coherence involving innovation variables inherent to the autoregressive representation. We also link partial directed coherence with Sims' criterion of causality. Given our results, we discuss the causal interpretation of the spectral measures related to Granger causality and stress the necessity to explicitly consider their specific formulation based on modeling the signals as linear Gaussian stationary autoregressive processes.

  18. [Oral formulation of choice for children].

    PubMed

    Lajoinie, A; Henin, E; Kassai, B

    2015-08-01

    Selecting the most appropriate oral formulation is very challenging when developing medicines for children and in routine practice. Research in pediatric pharmacology has focused on oral drug formulation, determining whether the active pharmaceutical ingredient can be successfully delivered to children. Pediatric expert committees (EMA, EuFPI) recommend that children's medicines be safe, well tolerated, easy to use (palatable and requiring minimal handling), transportable, easily produced, cost effective, commercially viable, with a minimal impact on children's life-style. Oral liquid drug formulations (OLFs: solutions, syrups, suspensions) are historically considered as the most appropriate oral formulation for children, since they are easy to swallow for younger infants and palatable for children. However, OLFs present numerous disadvantages, such as low stability, potentially toxic excipients for children, and low transportability. In the long-term, dose volume and frequency of administration might lead to non-compliance. Multiple preparation steps and volume calculations are also among risk factors for medicine errors in children. An alternative to OLFs is the conventional solid oral dosage form (OSF), such as tablets and capsules. These offer the advantages of greater stability, easy dose selection, improved transportability, and ease of storage. They also allow the modification of drug pharmacokinetic parameters, minimizing administration frequency. Finally, OSFs are less costly than OLFs, since they are easier to develop, manufacture, transport, store, and deliver. Controlled study results suggest that the use of OSFs in children would be associated with greater acceptability by children, greater preference on the part of caregivers, and higher drug compliance than OLFs. Recent controlled studies, confirming that OSFs with an acceptable size for children (mini-tablets), should shift the current paradigm of OLFs as the reference for children's oral medicine

  19. Towards a methodology to formulate sustainable diets for livestock: accounting for environmental impact in diet formulation.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-05-28

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel methodology that enables pig diets to be formulated explicitly for environmental impact objectives using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. To achieve this, the following methodological issues had to be addressed: (1) account for environmental impacts caused by both ingredient choice and nutrient excretion, (2) formulate diets for multiple environmental impact objectives and (3) allow flexibility to identify the optimal nutritional composition for each environmental impact objective. An LCA model based on Canadian pig farms was integrated into a diet formulation tool to compare the use of different ingredients in Eastern and Western Canada. By allowing the feed energy content to vary, it was possible to identify the optimum energy density for different environmental impact objectives, while accounting for the expected effect of energy density on feed intake. A least-cost diet was compared with diets formulated to minimise the following objectives: non-renewable resource use, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, global warming potential and a combined environmental impact score (using these four categories). The resulting environmental impacts were compared using parallel Monte Carlo simulations to account for shared uncertainty. When optimising diets to minimise a single environmental impact category, reductions in the said category were observed in all cases. However, this was at the expense of increasing the impact in other categories and higher dietary costs. The methodology can identify nutritional strategies to minimise environmental impacts, such as increasing the nutritional density of the diets, compared with the least-cost formulation. PMID:26987378

  20. Towards a methodology to formulate sustainable diets for livestock: accounting for environmental impact in diet formulation.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-05-28

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel methodology that enables pig diets to be formulated explicitly for environmental impact objectives using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. To achieve this, the following methodological issues had to be addressed: (1) account for environmental impacts caused by both ingredient choice and nutrient excretion, (2) formulate diets for multiple environmental impact objectives and (3) allow flexibility to identify the optimal nutritional composition for each environmental impact objective. An LCA model based on Canadian pig farms was integrated into a diet formulation tool to compare the use of different ingredients in Eastern and Western Canada. By allowing the feed energy content to vary, it was possible to identify the optimum energy density for different environmental impact objectives, while accounting for the expected effect of energy density on feed intake. A least-cost diet was compared with diets formulated to minimise the following objectives: non-renewable resource use, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, global warming potential and a combined environmental impact score (using these four categories). The resulting environmental impacts were compared using parallel Monte Carlo simulations to account for shared uncertainty. When optimising diets to minimise a single environmental impact category, reductions in the said category were observed in all cases. However, this was at the expense of increasing the impact in other categories and higher dietary costs. The methodology can identify nutritional strategies to minimise environmental impacts, such as increasing the nutritional density of the diets, compared with the least-cost formulation.

  1. Effect of formulation variables on oral grittiness and preferences of multiparticulate formulations in adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Felipe L; Bowles, Alexandra; Gul, Mine Orlu; Clapham, David; Ernest, Terry B; Tuleu, Catherine

    2016-09-20

    Multiparticulate formulations are composed of multiple solid dosage units which can be administered directly to the mouth or sprinkled on food. Oral grittiness (i.e. rough mouthfeel) may arise from the presence of particles in the mouth, limiting palatability. In this work, multiparticulate formulations were prepared by dispersion of spherical granules into orange flavoured vehicles thickened with hypromellose (HPMC) at different viscosities in order to assess oral perception of grittiness by a panel of thirty adults through direct scaling on a 100mm visual analogue scale. The effect of formulation factors such as particle size (90, 127, 263μm), amount of particles per 10ml (0.25, 0.50, 1.00g) and viscosity of the vehicle (0.08, 0.43, 2.80Pas) were investigated. Grittiness was increasingly perceived with increasing amount and size of particles. Increasing viscosity of the administration media had a masking effect on the perception of particles. Less gritty samples were generally regarded as 'more pleasant' by the participants of the study. However, samples dispersed in thickened vehicles seemed to be less preferred despite being less gritty; which could be ascribed to an unpleasant mouthfeel of the vehicle. In the design of multiparticulate formulations acceptable for a targeted patient group all these formulation factors will need to be considered and optimised. PMID:27402099

  2. Eulerian Formulation of Spatially Constrained Elastic Rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynen, Alexandre

    Slender elastic rods are ubiquitous in nature and technology. For a vast majority of applications, the rod deflection is restricted by an external constraint and a significant part of the elastic body is in contact with a stiff constraining surface. The research work presented in this doctoral dissertation formulates a computational model for the solution of elastic rods constrained inside or around frictionless tube-like surfaces. The segmentation strategy adopted to cope with this complex class of problems consists in sequencing the global problem into, comparatively simpler, elementary problems either in continuous contact with the constraint or contact-free between their extremities. Within the conventional Lagrangian formulation of elastic rods, this approach is however associated with two major drawbacks. First, the boundary conditions specifying the locations of the rod centerline at both extremities of each elementary problem lead to the establishment of isoperimetric constraints, i.e., integral constraints on the unknown length of the rod. Second, the assessment of the unilateral contact condition requires, in principle, the comparison of two curves parametrized by distinct curvilinear coordinates, viz. the rod centerline and the constraint axis. Both conspire to burden the computations associated with the method. To streamline the solution along the elementary problems and rationalize the assessment of the unilateral contact condition, the rod governing equations are reformulated within the Eulerian framework of the constraint. The methodical exploration of both types of elementary problems leads to specific formulations of the rod governing equations that stress the profound connection between the mechanics of the rod and the geometry of the constraint surface. The proposed Eulerian reformulation, which restates the rod local equilibrium in terms of the curvilinear coordinate associated with the constraint axis, describes the rod deformed configuration

  3. Nano-formulations of drugs: Recent developments, impact and challenges.

    PubMed

    Jeevanandam, Jaison; Chan, Yen San; Danquah, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Nano-formulations of medicinal drugs have attracted the interest of many researchers for drug delivery applications. These nano-formulations enhance the properties of conventional drugs and are specific to the targeted delivery site. Dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, nano-emulsions and micelles are some of the nano-formulations that are gaining prominence in pharmaceutical industry for enhanced drug formulation. Wide varieties of synthesis methods are available for the preparation of nano-formulations to deliver drugs in biological system. The choice of synthesis methods depend on the size and shape of particulate formulation, biochemical properties of drug, and the targeted site. This article discusses recent developments in nano-formulation and the progressive impact on pharmaceutical research and industries. Additionally, process challenges relating to consistent generation of nano-formulations for drug delivery are discussed. PMID:27436182

  4. Nano-formulations of drugs: Recent developments, impact and challenges.

    PubMed

    Jeevanandam, Jaison; Chan, Yen San; Danquah, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Nano-formulations of medicinal drugs have attracted the interest of many researchers for drug delivery applications. These nano-formulations enhance the properties of conventional drugs and are specific to the targeted delivery site. Dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, nano-emulsions and micelles are some of the nano-formulations that are gaining prominence in pharmaceutical industry for enhanced drug formulation. Wide varieties of synthesis methods are available for the preparation of nano-formulations to deliver drugs in biological system. The choice of synthesis methods depend on the size and shape of particulate formulation, biochemical properties of drug, and the targeted site. This article discusses recent developments in nano-formulation and the progressive impact on pharmaceutical research and industries. Additionally, process challenges relating to consistent generation of nano-formulations for drug delivery are discussed.

  5. Parallelized solvers for heat conduction formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padovan, Joe; Kwang, Abel

    1991-01-01

    Based on multilevel partitioning, this paper develops a structural parallelizable solution methodology that enables a significant reduction in computational effort and memory requirements for very large scale linear and nonlinear steady and transient thermal (heat conduction) models. Due to the generality of the formulation of the scheme, both finite element and finite difference simulations can be treated. Diverse model topologies can thus be handled, including both simply and multiply connected (branched/perforated) geometries. To verify the methodology, analytical and numerical benchmark trends are verified in both sequential and parallel computer environments.

  6. Innovative topical formulations for treatment of dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Senyigit, Taner; Ozcan, Ipek; Ozer, Ozgen

    2012-09-01

    The treatment of dermatitis with conventional dosage forms (ointment, cream, lotion etc.) has many concerns due to side effects especially in long-term therapy. Recent studies focused on strategies to optimize the potency of formulation while minimizing side effects. Several attempts have been made to increase the safety of treatment, including special vehicles (nanoparticle, liposome, patch etc.), combined therapy and new synthesized agents. This review provides major innovations and advances of new approaches for dermatitis treatment based on the published articles and patent applications.

  7. Curcumin in a model skin lotion formulation.

    PubMed

    Suhaimi, H; Ahmad, F B; Friberg, S E

    1995-03-01

    A lamellar liquid crystalline region was identified in a typical skin lotion formulation system composed of a mixture of isostearic acid and triethanolamine (TEA) at 65:35 (w/w), decane, and water (the temperature was controlled at 30 degrees C). The interlayer spacings were determined by a small-angle X-ray diffraction technique. Incorporation of a natural dye, curcumin, resulted in lower interlayer spacings and higher penetration of water into the layered structure. However, the higher penetration of water was not apparent at all compositions of isostearic acid:TEA, decane, and water.

  8. Sensitivity studies of a new energetic formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, W. H.; Forbes, J. W.; Liddiard, T. P.; Doherty, R. M.

    1994-07-01

    The shock sensitivity of a new pressed formulation based upon CL-20 has been studied. Samples were made from a biomodal particle size distribution of the CL-20 ɛpolymorph and an EVA binder, pressed to an average 97% of theoretical maximum density. The material exhibited an anomalous reversal in slope of shock sensitivity vs. input stress. Over a limited stress range near the first reaction threshold, the level of reaction decreased with increasing input stress. Within this range of input shock it was observed that break-out of reaction was delayed, and was concentrated near the sample centerline.

  9. Generalized metric formulation of double field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohm, Olaf; Hull, Chris; Zwiebach, Barton

    2010-08-01

    The generalized metric is a T-duality covariant symmetric matrix constructed from the metric and two-form gauge field and arises in generalized geometry. We view it here as a metric on the doubled spacetime and use it to give a simple formulation with manifest T-duality of the double field theory that describes the massless sector of closed strings. The gauge transformations are written in terms of a generalized Lie derivative whose commutator algebra is defined by a double field theory extension of the Courant bracket.

  10. Relativistic formulation of the Voigt profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wcisło, P.; Amodio, P.; Ciuryło, R.; Gianfrani, L.

    2015-02-01

    The relativistic formulation of the Voigt profile is reported for the spontaneous emission from an atomic or molecular cloud, in coincidence with a given spectral line. We considered the simultaneous occurrence of homogeneous broadening and thermal broadening, this latter being determined by the relativistic Doppler effect. Our formula for the relativistic Voigt profile reproduces those characterizing the two available limit cases, namely, the relativistic Gaussian profile and the classical Voigt convolution. The relativistic deformation of the Voigt profile was carefully quantified at different temperatures, in the case of the molecular hydrogen spectrum.

  11. Evaluation of controlled-release mosquito repellent formulations.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, L C; Gupta, R K; Mehr, Z A; Buescher, M D; Reifenrath, W G

    1996-03-01

    Eight polymer and 9 microcapsule formulations of deet were tested on laboratory rabbits against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles albimanus. Several formulations were significantly more effective than simple (unformulated) deet at the same strength for periods up to 24 h. Best results were obtained with a polymer formulation containing a high molecular weight fatty acid and 3 microcapsule formulations containing lanolin, gum arabic, gelatin, tannic acid, stearic acid, polypropylene glycol, water, and a commercial lotion in the microcapsule and carrier fractions.

  12. Enzymatic detergent formulation containing amylase from Aspergillus niger: a comparative study with commercial detergent formulations.

    PubMed

    Mitidieri, Sydnei; Souza Martinelli, Anne Helene; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene Henning

    2006-07-01

    There is a wide range of biotechnological applications for amylases, including the textile, pharmaceutical, food and laundry industries. Hydrolytic enzymes are 100% biodegradable and enzymatic detergents can achieve effective cleaning with lukewarm water. Microorganisms and culture media were tested for amylase production and the best producer was Aspergillus niger L119 (3.9 U ml(-1) +/- 0.2) in submerged culture and its amylase demonstrated excellent activity at 50-55 degrees C and pH 4.0, remaining stable at 53 degrees C for up to 200 h. In order to establish the potential uses of this enzyme in detergents, different formulations were tested using the A. niger amylase extract. Enzyme activity was compared with three commercial formulations. The detergents are used in hospitals to clean surgical and endoscopy equipment. The presence of amylase in the formulation is because of its action within hospital drainage system, whether or not it has any function in cleaning the equipment.

  13. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  14. Algebraic formulation of quantum theory, particle identity and entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindarajan, T. R.

    2016-08-01

    Quantum theory as formulated in conventional framework using statevectors in Hilbert spaces misses the statistical nature of the underlying quantum physics. Formulation using operators 𝒞∗ algebra and density matrices appropriately captures this feature in addition leading to the correct formulation of particle identity. In this framework, Hilbert space is an emergent concept. Problems related to anomalies and quantum epistemology are discussed.

  15. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous hafnium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Jack L; Hunt, Rodney D; Montgomery, Frederick C

    2013-08-06

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous hafnium oxide gels contain a metal salt including hafnium, an acid, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous hafnium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including hafnium, an acid, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  16. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous cerium oxide

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Jack L; Chi, Anthony

    2013-05-07

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous cerium oxide gels contain a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous cerium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  17. A comparative review of four formulations of noncommutative quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouba, Laure

    2016-07-01

    Four formulations of quantum mechanics on noncommutative Moyal phase spaces are reviewed. These are the canonical, path-integral, Weyl-Wigner and systematic formulations. Although all these formulations represent quantum mechanics on a phase space with the same deformed Heisenberg algebra, there are mathematical and conceptual differences which we discuss.

  18. Super-Group Field Cosmology in Batalin-Vilkovisky Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we study the third quantized super-group field cosmology, a model in multiverse scenario, in Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formulation. Further, we propose the superfield/super-antifield dependent BRST symmetry transformations. Within this formulation we establish connection between the two different solutions of the quantum master equation within the BV formulation.

  19. Clinical evaluation of seven anticalculus dentifrice formulations.

    PubMed

    Scruggs, R R; Stewart, P W; Samuels, M S; Stamm, J W

    1991-01-01

    One hundred ninety-two subjects completed a clinical trial to determine the effects of seven dentifrice formulations on calculus inhibition. The double-blind study involved a ten-day control phase and a ten-day experimental phase. For the control phase, subjects were evaluated for calculus present, received a prophylaxis and had pre-weighed mylar strips attached to the lingual surfaces of the mandibular incisors to harvest mineral deposits. Subjects were then assigned the placebo dentifrice for unsupervised twice-daily use and were required to report once a day for a supervised mouthrinse using a 1:3 dilution of the dentrifice. The experimental phase was identical except that subjects were allocated the experimental dentifices using a stratified random assignment based on age, gender and the initial presence of calculus. Simple linear regression analyses of the dry and ash log weights obtained from the strips were performed. The results showed no statistically significant differences among the test products; however, two formulations containing zinc citrate showed some calculus inhibition-potential suggesting that further research and development of such products may be warranted.

  20. Approaches to polymer selection for mascara formulation.

    PubMed

    Loginova, Yelena; Shah, Vibha; Allen, Glenn; Macchio, Ralph; Farer, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The use of hair-care and hair-styling polymers in mascara formulation is well known. This paper introduces pre-formulative evaluation of film formers which are intended to be applied on eyelashes for mascara development to screen film formers more effectively. The film-forming characteristics of randomly selected hairstyling polymers were evaluated under the influence of pH, temperature, surfactant, and pigment dispersion. The selected polymers included acrylics, polyurethanes, and a pyrrolidone, all of which are used throughout the hair-care and mascara industries. An Erichsen Model 299/300 Pendulum Damping Tester was used to determine film hardness. In analyzing samples by the effect of temperature, the hardest neat polymer, a styrene-acrylate, softened 30% after heating. For most of the other polymers, the hardness was slightly lower compared to the neat polymer. The addition of pigment didn't significantly influence the hardness of one acrylic copolymer and a urethane dispersion, but most of the other polymers exhibited a reduction in film hardness. Various hardnesses were observed with different surfactants and different pH's.

  1. Formulating Precursors for Coating Metals and Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Gatica, Jorge E.; Reye, John T.

    2005-01-01

    A protocol has been devised for formulating low-vapor-pressure precursors for protective and conversion coatings on metallic and ceramic substrates. The ingredients of a precursor to which the protocol applies include additives with phosphate esters, or aryl phosphate esters in solution. Additives can include iron, chromium, and/or other transition metals. Alternative or additional additives can include magnesium compounds to facilitate growth of films on substrates that do not contain magnesium. Formulation of a precursor begins with mixing of the ingredients into a high-vapor-pressure solvent to form a homogeneous solution. Then the solvent is extracted from the solution by evaporation - aided, if necessary, by vacuum and/or slight heating. The solvent is deemed to be completely extracted when the viscosity of the remaining solution closely resembles the viscosity of the phosphate ester or aryl phosphate ester. In addition, satisfactory removal of the solvent can be verified by means of a differential scanning calorimetry essay: the absence of endothermic processes for temperatures below 150 C would indicate that the residual solvent has been eliminated from the solution beyond a detectable dilution level.

  2. New formulation of leading order anisotropic hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Leonardo

    2015-05-01

    Anisotropic hydrodynamics is a reorganization of the relativistic hydrodynamics expansion, with the leading order already containing substantial momentum-space anisotropies. The latter are a cause of concern in the traditional viscous hydrodynamics, since large momentum anisotropies generated in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are not consistent with the hypothesis of small deviations from an isotropic background, i.e., from the local equilibrium distribution. We discuss the leading order of the expansion, presenting a new formulation for the (1+1)- dimensional case, namely, for the longitudinally boost invariant and cylindrically symmetric flow. This new approach is consistent with the well established framework of Israel and Stewart in the close to equilibrium limit (where we expect viscous hydrodynamics to work well). If we consider the (0+1)-dimensional case, that is, transversally homogeneous and longitudinally boost invariant flow, the new form of anisotropic hydrodynamics leads to better agreement with known solutions of the Boltzmann equation than the previous formulations, especially when we consider massive particles.

  3. Science Formulation of Global Precipitation Mission (GPM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Mehta, Amita; Shepherd, Marshall; Starr, David O. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In late 2001, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was approved as a new start by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The new mission, which is now in its formulation phase, is motivated by a number of scientific questions that are posed over a range of space and time scales that generally fall within the discipline of the global water and energy cycle (GWEC), although not restricted to that branch of research. Recognizing that satellite rainfall datasets are now a foremost tool for understanding global climate variability out to decadal scales and beyond, for improving weather forecasting, and for producing better predictions of hydrometeorological processes including short-term hazardous flooding and seasonal fresh water resources assessment, a comprehensive and internationally sanctioned global measuring strategy has led to the GPM mission. The GPM mission plans to expand the scope of rainfall measurement through use of a multi-member satellite constellation that will be contributed by a number of world nations. This talk overviews the GPM scientific research program that has been fostered within NASA, then focuses on scientific progress that is being made in various areas in the course of the mission formulation phase that are of interest to the Natural Hazards scientific community. This latter part of the talk addresses research issues that have become central to the GPM science implementation plan concerning the rate of the global water cycling, cloud macrophysical-microphysical processes of flood-producing storms, and the general improvement in measuring precipitation at the fundamental microphysical level.

  4. Improved SUPG formulations for compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senga, Masayoshi

    Stabilization and shock-capturing parameters introduced recently for the StreamlineUpwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) formulation of compressible flows based on conservation variables are assessed in test computations with inviscid supersonic flows and different types of finite element meshes. The new shock-capturing parameters, categorized as "YZbeta Shock-Capturing" in this paper, are compared to earlier parameters derived based on the entropy variables. In addition to being much simpler, the new shock-capturing parameters yield better shock quality the test computations, with more substantial improvements seen for triangular elements. Numerical experiments with inviscid supersonic flows around cylinders and spheres are carried out to evaluate the stabilization and shock-capturing parameters introduced recently for the Streamline-Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) formulation of compressible flows based on conservation variables. The tests with the cylinders are carried out for both structured and unstructured meshes. The new shock-capturing parameters; which we call "YZbeta Shock-Capturing", are compared to earlier SUPG parameters derived based on the entropy variables. In addition to being much simpler, the new shock-capturing parameters yield better shock quality in the test computations, with more substantial improvements seen for unstructured meshes with triangular and tetrahedral elements. Furthermore, the results obtained with YZbeta Shock-Capturing compare very favorably to those obtained with the well established OVERFLOW code.

  5. Immunoglobulin: production, mechanisms of action and formulations

    PubMed Central

    Novaretti, Marcia Cristina Zago; Dinardo, Carla Luana

    2011-01-01

    Human immunoglobulin (Ig) began to be applied in the clinical practice with the treatment of primary immunodeficiencies. Quickly, applications of Ig increased, as its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory functions were elucidated. Currently, Ig is the most commonly used blood product. Ig is obtained by processing plasma; methods, in particular, techniques to reduce plasma viral loads have been evolving over the years and include: pasteurization, solvent/ detergent treatment, caprylic acid treatment and nanofiltration. These methods contribute to increased safety and quality of blood products. The mechanisms of action of Ig not only involve the blockade of Fc receptors of phagocytes, but also control complement pathways, idiotype-anti-idiotype dimer formation, blockage of superantigen binding to T cells, inhibition of dendritic cells and stimulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs). There are several formulations of Ig available, each one with its own peculiar characteristics. In Brazil, there is stringent legislation regulating the quality of Ig. Only Ig products that completely fulfill the quality control criteria are released for use. These standards involve different tests from visual inspection to determination of anti-complementary activity. This paper will further review the history and current status of Ig, including its production and mechanisms of action. The formulations available in Brazil and also the criteria of quality control currently applied will be presented. PMID:23049343

  6. Hybrid fuel formulation and technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    The objective was to develop an improved hybrid fuel with higher regression rate, a regression rate expression exponent close to 0.5, lower cost, and higher density. The approach was to formulate candidate fuels based on promising concepts, perform thermomechanical analyses to select the most promising candidates, develop laboratory processes to fabricate fuel grains as needed, fabricate fuel grains and test in a small lab-scale motor, select the best candidate, and then scale up and validate performance in a 2500 lbf scale, 11-inch diameter motor. The characteristics of a high performance fuel have been verified in 11-inch motor testing. The advanced fuel exhibits a 15% increase in density over an all hydrocarbon formulation accompanied by a 50% increase in regression rate, which when multiplied by the increase in density yields a 70% increase in fuel mass flow rate; has a significantly lower oxidizer-to-fuel (O/F) ratio requirement at 1.5; has a significantly decreased axial regression rate variation making for more uniform propellant flow throughout motor operation; is very clean burning; extinguishes cleanly and quickly; and burns with a high combustion efficiency.

  7. Surface-integral formulation of scattering theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kadyrov, A.S. Bray, I.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.M.; Stelbovics, A.T.

    2009-07-15

    We formulate scattering theory in the framework of a surface-integral approach utilizing analytically known asymptotic forms of the two-body and three-body scattering wavefunctions. This formulation is valid for both short-range and long-range Coulombic interactions. New general definitions for the potential scattering amplitude are presented. For the Coulombic potentials, the generalized amplitude gives the physical on-shell amplitude without recourse to a renormalization procedure. New post and prior forms for the Coulomb three-body breakup amplitude are derived. This resolves the problem of the inability of the conventional scattering theory to define the post form of the breakup amplitude for charged particles. The new definitions can be written as surface-integrals convenient for practical calculations. The surface-integral representations are extended to amplitudes of direct and rearrangement scattering processes taking place in an arbitrary three-body system. General definitions for the wave operators are given that unify the currently used channel-dependent definitions.

  8. Formulation of microbial cocktails for BTEX biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Karthiga; Loh, Kai-Chee

    2015-02-01

    BTEX biodegradation by a mixed community of micro-organisms offers a promising approach in terms of cost-effectiveness and elimination of secondary pollution. Two bacterial strains, Pseudomonas putida F1 and Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1 were chosen to formulate synthetic consortia based on their ability to biodegrade the mono-aromatic compounds. Benzene and toluene supported the growth of both the strains; while ethyl benzene and o-xylene were only utilized as growth substrates by P. putida F1 and P. stutzeri OX1, respectively. In a mixed substrate system, P. putida F1 exhibited incomplete removal of o-xylene while P. stutzeri OX1 displayed cometabolic removal of ethyl benzene with dark coloration of the growth medium. The biodegradation potential of the two Pseudomonas species complemented each other and offered opportunities to explore their performance as a co-culture for enhanced BTEX biodegradation. Several microbial formulations were concocted and their BTEX biodegradation characteristics were evaluated. Mixed culture biodegradation ascertained the advantages of the co-culture over the individual Pseudomonas species. This study also emphasized the significance of inoculum density and species proportion while concocting preselected micro-organisms for enhanced BTEX biodegradation.

  9. Formulation ingredients for toothpastes and mouthwashes.

    PubMed

    Vranić, Edina; Lacević, Amela; Mehmedagić, Aida; Uzunović, Alija

    2004-10-01

    In order to achieve the multi-claim products required for the dental care category, it is necessary for the formulator to use a variety of different ingredients. This places a number of demands on the development process. Innovations in the areas of pharmaceutical technology have contributed to the formulation of the products having superior efficacy as well as other attributes that may contribute to clinical response and patient acceptability. Improved clinical efficacy and tolerability, along with conditioning signals, should encourage patient compliance with oral hygiene further complementing professional efforts directed at disease prevention. The most effective way of preventing the development of dental disease is in controlling the production of dental plaque. It is formed by microbial action. The removal of plaque from the teeth and related areas is essential for the maintenance of a healthy mouth. In this paper we have presented the main components of toothpastes and mouthwashes. For the active ingredients, their supposed effect as therapeutic agents is also explained.

  10. MSFC's Advanced Space Propulsion Formulation Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Robinson, Joel W.; Taylor, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    In NASA s Fiscal Year 2012, a small project was undertaken to provide additional substance, depth, and activity knowledge to the technology areas identified in the In-Space Propulsion Systems Roadmap, Technology Area 02 (TA-02), as created under the auspices of the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). This roadmap was divided into four basic groups: (1) Chemical Propulsion, (2) Non-chemical Propulsion, (3) Advanced (TRL<3) Propulsion Technologies, and (4) Supporting Technologies. The first two were grouped according to the governing physics. The third group captured technologies and physic concepts that are at a lower TRL level. The fourth group identified pertinent technical areas that are strongly coupled with these related areas which could allow significant improvements in performance. There were a total of 45 technologies identified in TA-02, and 25 of these were studied in this formulation task. The goal of this task was to provide OCT with a knowledge-base for decisionmaking on advanced space propulsion technologies and not waste money by unintentionally repeating past projects or funding the technologies with minor impacts. This formulation task developed the next level of detail for technologies described and provides context to OCT where investments should be made. The presentation will begin with the list of technologies from TA-02, how they were prioritized for this study, and details on what additional data was captured for the technologies studied. Following this, some samples of the documentation will be provided, followed by plans on how the data will be made accessible.

  11. Bosonization in the path integral formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    We establish the direct d =2 on-shell bosonization ψL(x+)=ei ξ (x+) and ψR†(x-)=ei ξ (x-) in path integral formulation by deriving the off-shell relations ψL(x )ψR†(x )=exp [i ξ (x )] and ψR(x )ψL†(x )=exp [-i ξ (x )] . Similarly, the on-shell bosonization of the bosonic commuting spinor, ϕL(x+)=i e-i ξ (x+)∂+e-i χ (x+) , ϕR†(x-)=e-i ξ (x-)-i χ (x-) and ϕR(x-)=i ei ξ (x-)∂-e+i χ (x-) , ϕL†(x+)=ei ξ (x+)+i χ (x+) , is established in path integral formulation by deriving the off-shell relations ϕL(x )ϕR†(x )=i e-i ξ (x )∂+e-i χ (x ) and ϕR(x )ϕL†(x )=i ei ξ (x )∂-ei χ (x ) .

  12. Analysis of hematinic formulations available in the Indian market

    PubMed Central

    Karelia, B. N.; Buch, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the hematinic formulations available in Indian market for their varieties of dosage forms, iron salts used, content of elemental iron, frequency of administration, additional nutrients, and cost. Materials and Methods: Hematinic formulations listed in Indian Drug Review (2009) were analyzed for the iron salts contained and the elemental iron content. Preparations containing iron ± folic acid ± vitamin C were considered as ‘acceptable’ formulations. For proper comparison, cost of 100 mg elemental iron in each formulation was calculated. Acceptable oral formulations containing iron with folic acid were further classified according to iron salts, and the median cost of various iron salts was compared. We also identified oral solid formulations that required administration more than three times a day. Prices of ‘acceptable’ iron preparations were compared with that of ‘irrational’ formulations. Results: Out of 621 formulations, 365 were oral solid formulations, 232 were oral liquids, and 24 were for parenteral administration. Formulations containing iron salts like ferrous sulphate, ferrous sulphate (dried), carbonyl iron, and ferrous fumarate are cheaper than formulations containing other iron salts. Among the 365 oral (solid) iron formulations, we found 60 that would require administration more than three times a day to provide a therapeutic dosage of elemental iron. As compared to irrational formulations, the cost of acceptable formulations was in a significantly narrow range; however, the median cost of acceptable products was significantly higher than that of the irrational ones, except in case of the parenteral preparations. Conclusion: The drug regulation authorities should tune the drug price in such a way that rational formulations cost less than the irrational ones. PMID:22368414

  13. Psychiatrists' understanding and use of psychological formulation: a qualitative exploration†

    PubMed Central

    Mohtashemi, Roxanna; Stevens, John; Jackson, Paul G.; Weatherhead, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method To establish an initial conceptualisation of how psychiatrists understand and use formulation within adult psychiatry practice. Twelve psychiatrists took part in semi-structured interviews. Transcripts were analysed using a constructivist grounded theory methodology. Results Formulation was conceptualised as an addition to diagnosis, triggered by risk, complexity and a need for an enhanced understanding. Participants valued collaborative formulation with psychologists. Multiple contextual factors were perceived to either facilitate or inhibit the process. Barriers to formulation led to a disjointed way of working. Clinical implications Findings contribute to an understanding of formulation within psychiatry training and practice. PMID:27512592

  14. Formulation verification study results for 241-AN-106 waste grout

    SciTech Connect

    Lokken, R.O.; Martin, P.F.C.; Morrison, L.C.; Palmer, S.E.; Anderson, C.M.

    1993-06-01

    Tests were conducted to determine whether the reference formulation and variations around the formulation are adequate for solidifying 241-AN-106 (106-AN) waste into a grout waste form. The reference formulation consists of 21 wt% type I/II Portland cement, 68 wt% fly ash, and 11 wt% attapulgite clay. The mix ratio is 8.4 lb/gal. Variations in dry blend component ratios, mix ratio, and waste concentration were assessed by using a statistically designed experimental matrix consisting of 44 grout compositions. Based on the results of the statistically designed variability study, the 106-AN grout formulations tested met all the formulation criteria except for the heat of hydration.

  15. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder; Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.13 ), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  16. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder; Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.

    1991-02-12

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.-), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  17. Geometric formulation of the uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosyk, G. M.; Osán, T. M.; Lamberti, P. W.; Portesi, M.

    2014-03-01

    A geometric approach to formulate the uncertainty principle between quantum observables acting on an N-dimensional Hilbert space is proposed. We consider the fidelity between a density operator associated with a quantum system and a projector associated with an observable, and interpret it as the probability of obtaining the outcome corresponding to that projector. We make use of fidelity-based metrics such as angle, Bures, and root infidelity to propose a measure of uncertainty. The triangle inequality allows us to derive a family of uncertainty relations. In the case of the angle metric, we recover the Landau-Pollak inequality for pure states and show, in a natural way, how to extend it to the case of mixed states in arbitrary dimension. In addition, we derive and compare alternative uncertainty relations when using other known fidelity-based metrics.

  18. Micromorphic continua: non-redundant formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Giovanni; Barretta, Raffaele; Diaco, Marina

    2016-11-01

    The kinematics of generalized continua is investigated and key points concerning the definition of overall tangent strain measure are put into evidence. It is shown that classical measures adopted in the literature for micromorphic continua do not obey a constraint qualification requirement, to be fulfilled for well-posedness in optimization theory, and are therefore termed redundant. Redundancy of continua with latent microstructure and of constrained Cosserat continua is also assessed. A simplest, non-redundant, kinematic model of micromorphic continua, is proposed by dropping the microcurvature field. The equilibrium conditions and the related variational linear elastostatic problem are formulated and briefly discussed. The simplest model involves a reduced number of state variables and of elastic constitutive coefficients, when compared with other models of micromorphic continua, being still capable of enriching the Cauchy continuum model in a significant way.

  19. Lagrangian formulation of turbulent premixed combustion.

    PubMed

    Pagnini, Gianni; Bonomi, Ernesto

    2011-07-22

    The lagrangian point of view is adopted to study turbulent premixed combustion. The evolution of the volume fraction of combustion products is established by the Reynolds transport theorem. It emerges that the burned-mass fraction is led by the turbulent particle motion, by the flame front velocity, and by the mean curvature of the flame front. A physical requirement connecting particle turbulent dispersion and flame front velocity is obtained from equating the expansion rates of the flame front progression and of the unburned particles spread. The resulting description compares favorably with experimental data. In the case of a zero-curvature flame, with a non-markovian parabolic model for turbulent dispersion, the formulation yields the Zimont equation extended to all elapsed times and fully determined by turbulence characteristics. The exact solution of the extended Zimont equation is calculated and analyzed to bring out different regimes.

  20. Mathematical programming formulations for satellite synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Puneet; Reilly, Charles H.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of satellite synthesis can be described as optimally allotting locations and sometimes frequencies and polarizations, to communication satellites so that interference from unwanted satellite signals does not exceed a specified threshold. In this report, mathematical programming models and optimization methods are used to solve satellite synthesis problems. A nonlinear programming formulation which is solved using Zoutendijk's method and a gradient search method is described. Nine mixed integer programming models are considered. Results of computer runs with these nine models and five geographically compatible scenarios are presented and evaluated. A heuristic solution procedure is also used to solve two of the models studied. Heuristic solutions to three large synthesis problems are presented. The results of our analysis show that the heuristic performs very well, both in terms of solution quality and solution time, on the two models to which it was applied. It is concluded that the heuristic procedure is the best of the methods considered for solving satellite synthesis problems.

  1. Formulations to the patient: explicit and implicit.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A M

    1994-12-01

    Many of our formulations to the patient are conveyed through the day-to-day unremarkable actions, verbal and nonverbal, occurring between analyst and patient as the analyst attempts to understand his patient within the analytic setting. The analyst's confidence, even intensity, concerning the value of analysis is significant in enabling him to communicate successfully with his patient. Unlike what may have been the case in the past, this analytic fervour is not in the service of a single theory or an attempt to prove an analytic proposition, but is aimed at deepening introspective curiosity and opening avenues of communication. Within our characterologic and procedural limits, we use ourselves in a large variety of ways in an attempt to further the analytic process. This use of ourselves, conveyed to the patient in innumerable interactions, becomes a central analytic fact that fosters the patient's participation in his analysis. Clinical vignettes are provided to illustrate these propositions. PMID:7713649

  2. A clinical survey of paraquat formulation workers.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, J K

    1979-01-01

    A group of 18 male Caucasian workers from the United Kingdom and a further group of 18 male mixed race (mainly Malay) workers from Malaysia employed in the formulation of paraquat-based herbicides were examined for evidence of chronic ill health after long-term exposure to paraquat. Clinical records were examined, medical and occupational histories were obtained and a clinical examination, particularly of the skin, was undertaken. Skin rashes, nail damage and epistaxes were encountered by most workers as a result of direct contact of skin and mucous membranes with paraquat. These conditions subsided rapidly and no worker reported any sequelae. There was no clinical evidence of long-term effects on skin, mucous membranes or general health following exposure to paraquat over several years in these workers. PMID:500781

  3. Standardization of Ajmodadi churna, a polyherbal formulation

    PubMed Central

    Sriwastava, Neeraj K.; Shreedhara, C. S.; Aswatha Ram, H. N.

    2010-01-01

    Standardization of herbal formulations is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs, based on the concentration of their active principles. This article reports on standardization of Ajmodadi churna, a polyherbal ayurvedic medicine used as a carminative and an antispasmodic, and is a strong wormifuge, and helps in all painful conditions like sciatica and stiffness in back and also restores normal digestive functions. Ajmodadi churna was prepared as per Ayurvedic Formulary of India. In-house preparation and the marketed drug have been standardized on the basis of organoleptic characters, physical characteristics, and physico-chemical properties. The set parameters were found to be sufficient to evaluate the churna and can be used as reference standards for the quality control/quality assurance laboratory of a Pharmaceutical house. PMID:21808548

  4. Mixed-Integer Formulations for Constellation Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valicka, C.; Hart, W.; Rintoul, M.

    Remote sensing systems have expanded the set of capabilities available for and critical to national security. Cooperating, high-fidelity sensing systems and growing mission applications have exponentially increased the set of potential schedules. A definitive lack of advanced tools places an increased burden on operators, as planning and scheduling remain largely manual tasks. This is particularly true in time-critical planning activities where operators aim to accomplish a large number of missions through optimal utilization of single or multiple sensor systems. Automated scheduling through identification and comparison of alternative schedules remains a challenging problem applicable across all remote sensing systems. Previous approaches focused on a subset of sensor missions and do not consider ad-hoc tasking. We have begun development of a robust framework that leverages the Pyomo optimization modeling language for the design of a tool to assist sensor operators planning under the constraints of multiple concurrent missions and uncertainty. Our scheduling models have been formulated to address the stochastic nature of ad-hoc tasks inserted under a variety of scenarios. Operator experience is being leveraged to select appropriate model objectives. Successful development of the framework will include iterative development of high-fidelity mission models that consider and expose various schedule performance metrics. Creating this tool will aid time-critical scheduling by increasing planning efficiency, clarifying the value of alternative modalities uniquely provided by multi-sensor systems, and by presenting both sets of organized information to operators. Such a tool will help operators more quickly and fully utilize sensing systems, a high interest objective within the current remote sensing operations community. Preliminary results for mixed-integer programming formulations of a sensor scheduling problem will be presented. Assumptions regarding sensor geometry

  5. Symmetric Galerkin boundary formulations employing curved elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, J. H.; Balakrishna, C.

    1993-01-01

    Accounts of the symmetric Galerkin approach to boundary element analysis (BEA) have recently been published. This paper attempts to add to the understanding of this method by addressing a series of fundamental issues associated with its potential computational efficiency. A new symmetric Galerkin theoretical formulation for both the (harmonic) heat conduction and the (biharmonic) elasticity problem that employs regularized singular and hypersingular boundary integral equations (BIEs) is presented. The novel use of regularized BIEs in the Galerkin context is shown to allow straightforward incorporation of curved, isoparametric elements. A symmetric reusable intrinsic sample point (RISP) numerical integration algorithm is shown to produce a Galerkin (i.e., double) integration strategy that is competitive with its counterpart (i.e., singular) integration procedure in the collocation BEA approach when the time saved in the symmetric equation solution phase is also taken into account. This new formulation is shown to be capable of employing hypersingular BIEs while obviating the requirement of C 1 continuity, a fact that allows the employment of the popular continuous element technology. The behavior of the symmetric Galerkin BEA method with regard to both direct and iterative equation solution operations is also addressed. A series of example problems are presented to quantify the performance of this symmetric approach, relative to the more conventional unsymmetric BEA, in terms of both accuracy and efficiency. It is concluded that appropriate implementations of the symmetric Galerkin approach to BEA indeed have the potential to be competitive with, if not superior to, collocation-based BEA, for large-scale problems.

  6. Etodolac Containing Topical Niosomal Gel: Formulation Development and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Asthana, Abhay; Singh, Davinder; Sharma, Parveen Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the delivery potential of Etodolac (ETD) containing topical niosomal gel. Niosomal formulations were prepared by thin film hydration method at various ratios of cholesterol and Span 60 and were evaluated with respect to particle size, shape, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro characteristics. Dicetyl phosphate (DCP) was also added in the niosomal formulation. Mean particle size of niosomal formulation was found to be in the range of 2 μm to 4 μm. Niosomal formulation N2 (1 : 1) ratio of cholesterol and surfactant displayed good entrapment efficiency (96.72%). TEM analyses showed that niosomal formulation was spherical in shape. Niosomal formulation (N2) displayed high percentage of drug release after 24 h (94.91) at (1 : 1) ratio of cholesterol : surfactant. Further selected niosomal formulation was used to formulate topical gel and was characterized with respect to its various parameters such as pH, viscosity, spreadability, ex vivo study, and in vivo potential permeation. Ex vivo study showed that niosomal gel possessed better skin permeation study than the plain topical gel. Further in vivo study revealed good inhibition of inflammation in case of topical niosomal gel than plain gel and niosomal formulation. The present study suggested that topical niosomal gel formulations provide sustained and prolonged delivery of drug. PMID:27478643

  7. Formulation and Characterization of Benzoyl Peroxide Gellified Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Naresh Kumar; Bharti, Pratibha; Mahant, Sheefali; Rao, Rekha

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out with the objective of formulating a gellified emulsion of benzoyl peroxide, an anti-acne agent. The formulations were prepared using four different vegetable oils, viz. almond oil, jojoba oil, sesame oil, and wheat germ oil, owing to their emollient properties. The idea was to overcome the skin irritation and dryness caused by benzoyl peroxide, making the formulation more tolerable. The gellified emulsions were characterized for their homogeneity, rheology, spreadability, drug content, and stability. In vitro permeation studies were performed to check the drug permeation through rat skin. The formulations were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity, as well as their acute skin irritation potential. The results were compared with those obtained for the marketed formulation. Later, the histopathological examination of the skin treated with various formulations was carried out. Formulation F3 was found to have caused a very mild dysplastic change to the epidermis. On the other hand, the marketed formulation led to the greatest dysplastic change. Hence, it was concluded that formulation F3, containing sesame oil (6%w/w), was the optimized formulation. It exhibited the maximum drug release and anti-microbial activity, in addition to the least skin irritation potential. PMID:23264949

  8. Formulation and characterization of benzoyl peroxide gellified emulsions.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Naresh Kumar; Bharti, Pratibha; Mahant, Sheefali; Rao, Rekha

    2012-12-01

    The present investigation was carried out with the objective of formulating a gellified emulsion of benzoyl peroxide, an anti-acne agent. The formulations were prepared using four different vegetable oils, viz. almond oil, jojoba oil, sesame oil, and wheat germ oil, owing to their emollient properties. The idea was to overcome the skin irritation and dryness caused by benzoyl peroxide, making the formulation more tolerable. The gellified emulsions were characterized for their homogeneity, rheology, spreadability, drug content, and stability. In vitro permeation studies were performed to check the drug permeation through rat skin. The formulations were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity, as well as their acute skin irritation potential. The results were compared with those obtained for the marketed formulation. Later, the histopathological examination of the skin treated with various formulations was carried out. Formulation F3 was found to have caused a very mild dysplastic change to the epidermis. On the other hand, the marketed formulation led to the greatest dysplastic change. Hence, it was concluded that formulation F3, containing sesame oil (6%w/w), was the optimized formulation. It exhibited the maximum drug release and anti-microbial activity, in addition to the least skin irritation potential.

  9. Element free Galerkin formulation of composite beam with longitudinal slip

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Dzulkarnain; Mokhtaram, Mokhtazul Haizad; Badli, Mohd Iqbal; Yassin, Airil Y. Mohd

    2015-05-15

    Behaviour between two materials in composite beam is assumed partially interact when longitudinal slip at its interfacial surfaces is considered. Commonly analysed by the mesh-based formulation, this study used meshless formulation known as Element Free Galerkin (EFG) method in the beam partial interaction analysis, numerically. As meshless formulation implies that the problem domain is discretised only by nodes, the EFG method is based on Moving Least Square (MLS) approach for shape functions formulation with its weak form is developed using variational method. The essential boundary conditions are enforced by Langrange multipliers. The proposed EFG formulation gives comparable results, after been verified by analytical solution, thus signify its application in partial interaction problems. Based on numerical test results, the Cubic Spline and Quartic Spline weight functions yield better accuracy for the EFG formulation, compares to other proposed weight functions.

  10. On the proper formulation of Maxwellian electrodynamics for continuum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weile, Daniel S.; Hopkins, David A.; Gazonas, George A.; Powers, Brian M.

    2014-05-01

    Despite the importance of electromagnetomechanical physics to processes ranging from piezoelectricity to the dynamics of electron beams, confusion abounds in the continuum mechanics literature as to how Maxwell's equations of electrodynamics should be formulated in the material frame of continuum mechanics. Current formulations in the literature conflict as to the manner in which the authors define fields, derive constitutive relations, and interpret contradictory formulations. The difficulties persist even when the phenomena described are electrostatic. This paper will demonstrate that the perplexity arises from two sources: a misunderstanding of the limitations of material frame descriptions, and the failure to appreciate the centrality of relativity theory to the formulation of electrodynamic equations in the vicinity of mechanical motion. Two new formulations of Maxwell's equations are provided that avoid the paradoxes of earlier formulations and thus describe the physics clearly and without self-contradiction.

