Science.gov

Sample records for stellar cusp formation

  1. Beach-cusp formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Field experiments on beach-cusp formation were undertaken to document how the cuspate form develops and to test the edge-wave hypothesis on the uniform spacing of cusps. These involved observations of cusps forming from an initially plane foreshore. The cuspate form was observed to be a product of swash modification of an intertidal beach ridge as follows. A ridge, cut by a series of channels quasi-equally spaced along its length, was deposited onto the lower foreshore. The ridge migrated shoreward with flood tide, while the longshore positions of the channels remained fixed. On ebb tide, changes in swash circulation over the ridge allowed the upwash to flow shoreward through the channels and the channel mouths were eroded progressively wider until adjacent mouths met, effecting a cuspate shape. Measured spacings of cusps, ranging in size from less than 1 m to more than 12 m, agree well with computed spacings due to either zero-mode subharmonic or zero-mode synchronous edge waves. Edge-wave-induced longshore variations in run up will cause water ponded behind a ridge to converge at points of low swash and flow seaward as relatively narrow currents eroding channels spaced at one edge-wave wavelength for synchronous edge waves or one half wavelength for subharmonic edge waves. The channels are subsequently modified into cusp troughs as described above.

  2. HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION INTEGRAL-FIELD SPECTROSCOPY OF THE GALAXY'S NUCLEAR CLUSTER: A MISSING STELLAR CUSP?

    SciTech Connect

    Do, T.; Ghez, A. M.; Morris, M. R.; Yelda, S.; Larkin, J.; Lu, J. R.; Matthews, K.

    2009-10-01

    We report on the structure of the nuclear star cluster in the innermost 0.16 pc of the Galaxy as measured by the number density profile of late-type giants. Using laser guide star adaptive optics in conjunction with the integral field spectrograph, OSIRIS, at the Keck II telescope, we are able to differentiate between the older, late-type (approx 1 Gyr) stars, which are presumed to be dynamically relaxed, and the unrelaxed young (approx 6 Myr) population. This distinction is crucial for testing models of stellar cusp formation in the vicinity of a black hole, as the models assume that the cusp stars are in dynamical equilibrium in the black hole potential. In the survey region, we classified 60 stars as early-type (22 newly identified) and 74 stars as late-type (61 newly identified). We find that contamination from young stars is significant, with more than twice as many young stars as old stars in our sensitivity range (K' < 15.5) within the central arcsecond. Based on the late-type stars alone, the surface stellar number density profile, SIGMA(R) propor to R {sup -G}AMMA, is flat, with GAMMA = -0.27 +- 0.19. Monte Carlo simulations of the possible de-projected volume density profile, n(r) propor tor {sup -g}amma, show that gamma is less than 1.0 at the 99.7% confidence level. These results are consistent with the nuclear star cluster having no cusp, with a core profile that is significantly flatter than that predicted by most cusp formation theories, and even allows for the presence of a central hole in the stellar distribution. Of the possible dynamical interactions that can lead to the depletion of the red giants observable in this survey-stellar collisions, mass segregation from stellar remnants, or a recent merger event-mass segregation is the only one that can be ruled out as the dominant depletion mechanism. The lack of a stellar cusp around a supermassive black hole would have important implications for black hole growth models and inferences on the

  3. Cusp formation in drops inside Taylor cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Alvaro G.; Loscertales, Ignacio G.; Barrero, Antonio

    2005-11-01

    Here, we report the formation of cusp in insulating drops inside compound Taylor cones. The action of the electrical shear stress acting on the outer interface, which is transmitted by viscous forces inside the Taylor cone, tends to deform the drop of insulating liquid placed inside. For appropriate values of the capillary number, the insulating drop develops a steady cusp angle which depends on both the capillary number and the conducting to insulating viscosity ratio. A self-similar analysis has been developed to qualitatively describe the flow inside these compounds Taylor cones. Any perturbation of the cusp gives rise to an intermittent emission of tiny droplets; this effect may recall the tip-streaming observed by G.I. Taylor in his four-roll mill device. This emission can be stabilized by an appropriate control of the injected flow rate of the insulating liquid. When the capillary number increases, the cusped interface turns into a spout which flows coated by the conducting liquid forming the electrified coaxial jet which has been successfully employed for the production of nanocapsules, coaxial nanofibers and nanotubes (Science 295, n. 5560, 1695, 2002; JACS 126, 5376, 2004).

  4. Sculpting the stellar cusp in the galactic center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xian; Amaro-Seoane, Pau

    2015-03-01

    Observations of the innermost parsec surrounding Sgr A*—the supermassive black hole in the center of our Galaxy—have revealed a diversity of structures whose existence and characteristics apparently defy the fundamental principles of dynamics. In this article, we review the challenges to the dynamics theories that have been brought forth in the past two decades by the observations of the galactic center. We outline the theoretical framework that has been developed to reconcile the discrepancies between the theoretical predictions and the observational results. In particular, we highlight the role of the recently discovered sub-parsec stellar disk in determining the dynamics and resolving the inconsistencies. We also discuss the implications for the recent activity of Sgr A*.

  5. The Stellar Cusp in the Galactic Center: Three-Dimensional Orbits of Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, Samantha; Ghez, Andrea M.; Boehle, Anna; Yelda, Sylvana; Sitarski, Breann; Witzel, Gunther; Do, Tuan; Lu, Jessica R.; Morris, Mark; Becklin, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    We present new findings from our long term study of the nuclear star cluster around the Galaxy's central supermassive blackhole (SMBH). Measurements where made using speckle and laser guided adaptive optics imaging and integral field spectroscopy on the Keck telescopes. We report 13 new measurable accelerating sources around the SMBH, down to ~17 mag in K band, only 4 of which are known to be young stars, the rest are either known to be old stars or have yet to be spectral typed. Thus we more than double the number of measured accelerations for the known old stars and unknown spectral type population (increasing the number from 6 to 15). Previous observations suggest a flat density profile of late-type stars, contrary to the theorized Bahcall-Wolf cusp (Bahcall & Wolf 1976, 1977; Buchholz et al. 2009; Do et al. 2009; Bartko et al. 2010). With three-dimensional orbits of significantly accelerating sources, we will be able to better characterize the stellar cusp in the Galactic center, including the slope of the stellar density profile.

  6. The removal of cusps from galaxy centres by stellar feedback in the early Universe.

    PubMed

    Mashchenko, Sergey; Couchman, H M P; Wadsley, James

    2006-08-01

    The standard cosmological model, now strongly constrained by direct observations of the Universe at early epochs, is very successful in describing the evolution of structure on large and intermediate scales. Unfortunately, serious contradictions remain on smaller, galactic scales. Among the main small-scale problems is a significant and persistent discrepancy between observations of nearby galaxies, which imply that galactic dark matter haloes have a density profile with a flat core, and the cosmological model, which predicts that the haloes should have divergent density (a cusp) at the centre. Here we report numerical simulations that show that random bulk motions of gas in small primordial galaxies, of the magnitude expected in these systems, will result in a flattening of the central dark matter cusp on relatively short timescales (approximately 10(8) years). Gas bulk motions in early galaxies are driven by supernova explosions that result from ongoing star formation. Our mechanism is general, and would have operated in all star-forming galaxies at redshifts z > or = 10. Once removed, the cusp cannot be reintroduced during the subsequent mergers involved in the build-up of larger galaxies. As a consequence, in the present Universe both small and large galaxies would have flat dark matter core density profiles, in agreement with observations.

  7. A field data assessment of contemporary models of beach cusp formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.R.; Psuty, N.P.; Bauer, B.O.; Carter, R.W.G.

    1996-01-01

    Cusp formation was observed during an instrumented, daily profiled, time series of a reflective beach in Canaveral National Seashore, Florida on January 5, 1988. The monitored cusp embayment formed by erosion of the foreshore and the cusp series had a mean spacing of approximately 28 m. During this time, inshore fluid flows were dominated by two standing edge waves at frequencies of 0.06 Hz (primary) and 0.035 Hz (secondary) whereas incident waves were broadbanded at 0.12-0.16 Hz. Directly measured flows (and indirectly estimated swash excursion) data support both the standing wave subharmonic model and the self-organization model of cusp formation in this study.

  8. Beach cusp destruction, formation, and evolution during and subsequent to an extratropical storm, Duck, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.R.; Miller, S.M.O.; Torzynski, C.A.; Kochel, R.C. )

    1989-11-01

    Many studies have debated whether beach cusps are erosional or depositional features. The April 12-14, 1988, extratropical storm provided an opportunity to view the direct effects of one of the largest storms of the past decade upon beach sedimentology and morphology on barrier islands near Duck, North Carolina. Prior to the storm, the beach at Duck was characterized by a well-defined pattern of beach cusps with horn-to-horn spacings averaging 35 m. Storm-induced alterations were dominated by an initial period of beach erosion that remobilized the upper 30 to 50 cm of beach sediment, followed by aggradation. Net aggradation was most prominent along the middle beachface and within the pre-storm cusp bays. These morphologic adjustments resulted in the destruction of cusps, which were replaced with a post-storm planar beachface composed of horizontally bedded fine- to coarse-grained sediments. Within 24 hrs of storm subsidence, new beach cusps formed sequentially along the coast in the direction of longshore transport. Initial cusp formation resulted from beach erosion and the creation of bays in the planar storm-beach surface at positions of preferential post-storm runup. The initial cusp horns were composed of truncated horizontal beds of the planar beach accreted during the storm. After their formation, the cusps sequentially migrated downdrift. Migrating horns were composed of a coarse-grained sediment wedge that thickened toward horn crests, suggesting formation by deposition. It is concluded from these observations that beach cusps are both erosional and depositional in nature.

  9. Study of the electric field formation in a multi-cusped magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hui Yu, Daren; Wu, Huan; Zhao, Yinjian; Ma, Chengyu; Wang, Di; Wei, Haoyu

    2014-09-15

    The multi-cusped field thruster is a kind of electric thruster adopting a cusped magnetic field to achieve a potentially longer lifetime. It is observed in some experiments that the main electric potential drop forms near the exhaust plane, but the formation mechanism of the electric field in this kind of thrusters is not fully clear yet. Based on the analysis of the electron movement, a 2D Particle-in-Cell plus Monte Carlo model is built to reveal the difference of the constraint to electrons between the central leak path and the lateral region of the thruster. Electron trajectories from cathode are analyzed furthermore. It is found that the central leak path inside the discharge channel may play a significant role in the formation of the main electric potential drop near the exhaust plane.

  10. Scale free processes in stellar cluster formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, Nate

    2015-08-01

    I will review what is known about stellar cluster formation, focussing on scale free processes, such as how lower mass open clusters related to their giant cousins, the young massive clusters, and potentially globular cluster as well.

  11. Cores and revived cusps of dark matter haloes in disc galaxy formation through clump clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Shigeki; Saitoh, Takayuki R.

    2011-12-01

    The cusp-core problem is a controversial problem in galactic dark matter haloes. Cosmological N-body simulations have demonstrated that galactic dark matter haloes have a cuspy density profile at the centre. However, baryonic physics may affect the dark matter density profile. For example, it was suggested that adiabatic contraction of baryonic gas makes the dark matter cusp steeper. However, it is still an open question as to whether the gas falls into the galactic centre in a smooth adiabatic manner. Recent numerical studies suggested that disc galaxies might experience a clumpy phase in the early stage of disc formation, which could also explain the clump clusters and chain galaxies observed in the high-redshift Universe. In this paper, using numerical simulations with an isolated model, we study how the dark matter halo responds to the clumpy nature of baryon components in disc galaxy formation through the clump-cluster phase. Our simulation demonstrates that such a clumpy phase leads to a shallower density profile of the dark matter halo in the central region while clumps fall into the centre due to dynamical friction. This mechanism helps to make the central dark matter density profile shallower in galaxies with virial mass as large as 5.0 × 1011 M⊙. The halo draws the clumps into the galactic centre, while it is kinematically heated by the clumps. We additionally run a dark-matter-only simulation excluding baryonic components and confirm that the resultant shallower density profile is not due to a numerical artefact in the simulation, such as two-body relaxation.

  12. Galaxy formation - Gas dynamics versus stellar dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Contopoulos, G.; Voglis, N.; Hiotelis, N. )

    1990-12-01

    Stellar-dynamic and gasdynamic models of the formation and evolution of galaxies are examined in a comparative review, and typical numerical results are presented graphically. The growth and distribution of angular momentum of a stellar galaxy inside an environment of clusters are followed through expansion and collapse; the evolution of the velocity field is traced; and particular attention is given to gas simulations using a soft-particle hydrodynamical code similar to that of Monaghan and Lattanzio (1985). It is shown that the model correctly describes the organization of motion in the collapsing galaxy, but that details smaller than the particle size employed are not trustworthy. The need for simulations with larger numbers of smaller particles is indicated. 10 refs.

  13. FUEL EFFICIENT GALAXIES: SUSTAINING STAR FORMATION WITH STELLAR MASS LOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Samuel N.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2011-06-10

    We examine the importance of secular stellar mass loss for fueling ongoing star formation in disk galaxies during the late stages of their evolution. For a galaxy of a given stellar mass, we calculate the total mass loss rate of its entire stellar population using star formation histories derived from the observed evolution of the M{sub *}-star formation rate (SFR) relation, along with the predictions of standard stellar evolution models for stellar mass loss for a variety of initial stellar mass functions. Our model shows that recycled gas from stellar mass loss can provide most or all of the fuel required to sustain the current level of star formation in late-type galaxies. Stellar mass loss can therefore remove the tension between the low gas infall rates that are derived from observations and the relatively rapid star formation occurring in disk galaxies. For galaxies where cold gas infall rates have been estimated, we demonstrate explicitly that stellar mass loss can account for most of the deficit between their SFR and infall rate.

  14. Stellar halos: a rosetta stone for galaxy formation and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglis Read, Justin

    2015-08-01

    Stellar halos make up about a percent of the total stellar mass in galaxies. Yet their old age and long phase mixing times make them living fossil records of galactic history. In this talk, I review the latest simulations of structure formation in our standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter cosmology. I discuss the latest predictions for stellar halos and the relationship between the stellar halo light and the underlying dark matter. Finally, I discuss how these simulations compare to observations of the Milky Way and Andromeda and, ultimately, what this means for our cosmological model and the formation history of the Galaxy.

  15. Stellar feedback in dwarf galaxy formation.

    PubMed

    Mashchenko, Sergey; Wadsley, James; Couchman, H M P

    2008-01-11

    Dwarf galaxies pose substantial challenges for cosmological models. In particular, current models predict a dark-matter density that is divergent at the center, which is in sharp contrast with observations that indicate a core of roughly constant density. Energy feedback, from supernova explosions and stellar winds, has been proposed as a major factor shaping the evolution of dwarf galaxies. We present detailed cosmological simulations with sufficient resolution both to model the relevant physical processes and to directly assess the impact of stellar feedback on observable properties of dwarf galaxies. We show that feedback drives large-scale, bulk motions of the interstellar gas, resulting in substantial gravitational potential fluctuations and a consequent reduction in the central matter density, bringing the theoretical predictions in agreement with observations.

  16. Formation of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dengkai

    2014-09-01

    Observations reveal the presence of multiple stellar populations (MSPs) in globular clusters (GCs) that exhibit wide abundance variations and multiple sequences in their Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams. We present a scenario for the formation of MSPs in GCs. In this scenario, initial GCs are single-generation clusters, and our model predicts that the anomalous-abundance stars observed in GCs are the merged and accreted stars produced by binary interactions, which are rapidly rotating stars at the moment of their formation. A stellar population with binaries can reproduce two important observational pieces of evidence of MSPs, the Na-O anticorrelation and the multiple sequences in the HR diagram.

  17. Stellar signatures of AGN-jet-triggered star formation

    SciTech Connect

    Dugan, Zachary; Silk, Joseph; Bryan, Sarah; Gaibler, Volker; Haas, Marcel

    2014-12-01

    To investigate feedback between relativistic jets emanating from active galactic nuclei and the stellar population of the host galaxy, we analyze the long-term evolution of the orbits of the stars formed in the galaxy-scale simulations by Gaibler et al. of jets in massive, gas-rich galaxies at z ∼ 2-3. We find strong, jet-induced differences in the resulting stellar populations of galaxies that host relativistic jets and galaxies that do not, including correlations in stellar locations, velocities, and ages. Jets are found to generate distributions of increased radial and vertical velocities that persist long enough to effectively augment the stellar structure of the host. The jets cause the formation of bow shocks that move out through the disk, generating rings of star formation within the disk. The bow shock often accelerates pockets of gas in which stars form, yielding populations of stars with significant radial and vertical velocities, some of which have large enough velocities to escape the galaxy. These stellar population signatures can serve to identify past jet activity as well as jet-induced star formation.

  18. Evidences for Black Hole Formation by Complete Stellar Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirabel, Igor Felix

    2016-07-01

    One of the most critical parameters that determines the formation of binary black holes is the range of masses of black holes that may form by direct collapse, namely, with no energetic supernova kicks that would unbound the stellar binary. Theoretical models set mass ranges and limits for black hole formation through the complete collapse of the stellar progenitor. However, observational constraints for those mass limits have been elusive. Since the velocity of a stellar black hole encodes the history of its formation and evolution, it may provide observational constraints on the strength of kicks by natal supernova explosions in the formation of the black hole. Based on the motion in three dimensions of five black hole binaries in our Galaxy it is found that the three black holes with < 10 solar masses are runaway black hole binaries due to kicks from natal supernovae, whereas the two black holes with 10 to 15 solar masses remained in their birth place and must have been form by complete or almost complete collapse of the progenitor star. These observations show that there may be binary black holes with components having masses as low as 10 solar masses, which suggests that a significant fraction of massive stellar binaries would end as black hole binaries that would produce a large stochastic gravitational-wave background.

  19. Stellar halos and the link to galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmi, Amina

    2016-08-01

    I present a brief overview of how stellar halos may be used to constrain the process of galaxy formation. In particular, streams and substructure in stellar halos trace merger events but can also be used to determine the mass distribution of the host galaxy and hence put constraints on the nature of dark matter. Much of the focus of this contribution is on the Milky Way, but I also present an attempt to understand the kinematics of the globular cluster system of M31.

  20. Galaxies on FIRE: Stellar Feedback Explains Inefficient Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Philip F.

    2014-06-01

    Many of the most fundamental unsolved questions in star and galaxy formation revolve around star formation and "feedback" from both massive stars and accretion onto super-massive black holes. I'll present new simulations which attempt to realistically model the diverse physics of the interstellar medium, star formation, and feedback from stellar radiation pressure, supernovae, stellar winds, and photo-ionization. These mechanisms lead to 'self-regulated' galaxy and star formation, in which global correlations such as the Schmidt-Kennicutt law and the global inefficiency of star formation -- the stellar mass function -- emerge naturally. Within galaxies, feedback regulates the structure of the interstellar medium, and many observed properties of the ISM, star formation, and galaxies can be understood as a fundamental consequence of super-sonic turbulence in a rapidly cooling, self-gravitating medium. But feedback also produces galactic super-winds that can dramatically alter the cosmological evolution of galaxies, their behavior in galaxy mergers, and structure of the inter-galactic medium: these winds depend non-linearly on multiple feedback mechanisms in a way that explains why they have been so difficult to model in previous "sub-grid" approaches.

  1. Testing galaxy formation models with galaxy stellar mass functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, S. H.; Mo, H. J.; Lan, Ting-Wen; Ménard, Brice

    2016-10-01

    We compare predictions of a number of empirical models and numerical simulations of galaxy formation to the conditional stellar mass functions (CSMF) of galaxies in groups of different masses obtained recently by Lan et al. to test how well different models accommodate the data. The observational data clearly prefer a model in which star formation in low-mass halos changes behavior at a characteristic redshift zc ˜ 2. There is also tentative evidence that this characteristic redshift depends on environment, becoming zc ˜ 4 in regions that eventually evolve into rich clusters of galaxies. The constrained model is used to understand how galaxies form and evolve in dark matter halos, and to make predictions for other statistical properties of the galaxy population, such as the stellar mass functions of galaxies at high z, the star formation and stellar mass assembly histories in dark matter halos. A comparison of our model predictions with those of other empirical models shows that different models can make vastly different predictions, even though all of them are tuned to match the observed stellar mass functions of galaxies.

  2. Stellar velocity dispersion in dissipative galaxy mergers with star formation

    SciTech Connect

    Stickley, Nathaniel R.; Canalizo, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    In order to better understand stellar dynamics in merging systems, such as NGC 6240, we examine the evolution of central stellar velocity dispersion (σ{sub *}) in dissipative galaxy mergers using a suite of binary disk merger simulations that include feedback from stellar formation and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We find that σ{sub *} undergoes the same general stages of evolution that were observed in our previous dissipationless simulations: coherent oscillation, then phase mixing, followed by dynamical equilibrium. We also find that measurements of σ{sub *} that are based only upon the youngest stars in simulations consistently yield lower values than measurements based upon the total stellar population. This finding appears to be consistent with the so-called 'σ{sub *} discrepancy', observed in real galaxies. We note that quasar-level AGN activity is much more likely to occur when σ{sub *} is near its equilibrium value rather than during periods of extreme σ{sub *}. Finally, we provide estimates of the scatter inherent in measuring σ{sub *} in ongoing mergers.

  3. DO MOST ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI LIVE IN HIGH STAR FORMATION NUCLEAR CUSPS?

    SciTech Connect

    Mushotzky, Richard F.; Shimizu, T. Taro; Meléndez, Marcio; Koss, Michael

    2014-02-01

    We present early results of the Herschel PACS (70 and 160 μm) and SPIRE (250, 350, and 500 μm) survey of 313 low redshift (z < 0.05), ultra-hard X-ray (14-195 keV) selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the 58 month Swift/Burst Alert Telescope catalog. Selection of AGNs from ultra-hard X-rays avoids bias from obscuration, providing a complete sample of AGNs to study the connection between nuclear activity and star formation in host galaxies. With the high angular resolution of PACS, we find that >35% and >20% of the sources are ''point-like'' at 70 and 160 μm respectively and many more have their flux dominated by a point source located at the nucleus. The inferred star formation rates (SFRs) of 0.1-100 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} using the 70 and 160 μm flux densities as SFR indicators are consistent with those inferred from Spitzer Ne II fluxes, but we find that 11.25 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon data give ∼3× lower SFR. Using GALFIT to measure the size of the far-infrared emitting regions, we determined the SFR surface density (M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}) for our sample, finding that a significant fraction of these sources exceed the threshold for star formation driven winds (0.1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2})

  4. Clump formation through colliding stellar winds in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón, Diego

    2016-07-01

    The gas cloud G2 is currently being tidally disrupted by the Galactic Center super-massive black hole, Sgr A*. The region around the black hole is populated by ˜30 Wolf-Rayet stars, which produce strong outflows. Following an analytical approach, we explore the possibility that gas clumps, such as G2, originate from the collision of identical stellar winds via the Non-Linear Thin Shell Instability. We have found that the collision of relatively slow (<750 km s^{-1}) and strong (˜10^{-5} M_{⊙} yr^{-1}) stellar winds from stars at short separations (<2000 AU) is a process that indeed could produce clumps of G2's mass and above. Such short separation encounters of single stars along their orbits are not common in the Galactic Centre, however close binaries, such as IRS 16SW, are promising clump sources (see Calderón et al. 2016). We also present the first results of 2D models of colliding wind systems using the hydrodynamics adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES, aiming to obtain a clump mass function, and the rate of clump formation and ejection to the ISM. We study the effect of parameters such as wind properties, stellar separation and orbital motion, in order to understand how likely the formation of G2 is in this context.

  5. On the formation of dwarf galaxies and stellar haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, J. I.; Pontzen, A. P.; Viel, M.

    2006-09-01

    Using analytic arguments and a suite of very high resolution (~103Msolar per particle) cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, we argue that high-redshift, z ~ 10, M ~ 108Msolar haloes, form the smallest `baryonic building block' (BBB) for galaxy formation. These haloes are just massive enough to efficiently form stars through atomic line cooling and to hold on to their gas in the presence of supernova (SN) winds and reionization. These combined effects, in particular that of the SN feedback, create a sharp transition: over the mass range 3-10 × 107Msolar, the BBBs drop two orders of magnitude in stellar mass. Below ~2 × 107Msolar, galaxies will be dark with almost no stars and no gas. Above this scale is the smallest unit of galaxy formation: the BBB. We show that the BBBs have stellar distributions which are spheroidal, of low rotational velocity, old and metal poor: they resemble the dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) of the Local Group (LG). Unlike the LG dSphs, however, they contain significant gas fractions. We connect these high-redshift BBBs to the smallest dwarf galaxies observed at z = 0 using linear theory. A small fraction (~100) of these gas-rich BBBs at high redshift fall in to a galaxy the size of the Milky Way (MW). We suggest that 10 per cent of these survive to become the observed LG dwarf galaxies at the present epoch. This is consistent with recent numerical estimates. Those infalling haloes on benign orbits which keep them far away from the MW or Andromeda manage to retain their gas and slowly form stars - these become the smallest dwarf irregular galaxies; those on more severe orbits lose their gas faster than they can form stars and become the dwarf spheroidals. The remaining 90 per cent of the BBBs will be accreted. We show that this gives a metallicity and total stellar mass consistent with the MW old stellar halo.

  6. Stellar Populations and the Star Formation Histories of LSB Galaxies: III. Stellar Population Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schombert, James; McGaugh, Stacy

    2014-09-01

    A series of population models are designed to explore the star formation history of gas-rich, low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. LSB galaxies are unique in having properties of very blue colors, low Hα emission and high gas fractions that indicated a history of constant star formation (versus the declining star formation models used for most spirals and irregulars). The model simulations use an evolving multi-metallicity composite population that follows a chemical enrichment scheme based on Milky Way observations. Color and time sensitive stellar evolution components (i.e., BHB, TP-AGB and blue straggler stars) are included, and model colors are extended into the Spitzer wavelength regions for comparison to new observations. In general, LSB galaxies are well matched to the constant star formation scenario with the variation in color explained by a fourfold increase/decrease in star formation over the last 0.5 Gyrs (i.e., weak bursts). Early-type spirals, from the S4G sample, are better fit by a declining star formation model where star formation has decreased by 40% in the last 12 Gyrs.

  7. Clustered star formation and the origin of stellar masses.

    PubMed

    Pudritz, Ralph E

    2002-01-01

    Star clusters are ubiquitous in galaxies of all types and at all stages of their evolution. We also observe them to be forming in a wide variety of environments, ranging from nearby giant molecular clouds to the supergiant molecular clouds found in starburst and merging galaxies. The typical star in our galaxy and probably in others formed as a member of a star cluster, so star formation is an intrinsically clustered and not an isolated phenomenon. The greatest challenge regarding clustered star formation is to understand why stars have a mass spectrum that appears to be universal. This review examines the observations and models that have been proposed to explain these fundamental issues in stellar formation.

  8. Influence of pions and hyperons on stellar black hole formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, Bruno; Oertel, Micaela; Novak, Jérôme

    2013-02-01

    We present numerical simulations of stellar core collapse with spherically symmetric, general relativistic hydrodynamics up to black hole formation. Using the CoCoNuT code, with a newly developed grey leakage scheme for the neutrino treatment, we investigate the effects of including pions and Λ hyperons into the equation of state at high densities and temperatures on the black hole formation process. Results show non-negligible differences between the models with reference equation of state without any additional particles and models with the extended ones. For the latter, the maximum masses supported by the proto-neutron star are smaller and the collapse to a black hole occurs earlier. A phase transition to hyperonic matter is observed when the progenitor allows for a high enough accretion rate onto the proto-neutron star. Rough estimates of neutrino luminosity from these collapses are given, too.

  9. Accretion Disks and the Formation of Stellar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratter, Kaitlin Michelle

    2011-02-01

    In this thesis, we examine the role of accretion disks in the formation of stellar systems, focusing on young massive disks which regulate the flow of material from the parent molecular core down to the star. We study the evolution of disks with high infall rates that develop strong gravitational instabilities. We begin in chapter 1 with a review of the observations and theory which underpin models for the earliest phases of star formation and provide a brief review of basic accretion disk physics, and the numerical methods that we employ. In chapter 2 we outline the current models of binary and multiple star formation, and review their successes and shortcomings from a theoretical and observational perspective. In chapter 3 we begin with a relatively simple analytic model for disks around young, high mass stars, showing that instability in these disks may be responsible for the higher multiplicity fraction of massive stars, and perhaps the upper mass to which they grow. We extend these models in chapter 4 to explore the properties of disks and the formation of binary companions across a broad range of stellar masses. In particular, we model the role of global and local mechanisms for angular momentum transport in regulating the relative masses of disks and stars. We follow the evolution of these disks throughout the main accretion phase of the system, and predict the trajectory of disks through parameter space. We follow up on the predictions made in our analytic models with a series of high resolution, global numerical experiments in chapter 5. Here we propose and test a new parameterization for describing rapidly accreting, gravitationally unstable disks. We find that disk properties and system multiplicity can be mapped out well in this parameter space. Finally, in chapter 6, we address whether our studies of unstable disks are relevant to recently detected massive planets on wide orbits around their central stars.

  10. Effect of Stellar Encounters on Comet Cloud Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, A.; Kokubo, E.

    2015-07-01

    We have investigated the effect of stellar encounters on the formation and disruption of the Oort cloud using the classical impulse approximation. We calculate the evolution of a planetesimal disk into a spherical Oort cloud due to the perturbation from passing stars for 10 Gyr. We obtain the empirical fits of the e-folding time for the number of Oort cloud comets using the standard exponential and Kohlrausch formulae as functions of the stellar parameters and the initial semimajor axes of planetesimals. The e-folding time and the evolution timescales of the orbital elements are also analytically derived. In some calculations, the effect of the Galactic tide is additionally considered. We also show the radial variations of the e-folding times to the Oort cloud. From these timescales, we show that if the initial planetesimal disk has the semimajor axes distribution {dn}/{da}\\propto {a}-2, which is produced by planetary scattering, the e-folding time for planetesimals in the Oort cloud is ∼10 Gyr at any heliocentric distance r. This uniform e-folding time over the Oort cloud means that the supply of comets from the inner Oort cloud to the outer Oort cloud is sufficiently effective to keep the comet distribution as {dn}/{dr}\\propto {r}-2. We also show that the final distribution of the semimajor axes in the Oort cloud is approximately proportional to {a}-2 for any initial distribution.

  11. The simultaneous formation of massive stars and stellar clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Rowan J.; Longmore, Steven; Bonnell, Ian

    2009-12-01

    We show that massive stars and stellar clusters are formed simultaneously, the global evolution of the forming cluster is what allows the central stars to become massive. We predict that massive star-forming clumps, such as those observed in Motte et al., contract and grow in mass leading to the formation of massive stars. This occurs as mass is continually channelled from large radii on to the central protostars, which can become massive through accretion. Using smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of massive star-forming clumps in a giant molecular cloud, we show that clumps are initially diffuse and filamentary, and become more concentrated as they collapse. Simulated interferometry observations of our data provide an explanation as to why young massive star-forming regions show more substructure than older ones. The most massive stars in our model are found within the most bound cluster. Most of the mass accreted by the massive stars was originally distributed throughout the clump at low densities and was later funnelled to the star due to global infall. Even with radiative feedback no massive pre-stellar cores are formed. The original cores are of intermediate mass and gain their additional mass in the protostellar stage. We also find that cores which form low-mass stars exist within the volume from which the high-mass stars accrete, but are largely unaffected by this process.

  12. The Formation of Brown Dwarfs as Ejected Stellar Embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, Bo; Clarke, Cathie

    2001-07-01

    We conjecture that brown dwarfs are substellar objects because they have been ejected from small newborn multiple systems that have decayed in dynamical interactions. In this view, brown dwarfs are stellar embryos for which the star formation process was aborted before the hydrostatic cores could build up enough mass to eventually start hydrogen burning. The disintegration of a small multiple system is a stochastic process, which can be described only in terms of the half-life of the decay. A stellar embryo competes with its siblings in order to accrete infalling matter, and the one that grows slowest is most likely to be ejected. With better luck, a brown dwarf would therefore have become a normal star. This interpretation of brown dwarfs readily explains the rarity of brown dwarfs as close companions to normal stars, the absence of wide brown dwarf binaries, and the flattening of the low-mass end of the initial mass function. Possible observational tests of this scenario include statistics of brown dwarfs near Class 0 sources and the kinematics of brown dwarfs in star-forming regions, while they still retain a kinematic signature of their expulsion. Because the ejection process limits the amount of gas brought along in a disk, it is predicted that substellar equivalents to the classical T Tauri stars should be rather short-lived.

  13. Planet formation in multiple stellar systems: GG Tau A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Folco, E.; Dutrey, A.; Guilloteau, S.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Lacour, S.; Berger, J.-P.; Köhler, R.; Piétu, V.

    2014-12-01

    GG Tau is a hierarchical quadruple system of young, low-mass stars. Because of its well-studied bright circumbinary ring of dust and gas surrounding the main binary GG Tau A, it is a unique laboratory to study planet formation in the disturbed environment of binary/multiple stellar systems. We have started a large observing program of GG Tau A that combines several high-resolution instruments in a multi-wavelength approach. We have recently reported the detection of a new low-mass companion in GG Tau A that turns out to itself be a triple system. This discovery was possible thanks to the very high angular resolution of the near-IR instrument PIONIER on the VLT interferometer, and was confirmed with sub-aperture masking techniques on VLT/NaCo. The detected close binary GG Tau Ab (ρ = 0.032'', or about 5 AU) provides a natural explanation for two enigmas: the discrepancy between the dynamical mass and the spectral type estimates in GG Tau A, and the absence of dust thermal emission in the vicinity of the Ab component. GRAVITY will provide the adequate angular resolution to complete the astrometric characterization of the close binary in the next 10 years. With now 5 coeval low-mass stars, GG Tau is an ideal laboratory to calibrate stellar evolution tracks at young ages (few Myr). Beyond this peculiar system, GRAVITY also has a strong potential to study the impact of multiplicity on the existence of disks, and in fine on planet formation mechanisms in multiple systems.

  14. Complex molecule formation around massive young stellar objects.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Karin I; Fayolle, Edith C; Reiter, John B; Cyganowski, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Interstellar complex organic molecules were first identified in the hot inner regions of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs), but have more recently been found in many colder sources, indicating that complex molecules can form at a range of temperatures. However, individually these observations provide limited constraints on how complex molecules form, and whether the same formation pathways dominate in cold, warm and hot environments. To address these questions, we use spatially resolved observations from the Submillimeter Array of three MYSOs together with mostly unresolved literature data to explore how molecular ratios depend on environmental parameters, especially temperature. Towards the three MYSOs, we find multiple complex organic emission peaks characterized by different molecular compositions and temperatures. In particular, CH3CCH and CH3CN seem to always trace a lukewarm (T = 60 K) and a hot (T > 100 K) complex chemistry, respectively. These spatial trends are consistent with abundance-temperature correlations of four representative complex organics--CH3CCH, CH3CN, CH3OCH3 and CH3CHO--in a large sample of complex molecule hosts mined from the literature. Together, these results indicate a general chemical evolution with temperature, i.e. that new complex molecule formation pathways are activated as a MYSO heats up. This is qualitatively consistent with model predictions. Furthermore, these results suggest that ratios of complex molecules may be developed into a powerful probe of the evolutionary stage of a MYSO, and may provide information about its formation history. PMID:25302375

  15. Complex molecule formation around massive young stellar objects.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Karin I; Fayolle, Edith C; Reiter, John B; Cyganowski, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Interstellar complex organic molecules were first identified in the hot inner regions of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs), but have more recently been found in many colder sources, indicating that complex molecules can form at a range of temperatures. However, individually these observations provide limited constraints on how complex molecules form, and whether the same formation pathways dominate in cold, warm and hot environments. To address these questions, we use spatially resolved observations from the Submillimeter Array of three MYSOs together with mostly unresolved literature data to explore how molecular ratios depend on environmental parameters, especially temperature. Towards the three MYSOs, we find multiple complex organic emission peaks characterized by different molecular compositions and temperatures. In particular, CH3CCH and CH3CN seem to always trace a lukewarm (T = 60 K) and a hot (T > 100 K) complex chemistry, respectively. These spatial trends are consistent with abundance-temperature correlations of four representative complex organics--CH3CCH, CH3CN, CH3OCH3 and CH3CHO--in a large sample of complex molecule hosts mined from the literature. Together, these results indicate a general chemical evolution with temperature, i.e. that new complex molecule formation pathways are activated as a MYSO heats up. This is qualitatively consistent with model predictions. Furthermore, these results suggest that ratios of complex molecules may be developed into a powerful probe of the evolutionary stage of a MYSO, and may provide information about its formation history.

  16. Formation of the first galaxies under Population III stellar feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Myoungwon

    2015-01-01

    will discuss key physical quantities of the first galaxies derived from our simulations, such as their stellar population mix, star formation rates, metallicities, and resulting broad-band color and recombination spectra.

  17. DISSIPATION AND EXTRA LIGHT IN GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. 'CUSP' ELLIPTICALS

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Cox, Thomas J.; Dutta, Suvendra N.; Hernquist, Lars; Kormendy, John; Lauer, Tod R.

    2009-03-15

    light contributes to making remnants rounder and diskier, and imprints stellar population gradients. Simulations with the gas content needed to match observed surface brightness profiles reproduce the observed age, metallicity, and color gradients of cusp ellipticals, and we make predictions for how these can be used as tracers of the degree of dissipation in spheroid formation.

  18. THE OBSERVED RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, DUST EXTINCTION, AND STAR FORMATION RATE IN LOCAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zahid, H. J.; Kewley, L. J.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Yates, R. M.

    2013-02-15

    In this study, we investigate the relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and star formation rate (SFR) using {approx}150,000 star-forming galaxies from SDSS DR7. We show that the relation between dust extinction and SFR changes with stellar mass. For galaxies at the same stellar mass, dust extinction is anti-correlated with the SFR at stellar masses <10{sup 10} M {sub Sun }. There is a sharp transition in the relation at a stellar mass of 10{sup 10} M {sub Sun }. At larger stellar masses, dust extinction is positively correlated with the SFR for galaxies at the same stellar mass. The observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR presented in this study helps to confirm similar trends observed in the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR. The relation reported in this study provides important new constraints on the physical processes governing the chemical evolution of galaxies. The correlation between SFR and dust extinction for galaxies with stellar masses >10{sup 10} M {sub Sun} is shown to extend to the population of quiescent galaxies suggesting that the physical processes responsible for the observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR may be related to the processes leading to the shutdown of star formation in galaxies.

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of talon cusps in Turkish population

    PubMed Central

    Guven, Yeliz; Kasimoglu, Yelda; Tuna, Elif Bahar; Gencay, Koray; Aktoren, Oya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Talon cusp is a rare dental anomaly characterized by a cusp-like projection, often including the palatal surface of the affected tooth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of talon cusps in a group of Turkish children. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 14,400 subjects who attended the clinics of the Department of Pediatric Dentistry at the Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey. Subjects ranged in age from 1 to 14 years with a mean age of 10.5 ± 2.55 years. Talon cusps were mainly categorized by visual examination according to the classification of Hattab et al. The distribution and frequency of talon cusps were calculated with respect to dentition type, tooth type, talon type, the affected surface, associated dental anomalies, and clinical complications. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, frequencies, and crosstabs with Chi-square analysis. Results: Talon cusps were detected in 49 subjects (26 males and 23 females) of 14,400 (0.34%). A total of 108 teeth showed talon cusps. Distribution of talon cusps according to gender showed no statistically significant differences. The incidence of talon cusps was found to be greater in maxillary lateral incisors (53.7%) than central incisors (29.62%). Regarding the type of talon cusp, 47.22% of teeth showed a Type III talon cusp, whereas 30.55% of teeth demonstrated a Type II talon and 22.22% of teeth demonstrated a Type I talon cusp. Nine patients (18.36%) with talon cups also exhibited other developmental dental anomalies. Clinical complications associated with talon cusps were detected as caries formation and occlusal interference. Conclusion: This is the most comprehensive study of the prevalence of talon cusps in Turkish population using the largest sample size to date. Also, taurodontism associated with a talon cusp has been reported here for the 1st time. Clinical complications associated with talon cusps need more

  20. [Prevalence of talon cusp in patients aged 7-18].