  11. Skin moisturizing effects of panthenol-based formulations.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Flávio B; Gaspar, Lorena R; Maia Campos, Patrícia M B G

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the skin moisturizing efficacy of formulations containing different concentrations of panthenol. Formulations supplemented with or without 0.5%, 1.0%, or 5.0% panthenol were applied daily to the forearms of healthy subjects. Skin conditions in terms of moisture and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were analyzed before and after 15- and 30-day periods of application. The formulations were also applied after skin washing with sodium laureth sulphate (SLES) to evaluate the immediate effects on TEWL and skin moisture. Panthenol-containing formulations (1.0% and 5.0%) produced significant decreases in TEWL after 30-day applications. In skin washed with SLES, significant reduction of TEWL was evident two hours after application of formulations loaded with panthenol when compared with control and vehicle. It is concluded that skin integrity is maintained by the improved protective effect of 1.0% panthenol added to the formulation. PMID:21982351

  12. CRC/EORTC/NCI Joint Formulation Working Party: experiences in the formulation of investigational cytotoxic drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Beijnen, J. H.; Flora, K. P.; Halbert, G. W.; Henrar, R. E.; Slack, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    The pharmaceutical formulation of a new anti-tumour agent has often been perceived as the bottleneck in anti-cancer drug development. In order to increase the speed of this essential development step, the Cancer Research Campaign (CRC), the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) agreed in 1987 to form the Joint Formulation Working Party (JFWP). The main goal of the JFWP is to facilitate the rapid progress of a new drug through pharmaceutical developmental to preclinical toxicology and subsequently to phase I clinical trial. Under the auspices of the JFWP around 50 new agents have been developed or are currently in development. In this report we present our formulation experiences since the establishment of the JFWP with a selected number of agents: aphidicolin glycinate, bryostatin 1, carmethizole, carzelesin, combretastatin A4, dabis maleate, disulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine, E.O.9, 4-hydroxyanisole, pancratistatin, rhizoxin, Springer pro-drug, SRI 62-834, temozolomide, trimelamol and V489. The approaches used and problems presented may be of general interest to scientists in related fields and those considering submitting agents for development. PMID:7599054

  13. Geometric stiffening in multibody dynamics formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharf, Inna

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the issue of geometric stiffening as it arises in the context of multibody dynamics. This topic has been treated in a number of previous publications in this journal and appears to be a debated subject. The controversy revolves primarily around the 'correct' methodology for incorporating the stiffening effect into dynamics formulations. The main goal of this work is to present the different approaches that have been developed for this problem through an in-depth review of several publications dealing with this subject. This is done with the goal of contributing to a precise understanding of the existing methodologies for modelling the stiffening effects in multibody systems. Thus, in presenting the material we attempt to illuminate the key characteristics of the various methods as well as show how they relate to each other. In addition, we offer a number of novel insights and clarifying interpretations of these schemes. The paper is completed with a general classification and comparison of the different approaches.

  14. Processing and Formulation of Lithium Lubricating Greases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, M. A.; Franco, J. M.; Valencia, C.; Moreno, G.; Gallegos, C.

    2006-05-01

    The effects that soap concentration, base oil viscosity and additives exert on the rheology of lubricating greases have been studied. Also, changes in both microstructure and rheology of lithium lubricating greases during their manufacturing process have been evaluated. With this aim, different lithium lubricating grease formulations were manufactured by modifying the concentration of lithium 12-hydroxystearate, base oil viscosity and processing conditions or using different polymeric additives. The manufacturing process was followed through the mixing rheometry technique by measuring the evolution of torque with processing time, and samples of incipient and finished greases were taken from the stirred tank at different processing times. Rheological (small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS)) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) observations were carried out on each sample. The experimental results obtained demonstrate that the values of the linear viscoelasticity functions and the mechanical behaviour of lubricating grease strongly depend on the processing variables and grease composition. Also, it has been found that the structural skeleton (size and shape of the disperse phase particles) is highly influenced by the base oil viscosity. These results have been explained taking into account the balance between the solvency of the thickener in the base oil and the level of entanglements formed by soap fibres, which influence the lubricating grease network.

  15. A thermodynamic formulation of root water uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Anke; Kleidon, Axel; Bechmann, Marcel

    2016-08-01

    By extracting bound water from the soil and lifting it to the canopy, root systems of vegetation perform work. Here we describe how root water uptake can be evaluated thermodynamically and demonstrate that this evaluation provides additional insights into the factors that impede root water uptake. We derive an expression that relates the energy export at the base of the root system to a sum of terms that reflect all fluxes and storage changes along the flow path in thermodynamic terms. We illustrate this thermodynamic formulation using an idealized setup of scenarios with a simple model. In these scenarios, we demonstrate why heterogeneity in soil water distribution and rooting properties affect the impediment of water flow even though the mean soil water content and rooting properties are the same across the scenarios. The effects of heterogeneity can clearly be identified in the thermodynamics of the system in terms of differences in dissipative losses and hydraulic energy, resulting in an earlier start of water limitation in the drying cycle. We conclude that this thermodynamic evaluation of root water uptake conveniently provides insights into the impediments of different processes along the entire flow path, which goes beyond resistances and also accounts for the role of heterogeneity in soil water distribution.

  16. Formulating liquid hydrocarbon fuels for SOFCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, G. J.; Preece, J.; Kendall, K.

    The injection of liquid hydrocarbons directly into an SOFC system is considered for application to hybrid vehicles. The main problem is carbon deposition on the nickel anode when molecules such as ethanol or iso-octane are injected directly. Such carbon deposition has been studied using a microtubular SOFC with a mass spectrometer analysing the product gases to investigate the reaction sequence and also to investigate the deposited carbon by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO). The results show that only two liquids could be injected directly onto nickel cermet anodes without serious carbon blockage, methanol and methanoic acid. Even then, TPO experiments revealed deposition of small amounts of carbon which could be prevented by small additions of air or water to the fuel. Gasoline type molecules like iso-octane killed the SOFC in about 30 min operation, with about 90% of the molecular carbon being deposited on the nickel cermet anode. However, certain mixtures of iso-octane, water, alcohol and surfactant were found to produce beneficial results with remarkably low carbon deposition, less than 1% of the molecular carbon appearing on the anode. Such formulations had octane numbers appropriate to internal combustion engine operation.

  17. Kinetic Determination of Ribavirin in Drug Formulations

    PubMed Central

    El-Brashy, A. M.; Sheribah, Z. A.; Sharaf El-Din, M. K.; El-Gamal, R. M.

    2007-01-01

    Two simple and sensitive kinetic methods were developed for the determination of ribavirin in bulk and in its pharmaceutical preparations using alkaline potassium permanganate as an oxidizing agent. The methods are based upon a kinetic investigation of the oxidation reaction of the drug at room temperature for fixed times of 20 and 30 minutes. In the first method, the absorbance of the colored manganate ion was measured at 610 nm, while in second method the reduction in the absorbance of permanganate was measured at 525 nm. The absorbance concentration plots were linear over the range of 3-15 μg/ml with detection limits of 0.028 μg/ml in the first method and 0.229 μg/ml for the second method. The proposed methods were applied successfully for the determination of the drug in its pharmaceutical formulations, the percentage recoveries were 100.15 ± 1.34, 100.06 ± 0.86 in the first method, and 99.60 ± 0.54, 100.43 ± 0.82 in the second method. The results obtained were compared statistically with those obtained by the official method and showed no significant differences regarding accuracy and precision. PMID:23675024

  18. A simple model for explosives formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, T.

    1993-04-01

    A simple model based on surface chemistry is developed, based an simple concepts of contact angle, wetting and spreading. Results of the modeling can be stated by two simplified ``rules of thumb``: (1) A liquid will spread on the surface of a solid if the surface tension of the liquid is lose than the surface free energy of the solid, and (2) The liquid having the surface tension nearest that of the solid will preferentially wet the surface of the solid. These two rules can then be used to define the parameters that constitute a process for formulating a plastic bonded explosive (PBX), which is a crystalline high-explosive material coated with a small amount of plastic polymeric material (the binder). The PBX then can be pressed to a high density, and machined to a specific shape. The pressed and machined explosive material can then be used in a physics experiment to study fundamental properties of either the explosive or some other material.

  19. A simple model for explosives formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, T.

    1993-01-01

    A simple model based on surface chemistry is developed, based an simple concepts of contact angle, wetting and spreading. Results of the modeling can be stated by two simplified rules of thumb'': (1) A liquid will spread on the surface of a solid if the surface tension of the liquid is lose than the surface free energy of the solid, and (2) The liquid having the surface tension nearest that of the solid will preferentially wet the surface of the solid. These two rules can then be used to define the parameters that constitute a process for formulating a plastic bonded explosive (PBX), which is a crystalline high-explosive material coated with a small amount of plastic polymeric material (the binder). The PBX then can be pressed to a high density, and machined to a specific shape. The pressed and machined explosive material can then be used in a physics experiment to study fundamental properties of either the explosive or some other material.

  20. A quasilinear formulation of turbulence driven current

    SciTech Connect

    McDevitt, C. J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2014-02-15

    Non-inductive current drive mechanisms, such as the familiar neoclassical bootstrap current correspond to an essential component to the realization of steady state tokamak operation. In this work, we discuss a novel collisionless mechanism through which a mean plasma current may be driven in the presence of microturbulence. In analogy with the traditional neoclassical bootstrap current drive mechanism, in which the collisional equilibrium established between trapped and passing electrons results in the formation of a steady state plasma current, here we show that resonant scattering of electrons by drift wave microturbulence provides an additional means of determining the equilibrium between trapped and passing electrons. The resulting collisionless equilibrium is shown to result in the formation of an equilibrium current whose magnitude is a function of the thermodynamic forces. A mean field formulation is utilized to incorporate the above components into a unified framework through which both collisional as well as collisionless current drive mechanisms may be self-consistently treated. Utilizing a linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator, the plasma current in the presence of both collisions as well as turbulent stresses is computed, allowing for the relative strength of these two mechanisms to be quantified as a function of collisionality and fluctuation amplitude.

  1. Controlled Release Formulations of Auxinic Herbicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Witold J.; Siłowiecki, Andrzej.; Romanowska, Iwona; Glazek, Mariola; Bajor, Justyna; Cieciwa, Katarzyna; Rychter, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    Controlled release formulations are applied extensively for the release of active ingredients such as plant protection agents and fertilizers in response to growing concern for ecological problems associated with increased use of plant protection chemicals required for intensive agricultural practices [1]. We synthesized oligomeric mixtures of (R,S)-3-hydroxy butyric acid chemically bonded with 2,4-D, Dicamba and MCPA herbicides (HBA) respectively, and determined their molecular structure and molecular weight dispersion by the size exclusion chromatography, proton magnetic resonance spectrometry and electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry. Further we carried out bioassays of herbicidal effectiveness of the HBA herbicides vs. series of dicotyledonous weeds and crop injury tests [2, 3, 4]. Field bioassays were accomplished according to the EPPO standards [5]. Groups of representative weeds (the development stages in the BCCH scale: 10 - 30) were selected as targets. Statistical variabilities were assessed by the Fisher LSD test for plants treated with the studied herbicides in form of HBA oligomers, the reference herbicides in form of dimethyl ammonium salts (DMA), and untreated plants. No statistically significant differences in the crop injuries caused by the HBA vs. the DMA reference formulation were observed. The effectiveness of the HBA herbicides was lower through the initial period (ca. 2 weeks) relative to the DMA salts, but a significant increase in the effectiveness of the HBA systems followed during the remaining fraction of each assay. After 6 weeks all observed efficiencies approached 100%. The death of weeds treated with the HBA herbicides was delayed when compared with the DMA reference herbicides. The delayed uptake observed for the HBA oligomers relative to the DMA salts was due to controlled release phenomena. In case of the DMA salts the total amount of active ingredients was available at the target site. By contrast, the amount of an active

  2. High-Order Entropy Stable Formulations for Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Fisher, Travis C.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic approach is presented for developing entropy stable (SS) formulations of any order for the Navier-Stokes equations. These SS formulations discretely conserve mass, momentum, energy and satisfy a mathematical entropy inequality. They are valid for smooth as well as discontinuous flows provided sufficient dissipation is added at shocks and discontinuities. Entropy stable formulations exist for all diagonal norm, summation-by-parts (SBP) operators, including all centered finite-difference operators, Legendre collocation finite-element operators, and certain finite-volume operators. Examples are presented using various entropy stable formulations that demonstrate the current state-of-the-art of these schemes.

  3. Concentrated formulations and methods for neutralizing chemical and biological toxants

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.; Betty, Rita G.; Tadros, Maher E.

    2004-04-20

    A formulation and method of making and using that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological toxants, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents. The aqueous formulation is non-toxic and non-corrosive and can be delivered as a long-lasting foam, spray, or fog. The formulation includes solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the CW or BW toxant susceptible to attack, so that a nucleophillic agent can attack the compound via a hydrolysis or oxidation reaction. The formulation can kill up to 99.99999% of bacterial spores within one hour of exposure.

  4. The psychiatric cultural formulation: translating medical anthropology into clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2012-03-01

    This article reviews proposed revisions to the DSM-IV Outline for Cultural Formulation for clinical practice. The author begins by exploring the theoretical development of and assumptions involved in the Cultural Formulation. A case presentation is then used to demonstrate shortcomings in the current implementation of the Cultural Formulation based on older definitions of culture. Finally, the author recommends practical questions based on the growing anthropological literature concerning the interpersonal elements of culture and the social course of illness. A simple clear format that clinically translates social science concepts has the potential to increase use of the Cultural Formulation by all psychiatrists, not just those specializing in cultural psychiatry.

  5. Accelerating Vaccine Formulation Development Using Design of Experiment Stability Studies.

    PubMed

    Ahl, Patrick L; Mensch, Christopher; Hu, Binghua; Pixley, Heidi; Zhang, Lan; Dieter, Lance; Russell, Ryann; Smith, William J; Przysiecki, Craig; Kosinski, Mike; Blue, Jeffrey T

    2016-10-01

    Vaccine drug product thermal stability often depends on formulation input factors and how they interact. Scientific understanding and professional experience typically allows vaccine formulators to accurately predict the thermal stability output based on formulation input factors such as pH, ionic strength, and excipients. Thermal stability predictions, however, are not enough for regulators. Stability claims must be supported by experimental data. The Quality by Design approach of Design of Experiment (DoE) is well suited to describe formulation outputs such as thermal stability in terms of formulation input factors. A DoE approach particularly at elevated temperatures that induce accelerated degradation can provide empirical understanding of how vaccine formulation input factors and interactions affect vaccine stability output performance. This is possible even when clear scientific understanding of particular formulation stability mechanisms are lacking. A DoE approach was used in an accelerated 37(°)C stability study of an aluminum adjuvant Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B vaccine. Formulation stability differences were identified after only 15 days into the study. We believe this study demonstrates the power of combining DoE methodology with accelerated stress stability studies to accelerate and improve vaccine formulation development programs particularly during the preformulation stage. PMID:27522919

  6. Formulation of electrically conductive, thermal-control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shai, M. C.

    1977-01-01

    Formulation of electrically conductive, thermal-control coatings was undertaken for use on the International Sun Earth Explorer (ISEE) spacecraft. Unsuccessful formulation efforts as well as the successful use of oxide pigments fired at 1175 C are described. Problems attributed to reactivity of specific coating vehicles exposed to high humidity are discussed. Measurement and testing methods, including resulting data are mentioned, but the emphasis, in this report, is placed on coating formulation and application techniques. Methods of varying, as desired, optical properties are also described as well as formulations of white, low-absorptance coatings.

  7. Comparison of Aerosol Formulations of Formoterol Fumarate and Budesonide

    PubMed Central

    Nirale, N. M.; Nagarsenker, M. S.; Mendon, S. B.; Chanagare, R.; Katkurwar, A.; Lugade, V.

    2011-01-01

    The aerodynamic diameter of pharmaceutical aerosols is the main factor governing their deposition in the human respiratory tract. Particle size of the pharmaceutical aerosols is characterized by liquid impingers and Andersen Cascade Impactors. The present study was aimed at comparing two metered dose inhaler formulation containing formoterol fumarate (6 μg) and budesonide (200 μg). These two formulations were evaluated by using Twin Stage Impinger and Andersen Cascade Impactor. Study revealed that developed metered dose inhaler I formulation of the formoterol fumarate and budesonide had lower mass median aerodynamic diameter and higher fine particle fraction than marketed formulation. PMID:22457551

  8. Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of a Marketed Herbomineral Formulation: Naga Bhasma

    PubMed Central

    Garg, M.; Das, S.; Singh, G.

    2012-01-01

    In the practice of Ayurveda, where herbomineral formulations are said to be made biocompatible through specific processes like Shodhana and Marana, the western medical science on the contrary has raised the safety concerns of these formulations in the recent past. In the present study, comparative physico-chemical analysis of Naga bhasma, a herbo-mineral preparation having a reputation of miraculous drug commonly used to treat several health disorders, was carried out using five marketed formulations through analytical methods like differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray difraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and also subjected for particle size analysis and estimation of trace and heavy metals to access the safety of these formulation. The results revealed variable observations regarding particle size, metal form and content of lead. The presence of free lead in five different formulations indicated towards the possible risk of severe side effects to the consumer. Present findings certainly put doubt over the safety of this formulation but at the same time, variation in the results with all five formulations also indicated that these formulations were not prepared as per the mentioned Ayurvedic text. Hence, enforcement of strict regulatory guidelines is strongly warranted before launching into the market. Further, a series of biological studies need to be conducted before taking any final verdict on the safety of this formulation. PMID:23798779

  9. Comparative physicochemical evaluation of a marketed herbomineral formulation: naga bhasma.

    PubMed

    Garg, M; Das, S; Singh, G

    2012-11-01

    In the practice of Ayurveda, where herbomineral formulations are said to be made biocompatible through specific processes like Shodhana and Marana, the western medical science on the contrary has raised the safety concerns of these formulations in the recent past. In the present study, comparative physico-chemical analysis of Naga bhasma, a herbo-mineral preparation having a reputation of miraculous drug commonly used to treat several health disorders, was carried out using five marketed formulations through analytical methods like differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray difraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and also subjected for particle size analysis and estimation of trace and heavy metals to access the safety of these formulation. The results revealed variable observations regarding particle size, metal form and content of lead. The presence of free lead in five different formulations indicated towards the possible risk of severe side effects to the consumer. Present findings certainly put doubt over the safety of this formulation but at the same time, variation in the results with all five formulations also indicated that these formulations were not prepared as per the mentioned Ayurvedic text. Hence, enforcement of strict regulatory guidelines is strongly warranted before launching into the market. Further, a series of biological studies need to be conducted before taking any final verdict on the safety of this formulation. PMID:23798779

  10. Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation Session 6: Vaccine &Adjuvant Formulation & Production 15-17 May 2013, Lausanne, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Fox, Christopher B

    2013-09-01

    The Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation meeting aims to fill a critical gap in current vaccine development efforts by bringing together formulation scientists and immunologists to emphasize the importance of rational formulation design in order to optimize vaccine and adjuvant bioactivity, safety, and manufacturability. Session 6 on Vaccine and Adjuvant Formulation and Production provided three examples of this theme, with speakers emphasizing the need for extensive physicochemical characterization of adjuvant-antigen interactions, the rational formulation design of a CD8+ T cell-inducing adjuvant based on immunological principles, and the development and production of a rabies vaccine by a developing country manufacturer. Throughout the session, the practical importance of sound formulation and manufacturing design accompanied by analytical characterization was highlighted.

  11. Pediatric drug formulations: a review of challenges and progress.

    PubMed

    Ivanovska, Verica; Rademaker, Carin M A; van Dijk, Liset; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K

    2014-08-01

    Children differ from adults in many aspects of pharmacotherapy, including capabilities for drug administration, medicine-related toxicity, and taste preferences. It is essential that pediatric medicines are formulated to best suit a child's age, size, physiologic condition, and treatment requirements. To ensure adequate treatment of all children, different routes of administration, dosage forms, and strengths may be required. Many existing formulations are not suitable for children, which often leads to off-label and unlicensed use of adult medicines. New regulations, additional funding opportunities, and innovative collaborative research initiatives have resulted in some recent progress in the development of pediatric formulations. These advances include a paradigm shift toward oral solid formulations and a focus on novel preparations, including flexible, dispersible, and multiparticulate oral solid dosage forms. Such developments have enabled greater dose flexibility, easier administration, and better acceptance of drug formulations in children. However, new pediatric formulations address only a small part of all therapeutic needs in children; moreover, they are not always available. Five key issues need to be addressed to stimulate the further development of better medicines for children: (1) the continued prioritization of unmet formulation needs, particularly drug delivery in neonates and treatment gaps in pediatric cancers and childhood diseases in developing countries; (2) a better use of existing data to facilitate pediatric formulation development; (3) innovative technologies in adults that can be used to develop new pediatric formulations; (4) clinical feedback and practice-based evidence on the impact of novel formulations; and (5) improved access to new pediatric formulations. PMID:25022739

  12. Formulation-dependent pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol in rats.

    PubMed

    Dutta, S; Ebling, W F

    1998-01-01

    Propofol, a highly lipophilic anaesthetic, is commercially formulated as a lipid emulsion (diprivan) for intravenous use. This formulation is characterized by rapid onset and offset of effect after rapid intravenous administration and an effect-site equilibration half-life (t1/2kE0) of 1.7 min in rats. Paradoxically these characteristics are usually associated with relatively water-soluble anaesthetics. To test the influence of the formulation on propofol pharmacokinetics, effect-site equilibration kinetics and pharmacodynamics we performed a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study of propofol in chronically instrumented rats after administration in a lipid-free formulation. In this report we present the results of this study and compare these results with previous data obtained with rats receiving propofol in the emulsion formulation. Compared with the emulsion formulation the distribution volumes (VdC and VdSS) were significantly higher but the t1/2kE0 (2.0 min) was similar for the lipid-free formulation. The concentration-effect relationship was biphasic. Propofol effect-site concentrations required to achieve 50% activation, peak activation, 50% inhibition of peak activation effect and maximum inhibition were significantly lower, indicating a higher apparent steady-state potency for the lipid-free formulation compared with the emulsion formulation. The evanescent characteristics of propofol's effect-time-course disappeared when the anaesthetic was administered in the lipid-free formulation. These results suggest that the nature of the formulation can profoundly influence the clinical characteristics of intravenously administered drugs by modifying the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics or both.

  13. Wind stress: Which formulation for coastal applications?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jenny; Mercier, Francois; Amoudry, Laurent; Souza, Alejandro

    2013-04-01

    The accurate parameterisation of momentum and heat transfer across the air-sea interface is vital for realistic simulation of the atmosphere-ocean system. In many modelling applications accurate representation of the wind stress is required to numerically reproduce surge, coastal ocean circulation, surface waves and turbulence. Different formulations can be implemented and impact the accuracy of: the instantaneous and long-term residual circulation; and the generation of coastal storm conditions. This, in turn, affects predictions of storm impact, sediment pathways, and coastal resilience to climate change. The specific numerical formulation needs careful selection to ensure the accuracy of the simulations. We investigate two wind stress formulae widely used in respectively the ocean circulation and the storm surge communities. We focus on an application to the NW region of the UK, which is a specific case study area in two UK projects: the first investigating the evolution of coastal sediment systems and sediment pathways at the mesoscale (iCOASST: integrating coastal sediment systems), and the second investigating effective coastal adaptation to enhance resilience of coastal power stations to climate change (ARCoES: Adaptation and Resilience of Coastal Energy Supply). We employ model-data comparisons at two nearshore and one estuarine ADCP stations in Liverpool Bay, which is a hyper-tidal region of freshwater influence with vast intertidal areas. The period of study (February-March 2008) covers both calm and extreme conditions to fully test the robustness of: (i) The 10 m wind stress component of the CORE (Common Ocean Reference Experiment) bulk formulae used in operational barotropic-baroclinic global circulation modelling. The full set of formulae consists of methods to parameterise a set of atmospheric variables. (ii) The Charnock parameterisation used in barotropic surge modelling to capture increased surface roughness due to the presence of waves on the

  14. Pharmacokinetics of Intranasal Scopolamine Gel Formulation (Inscop)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Jason L.; Du, Brian; Daniels, Vernie; Simmons, Rita; Buckey, Jay; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Space Motion Sickness (SMS) is commonly experienced by astronauts and often requires treatment with medications during early flight days of space missions. Orally administered scopolamine is commonly used by astronauts to prevent SMS. Bioavailability of oral (PO) SMS medications is often low and highly variable. Intranasal (IN) administration of medications achieves higher and more reliable bioavailability than from an equivalent PO dose. Methods: To test the safety and reliability of INSCOP, two clinical studies were performed, a dose escalation study and a comparison study administering INSCOP during normal ambulation and head down tilt bedrest. Efficacy was evaluated by testing INSCOP with two, different motion sickness inducing paradigms. Results: Preliminary results indicate that INSCOP demonstrates linear pharmacokinetics and a low side effect profile. In head down tilt bedrest, relative bioavailability of INSCOP was increased for females at both doses (0.2 and 0.4 mg) and for males at the higher dose (0.4 mg) but is reduced at the lower dose (0.2 mg) compared to normal ambulation. INSCOP displays gender specific differences during ABR. One of the treatment efficacy trials conducted at Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center demonstrated that INSCOP is efficacious at both doses (0.2 and 0.4 mg) in suppressing motion sickness symptoms as indicated by longer chair ride times with INSCOP administration than with placebo, and efficacy increases with dose. Similar results were seen using another motion sickness simulator, the motion simulator dome, at the Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, with significantly increased time in the dome in motion-susceptible subjects when using INSCOP compared to untreated controls. Conclusion: Higher bioavailability, linear pharmacokinetics, a low incidence of side effects, and a favorable efficacy profile make INSCOP a desirable formulation for prophylactic and rescue treatment of astronauts in space and military personnel on

  15. Formulating liquid ethers for microtubular SOFCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Kevin; Slinn, Matthew; Preece, John

    One of the key problems of applying solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) in transportation is that conventional fuels like kerosene and diesel do not operate directly in SOFCs without prereforming to hydrogen and carbon monoxide which can be handled by the nickel cermet anode. SOFCs can internally reform certain hydrocarbon molecules such as methanol and methane. However, other liquid fuels usable in petrol or diesel internal combustion engines (ICEs) have not easily been reformable directly on the anode. This paper describes a search for liquid fuels which can be mixed with petrol or diesel and also injected directly into an SOFC without destroying the nickel anode. When fuel molecules such as octane are injected onto the conventional nickel/yttria stabilised zirconia (Ni/YSZ) SOFC fuel electrode, the anode rapidly becomes blocked by carbon deposition and the cell power drops to near zero in minutes. This degeneration of the anode can be inhibited by injection of air or water into the anode or by some upstream reforming just before entry to the SOFC. Some smaller molecules such as methane, methanol and methanoic acid produce a slight tendency to carbon deposition but not sufficient to prevent long term operation. In this project we have investigated a large number of molecules and now found that some liquid ethers do not significantly damage the anode when directly injected. These molecules and formulations with other components have been evaluated in this study. The theory put forward in this paper is that carbon-carbon bonds in the fuel are the main reason for anode damage. By testing a number of fuels without such bonds, particularly liquid ethers such as methyl formate and dimethoxy methane, it has been shown that SOFCs can run without substantial carbon formation. The proposal is that conventional fuels can be doped with these molecules to allow hybrid operation of an ICE/SOFC device.

  16. The operator tensor formulation of quantum theory.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Lucien

    2012-07-28

    In this paper, we provide what might be regarded as a manifestly covariant presentation of discrete quantum theory. A typical quantum experiment has a bunch of apparatuses placed so that quantum systems can pass between them. We regard each use of an apparatus, along with some given outcome on the apparatus (a certain detector click or a certain meter reading for example), as an operation. An operation (e.g. B(b(2)a(3))(a(1))) can have zero or more quantum systems inputted into it and zero or more quantum systems outputted from it. The operation B(b(2)a(3))(a(1)) has one system of type a inputted, and one system of type b and one system of type a outputted. We can wire together operations to form circuits, for example, A(a(1))B(b(2)a(3))(a(1))C(b(2)a(3)). Each repeated integer label here denotes a wire connecting an output to an input of the same type. As each operation in a circuit has an outcome associated with it, a circuit represents a set of outcomes that can happen in a run of the experiment. In the operator tensor formulation of quantum theory, each operation corresponds to an operator tensor. For example, the operation B(b(2)a(3))(a(1)) corresponds to the operator tensor B(b(2)a(3))(a(1)). Further, the probability for a general circuit is given by replacing operations with corresponding operator tensors as in Prob(A(a(1))B(b(2)a(3))(a(1))C(b(2)a(3))) = Â(a(1))B(b(2)a(3))(a(1))C(b(2)a(3)). Repeated integer labels indicate that we multiply in the associated subspace and then take the partial trace over that subspace. Operator tensors must be physical (namely, they must have positive input transpose and satisfy a certain normalization condition).

  17. Concise CIO based precession-nutation formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitaine, N.; Wallace, P. T.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The IAU 2000/2006 precession-nutation models have precision goals measured in microarcseconds. To reach this level of performance has required series containing terms at over 1300 frequencies and involving several thousand amplitude coefficients. There are many astronomical applications for which such precision is not required and the associated heavy computations are wasteful. This justifies developing smaller models that achieve adequate precision with greatly reduced computing costs. Aims: We discuss strategies for developing simplified IAU 2000/2006 precession-nutation procedures that offer a range of compromises between accuracy and computing costs. Methods: The chain of transformations linking celestial and terrestrial coordinates comprises frame bias, precession-nutation, Earth rotation and polar motion. We address the bias and precession-nutation (NPB) portion of the chain, linking the Geocentric Celestial Reference System (GCRS) with the Celestial Intermediate Reference System (CIRS), the latter based on the Celestial Intermediate Pole (CIP) and Celestial Intermediate Origin (CIO). Starting from direct series that deliver the CIP coordinates X,Y and (via the quantity s + XY/2) the CIO locator s, we look at the opportunities for simplification. Results: The biggest reductions come from truncating the series, but some additional gains can be made in the areas of the matrix formulation, the expressions for the nutation arguments and by subsuming long period effects into the bias quantities. Three example models are demonstrated that approximate the IAU 2000/2006 CIP to accuracies of 1 mas, 16 mas and 0.4 arcsec throughout 1995-2050 but with computation costs reduced by 1, 2 and 3 orders of magnitude compared with the full model. Appendices A to G are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. A new formulation for feedforward neural networks.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Saman; Tolson, Bryan A

    2011-10-01

    Feedforward neural network is one of the most commonly used function approximation techniques and has been applied to a wide variety of problems arising from various disciplines. However, neural networks are black-box models having multiple challenges/difficulties associated with training and generalization. This paper initially looks into the internal behavior of neural networks and develops a detailed interpretation of the neural network functional geometry. Based on this geometrical interpretation, a new set of variables describing neural networks is proposed as a more effective and geometrically interpretable alternative to the traditional set of network weights and biases. Then, this paper develops a new formulation for neural networks with respect to the newly defined variables; this reformulated neural network (ReNN) is equivalent to the common feedforward neural network but has a less complex error response surface. To demonstrate the learning ability of ReNN, in this paper, two training methods involving a derivative-based (a variation of backpropagation) and a derivative-free optimization algorithms are employed. Moreover, a new measure of regularization on the basis of the developed geometrical interpretation is proposed to evaluate and improve the generalization ability of neural networks. The value of the proposed geometrical interpretation, the ReNN approach, and the new regularization measure are demonstrated across multiple test problems. Results show that ReNN can be trained more effectively and efficiently compared to the common neural networks and the proposed regularization measure is an effective indicator of how a network would perform in terms of generalization.

  19. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  20. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  1. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  2. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of self-emulsifying formulations of Cinnarizine.

    PubMed

    Vithlani, Shyam; Sarraf, Shruthi; Chaw, Cheng Shu

    2012-10-01

    The main objectives of this study were to improve the aqueous solubility and to modify in vitro dissolution profile of hydrophobic drug using self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS). SEDDS were formulated using Capmul PG-12, Cremophor RH 40 and Tween 20 at different weight ratios and incorporated with Cinnarizine. The drug incorporation into pre-concentrate and drug solubility in phosphate buffer (pH 7.2) were investigated. In addition, the mean droplet size and drug release profile of the SEDDS were also determined. The drug incorporation was over 120 mg per 0.5 g pre-concentrate regardless of the composition of the formulations. The solubility of Cinnarizine in phosphate buffer (pH 7.2) was at least 1500 μM in the SEDDS. Formulations with only 10% w/w Capmul PG-12 were less than 20 nm in mean diameter while those produced with at least 20% w/w Capmul PG-12 were more than 100 nm regardless of the ratios of Cremophor RH 40 to Tween 20. SEDDS showed a significant increase of the mean percentage drug release than pure drug (p < 0.0001). In general, the SEDDS with 30% w/w of Capmul PG-12 provided the greatest enhancement in drug solubility in phosphate buffer as well as rapid drug release despite forming larger droplets upon emulsification. The combination of Capmul PG-12, Tween 20 and Cremophor RH 40 can produce SEDDS which can be used as an alternative dosage form for poorly water soluble drug. PMID:22196372

  3. Effect of formulation variables on the percutaneous permeation of ketoprofen from gel formulations.

    PubMed

    El-Kattan, A F; Asbill, C S; Kim, N; Michniak, B B

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to evaluate the effect of four terpene enhancers, enhancer lipophilicity, and ethanol concentration using hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and two Pluronic F-127 (PF-127) gel formulations on the percutaneous permeation of ketoprofen. All experiments were conducted using hairless mouse skin in vitro. Data recorded over 24 hr was compared with that for control gels (containing no terpene) using Franz diffusion cells. In the three gel formulations, the highest increase in the ketoprofen permeation was observed using limonene followed by nerolidol, fenchone, and thymol. Relationships were established between terpene lipophilicity, enhancement ratios for ketoprofen flux (ERflux), and the cumulative amount of ketoprofen after 24 hr (Q24) from the three gel formulations. However, no correlation was established between terpene lipophilicity and ketoprofen skin content values at 24 hr. Ethanol had a synergistic effect on the enhancing activity of the terpenes. Increasing the concentration of ethanol from 10% to 50% was associated with an increase in the permeation of ketoprofen. For example, use of PF-127 gel control (no terpene was included) containing 10% ethanol resulted in a ketoprofen flux of 19 +/- 2 microg/cm2 h and 481 +/- 131 microg/cm2 for Q24. Furthermore, for PF-127 containing 33% ethanol the flux was 34 +/- 3 microg/cm2 h and Q24 was 1,420 +/- 111 microg/cm2. However, HPC gel control that contained 50% ethanol resulted in a ketoprofen flux of 67 +/- 6 microg/cm2 h and 2,839 +/- 222 microg/cm2 for Q24. PMID:10989915

  4. Bioavailability of organoclay formulations of atrazine in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pesticide formulations based on organoclays have been proposed to prolong the efficacy and reduce the environmental impact of pesticides in soil. This research addressed the question of whether organoclay-based formulations of atrazine are irreversibly sorbed or are bioavailable for bacterial degrad...

  5. A New Time Domain Formulation for Broadband Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, J.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    A new analytic result in acoustics called "Formulation 1B," proposed by Farassat, is used to compute the loading noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term. The formulation contains a far field surface integral that depends on the time derivative and the surface gradient of the pressure on the airfoil, as well as a contour integral on the boundary of the airfoil surface. As a first test case, the new formulation is used to compute the noise radiated from a flat plate, moving through a sinusoidal gust of constant frequency. The unsteady surface pressure for this test case is analytically specified from a result based on linear airfoil theory. This test case is used to examine the velocity scaling properties of Formulation 1B and to demonstrate its equivalence to Formulation 1A of Farassat. The new acoustic formulation, again with an analytic surface pressure, is then used to predict broadband noise radiated from an airfoil immersed in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. The results are compared with experimental data previously reported by Paterson and Amiet. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained. Finally, an alternative form of Formulation 1B is described for statistical analysis of broadband noise.

  6. A New Time Domain Formulation for Broadband Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Jay H.; Farassat, Fereidoun

    2002-01-01

    A new analytic result in acoustics called "Formulation 1B," proposed by Farassat, is used to compute the loading noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term. The formulation contains a far field surface integral that depends on the time derivative and the surface gradient of the pressure on the airfoil, as well as a contour integral on the boundary of the airfoil surface. As a first test case, the new formulation is used to compute the noise radiated from a flat plate, moving through a sinusoidal gust of constant frequency. The unsteady surface pressure for this test case is analytically specied from a result based on linear airfoil theory. This test case is used to examine the velocity scaling properties of Formulation 1B and to demonstrate its equivalence to Formulation 1A of Farassat. The new acoustic formulation, again with an analytic surface pressure, is then used to predict broadband noise radiated from an airfoil immersed in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. The results are compared with experimental data previously reported by Paterson and Amiet. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained. Finally, an alternative form of Formulation 1B is described for statistical analysis of broadband noise.

  7. Broadband Noise Predictions Based on a New Aeroacoustic Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, J.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    A new analytic result in acoustics called 'Formulation 1B,' proposed by Farassat, is used to compute the loading noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term. The formulation contains a far-field surface integral that depends on the time derivative and the surface gradient of the pressure on the airfoil, as well as a contour integral on the boundary of the airfoil surface. As a first test case, the new formulation is used to compute the noise radiated from a flat plate, moving through a sinusoidal gust of constant frequency. The unsteady surface pressure for this test case is specified analytically from a result that is based on linear airfoil theory. This test case is used to examine the velocity scaling properties of Formulation 1B, and to demonstrate its equivalence to Formulation 1A, of Farassat. The new acoustic formulation, again with an analytic surface pressure, is then used to predict broadband noise radiated from an airfoil immersed in homogeneous turbulence. The results are compared with experimental data previously reported by Paterson and Amiet. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained. The predicted results also agree very well with those of Paterson and Amiet, who used a frequency-domain approach. Finally, an alternative form of Formulation 1B is described for statistical analysis of broadband noise.

  8. Alumina-encapsulated vaccine formulation with improved thermostability and immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hangyu; Wang, Guangchuan; Li, Xiao-Feng; Li, Yaling; Zhu, Shun-Ya; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Tang, Ruikang

    2016-05-11

    Developing vaccine formulations with excellent thermostability and immunogenicity remains a great challenge. By in situ encapsulating a live-attenuated strain of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) in alumina, we obtained a robust vaccine formulation named EV71@NanoAlum, which features significantly enhanced thermostability and immunogenicity. This attempt follows a material-based tactic for vaccine improvement. PMID:27098047

  9. Completed Beltrami-Michell Formulation for Analyzing Radially Symmetrical Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaljevic, Igor; Saigal, Sunil; Hopkins, Dale A.; Patnaik, Surya N.

    1994-01-01

    A force method formulation, the completed Beltrami-Michell formulation (CBMF), has been developed for analyzing boundary value problems in elastic continua. The CBMF is obtained by augmenting the classical Beltrami-Michell formulation with novel boundary compatibility conditions. It can analyze general elastic continua with stress, displacement, or mixed boundary conditions. The CBMF alleviates the limitations of the classical formulation, which can solve stress boundary value problems only. In this report, the CBMF is specialized for plates and shells. All equations of the CBMF, including the boundary compatibility conditions, are derived from the variational formulation of the integrated force method (IFM). These equations are defined only in terms of stresses. Their solution for kinematically stable elastic continua provides stress fields without any reference to displacements. In addition, a stress function formulation for plates and shells is developed by augmenting the classical Airy's formulation with boundary compatibility conditions expressed in terms of the stress function. The versatility of the CBMF and the augmented stress function formulation is demonstrated through analytical solutions of several mixed boundary value problems. The example problems include a composite circular plate and a composite circular cylindrical shell under the simultaneous actions of mechanical and thermal loads.

  10. 38 CFR 21.6515 - Formulation of rehabilitation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... rehabilitation plan. 21.6515 Section 21.6515 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Temporary Program of Vocational Training and Rehabilitation § 21.6515 Formulation of rehabilitation plan. (a) Formulation of plan. Following an...

  11. 38 CFR 21.6515 - Formulation of rehabilitation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... rehabilitation plan. 21.6515 Section 21.6515 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Temporary Program of Vocational Training and Rehabilitation § 21.6515 Formulation of rehabilitation plan. (a) Formulation of plan. Following an...

  12. In vitro study on sustained release capsule formulation of acetazolamide.

    PubMed

    Pandey, V P; Kannan, K; Manavalan, R; Desai, N

    2003-10-01

    In the present study formulation of sustained release capsule of acetazolamide 250 mg was tried using nonpareil seeds. Nonpareil seeds were coated with drug, polyvinylpyrrolidone, glyceryl monostearate, microcrystalline wax, and glyceryl distearate either individually or in combination to achieve sustained release capsule 250 mg. In successful formulation 20% drug coated pellets and 80% wax coated pellets were taken. Wax coated pellets for successful formulation contained coating of microcrystalline wax and glyceryl distearate on drug coated pellets of the same concentration of 1.6% w/w. Successful formulated sustained release capsule 250 mg of acetazolamide was compared in in vitro study with theoretical sustained release formulation suggested by wagner and one marketed sustained release capsule 250 mg. Formulated capsule showed result superior to or on par with marketed capsule. For successful formulation pellets were filled in '1' size hard gelatin capsule and stability study was carried out in hot air over at room temperature and 45 degrees C for 5 weeks. The formulation was found stable in respect of drug content and release rate.

  13. Computer-Assisted Instruction; How to Solve Drug Formulation Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezei, Janos; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Computer simulation of drug formulation problems involves a database of pharmacological properties, chemical stability, and compatibility data on 20 active ingredients, physiological factors and requirements for parenteral solutions, and additives. The user gathers data from the database, formulates a stable and effective solution, and the drug is…

  14. Formulation as Evidence of Understanding in Teacher-Student Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Ian

    2010-01-01

    As we regularly find in exchanges outside the classroom, formulating (the rephrasing of what has been said) makes use of such conversational skills as active listening, elaboration, and affiliation as well as the precise timing of taking turns to keep the talk going. This paper examines how formulations occur in talk outside the classroom…

  15. Mixed finite element formulation applied to shape optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodrigues, Helder; Taylor, John E.; Kikuchi, Noboru

    1988-01-01

    The development presented introduces a general form of mixed formulation for the optimal shape design problem. The associated optimality conditions are easily obtained without resorting to highly elaborate mathematical developments. Also, the physical significance of the adjoint problem is clearly defined with this formulation.

  16. Problem Formulation and Resolution in Online Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Richard F.; Bullen, Mark; Loftus, Jay

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses an exploratory study to investigate the existence, and nature, of student problem formulation and resolution processes in an undergraduate online Problem-Based Learning (PBL) course in Agricultural Sciences. We report on the use of a content analysis instrument developed to measure problem formulation and resolution (PFR)…

  17. Formulation of Higher Education Institutional Strategy Using Operational Research Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labib, Ashraf; Read, Martin; Gladstone-Millar, Charlotte; Tonge, Richard; Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a framework is proposed for the formulation of a higher education institutional (HEI) strategy. This work provides a practical example, through a case study, to demonstrate how the proposed framework can be applied to the issue of formulation of HEI strategy. The proposed hybrid model is based on two operational research…

  18. Advances in device and formulation technologies for pulmonary drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chan, John Gar Yan; Wong, Jennifer; Zhou, Qi Tony; Leung, Sharon Shui Yee; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2014-08-01

    Inhaled pharmaceuticals are formulated and delivered differently according to the therapeutic indication. However, specific device-formulation coupling is often fickle, and new medications or indications also demand new strategies. The discontinuation of chlorofluorocarbon propellants has seen replacement of older metered dose inhalers with dry powder inhaler formulations. High-dose dry powder inhalers are increasingly seen as an alternative dosage form for nebulised medications. In other cases, new medications have completely bypassed conventional inhalers and been formulated for use with unique inhalers such as the Staccato® device. Among these different devices, integration of software and electronic assistance has become a shared trend. This review covers recent device and formulation advances that are forming the current landscape of inhaled therapeutics. PMID:24728868

  19. Matter coupling in partially constrained vielbein formulation of massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Felice, Antonio De; Mukohyama, Shinji; Gümrükçüoğlu, A. Emir; Heisenberg, Lavinia E-mail: emir.gumrukcuoglu@nottingham.ac.uk E-mail: shinji.mukohyama@ipmu.jp

    2016-01-01

    We consider a linear effective vielbein matter coupling without introducing the Boulware-Deser ghost in ghost-free massive gravity. This is achieved in the partially constrained vielbein formulation. We first introduce the formalism and prove the absence of ghost at all scales. As next we investigate the cosmological application of this coupling in this new formulation. We show that even if the background evolution accords with the metric formulation, the perturbations display important different features in the partially constrained vielbein formulation. We study the cosmological perturbations of the two branches of solutions separately. The tensor perturbations coincide with those in the metric formulation. Concerning the vector and scalar perturbations, the requirement of absence of ghost and gradient instabilities yields slightly different allowed parameter space.

  20. New Formulation of Statistical Mechanics Using Thermal Pure Quantum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Sho; Shimizu, Akira

    2014-03-01

    We formulate statistical mechanics based on a pure quantum state, which we call a "thermal pure quantum (TPQ) state". A single TPQ state gives not only equilibrium values of mechanical variables, such as magnetization and correlation functions, but also those of genuine thermodynamic variables and thermodynamic functions, such as entropy and free energy. Among many possible TPQ states, we discuss the canonical TPQ state, the TPQ state whose temperature is specified. In the TPQ formulation of statistical mechanics, thermal fluctuations are completely included in quantum-mechanical fluctuations. As a consequence, TPQ states have much larger quantum entanglement than the equilibrium density operators of the ensemble formulation. We also show that the TPQ formulation is very useful in practical computations, by applying the formulation to a frustrated two-dimensional quantum spin system.