    PubMed

    Mavrodisz, Katalin; Budai, Mária; Tarján, Ildikó

    2003-12-01

    Talon cusp is an uncommon malformation. The aetiology is unknown although it is thought to be the combination of genetic and environmental factors. The purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence of talon cusps in children aged 7-18. 600 model casts were examined in the Pedodontic and Orthodontic Department of the Semmelweis University. Classification of talon cusps used was based on the degree of formation and extension by Hattab et al [6]. 12 talon cusps were found in the group of type 1, two were found in group of type 2 and one in type 3. The prevalence of talon cusps was 2.5%, mostly on the upper permanent lateral incisors. In four cases it was bilateral. The prevalence of talon cusps was more frequent in males compared to females. The early recognition of the anomaly is important from the therapeutic point of view (placement of sealant, periodic reduction of the cusp). PMID:14971262

  1. Spatially Resolved Spectroscopic Star Formation Histories of nearby Disks: Hints of Stellar Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoachim, Peter; Roškar, Rok; Debattista, Victor P.

    2012-06-01

    We use the Mitchell Spectrograph (formerly VIRUS-P) to observe 12 nearby disk galaxies. We successfully measure ages in the outer disk in six systems. In three cases (NGC 2684, NGC 6155, and NGC 7437), we find that a downward break in the disk surface brightness profile corresponds with a change in the dominant stellar population with the interior being dominated by active star formation and the exterior having older stellar populations that are best fit with star formation histories that decline with time. The observed increase in average stellar ages beyond a profile break is similar to theoretical models that predict surface brightness breaks are caused by stellar migration, with the outer disk being populated from scattered old interior stars. In three more cases (IC 1132, NGC 4904, and NGC 6691), we find no significant change in the stellar population as one crosses the break radius. In these galaxies, both the inner and outer disks are dominated by active star formation and younger stellar populations. While radial migration can contribute to the stellar populations beyond the break, it appears that more than one mechanism is required to explain all of our observed stellar profile breaks. This paper includes data taken at The McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin.

  2. SPATIALLY RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPIC STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF NEARBY DISKS: HINTS OF STELLAR MIGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Yoachim, Peter; Roskar, Rok; Debattista, Victor P.

    2012-06-20

    We use the Mitchell Spectrograph (formerly VIRUS-P) to observe 12 nearby disk galaxies. We successfully measure ages in the outer disk in six systems. In three cases (NGC 2684, NGC 6155, and NGC 7437), we find that a downward break in the disk surface brightness profile corresponds with a change in the dominant stellar population with the interior being dominated by active star formation and the exterior having older stellar populations that are best fit with star formation histories that decline with time. The observed increase in average stellar ages beyond a profile break is similar to theoretical models that predict surface brightness breaks are caused by stellar migration, with the outer disk being populated from scattered old interior stars. In three more cases (IC 1132, NGC 4904, and NGC 6691), we find no significant change in the stellar population as one crosses the break radius. In these galaxies, both the inner and outer disks are dominated by active star formation and younger stellar populations. While radial migration can contribute to the stellar populations beyond the break, it appears that more than one mechanism is required to explain all of our observed stellar profile breaks.

  3. The study of electromagnetic cusp solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Deepa; Das, Amita; Kaw, Predhiman; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar

    2015-01-15

    The formation of a cusp structure in the envelope of electromagnetic solitons for electron-ion plasma at the ion wave breaking point has been shown by Farina and Bulanov [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5289 (2001)]. The analytical form of the cusp structure has been obtained here. The analytical form of the cusp is shown to compare well with the exact numerically obtained solutions. Such cusp solitons occurring at the ion wave breaking point may have relevance to ion acceleration mechanism. In an effort towards studying the dynamical stability of such structures, the time evolution studies have been carried out which show that the structure survives for several plasma periods. However, ultimately it breaks apart due to the instability associated with the forward Raman scattering.

  4. Stellar collapse and the formation of black holes.

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, C. L.; Dupuis, R.

    2003-01-01

    We review the engines behind neutrino-driven supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. Combined with our understanding of the convection-enhanced, neutrino-driven supernova mechanism, the stellar collapse can explain all of the supernova-like explosions observed from normal supernovae, to weak explosions and jet-like hypernovae. Combining this theoretical understanding with observations suggests that the collapsar rate is roughly 1/1000th that of normal supernovae.

  5. Stellar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This eerie, dark structure, resembling an imaginary sea serpent's head, is a column of cool molecular hydrogen gas (two atoms of hydrogen in each molecule) and dust that is an incubator for new stars. The stars are embedded inside finger-like protrusions extending from the top of the nebula. Each 'fingertip' is somewhat larger than our own solar system. The pillar is slowly eroding away by the ultraviolet light from nearby hot stars, a process called 'photoevaporation.' As it does, small globules of especially dense gas buried within the cloud is uncovered. These globules have been dubbed 'EGGs' -- an acronym for 'Evaporating Gaseous Globules.' The shadows of the EGGs protect gas behind them, resulting in the finger-like structures at the top of the cloud. Forming inside at least some of the EGGs are embryonic stars -- stars that abruptly stop growing when the EGGs are uncovered and they are separated from the larger reservoir of gas from which they were drawing mass. Eventually the stars emerge, as the EGGs themselves succumb to photoevaporation. The stellar EGGS are found, appropriately enough, in the 'Eagle Nebula' (also called M16 -- the 16th object in Charles Messier's 18th century catalog of 'fuzzy' permanent objects in the sky), a nearby star-forming region 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Serpens. The picture was taken on April 1, 1995 with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The color image is constructed from three separate images taken in the light of emission from different types of atoms. Red shows emission from singly-ionized sulfur atoms. Green shows emission from hydrogen. Blue shows light emitted by doubly-ionized oxygen atoms.

  6. The importance of stellar feedback for high-redshift galaxy populations in hierarchical formation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschmann, Michaela; De Lucia, Gabriella

    2015-08-01

    One major deficiency of most state-of-the-art galaxy formation models consists in their inability of capturing the observed galaxy downsizing trend as they significantly over-estimate the number density of low-mass galaxies at high redshifts. This points towards fundamental modifications in modeling the interplay between star formation and stellar feedback. Employing an enhanced galaxy formation model with a full chemical enrichment scheme, we present an improved model for stellar feedback (based on parametrizations extracted from cosmological zoom simulations), in which strong gas outflows happen due to bursty star formation at high redshift, while star formation is mainly "quiescent" not causing any significant outflows anymore at low redshift. Due to the stronger gas outflows at high z, early star formation is strongly delayed towards later times in good agreement with abundance matching predictions. As a consequence, also metal enrichment gets significantly delayed, resulting in a much more realistic redshift evolution of the gaseous metallicity. Overall, with our new stellar feedback model, we can successfully reproduce many observational constraints, such as the redshift evolution of the stellar mass function and of the SFR function, the gaseous and stellar metallicity content, the cold gas fractions and the fraction of quiescent/red galaxies at both low and high redshifts. The resulting new-generation galaxy catalogues based on that model are expected to significantly contribute to the interpretation of current and up-coming large-scale surveys (HST, JWST, Euclid) which in turn may also help to further constrain feedback models.

  7. THE STELLAR POPULATION AND STAR FORMATION PROPERTIES OF BLUE COMPACT DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Yinghe; Gao Yu; Gu Qiusheng E-mail: yugao@pmo.ac.cn

    2011-02-15

    We study stellar populations, star formation histories (SFHs), and star formation properties for a sample of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) selected by cross-correlating the Gil de Paz et al. sample with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6. The sample includes 31 BCDs, which span a large range of galactic parameters. Using a stellar population synthesis method, we derive stellar populations and reconstruct SFHs for these BCDs. Our studies confirm that BCDs are not young systems experiencing their first star formation, but old systems undergoing a starburst activity. The stellar mass-weighted ages can be up to 10 Gyr, while the luminosity-weighted ages might be up to approximately three orders of magnitude younger ({approx}10 Myr) for most galaxies. Based on multiwavelength data, we also study the integrated star formation properties. The star formation rate (SFR) for our sample galaxies spans nearly three orders of magnitude, from a few 10{sup -3} to {approx}1 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, with a median value of {approx}0.1 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. We find that about 90% of BCDs in our sample have their birthrate parameter (the ratio of the current SFR to the averaged past SFR) b>2-3. We further discuss correlations of the current SFR with the integrated galactic stellar mass and explore the connection between SFR and metallicity.

  8. ON THE FORMATION OF HOT JUPITERS IN STELLAR BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Naoz, Smadar; Farr, Will M.; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2012-08-01

    We study the production of hot Jupiters (HJs) in stellar binaries. We show that the 'eccentric Kozai-Lidov' (EKL) mechanism can play a key role in the dynamical evolution of a star-planet-star triple system. We run a large set of Monte Carlo simulations including the secular evolution of the orbits, general relativistic precession, and tides, and we determine the semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, and spin-orbit angle distributions of the HJs that are produced. We explore the effect of different tidal friction parameters on the results. We find that the efficiency of forming HJs when taking the EKL mechanism into account is higher then previously estimated. Accounting for the frequency of stellar binaries, we find that this production mechanism can account for about 30% of the observed HJ population. Current observations of spin-orbit angles are consistent with this mechanism producing {approx}30% of all HJs, and up to 100% of the misaligned systems. Based on the properties of binaries without an HJ in our simulations, we predict the existence of many Jupiter-like planets with moderately eccentric and inclined orbits and semimajor axes of several AU.

  9. The formation of stellar systems from interstellar molecular clouds.

    PubMed

    Gehrz, R D; Black, D C; Solomon, P M

    1984-05-25

    Star formation, a crucial link in the chain of events that led from the early expansion of the universe to the formation of the solar system, continues to play a major role in the evolution of many galaxies. Observational and theoretical studies of regions of ongoing star formation provide insight into the physical conditions and events that must have attended the formation of the solar system. Such investigations also elucidate the role played by star formation in the evolutionary cycle which appears to dominate the chemical processing of interstellar material by successive generations of stars in spiral galaxies like our own. New astronomical facilities planned for development during the 1980's could lead to significant advances in our understanding of the star formation process. Efforts to identify and examine both the elusive protostellar collapse phase of star formation and planetary systems around nearby stars will be especially significant.

  10. Galaxies on FIRE (Feedback In Realistic Environments): stellar feedback explains cosmologically inefficient star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Kereš, Dušan; Oñorbe, José; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Quataert, Eliot; Murray, Norman; Bullock, James S.

    2014-11-01

    We present a series of high-resolution cosmological simulations1 of galaxy formation to z = 0, spanning halo masses ˜108-1013 M⊙, and stellar masses ˜104-1011 M⊙. Our simulations include fully explicit treatment of the multiphase interstellar medium and stellar feedback. The stellar feedback inputs (energy, momentum, mass, and metal fluxes) are taken directly from stellar population models. These sources of feedback, with zero adjusted parameters, reproduce the observed relation between stellar and halo mass up to Mhalo ˜ 1012 M⊙. We predict weak redshift evolution in the M*-Mhalo relation, consistent with current constraints to z > 6. We find that the M*-Mhalo relation is insensitive to numerical details, but is sensitive to feedback physics. Simulations with only supernova feedback fail to reproduce observed stellar masses, particularly in dwarf and high-redshift galaxies: radiative feedback (photoheating and radiation pressure) is necessary to destroy giant molecular clouds and enable efficient coupling of later supernovae to the gas. Star formation rates (SFRs) agree well with the observed Kennicutt relation at all redshifts. The galaxy-averaged Kennicutt relation is very different from the numerically imposed law for converting gas into stars, and is determined by self-regulation via stellar feedback. Feedback reduces SFRs and produces reservoirs of gas that lead to rising late-time star formation histories, significantly different from halo accretion histories. Feedback also produces large short-time-scale variability in galactic SFRs, especially in dwarfs. These properties are not captured by common `sub-grid' wind models.

  11. Chromospheric dust formation, stellar masers and mass loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stencel, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    A multistep scenario which describes a plausible mass loss mechanism associated with red giant and related stars is outlined. The process involves triggering a condensation instability in an extended chromosphere, leading to the formation of cool, dense clouds which are conducive to the formation of molecules and dust grains. Once formed, the dust can be driven away from the star by radiation pressure. Consistency with various observed phenomena is discussed.

  12. On the Incorporation of Metallicity Data into Measurements of Star Formation History from Resolved Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2016-07-01

    The combination of spectroscopic stellar metallicities and resolved star color–magnitude diagrams (CMDs) has the potential to constrain the entire star formation history (SFH) of a galaxy better than fitting CMDs alone (as is most common in SFH studies using resolved stellar populations). In this paper, two approaches to incorporating external metallicity information into CMD-fitting techniques are presented. Overall, the joint fitting of metallicity and CMD information can increase the precision of measured age–metallicity relationships (AMRs) and star formation rates by 10% over CMD fitting alone. However, systematics in stellar isochrones and mismatches between spectroscopic and photometric determinations of metallicity can reduce the accuracy of the recovered SFHs. I present a simple mitigation of these systematics that can reduce their amplitude to the level obtained from CMD fitting alone, while ensuring that the AMR is consistent with spectroscopic metallicities. As is the case in CMD-fitting analysis, improved stellar models and calibrations between spectroscopic and photometric metallicities are currently the primary impediment to gains in SFH precision from jointly fitting stellar metallicities and CMDs.

  13. Binary interactions as a possible scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Dengkai; Han, Zhanwen; Li, Lifang E-mail: zhanwenhan@ynao.ac.cn

    2014-07-01

    Observations have revealed the presence of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters (GCs) that exhibit wide abundance variations and multiple sequences in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. We present a scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in GCs. In this scenario, initial GCs are single-generation clusters, and our model predicts that the stars with anomalous abundances observed in GCs are merged stars and accretor stars produced by binary interactions—rapidly rotating stars at the moment of their formation—and that these stars are more massive than normal single stars in the same evolutionary stage. We find that, due to their own evolution, these rapidly rotating stars have surface abundances, effective temperatures, and luminosities that are different from normal single stars in the same evolutionary stage. This stellar population of binaries reproduces two important points of observational evidence of multiple stellar populations: a Na-O anticorrelation and multiple sequences in the HR diagram. This evidence suggests that binary interactions may be a possible scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in GCs.

  14. Equatorial disk formation around rotating stars due to ram pressure confinement by the stellar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, J. E.; Cassinelli, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    The axisymmetric 2D supersonic solution of a rotating, radiation-driven stellar wind presently obtained by a simple approximation predicts the formation of a dense equatorial disk, when the star's rotation rate lies above a threshold value that depends on the ratio of the wind's terminal speed to the escape speed of the star. The disk is formed because the trajectories of the wind leaving the stellar surface at high latitudes carry it down to the equatorial plane; there, the material passes through a standing oblique shock atop the disk; it is therefore the ram pressure of the polar wind that compresses and confines the disk.

  15. Alternative cosmology from cusp geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Reinaldo; Herbin Stalder Díaz, Diego

    We study an alternative geometrical approach on the problem of classical cosmological singularity. It is based on a generalized function f(x,y)=x(2+y^2=(1-z)z^n) which consists of a cusped projected coupled isosurface. Such a projected geometry is computed and analized into the context of Friedmann singularity-free cosmology where a pre-big bang scenario is considered. Assuming that the mechanism of cusp formation is described by non-linear oscillations of a pre- big bang extended very high energy density field (>3x10^{94} kg/m^3$), we show that the action under the gravitational field follows a tautochrone of revolution, understood here as the primary projected geometry that alternatively replaces the Friedmann singularity in the standard big bang theory. As shown here this new approach allows us to interpret the nature of both matter and dark energy from first geometric principles [1]. [1] Rosa et al. DOI: 10.1063/1.4756991

  16. TOWARD A COMPLETE ACCOUNTING OF ENERGY AND MOMENTUM FROM STELLAR FEEDBACK IN GALAXY FORMATION SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Agertz, Oscar; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Leitner, Samuel N.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2013-06-10

    We investigate the momentum and energy budget of stellar feedback during different stages of stellar evolution, and study its impact on the interstellar medium (ISM) using simulations of local star-forming regions and galactic disks at the resolution affordable in modern cosmological zoom-in simulations. In particular, we present a novel subgrid model for the momentum injection due to radiation pressure and stellar winds from massive stars during early, pre-supernova (pre-SN) evolutionary stages of young star clusters. Early injection of momentum acts to clear out dense gas in star-forming regions, hence limiting star formation. The reduced gas density mitigates radiative losses of thermal feedback energy from subsequent SN explosions. The detailed impact of stellar feedback depends sensitively on the implementation and choice of parameters. Somewhat encouragingly, we find that implementations in which feedback is efficient lead to approximate self-regulation of the global star formation efficiency. We compare simulation results using our feedback implementation to other phenomenological feedback methods, where thermal feedback energy is allowed to dissipate over timescales longer than the formal gas cooling time. We find that simulations with maximal momentum injection suppress star formation to a similar degree as is found in simulations adopting adiabatic thermal feedback. However, different feedback schemes are found to produce significant differences in the density and thermodynamic structure of the ISM, and are hence expected to have a qualitatively different impact on galaxy evolution.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF THE STAR FORMATION RATE, SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATE, AND THE PRESENCE OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FOR HIGH STELLAR MASS AND LOW STELLAR MASS GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Xinfa; Song Jun; Chen Yiqing; Jiang Peng; Ding Yingping

    2012-07-10

    Using two volume-limited main galaxy samples of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 (SDSS DR8), we explore the environmental dependence of the star formation rate (SFR), specific star formation rate (SSFR), and the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) for high stellar mass (HSM) and low stellar mass (LSM) galaxies. It is found that the environmental dependence of the SFR and SSFR for luminous HSM galaxies and faint LSM ones remains very strong: galaxies in the lowest density regime preferentially have higher SFR and SSFR than galaxies in the densest regime, while the environmental dependence of the SFR and SSFR for luminous LSM galaxies is substantially reduced. Our result also shows that the fraction of AGNs in HSM galaxies decreases as a function of density, while the one in LSM galaxies depends very little on local density. In the faint LSM galaxy sample, the SFR and SSFR of galaxies strongly decrease with increasing density, but the fraction of AGNs depends very little on local density. Such a result can rule out that AGNs are fueled by the cold gas in the disk component of galaxies that is also driving the star formation of those galaxies.

  18. Dual Stellar Halos in Early-type Galaxies and Formation of Massive Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Jang, In Sung

    2016-08-01

    M105 in the Leo I Group is a textbook example of a standard elliptical galaxy. It is only one of the few elliptical galaxies for which we can study their stellar halos using the resolved stars. It is an ideal target to study the structure and composition of stellar halos in elliptical galaxies. We present photometry and metallicity of the resolved stars in the inner and outer regions of M105. These provide strong evidence that there are two distinct stellar halos in this galaxy, a metal-poor (blue) halo and a metal-rich (red) halo. Then we compare them with those in other early-type galaxies and use the dual halo mode formation scenario to describe how massive galaxies formed.

  19. The dynamic cusp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potemra, T. A.; Erlandson, R. E.; Zanetti, L. J.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Woch, J.; Friis-Christensen, E.

    1992-01-01

    Results of a study of satellite and ground-based data acquired near the dayside cusp during a period when the IMF was inferred to have a strong northward component are presented. The presence of Pc 1 bursts, Pc 4-5 pulsations, and a tailward traveling twin vortex pattern of ionospheric convection suggests that the magnetosphere may have been temporarily compressed. Magnetic field data acquired at a synchronous altitude from GOES 5 and on the ground from Huanacayo support this suggestion. Plasma with ion dispersion characteristics associated with a cusp during southward IMF was detected by Viking over a 3.5-deg range of latitude. The presence of standing Alfven waves and ring current ions suggests that this 'cusplike' plasma was observed on closed geomagnetic field lines. It is suggested that the magnetosphere, during a northward IMF, is temporarily compressed by a solar wind pressure enhancement that produces the Pc 1 bursts, Pc 4-5 pulsations, and ionospheric vortices.

  20. STAR FORMATION IN DISK GALAXIES. III. DOES STELLAR FEEDBACK RESULT IN CLOUD DEATH?

    SciTech Connect

    Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Wadsley, James; Pudritz, Ralph

    2015-03-01

    Stellar feedback, star formation, and gravitational interactions are major controlling forces in the evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). To explore their relative roles, we examine the properties and evolution of GMCs forming in an isolated galactic disk simulation that includes both localized thermal feedback and photoelectric heating. The results are compared with the three previous simulations in this series, which consists of a model with no star formation, star formation but no form of feedback, and star formation with photoelectric heating in a set with steadily increasing physical effects. We find that the addition of localized thermal feedback greatly suppresses star formation but does not destroy the surrounding GMC, giving cloud properties closely resembling the run in which no stellar physics is included. The outflows from the feedback reduce the mass of the cloud but do not destroy it, allowing the cloud to survive its stellar children. This suggests that weak thermal feedback such as the lower bound expected for a supernova may play a relatively minor role in the galactic structure of quiescent Milky-Way-type galaxies, compared to gravitational interactions and disk shear.

  1. Formation of new stellar populations from gas accreted by massive young star clusters.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengyuan; de Grijs, Richard; Deng, Licai; Geller, Aaron M; Xin, Yu; Hu, Yi; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2016-01-28

    Stars in clusters are thought to form in a single burst from a common progenitor cloud of molecular gas. However, massive, old 'globular' clusters--those with ages greater than ten billion years and masses several hundred thousand times that of the Sun--often harbour multiple stellar populations, indicating that more than one star-forming event occurred during their lifetimes. Colliding stellar winds from late-stage, asymptotic-giant-branch stars are often suggested to be triggers of second-generation star formation. For this to occur, the initial cluster masses need to be greater than a few million solar masses. Here we report observations of three massive relatively young star clusters (1-2 billion years old) in the Magellanic Clouds that show clear evidence of burst-like star formation that occurred a few hundred million years after their initial formation era. We show that such clusters could have accreted sufficient gas to form new stars if they had orbited in their host galaxies' gaseous disks throughout the period between their initial formation and the more recent bursts of star formation. This process may eventually give rise to the ubiquitous multiple stellar populations in globular clusters. PMID:26819043

  2. Formation of new stellar populations from gas accreted by massive young star clusters.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengyuan; de Grijs, Richard; Deng, Licai; Geller, Aaron M; Xin, Yu; Hu, Yi; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2016-01-28

    Stars in clusters are thought to form in a single burst from a common progenitor cloud of molecular gas. However, massive, old 'globular' clusters--those with ages greater than ten billion years and masses several hundred thousand times that of the Sun--often harbour multiple stellar populations, indicating that more than one star-forming event occurred during their lifetimes. Colliding stellar winds from late-stage, asymptotic-giant-branch stars are often suggested to be triggers of second-generation star formation. For this to occur, the initial cluster masses need to be greater than a few million solar masses. Here we report observations of three massive relatively young star clusters (1-2 billion years old) in the Magellanic Clouds that show clear evidence of burst-like star formation that occurred a few hundred million years after their initial formation era. We show that such clusters could have accreted sufficient gas to form new stars if they had orbited in their host galaxies' gaseous disks throughout the period between their initial formation and the more recent bursts of star formation. This process may eventually give rise to the ubiquitous multiple stellar populations in globular clusters.

  3. THE AGE, STELLAR CONTENT, AND STAR FORMATION TIMESCALE OF THE B59 DENSE CORE

    SciTech Connect

    Covey, K. R.; Lada, C. J.; Muench, A. A.; Forbrich, J.; Ascenso, J.; Roman-Zuniga, C.

    2010-10-20

    We have investigated the stellar content of Barnard 59 (B59), the most active star-forming core in the Pipe Nebula. Using the SpeX spectrograph on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, we obtained moderate resolution, near-infrared (NIR) spectra for 20 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in B59 and a representative sample of NIR and mid-IR bright sources distributed throughout the Pipe. Measuring luminosity and temperature sensitive features in these spectra, we identified likely background giant stars and measured each star's spectral type, extinction, and NIR continuum excess. To measure B59's age, we place its candidate YSOs in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and compare their location to YSOs in several well-studied star-forming regions, as well as predictions of pre-main-sequence (PMS) evolutionary models. We find that B59 is composed of late-type (K4-M6) low-mass (0.9-0.1 M{sub sun}) YSOs whose median stellar age is comparable to, if not slightly older than, that of YSOs within the {rho} Oph, Taurus, and Chameleon star-forming regions. Deriving absolute age estimates from PMS models computed by D'Antona et al., and accounting only for statistical uncertainties, we measure B59's median stellar age to be 2.6 {+-} 0.8 Myr. Including potential systematic effects increases the error budget for B59's median (DM98) stellar age to 2.6{sup +4.1}{sub -2.6} Myr. We also find that the relative age orderings implied by PMS evolutionary tracks depend on the range of stellar masses sampled, as model isochrones possess significantly different mass dependences. The maximum likelihood median stellar age we measure for B59, and the region's observed gas properties, suggests that the B59 dense core has been stable against global collapse for roughly six dynamical timescales and is actively forming stars with a star formation efficiency per dynamical time of {approx}6%. While the {approx}150% uncertainties associated with our age measurement propagate directly into these

  4. Effects of stellar rotation on star formation rates and comparison to core-collapse supernova rates

    SciTech Connect

    Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Beacom, John F.; Bothwell, Matt S.; Thompson, Todd A.

    2013-06-01

    We investigate star formation rate (SFR) calibrations in light of recent developments in the modeling of stellar rotation. Using new published non-rotating and rotating stellar tracks, we study the integrated properties of synthetic stellar populations and find that the UV to SFR calibration for the rotating stellar population is 30% smaller than for the non-rotating stellar population, and 40% smaller for the Hα to SFR calibration. These reductions translate to smaller SFR estimates made from observed UV and Hα luminosities. Using the UV and Hα fluxes of a sample of ∼300 local galaxies, we derive a total (i.e., sky-coverage corrected) SFR within 11 Mpc of 120-170 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and 80-130 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for the non-rotating and rotating estimators, respectively. Independently, the number of core-collapse supernovae discovered in the same volume requires a total SFR of 270{sub −80}{sup +110} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, suggesting a tension with the SFR estimates made with rotating calibrations. More generally, when compared with the directly estimated SFR, the local supernova discoveries strongly constrain any physical effects that might increase the energy output of massive stars, including, but not limited to, stellar rotation. The cosmic SFR and cosmic supernova rate data, on the other hand, show the opposite trend, with the cosmic SFR higher than that inferred from cosmic supernovae, constraining a significant decrease in the energy output of massive stars. Together, these lines of evidence suggest that the true SFR calibration factors cannot be too far from their canonical values.

  5. Ages, chemistry, and type 1A supernovae: Clues to the formation of the galactic stellar halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1993-01-01

    We endeavor to resolve two conflicting constraints on the duration of the formation of the Galactic stellar halo - 2-3 Gyr age differences in halo stars, and the time scale inferred from the observed constant values of chemical element abundance ratios characteristic of enrichment by Type II supernovae - by investigating the time scale for the onset of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) in the currently favored progenitor model - mergers of carbon and oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs).

  6. Star Formation and Young Stellar Content in the W3 Giant Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Ingraham, Alana; Martin, Peter G.; Polychroni, Danae; Moore, Toby J. T.

    2011-12-01

    In this work, we have carried out an in-depth analysis of the young stellar content in the W3 giant molecular cloud (GMC). The young stellar object (YSO) population was identified and classified in the Infrared Array Camera/Multiband Imaging Photometer color-magnitude space according to the "Class" scheme and compared to other classifications based on intrinsic properties. Class 0/I and II candidates were also compared to low-/intermediate-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars selected through their colors and magnitudes in the Two Micron All Sky Survey. We find that a reliable color/magnitude selection of low-mass PMS stars in the infrared requires prior knowledge of the protostar population, while intermediate-mass objects can be more reliably identified. By means of the minimum spanning tree algorithm and our YSO spatial distribution and age maps, we investigated the YSO groups and the star formation history in W3. We find signatures of clustered and distributed star formation in both triggered and quiescent environments. The central/western parts of the GMC are dominated by large-scale turbulence likely powered by isolated bursts of star formation that triggered secondary star formation events. Star formation in the eastern high-density layer (HDL) also shows signs of quiescent and triggered stellar activity, as well as extended periods of star formation. While our findings support triggering as a key factor for inducing and enhancing some of the major star-forming activity in the HDL (e.g., W3 Main/W3(OH)), we argue that some degree of quiescent or spontaneous star formation is required to explain the observed YSO population. Our results also support previous studies claiming a spontaneous origin for the isolated massive star(s) powering KR 140.

  7. Star formation in early-type galaxies: the role of stellar winds and kinematics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Silvia; Negri, Andrea; Ciotti, Luca

    2015-08-01

    Early-Type galaxies (ETGs) host a hot ISM produced mainly by stellar winds, and heated by Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) and the thermalization of stellar motions. Recent high resolution 2D hydrodynamical simulations (Negri et al. 2014) showed that ordered rotation in the stellar component alters significantly the evolution of the hot ISM, and results in the formation of a centrifugally supported cold equatorial disc. This agrees well with the recent evidence that approximately 50% of massive ETGs host significant quantities of cold gas (Morganti et al. 2006; Young et al. 2014), often in settled configurations, sharing the same kinematics of the stars. In particular, in a systematic investigation of the ATLAS3D sample, the most massive fast-rotating ETGs always have kinematically aligned gas, which suggests an internal origin for it, and molecular gas is detected only in fast rotators (Davis et al. 2011). The observed cold gas seems also to provide material for low level star formation (SF) activity (Combes et al. 2007, Davis et al. 2014). Interestingly, in the ATLAS3D sample, SF and young stellar populations are detected only in fast rotators (Sarzi et al. 2013). In a recent work we investigated whether and how SF takes place in the cold gas disc typically produced in rotating ETGs by our previous 2D simulations, by adding to them the possibility for the gas to form stars (Negri et al. 2015). We also inserted the injection of mass, momentum and energy appropriate for the newly (and continuously) forming stellar population. We found that subsequent generations of stars are formed, and that most of the extended and massive cold disc is consumed by this process, leaving at the present epoch cold gas masses that compare well with those observed. The mass in secondary generations of stars resides mostly in a disc, and could be related to a younger, more metal rich disky stellar component indeed observed in fast rotator ETGs (Cappellari et al. 2013). Most of the mass in

  8. DIRECT STELLAR RADIATION PRESSURE AT THE DUST SUBLIMATION FRONT IN MASSIVE STAR FORMATION: EFFECTS OF A DUST-FREE DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Kei E. I.; Nakamoto, Taishi

    2011-10-01

    In massive star formation ({approx}> 40 M{sub sun}) by core accretion, the direct stellar radiation pressure acting on the dust particles exceeds the gravitational force and interferes with mass accretion at the dust sublimation front, the first absorption site. Ram pressure generated by high accretion rates of 10{sup -3} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} is thought to be required to overcome the direct stellar radiation pressure. We investigate the direct stellar irradiation on the dust sublimation front, including the inner accretion disk structure. We show that the ram pressure of the accretion disk is lower than the stellar radiation pressure at the dust sublimation front. Thus, another mechanism must overcome the direct stellar radiation pressure. We suggest that the inner hot dust-free region is optically thick, shielding the dust sublimation front from direct stellar irradiation. Thus, accretion would not halt at the dust sublimation front, even at lower accretion rates.

  9. Extremely Large Cusp Diamagnetic Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Fritz, T. A.

    2002-05-01

    Extremely large diamagnetic cavities with a size of as large as 6 Re have been observed in the dayside high-altitude cusp regions. Some of the diamagnetic cavities were independent of the IMF directions, which is unexpected by the current MHD (or ISM) models, suggesting that the cusp diamagnetic cavities are different from the magnetospheric sash, which provides a challenge to the existing MHD (or ISM) models. Associated with these cavities are ions with energies from 40 keV up to 8 MeV. The charge state distribution of these cusp cavity ions was indicative of their seed populations being a mixture of the ionospheric and the solar wind particles. The intensities of the cusp cavity energetic ions were observed to increase by as large as four orders of the magnitudes. During high solar wind pressure period on April 21, 1999, the POLAR spacecraft observed lower ion flux in the dayside high-latitude magnetosheath than that in the neighbouring cusp cavities. These observations indicate that the dayside high-altitude cusp diamagnetic cavity is a key region for transferring the solar wind energy, mass, and momentum into the Earth's magnetosphere. These energetic particles in the cusp diamagnetic cavity together with the cusp's connectivity have significant global impacts on the geospace environment research and will be shedding light on the long-standing unsolved fundamental issue about the origins of the energetic particles in the ring current and in upstream ion events.

  10. Saturn's Magnetospheric Cusp: Cassini Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, J. M.; Arridge, C. S.; Sergis, N.; Coates, A. J.; Jones, G. H.

    2015-12-01

    The first in-situ analysis of the high-latitude magnetospheric cusp region at Saturn is presented using data from the Cassini spacecraft. The cusp is a funnel-shaped region where shocked solar wind plasma is able to enter the magnetosphere via the process of magnetic reconnection. The analysis is presented in three sections: Firstly, a high-latitude spacecraft trajectory is shown to cross the northern cusp where magnetosheath plasma is observed in-situ. The ion observations are shown to be a result of `bursty' reconnection occurring at the dayside magnetopause. A different interval is also presented where the southern cusp is observed to oscillate with a period the same as Saturn's rotational period. Secondly, the locations of all the cusp crossings are shown. The field-aligned distances (calculated from observed ion energy-pitch angle dispersions) from the reconnection site are presented. The cusp events are also compared to solar wind propagation models to investigate any correlations. Finally, the magnetic field observations of the cusps are analysed focusing on the diamagnetic depressions. The data are subtracted from a magnetic field model, and the calculated magnetic pressure deficits are compared to the particle pressures. A high plasma pressure layer in the magnetosphere adjacent to the cusp is discovered to also depress the magnetic field.

  11. STELLAR POPULATIONS AND THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES. II. H II REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Schombert, James; McGaugh, Stacy; Maciel, Tamela E-mail: stacy.mcgaugh@case.edu

    2013-08-01

    The luminosities, colors, and H{alpha} emission for 429 H II regions in 54 low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are presented. While the number of H II regions per galaxy is lower in LSB galaxies compared to star-forming irregulars and spirals, there is no indication that the size or luminosity function of H II regions differs from other galaxy types. The lower number of H II regions per galaxy is consistent with their lower total star formation rates. The fraction of the total L{sub H{alpha}} contributed by H II regions varies from 10% to 90% in LSB galaxies (the rest of the H{alpha} emission being associated with a diffuse component) with no correlation with galaxy stellar or gas mass. Bright H II regions have bluer colors, similar to the trend in spirals; their number and luminosities are consistent with the hypothesis that they are produced by the same H II luminosity function as spirals. Comparison with stellar population models indicates that the brightest H II regions in LSB galaxies range in cluster mass from a few 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} (e.g., {rho} Oph) to globular-cluster-sized systems (e.g., 30 Dor) and that their ages are consistent with clusters from 2 to 15 Myr old. The faintest H II regions are comparable to those in the LMC powered by a single O or B star. Thus, star formation in LSB galaxies covers the full range of stellar cluster mass.

  12. Exploring Systematic Effects in the Relation Between Stellar Mass, Gas Phase Metallicity, and Star Formation Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telford, O. Grace; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Conroy, Charlie

    2016-08-01

    There is evidence that the well-established mass-metallicity relation in galaxies is correlated with a third parameter: star formation rate (SFR). The strength of this correlation may be used to disentangle the relative importance of different physical processes (e.g., infall of pristine gas, metal-enriched outflows) in governing chemical evolution. However, all three parameters are susceptible to biases that might affect the observed strength of the relation between them. We analyze possible sources of systematic error, including sample bias, application of signal-to-noise ratio cuts on emission lines, choice of metallicity calibration, uncertainty in stellar mass determination, aperture effects, and dust. We present the first analysis of the relation between stellar mass, gas phase metallicity, and SFR using strong line abundance diagnostics from Dopita et al. for ˜130,000 star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and provide a detailed comparison of these diagnostics in an appendix. Using these new abundance diagnostics yields a 30%-55% weaker anti-correlation between metallicity and SFR at fixed stellar mass than that reported by Mannucci et al. We find that, for all abundance diagnostics, the anti-correlation with SFR is stronger for the relatively few galaxies whose current SFRs are elevated above their past average SFRs. This is also true for the new abundance diagnostic of Dopita et al., which gives anti-correlation between Z and SFR only in the high specific star formation rate (sSFR) regime, in contrast to the recent results of Kashino et al. The poorly constrained strength of the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR must be carefully accounted for in theoretical studies of chemical evolution.

  13. The big problems in star formation: The star formation rate, stellar clustering, and the initial mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumholz, Mark R.

    2014-06-01

    Star formation lies at the center of a web of processes that drive cosmic evolution: generation of radiant energy, synthesis of elements, formation of planets, and development of life. Decades of observations have yielded a variety of empirical rules about how it operates, but at present we have no comprehensive, quantitative theory. In this review I discuss the current state of the field of star formation, focusing on three central questions: What controls the rate at which gas in a galaxy converts to stars? What determines how those stars are clustered, and what fraction of the stellar population ends up in gravitationally-bound structures? What determines the stellar initial mass function, and does it vary with star-forming environment? I use these three questions as a lens to introduce the basics of star formation, beginning with a review of the observational phenomenology and the basic physical processes. I then review the status of current theories that attempt to solve each of the three problems, pointing out links between them and opportunities for theoretical and numerical work that crosses the scale between them. I conclude with a discussion of prospects for theoretical progress in the coming years.

  14. STAR CLUSTER FORMATION WITH STELLAR FEEDBACK AND LARGE-SCALE INFLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Matzner, Christopher D.; Jumper, Peter H.

    2015-12-10

    During star cluster formation, ongoing mass accretion is resisted by stellar feedback in the form of protostellar outflows from the low-mass stars and photo-ionization and radiation pressure feedback from the massive stars. We model the evolution of cluster-forming regions during a phase in which both accretion and feedback are present and use these models to investigate how star cluster formation might terminate. Protostellar outflows are the strongest form of feedback in low-mass regions, but these cannot stop cluster formation if matter continues to flow in. In more massive clusters, radiation pressure and photo-ionization rapidly clear the cluster-forming gas when its column density is too small. We assess the rates of dynamical mass ejection and of evaporation, while accounting for the important effect of dust opacity on photo-ionization. Our models are consistent with the census of protostellar outflows in NGC 1333 and Serpens South and with the dust temperatures observed in regions of massive star formation. Comparing observations of massive cluster-forming regions against our model parameter space, and against our expectations for accretion-driven evolution, we infer that massive-star feedback is a likely cause of gas disruption in regions with velocity dispersions less than a few kilometers per second, but that more massive and more turbulent regions are too strongly bound for stellar feedback to be disruptive.

  15. Extremely large cusp diamagnetic cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Fritz, T.; Siscoe, G.

    Extremely large diamagnetic cavities with a size of as large as 6 Re have been observed in the dayside high-altitude cusp regions. These diamagnetic cavities are always there day by day. Some of the diamagnetic cavities have been observed in the morningside during intervals when the IMF By component was positive (duskward), suggesting that the cusp diamagnetic cavities are different from the magnetospheric sash predicted by MHD simulations. Associated with these cavities are ions with energies from 40 keV up to 8 MeV. The charge state distribution of these cusp cavity ions was indicative of their seed populations being a mixture of the ionospheric and the solar wind particles. The intensities of the cusp cavity energetic ions were observed to increase by as large as four orders of the magnitudes. These observations indicate that the dayside high-altitude cusp diamagnetic cavity is a key region for transferring the solar wind energy, mass, and momentum into the Earth's magnetosphere. These energetic particles in the cusp diamagnetic cavity together with the cusp's connectivity to the entire magnetopause may have significant global impacts on the geospace environment. They will possibly be shedding light on the long-standing unsolved fundamental issue about the origins of the energetic particles in the ring current and in the regions upstream of the subsolar magnetopause where energetic ion events frequently are observed.

  16. Properties and formation mechanism of the stellar counter-rotating components in NGC 4191

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccato, L.; Fabricius, M.; Morelli, L.; Corsini, E. M.; Pizzella, A.; Erwin, P.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Saglia, R.; Bender, R.; Williams, M.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: We here distinguish two counter-rotating stellar components in NGC 4191 and characterize their physical properties such as kinematics, morphology, age, and metallicity. Methods: We obtained integral field spectroscopic observations with VIRUS-W and used a spectroscopic decomposition technique to separate the contribution of two stellar components to the observed galaxy spectrum. We also performed a photometric decomposition, modeling the galaxy with a Sérsic bulge and two exponential disks of different scale length, with the aim of associating these structural components with the kinematic components. We then measured the equivalent width of the absorption line indices on the best-fit models that represent the kinematic components and compared our measurements to the predictions of stellar population models that also account for the variable abundance ratio of α elements. Results: We have evidence that the line-of-sight velocity distributions (LOSVDs) are bimodal and asymmetric, consistent with the presence of two distinct kinematic components. The combined information of the intensity of the peaks of the LOSVDs and the photometric decomposition allows us to associate the Sérsic bulge and the outer disk with the main kinematic component and to associate the inner disk with the secondary kinematic component. We find that the two kinematic stellar components counter-rotate with respect to each other. The main component is the most luminous and massive; the secondary component rotates along the same direction as the ionized gas. The study of the stellar populations reveals that the two kinematic components have the same solar metallicity and subsolar abundance ratio, without significant radial gradients. On the other hand, their ages show negative gradients and the possible indication that the secondary component is the younger. We interpret our results in light of recent cosmological simulations and suggest gas accretion along two filaments as the formation

  17. UVMag: stellar formation, evolution, structure and environment with space UV and visible spectropolarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiner, C.; Baade, D.; Fullerton, A.; Gry, C.; Hussain, G.; Lèbre, A.; Morin, J.; Petit, P.; Sundqvist, J. O.; ud-Doula, A.; Vidotto, A. A.; Wade, G. A.

    2014-11-01

    Important insights into the formation, structure, evolution and environment of all types of stars can be obtained through the measurement of their winds and possible magnetospheres. However, this has hardly been done up to now mainly because of the lack of UV instrumentation available for long periods of time. To reach this aim, we have designed UVMag, an M-size space mission equipped with a high-resolution spectropolarimeter working in the UV and visible spectral range. The UV domain is crucial in stellar physics as it is very rich in atomic and molecular lines and contains most of the flux of hot stars. Moreover, covering the UV and visible spectral domains at the same time will allow us to study the star and its environment simultaneously. Adding polarimetric power to the spectrograph will multiply tenfold the capabilities of extracting information on stellar magnetospheres, winds, disks, and magnetic fields. Examples of science objectives that can be reached with UVMag are presented for pre-main sequence, main sequence and evolved stars. They will cast new light onto stellar physics by addressing many exciting and important questions. UVMag is currently undergoing a Research & Technology study and will be proposed at the forthcoming ESA call for M-size missions. This spectropolarimeter could also be installed on a large UV and visible observatory (e.g. NASA's LUVOIR project) within a suite of instruments.

  18. THE DUAL ORIGIN OF STELLAR HALOS. II. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES AS TRACERS OF FORMATION HISTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotov, Adi; Hogg, David W.; Willman, Beth; Brooks, Alyson M.; Shen, Sijing; Wadsley, James E-mail: bwillman@haverford.ed

    2010-09-20

    Fully cosmological, high-resolution N-body+smooth particle hydrodynamic simulations are used to investigate the chemical abundance trends of stars in simulated stellar halos as a function of their origin. These simulations employ a physically motivated supernova feedback recipe, as well as metal enrichment, metal cooling, and metal diffusion. As presented in an earlier paper, the simulated galaxies in this study are surrounded by stellar halos whose inner regions contain both stars accreted from satellite galaxies and stars formed in situ in the central regions of the main galaxies and later displaced by mergers into their inner halos. The abundance patterns ([Fe/H] and [O/Fe]) of halo stars located within 10 kpc of a solar-like observer are analyzed. We find that for galaxies which have not experienced a recent major merger, in situ stars at the high [Fe/H] end of the metallicity distribution function are more [{alpha}/Fe]-rich than accreted stars at similar [Fe/H]. This dichotomy in the [O/Fe] of halo stars at a given [Fe/H] results from the different potential wells within which in situ and accreted halo stars form. These results qualitatively match recent observations of local Milky Way halo stars. It may thus be possible for observers to uncover the relative contribution of different physical processes to the formation of stellar halos by observing such trends in the halo populations of the Milky Way and other local L{sup *} galaxies.

  19. SuperMassive Blackholes grow from stellar BHs of star formation history?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca-Volmerange, Brigitte

    The origin of the supermassive black hole masses M SMBH discovered at the highest redshifts is still actively debated. Moreover the statistically significant relation of M SMBH with bulge luminosities L V , extended on several magnitude orders, confirms a common physical process linking small (<= 1pc) to large (kpcs) size scales. The Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of two z=3.8 radio galaxies 4C41.17 and TN J2007-1316, best-fitted by evolved early type galaxy and starburst scenarios also imply masses of stellar remnants. Computed with the evolutionary code Pegase.3, the cumulated stellar black hole mass M sBH reach up to several 109M⊙, similar to M SMBH at same z. We propose the SMBH growth is due to the migration of the stellar dense residues (sBH) towards the galaxy core by dynamical friction. Discussed in terms of time-scales, this process which is linking AGN and star formation, also fully justifies the famous relation M SMBH -L V .

  20. A FORMATION SCENARIO OF YOUNG STELLAR GROUPS IN THE REGION OF THE SCORPIO CENTAURUS OB ASSOCIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, V. G.; Jilinski, E.; De la Reza, R.; Bazzanella, B.

    2009-04-15

    The main objective of this work is to investigate the role played by Lower Centaurus Crux (LCC) and Upper Centaurus Lupus (UCL), both subcomponents of the Scorpio Centaurus OB association (Sco-Cen), in the formation of the groups {beta} Pictoris, TW Hydrae, and the {eta} Chamaeleontis cluster. The dynamical evolution of all the stellar groups involved and of the bubbles and shells blown by LCC and UCL are calculated, and followed from the past to the present. This leads to a formation scenario in which (1) the groups {beta} Pictoris, TW Hydrae were formed in the wake of the shells created by LCC and UCL, (2) the young cluster {eta} Chamaeleontis was born as a consequence of the collision of the shells of LCC and UCL, and (3) the formation of Upper Scorpius (US), the other main subcomponent of the Sco-Cen association, may have been started by the same process that created {eta} Chamaeleontis.

  1. Formation of in situ stellar haloes in Milky Way-mass galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Andrew P.; Parry, Owen H.; Lowing, Ben; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    We study the formation of stellar haloes in three Milky Way-mass galaxies using cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations, focusing on the subset of halo stars that form in situ, as opposed to those accreted from satellites. In situ stars in our simulations dominate the stellar halo out to 20 kpc and account for 30-40 per cent of its total mass. We separate in situ halo stars into three straightforward, physically distinct categories according to their origin: stars scattered from the disc of the main galaxy (`heated disc'), stars formed from gas smoothly accreted on to the halo (`smooth' gas) and stars formed in streams of gas stripped from infalling satellites (`stripped' gas). We find that most belong to the stripped gas category. Those originating in smooth gas outside the disc tend to form at the same time and place as the stripped-gas population, suggesting that their formation is associated with the same gas-rich accretion events. The scattered disc star contribution is negligible overall but significant in the solar neighbourhood, where ≳90 per cent of stars on eccentric orbits once belonged to the disc. However, the distinction between halo and thick disc in this region is highly ambiguous. The chemical and kinematic properties of the different components are very similar at the present day, but the global properties of the in situ halo differ substantially between the three galaxies in our study. In our simulations, the hierarchical buildup of structure is the driving force behind not only the accreted stellar halo, but also those halo stars formed in situ.

  2. Multiscale observations of plasma transport through the cusp region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Bosqued, J.; Dunlop, M. W.; Lockwood, M.; Cargill, P. J.; Owen, C. J.; Taylor, M. G.; Goldstein, M.

    2006-05-01

    Field-aligned cusp currents are the mechanism by which momentum and energy are transferred from the solar wind to the ionosphere during reconnection. On 25 August 2001, the Cluster spacecraft flew through the northern polar cusp and observed large-scale deflections of the magnetospheric field (FGM) and field-aligned electrons (PEACE) indicative of strong field-aligned currents, together with dispersed cusp-ion signatures (CIS) that are associated with pulsed reconnection. This occurred during periods of weak southward IMF accompanied by strong IMF BY > 0 and BX < 0. Similar observations of reconnection pulses have been made in the past and linked to poleward-moving auroral forms (PMAFs), which appear to occur on open field lines. Successive reconnection pulses during these types of events can contribute almost all of the voltage across the magnetosphere. However, these single spacecraft observations in the mid-altitude cusp were constrained by assumptions about the cusp structure and the relative spacecraft and boundary motions - this could easily lead to large errors in the analysis. With multi-spacecraft observations we can better constrain these parameters and make better estimates of the field-aligned currents. The formation of the Cluster spacecraft during this interval also allows us to study in-situ the evolution of the cusp on timescales of minutes to tens of minutes.

  3. A multiwavelength investigation of the H II region S311: young stellar population and star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ram Kesh; Pandey, A. K.; Sharma, Saurabh; Ojha, D. K.; Samal, M. R.; Mallick, K. K.; Jose, J.; Ogura, K.; Richichi, Andrea; Irawati, Puji; Kobayashi, N.; Eswaraiah, C.

    2016-09-01

    We present a multiwavelength investigation of the young stellar population and star formation activities around the H II region Sharpless 311. Using our deep near-infrared observations and archival Spitzer-IRAC observations, we have detected a total of 125 young stellar objects (YSOs) in an area of ˜86 arcmin2. The YSO sample includes eight Class I and 117 Class II candidate YSOs. The mass completeness of the identified YSO sample is estimated to be 1.0 M⊙. The ages and masses of the majority of the candidate YSOs are estimated to be in the range ˜0.1-5 Myr and ˜0.3-6 M⊙, respectively. The 8-μm image of S311 displays an approximately spherical cavity around the ionizing source, which was possibly created by the expansion of the H II region. The spatial distribution of the candidate YSOs reveals that a significant number of them are distributed systematically along the 8-μm emission with a majority clustered around the eastern border of the H II region. Four clumps/compact H II regions are detected in the radio continuum observations at 1280 MHz, which may have been formed during the expansion of the H II region. The estimated dynamical age of the region, main-sequence lifetime of the ionizing source, the spatial distribution and ages of the candidate YSOs indicate triggered star formation in the complex.

  4. Stellar Masses, Star Formation Rates and X-ray Constraints on Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrinda, Greg; Desjardins, T. D.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Gallagher, S.; Hammer, D.; Miller, N. A.; Ptak, A.; Tzanavaris, P.; Johnson, K. E.; Walker, L.

    2014-01-01

    We report on new measurements of star formation rates and stellar masses in the “infall” region of the nearby Coma cluster of galaxies. This region is approximately 1 Mpc from the cluster core, where relatively gas-rich galaxies are interacting with the hot intracluster medium, providing an important view of the impact of cluster processes on galaxy evolution. We have used infrared and ultraviolet data available from both ground and spaced-based observations to make these measurements. The star formation rates and stellar mass values were verified via comparison with published results in the Coma core as well as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectral measurements. The infall region has also been observed by XMM-Newton to faint limits to obtain X-ray luminosities for the galaxies in this field. Specifically, we present X-ray photometry of approximately 20 galaxies with XMM-Newton coverage to constrain the X-ray - SFR correlation in a cluster environment. This project was supported by the Baltimore Excellence in STEM Teaching program via summer internship funding to Hrinda.

  5. Reassessing the Relation Between Stellar Mass, Metallicity, and Star Formation Rate in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telford, Olivia Grace; Dalcanton, Julianne; Skillman, Evan D.; Conroy, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that the well-established mass-metallicity relation in galaxies depends on a third parameter: star formation rate (SFR). The observed strength of this dependence varies substantially depending on the choice of metallicity calibration, but has significant implications for theories of galaxy evolution, as it constrains the interplay between infall of pristine gas, metal production due to star formation, and ejection of enriched gas from galaxies. We present a new analysis of the relation between stellar mass, gas phase metallicity and SFR for ~140,000 star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using a new set of theoretically calibrated abundance diagnostics from Dopita et al. (2013), we find a weaker dependence of metallicity on SFR at fixed stellar mass than was found by previous studies using different calibration techniques for gas phase metallicity. We analyze possible biases in the derivation of mass, metallicity, and SFR that could cause the observed strength of the metallicity dependence on SFR to differ from reality, as the calculation of each of these quantities is subject to systematic errors. Chemical evolution models must carefully consider these sources of potential bias when accounting for metallicity dependence on SFR.

  6. Star formation in the first galaxies - III. Formation, evolution, and characteristics of the first metal-enriched stellar cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Montgomery, Michael H.; Milosavljević, Miloš; Bromm, Volker

    2016-01-01

    We simulate the formation of a low-metallicity (10-2 Z⊙) stellar cluster at redshift z ˜ 14. Beginning with cosmological initial conditions, the simulation utilizes adaptive mesh refinement and sink particles to follow the collapse and evolution of gas past the opacity limit for fragmentation, thus resolving the formation of individual protostellar cores. A time- and location-dependent protostellar radiation field, which heats the gas by absorption on dust, is computed by integration of protostellar evolutionary tracks. The simulation also includes a robust non-equilibrium chemical network that self-consistently treats gas thermodynamics and dust-gas coupling. The system is evolved for 18 kyr after the first protostellar source has formed. In this time span, 30 sink particles representing protostellar cores form with a total mass of 81 M⊙. Their masses range from ˜0.1 to 14.4 M⊙ with a median mass ˜0.5-1 M⊙. Massive protostars grow by competitive accretion while lower mass protostars are stunted in growth by close encounters and many-body ejections. In the regime explored here, the characteristic mass scale is determined by the cosmic microwave background temperature floor and the onset of efficient dust-gas coupling. It seems unlikely that host galaxies of the first bursts of metal-enriched star formation will be detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope or other next-generation infrared observatories. Instead, the most promising access route to the dawn of cosmic star formation may lie in the scrutiny of metal-poor, ancient stellar populations in the Galactic neighbourhood. The observable targets corresponding to the system simulated here are ultra-faint dwarf satellite galaxies such as Boötes II and Willman I.

  7. Recovering star formation histories: Integrated-light analyses vs. stellar colour-magnitude diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Lara, T.; Pérez, I.; Gallart, C.; Alloin, D.; Monelli, M.; Koleva, M.; Pompei, E.; Beasley, M.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Florido, E.; Aparicio, A.; Fleurence, E.; Hardy, E.; Hidalgo, S.; Raimann, D.

    2015-11-01

    Context. Accurate star formation histories (SFHs) of galaxies are fundamental for understanding the build-up of their stellar content. However, the most accurate SFHs - those obtained from colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of resolved stars reaching the oldest main-sequence turnoffs (oMSTO) - are presently limited to a few systems in the Local Group. It is therefore crucial to determine the reliability and range of applicability of SFHs derived from integrated light spectroscopy, as this affects our understanding of unresolved galaxies from low to high redshift. Aims: We evaluate the reliability of current full spectral fitting techniques in deriving SFHs from integrated light spectroscopy by comparing SFHs from integrated spectra to those obtained from deep CMDs of resolved stars. Methods: We have obtained a high signal-to-noise (S/N ~ 36.3 per Å) integrated spectrum of a field in the bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using EFOSC2 at the 3.6-metre telescope at La Silla Observatory. For this same field, resolved stellar data reaching the oMSTO are available. We have compared the star formation rate (SFR) as a function of time and the age-metallicity relation (AMR) obtained from the integrated spectrum using STECKMAP, and the CMD using the IAC-star/MinnIAC/IAC-pop set of routines. For the sake of completeness we also use and discuss other synthesis codes (STARLIGHT and ULySS) to derive the SFR and AMR from the integrated LMC spectrum. Results: We find very good agreement (average differences ~4.1%) between the SFR (t) and the AMR obtained using STECKMAP on the integrated light spectrum, and the CMD analysis. STECKMAP minimizes the impact of the age-metallicity degeneracy and has the advantage of preferring smooth solutions to recover complex SFHs by means of a penalized χ2. We find that the use of single stellar populations (SSPs) to recover the stellar content, using for instance STARLIGHT or ULySS codes, hampers the reconstruction of the SFR (t) and AMR

  8. Structure of the Outer Cusp and Sources of the Cusp Precipitation during Intervals of a Horizontal IMF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemecek, Z.; Safrankova, J.; Prech, L.; Simunek, J.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Fedorov, A.; Stenuit, H.; Fuselier, S. A.; Savin, S.; Zelenyi, L.

    2003-01-01

    The cusp represents a place where the magnetosheath plasma can directly penetrate into the magnetosphere. Since the main transport processes are connected with merging of the interplanetary and magnetospheric field lines, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Orientation plays a decisive role in the formation of the high-altitude cusp. The importance of the sign of the IMF Bz component for this process was suggested about 40 years ago and later it was documented by many experimental investigations. However, situations when IMF Bz is the major IMF component are rather rare. The structure of the cusp during periods of a small IMF BZ is generally unknown, probably due to the fully 3-D nature of the interaction. The present case study reveals the importance of horizontal IMF components on the global magnetospheric configuration as well as on small-scale processes at the cusp-magnetosheath interface. We have used simultaneous measurements of several spacecraft (ISTP program) operating in different regions of interplanetary space and two closely spaced satellites (INTERBALL-1/MAGION- 4) crossing the cusp-magnetosheath boundary to show the connection between the short- and large-scale phenomena. In the northern hemisphere, observations suggest a presence of two spots of cusp-like precipitation supplied by reconnection occurring simultaneously in both hemispheres. A source of this bifurcation is the positive IMF By component further enhanced by the field draping in the magnetosheath. This magnetic field component shifts the entry point far away from the local noon but in opposite sense in either hemisphere.

  9. The role of stellar relaxation in the formation and evolution of the first massive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yajima, Hidenobu; Khochfar, Sadegh

    2016-04-01

    We present calculations on the formation of massive black holes of 105 M⊙ at z > 6, which can be the seeds of supermassive black holes at z ≳ 6. Under the assumption of compact star cluster formation in merging galaxies, star clusters in haloes of ˜ 108-109 M⊙ can undergo rapid core collapse, leading to the formation of very massive stars (VMSs) of ˜ 1000 M⊙ that collapse directly into black holes with similar masses. Star clusters in haloes of ≳ 109 M⊙ experience Type II supernovae before the formation of VMSs, due to long core-collapse time-scales. We also model the subsequent growth of black holes via accretion of residual stars in clusters. Two-body relaxation refills the loss cones of stellar orbits efficiently at larger radii and resonant relaxation at small radii is the main driver for accretion of stars on to black holes. As a result, more than 90 percent of stars in the initial cluster are swallowed by the central black holes before z = 6. Using dark matter merger trees, we derive black hole mass functions at z = 6-20. The mass function ranges from 103-105 M⊙ at z ≲ 15. Major merging of galaxies of ≳ 4 × 108 M⊙ at z ˜ 20 leads successfully to the formation of ≳ 105 M⊙ black holes by z ≳ 10, which could be the potential seeds of supermassive black holes seen today.

  10. Ultraviolet to infrared emission of z > 1 galaxies: Can we derive reliable star formation rates and stellar masses?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buat, V.; Heinis, S.; Boquien, M.; Burgarella, D.; Charmandaris, V.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Le Borgne, D.; Morrison, G.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Our knowledge of the cosmic mass assembly relies on measurements of star formation rates (SFRs) and stellar masses (Mstar), of galaxies as a function of redshift. These parameters must be estimated in a consistent way with a good knowledge of systematics before studying their correlation and the variation of the specific SFR. Constraining these fundamental properties of galaxies across the Universe is of utmost importance if we want to understand galaxy formation and evolution. Methods: We seek to derive SFRs and stellar masses in distant galaxies and to quantify the main uncertainties affecting their measurement. We explore the impact of the assumptions made in their derivation with standard calibrations or through a fitting process, as well as the impact of the available data, focusing on the role of infrared emission originating from dust. Results: We build a sample of galaxies with z > 1, all observed from the ultraviolet to the infrared in their rest frame. The data are fitted with the code CIGALE, which is also used to build and analyse a catalogue of mock galaxies. Models with different star formation histories are introduced: an exponentially decreasing or increasing SFR and a more complex one coupling a decreasing SFR with a younger burst of constant star formation. We define different sets of data, with or without a good sampling of the ultraviolet range, near-infrared, and thermal infrared data. Variations of the metallicity are also investigated. The impact of these different cases on the determination of stellar mass and SFR are analysed. Conclusions: Exponentially decreasing models with a redshift formation of the stellar population zf ≃ 8 cannot fit the data correctly. All the other models fit the data correctly at the price of unrealistically young ages when the age of the single stellar population is taken to be a free parameter, especially for the exponentially decreasing models. The best fits are obtained with two stellar populations. As

  11. The formation and gravitational-wave detection of massive stellar black hole binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Belczynski, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marek; Buonanno, Alessandra; Cantiello, Matteo; Fryer, Chris L.; Holz, Daniel E.; Mandel, Ilya; Miller, M. Coleman

    2014-07-10

    If binaries consisting of two ∼100 M{sub ☉} black holes exist, they would serve as extraordinarily powerful gravitational-wave sources, detectable to redshifts of z ∼ 2 with the advanced LIGO/Virgo ground-based detectors. Large uncertainties about the evolution of massive stars preclude definitive rate predictions for mergers of these massive black holes. We show that rates as high as hundreds of detections per year, or as low as no detections whatsoever, are both possible. It was thought that the only way to produce these massive binaries was via dynamical interactions in dense stellar systems. This view has been challenged by the recent discovery of several ≳ 150 M{sub ☉} stars in the R136 region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Current models predict that when stars of this mass leave the main sequence, their expansion is insufficient to allow common envelope evolution to efficiently reduce the orbital separation. The resulting black hole-black hole binary remains too wide to be able to coalesce within a Hubble time. If this assessment is correct, isolated very massive binaries do not evolve to be gravitational-wave sources. However, other formation channels exist. For example, the high multiplicity of massive stars, and their common formation in relatively dense stellar associations, opens up dynamical channels for massive black hole mergers (e.g., via Kozai cycles or repeated binary-single interactions). We identify key physical factors that shape the population of very massive black hole-black hole binaries. Advanced gravitational-wave detectors will provide important constraints on the formation and evolution of very massive stars.

  12. Evidence for a fundamental stellar upper mass limit from clustered star formation, and some implications therof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroupa, Pavel; Weidner, Carsten

    Theoretical considerations lead to the expectation that stars should not have masses larger than about m_{max*}=60-120M_⊙, while the observational evidence has been ambiguous. Only very recently has a physical stellar mass limit near 150M_⊙ emerged thanks to modern high-resolution observations of local star-burst clusters. But this limit does not appear to depend on metallicity, in contradiction to theory. Important uncertainties remain though. It is now also emerging that star-clusters limit the masses of their constituent stars, such that a well-defined relation between the mass of the most massive star in a cluster and the cluster mass, m_{max}=F(M_{ecl}) ≤ m_{max*}≈ 150M_⊙, exists. One rather startling finding is that the observational data strongly favour clusters being built-up by consecutively forming more-massive stars until the most massive stars terminate further star-formation. The relation also implies that composite populations, which consist of many star clusters, most of which may be dissolved, must have steeper composite IMFs than simple stellar populations such as are found in individual clusters. Thus, for example, 10^5 Taurus-Auriga star-forming groups, each with 20 stars, will ever only sample the IMF below about 1M_⊙. This IMF will therefore not be identical to the IMF of one cluster with 2×, 10^6 stars. The implication is that the star-formation history of a galaxy critically determines its integrated galaxial IMF and thus the total number of supernovae per star and its chemical enrichment history. Galaxy formation and evolution models that rely on an invariant IMF would be wrong.

  13. Observational Constraints on Low-Mass Stellar Evolution and Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkby, Jayne Louise

    2011-07-01

    Low-mass stars (? < 1.0M⊙) account for more than 70% of the galactic stellar population yet models describing the evolution of their fundamental properties lack stringent observational constraints, especially at early ages. Furthermore, recent observations indicate a significant discrepancy between model predictions and the precise (2 - 3%) observed, dynamical masses and radii measured using low-mass eclipsing binary systems (EBs). Additionally, the theory of planet formation via core accretion predicts notably less hot-Jupiter formation around M-dwarfs (Mdot ? ≤ 0.6M⊙), but as yet, no large enough study exists to robustly test it. Further still, it is predicted that the dynamic environment of stellar clusters, in which most stars are believed to form, hampers planet formation, but again, current null detections of planets in stellar clusters are not statistically significant to test the theory. More observations are required to cement both the theory of low-mass stellar evolution and planet formation. This thesis aims to provide the necessary constraints by uncovering new low-mass EBs and transiting exoplanets in time-series photometry and follow-up spectroscopy from the Monitor project, a photometric monitoring campaign of low-mass stars in nine young open clusters, and in the WFCAM Transit Survey (WTS), a photometric monitoring campaign of ∼10,000 field M-dwarfs. Chapters 3 and 4 present my study of the young (130 Myr) cluster, M 50. I confirm three EB candidates as cluster members, including evidence that one of these is in a triple system with a wide-separation, low-mass tertiary component. The derived masses and radii for this system and one further double-lined, non-cluster member are presented, but these objects required dedicated, single-slit spectroscopic follow-up to yield the accuracy required to test pre-main sequence models. My non-detection of planets in this cluster is consistent with the results of all other cluster transit surveys. The

  14. Evolution of First Cores and Formation of Stellar Cores in Rotating Molecular Cloud Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saigo, Kazuya; Tomisaka, Kohji; Matsumoto, Tomoaki

    2008-02-01

    We followed the collapse of cloud cores with various rotation speed and density frustrations using three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations by assuming a barotropic equation of state and examined the comprehensive evolution paths from the rotation molecule cloud core to stellar core. We found that the evolutionary paths depend only on the angular velocity of initial cloud core Ωc0. These evolutionary paths agree well with predictions of Saigo and Tomisaka's quasi-equilibrium axisymmetric models and SPH calculations of Bate. Evolutionary paths are qualitatively classified into three types. (1) A slowly rotating cloud with Ωc0 < 0.01/tff = 0.05(ρc0/10-19 g cm -3)1/2 rad Myr -1 shows spherical-type evolution, where ρc0 is the initial central density. Such a cloud forms a first core which is mainly supported by the thermal pressure. The first core has a small mass of Mcore ~ 0.01 M⊙ and a short lifetime of a few ×100 yr. After exceeding the H2 dissociation density ρ simeq 5.6 × 10-8 g cm -3, it begins the second collapse, and the whole of the first core accretes onto the stellar core/disk within a few free-fall timescales. (2) A rotating cloud with 0.01/tff < Ωc0lesssim 0.05/tff shows disk-type evolution. In this case, the first core becomes a centrifugally supported massive disk with Mcore ~ a few × 0.01-0.1 M⊙ and the lifetime is a few thousand years. The first core is unstable against nonaxisymmetric dynamic instability and forms spiral arms. The gravitational torque through spiral structure extracts angular momentum from the central region to the outer region of the first core. And only a central part with r ~ 1 AU begins the second collapse after exceeding dissociation density. However, the outer remnant disk keeps its centrifugal balance after stellar core formation. It seems that this remnant of the first core should control the mass and angular momentum accretion onto the newborn stellar system. (3) A rotating cloud with 0.05/tfflesssim Ωc0

  15. From cusps to cores: a stochastic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Zant, Amr A.; Freundlich, Jonathan; Combes, Françoise

    2016-09-01

    The cold dark matter model of structure formation faces apparent problems on galactic scales. Several threads point to excessive halo concentration, including central densities that rise too steeply with decreasing radius. Yet, random fluctuations in the gaseous component can `heat' the centres of haloes, decreasing their densities. We present a theoretical model deriving this effect from first principles: stochastic variations in the gas density are converted into potential fluctuations that act on the dark matter; the associated force correlation function is calculated and the corresponding stochastic equation solved. Assuming a power-law spectrum of fluctuations with maximal and minimal cutoff scales, we derive the velocity dispersion imparted to the halo particles and the relevant relaxation time. We further perform numerical simulations, with fluctuations realized as a Gaussian random field, which confirm the formation of a core within a time-scale comparable to that derived analytically. Non-radial collective modes enhance the energy transport process that erases the cusp, though the parametrizations of the analytical model persist. In our model, the dominant contribution to the dynamical coupling driving the cusp-core transformation comes from the largest scale fluctuations. Yet, the efficiency of the transformation is independent of the value of the largest scale and depends weakly (linearly) on the power-law exponent; it effectively depends on two parameters: the gas mass fraction and the normalization of the power spectrum. This suggests that cusp-core transformations observed in hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation may be understood and parametrized in simple terms, the physical and numerical complexities of the various implementations notwithstanding.

  16. Contradiction between strong lensing statistics and a feedback solution to the cusp/core problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Da-Ming; McGaugh, Stacy

    2010-12-01

    Standard cosmology has many successes on large scales, but faces some fundamental difficulties on small, galactic scales. One such difficulty is the cusp/core problem. High resolution observations of the rotation curves for dark matter dominated low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies imply that galactic dark matter halos have a density profile with a flat central core, whereas N-body structure formation simulations predict a divergent (cuspy) density profile at the center. It has been proposed that this problem can be resolved by stellar feedback driving turbulent gas motion that erases the initial cusp. However, strong gravitational lensing prefers a cuspy density profile for galactic halos. In this paper, we use the most recent high resolution observations of the rotation curves of LSB galaxies to fit the core size as a function of halo mass, and compare the resultant lensing probability to the observational results for the well defined combined sample of the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey (CLASS) and Jodrell Bank/Very Large Array Astrometric Survey (JVAS). The lensing probabilities based on such density profiles are too low to match the observed lensing in CLASS/JVAS. High baryon densities in the galaxies that dominate the lensing statistics can reconcile this discrepancy, but only if they steepen the mass profile rather than making it more shallow. This places contradictory demands upon the effects of baryons on the central mass profiles of galaxies.

  17. Constraints on Stellar Grain Formation from Presolar Graphite in the Murchison Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.; Cowsik, Ramanath; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Lodders, Katharina; Fegley, Bruce, Jr.; Amari, Sachiko; Lewis, Roy S.

    1996-12-01

    We report the results of isotopic, chemical, structural, and crystallographic micro analyses of graphitic spherules (0.3-9 μm) extracted from the Murchison meteorite. The spherules have 12C/13C ratios ranging over 3 orders of magnitude (from 0.02 to 80 times solar), clearly establishing their presolar origin as stellar condensates. These and other isotopic constraints point to a variety of stellar types as sources of the carbon, including low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and supernovae. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of ultrathin sections of the spherules revealed that many have a composite structure consisting of a core of nanocrystalline carbon surrounded by a mantle of well-graphitized carbon. The nanocrystalline cores are compact masses consisting of randomly oriented graphene sheets, from PAH-sized units up to sheets 3-4 nm in diameter, with little graphitic layering order. These sheets probably condensed as isolated particles that subsequently coalesced to form the cores, after which the surrounding graphitic mantles were added by vapor deposition. We also detected internal crystals of metal carbides in one-third of the spherules. These crystals (5-200 nm) have compositions ranging from nearly pure TiC to nearly pure Zr-Mo carbide. Some of these car- bides occur at the centers of the spherules and are surrounded by well-graphitized carbon, having evidently served as heterogeneous nucleation centers for condensation of carbon. Others were entrained by carbon as the spherules grew. The chemical and textural evidence indicates that these carbides formed prior to carbon condensation, which indicates that the C/O ratios in the stellar sources were very close to unity. Only one of the 67 spherules studied in the TEM contained SiC, from which we infer that carbon condensation nearly always preceded SiC formation. This observation places stringent limits on the possible delay of graphite formation and is consistent with the predictions of

  18. Blast wave formation of the extended stellar shells surrounding elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. E.; Christiansen, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The existence of stellar shells at large distances from isolated elliptical galaxies is explained in terms of a blast wave associated with an active nucleus phase early in the history of the galaxy. The blast wave sweeps the initial interstellar medium out of the galaxy into an expanding shell which radiatively cools behind its leading shock front. Cooling of the shell following turnoff of the nucleus activity, which keeps the shell photoionized, leads to a brief epoch of star formation which is terminated by heating of the shell from supernovae and UV radiation from massive stars. The stars so formed follow similar, highly radial, bound orbits, moving in phase with each other and spending much of their time near apogalacteum, thus taking on the appearance of a shell. Multiple shells may be produced when conditions allow repeated episodes of shell cooling and supernovae heating to occur in the blast wave.

  19. Star Formation in W3—AFGL 333: Young Stellar Content, Properties, and Roles of External Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Jessy; Kim, Jinyoung S.; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Samal, Manash R.; Bieging, John H.; Meyer, Michael R.; Sherry, William H.

    2016-05-01

    One of the key questions in the field of star formation is the role of stellar feedback on the subsequent star formation process. The W3 giant molecular cloud complex at the western border of the W4 super bubble is thought to be influenced by the massive stars in W4. This paper presents a study of the star formation activity within AFGL 333, a ˜104 M ⊙ cloud within W3, using deep JHK s photometry obtained from the NOAO Extremely Wide Field Infrared Imager combined with Spitzer IRAC and MIPS photometry. Based on the infrared excess, we identify 812 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in the complex, of which 99 are Class I and 713 are Class II sources. The stellar density analysis of YSOs reveals three major stellar aggregates within AFGL 333, namely AFGL 333 Main, AFGL 333 NW1 and AFGL 333 NW2. The disk fraction within AFGL 333 is estimated to be ˜50%–60%. We use the extinction map made from the H-{K}s colors of the background stars and CO data to understand the cloud structure and to estimate the cloud mass. From the stellar and cloud mass associated with AFGL 333, we infer that the region is currently forming stars with an efficiency of ˜4.5% and at a rate of ˜2–3 M ⊙ Myr‑1 pc‑2. In general, the star formation activity within AFGL 333 is comparable to that of nearby low mass star-forming regions. We do not find any strong evidence to suggest that the stellar feedback from the massive stars of nearby W4 super bubble has affected the global star formation properties of the AFGL 333 region.

  20. The ATLAS3D Project - XXX. Star formation histories and stellar population scaling relations of early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2015-04-01

    We present the stellar population content of early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D survey. Using spectra integrated within apertures covering up to one effective radius, we apply two methods: one based on measuring line-strength indices and applying single stellar population (SSP) models to derive SSP-equivalent values of stellar age, metallicity, and alpha enhancement; and one based on spectral fitting to derive non-parametric star formation histories, mass-weighted average values of age, metallicity, and half-mass formation time-scales. Using homogeneously derived effective radii and dynamically determined galaxy masses, we present the distribution of stellar population parameters on the Mass Plane (MJAM, σe, R^maj_e), showing that at fixed mass, compact early-type galaxies are on average older, more metal-rich, and more alpha-enhanced than their larger counterparts. From non-parametric star formation histories, we find that the duration of star formation is systematically more extended in lower mass objects. Assuming that our sample represents most of the stellar content of today's local Universe, approximately 50 per cent of all stars formed within the first 2 Gyr following the big bang. Most of these stars reside today in the most massive galaxies (>1010.5 M⊙), which themselves formed 90 per cent of their stars by z ˜ 2. The lower mass objects, in contrast, have formed barely half their stars in this time interval. Stellar population properties are independent of environment over two orders of magnitude in local density, varying only with galaxy mass. In the highest density regions of our volume (dominated by the Virgo cluster), galaxies are older, alpha-enhanced, and have shorter star formation histories with respect to lower density regions.

  1. Star Formation in W3—AFGL 333: Young Stellar Content, Properties, and Roles of External Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Jessy; Kim, Jinyoung S.; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Samal, Manash R.; Bieging, John H.; Meyer, Michael R.; Sherry, William H.

    2016-05-01

    One of the key questions in the field of star formation is the role of stellar feedback on the subsequent star formation process. The W3 giant molecular cloud complex at the western border of the W4 super bubble is thought to be influenced by the massive stars in W4. This paper presents a study of the star formation activity within AFGL 333, a ˜104 M ⊙ cloud within W3, using deep JHK s photometry obtained from the NOAO Extremely Wide Field Infrared Imager combined with Spitzer IRAC and MIPS photometry. Based on the infrared excess, we identify 812 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in the complex, of which 99 are Class I and 713 are Class II sources. The stellar density analysis of YSOs reveals three major stellar aggregates within AFGL 333, namely AFGL 333 Main, AFGL 333 NW1 and AFGL 333 NW2. The disk fraction within AFGL 333 is estimated to be ˜50%-60%. We use the extinction map made from the H-{K}s colors of the background stars and CO data to understand the cloud structure and to estimate the cloud mass. From the stellar and cloud mass associated with AFGL 333, we infer that the region is currently forming stars with an efficiency of ˜4.5% and at a rate of ˜2-3 M ⊙ Myr-1 pc-2. In general, the star formation activity within AFGL 333 is comparable to that of nearby low mass star-forming regions. We do not find any strong evidence to suggest that the stellar feedback from the massive stars of nearby W4 super bubble has affected the global star formation properties of the AFGL 333 region.

  2. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION AND YOUNG STELLAR POPULATION IN BRIGHT-RIMMED CLOUD SFO 38

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Rumpa; Bhatt, H. C.; Mookerjea, Bhaswati E-mail: hcbhatt@iiap.res.i

    2010-07-10

    We have investigated the young stellar population in and around SFO 38, one of the massive globules located in the northern part of the Galactic H II region IC 1396, using the Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations (3.6-24 {mu}m), and followed up with ground-based optical photometric and spectroscopic observations. Based on the IRAC and MIPS colors and H{alpha} emission, we identify {approx}45 young stellar objects (Classes 0/I/II) and 13 probable pre-main-sequence candidates. We derive the spectral types (mostly K- and M-type stars), effective temperatures, and individual extinction of the relatively bright and optically visible Class II objects. Most of the Class II objects show variable H{alpha} emission as well as optical and near-infrared photometric variability, which confirm their 'youth'. Based on optical photometry and theoretical isochrones, we estimate the spread in stellar ages to be between 1 and 8 Myr with a median age of 3 Myr and a mass distribution of 0.3-2.2 M{sub sun} with a median value around 0.5 M{sub sun}. Using the width of the H{alpha} emission line measured at 10% peak intensity, we derive the mass accretion rates of individual objects to be between 10{sup -10} and 10{sup -8} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. From the continuum-subtracted H{alpha} line image, we find that the H{alpha} emission of the globule is not spatially symmetric with respect to the O-type ionizing star HD 206267, and the interstellar extinction toward the globule is also anomalous. We clearly detect an enhanced concentration of YSOs closer to the southern rim of SFO 38 and identify an evolutionary sequence of YSOs from the rim to the dense core of the cloud, with most of the Class II objects located at the bright rim. The YSOs appear to be aligned along two different directions toward the O6.5V type star HD 206267 and the B0V type star HD 206773. This is consistent with the Radiation Driven Implosion (RDI) model for triggered star formation. Further, the apparent speed of

  3. Deep near-infrared imaging of W3 Main: constraints on stellar cluster formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bik, A.; Stolte, A.; Gennaro, M.; Brandner, W.; Gouliermis, D.; Hußmann, B.; Tognelli, E.; Rochau, B.; Henning, Th.; Adamo, A.; Beuther, H.; Pasquali, A.; Wang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Embedded clusters like W3 Main are complex and dynamically evolving systems that represent an important phase in the star formation process. Aims: We aim to characterize of the entire stellar content of W3 Main in a statistical sense, which will then identify possible differences in the evolutionary phase of the stellar populations and find clues about the formation mechanism of this massive embedded cluster. Methods: Deep JHKs imaging is used to derive the disk fraction, Ks-band luminosity functions, and mass functions for several subregions in W3 Main. A two-dimensional completeness analysis using artificial star experiments is applied as a crucial ingredient for assessing realistic completeness limits for our photometry. Results: We find an overall disk fraction of 7.7 ± 2.3%, radially varying from 9.4 ± 3.0% in the central 1 pc to 5.6 ± 2.2% in the outer parts of W3 Main. The mass functions derived for three subregions are consistent with a Kroupa and Chabrier mass function. The mass function of IRSN3 is complete down to 0.14 M⊙ and shows a break at M ~ 0.5 M⊙. Conclusions: We interpret the higher disk fraction in the center as evidence that the cluster center is younger. We find that the evolutionary sequence observed in the low-mass stellar population is consistent with the observed age spread among the massive stars. An analysis of the mass function variations does not show evidence of mass segregation. W3 Main is currently still actively forming stars, showing that the ionizing feedback of OB stars is confined to small areas (~0.5 pc). The FUV feedback might be influencing large regions of the cluster as suggested by the low overall disk fraction. Based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in Germany, Italy, and the United States. LBT Corporation partners are LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max Planck Society, the Astrophysical

  4. Star-formation and stellar feedback recipes in galaxy evolution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensler, Gerhard; Recchi, Simone; Ploeckinger, Sylvia; Kuehtreiber, Matthias; Steyrleithner, Patrick; Liu, Lei

    2015-08-01

    Modeling galaxy formation and evolution is critically depending on star formation (SF). Since cosmological and galaxy-scale simulations cannot resolve the spatial and density scales on which SF acts, a large variety of methods are developed and applied over the last decades. Nonetheless, we are still in the test phase how the choice of parameters affects the models and how they agree with observations.As a simple ansatz, recipes are based on power-law SF dependences on gas density as justified by gas cooling and collapse timescales. In order to prevent SF spread throughout the gas, temperature and density thresholds are also used, although gas dynamical effects, like e.g. gas infall, seem to trigger SF significantly.The formed stars influence their environment immediately by energetic and materialistic feedback. It has been experienced in numerical models that supernova typeII explosions act with a too long time delay to regulate the SF, but that winds and ionizing radiation by massive stars must be included. The implementation of feedback processes, their efficiencies and timescales, is still in an experimental state, because they depend also on the physical state of the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM).Combining a SF-gas density relation with stellar heating vs. gas cooling and taking the temperature dependence into account, we have derived an analytical expression of self-regulated SF which is free of arbitrary parameters. We have performed numerical models to study this recipe and different widely used SF criteria in both, particle and grid codes. Moreover, we compare the SF behavior between single-gas phase and multi-phase treatments of the ISM.Since dwarf galaxies (DGs) are most sensitive to environmental influences and contain only low SF rates, we explore two main affects on their models: 1. For external effects we compare SF rates of isolated and ram-pressure suffering DGs. Moreover, we find a SF enhancement in tidal-tail DGs by the compressive tidal

  5. Influence of stellar multiplicity on planet formation. I. Evidence of suppressed planet formation due to stellar companions within 20 au and validation of four planets from the Kepler multiple planet candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ji; Fischer, Debra A.; Xie, Ji-Wei; Barclay, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The planet occurrence rate for multiple stars is important in two aspects. First, almost half of stellar systems in the solar neighborhood are multiple systems. Second, the comparison of the planet occurrence rate for multiple stars to that for single stars sheds light on the influence of stellar multiplicity on planet formation and evolution. We developed a method of distinguishing planet occurrence rates for single and multiple stars. From a sample of 138 bright (K{sub P} < 13.5) Kepler multi-planet candidate systems, we compared the stellar multiplicity rate of these planet host stars to that of field stars. Using dynamical stability analyses and archival Doppler measurements, we find that the stellar multiplicity rate of planet host stars is significantly lower than field stars for semimajor axes less than 20 AU, suggesting that planet formation and evolution are suppressed by the presence of a close-in companion star at these separations. The influence of stellar multiplicity at larger separations is uncertain because of search incompleteness due to a limited Doppler observation time baseline and a lack of high-resolution imaging observation. We calculated the planet confidence for the sample of multi-planet candidates and find that the planet confidences for KOI 82.01, KOI 115.01, KOI 282.01, and KOI 1781.02 are higher than 99.7% and thus validate the planetary nature of these four planet candidates. This sample of bright Kepler multi-planet candidates with refined stellar and orbital parameters, planet confidence estimation, and nearby stellar companion identification offers a well-characterized sample for future theoretical and observational study.