  1. The Need for Pediatric Formulations to Treat Children with HIV

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Over 3.2 million children worldwide are infected with HIV, but only 24% of these children receive antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART adherence among children is a crucial part of managing human-immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and extending the life and health of infected children. Important causes of poor adherence are formulation- and regimen-specific properties, including poor palatability, large pill burden, short dosing intervals, and the complex storage and transportation of drugs. This review aims to summarize the various regimen- and formulation-based barriers to ART adherence among children to support the need for new and innovative pediatric formulations for antiretroviral therapy (ART). Detailing the arguments both for and against investing in the development of pediatric HIV medications, as well as highlighting recent advances in pediatric ART formulation research, provides a synopsis of the current data related to pediatric ART formulations and adherence. PMID:27413548

  2. Applications of novel drug delivery system for herbal formulations.

    PubMed

    Ajazuddin; Saraf, S

    2010-10-01

    Over the past several years, great advances have been made on development of novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) for plant actives and extracts. The variety of novel herbal formulations like polymeric nanoparticles, nanocapsules, liposomes, phytosomes, nanoemulsions, microsphere, transferosomes, and ethosomes has been reported using bioactive and plant extracts. The novel formulations are reported to have remarkable advantages over conventional formulations of plant actives and extracts which include enhancement of solubility, bioavailability, protection from toxicity, enhancement of pharmacological activity, enhancement of stability, improved tissue macrophages distribution, sustained delivery, and protection from physical and chemical degradation. The present review highlights the current status of the development of novel herbal formulations and summarizes their method of preparation, type of active ingredients, size, entrapment efficiency, route of administration, biological activity and applications of novel formulations. PMID:20471457

  3. Feasibility of Tissue Plasminogen Activator Formulated for Pulmonary Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, John S.; Nayar, Rajiv; Campos, Jackie; Hybertson, Brooks M.; Zhou, Yue; Manning, Mark Cornell; Repine, John E.; Stringer, Kathleen A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to assess the feasibility of a pulmonary formulation of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for nebulization into the airway by measuring protein stability, biologic activity, particle size, and estimating human lung distribution. Methods Formulations were derived by varying the surfactant and protein concentrations. Protein stability and recovery of each nebulized tPA formulation were assessed by ultraviolet spectroscopy. Formulations that met protein stability feasibility criteria were assessed for biologic and fibrinolytic activities. Biologic activity was determined by their ability to inhibit superoxide anion production by human neutrophils. Fibrinolytic activity was assessed by the cleavage of plasminogen to plasmin. Aerodynamic properties were assessed using a cascade impactor, and an estimation of human airway deposition was made via a human lung replica. Results Twenty-seven tPA formulations were initially assessed, 15 of which met protein stability criteria. Subsequently, three of these formulations maintained biologic and fibrinolytic activities. These formulations exhibited particle sizes of 2.4–3.1 μm, and had respirable doses ≥65%. A formulation of 1 mg mL−1 tPA and 0.1% Tween 80 exhibited a 45% deposition in the lower airways of a human lung replica. Conclusions A suitable pulmonary tPA formulation was identified that, following nebulization, maintained protein stability as well as biologic and fibrinolytic activities, and resulted in an optimal respirable dose and human airway deposition. This formulation may be applicable in the treatment of lung diseases, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome by permitting targeted pulmonary delivery of a therapeutic protein to the lungs. PMID:16180128

  4. A formulation to encapsulate nootkatone for tick control.

    PubMed

    Behle, Robert W; Flor-Weiler, Lina B; Bharadwaj, Anuja; Stafford, Kirby C

    2011-11-01

    Nootkatone is a component of grapefruit oil that is toxic to the disease-vectoring tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, but unfortunately causes phytotoxicity to treated plants and has a short residual activity due to volatility. We prepared a lignin-encapsulated nootkatone formulation to compare with a previously used emulsifiable formulation for volatility, plant phytotoxicity, and toxicity to unfed nymphs of I. scapularis. Volatility of nootkatone was measured directly by trapping nootkatone vapor in a closed system and indirectly by measuring nootkatone residue on treated filter paper after exposure to simulated sunlight (Xenon). After 24 h in the closed system, traps collected only 15% of the nootkatone applied as the encapsulated formulation compared with 40% applied as the emulsifiable formulation. After a 1-h light exposure, the encapsulated formulation retained 92% of the nootkatone concentration compared with only 26% retained by the emulsifiable formulation. For plant phytotoxicity, cabbage, Brassica oleracea L., leaves treated with the encapsulated formulation expressed less necrosis, retaining greater leaf weight compared with leaves treated with the emusifiable formulation. The nootkatone in the emulsifiable formulation was absorbed by cabbage and oat, Avena sativa L., plants (41 and 60% recovered 2 h after application, respectively), as opposed to 100% recovery from the plants treated with encapsulated nootkatone. Using a treated vial technique, encapsulated nootkatone was significantly more toxic to I. scapularis nymphs (LC50 = 20 ng/cm2) compared with toxicity of the emulsifiable formulation (LC50 = 35 ng/cm2). Thus, the encapsulation of nootkatone improved toxicity for tick control, reduced nootkatone volatility, and reduced plant phytotoxicity. PMID:22238870

  5. Analytical formulation of lunar cratering asymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan; Zhou, Ji-Lin

    2016-10-01

    Context. The cratering asymmetry of a bombarded satellite is related to both its orbit and impactors. The inner solar system impactor populations, that is, the main-belt asteroids (MBAs) and the near-Earth objects (NEOs), have dominated during the late heavy bombardment (LHB) and ever since, respectively. Aims: We formulate the lunar cratering distribution and verify the cratering asymmetries generated by the MBAs as well as the NEOs. Methods: Based on a planar model that excludes the terrestrial and lunar gravitations on the impactors and assuming the impactor encounter speed with Earth venc is higher than the lunar orbital speed vM, we rigorously integrated the lunar cratering distribution, and derived its approximation to the first order of vM/venc. Numerical simulations of lunar bombardment by the MBAs during the LHB were performed with an Earth-Moon distance aM = 20-60 Earth radii in five cases. Results: The analytical model directly proves the existence of a leading/trailing asymmetry and the absence of near/far asymmetry. The approximate form of the leading/trailing asymmetry is (1 + A1cosβ), which decreases as the apex distance β increases. The numerical simulations show evidence of a pole/equator asymmetry as well as the leading/trailing asymmetry, and the former is empirically described as (1 + A2cos2ϕ), which decreases as the latitude modulus | ϕ | increases. The amplitudes A1,2 are reliable measurements of asymmetries. Our analysis explicitly indicates the quantitative relations between cratering distribution and bombardment conditions (impactor properties and the lunar orbital status) like A1 ∝ vM/venc, resulting in a method for reproducing the bombardment conditions through measuring the asymmetry. Mutual confirmation between analytical model and numerical simulations is found in terms of the cratering distribution and its variation with aM. Estimates of A1 for crater density distributions generated by the MBAs and the NEOs are 0.101-0.159 and 0

  6. CRYSTALLINE CERAMIC WASTE FORMS: REFERENCE FORMULATION REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, K.; Fox, K.; Marra, J.

    2012-05-15

    The research conducted in this work package is aimed at taking advantage of the long term thermodynamic stability of crystalline ceramics to create more durable waste forms (as compared to high level waste glass) in order to reduce the reliance on engineered and natural barrier systems. Durable ceramic waste forms that incorporate a wide range of radionuclides have the potential to broaden the available disposal options and to lower the storage and disposal costs associated with advanced fuel cycles. Assemblages of several titanate phases have been successfully demonstrated to incorporate radioactive waste elements, and the multiphase nature of these materials allows them to accommodate variation in the waste composition. Recent work has shown that they can be successfully produced from a melting and crystallization process. The objective of this report is to explain the design of ceramic host systems culminating in a reference ceramic formulation for use in subsequent studies on process optimization and melt property data assessment in support of FY13 melter demonstration testing. The waste stream used as the basis for the development and testing is a combination of the projected Cs/Sr separated stream, the Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorous reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes (TALSPEAK) waste stream consisting of lanthanide fission products, the transition metal fission product waste stream resulting from the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process, and a high molybdenum concentration with relatively low noble metal concentrations. In addition to the combined CS/LN/TM High Mo waste stream, variants without Mo and without Mo and Zr were also evaluated. Based on the results of fabricating and characterizing several simulated ceramic waste forms, two reference ceramic waste form compositions are recommended in this report. The first composition targets the CS/LN/TM combined waste stream with and without Mo. The second composition targets

  7. Impact of formulation and process variables on solid-state stability of theophylline in controlled release formulations.

    PubMed

    Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Rahman, Ziyaur; Shah, Dhaval; Mohammad, Adil; Wu, Suyang; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Khan, Mansoor A

    2016-02-29

    Understanding the impact of pharmaceutical processing, formulation excipients and their interactions on the solid-state transitions of pharmaceutical solids during use and in storage is critical in ensuring consistent product performance. This study reports the effect of polymer viscosity, diluent type, granulation and granulating fluid (water and isopropanol) on the pseudopolymorphic transition of theophylline anhydrous (THA) in controlled release formulations as well as the implications of this transition on critical quality attributes of the tablets. Accordingly, 12 formulations were prepared using a full factorial screening design and monitored over a 3 month period at 40 °C and 75%. Physicochemical characterization revealed a drastic drop in tablet hardness accompanied by a very significant increase in moisture content and swelling of all formulations. Spectroscopic analysis (ssNMR, Raman, NIR and PXRD) indicated conversion of THA to theophylline monohydrate (TMO) in all formulations prepared by aqueous wet granulation in as early as two weeks. Although all freshly prepared formulations contained THA, the hydration-dehydration process induced during aqueous wet granulation hastened the pseudopolymorphic conversion of theophylline during storage through a cascade of events. On the other hand, no solid state transformation was observed in directly compressed formulations and formulations in which isopropanol was employed as a granulating fluid even after the twelve weeks study period. The transition of THA to TMO resulted in a decrease in dissolution while an increase in dissolution was observed in directly compressed and IPA granulated formulation. Consequently, the impact of pseudopolymorphic transition of theophylline on dissolution in controlled release formulations may be the net result of two opposing factors: swelling and softening of the tablets which tend to favor an increase in drug dissolution and hydration of theophylline which decreases the drug

  8. Impact of formulation and process variables on solid-state stability of theophylline in controlled release formulations.

    PubMed

    Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Rahman, Ziyaur; Shah, Dhaval; Mohammad, Adil; Wu, Suyang; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Khan, Mansoor A

    2016-02-29

    Understanding the impact of pharmaceutical processing, formulation excipients and their interactions on the solid-state transitions of pharmaceutical solids during use and in storage is critical in ensuring consistent product performance. This study reports the effect of polymer viscosity, diluent type, granulation and granulating fluid (water and isopropanol) on the pseudopolymorphic transition of theophylline anhydrous (THA) in controlled release formulations as well as the implications of this transition on critical quality attributes of the tablets. Accordingly, 12 formulations were prepared using a full factorial screening design and monitored over a 3 month period at 40 °C and 75%. Physicochemical characterization revealed a drastic drop in tablet hardness accompanied by a very significant increase in moisture content and swelling of all formulations. Spectroscopic analysis (ssNMR, Raman, NIR and PXRD) indicated conversion of THA to theophylline monohydrate (TMO) in all formulations prepared by aqueous wet granulation in as early as two weeks. Although all freshly prepared formulations contained THA, the hydration-dehydration process induced during aqueous wet granulation hastened the pseudopolymorphic conversion of theophylline during storage through a cascade of events. On the other hand, no solid state transformation was observed in directly compressed formulations and formulations in which isopropanol was employed as a granulating fluid even after the twelve weeks study period. The transition of THA to TMO resulted in a decrease in dissolution while an increase in dissolution was observed in directly compressed and IPA granulated formulation. Consequently, the impact of pseudopolymorphic transition of theophylline on dissolution in controlled release formulations may be the net result of two opposing factors: swelling and softening of the tablets which tend to favor an increase in drug dissolution and hydration of theophylline which decreases the drug

  9. Methodology of oral formulation selection in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Kuentz, Martin; Holm, René; Elder, David P

    2016-05-25

    Pharmaceutical formulations have to fulfil various requirements with respect to their intended use, either in the development phase or as a commercial product. New drug candidates with their specific properties confront the formulation scientist with industrial challenges for which a strategy is needed to cope with limited resources, stretched timelines as well as regulatory requirements. This paper aims at reviewing different methodologies to select a suitable formulation approach for oral delivery. Exclusively small-molecular drugs are considered and the review is written from an industrial perspective. Specific cases are discussed starting with an emphasis on poorly soluble compounds, then the topics of chemically labile drugs, low-dose compounds, and modified release are reviewed. Due to the broad scope of this work, a primary focus is on explaining basic concepts as well as recent trends. Different strategies are discussed to approach industrial formulation selection, which includes a structured product development. Examples for such structured development aim to provide guidance to formulators and finally, the recent topic of a manufacturing classification system is presented. It can be concluded that the field of oral formulation selection is particularly complex due to both multiple challenges as well as opportunities so that industrial scientists have to employ tailored approaches to design formulations successfully.

  10. Controlled release formulations of acephate: water and soil release kinetics.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Keyath; Kumar, Jitendra; Shakil, Najam A; Walia, Suresh; Parmar, Balraj S

    2009-08-01

    Controlled release formulations of insecticide acephate (O,S-dimethyl acetylphosphoramidothioate) have been prepared using commercially available polyvinyl chloride, carboxy methyl cellulose and carboxy methyl cellulose with kaolinite. Kinetics of acephate release in soil and water from the different formulations was studied in comparison with the commercially available formulation 75 DF. Release from the commercial formulation was faster than the new controlled pesticide release (CR) formulations. Addition of clay in the carboxy methyl cellulose matrix reduced the rate of release. The diffusion exponent (n value) of acephate in water and soil ranged from 0.462 to 0.875 and 0.420 to 0.547 respectively in the tested formulations. The release was diffusion controlled with a half release time (T(1/2)) of 2.97 to 52.41 days in water and 2.98 to 76.38 days in soil from different matrices. The maximum release of acephate in water and soil from controlled released formulations occurred between 6.33 to 36.34 and 12.49 to 29.09 days respectively. The results suggest that depending upon the polymer matrix used, the application rate of acephate can be optimized to achieve insect control at the desired level and period. PMID:20183059

  11. Significance of Strain in Formulation in Theory of Solid Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    2003-01-01

    The basic theory of solid mechanics was deemed complete circa 1860 when St. Venant provided the strain formulation or the field compatibility condition. The strain formulation was incomplete. The missing portion has been formulated and identified as the boundary compatibility condition (BCC). The BCC, derived through a variational formulation, has been verified through integral theorem and solution of problems. The BCC, unlike the field counterpart, do not trivialize when expressed in displacements. Navier s method and the stiffness formulation have to account for the extra conditions especially at the inter-element boundaries in a finite element model. Completion of the strain formulation has led to the revival of the direct force calculation methods: the Integrated Force Method (IFM) and its dual (IFMD) for finite element analysis, and the completed Beltrami-Michell formulation (CBMF) in elasticity. The benefits from the new methods in elasticity, in finite element analysis, and in design optimization are discussed. Existing solutions and computer codes may have to be adjusted for the compliance of the new conditions. Complacency because the discipline is over a century old and computer codes have been developed for half a century can lead to stagnation of the discipline.

  12. A novel formulation technique for metered dose inhaler (MDI) suspensions.

    PubMed

    Steckel, Hartwig; Wehle, Sebastian

    2004-10-13

    Metered dose inhalers (MDIs) are a widely used dosage form for pulmonary delivery of anti-asthmatic drugs. However, with the phase-out of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants and need to switch to the alternative pharmaceutically approved hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) propellants, the MDI formulator was faced with several technical challenges. Product components such as valves and elastomers needed to re-designed, and, due to the limited solubility of the commonly used surfactants in the HFA propellants, novel surfactants were developed or co-solvents were used to bring the conventional surfactants into solution. This paper describes a novel formulation approach for HFA based metered-dose inhalers. A physically stable micro-suspension of the model drug, budesonide, was formulated by an in situ-precipitation process using a hydrophilic stabilizer in the propellant system. A network-like structure of the precipitated drug and excipient was formed and resulted in physically stable suspensions in which the solid phase remained suspended in the propellant system for several weeks. Through life dose uniformity testing of MDI units containing formulations of budesonide produced by the novel process, was consistent and within the limits specified by the FDA draft guidance on metered dose inhalers. The fine particle fraction of the budesonide formulations showed a dependence on formulation composition and aerosol hardware (canister and actuator) illustrating flexibility in optimizing the product using this novel in situ formulation technique.

  13. A novel metered dose transdermal spray formulation for oxybutynin.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, A; Bajaj, A; Malhotra, G; Madan, M; Amrutiya, N

    2008-11-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop a metered dose spray formulation for transdermal delivery of oxybutynin and to carry out the in vitro characterization of the optimized formulation. Oxybutynin release from a series of ethanol/acetone/methylal based formulations was assessed in vitro and the developed formulation was used for delivery from a metered dose spray. Various qualitative and quantitative parameters like spray pattern, particle size distribution, pH, evaporation time, pump seal efficiency test, average weight per metered dose, content per spray and content uniformity were evaluated. The different film forming agents were assessed and carbopol (0.5%) and lutrol (0.1%) were found to give good clarity of solution, evaporation rate, spray pattern and tackiness of the film. Diffusion studies of the optimized formulations through the semipermeable membrane showed the release of drug to the extent of almost 50% over a period of 24 h. Stability studies were conducted as per ICH guidelines and indicated that formulations were stable. Skin irritation studies were performed using rabbit as an animal model. The results obtained show that the metered dose transdermal spray formulation can be a promising and innovative therapeutic system for the transdermal administration of oxybutynin. PMID:21369433

  14. A novel metered dose transdermal spray formulation for oxybutynin.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, A; Bajaj, A; Malhotra, G; Madan, M; Amrutiya, N

    2008-11-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop a metered dose spray formulation for transdermal delivery of oxybutynin and to carry out the in vitro characterization of the optimized formulation. Oxybutynin release from a series of ethanol/acetone/methylal based formulations was assessed in vitro and the developed formulation was used for delivery from a metered dose spray. Various qualitative and quantitative parameters like spray pattern, particle size distribution, pH, evaporation time, pump seal efficiency test, average weight per metered dose, content per spray and content uniformity were evaluated. The different film forming agents were assessed and carbopol (0.5%) and lutrol (0.1%) were found to give good clarity of solution, evaporation rate, spray pattern and tackiness of the film. Diffusion studies of the optimized formulations through the semipermeable membrane showed the release of drug to the extent of almost 50% over a period of 24 h. Stability studies were conducted as per ICH guidelines and indicated that formulations were stable. Skin irritation studies were performed using rabbit as an animal model. The results obtained show that the metered dose transdermal spray formulation can be a promising and innovative therapeutic system for the transdermal administration of oxybutynin.

  15. A Novel Metered Dose Transdermal Spray Formulation for Oxybutynin

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, A.; Bajaj, A.; Malhotra, G.; Madan, M.; Amrutiya, N.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop a metered dose spray formulation for transdermal delivery of oxybutynin and to carry out the in vitro characterization of the optimized formulation. Oxybutynin release from a series of ethanol/acetone/methylal based formulations was assessed in vitro and the developed formulation was used for delivery from a metered dose spray. Various qualitative and quantitative parameters like spray pattern, particle size distribution, pH, evaporation time, pump seal efficiency test, average weight per metered dose, content per spray and content uniformity were evaluated. The different film forming agents were assessed and carbopol (0.5%) and lutrol (0.1%) were found to give good clarity of solution, evaporation rate, spray pattern and tackiness of the film. Diffusion studies of the optimized formulations through the semipermeable membrane showed the release of drug to the extent of almost 50% over a period of 24 h. Stability studies were conducted as per ICH guidelines and indicated that formulations were stable. Skin irritation studies were performed using rabbit as an animal model. The results obtained show that the metered dose transdermal spray formulation can be a promising and innovative therapeutic system for the transdermal administration of oxybutynin. PMID:21369433

  16. Formulation and Characterization of Aceclofenac -Aloe vera Transemulgel.

    PubMed

    Raju, Y Prasanna; Haritha, K; Satyanarayana, Rao P; Vandana, K R; Bindu, D Thushara; Vinesha, V; Chowdary, V Harini

    2015-01-01

    The present research was aimed to formulate aceclofenac transemulgel using Aloe vera as gel base. The prepared formulations were subjected to physical characterization, in-vitro and in-vivo assessment. Aceclofenac, a hydrophobic potential non steroidal anti inflammatory drug, causes ulceration upon chronic oral administration, could be formulated into transemulgel to enhance therapeutic efficacy and to lower the unwanted side effects. The transemulgel was prepared from aqueous Aloe vera gel and aceclofenac emulsion. The prepared transemulgel was evaluated for its pH, viscosity, drug content, skin irritation, in-vitro diffusion and accelerated stability studies. The prepared aceclofenac-Aloe vera tranemulgel and commercial aceclofenac gel were subjected to pharmacodynamic studies in albino rats of Wistar strain employing carrageenan induced left hind paw edema method to assess the anti-inflammatory effect. The transemulgel showed a pH of 6.78 and viscosity of 18 cps. In-vitro diffusion data revealed better permeation characteristics. Topical application of formulation found no skin irritation. Stability study has proved the integrity of the formulation. The prepared aceclofenac Aloe vera transemulgel showed better in-vitro drug release when compared with the commercial aceclofenac gel formulation. Anti-inflammatory activity in treated rats showed the significant paw volume reduction at p<0.05 compared with that of control. Thus, it is concluded that aceclofenac, a potential non steroidal anti inflammatory drug, showed high therapeutic efficiency when formulated into transemulgel using aqueous Aloe vera as gel base.

  17. Formulation and Characterization of Waste Glasses with Varying Processing Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, M. J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Lepry, William C.; Lang, Jesse B.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Vienna, John D.; Johnson, Fabienne; Marra, James C.; Peeler, David K.

    2011-10-17

    This report documents the preliminary results of glass formulation and characterization accomplished within the finished scope of the EM-31 technology development tasks for WP-4 and WP-5, including WP-4.1.2: Glass Formulation for Next Generation Melter, WP-5.1.2.3: Systematic Glass Studies, and WP-5.1.2.4: Glass Formulation for Specific Wastes. This report also presents the suggested studies for eventual restart of these tasks. The initial glass formulation efforts for the cold crucible induction melter (CCIM), operating at {approx}1200 C, with selected HLW (AZ-101) and LAW (AN-105) successfully developed glasses with significant increase of waste loading compared to that is likely to be achieved based on expected reference WTP formulations. Three glasses formulated for AZ-101HLW and one glass for AN-105 LAW were selected for the initial CCIM demonstration melter tests. Melter tests were not performed within the finished scope of the WP-4.1.2 task. Glass formulations for CCIM were expanded to cover additional HLWs that have high potential to successfully demonstrate the unique advantages of the CCIM technologies based on projected composition of Hanford wastes. However, only the preliminary scoping tests were completed with selected wastes within the finished scope. Advanced glass formulations for the reference WTP melter, operating at {approx}1200 C, were initiated with selected specific wastes to determine the estimated maximum waste loading. The incomplete results from these initial formulation efforts are summarized. For systematic glass studies, a test matrix of 32 high-aluminum glasses was completed based on a new method developed in this study.

  18. An axiomatic formulation of the Montevideo interpretation of quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambini, Rodolfo; García-Pintos, Luis Pedro; Pullin, Jorge

    We make a first attempt to axiomatically formulate the Montevideo interpretation of quantum mechanics. In this interpretation environmental decoherence is supplemented with loss of coherence due to the use of realistic clocks to measure time to solve the measurement problem. The resulting formulation is framed entirely in terms of quantum objects. Unlike in ordinary quantum mechanics, classical time only plays the role of an unobservable parameter. The formulation eliminates any privileged role of the measurement process giving an objective definition of when an event occurs in a system.

  19. Quantum energy inequalities and local covariance II: categorical formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fewster, Christopher J.

    2007-11-01

    We formulate quantum energy inequalities (QEIs) in the framework of locally covariant quantum field theory developed by Brunetti, Fredenhagen and Verch, which is based on notions taken from category theory. This leads to a new viewpoint on the QEIs, and also to the identification of a new structural property of locally covariant quantum field theory, which we call local physical equivalence. Covariant formulations of the numerical range and spectrum of locally covariant fields are given and investigated, and a new algebra of fields is identified, in which fields are treated independently of their realisation on particular spacetimes and manifestly covariant versions of the functional calculus may be formulated.

  20. New International Formulation for the Viscosity of H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, M. L.; Perkins, R. A.; Laesecke, A.; Friend, D. G.; Sengers, J. V.; Assael, M. J.; Metaxa, I. N.; Vogel, E.; Mareš, R.; Miyagawa, K.

    2009-06-01

    The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) encouraged an extensive research effort to update the IAPS Formulation 1985 for the Viscosity of Ordinary Water Substance, leading to the adoption of a Release on the IAPWS Formulation 2008 for the Viscosity of Ordinary Water Substance. This manuscript describes the development and evaluation of the 2008 formulation, which provides a correlating equation for the viscosity of water for fluid states up to 1173K and 1000MPa with uncertainties from less than 1% to 7% depending on the state point.

  1. Coated Solid Substrate Microbe Formulations: Pseudomonas spp. and Zeolite.

    PubMed

    Bunt, Craig R; Price, Sally; Hampton, John; Stelting, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Formulation provides a means to stabilize for storage and delivery biocontrol and bioremediation agents based on microbes such as bacteria and fungi. Typically it is difficult to both stabilize and deliver fragile non-spore-forming bacteria. Fungal spores might intuitively appear to be easy to stabilize; however, their tendency to germinate in low moisture environments presents challenges for the formulation scientist. Here we present a light background regarding issues with formulating microbes and strategies to help overcome instability and delivery issues. PMID:27565491

  2. Formulation of humic-based soil conditioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amanova, M. A.; Mamytova, G. A.; Mamytova, B. A.; Kydralieva, K. A.; Jorobekova, Sh. J.

    2009-04-01

    The goal of the study is to prepare soil conditioners (SC) able to carry out the following functions: (i) the chemical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the adjustment of pH, (ii) the balancing of inorganic nutrients, (iii) the physical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the improvement of water permeability, air permeability and water retention properties, and (iv) improvement of the ecological system concerning of useful microorganisms activity in the soil. The SC was made of a mixture of inorganic ingredients, a chemical composition and physical and chemical properties of which promoted improvement of physical characteristic of soil and enrichment by its mineral nutritious elements. In addition to aforesaid ingredients, this soil conditioner contains agronomical-valued groups of microorganisms having the function promoting the growth of the crop. As organic component of SC humic acids (HA) was used. HA serve many major functions that result in better soil and plant health. In soil, HA can increase microbial and mycorrhizal activity while enhancing nutrient uptake by plant roots. HA work as a catalyst by stimulating root and plant growth, it may enhance enzymatic activity that in turn accelerates cell division which can lead to increased yields. HA can help to increase crop yields, seed germination, and much more. In short, humic acids helps keep healthy plants health. The first stage goal was to evaluate mineral and organic ingredients for formulation of SC. Soil conditioners assessed included ash and slag. The use of slags has been largelly used in agriculture as a source of lime and phosphoric acid. The silicic acid of slags reduces Al-acitivity thus, promoting a better assimilation of P-fertilizer by plants. Additionally, silicic acid is also known to improve soil moisture capacity, thus enhancing soil water availability to plants. Physico-chemical characteristics of ash and slag were determined, as a total - about 20 samples. Results include

  3. Evaluation of newly formulated Dow Corning 321 dry film lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation of the newly formulated Dow Corning 321 dry film lubricant was performed. The purpose of the evaluation was to compare lubricating characteristics of Dow Corning 321 (STW4-2955, SCN No. 3) to those of Molykote 321R (STW4-2955). Ten igniter bolts were installed and torqued on test plates using the old formulation thread lubricant (Molykote 321R), and 10 bolts were installed using the new formulation (Dow Corning 321). After bolt removal, no signs of galling were found on any of the bolts or test plates threaded holes. Average torque-load values for each formulation were very close. Test results showed there are no significant differences in lubrication abilities between Molykote 321R and Dow Corning 321. It is recommended that, once current supplies of Molykote 321R are depleted, Dow Corning 321 dry film lubricant be used in place of Molykote 321R as a thread lubricant on redesigned solid rocket motor assemblies.

  4. Influence of Formulation on Mobility of Clomazone in Soil.

    PubMed

    Włodarczyk, Małgorzata; Siwek, Hanna

    2016-10-01

    The mobility of clomazone [2-(2-chlorobenzylo)-4,4-dimetylo-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one] in a loamy sand soil and a sand soil was studied in a soil column under laboratory conditions. Commercial clomazone formulation (Command 480 EC) and clomazone immobilized in an alginate matrix were used for a leaching experiment. For both formulations, the same dose of 2.0 mg of the active substance was applied. After an application of a herbicide, the columns were irrigated with: 100, 40 and 3.7 mm of water. After 1 h, when an addition of water was completed, the soils were sampled in the 5 cm segments and were used for the analysis of the residues. The use of an alginate formulation reduced the vertical mobility of clomazone into a soil layer in comparison with the formulation EC.

  5. Trailing Edge Noise Prediction Based on a New Acoustic Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, J.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    A new analytic result in acoustics called 'Formulation 1B,' proposed by Farassat, is used to compute broadband trailing edge noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term, and has been shown in previous research to provide time domain predictions of broadband noise that are in excellent agreement with experiment. Furthermore, this formulation lends itself readily to rotating reference frames and statistical analysis of broadband trailing edge noise. Formulation 1B is used to calculate the far field noise radiated from the trailing edge of a NACA 0012 airfoil in low Mach number flows, using both analytical and experimental data on the airfoil surface. The results are compared to analytical results and experimental measurements that are available in the literature. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained.

  6. A defect stream function formulation for compressible turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnwell, Richard W.; Wahls, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Progress to date on the development of a method for turbulent, wall-bounded flow which uses the defect stream function formulation in the outer layer and an analytic law of the wall and wake formulation in the inner region is reviewed. This two-formulation approach avoids the need to computationally resolve the high-gradient inner layer. One of the most appealing recent developments is the transformation of the compressible governing equation for the defect stream function into a linear, second-order differential equation which has analytic solutions for many problems of practical interest. Numerical and analytic results for incompressible and compressible flows are shown to be in excellent agreement with experimental results. In this paper the two-formulation approach is applied to primitive-variable computations. Excellent comparisons with experiment are presented for two compressible flat plate flows.

  7. Enhanced formulations for neutralization of chemical, biological and industrial toxants

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D [Albuqueque, NM

    2008-06-24

    An enhanced formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The enhanced formulation according to the present invention is non-toxic and non-corrosive and can be delivered by a variety of means and in different phases. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator and water.

  8. Formulations for neutralization of chemical and biological toxants

    DOEpatents

    Tadros, Maher E.; Tucker, Mark D.

    2003-05-20

    A formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents. The formulation of the present invention non-toxic and non-corrosive and can be delivered by a variety of means and in different phases. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The at least one reactive compound can be an oxidizing compound, a nucleophilic compound or a mixture of both. The formulation can kill up to 99.99999% of bacterial spores within one hour of exposure.

  9. Influence of Formulation on Mobility of Clomazone in Soil.

    PubMed

    Włodarczyk, Małgorzata; Siwek, Hanna

    2016-10-01

    The mobility of clomazone [2-(2-chlorobenzylo)-4,4-dimetylo-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one] in a loamy sand soil and a sand soil was studied in a soil column under laboratory conditions. Commercial clomazone formulation (Command 480 EC) and clomazone immobilized in an alginate matrix were used for a leaching experiment. For both formulations, the same dose of 2.0 mg of the active substance was applied. After an application of a herbicide, the columns were irrigated with: 100, 40 and 3.7 mm of water. After 1 h, when an addition of water was completed, the soils were sampled in the 5 cm segments and were used for the analysis of the residues. The use of an alginate formulation reduced the vertical mobility of clomazone into a soil layer in comparison with the formulation EC. PMID:27557602

  10. Do Students Accept Anthropomorphic and Teleological Formulations as Scientific Explanations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungwirth, E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses anthropomorphic explanations and the use of teleological formulations in biology teaching. Examines whether the teachers' use of "pictorial language" is taken at face value by students. (Author/GA)

  11. Shock initiation of an {epsilon}-CL-20-estane formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C.M.; Simpson, R.L.; Urtiew, P.A.

    1996-05-01

    The shock sensitivity of a pressed solid explosive formulation, LX-19, containing 95.2{percent} by weight epsilon phase 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW) and 4.8{percent} Estane binder, was determined using the wedge test and embedded manganin pressure gauge techniques. This formulation was shown to be slightly more sensitive than LX-14, which contains 95.5{percent} HMX and 4.5{percent} Estane binder. The measured pressure histories for LX-19 were very similar to those obtained using several HMX-inert binder formulations. An Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for LX-19 was developed which differed from those for HMX-inert binder formulations only by a 25{percent} higher hot spot growth rate. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Shock initiation of an ɛ-CL-20-estane formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarver, C. M.; Simpson, R. L.; Urtiew, P. A.

    1996-05-01

    The shock sensitivity of a pressed solid explosive formulation, LX-19, containing 95.2% by weight epsilon phase 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW) and 4.8% Estane binder, was determined using the wedge test and embedded manganin pressure gauge techniques. This formulation was shown to be slightly more sensitive than LX-14, which contains 95.5% HMX and 4.5% Estane binder. The measured pressure histories for LX-19 were very similar to those obtained using several HMX-inert binder formulations. An Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for LX-19 was developed which differed from those for HMX-inert binder formulations only by a 25% higher hot spot growth rate.

  13. Shock initiation of an {epsilon}-CL-20-estane formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C.M.; Simpson, R.L.; Urtiew, P.A.

    1995-07-19

    The shock sensitivity of a pressed solid explosive formulation, LX-19, containing 95.2% by weight epsilon phase 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW) and 4.8% Estane binder, was determined using the wedge test and embedded manganin pressure gauge techniques. This formulation was shown to be slightly more sensitive than LX-14, which contains 95.5% HMX and 4.5% Estane binder. The measured pressure histories for LX-19 were very similar to those obtained using several HMX-inert binder formulations. An Ignition and Growth reactive model for LX-19 was developed which differed from those for HMX-inert binder formulations only by a 25% higher hot spot growth rate.

  14. High Temperature Boost (HTB) Power Processing Unit (PPU) Formulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yuan; Bradley, Arthur T.; Iannello, Christopher J.; Carr, Gregory A.; Mohammad, Mojarradi M.; Hunter, Don J.; DelCastillo, Linda; Stell, Christopher B.

    2013-01-01

    This technical memorandum is to summarize the Formulation Study conducted during fiscal year 2012 on the High Temperature Boost (HTB) Power Processing Unit (PPU). The effort is authorized and supported by the Game Changing Technology Division, NASA Office of the Chief Technologist. NASA center participation during the formulation includes LaRC, KSC and JPL. The Formulation Study continues into fiscal year 2013. The formulation study has focused on the power processing unit. The team has proposed a modular, power scalable, and new technology enabled High Temperature Boost (HTB) PPU, which has 5-10X improvement in PPU specific power/mass and over 30% in-space solar electric system mass saving.

  15. Hypervolume Subset Selection in Two Dimensions: Formulations and Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Tobias; Fonseca, Carlos M; Paquete, Luís; Ruzika, Stefan; Duarte, Miguel M; Figueira, José Rui

    2016-01-01

    The hypervolume subset selection problem consists of finding a subset, with a given cardinality k, of a set of nondominated points that maximizes the hypervolume indicator. This problem arises in selection procedures of evolutionary algorithms for multiobjective optimization, for which practically efficient algorithms are required. In this article, two new formulations are provided for the two-dimensional variant of this problem. The first is a (linear) integer programming formulation that can be solved by solving its linear programming relaxation. The second formulation is a k-link shortest path formulation on a special digraph with the Monge property that can be solved by dynamic programming in [Formula: see text] time. This improves upon the result of [Formula: see text] in Bader ( 2009 ), and slightly improves upon the result of [Formula: see text] in Bringmann et al. ( 2014b ), which was developed independently from this work using different techniques. Numerical results are shown for several values of n and k.

  16. Fissile materials disposition program plutonium immobilization project baseline formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B B; Armantrout, G A; Gray, L; Herman, C C; Shaw, H F; Van Konynenburg, R A

    2000-09-01

    Since 1994 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), with the help of several other laboratories and university groups, has been the lead laboratory for the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). This involves, among other tasks, the development of a formulation and a fabrication process for a ceramic to be used in the immobilization of excess weapons-usable plutonium. This report reviews the history of the project as it relates to the development of the ceramic form. It describes the sample test plan for the pyrochlore-rich ceramic formulation that was selected, and it specifies the baseline formulation that has been adopted. It also presents compositional specifications (e.g. precursor compositions and mixing recipes) and other form and process specifications that are linked or potentially linked to the baseline formulation.

  17. Kinetics and bioavailability of two formulations of amiloride in man

    PubMed Central

    Smith, A. J.; Smith, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    1. Two formulations of [14C]-amiloride were compared in six oedema-free subjects in single-dose (20 mg) studies separated by a two-week interval. 2. Calculation of the elimination rate constant (Ke), half-life (T½) and apparent volume of distribution (Vd) from serum and urinary data showed no significant difference between the two formulations. The Vd values (350 to 380 litres) were greater than total body fluid volume suggesting extravascular sequestration of amiloride. 3. Serum and urinary amiloride levels were similar with both formulations. Pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to those of an earlier report based on one formulation. 4. The calculated amiloride concentration in the renal distal tubule (3 μM to 20 μM) was similar to, but higher than, reported in vitro concentrations of amiloride which reduced sodium transport in isolated membranes. PMID:4788208

  18. Formulation and evaluation of Cetirizine dihydrochloride orodispersible tablet.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, S; Sankar, V; Manakadan, Asha Asokan; Ismail, Sareena; Andhuvan, G

    2010-04-01

    Cetirizine orodispersible tablets were prepared to achieve quick onset of action and for maximum bioavailability. Tablets were prepared using cetirizine along with camphor and mannitol in the proportion of 1:1:1, 1:1:3, and 1:1:6. The flow property of granules was found to be good for the formulation CZ2 (1:1:3). The hardness and friability of all the formulations were found to be within the standard limit for orodispersible tablets. Disintegration time was found to be rapid in formulation CZ2 (1:1:3).The in vitro dissolution time was found to be 100% in 11 minutes for the formulation CZ2 (1:1:3).

  19. Development of budesonide nanocluster dry powder aerosols: formulation and stability.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Nashwa; Huang, Shan; Selvam, Parthiban; Soni, Pravin; Berkland, Cory

    2012-09-01

    The physical and chemical stability of dry powder aerosol formulations is an essential component in the development of an inhaled therapeutic. The pharmaceutical processing methods and storage conditions are primary determinants of the stability of a dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation. Wet milling was used to produce budesonide NanoClusters (NCs), which are agglomerates of drug nanoparticles (≈ 300 nm) with a mean aerodynamic diameter between 1 and 3 µm, capable of deep lung penetration. In this study, the reproducibility of NC processing and performance was established. The physical stability of a selected budesonide NC formulation was investigated using industry standard dose content uniformity and cascade impaction techniques. The chemical stability of the lead formulation was also determined as a function of processing parameters and storage conditions. This study confirms the reproducibility and robust stability of NC powders as a novel means to turn drug particles into high-performance aerosols.

  20. Evaluation of Physical Properties of Generic and Branded Travoprost Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwani, Meenakshi; Mishra, Sanjay K; Velpandian, Thirumurthy; Sihota, Ramanjit; Kotnala, Ankita; Bhartiya, Shibal; Dada, Tanuj

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Comparative evaluation of pharmaceutical characteristics of three marketed generic vs branded travoprost formulations. Materials and methods: Three generic travoprost formulations and one branded (Travatan without benzalkonium chloride) formulation (10 vials each), obtained from authorized agents from the respective companies and having the same batch number, were used. These formulations were coded and labels were removed. At a standardized room temperature of 25°C, the drop size, pH, relative viscosity, and total drops per vial were determined for Travatan (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX, USA) and all the generic formulations. Travoprost concentration in all four brands was estimated by using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry LCMS. Results: Out of the four formulations, two drugs (TP 1 and TP 4) were found to follow the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) limits for ophthalmic formulation regarding drug concentration, while the remaining two drugs failed due to the limits being either above 110% (TP 2) or below 90% (TP 3). Two of them (TP 1 and TP 2) had osmolality of 313 and 262 mOsm respectively, which did not comply with the osmolality limits within 300 mOsm (+ 10%). The pH of all the formulations ranged between 4.7 and 5.9, and the mean drop size was 30.23 ± 6.03 uL. The total amount of drug volume in the bottles varied from 2.58 ± 0.15 to 3.38 ± 0.06 mL/bottle. Conclusion: There are wide variations in the physical properties of generic formulations available in India. Although some generic drugs are compliant with the pharmacopeia standards, this study underscores the need for a better quality control in the production of generic travoprost formulations. How to cite this article: Wadhwani M, Mishra SK, Angmo D, Velpandian T, Sihota R, Kotnala A, Bhartiya S, Dada T. Evaluation of Physical Properties of Generic and Branded Travoprost Formulations. J Curr Glaucoma Pract. 2016;10(2):49-55. PMID:27536047

  1. Process Formulations And Curing Conditions That Affect Saltstone Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M. M.; Pickenheim, B. R.; Daniel, W. E.

    2012-09-28

    The first objective of this study was to analyze saltstone fresh properties to determine the feasibility of reducing the formulation water to premix (w/p) ratio while varying the amount of extra water and admixtures used during processing at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). The second part of this study was to provide information for understanding the impact of curing conditions (cure temperature, relative humidity (RH)) and processing formulation on the performance properties of cured saltstone.

  2. Design, formulation and evaluation of Aloe vera chewing gum

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Raddanipour, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, healing, antiseptic, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate the formulation of Aloe vera chewing gum with an appropriate taste and quality with the indications for healing oral wounds, such as lichen planus, mouth sores caused by cancer chemotherapy and mouth abscesses as well as reducing mouth dryness caused by chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: In Aloe vera powder, the carbohydrate content was determined according to mannose and phenolic compounds in terms of gallic acid. Aloe vera powder, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, sweeteners and different flavors were added to the soft gum bases. In Aloe vera chewing gum formulation, 10% of dried Aloe vera extract entered the gum base. Then the chewing gum was cut into pieces of suitable sizes. Weight uniformity, content uniformity, the organoleptic properties evaluation, releasing the active ingredient in the phosphate buffer (pH, 6.8) and taste evaluation were examined by Latin square method. Results: One gram of Aloe vera powder contained 5.16 ± 0.25 mg/g of phenolic compounds and 104.63 ± 4.72 mg/g of carbohydrates. After making 16 Aloe vera chewing gum formulations, the F16 formulation was selected as the best formulation according to its physicochemical and organoleptic properties. In fact F16 formulation has suitable hardness, lack of adhesion to the tooth and appropriate size and taste; and after 30 min, it released more than 90% of its drug content. Conclusion: After assessments made, the F16 formulation with maltitol, aspartame and sugar sweeteners was selected as the best formulation. Among various flavors used, peppermint flavor which had the most acceptance between consumers was selected. PMID:26605214

  3. A Comparison of Thermal Explosions in HMX Based Formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilowitz, Laura; Henson, Bryan; Asay, Blaine; Romero, Jerry

    2009-06-01

    Radial thermal explosion experiments have been run using different HMX based formulations. The reaction violence of the different HMX based formulations under identical boundary conditions varies dramatically. In this talk, PBX 9501 and PBX N9 deflagrations will be compared. Diagnostics include proton radiography, case strain, burn front velocities, wall velocities, and post shot case fragments. The difference in reaction violence will be explored in the framework of our current understanding of burn mechanism.

  4. Action principle for the generalized harmonic formulation of general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J. David

    2011-10-15

    An action principle for the generalized harmonic formulation of general relativity is presented. The action is a functional of the spacetime metric and the gauge source vector. An action principle for the Z4 formulation of general relativity has been proposed recently by Bona, Bona-Casas, and Palenzuela. The relationship between the generalized harmonic action and the Bona, Bona-Casas, and Palenzuela action is discussed in detail.

  5. Integrated Formulation of Beacon-Based Exception Analysis for Multimissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Ryan; James, Mark; Park, Han; Zak, Mickail

    2003-01-01

    Further work on beacon-based exception analysis for multimissions (BEAM), a method of real-time, automated diagnosis of a complex electromechanical systems, has greatly expanded its capability and suitability of application. This expanded formulation, which fully integrates physical models and symbolic analysis, is described. The new formulation of BEAM expands upon previous advanced techniques for analysis of signal data, utilizing mathematical modeling of the system physics, and expert-system reasoning,

  6. Noncanonical Hamiltonian density formulation of hydrodynamics and ideal MHD

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, P.J.; Greene, J.M.

    1980-04-01

    A new Hamiltonian density formulation of a perfect fluid with or without a magnetic field is presented. Contrary to previous work the dynamical variables are the physical variables, rho, v, B, and s, which form a noncanonical set. A Poisson bracket which satisfies the Jacobi identity is defined. This formulation is transformed to a Hamiltonian system where the dynamical variables are the spatial Fourier coefficients of the fluid variables.

  7. Reactive formulations for a neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Mark D.; Betty, Rita G.

    2006-10-24

    Decontamination formulations for neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals, and methods of making and using same. The formulations are effective for neutralizing malathion, hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, butyl isocyanate, carbon disulfide, phosgene gas, capsaicin in commercial pepper spray, chlorine gas, anhydrous ammonia gas; and may be effective at neutralizing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, boron trichloride, fluorine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, phosphorous trichloride, arsine, and tungsten hexafluoride.

  8. [Control of the Pharaoh's ant with borax bait formulations].

    PubMed

    Klunker, R; Scheurer, S; Neumann, T

    1990-12-01

    Results are given for the experimental control of Pharaoh ants, Monomorium pharaonis L., with persistent borax baits in the laboratory and the field. DYBH-bait formulations with about 17 per cent borax are very attractive and have a good effectivity. In 5 different objects infested with this ant eradication was proved to be possible with this experimental formulations. The progress of eradication depends essentially on the good organisational preparation of control measures.

  9. Formulation and evaluation of floating tablets of liquorice extract

    PubMed Central

    Ram, H. N. Aswatha; Lachake, Prachiti; Kaushik, Ujjwal; Shreedhara, C. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Floating tablets prolong the gastric residence time of drugs, improve bioavailability, and facilitate local drug delivery to the stomach. With this objective, floating tablets containing aqueous extract of liquorice as drug was prepared for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori and gastric ulcers. Methods: The aqueous extract of liquorice was standardized by HPTLC. Tablets containing HPMC K100M (hydrophilic polymer), liquorice extract, sodium bicarbonate (gas generating agent), talc, and magnesium stearate were prepared using direct compression method. The formulations were evaluated for physical parameters like diameter, thickness, hardness, friability, uniformity of weight, drug content, buoyancy time, dissolution, and drug release mechanism. The formulations were optimized on the basis of buoyancy time and in vitro drug release. Results: The diameter of all formulations was in the range 11.166–11.933 mm; thickness was in the range 4.02–4.086 mm. The hardness ranged from 3.1 to 3.5 kg/cm2. All formulations passed the USP requirements for friability and uniformity of weight. The buoyancy time of all tablet formulations was less than 5 min and tablet remained in floating condition throughout the study. All the tablet formulations followed zero-order kinetics and Korsemeyer-Peppas model in drug release. Conclusion: The optimized formulation was found to be F6 which released 98.3% of drug in 8 h in vitro, while the buoyancy time was 3.5 min. Formulations containing psyllium husk, sodium bicarbonate and HPMC K100M in combination can be a promising for gastroretentive drug delivery systems. PMID:21589757

  10. Cetirizine release from cyclodextrin formulated compressed chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Stojanov, Mladen; Larsen, Kim L

    2012-09-01

    Beside the efficient effect on masking cetirizine bitter taste, the cyclodextrins (CDs) as well could have influence on the release from the formulation. In vitro release profiles of cetirizine from compressed chewing gums containing α-, β- and γ-CD were investigated using a three cell chewing apparatus. Different cetirizine/CD formulations were produced and analysed with respect to type of CD (α-, β- and γ-CD), the molar ratio between cetirizine and CD and the formulation of cetirizine (complex or physical mixture). Release experiments from all compressed chewing gum formulations gave similar release patterns, but with variations in the total amount released. Chewing gum formulated with cetirizine alone, demonstrated a release of 75% after 8 min of chewing. The presence of CDs resulted in increased cetirizine release. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that parameters with the most important influence on the release were the molar ratio of cetirizine/CD (P < 0.05) and the formulation of cetirizine/CD (complex or physical mixture) (P < 0.05). The compressed chewing gum formulations with 1:5 molar ratio of cetirizine/CD in complexed form demonstrated the highest release. Even though the statistical analysis (ANOVA) demonstrated significance in the release (P < 0.05) for the complex/physical mixture factor, this difference was negligible compared to the release from chewing gums containing cetirizine without CD. This makes physical mixtures suitable for use in cetirizine/CD formulations instead the complexes with respect to release yield. Thus unnecessary expenses for the complex preformulation may be avoided.

  11. Fungal formulations to control Rhipicephalus sanguineus engorged females.

    PubMed

    Reis, Rosana C S; Fernandes, Everton K K; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P

    2008-12-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are promising alternatives to chemical acaricides in controlling tick populations; however, biological formulations are required to improve conidial performance of these pathogens in the field. This study evaluated the effect of in vitro treatment of Rhipicephalus sanguineus with conidial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Bb) or Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma). Conidia were formulated (at 10(8) conidia mL(-1)) in (1) emulsifiable concentrate (EC), (2) polymerized cellulose gel (PCG), or both (3) emulsifiable concentrate and polymerized cellulose gel combined (EC+PCG). Engorged females were weighed and exposed to one of six treatment groups: EC+Bb, EC+Ma, PCG+Bb, PCG+Ma, EC+PCG+Bb, EC+PCG+Ma; or to control groups: C1 (untreated) or (C2) treated with Tween 80 aqueous solution, EC or PCG. After exposure, ticks were placed in petri plates and kept at 27 +/- 1 degrees C and 80% relative humidity (RH). Ticks treated with formulated conidia of entomopathogenic fungi showed significantly higher control percentage in comparison to that of control groups. The formulation of B. bassiana with EC and PCG combined (EC+PCG+Bb) caused the highest control percentage (86.79%) of R. sanguineus. This study concludes that entomopathogenic fungus conidial formulations are important to ensure effective tick control.

  12. Formulation design and evaluation of amorphous ABT-102 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jog, Rajan; Kumar, Sumit; Shen, Jie; Jugade, Nital; Tan, David Cheng Thiam; Gokhale, Rajeev; Burgess, Diane J

    2016-02-10

    Amorphous nanoparticles are able to enhance the kinetic solubility and concomitant dissolution rates of BCS class II and BCS class II/IV molecules due to their characteristic increased supersaturation levels, smaller particle size and greater surface area. A DoE approach was applied to investigate formulation and spray drying process parameters for the preparation of spray dried amorphous ABT-102 nanoparticles. Stability studies were performed on the optimized formulations to monitor physical and chemical changes under different temperature and humidity conditions. SLS/soluplus and SLS/PVP K25 were the best stabilizer combinations. Trehalose was used to prevent nanoparticle aggregation during spray drying. Particle size distribution, moisture content, PXRD, PLM, FTIR and in vitro dissolution were utilized to characterize the spray dried nanoparticle formulations. The formulations prepared using soluplus showed enhanced dissolution rate compared to those prepared using PVP K25. Following three months storage, it was observed that the formulations stored at 4°C were stable in terms of particle size distribution, moisture content, and crystallinity, whereas those stored at 25°C/60%RH and 40°C/75%RH were unstable. A predictive model to prepare stable solid spray dried amorphous ABT-102 nanoparticles, incorporating both formulation and process parameters, was successfully developed using multiple linear regression analysis. PMID:26705150

  13. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Four Marketed Formulations of Brahmi

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Neeti; Mathur, Rajani; Agrawal, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with the aim to compare two batches each of four popular commercial formulations of Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi), and report, if any, inter-batch variations. The formulations were procured from local market and analyzed for label specifications, uniformity of weight of capsule, identity, purity and strength parameters (total ash content test, acid insoluble ash content, water soluble extractive, alcohol soluble extractive, loss on drying). Bacoside A, one of the pharmacologically active saponin present in B. monnieri, was quantified in all the formulations using UV-spectrophotometer. In addition each formulation was assessed and compared for variation in biological activity using in vitro test for hemolytic activity using human erythrocytes. The results of the study show that there is a wide variation in the quality and content of herbal drugs marketed by different manufacturers. More importantly this study demonstrates that there exists a bigger challenge of batch-to-batch variation in the quality and content of herbal formulations of the same manufacturer. This challenge of providing standardized formulations is being faced by not any one manufacturing house but by all, and may be attributed firstly to, lack of stringent regulations and secondly to high variability in raw material quality. PMID:23204618

  14. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of four marketed formulations of brahmi.

    PubMed

    Saini, Neeti; Mathur, Rajani; Agrawal, S S

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with the aim to compare two batches each of four popular commercial formulations of Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi), and report, if any, inter-batch variations. The formulations were procured from local market and analyzed for label specifications, uniformity of weight of capsule, identity, purity and strength parameters (total ash content test, acid insoluble ash content, water soluble extractive, alcohol soluble extractive, loss on drying). Bacoside A, one of the pharmacologically active saponin present in B. monnieri, was quantified in all the formulations using UV-spectrophotometer. In addition each formulation was assessed and compared for variation in biological activity using in vitro test for hemolytic activity using human erythrocytes. The results of the study show that there is a wide variation in the quality and content of herbal drugs marketed by different manufacturers. More importantly this study demonstrates that there exists a bigger challenge of batch-to-batch variation in the quality and content of herbal formulations of the same manufacturer. This challenge of providing standardized formulations is being faced by not any one manufacturing house but by all, and may be attributed firstly to, lack of stringent regulations and secondly to high variability in raw material quality.

  15. Comparing fungal band formulations for Asian longhorned beetle biological control.

    PubMed

    Ugine, Todd A; Jenkins, Nina E; Gardescu, Sana; Hajek, Ann E

    2013-07-01

    Experiments were conducted with the fungal entomopathogen Metarhizium brunneum to determine the feasibility of using agar-based fungal bands versus two new types of oil-formulated fungal bands for Asian longhorned beetle management. We investigated conidial retention and survival on three types of bands attached to trees in New York and Pennsylvania: standard polyester fiber agar-based bands containing fungal cultures, and two types of bands made by soaking either polyester fiber or jute burlap with oil-conidia suspensions. Fungal band formulation did not affect the number or viability of conidia on bands over the 2-month test period, although percentage conidial viability decreased significantly with time for all band types. In a laboratory experiment testing the effect of the three band formulations on conidial acquisition and beetle survival, traditional agar-based fungal bands delivered the most conidia to adult beetles and killed higher percentages of beetles significantly faster (median survival time of 27d) than the two oil-formulated materials (36-37d). We also tested the effect of band formulation on conidial acquisition by adult beetles kept individually in cages with a single band for 24h, and significantly more conidia (3-7times) were acquired by beetles from agar-based bands compared to the two oil formulations. PMID:23628142

  16. Intermediate release formulations of diclofenac potassium tablets for IVIVC.

    PubMed

    Ali, Huma; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris; Zafar, Farya; Bushra, Rabia; Yasmin, Riffat; Siddiqui, Shehla; Alam, Zafar M

    2016-07-01

    In recent days response surface methodology (RSM) has widely been applied for development and optimization of cost effective formulations with required quality. Study comprised of three steps including micromeritic comparison of different powder blends of placebo and diclofenac potassium (DP), formulation designing with CCRD (Design Expert, version 7.0.0), and stability testing of selected formulations by using R Gui. Ten formulations (F11-F20) were developed using microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH-102) (X1) (13-72%), methocel K15M (X2) (6.59-23.4%) and magnesium stearate (X3) (1.32-4.68%), while responses were % friability and % drug release. Blending rate constant was determined at 3, 6, 9 and 12 minutes. The results of physicochemical parameters were found within acceptable limits. After in vitro testing at pH 1.2, pH 4.5 and pH 6.8, mechanism of drug release, kinetic analysis and statistical evaluation were carried out by model - independent, model-dependent and one-way ANOVA methods. Most formulations followed zero order kinetics at higher pH. Fickian release (0.326 ≤ n ≤0.449) was observed with β greater than 0.5 and less than 1. ANOVA indicated no significant variation within and between formulations as p-values were found to be > 0.05. PMID:27393442

  17. Nonrecursive formulations of multibody dynamics and concurrent multiprocessing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurdila, Andrew J.; Menon, Ramesh

    1993-01-01

    Since the late 1980's, research in recursive formulations of multibody dynamics has flourished. Historically, much of this research can be traced to applications of low dimensionality in mechanism and vehicle dynamics. Indeed, there is little doubt that recursive order N methods are the method of choice for this class of systems. This approach has the advantage that a minimal number of coordinates are utilized, parallelism can be induced for certain system topologies, and the method is of order N computational cost for systems of N rigid bodies. Despite the fact that many authors have dismissed redundant coordinate formulations as being of order N(exp 3), and hence less attractive than recursive formulations, we present recent research that demonstrates that at least three distinct classes of redundant, nonrecursive multibody formulations consistently achieve order N computational cost for systems of rigid and/or flexible bodies. These formulations are as follows: (1) the preconditioned range space formulation; (2) penalty methods; and (3) augmented Lagrangian methods for nonlinear multibody dynamics. The first method can be traced to its foundation in equality constrained quadratic optimization, while the last two methods have been studied extensively in the context of coercive variational boundary value problems in computational mechanics. Until recently, however, they have not been investigated in the context of multibody simulation, and present theoretical questions unique to nonlinear dynamics. All of these nonrecursive methods have additional advantages with respect to recursive order N methods: (1) the formalisms retain the highly desirable order N computational cost; (2) the techniques are amenable to concurrent simulation strategies; (3) the approaches do not depend upon system topology to induce concurrency; and (4) the methods can be derived to balance the computational load automatically on concurrent multiprocessors. In addition to the presentation of

  18. Deformation modes in the finite element absolute nodal coordinate formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Hiroyuki; Gerstmayr, Johannes; Shabana, Ahmed A.

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study is to provide interpretation of the deformation modes in the finite element absolute nodal coordinate formulation using several strain definitions. In this finite element formulation, the nodal coordinates consist of absolute position coordinates and gradients that can be used to define a unique rotation and deformation fields within the element as well as at the nodal points. The results obtained in this study clearly show cross-section deformation modes eliminated when the number of the finite element nodal coordinates is systematically and consistently reduced. Using the procedure discussed in this paper one can obtain a reduced order dynamic model, eliminate position vector gradients that introduce high frequencies to the solution of some problems, achieve the continuity of the remaining gradients at the nodal points, and obtain a formulation that automatically satisfies the principle of work and energy. Furthermore, the resulting dynamic model, unlike large rotation finite element formulations, leads to a unique rotation field, and as a consequence, the obtained formulation does not suffer from the problem of coordinate redundancy that characterizes existing large deformation finite element formulations. In order to accurately define strain components that can have easy physical interpretation, a material coordinate system is introduced to define the material element rotation and deformation. Using the material coordinate system, the Timoshenko-Reissner and Euler -Bernoulli beam models can be systematically obtained as special cases of the absolute nodal coordinate formulation beam models. While a constraint approach is used in this study to eliminate the cross-section deformation modes, it is important to point out as mentioned in this paper that lower-order finite elements, some of which already presented in previous investigations, can be efficiently used in thin and stiff structure applications.

  19. New intranasal formulations for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Eli O; Bensch, Greg W; Storms, William W

    2014-01-01

    Intranasal corticosteroids (INSs) have been effectively used for >40 years for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) and perennial AR (PAR). Following the Montreal Protocol, the initial aerosol formulations using chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants were phased out. For the past 20 years, aqueous solutions have been the only available option for INS treatment. In 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved two new nonaqueous aerosol AR treatments that use a hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) propellant. In 2012, the first intranasal aqueous combination product was also approved. This article reviews the clinical profiles of HFA beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) and HFA ciclesonide (CIC) and the aqueous combination intranasal antihistamine (INA)/INS formulation of azelastine hydrochloride/fluticasone propionate (AZE/FP). The medical literature was searched for clinical trials investigating the use of BDP, CIC, and AZE/FP in SAR and PAR. Clinical trials involving aqueous solutions and CFC propellant or HFA propellant delivery were included. Data from prescribing information and published efficacy and safety data were presented as part of the clinical profile for the reviewed agents. AZE/FP has shown efficacy and safety comparable or greater with the current AR treatment options. Although efficacy comparisons of new HFA formulations have not been investigated in head-to-head clinical trials with aqueous formulations, HFA formulations have shown similar efficacy rates. Furthermore, HFA formulations may have some additional benefits, including a preferable sensory profile for some patients. These new formulations will provide additional options for clinicians and patients to better individualize therapy for control of AR. PMID:25582157

  20. Formulation and in vitro characterization of cefpodoxime proxetil gastroretentive microballoons

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, AK.; Keservani, RK.; Dadarwal, SC.; Choudhary, YL.; Ramteke, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study The objective of the present work was to improve bioavailability of cepodoxime proxetil through gastroretentive microballoon formulation. Methods Microballoons of cefpodoxime proxetil were formulated by solvent evaporation and diffusion method employing hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and ethyl cellulose (EC) polymers and characterized for particle size, surface morphology, incorporation efficiency, floating behavior, in vitro drug release study and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results The average particle size of formulated microballoons was in the range of 54.23±2.78–95.66±2.19µm. Incorporation efficiencies of over 83.77±0.85% were achieved for the optimized formulations. Most of formulations remained buoyant (having buoyancy percentage maximum of 81.36±1.96%) for more than 12 hrs indicating good floating behavior of microballoons. Higher values of correlation coefficients were obtained with Higuchi's square root of time kinetic treatment heralding diffusion as predominant mechanism of drug release. Conclusion Inferences drawn from in vitro studies suggest that microballoons may be potential delivery system for cefpodoxime proxetil with improvement in bioavailability in comparison to conventional dosage forms. PMID:22615637

  1. Spasmolytic effect of traditional herbal formulation on guinea pig ileum

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dushyant; Ganguly, Kuntal; Hegde, H. V.; Patil, P. A.; Kholkute, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The herbal formulation consisting of Andrographis paniculata Nees., Cassia fistula L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Cuminum cyminum L. is widely used by the local traditional practitioners in rural Northern Karnataka for spasmodic abdominal pain. Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate safety and spasmolytic effect of poly-herbal formulation. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity studies were carried out in Swiss mice, as per the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. The spasmolytic activity of the formulation was studied in isolated guinea pig ileum model using histamine and acetylcholine as agonists. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Dunnetts post-hoc test and P ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulation did not show any adverse toxic effects and found to be safe. It also showed significant (P < 0.05) relaxation in different agonist like histamine and acetylcholine-induced contractions in guinea pig ileum. Conclusion: Antispasmodic activity of the herbal formulation can be attributed to its atropine-like activity. The present findings, therefore, support its utility in spasmodic abdominal pain. PMID:26604555

  2. Compact Assumption Applied to the Monopole Term of Farassat's Formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopes, Leonard V.

    2015-01-01

    Farassat's formulations provide an acoustic prediction at an observer location provided a source surface, including motion and flow conditions. This paper presents compact forms for the monopole term of several of Farassat's formulations. When the physical surface is elongated, such as the case of a high aspect ratio rotorcraft blade, compact forms can be derived which are shown to be a function of the blade cross sectional area by reducing the computation from a surface integral to a line integral. The compact forms of all formulations are applied to two example cases: a short span wing with constant airfoil cross section moving at three forward flight Mach numbers and a rotor at two advance ratios. Acoustic pressure time histories and power spectral densities of monopole noise predicted from the compact forms of all the formulations at several observer positions are shown to compare very closely to the predictions from their non-compact counterparts. A study on the influence of rotorcraft blade shape on the high frequency portion of the power spectral density shows that there is a direct correlation between the aspect ratio of the airfoil and the error incurred by using the compact form. Finally, a prediction of pressure gradient from the non-compact and compact forms of the thickness term of Formulation G1A shows that using the compact forms results in a 99.6% improvement in computation time, which will be critical when noise is incorporated into a design environment.

  3. Optimisation of Non-Stick Insect Repellent Cream Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajin, Mariani; Bono, Awang; Abang, Sariah; Krishnaiah, Duduku

    Nowadays, insect repellent is widely used by consumer, especially insect repellent that is produced from natural-based. Since the component of insect repellent could not be applied directly to human skin, base cream with insect repellents need to be formulated. The quality of the base cream is directly linked to the basic material used in the formulation. In this work, various compositions of carbopol, triethylamide, glycerine, water and ethanol were used to prepare the base cream formulations. D-optimal mixture design was performed to obtain the optimum formulation. Twenty-five combination components were selected according to the D-optimal criterion. The consumer acceptance and physical properties of the base cream such as viscosity, drying time stickiness were studied. Three-dimensional surface plots were formed to assess the change in the response surface and to understand the effect of the mixture composition on lipstick characteristics. The result indicates that there are relationships between the processing variables of the lipstick formulation and the consumer acceptance.

  4. Development of gummi drugs of aripiprazole as hospital formulations.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Shinya; Hiraoka, Shogo; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    About half of patients with schizophrenia have poor adherence to taking medication, so many have recurrence, therefore, providing formulations that enable patients to continue their medication without interruption is important. We aimed to develop a gummi drug that contains aripiprazole (which can reduce schizophrenia and manic symptoms in bipolar disorder). We were able to develop gummi drugs (OD-G, PW-G and OS-G) using three commercially available aripiprazole products (Abilify® orally disintegrating tablets, powder formulation, and oral solutions, respectively) as hospital formulations. Furthermore, we developed improved OD-G (iOD-G), which contained high aripiprazole content. Pharmaceutical characteristics of iOD-G were demonstrated to be suitable for hospital formulations, and iOD-G could be stored for ≤1 month. No significant differences in the dissolution and pharmacokinetics of divided portions of iOD-G were observed when compared with commercially available aripiprazole products. This study confirmed that new dosage forms of aripiprazole in gummi drugs can be developed as hospital formulations, which will contribute to improve medication adherence of patients.

  5. Evaporation from multi-component canopies: Generalized formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhomme, Jean Paul; Montes, Carlo; Jacob, Frédéric; Prévot, Laurent

    2013-04-01

    SummaryA general formulation is derived for expressing the evaporation from multi-component canopies representing mixed-plant communities. It generalizes to n components the formulations introduced by Lhomme et al. (Bound-Layer Meteorol. 144, 243-262, 2012) for two and three components models. The new formulation is an alternative and simpler form of the equations previously developed by Wallace (Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 123, 1885-1905, 1997). It is sounder, in the sense that: (i) it accounts for the impact of stomatal characteristics (hypostomatous or amphistomatous) on evaporation expression; (ii) it allows one to eliminate the confusing "Penman-Monteith" type terms of Wallace's formulation (which do no not represent the individual component evaporations). Additionally, the steps of the mathematical demonstration are clearly specified, which was not the case for Wallace's formulation. In this way, a general conceptual framework is defined for evaporation from complex vegetation, from which simpler representations (1, 2 or 3 components models) and asymptotic limits (infinite identical components) can be inferred.

  6. Advances in metered dose inhaler technology: formulation development.

    PubMed

    Myrdal, Paul B; Sheth, Poonam; Stein, Stephen W

    2014-04-01

    Pressurized metered dose inhalers (MDIs) are a long-standing method to treat diseases of the lung, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. MDIs rely on the driving force of the propellant, which comprises the bulk of the MDI formulation, to atomize droplets containing drug and excipients, which ideally should deposit in the lungs. During the phase out of chlorofluorocarbon propellants and the introduction of more environmentally friendly hydrofluoroalkane propellants, many improvements were made to the methods of formulating for MDI drug delivery along with a greater understanding of formulation variables on product performance. This review presents a survey of challenges associated with formulating MDIs as solution or suspension products with one or more drugs, while considering the physicochemical properties of various excipients and how the addition of these excipients may impact overall product performance of the MDI. Propellants, volatile and nonvolatile cosolvents, surfactants, polymers, suspension stabilizers, and bulking agents are among the variety of excipients discussed in this review article. Furthermore, other formulation approaches, such as engineered excipient and drug-excipient particles, to deliver multiple drugs from a single MDI are also evaluated. PMID:24452499

  7. Multivariate analysis of identity of imported technical PCN formulation.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, J; Chudzyński, K; Takekuma, M; Yamamoto, T; Noma, Y; Hanari, N; Yamashita, N

    2008-10-01

    Chloronaphthalenes form a class of compounds consisting of 8 CN homologue groups and altogether of 75 congeners, which used have been most extensively in 1930--1950. An investigation have been performed on the possible origin of unidentified by name technical chloronaphthalene formulation unlawfully imported recently from the United Kingdom to Japan. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis of chloronaphthalene congener isomer-specific and homologue classes' compositional HRGC/HRMS data of imported CN formulation and of certain brands of technical CN formulation called Halowax (Halowax 1000, 1001 and 1031) enabled to identify that unnamed product is not Halowax 1001. A less accurate multivariate examination based on CN homologue classes patter did indicate on large similarity between unlawfully imported technical CN formulation and Halowax 1001 (manufactured by the Koppers Ind. Co., USA), while a more accurate based on CN congeners pattern differentiated them as to of various origin mixtures. Based on chlorine content of imported CN formulation (50-52%) and its no similarity to Halowax 1001 it seems reasonable to conclude that unnamed CN mixture examined could be a sample of stockpiled Seekay wax R93.

  8. Hydroxyapatite moldable formulation using natural rubber latex as binder.

    PubMed

    Sailaja, G S; Ramesh, P; Varma, H K

    2007-07-01

    A simple but efficient processing method for shaping intricate bioceramic green bodies has been developed by using natural rubber latex as binder. Different shapes of hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 (HAP) were molded from a composite formulation containing wet precipitated HAP, natural rubber latex (NRL), and a stabilizer. On controlled heat treatment followed by sintering, dense shapes of HAP contours were obtained. The thermal degradation profile of HAP-NRL composites shows that NRL degrades slowly without any abrupt exotherm. The results of energy dispersive X-ray analysis together with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis indicate that the inorganic residue of NRL does not contain any heavy element. The sintered density of the samples increased with increased HAP content in the formulation and percentage shrinkage reduced accordingly. On varying the HAP content in the formulation from 35 to 95 wt %, the compositions with 85, 90, 92, and 95 wt % HAP showed better flexural strength in the range 40-54 MPa and a flexural modulus value in the range 36-50 GPa. The fracture morphology, as observed by the scanning electron microscope confirms that with increased HAP content in the formulation the sample microstructure attains higher uniformity. The Vickers microhardness for the samples sintered at two different temperatures (1150 and 1250 degrees C) showed that hardness increases with increase in the sintering temperature with a maximum for the highest HAP loaded formulation.

  9. Influence of Differing Analgesic Formulations of Aspirin on Pharmacokinetic Parameters.

    PubMed

    Kanani, Kunal; Gatoulis, Sergio C; Voelker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin has been used therapeutically for over 100 years. As the originator and an important marketer of aspirin-containing products, Bayer's clinical trial database contains numerous reports of the pharmacokinetics of various aspirin formulations. These include evaluations of plain tablets, effervescent tablets, granules, chewable tablets, and fast-release tablets. This publication seeks to expand upon the available pharmacokinetic information concerning aspirin formulations. In the pre-systemic circulation, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is rapidly converted into its main active metabolite, salicylic acid (SA). Therefore, both substances are measured in plasma and reported in the results. The 500 mg strength of each formulation was chosen for analysis as this is the most commonly used for analgesia. A total of 22 studies were included in the analysis. All formulations of 500 mg aspirin result in comparable plasma exposure to ASA and SA as evidenced by AUC. Tablets and dry granules provide a consistently lower Cmax compared to effervescent, granules in suspension and fast release tablets. Effervescent tablets, fast release tablets, and granules in suspension provide a consistently lower median Tmax compared to dry granules and tablets for both ASA and SA. This report reinforces the importance of formulation differences and their impact on pharmacokinetic parameters. PMID:26247959

  10. Meclizine metabolism and pharmacokinetics: formulation on its absorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhijun; Lee, Benjamin; Pearce, Daniel; Qian, Shuai; Wang, Yanfeng; Zhang, Qizhi; Chow, Moses S S

    2012-09-01

    Meclizine, an antihistamine, has been widely used for prophylactic treatment and management of motion sickness. However, the onset of action of meclizine was about 1 hour for the treatment of motion sickness and vertigo. A new suspension formulation of meclizine (MOS) was developed with the intention to achieve a rapid effect. To investigate the pharmacokinetics of the new MOS formulation versus the marketed meclizine oral tablet (MOT), a phase 1 pharmacokinetic study was performed in 20 healthy volunteers. In addition, an in vitro metabolic study using human hepatic microsome and recombinant CYP enzyme was also performed to determine the metabolic pathway in the human body. The plasma concentration of MOS appeared more rapidly in comparison to the MOT. The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence interval) of AUC(0-24) and AUC(0-∞) indicated no significant difference in bioavailability between the 2 formulations. CYP2D6 was found to be the dominant enzyme for metabolism of meclizine, and its genetic polymorphism could contribute to the large interindividual variability. In view of the similar bioavailability with a much shorter peak time of the plasma meclizine concentration from the MOS formulation, this new formulation is expected to produce a much quicker onset of action when used for the management of motion sickness. PMID:21903894

  11. Formulation approaches in mitigating toxicity of orally administrated drugs.

    PubMed

    Kadiyala, Irina; Tan, Elijah

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of current formulation approaches to mitigate toxicity of orally administrated drugs. The formulation approaches are characterized by their intended impact on a drug's pharmacokinetic parameters, pharmacological properties or metabolic pathways. Regulatory opportunities and constraints with focus on U.S. regulations in optimizing a drug's safety or efficacy profile are reviewed. The following formulation approaches are described: (i) pharmacokinetic-modulating and (ii) pharmacodynamic-modulating. In the pharmacokinetic-modulating approach, the pharmacokinetic profile of drug release is modified by, for example, a reduction in peak drug plasma concentration while preserving or improving AUC, thereby potentially reducing toxic effects that may be related to C(max). In the pharmacodynamic-modulating approach, the drug is co-dosed with pharmacologically active or nonpharmacologically active agent or agents intended for mitigation of the drug's toxicity. The pharmacodynamic-modulating approach requires information on the specificity of drug interactions with other compounds and also on metabolic pathways. Examples demonstrating successful formulation work in reducing drug toxicity are provided. The in-depth knowledge of the drug's PK and PD properties combined with a greater understanding of the biology of diseases are necessary for successful drug product formulation leading to optimized in vivo exposure and minimized toxicity.

  12. Geometric nonlinear formulation for thermal-rigid-flexible coupling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Wei; Liu, Jin-Yang

    2013-10-01

    This paper develops geometric nonlinear hybrid formulation for flexible multibody system with large deformation considering thermal effect. Different from the conventional formulation, the heat flux is the function of the rotational angle and the elastic deformation, therefore, the coupling among the temperature, the large overall motion and the elastic deformation should be taken into account. Firstly, based on nonlinear strain-displacement relationship, variational dynamic equations and heat conduction equations for a flexible beam are derived by using virtual work approach, and then, Lagrange dynamics equations and heat conduction equations of the first kind of the flexible multibody system are obtained by leading into the vectors of Lagrange multiplier associated with kinematic and temperature constraint equations. This formulation is used to simulate the thermal included hub-beam system. Comparison of the response between the coupled system and the uncoupled system has revealed the thermal chattering phenomenon. Then, the key parameters for stability, including the moment of inertia of the central body, the incident angle, the damping ratio and the response time ratio, are analyzed. This formulation is also used to simulate a three-link system applied with heat flux. Comparison of the results obtained by the proposed formulation with those obtained by the approximate nonlinear model and the linear model shows the significance of considering all the nonlinear terms in the strain in case of large deformation. At last, applicability of the approximate nonlinear model and the linear model are clarified in detail.

  13. Influence of Differing Analgesic Formulations of Aspirin on Pharmacokinetic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Kanani, Kunal; Gatoulis, Sergio C.; Voelker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin has been used therapeutically for over 100 years. As the originator and an important marketer of aspirin-containing products, Bayer’s clinical trial database contains numerous reports of the pharmacokinetics of various aspirin formulations. These include evaluations of plain tablets, effervescent tablets, granules, chewable tablets, and fast-release tablets. This publication seeks to expand upon the available pharmacokinetic information concerning aspirin formulations. In the pre-systemic circulation, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is rapidly converted into its main active metabolite, salicylic acid (SA). Therefore, both substances are measured in plasma and reported in the results. The 500 mg strength of each formulation was chosen for analysis as this is the most commonly used for analgesia. A total of 22 studies were included in the analysis. All formulations of 500 mg aspirin result in comparable plasma exposure to ASA and SA as evidenced by AUC. Tablets and dry granules provide a consistently lower Cmax compared to effervescent, granules in suspension and fast release tablets. Effervescent tablets, fast release tablets, and granules in suspension provide a consistently lower median Tmax compared to dry granules and tablets for both ASA and SA. This report reinforces the importance of formulation differences and their impact on pharmacokinetic parameters. PMID:26247959

  14. Physiologically Based Absorption Modeling for Amorphous Solid Dispersion Formulations.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Amitava; Zhu, Wei; Kesisoglou, Filippos

    2016-09-01

    Amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulations are routinely used to enable the delivery of poorly soluble compounds. This type of formulations can enhance bioavailability due to higher kinetic solubility of the drug substance and increased dissolution rate of the formulation, by the virtue of the fact that the drug molecule exists in the formulation in a high energy amorphous state. In this article we report the application of physiologically based absorption models to mechanistically understand the clinical pharmacokinetics of solid dispersion formulations. Three case studies are shown here to cover a wide range of ASD bioperformance in human and modeling to retrospectively understand their in vivo behavior. Case study 1 is an example of fairly linear PK observed with dose escalation and the use of amorphous solubility to predict bioperformance. Case study 2 demonstrates the development of a model that was able to accurately predict the decrease in fraction absorbed (%Fa) with dose escalation thus demonstrating that such model can be used to predict the clinical bioperformance in the scenario where saturation of absorption is observed. Finally, case study 3 shows the development of an absorption model with the intent to describe the observed incomplete and low absorption in clinic with dose escalation. These case studies highlight the utility of physiologically based absorption modeling in gaining a thorough understanding of ASD performance and the critical factors impacting performance to drive design of a robust drug product that would deliver the optimal benefit to the patients. PMID:27442959

  15. Selection of oral bioavailability enhancing formulations during drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weijia; Jain, Akash; Papoutsakis, Dimitris; Dannenfelser, Rose-Marie; Panicucci, Riccardo; Garad, Sudhakar

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify oral bioavailability enhancing approaches for a poorly water-soluble research compound during drug discovery stages using minimal amounts of material. LCQ789 is a pBCS (preclinical BCS) Class II compound with extremely low aqueous solubility (<1 µg/mL) and high permeability, therefore, resulting in very low oral bioavailability in preclinical species (rats and dogs). A number of solubility and/or dissolution enhancing approaches including particle size reduction, solid dispersions, lipid-based formulations and co-crystals, were considered in order to improve the compound's oral bioavailability. High-Throughput Screening (HTS) and in silico modeling (GastroPlus™) were utilized to minimize the compound consumption in early discovery stages. In vivo evaluation of selected physical form and formulation strategies was performed in rats and dogs. Amongst the formulation strategies, optimized solid dispersion and lipid-based formulation provided significant improvement in drug dissolution rate and hence, oral bioavailability. In addition, a significant impact of physical form on oral bioavailability of LCQ789 was observed. In conclusion, a thorough understanding of not only the formulation technique but also the physical form of research compounds is critical to ensure physical stability, successful pharmacokinetic (PK) profiling and early developability risk assessment.

  16. Support Tools in Formulation Development for Poorly Soluble Drugs.

    PubMed

    Fridgeirsdottir, Gudrun A; Harris, Robert; Fischer, Peter M; Roberts, Clive J

    2016-08-01

    The need for solubility enhancement through formulation is a well-known but still problematic issue because of the numbers of poorly water-soluble drugs in development. There are several possible routes that can be taken to increase the bioavailability of drugs intended for immediate-release oral formulation. The best formulation strategy for any given drug will depend on numerous factors, including required dose, shelf life, manufacturability, and the properties of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Choosing an optimal formulation and manufacturing route for a new API is therefore not a straightforward process. Currently, there are several approaches that are used in the pharmaceutical industry to select the best formulation strategy. These differ in complexity and efficiency, but most try to predict which route will best suit the API based on selected molecular parameters such as molecular weight, lipophilicity (logP), and solubility. These methods range from using no tools, trial and error methods through a variety of complex tools from small in vitro or in vivo experiments or high throughput screening, guidance maps, and decision trees to the most complex methods based on computational modelling tools. This review aims to list available support tools and explain how they are used. PMID:27368122

  17. Functional and nutritional evaluation of supplementary food formulations.

    PubMed

    Khanam, Anjum; Chikkegowda, Rashmi Kumkum; Swamylingappa, Bhagya

    2013-04-01

    Two type of ready to eat supplementary food formulations were developed by roller drying based on wheat, soy protein concentrate, whey protein concentrate, and green gram flour and were fortified with vitamins and minerals to meet the one third of the Recommended daily allowance (RDA). The supplementary food formulations contained 20-21% protein, 370-390 kcal of energy and 2,300 μg of β-carotene per 100 g serving. The physico-chemical, functional and nutritional characteristics were evaluated. The chemical score indicated that sulphur containing amino acids were the first limiting in both the formulations. The calculated nutritional indices, essential amino acid index, biological value, nutritional index and C-PER were higher for formula II. Rat bioassay showed higher PER (2.3) for formula II compared to formula I (2.1). The bioaccessibility of iron was 23%. Sensory studies indicated that the products were acceptable with a shelf life of 1 year under normal storage condition. However, the formulations were nutritionally better than only cereal based supplementary food formulations available commercially. The product could be served in the form of porridge with water/milk or in the form of small laddu. PMID:24425921

  18. A DENSITY-INDEPENDENT FORMULATION OF SMOOTHED PARTICLE HYDRODYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Makino, Junichiro

    2013-05-01

    The standard formulation of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) assumes that the local density distribution is differentiable. This assumption is used to derive the spatial derivatives of other quantities. However, this assumption breaks down at the contact discontinuity. At the contact discontinuity, the density of the low-density side is overestimated while that of the high-density side is underestimated. As a result, the pressure of the low-density (high-density) side is overestimated (underestimated). Thus, unphysical repulsive force appears at the contact discontinuity, resulting in the effective surface tension. This tension suppresses fluid instabilities. In this paper, we present a new formulation of SPH, which does not require the differentiability of density. Instead of the mass density, we adopt the internal energy density (pressure) and its arbitrary function, which are smoothed quantities at the contact discontinuity, as the volume element used for the kernel integration. We call this new formulation density-independent SPH (DISPH). It handles the contact discontinuity without numerical problems. The results of standard tests such as the shock tube, Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, point-like explosion, and blob tests are all very favorable to DISPH. We conclude that DISPH solved most of the known difficulties of the standard SPH, without introducing additional numerical diffusion or breaking the exact force symmetry or energy conservation. Our new SPH includes the formulation proposed by Ritchie and Thomas as a special case. Our formulation can be extended to handle a non-ideal gas easily.

  19. Antidiabetic activity of a polyherbal formulation (DRF/AY/5001).

    PubMed

    Mandlik, Rahul V; Desai, Sandya K; Naik, Suresh R; Sharma, Gaurav; Kohli, R K

    2008-08-01

    The herbal formulation, DRF/AY/5001, elicits hypoglycemic/antidiabetic effects in both normal and experimentally induced hyperglycemic (epinephrine and alloxan) rats. Further, herbal formulation treatment can significantly alter the pattern of glucose tolerance in normal and diabetic rats. It is possible that the herbal formulation may act through both, pancreatic and extra-pancreatic mechanism(s). The DRF/AY/5001 also elicited a significant antioxidant effect in alloxan diabetic rats as reflected by its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation and to elevate the enzymatic antioxidants in pancreatic tissue. The histopathological studies during the long-term treatment have shown to ameliorate the alloxan induced histological damage of islets of Langerhans. The inhibitory effects on biochemical and histological parameters induced by herbal formulation at a dose of 600 mg/kg were almost comparable to that of standard drug, glibenclamide (4 mg/kg). The present study demonstrates that herbal formulation exhibits promisisng antidiabetic activity and helps to maintain good glycemic and metabolic control.

  20. Development of particulate drug formulation against C. parvum: Formulation, characterization and in vivo efficacy.

    PubMed

    Blanco-García, Estefanía; Guerrero-Callejas, Florentina; Blanco-Méndez, José; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito; Luzardo-Álvarez, Asteria

    2016-09-20

    This research aims towards developing an alternative therapy against Cryptosporidium parvum using bioadhesive paromomycin and diloxanide furoate-loaded microspheres. Microspheres were prepared using chitosan and poly(vinyl alcohol) and two types of cyclodextrins (β-CD and DM-β-CD) for the potential use of treating cryptosporidiosis. This pathogen is associated with gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. Microparticle formulations were characterized in terms of size, surface charge, drug release and morphology. In vivo bioadhesion properties of CHI/PVA microspheres were also evaluated in mice. Finally, the in vivo efficacy of CHI/PVA microspheres against C. parvum was tested in neonatal mouse model. In this work, microspheres prepared by spray-drying showed spherical shape, diameters between 6.67±0.11 and 18.78±0.07μm and positively surface charged. The bioadhesion studies demonstrated that MS remained attached at +16h (post-infection) to the intestinal cells as detected by fluorescence. This finding was crucial taking use of the fact that the parasite multiplication occurs between 16 and 20h post-infection. The efficacy of treatment was determined by calculating the number of oocysts recovered from the intestinal tract of mice after 7days of post-infection. Mice receiving orally administered microspheres with and without drug exhibited significantly lower parasite loads compared with the control mice. Ultrastructural observations by TEM bring to light the uptake of smallest particles by enterocytes associated with conspicuous changes in enterocytic cells. Completely recovery of cell morphology was detected after 24h of first inoculation with MS. CHI/PVA microspheres appear to be a safe and simple system to be used in an anticryptosporidial treatment. The distinctive features of neonatal mice requires further work to determine the suppressive effect of this particulate delivery system on C. parvum attachment in other animal models.

  1. Development of particulate drug formulation against C. parvum: Formulation, characterization and in vivo efficacy.

    PubMed

    Blanco-García, Estefanía; Guerrero-Callejas, Florentina; Blanco-Méndez, José; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito; Luzardo-Álvarez, Asteria

    2016-09-20

    This research aims towards developing an alternative therapy against Cryptosporidium parvum using bioadhesive paromomycin and diloxanide furoate-loaded microspheres. Microspheres were prepared using chitosan and poly(vinyl alcohol) and two types of cyclodextrins (β-CD and DM-β-CD) for the potential use of treating cryptosporidiosis. This pathogen is associated with gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. Microparticle formulations were characterized in terms of size, surface charge, drug release and morphology. In vivo bioadhesion properties of CHI/PVA microspheres were also evaluated in mice. Finally, the in vivo efficacy of CHI/PVA microspheres against C. parvum was tested in neonatal mouse model. In this work, microspheres prepared by spray-drying showed spherical shape, diameters between 6.67±0.11 and 18.78±0.07μm and positively surface charged. The bioadhesion studies demonstrated that MS remained attached at +16h (post-infection) to the intestinal cells as detected by fluorescence. This finding was crucial taking use of the fact that the parasite multiplication occurs between 16 and 20h post-infection. The efficacy of treatment was determined by calculating the number of oocysts recovered from the intestinal tract of mice after 7days of post-infection. Mice receiving orally administered microspheres with and without drug exhibited significantly lower parasite loads compared with the control mice. Ultrastructural observations by TEM bring to light the uptake of smallest particles by enterocytes associated with conspicuous changes in enterocytic cells. Completely recovery of cell morphology was detected after 24h of first inoculation with MS. CHI/PVA microspheres appear to be a safe and simple system to be used in an anticryptosporidial treatment. The distinctive features of neonatal mice requires further work to determine the suppressive effect of this particulate delivery system on C. parvum attachment in other animal models. PMID:27381880

  2. Analysis of the Low and List Drop-Breakup Formulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Philip S., Jr.

    1986-03-01

    An analysis of the Low and List drop-breakup formulation has uncovered several computational problems that arise in calculating both the fragment distribution function and the Bleck expansion coefficients that appear in the discrete coalcacence/breakup equation. Special procedures have been developed to deal effectively with these problems. The discrete coalescence/breakup equation has been solved using the Low and List breakup formulation and the earlier List and Gillespie formulation. Comparison shows that the Low and List model solutions approach equilibrium more slowly than do the earlier model solutions; moreover, the Low and List equilibrium drop spectra exhibit a bimodality in the small-drop end of the spectrum. The longer time constants associated with the Low and List equations ease somewhat the severe computational stability problem associated with List and Gillespie equations.

  3. Antipyretic activity of Guduchi Ghrita formulations in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B; Prajapati, P K; Bhat, Savitha D

    2010-07-01

    The present pharmacological investigation was undertaken to study the anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations in albino rats against yeast induced pyrexia. Seven groups of six animals were used for the experiment. The yeast induced pyrexia method was standardized first by injecting 12.5% yeast suspension (s.c) followed by recording the rectal temperature at regular intervals. Then the evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations was carried out by using this standard procedure. Both the Guduchi ghrita samples including vehicle significantly attenuated the raise in temperature after three hours of yeast injection. After 6 and 9 hours of yeast injection also both the Guduchi ghrita samples attenuated the raise in temperature in a highly significant manner in comparison to both yeast control and vehicle control groups. The data generated during study shows that both the Guduchi ghrita formulations having significant anti-pyretic activity. PMID:22131741

  4. Formulation and Evaluation of Mouth Dissolving Tablets of Cinnarizine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, B. P.; Patel, J. K.; Rajput, G. C.; Thakor, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop mouth dissolve tablets of cinnarizine by effervescent, superdisintegrant addition and sublimation methods. All the three formulations were evaluated for disintegration time, hardness and friability, among these superdisintegrant addition method showed lowest disintegration time; hence it was selected for further studies. Further nine batches (B1-B9) were prepared by using crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and L-HPC in different concentrations such as 5, 7.5 and 10%. All the formulations were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, in vitro disintegration time, wetting time, in vitro dissolution. Formulation with 10% L-HPC showed the less disintegration time (25.3 s) and less wetting time (29.1 s). In vitro dissolution studies showed total drug release at the end of 6 min. PMID:21218071

  5. Formulation and evaluation of mouth dissolving tablets of cinnarizine.

    PubMed

    Patel, B P; Patel, J K; Rajput, G C; Thakor, R S

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop mouth dissolve tablets of cinnarizine by effervescent, superdisintegrant addition and sublimation methods. All the three formulations were evaluated for disintegration time, hardness and friability, among these superdisintegrant addition method showed lowest disintegration time; hence it was selected for further studies. Further nine batches (B1-B9) were prepared by using crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and L-HPC in different concentrations such as 5, 7.5 and 10%. All the formulations were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, in vitro disintegration time, wetting time, in vitro dissolution. Formulation with 10% L-HPC showed the less disintegration time (25.3 s) and less wetting time (29.1 s). In vitro dissolution studies showed total drug release at the end of 6 min. PMID:21218071

  6. Stable and flux-conserved meshfree formulation to model shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Michael J.; Chen, Jiun-Shyan; Slawson, Thomas R.; Danielson, Kent T.

    2016-05-01

    Accurate shock modeling requires that two critical issues be addressed: (1) correct representation of the essential shock physics, and (2) control of Gibbs phenomenon oscillation at the discontinuity. In this work a stable (oscillation limiting) and flux-conserved formulation under the reproducing kernel particle method is developed for shock modeling. A smoothed flux divergence is constructed under the framework of stabilized conforming nodal integration, which is locally-enriched with a Riemann solution to satisfy the entropy production constraints. This Riemann-enriched flux divergence is embedded into the reproducing kernel formulation through a velocity correction that also provides oscillation control at the shock. The correction is constrained to the shock region by an automatic shock detection algorithm that is constructed using the intrinsic spectral decomposition feature of the reproducing kernel approximation. Several numerical examples are provided to verify accuracy of the proposed formulation.

  7. Kinetics of moisturizing and firming effects of cosmetic formulations.

    PubMed

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, E; Fontaine, K; Piérard, G E

    2008-04-01

    The assessment of cosmetic efficacy is rarely performed in studies comparing different concentrations of active compounds. The aim of the present study was to determine the skin hydrating and the skin firming dose-response effects of cosmetic formulations enriched in compounds derived from algae and fish collagen. A series of factors were studied including the type of formulation (cream or serum), the concentration in active ingredients, the effect of repetitive applications, as well as any residual effect of the formulations after stopping their applications. The serum enriched in marine compounds showed a better moisturizing effect in short term. The cream appeared more active later, particularly following repeat applications. A sustained tensor (firming) effect was observed during treatment with both the lotion and the cream. However, no remnant firming effect was perceived after stopping treatment.

  8. Superactive cellulase formulation using cellobiohydrolase-1 from Penicillium funiculosum

    DOEpatents

    Adney, William S.; Baker, John O.; Decker, Stephen R.; Chou, Yat-Chen; Himmel, Michael E.; Ding, Shi-You

    2012-10-09

    Purified cellobiohydrolase I (glycosyl hydrolase family 7 (Cel7A)) enzymes from Penicillium funiculosum demonstrate a high level of specific performance in comparison to other Cel7 family member enzymes when formulated with purified EIcd endoglucanase from A. cellulolyticus and tested on pretreated corn stover. This result is true of the purified native enzyme, as well as recombinantly expressed enzyme, for example, that enzyme expressed in a non-native Aspergillus host. In a specific example, the specific performance of the formulation using purified recombinant Cel7A from Penicillium funiculosum expressed in A. awamori is increased by more than 200% when compared to a formulation using purified Cel7A from Trichoderma reesei.