  6. THE 100 Myr STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF NGC 5471 FROM CLUSTER AND RESOLVED STELLAR PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Benito, Ruben; Perez, Enrique; Maiz Apellaniz, Jesus; Cervino, Miguel; Diaz, Angeles I. E-mail: angeles.diaz@uam.es E-mail: jmaiz@iaa

    2011-04-15

    We show that star formation in the giant H II region NGC 5471 has been ongoing during the past 100 Myr. Using Hubble Space Telescope/Wide-Field Planetary Camera 2 F547M and F675W, ground-based JHK{sub s} , and GALEX FUV and NUV images, we have conducted a photometric study of the star formation history (SFH) in the massive giant extragalactic H II region NGC 5471 in M101. We perform a photometric study of the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of the resolved stars and an integrated analysis of the main individual star-forming clusters and of NGC 5471 as a whole. The integrated UV-optical-NIR photometry for the whole region provides two different reference ages, 8 Myr and 60 Myr, revealing a complex SFH, clearly confirmed by the CMD-resolved stellar photometry analysis. The spatial distribution of the stars shows that the star formation in NGC 5471 has proceeded along the whole region during, at least, the last 100 Myr. The current ionizing clusters are enclosed within a large bubble, which is likely to have been produced by the stars that formed in a major event {approx}20 Myr ago.

  7. Pitfalls when observationally characterizing the relative formation rates of stars and stellar clusters in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Bastian, Nate

    2016-03-01

    Stars generally form in aggregates, some of which are bound (`clusters') while others are unbound and disperse on short ({˜ }10 { Myr}) time-scales (`associations'). The fraction of stars forming in bound clusters (Γ) is a fundamental outcome of the star formation process. Recent observational and theoretical work has suggested that Γ increases with the gas surface density (Σ) or star formation rate (SFR) surface density (ΣSFR), both within galaxies and between different ones. However, a recent paper by Chandar et al. has challenged these results, showing that the total number of stellar aggregates per unit SFR does not vary systematically with the host galaxy's absolute SFR. In this Letter, we show that no variations are expected when no distinction is made between bound and unbound aggregates, because the sum of these two fractions should be close to unity. We also demonstrate that any scaling of Γ with the absolute SFR is much weaker than with ΣSFR, due to the mass-radius-SFR relation of star-forming `main-sequence' galaxies. The environmental variation of Γ should therefore be probed as a function of area-normalized quantities, such as Σ or ΣSFR. We present a set of guidelines for meaningful observational tests of cluster formation theories and show that these resolve the reported discrepancy.

  8. Galaxy Zoo: the dependence of the star formation-stellar mass relation on spiral disc morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Kyle W.; Schawinski, Kevin; Simmons, Brooke D.; Masters, Karen L.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Melvin, Thomas; Wong, O. Ivy; Nichol, Robert C.; Cheung, Edmond; Lintott, Chris J.; Fortson, Lucy

    2015-05-01

    We measure the stellar mass-star formation rate (SFR) relation in star-forming disc galaxies at z ≤ 0.085, using Galaxy Zoo morphologies to examine different populations of spirals as classified by their kiloparsec-scale structure. We examine the number of spiral arms, their relative pitch angle, and the presence of a galactic bar in the disc, and show that both the slope and dispersion of the M⋆-SFR relation is constant when varying all the above parameters. We also show that mergers (both major and minor), which represent the strongest conditions for increases in star formation at a constant mass, only boost the SFR above the main relation by ˜0.3 dex; this is significantly smaller than the increase seen in merging systems at z > 1. Of the galaxies lying significantly above the M⋆-SFR relation in the local Universe, more than 50 per cent are mergers. We interpret this as evidence that the spiral arms, which are imperfect reflections of the galaxy's current gravitational potential, are either fully independent of the various quenching mechanisms or are completely overwhelmed by the combination of outflows and feedback. The arrangement of the star formation can be changed, but the system as a whole regulates itself even in the presence of strong dynamical forcing.

  9. Star formation in galaxy mergers with realistic models of stellar feedback and the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Cox, Thomas J.; Hernquist, Lars; Narayanan, Desika; Hayward, Christopher C.; Murray, Norman

    2013-04-01

    We use hydrodynamic simulations with detailed, explicit models for stellar feedback to study galaxy mergers. These high-resolution (˜1 pc) simulations follow the formation and destruction of individual giant molecular clouds (GMC) and star clusters. We find that the final starburst is dominated by in situ star formation, fuelled by gas which flows inwards due to global torques. The resulting high gas density results in rapid star formation. The gas is self-gravitating, and forms massive (≲1010 M⊙) GMC and subsequently super star clusters (with masses up to 108 M⊙). However, in contrast to some recent simulations, the bulk of new stars which eventually form the central bulge are not born in super-clusters which then sink to the centre of the galaxy. This is because feedback efficiently disperses GMC after they turn several per cent of their mass into stars. In other words, most of the mass that reaches the nucleus does so in the form of gas. The Kennicutt-Schmidt law emerges naturally as a consequence of feedback balancing gravitational collapse, independent of the small-scale star formation microphysics. The same mechanisms that drive this relation in isolated galaxies, in particular radiation pressure from infrared photons, extend, with no fine-tuning, over seven decades in star formation rate (SFR) to regulate star formation in the most extreme starburst systems with densities ≳104 M⊙ pc-2. This feedback also drives super-winds with large mass-loss rates; however, a significant fraction of the wind material falls back on to the discs at later times, leading to higher post-starburst SFRs in the presence of stellar feedback. This suggests that strong active galactic nucleus feedback may be required to explain the sharp cut-offs in SFR that are observed in post-merger galaxies. We compare the results to those from simulations with no explicit resolution of GMC or feedback [`effective equation-of-state' (EOS) models]. We find that global galaxy properties

  10. Structure of the Outer Cusp and Sources of the Cusp Precipitation during Intervals of a Horizontal IMF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berchem, Jean; Nemecek, Z.; Safrankova, J.; Prech, L.; Simunek, J.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Fedorov, A.; Stenuit, H.; Fuselier, S. A.; Savin, S.; Zelenyi, L.

    2003-01-01

    The cusp represents a place where the magnetosheath plasma can directly penetrate into the magnetosphere. Since the main transport processes are connected with merging of the interplanetary and magnetospheric field lines: the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Orientation plays a decisive role in the formation of the high-altitude cusp. The importance of the sign of the IMF B(sub Z) component for this process was suggested about 40 years ago and later it was documented by many experimental investigations. However, situations when IMF Bz is the major IMF component are rather rare. The structure of the cusp during periods of a small IMF B(sub Z) is generally unknown, probably due to the fully 3-D nature of the interaction. The present case study reveals the importance of horizontal IMF components on the global magnetospheric configuration as well as on small-scale processes at the cusp-magnetosheath interface. We have used simultaneous measurements of several spacecraft (ISTP program) operating in different regions of interplanetary space and two closely spaced satellites (INTERBALL-1/MAGION-4) crossing the cusp-magnetosheath boundary to show the connection between the short- and large-scale phenomena. In the northern hemisphere, observations suggest a presence of two spots of cusp-like precipitation supplied by reconnection occurring simultaneously in both hemispheres. A source of this bifurcation is the positive IMF B(sub y) component further enhanced by the field draping in the magnetosheath. This magnetic field component shifts the entry point far away from the local noon but in opposite sense in either hemisphere. The cusp represents a place where the magnetosheath plasma can directly

  11. Core-halo age gradients and star formation in the Orion Nebula and NGS 2024 young stellar clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Getman, Konstantin V.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Kuhn, Michael A.

    2014-06-01

    We analyze age distributions of two nearby rich stellar clusters, the NGC 2024 (Flame Nebula) and Orion Nebula cluster (ONC) in the Orion molecular cloud complex. Our analysis is based on samples from the MYStIX survey and a new estimator of pre-main sequence (PMS) stellar ages, Age{sub JX} , derived from X-ray and near-infrared photometric data. To overcome the problem of uncertain individual ages and large spreads of age distributions for entire clusters, we compute median ages and their confidence intervals of stellar samples within annular subregions of the clusters. We find core-halo age gradients in both the NGC 2024 cluster and ONC: PMS stars in cluster cores appear younger and thus were formed later than PMS stars in cluster peripheries. These findings are further supported by the spatial gradients in the disk fraction and K-band excess frequency. Our age analysis is based on Age{sub JX} estimates for PMS stars and is independent of any consideration of OB stars. The result has important implications for the formation of young stellar clusters. One basic implication is that clusters form slowly and the apparent age spreads in young stellar clusters, which are often controversial, are (at least in part) real. The result further implies that simple models where clusters form inside-out are incorrect and more complex models are needed. We provide several star formation scenarios that alone or in combination may lead to the observed core-halo age gradients.

  12. Numerical simulations of bubble-induced star formation in dwarf irregular galaxies with a novel stellar feedback scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Daisuke; Gibson, Brad K.; Barnes, David J.; Grand, Robert J. J.; Rahimi, Awat

    2014-02-01

    To study the star formation and feedback mechanism, we simulate the evolution of an isolated dwarf irregular galaxy (dIrr) in a fixed dark matter halo, similar in size to Wolf-Lundmark-Melotte, using a new stellar feedback scheme. We use the new version of our original N-body/smoothed particle chemodynamics code, GCD+, which adopts improved hydrodynamics, metal diffusion between the gas particles and new modelling of star formation and stellar wind and supernovae feedback. Comparing the simulations with and without stellar feedback effects, we demonstrate that the collisions of bubbles produced by strong feedback can induce star formation in a more widely spread area. We also demonstrate that the metallicity in star-forming regions is kept low due to the mixing of the metal-rich bubbles and the metal-poor interstellar medium. Our simulations also suggest that the bubble-induced star formation leads to many counter-rotating stars. The bubble-induced star formation could be a dominant mechanism to maintain star formation in dIrrs, which is different from larger spiral galaxies where the non-axisymmetric structures, such as spiral arms, are a main driver of star formation.

  13. 21 CFR 872.3360 - Preformed cusp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preformed cusp. 872.3360 Section 872.3360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3360 Preformed cusp. (a) Identification. A performed cusp is...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3360 - Preformed cusp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preformed cusp. 872.3360 Section 872.3360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3360 Preformed cusp. (a) Identification. A performed cusp is...

  15. Stellar, brown dwarf and multiple star properties from a radiation hydrodynamical simulation of star cluster formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bate, Matthew R.

    2012-02-01

    We report the statistical properties of stars, brown dwarfs and multiple systems obtained from the largest radiation hydrodynamical simulation of star cluster formation to date that resolves masses down to the opacity limit for fragmentation (a few Jupiter masses). The initial conditions are identical to those of previous barotropic calculations published by Bate, but this time the calculation is performed using a realistic equation of state and radiation hydrodynamics. The calculation uses sink particles to model 183 stars and brown dwarfs, including 28 binaries and 12 higher-order multiple systems, the properties of which are compared to the results from observational surveys. We find that the radiation hydrodynamical/sink particle simulation reproduces many observed stellar properties very well. In particular, whereas using a barotropic equation of state produces more brown dwarfs than stars, the inclusion of radiative feedback results in a stellar mass function and a ratio of brown dwarfs to stars in good agreement with observations of Galactic star-forming regions. In addition, many of the other statistical properties of the stars and brown dwarfs are in reasonable agreement with observations, including multiplicity as a function of primary mass, the frequency of very low mass binaries, and general trends for the mass ratio and separation distributions of binaries. We also examine the velocity dispersion of the stars, the distributions of disc truncation radii due to dynamical interactions, and coplanarity of orbits and sink particle spins in multiple systems. Overall, the calculation produces a cluster of stars whose statistical properties are difficult to distinguish from observed systems, implying that gravity, hydrodynamics and radiative feedback are the primary ingredients for determining the origin of the statistical properties of low-mass stars.

  16. Stellar, brown dwarf and multiple star properties from hydrodynamical simulations of star cluster formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bate, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    We report the statistical properties of stars, brown dwarfs and multiple systems obtained from the largest hydrodynamical simulation of star cluster formation to date that resolves masses down to the opacity limit for fragmentation (a few Jupiter masses). The simulation is essentially identical to that of Bate, Bonnell & Bromm except that the initial molecular cloud is larger and more massive. It produces more than 1250 stars and brown dwarfs, providing unprecedented statistical information that can be compared with observational surveys. The calculation uses sink particles to model the stars and brown dwarfs. Part of the calculation is rerun with smaller sink particle accretion radii and gravitational softening to investigate the effect of these approximations on the results. We find that hydrodynamical/sink particle simulations can reproduce many of the observed stellar properties very well. Multiplicity as a function of the primary mass, the frequency of very low mass (VLM) binaries, general trends for the separation and mass ratio distributions of binaries and the relative orbital orientations of triples systems are all in reasonable agreement with observations. We also examine the radial variations of binarity, velocity dispersion and mass function in the resulting stellar cluster and the distributions of disc truncation radii due to dynamical interactions. For VLM binaries, because their separations are typically close, we find that their frequency is sensitive to the sink particle accretion radii and gravitational softening used in the calculations. Using small accretion radii and gravitational softening results in a frequency of VLM binaries similar to that expected from observational surveys (~20 per cent). We also find that VLM binaries evolve from wide, unequal-mass systems towards close equal-mass systems as they form. The two main deficiencies of the calculations are that they overproduce brown dwarfs relative to stars and that there are too few

  17. Initial conditions of formation of starburst clusters: constraints from stellar dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sambaran; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-08-01

    Recent high resolution observations of dense regions of molecular clouds and massive gaseous clumps with instruments like Herschel and ALMA have revealed intricate and filamentary overdensity structures in them. Such progenitors of massive starburst clusters are in contrast with smooth, centrally-pronounced profiles of the latter. In this work, we intend to constrain massive, substructured stellar distributions that would evolve to cluster-like profiles at very young ages (~Myr), as seen in starburst clusters. Taking the well observed NGC3603 Young Cluster (NYC) as an example, we compute the infall and final merger of filament-like compact (0.1-0.3 pc) subclusters, totalling 10000 M_sun, from a range of spatial scales and modes of sub-clustering, using direct N-body calculations. These calculations infer an allowable span of approx. 2.5 pc from which the subclusters can fall in a gas potential and merge to form a single centrally-dense structure in near dynamical equilibrium, within the young age of NYC (1-2 Myr). However, these merged clusters are too compact and centrally overdense compared to typical young clusters. Our N-body calculations, beginning from such compact initial conditions, show that even stellar wind and supernova mass loss, dynamical heating from retaining black holes, external tidal field and heating due to tight O-star binaries together cannot expand these clusters to their observed sizes, even in 100 Myr. Hence an explosive gas dispersal phase seems essential for forming starburst and other young clusters observed in the Milky Way and in the Local Group which can expand the clusters to their observed sizes and concentrations; including that for NYC with approx. 30% clump star formation efficiency. However, some observed massive but highly extended (>10 pc) , >10 Myr old clusters better fit a slow (several Myr timescale) gas dispersal from parsec-scale initial profiles, which can be the future of embedded systems like W3 Main.

  18. The regulation of star formation in cool-core clusters: imprints on the stellar populations of brightest cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loubser, S. I.; Babul, A.; Hoekstra, H.; Mahdavi, A.; Donahue, M.; Bildfell, C.; Voit, G. M.

    2016-02-01

    A fraction of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) show bright emission in the ultraviolet and the blue part of the optical spectrum, which has been interpreted as evidence of recent star formation. Most of these results are based on the analysis of broad-band photometric data. Here, we study the optical spectra of a sample of 19 BCGs hosted by X-ray luminous galaxy clusters at 0.15 formation histories of the galaxies by fitting simple stellar populations as well as composite populations, consisting of a young stellar component superimposed on an intermediate/old stellar component, to accurately constrain their star formation histories. We detect prominent young (˜200 Myr) stellar populations in four of the 19 galaxies. Of the four, the BCG in Abell 1835 shows remarkable A-type stellar features indicating a relatively large population of young stars, which is extremely unusual even amongst star-forming BCGs. We constrain the mass contribution of these young components to the total stellar mass to be typically between 1 and 3 per cent, but rising to 7 per cent in Abell 1835. We find that the four of the BCGs with strong evidence for recent star formation (and only these four galaxies) are found within a projected distance of 5 kpc of their host cluster's X-ray peak, and the diffuse, X-ray gas surrounding the BCGs exhibits a ratio of the radiative cooling-to-free-fall time (tc/tff) of ≤10. These are also some of the clusters with the lowest central entropy. Our results are consistent with the predictions of the precipitation-driven star formation and active galactic nucleus feedback model, in which the radiatively cooling diffuse gas is subject to local thermal instabilities once the instability parameter tc/tff falls below ˜10, leading to the condensation and precipitation of cold gas. The number of galaxies in our sample where the host cluster satisfies all the

  19. Stellar Content and Recent Star Formation History of the Local Group Dwarf Irregular Galaxy IC 1613

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Edouard J.; Aparicio, Antonio; Gallart, Carme; Padilla-Torres, Carmen P.; Panniello, Maurizio

    2007-09-01

    We present resolved-star VI photometry of the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 reaching I ~ 23.5, obtained with the wide-field camera at the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope. A fit to the stellar density distribution shows an exponential profile of scale length 2.9' ± 0.1' and gives a central surface brightness μV,0 = 22.7 ± 0.6. The significant number of red giant branch (RGB) stars present in the outer part of our images (r > 16.5') indicates that the galaxy is actually more extended than previously estimated. A comparison of the color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) as a function of galactocentric distance shows a clear gradient in the age of its population, the scale length increasing with age, while we find no evidence of a metallicity gradient from the width of the RGB. We present quantitative results of the recent star formation history from a synthetic CMD analysis using IAC-STAR. We find a mean star formation rate of (1.6 ± 0.8) × 10-3 Modot yr-1 kpc-2 in the central r lesssim 2.5' for the last 300 Myr. Based on observations made with the Isaac Newton Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  20. CHARACTERIZING THE FORMATION HISTORY OF MILKY WAY LIKE STELLAR HALOS WITH MODEL EMULATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Facundo A.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Coleman-Smith, Christopher E.; Tumlinson, Jason; Wolpert, Robert L.

    2012-12-01

    We use the semi-analytic model ChemTreeN, coupled to cosmological N-body simulations, to explore how different galaxy formation histories can affect observational properties of Milky Way like galaxies' stellar halos and their satellite populations. Gaussian processes are used to generate model emulators that allow one to statistically estimate a desired set of model outputs at any location of a p-dimensional input parameter space. This enables one to explore the full input parameter space orders of magnitude faster than could be done otherwise. Using mock observational data sets generated by ChemTreeN itself, we show that it is possible to successfully recover the input parameter vectors used to generate the mock observables if the merger history of the host halo is known. However, our results indicate that for a given observational data set, the determination of 'best-fit' parameters is highly susceptible to the particular merger history of the host. Very different halo merger histories can reproduce the same observational data set, if the 'best-fit' parameters are allowed to vary from history to history. Thus, attempts to characterize the formation history of the Milky Way using these kind of techniques must be performed statistically, analyzing large samples of high-resolution N-body simulations.

  1. Formation of the Galactic Stellar Halo: Origin of the Metallicity-Eccentricity Relation.

    PubMed

    Bekki; Chiba

    2000-05-01

    Motivated by the recently improved knowledge on the kinematic and chemical properties of the Galactic metal-poor stars, we present the numerical simulation for the formation of the Galactic stellar halo to interpret the observational results. As a model for the Galaxy contraction, we adopt the currently standard theory of galaxy formation based on the hierarchical assembly of the cold dark matter fluctuations. We find, for the simulated stars with &sqbl0;Fe&solm0;H&sqbr0;

  2. Cusp geometry in MHD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siscoe, George; Crooker, Nancy; Siebert, Keith; Maynard, Nelson; Weimer, Daniel; White, Willard

    2005-01-01

    The MHD simulations described here show that the latitude of the high-altitude cusp decreases as the IMF swings from North to South, that there is a pronounced dawn dusk asymmetry at high-altitude associated with a dawn dusk component of the IMF, and that at the same time there is also a pronounced dawn dusk asymmetry at low-altitude. The simulations generate a feature that represents what has been called the cleft. It appears as a tail (when the IMF has a By component) attached to the cusp, extending either toward the dawn flank or the dusk flank depending on the dawn dusk orientation of the IMF. This one-sided cleft connects the cusp to the magnetospheric sash. We compare cusp geometry predicted by MHD simulations against published observations based on Hawkeye and DMSP data. Regarding the high-altitude predictions, the comparisons are not definitive, mainly because the observations are incomplete or mutually inconsistent. Regarding the low-altitude prediction of a strong dawn dusk asymmetry, the observations are unambiguous and are in good qualitative agreement with the prediction.

  3. Beach Cusps: Spatial distribution and time evolution at Massaguaçú beach (SP), Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, H. H.; Siegle, E.; Sousa, P. H.

    2013-05-01

    Beach cusps are crescentic morphological structures observed on the foreshore of beaches characterized by steep seaward protruding extensions, called cusp horns, and gently sloped landward extensions, called cusp embayments. Their formation depends on the grain size, beach slope, tidal range and incoming waves. Cusps are best developed on gravel or shingle beaches, small tidal range with a large slope for incoming waves generate a well-developed swash excursion. These structures are quickly responding to wave climate and tidal range, changing the position of the rhythmic features on the beach face. Beach cusps are favored by normal incoming waves, while oblique waves tend to wash these features out. This study aims to analyze the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of rhythmic features such as beach cusps in Massaguaçú embayment (Caraguatatuba, northern coast of São Paulo, Brazil). This embayment has an extension of 7.5 km with reflective beaches cusped mainly in its more exposed central portion. The data set for this study consists of a series of video images (Argus system), covering a stretch of the beach. Visible beach cusps were digitalized from these rectified images. Results obtained from the images were related to the wave climate, water level and the storm surges. Results show that the cusps on the upper portion of the foreshore were more regular and present than the cusps on the lower portion of the foreshore due to the tidal modulation of wave action. The cusp spacing on the upper portion of the foreshore is of about 38 m and the lower portion of the foreshore is of about 28 m and their presence was correlated with the wave direction and water elevation. As expected, waves approaching with shore-normal angles (southeast direction) were favorable to the formation of beach cusps while the waves from the southwest, south, east and northeast generated a longshore current that reduced or destroyed any rhythmic feature. Other important forcing was

  4. Stellar populations and Star Formation Rates in NGC 6872, the Condor galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eufrasio, Rafael T.; De Mello, D. F.; Dwek, E.; Arendt, R. G.; Gadotti, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of 10 kpc regions across the giant spiral galaxy NGC 6872, the Condor galaxy. We made use of archival data from the FUV (GALEX) to 22 μm (WISE). In order to find any signature of the recent interaction 130 Myr) with its companion, the S0 galaxy IC 4970, we inspected the SED of Condor's bar. One possibility is that is would have been formed by passage of the companion. We find that it is a particularly long bar (9 kpc semi-major axis), with a size almost twice as large as the average found in other barred galaxies (4.5 kpc median in the local universe, Gadotti 2011). A bulge/bar/disk 2D decomposition using the Spitzer 3.6 μm image and the budda package (de Souza et al. 2004; Gadotti 2008) reveals that the ratio of the bar semi-major axis to the disk scale-length is 1.4, which is a value typically found in other barred galaxies (see Fig. 1 in Gadotti 2011). The disk scale-length is ~ 7 kpc, which is extremely large (2.8 kpc median in local galaxies, Gadotti 2009). Our analysis also shows that there are no signs of recent star formation along the bar. We find no signs of a box-peanut structure near the central regions, which is also another signature of an evolved bar. Taken altogether, the evidence points to a bar formed at least a few billion years ago and the stars in the bar seem to be a fossil record of the stellar population in the galaxy before the interaction with its companion. Then, we modeled the SFH of each 10 kpc region as constant Star Formation Rate (SFR) for the past 100 Myr superposed on an exponentially decaying, longstanding SFR. We find a single exponential SFH to account for all the recent SFR of the galaxy, with no need for an additional SFR due to the interaction. Av is low all across the galaxy 0.25), but increases near 0.7) the point of collision. The SFH of the arms are asymmetric. The northeastern arm having older ages 5 Gyr) and SFH closer to constant, while the

  5. Explaining the Three-decade Correlation between Star Formation Rate and Stellar Mass in Galaxies at z~1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawiser, Eric J.; Kurczynski, Peter; Acquaviva, Viviana; UVUDF Team, CANDELS Team

    2016-01-01

    In star-forming galaxies across cosmic time, a correlation has been found between the mass of stars already assembled and its time derivative, the star formation rate. This surprising correlation was not predicted by theory, but it can be reproduced within cosmological hydrodynamics simulations and semi-analytical models of galaxy formation. Here we use SpeedyMC, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo code for Spectral Energy Distribution fitting, to measure the star formation rates and stellar masses of 800 galaxies from the Ultraviolet Ultradeep Field (UVUDF) and CANDELS/GOODS-S field at redshift 1 < z < 1.5. This galaxy sample leverages the deepest images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope to extend the SFR-M* correlation a factor of 10-100X lower in M* than previous studies, down to values of 10^7 M_sun comparable to present-day dwarf galaxies. Accounting for each galaxy's parameter uncertainties, including their covariances, yields a power-law correlation across three decades with intrinsic scatter of 0.2 dex. Having assumed realistic star formation histories that can rise and fall with time, we are able to measure star formation rates on timescales varying from instantaneous to the "lifetime" average for each galaxy. As the timescale over which star formation rate is averaged increases, the power-law exponent of the correlation with stellar mass increases to unity, and the scatter decreases to 0.05 dex. We conclude that the observed correlation between star formation rate and stellar mass results from a tight correlation between recent and lifetime-average star formation rates and a narrow spread of galaxy ages at a given star formation rate. The resulting correlation provides crucial evidence that galaxy formation proceeds through self-regulated star formation. We gratefully acknowledge support from NSF grant AST-1055919 and grants from NASA via the Space Telescope Science Institute in support of programs 12060.57, 12445.56, and GO-12534.

  6. The stellar content and formation history of the Giant HII region W51 using IRMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Ben; MacKenty, John; Clark, Simon; Figer, Don

    2007-08-01

    The W51 Giant Molecular Cloud is amongst the most massive within the Galaxy, and harbours widespread and significant massive star formation (SF). However this activity appears qualitatively different from the spatially segregated, sequentially triggered SF occuring in e.g. the G305 and the 30 Dor star forming regions, apparently being quasi- simultaneous and multi-seeded. We propose to obtain near-IR spectroscopy of selected regions within W51 to complement planned deep imaging observations, in order to (i) determine if SF at these sites is proceeding independently or instead is triggered by older, adjacent activity and (ii) to investigate the claims of Okumura et al. (2000) for a top heavy IMF and hence to investigate if the IMF shows an environmental dependence. Finally, a measurement of the total stellar mass in W51 will enable the SF efficiency to be determined and compared to other star forming regions, to investigate potential dependencies on environment or the mode of SF, e.g triggered or multi-seeded.

  7. Formation of warped disks by galactic flyby encounters. I. Stellar disks

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jeonghwan H.; An, Sung-Ho; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Peirani, Sebastien; Kim, Sungsoo; Ann, Hong Bae

    2014-07-01

    Warped disks are almost ubiquitous among spiral galaxies. Here we revisit and test the 'flyby scenario' of warp formation, in which impulsive encounters between galaxies are responsible for warped disks. Based on N-body simulations, we investigate the morphological and kinematical evolution of the stellar component of disks when galaxies undergo flyby interactions with adjacent dark matter halos. We find that the so-called 'S'-shaped warps can be excited by flybys and sustained for even up to a few billion years, and that this scenario provides a cohesive explanation for several key observations. We show that disk warp properties are governed primarily by the following three parameters: (1) the impact parameter, i.e., the minimum distance between two halos; (2) the mass ratio between two halos; and (3) the incident angle of the flyby perturber. The warp angle is tied up with all three parameters, yet the warp lifetime is particularly sensitive to the incident angle of the perturber. Interestingly, the modeled S-shaped warps are often non-symmetric depending on the incident angle. We speculate that the puzzling U- and L-shaped warps are geometrically superimposed S-types produced by successive flybys with different incident angles, including multiple interactions with a satellite on a highly elongated orbit.

  8. Hippo pathway/Yap regulates primary enamel knot and dental cusp patterning in tooth morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuk-Jae Edward; Li, Liwen; Jung, Han-Sung

    2015-11-01

    The shape of an individual tooth crown is primarily determined by the number and arrangement of its cusps, i.e., cusp patterning. Enamel knots that appear in the enamel organ during tooth morphogenesis have been suggested to play important roles in cusp patterning. Animal model studies have shown that the Hippo pathway effector Yap has a critical function in tooth morphogenesis. However, the role of the Hippo pathway/Yap in cusp patterning has not been well documented and its specific roles in tooth morphogenesis remain unclear. Here, we provide evidence that Yap is a key mediator in tooth cusp patterning. We demonstrate a correlation between Yap localization and cell proliferation in developing tooth germs. We also show that, between the cap stage and bell stage, Yap is crucial for the suppression of the primary enamel knot and for the patterning of secondary enamel knots, which are the future cusp regions. When Yap expression is stage-specifically knocked down during the cap stage, the activity of the primary enamel knot persists into the bell-stage tooth germ, leading to ectopic cusp formation. Our data reveal the importance of the Hippo pathway/Yap in enamel knots and in the proper patterning of tooth cusps.

  9. EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 1.3. III. ON THE DEPENDENCE OF FORMATION EPOCHS AND STAR FORMATION HISTORIES ON STELLAR MASS AND ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Rettura, A.; Stanford, S. A.; Jee, M. J.; Mei, S.; Ford, H. C.; Huertas-Company, M.; Raichoor, A.; Moran, S.; Holden, B.; Illingworth, G.; Ellis, R.; Nakata, F.; Nonino, M.; Treu, T.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Demarco, R.; Eisenhardt, P.; Kodama, T.

    2011-05-10

    We study the environmental dependence of stellar population properties at z {approx} 1.3. We derive galaxy properties (stellar masses, ages, and star formation histories) for samples of massive, red, passive early-type galaxies (ETGs) in two high-redshift clusters, RXJ0849+4452 and RXJ0848+4453 (with redshifts of z = 1.26 and 1.27, respectively), and compare them with those measured for the RDCS1252.9-2927 cluster at z = 1.24 and with those measured for a similarly mass-selected sample of field contemporaries drawn from the GOODS-South field. Robust estimates of the aforementioned parameters have been obtained by comparing a large grid of composite stellar population models with extensive 8- to 10-band photometric coverage, from the rest-frame far-ultraviolet to the infrared. We find no variations of the overall stellar population properties among the different samples of cluster ETGs. However, when comparing cluster versus field stellar population properties we find that, even if the ages are similar and depend only on galaxy mass, the ones in the field do employ longer timescales to assemble their final mass. We find that, approximately 1 Gyr after the onset of star formation, the majority (75%) of cluster galaxies have already assembled most (>80%) of their final mass, while, by the same time, fewer (35%) field ETGs have. Thus, we conclude that while galaxy mass regulates the timing of galaxy formation, the environment regulates the timescale of their star formation histories.

  10. The stellar mass function and efficiency of galaxy formation with a varying initial mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, Sean L.; Goto, Ryosuke; Balogh, Michael L.

    2014-03-01

    Several recent observational studies have concluded that the initial mass function (IMF) of stars varies systematically with galaxy properties such as velocity dispersion. In this paper, we investigate the effect of linking the circular velocity of galaxies, as determined from the Fundamental Plane and Tully-Fisher relations, to the slope of the IMF with parametrizations guided by several of these studies. For each empirical relation, we generate stellar masses of ˜600 000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies at z ˜ 0.1, by fitting the optical photometry to large suites of synthetic stellar populations that sample the full range of galaxy parameters. We generate stellar mass functions and examine the stellar-to-halo mass relations using sub-halo abundance matching. At the massive end, the stellar mass functions become a power law, instead of the familiar exponential decline. As a result, it is a generic feature of these models that the central galaxy stellar-to-halo mass relation is significantly flatter at high masses (slope ˜-0.3 to -0.4) than in the case of a universal IMF (slope ˜-0.6). We find that regardless of whether the IMF varies systematically in all galaxies or just early types, there is still a well-defined peak in the central stellar-to-halo mass ratio at halo masses of ˜1012 M⊙. In general, the IMF variations explored here lead to significantly higher integrated stellar densities if the assumed dependence on circular velocity applies to all galaxies, including late-types; in fact the more extreme cases can be ruled out, as they imply an unphysical situation in which the stellar fraction exceeds the universal baryon fraction.

  11. SIMULTANEOUS MODELING OF THE STELLAR AND DUST EMISSION IN DISTANT GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR STAR FORMATION RATE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Utomo, Dyas; Kriek, Mariska; Labbé, Ivo; Fumagalli, Mattia; Conroy, Charlie

    2014-03-10

    We have used near-ultraviolet (NUV) to mid-infrared (MIR) composite spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to simultaneously model the attenuated stellar and dust emission of 0.5 ≲ z ≲ 2.0 galaxies. These composite SEDs were previously constructed from the photometric catalogs of the NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey by stacking the observed photometry of galaxies that have similar rest-frame NUV-to-NIR SEDs. In this work, we include a stacked MIPS 24 μm measurement for each SED type to extend the SEDs to rest-frame MIR wavelengths. Consistent with previous studies, the observed MIR emission for most SED types is higher than expected from only the attenuated stellar emission. We fit the NUV-to-MIR composite SEDs with the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis (FSPS) models, which include both stellar and dust emission. We compare the best-fit star formation rates (SFRs) to the SFRs based on simple UV+IR estimators. Interestingly, the UV and IR luminosities overestimate SFRs—compared to the model SFRs—by more than ∼1 dex for quiescent galaxies, while for the highest star-forming galaxies in our sample the two SFRs are broadly consistent. The difference in specific SFRs also shows a gradually increasing trend with declining specific SFR, implying that quiescent galaxies have even lower specific SFRs than previously found. Contributions from evolved stellar populations to both the UV and the MIR SEDs most likely explain the discrepancy. Based on this work, we conclude that SFRs should be determined from modeling the attenuated stellar and dust emission simultaneously, instead of employing simple UV+IR-based SFR estimators.

  12. A PANCHROMATIC STUDY OF BLAST COUNTERPARTS: TOTAL STAR FORMATION RATE, MORPHOLOGY, ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FRACTION, AND STELLAR MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Ade, Peter A. R.; Cortese, Luca; Dye, Simon; Eales, Stephen; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Pascale, Enzo; Tucker, Carole; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Wiebe, Donald V.; Devlin, Mark J.; Truch, Matthew D. P.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Viero, Marco P.

    2011-02-01

    We carry out a multi-wavelength study of individual galaxies detected by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) and identified at other wavelengths, using data spanning the radio to the ultraviolet (UV). We develop a Monte Carlo method to account for flux boosting, source blending, and correlations among bands, which we use to derive deboosted far-infrared (FIR) luminosities for our sample. We estimate total star-formation rates (SFRs) for BLAST counterparts with z {<=} 0.9 by combining their FIR and UV luminosities. Star formation is heavily obscured at L{sub FIR} {approx}> 10{sup 11} L{sub sun}, z {approx}> 0.5, but the contribution from unobscured starlight cannot be neglected at L{sub FIR} {approx}< 10{sup 11} L{sub sun}, z {approx}< 0.25. We assess that about 20% of the galaxies in our sample show indication of a type 1 active galactic nucleus, but their submillimeter emission is mainly due to star formation in the host galaxy. We compute stellar masses for a subset of 92 BLAST counterparts; these are relatively massive objects, with a median mass of {approx}10{sup 11} M{sub sun}, which seem to link the 24 {mu}m and Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) populations, in terms of both stellar mass and star formation activity. The bulk of the BLAST counterparts at z {approx}< 1 appears to be run-of-the-mill star-forming galaxies, typically spiral in shape, with intermediate stellar masses and practically constant specific SFRs. On the other hand, the high-z tail of the BLAST counterparts significantly overlaps with the SCUBA population, in terms of both SFRs and stellar masses, with observed trends of specific SFR that support strong evolution and downsizing.

  13. Stellar Masses and Start Formation Rates of Lensed Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies from the SPT Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Gonzalez, Anthony; SPT SMG Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    To understand cosmic mass assembly in the Universe at early epochs, we primarily rely on measurements of stellar mass and star formation rate of distant galaxies. In this paper, we present stellar masses and star formation rates of six high-redshift (2.8 ≤ z ≤ 5.7) dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) that are strongly gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxies. These sources were first discovered by the South Pole Telescope (SPT) at millimeter wavelengths and all have spectroscopic redshifts and robust lens models derived from ALMA observations. We have conducted follow-up observations, obtaining multi-wavelength imaging data, using HST, Spitzer, Herschel and the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX). We use the high-resolution HST/WFC3 images to disentangle the background source from the foreground lens in Spitzer/IRAC data. The detections and upper limits provide important constraints on the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for these DSFGs, yielding stellar masses, IR luminosities, and star formation rates (SFRs). The SED fits of six SPT sources show that the intrinsic stellar masses span a range more than one order of magnitude with a median value ˜ 5 ×1010M⊙. The intrinsic IR luminosities range from 4×1012L⊙ to 4×1013L⊙. They all have prodigious intrinsic star formation rates of 510 to 4800 M⊙yr-1. Compared to the star-forming main sequence (MS), these six DSFGs have specific SFRs that all lie above the MS, including two galaxies that are a factor of 10 higher than the MS. Our results suggest that we are witnessing the ongoing strong starburst events which may be driven by major mergers.