  9. Superactive cellulase formulation using cellobiohydrolase-1 from Penicillium funiculosum

    DOEpatents

    Adney, William S.; Baker, John O.; Decker, Stephen R.; Chou, Yat-Chen; Himmel, Michael E.; Ding, Shi-You

    2008-11-11

    Purified cellobiohydrolase I (glycosyl hydrolase family 7 (Cel7A) enzymes from Penicillium funiculosum demonstrate a high level of specific performance in comparison to other Cel7 family member enzymes when formulated with purified EIcd endoglucanase from A. cellulolyticus and tested on pretreated corn stover. This result is true of the purified native enzyme, as well as recombinantly expressed enzyme, for example, that enzyme expressed in a non-native Aspergillus host. In a specific example, the specific performance of the formulation using purified recombinant Cel7A from Penicillium funiculosum expressed in A. awamori is increased by more than 200% when compared to a formulation using purified Cel7A from Trichoderma reesei.

  10. Release characteristics of encapsulated formulations incorporating plant growth factors.

    PubMed

    Wybraniec, Slawomir; Schwartz, Liliana; Wiesman, Zeev; Markus, Arie; Wolf, David

    2002-05-01

    The release characteristics of encapsulated formulations containing a combination of plant growth factors (PGF)--plant hormones (IBA, paclobutrazol), nutrients (fertilizers, microelements), and fungicide (prochloraz)--were studied. The formulations were prepared by encapsulating the active ingredients in a polyethylene matrix and, in some cases, subsequently coating the product with polyurethane. Dissolution experiments were carried out with both coated and non-coated formulations to determine the sustained release patterns of the active ingredients. The PGF controlled-release systems obtained have been shown to promote development of root systems, vegetative growth, and reproductive development in cuttings, potted plants, or garden plants of various plant species. These beneficial effects are attributable to the lasting and balanced PGF availability provided by these systems. PMID:12009194

  11. Formulation of wax oxybenzone microparticles using a factorial approach.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Y A; Darwish, I A; Boraei, N A; El-Khordagui, L K

    2010-01-01

    Oxybenzone wax microparticles (MPs) were prepared by the hydrophobic congealable disperse phase method. The formulation of oxybenzone-loaded MPs was optimized using a 2⁴ experimental design. Factorial analysis indicated that the main MP characteristics were influenced by initial drug loading, emulsification speed, emulsifier concentration and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance. MPs were spherical with 50.5–88.1 μm size range, 17.8–38.9 drug content in mg/100 mg MPs and 33.1–87.2% oxybenzone release in 1 h. A wide range of sunscreen delivery systems suitable for different formulation purposes were generated which may contribute to the advanced formulation of sunscreen products with improved performance. PMID:20681744

  12. Fish consumption and track to a fish feed formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai-Juan, Soong; Ramli, Razamin; Rahman, Rosshairy Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Strategically located in the equator, Malaysia is blessed with plenty of fish supply. The high demand in fish consumption has helped the development in the fishery industry and provided numerous jobs in the secondary sector, contributing significantly to the nation's income. A survey was conducted to understand the trend of current demands for fish for the purpose of designing a feed formulation, which is still limited in this area of study. Results showed that grouper fish in restaurants commanded a very high price compared to other species of fish. Tiger grouper gained the highest demand in most restaurants, while giant grouper had the highest price in restaurants. Due to the demand and challenges to culture this type of fish, a framework for fish feed formulation is proposed. The formulation framework when materialized could be an alternative to the use of trash fish as the feed for grouper.

  13. A Generalized Formulation of Demand Response under Market Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Minh Y.; Nguyen, Duc M.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a generalized formulation of Demand Response (DR) under deregulated electricity markets. The problem is scheduling and controls the consumption of electrical loads according to the market price to minimize the energy cost over a day. Taking into account the modeling of customers' comfort (i.e., preference), the formulation can be applied to various types of loads including what was traditionally classified as critical loads (e.g., air conditioning, lights). The proposed DR scheme is based on Dynamic Programming (DP) framework and solved by DP backward algorithm in which the stochastic optimization is used to treat the uncertainty, if any occurred in the problem. The proposed formulation is examined with the DR problem of different loads, including Heat Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC), Electric Vehicles (EVs) and a newly DR on the water supply systems of commercial buildings. The result of simulation shows significant saving can be achieved in comparison with their traditional (On/Off) scheme.

  14. Formulation of wax oxybenzone microparticles using a factorial approach.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Y A; Darwish, I A; Boraei, N A; El-Khordagui, L K

    2010-01-01

    Oxybenzone wax microparticles (MPs) were prepared by the hydrophobic congealable disperse phase method. The formulation of oxybenzone-loaded MPs was optimized using a 2⁴ experimental design. Factorial analysis indicated that the main MP characteristics were influenced by initial drug loading, emulsification speed, emulsifier concentration and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance. MPs were spherical with 50.5–88.1 μm size range, 17.8–38.9 drug content in mg/100 mg MPs and 33.1–87.2% oxybenzone release in 1 h. A wide range of sunscreen delivery systems suitable for different formulation purposes were generated which may contribute to the advanced formulation of sunscreen products with improved performance.

  15. The Vaccine Formulation Laboratory: a platform for access to adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Collin, Nicolas; Dubois, Patrice M

    2011-07-01

    Adjuvants are increasingly used by the vaccine research and development community, particularly for their ability to enhance immune responses and for their dose-sparing properties. However, they are not readily available to the majority of public sector vaccine research groups, and even those with access to suitable adjuvants may still fail in the development of their vaccines because of lack of knowledge on how to correctly formulate the adjuvants. This shortcoming led the World Health Organization to advocate for the establishment of the Vaccine Formulation Laboratory at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland. The primary mission of the laboratory is to transfer adjuvants and formulation technology free of intellectual property rights to academic institutions, small biotechnology companies and developing countries vaccine manufacturers. In this context, the transfer of an oil-in-water emulsion to Bio Farma, an Indonesian vaccine manufacturer, was initiated to increase domestic pandemic influenza vaccine production capacity as part of the national pandemic influenza preparedness plan.

  16. Adapting the cultural formulation for clinical assessments in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2012-01-01

    Even as forensic psychiatrists have increasingly contemplated the role of culture in forensic psychiatry, practical cultural evaluations remain an under-theorized area with scant research. Older conceptions of cultural competence may risk stereotyping the evaluee on the basis of perceived group characteristics. This article offers a revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV) Outline for Cultural Formulation for use in forensic psychiatry by adjusting its formal guidelines with recommendations from the forensic mental health literature. As a person-centered method of conducting the interview, the Cultural Formulation probes cultural explanations of identity, illness, social support, functioning, and interaction with the medical and legal systems. In line with other psychiatric subspecialties, future research in forensic psychiatry can examine the extent to which the Cultural Formulation helps trainees with cultural competence, reconfigures diagnosis and treatment, and alters legal outcomes such as length of sentence.

  17. Formulation and stability study of chlorpheniramine maleate nasal gel.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Iman I; Soliman, Nadia A; Abdou, Ebtsam M

    2010-01-01

    Nasal administration has been of special interest in the last decade due to its feasibility and relative high bioavailability compared to the oral rout of administration. Our study aimed to develop a nasal gel formulation for an antihistaminic drug, Chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM), which suffers from poor oral bioavailability (25-45%) due to its first-pass metabolism in the liver. Different formulations of CPM nasal gels were prepared using different polymers in different concentrations, these gels were evaluated for their in vitro (physico-chemical properties, release, permeability and stability) to select the best formulation which subject to in vivo tests including mucociliary clearance and bioavailability, both in comparison to the solution and commercial tablet Allergyl.

  18. The effect of essential oil formulations for potato sprout suppression.

    PubMed

    Owolabi, Moses S; Lajide, Labunmi; Oladimeji, Matthew O; Setzer, William N

    2010-04-01

    The concerns over safety and environmental impact of synthetic pesticides such as chlorpropham (CIPC) has stimulated interest in finding environmentally benign, natural sprout suppressants, including essential oils. The effects of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Lippia multiflora essential oils on sprout growth and decay of stored potatoes has been investigated. Formulations of essential oils with alumina, bentonite, or kaolin, both with and without Triton X-100 additive, were tested. These formulations have been compared to the pulverized plant materials themselves as well as wick-volatilized essential oils. The results showed that the tested oils possess compositions that make them suitable for application as sprout suppressants. Additionally, the formulation seems to be able to reduce the volatility of the essential oil and artificially extend dormancy of stored potatoes.

  19. Evaporation and skin penetration characteristics of mosquito repellent formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Reifenrath, W.G.; Hawkins, G.S.; Kurtz, M.S.

    1989-03-01

    Formulations of the mosquito repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) in combination with a variety of additives were developed to control repellent evaporation and percutaneous penetration. Deet was also formulated with the repellent dimethyl phthalate to study the interaction of the two compounds on the skin. The evaporation and penetration processes were evaluated on whole and split-thickness pig skin using radiolabeled repellents with an in vitro apparatus. Under essentially still air and air flow conditions, one of the deet formulations resulted in significantly reduced total evaporation and percutaneous penetration of deet as compared to unformulated repellent. When deet and dimethyl phthalate were combined, neither repellent affected the total amount of evaporation and penetration of the other compound. However, initial percutaneous penetration and evaporation rates were slightly less and decayed less rapidly than when both chemicals were tested separately at the same dose. These results indicated a degree of competition of the two compounds for the same avenues of loss.

  20. Efficacy evaluations on five chlorhexidine teat dip formulations.

    PubMed

    Drechsler, P A; O'Neil, J K; Murdough, P A; Lafayette, A R; Wildman, E E; Pankey, J W

    1993-09-01

    Three developmental postmilking teat dip formulations containing chlorhexidine digluconate were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in sequential experimental exposure trials. Two additional commercial chlorhexidine digluconate teat dip products were evaluated in natural exposure trials. Under conditions of experimental challenge, the developmental formulations were efficacious against Staph. aureus but did not significantly reduce incidence of new IMI by Strep. agalactiae. None of the three formulations of a conventional germicide used as teat sanitizers effectively reduced incidence of new Strep. agalactiae IMI under experimental challenge conditions. In the natural exposure trials with negative controls, a .35% chlorhexidine teat sanitizer had efficacy of 88.7% against Staph. aureus and 51.4% against Strep. agalactiae. The .5% chlorhexidine product reduced Staph. aureus and Strep. agalactiae IMI by 86 and 56%, respectively. PMID:8227681

  1. Fundamental theories of waves and particles formulated without classical mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, J. L.; Musielak, Z. E.

    2010-12-01

    Quantum and classical mechanics are two conceptually and mathematically different theories of physics, and yet they do use the same concept of classical mass that was originally introduced by Newton in his formulation of the laws of dynamics. In this paper, physical consequences of using the classical mass by both theories are explored, and a novel approach that allows formulating fundamental (Galilean invariant) theories of waves and particles without formally introducing the classical mass is presented. In this new formulation, the theories depend only on one common parameter called 'wave mass', which is deduced from experiments for selected elementary particles and for the classical mass of one kilogram. It is shown that quantum theory with the wave mass is independent of the Planck constant and that higher accuracy of performing calculations can be attained by such theory. Natural units in connection with the presented approach are also discussed and justification beyond dimensional analysis is given for the particular choice of such units.

  2. Formulation and evaluation of herbal anti-acne moisturizer.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Arun; Shama, Shaik Neelufar; Joy, Jyothi Mulanjananiyil; Reddy, Bobbu Sravya; Roja, Chirra

    2012-10-01

    The moisture content present in human skin makes it look young and the use of moisturizer results in fastening the moisture with a surface film of oil. Acne vulgaris is one of the most commonly seen diseases among the youth. The present study is focused on the use of herbs as moisturizer for acne treatment. The anti-acne moisturizer was formulated from herbal crude extracts and investigated the physico-chemical parameters as well as antibacterial activity of the formulation. The study revealed that ethanol extract of Andrographis paniculata, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ocimum sanctum, Azadiracta indica and Green tea possessed the potential for inhibiting acne. It was observed that the optimal formula of anti-acne moisturizer was satisfactorily effective to control acne inducing bacteria i.e., Staphylococcus epidermis and Propionibacterium. The physico-chemical parameters of the formulation were also optimal with no signs of irritation. PMID:23010007

  3. Release characteristics of encapsulated formulations incorporating plant growth factors.

    PubMed

    Wybraniec, Slawomir; Schwartz, Liliana; Wiesman, Zeev; Markus, Arie; Wolf, David

    2002-05-01

    The release characteristics of encapsulated formulations containing a combination of plant growth factors (PGF)--plant hormones (IBA, paclobutrazol), nutrients (fertilizers, microelements), and fungicide (prochloraz)--were studied. The formulations were prepared by encapsulating the active ingredients in a polyethylene matrix and, in some cases, subsequently coating the product with polyurethane. Dissolution experiments were carried out with both coated and non-coated formulations to determine the sustained release patterns of the active ingredients. The PGF controlled-release systems obtained have been shown to promote development of root systems, vegetative growth, and reproductive development in cuttings, potted plants, or garden plants of various plant species. These beneficial effects are attributable to the lasting and balanced PGF availability provided by these systems.

  4. Decontamination formulation with additive for enhanced mold remediation

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.; Irvine, Kevin; Berger, Paul; Comstock, Robert

    2010-02-16

    Decontamination formulations with an additive for enhancing mold remediation. The formulations include a solubilizing agent (e.g., a cationic surfactant), a reactive compound (e.g., hydrogen peroxide), a carbonate or bicarbonate salt, a water-soluble bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate), a mold remediation enhancer containing Fe or Mn, and water. The concentration of Fe.sup.2+ or Mn.sup.2+ ions in the aqueous mixture is in the range of about 0.0001% to about 0.001%. The enhanced formulations can be delivered, for example, as a foam, spray, liquid, fog, mist, or aerosol for neutralization of chemical compounds, and for killing certain biological compounds or agents and mold spores, on contaminated surfaces and materials.

  5. Formulation and delivery of vaccines: Ongoing challenges for animal management

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sameer; Hinds, Lyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Development of a commercially successful animal vaccine is not only influenced by various immunological factors, such as type of antigen but also by formulation and delivery aspects. The latter includes the need for a vector or specific delivery system, the choice of route of administration and the nature of the target animal population and their habitat. This review describes the formulation and delivery aspects of various types of antigens such as killed microorganisms, proteins and nucleic acids for the development of efficacious and safe animal vaccines. It also focuses on the challenges associated with the different approaches that might be required for formulating and delivering species specific vaccines, particularly if their intended use is for improved animal management with respect to disease and/or reproductive control. PMID:23248557

  6. Antipyretic activity of Guduchi Ghrita formulations in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.; Prajapati, P. K.; Bhat, Savitha D.

    2010-01-01

    The present pharmacological investigation was undertaken to study the anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations in albino rats against yeast induced pyrexia. Seven groups of six animals were used for the experiment. The yeast induced pyrexia method was standardized first by injecting 12.5% yeast suspension (s.c) followed by recording the rectal temperature at regular intervals. Then the evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations was carried out by using this standard procedure. Both the Guduchi ghrita samples including vehicle significantly attenuated the raise in temperature after three hours of yeast injection. After 6 and 9 hours of yeast injection also both the Guduchi ghrita samples attenuated the raise in temperature in a highly significant manner in comparison to both yeast control and vehicle control groups. The data generated during study shows that both the Guduchi ghrita formulations having significant anti-pyretic activity. PMID:22131741

  7. Enhanced transdermal permeability of piroxicam through novel nanoemulgel formulation

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Bhavna; Aggarwal, Geeta; Harikumar, SL

    2014-01-01

    Background: Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug belongs to BCS class II drugs having poor solubility and is associated with a number of undesirable side-effects on the stomach and kidneys in addition to gastric mucosal damage. Aim: The present work was to develop and characterize nanoemulgel formulation as transdermal delivery system for poorly water soluble drug, in order to overcome the troubles associated with its oral delivery and to circumvent the need of chemical penetration enhancers, which are responsible for causing skin irritation in transdermal drug delivery. Materials and Methods: Different nanoemulsion components (oil, surfactant and co-surfactant) were selected on the basis of solubility and emulsification ability. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed using aqueous titration method to figure out the concentration range of components. Carbopol 934 was added as gel matrix to convert nanoemulsion into nanoemulgel. Drug loaded nanoemulsions and nanoemulgels were characterized for particle size, transmission electron microscopy, viscosity, conductivity, spreadability, rheological behavior, permeation studies using Wistar rat skin and stability studies. Transdermal permeation of piroxicam from nanoemulgels was determined by using Franz Diffusion cell. Results: The optimized nanoemulgel (BG6) contained 10% oleic acid as oil, 35% tween 80 and ethanol as surfactant co-surfactant mixture, 55% water, 0.5% drug and 0.5% w/w carbopol. The ex vivo permeation profile of optimized formulation was compared with nanoemulsion and marketed formulation (Feldene®). Nanoemulgel showed higher (P < 0.05) cumulative amount of drug permeated and flux and significantly less drug retained along with less lag time than marketed formulation. Conclusion: The results indicate that nanoemulgel formulation can be used as a feasible alternative to conventional formulations of piroxicam with advanced permeation characteristics for transdermal application. PMID

  8. Bioavailability of organoclay formulations of atrazine in soil.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Carmen; Koskinen, William C; Celis, Rafael; Sadowsky, Michael J; Hermosín, María C; Cornejo, Juan

    2010-11-24

    Pesticide formulations based on organoclays have been proposed to prolong the efficacy and reduce the environmental impact of pesticides in soil. This research addressed the question of whether atrazine in organoclay-based formulations is irreversibly sorbed or is bioavailable for bacterial degradation in soil. Different cations of l-carnitine (CAR), tyramine (TYRAM), hexadimethrine (HEXADIM), phenyltrimethylammonium (PTMA), hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA), and Fe(III) were incorporated into Na-rich Wyoming montmorillonite (SWy-2) and Ca-rich Arizona montmorillonite (SAz-1) at 100% of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the clays as a strategy to enhance the affinity of the clay minerals for atrazine. A Buse loam soil from Becker, MN, was treated with three organoclay-based formulations of 14C-atrazine or free herbicide and incubated for 2 weeks. To determine the bioavailability of 14C-atrazine, the soil was inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, which rapidly mineralizes atrazine. At day 0, and after a 2 week incubation, mineralization and the amount of 14C-atrazine residues distributed between the aqueous-extractable, methanol-extractable, and bound fractions in the soil were determined to characterize the availability of nonaged and aged atrazine residues. By the end of the 2 week incubation, the microorganisms had mineralized >80% of the initial readily available (water-extractable) and >70% of the less readily available (methanol-extractable) 14C-atrazine in the soil. Bound residues increased from <4% at day 0 to ∼17% after the 2 week incubation for both the formulated and free forms of atrazine. The results of these incubation experiments show that the bioavailabilities of atrazine were similar in the case of the organoclay formulations and as free atrazine. This indicated that whereas more atrazine was sorbed and less likely to be transported in soil, when formulated as organoclay complexes, it was ultimately accessible to degrading bacteria, so

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopic evaluation of lyophilized viral vaccine formulations.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Laurent; Beer, Thomas De; Pieters, Sigrid; Heyden, Yvan Vander; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Montenez, Jean-Pierre; Daoussi, Rim

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the applicability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to evaluate the virus state in a freeze-dried live, attenuated vaccine formulation. Therefore, this formulation was freeze-dried using different virus volumes and after applying different pre-freeze-drying virus treatments (resulting in different virus states): (i) as used in the commercial formulation; (ii) without antigen (placebo); (iii) concentrated via a centrifugal filter device; and (iv) stressed by 96 h exposure to room temperature. Each freeze-dried product was measured directly after freeze-drying with NIR spectroscopy and the spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). Herewith, two NIR spectral regions were evaluated: (i) the 7300-4000 cm(-1) region containing the amide A/II band which might reflect information on the coated proteins of freeze-dried live, attenuated viruses; and (ii) the C-H vibration overtone regions (10,000-7500 and 6340-5500 cm(-1) ) which might supply information on the lipid layer surrounding the freeze-dried live, attenuated viruses. The different pre-freeze-drying treated live, attenuated virus formulations (different virus states and virus volumes) resulted in different clusters in the scores plots resulting from the PCA of the collected NIR spectra. Secondly, partial least squares discriminant analysis models (PLS-DA) were developed and evaluated, allowing classification of the freeze-dried formulations according to virus pretreatment. The results of this study suggest the applicability of NIR spectroscopy for evaluating live, attenuated vaccine formulations with respect to their virus pretreatment and virus volume. PMID:24014045

  10. Cream formulation impact on topical administration of engineered colloidal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Santini, Benedetta; Zanoni, Ivan; Marzi, Roberta; Cigni, Clara; Bedoni, Marzia; Gramatica, Furio; Palugan, Luca; Corsi, Fabio; Granucci, Francesca; Colombo, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In order to minimize the impact of systemic toxicity of drugs in the treatment of local acute and chronic inflammatory reactions, the achievement of reliable and efficient delivery of therapeutics in/through the skin is highly recommended. While the use of nanoparticles is now an established practice for drug intravenous targeted delivery, their transdermal penetration is still poorly understood and this important administration route remains almost unexplored. In the present study, we have synthesized magnetic (iron oxide) nanoparticles (MNP) coated with an amphiphilic polymer, developed a water-in-oil emulsion formulation for their topical administration and compared the skin penetration routes with the same nanoparticles deposited as a colloidal suspension. Transmission and scanning electron microscopies provided ultrastructural evidence that the amphiphilic nanoparticles (PMNP) cream formulation allowed the efficient penetration through all the skin layers with a controllable kinetics compared to suspension formulation. In addition to the preferential follicular pathway, also the intracellular and intercellular routes were involved. PMNP that crossed all skin layers were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data suggests that combining PMNP amphiphilic character with cream formulation improves the intradermal penetration of nanoparticles. While PMNP administration in living mice via aqueous suspension resulted in preferential nanoparticle capture by phagocytes and migration to draining lymph nodes, cream formulation favored uptake by all the analyzed dermis cell types, including hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic. Unlike aqueous suspension, cream formulation also favored the maintenance of nanoparticles in the dermal architecture avoiding their dispersion and migration to draining lymph nodes via afferent lymphatics.

  11. Cream Formulation Impact on Topical Administration of Engineered Colloidal Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Marzi, Roberta; Cigni, Clara; Bedoni, Marzia; Gramatica, Furio; Palugan, Luca; Corsi, Fabio; Granucci, Francesca; Colombo, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In order to minimize the impact of systemic toxicity of drugs in the treatment of local acute and chronic inflammatory reactions, the achievement of reliable and efficient delivery of therapeutics in/through the skin is highly recommended. While the use of nanoparticles is now an established practice for drug intravenous targeted delivery, their transdermal penetration is still poorly understood and this important administration route remains almost unexplored. In the present study, we have synthesized magnetic (iron oxide) nanoparticles (MNP) coated with an amphiphilic polymer, developed a water-in-oil emulsion formulation for their topical administration and compared the skin penetration routes with the same nanoparticles deposited as a colloidal suspension. Transmission and scanning electron microscopies provided ultrastructural evidence that the amphiphilic nanoparticles (PMNP) cream formulation allowed the efficient penetration through all the skin layers with a controllable kinetics compared to suspension formulation. In addition to the preferential follicular pathway, also the intracellular and intercellular routes were involved. PMNP that crossed all skin layers were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data suggests that combining PMNP amphiphilic character with cream formulation improves the intradermal penetration of nanoparticles. While PMNP administration in living mice via aqueous suspension resulted in preferential nanoparticle capture by phagocytes and migration to draining lymph nodes, cream formulation favored uptake by all the analyzed dermis cell types, including hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic. Unlike aqueous suspension, cream formulation also favored the maintenance of nanoparticles in the dermal architecture avoiding their dispersion and migration to draining lymph nodes via afferent lymphatics. PMID:25962161

  12. Characterization and stability of various liposome-encapsulated enoxacin formulations.

    PubMed

    Fang, J Y; Lin, H H; Hsu, L R; Tsai, Y H

    1997-09-01

    The necessity for antibacterial agents with greater intracellular efficacy has led to the development of endocytosable drug carriers such as liposomes. Enoxacin was selected as a model drug incorporated in various liposome formulations as a therapeutic dosage form using the ethanol injection method and freeze-drying. Liposomal behavior after preparation and stability test was characterized by determining the physicochemical properties of enoxacin encapsulation percent, vesicle size and turbidity. The non-phospholipid formulation of stratum corneum liposomes showed the highest encapsulation efficiency after preparation among nine liposomal formulations. The addition of dissacharides in liposomes also enhanced the encapsulation of enoxacin due to the protection of phospholipid bilayers during the freeze-drying process. The liposomes with negatively charged component and dissacharides showed lower enoxacin leakage after five weeks of storage at 45 degrees C, suggesting these formulations have high stability in long-term storage. The negative liposomes showed a different behavior than others in their decrease of size and turbidity during storage, possibly due to high surface charges of the negative formulation. Cholesterol stabilized bilayers interacted with plasma and high density lipoprotein (HDL) retained enoxacin in the vesicles. Nevertheless, liposomes with cholesterol caused a hydrolysis problem after incubation with normal saline. The formulation with trehalose not only showed high stability in storage but also in plasma and HDL. This suggested trehalose was useful to incorporate with phospholipids to produce a highly encapsulated and stabilized liposomes of enoxacin. This study also demonstrated that thought is required in utilizing turbidity as a direct index of liposomal vesicle size. PMID:9332003

  13. Characterization and stability of various liposome-encapsulated enoxacin formulations.

    PubMed

    Fang, J Y; Lin, H H; Hsu, L R; Tsai, Y H

    1997-09-01

    The necessity for antibacterial agents with greater intracellular efficacy has led to the development of endocytosable drug carriers such as liposomes. Enoxacin was selected as a model drug incorporated in various liposome formulations as a therapeutic dosage form using the ethanol injection method and freeze-drying. Liposomal behavior after preparation and stability test was characterized by determining the physicochemical properties of enoxacin encapsulation percent, vesicle size and turbidity. The non-phospholipid formulation of stratum corneum liposomes showed the highest encapsulation efficiency after preparation among nine liposomal formulations. The addition of dissacharides in liposomes also enhanced the encapsulation of enoxacin due to the protection of phospholipid bilayers during the freeze-drying process. The liposomes with negatively charged component and dissacharides showed lower enoxacin leakage after five weeks of storage at 45 degrees C, suggesting these formulations have high stability in long-term storage. The negative liposomes showed a different behavior than others in their decrease of size and turbidity during storage, possibly due to high surface charges of the negative formulation. Cholesterol stabilized bilayers interacted with plasma and high density lipoprotein (HDL) retained enoxacin in the vesicles. Nevertheless, liposomes with cholesterol caused a hydrolysis problem after incubation with normal saline. The formulation with trehalose not only showed high stability in storage but also in plasma and HDL. This suggested trehalose was useful to incorporate with phospholipids to produce a highly encapsulated and stabilized liposomes of enoxacin. This study also demonstrated that thought is required in utilizing turbidity as a direct index of liposomal vesicle size.

  14. Cream formulation impact on topical administration of engineered colloidal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Santini, Benedetta; Zanoni, Ivan; Marzi, Roberta; Cigni, Clara; Bedoni, Marzia; Gramatica, Furio; Palugan, Luca; Corsi, Fabio; Granucci, Francesca; Colombo, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In order to minimize the impact of systemic toxicity of drugs in the treatment of local acute and chronic inflammatory reactions, the achievement of reliable and efficient delivery of therapeutics in/through the skin is highly recommended. While the use of nanoparticles is now an established practice for drug intravenous targeted delivery, their transdermal penetration is still poorly understood and this important administration route remains almost unexplored. In the present study, we have synthesized magnetic (iron oxide) nanoparticles (MNP) coated with an amphiphilic polymer, developed a water-in-oil emulsion formulation for their topical administration and compared the skin penetration routes with the same nanoparticles deposited as a colloidal suspension. Transmission and scanning electron microscopies provided ultrastructural evidence that the amphiphilic nanoparticles (PMNP) cream formulation allowed the efficient penetration through all the skin layers with a controllable kinetics compared to suspension formulation. In addition to the preferential follicular pathway, also the intracellular and intercellular routes were involved. PMNP that crossed all skin layers were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data suggests that combining PMNP amphiphilic character with cream formulation improves the intradermal penetration of nanoparticles. While PMNP administration in living mice via aqueous suspension resulted in preferential nanoparticle capture by phagocytes and migration to draining lymph nodes, cream formulation favored uptake by all the analyzed dermis cell types, including hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic. Unlike aqueous suspension, cream formulation also favored the maintenance of nanoparticles in the dermal architecture avoiding their dispersion and migration to draining lymph nodes via afferent lymphatics. PMID:25962161

  15. The influence of frusemide formulation on diuretic effect and efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wakelkamp, Monique; Blechert, Åsa; Eriksson, Maria; Gjellan, Kirsti; Graffner, Christina

    1999-01-01

    Aims Changes in drug delivery rate may result in clinically important changes in drug effects. For the loop diuretic frusemide, it would be desirable to develop controlled release preparations, that could maintain an effective urinary excretion rate over a prolonged period of time. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of frusemide formulation on frusemide recovery, diuretic effect and efficiency. Methods Twelve subjects were given 60 mg of four different frusemide controlled release formulations in a single-dose, double-blind, randomized 4-way cross-over design. The formulations were three study drugs with different extended dissolution rates (ER1Tab, ER2Tab and ER3Caps) and one reference drug (LR). Urinary volume and contents of frusemide in urine were measured in samples collected over 24 h. Results Substantial differences in frusemide recovery and diuretic efficiency were observed between LR and all other formulations. At 24 h, mean total frusemide recoveries of ER1Tab, ER2Tab and ER3Caps were 52%, 36% and 57% lower, respectively, compared with LR (P < 0.01). Also at 24 h, mean total diuretic efficiency for ER1Tab, ER2Tab and ER3Caps was 83%, 31% and 135% higher, respectively, compared to LR. The rapid dissolution and absorption of LR resulted in a high diuretic response from 0 to 3 h after dosing. However, from 0 to 24 h, there were no differences in diuretic response between the formulations. Conclusions Controlled release formulations of frusemide with a low and extended rate of dissolution lead to a more prolonged absorption and subsequent diuresis, but still maintain a similar cumulative response, due to their higher diuretic efficiency. PMID:10510147

  16. Formulation and evaluation of olanzapine matrix pellets for controlled release

    PubMed Central

    Vishal Gupta, N.; Balamuralidhara, V.; Mohammed Khan, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Olanzapine is an antipsychotic used in treatment of schizophrenia. This research was carried out to design oral controlled release matrix pellets of water insoluble drug Olanzapine (OZ), using blend of Sodium Alginate (SA) and Glyceryl Palmito-Stearate (GPS) as matrix polymers, micro crystalline cellulose (MCC) as spheronizer enhancer and Sodium Lauryl Sulphate (SLS) as pore forming agent. Methods OZ formulations were developed by the pelletization technique by drug loaded pellets and characterized with regard to the drug content, size distribution, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray Diffraction study (XRD). Stability studies were carried out on the optimized formulation for a period of 90 days at 40±2 °C and 75±5% relative humidity. Results and major conclusion The drug content was in the range of 93.34–98.12%. The mean particle size of the drug loaded pellets was in the range 1024 to 1087µm. SEM photographs and calculated sphericity factor confirmed that the prepared formulations were spherical in nature. The compatibility between drug and polymers in the drug loaded pellets was confirmed by DSC and FTIR studies. Stability studies indicated that pellets are stable. XRD patterns revealed the crystalline nature of the pure OZ. Loose surface crystal study indicated that crystalline OZ is present in all formulations and more clear in formulation F5. Drug release was controlled for more than 24 hrs and mechanism of the drug release followed by Fickian diffusion. It may be concluded that F5 is an ideal formulation for once a day administration. PMID:22615665

  17. Summary compilation of shell element performance versus formulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Heinstein, Martin Wilhelm; Hales, Jason Dean; Breivik, Nicole L.; Key, Samuel W.

    2011-07-01

    This document compares the finite element shell formulations in the Sierra Solid Mechanics code. These are finite elements either currently in the Sierra simulation codes Presto and Adagio, or expected to be added to them in time. The list of elements are divided into traditional two-dimensional, plane stress shell finite elements, and three-dimensional solid finite elements that contain either modifications or additional terms designed to represent the bending stiffness expected to be found in shell formulations. These particular finite elements are formulated for finite deformation and inelastic material response, and, as such, are not based on some of the elegant formulations that can be found in an elastic, infinitesimal finite element setting. Each shell element is subjected to a series of 12 verification and validation test problems. The underlying purpose of the tests here is to identify the quality of both the spatially discrete finite element gradient operator and the spatially discrete finite element divergence operator. If the derivation of the finite element is proper, the discrete divergence operator is the transpose of the discrete gradient operator. An overall summary is provided from which one can rank, at least in an average sense, how well the individual formulations can be expected to perform in applications encountered year in and year out. A letter grade has been assigned albeit sometimes subjectively for each shell element and each test problem result. The number of A's, B's, C's, et cetera assigned have been totaled, and a grade point average (GPA) has been computed, based on a 4.0-system. These grades, combined with a comparison between the test problems and the application problem, can be used to guide an analyst to select the element with the best shell formulation.

  18. Comparison of Three Aspirin Formulations in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Nordt, Sean Patrick; Clark, Richard F; Castillo, Edward M; Guss, David A

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) includes the administration of aspirin. Current guidelines recommend chewing aspirin tablets to increase absorption. While this is intuitive, there are scant data supporting this recommendation. The purpose of this study is to assess which of 3 different aspirin formulations is most rapidly absorbed after ingestion. Methods A prospective, open-label, 3-way crossover volunteer study at a tertiary university medical center with human subjects 18 years or older. Fasted subjects were randomly assigned to receive aspirin 1,950 mg as (1) solid aspirin tablets swallowed whole, (2) solid aspirin tablet chewed then swallowed, or (3) a chewable aspirin formulation chewed and swallowed. Serum salicylate measurements were obtained over a period of 180 minutes. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. Results Thirteen males and 1 female completed all 3 arms of study. Peak serum salicylate concentrations were seen at 180 minutes in all groups. Mean peaks were 10.4, 11.3, and 12.2 mg/dL in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Mean area under the time concentration was 1,153, 1,401, and 1,743 mg-min/dL in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. No measurable salicylate concentrations were seen in 6 subjects in group 1 at 60 minutes as compared to 1 subject in group 2. All subjects in group 3 had measurable levels at 45 minutes. There were no adverse effects in any of the subjects during the study period. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that the chewable aspirin formulation achieved the most rapid rate of absorption. In addition, the chewable formulation absorption was more complete than the other formulations at 180 minutes. These data suggest that in the treatment of ACS, a chewable aspirin formulation may be preferable to solid tablet aspirin, either chewed or swallowed. PMID:22224124

  19. Transdermal iontophoretic delivery of celecoxib from gel formulation

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Naser; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Heshmatipour, Mojtaba; Musavinasab, Ruholla

    2015-01-01

    Celecoxib is used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute pain, joint inflammation and sport injuries. Long term administration of the drug results in such complications as gastrointestinaland renal disturbances and cardio-vascular complications. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of delivering celecoxib incorporated in gel formulations by iontophoresis. Sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and carbopol 934P were used to develop topical gel formulations of celecoxib. The gel formulations were evaluated for macroscopic and microscopic properties, pH determination, spreadability, rheological behaviour, and drug release characteristics both in vitro and ex vivo. Drug release was evaluated in the presence of iontophoresis field (0.1 to 0.5 mA/cm2) or without electrical current (passive diffusion) and celecoxib was measured spectrophotometrically at 252 nm. Most gel formulations showed acceptable physicochemical properties. Amongst formulations, gel formulation containing HPMC K4M which indicated greater performance in drug release behaviour was selected for further in vivo studies. The cumulative percent of drug released in vitro at the end of each experiment was 36%, 63%, and 89.7% for passive diffusion, direct electric current (DC) current density of 0.3 mA/cm2, and 0.5 mA/cm2, respectively. The findings of ex vivo drug transport across rat skin also showed a significantly higher release of celecoxib compared to passive flux for both AC and DC currents. A 0.5 mA/cm2 of DC current increased drug flux to 73% compared to 41.5% of passive diffusion. It can be concluded from the results of this study that the application of iontophoresis enhances the flux of celecoxib, as compared to the passive diffusion. PMID:26752990

  20. Montanide ISA 720 vaccines: quality control of emulsions, stability of formulated antigens, and comparative immunogenicity of vaccine formulations.

    PubMed

    Miles, Aaron P; McClellan, Holly A; Rausch, Kelly M; Zhu, Daming; Whitmore, Michael D; Singh, Sanjay; Martin, Laura B; Wu, Yimin; Giersing, Birgitte K; Stowers, Anthony W; Long, Carole A; Saul, Allan

    2005-03-31

    Montanide ISA 720 is an experimental adjuvant, formulated as water-in-oil emulsions, that induces high antibody titers in several animal species. It has been used in human vaccine trials with malaria and HIV vaccines. The heightened response is likely due, in part, to the formation of a depot at the injection site. However, post-formulation modifications were seen with seven proteins tested during storage of ISA 720 formulations at 37 degrees C for 1 week and two proteins stored longer at 4 degrees C. Potency studies in mice, in which the stored vaccines were diluted into placebo emulsions for appropriate dosing, indicated that this instability could lead to loss of immunogenicity in the post-injection depot, limiting the allowable storage time of preformed vaccines. We describe point-of-injection formulation for ISA 720 vaccines that meets the requirement for in vitro stability. For preformed vaccines, addition of glycine or glycylglycine prevented antigen modification on storage at 37 degrees C, providing a potential way of stabilizing antigen/ISA 720 formulations for in vitro storage and the post-injection depot.

  1. Overcoming the challenges in administering biopharmaceuticals: formulation and delivery strategies

    PubMed Central

    Mitragotri, Samir; Burke, Paul A.; Langer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The formulation and delivery of biopharmaceutical drugs, such as monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins, poses substantial challenges owing to their large size and susceptibility to degradation. In this Review we highlight recent advances in formulation and delivery strategies — such as the use of microsphere-based controlled-release technologies, protein modification methods that make use of polyethylene glycol and other polymers, and genetic manipulation of biopharmaceutical drugs — and discuss their advantages and limitations. We also highlight current and emerging delivery routes that provide an alternative to injection, including transdermal, oral and pulmonary delivery routes. In addition, the potential of targeted and intracellular protein delivery is discussed. PMID:25103255

  2. Reporting for duty: the paternal function and clinical formulations.

    PubMed

    Davies, Nick

    2015-02-01

    The author highlights some developments in the theory of the preoedipal paternal function and paternal functionary and incorporates these ideas in developing clinical formulations for four clinical cases that privilege the preoedipal paternal function. In particular, four aspects of the preoedipal paternal function are identified, and for each a clinical case is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the necessity of widening clinical formulations to ensure clinicians have the widest possible set of clinical ideas and hence interventions and techniques at their fingertips. PMID:25688683

  3. Usage of humic materials for formulation of stable microbial inoculants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kydralieva, K. A.; Khudaibergenova, B. M.; Elchin, A. A.; Gorbunova, N. V.; Muratov, V. S.; Jorobekova, Sh. J.

    2009-04-01

    Some microbes have been domesticated for environment service, for example in a variety of novel applications, including efforts to reduce environmental problems. For instance, antagonistic organisms can be used as biological control agents to reduce the use of chemical pesticides, or efficient degraders can be applied as bioprophylactics to minimise the spread of chemical pollutants. Microorganisms can also be used for the biological clean-up of polluted soil or as plant growth-promoting bacteria that stimulate nutrient uptake. Many microbial applications require large-scale cultivation of the organisms. The biomass production must then be followed by formulation steps to ensure long-term stability and convenient use. However, there remains a need to further develop knowledge on how to optimise fermentation of "non-conventional microorganisms" for environmental applications involving the intact living cells. The goal of presented study is to develop fermentation and formulation techniques for termolabile rhizobacteria isolates - Pseudomonas spp. with major biotechnical potential. Development of efficient and cost-effective media and process parameters giving high cell yields are important priorities. This also involves establishing fermentation parameters yielding cells well adapted to subsequent formulation procedures. Collectively, these strategies will deliver a high proportion of viable cells with good long-term survival. Our main efforts were focused on development of more efficient drying techniques for microorganisms, particularly spray drying and fluidised bed-drying. The advantages of dry formulations are that storage and delivery costs are much lower than for liquid formulations and that long-term survival can be very high if initial packaging is carefully optimised. In order to improve and optimise formulations various kinds of humics-based excipients have been added that have beneficial effects on the viability of the organisms and the storage stability

  4. Kinematically redundant arm formulations for coordinated multiple arm implementations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Robert W.; Quiocho, Leslie J.; Cleghorn, Timothy F.

    1990-01-01

    Although control laws for kinematically redundant robotic arms were presented as early as 1969, redundant arms have only recently become recognized as viable solutions to limitations inherent to kinematically sufficient arms. The advantages of run-time control optimization and arm reconfiguration are becoming increasingly attractive as the complexity and criticality of robotic systems continues to progress. A generalized control law for a spatial arm with 7 or more degrees of freedom (DOF) based on Whitney's resolved rate formulation is given. Results from a simulation implementation utilizing this control law are presented. Furthermore, results from a two arm simulation are presented to demonstrate the coordinated control of multiple arms using this formulation.

  5. Key interactions of surfactants in therapeutic protein formulations: A review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tarik A; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Kishore, Ravuri S K

    2015-11-01

    Proteins as amphiphilic, surface-active macromolecules, demonstrate substantial interfacial activity, which causes considerable impact on their multifarious applications. A commonly adapted measure to prevent interfacial damage to proteins is the use of nonionic surfactants. Particularly in biotherapeutic formulations, the use of nonionic surfactants is ubiquitous in order to prevent the impact of interfacial stress on drug product stability. The scope of this review is to convey the current understanding of interactions of nonionic surfactants with proteins both at the interface and in solution, with specific focus to their effects on biotherapeutic formulations.

  6. The Psychiatric Cultural Formulation: Applying Medical Anthropology in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers revisions to the DSM-IV Outline for Cultural Formulation from the perspective of clinical practice. First, the paper explores the theoretical development of the Cultural Formulation. Next, a case presentation demonstrates challenges in its actual implementation. Finally, the paper recommends a set of questions for the clinician on barriers to care and countertransference. The development of a standardized, user-friendly format can increase the Cultural Formulation’s utilization among all psychiatrists beyond those specializing in cultural psychiatry. PMID:22418398

  7. Quasi-local formulation of the mirror TBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balog, János; Hegedűs, Árpád

    2012-05-01

    We present a method of removing all infinite sums from the various forms of the mirror TBA equations and the energy formula of the AdS/CFT spectral problem. This new formulation of the TBA system is quasi-local because Y-functions that are connected by the TBA equations are at most next to nearest neighbors with respect to the Y-system diagram of AdS/CFT. The quasi-local version of the mirror TBA is also useful as starting point for the hybrid-NLIE formulation of the spectral problem.

  8. Evaluation of formulation properties and skin penetration in the same additive-containing formulation.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yutaka; Suzuki, Kensuke; Maeda, Rikimaru; Shimura, Arisa; Murata, Isamu; Kanamoto, Ikuo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the physicochemical properties of the external preparation, the effect on the skin permeability and the human senses. Miconazole nitrate cream formulation (MCZ-A: bland name and MCZ-B, -C, -D: generics) to measure the physicochemical properties, was performed by the skin permeation test and human sensory test. The flattening, viscoelasticity, and water content of each cream were measured and each cream was subjected to near-infrared (NIR) absorption spectroscopy and human sensory testing. The yield value was calculated based on measured flattening and was 734.8 dynes/cm(2) for MCZ-A, 1198.9 dynes/cm(2) for MCZ-B, 461.3 dynes/cm(2) for MCZ-C and 3112.3 dynes/cm(2) for MCZ-D. Measurement of viscoelasticity and viscosity revealed that MCZ-C had a smaller tanδ than the other 3 creams at 25 °C. NIR absorption spectroscopy revealed that MCZ-A had the highest absorption peak due to hydroxyl groups, followed by MCZ-C, -B, and then -D. Measurement of water content revealed that MCZ-A had a water content of 65.9%, MCZ-B, -C, and -D had a water content of around 56.3%. Human sensory testing revealed differences between MCZ-A and MCZ-C and between MCZ-B and MCZ-D in terms of spreadability and feel. These findings indicate that differences in water and oil content and emulsification resulted in the creams having different physical properties, such as flattening, internal structure, and dynamic viscoelasticity. NIR absorption spectroscopy, which allows non-destructive measurement of a sample's physicochemical properties, and measurement of viscoelasticity and viscosity, which allows measurement of a sample's dynamic viscoelasticity, revealed differences in the physical properties of creams. The skin permeation test, skin MCZ amount was 7.48 µg/cm(2) for MCZ-A, 5.11 µg/cm(2) for MCZ-B, 12.08 µg/cm(2) for MCZ-C and 3.75 µg/cm(2) for MCZ-D. In addition, since the drug spread is good about the skin migration, spreadability is

  9. Evaluation of formulation properties and skin penetration in the same additive-containing formulation

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Yutaka; Suzuki, Kensuke; Maeda, Rikimaru; Shimura, Arisa; Murata, Isamu; Kanamoto, Ikuo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the physicochemical properties of the external preparation, the effect on the skin permeability and the human senses. Miconazole nitrate cream formulation (MCZ-A: bland name and MCZ-B, −C, −D: generics) to measure the physicochemical properties, was performed by the skin permeation test and human sensory test. The flattening, viscoelasticity, and water content of each cream were measured and each cream was subjected to near-infrared (NIR) absorption spectroscopy and human sensory testing. The yield value was calculated based on measured flattening and was 734.8 dynes/cm2 for MCZ-A, 1198.9 dynes/cm2 for MCZ-B, 461.3 dynes/cm2 for MCZ-C and 3112.3 dynes/cm2 for MCZ-D. Measurement of viscoelasticity and viscosity revealed that MCZ-C had a smaller tanδ than the other 3 creams at 25 °C. NIR absorption spectroscopy revealed that MCZ-A had the highest absorption peak due to hydroxyl groups, followed by MCZ-C, −B, and then −D. Measurement of water content revealed that MCZ-A had a water content of 65.9%, MCZ-B, −C, and −D had a water content of around 56.3%. Human sensory testing revealed differences between MCZ-A and MCZ-C and between MCZ-B and MCZ-D in terms of spreadability and feel. These findings indicate that differences in water and oil content and emulsification resulted in the creams having different physical properties, such as flattening, internal structure, and dynamic viscoelasticity. NIR absorption spectroscopy, which allows non-destructive measurement of a sample’s physicochemical properties, and measurement of viscoelasticity and viscosity, which allows measurement of a sample’s dynamic viscoelasticity, revealed differences in the physical properties of creams. The skin permeation test, skin MCZ amount was 7.48 µg/cm2 for MCZ-A, 5.11 µg/cm2 for MCZ-B, 12.08 µg/cm2 for MCZ-C and 3.75 µg/cm2 for MCZ-D. In addition, since the drug spread is good about the skin migration, spreadability is

  10. Assessing impact of formulation and process variables on in-vitro performance of directly compressed abuse deterrent formulations.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ziyaur; Yang, Yang; Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Xu, Xiaoming; Ashraf, Muhammad; Khan, Mansoor A

    2016-04-11

    Prescription drug products abuse/misuse is epidemic in United States. Opioids drug forms major portion of prescription drug product abuse. Abuse deterrence formulation (ADF) is one of the many approaches taken by sponsors to tackle this problem. It involves formulating opioids into dosage forms that will be difficult to abuse/misuse. Current investigation focused on evaluating the abuse deterrent properties (ADP) of ADF manufactured by direct compression method. Effect of process and formulation variables on ADP was investigated by statistical design of experiment (fractional factorial design). Independent factors studied were molecular weight of polyethylene oxide (Polyox™), curing time, temperature and method, and antioxidant type. Sotalol hydrochloride was selected as a model drug. ADP investigated were hardness/crush resistance, syringeability and injectability, physical manipulation (reduction into powder) and drug extraction in water and alcohol. Hardness and syringeability are evaluated by newly developed quantitative procedure. Other properties were also investigated such as morphology, crystallinity, assay and dissolution. The hardness and drug extraction was significantly (p<0.05) affected by curing temperature. Formulations could be powdered in 3 min irrespective of their hardness. Syringeability and injectability were intrinsic properties of the polymer used in the formulation, and were not affected by the investigated factors. Crystallinity of the polymer and drug changed, and was dependent upon curing temperature and time. The dissolution and assay were independent of formulation and process parameters studied. In conclusion, the study indicated some advantages of ADF product compared to non-ADF prepared by direct compression. However, the ADF should not be viewed as abuse proof product rather as incrementally improved product.

  11. A formulation to encapusulate nootkatone oil for tick control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nootkatone is a component of grapefruit oil that is toxic to the disease vectoring tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, but unfortunately causes phytotoxicity to treated plants and has a short residual activity due to volatility. We prepared an encapsulated formulation of nootkatone using lignin to compare...

  12. Formulation and stability evaluation of immediate release antioxidant tablet.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Abida; Hassan, Fouzia; Israr, Fozia; Hasan, S M Farid; Haque, Naheed

    2014-09-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important part in the development of human diseases. Pharmaceutical strategies are required to be work out in order to fight against such oxidative damages. Designing of new formulations that can protect human beings from the undesirable effects, consequence of oxidative stress, the crucial cellular and molecular processes, along with recurring oxidative damage and diseases is to be expedited. The main objective of present work was to design a rapidly releasing synthetic antioxidant tablet dosage form comprising of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc in combination with lecithin (a phospho-lipid) that can fulfill human health and nutritional requirement and to perform stability studies. Beside active ingredients, the excipients used in present formulation were; Avicel pH 102, starch pregelatinized, silicon dioxide colloidal and polyethylene glycol 8000 milled magnesium stearate, acid stearic fine powder and aq.opa dry coating material. The immediate release formulation of antioxidant was prepared by wet granulation method. Three different trials were developed. Vitamin C was selected as tracer for detection and evaluation of tablet dosage form. When the resulting formulation was evaluated by USP 24 / NF 19, 2000 guidelines and later by stability studies, it was found that their quality can be maintained over a storage period of 24 months. PMID:25176233

  13. Thermal processing of EVA encapsulants and effects of formulation additives

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F.J.; Glick, S.H.

    1996-05-01

    The authors investigated the in-situ processing temperatures and effects of various formulation additives on the formation of ultraviolet (UV) excitable chromophores, in the thermal lamination and curing of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulants. A programmable, microprocessor-controlled, double-bag vacuum laminator was used to study two commercial as formulated EVA films, A9918P and 15295P, and solution-cast films of Elvaxrm (EVX) impregnated with various curing agents and antioxidants. The results show that the actual measured temperatures of EVA lagged significantly behind the programmed profiles for the heating elements and were affected by the total thermal mass loaded inside the laminator chamber. The antioxidant Naugard P{trademark}, used in the two commercial EVA formulations, greatly enhances the formation of UV-excitable, short chromophores upon curing, whereas other tested antioxidants show little effect. A new curing agent chosen specifically for the EVA formulation modification produces little or no effect on chromophore formation, no bubbling problems in the glass/EVX/glass laminates, and a gel content of {approximately}80% when cured at programmed 155{degrees}C for 4 min. Also demonstrated is the greater discoloring effect with higher concentrations of curing-generated chromophores.

  14. Formulation, Characterization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Potassium Citrate Effervescent Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Fattahi, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to design and formulation of potassium citrate effervescent tablet for reduction of calcium oxalate and urate kidney stones in patients suffering from kidney stones. Methods: In this study, 13 formulations were prepared from potassium citrate and effervescent base in different concentration. The flowability of powders and granules was studied. Then effervescent tablets were prepared by direct compression, fusion and wet granulation methods. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, effervescent time, pH, content uniformity. To amend taste of formulations, different flavoring agents were used and then panel test was done by using Latin Square method by 30 volunteers. Results: Formulations obtained from direct compression and fusion methods had good flow but low hardness. Wet granulation improves flowability and other physicochemical properties such as acceptable hardness, effervescence time ≤3 minutes, pH<6, friability < 1%, water percentage < 0.5% and accurate content uniformity. In panel test, both of combination flavors; (orange - lemon) and (strawberry - raspberry) had good acceptability. Conclusion: The prepared tablets by wet granulation method using PVP solution had more tablet hardness. It is a reproducible process and suitable to produce granules that are compressed into effervescent tablets due to larger agglomerates. PMID:24312839

  15. Formulation and Evaluation of Alstonia boonei Stem Bark Powder Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Chime, Salome A.; Ugwuoke, E. C.; Onyishi, I. V.; Brown, S. A.; Onunkwo, G. C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to formulate Alstonia boonei dried stem bark powder into tablets by wet granulation method using acacia, gelatine and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as binders at concentrations of 1, 2, 4 and 8% w/w. The phytochemistry of the stem bark of Alstonia boonei was evaluated. The micromeritic properties of the granules prepared were studied. The tablets were evaluated using the necessary official and unofficial tests. The results of the phytochemical analysis showed that alkaloids, tannins, steroids, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids and terpenoids were present while anthroquinones and acidcompounds were absent. Micromeritic studies showed that Alstonia boonei granules had good flowability. The formulated tablets complied with British Pharmacopoeial specification for weight uniformity, hardness (≥5 kgf) and tablet friability (<1%). For disintegration test, tablets formulated with gelatine and acacia at concentrations of 1, 2 and 4% w/w complied with Pharmacopoeial specification. However, tablets formulated with SCMC (1-8% w/w) and 8% w/w of acacia and gelatine failed the disintegration tests (Disintegration time more than 15 min). PMID:24019574

  16. Formulation and Use of a Politik Campaign Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozeman, Barry

    1974-01-01

    This article is a report of a campaign game that was formulated in order to introduce the student to the realities of political campaigning. Post-game tests indicated that the game generally increased political interest and had little effect on measured political attitudes such as efficacy, saliency and alienation. (Author)

  17. 36 CFR 906.4 - Formulation of affirmative action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... action plan. (a) The developer, in formulating the Affirmative Action Plan, should consider all phases of... including each component of the project (e.g., hotel, retail, office, residential). The developer should... component, the developer should give consideration to creating business and employment opportunities...

  18. 36 CFR 906.4 - Formulation of affirmative action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... action plan. (a) The developer, in formulating the Affirmative Action Plan, should consider all phases of... including each component of the project (e.g., hotel, retail, office, residential). The developer should... component, the developer should give consideration to creating business and employment opportunities...

  19. 36 CFR 906.4 - Formulation of affirmative action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... action plan. (a) The developer, in formulating the Affirmative Action Plan, should consider all phases of... including each component of the project (e.g., hotel, retail, office, residential). The developer should... component, the developer should give consideration to creating business and employment opportunities...

  20. 36 CFR 906.4 - Formulation of affirmative action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... action plan. (a) The developer, in formulating the Affirmative Action Plan, should consider all phases of... including each component of the project (e.g., hotel, retail, office, residential). The developer should... component, the developer should give consideration to creating business and employment opportunities...

  1. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylbenzene (Scoping and Problem Formulation Materials)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In July 2014, EPA released scoping and problem formulation materials for new IRIS assessments of ethylbenzene and naphthalene for public comment and discussion. The scoping information was based on input from EPA's program and regional offices and was provided for informational p...

  2. Formulating Independent School K-12 Quality Physical Education Program Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Stuart M.; Phillips, Michael B.; Jubenville, Colby B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to formulate Tennessee independent school K-12 quality physical education program guidelines. A panel of 18 physical education representatives from Tennessee independent schools K-12 participated in a three-phase Delphi study and completed three opinionnaires via e-mail. In Phase One, Opinionnaire One solicited panel…

  3. Integral Formulation of the Boundary Value Problem in Waveguides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sancho, M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an integral approach to the boundary value problem in waveguides deduced from the Kirchoff's integral formulation of the electromagnetic field. Also, the basis for the numerical solution of more general problems is given, including the example of the isosceles right triangular guide. (Author/SK)

  4. A Review of Etiological Formulations and Possible Treatments of Enuresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odebunmi, Akin

    This literature review discusses enuresis from various etiological formulations: pyschoanalytic and psychodynamic; medical and physiological; and behavioral. Both historical and current perspectives on a definition of enuresis are offered. Treatment methodologies are reviewed. An emphasis is placed on the ruling out of medical causes before any…

  5. A Comparison of Local and Global Formulations of Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Several educators have advocated teaching thermodynamics using a"global" approach in place of the conventional "local" approach. This article uses four examples of experiments to illustrate the two formulations and the definitions of heat and work associated with them. Advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are…

  6. Formulated sediment for use in whole-sediment toxicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kemble, N.E.; Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    1995-12-31

    A formulated control sediment was developed to provide consistent and acceptable biological endpoints for a variety of species used in whole sediment toxicity testing. In an attempt to develop such a sediment the authors conducted multiple tests to evaluate: (1) {alpha}-cellulose as an organic carbon source, (2) various TOC concentrations, (3) various grain sizes, (4) different food types, and (5) overlying waters. Studies were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca the midges Chironomus riparius, Chironomus tentans and the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus in 10 d exposures and H. azteca in 28 d exposures. Sediment from West Bearskin Lake Minnesota was used as a control sediment with each species in each test. Survival of test organisms in all of the 10-d experiments, with the exception of C. riparius, was above the acceptable levels for a control sediment. Survival in the formulated sediments also was not significantly different when compared to the control sediment. Amphipod survival in the 28-d exposures was low; however, the use of reconstituted water in combination with the formulated sediment may have been a problem. The authors are currently evaluating various types of overlying water with formulated sediments and sublethal endpoints in each of the exposures (i.e., growth, sexual maturation or head capsule width).

  7. Excision technique in constrained formulations of Einstein equations: collapse scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero-Carrión, I.; Vasset, N.; Novak, J.; Jaramillo, J. L.

    2015-04-01

    We present a new excision technique used in constrained formulations of Einstein equations to deal with black hole in numerical simulations. We show the applicability of this scheme in several scenarios. In particular, we present the dynamical evolution of the collapse of a neutron star to a black hole, using the CoCoNuT code and this excision technique.

  8. Dry powder inhalable formulations for anti-tubercular therapy.

    PubMed

    Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Chang, Rachel Yoon Kyung; Abdelghany, Sharif; Ye, Tian Tian; Britton, Warwick John; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an intracellular infectious disease caused by the airborne bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite considerable research efforts, the treatment of TB continues to be a great challenge in part due to the requirement of prolonged therapy with multiple high-dose drugs and associated side effects. The delivery of pharmacological agents directly to the respiratory system, following the natural route of infection, represents a logical therapeutic approach for treatment or vaccination against TB. Pulmonary delivery is non-invasive, avoids first-pass metabolism in the liver and enables targeting of therapeutic agents to the infection site. Inhaled delivery also potentially reduces the dose requirement and the accompanying side effects. Dry powder is a stable formulation of drug that can be stored without refrigeration compared to liquids and suspensions. The dry powder inhalers are easy to use and suitable for high-dose formulations. This review focuses on the current innovations of inhalable dry powder formulations of drug and vaccine delivery for TB, including the powder production method, preclinical and clinical evaluations of inhaled dry powder over the last decade. Finally, the risks associated with pulmonary therapy are addressed. A novel dry powder formulation with high percentages of respirable particles coupled with a cost effective inhaler device is an appealing platform for TB drug delivery. PMID:27212477

  9. Formulation of soluble oils with synthetic and petroleum sulfonates

    SciTech Connect

    Eckard, A.; Riff, I.; Weaver, J.

    1997-06-01

    Metalworking fluids for metal removal are formulated to provide cooling, lubrication, and rust protection when cutting and machining metals. There are basically four types of cutting fluids: straight oils, synthetics, semisynthetic fluids and soluble oils. The last type is the most widely used for metal removal operations such as cutting, drilling and grinding. Soluble oils used for metalworking operations are normally the oil-in-water type, with oil as the internal phase and water as the external phase. The soluble oils can have rather complex compositions, usually containing two or more emulsifiers and coupling agents, as well as additives to provide rust inhibition, lubricity, detergency, resistance to bacterial attack and foam control. The dominant emulsifier in a soluble oil is usually sodium sulfonate which also has the secondary benefit of being a rust inhibitor. Soluble oil emulsions based on petroleum or synthetic sulfonates have been found to improve lubrication and cleaning of metal parts and equipment. As has been done previously, a series of emulsification studies were conducted using petroleum and synthetic sulfonates. Emulsifier level, coemulsifiers and minor formulation adjustments were made to optimize each system. This study was made using naphthenic oil basestock. Formulations were evaluated using criteria including concentrate stability, hard and soft water emulsion stability, emulsibility, foaming tendency and response to defoamers, antirust properties and cost effectiveness of individual formulations. The results of these evaluations are presented in the present paper.

  10. When Formulation Outweighs Diagnosis: 13 "Moments" in Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terr, Lenore C.; Abright, A. Reese; Brody, Michael; Donner, Susan; Eth, Spencer; Fine, Louis; Fornari, Victor; Jetmalani, Ajit; Livingston, Richard; Powers, James H.; Robson, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    The psychiatrist renders a diagnosis, comes up with a formulation, and then simultaneously uses both frameworks to treat patients. In clinical situations, however, there are times when one is in ascendancy while the other lies temporarily dormant. This article deals with the doctor's particular emphasis. It presents 13 cases in which treating the…

  11. 40 CFR 158.335 - Description of formulation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Description of formulation process. 158.335 Section 158.335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.335 Description of...

  12. 40 CFR 161.165 - Description of formulation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Description of formulation process. 161.165 Section 161.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES Product Chemistry...

  13. 40 CFR 161.165 - Description of formulation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Description of formulation process. 161.165 Section 161.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES Product Chemistry...

  14. Bimodal Gastroretentive Drug Delivery Systems of Lamotrigine: Formulation and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Poonuru, R. R.; Gonugunta, C. S. R

    2014-01-01

    Gastroretentive bimodal drug delivery systems of lamotrigine were developed using immediate release and extended release segments incorporated in a hydroxypropyl methylcellulose capsule and in vitro and in vivo evaluations were conducted. In vivo radiographic studies were carried out for the optimized formulation in healthy human volunteers with replacement of drug polymer complex by barium sulphate and the floating time was noted. Here the immediate release segment worked as loading dose and extended release segment as maintenance dose. The results of release studies of formulations with hydrophillic matrix to formulations with dual matrix hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate shown that as the percentage of polymer increased, the release decreased. Selected formulation F2 having F-Melt has successfully released the drug within one hour and hydrophillic matrix composing polyethylene oxide with 5% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate showed a lag time of one hour and then extended its release up to 12th hour with 99.59% drug release following zero order kinetics with R2 value of 0.989. The Korsmeyer-Peppas equation showed the R2 value to be 0.941 and n value was 1.606 following non-Fickian diffusion pattern with supercase II relaxation mechanism. Here from extended release tablet the drug released slowly from the matrix while floating. PMID:25593380

  15. Preparation of nanoscale pulmonary drug delivery formulations by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Bohr, Adam; Ruge, Christian A; Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    Advances in preparation technologies for nanomedicines have provided novel formulations for pulmonary drug delivery. Application of drugs via the lungs can be considered as one of the most attractive implementations of nanoparticles for therapeutic use due to the unique anatomy and physiology of the lungs. The colloidal nature of nanoparticles provides important advantages to the formulation of drugs, which are normally difficult to administer due to poor stability or uptake, partly because nanoparticles protect the drug from the physiological milieu, facilitate transport across biological barriers and can offer controlled drug release. There are numerous methods for producing therapeutic nanoparticles, each with their own advantages and suitable application. Liquid atomization techniques such as spray drying can produce nanoparticle formulations in a dry powder form suitable for pulmonary administration in a direct one-step process. This chapter describes the different state-of-the-art techniques used to prepare drug nanoparticles (with special emphasize on spray drying techniques) and the strategies for administering such unique formulations to the pulmonary environment.

  16. E-Policy and Higher Education: From Formulation to Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesemane, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Policy formulation and implementation is a highly contested domain within the South African Higher Education landscape. This contestation can be attributed to the lack of wide stakeholder involvement and the architecture of the policy-making process. The contestation is also born of an absence of a systemic monitoring and evaluation mechanism to…

  17. Comparison of Semantic versus Syntactic Message Formulation: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Rupal; Schooley, Katherine; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv

    2006-01-01

    Two prototype voice output communication aids were implemented to compare methods of graphic symbol message formulation; one emulated current devices that require syntactical ordering of icons (Default) and the other used semantic frames (iconCHAT). Message constructions of eight typically developing children (7-10 years of age) using both…

  18. Technical Status Report: Preliminary Glass Formulation Report for INEEL HAW

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.; Reamer, I.; Vienna, J.; Crum, J.A.

    1998-03-01

    This study was performed by a team comprising experts in glass chemistry, glass technology, and statistics at both SRTC and PNNL. This joint effort combined the strengths of each discipline and site to quickly develop a glass formulation for specific INEEL HAW.

  19. Formulation factors affecting acceptability of oral medicines in children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Ranmal, Sejal; Batchelor, Hannah K; Orlu-Gul, Mine; Ernest, Terry B; Thomas, Iwan W; Flanagan, Talia; Kendall, Richard; Tuleu, Catherine

    2015-08-15

    Acceptability of medicines in children and caregivers affects safety and effectiveness of medicinal treatments. The pharmaceutical industry is required to demonstrate acceptability of new paediatric formulations in target age groups as an integrated part of the development of these products (Kozarewicz, 2014). Two questions arise when trying to tackle this task: "which dosage form to choose for each target age group?" and "how to formulate it once the dosage form is decided?". Inevitably, both the regulator and the developer turn to scientific evidence for answers. Research has emerged in recent years to demonstrate age-appropriateness and patient acceptability of different dosage forms; however, such information is still fragmented and far from satisfactory to define efficient formulation development strategies for a diverse patient subset (Ranmal and Tuleu, 2013). This paper highlights how formulation factors affect the acceptability of different oral medicines in children (Table 1), and it is based on a more extensive review article by Liu et al. (Liu et al., 2014). Gaps in knowledge are highlighted in order to stimulate further research. In some areas, findings from studies conducted in adult populations may provide useful guidance for paediatric development and this is also discussed.

  20. Program Costs: Their Role in Policy Formulation, Implementation and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjogren, Jane Huseby

    1978-01-01

    This discussion has outlined the role played by program costs in the three-stage policy process--policy formulation, policy implementation, and policy evaluation. It has described both the relevance and a framework for education policy evaluation. (Author/IRT)

  1. Assessing the fate and effects of an insecticidal formulation.

    PubMed

    de Perre, Chloé; Williard, Karl W J; Schoonover, Jon E; Young, Bryan G; Murphy, Tracye M; Lydy, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    A 3-yr study was conducted on a corn field in central Illinois, USA, to understand the fate and effects of an insecticidal formulation containing the active ingredients phostebupirim and cyfluthrin. The objectives were to determine the best tillage practice (conventional vs conservation tillage) in terms of grain yields and potential environmental risk, to assess insecticidal exposure using concentrations measured in soil and runoff water and sediments, to compare measured insecticidal concentrations with predicted concentrations from selected risk assessment exposure models, and to calculate toxicity benchmarks from laboratory bioassays performed on reference aquatic and terrestrial nontarget organisms, using individual active ingredients and the formulation. Corn grain yields were not significantly different based on tillage treatment. Similarly, field concentrations of insecticides were not significantly (p > 0.05) different in strip tillage versus conventional tillage, suggesting that neither of the tillage systems would enable greater environmental risk from the insecticidal formulation. Risk quotients were calculated from field concentrations and toxicity data to determine potential risk to nontarget species. The insecticidal formulation used at the recommended rate resulted in soil, sediment, and water concentrations that were potentially harmful to aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates, if exposure occurred, with risk quotients up to 34. PMID:25331413

  2. Evaluation of the versatile character of a nanoemulsion formulation.

    PubMed

    Gué, E; Since, M; Ropars, S; Herbinet, R; Le Pluart, L; Malzert-Fréon, A

    2016-02-10

    The formulate-ability of six model active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), with different physico-chemical profiles, in a nanoemulsion designed to be intraveinously administrable was explored. Nanoemulsions were spontaneously generated at room temperature by pouring a phosphate buffer in an anhydrous mixture containing pharmaceutically acceptable triglycerides and non-ionic surfactants. After determination of the apparent solubility of each API in excipients and characterization of mixtures by DSC, API-loaded nanoemulsions were formulated and characterized in terms of granulometric properties, surface potential, drug recovery efficiency, pH, osmolarity, in vitro drug release, and stability. Except ciprofloxacin, a BCS class IV drug, all studied APIs were soluble in at least one excipient used, i.e. Labrasol. At 2 wt% API, all drug-loaded nanoemulsions present properties compatible with i.v. administration. The formulation should permit to increase apparent solubility of poorly water-soluble APIs, and also to prolong delivery of hydrophobic as well of more hydrophilic compounds. Herein, the relative affinity of the API for nanodroplets and the release medium would directly influence drug release profiles. Nanoemulsions were stable for 7 days. They could also been extemporaneously reconstituted before use. Such a versatile nanoemulsion would provide a valuable option as formulation strategy for improvement of drug properties. PMID:26685727

  3. Determination of Quality Standards for Draksharishta, a Polyherbal Ayurvedic Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Divya; Pandita, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Draksharishta is an ayurvedic polyherbal formulation is prescribed for digestive impairment, respiratory disorders and weakness. Though the formula composition and therapeutic claims of draksharishta are part of the Ayurvedic Formulary of India, the scientific methods for its quality and safety evaluation are yet to be documented. The current work is an attempt to evaluate the quality parameters of draksharishta which has been checked vis a vis herbs used in the formulation by modern scientific control procedures like macroscopic and microscopic study, physico-chemical analysis, preliminary phytochemical analysis, thin layer chromatography and high performance thin layer chromatography to fix the quality standard of this formulation with reference to two marketed formulations i.e. M1 and M2, respectively. The quality control parameters were within the limit as per the Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India which signifies good quality and purity of the plant materials. Thin layer chromatography profiles showed the presence of gallic acid, catechin and resveratrol and further it was confirmed by HPTLC fingerprints. The results obtained can be used by pharmaceutical companies as quality control parameters in order to have a proper quality check during processing. PMID:27168691

  4. Spreading of a Lidocaine Formulation on Microneedle-Treated Skin.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Atul; Das, Diganta B; Chao, Tzu C; Starov, Victor M

    2015-12-01

    The spreadability of a liquid drug formulation on skin is an indication of it either remaining stationary or distributing (spreading) as a droplet. Factors determining droplet spreadability of the formulation are spreading area, diameter of the droplet base, viscosity of the liquid, contact angle, volume of droplet on skin and any others. The creation of microcavities from the application of microneedle (MN) has the potential to control droplet spreading, and hence, target specific areas of skin for drug delivery. However, there is little work that demonstrates spreading of liquid drug formulation on MN-treated skin. Below, spreading of a lidocaine hydrogel formulation and lidocaine solution (reference liquid) on porcine skin is investigated over MN-treated skin. Controlled spreadability was achieved with the lidocaine hydrogel on MN-treated skin as compared with lidocaine solution. It was observed that the droplet spreading parameters such as spreading radius, droplet height and dynamic contact angle were slightly lower for the lidocaine hydrogel than the lidocaine solution on skin. Also, the lidocaine hydrogel on MN-treated skin resulted in slower dynamic reduction of droplet height, contact angle and reduced time taken in attaining static advancing droplets because of the MN microcavities.

  5. Abuse deterrent formulations and the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).

    PubMed

    Sapienza, Frank L

    2006-06-01

    The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) has reduced the diversion of controlled substances at the manufacturing and distribution levels. Recent increased diversion has occurred at the retail level. Levels of diversion and abuse of controlled substances with similar abuse potential and therapeutic indications often parallel availability for medical use, while rates of diversion and abuse may be influenced by factors related to specific products, including their formulations and risk management plans. Abuse deterrent formulations may reduce abuse and attendant adverse health consequences even if the products are diverted. Their development should consider how, to what extent and by whom products containing the targeted substance are abused. It should take into consideration all potential types of abuse including "as is", multiple doses, alternate routes of administration, physical or chemical separation of the active ingredient, compromised extended release mechanisms and abuse in combination with other substances. Industry incentives for developing abuse-resistant formulations include enhanced corporate image and potentially less restrictive scheduling or risk management plans. Scheduling is substance specific, but the CSA includes products/formulations that are differentially scheduled. Issues to be considered for differential scheduling under the CSA include: (1) whether there is legal authority to do so; (2) application of standard scheduling criteria to individual products; (3) product specific data for "eight factor analyses"; (4) development of predictive data and standards accepted by the scientific and regulatory communities; (5) use of predictive data or post marketing surveillance data; (6) international treaty obligations. These issues must be addressed before differential scheduling can be considered.

  6. Nanostructured material formulated acrylic bone cements with enhanced drug release.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shou-Cang; Ng, Wai Kiong; Dong, Yuan-Cai; Ng, Junwei; Tan, Reginald Beng Hee

    2016-01-01

    To improve antibiotic properties, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based bone cements are formulated with antibiotic and nanostructured materials, such as hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanorods, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) as drug carriers. For nonporous HAP nanorods, the release of gentamicin (GTMC) is not obviously improved when the content of HAP is below 10%; while the high content of HAP shows detrimental to mechanical properties although the release of GTMC can be substantially increased. As a comparison, low content of hollow nanostructured CNT and MSN can enhance drug delivery efficiency. The presence of 5.3% of CNT in formulation can facilitate the release of more than 75% of GTMC in 80 days, however, its mechanical strength is seriously impaired. Among nanostructured drug carriers, antibiotic/MSN formulation can effectively improve drug delivery and exhibit well preserved mechanical properties. The hollow nanostructured materials are believed to build up nano-networks for antibiotic to diffuse from the bone cement matrix to surface and achieve sustained drug release. Based on MSN drug carrier in formulated bone cement, a binary delivery system is also investigated to release GTMC together with other antibiotics.

  7. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  8. Glass Formulation for Next Generation Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Vienna, John D.; Johnson, Fabienne; Marra, James C.; Peeler, David K.; Smith, Gary L.

    2011-12-21

    Transformational melter technologies are being considered to support mission acceleration within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. New glass formulations are required to take full advantage of the next generation melters, for example, the cold crucible induction melter (CCIM). The key advantage of CCIM technology over current reference technologies is its capability to provide higher processing temperatures, which can lead to an increased waste throughput rate by achieving higher waste loadings and by increasing the feed processing rate. Various waste compositions within the DOE complex were evaluated to determine their potential for successfully demonstrating the unique advantages of the CCIM technology. Glass formulations that satisfy a set of constraints for product quality and assumed CCIM processing conditions were developed for two Hanford waste streams, AZ-101 high-level waste (HLW) and AN-105 low-activity waste (LAW). Three glasses selected for AZ-101 HLW have waste loadings of 40, 42.5, and 45 wt%. The 45-wt% waste loading corresponds to a 22% increase from 37 wt%, which is the maximum expected waste loading based on the current reference formulation. One glass selected for AN-105 LAW has a waste loading of 31.3 wt% at 24 wt% Na2O in glass, which is a 14% increase from the current reference formulation maximum of 21 wt% Na2O. These four glasses are planned for scaled melter tests for initial demonstration of the CCIM technologies for Hanford wastes.

  9. An oral controlled release matrix pellet formulation containing nanocrystalline ketoprofen.

    PubMed

    Vergote, G J; Vervaet, C; Van Driessche, I; Hoste, S; De Smedt, S; Demeester, J; Jain, R A; Ruddy, S; Remon, J P

    2001-05-21

    A controlled release pellet formulation using a NanoCrystal colloidal dispersion of ketoprofen was developed. In order to be able to process the aqueous NanoCrystal colloidal dispersion into a hydrophobic solid dosage form a spray drying procedure was used. The in vitro dissolution profiles of wax based pellets loaded with nanocrystalline ketoprofen are compared with the profiles of wax based pellets loaded with microcrystalline ketoprofen and of a commercial sustained release ketoprofen formulation. Pellets were produced using a melt pelletisation technique. All pellet formulations were composed of a mixture of microcrystalline wax and starch derivatives. The starch derivatives used were waxy maltodextrin and drum dried corn starch. Varying the concentration of drum dried corn starch increased the release rate of ketoprofen but the ketoprofen recovery remained problematic. To increase the dissolution yield surfactants were utilised. The surfactants were either added during the production process of the NanoCrystal colloidal dispersion (sodium laurylsulphate) or during the pellet manufacturing process (Cremophor RH 40). Both methods resulted in a sustained but complete release of nanocrystalline ketoprofen from the matrix pellet formulations.

  10. Formulation and nebulization of fluticasone propionate-loaded lipid nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Umerska, Anita; Mouzouvi, Celia R A; Bigot, André; Saulnier, Patrick

    2015-09-30

    Inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) is often prescribed as a first-line therapy for the effective management of pulmonary diseases such as asthma. As nanocarriers offer many advantages over other drug delivery systems, this study investigated the suitability of lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) as a carrier for fluticasone propionate, examining the drug-related factors that should be considered in the formulation design and the behaviour of LNCs with different compositions and properties suspended within aerosol droplets under the relatively hostile conditions of nebulization. By adjusting the formulation conditions, particularly the nanocarrier composition, FP was efficiently encapsulated within the LNCs with a yield of up to 97%, and a concentration comparable to commercially available preparations was achieved. Moreover, testing the solubility of the drug in oil and water and determining the oil/water partition coefficient proved to be useful when assessing the encapsulation of the FP in the LNC formulation. Nebulization did not cause the FP to leak from the formulation, and no phase separation was observed after nebulization. LNCs with a diameter of 100 nm containing a smaller amount of surfactant and a larger amount of oil provided a better FP-loading capacity and better stability during nebulization than 30 or 60 nm LNCs. PMID:26183331

  11. Concentration of Nicotine and Glycols in 27 Electronic Cigarette Formulations.

    PubMed

    Peace, Michelle R; Baird, Tyson R; Smith, Nathaniel; Wolf, Carl E; Poklis, Justin L; Poklis, Alphonse

    2016-07-01

    Personal battery-powered vaporizers or electronic cigarettes were developed to deliver a nicotine vapor such that smokers could simulate smoking tobacco without the inherent pathology of inhaled tobacco smoke. Electronic cigarettes and their e-cigarette liquid formulations are virtually unregulated. These formulations are typically composed of propylene glycol and/or glycerin, flavoring components and an active drug, such as nicotine. Twenty-seven e-cigarette liquid formulations that contain nicotine between 6 and 22 mg/L were acquired within the USA and analyzed by various methods to determine their contents. They were screened by Direct Analysis in Real Time™ Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS). Nicotine was confirmed and quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the glycol composition was confirmed and quantitated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The DART-MS screening method was able to consistently identify the exact mass peaks resulting from the protonated molecular ion of nicotine, glycol and a number of flavor additives within 5 mmu. Nicotine concentrations were determined to range from 45 to 131% of the stated label concentration, with 18 of the 27 have >10% variance. Glycol composition was generally accurate to the product description, with only one exception where the propylene glycol to glycerin percentage ratio was stated as 50:50 and the determined concentration of propylene glycol to glycerin was 81:19 (% v/v). No unlabeled glycols were detected in these formulations.

  12. Lycopene from tomatoes: vesicular nanocarrier formulations for dermal delivery.

    PubMed

    Ascenso, Andreia; Pinho, Sónia; Eleutério, Carla; Praça, Fabíola Garcia; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra; Oliveira, Helena; Santos, Conceição; Silva, Olga; Simões, Sandra

    2013-07-31

    This experimental work aimed to develop a simple, fast, economic, and environmentally friendly process for the extraction of lycopene from tomato and incorporate this lycopene-rich extract into ultradeformable vesicular nanocarriers suitable for topical application. Lycopene extraction was conducted without a cosolvent for 30 min. The extracts were analyzed and incorporated in transfersomes and ethosomes. These formulations were characterized, and the cellular uptake was observed by confocal microscopy. Dermal delivery of lycopene formulations was tested under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Lycopene extraction proved to be quite safe and selective. The vesicular formulation was taken up by the cells, being more concentrated around the nucleus. Epicutaneous application of lycopene formulations decreased the level of anthralin-induced ear swelling by 97 and 87%, in a manner nonstatistically different from the positive control. These results support the idea that the lycopene-rich extract may be a good alternative to the expensive commercial lycopene for incorporation into advanced topical delivery systems. PMID:23826819

  13. 43 CFR 1610.4-5 - Formulation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Formulation of alternatives. 1610.4-5 Section 1610.4-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING...

  14. A HAMILTONIAN FORMULATION FOR SPIRAL-SECTOR ACCELERATORS.

    SciTech Connect

    BERG,J.S.

    2007-11-05

    I develop a formulation for Hamiltonian dynamics in an accelerator with magnets whose edges follow a spiral. I demonstrate using this Hamiltonian that a spiral FFAG can be made perfectly 'scaling'. I examine the effect of tilting an RF cavity with respect a radial line from the center of the machine, potentially with a different angle than the spiral of the magnets.

  15. A New Approach to Strategy Formulation: Opening the Black Box.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Lynn; Gupta, Mahesh; Sussman, Lyle

    2001-01-01

    An approach to teaching business strategy formulation uses the thinking process tools of the theory of constraints: current reality tree for situational analysis, evaporating cloud and future reality tree to identify change outcomes, and prerequisite tree and transition tree to identify implementation strategies. (SK)

  16. Relativistic fluid formulation and theory of intense relativistic electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Siambis, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    A new general relativistic fluid formulation has been obtained for intense relativistic electron beams (IREB) with arbitrarily high relativistic mass factor ..gamma... This theory is valid for confined IREB equilibria such as those found inside high energy accelerators as well as in the pinched and ion-focused regimes of beam propagation in plasma channels. The new relativistic fluid formulation is based on the covariant relativistic fluid formulation of Newcomb with the parameter lambda identical to 1, in order to allow for realistic confined equilibria. The resulting equilibrium constraints require that the beam has a slow rotational velocity around its direction of propagation and that the off-diagonal thermal stress element, associated with these two directions of motion, be nonzero. The effective betatron oscillation frequency of the fluid elements of the beam is modified by the radial gradient and anisotropies in the thermal stress elements of the beam fluid. The wave equation, for sausage, hose and filamentation excitations on the relativistic fluid beam, is found to be formally identical to that obtained from the Vlasov equation approach, hence phase-mixing damping is a generic and self-consistent correlate of the new relativistic fluid formulation.

  17. Determination of Quality Standards for Draksharishta, a Polyherbal Ayurvedic Formulation.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Divya; Pandita, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Draksharishta is an ayurvedic polyherbal formulation is prescribed for digestive impairment, respiratory disorders and weakness. Though the formula composition and therapeutic claims of draksharishta are part of the Ayurvedic Formulary of India, the scientific methods for its quality and safety evaluation are yet to be documented. The current work is an attempt to evaluate the quality parameters of draksharishta which has been checked vis a vis herbs used in the formulation by modern scientific control procedures like macroscopic and microscopic study, physico-chemical analysis, preliminary phytochemical analysis, thin layer chromatography and high performance thin layer chromatography to fix the quality standard of this formulation with reference to two marketed formulations i.e. M1 and M2, respectively. The quality control parameters were within the limit as per the Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India which signifies good quality and purity of the plant materials. Thin layer chromatography profiles showed the presence of gallic acid, catechin and resveratrol and further it was confirmed by HPTLC fingerprints. The results obtained can be used by pharmaceutical companies as quality control parameters in order to have a proper quality check during processing.

  18. Formulation and stability evaluation of immediate release antioxidant tablet.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Abida; Hassan, Fouzia; Israr, Fozia; Hasan, S M Farid; Haque, Naheed

    2014-09-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important part in the development of human diseases. Pharmaceutical strategies are required to be work out in order to fight against such oxidative damages. Designing of new formulations that can protect human beings from the undesirable effects, consequence of oxidative stress, the crucial cellular and molecular processes, along with recurring oxidative damage and diseases is to be expedited. The main objective of present work was to design a rapidly releasing synthetic antioxidant tablet dosage form comprising of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc in combination with lecithin (a phospho-lipid) that can fulfill human health and nutritional requirement and to perform stability studies. Beside active ingredients, the excipients used in present formulation were; Avicel pH 102, starch pregelatinized, silicon dioxide colloidal and polyethylene glycol 8000 milled magnesium stearate, acid stearic fine powder and aq.opa dry coating material. The immediate release formulation of antioxidant was prepared by wet granulation method. Three different trials were developed. Vitamin C was selected as tracer for detection and evaluation of tablet dosage form. When the resulting formulation was evaluated by USP 24 / NF 19, 2000 guidelines and later by stability studies, it was found that their quality can be maintained over a storage period of 24 months.

  19. FORMULATING ULTRA-LOW-VOC WOOD FURNITURE COATINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the formulation of ultra-low volatile organic compound (VOC) wood furniture coatings. The annual U.S. market for wood coatings is about 240, 000 cu m (63 million gal). In this basis, between 57 and 91 million kg (125 and 200 million lb) of VOCs are emitted i...

  20. 40 CFR 161.165 - Description of formulation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Description of formulation process. 161.165 Section 161.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES Product Chemistry...

  1. 40 CFR 158.335 - Description of formulation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Description of formulation process. 158.335 Section 158.335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.335 Description of...

  2. 40 CFR 158.335 - Description of formulation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Description of formulation process. 158.335 Section 158.335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.335 Description of...

  3. 40 CFR 161.165 - Description of formulation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Description of formulation process. 161.165 Section 161.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES Product Chemistry...

  4. 40 CFR 158.335 - Description of formulation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Description of formulation process. 158.335 Section 158.335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.335 Description of...

  5. 40 CFR 158.335 - Description of formulation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Description of formulation process. 158.335 Section 158.335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.335 Description of...

  6. Guidelines for Personnel Policy Formulation in the Oregon Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Board of Education, Salem.

    In order to insure a measure of consistency in the area of personnel relations, while retaining the flexibility necessary to meet local needs, the Oregon Board of Education has published this list of guidelines for personnel policy formulation in the Oregon community colleges. Based on statutory authority, the guidebook outlines required personnel…

  7. Aspartate analysis in formulations using a new enzyme sensor.

    PubMed

    Campanella, L; Aturki, Z; Sammartino, M P; Tomassetti, M

    1995-04-01

    A biosensor has been developed for the purpose of directly analysing aspartate in pharmaceutical formulations and aspartame in sweeteners. This biosensor consists of an ammonia-sensitive gas-diffusion electrode and the enzyme L-aspartase immobilized by means of polyazetidine on a dialysis membrane.

  8. Spectroscopic analysis of phenolic compounds for food and feed formulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic compounds exhibit several bioactive properties including anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal characteristics with potential applications as additives in functional food and feed formulations. Phenolic compounds occur in plants as secondary metabolites and may be recovered as a co-...

  9. The effects of surfactant formulation on nonequilibrium NAPL solubilization.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lirong; Mayer, Alex S; Pope, Gary A

    2003-01-01

    Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) involves the injection of surfactant solutions into aquifers contaminated with nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPL). Batch and column experiments were used to assess the effect of surfactant formulation on the rate of NAPL solubilization. The experimental variables were surfactant type, surfactant concentration, electrolyte concentration, and cosolvent concentration. Model equations were proposed and solved to describe solubilization under the conditions of each type of experiment. Using these models, a solubilization rate constant, kappa(b), and an overall mass transfer rate coefficient, kappa, were estimated from the batch and column experiments, respectively. The solubilization rate constant was consistently sensitive to surfactant type, surfactant concentration, and electrolyte concentration. The estimated solubilization rate constants varied over two orders of magnitude. The results of the column experiments also were sensitive to the surfactant formulation. Variations in the fitted mass transfer rate coefficient parameter, beta(0), were related to variations in the surfactant formulations. A comparison between the results of the batch and column experiments yields an apparent relationship between beta(0) and kappa(b). This relationship suggests that the mass transfer rate coefficient is directly related to the formulation of the surfactant solution.

  10. IRIS Toxicological Review of Naphthalene (Scoping and Problem Formulation Materials)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In July 2014, EPA released scoping and problem formulation materials for new IRIS assessments of ethylbenzene and naphthalene for public comment and discussion. The scoping information was based on input from EPA's program and regional offices and was provided for informational p...

  11. Differential tissue-on-tissue lubrication by ophthalmic formulations.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Anne E; Baier, Robert E; Chen, Huagang; Chowhan, Masood

    2007-07-01

    Tissue-on-tissue friction testing was used to determine how instillation of hydrophilic polymer-containing formulations between the "blinking" tissues would compare with lubrication by saline, alone, or an oil-emulsion preparation. Best results were obtained for a formulation that contained active demulcents polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) and propylene glycol (PG), as well as a gellable polymer hydroxypropyl guar (HP-Guar) in a borate-buffered solution, in comparison with hydroxypropylcellulose-containing and carboxymethylcellulose-containing formulations. Superior performance of all the formulations was found for lubricating tissue-on-tissue couples, compared with metal-oxide-to-metal oxide interfaces, or metal oxide-to-tissue interfaces. A reciprocating pin-on-disc type friction/wear test device articulated the intimal faces of preserved human umbilical cord vein segments under increasing loads during simulated continuous "eye-blinking" with addition of increasing weights up to 60 g/cm2, simulating maximal eyelid force on the orbital globe. The tissue-on-tissue couples moved from liquid phase lubrication to boundary lubrication. After residual formulations were rinsed away with saline, persistence of low friction at the highest loads was indicative of formulation substantivity. Human umbilical cord vein segments were utilized in saline-wetted tissue-on-tissue couples that showed variable starting coefficients of friction in the range 0.2-0.4, producing moderate tearing and disruption of the interfacial layers above the medial collagen zone. The best-performing formulations instilled to the tissues pre-wetted with saline apparently reacted separately with each tissue face to produce a lower final and persistent coefficient of friction of about 0.05. Scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy of these guar-modified tissue specimens showed only a few superficial tissue disruptions, and some interphase swelling consistent with polymer uptake. The frictional

  12. Development of novel solid-phase protein formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montalvo Ortiz, Brenda Liz

    Proteins are the next-generation drugs for the treatment of several diseases. However, the number of protein drugs is still limited due to the physical or chemical instability of proteins during processing, formulation, storage, and delivery. The formulation of proteins at the solid state has advantages over liquid state, such as improved stability during long-term storage and delivery and decreases transportation costs. In this dissertation, we developed new solid-phase protein formulations in which the integrity of the protein was not compromised. The long term goal of this research was to use these protein formulations to improve protein stability in drug delivery devices, such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA). The first solid-phase protein formulation developed in this investigation was named "glassification". We proposed glassification as an alternative protein dehydration technique to the common used one, lyophilization, because this last method involves a series of steps which are detrimental to protein structure and stability. The glassification method consisted on protein dehydration by the use of organic solvents. As a result of the glassification process a small (micrometer size range) protein solid bead was obtained. The proteins used to study the glassification process were lysozyme (LYS), alpha-chymotrypsin (CHYMO) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). These studies revealed that the glassification process itself did not alter protein structure and the activity was preserved. Ethyl acetate was the most effective organic solvent for protein glassification because it led to the highest protein residual activity, no insoluble aggregate formation and is a relatively non-toxic solvent, which allow the incorporation of these protein microparticles in PLGA microspheres. The incorporation of spherical HRP microparticles into PLGA microspheres resulted in superior properties when compared with encapsulated lyophilized HRP powder, such as improved release

  13. Hybrid proper orthogonal decomposition formulation for linear structural dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placzek, A.; Tran, D.-M.; Ohayon, R.

    2008-12-01

    Hybrid proper orthogonal decomposition (PODh) formulation is a POD-based reduced-order modeling method where the continuous equation of the physical system is projected on the POD modes obtained from a discrete model of the system. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the hybrid POD formulation and to compare it with other POD formulations on the simple case of a linear elastic rod subject to prescribed displacements in the perspective of building reduced-order models for coupled fluid-structure systems in the future. In the first part of the paper, the hybrid POD is compared to two other formulations for the response to an initial condition: an approach based on the discrete finite elements equation of the rod called the discrete POD (PODd), and an analytical approach using the exact solution of the problem and consequently called the analytical POD (PODa). This first step is useful to ensure that the PODh performs well with respect to the other formulations. The PODh is therefore used afterwards for the forced motion response where a displacement is imposed at the free end of the rod. The main contribution of this paper lies in the comparison of three techniques used to take into account the non-homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition with the hybrid POD: the first method relies on control functions, the second on the penalty method and the third on Lagrange multipliers. Finally, the robustness of the hybrid POD is investigated on two examples involving firstly the introduction of structural damping and secondly a nonlinear force applied at the free end of the rod.