  14. The Relation between Star-Formation Rate and Stellar Mass of Galaxies at z ~ 1-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsianis, A.; Tescari, E.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2016-07-01

    The relation between the star-formation Rate and stellar mass (M ⋆) of galaxies represents a fundamental constraint on galaxy formation, and has been studied extensively both in observations and cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. However, the observed amplitude of the star-formation rate-stellar mass relation has not been successfully reproduced in simulations, indicating either that the halo accretion history and baryonic physics are poorly understood/modelled or that observations contain biases. In this paper, we examine the evolution of the SFR - M ⋆ relation of z ~ 1-4 galaxies and display the inconsistency between observed relations that are obtained using different techniques. We employ cosmological hydrodynamic simulations from various groups which are tuned to reproduce a range of observables and compare these with a range of observed SFR - M ⋆ relations. We find that numerical results are consistent with observations that use Spectral Energy Distribution techniques to estimate star-formation rates, dust corrections, and stellar masses. On the contrary, simulations are not able to reproduce results that were obtained by combining only UV and IR luminosities (UV+IR). These imply star-formation rates at a fixed stellar mass that are larger almost by a factor of 5 than those of Spectral Energy Distribution measurements for z ~ 1.5-4. For z < 1.5, the results from simulations, Spectral Energy Distribution fitting techniques and IR+UV conversion agree well. We find that surveys that preferably select star-forming galaxies (e.g. by adopting Lyman-break or blue selection) typically predict a larger median/average star-formation rate at a fixed stellar mass especially for high mass objects, with respect to mass selected samples and hydrodynamic simulations. Furthermore, we find remarkable agreement between the numerical results from various authors who have employed different cosmological codes and run simulations with different resolutions. This is

  15. Compact stellar systems in the polar ring galaxies NGC 4650A and NGC 3808B: Clues to polar disk formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordenes-Briceño, Yasna; Georgiev, Iskren Y.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Arnaboldi, Magda

    2016-01-01

    Context. Polar ring galaxies (PRGs) are composed of two kinematically distinct and nearly orthogonal components, a host galaxy (HG) and a polar ring/disk (PR). The HG usually contains an older stellar population than the PR. The suggested formation channel of PRGs is still poorly constrained. Suggested options are merger, gas accretion, tidal interaction, or a combination of both. Aims: To constrain the formation scenario of PRGs, we study the compact stellar systems (CSSs) in two PRGs at different evolutionary stages: NGC 4650A with well-defined PR, and NGC 3808 B, which is in the process of PR formation. Methods: We use archival HST/WFPC2 imaging in the F450W, F555W, or F606W and F814W filters. Extensive completeness tests, PSF-fitting techniques, and color selection criteria are used to select cluster candidates. Photometric analysis of the CSSs was performed to determine their ages and masses using stellar population models at a fixed metallicity. Results: Both PRGs contain young CSSs (<1 Gyr) with masses of up to 5 × 106M⊙, mostly located in the PR and along the tidal debris. The most massive CSSs may be progenitors of metal-rich globular clusters or ultra compact dwarf (UCD) galaxies. We identify one such young UCD candidate, NGC 3808 B-8, and measure its size of reff = 25.23+1.43-2.01 pc. We reconstruct the star formation history of the two PRGs and find strong peaks in the star formation rate (SFR, ≃200 M⊙/yr) in NGC 3808 B, while NGC 4650 A shows milder (declining) star formation (SFR< 10 M⊙/yr). This difference may support different evolutionary paths between these PRGs. Conclusions: The spatial distribution, masses, and peak star formation epoch of the clusters in NGC 3808 suggest for a tidally triggered star formation. Incompleteness at old ages prevents us from probing the SFR at earlier epochs of NGC 4650 A, where we observe the fading tail of CSS formation. This also impedes us from testing the formation scenarios of this PRG.

  16. Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peletier, Reynier F.

    2013-10-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School is Secular Evolution in Galaxies I mostly concentrate on nearby galaxies, which are best suited to study this theme. Of course, the understanding of stellar populations is intimately connected to understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies, one of the great outstanding problems of astronomy. We are currently in a situation where very large observational advances have been made in recent years. Galaxies have been detected up to a redshift of ten. A huge effort has to be made so that stellar population theory can catch up with observations. Since most galaxies are far away, information about them has to come from stellar population synthesis of integrated light. Here I will discuss how stellar evolution theory, together with observations in our Milky Way and Local Group, are used as building blocks to analyse these integrated stellar populations.

  17. Cassini observations of Saturn's southern polar cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arridge, C. S.; Jasinski, J. M.; Achilleos, N.; Bogdanova, Y. V.; Bunce, E. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Khurana, K. K.; Lamy, L.; Leisner, J. S.; Roussos, E.; Russell, C. T.; Zarka, P.; Coates, A. J.; Dougherty, M. K.; Jones, G. H.; Krimigis, S. M.; Krupp, N.

    2016-04-01

    The magnetospheric cusps are important sites of the coupling of a magnetosphere with the solar wind. The combination of both ground- and space-based observations at Earth has enabled considerable progress to be made in understanding the terrestrial cusp and its role in the coupling of the magnetosphere to the solar wind via the polar magnetosphere. Voyager 2 fully explored Neptune's cusp in 1989, but highly inclined orbits of the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn present the most recent opportunity to repeatedly study the polar magnetosphere of a rapidly rotating planet. In this paper we discuss observations made by Cassini during two passes through Saturn's southern polar magnetosphere. Our main findings are that (i) Cassini directly encounters the southern polar cusp with evidence for the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp via magnetopause reconnection, (ii) magnetopause reconnection and entry of plasma into the cusp can occur over a range of solar wind conditions, and (iii) double cusp morphologies are consistent with the position of the cusp oscillating in phase with Saturn's global magnetospheric periodicities.

  18. Cusps on cosmic superstrings with junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Rajamanoharan, Senthooran; Nelson, William; Sakellariadou, Mairi E-mail: william.nelson@kcl.ac.uk E-mail: mairi.sakellariadou@kcl.ac.uk

    2008-11-15

    The existence of cusps on non-periodic strings ending on D-branes is demonstrated and the conditions for which such cusps are generic are derived. The dynamics of F-strings, D-strings and FD-string junctions are investigated. It is shown that pairs of FD-string junctions, such as would form after intercommutations of F-strings and D-strings, generically contain cusps. This new feature of cosmic superstrings opens up the possibility of extra channels of energy loss from a string network. The phenomenology of cusps on such cosmic superstring networks is compared to that of cusps formed on networks of their field theory analogues, the standard cosmic strings.

  19. Stellar and Gas Phase Metallicity of Low Surface Brighness Galaxies: Implication on Star Formation Process within Young Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji Hoon

    2015-08-01

    Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies, whose central surface brightness, μB, is fainter than 23 mag/arcsec2 in the B-band, have been one of the most intriguing galaxy populations. Their unique characteristics, such as blue colors in optical and near-infrared light, low metallicity, low stellar and gas surface densities, low dust content, and high gas mass fraction (up to 90%), resemble physical conditions of young galaxies of the early Universe whose interstellar medium (ISM) has not been enriched before major star formation activities initiated and should provide a testbed for star formation process at the exremly low surface density regime. Given that their star formation histories are still poorly constrained, LSB galaxies are known to have large specific star formation rates (sSFRs) with large gas fractions. There is also a correlation between their sSFRs and gas fractions. One of plausible scenarios is that the star formation efficiency may be an increasing funtion of time, perhaps due in part to the slow build up of metals and dust. Moreover, it is suspected that, being located in low number density area in terms of galaxy environment, LSB galaxies may receive additional gas to fuel their star formation activity via sporadic cold gas accretion, especially toward their outskirt regions analogous to extended ultraviolet disks. Due to their relatively isolated nature without having endured much interactions, LSB galaxies can mimic star formation processes of disk galaxies of the early Universe within their interstellar media (ISM). We present preliminary results based on stellar and gas phase metallicity of LSB galaxies along with their environment parameters to show how star-forming ISM of young disk galaxies before metal enrichment.

  20. Recent cusp and cleft results from interball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandahl, Ingrid

    The Interball project has given important contributions to our understanding of the morphology and the physical processes in the cusp and cleft. Interball Tail and Magion-4 have performed more extensive measurements in the high altitude cusp than any previous spacecraft. Interball has also been a part in the ISTP program and data have been used in many multipoint studies. In this paper recent cusp and cleft studies based entirely or partly on Interball data will be reviewed. Interball data show that processes at high latitudes are very important for plasma entry into the magnetosphere. A case study for southward IMF conditions agrees with a model in which the mantle is populated via entry along open high-latitude field lines. A statistical study of events dominated by IMF B y shows that merging in anti-parallel fields, rather than subsolar point reconnection, populates the mantle. Plasma entry also takes place through the turbulent boundary layer, TBL, a region of strong, Alfvenic ULF turbulence above the cusp and cleft. The TBL is almost always present. It extends tailward from the cusp and is proposed to be related to the magnetospheric sash. For the overall magnetosheath plasma entry into the magnetosphere the magnetotail boundary is probably more important than the cusp. The position of the cusp is controlled by the solar wind in a similar way as the low altitude cusp. The mid-altitude cusp was found to maintain its fine structure over periods of the order of one hour. A suprathermal proton population not previously described has been detected in the mid-altitude cusp.

  1. Metallofullerene and fullerene formation from condensing carbon gas under conditions of stellar outflows and implication to stardust

    PubMed Central

    Dunk, Paul W.; Adjizian, Jean-Joseph; Kaiser, Nathan K.; Quinn, John P.; Blakney, Gregory T.; Ewels, Christopher P.; Marshall, Alan G.; Kroto, Harold W.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonaceous presolar grains of supernovae origin have long been isolated and are determined to be the carrier of anomalous 22Ne in ancient meteorites. That exotic 22Ne is, in fact, the decay isotope of relatively short-lived 22Na formed by explosive nucleosynthesis, and therefore, a selective and rapid Na physical trapping mechanism must take place during carbon condensation in supernova ejecta. Elucidation of the processes that trap Na and produce large carbon molecules should yield insight into carbon stardust enrichment and formation. Herein, we demonstrate that Na effectively nucleates formation of Na@C60 and other metallofullerenes during carbon condensation under highly energetic conditions in oxygen- and hydrogen-rich environments. Thus, fundamental carbon chemistry that leads to trapping of Na is revealed, and should be directly applicable to gas-phase chemistry involving stellar environments, such as supernova ejecta. The results indicate that, in addition to empty fullerenes, metallofullerenes should be constituents of stellar/circumstellar and interstellar space. In addition, gas-phase reactions of fullerenes with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are investigated to probe “build-up” and formation of carbon stardust, and provide insight into fullerene astrochemistry. PMID:24145444

  2. Metallofullerene and fullerene formation from condensing carbon gas under conditions of stellar outflows and implication to stardust.

    PubMed

    Dunk, Paul W; Adjizian, Jean-Joseph; Kaiser, Nathan K; Quinn, John P; Blakney, Gregory T; Ewels, Christopher P; Marshall, Alan G; Kroto, Harold W

    2013-11-01

    Carbonaceous presolar grains of supernovae origin have long been isolated and are determined to be the carrier of anomalous (22)Ne in ancient meteorites. That exotic (22)Ne is, in fact, the decay isotope of relatively short-lived (22)Na formed by explosive nucleosynthesis, and therefore, a selective and rapid Na physical trapping mechanism must take place during carbon condensation in supernova ejecta. Elucidation of the processes that trap Na and produce large carbon molecules should yield insight into carbon stardust enrichment and formation. Herein, we demonstrate that Na effectively nucleates formation of Na@C60 and other metallofullerenes during carbon condensation under highly energetic conditions in oxygen- and hydrogen-rich environments. Thus, fundamental carbon chemistry that leads to trapping of Na is revealed, and should be directly applicable to gas-phase chemistry involving stellar environments, such as supernova ejecta. The results indicate that, in addition to empty fullerenes, metallofullerenes should be constituents of stellar/circumstellar and interstellar space. In addition, gas-phase reactions of fullerenes with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are investigated to probe "build-up" and formation of carbon stardust, and provide insight into fullerene astrochemistry.

  3. Metallofullerene and fullerene formation from condensing carbon gas under conditions of stellar outflows and implication to stardust.

    PubMed

    Dunk, Paul W; Adjizian, Jean-Joseph; Kaiser, Nathan K; Quinn, John P; Blakney, Gregory T; Ewels, Christopher P; Marshall, Alan G; Kroto, Harold W

    2013-11-01

    Carbonaceous presolar grains of supernovae origin have long been isolated and are determined to be the carrier of anomalous (22)Ne in ancient meteorites. That exotic (22)Ne is, in fact, the decay isotope of relatively short-lived (22)Na formed by explosive nucleosynthesis, and therefore, a selective and rapid Na physical trapping mechanism must take place during carbon condensation in supernova ejecta. Elucidation of the processes that trap Na and produce large carbon molecules should yield insight into carbon stardust enrichment and formation. Herein, we demonstrate that Na effectively nucleates formation of Na@C60 and other metallofullerenes during carbon condensation under highly energetic conditions in oxygen- and hydrogen-rich environments. Thus, fundamental carbon chemistry that leads to trapping of Na is revealed, and should be directly applicable to gas-phase chemistry involving stellar environments, such as supernova ejecta. The results indicate that, in addition to empty fullerenes, metallofullerenes should be constituents of stellar/circumstellar and interstellar space. In addition, gas-phase reactions of fullerenes with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are investigated to probe "build-up" and formation of carbon stardust, and provide insight into fullerene astrochemistry. PMID:24145444

  4. On the continuing stellar formation in the central regions of some globular clusters and their relation to the pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komberg, B. V.

    1979-01-01

    The discrepancy between the predicted and observed quantities of gas in the central regions of massive globular clusters is discussed. It is hypothesized that star formation continues in the central regions by means of gas released during stellar evolution or trapped by the central region when the globular clusters pass through the center of the galaxy. Nine globular clusters are indicated at distances less than 1000 ps from which radio pulsars or X-ray sources are observed. It is argued that they could have formed relatively recently in closed pairs in the central regions and then ejected at the stage of supernova bursts with velocities over 100 ks/s.

  5. Connection between cusp-core problem and too-big-to-fail problem in CDM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kazuki; Mori, Masao; Ogiya, Go

    2016-08-01

    The standard paradigm of structure formation in the universe, the cold dark matter cosmology, contains several crucial unsolved problems such as ``cusp-core problem'' and ``too-big-to-fail problem''. To solve these problems, we study about the dynamical response of a virialized system with a central cusp to the energy feedback driven by periodic supernova feedback using collisionless N-body simulations with the Nested-Particle-Mesh code. The resonance between dark matter particles and the density wave excited by the oscillating potential plays a significant role in the cusp-core transition of dark matter halos. Furthermore, we show that the cusp-core transition with periodic supernova feedback can solve the too-big-to-fail problem.

  6. Influence of stellar multiplicity on planet formation. II. Planets are less common in multiple-star systems with separations smaller than 1500 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ji; Fischer, Debra A.; Xie, Ji-Wei; Ciardi, David R.

    2014-08-20

    Almost half of the stellar systems in the solar neighborhood are made up of multiple stars. In multiple-star systems, planet formation is under the dynamical influence of stellar companions, and the planet occurrence rate is expected to be different from that of single stars. There have been numerous studies on the planet occurrence rate of single star systems. However, to fully understand planet formation, the planet occurrence rate in multiple-star systems needs to be addressed. In this work, we infer the planet occurrence rate in multiple-star systems by measuring the stellar multiplicity rate for planet host stars. For a subsample of 56 Kepler planet host stars, we use adaptive optics (AO) imaging and the radial velocity (RV) technique to search for stellar companions. The combination of these two techniques results in high search completeness for stellar companions. We detect 59 visual stellar companions to 25 planet host stars with AO data. Three stellar companions are within 2'' and 27 within 6''. We also detect two possible stellar companions (KOI 5 and KOI 69) showing long-term RV acceleration. After correcting for a bias against planet detection in multiple-star systems due to flux contamination, we find that planet formation is suppressed in multiple-star systems with separations smaller than 1500 AU. Specifically, we find that compared to single star systems, planets in multiple-star systems occur 4.5 ± 3.2, 2.6 ± 1.0, and 1.7 ± 0.5 times less frequently when a stellar companion is present at a distance of 10, 100, and 1000 AU, respectively. This conclusion applies only to circumstellar planets; the planet occurrence rate for circumbinary planets requires further investigation.

  7. Cluster II Mid-Altitude Cusp Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winningham, J. D.

    2002-05-01

    Thirty plus years after its discovery the cusp is still an enigma. Questions such as is it open, closed, or mixed; where does it map; what constitutes a cusp etc still abound. Cusps have been defined on the basis of satellite, rocket, and ground based data from single and multiple sensor types. Cartoons and detailed models have been put forward to define what constitutes a cusp. An equal number of questions abound relative to the role the cusp plays in magnetospheric dynamics, mass and momentum transfer, and even energization to populate the rest of the magnetosphere. In a recent series of papers Savin et al have presented both Interball and Prognoz results in the high altitude cusp and sash region. In these papers they divide the high cusp into several new regions. They have an outer throat (OT) exterior to the MP with field lines connected to the earth and heated, stagnant plasma, a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) just at and outside the MP, an outer cusp (OC) that is inside the MP. They state an indentation depth of 1-2 RE. In the TBL large amplitude, low-frequency waves are observed. We will present multi-instrument/satellite Cluster II data that indicates the depth of the OT may be much deeper than thought by Savin. This stems from the higher spatial temporal resolution available from Cluster. Mid altitudes (~5RE) passes will be shown that exhibit the same morphology as Savin. This leads to a new definition of the cusp as the focus of open magnetopause current layer field lines.

  8. Gas retention and accumulation in stellar clusters and galaxies: Implications for star formation and black hole accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naiman, Jill

    Star formation cannot proceed without the existence of an extensive gas reservoir. In particular, the supply of gas to form stars in dwarf galaxies and star clusters requires overcoming a variety of difficulties - namely, the effectiveness of different feedback mechanisms in removing gas from these shallow gravitational potentials. In addition, the supply of external gas to these systems is determined by the large scale galactic structure in which they reside. This thesis employs computational hydrodynamics coupled with physically realistic subgrid feedback prescriptions to resolve the interplay between the small scale feedback mechanisms and larger scale gas flows to determine the amount of gas a shallow potential can accumulate. First, we consider the flow of gas external to dwarf galaxies and star clusters into their cores as a generalized accretion process. Second, we explore the enhancement of gas accretion rates onto the compact members of young star clusters when the flow of external gas into the cluster cores is large. Third, we discuss how external gas flows initiated by the presence of a massive nuclear star cluster can enhance central massive black hole accretion rates during galaxy mergers. Fourth, we change our focus to exploring internal stellar wind retention in proto-globular clusters as a mechanism to supply gas for multiple episodes of star formation. Finally, the implications of stellar wind retention on the current gas reservoir in globular clusters is discussed.

  9. The Star Formation History of the Local Group Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy NGC 185. I. Stellar Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Delgado, D.; Aparicio, A.

    1998-04-01

    We present VI CCD photometry of ~16,000 stars in a 7.2‧ x 7.2‧ field of the Local Group dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 185. The resulting VI color-magnitude diagram reveals a dominant red giant branch population, an important number of luminous red stars located above the tip of the red giant branch, and a number of blue and yellow stars. Besides the nucleus, our field also covers a large, less crowded area of the galaxy. We show color-magnitude diagrams at six different distances from the nucleus. The red giant branch becomes substantially narrower at larger distances from the nucleus, while the photometry gets deeper. In this paper, we concentrate on investigating the contribution of the observational effects (mainly crowding) to this observed gradient. Although we cannot rule out here the possibility that this trend partially originates in a gradient of the characteristics of the stellar populations of the galaxy with radius, we show that a strong radial gradient exists in the observational effects that can mimic a gradient in the real properties (e.g., age, metallicity) of the stellar population. A distance modulus of m - M = 23.95 +/- 0.10 has been obtained from the tip of the red giant branch, in good agreement with previous estimates. The average stellar metallicity is estimated to be [Fe/H] = -1.43 +/- 0.15, and decreases for increasing galactocentric distance. Based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  10. Formation of S0 galaxies through mergers. Antitruncated stellar discs resulting from major mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borlaff, Alejandro; Eliche-Moral, M. Carmen; Rodríguez-Pérez, Cristina; Querejeta, Miguel; Tapia, Trinidad; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Zamorano, Jaime; Gallego, Jesús; Beckman, John

    2014-10-01

    Context. Lenticular galaxies (S0s) are more likely to host antitruncated (Type III) stellar discs than galaxies of later Hubble types. Major mergers are popularly considered too violent to make these breaks. Aims: We have investigated whether major mergers can result into S0-like remnants with realistic antitruncated stellar discs or not. Methods: We have analysed 67 relaxed S0 and E/S0 remnants resulting from dissipative N-body simulations of major mergers from the GalMer database. We have simulated realistic R-band surface brightness profiles of the remnants to identify those with antitruncated stellar discs. Their inner and outer discs and the breaks have been quantitatively characterized to compare with real data. Results: Nearly 70% of our S0-like remnants are antitruncated, meaning that major mergers that result in S0s have a high probability of producing Type III stellar discs. Our remnants lie on top of the extrapolations of the observational trends (towards brighter magnitudes and higher break radii) in several photometric diagrams, because of the higher luminosities and sizes of the simulations compared to observational samples. In scale-free photometric diagrams, simulations and observations overlap and the remnants reproduce the observational trends, so the physical mechanism after antitruncations is highly scalable. We have found novel photometric scaling relations between the characteristic parameters of the antitruncations in real S0s, which are also reproduced by our simulations. We show that the trends in all the photometric planes can be derived from three basic scaling relations that real and simulated Type III S0s fulfill: hi ∝ RbrkIII, ho ∝ RbrkIII, and μbrkIII ∝ RbrkIII, where hi and ho are the scalelengths of the inner and outer discs, and μbrkIII and RbrkIII are the surface brightness and radius of the breaks. Bars and antitruncations in real S0s are structurally unrelated phenomena according to the studied photometric planes

  11. A LINK BETWEEN STAR FORMATION QUENCHING AND INNER STELLAR MASS DENSITY IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY CENTRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Jerome J.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.

    2013-10-10

    We study the correlation between galaxy structure and the quenching of star formation using a sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey central galaxies with stellar masses 9.75 < log M{sub *}/M{sub ☉} < 11.25 and redshifts z < 0.075. Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV data are used to cleanly divide the sample into star-forming and quenched galaxies and to identify galaxies in transition (the green valley). Despite a stark difference in visual appearance between blue and red galaxies, their average radial stellar mass density profiles are remarkably similar (especially in the outer regions) at fixed mass. The inner stellar mass surface density within a radius of 1 kpc, Σ{sub 1}, is used to quantify the growth of the bulge as galaxies evolve. When galaxies are divided into narrow mass bins, their distribution in the color-Σ{sub 1} plane at fixed mass forms plausible evolutionary tracks. Σ{sub 1} seems to grow as galaxies evolve through the blue cloud, and once it crosses a threshold value, galaxies are seen to quench at fixed Σ{sub 1}. The Σ{sub 1} threshold for quenching grows with stellar mass, Σ{sub 1}∝M{sub *}{sup 0.64}. However, the existence of some star-forming galaxies above the threshold Σ{sub 1} implies that a dense bulge is necessary but not sufficient to quench a galaxy fully. This would be consistent with a two-step quenching process in which gas within a galaxy is removed or stabilized against star formation by bulge-driven processes (such as a starburst, active galactic nucleus feedback, or morphological quenching), whereas external gas accretion is suppressed by separate halo-driven processes (such as halo gas shock heating). Quenching thus depends on an interplay between the inner structure of a galaxy and its surrounding dark matter halo, and lack of perfect synchrony between the two could produce the observed scatter in color versus Σ{sub 1}.

  12. 21 CFR 872.3360 - Preformed cusp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... prefabricated device made of plastic or austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75 percent or greater gold and metals of the platinum group intended to be used as a temporary cusp (a projection on the chewing...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3360 - Preformed cusp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prefabricated device made of plastic or austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75 percent or greater gold and metals of the platinum group intended to be used as a temporary cusp (a projection on the chewing...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3360 - Preformed cusp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... prefabricated device made of plastic or austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75 percent or greater gold and metals of the platinum group intended to be used as a temporary cusp (a projection on the chewing...

  15. ULF turbulence in the Neptunian polar cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Lepping, R. P.; Smith, C. W.

    1993-03-01

    Results of a spectral analysis of the ULF wave turbulence in the Neptunian polar cusp are presented. The activity is characterized as broadbanded, extending up to a maximum frequency of about 0.5 Hz, and having maximum wave amplitudes as large as 6 percent of the dc magnetic field. Activity in the cusp region was particularly intense at its frontside and backside, associated with the magnetopause and cusp/magnetosphere boundaries, respectively. The turbulence, particularly that above f(ci), is tentatively identified as whistler mode. It is argued that such whistler mode turbulence should resonate with electrons having energies in the tens of kiloelectron volts. Observations indicate a very strong correlation of the ULF turbulence with the energetic electrons between 22 and 35 keV measured by Voyager's low-energy charged particle experiment. A vigorous interaction between the two is inferred. ULF wave turbulence in the cusp may represent a significant but not complete power source for the magnetosphere.

  16. The Interstellar Bubbles of G38.9-0.4 and the Impact of Stellar Feedback on Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Michael J.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Kerton, Charles R.; Arvidsson, Kim

    2013-06-01

    We present a study of the star formation (SF) region G38.9-0.4 using publicly available multiwavelength Galactic plane surveys from ground- and space-based observatories. This region is composed of four bright mid-IR bubbles and numerous infrared dark clouds. Two bubbles, N 74 and N 75, each host a star cluster anchored by a single O9.5V star. We identified 162 young stellar objects (YSOs) and classify 54 as stage I, 7 as stage II, 6 as stage III, and 32 as ambiguous. We do not detect the classical signposts of triggered SF, i.e., star-forming pillars or YSOs embedded within bubble rims. We conclude that feedback-triggered SF has not occurred in G38.9-0.4. The YSOs are preferentially coincident with infrared dark clouds. This leads to a strong correlation between areal YSO mass surface density and gas mass surface density with a power law slope near 1.3, which closely matches the Schmidt-Kennicutt Law. The correlation is similar inside and outside the bubbles and may mean that the SF efficiency is neither enhanced nor suppressed in regions potentially influenced by stellar feedback. This suggests that gas density, regardless of how it is collected, is a more important driver of SF than stellar feedback. Larger studies should be able to quantify the fraction of all SF that is feedback-triggered by determining the fraction SF, feedback-compressed gas surrounding H II regions relative to that already present in molecular clouds.

  17. THE INTERSTELLAR BUBBLES OF G38.9-0.4 AND THE IMPACT OF STELLAR FEEDBACK ON STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Michael J.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Kerton, Charles R.; Arvidsson, Kim E-mail: chipk@uwyo.edu E-mail: karvidsson@adlerplanetarium.org

    2013-06-10

    We present a study of the star formation (SF) region G38.9-0.4 using publicly available multiwavelength Galactic plane surveys from ground- and space-based observatories. This region is composed of four bright mid-IR bubbles and numerous infrared dark clouds. Two bubbles, N 74 and N 75, each host a star cluster anchored by a single O9.5V star. We identified 162 young stellar objects (YSOs) and classify 54 as stage I, 7 as stage II, 6 as stage III, and 32 as ambiguous. We do not detect the classical signposts of triggered SF, i.e., star-forming pillars or YSOs embedded within bubble rims. We conclude that feedback-triggered SF has not occurred in G38.9-0.4. The YSOs are preferentially coincident with infrared dark clouds. This leads to a strong correlation between areal YSO mass surface density and gas mass surface density with a power law slope near 1.3, which closely matches the Schmidt-Kennicutt Law. The correlation is similar inside and outside the bubbles and may mean that the SF efficiency is neither enhanced nor suppressed in regions potentially influenced by stellar feedback. This suggests that gas density, regardless of how it is collected, is a more important driver of SF than stellar feedback. Larger studies should be able to quantify the fraction of all SF that is feedback-triggered by determining the fraction SF, feedback-compressed gas surrounding H II regions relative to that already present in molecular clouds.

  18. Stellar Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is one of NASA's "Vision Missions" - concepts for future, space-based, strategic missions that could enormously increase our capabilities for observing the Cosmos. SI is designed as a UV/Optical Interferometer which will enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and, via asteroseismology, stellar interiors and of the Universe in general. The ultra-sharp images of the Stellar Imager will revolutionize our view of many dynamic astrophysical processes by transforming point sources into extended sources, and snapshots into evolving views. SI, with a characteristic angular resolution of 0.1 milli-arcseconds at 2000 Angstroms, represents an advance in image detail of several hundred times over that provided by the Hubble Space Telescope. The Stellar Imager will zoom in on what today-with few exceptions - we only know as point sources, revealing processes never before seen, thus providing a tool as fundamental to astrophysics as the microscope is to the study of life on Earth. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. It's prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives, in support of the Living With a Star program in the Exploration Era. SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. Stellar Imager is included as a "Flagship and Landmark Discovery Mission" in the 2005 Sun Solar System Connection (SSSC) Roadmap and as a candidate for a "Pathways to Life Observatory" in the Exploration of the Universe Division (EUD) Roadmap (May, 2005) and as such is a candidate mission for the 2025-2030 timeframe. An artist's drawing of the current "baseline" concept for SI is presented.

  19. Evidence of Multiple Reconnection Lines at the Magnetopause from Cusp Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trattner, K. J.; Petrinec, S. M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Omidi, N.; Sibeck, David Gary

    2012-01-01

    Recent global hybrid simulations investigated the formation of flux transfer events (FTEs) and their convection and interaction with the cusp. Based on these simulations, we have analyzed several Polar cusp crossings in the Northern Hemisphere to search for the signature of such FTEs in the energy distribution of downward precipitating ions: precipitating ion beams at different energies parallel to the ambient magnetic field and overlapping in time. Overlapping ion distributions in the cusp are usually attributed to a combination of variable ion acceleration during the magnetopause crossing together with the time-of-flight effect from the entry point to the observing satellite. Most "step up" ion cusp structures (steps in the ion energy dispersions) only overlap for the populations with large pitch angles and not for the parallel streaming populations. Such cusp structures are the signatures predicted by the pulsed reconnection model, where the reconnection rate at the magnetopause decreased to zero, physically separating convecting flux tubes and their parallel streaming ions. However, several Polar cusp events discussed in this study also show an energy overlap for parallel-streaming precipitating ions. This condition might be caused by reopening an already reconnected field line, forming a magnetic island (flux rope) at the magnetopause similar to that reported in global MHD and Hybrid simulations

  20. Origins of Stellar Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Kathryn V.

    2015-08-01

    This talk will review ideas about the formation of stellar halos. It will include discussion of the observational evidence for stellar populations formed "in situ" (meaning formed in orbits close to their current ones), "kicked-out" (meaning formed in the inner galaxy in orbits unlike their current ones) and "accreted" (meaning formed in a dark matter halo other than the one they currently occupy). The properties of these (and other) populations seen in simulations of stellar halo formation will also be examined.

  1. Thermospheric winds around the cusp region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, C.; Deng, Y.; Wu, Q.; Ridley, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Due to the change of advection, the horizontal winds can be strongly influenced by the large vertical wind in the cusp. Indeed, the sunward wind has been observed by the balloon-borne Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) at the equatorward of the cusp on the dayside [Wu et al., 2012], which is caused by the heating added in the cusp and the corresponding changes of the horizontal pressure gradient. However, this phenomenon has not been reproduced by the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIEGCM) under low resolution (5x5 degrees). The Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (GITM) has been run in different cases and different resolutions. First, we compare the simulations with and without the cusp energy inputs to identify the influence on the horizontal dynamics. Both runs are done under high resolution in order to better resolve the cusp region. Then we also compare the simulations with the same cusp energy inputs but different horizontal resolutions to identify the influence of the simulation resolution on the results. This work will significantly advance our understanding of the neutral dynamics and the relationship between winds and upper atmosphere storm time response.

  2. Constraining the dark cusp in the galactic center by long-period binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Tal; Pfuhl, Oliver

    2014-01-10

    Massive black holes (MBHs) in galactic nuclei are believed to be surrounded by a high-density stellar cluster, whose mass is mostly in hard-to-detect faint stars and compact remnants. Such dark cusps dominate the dynamics near the MBH: a dark cusp in the Galactic center (GC) of the Milky Way would strongly affect orbital tests of general relativity there; on cosmic scales, dark cusps set the rates of gravitational wave emission events from compact remnants that spiral into MBHs, and they modify the rates of tidal disruption events, to list only some implications. A recently discovered long-period massive young binary (with period P {sub 12} ≲ 1 yr, total mass M{sub 12}∼O(100 M{sub ⊙}), and age T {sub 12} ∼ 6 × 10{sup 6} yr), only ∼0.1 pc from the Galactic MBH, sets a lower bound on the stellar two-body relaxation timescale there, min t {sub rlx}∝(P {sub 12}/M {sub 12}){sup 2/3} T {sub 12} ∼ 10{sup 7} yr, and, correspondingly, an upper bound on the stellar number density, maxn{sub ⋆}∼few×10{sup 8}/〈M{sub ⋆}{sup 2}〉 pc{sup −3} (〈M{sub ⋆}{sup 2}〉{sup 1/2} is the rms stellar mass), based on the binary's survival against evaporation by the dark cusp. However, a conservative dynamical estimate, the drain limit, implies t{sub rlx}>O(10{sup 8} yr). Such massive binaries are thus too short-lived and tightly bound to constrain a dense relaxed dark cusp. We explore here in detail the use of longer-period, less massive, and longer-lived binaries (P {sub 12} ∼ few yr, M {sub 12} ∼ 2-4 M {sub ☉}, T {sub 12} ∼ 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10} yr), presently just below the detection threshold, for probing the dark cusp and develop the framework for translating their future detections among the giants in the GC into dynamical constraints.

  3. Metal-Poor, Strongly Star-Forming Galaxies in the DEEP2 Survey: The Relationship Between Stellar Mass, Temperature-Based Metallicity, and Star Formation Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, Chun; Rigby, Jane R.; Cooper, Michael; Yan, Renbin

    2015-01-01

    We report on the discovery of 28 redshift (z) approximately 0.8 metal-poor galaxies in DEEP2. These galaxies were selected for their detection of the weak [O (sub III)] lambda 4363 emission line, which provides a "direct" measure of the gas-phase metallicity. A primary goal for identifying these rare galaxies is to examine whether the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) between stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate (SFR) extends to low stellar mass and high SFR. The FMR suggests that higher SFR galaxies have lower metallicity (at fixed stellar mass). To test this trend, we combine spectroscopic measurements of metallicity and dust-corrected SFRs, with stellar mass estimates from modeling the optical photometry. We find that these galaxies are 1.05 plus or minus 0.61 decimal exponent (dex) above the redshift (z) approximately equal to 1 stellar mass-SFR relation, and 0.23 plus or minus 0.23 decimal exponent (dex) below the local mass-metallicity relation. Relative to the FMR, the latter offset is reduced to 0.01 decimal exponent (dex), but significant dispersion remains (0.29 decimal exponent (dex) with 0.16 decimal exponent (dex) due to measurement uncertainties). This dispersion suggests that gas accretion, star formation and chemical enrichment have not reached equilibrium in these galaxies. This is evident by their short stellar mass doubling timescale of approximately 100 (sup plus 310) (sub minus 75) million years that suggests stochastic star formation. Combining our sample with other redshift (z) of approximately 1 metal-poor galaxies, we find a weak positive SFR-metallicity dependence (at fixed stellar mass) that is significant at 97.3 percent confidence. We interpret this positive correlation as recent star formation that has enriched the gas, but has not had time to drive the metal-enriched gas out with feedback mechanisms.

  4. Metal-Poor, Strongly Star-Forming Galaxies in the DEEP2 Survey: The Relationship Between Stellar Mass, Temperature-Based Metallicity, and Star Formation Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, Chun; Rigby, Jane R.; Cooper, Michael; Yan, Renbin

    2015-01-01

    We report on the discovery of 28 redshift (z) approximately equal to 0.8 metal-poor galaxies in DEEP2. These galaxies were selected for their detection of the weak [O (sub III)] lambda 4363 emission line, which provides a "direct" measure of the gas-phase metallicity. A primary goal for identifying these rare galaxies is to examine whether the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) between stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate (SFR) holds for low stellar mass and high SFR galaxies. The FMR suggests that higher SFR galaxies have lower metallicity (at fixed stellar mass). To test this trend, we combine spectroscopic measurements of metallicity and dust-corrected SFR with stellar mass estimates from modeling the optical photometry. We find that these galaxies are 1.05 plus or minus 0.61 dex above the redshift (z) approximately 1 stellar mass-SFR relation and 0.23 plus or minus 0.23 dex below the local mass-metallicity relation. Relative to the FMR, the latter offset is reduced to 0.01 dex, but significant dispersion remains dex with 0.16 dex due to measurement uncertainties). This dispersion suggests that gas accretion, star formation, and chemical enrichment have not reached equilibrium in these galaxies. This is evident by their short stellar mass doubling timescale of approximately equal to 100 (sup plus 310) (sub minus 75) million years which suggests stochastic star formation. Combining our sample with other redshift (z) of approximately 1 metal-poor galaxies, we find a weak positive SFR-metallicity dependence (at fixed stellar mass) that is significant at 94.4 percent confidence. We interpret this positive correlation as recent star formation that has enriched the gas but has not had time to drive the metal-enriched gas out with feedback mechanisms.

  5. FORMATION OF COMPACT STELLAR CLUSTERS BY HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXY OUTFLOWS. III. OBSERVABILITY AND CONNECTION TO HALO GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, William J.; Scannapieco, Evan

    2011-12-01

    The early universe hosted a large population of low-mass virialized 'minihalos', that were not massive enough to form stars on their own. While most minihalos were photoevaporated by ionizing photons from star-forming galaxies, these galaxies also drove large outflows, which in some cases would have reached the minihalos in advance of ionization fronts. In the previous papers in this series, we carried out high-resolution, three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations of outflow-minihalo interactions that included non-equilibrium chemistry, radiative cooling, and turbulent mixing. We found that, for a fiducial set of parameters, minihalos were transformed into dense, chemically homogenous stellar clusters. Here we conduct a suite of simulations that follow these interactions over a wide range of parameters including minihalo mass, minihalo formation redshift, outflow energy, outflow redshift, distance, concentration, and spin. In almost all cases, the shocked minihalos form molecules through non-equilibrium reactions and then cool rapidly to become compact, chemically homogenous stellar clusters. Furthermore, we show that the unique properties of these clusters make them a prime target for direct study with the next generation of telescopes, and that there are many reasons to suspect that their low-redshift counterparts are the observed population of halo globular clusters.

  6. Excitation of Gravity Waves by Fingering Convection, and the Formation of Compositional Staircases in Stellar Interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garaud, P.; Medrano, M.; Brown, J. M.; Mankovich, C.; Moore, K.

    2015-07-01

    Fingering convection (or thermohaline convection) is a weak yet important kind of mixing that occurs in stably stratified stellar radiation zones in the presence of an inverse mean molecular weight gradient. Brown et al. recently proposed a new model for mixing by fingering convection, which contains no free parameter and was found to fit the results of direct numerical simulations in almost all cases. Notably, however, they found that mixing was substantially enhanced above their predicted values in the few cases where large-scale gravity waves, followed by thermo-compositional layering, grew spontaneously from the fingering convection. This effect is well known in the oceanographic context and is attributed to the excitation of the so-called collective instability. In this work, we build on the results of Brown et al. and of Traxler et al. to determine the conditions under which the collective instability may be expected. We find that it is only relevant in stellar regions that have a relatively large Prandtl number (the ratio of the kinematic viscosity to the thermal diffusivity), O({10}-3) or larger. This implies that the collective instability cannot occur in main-sequence stars, where the Prandtl number is always much smaller than this (except in the outer layers of surface convection zones, where fingering is irrelevant anyway). It could in principle be excited in regions of high electron degeneracy, during He core flash, or in the interiors of white dwarfs. We discuss the implications of our findings for these objects, from both a theoretical and an observational point of view.