  14. Liquid versus gel handrub formulation: a prospective intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Traore, Ousmane; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Lübbe, Jann; Griffiths, William; Pittet, Didier

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Hand hygiene is one of the cornerstones of the prevention of health care-associated infection, but health care worker (HCW) compliance with good practices remains low. Alcohol-based handrub is the new standard for hand hygiene action worldwide and usually requires a system change for its successful introduction in routine care. Product acceptability by HCWs is a crucial step in this process. Methods We conducted a prospective intervention study to compare the impact on HCW compliance of a liquid (study phase I) versus a gel (phase II) handrub formulation of the same product during daily patient care. All staff (102 HCWs) of the medical intensive care unit participated. Compliance with hand hygiene was monitored by a single observer. Skin tolerance and product acceptability were assessed using subjective and objective scoring systems, self-report questionnaires, and biometric measurements. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between predictors and compliance with the handrub formulation as the main explanatory variable and to adjust for potential risk factors. Results Overall compliance (phases I and II) with hand hygiene practices among nurses, physicians, nursing assistants, and other HCWs was 39.1%, 27.1%, 31.1%, and 13.9%, respectively (p = 0.027). Easy access to handrub improved compliance (35.3% versus 50.6%, p = 0.035). Nurse status, working on morning shifts, use of the gel formulation, and availability of the alcohol-based handrub in the HCW's pocket were independently associated with higher compliance. Immediate accessibility was the strongest predictor. Based on self-assessment, observer assessment, and the measurement of epidermal water content, the gel performed significantly better than the liquid formulation. Conclusion Facilitated access to an alcohol-based gel formulation leads to improved compliance with hand hygiene and better skin condition in HCWs. PMID:17477858

  15. Negotiating treatment preferences: Physicians' formulations of patients' stance.

    PubMed

    Landmark, Anne Marie Dalby; Svennevig, Jan; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2016-01-01

    Eliciting patients' values and treatment preferences is an essential element in models of shared decision making, yet few studies have investigated the interactional realizations of how physicians do this in authentic encounters. Drawing on video-recorded encounters from Norwegian secondary care, the present study uses the fine-grained empirical methodology of conversation analysis (CA) to identify one conversational practice physicians use, namely, formulations of patients' stance, in which physicians summarize or paraphrase their understanding of the patient's stance towards treatment. The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to explore what objectives formulations of patients' stance achieve while negotiating treatment and (2) to discuss these objectives in relation to core requirements in shared decision making. Our analysis demonstrates that formulating the patient's stance is a practice physicians use in order to elicit, check, and establish patients' attitudes towards treatment. This practice is in line with general recommendations for making shared decisions, such as exploring and checking patients' preferences and values. However, the formulations may function as a device for doing more than merely checking and establishing common ground and bringing up patients' preferences and views: Accompanied by subtle deprecating expressions, they work to delegitimize the patients' stances and indirectly convey the physicians' opposing stance. Once established, these positions can be used as a basis for challenging and potentially altering the patient's attitude towards the decision, thereby making it more congruent with the physician's view. Therefore, in addition to bringing up patients' views towards treatment, we argue that physicians may use formulations of patients' stance as a resource for directing the patient towards decisions that are congruent with the physician's stance in situations with potential disagreement, whilst (ostensibly) avoiding a more

  16. Negotiating treatment preferences: Physicians' formulations of patients' stance.

    PubMed

    Landmark, Anne Marie Dalby; Svennevig, Jan; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2016-01-01

    Eliciting patients' values and treatment preferences is an essential element in models of shared decision making, yet few studies have investigated the interactional realizations of how physicians do this in authentic encounters. Drawing on video-recorded encounters from Norwegian secondary care, the present study uses the fine-grained empirical methodology of conversation analysis (CA) to identify one conversational practice physicians use, namely, formulations of patients' stance, in which physicians summarize or paraphrase their understanding of the patient's stance towards treatment. The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to explore what objectives formulations of patients' stance achieve while negotiating treatment and (2) to discuss these objectives in relation to core requirements in shared decision making. Our analysis demonstrates that formulating the patient's stance is a practice physicians use in order to elicit, check, and establish patients' attitudes towards treatment. This practice is in line with general recommendations for making shared decisions, such as exploring and checking patients' preferences and values. However, the formulations may function as a device for doing more than merely checking and establishing common ground and bringing up patients' preferences and views: Accompanied by subtle deprecating expressions, they work to delegitimize the patients' stances and indirectly convey the physicians' opposing stance. Once established, these positions can be used as a basis for challenging and potentially altering the patient's attitude towards the decision, thereby making it more congruent with the physician's view. Therefore, in addition to bringing up patients' views towards treatment, we argue that physicians may use formulations of patients' stance as a resource for directing the patient towards decisions that are congruent with the physician's stance in situations with potential disagreement, whilst (ostensibly) avoiding a more

  17. Liposomal voriconazole (VOR) formulation for improved ocular delivery.

    PubMed

    de Sá, Fernando Augusto Pires; Taveira, Stephânia Fleury; Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins; Lima, Eliana Martins; Gratieri, Taís

    2015-09-01

    Treating infectious eye diseases topically requires a drug delivery system capable of overcoming the eye's defense mechanisms, which efficiently reduce the drug residence time right after its administration, therefore reducing absorption. In order to try to surpass such administration issues and improve life quality for patients with fungal keratitis, liposomal voriconazol (VOR) formulations were prepared. Formulations were composed of soy phosphatidylcholine (PC) containing or not 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) and cholesterol. Liposomes were characterized by their drug entrapment efficiency (EE), drug recovery (DR), average diameter (size) and polydispersivity index (PdI). In vitro mucosal interaction and irritancy levels, ex vivo permeation, as well as the short-term stability were also assessed. Liposomal VOR formulation produced with 7.2:40mM VOR:PC showed to be the most promising formulation: mean size of 116.6±5.9nm, narrow PdI (0.17±0.06), negative zeta potential (∼-7mV) and over 80% of EE and yield, remaining stable for at least 30 days in solution and 90 days after lyophilization. This formulation was classified as 'non-irritant' after HET-CAM's test and was able to deliver about 47.85±5.72μg/cm(2) of VOR into porcine cornea after 30min of permeation test. Such drug levels are higher than the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of several fungi species isolated from clinical cases of corneal keratitis. Overall results suggest VOR can be effectively incorporated in liposomes for potential topical treatment of fungal keratitis. PMID:26123854

  18. Formulation design and in vitro physicochemical characterization of surface modified self-nanoemulsifying formulations (SNEFs) of gentamicin.

    PubMed

    Umeyor, Chukwuebuka; Attama, Anthony; Uronnachi, Emmanuel; Kenechukwu, Franklin; Nwakile, Calistus; Nzekwe, Ifeanyi; Okoye, Eric; Esimone, Charles

    2016-01-30

    Self-nanoemulsifying formulations (SNEFs) structured with PEG 4000 as PEGylated SNEFs, were formulated after solubility studies using rational blends of soybean oil, a combination of Kolliphor(®) EL and Kolliphor(®) P188 as surfactants, and Transcutol(®) HP as co-surfactant, and evaluated for oral delivery of gentamicin. Incorporation of gentamicin and PEG 4000 reduced the initial area of nanoemulsion of the ternary phase diagrams produced by water titration method using oil, surfactant mixture and co-surfactant. Emulsion droplets were in the nanometer scale ranging from 80-210 nm. FT-IR study revealed that gentamicin structure remained intact in all formulations, and SEM micrographs showed spherical globules. Zeta potentials of SNEFs were in the range of -25.4 to -42.5 mV, and showed a stable system with minor flips in electrostatic charges. There was high in vitro diffusion-dependent permeation of gentamicin from the SNEFs. Results obtained in this work showed that oral delivery of gentamicin was improved by formulation as surface modified SNEFs.

  19. Designing Preclinical Perceptibility Measures to Evaluate Topical Vaginal Gel Formulations: Relating User Sensory Perceptions and Experiences to Formulation Properties

    PubMed Central

    Fava, Joseph L.; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Vargas, Sara; Shaw, Julia G.; Kojic, E. Milu; Kiser, Patrick F.; Friend, David R.; Katz, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The effectiveness of any biomedical prevention technology relies on both biological efficacy and behavioral adherence. Microbicide trials have been hampered by low adherence, limiting the ability to draw meaningful conclusions about product effectiveness. Central to this problem may be an inadequate conceptualization of how product properties themselves impact user experience and adherence. Our goal is to expand the current microbicide development framework to include product “perceptibility,” the objective measurement of user sensory perceptions (i.e., sensations) and experiences of formulation performance during use. For vaginal gels, a set of biophysical properties, including rheological properties and measures of spreading and retention, may critically impact user experiences. Project LINK sought to characterize the user experience in this regard, and to validate measures of user sensory perceptions and experiences (USPEs) using four prototype topical vaginal gel formulations designed for pericoital use. Perceptibility scales captured a range of USPEs during the product application process (five scales), ambulation after product insertion (six scales), and during sexual activity (eight scales). Comparative statistical analyses provided empirical support for hypothesized relationships between gel properties, spreading performance, and the user experience. Project LINK provides preliminary evidence for the utility of evaluating USPEs, introducing a paradigm shift in the field of microbicide formulation design. We propose that these user sensory perceptions and experiences initiate cognitive processes in users resulting in product choice and willingness-to-use. By understanding the impact of USPEs on that process, formulation development can optimize both drug delivery and adherence. PMID:24180360

  20. Formulation and optimization of solid lipid nanoparticle formulation for pulmonary delivery of budesonide using Taguchi and Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Emami, J; Mohiti, H; Hamishehkar, H; Varshosaz, J

    2015-01-01

    Budesonide is a potent non-halogenated corticosteroid with high anti-inflammatory effects. The lungs are an attractive route for non-invasive drug delivery with advantages for both systemic and local applications. The aim of the present study was to develop, characterize and optimize a solid lipid nanoparticle system to deliver budesonide to the lungs. Budesonide-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared by the emulsification-solvent diffusion method. The impact of various processing variables including surfactant type and concentration, lipid content organic and aqueous volume, and sonication time were assessed on the particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, loading percent and mean dissolution time. Taguchi design with 12 formulations along with Box-Behnken design with 17 formulations was developed. The impact of each factor upon the eventual responses was evaluated, and the optimized formulation was finally selected. The size and morphology of the prepared nanoparticles were studied using scanning electron microscope. Based on the optimization made by Design Expert 7(®) software, a formulation made of glycerol monostearate, 1.2 % polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), weight ratio of lipid/drug of 10 and sonication time of 90 s was selected. Particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, loading percent, and mean dissolution time of adopted formulation were predicted and confirmed to be 218.2 ± 6.6 nm, -26.7 ± 1.9 mV, 92.5 ± 0.52 %, 5.8 ± 0.3 %, and 10.4 ± 0.29 h, respectively. Since the preparation and evaluation of the selected formulation within the laboratory yielded acceptable results with low error percent, the modeling and optimization was justified. The optimized formulation co-spray dried with lactose (hybrid microparticles) displayed desirable fine particle fraction, mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), and geometric standard deviation of 49.5%, 2.06 μm, and 2.98 μm; respectively. Our results provide fundamental data for the

  1. Extended-release formulations for the treatment of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Bialer, Meir

    2007-01-01

    This review analyses the concept of extended-release (ER) formulations in epilepsy and evaluates ER formulations of carbamazepine, valproic acid and a modified-release (MR) formulation of oxcarbazepine. ER formulations are usually designed to reduce dose frequency and maintain relatively constant or flat plasma drug concentration. It is questionable whether flat plasma concentrations of an antiepileptic drug (AED) improve antiepileptic efficacy compared with fluctuating plasma concentrations. More certainly, they minimise concentration-related adverse effects, and the dosing flexibility and consistency of plasma concentrations may simplify the management of antiepileptic drug therapy. Neurologists would like ER formulations that can be administered once- and/or twice-daily to tailor therapy for the individual patient; however, switching dosage schedules from multiple dosages per day to once daily, although more convenient, will not generally improve therapeutic coverage (maintenance of effective drug concentration in biological fluids and tissue). Pharmacokinetically, the impact of a missed dose is greater the larger the dose and the less frequent the administration. Therefore, the risk of breakthrough seizure is higher during AED once-daily administration than twice-daily administration. Consequently, the increased compliance observed with fewer dosages per day should be weighed against the impact or forgiveness of omitted dose(s) and the shorter 'forgiveness' period associated with once-daily administration. Currently, the trend is to treat patients with epilepsy with ER formulations because of the better compliance, convenience and flat plasma concentration versus time curve. Thus, it seems that the term 'flatter is better' for AED plasma profiles has precipitated in the last 10-15 years among neurologists and epilepsy caregivers, and is being promoted by marketing forces of pharmaceutical companies. Data from the literature support the trend to treat epileptic

  2. Decision-Tree Formulation With Order-1 Lateral Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2007-01-01

    A compact symbolic formulation enables mapping of an arbitrarily complex decision tree of a certain type into a highly computationally efficient multidimensional software object. The type of decision trees to which this formulation applies is that known in the art as the Boolean class of balanced decision trees. Parallel lateral slices of an object created by means of this formulation can be executed in constant time considerably less time than would otherwise be required. Decision trees of various forms are incorporated into almost all large software systems. A decision tree is a way of hierarchically solving a problem, proceeding through a set of true/false responses to a conclusion. By definition, a decision tree has a tree-like structure, wherein each internal node denotes a test on an attribute, each branch from an internal node represents an outcome of a test, and leaf nodes represent classes or class distributions that, in turn represent possible conclusions. The drawback of decision trees is that execution of them can be computationally expensive (and, hence, time-consuming) because each non-leaf node must be examined to determine whether to progress deeper into a tree structure or to examine an alternative. The present formulation was conceived as an efficient means of representing a decision tree and executing it in as little time as possible. The formulation involves the use of a set of symbolic algorithms to transform a decision tree into a multi-dimensional object, the rank of which equals the number of lateral non-leaf nodes. The tree can then be executed in constant time by means of an order-one table lookup. The sequence of operations performed by the algorithms is summarized as follows: 1. Determination of whether the tree under consideration can be encoded by means of this formulation. 2. Extraction of decision variables. 3. Symbolic optimization of the decision tree to minimize its form. 4. Expansion and transformation of all nested conjunctive

  3. Evaluation of wound healing activity of some herbal formulations.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Pulok K; Mukherjee, Kakali; Rajesh Kumar, M; Pal, M; Saha, B P

    2003-03-01

    The wound healing activity of two herbal formulations (Himax ointment and lotion) containing Indradaru extract, i.e. Arjuna bark (Terminalia arjuna, Family-Combretaceae), extract was evaluated for its wound healing potential in two types of wound models in rats (i) excision wound model and (ii) incision wound model. Both the formulations responded significantly in both the wound models tested. The results were also comparable to that of the standard drug nitrofurazone used as a standard drug for comparison in this present investigation. The results were also comparable in terms of wound contracting ability, epithelization period, tensile strength and regeneration of tissues at the wound area. Thus, this investigation con fi rms the use of the Himax ointment and lotion containing Terminalia arjuna extract as a wound-healing agent as known from folklore medicine.

  4. Nonlinear formulation for flexible multibody system with large deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinyang; Hong, Jiazhen

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, nonlinear modeling for flexible multibody system with large deformation is investigated. Absolute nodal coordinates are employed to describe the displacement, and variational motion equations of a flexible body are derived on the basis of the geometric nonlinear theory, in which both the shear strain and the transverse normal strain are taken into account. By separating the inner and the boundary nodal coordinates, the motion equations of a flexible multibody system are assembled. The advantage of such formulation is that the constraint equations and the forward recursive equations become linear because the absolute nodal coordinates are used. A spatial double pendulum connected to the ground with a spherical joint is simulated to investigate the dynamic performance of flexible beams with large deformation. Finally, the resultant constant total energy validates the present formulation.

  5. Lumped mass formulations for modeling flexible body systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampalli, Rajiv

    1989-01-01

    The efforts of Mechanical Dynamics, Inc. in obtaining a general formulation for flexible bodies in a multibody setting are discussed. The efforts being supported by MDI, both in house and externally are summarized. The feasibility of using lumped mass approaches to modeling flexibility in a multibody dynamics context is examined. The kinematics and kinetics for a simple system consisting of two rigid bodies connected together by an elastic beam are developed in detail. Accuracy, efficiency and ease of use using this approach are some of the issues that are then looked at. The formulation is then generalized to a superelement containing several nodes and connecting several bodies. Superelement kinematics and kinetics equations are developed. The feasibility and effectiveness of the method is illustrated by the use of some examples illustrating phenomena common in the context of spacecraft motions.

  6. Formulation and evaluation of Cyclosporin A emulgel for ocular delivery.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Ling, Xiang; Jiang, Weiwei; Du, Shuang; Lu, Yang; Tu, Jiasheng

    2015-01-01

    Emulgels have been extensively covered as a promising drug delivery system for the administration of lipophilic drugs. This work was conducted to develop an emulgel formulation for Cyclosporin A (CsA) employing polycarbophil as the gelling agent for ocular delivery. The prepared emulgels were evaluated for their physical appearance, rheological behavior, drug release, stability, precorneal clearance and irritation. Results showed that CsA emulgel formulations prepared with polycarbophil exhibited acceptable physical properties and drug release, which remained consistent after storage for 3 months. A prolonged retention time was also observed on the ocular surface with improved ocular bioavailability and no irritation. Therefore, the polycarbophil-based emulgel could be exploited as a potential hydrophobic drug carrier for topical ocular drug delivery.

  7. Generalized massive gravity in arbitrary dimensions and its Hamiltonian formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Qing-Guo; Zhang, Ke-Chao; Zhou, Shuang-Yong E-mail: zkc@itp.ac.cn

    2013-08-01

    We extend the four-dimensional de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity model to a general scalar massive-tensor theory in arbitrary dimensions, coupling a dRGT massive graviton to multiple scalars and allowing for generic kinetic and mass matrix mixing between the massive graviton and the scalars, and derive its Hamiltonian formulation and associated constraint system. When passing to the Hamiltonian formulation, two different sectors arise: a general sector and a special sector. Although obtained via different ways, there are two second class constraints in either of the two sectors, eliminating the BD ghost. However, for the special sector, there are still ghost instabilities except for the case of two dimensions. In particular, for the special sector with one scalar, there is a ''second BD ghost''.

  8. Metaplectic Formulation of the Wigner Transform and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Nuno Costa; de Gosson, Maurice A.; Prata, João Nuno

    2013-11-01

    We show that the cross Wigner function can be written in the form W(ψ , φ ) = \\hat S (ψ ⊗ /line{\\hat φ }) where {\\hat φ } is the Fourier transform of ϕ and \\Scirc is a metaplectic operator that projects onto a linear symplectomorphism S consisting of a rotation along an ellipse in phase space (or in the time-frequency space). This formulation can be extended to generic Weyl symbols and yields an interesting fractional generalization of the Weyl-Wigner formalism. It also provides a suitable approach to study the Bopp phase space representation of quantum mechanics, familiar from deformation quantization. Using the "metaplectic formulation" of the Wigner transform, we construct a complete set of intertwiners relating the Weyl and the Bopp pseudo-differential operators. This is an important result that allows us to prove the spectral and dynamical equivalence of the Schrödinger and the Bopp representations of quantum mechanics.

  9. Canonical formulation and path integral for local vacuum energy sequestering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufalo, R.; KlusoÅ, J.; Oksanen, M.

    2016-08-01

    We establish the Hamiltonian analysis and the canonical path integral for a local formulation of vacuum energy sequestering. In particular, by considering the state of the Universe as a superposition of vacuum states corresponding to different values of the cosmological and gravitational constants, the path integral is extended to include integrations over the cosmological and gravitational constants. The result is an extension of the Ng-van Dam form of the path integral of unimodular gravity. It is argued to imply a relation between the fraction of the most likely values of the gravitational and cosmological constants and the average values of the energy density and pressure of matter over spacetime. Finally, we construct and analyze a Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin-exact formulation of the theory, which can be considered as a topological field theory.

  10. Wave-propagation formulation of seismic response of multistory buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a discrete-time wave-propagation method to calculate the seismic response of multistory buildings, founded on layered soil media and subjected to vertically propagating shear waves. Buildings are modeled as an extension of the layered soil media by considering each story as another layer in the wave-propagation path. The seismic response is expressed in terms of wave travel times between the layers and wave reflection and transmission coefficients at layer interfaces. The method accounts for the filtering effects of the concentrated foundation and floor masses. Compared with commonly used vibration formulation, the wave-propagation formulation provides several advantages, including simplicity, improved accuracy, better representation of damping, the ability to incorporate the soil layers under the foundation, and providing better tools for identification and damage detection from seismic records. Examples are presented to show the versatility and the superiority of the method.

  11. EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR FORMULATION OF CRYSTAL-TOLERANT HLW GLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATYAS J; HUCKLEBERRY AR; VIENNA JD; RODRIGUEZ CA

    2012-03-07

    Historically, high-level waste (HLW) glasses have been formulated with a low liquideus temperature (T{sub L}), or temperature at which the equilibrium fraction of spinel crystals in the melt is below 1 vol % (T{sub 0.01}), nominally below 1050 C. These constraints cannot prevent the accumulation of large spinel crystals in considerably cooler regions ({approx} 850 C) of the glass discharge riser during melter idling and significantly limit the waste loading, which is reflected in a high volume of waste glass, and would result in high capital, production, and disposal costs. A developed empirical model predicts crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass, and thereby provides guidance in formulating crystal-tolerant glasses that would allow high waste loadings by keeping the spinel crystals small and therefore suspended in the glass.

  12. EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR FORMULATION OF CRYSTAL-TOLERANT HLW GLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Huckleberry, Adam R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Vienna, John D.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2012-11-07

    Historically, high-level waste (HLW) glasses have been formulated with a low liquidus temperature (TL), or temperature at which the equilibrium fraction of spinel crystals in the melt is below 1 vol % (T0.01), nominally below 1050°C. These constraints cannot prevent the accumulation of large spinel crystals in considerably cooler regions (~ 850°C) of the glass discharge riser during melter idling and significantly limit the waste loading, which is reflected in a high volume of waste glass, and would result in high capital, production, and disposal costs. A developed empirical model predicts crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass, and thereby provides guidance in formulating crystal-tolerant glasses that would allow high waste loadings by keeping the spinel crystals small and therefore suspended in the glass.

  13. Accuracy considerations for implementing velocity boundary condiditons in vorticity formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Kempka, S.N.; Glass, M.W.; Peery, J.S.; Strickland, J.H.; Ingber, M.S.

    1996-03-01

    A vorticity formulation is described that satisfies the velocity boundary conditions for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Velocity boundary conditions are satisfied by determining the appropriate vortex sheets that must be created on the boundary. Typically, the vortex sheet strengths are determined by solving a set of linear equations that is over-specified. The over-specification arises because an integral constraint on the vortex sheets is imposed. Vortex sheets determined this way do not accurately satisfy both components of the velocity boundary conditions because over-specified systems do not have unique solutions. An integral collocation technique is applied to a generalized Helmholtz decomposition. This formulation implicitly satisfies an integral constraint that is more general that constraints typically used. Improvements in satisfying velocity boundary conditions are shown.

  14. A probabilistic level set formulation for interactive organ segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremers, Daniel; Fluck, Oliver; Rousson, Mikael; Aharon, Shmuel

    2007-03-01

    Level set methods have become increasingly popular as a framework for image segmentation. Yet when used as a generic segmentation tool, they suffer from an important drawback: Current formulations do not allow much user interaction. Upon initialization, boundaries propagate to the final segmentation without the user being able to guide or correct the segmentation. In the present work, we address this limitation by proposing a probabilistic framework for image segmentation which integrates input intensity information and user interaction on equal footings. The resulting algorithm determines the most likely segmentation given the input image and the user input. In order to allow a user interaction in real-time during the segmentation, the algorithm is implemented on a graphics card and in a narrow band formulation.

  15. Formulation and evaluation of mefenamic acid emulgel for topical delivery

    PubMed Central

    Khullar, Rachit; Kumar, Deepinder; Seth, Nimrata; Saini, Seema

    2011-01-01

    Emulgels have emerged as a promising drug delivery system for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs. The objective of the study was to prepare emulgel of mefenamic acid, a NSAID, using Carbapol 940 as a gelling agent. Mentha oil and clove oil were used as penetration enhancers. The emulsion was prepared and it was incorporated in gel base. The formulations were evaluated for rheological studies, spreading coefficient studies, bioadhesion strength, skin irritation studies, in vitro release, ex vivo release studies, anti-inflammatory activity and analgesic activity. Formulation F2 and F4 showed comparable analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity when they compared with marketed diclofenac sodium gel. So, it can be concluded that topical emulgel of mefenamic acid posses an effective anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. PMID:23960777

  16. Alternative ways for formulation of hybrid stress elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, T. H. H.; Chen, D.-P.

    1982-01-01

    An element stiffness matrix can be derived by the conventional potential energy principle and, indirectly, also by generalized variational principles, such as the Hu-Washizu principle and the Hellinger-Reissner principle. The present investigation has the objective to show an approach which is concerned with the formulation of incompatible elements for solid continuum and for plate bending problems by the Hellinger-Reissner principle. It is found that the resulting scheme is equivalent to that considered by Tong (1982) for the construction of hybrid stress elements. In Tong's scheme the inversion of a large flexibility matrix can be avoided. It is concluded that the introduction of additional internal displacement modes in mixed finite element formulations by the Hellinger-Reissner principle and the Hu-Washizu principle can lead to element stiffness matrices which are equivalent to the assumed stress hybrid method.

  17. Source tilting within the difference formulation for radiation transport

    SciTech Connect

    Luu, T; Brooks, E; Szoke, A

    2006-09-27

    We apply a heuristic technique known as 'source tilting' to a Monte Carlo solution for radiation transport, in the difference formulation, that otherwise employs a piecewise-constant treatment of the material temperature. Source tilting improves the accuracy of the piecewise-constant treatment, reducing the excessive energy flow that occurs in the thick limit. An analysis of the cause of excessive energy flow suggests an interpolation scheme that removes this defect, obtaining the correct diffusion limit flux between zones. The results obtained with our interpolation scheme agree almost identically to those of a self-consistent piecewise-linear treatment of the difference formulation while avoiding its additional costs. The resulting method is capable of providing robust and accurate calculations for problems involving optically thick zones. We comment on the monotonicity issues that arise when employing this transport method.

  18. Treatment of anisotropic damage development within a scalar damage formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R.; Munson, D.E.

    1996-11-01

    This paper is concerned with describing a damage mechanics formulation which provides for non-isotropic effects using a scalar damage variable. An investigation has been in progress for establishing the constitutive behavior of rock salt at long times and low to moderate confining pressures in relation to the possible use of excavated rooms in rock salt formations as repositories for nuclear waste. An important consideration is the effect of damage manifested principally by the formation of shear induced wing cracks which have a stress dependent orientation. The analytical formulation utilizes a scalar damage parameter, but is capable of indicating the non- isotropic dependence of inelastic straining on the stress state and the confining pressure. Also, the equations indicate the possibility of volumetric expansions leading to the onset of tertiary creep and eventually rupture if the damage variable reaches a critical value.

  19. Formulation of electrically conductive thermal-control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shai, M. C.

    1978-01-01

    The development and formulation of electrically conductive thermal control coating was undertaken for use on the International Sun Earth Explorer spacecraft. The primary effort was to develop a coating with a bulk resistivity of less than 100,000 ohm/sqm, an optical absorptance of approximately 0.55, and a normal emittance of 0.90. The required stability in space called for a bulk resistivity of less than 100,000 ohm/sq m, an absorptance of less than 0.67, and a normal emittance of 0.90 after exposure to approximately 4 x 10 to the 16th proton/sq cm of solar-wind particles and 5300 equivalent sun-hours. These exposures represent 2 years of ISEE flight conditions. Both the unsuccessful formulation efforts and the successful use of oxide pigments fired at 1448 K are described. Problems relative to the reactivity of specific coating vehicles exposed to high humidity are discussed.

  20. Sensory/mixability preference evaluation of cholestyramine powder formulations.

    PubMed

    Shaefer, M S; Jungnickel, P W; Miwa, L J; Marquis, N R; Hutton, G D

    1990-05-01

    This double-blind, crossover trial compared the sensory and product preparation characteristics of two cholestyramine powder preparations. The study involved 100 healthy volunteers, aged 22-65 (mean 42 years). Questran, a currently marketed product containing sucrose as a sweetener, was compared with Questran Light, a new formulation substituting aspartame for 90 percent of the sucrose. Comparisons were conducted with the two products mixed in water and orange juice. The subjects expressed a significant overall preference for the new formulation mixed in either water (77 percent) or orange juice (80 percent) (p less than 0.01 in both comparisons). Subjects expressed an overwhelming preference for the old product (99 percent) with respect to ease of preparation, although the ratings of the new product were generally neutral rather than negative. The new product is somewhat more difficult to prepare compared with the old cholestyramine preparation, but offers significantly increased patient acceptance based on sensory evaluations.

  1. On a lattice-independent formulation of quantum holonomy theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aastrup, Johannes; Møller Grimstrup, Jesper

    2016-11-01

    Quantum holonomy theory is a candidate for a non-perturbative theory of quantum gravity coupled to fermions. The theory is based on the {{QHD}}(M)-algebra, which essentially encodes how matter degrees of freedom are moved on a three-dimensional manifold. In this paper we commence the development of a lattice-independent formulation. We first introduce a flow-dependent version of the {{QHD}}(M)-algebra and formulate necessary conditions for a state to exist hereon. We then use the GNS construction to build a kinematical Hilbert space. Finally, we find that operators, that correspond to the Dirac and gravitational Hamiltonians in a semi-classical limit, are background independent.

  2. An overview of doxorubicin formulations in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Rivankar, Sangeeta

    2014-01-01

    The burden of cancer is continuously increasing, and is rapidly becoming a global pandemic. The first liposomal encapsulated anticancer drug which received clinical approval against malignancies including solid tumours, transplantable leukemias and lymphomas was Doxorubicin HCl. This review is aimed at providing an overview of doxorubicin in cancer therapy. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin has a polyethylene glycol (PEG) layer around doxorubicin-containing liposome as the result of a process known as pegylation. Non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (NPLD) was developed to overcome the drawbacks associated with previous formulations. Nudoxa; (NPLD) with its unique drug delivery system offers the benefit of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin without hand foot syndrome as the major side effect. Future studies will be directed towards estimating the costs of treatment with the novel liposomal doxorubicin formulations in order to assess their widespread use and robustness in treating patients with cancer.

  3. Inhaled formulations and pulmonary drug delivery systems for respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Leung, Sharon Shui Yee; Tang, Patricia; Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Loh, Zhi Hui; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2015-05-01

    Respiratory infections represent a major global health problem. They are often treated by parenteral administrations of antimicrobials. Unfortunately, systemic therapies of high-dose antimicrobials can lead to severe adverse effects and this calls for a need to develop inhaled formulations that enable targeted drug delivery to the airways with minimal systemic drug exposure. Recent technological advances facilitate the development of inhaled anti-microbial therapies. The newer mesh nebulisers have achieved minimal drug residue, higher aerosolisation efficiencies and rapid administration compared to traditional jet nebulisers. Novel particle engineering and intelligent device design also make dry powder inhalers appealing for the delivery of high-dose antibiotics. In view of the fact that no new antibiotic entities against multi-drug resistant bacteria have come close to commercialisation, advanced formulation strategies are in high demand for combating respiratory 'super bugs'.

  4. Variational formulations of guiding-center Vlasov-Maxwell theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizard, Alain J.; Tronci, Cesare

    2016-06-01

    The variational formulations of guiding-center Vlasov-Maxwell theory based on Lagrange, Euler, and Euler-Poincaré variational principles are presented. Each variational principle yields a different approach to deriving guiding-center polarization and magnetization effects into the guiding-center Maxwell equations. The conservation laws of energy, momentum, and angular momentum are also derived by Noether method, where the guiding-center stress tensor is now shown to be explicitly symmetric.

  5. Optimization of elastic transfersomes formulations for transdermal delivery of pentoxifylline.

    PubMed

    Al Shuwaili, Ahmed H; Rasool, Bazigha K Abdul; Abdulrasool, Alaa A

    2016-05-01

    Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a xanthine derivative indicated in treatment of intermittent claudication and chronic occlusive arterial diseases. It has low oral bioavailability and short half-life; thus, it was considered as a good candidate drug for the transdermal transfersomes formulation. In the present study, an attempt has been made for development, in-vitro and in-vivo evaluation of transdermal transfersomes using sodium cholate (SC) and non-ionic surfactants as edge activators. The optimal formulation, F4(Gcholate), exhibited drug entrapment efficiency of 74.9±1.6%, vesicles elasticity of 145±0.6 (mgs(-1)cm(-2)), zeta potential of -34.9±2.2mV, average vesicle diameter of 0.69±0.049μm with PDI of 0.11±0.037 and permeation flux of 56.28±0.19μgcm(-2)h(-1). It attained a prolonged drug release where 79.1±2.1% of PTX released after 10h of the run. The drug release kinetic obeys Higuchi model (R(2)=0.997) with Fickian diffusion mechanism. Moreover, the formula enhanced drug permeation through the excised rat's skin predominantly via the carrier-mediated mechanism by 9.1 folds in comparison with the control. Results of the in vivo pharmacokinetics study in male volunteers showed that F4(Gcholate) transfersomes formulation increased PTX absorption and prolonged its half-life comparing to the commercial oral SR tablets. Hence, the elastic transfersomes formulation of PTX possesses admirable potential to avoid drug metabolism, improve PTX bioavailability and sustain its release.

  6. Design, formulation, and evaluation of ginger medicated chewing gum

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Rostami, Farnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various ginger compounds improve gastrointestinal problems and motion sickness. The main effects of ginger allocate to some phenolics such as gingerols and shogaols that act as their active agents. Chewing gums are among convenient dosage forms which patients prefer due to their advantages. Hence, this study tried to design, formulate, and evaluate ginger chewing gum of favorable taste and texture to avoid motion sickness and have gastro-protective and anti-oxidant effect. Materials and Methods: Dried ginger rhizomes were percolated to extract ginger compounds. Total phenolics were measured in 70% hydro-alcoholic extract of ginger by gallic and tannic acid standards using Folin–Ciocalteu’s reagent. Chewing gums containing 50 mg of concentrated extract were prepared. Content uniformity, weight variation, release pattern, organoleptic, and mechanical properties were evaluated. Results: Phenolic content was measured 61.50 ± 5.27 mg/g and 76.75 ± 5.45 mg/g of concentrated extract as gallic acid and tannic acid equivalents, respectively. Release pattern of formulations with different gum bases and sweeteners demonstrated almost 100% release of drug. Evaluation of organoleptic properties was on 10 healthy volunteers and later prepared formulations exhibited better characteristics. Formulations without any flavorants have higher acceptability. Evaluation of mechanical properties showed higher stiffness of F15. Conclusion: Ginger chewing gum comprises admissible properties to be used as a modern drug delivery system due to its advantageous results in motion sickness. It passed all the specified tests for an acceptable chewing gum. Thus, it may be successfully produced to help GI problems. PMID:27563640

  7. Flexibility in formulating and processing SYNROC D: a current assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.H.; Ryerson, F.J.; Rozsa, R.B.; Hoenig, C.L.

    1982-03-01

    In a recent series of papers, the authors have addressed the formulation, preparation, characterization and performance testing of SYNROC containing SRP defense wastes. They have also recently published a brief description of the SYNROC process flow sheets and a schematic layout of an associate processing facility. In this brief paper they summarize current data and discuss the implications of: (1) the flexibility of the SYNROC formulation to accommodate unanticipated changes in feed composition; and (2) recent reductions in complexity of the SYNROC process. In regard to formulation, it is important to realize that only four additives (TiO/sub 2/, ZrO/sub 2/, CaO and SiO/sub 2/) are used in the preparation of SYNROC containing SRP defense waste. Further, they have found that components in the waste sludge feed can vary by as much as +- 50% in composition without affecting either the quantity of SYNROC additives needed or the quality of the final product. Their experience shows the SYNROC formulation to be very tolerant of wide variations in feed composition and thus very forgiving of feed stream upsets. The SNROC-D process, at the present state (2 years R and D) is less developed than the more mature (greater than 15 years R and D) borosilicate glass process. This is expected. SYNROC is a new waste form and nearly all research has been directed toward lab synthesis and testing of the product. However, over the past year, the authors have undertaken an engineering research effort that has reduced the number of major process unit operations from six to three and increased our production capacity 50 fold. The major advances have been in: (1) simplifying the mixing and blending of additives with waste; and (2) combining and simplifying drying, calcination and redox-control operations. We expect further significant reductions in the number, size and complexity of the SYNROC process steps as engineering R and D continues.

  8. Formulation and optimization of orodispersible tablets of flutamide

    PubMed Central

    Elkhodairy, Kadria A.; Hassan, Maha A.; Afifi, Samar A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to formulate orodispersible tablets of flutamide (FTM) to increase its bioavailability. Orodispersible tablets were prepared by direct compression technique using three different approaches namely; super-disintegration, effervescence and sublimation. Different combined approaches were proposed and evaluated to optimize tablet characteristics. Sodium starch glycolate (SSG) was used as the superdisintegrant. The prepared powder mixtures were subjected to both pre and post compression evaluation parameters including; IR spectroscopy, micromeritics properties, tablet hardness, friability, wetting time, disintegration time and in-vitro drug release. IR studies indicated that there was no interaction between the drug and the excipients used except Ludipress. The results of micromeritics studies revealed that all formulations were of acceptable to good flowability. Tablet hardness and friability indicated good mechanical strength. Wetting and dispersion times decreased from 46 to 38 s by increasing the SSG concentration from 3.33 to 6.66% w/w in tablets prepared by superdisintegration method. The F8 formulation which was prepared by combined approaches of effervescence and superdisintegrant addition gave promising results for tablet disintegration and wetting times but failed to give faster dissolution rate. The incorporation of 1:5 solid dispersion of FTM: PEG 6000 instead of the pure drug in the same formulation increased the drug release rate from 73.12 to 96.99% after 15 min. This increase in the dissolution rate may be due to the amorphization of the drug during the solid dispersion preparation. The presence of the amorphous form of the drug was shown in the IR spectra. PMID:24493974

  9. Scattering in the Euclidean formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyzou, Wayne

    2013-10-01

    Euclidean relativistic quantum mechanics is a formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics based on the Osterwalder-Schrader reconstruction theorem that exploits the logical independence of locality from the rest of the axioms of Euclidean field theory. I discuss the properties of Euclidean Green functions necessary for the existence of Møller wave operators and the construction of these wave operators in this formalism. Supported by the US Department of Energy, Grant - DE-AC02-81ER40038.

  10. Update on contraception: benefits and risks of the new formulations.

    PubMed

    Batur, Pelin; Elder, Julie; Mayer, Mark

    2003-08-01

    Several new contraceptives have become available to women in recent years. These new agents include ultra-low-dose oral contraceptives as well as injectable, vaginal, and patch formulations. We review these, with emphasis on the Yasmin pill (which contains a new progestin), the Lunelle once-a-month injection, the Ortho Evra patch, the NuvaRing vaginal ring, the Mirena intrauterine device, and emergency contraceptive kits. Patient education regarding these options is essential for patient compliance and satisfaction.

  11. Didactical formulation of the Ampère law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchiesi, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    The Ampère law is useful to calculate the magnetostatic field in the cases of distributions of current with high degree of symmetry. Nevertheless the magnetic field produced by a thin straight wire carrying a current I requires the Biot-Savart law and the use of the Ampère law leads to a mistake. A didactical formulation of the Ampère law is proposed to prevent misinterpretations.

  12. Formulation of equations of motion for complex spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, T. R.; Levinson, D. A.

    1980-04-01

    Seven methods of the formulation of motion equations for complex spacecraft are discussed: (1) the use of momentum principles, (2) D'Alembert principle, (3) Lagrange equations, (4) Hamilton's canonical equations, (5) the Boltzmann-Hamel equations, (6) the Gibbs equations, and (7) a method introduced by Kane and Wang in 1965. It is shown that the last method considered leads most directly to the simplest equations.

  13. Project Integration Architecture: Formulation of Dimensionality in Semantic Parameters Outline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    One of several key elements of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) is the formulation of parameter objects which convey meaningful semantic information. The infusion of measurement dimensionality into such objects is an important part of that effort since it promises to automate the conversion of units between cooperating applications and, thereby, eliminate the mistakes that have occasionally beset other systems of information transport. This paper discusses the conceptualization of dimensionality developed as a result of that effort.

  14. Analytical formulation of the quantum electromagnetic cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandsema, Matthew J.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Lanzagorta, Marco

    2016-05-01

    It has been found that the quantum radar cross section (QRCS) equation can be written in terms of the Fourier transform of the surface atom distribution of the object. This paper uses this form to provide an analytical formulation of the quantum radar cross section by deriving closed form expressions for various geometries. These expressions are compared to the classical radar cross section (RCS) expressions and the quantum advantages are discerned from the differences in the equations. Multiphoton illumination is also briefly discussed.

  15. Optimization of elastic transfersomes formulations for transdermal delivery of pentoxifylline.

    PubMed

    Al Shuwaili, Ahmed H; Rasool, Bazigha K Abdul; Abdulrasool, Alaa A

    2016-05-01

    Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a xanthine derivative indicated in treatment of intermittent claudication and chronic occlusive arterial diseases. It has low oral bioavailability and short half-life; thus, it was considered as a good candidate drug for the transdermal transfersomes formulation. In the present study, an attempt has been made for development, in-vitro and in-vivo evaluation of transdermal transfersomes using sodium cholate (SC) and non-ionic surfactants as edge activators. The optimal formulation, F4(Gcholate), exhibited drug entrapment efficiency of 74.9±1.6%, vesicles elasticity of 145±0.6 (mgs(-1)cm(-2)), zeta potential of -34.9±2.2mV, average vesicle diameter of 0.69±0.049μm with PDI of 0.11±0.037 and permeation flux of 56.28±0.19μgcm(-2)h(-1). It attained a prolonged drug release where 79.1±2.1% of PTX released after 10h of the run. The drug release kinetic obeys Higuchi model (R(2)=0.997) with Fickian diffusion mechanism. Moreover, the formula enhanced drug permeation through the excised rat's skin predominantly via the carrier-mediated mechanism by 9.1 folds in comparison with the control. Results of the in vivo pharmacokinetics study in male volunteers showed that F4(Gcholate) transfersomes formulation increased PTX absorption and prolonged its half-life comparing to the commercial oral SR tablets. Hence, the elastic transfersomes formulation of PTX possesses admirable potential to avoid drug metabolism, improve PTX bioavailability and sustain its release. PMID:26925505

  16. Variational formulation of high performance finite elements: Parametrized variational principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos A.; Militello, Carmello

    1991-01-01

    High performance elements are simple finite elements constructed to deliver engineering accuracy with coarse arbitrary grids. This is part of a series on the variational basis of high-performance elements, with emphasis on those constructed with the free formulation (FF) and assumed natural strain (ANS) methods. Parametrized variational principles that provide a foundation for the FF and ANS methods, as well as for a combination of both are presented.

  17. ADE-FDTD Scattered-Field Formulation for Dispersive Materials.

    PubMed

    Kong, Soon-Cheol; Simpson, Jamesina J; Backman, Vadim

    2008-01-01

    This Letter presents a scattered-field formulation for modeling dispersive media using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Specifically, the auxiliary differential equation method is applied to Drude and Lorentz media for a scattered field FDTD model. The present technique can also be applied in a straightforward manner to Debye media. Excellent agreement is achieved between the FDTD-calculated and exact theoretical results for the reflection coefficient in half-space problems.

  18. A formulation of the foundations of genetics and evolution.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Brian Edward

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a formulation of theories of the foundations of genetics and evolution that can be used to mathematically simulate phenotype expression, reproduction, mutation, and natural selection. It will be shown that Mendelian inheritance can be mathematically simulated with expressions involving matrices and that these expressions can also simulate phenomena that are modifications to Mendel's basic principles, like alleles that give rise to quantitative effects and traits that are the expression of multiple alleles and/or multiple genetic loci. PMID:26947775

  19. A rational approach to formulating public policy on substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Trunkey, Donald D; Bonnono, Carol

    2005-09-01

    Unlike alcohol, which is legal and regulated, current public policy makes drugs such as heroin, cocaine, methamphetamines, and marijuana illegal. This article summarizes the history of drug and alcohol use in the United States, compares our public policies on alcohol to those on drugs, and shows the direct link between alcohol or drug use and crime, corruption, violence, and health problems in other countries and in our own. A rational approach to formulating a workable public policy is presented.

  20. Inkjet printing as a novel medicine formulation technique.

    PubMed

    Scoutaris, Nikolaos; Alexander, Morgan R; Gellert, Paul R; Roberts, Clive J

    2011-12-10

    We demonstrate the viability of using an ink-jet printer to produce a formulation capable of controlling the release of a drug. This is shown for the drug felodipine, an antihypertensive, with polyvinyl pirrolidone (PVP) as an excipient. As felodipine is a poorly water soluble drug, its molecular dispersion in a soluble polymer (ie. PVP) is a commonly used approach to improve bioavailability. Various ratios of felodipine and PVP in an ethanol-DMSO mixture (95/5) were dispensed in picoliter quantities using a piezoelectric 'ink-jet' head onto a hydrophobic substrate. The resultant formulation spots were characterized using atomic force microscopy, localized nano-thermal analysis, ATR-IR and imaging confocal Raman spectroscopy. Intimate mixing of the felodipine and PVP within the micro-dots was observed. ATR-IR confirmed the known molecular level interaction of felodipine and PVP through hydrogen bonding. Nanothermal analysis indicated a single glass transition point, indicative of an intimate polymer drug mixture, which is lowered as the drug concentration increases. Confocal Raman microscopy mapping on single micro-scale droplets allowed the visualization of the drug distribution in the spots as well as facilitating characterization of the release of the drug. The drug release can be altered through control of the drug loading. As inkjet printing is an inherently scalable technology, this proof of principal work with single deposited micro-spot formulations demonstrates the potential of this approach to print practical dosage forms (e.g. as an array of many thousands of spots with different release profiles). This, for example, raises the possibility in the future of producing dosage forms at points of care with one or more drugs which have been formulated for the needs of individual patients.

  1. Acceptability of different oral formulations in infants and preschool children

    PubMed Central

    van Riet-Nales, Diana A; de Neef, Barbara J; Schobben, Alfred F A M; Ferreira, José A; Egberts, Toine C G; Rademaker, Catharine M A

    2013-01-01

    Objective Liquid medicines are easy to swallow. However, they may have disadvantages, such as a bad taste or refrigerated storage conditions. These disadvantages may be avoided by the use of oral solid medicines, such as powders or tablets. The aim of this study was to investigate the acceptability of and preference among four oral formulations in domiciliary infants and preschool children in The Netherlands. Methods Parents administered four oral placebo dosage forms that were aimed at a neutral taste, at home, to their child (1–4 years of age) twice on one day following a randomised cross-over design: small (4 mm) tablet, powder, suspension and syrup. They were asked to report the child's acceptability by a score on a 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS score) and by the result of the intake. At the end of the study, they were asked to report the preference of the child and themselves. Results 183 children were included and 148 children were evaluated. The data revealed a period/cross-over effect. The estimate of the mean VAS score was significantly higher for the tablet than for the suspension (tablet 9.39/9.01; powder 8.84/8.20, suspension 8.26/7.90, syrup 8.35/8.19; data day 1/all days). The estimate of the mean number of intakes fully swallowed was significantly higher for the tablet than for the other formulations (all p values <0.05). Children and parents preferred the tablet and syrup over the suspension and the suspension over the powder (all p values <0.05). Conclusions All formulations were well accepted. The tablets were the best accepted formulation; the tablets and syrup the most preferred. Trial Registration number ISRCTN63138435. PMID:23853004

  2. Electron beam crosslinking of non-lead PVC formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda Facio, A.; Benavides, R.; Martínez Pardo, M. E.; Uribe, R.

    2007-11-01

    PVC samples with lead-free and lead-base stabilizer, containing TMPTMA (trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate) as a crosslinker and DOP (2-ethylhexyl phthalate) as a plasticizer, were electron beam treated at different doses (2-200 kGy) and characterized to evaluate crosslinking and other several properties, as a continuation of our previously reported paper, where these PVC formulations, typical for wire and cable applications, underwent gamma irradiation. The PVC was formulated with two different stabilizing systems: Ca/Zn and dibasic lead phthalate for comparison, to use them as jackets for a 22 wire gage (AWG). Small samples of the jacketed wires were irradiated in an industrial Dynamitron electron accelerator for the corresponding doses, along with two dosimetric systems: radiochromic thin film and alanine pellets dosimeters. The maximum dose applied was decided as the crosslinking increased, until the gel content was stable. The dose of 200 kGy was the condition for the highest crosslinking, so most of the wire was irradiated at such dose. Chemical and mechanical evaluations were carried out to the irradiated wire. The results show that 200 kGy was too high dose for the materials, since an important degradation is observed for the Ca/Zn systems. Unfortunately, such dose affects basically to CaZn formulations, which showed much poorer performance than classical lead-containing compositions. The results also indicate that gel content is not the best way of deciding the optimum condition for irradiation.

  3. Formulation and Evaluation of Nanocrystals of a Lipid Lowering Agent

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Dina

    2016-01-01

    Atorvastatin calcium, the lipid lowering agent, is taken as a model drug characterized by poor water solubility and bioavailability. In this study an attempt was made for preparation of nanocrystals using high pressure homogenization. A number of stabilizers were included as well as polymers at different concentrations, and the formulations were homogenized for ten cycles at a pressure of 1000 bars. The obtained nano crystals were evaluated by determining their size, zeta potential, saturated solubility and dissolution rate. Results revealed that Formulation 3, containing (10: 1) drug to sodium lauryl sulphate ratio, possessed the highest saturated solubility and dissolution rate, and hence was analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourrier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. An in-vivo study was carried out on the successful formulation in comparison to drug powder using rats as experimental animals. A significant increase in the area under the concentration-time curve Cpmax and MRT for nanocrystals was observed in comparison to the untreated atorvastatin calcium. PMID:27610148

  4. Luster measurements of lips treated with lipstick formulations.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Santosh; Issa, Nevine; Streuli, David; McMullen, Roger; Fares, Hani

    2011-01-01

    In this study, digital photography in combination with image analysis was used to measure the luster of several lipstick formulations containing varying amounts and types of polymers. A weighed amount of lipstick was applied to a mannequin's lips and the mannequin was illuminated by a uniform beam of a white light source. Digital images of the mannequin were captured with a high-resolution camera and the images were analyzed using image analysis software. Luster analysis was performed using Stamm (L(Stamm)) and Reich-Robbins (L(R-R)) luster parameters. Statistical analysis was performed on each luster parameter (L(Stamm) and L(R-R)), peak height, and peak width. Peak heights for lipstick formulation containing 11% and 5% VP/eicosene copolymer were statistically different from those of the control. The L(Stamm) and L(R-R) parameters for the treatment containing 11% VP/eicosene copolymer were statistically different from these of the control. Based on the results obtained in this study, we are able to determine whether a polymer is a good pigment dispersant and contributes to visually detected shine of a lipstick upon application. The methodology presented in this paper could serve as a tool for investigators to screen their ingredients for shine in lipstick formulations.

  5. Development of an Anti-Atherosclerotic Polyherbal Formulation: GSTC3.

    PubMed

    Manalil, Jeksy J; Baby, Merin; Ramavarma, Smitha K; Suseela, Indu M; Padikkala, Jose; Raghavamenon, Achuthan

    2015-01-01

    A polyherbal formulation consisting of different proportions of Commiphora mukul (Hook ex Stocks) Eng., Salacia reticulata Wight, Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight & Arn, and Curcuma longa Linn extracts was tested for free-radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidative effects on serum and platelets in vitro. The most active formulation (GSTC3) was evaluated for its hypolipidemic potential on a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet (HFD) fed to male Wistar rats for a period of 45 days. At a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, GSTC3 decreased serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), triglycerides, and phospholipids similar to standard atorvastatin while maintaining high-density lipoprotein (HDL) at normal levels. Significantly lower levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were observed in both the liver and sera of rats treated with GSTC3. Although the phospholipid levels in liver remained unchanged, lower values of LDL, VLDL, and atherogenic index of plasma as well as higher HMG-CoA/ mevalonate ratios suggested a significant hypolipidemic effect for GSTC3, possibly by partial inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity. The histopathological analysis of liver tissue did not reveal lipid accumulation or indicate tissue damage. Overall, the results of this study suggest the hypolipidemic and anti-atherogenic efficacy of a nontoxic herbal formulation. PMID:26349606

  6. Black hole critical behavior with the generalized BSSN formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarian, Arman; Choptuik, Matthew W.

    2015-10-01

    The development of hyperbolic formulations of Einstein's equations has revolutionized our ability to perform long-time, stable, accurate numerical simulations of strong field gravitational phenomena. However, hyperbolic methods have seen relatively little application in one area of interest, type II critical collapse, where the challenges for a numerical code are particularly severe. Using the critical collapse of a massless scalar field in spherical symmetry as a test case, we study a generalization of the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation due to Brown that is suited for use with curvilinear coordinates. We adopt standard dynamical gauge choices, including 1+log slicing and a shift that is either zero or evolved by a Gamma-driver condition. With both choices of shift we are able to evolve sufficiently close to the black hole threshold to (1) unambiguously identify the discrete self-similarity of the critical solution, (2) determine an echoing exponent consistent with previous calculations, and (3) measure a mass scaling exponent, also in accord with prior computations. Our results can be viewed as an encouraging first step towards the use of hyperbolic formulations in more generic type II scenarios, including the as yet unresolved problem of critical collapse of axisymmetric gravitational waves.

  7. Formulation and Evaluation of Nanocrystals of a Lipid Lowering Agent.

    PubMed

    Louis, Dina

    2016-01-01

    Atorvastatin calcium, the lipid lowering agent, is taken as a model drug characterized by poor water solubility and bioavailability. In this study an attempt was made for preparation of nanocrystals using high pressure homogenization. A number of stabilizers were included as well as polymers at different concentrations, and the formulations were homogenized for ten cycles at a pressure of 1000 bars. The obtained nano crystals were evaluated by determining their size, zeta potential, saturated solubility and dissolution rate. Results revealed that Formulation 3, containing (10: 1) drug to sodium lauryl sulphate ratio, possessed the highest saturated solubility and dissolution rate, and hence was analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourrier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. An in-vivo study was carried out on the successful formulation in comparison to drug powder using rats as experimental animals. A significant increase in the area under the concentration-time curve Cpmax and MRT for nanocrystals was observed in comparison to the untreated atorvastatin calcium.

  8. High Resolution Mass Spectrometry of Polyfluorinated Polyether-Based Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimzon, Ian Ken; Trier, Xenia; Frömel, Tobias; Helmus, Rick; Knepper, Thomas P.; de Voogt, Pim

    2016-02-01

    High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was successfully applied to elucidate the structure of a polyfluorinated polyether (PFPE)-based formulation. The mass spectrum generated from direct injection into the MS was examined by identifying the different repeating units manually and with the aid of an instrument data processor. Highly accurate mass spectral data enabled the calculation of higher-order mass defects. The different plots of MW and the nth-order mass defects (up to n = 3) could aid in assessing the structure of the different repeating units and estimating their absolute and relative number per molecule. The three major repeating units were -C2H4O-, -C2F4O-, and -CF2O-. Tandem MS was used to identify the end groups that appeared to be phosphates, as well as the possible distribution of the repeating units. Reversed-phase HPLC separated of the polymer molecules on the basis of number of nonpolar repeating units. The elucidated structure resembles the structure in the published manufacturer technical data. This analytical approach to the characterization of a PFPE-based formulation can serve as a guide in analyzing not just other PFPE-based formulations but also other fluorinated and non-fluorinated polymers. The information from MS is essential in studying the physico-chemical properties of PFPEs and can help in assessing the risks they pose to the environment and to human health.

  9. Reformulating Suicide Risk Formulation: From Prediction to Prevention.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Anthony R; Murrie, Daniel C; Silverman, Morton M

    2016-08-01

    Psychiatrists-in-training typically learn that assessments of suicide risk should culminate in a probability judgment expressed as "low," "moderate," or "high." This way of formulating risk has predominated in psychiatric education and practice, despite little evidence for its validity, reliability, or utility. We present a model for teaching and communicating suicide risk assessments without categorical predictions. Instead, we propose risk formulations which synthesize data into four distinct judgments to directly inform intervention plans: (1) risk status (the patient's risk relative to a specified subpopulation), (2) risk state (the patient's risk compared to baseline or other specified time points), (3) available resources from which the patient can draw in crisis, and (4) foreseeable changes that may exacerbate risk. An example case illustrates the conceptual shift from a predictive to a preventive formulation, and we outline steps taken to implement the model in an academic psychiatry setting. Our goal is to inform educational leaders, as well as individual educators, who can together cast a prevention-oriented vision in their academic programs. PMID:26667005

  10. Robust Optimization of Alginate-Carbopol 940 Bead Formulations

    PubMed Central

    López-Cacho, J. M.; González-R, Pedro L.; Talero, B.; Rabasco, A. M.; González-Rodríguez, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    Formulation process is a very complex activity which sometimes implicates taking decisions about parameters or variables to obtain the best results in a high variability or uncertainty context. Therefore, robust optimization tools can be very useful for obtaining high quality formulations. This paper proposes the optimization of different responses through the robust Taguchi method. Each response was evaluated like a noise variable, allowing the application of Taguchi techniques to obtain a response under the point of view of the signal to noise ratio. A L18 Taguchi orthogonal array design was employed to investigate the effect of eight independent variables involved in the formulation of alginate-Carbopol beads. Responses evaluated were related to drug release profile from beads (t50% and AUC), swelling performance, encapsulation efficiency, shape and size parameters. Confirmation tests to verify the prediction model were carried out and the obtained results were very similar to those predicted in every profile. Results reveal that the robust optimization is a very useful approach that allows greater precision and accuracy to the desired value. PMID:22645438

  11. Dissolution and pharmacokinetics of a novel micronized aspirin formulation.

    PubMed

    Voelker, M; Hammer, M

    2012-08-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) has been used as an analgesic, antipyretic and antiinflammatory drug for many years. A new 500 mg aspirin tablet formulation containing micronized active ingredient and an effervescent component has been developed for potential improvement in the onset of action for acute pain treatment. This paper describes the dissolution and the pharmacokinetics of the new formulation in comparison with regular aspirin tablets, aspirin granules and aspirin effervescent tablets. Micronized aspirin tablets dissolve significantly faster over a pH range from 1.2 to 6.8 compared to regular 500 mg aspirin tablets. Plasma concentration time curve comparison to regular 500 mg aspirin tablets showed a substantial improvement in the time to maximum plasma concentrations (T(max)) (ASA 17.5 min vs. 45 min) and an increase in maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) (ASA 13.8 μg/ml vs. 4.4 μg/ml) while the overall extent of exposure (AUC) remains almost unchanged. The data suggest a potential improvement for onset of action in treating acute pain with the new micronized aspirin formulation.

  12. Staining and antimicrobial properties in vitro of some chlorhexidine formulations.

    PubMed

    Addy, M; Wade, W; Goodfield, S

    1991-01-01

    Dietary staining studies have proved useful determinants of chlorhixidine activity in mouthrinse products, and results correlate with plaque inhibitory effects. This investigation compared the staining and antimicrobial action in vitro of two known and similarly effective, commercially available chlorhexidine mouthrinses with a reformulated 0.1% chlordexidine preparation. After adjustment for original concentration the 0.2%, 0.12% and reformulated 0.1% products had essentially similar, minimum inhibitory-dilution values against standard test organisms. The 0.1% preparation was more effective against Capnocytophaga ochracea, suggesting additional antimicrobial activity derived from an ingredient other than chlorhexidine. The staining in vitro of tooth and acrylic specimens was equivalent with the 0.2% and 0.12% products. By comparison with equivalent concentrations of the diluted 0.2% preparation, the 0.1% formulation produced less staining, particularly when diluted. The data suggest that the 0.1% formulation, when used in diluted form as recommended by the manufacturer, may have slightly reduced plaque-inhibitory effects by comparison to the 0.2% or 0.12% products. However, the results raise the question whether chlorhexidine solutions could be formulated to reduce side effects, in particular, tooth staining at the expense of some loss of antiplaque activity. PMID:1860282

  13. Luster measurements of lips treated with lipstick formulations.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Santosh; Issa, Nevine; Streuli, David; McMullen, Roger; Fares, Hani

    2011-01-01

    In this study, digital photography in combination with image analysis was used to measure the luster of several lipstick formulations containing varying amounts and types of polymers. A weighed amount of lipstick was applied to a mannequin's lips and the mannequin was illuminated by a uniform beam of a white light source. Digital images of the mannequin were captured with a high-resolution camera and the images were analyzed using image analysis software. Luster analysis was performed using Stamm (L(Stamm)) and Reich-Robbins (L(R-R)) luster parameters. Statistical analysis was performed on each luster parameter (L(Stamm) and L(R-R)), peak height, and peak width. Peak heights for lipstick formulation containing 11% and 5% VP/eicosene copolymer were statistically different from those of the control. The L(Stamm) and L(R-R) parameters for the treatment containing 11% VP/eicosene copolymer were statistically different from these of the control. Based on the results obtained in this study, we are able to determine whether a polymer is a good pigment dispersant and contributes to visually detected shine of a lipstick upon application. The methodology presented in this paper could serve as a tool for investigators to screen their ingredients for shine in lipstick formulations. PMID:21839034

  14. Formulation and Mechanical Properties of LLM-105 PBXs

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D M; Lorenz, K T; Cunningham, B; Gagliardi, F

    2008-04-03

    Eight different polymer binders were formulated with bimodal distributions of 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (LLM-105) in 5/95 weight ratio of polymer to explosive at the 25 gram level. The polymers evaluated included: Kel-F 800, Viton A, Oxy 461, Cytop A, Hyflon AD 60, Hytemp 5545, Technoflon PFR 91 and Technoflon P 459. LLM-105 had an average particle size of 35.6 {+-} 0.6 {micro}m. This material was ground in a ball mill for 24 h to achieve a particle size of 0.72 {+-} 0.02 {micro}m. Small angle light scattering measurements were used to obtain particle size distributions on both ground and unground LLM-105. Optical microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of the crystals. Bimodal mixes of approximately 75/25% coarse to fine LLM-105 were used in all formulations. Cylinders 1.27 cm diameter by 2.54 cm long were compression molded using 3 three-minute cycles at 105 C, except in the case of Cytop and Hyflon formulations which were molded at {approx}130 C. Densities varied between 94-98% of theoretical maximum. Stress strain measurements were made in compression at -30, ambient and 74 C at a strain rate of 0.0001 sec{sup -1}. As expected, the mechanical strength scaled with temperature depending on the glass transition temperature of the polymer.

  15. Synthesis of Entrainment and Detrainment formulations for Convection Parameterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebesma, P.

    2015-12-01

    Mixing between convective clouds and its environment, usually parameterized in terms of entrainment and detrainment, are among the most important processes that determine the strength of the climate model sensitivity. This notion has led to a renaissance of research in exploring the mechanisms of these mixing processes and, as a result, to a wide range of seemingly different parameterized formulations. In this study we are aiming to synthesize these results as to offer a solid framework for use in parameterized formulations of convection. Detailed LES analyses in which clouds are subsampled according to their size show that entrainment rates are inversely proportional to the typical cloud radius, in accordance with original entraining plume models. These results can be shown analytically to be consistent with entrainment rate formulations of cloud ensembles that decrease inversely proportional with height, by making only mild assumptions on the shape of the associated cloud size distribution. In addition there are additional dependencies of the entrainment rates on the environmental thermodynamics such as the relative humidity and stability but these are of second order. In contrast detrainment rates do depend to first order on the environmental thermodynamics such as relative humidity and stability. This can be understood by realizing that i) the details of the cloud size distribution do depend on these environmental factors and ii) that detrainment rates have a much stronger dependency on the shape of the cloud size distribution than entrainment rates.

  16. A thermodynamically consistent discontinuous Galerkin formulation for interface separation

    DOE PAGES

    Versino, Daniele; Mourad, Hashem M.; Dávila, Carlos G.; Addessio, Francis L.

    2015-07-31

    Our paper describes the formulation of an interface damage model, based on the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method, for the simulation of failure and crack propagation in laminated structures. The DG formulation avoids common difficulties associated with cohesive elements. Specifically, it does not introduce any artificial interfacial compliance and, in explicit dynamic analysis, it leads to a stable time increment size which is unaffected by the presence of stiff massless interfaces. This proposed method is implemented in a finite element setting. Convergence and accuracy are demonstrated in Mode I and mixed-mode delamination in both static and dynamic analyses. Significantly, numerical resultsmore » obtained using the proposed interface model are found to be independent of the value of the penalty factor that characterizes the DG formulation. By contrast, numerical results obtained using a classical cohesive method are found to be dependent on the cohesive penalty stiffnesses. The proposed approach is shown to yield more accurate predictions pertaining to crack propagation under mixed-mode fracture because of the advantage. Furthermore, in explicit dynamic analysis, the stable time increment size calculated with the proposed method is found to be an order of magnitude larger than the maximum allowable value for classical cohesive elements.« less

  17. Problem formulation, metrics, open government, and on-line collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, C. R.; Schofield, K.; Young, S.; Shaw, D.

    2010-12-01

    Problem formulation leading to effective environmental management, including synthesis and application of science by government agencies, may benefit from collaborative on-line environments. This is illustrated by two interconnected projects: 1) literature-based evidence tools that support causal assessment and problem formulation, and 2) development of output, outcome, and sustainability metrics for tracking environmental conditions. Specifically, peer-production mechanisms allow for global contribution to science-based causal evidence databases, and subsequent crowd-sourced development of causal networks supported by that evidence. In turn, science-based causal networks may inform problem formulation and selection of metrics or indicators to track environmental condition (or problem status). Selecting and developing metrics in a collaborative on-line environment may improve stakeholder buy-in, the explicit relevance of metrics to planning, and the ability to approach problem apportionment or accountability, and to define success or sustainability. Challenges include contribution governance, data-sharing incentives, linking on-line interfaces to data service providers, and the intersection of environmental science and social science. Degree of framework access and confidentiality may vary by group and/or individual, but may ultimately be geared at demonstrating connections between science and decision making and supporting a culture of open government, by fostering transparency, public engagement, and collaboration.

  18. Dissolution and pharmacokinetics of a novel micronized aspirin formulation.

    PubMed

    Voelker, M; Hammer, M

    2012-08-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) has been used as an analgesic, antipyretic and antiinflammatory drug for many years. A new 500 mg aspirin tablet formulation containing micronized active ingredient and an effervescent component has been developed for potential improvement in the onset of action for acute pain treatment. This paper describes the dissolution and the pharmacokinetics of the new formulation in comparison with regular aspirin tablets, aspirin granules and aspirin effervescent tablets. Micronized aspirin tablets dissolve significantly faster over a pH range from 1.2 to 6.8 compared to regular 500 mg aspirin tablets. Plasma concentration time curve comparison to regular 500 mg aspirin tablets showed a substantial improvement in the time to maximum plasma concentrations (T(max)) (ASA 17.5 min vs. 45 min) and an increase in maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) (ASA 13.8 μg/ml vs. 4.4 μg/ml) while the overall extent of exposure (AUC) remains almost unchanged. The data suggest a potential improvement for onset of action in treating acute pain with the new micronized aspirin formulation. PMID:22057729

  19. Key Formulation Variables in Tableting of Coated Pellets

    PubMed Central

    Murthy Dwibhashyam, V. S. N.; Ratna, J. Vijaya

    2008-01-01

    Multiple unit controlled release dosage forms offer various advantages over their single unit counterparts. Most of these advantages are associated with the uniform distribution of multiparticulates throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Though coated pellets can be filled into hard gelatin capsules, tablet formulation is the preferred one because of various advantages associated with it. However, compression of coated pellets is a challenging task necessitating the optimization of various formulation and process variables. The key formulation variables include composition, porosity, size, shape and density of the pellets; type and amount of polymer coating; nature, size and amount of tableting excipients. The pellet core should be strong with some degree of plasticity. It should be highly porous, small, with an irregular shape. The critical density to achieve prolonged release was reported to lie between 2.4 and 2.8 g/cm3. Acrylic polymer films are more flexible and more suitable for the coating of pellets to be compressed into tablets. Thicker coatings offer better resistance to frictional forces. Solvent based coatings are more flexible and have a higher degree of mechanical stability than the aqueous based ones. The tableting excipients should have cushioning property. They should not be significantly different in size and density from those of the pellet cores in order to avoid segregation. Addition of 30%-60% of tableting excipients is necessary to avoid any damage to the polymer coat and to retain its functional property. PMID:21394249

  20. Formulation of ketotifen fumarate fast-melt granulation sublingual tablet.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Saadia A; Soliman, Iman I; Louis, Dina

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare sublingual tablets, containing the antiasthmatic drug ketotifen fumarate which suffers an extensive first-pass effect, using the fast-melt granulation technique. The powder mixtures containing the drug were agglomerated using a blend of polyethylene glycol 400 and 6000 as meltable hydrophilic binders. Granular mannitol or granular mannitol/sucrose mixture were used as fillers. A mechanical mixer was used to prepare the granules at 40 degrees C. The method involved no water or organic solvents, which are used in conventional granulation, and hence no drying step was included, which saved time. Twelve formulations were prepared and characterized using official and non official tests. Three formulations showed the best results and were subjected to an ex vivo permeation study using excised chicken cheek pouches. The formulation F4I possessed the highest permeation coefficient due to the presence of the permeation enhancer (polyethylene glycol) in an amount which allowed maximum drug permeation, and was subjected to a pharmacokinetic study using rabbits as an animal model. The bioavailability of F4I was significantly higher than that of a commercially available dosage form (Zaditen solution-Novartis Pharma-Egypt) (p > 0.05). Thus, fast-melt granulation allowed for rapid tablet disintegration and an enhanced permeation of the drug through the sublingual mucosa, resulting in increased bioavailabililty. PMID:20407934

  1. Avoidance behavior of ruffe exposed to selected formulations of piscicides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Verdel K.; Bills, Terry D.; Boogaard, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Ruffe were introduced into Duluth Harbor, Minnesota in the early 1980s, probably by release of ballast water from sea-going freighters. Since then, it has become the most abundant species in the fish community. The sensitivity of ruffe to a number of piscicides has been demonstrated, however, the feasibility of using piscicides to control populations depends on whether ruffe cart detect piscicides and move to untreated water, We used a two-choice preference resting system to evaluate avoidance or attraction reactions of ruffe during exposures to the lampricides TFM and bayluscide and the general fish toxicants rotenone and antimycin. We used a second testing system to evaluate the potential for benthic ruffe to move vertically in the water column to avoid piscicides dissolving from experimental bottom-release formulations of bayluscide and antimycin. Near-lethal concentrations of TFM and rotenone tended to repel ruffe. Antimycin and bayluscide did not seem to repel ruffe in the avoidance chamber, but bottom-release formulations (antimycin granules-0.25% a.i. And bayluscide granules-3.2% a.i.) did cause increased swimming and surfacing activity among ruffe in column tests. We conclude that TFM and rotenone could be used to trent entire bodies of water, while bottom-release formulations of antimycin and bayluscide may have more application for treating localized concentrations of ruffe.

  2. Skin permeation of lidocaine from crystal suspended oily formulations.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Rakan; Hasegawa, Masaaki; Ishida, Masami; Ebata, Toshiya; Namiki, Noriyuki; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2005-09-01

    In vitro permeation of lidocaine (lidocaine base, LID) through excised rat skin was investigated using several LID-suspended oily formulations. The first skin permeation of LID from an LID-suspended oily solution such as liquid paraffin (LP), isopropyl myristate (IPM), polyoxyethylene (2) oleylether (BO-2), and diethyl sebacate (DES) was evaluated and compared with that from polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) solution, a hydrophilic base. The obtained permeation rate of LID, Japp, from PEG400, LP, IPM, BO-2, and DES was in the order of DES>BO-2=IPM>LP>PEG400, and increased with LID solubility in the oily solvents, although LID crystals were dispersed in all solvents. Subsequently, oily formulations that consisted of different ratios of the first oily solvent (IPM, BO-2, or DES) (each 0-20%), the second oily solvent (LP) and an oily mixture of microcrystalline wax/white petrolatum/paraffin (1/5/4) were evaluated. BO-2 groups at a concentration of 5% and 10% had the highest Japp among the oily formulations, although a higher BO-2 resulted in lower skin permeation. In addition, pretreatment with BO-2 increased the skin permeation of LID. These results suggest that the penetration enhancing effect by the system may be related to the skin penetration of BO-2 itself. Finally, mathematical analysis was done to evaluate the effect of BO-2, and it was shown that BO-2 improved the LID solubility in stratum corneum lipids to efficiently enhance the LID permeation through skin.

  3. A New Formulation of Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine (EESC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P. A.; Daniel, J. S.; Waugh, D. W.; Nash, E. R.

    2007-01-01

    Equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC) is a convenient parameter to quantify the effects of halogens (chlorine and bromine) on ozone depletion in the stratosphere. We show and discuss a new formulation of EESC that now includes the effects of age-of-air dependent fractional release values and an age-of-air spectrum. This new formulation provides quantitative estimates of EESC that can be directly related to inorganic chlorine and bromine throughout the stratosphere. Using this EESC formulation, we estimate that human-produced ozone depleting substances will recover to 1980 levels in 2041 in the midlatitudes, and 2067 over Antarctica. These recovery dates are based upon the assumption that the international agreements for regulating ozone-depleting substances are adhered to. In addition to recovery dates, we also estimate the uncertainties in the estimated time of recovery. The midlatitude recovery of 2041 has a 95% confidence uncertainty from 2028 to 2049, while the 2067 Antarctic recovery has a 95% confidence uncertainty from 2056 to 2078. The principal uncertainties are from the estimated mean age-of-air, and the assumption that the mean age-of-air and fractional release values are time independent. Using other model estimates of age decrease due to climate change, we estimate that midlatitude recovery may be accelerated from 2041 to 2031.

  4. Development of Stable Influenza Vaccine Powder Formulations: Challenges and Possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Amorij, J-P.; Huckriede, A.; Wilschut, J.; Frijlink, H. W.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza vaccination represents the cornerstone of influenza prevention. However, today all influenza vaccines are formulated as liquids that are unstable at ambient temperatures and have to be stored and distributed under refrigeration. In order to stabilize influenza vaccines, they can be brought into the dry state using suitable excipients, stabilizers and drying processes. The resulting stable influenza vaccine powder is independent of cold-chain facilities. This can be attractive for the integration of the vaccine logistics with general drug distribution in Western as well as developing countries. In addition, a stockpile of stable vaccine formulations of potential vaccines against pandemic viruses can provide an immediate availability and simple distribution of vaccine in a pandemic outbreak. Finally, in the development of new needle-free dosage forms, dry and stable influenza vaccine powder formulations can facilitate new or improved targeting strategies for the vaccine compound. This review represents the current status of dry stable inactivated influenza vaccine development. Attention is given to the different influenza vaccine types (i.e. whole inactivated virus, split, subunit or virosomal vaccine), the rationale and need for stabilized influenza vaccines, drying methods by which influenza vaccines can be stabilized (i.e. lyophilization, spray drying, spray-freeze drying, vacuum drying or supercritical fluid drying), the current status of dry influenza vaccine development and the challenges for ultimate market introduction of a stable and effective dry-powder influenza vaccine. PMID:18338241

  5. A microsphere-based remodelling formulation for anisotropic biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Andreas; Waffenschmidt, Tobias

    2009-09-13

    Biological tissues possess the ability to adapt according to the respective local loading conditions, which results in growth and remodelling phenomena. The main goal of this work is the development of a new remodelling approach that, on the one hand, reflects the alignment of fibrous soft biological tissue with respect to representative loading directions. On the other hand, the continuum approach proposed is based on a sound micro-mechanically motivated formulation. To be specific, use of a worm-like chain model is made to describe the behaviour of long-chain molecules as present in, for instance, collageneous tissues. The extension of such a one-dimensional constitutive equation to the three-dimensional macroscopic level is performed by means of a microsphere formulation. Inherent with the algorithmic treatment of this type of modelling approach, a finite number of unit vectors is considered for the numerical integration over the domain of the unit sphere. As a key aspect of this contribution, remodelling is incorporated by setting up evolution equations for the referential orientations of these integration directions. Accordingly, the unit vectors considered now allow interpretation as internal variables, which characterize the material's anisotropic properties. Several numerical studies underline the applicability of the model that, moreover, nicely fits into iterative finite element formulations so that general boundary value problems can be solved. PMID:19657009

  6. Ocular injectable formulation assessment for oxidized dextran-based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Maia, João; Ribeiro, Maximiano P; Ventura, Carla; Carvalho, Rui A; Correia, Ilídio J; Gil, Maria H

    2009-07-01

    Initiator-free injectable hydrogels are very interesting for drug and/or cell delivery applications, since they can be administered in a minimally invasive way, and avoid the use of potentially harmful chemical initiators. In the current work, oxidized dextran crosslinked with adipic acid dihydrazide hydrogels were further characterized and tuned to produce formulations, with the aim of producing an injectable formulation for the possible treatment of posterior eye diseases. The gelation rate and the hydrogel dissolution profile were shown to be dependent on the balance between the degree of dextran oxidation, and the concentration of both components. For the in vitro studies, rabbit corneal endothelial cells were seeded on the hydrogels to assess cytotoxicity. Hydrogels prepared with low oxidized dextrans were able to promote cell adhesion and proliferation to confluence in just 24h, while more highly oxidized samples promoted cell adhesion and proliferation, but without achieving confluence. Cell viability studies were performed using MTS assays to verify the non-cytotoxicity of hydrogels and their degradation byproducts, rendering these formulations attractive for further in vivo studies. PMID:19286432

  7. Stable Dry Powder Formulation for Nasal Delivery of Anthrax Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheena H.; Kirwan, Shaun M.; Abraham, Soman N.; Staats, Herman F.; Hickey, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a current biodefense interest in protection against Anthrax. Here we developed a new generation of stable and effective anthrax vaccine. We studied the immune response elicited by rPA delivered intranasally with a novel mucosal adjuvant, a mast cell activator Compound 48/80. The vaccine formulation was prepared in a powder form by spray-freeze-drying (SFD) under optimized conditions to produce particles with a target size of D50=25μm, suitable for delivery to the rabbit nasal cavity. Physicochemical properties of the powder vaccines were characterized to assess their delivery and storage potential. Structural stability of rPA was confirmed by CD and ATR-FTIR, while functional stability of rPA and C48/80 was monitored by cell-based assays. Animal study was performed using a unitdose powder device for direct nasal application. Results showed that C48/80 provided effective mucosal adjuvant activity in rabbits. Freshly prepared SFD powder vaccine formulations or powders stored for over two years at room temperature elicited significantly elevated serum PA-specific and lethal toxin neutralization antibody titers that were comparable to that induced by IM immunization with rPA. Nasal delivery of this vaccine formulation may be a viable alternative to the currently licensed vaccine, or an attractive vaccine platform for other mucosally transmitted diseases. PMID:21905034

  8. Diagnosis and formulation: what should we tell the students?

    PubMed

    Carey, Timothy A; Pilgrim, David

    2010-01-01

    Appropriately assessing and coherently conceptualising psychological problems are important precursors to delivering effective interventions. In this regard, trainee psychologists and, in particular, clinical psychology trainees, are faced with a dilemma. Training programme documentation is unequivocal in its emphasis on formulation in preference to diagnosis. In practice, however, diagnosis is often seen as an important skill for a clinician to develop. A lack of clarity concerning the relationship between diagnosis and formulation is reflected in the literature. In this paper we highlight training programme documentation from both Australia and the United Kingdom to illustrate the clarity that exists. We also summarise the literature with regard to the confusion surrounding the relationship between formulation and diagnosis and we explore the concept of psychiatric diagnosis from a definitional perspective. It appears that even the creators of psychiatric classificatory systems are not clear about exactly what a psychiatric diagnosis is. We conclude by offering some suggestions to improve the situation and to assist psychologists to make a greater contribution to the understanding and amelioration of psychological distress.

  9. A thermodynamically consistent discontinuous Galerkin formulation for interface separation

    SciTech Connect

    Versino, Daniele; Mourad, Hashem M.; Dávila, Carlos G.; Addessio, Francis L.

    2015-07-31

    Our paper describes the formulation of an interface damage model, based on the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method, for the simulation of failure and crack propagation in laminated structures. The DG formulation avoids common difficulties associated with cohesive elements. Specifically, it does not introduce any artificial interfacial compliance and, in explicit dynamic analysis, it leads to a stable time increment size which is unaffected by the presence of stiff massless interfaces. This proposed method is implemented in a finite element setting. Convergence and accuracy are demonstrated in Mode I and mixed-mode delamination in both static and dynamic analyses. Significantly, numerical results obtained using the proposed interface model are found to be independent of the value of the penalty factor that characterizes the DG formulation. By contrast, numerical results obtained using a classical cohesive method are found to be dependent on the cohesive penalty stiffnesses. The proposed approach is shown to yield more accurate predictions pertaining to crack propagation under mixed-mode fracture because of the advantage. Furthermore, in explicit dynamic analysis, the stable time increment size calculated with the proposed method is found to be an order of magnitude larger than the maximum allowable value for classical cohesive elements.

  10. Development of a liposomal formulation of the natural flavonoid fisetin.

    PubMed

    Mignet, Nathalie; Seguin, Johanne; Ramos Romano, Miriam; Brullé, Laura; Touil, Yasmine S; Scherman, Daniel; Bessodes, Michel; Chabot, Guy G

    2012-02-14

    The natural flavonoid fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) has been shown to possess antiangiogenic and anticancer properties. Because of the limited water solubility of fisetin, our aim was to design and optimize a liposomal formulation that could facilitate its in vivo administration, taking into account the availability and cost of the various components. Several methods were evaluated such as probe sonication, homogeneization, film hydration and lipid cake formation. A selection of lipid and lipid-PEG was also performed via their incorporation in different formulations based on the size of the liposomes, their polydispersity index (PDI) and the fisetin encapsulation yield. An optimal liposomal formulation was developed with P90G and DODA-GLY-PEG2000, possessing a diameter in the nanometer scale (175nm), a high homogeneity (PDI 0.12) and a high fisetin encapsulation (73%). Fisetin liposomes were stable over 59 days for their particle diameter and still retained 80% of their original fisetin content on day 32. Moreover, liposomal fisetin retained the cytotoxicity and typical morphological effect of free fisetin in different tumour and endothelial cell lines. In conclusion, based on its physico-chemical properties and retention of fisetin biological effects, the developed liposomal fisetin preparation is therefore suitable for in vivo administration.

  11. Processing challenges with solid dosage formulations containing vitamin E TPGS.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Preetanshu; Sinko, Patrick D; Bindra, Dilbir S; Hamey, Rhye; Gour, Shruti; Vema-Varapu, Chandra

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate processing challenges associated with the incorporation of Vitamin E TPGS (d-α tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate) into solid pharmaceutical dosage forms. For this work, a wet granulation process (high-shear and fluid bed) was used and Vitamin E TPGS was added as part of the binder solution during granulation. It was shown that Vitamin E TPGS can be incorporated into a prototype formulation at 10% w/w concentration without any significant processing challenges. However, the resulting granulations could only be compressed successfully at low tablet press speeds (dwell time ~100 ms). When compressed at low dwell times (<20 ms) representative of commercial tablet manufacturing, a significant loss in compactability was observed. In addition, several other tablet defects were observed. It was shown that intragranular incorporation of Aeroperl(®) 300, a granulated form of colloidal silicon dioxide, was able to overcome these compaction problems. The formulation consisting of Aeroperl(®) 300 showed significantly lower granule particle size, higher granule porosity and higher compactability as compared to the formulation without Aeroperl(®) 300.

  12. A new SMA shell element based on the corotational formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisegna, P.; Caselli, F.; Marfia, S.; Sacco, E.

    2014-11-01

    Aim of this paper is to develop a new shape memory alloy (SMA) facet-shell finite element accounting for material and geometric nonlinearities. A corotational formulation is exploited, able to filter out large rigid-body motions from the element transformation. Accordingly, a geometrically linear core-element is employed, along with a SMA constitutive model formulated in the small strain framework. In particular, in accordance with the formulation of the classical thin shell theory, a plane-stress SMA model accounting for the pseudo-elastic as well as the shape memory effect is adopted. The time integration of the evolutive equation is performed developing a step-by-step backward-Euler numerical procedure. A highly efficient implementation of the corotational machinery is used, endowed with a fully consistent tangent stiffness. Applications are carried out for assessing the performances of the developed computational procedure and to investigate on some interesting engineering examples. The numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed shell element, whose simplicity makes it attractive for the design of new advanced SMA-based devices undergoing significant configuration changes during their operation.

  13. Novel delivery system for natural products: Nano-curcumin formulations

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Nedaeinia, Reza; Sepehri Shamloo, Alireza; Nikdoust, Shima; Kazemi Oskuee, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Curcumin is extracted from Curcuma longa and regulates the intracellular signal pathways which control the growth of cancerous cell, inflammation, invasion and apoptosis. Curcumin molecules have special intrinsic features that can target the intracellular enzymes, genome (DNA) and messengers (RNA). A wide range of studies have been conducted on the physicochemical traits and pharmacological effects of curcumin on different diseases like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and even it has wound healing. Oral bioavailability of curcumin is rather poor, which would certainly put some boundaries in the employment of this drug. Materials and Methods: Bibliographical searches were performed using MEDLINE/ScienceDirect/OVID up to February 2015 using the following keywords (all fields): (“Curcumin” OR “Curcuma longa”) AND [(nanoparticles) OR (Nanomicelles) OR (micro emulsions) OR (liposome) OR (phospholipid). Results: Consequently, for any developments of curcumin in the future, analogues of curcumin that have better bioavailability or substitute formulations are needed crucially. Conclusion: These studies indicated that nanotechnology can formulate curcumin effectively, and this nano-formulated curcumin with a potent ability against various cancer cells, were represented to have better efficacy and bioavailability under in vivo conditions. PMID:27516979

  14. Formulation and Evaluation of Nanocrystals of a Lipid Lowering Agent.

    PubMed

    Louis, Dina

    2016-01-01

    Atorvastatin calcium, the lipid lowering agent, is taken as a model drug characterized by poor water solubility and bioavailability. In this study an attempt was made for preparation of nanocrystals using high pressure homogenization. A number of stabilizers were included as well as polymers at different concentrations, and the formulations were homogenized for ten cycles at a pressure of 1000 bars. The obtained nano crystals were evaluated by determining their size, zeta potential, saturated solubility and dissolution rate. Results revealed that Formulation 3, containing (10: 1) drug to sodium lauryl sulphate ratio, possessed the highest saturated solubility and dissolution rate, and hence was analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourrier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. An in-vivo study was carried out on the successful formulation in comparison to drug powder using rats as experimental animals. A significant increase in the area under the concentration-time curve Cpmax and MRT for nanocrystals was observed in comparison to the untreated atorvastatin calcium. PMID:27610148

  15. On the formulation of a crystal plasticity model.

    SciTech Connect

    Marin, Esteban B.

    2006-08-01

    This report presents the formulation of a crystal elasto-viscoplastic model and the corresponding integration scheme. The model is suitable to represent the isothermal, anisotropic, large deformation of polycrystalline metals. The formulation is an extension of a rigid viscoplastic model to account for elasticity effects, and incorporates a number of changes with respect to a previous formulation [Marin & Dawson, 1998]. This extension is formally derived using the well-known multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into an elastic and plastic components, where the elastic part is additionally decomposed into the elastic stretch V{sup e} and the proper orthogonal R{sup e} tensors. The constitutive equations are written in the intermediate, stress-free configuration obtained by unloading the deformed crystal through the elastic stretch V{sup e-}. The model is framed in a thermodynamic setting, and developed initially for large elastic strains. The crystal equations are then specialized to the case of small elastic strains, an assumption typically valid for metals. The developed integration scheme is implicit and proceeds by separating the spherical and deviatoric crystal responses. An ''approximate'' algorithmic material moduli is also derived for applications in implicit numerical codes. The model equations and their integration procedure have been implemented in both a material point simulator and a commercial finite element code. Both implementations are validated by solving a number of examples involving aggregates of either face centered cubic (FCC) or hexagonal close-packed (HCP) crystals subjected to different loading paths.

  16. Formulation and Evaluation of Nanocrystals of a Lipid Lowering Agent

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Dina

    2016-01-01

    Atorvastatin calcium, the lipid lowering agent, is taken as a model drug characterized by poor water solubility and bioavailability. In this study an attempt was made for preparation of nanocrystals using high pressure homogenization. A number of stabilizers were included as well as polymers at different concentrations, and the formulations were homogenized for ten cycles at a pressure of 1000 bars. The obtained nano crystals were evaluated by determining their size, zeta potential, saturated solubility and dissolution rate. Results revealed that Formulation 3, containing (10: 1) drug to sodium lauryl sulphate ratio, possessed the highest saturated solubility and dissolution rate, and hence was analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourrier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. An in-vivo study was carried out on the successful formulation in comparison to drug powder using rats as experimental animals. A significant increase in the area under the concentration-time curve Cpmax and MRT for nanocrystals was observed in comparison to the untreated atorvastatin calcium.

  17. Development of a controlled release formulation by continuous twin screw granulation: Influence of process and formulation parameters.

    PubMed

    Vanhoorne, V; Vanbillemont, B; Vercruysse, J; De Leersnyder, F; Gomes, P; Beer, T De; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2016-05-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of twin screw granulation for the continuous production of controlled release formulations with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose as hydrophilic matrix former. Metoprolol tartrate was included in the formulation as very water soluble model drug. A premix of metoprolol tartrate, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and filler (ratio 20/20/60, w/w) was granulated with demineralized water via twin screw granulation. After oven drying and milling, tablets were produced on a rotary Modul™ P tablet press. A D-optimal design (29 experiments) was used to assess the influence of process (screw speed, throughput, barrel temperature and screw design) and formulation parameters (starch content of the filler) on the process (torque), granule (size distribution, shape, friability, density) and tablet (hardness, friability and dissolution) critical quality attributes. The torque was dominated by the number of kneading elements and throughput, whereas screw speed and filling degree only showed a minor influence on torque. Addition of screw mixing elements after a block of kneading elements improved the yield of the process before milling as it resulted in less oversized granules and also after milling as less fines were present. Temperature was also an important parameter to optimize as a higher temperature yielded less fines and positively influenced the aspect ratio. The shape of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose granules was comparable to that of immediate release formulations. Tensile strength and friability of tablets were not dependent on the process parameters. The use of starch as filler was not beneficial with regard to granule and tablet properties. Complete drug release was obtained after 16-20h and was independent of the design's parameters. PMID:27041123

  18. Formulation and Evaluation of a Novel Matrix-Type Orally Disintegrating Ibuprofen Tablet

    PubMed Central

    Tayebi, Hoda; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza

    2011-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) are capable of turning quickly into a liquid dosage form in contact with the saliva, thus possessing the advantages of both the solid dosage forms particularly stability and liquid dosage forms specially ease of swallowing and pre-gastric absorption of drug. The aim of this study was to prepare a novel matrix-type buccal fast disintegrating ibuprofen tablet formulation using special polymers, water soluble excipients, super-disintegrants and quickly soluble granules. For this purpose different tablet formulations of ibuprofen were prepared. The amount of ibuprofen in each formulation was 100 mg. Eight groups of formulation were prepared (A-H series), accounting for a total number of 45 formulations. Formulations prepared were examined in terms of different physicochemical tests including powder/granule flowability, appearance, thickness, uniformity of weight, hardness, friability and disintegration time. Results of formulation F22a (in series F), was found to be acceptable, making it the chosen formulation for further studies. Then, by adding various flavorants and sweeteners to this formulation, complementary series of formulations, named G and H, were prepared. Following the comparison of their taste with each other through asking 10 volunteers, the most suitable formulation regarding the taste, being formulation F22s, was chosen as the ultimate formulation. This formulation had PVP, ibuprofen and croscarmellose as the intra-granular components and xylitol and saccharin as the extra-granular ingredients. Formulation F22s was found to be acceptable in terms of physicochemical tests conducted, showing quick disintegration within the buccal cavity, appropriate hardness and rather low friability. Hence formulation F22s was selected as the final formulation. PMID:24250378

  19. Novel topical formulations of Terbinafine-HCl for treatment of onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Tanrıverdi, Sakine Tuncay; Özer, Özgen

    2013-03-12

    Terbinafine hydrochloride (TBF-HCl) is an active substance that is using for treatment of onychomycosis. Onychomycosis is a fungal infection which is the most common disease of nail plate. The nail plate is a barrier which prevents effective topical treatment of ungual disorders. In this study, TBF-HCl loaded liposome and ethosome formulations and also gel form of these formulations were prepared. The formulations were characterized and in vitro and ex vivo release studies were performed. Nail characterization studies were also performed to examine the effect of formulations and experimental conditions on nail surface. As a result, all formulations can serve as efficient formulations for ungual application of TBF-HCl. By the way, the results of the accumulation studies suggested that liposome poloxamer gel formulation could be promising system for ungual drug delivery due to the better accumulation and easier application of the formulation. PMID:23295582

  20. 40 CFR 455.40 - Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. 455.40 Section 455.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pesticide Chemicals Formulating and Packaging Subcategory § 455.40 Applicability; description of...