  7. Stellar Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owocki, Stan

    A "stellar wind" is the continuous, supersonic outflow of matter from the surface layers of a star. Our sun has a solar wind, driven by the gas-pressure expansion of the hot (T > 106 K) solar corona. It can be studied through direct in situ measurement by interplanetary spacecraft; but analogous coronal winds in more distant solar-type stars are so tenuous and transparent that that they are difficult to detect directly. Many more luminous stars have winds that are dense enough to be opaque at certain wavelengths of the star's radiation, making it possible to study their wind outflows remotely through careful interpretation of the observed stellar spectra. Red giant stars show slow, dense winds that may be driven by the pressure from magnetohydrodyanmic waves. As stars with initial mass up to 8 M ⊙ evolve toward the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB), a combination of stellar pulsations and radiative scattering off dust can culminate in "superwinds" that strip away the entire stellar envelope, leaving behind a hot white dwarf stellar core with less than the Chandrasekhar mass of ˜ ​​ 1. 4M ⊙. The winds of hot, luminous, massive stars are driven by line-scattering of stellar radiation, but such massive stars can also exhibit superwind episodes, either as Red Supergiants or Luminous Blue Variable stars. The combined wind and superwind mass loss can strip the star's hydrogen envelope, leaving behind a Wolf-Rayet star composed of the products of earlier nuclear burning via the CNO cycle. In addition to such direct effects on a star's own evolution, stellar winds can be a substantial source of mass, momentum, and energy to the interstellar medium, blowing open large cavities or "bubbles" in this ISM, seeding it with nuclear processed material, and even helping trigger the formation of new stars, and influencing their eventual fate as white dwarves or core-collapse supernovae. This chapter reviews the properties of such stellar winds, with an emphasis on the various

  8. DARK MATTER HEATING AND EARLY CORE FORMATION IN DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Madau, Piero; Shen, Sijing; Governato, Fabio

    2014-07-01

    We present more results from a fully cosmological ΛCDM simulation of a group of isolated dwarf galaxies that has been shown to reproduce the observed stellar mass and cold gas content, resolved star formation histories, and metallicities of dwarfs in the Local Volume. Here we investigate the energetics and timetable of the cusp-core transformation. As suggested by previous work, supernova-driven gas outflows remove dark matter (DM) cusps and create kiloparsec-size cores in all systems having a stellar mass M {sub *} > 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}. The {sup D}M core mass removal efficiency{sup —}dark mass ejected per unit stellar mass—ranges today from a few to a dozen, and increases with decreasing host mass. Because dwarfs form the bulk of their stars prior to redshift 1 and the amount of work required for DM heating and core formation scales approximately as M{sub vir}{sup 5/3}, the unbinding of the DM cusp starts early and the formation of cored profiles is not as energetically onerous as previously claimed. DM particles in the cusp typically migrate to 2-3 core radii after absorbing a few percent of the energy released by supernovae. The present-day slopes of the inner DM mass profiles, Γ ≡ dlog M/dlog R ≅ 2.5-3, of the simulated ''Bashful'' and ''Doc'' dwarfs are similar to those measured in the luminous Fornax and Sculptor dwarf spheroidals. None of the simulated galaxies has a circular velocity profile exceeding 20 km s{sup –1} in the inner 1 kpc, implying that supernova feedback is key to solve the ''too-big-to-fail'' problem for Milky Way subhalos.

  9. Friends of Hot Jupiters. IV. Stellar Companions Beyond 50 au Might Facilitate Giant Planet Formation, but Most are Unlikely to Cause Kozai-Lidov Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Hinkley, Sasha; Bryan, Marta; Crepp, Justin R.; Batygin, Konstantin; Crossfield, Ian; Hansen, Brad; Howard, Andrew W.; Johnson, John A.; Mawet, Dimitri; Morton, Timothy D.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Wang, Ji

    2016-08-01

    Stellar companions can influence the formation and evolution of planetary systems, but there are currently few observational constraints on the properties of planet-hosting binary star systems. We search for stellar companions around 77 transiting hot Jupiter systems to explore the statistical properties of this population of companions as compared to field stars of similar spectral type. After correcting for survey incompleteness, we find that 47 % +/- 7 % of hot Jupiter systems have stellar companions with semimajor axes between 50 and 2000 au. This is 2.9 times larger than the field star companion fraction in this separation range, with a significance of 4.4σ . In the 1-50 au range, only {3.9}-2.0+4.5 % of hot Jupiters host stellar companions, compared to the field star value of 16.4 % +/- 0.7 % , which is a 2.7σ difference. We find that the distribution of mass ratios for stellar companions to hot Jupiter systems peaks at small values and therefore differs from that of field star binaries which tend to be uniformly distributed across all mass ratios. We conclude that either wide separation stellar binaries are more favorable sites for gas giant planet formation at all separations, or that the presence of stellar companions preferentially causes the inward migration of gas giant planets that formed farther out in the disk via dynamical processes such as Kozai-Lidov oscillations. We determine that less than 20% of hot Jupiters have stellar companions capable of inducing Kozai-Lidov oscillations assuming initial semimajor axes between 1 and 5 au, implying that the enhanced companion occurrence is likely correlated with environments where gas giants can form efficiently.

  10. Friends of Hot Jupiters. IV. Stellar Companions Beyond 50 au Might Facilitate Giant Planet Formation, but Most are Unlikely to Cause Kozai–Lidov Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Hinkley, Sasha; Bryan, Marta; Crepp, Justin R.; Batygin, Konstantin; Crossfield, Ian; Hansen, Brad; Howard, Andrew W.; Johnson, John A.; Mawet, Dimitri; Morton, Timothy D.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Wang, Ji

    2016-08-01

    Stellar companions can influence the formation and evolution of planetary systems, but there are currently few observational constraints on the properties of planet-hosting binary star systems. We search for stellar companions around 77 transiting hot Jupiter systems to explore the statistical properties of this population of companions as compared to field stars of similar spectral type. After correcting for survey incompleteness, we find that 47 % +/- 7 % of hot Jupiter systems have stellar companions with semimajor axes between 50 and 2000 au. This is 2.9 times larger than the field star companion fraction in this separation range, with a significance of 4.4σ . In the 1–50 au range, only {3.9}-2.0+4.5 % of hot Jupiters host stellar companions, compared to the field star value of 16.4 % +/- 0.7 % , which is a 2.7σ difference. We find that the distribution of mass ratios for stellar companions to hot Jupiter systems peaks at small values and therefore differs from that of field star binaries which tend to be uniformly distributed across all mass ratios. We conclude that either wide separation stellar binaries are more favorable sites for gas giant planet formation at all separations, or that the presence of stellar companions preferentially causes the inward migration of gas giant planets that formed farther out in the disk via dynamical processes such as Kozai–Lidov oscillations. We determine that less than 20% of hot Jupiters have stellar companions capable of inducing Kozai–Lidov oscillations assuming initial semimajor axes between 1 and 5 au, implying that the enhanced companion occurrence is likely correlated with environments where gas giants can form efficiently.

  11. CUSP Energetic Particles: Confinement, Acceleration and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jiasheng

    1999-01-01

    The cusp energetic particle (CEP) event is a new magnetospheric phenomenon. The events were detected in the dayside cusp for hours, in which the measured helium ions had energies up to 8 MeV. All of these events were associated with a dramatic decrease and large fluctuations in the local magnetic field strength. During January 1999 - December 1999 covered by this report, I have studied the CEP events by analyzing the POLAR, GEOTAIL, and WIND particle and magnetic field data measured during the geomagnetic quiet periods in 1996 and one geomagnetic storm period in 1998. The simultaneous observations indicated that the ion fluxes in the CEP events were higher than that in both the upstream and the downstream from the bow shock. The pitch angle distribution of the helium ions in the CEP events was found to peak around 90 deg. It was found that the mirror parameter, defined as the ratio of the square root of the integration of the parallel turbulent power spectral component over the ultra-low frequency (ULF) ranges to the mean field in the cusp, is correlated with the intensity of the cusp MeV helium flux, which is a measure of the influence of mirroring interactions and an indication of local effect. It was also found that the turbulent power of the local magnetic field in the ultra-low frequency (ULF) ranges is correlated with the intensity of the cusp energetic helium ions. Such ULF ranges correspond to periods of about 0.33-500 seconds that cover the gyroperiods, the bounce periods, and the drift periods of the tens keV to MeV charged particles when they are temporarily confined in the high-altitude dayside cusp. These observations represent a discovery that the high-altitude dayside cusp is a new acceleration and dynamic trapping region of the magnetosphere. The cusp geometry is connected via gradient and curvature drift of these energized ions to the equatorial plasma sheet as close as the geostationary orbit at local midnight. It implies that the dayside cusp is

  12. THE REDSHIFT EVOLUTION OF THE RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, STAR FORMATION RATE, AND GAS METALLICITY OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Niino, Yuu

    2012-12-20

    We investigate the relation between stellar mass (M{sub *}), star formation rate (SFR), and metallicity (Z) of galaxies, the so-called fundamental metallicity relation, in the galaxy sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We separate the galaxies into narrow redshift bins and compare the relation at different redshifts and find statistically significant (>99%) evolution. We test various observational effects that might cause seeming Z evolution and find it difficult to explain the evolution of the relation only by the observational effects. In the current sample of low-redshift galaxies, galaxies with different M{sub *} and SFR are sampled from different redshifts, and there is degeneracy between M{sub *}/SFR and redshift. Hence, it is not straightforward to distinguish a relation between Z and SFR from a relation between Z and redshift. The separation of the intrinsic relation from the redshift evolution effect is a crucial issue in the understanding of the evolution of galaxies.

  13. Jet-induced star formation by accreting black holes: impact on stellar, galaxy, and cosmic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirabel, Igor Felix

    2016-07-01

    Evidence that relativistic jets trigger star formation along their axis has been found associated to low redshift and high redshift accreting supermassive black holes. However, the physical processes by which jet-cloud interaction may trigger star formation has so far not been elucidated. To gain insight into this potentially important star formation mechanism during reionization, when microquasars were form prolifically before AGN, our international team is carrying out a muliwavelength study of a microquasar jet-induced star formation region in the Milky Way using data from space missions (Chandra, Integral, ISO, Herschel) and from the ground (at cm and mm wavelengths with the VLA and IRAM, and IR with Gemini and VLT). I will show that this relative nearby star forming region is an ideal laboratory to test models of jet-induced star formation elsewhere in the universe.

  14. Investigating the relationship between cusp energetic particle events and cusp diamagnetic cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trattner, K. J.; Petrinec, S. M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Friedel, R.

    2012-10-01

    The magnetospheric cusps in the high latitude magnetosphere are characterized by open field lines and precipitating magnetosheath ions. Contrary to the well-understood precipitating thermal magnetosheath ion population, the origins of energetic ions in the cusp regions are still a matter of controversy. It has been suggested that these cusp energetic particles (CEP) with significant fluxes up to several hundred keV/e are accelerated in the cusp by local magnetic turbulence in strongly depressed magnetic field regions called cusp diamagnetic cavities (CDC). Alternative explanations for these CEP events suggest the magnetosphere and also the quasi-parallel bow shock from where energetic ions are transported downstream and enter the cusp along newly reconnected field lines. Composition and energy spectra of these CEPs resemble those of bow shock energetic diffuse ions and support this model.In this study we investigate the relationship between CEP events and CDCs. The survey contains 822 high altitude cusp crossings observed by the TIMAS instrument on the Polar spacecraft for which we document local magnetic field conditions and the flux of energetic ions at 102 keV and 191 keV. We find that high fluxes of energetic ions are independent of the local magnetic field conditions. This lack of correlation between CEP and CDCs suggests that the source of these energetic ions is not local acceleration in the cusp.

  15. Stellar scattering and the formation of hot Jupiters in binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martí, J. G.; Beaugé, C.

    2015-04-01

    Hot Jupiters (HJs) are usually defined as giant Jovian-size planets with orbital periods P<=10 days. Although they lie close to the star, several have finite eccentricities and significant misalignment angle with respect to the stellar equator, leading to ~20% of HJs in retrograde orbits. More than half, however, seem consistent with near-circular and planar orbits. In recent years, two mechanisms have been proposed to explain the excited and misaligned subpopulation of HJs: Lidov-Kozai migration and planet-planet scattering. Although both are based on completely different dynamical phenomena, at first hand they appear to be equally effective in generating hot planets. Nevertheless, there has been no detailed analysis comparing the predictions of both mechanisms, especially with respect to the final distribution of orbital characteristics. In this paper, we present a series of numerical simulations of Lidov-Kozai trapping of single planets in compact binary systems that suffered a close fly-by of a background star. Both the planet and the binary component are initially placed in coplanar orbits, although the inclination of the impactor is assumed random. After the passage of the third star, we follow the orbital and spin evolution of the planet using analytical models based on the octupole expansion of the secular Hamiltonian. We also include tidal effects, stellar oblateness and post-Newtonian perturbations. The present work aims at the comparison of the two mechanisms (Lidov-Kozai and planet-planet scattering) as an explanation for the excited and inclined HJs in binary systems. We compare the results obtained through this paper with results in Beaugé & Nesvorný (2012), where the authors analyse how the planet-planet scattering mechanisms works in order to form this hot Jovian-size planets. We find that several of the orbital characteristics of the simulated HJs are caused by tidal trapping from quasi-parabolic orbits, independent of the driving mechanism

  16. Dependency of the Cusp Density Anomaly on the Variability of Forcing Inside and Outside the Cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkman, D. G.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Clemmons, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth's magnetospheric cusp provides direct access of energetic particles to the thermosphere. These particles produce ionization and kinetic (particle) heating of the atmosphere. The increased ionization coupled with enhanced electric fields in the cusp produces increased Joule heating and ion drag forcing. These energy inputs largely determine the neutral density structure in the cusp region. Measurements by the CHAMP satellite (460-390- km altitude) have shown a region of strong enhanced density attributed to the combination of cusp particle and Joule heating. The Streak mission (325-123 km), on the other hand, observed a relative depletion in density in the cusp. While particle precipitation in the cusp is comparatively well constrained, the characteristics of the steady and fluctuating components of the electric field in the cusp are poorly constrained. Also, the significance of harder particle precipitation in areas adjacent to the cusp in particular at lower altitudes has not been addressed as it relates to the cusp density anomaly. We address the response of the cusp region to a range electrodynamical forcing with our high resolution two-dimensional time-dependent nonhydrostatic nonlinear dynamical model. We take advantage of our model's high resolution and focus on a more typical cusp width of 2 degrees in latitude. Earlier simulations have also shown a significant contribution from soft particle precipitation. We simulate the atmospheric response to a range of realizable magnitudes of the fluctuating and steady components of the electric field to examine the dependence of the magnitude of the cusp density anomaly on a large range of observed characteristics of the electrodynamical forcing and examine, in particular, the importance of particle heating relative to Joule heating. In addition we investigate the role of harder particle precipitation in areas adjacent to the cusp in determining the lower altitude cusp density and wind structure. We compare

  17. Formation of magnetic islands due to field perturbations in toroidal stellarator configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.K.; Harris, J.H.; Lee, G.S.

    1990-06-01

    An explicit formulation is developed to determine the width of a magnetic island separatrix generated by magnetic field perturbations in a general toroidal stellarator geometry. A conventional method is employed to recast the analysis in a magnetic flux coordinate system without using any simplifying approximations. The island width is seen to be proportional to the square root of the Fourier harmonic of B{sup {rho}}/B{sup {zeta}} that is in resonance with the rational value of the rotational transform, where B{sup {rho}} and B{sup {zeta}} are contravariant normal and toroidal components of the perturbed magnetic field, respectively. The procedure, which is based on a representation of three-dimensional flux surfaces by double Fourier series, allows rapid and fairly accurate calculation of the island widths in real vacuum field configurations, without the need to follow field lines through numerical integration of the field line equations. Numerical results of the island width obtained in the flux coordinate representation for the Advanced Toroidal Facility agree closely with those determined from Poincare puncture points obtained by following field lines. 22 refs., 5 tabs.

  18. PLANET FORMATION IN STELLAR BINARIES. I. PLANETESIMAL DYNAMICS IN MASSIVE PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Silsbee, Kedron

    2015-01-10

    About 20% of exoplanets discovered by radial velocity surveys reside in stellar binaries. To clarify their origin one has to understand the dynamics of planetesimals in protoplanetary disks within binaries. The standard description, accounting for only gas drag and gravity of the companion star, has been challenged recently, as the gravity of the protoplanetary disk was shown to play a crucial role in planetesimal dynamics. An added complication is the tendency of protoplanetary disks in binaries to become eccentric, giving rise to additional excitation of planetesimal eccentricity. Here, for the first time, we analytically explore the secular dynamics of planetesimals in binaries such as α Cen and γ Cep under the combined action of (1) gravity of the eccentric protoplanetary disk, (2) perturbations due to the (coplanar) eccentric companion, and (3) gas drag. We derive explicit solutions for the behavior of planetesimal eccentricity e {sub p} in non-precessing disks (and in precessing disks in certain limits). We obtain the analytical form of the distribution of the relative velocities of planetesimals, which is a key input for understanding their collisional evolution. Disk gravity strongly influences relative velocities and tends to push the sizes of planetesimals colliding with comparable objects at the highest speed to small values, ∼1 km. We also find that planetesimals in eccentric protoplanetary disks apsidally aligned with the binary orbit collide at lower relative velocities than in misaligned disks. Our results highlight the decisive role that disk gravity plays in planetesimal dynamics in binaries.

  19. Modeling Massive Cluster Formation with Stellar Feedback using Flash and AMUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Stephen; Wall, Joshua; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2015-08-01

    Star cluster formation is a complex astrophysical problem combining multiple competing physical processes in a challenging computational environment, placing stringent demands on both software and hardware. Current simulations still fall short of a realistic description of the physical processes at work in star-forming regions. We are developing a hybrid simulation code to explore the formation and assembly of massive star clusters by combining the magnetohydrodynamics code Flash and the AMUSE software environment. Flash handles gas dynamics and star formation through cloud collapse, while AMUSE manages the dynamics and evolution of stars and binary systems. The gravitational interaction between the gas and the stars is treated via a symplectic gravity bridge between the codes in AMUSE. Radiative, wind, and supernova feedback are followed in FLASH based on information provided by the AMUSE system. We present some early results of this work, focusing on cluster formation and assembly, and including simplified models of feedback to study gas expulsion and cluster survival.

  20. Cusp reinforcement by bonding of amalgam restorations.

    PubMed

    Pilo, R; Brosh, T; Chweidan, H

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effectivenes of several adhesives in bonding amalgam in order to recover tooth stiffness. A non-destructive experimental methodology was adopted, using strain gauges bonded to the midbuccal surfaces of 40 teeth, with sequential evaluation of loaded intact, prepared and restored stages of the same tooth. Continuous strain measurement as a function of the applied load was acquired by A/D equipment and a data acquisition programme. The strain-force behaviour of the sound teeth under non-axial force up to 97.5 N served as the baseline. The five experimental groups (8 x 5) consisted of control (no adhesive) and four different adhesives. One-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was calculated for the deformation ratio, relative stiffness and recovery values. Reductions in tooth structure by cutting a mesio-occlusal-distal preparation, width one-third intercuspal distance, resulted in 39-52% loss of buccal cusp stiffness. Non-bonded amalgam produced negligible increase (5%) in the stiffness recovery values of the buccal cusps. The adhesives splinted the cusps together, thereby decreasing cuspal flexure and increasing relative stiffness values. Recovery values obtained ranged from 39% to 61%. Assuming that cusp fracture occurs as a result of brittle tooth structure fatigue, amalgam adhesives may contribute to the strengthening of weakened cusps.

  1. Near-infrared Variability among Young Stellar Objects in the Star Formation Region Cygnus OB7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolk, Scott J.; Rice, Thomas S.; Aspin, Colin

    2013-08-01

    We present an analysis of near-infrared time-series photometry in J, H, and K bands for about 100 epochs of a 1° × 1° region of the Lynds 1003/1004 dark cloud in the Cygnus OB7 region. Augmented by data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we identify 96 candidate disk bearing young stellar objects (YSOs) in the region. Of these, 30 are clearly Class I or earlier. Using the Wide-Field Imaging Camera on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, we were able to obtain photometry over three observing seasons, with photometric uncertainty better than 0.05 mag down to J ≈ 17. We study detailed light curves and color trajectories of ~50 of the YSOs in the monitored field. We investigate the variability and periodicity of the YSOs and find the data are consistent with all YSOs being variable in these wavelengths on timescales of a few years. We divide the variability into four observational classes: (1) stars with periodic variability stable over long timescales, (2) variables which exhibit short-lived cyclic behavior, (3) long-duration variables, and (4) stochastic variables. Some YSO variability defies simple classification. We can explain much of the observed variability as being due to dynamic and rotational changes in the disk, including an asymmetric or changing blocking fraction, changes to the inner disk hole size, as well as changes to the accretion rate. Overall, we find that the Class I:Class II ratio of the cluster is consistent with an age of <1 Myr, with at least one individual, wildly varying source ~100, 000 yr old. We have also discovered a Class II eclipsing binary system with a period of 17.87 days.

  2. NEAR-INFRARED VARIABILITY AMONG YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE STAR FORMATION REGION CYGNUS OB7

    SciTech Connect

    Wolk, Scott J.; Rice, Thomas S.; Aspin, Colin

    2013-08-20

    We present an analysis of near-infrared time-series photometry in J, H, and K bands for about 100 epochs of a 1 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 1 Degree-Sign region of the Lynds 1003/1004 dark cloud in the Cygnus OB7 region. Augmented by data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we identify 96 candidate disk bearing young stellar objects (YSOs) in the region. Of these, 30 are clearly Class I or earlier. Using the Wide-Field Imaging Camera on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, we were able to obtain photometry over three observing seasons, with photometric uncertainty better than 0.05 mag down to J Almost-Equal-To 17. We study detailed light curves and color trajectories of {approx}50 of the YSOs in the monitored field. We investigate the variability and periodicity of the YSOs and find the data are consistent with all YSOs being variable in these wavelengths on timescales of a few years. We divide the variability into four observational classes: (1) stars with periodic variability stable over long timescales, (2) variables which exhibit short-lived cyclic behavior, (3) long-duration variables, and (4) stochastic variables. Some YSO variability defies simple classification. We can explain much of the observed variability as being due to dynamic and rotational changes in the disk, including an asymmetric or changing blocking fraction, changes to the inner disk hole size, as well as changes to the accretion rate. Overall, we find that the Class I:Class II ratio of the cluster is consistent with an age of <1 Myr, with at least one individual, wildly varying source {approx}100, 000 yr old. We have also discovered a Class II eclipsing binary system with a period of 17.87 days.

  3. A pilot study using deep infrared imaging to constrain the star formation history of the XUV stellar populations in NGC 4625

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, Stephanie J.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Fazio, Giovanni; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Bresolin, Fabio

    2014-09-20

    In a ΛCDM universe, disk galaxies' outer regions are the last to form. Characterizing their contents is critical for understanding the ongoing process of disk formation, but observing outer disk stellar populations is challenging due to their low surface brightness. We present extremely deep 3.6 μm observations (Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera) of NGC 4625, a galaxy known for its radially extended ultraviolet-emitting stellar population. We combine the new imaging with archival UV imaging from the GALEX mission to derive multi-wavelength radial profiles for NGC 4625 and compare them to stellar populations models. The colors can be explained by the young stellar population that is responsible for the UV emission and indicate that the current star formation rates in the outermost disk are recent. Extended star formation in NGC 4625 may have been initiated by an interaction with neighboring galaxies NGC 4618 and NGC 4625a, supporting speculation that minor interactions are a common trigger for outer disk star formation and late stage disk growth.

  4. The formation of eccentric compact binary inspirals and the role of gravitational wave emission in binary-single stellar encounters

    SciTech Connect

    Samsing, Johan; MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2014-03-20

    The inspiral and merger of eccentric binaries leads to gravitational waveforms distinct from those generated by circularly merging binaries. Dynamical environments can assemble binaries with high eccentricity and peak frequencies within the LIGO band. In this paper, we study binary-single stellar scatterings occurring in dense stellar systems as a source of eccentrically inspiraling binaries. Many interactions between compact binaries and single objects are characterized by chaotic resonances in which the binary-single system undergoes many exchanges before reaching a final state. During these chaotic resonances, a pair of objects has a non-negligible probability of experiencing a very close passage. Significant orbital energy and angular momentum are carried away from the system by gravitational wave (GW) radiation in these close passages, and in some cases this implies an inspiral time shorter than the orbital period of the bound third body. We derive the cross section for such dynamical inspiral outcomes through analytical arguments and through numerical scattering experiments including GW losses. We show that the cross section for dynamical inspirals grows with increasing target binary semi-major axis a and that for equal-mass binaries it scales as a {sup 2/7}. Thus, we expect wide target binaries to predominantly contribute to the production of these relativistic outcomes. We estimate that eccentric inspirals account for approximately 1% of dynamically assembled non-eccentric merging binaries. While these events are rare, we show that binary-single scatterings are a more effective formation channel than single-single captures for the production of eccentrically inspiraling binaries, even given modest binary fractions.

  5. The evolving relation between star formation rate and stellar mass in the VIDEO survey since z = 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Russell; Vaccari, Mattia; Jarvis, Matt; Smith, Mathew; Giovannoli, Elodie; Häußler, Boris; Prescott, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass, M*, relation of a star-forming (SF) galaxy (SFG) sample in the XMM-LSS field to z ˜ 3.0 using the near-infrared data from the VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations (VIDEO) survey. Combining VIDEO with broad-band photometry, we use the SED fitting algorithm CIGALE to derive SFRs and M* and have adapted it to account for the full photometric redshift probability-distribution-function uncertainty. Applying an SF selection using the D4000 index, we find evidence for strong evolution in the normalization of the SFR-M* relation out to z ˜ 3 and a roughly constant slope of (SFR ∝ M_*^{α }) α = 0.69 ± 0.02 to z ˜ 1.7. We find this increases close to unity towards z ˜ 2.65. Alternatively, if we apply a colour selection, we find a distinct turnover in the SFR-M* relation between 0.7 ≲ z ≲ 2.0 at the high-mass end, and suggest that this is due to an increased contamination from passive galaxies. We find evolution of the specific SFR ∝ (1 + z)2.60 at log10(M*/M⊙) ˜ 10.5, out to z ≲ 2.4 with an observed flattening beyond z ˜ 2 with increased stellar mass. Comparing to a range of simulations we find the analytical scaling relation approaches, that invoke an equilibrium model, a good fit to our data, suggesting that a continual smooth accretion regulated by continual outflows may be a key driver in the overall growth of SFGs.

  6. Dense Molecular Gas and the Role of Star Formation in the Host Galaxies of Quasi-stellar Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, A. S.; Solomon, P. M.; Tacconi, L. J.; Vavilkin, T.; Downes, D.

    2006-12-01

    New millimeter-wave CO and HCN observations of the host galaxies of infrared-excess Palomar-Green (PG) quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) previously detected in CO are presented. These observations are designed to assess the validity of using the infrared luminosity to estimate star formation rates of luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by determining the relative significance of dust heating by young, massive stars and AGNs in QSO hosts and IRAS galaxies with warm, AGN-like infrared colors. The analysis of these data is based, in part, on evidence that HCN traces high-density (>104 cm-3) molecular gas, and that the starburst-to-HCN luminosity ratio, LSB/L'HCN, of IRAS-detected galaxies is constant. The new CO data provide a confirmation of prior claims that PG QSO hosts have high infrared-to-CO luminosity ratios, LIR/L'CO, relative to IRAS galaxies of comparable LIR. Such high LIR/L'CO ratios may be due to significant heating of dust by the QSO or to an increased star formation efficiency in QSO hosts relative to the bulk of the luminous IRAS galaxy population. The HCN data show a similar trend, with the PG QSO host I Zw 1 and most of the warm IRAS galaxies having high LIR/L'HCN (>1600) relative to the cool IRAS galaxy population, for which the median cool~890+440-470. If the assumption is made that the infrared emission from cool IRAS galaxies is reprocessed light from embedded star-forming regions, then high values of LIR/L'HCN are likely the result of dust heating by the AGNs. Further, if the median ratio of L'HCN/L'CO~0.06 observed for Seyfert galaxies and I Zw 1 is applied to the PG QSOs not detected in HCN, then the derived LIR/L'HCN values correspond to a stellar contribution to the production of LIR of ~7%-39%, and star formation rates of ~2-37 Msolar yr-1 are derived for the QSO hosts. The corresponding values for the warm galaxies are ~10%-100% and ~3-220 Msolar yr-1. Alternatively, if the far-infrared is adopted as the star formation component

  7. The ASACUSA CUSP: an antihydrogen experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, N.; Ulmer, S.; Murtagh, D. J.; Van Gorp, S.; Nagata, Y.; Diermaier, M.; Federmann, S.; Leali, M.; Malbrunot, C.; Mascagna, V.; Massiczek, O.; Michishio, K.; Mizutani, T.; Mohri, A.; Nagahama, H.; Ohtsuka, M.; Radics, B.; Sakurai, S.; Sauerzopf, C.; Suzuki, K.; Tajima, M.; Torii, H. A.; Venturelli, L.; Wünschek, B.; Zmeskal, J.; Zurlo, N.; Higaki, H.; Kanai, Y.; Rizzini, E. Lodi; Nagashima, Y.; Matsuda, Y.; Widmann, E.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2015-11-01

    In order to test CPT symmetry between antihydrogen and its counterpart hydrogen, the ASACUSA collaboration plans to perform high precision microwave spectroscopy of ground-state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen atom in-flight. We have developed an apparatus ("cusp trap") which consists of a superconducting anti-Helmholtz coil and multiple ring electrodes. For the preparation of slow antiprotons and positrons, Penning-Malmberg type traps were utilized. The spectrometer line was positioned downstream of the cusp trap. At the end of the beamline, an antihydrogen beam detector was located, which comprises an inorganic Bismuth Germanium Oxide (BGO) single-crystal scintillator housed in a vacuum duct and surrounding plastic scintillators. A significant fraction of antihydrogen atoms flowing out the cusp trap were detected.

  8. Cusps, self-organization, and absorbing states.

    PubMed

    Bonachela, Juan A; Alava, Mikko; Muñoz, Miguel A

    2009-05-01

    Elastic interfaces embedded in (quenched) random media exhibit metastability and stick-slip dynamics. These nontrivial dynamical features have been shown to be associated with cusp singularities of the coarse-grained disorder correlator. Here we show that annealed systems with many absorbing states and a conservation law but no quenched disorder exhibit identical cusps. On the other hand, similar nonconserved systems in the directed percolation class are also shown to exhibit cusps but of a different type. These results are obtained both by a recent method to explicitly measure disorder correlators and by defining an alternative new protocol inspired by self-organized criticality, which opens the door to easily accessible experimental realizations.

  9. Planet Formation in Stellar Binaries. II. Overcoming the Fragmentation Barrier in α Centauri and γ Cephei-like Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Silsbee, Kedron

    2015-01-01

    Planet formation in small-separation (~20 AU) eccentric binaries such as γ Cephei or α Centauri is believed to be adversely affected by the presence of the stellar companion. Strong dynamical excitation of planetesimals by the eccentric companion can result in collisional destruction (rather than growth) of 1-100 km objects, giving rise to the "fragmentation barrier" for planet formation. We revise this issue using a novel description of secular dynamics of planetesimals in binaries, which accounts for the gravity of the eccentric, coplanar protoplanetary disk, as well as gas drag. By studying planetesimal collision outcomes, we show, in contrast to many previous studies, that planetesimal growth and subsequent formation of planets (including gas giants) in AU-scale orbits within ~20 AU separation binaries may be possible, provided that the protoplanetary disks are massive (gsim 10-2 M ⊙) and only weakly eccentric (disk eccentricity <~ 0.01). These requirements are compatible with both the existence of massive (several MJ ) planets in γ Cep-like systems and the results of recent simulations of gaseous disks in eccentric binaries. Terrestrial and Neptune-like planets can also form in lower-mass disks at small (sub-AU) radii. We find that the fragmentation barrier is less of a problem in eccentric disks that are apsidally aligned with the binary orbit. Alignment gives rise to special locations, where (1) relative planetesimal velocities are low and (2) the timescale of their drag-induced radial drift is long. This causes planetesimal pileup at such locations in the disk and promotes their growth locally, helping to alleviate the timescale problem for core formation.

  10. PLANET FORMATION IN STELLAR BINARIES. II. OVERCOMING THE FRAGMENTATION BARRIER IN α CENTAURI AND γ CEPHEI-LIKE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Silsbee, Kedron

    2015-01-10

    Planet formation in small-separation (∼20 AU) eccentric binaries such as γ Cephei or α Centauri is believed to be adversely affected by the presence of the stellar companion. Strong dynamical excitation of planetesimals by the eccentric companion can result in collisional destruction (rather than growth) of 1-100 km objects, giving rise to the ''fragmentation barrier'' for planet formation. We revise this issue using a novel description of secular dynamics of planetesimals in binaries, which accounts for the gravity of the eccentric, coplanar protoplanetary disk, as well as gas drag. By studying planetesimal collision outcomes, we show, in contrast to many previous studies, that planetesimal growth and subsequent formation of planets (including gas giants) in AU-scale orbits within ∼20 AU separation binaries may be possible, provided that the protoplanetary disks are massive (≳ 10{sup –2} M {sub ☉}) and only weakly eccentric (disk eccentricity ≲ 0.01). These requirements are compatible with both the existence of massive (several M{sub J} ) planets in γ Cep-like systems and the results of recent simulations of gaseous disks in eccentric binaries. Terrestrial and Neptune-like planets can also form in lower-mass disks at small (sub-AU) radii. We find that the fragmentation barrier is less of a problem in eccentric disks that are apsidally aligned with the binary orbit. Alignment gives rise to special locations, where (1) relative planetesimal velocities are low and (2) the timescale of their drag-induced radial drift is long. This causes planetesimal pileup at such locations in the disk and promotes their growth locally, helping to alleviate the timescale problem for core formation.

  11. On the distribution of stellar remnants around massive black holes: slow mass segregation, star cluster inspirals, and correlated orbits

    SciTech Connect

    Antonini, Fabio

    2014-10-20

    We use N-body simulations as well as analytical techniques to study the long-term dynamical evolution of stellar black holes (BHs) at the Galactic center (GC) and to put constraints on their number and mass distribution. Starting from models that have not yet achieved a state of collisional equilibrium, we find that timescales associated with cusp regrowth can be longer than the Hubble time. Our results cast doubts on standard models that postulate high densities of BHs near the GC and motivate studies that start from initial conditions that correspond to well-defined physical models. For the first time, we consider the distribution of BHs in a dissipationless model for the formation of the Milky Way nuclear cluster (NC), in which massive stellar clusters merge to form a compact nucleus. We simulate the consecutive merger of ∼10 clusters containing an inner dense sub-cluster of BHs. After the formed NC is evolved for ∼5 Gyr, the BHs do form a steep central cusp, while the stellar distribution maintains properties that resemble those of the GC NC. Finally, we investigate the effect of BH perturbations on the motion of the GC S-stars as a means of constraining the number of the perturbers. We find that reproducing the quasi-thermal character of the S-star orbital eccentricities requires ≳ 1000 BHs within 0.1 pc of Sgr A*. A dissipationless formation scenario for the GC NC is consistent with this lower limit and therefore could reconcile the need for high central densities of BHs (to explain the S-stars orbits) with the 'missing-cusp' problem of the GC giant star population.

  12. FORMATION OF COMPACT STELLAR CLUSTERS BY HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXY OUTFLOWS. II. EFFECT OF TURBULENCE AND METAL-LINE COOLING

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, William J.; Scannapieco, Evan

    2011-06-01

    In the primordial universe, low-mass structures with virial temperatures less than 10{sup 4} K were unable to cool by atomic line transitions, leading to a strong suppression of star formation. On the other hand, these 'minihalos' were highly prone to triggered star formation by interactions from nearby galaxy outflows. In Gray and Scannapieco, we explored the impact of nonequilibrium chemistry on these interactions. Here we turn our attention to the role of metals, carrying out a series of high-resolution three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations that include both metal cooling and a subgrid turbulent mixing model. Despite the presence of an additional coolant, we again find that outflow-minihalo interactions produce a distribution of dense, massive stellar clusters. We also find that these clusters are evenly enriched with metals to a final abundance of Z {approx} 10{sup -2} Z{sub sun}. As in our previous simulations, all of these properties suggest that these interactions may have given rise to present-day halo globular clusters.

  13. FORMATION OF COMPACT STELLAR CLUSTERS BY HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXY OUTFLOWS. I. NON-EQUILIBRIUM COOLANT FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, William J.; Scannapieco, Evan

    2010-07-20

    We use high-resolution three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations to investigate the interaction of high-redshift galaxy outflows with low-mass virialized clouds of primordial composition. While atomic cooling allows star formation in objects with virial temperatures above 10{sup 4} K, 'minihalos' below this threshold are generally unable to form stars by themselves. However, these objects are highly susceptible to triggered star formation, induced by outflows from neighboring high-redshift starburst galaxies. Here, we conduct a study of these interactions, focusing on cooling through non-equilibrium molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and hydrogen deuteride (HD) formation. Tracking the non-equilibrium chemistry and cooling of 14 species and including the presence of a dissociating background, we show that shock interactions can transform minihalos into extremely compact clusters of coeval stars. Furthermore, these clusters are all less than {approx}10{sup 6} M {sub sun}, and they are ejected from their parent dark matter halos: properties that are remarkably similar to those of the old population of globular clusters.

  14. On star formation in stellar systems. I - Photoionization effects in protoglobular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Bodenheimer, P.; Lin, D. N. C.; Noriega-Crespo, A.

    1986-01-01

    The progressive ionization and subsequent dynamical evolution of nonhomogeneously distributed low-metal-abundance diffuse gas after star formation in globular clusters are investigated analytically, taking the gravitational acceleration due to the stars into account. The basic equations are derived; the underlying assumptions, input parameters, and solution methods are explained; and numerical results for three standard cases (ionization during star formation, ionization during expansion, and evolution resulting in a stable H II region at its equilibrium Stromgren radius) are presented in graphs and characterized in detail. The time scale of residual-gas loss in typical clusters is found to be about the same as the lifetime of a massive star on the main sequence.

  15. Opening the cusp. [using magnetic field topology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crooker, N. U.; Toffoletto, F. R.; Gussenhoven, M. S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the magnetic field topology (determined by the superposition of dipole, image, and uniform fields) for mapping the cusp to the ionosphere. The model results are compared to both new and published observations and are then used to map the footprint of a flux transfer event caused by a time variation in the merging rate. It is shown that the cusp geometry distorts the field lines mapped from the magnetopause to yield footprints with dawn and dusk protrusions into the region of closed magnetic flux.

  16. Self-bending symmetric cusp beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Wei-Wei; Lu, Yao; Li, Yin-Mei; Ren, Yu-Xuan

    2015-12-07

    A type of self-bending symmetric cusp beams with four accelerating intensity maxima is theoretically and experimentally presented. Distinguished from the reported regular polygon beams, the symmetric cusp beams simultaneously exhibit peculiar features of natural autofocusing and self-acceleration during propagation. Further, such beams take the shape of a fine longitudinal needle-like structure at the focal region and possess the strong ability of self-healing over obstacles. All these intriguing properties were verified experimentally. Particularly, the spatial profile of the reconstructed beam exhibits spatially sculpted optical structure with four siamesed curved arms. Thus, we anticipate that the structured beam will benefit optical guiding and optofluidics in surprising ways.

  17. Possible planet formation in the young, low-mass, multiple stellar system GG Tau A.

    PubMed

    Dutrey, Anne; Di Folco, Emmanuel; Guilloteau, Stéphane; Boehler, Yann; Bary, Jeff; Beck, Tracy; Beust, Hervé; Chapillon, Edwige; Gueth, Fredéric; Huré, Jean-Marc; Pierens, Arnaud; Piétu, Vincent; Simon, Michal; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2014-10-30

    The formation of planets around binary stars may be more difficult than around single stars. In a close binary star (with a separation of less than a hundred astronomical units), theory predicts the presence of circumstellar disks around each star, and an outer circumbinary disk surrounding a gravitationally cleared inner cavity around the stars. Given that the inner disks are depleted by accretion onto the stars on timescales of a few thousand years, any replenishing material must be transferred from the outer reservoir to fuel planet formation (which occurs on timescales of about one million years). Gas flowing through disk cavities has been detected in single star systems. A circumbinary disk was discovered around the young low-mass binary system GG Tau A (ref. 7), which has recently been shown to be a hierarchical triple system. It has one large inner disk around the single star, GG Tau Aa, and shows small amounts of shocked hydrogen gas residing within the central cavity, but other than a single weak detection, the distribution of cold gas in this cavity or in any other binary or multiple star system has not hitherto been determined. Here we report imaging of gas fragments emitting radiation characteristic of carbon monoxide within the GG Tau A cavity. From the kinematics we conclude that the flow appears capable of sustaining the inner disk (around GG Tau Aa) beyond the accretion lifetime, leaving time for planet formation to occur there. These results show the complexity of planet formation around multiple stars and confirm the general picture predicted by numerical simulations.

  18. Possible planet formation in the young, low-mass, multiple stellar system GG Tau A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrey, Anne; di Folco, Emmanuel; Guilloteau, Stéphane; Boehler, Yann; Bary, Jeff; Beck, Tracy; Beust, Hervé; Chapillon, Edwige; Gueth, Fredéric; Huré, Jean-Marc; Pierens, Arnaud; Piétu, Vincent; Simon, Michal; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2014-10-01

    The formation of planets around binary stars may be more difficult than around single stars. In a close binary star (with a separation of less than a hundred astronomical units), theory predicts the presence of circumstellar disks around each star, and an outer circumbinary disk surrounding a gravitationally cleared inner cavity around the stars. Given that the inner disks are depleted by accretion onto the stars on timescales of a few thousand years, any replenishing material must be transferred from the outer reservoir to fuel planet formation (which occurs on timescales of about one million years). Gas flowing through disk cavities has been detected in single star systems. A circumbinary disk was discovered around the young low-mass binary system GG Tau A (ref. 7), which has recently been shown to be a hierarchical triple system. It has one large inner disk around the single star, GG Tau Aa, and shows small amounts of shocked hydrogen gas residing within the central cavity, but other than a single weak detection, the distribution of cold gas in this cavity or in any other binary or multiple star system has not hitherto been determined. Here we report imaging of gas fragments emitting radiation characteristic of carbon monoxide within the GG Tau A cavity. From the kinematics we conclude that the flow appears capable of sustaining the inner disk (around GG Tau Aa) beyond the accretion lifetime, leaving time for planet formation to occur there. These results show the complexity of planet formation around multiple stars and confirm the general picture predicted by numerical simulations.

  19. Planet formation: is it good or bad to have a stellar companion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzari, F.; Thebault, P.; Scholl, H.

    2010-04-01

    Planet formation in binary star systems is a complex issue due to the gravitational perturbations of the companion star. One of the crucial steps of the core-accretion model is planetesimal accretion into large protoplanets which finally coalesce into planets. In a planetesimal swarm surrounding the primary star, the average mutual impact velocity determines if larger bodies form or if the population is grinded down to dust, halting the planet formation process. This velocity is strongly influenced by the companion gravitational pull and by gas drag. The combined effect of these two forces may act in favour of or against planet formation, setting a lower or equal probability of the existence of extrasolar planets around single or binary stars. Planetesimal accretion in binaries has been studied so far with two different approaches. N-body codes based on the assumption that the disk is axisymmetric are very cost-effective since they allow the study of the mutual relative velocity with limited CPU usage. A large amount of planetesimal trajectories can be computed making it possible to outline the regions around the star where planet formation is possible. The main limitation of the N-body codes is the axisymmetric assumption. The companion perturbations affect not only the planetesimal orbits, but also the gaseous disk, by forcing spiral density waves. In addition, the overall shape of the disk changes from circular to elliptic. Hybrid codes have been recently developed which solve the equations for the disk with a hydrodynamical grid code and use the computed gas density and velocity vector to calculate an accurate value of the gas drag force on the planetesimals. These codes are more complex and may compute the trajectories of only a limited number of planetesimals.

  20. GAS REGULATION OF GALAXIES: THE EVOLUTION OF THE COSMIC SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATE, THE METALLICITY-MASS-STAR-FORMATION RATE RELATION, AND THE STELLAR CONTENT OF HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella; Pipino, Antonio; Peng Yingjie; Renzini, Alvio

    2013-08-01

    A very simple physical model of galaxies is one in which the formation of stars is instantaneously regulated by the mass of gas in a reservoir with mass loss scaling with the star-formation rate (SFR). This model links together three different aspects of the evolving galaxy population: (1) the cosmic time evolution of the specific star-formation rate (sSFR) relative to the growth of halos, (2) the gas-phase metallicities across the galaxy population and over cosmic time, and (3) the ratio of the stellar to dark matter mass of halos. The gas regulator is defined by the gas consumption timescale ({epsilon}{sup -1}) and the mass loading {lambda} of the wind outflow {lambda}{center_dot}SFR. The simplest regulator, in which {epsilon} and {lambda} are constant, sets the sSFR equal to exactly the specific accretion rate of the galaxy; more realistic situations lead to an sSFR that is perturbed from this precise relation. Because the gas consumption timescale is shorter than the timescale on which the system evolves, the metallicity Z is set primarily by the instantaneous operation of the regulator system rather than by the past history of the system. The metallicity of the gas reservoir depends on {epsilon}, {lambda}, and sSFR, and the regulator system therefore naturally produces a Z(m{sub star}, SFR) relation if {epsilon} and {lambda} depend on the stellar mass m{sub star}. Furthermore, this relation will be the same at all epochs unless the parameters {epsilon} and {lambda} themselves change with time. A so-called fundamental metallicity relation is naturally produced by these conditions. The overall mass-metallicity relation Z(m{sub star}) directly provides the fraction f{sub star}(m{sub star}) of incoming baryons that are being transformed into stars. The observed Z(m{sub star}) relation of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies implies a strong dependence of stellar mass on halo mass that reconciles the different faint-end slopes of the stellar and halo mass

  1. Non-syndromic multiple talon cusps in siblings.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaurav; Mutneja, Anudeep R; Nagpal, Archna; Mutneja, Puneet

    2014-01-01

    Talon's cusp is an anomalous structure that projects palatally from the cingulum areas of maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth. This dental anomaly may pose several pathological, functional and esthetic problems. Talon cusps usually affect a single tooth, but may rarely affect an entire sextant. Such multiple talon cusps may not always occur in association with a syndrome. Furthermore, they may exhibit a genetic pattern of inheritance. This article emphasizes rare occurrence of such nonsyndromic multiple talon cusps in two siblings. PMID:24992868

  2. Stellar Populations and Star Formation History of the Metal-poor Dwarf Galaxy DDO 68

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacchi, E.; Annibali, F.; Cignoni, M.; Aloisi, A.; Sohn, T.; Tosi, M.; van der Marel, R. P.; Grocholski, A. J.; James, B.

    2016-10-01

    We present the star formation history (SFH) of the extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxy DDO 68, based on our photometry with the Advanced Camera for Surveys. With a metallicity of only 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})=7.15 and a very isolated location, DDO 68 is one of the most metal-poor galaxies known. It has been argued that DDO 68 is a young system that started forming stars only ∼0.15 Gyr ago. Our data provide a deep and uncontaminated optical color–magnitude diagram (CMD) that allows us to disprove this hypothesis since we find a population of at least ∼1 Gyr old stars. The star formation activity has been fairly continuous over all the look-back time. The current rate is quite low, and the highest activity occurred between 10 and 100 Myr ago. The average star formation rate over the whole Hubble time is ≃0.01 M ⊙ yr‑1, corresponding to a total astrated mass of ≃1.3 × 108 M ⊙. Our photometry allows us to infer the distance from the tip of the red giant branch, D = 12.08 ± 0.67 Mpc; however, to let our synthetic CMD reproduce the observed ones, we need a slightly higher distance, D = 12.65 Mpc, or (m ‑ M)0 = 30.51, still inside the errors of the previous determination, and we adopt the latter. DDO 68 shows a very interesting and complex history, with its quite disturbed shape and a long tail, probably due to tidal interactions. The SFH of the tail differs from that of the main body mainly for enhanced activity at recent epochs likely triggered by the interaction. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under NASA Contract NAS5-26555.

  3. STOCHASTIC STAR FORMATION AND A (NEARLY) UNIFORM STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Fumagalli, Michele; Krumholz, Mark R.; Da Silva, Robert L.

    2011-11-10

    Recent observations indicate a lower H{alpha} to FUV ratio in dwarf galaxies than in brighter systems, a trend that could be explained by a truncated and/or steeper initial mass function (IMF) in small galaxies. However, at low star formation rates (SFRs), the H{alpha} to FUV ratio can vary due to stochastic sampling even for a universal IMF, a hypothesis that has, prior to this work, received limited investigation. Using SLUG, a fully stochastic code for synthetic photometry in star clusters and galaxies, we compare the H{alpha} and FUV luminosity in a sample of {approx}450 nearby galaxies with models drawn from a universal Kroupa IMF and a modified IMF, the integrated galactic initial mass function (IGIMF). Once random sampling and time evolution are included, a Kroupa IMF convolved with the cluster mass function (CMF) reproduces the observed H{alpha} distribution at all FUV luminosities, while a truncated IMF as implemented in current IGIMF models underpredicts the H{alpha} luminosity by more than an order of magnitude at the lowest SFRs. We conclude that the observed luminosity is the result of the joint probability distribution function of the SFR, CMF, and a universal IMF, consistent with parts of the IGIMF theory, but that a truncation in the IMF in clusters is inconsistent with the observations. Future work will examine stochastic star formation and its time dependence in detail to study whether random sampling can explain other observations that suggest a varying IMF.

  4. The chiton stylus canal: An element delivery pathway for tooth cusp biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jeremy A; Macey, David J; Brooker, Lesley R; Stockdale, Edward J; Saunders, Martin; Clode, Peta L

    2009-05-01

    A detailed investigation of the stylus canal situated within the iron mineralized major lateral teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura hirtosa was undertaken in conjunction with a row-by-row examination of cusp mineralization. The canal is shown to contain columnar epithelial tissue similar to that surrounding the mineralized cusps, including the presence of iron rich particles characteristic of the iron storage protein ferritin. Within the tooth core, a previously undescribed internal pathway or plume is evident above the stylus canal, between the junction zone and mineralizing posterior face of the cusp. Plume formation coincides with the appearance of iron in the superior epithelium and the onset of mineralization at tooth row 13. The plume persists during the delivery of phosphorous and calcium into the tooth core, and is the final region of the cusp to become mineralized. The presence of the stylus canal was confirmed in a further 18 chiton species, revealing that the canal is common to polyplacophoran molluscs. These new data strongly support the growing body of evidence highlighting the importance of the junction zone for tooth mineralization in chiton teeth, and indicate that the chemical and structural environment within the tooth cusp is under far greater biological control than previously considered.

  5. The chiton stylus canal: An element delivery pathway for tooth cusp biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jeremy A; Macey, David J; Brooker, Lesley R; Stockdale, Edward J; Saunders, Martin; Clode, Peta L

    2009-05-01

    A detailed investigation of the stylus canal situated within the iron mineralized major lateral teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura hirtosa was undertaken in conjunction with a row-by-row examination of cusp mineralization. The canal is shown to contain columnar epithelial tissue similar to that surrounding the mineralized cusps, including the presence of iron rich particles characteristic of the iron storage protein ferritin. Within the tooth core, a previously undescribed internal pathway or plume is evident above the stylus canal, between the junction zone and mineralizing posterior face of the cusp. Plume formation coincides with the appearance of iron in the superior epithelium and the onset of mineralization at tooth row 13. The plume persists during the delivery of phosphorous and calcium into the tooth core, and is the final region of the cusp to become mineralized. The presence of the stylus canal was confirmed in a further 18 chiton species, revealing that the canal is common to polyplacophoran molluscs. These new data strongly support the growing body of evidence highlighting the importance of the junction zone for tooth mineralization in chiton teeth, and indicate that the chemical and structural environment within the tooth cusp is under far greater biological control than previously considered. PMID:19107814

  6. 21 CFR 872.3350 - Gold or stainless steel cusp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gold or stainless steel cusp. 872.3350 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3350 Gold or stainless steel cusp. (a) Identification. A gold or stainless steel cusp is a prefabricated device made of austenitic alloys or...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3350 - Gold or stainless steel cusp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gold or stainless steel cusp. 872.3350 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3350 Gold or stainless steel cusp. (a) Identification. A gold or stainless steel cusp is a prefabricated device made of austenitic alloys or...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3350 - Gold or stainless steel cusp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gold or stainless steel cusp. 872.3350 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3350 Gold or stainless steel cusp. (a) Identification. A gold or stainless steel cusp is a prefabricated device made of austenitic alloys or...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3350 - Gold or stainless steel cusp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gold or stainless steel cusp. 872.3350 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3350 Gold or stainless steel cusp. (a) Identification. A gold or stainless steel cusp is a prefabricated device made of austenitic alloys or...

  10. The effect of extra dimensions on gravity wave bursts from cosmic string cusps

    SciTech Connect

    O'Callaghan, Eimear; Gregory, Ruth; Chadburn, Sarah; Geshnizjani, Ghazal; Zavala, Ivonne E-mail: ggeshnizjani@perimeterinstitute.ca E-mail: zavala@th.physik.uni-bonn.de

    2010-09-01

    We explore the kinematical effect of having extra dimensions on the gravitational wave emission from cosmic strings. Additional dimensions both round off cusps, and reduce the probability of their formation. We recompute the gravitational wave burst, taking into account these two factors, and find a potentially significant damping on the gravitational waves of the strings.

  11. Star Formation in the Central 400 pc of the Milky Way: Evidence for a Population of Massive Young Stellar Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Hewitt, J. W.; Arendt, R. G.; Whitney, B.; Rieke, G.; Wardle, M.; Hinz, J. L.; Stolovy, S.; Lang, C. C.; Burton, M. G.; Ramirez, S.

    2009-09-01

    The central kpc of the Milky Way might be expected to differ significantly from the rest of the Galaxy with regard to gasdynamics and the formation of young stellar objects (YSOs). We probe this possibility with mid-infrared observations obtained with Infrared Array Camera and Multiband Imaging Photometer on Spitzer and with Midcourse Space Experiment. We use color-color diagrams and spectral energy distribution (SED) fits to explore the nature of YSO candidates (including objects with 4.5 μm excesses possibly due to molecular emission). There is an asymmetry in the distribution of the candidate YSOs, which tend to be found at negative Galactic longitudes; this behavior contrasts with that of the molecular gas, approximately 2/3 of which is at positive longitudes. The small-scale height of these objects suggests that they are within the Galactic center region and are dynamically young. They lie between two layers of infrared dark clouds and may have originated from these clouds. We identify new sites for this recent star formation by comparing the mid-IR, radio, submillimeter, and methanol maser data. The methanol masers appear to be associated with young, embedded YSOs characterized by 4.5 μm excesses. We use the SEDs of these sources to estimate their physical characteristics; their masses appear to range from ~10 to ~20 M sun. Within the central 400 × 50 pc (|l| < 1fdg3 and |b| < 10') the star formation rate (SFR) based on the identification of Stage I evolutionary phase of YSO candidates is about 0.14 M sun yr-1. Given that the majority of the sources in the population of YSOs are classified as Stage I objects, we suggest that a recent burst of star formation took place within the last 105 yr. This suggestion is also consistent with estimates of SFRs within the last ~107 yr showing a peak around 105 yr ago. Lastly, we find that the Schmidt-Kennicutt Law applies well in the central 400 pc of the Galaxy. This implies that star formation does not appear to be

  12. Lithium spectral line formation in stellar atmospheres. The impact of convection and NLTE effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klevas, J.; Kučinskas, A.; Steffen, M.; Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.

    2016-02-01

    Aims: Because of the complexities involved in treating spectral line formation in full 3D and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE), different simplified approaches are sometimes used to account for the NLTE effects with 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres. In certain cases, chemical abundances are derived in 1D NLTE and then corrected for the 3D effects by adding 3D-1D LTE (Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium, LTE) abundance corrections (3D+NLTE approach). Alternatively, average ⟨3D⟩ model atmospheres are sometimes used to substitute for the full 3D hydrodynamical models. Methods: In this work we tested whether the results obtained using these simplified schemes (3D+NLTE, ⟨3D⟩ NLTE) may reproduce those derived using the full 3D NLTE computations. The tests were made using 3D hydrodynamical CO5BOLD model atmospheres of the main sequence (MS), main sequence turn-off (TO), subgiant (SGB), and red giant branch (RGB) stars, all at two metallicities, [ M / H ] = 0.0 and -2.0. Our goal was to investigate the role of 3D and NLTE effects on the formation of the 670.8 nm lithium resonance line. This was done by assessing differences in the strengths of synthetic 670.8 nm line profiles, which were computed using 3D/1D NLTE/LTE approaches. Results: Our results show that Li 670.8 nm line strengths obtained using different methodologies differ only slightly in most of the models at solar metallicity studied here. However, the line strengths predicted with the 3D NLTE and 3D+NLTE approaches become significantly different at subsolar metallicities. At [ M / H ] = -2.0, this may lead to (3D NLTE) - (3D+NLTE) differences in the predicted lithium abundance of ~0.46 and ~0.31 dex in the TO and RGB stars respectively. On the other hand, NLTE line strengths computed with the average ⟨3D⟩ and 1D model atmospheres are similar to those obtained with the full 3D NLTE approach for MS, TO, SGB, and RGB stars, at all metallicities; 3D - ⟨3D⟩ and 3D - 1D differences in the

  13. Hard X-ray Emission Associated with High-Mass Star Formation in the Young Stellar Cluster NGC 2071

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, S. L.; Audard, M.; Güdel, M.; Meyer, M. R.; Simmons, A. E.

    2008-06-01

    X-ray observations can penetrate high intervening extinction and are thus useful for probing physical conditions in young stellar clusters whose members are optically obscured. Such observations can provide information on magnetic processes at or near the surface of a formative (proto)-star and on mass-loss properties as diagnosed from X-ray emission associated with jets and shocked outflows. We present first results of X-ray observations of the embedded infrared cluster NGC 2071 in the Orion B molecular cloud with XMM-Newton. This cluster is of interest because it is one of the closest regions known to harbor high-mass protostars. We report the detection of hard X-ray emission from the dense central NGC 2071-IR subgroup which contains three massive protostars surrounded by ultracompact H II regions (IRS-1,2,3). The X-ray peak lies within ≈1'' of IRS-1, which drives one of the most powerful outflows known. The unusual X-ray spectrum shows a strong fluorescent Fe emission line at 6.4 keV superimposed on a hard continuum. This line is due to Fe I or weakly ionized Fe and likely originates in cold material near the protostar (i.e. a disk or envelope) that is irradiated by the hard central X-ray source.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Globular Clusters with Central Density Cusps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosin, Craig Anthony

    1997-07-01

    We use the Hubble Space Telescope to observe crowded fields in globular clusters with central density cusps, and use the observed stellar distributions to study the internal dynamics of clusters in advanced stages of evolution. We begin by discussing images of the cusp of NGC 6624. From the positions of individual stars, we measure the logarithmic slope of the central density cusp, but do not resolve the cluster core. We also detect a central population of blue stragglers, and compare the frequencies of such stars in several clusters. NGC 6397, as well as photometric techniques for use with diffraction-limited HST images. We measure logarithmic cusp slopes for various groups of main-sequence stars in each cluster; we also set upper limits on the core radii of M15 and M30, and measure a radius of ~5' for the NGC 6397 core. We compare mass functions (MFs) measured at several radii in each cluster, and find substantial mass segregation. In M30, the observed segregation is well matched by the predictions of a King-Michie model, but similar models of M15 and NGC 6397 predict more mass segregation than we observe. We then use the Jeans equation and our MFs to investigate the degree of equipartition of energy between stellar species in each cluster. We find that M30 is very close to equipartition over the observed radial range between the cusp and the envelope, while M15 and NGC 6397 are not. The difference between M30 and M15 might be explained by the difference in relaxation times at the observed radii, but this scenario fails to explain the NGC 6397 data. We discuss the possibility that post-collapse clusters remain subject to the Spitzer instability, and the possibility that the tidal shocks suffered by NGC 6397 have affected its degree of mass segregation. We also propose that the observed differences between the central cusps of the clusters could be due to gravothermal oscillations, to differences in binary populations, or to the presence of a ~103Msolar black hole

  15. THE RELATION BETWEEN STAR FORMATION RATE AND STELLAR MASS FOR GALAXIES AT 3.5 ≤ z ≤ 6.5 IN CANDELS

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, Brett; Papovich, Casey; Tilvi, Vithal; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Finlator, Kristian; Behroozi, Peter; Lu, Yu; Wechsler, Risa H.; Dahlen, Tomas; Ferguson, Henry C.; Davé, Romeel; Dekel, Avishai; Dickinson, Mark; Giavalisco, Mauro; Long, James; Mobasher, Bahram; Reddy, Naveen; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2015-02-01

    Distant star-forming galaxies show a correlation between their star formation rates (SFRs) and stellar masses, and this has deep implications for galaxy formation. Here, we present a study on the evolution of the slope and scatter of the SFR-stellar mass relation for galaxies at 3.5 ≤ z ≤ 6.5 using multi-wavelength photometry in GOODS-S from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and Spitzer Extended Deep Survey. We describe an updated, Bayesian spectral-energy distribution fitting method that incorporates effects of nebular line emission, star formation histories that are constant or rising with time, and different dust-attenuation prescriptions (starburst and Small Magellanic Cloud). From z = 6.5 to z = 3.5 star-forming galaxies in CANDELS follow a nearly unevolving correlation between stellar mass and SFR that follows SFR ∼ M{sub ⋆}{sup a} with a =0.54 ± 0.16 at z ∼ 6 and 0.70 ± 0.21 at z ∼ 4. This evolution requires a star formation history that increases with decreasing redshift (on average, the SFRs of individual galaxies rise with time). The observed scatter in the SFR-stellar mass relation is tight, σ(log SFR/M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) < 0.3-0.4 dex, for galaxies with log M {sub *}/M {sub ☉} > 9 dex. Assuming that the SFR is tied to the net gas inflow rate (SFR ∼ M-dot {sub gas}), then the scatter in the gas inflow rate is also smaller than 0.3–0.4 dex for star-forming galaxies in these stellar mass and redshift ranges, at least when averaged over the timescale of star formation. We further show that the implied star formation history of objects selected on the basis of their co-moving number densities is consistent with the evolution in the SFR-stellar mass relation.

  16. THE DEPENDENCE OF STAR FORMATION RATES ON STELLAR MASS AND ENVIRONMENT AT z approx 0.8

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Shannon G.; Holden, Bradford P.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Franx, Marijn

    2009-11-01

    We examine the star formation rates (SFRs) of galaxies in a redshift slice encompassing the z = 0.834 cluster RX J0152.7 - 1357. We used a low-dispersion prism in the Inamori Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph to identify galaxies with z {sub AB} < 23.3 mag in diverse environments around the cluster out to projected distances of approx8 Mpc from the cluster center. We utilize a mass-limited sample (M > 2 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}) of 330 galaxies that were imaged by Spitzer MIPS at 24 mum to derive SFRs and study the dependence of specific SFR (SSFR) on stellar mass and environment. We find that the SFR and SSFR show a strong decrease with increasing local density, similar to the relation at z approx 0. Our result contrasts with other work at z approx 1 that finds the SFR-density trend to reverse for luminosity-limited samples. These other results appear to be driven by star formation (SF) in lower mass systems (M approx 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}). Our results imply that the processes that shut down SF are present in groups and other dense regions in the field. Our data also suggest that the lower SFRs of galaxies in higher density environments may reflect a change in the ratio of star-forming to non-star-forming galaxies, rather than a change in SFRs. As a consequence, the SFRs of star-forming galaxies, in environments ranging from small groups to clusters, appear to be similar and largely unaffected by the local processes that truncate SF at z approx 0.8.

  17. Stellar Populations and the Star Formation Histories of LSB Galaxies. V. WFC3 Color-Magnitude Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schombert, James; McGaugh, Stacy

    2015-09-01

    We present WFC3 observations of three low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies from the Schombert et al. LSB catalog that are within 11 Mpc of the Milky Way. Deep imaging at F336W, F555W, and F814W allow the construction of the V - I color-magnitude diagrams (CMD) to MI = -2. Overall 1869, 465, and 501 stellar sources are identified in the three LSB galaxies F415-3, F608-1, and F750-V1, respectively. The spatial distribution of young blue stars matches the Hα maps from ground-based imaging, indicating that star formation in LSB galaxies follows the same style as in other irregular galaxies. Several star complexes are identified, matching regions of higher surface brightness as seen from ground-based imaging. The CMD for each LSB galaxy has a similar morphology to Local Volume (LV) dwarf galaxies (i.e., a blue main sequence, blue and red He burning branches, and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars). The LSB CMD’s distinguish themselves from nearby dwarf CMD’s by having a higher proportion of blue main sequence stars and fewer AGB stars than expected from their mean metallicities. Current [Fe/H] values below -0.6 are deduced from the position of the red helium-burning branch (rHeB) stars in the V - I diagram. The distribution of stars on the blue helium-burning branch (bHeB) and rHeB from the U - V and V - I CMD indicate a history of constant star formation for the last 100 Myr.

  18. STELLAR POPULATIONS AND THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF LSB GALAXIES. V. WFC3 COLOR–MAGNITUDE DIAGRAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Schombert, James; McGaugh, Stacy E-mail: stacy.mcgaugh@case.edu

    2015-09-15

    We present WFC3 observations of three low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies from the Schombert et al. LSB catalog that are within 11 Mpc of the Milky Way. Deep imaging at F336W, F555W, and F814W allow the construction of the V − I color–magnitude diagrams (CMD) to M{sub I} = −2. Overall 1869, 465, and 501 stellar sources are identified in the three LSB galaxies F415-3, F608-1, and F750-V1, respectively. The spatial distribution of young blue stars matches the Hα maps from ground-based imaging, indicating that star formation in LSB galaxies follows the same style as in other irregular galaxies. Several star complexes are identified, matching regions of higher surface brightness as seen from ground-based imaging. The CMD for each LSB galaxy has a similar morphology to Local Volume (LV) dwarf galaxies (i.e., a blue main sequence, blue and red He burning branches, and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars). The LSB CMD’s distinguish themselves from nearby dwarf CMD’s by having a higher proportion of blue main sequence stars and fewer AGB stars than expected from their mean metallicities. Current [Fe/H] values below −0.6 are deduced from the position of the red helium-burning branch (rHeB) stars in the V − I diagram. The distribution of stars on the blue helium-burning branch (bHeB) and rHeB from the U − V and V − I CMD indicate a history of constant star formation for the last 100 Myr.

  19. The HORUS Observatory - a Next Generation Mission to Study Planetary, Stellar and Galactic Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scowen, Paul A.; Beasley, M.; Cooke, B.; Woodruff, B.; Calzetti, D.; Desch, S.; Fullerton, A.; Gallagher, J.; Hartigan, P.; Jansen, R.; Lauer, T.; O'Connell, R.; Oey, S.; Padgett, D.; Roberge, A.; Siegmund, O.; Smith, N.; Stern, D.; Tumlinson, J.; Windhorst, R.

    2010-01-01

    The High-ORbit Ultraviolet-visible Satellite (HORUS) is a 2.4-meter class space telescope that will conduct a comprehensive and systematic study of the astrophysical processes and environments relevant for the births and life cycles of stars and their planetary systems, to investigate and understand the range of environments, feedback mechanisms, and other factors that most affect the outcome of the star and planet formation process. To do so, HORUS will provide 100 times greater imaging efficiency and more than 10 times greater UV spectroscopic sensitivity than has existed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HORUS mission will contribute vital information on how solar systems form and whether habitable planets should be common or rare. It also will investigate the structure, evolution, and destiny of galaxies and universe. This program relies on focused capabilities unique to space that no other planned NASA mission will provide: near-UV/visible (200-1075nm) wide-field, diffraction-limited imaging; and high-sensitivity, high-resolution UV (100-170nm) spectroscopy. HORUS is designed to be launched into a semi-stable orbit at Earth-Sun L2. From this vantage HORUS will enjoy a stable environment for thermal and pointing control, and long-duration target visibility. The core HORUS design will provide wide field of view (WFOV) imagery and high efficiency point source FUV spectroscopy using a novel combination of spectral selection and field sharing. The HORUS Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA) design is based on modern light weight mirror technology with a faster primary mirror to shorten the overall package and thereby reduce mass. The OTA uses a three-mirror anastigmat configuration to provide excellent imagery over a large FOV. The UV/optical Imaging Cameras use two 21k x 21k Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) consisting of thirty-six Si 3.5k x 3.5k CCD elements each. The FUV spectrometer uses cross strip anode based MCPs improved from HST-COS technology.

  20. The Dark Matter Halo Profile Of NGC 2976 Via Stellar Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Joshua J.; Gebhardt, K.; Hill, G. J.; van den Bosch, R. C. E.; Blanc, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    The observations of kinematics in low surface brightness (LSB) and dwarf late type galaxies have stubbornly resisted giving clear evidence for the cuspy Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) dark matter (DM) halo profiles that simulations with ΛCDM inputs predict. Instead, most LSBs and late type dwarfs suggest cored DM halos or the observations are not yet constraining enough to rule out cusps. One viable theory to explain cored DM halos relies on the gravitational perturbation of a growing baryonic disk that is then rapidly removed causing the halo to expand to a cored equilibrium. Weakly self-interacting dark matter has also been invoked to explain cored DM halos. This problem may loom large over small galaxy formation and growth. However, different measurements can be taken to further test the apparent problem. Most previous data have relied on HI or Hα as kinematic tracers. A small number of works have studied the problem with longslit stellar kinematics. Ideally, the advantages of 2D spectroscopic coverage and a collisionless kinematic tracer would be combined. So far, NGC 2976 has made one of the cleanest cases for a cored DM halo via integral field spectroscopy in Hα. We here report on observations of NGC 2976 with the large field-of-view fiber-fed Visible Integral field Replicable Unit Spectrograph Prototype (VIRUS-P) at R=3200 to concurrently measure the gaseous and stellar kinematics and probe the DM halo. We find that the gas and stellar kinematics disagree both in the magnitude of their second velocity moments and their detailed profiles. We unexpectedly find emission features in one of NGC 2976's two large star-forming regions which may be indicative of carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet stars. A putative bar further complicates the use of gaseous tracers. We solve the Jeans equations with stellar kinematics to reevaluate the DM profile in this exemplar galaxy of the core-cusp problem.

  1. Tooth cusp sharpness as a dietary correlate in great apes.

    PubMed

    Berthaume, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    Mammalian molars have undergone heavy scrutiny to determine correlates between morphology and diet. Here, the relationship between one aspect of occlusal morphology, tooth cusp radius of curvature (RoC), and two broad dietary categories, folivory and frugivory, is analyzed in apes. The author hypothesizes that there is a relationship between tooth cusp RoC and diet, and that folivores have sharper teeth than frugivores, and further test the correlation between tooth cusp RoC and tooth cusp size. Eight measures of tooth cusp RoC (two RoCs per cusp) were taken from 53 M(2) s from four species and subspecies of frugivorous apes (Pongo pygmaeus, Pan troglodytes troglodytes, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, and Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and two subspecies of folivorous apes (Gorilla beringei beringei, and Gorilla beringei graueri). Phylogenetically corrected ANOVAs were run on the full dataset and several subsets of the full dataset, revealing that, when buccolingual RoCs are taken into account, tooth cusp RoCs can successfully differentiate folivores and frugivores. PCAs revealed that folivores consistently had duller teeth than frugivores. In addition, a weak, statistically significant positive correlation exists between tooth cusp size and tooth cusp RoC. The author hypothesizes differences in tooth cusp RoC are correlated with wear rates, where, per vertical unit of wear, duller cusps will have a longer length of exposed enamel ridge than sharper cusps. More data need to be gathered to determine if the correlation between tooth cusp RoC and tooth cusp size holds true when small primates are considered.

  2. The resurgence of the cusp anomalous dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aniceto, Inês

    2016-02-01

    This work addresses the resurgent properties of the cusp anomalous dimension’s strong coupling expansion, obtained from the integral Beisert-Eden-Staudacher (BES) equation. This expansion is factorially divergent, and its first non-perturbative corrections are related to the mass gap of the O(6)σ -model. The factorial divergence can also be analyzed from a resurgence perspective. Building on the work of Basso and Korchemsky, a transseries ansatz for the cusp anomalous dimension is proposed and the corresponding expected large-order behaviour studied. One finds non-perturbative phenomena in both the positive and negative real coupling directions, which need to be included to address the analyticity conditions coming from the BES equation. After checking the resurgence structure of the proposed transseries, it is shown that it naturally leads to an unambiguous resummation procedure, furthermore allowing for a strong/weak coupling interpolation.

  3. Ion observations at Mercury's Magnetospheric Cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, Jamie; Raines, Jim; Slavin, James

    2016-04-01

    The magnetospheric cusp is a region of direct entry for solar wind mass, energy and momentum into a planetary magnetosphere. Dayside magnetic reconnection between the interplanetary magnetic field and the planetary field allows shocked solar wind plasma to flow down open magnetospheric field lines. Whilst this is occurring these magnetic field lines convect poleward. For a spacecraft travelling through the high latitudes, this causes a velocity filter effect to be observed in the ion data, whereby higher energy ions are observed at lower latitudes. Here we present the ion observations from the MESSENGER spacecraft at Mercury's cusp, specifically focusing on ions latitudinally dispersed in energy. From these dispersions, the distance to the reconnection site is calculated and used to better understand the process of reconnection at Mercury's dayside magnetopause.

  4. Talon Cusp Type I: Restorative Management.

    PubMed

    Maia, Rafael Alberto Dos Santos; de Souza-Zaroni, Wanessa Christine; Mei, Raul Sampaio; Lamers, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The teeth are formed during intrauterine life (i.e., gestation) during the odontogenesis stage. During this period, the teeth move until they enter the oral cavity. This course covers various stages of dental development, namely, initiation, proliferation, histodifferentiation, morphodifferentiation, and apposition. The talon cusp is an anomaly that occurs during morphodifferentiation, and this anomaly may have numerous adverse clinical effects on oral health. The objective of this study was to report a case of "Talon Cusp Type I" and to discuss diagnostic methods, treatment options for this anomaly, and the importance of knowledge of this morphological change among dental professionals so that it is not confused with other morphological changes; such knowledge is required to avoid unnecessary surgical procedures, to perform treatments that prevent caries and malocclusions as well as enhancing aesthetics, and to improve the oral health and quality of life of the patient.

  5. Talon Cusp Type I: Restorative Management

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Rafael Alberto dos Santos; de Souza-Zaroni, Wanessa Christine; Mei, Raul Sampaio; Lamers, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The teeth are formed during intrauterine life (i.e., gestation) during the odontogenesis stage. During this period, the teeth move until they enter the oral cavity. This course covers various stages of dental development, namely, initiation, proliferation, histodifferentiation, morphodifferentiation, and apposition. The talon cusp is an anomaly that occurs during morphodifferentiation, and this anomaly may have numerous adverse clinical effects on oral health. The objective of this study was to report a case of “Talon Cusp Type I” and to discuss diagnostic methods, treatment options for this anomaly, and the importance of knowledge of this morphological change among dental professionals so that it is not confused with other morphological changes; such knowledge is required to avoid unnecessary surgical procedures, to perform treatments that prevent caries and malocclusions as well as enhancing aesthetics, and to improve the oral health and quality of life of the patient. PMID:26064698

  6. Stellar evolution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, H.-Y. (Editor); Muriel, A.

    1972-01-01

    Aspects of normal stellar evolution are discussed together with evolution near the main sequence, stellar evolution from main sequence to white dwarf or carbon ignition, the structure of massive main-sequence stars, and problems of stellar stability and stellar pulsation. Other subjects considered include variable stars, white dwarfs, close binaries, novae, early supernova luminosity, neutron stars, the photometry of field horizontal-branch stars, and stellar opacity. Transport mechanisms in stars are examined together with thermonuclear reactions and nucleosynthesis, the instability problem in nuclear burning shells, stellar coalescence, and intense magnetic fields in astrophysics. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  7. Stellar Ontogeny: From Dust...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the process of star formation. Infrared and radio astronomy, particularly microwave astronomy is used to provide information on different stages of stellar formation. The role of dust and gas which swirl through the interstellar regions of a galaxy and the collapse of a cloud in star formation are also presented. (HM)

  8. Patterning the size and number of tooth and its cusps.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinglei; Cho, Sung-Won; Kim, Jae-Young; Lee, Min-Jung; Cha, Yoon-Geun; Jung, Han-Sung

    2007-04-15

    Mice and rats, two species of rodents, show some dental similarities such as tooth number and cusp number, and differences such as tooth size and cusp size. In this study, the tooth size, tooth number, cusp size and cusp number, which are four major factors of the tooth patterning, were investigated by the heterospecific recombinations of tissues from the molar tooth germs of mice and rats. Our results suggest that the dental epithelium and mesenchyme determine the cusp size and tooth size respectively and the cusp number is co-regulated by the tooth size and cusp size. It is also suggested that the mesenchymal cell number regulates not the tooth size but the tooth number. The relationships among these factors in tooth patterning including micropatterning (cusp size and cusp number) and macropatterning (tooth size and tooth number) were analyzed in a reaction diffusion mechanism. Key molecules determining the patterning of teeth remains to be elucidated for controlling the tooth size and cusp size of bioengineered tooth.

  9. Stellar Winds and Embedded Star Formation in the Galactic Center Quintuplet and Arches Clusters: Multifrequency Radio Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Cornelia C.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Goss, W. M.; Rodríguez, Luis F.

    2005-11-01

    A multifrequency, multiconfiguration study has been made of the compact radio sources in the Galactic center Quintuplet and Arches stellar clusters using the Very Large Array. Ten radio sources have been detected in the Quintuplet cluster. The majority of these radio sources have rising spectral indices and are positionally coincident with young massive stars that are known to have powerful stellar winds. We conclude that the three most compact of these sources are produced by stellar wind emission; thus, mass-loss rates can be derived and have an average value of 3×10-5 Msolar yr-1. The remainder of the sources are likely to be a combination of stellar wind emission and free-free emission from surrounding ionized gas. In three cases, the radio sources have no stellar counterpart, and the radio emission is thought to arise from compact or ultracompact H II regions. If so, these sources would be the first detections of embedded massive stars to be discovered in the Galactic center clusters. The radio nebula associated with the Pistol star resembles the nebula surrounding the luminous blue variable star η Car and may be related to the stellar wind of the Pistol star. Ten compact radio sources are also detected in the Arches cluster and are interpreted to be stellar wind sources, consistent with previous findings. Several of the sources show moderate variability (10%-30%) in their flux density, possibly related to a nonthermal component in the wind emission. A number of radio sources in both clusters have X-ray counterparts, which have been interpreted to be the shocked, colliding winds of massive binary systems.

  10. DWARFS GOBBLING DWARFS: A STELLAR TIDAL STREAM AROUND NGC 4449 AND HIERARCHICAL GALAXY FORMATION ON SMALL SCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Delgado, David; Rix, Hans-Walter; Maccio, Andrea V.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; Brodie, Jean P.; Annibali, Francesca; Fliri, Juergen; Zibetti, Stefano; Van der Marel, Roeland P.; Aloisi, Alessandra; Chonis, Taylor S.; Carballo-Bello, Julio A.; Gallego-Laborda, J.; Merrifield, Michael R.

    2012-04-01

    A candidate diffuse stellar substructure was previously reported in the halo of the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 4449 by Karachentsev et al. We map and analyze this feature using a unique combination of deep integrated-light images from the BlackBird 0.5 m telescope, and high-resolution wide-field images from the 8 m Subaru Telescope, which resolve the nebulosity into a stream of red giant branch stars, and confirm its physical association with NGC 4449. The properties of the stream imply a massive dwarf spheroidal progenitor, which after complete disruption will deposit an amount of stellar mass that is comparable to the existing stellar halo of the main galaxy. The stellar mass ratio between the two galaxies is {approx}1:50, while the indirectly measured dynamical mass ratio, when including dark matter, may be {approx}1:10-1:5. This system may thus represent a 'stealth' merger, where an infalling satellite galaxy is nearly undetectable by conventional means, yet has a substantial dynamical influence on its host galaxy. This singular discovery also suggests that satellite accretion can play a significant role in building up the stellar halos of low-mass galaxies, and possibly in triggering their starbursts.

  11. The Relationship between Stellar Mass, Gas Metallicity, and Star Formation Rate for Hα-Selected Galaxies at z ≈ 0.8 from the NewHα Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de los Reyes, Mithi A.; Ly, Chun; Lee, Janice C.; Salim, Samir; Peeples, Molly S.; Momcheva, Ivelina; Feddersen, Jesse; Dale, Daniel A.; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; Finn, Rose

    2015-02-01

    Using a sample of 299 Hα-selected galaxies at z≈ 0.8, we study the relationship between galaxy stellar mass, gas-phase metallicity, and star formation rate (SFR), and compare to previous results. We use deep optical spectra obtained with the IMACS spectrograph at the Magellan telescope to measure strong oxygen lines. We combine these spectra and metallicities with (1) rest-frame UV-to-optical imaging, which allows us to determine stellar masses and dust attenuation corrections, and (2) Hα narrowband imaging, which provides a robust measurement of the instantaneous SFR. Our sample spans stellar masses of ˜109-6 × 1011 {{M}⊙ }, SFRs of 0.4-270 {{M}⊙ } yr-1, and metal abundances of 12+log (O/H)≈ 8.3-9.1 (≈ 0.4-2.6 {{Z}⊙ }). The correlations that we find between the Hα-based SFR and stellar mass (i.e., the star-forming “main sequence”) and between the stellar mass and metallicity are both consistent with previous z˜ 1 studies of star-forming galaxies. We then study the relationship between the three properties using various plane-fitting techniques and a curve-fitting projection. In all cases, we exclude strong dependence of the {{M}\\star }-Z relation on SFR, but are unable to distinguish between moderate and no dependence. Our results are consistent with previous mass-metallicity-SFR studies. We check whether data set limitations may obscure a strong dependence on the SFR by using mock samples drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These experiments reveal that the adopted signal-to-noise ratio cuts may have a significant effect on the measured dependence. Further work is needed to investigate these results, and to test whether a “fundamental metallicity relation” or a “fundamental plane” describes star-forming galaxies across cosmic time.

  12. Particle Detectors and Data Analysis for Cusp Transient Features Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    Grant NAG5-5084 was awarded to support the participation of South West Research Institute (SwRI) in building the energy per unit charge particle detectors for the Cusp Transient Features Campaign and analysis of flight data from these instruments. The detectors are part of an instrumented payload (Rocket 36.152, Dr. R. Pfaff, P.I.) launched from Svalbard on December 3, 1997, into the dark cusp. The particle instruments, a Cusp Electron Detector (CED) and a Cusp Ion Detector (CID), built on this project, provided differential energy and angular measurements along the rocket trajectory throughout the flight.

  13. Polar cap arcs: Sun-aligned or cusp-aligned?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Paxton, L. J.; Zhang, Qinghe; Xing, Zanyang

    2016-08-01

    Polar cap arcs are often called sun-aligned arcs. Satellite observations reveal that polar cap arcs join together at the cusp and are actually cusp aligned. Strong ionospheric plasma velocity shears, thus field aligned currents, were associated with polar arcs and they were likely caused by Kelvin-Helmholtz waves around the low-latitude magnetopause under a northward IMF Bz. The magnetic field lines around the magnetopause join together in the cusp region so are the field aligned currents and particle precipitation. This explains why polar arcs are cusp aligned.

  14. Predicting cusps or kinks in Nambu-Goto dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes, Aldrin; García-Aspeitia, Miguel A.

    2015-11-01

    It is known that Nambu-Goto extended objects present some pathological structures, such as cusps and kinks, during their evolution. In this paper, we propose a model through the generalized Raychaudhuri (Rh) equation for membranes to determine if there are cusps and kinks in the worldsheet. We extend the generalized Rh equation for membranes to allow the study of the effect of higher order curvature terms in the action on the issue of cusps and kinks, using it as a tool for determining when a Nambu-Goto string generates cusps or kinks in its evolution. Furthermore, we present three examples where we test graphically this approach.

  15. Plasma Instability Growth Rates in the F-Region Cusp Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moen, J. I.; Daabakk, Y.; Oksavik, K.; Clausen, L.; Bekkeng, T. A.; Abe, T.; Saito, Y.; Baddeley, L. J.; Lorentzen, D. A.; Sigernes, F.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2014-12-01

    There are at least two different micro-instability processes that applies to the F-region cusp/polar cap ionosphere. These are the Gradient Drift Instability (GDI) and the Kelvin Helmholtz Instability (KHI). Due to space weather effects on radio communication and satellite signals it is of practical interest to assess the relative importance of these two instability modes and to quantify their growth rates. The Investigation of Cusp Irregularities (ICI) rocket program has been developed to investigate these plasma instabilities and formation scintillation irregularities. High resolution measurements are critical to get realistic quantities on the growth rates. The results achieved so far demonstrates that cusp ionosphere precipitation can give rise to km scale plasma structures on which grow rates are down to a few tens of seconds compared to earlier measures of ten minutes based on ground observations. This has to do with the spatial resolution required for these measurements. Growth rates for the KHI instability is found to be of the same order, which is consistent with growth rates calculated from the EISCAT Svalbard Radar. I.e. both instability modes can be highly efficient in the cusp ionosphere.

  16. Frontiers of stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, David L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present conference discusses theoretical and observational views of star formation, spectroscopic constraints on the evolution of massive stars, very low mass stars and brown dwarfs, asteroseismology, globular clusters as tests of stellar evolution, observational tests of stellar evolution, and mass loss from cool evolved giant stars. Also discussed are white dwarfs and hot subdwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, supernovae from single stars, close binaries with evolved components, accretion disks in interacting binaries, supernovae in binary systems, stellar evolution and galactic chemical evolution, and interacting binaries containing compact components.

  17. WFCAM, Spitzer/IRAC and SCUBA observations of the massive star-forming region DR21/W75 - II. Stellar content and star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M. S. N.; Davis, C. J.; Grave, J. M. C.; Ferreira, B.; Froebrich, D.

    2007-01-01

    Wide-field near-infrared observations and Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) observations of the DR21/W75 star formation regions are presented. The photometric data are used to analyse the extinction, stellar content and clustering in the entire region by using standard methods. A young stellar population is identified all over the observed field, which is found to be distributed in embedded clusters that are surrounded by a distributed halo population extending over a larger projected area. The Spitzer/IRAC data are used to compute a spectral index value, α, for each young stellar object in the field. We use these data to separate pure photospheres from disc excess sources. We find a small fraction of sources with α in excess of 2 to 3 (plus a handful with α ~ 4), which is much higher than the values found in the low-mass star-forming region IC348 (α <= 2). The sources with high values of α spatially coincide with the densest regions of the filaments and also with the sites of massive star formation. Star formation is found to be occurring in long filaments stretching to few parsecs that are fragmented over a scale of ~1pc. The spatial distribution of young stars are found to be correlated with the filamentary nebulae that are prominently revealed by 8- and 850-μm observations. Five filaments are identified that appear to converge on a centre that includes the DR21/DR21(OH) regions. The morphological pattern of filaments and clustering compare well with numerical simulations of star cluster formation by Bate et al.

  18. The initial conditions of isolated star formation - X. A suggested evolutionary diagram for pre-stellar cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, R. J.; Johnstone, D.; Nutter, D.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Whitworth, A. P.

    2011-10-01

    We propose an evolutionary path for pre-stellar cores on the radius-mass diagram, which is analogous to stellar evolutionary paths on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Using James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) observations of L1688 in the Ophiuchus star-forming complex, we analyse the HCO+ (J= 4 → 3) spectral line profiles of pre-stellar cores. We find that of the 58 cores observed, 14 show signs of infall in the form of a blue-asymmetric double-peaked line profile. These 14 cores all lie beyond the Jeans mass line for the region on a radius-mass plot. Furthermore, another 10 cores showing tentative signs of infall, in their spectral line profile shapes, appear on or just over the Jeans mass line. We therefore propose the manner in which a pre-stellar core evolves across this diagram. We hypothesize that a core is formed in the low-mass, low-radius region of the plot. It then accretes quasi-statically, increasing in both mass and radius. When it crosses the limit of gravitational instability, it begins to collapse, decreasing in radius, towards the region of the diagram where protostellar cores are seen.

  19. TESTING GALAXY FORMATION MODELS WITH THE GHOSTS SURVEY: THE COLOR PROFILE OF M81's STELLAR HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; Bailin, Jeremy; Radburn-Smith, David J.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Vlajic, Marija; De Jong, Roelof S.; Streich, David; Holwerda, Benne W.

    2013-04-01

    We study the properties of the stellar populations in M81's outermost part, which hereafter we will call the stellar halo, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys observations of 19 fields from the GHOSTS survey. The observed fields probe the stellar halo out to a projected distance of {approx}50 kpc from the galactic center. Each field was observed in both F606W and F814W filters. The 50% completeness levels of the color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) are typically at 2 mag below the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). Fields at distances closer than 15 kpc show evidence of disk-dominated populations whereas fields at larger distances are mostly populated by halo stars. The red giant branch (RGB) of the M81's halo CMDs is well matched with isochrones of {approx}10 Gyr and metallicities [Fe/H] {approx} - 1.2 dex, suggesting that the dominant stellar population of M81's halo has a similar age and metallicity. The halo of M81 is characterized by a color distribution of width {approx}0.4 mag and an approximately constant median value of (F606W - F814W) {approx}1 mag measured using stars within the magnitude range 23.7 {approx}< F814W {approx}< 25.5. When considering only fields located at galactocentric radius R > 15 kpc, we detect no color gradient in the stellar halo of M81. We place a limit of 0.03 {+-} 0.11 mag difference between the median color of RGB M81 halo stars at {approx}15 and at 50 kpc, corresponding to a metallicity difference of 0.08 {+-} 0.35 dex over that radial range for an assumed constant age of 10 Gyr. We compare these results with model predictions for the colors of stellar halos formed purely via accretion of satellite galaxies. When we analyze the cosmologically motivated models in the same way as the HST data, we find that they predict no color gradient for the stellar halos, in good agreement with the observations.

  20. Corners, Cusps, and Pearls in Running Drops

    SciTech Connect

    Podgorski, T.; Flesselles, J.-M.; Limat, L.

    2001-07-16

    Small drops sliding down a partially wetting substrate bifurcate between different shapes depending on their capillary number Ca . At low Ca , they are delimited by a rounded, smooth contact line. At intermediate values they develop a corner at the trailing edge, the angle of which evolves from flat to 60{sup o} with increasing velocity. Further up, they exhibit a cusped tail that emits smaller drops (''pearls''). These bifurcations may be qualitatively and quantitatively recovered by considering the dynamic contact angle along the contact line.

  1. Understanding the formation and evolution of early-type galaxies based on newly developed single-burst stellar population synthesis models in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeck, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    whole optical and infrared wavelength range between 3500 and 50000Å which are almost completely based on spectra of observed stars (apart from two gaps which were fitted with theoretical stellar spectra) . We analyze the behaviour of the near-infrared (J - K) and the Spitzer ([3.6]-[4.5]) colour calculated from our models. For ages older than 3 Gyr, both colours depend only slightly on age and metallicity. However, for younger ages, both colours become redder which is caused by the asymptotic giant branch stars contributing significantly to the light in the infrared at ages between 0.1 and 3 Gyr. Furthermore, we find a satisfactory agreement between the optical and near-infrared colours measured from our models and the colours observed from various samples of globular clusters and early-type x galaxies. However, our model predictions are only able to reproduce correctly the Spitzer ([3.6]-[4.5]) colours of older, more massive galaxies that resemble a single-burst population. Younger, less massive and more metal-poor galaxies show redder colours than our models. This mismatch can be explained by a more extended star formation history of these galaxies which includes a metal-poor or/and young population. The Spitzer ([3.6]-[4.5]) colours derived from our models also agree very well with those from most other models available in this wavelength range as long as they also correctly take into account a strong CO absorption band situated at 4.5 μm. The model predictions for colours in the near-infrared, such as (J - K), differ more between the different sets of models, depending on the underlying prescriptions for the asymptotic giant branch stellar evolutionary phase. Compared to other authors, we adopt only a moderate contribution of asymptotic giant branch stars to our models. Our stellar population models allow us also to determine mass-to-light ratios in different infrared bands. Consequently, we can confirm that the massto- light ratio determined in the Spitzer [3

  2. Plasma Structure and Behavior of Miniature Ring-Cusp Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Hann-Shin

    Miniature ring-cusp ion thrusters provide a unique blend of high efficiencies and millinewton level thrust for future spacecraft. These thrusters are attractive as a primary propulsion for small satellites that require a high delta V, and as a secondary propulsion for larger spacecraft that require precision formation flying, disturbance rejection, or attitude control. To ensure desirable performance throughout the life of such missions, an advancement in the understanding of the plasma structure and behavior of miniature ring-cusp discharges is required. A research model was fabricated to provide a simplified experimental test bed for the analysis of the plasma discharge chamber of a miniature ion thruster. The plasma source allowed for spatially resolved measurements with a Langmuir probe along a meridian plane. Probe measurements yielded plasma density, electron temperature, and plasma potential data. The magnetic field strength was varied along with the discharge current to determine the plasma behavior under various conditions. The structure of the plasma properties were found to be independent of the discharge power under the proper scaling. It was concluded that weaker magnetic fields can improve the overall performance for ion thruster operation. To further analyze the experimental measurements, a framework was developed based on the magnetic field. A flux aligned coordinate system was developed to decouple the perpendicular and parallel plasma motion with respect to the magnetic field. This was done using the stream function and magnetic scalar potential. Magnetic formulae provided intuition on the field profiles dependence on magnet dimensions. The flux aligned coordinate system showed that the plasma was isopycnic along constant stream function values. This was used to develop an empirical relation suitable for estimating the spatial behavior and to determine the plasma volume and loss areas. The plasma geometry estimates were applied to a control volume

  3. Understanding the formation and evolution of early-type galaxies based on newly developed single-burst stellar population synthesis models in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeck, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    whole optical and infrared wavelength range between 3500 and 50000Å which are almost completely based on spectra of observed stars (apart from two gaps which were fitted with theoretical stellar spectra) . We analyze the behaviour of the near-infrared (J - K) and the Spitzer ([3.6]-[4.5]) colour calculated from our models. For ages older than 3 Gyr, both colours depend only slightly on age and metallicity. However, for younger ages, both colours become redder which is caused by the asymptotic giant branch stars contributing significantly to the light in the infrared at ages between 0.1 and 3 Gyr. Furthermore, we find a satisfactory agreement between the optical and near-infrared colours measured from our models and the colours observed from various samples of globular clusters and early-type x galaxies. However, our model predictions are only able to reproduce correctly the Spitzer ([3.6]-[4.5]) colours of older, more massive galaxies that resemble a single-burst population. Younger, less massive and more metal-poor galaxies show redder colours than our models. This mismatch can be explained by a more extended star formation history of these galaxies which includes a metal-poor or/and young population. The Spitzer ([3.6]-[4.5]) colours derived from our models also agree very well with those from most other models available in this wavelength range as long as they also correctly take into account a strong CO absorption band situated at 4.5 μm. The model predictions for colours in the near-infrared, such as (J - K), differ more between the different sets of models, depending on the underlying prescriptions for the asymptotic giant branch stellar evolutionary phase. Compared to other authors, we adopt only a moderate contribution of asymptotic giant branch stars to our models. Our stellar population models allow us also to determine mass-to-light ratios in different infrared bands. Consequently, we can confirm that the massto- light ratio determined in the Spitzer [3

  4. STELLAR KINEMATICS AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF VIRGO CLUSTER DWARF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM THE SMAKCED PROJECT. III. ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND CONSTRAINTS ON FORMATION SCENARIOS

    SciTech Connect

    Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P.; Peletier, R. F.; Emsellem, E.; Lisker, T.; Van de Ven, G.; Simon, J. D.; Adams, J. J.; Benson, A. J.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Ryś, A.; Gorgas, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Paudel, S.

    2015-02-01

    We analyze the stellar kinematics of 39 dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) in the Virgo Cluster. Based on the specific stellar angular momentum λ{sub Re} and the ellipticity, we find 11 slow rotators and 28 fast rotators. The fast rotators in the outer parts of the Virgo Cluster rotate significantly faster than fast rotators in the inner parts of the cluster. Moreover, 10 out of the 11 slow rotators are located in the inner 3° (D < 1 Mpc) of the cluster. The fast rotators contain subtle disk-like structures that are visible in high-pass filtered optical images, while the slow rotators do not exhibit these structures. In addition, two of the dEs have kinematically decoupled cores and four more have emission partially filling in the Balmer absorption lines. These properties suggest that Virgo Cluster dEs may have originated from late-type star-forming galaxies that were transformed by the environment after their infall into the cluster. The correlation between λ{sub Re} and the clustercentric distance can be explained by a scenario where low luminosity star-forming galaxies fall into the cluster, their gas is rapidly removed by ram-pressure stripping, although some of it can be retained in their core, their star formation is quenched but their stellar kinematics are preserved. After a long time in the cluster and several passes through its center, the galaxies are heated up and transformed into slow rotating dEs.

  5. UV-TO-FIR ANALYSIS OF SPITZER/IRAC SOURCES IN THE EXTENDED GROTH STRIP. II. PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS, STELLAR MASSES, AND STAR FORMATION RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Barro, G.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Gallego, J.; Villar, V.; Zamorano, J.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Kajisawa, M.; Yamada, T.; Miyazaki, S.

    2011-04-01

    Based on the ultraviolet to far-infrared photometry already compiled and presented in a companion paper (Paper I), we present a detailed spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis of nearly 80,000 IRAC 3.6 + 4.5 {mu}m selected galaxies in the Extended Groth Strip. We estimate photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and star formation rates (SFRs) separately for each galaxy in this large sample. The catalog includes 76,936 sources with [3.6] {<=} 23.75 (85% completeness level of the IRAC survey) over 0.48 deg{sup 2}. The typical photometric redshift accuracy is {Delta}z/(1 + z) = 0.034, with a catastrophic outlier fraction of just 2%. We quantify the systematics introduced by the use of different stellar population synthesis libraries and initial mass functions in the calculation of stellar masses. We find systematic offsets ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 dex, with a typical scatter of 0.3 dex. We also provide UV- and IR-based SFRs for all sample galaxies, based on several sets of dust emission templates and SFR indicators. We evaluate the systematic differences and goodness of the different SFR estimations using the deep FIDEL 70 {mu}m data available in the Extended Groth Strip. Typical random uncertainties of the IR-bases SFRs are a factor of two, with non-negligible systematic effects at z {approx}> 1.5 observed when only MIPS 24 {mu}m data are available. All data products (SEDs, postage stamps from imaging data, and different estimations of the photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and SFRs of each galaxy) described in this and the companion paper are publicly available, and they can be accessed through our the Web interface utility Rainbow-navigator.

  6. THE CORE-CUSP PROBLEM IN COLD DARK MATTER HALOS AND SUPERNOVA FEEDBACK: EFFECTS OF MASS LOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Ogiya, Go; Mori, Masao

    2011-07-20

    The core-cusp problem remains as one of the unsolved discrepancies between observations and theories predicted by the standard paradigm of cold dark matter (CDM) cosmology. To solve this problem, we perform N-body simulations to study the nonlinear response of CDM halos to the variance of the gravitational potential induced by gas removal from galaxy centers. In this study, we focus on the timescale of the gas ejection, which is strongly correlated with stellar activities, and demonstrate that it is one of the key factors in determining the dynamical response of CDM halos. The results of simulations show that the power-law index of the mass-density profile of the dark matter (DM) halo is correlated with the timescale of the mass loss and it is flatter when the mass loss occurs over a short time than when it occurs over a long time. However, it is still larger than typical observational values; in other words, the central cusp remains in the simulations for any mass-loss model. Moreover, for the slow mass-loss case, the final density profile of the DM halo recovers the universal density profiles predicted by the CDM cosmology. Therefore, the mass loss driven by stellar feedback may not be an effective mechanism to flatten the central cusp.

  7. Magnetic turbulence in the terrestrial cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Stanislav

    Magnetic turbulence in the terrestrial cusp and adjacent regions is studied on the base of the Cluster measurements with applying the advanced face difference method in data analysis. The average contribution of the coherent oscillations in the turbulence energy is estimated and the field energy distributions (FED) over the wave vector and the frequency in the plasma frame are found. It is shown that practically the whole of the magnetic turbulence energy account for the regular magnetic field oscillations. The typical FED estimations obtained in front of the magnetopause, and in the cusp, as well as in the boundary magnetosphere shows that the coherent emissions in these regions consist of the two types: the propagating waves with non zero velocities relative to the plasma, and the frozen-in wave structures having zero group velocities in the plasma frame. The frozen-in structures are observed at the ion-cyclotron frequencies and their harmonics in the plasma frame of reference. The part of propagated waves can be attributed to the ordinary non-dispersive MHD modes. It is shown that the wave structure spatial scales are determined mostly by the ion gyro radii, doubled gyro radii, and simple fraction of them. The wave generation mechanism and the cascade processes from the low to the higher wave numbers are discussed.

  8. Role of multiple cusps in tooth fracture.

    PubMed

    Barani, Amir; Bush, Mark B; Lawn, Brian R

    2014-07-01

    The role of multiple cusps in the biomechanics of human molar tooth fracture is analysed. A model with four cusps at the bite surface replaces the single dome structure used in previous simulations. Extended finite element modelling, with provision to embed longitudinal cracks into the enamel walls, enables full analysis of crack propagation from initial extension to final failure. The cracks propagate longitudinally around the enamel side walls from starter cracks placed either at the top surface (radial cracks) or from the tooth base (margin cracks). A feature of the crack evolution is its stability, meaning that extension occurs steadily with increasing applied force. Predictions from the model are validated by comparison with experimental data from earlier publications, in which crack development was followed in situ during occlusal loading of extracted human molars. The results show substantial increase in critical forces to produce longitudinal fractures with number of cuspal contacts, indicating a capacity for an individual tooth to spread the load during mastication. It is argued that explicit critical force equations derived in previous studies remain valid, at the least as a means for comparing the capacity for teeth of different dimensions to sustain high bite forces.

  9. Energetic ions, large diamagnetic cavities, and Chapman-Ferraro cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Theodore A.; Chen, Jiasheng; Siscoe, George L.

    2003-01-01

    Extremely large diamagnetic cavities with a size of as large as 6 RE have been observed in the dayside high-altitude cusp regions. These diamagnetic cavities were associated with strong magnetic field turbulence. Associated with these cavities are >40 keV ions that are more typical of the trapped ring current and radiation belt populations than the solar wind. The charge state distribution of these cusp cavity ions was indicative of their seed populations being a mixture of ionospheric and solar wind particles. In April 1999, the cusp diamagnetic cavities were observed by the Polar spacecraft almost in every orbit, indicating that such cavities are always there day by day. Some of the diamagnetic cavities were independent of the interplanetary magnetic field directions, suggesting that the cusp diamagnetic cavities are different from the magnetospheric sash predicted by MHD simulations. During a high solar wind pressure period on 21 April 1999, the Polar spacecraft observed lower energetic (>20 keV/e) ion fluxes in the dayside high-latitude magnetosheath than that in the neighboring cusp cavities. By their geometry cusp magnetic field lines are connected to all of the magnetopause boundary layers. These energetic particles in the cusp diamagnetic cavity together with the cusp's connectivity probably have significant global impacts on the geospace environment.

  10. Cusp Anomalous Dimension in Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotanski, J.

    2008-12-01

    The main features of the cusp anomalous dimension in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory are reviewed. Moreover, the strong coupling expansion of the cusp derived in B. Basso, G.P. Korchemsky, J. Kotanski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091601 (2008) is presented.

  11. 21 CFR 872.3350 - Gold or stainless steel cusp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gold or stainless steel cusp. 872.3350 Section 872.3350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3350 Gold or stainless steel cusp....

  12. On the evolutionary advantage of multi-cusped teeth.

    PubMed

    Constantino, Paul J; Bush, Mark B; Barani, Amir; Lawn, Brian R

    2016-08-01

    A hallmark of mammalian evolution is a progressive complexity in postcanine tooth morphology. However, the driving force for this complexity remains unclear: whether to expand the versatility in diet source, or to bolster tooth structural integrity. In this study, we take a quantitative approach to this question by examining the roles of number, position and height of multiple cusps in determining sustainable bite forces. Our approach is to use an extended finite-element methodology with due provision for step-by-step growth of an embedded crack to determine how fracture progresses with increasing occlusal load. We argue that multi-cusp postcanine teeth are well configured to withstand high bite forces provided that multiple cusps are contacted simultaneously to share the load. However, contact on a single near-wall cusp diminishes the strength. Location of the load points and cusp height, rather than cusp number or radius, are principal governing factors. Given these findings, we conclude that while complex tooth structures can enhance durability, increases in cusp number are more likely to be driven by the demands of food manipulation. Structural integrity of complex teeth is maintained when individual cusps remain sufficiently distant from the side walls and do not become excessively tall relative to tooth width. PMID:27558851

  13. Evolution of the mass, size, and star formation rate in high redshift merging galaxies. MIRAGE - A new sample of simulations with detailed stellar feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perret, V.; Renaud, F.; Epinat, B.; Amram, P.; Bournaud, F.; Contini, T.; Teyssier, R.; Lambert, J.-C.

    2014-02-01

    Context. In Λ-CDM models, galaxies are thought to grow both through continuous cold gas accretion coming from the cosmic web and episodic merger events. The relative importance of these different mechanisms at different cosmic epochs is nevertheless not yet understood well. Aims: We aim to address questions related to galaxy mass assembly through major and minor wet merging processes in the redshift range 1 < z < 2, an epoch that corresponds to the peak of cosmic star formation history. A significant fraction of Milky Way-like galaxies are thought to have undergone an unstable clumpy phase at this early stage. We focus on the behavior of the young clumpy disks when galaxies are undergoing gas-rich galaxy mergers. Methods: Using the adaptive mesh-refinement code RAMSES, we build the Merging and Isolated high redshift Adaptive mesh refinement Galaxies (MIRAGE) sample. It is composed of 20 mergers and 3 isolated idealized disks simulations, which sample disk orientations and merger masses. Our simulations can reach a physical resolution of 7 parsecs, and include star formation, metal line cooling, metallicity advection, and a recent physically-motivated implementation of stellar feedback that encompasses OB-type stars radiative pressure, photo-ionization heating, and supernovae. Results: The star formation history of isolated disks shows a stochastic star formation rate, which proceeds from the complex behavior of the giant clumps. Our minor and major gas-rich merger simulations do not trigger starbursts, suggesting a saturation of the star formation due to the detailed accounting of stellar feedback processes in a turbulent and clumpy interstellar medium fed by substantial accretion from the circumgalactic medium. Our simulations are close to the normal regime of the disk-like star formation on a Schmidt-Kennicutt diagram. The mass-size relation and its rate of evolution in the redshift range 1 < z < 2 matches observations, suggesting that the inside-out growth

  14. Ultraluminous Infrared Mergers: Elliptical Galaxies in Formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Rigopoulou, D.; Lutz, D.; Tecza, M.

    2001-12-01

    We report high-quality near-IR spectroscopy of 12 ultraluminous infrared galaxy mergers (ULIRGs). Our new VLT and Keck data provide ~0.5" resolution, stellar and gas kinematics of these galaxies, most of which are compact systems in the last merger stages. We confirm that ULIRG mergers are ``ellipticals in formation.'' Random motions dominate their stellar dynamics, but significant rotation is common. Gasdynamics and stellar dynamics are decoupled in most systems. ULIRGs fall on or near the fundamental plane of hot stellar systems, and especially on its less evolution-sensitive, reff-σ projection. The ULIRG velocity dispersion distribution, their location in the fundamental plane, and their distribution of vrotsini/σ closely resemble those of intermediate-mass (~L*), elliptical galaxies with moderate rotation. As a group ULIRGs do not resemble giant ellipticals with large cores and little rotation. Our results are in good agreement with other recent studies indicating that disky ellipticals with compact cores or cusps can form through dissipative mergers of gas-rich disk galaxies while giant ellipticals with large cores have a different formation history. Based on observations at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO 65.N-0266, 65.N-0289), and on observations at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, The University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Keck Observatory was made possible by the general financial support by the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  15. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Study Of Crown Dilaceration With a Talon Cusp in an Unerupted Permanent Maxillary Tooth.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilzadeh, Mohammad; Donyavi, Zakiyeh; Shokri, Abbas

    2016-03-01

    This article describes a rare case of crown dilaceration with a talon cusp in an unerupted permanent maxillary central incisor. Our patient was a 7-year-old boy with a history of trauma to his primary maxillary teeth (#51 and 52), at 3 years of age complaining of failure of eruption of tooth #11. Periapical radiography showed incomplete formation of tooth root #11 and more superior position of tooth bud #11 relative to tooth bud #12. A cone-beam computed tomography was ordered, which revealed crown dilaceration with a talon cusp in tooth bud #11. The patient was scheduled for follow-up at 6 months. PMID:26854775

  16. A PUBLIC CATALOG OF STELLAR MASSES, STAR FORMATION AND METALLICITY HISTORIES, AND DUST CONTENT FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY USING VESPA

    SciTech Connect

    Tojeiro, Rita; Wilkins, Stephen; Heavens, Alan F.; Panter, Ben; Jimenez, Raul

    2009-11-01

    We applied the VESPA algorithm to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey final data release of the Main Galaxies and Luminous Red Galaxies samples. The result is a catalog of stellar masses, detailed star formation and metallicity histories and dust content of nearly 800,000 galaxies. We make the catalog public via a T-SQL database, which is described in detail in this paper. We present the results using a range of stellar population and dust models, and will continue to update the catalog as new and improved models are made public. We also present a brief exploration of the catalog, and show that the quantities derived are robust: luminous red galaxies can be described by one to three populations, whereas a main galaxy sample galaxy needs on average two to five; red galaxies are older and less dusty; the dust values we recover are well correlated with measured Balmer decrements and star formation rates are also in agreement with previous measurements. We find that whereas some derived quantities are robust to the choice of modelling, many are still not.

  17. The relationship between stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate for Hα-selected galaxies at z ≈ 0.8 from the NewHα survey

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, Mithi A. de los; Ly, Chun; Lee, Janice C.; Peeples, Molly S.; Feddersen, Jesse; Salim, Samir; Momcheva, Ivelina; Dale, Daniel A.; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; Finn, Rose

    2015-02-01

    Using a sample of 299 Hα-selected galaxies at z≈0.8, we study the relationship between galaxy stellar mass, gas-phase metallicity, and star formation rate (SFR), and compare to previous results. We use deep optical spectra obtained with the IMACS spectrograph at the Magellan telescope to measure strong oxygen lines. We combine these spectra and metallicities with (1) rest-frame UV-to-optical imaging, which allows us to determine stellar masses and dust attenuation corrections, and (2) Hα narrowband imaging, which provides a robust measurement of the instantaneous SFR. Our sample spans stellar masses of ∼10{sup 9}–6 × 10{sup 11} M{sub ⊙}, SFRs of 0.4–270 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, and metal abundances of 12+log(O/H)≈8.3–9.1 (≈0.4–2.6 Z{sub ⊙}). The correlations that we find between the Hα-based SFR and stellar mass (i.e., the star-forming “main sequence”) and between the stellar mass and metallicity are both consistent with previous z∼1 studies of star-forming galaxies. We then study the relationship between the three properties using various plane-fitting techniques and a curve-fitting projection. In all cases, we exclude strong dependence of the M{sub ⋆}–Z relation on SFR, but are unable to distinguish between moderate and no dependence. Our results are consistent with previous mass–metallicity–SFR studies. We check whether data set limitations may obscure a strong dependence on the SFR by using mock samples drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These experiments reveal that the adopted signal-to-noise ratio cuts may have a significant effect on the measured dependence. Further work is needed to investigate these results, and to test whether a “fundamental metallicity relation” or a “fundamental plane” describes star-forming galaxies across cosmic time.

  18. Source of the dayside cusp aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mende, S. B.; Frey, H. U.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2016-08-01

    Monochromatic all-sky imagers at South Pole and other Antarctic stations of the Automatic Geophysical Observatory chain recorded the aurora in the region where the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) satellites crossed the dayside magnetopause. In several cases the magnetic field lines threading the satellites when mapped to the atmosphere were inside the imagers' field of view. From the THEMIS magnetic field and the plasma density measurements, we were able to locate the position of the magnetopause crossings and map it to the ionosphere using the Tsyganenko-96 field model. Field line mapping is reasonably accurate on the dayside subsolar region where the field is strong, almost dipolar even though compressed. From these coordinated observations, we were able to prove that the dayside cusp aurora of high 630 nm brightness is on open field lines, and it is therefore direct precipitation from the magnetosheath. The cusp aurora contained significant highly structured N2+ 427.8 nm emission. The THEMIS measurements of the magnetosheath particle energy and density taken just outside the magnetopause compared to the intensity of the structured N2+ 427.8 nm emissions showed that the precipitating magnetosheath particles had to be accelerated. The most likely electron acceleration mechanism is by dispersive Alfvén waves propagating along the field line. Wave-accelerated suprathermal electrons were seen by FAST and DMSP. The 427.8 nm wavelength channel also shows the presence of a lower latitude hard-electron precipitation zone originating inside the magnetosphere.

  19. High-Energy Electron Confinement in a Magnetic Cusp Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaeyoung; Krall, Nicholas A.; Sieck, Paul E.; Offermann, Dustin T.; Skillicorn, Michael; Sanchez, Andrew; Davis, Kevin; Alderson, Eric; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    We report experimental results validating the concept that plasma confinement is enhanced in a magnetic cusp configuration when β (plasma pressure/magnetic field pressure) is of order unity. This enhancement is required for a fusion power reactor based on cusp confinement to be feasible. The magnetic cusp configuration possesses a critical advantage: the plasma is stable to large scale perturbations. However, early work indicated that plasma loss rates in a reactor based on a cusp configuration were too large for net power production. Grad and others theorized that at high β a sharp boundary would form between the plasma and the magnetic field, leading to substantially smaller loss rates. While not able to confirm the details of Grad's work, the current experiment does validate, for the first time, the conjecture that confinement is substantially improved at high β . This represents critical progress toward an understanding of the plasma dynamics in a high-β cusp system. We hope that these results will stimulate a renewed interest in the cusp configuration as a fusion confinement candidate. In addition, the enhanced high-energy electron confinement resolves a key impediment to progress of the Polywell fusion concept, which combines a high-β cusp configuration with electrostatic fusion for a compact, power-producing nuclear fusion reactor.

  20. Tin LPP plasma control in the argon cusp source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGeoch, Malcolm W.

    2016-03-01

    The argon cusp plasma has been introduced [1,2] for 500W class tin LPP exhaust control in view of its high power handling, predicted low tin back-scatter from a beam dump, and avoidance of hydrogen usage. The physics of tin ion control by a plasma is first discussed. Experimentally, cusp stability and exhaust disc geometry have previously been proved at full scale [2], the equivalent of 300W-500W usable EUV. Here we verify operation of the plasma barrier that maintains a high argon density next to the collector, for its protection, and a low density in the long path toward the intermediate focus, for efficiency. A pressure differential of 2Pa has been demonstrated in initial work. Other aspects of tin LPP plasma control by the cusp have now been demonstrated using tin ions from a low Hz 130mJ CO2 laser pulse onto a solid tin surface at the cusp center. Plasma is rejected at the <0.5% level at the collector mirror location using the cusp magnetic field alone. Plasma also is rejected using a low argon density (<1x1014cm-3). We have measured the tin ion flow pattern toward the large area annular beam dump. Scaling of the cusp design to match a specified exhaust power is discussed. In view of this work, argon cusp exhaust control appears to be very promising for 500W class tin LPP sources.

  1. Genetic integration of molar cusp size variation in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Christina; Bates, Elizabeth; Broughton, Elizabeth; Do, Nicholas T.; Fletcher, Zachary; Mahaney, Michael C.; Hlusko, Leslea J.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies of primate diversity and evolution rely on dental morphology for insight into diet, behavior, and phylogenetic relationships. Consequently, variation in molar cusp size has increasingly become a phenotype of interest. In 2007 we published a quantitative genetic analysis of mandibular molar cusp size variation in baboons. Those results provided more questions than answers, as the pattern of genetic integration did not fit predictions from odontogenesis. To follow up, we expanded our study to include data from the maxillary molar cusps. Here we report on these later analyses, as well as inter-arch comparisons with the mandibular data. We analyzed variation in two-dimensional maxillary molar cusp size using data collected from a captive pedigreed breeding colony of baboons, Papio hamadryas, housed at the Southwest National Primate Research Center. These analyses show that variation in maxillary molar cusp size is heritable and sexually dimorphic. We also estimated additive genetic correlations between cusps on the same crown, homologous cusps along the tooth row, and maxillary and mandibular cusps. The pattern for maxillary molars yields genetic correlations of one between the paracone-metacone and protocone-hypocone. Bivariate analyses of cuspal homologues on adjacent teeth yield correlations that are high or not significantly different from one. Between dental arcades, the non-occluding cusps consistently yield high genetic correlations, especially the metaconid-paracone and metaconid-metacone. This pattern of genetic correlation does not immediately accord with the pattern of development and/or calcification, however these results do follow predictions that can be made from the evolutionary history of the tribosphenic molar. PMID:20034010

  2. Pixel Color Magnitude Diagrams for Semi-resolved Stellar Populations: The Star Formation History of Regions within the Disk and Bulge of M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Charlie; van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2016-08-01

    The analysis of stellar populations has, by and large, been developed for two limiting cases: spatially resolved stellar populations in the color–magnitude diagram, and integrated light observations of distant systems. In between these two extremes lies the semi-resolved regime, which encompasses a rich and relatively unexplored realm of observational phenomena. Here we develop the concept of pixel color–magnitude diagrams (pCMDs) as a powerful technique for analyzing stellar populations in the semi-resolved regime. pCMDs show the distribution of imaging data in the plane of pixel luminosity versus pixel color. A key feature of pCMDs is that they are sensitive to all stars, including both the evolved giants and the unevolved main sequence stars. An important variable in this regime is the mean number of stars per pixel, {N}{{pix}}. Simulated pCMDs demonstrate a strong sensitivity to the star formation history (SFH) and have the potential to break degeneracies between age, metallicity and dust based on two filter data for values of {N}{{pix}} up to at least 104. We extract pCMDs from Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging of M31 and derive SFHs with seven independent age bins from 106 to 1010 year for both the crowded disk and bulge regions (where {N}{{pix}}≈ 30{--}{10}3). From analyzing a small region of the disk we find a SFH that is smooth and consistent with an exponential decay timescale of 4 Gyr. The bulge SFH is also smooth and consistent with a 2 Gyr decay timescale. pCMDs will likely play an important role in maximizing the science returns from next generation ground and space-based facilities.

  3. Pixel Color Magnitude Diagrams for Semi-resolved Stellar Populations: The Star Formation History of Regions within the Disk and Bulge of M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Charlie; van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2016-08-01

    The analysis of stellar populations has, by and large, been developed for two limiting cases: spatially resolved stellar populations in the color-magnitude diagram, and integrated light observations of distant systems. In between these two extremes lies the semi-resolved regime, which encompasses a rich and relatively unexplored realm of observational phenomena. Here we develop the concept of pixel color-magnitude diagrams (pCMDs) as a powerful technique for analyzing stellar populations in the semi-resolved regime. pCMDs show the distribution of imaging data in the plane of pixel luminosity versus pixel color. A key feature of pCMDs is that they are sensitive to all stars, including both the evolved giants and the unevolved main sequence stars. An important variable in this regime is the mean number of stars per pixel, {N}{{pix}}. Simulated pCMDs demonstrate a strong sensitivity to the star formation history (SFH) and have the potential to break degeneracies between age, metallicity and dust based on two filter data for values of {N}{{pix}} up to at least 104. We extract pCMDs from Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging of M31 and derive SFHs with seven independent age bins from 106 to 1010 year for both the crowded disk and bulge regions (where {N}{{pix}}≈ 30{--}{10}3). From analyzing a small region of the disk we find a SFH that is smooth and consistent with an exponential decay timescale of 4 Gyr. The bulge SFH is also smooth and consistent with a 2 Gyr decay timescale. pCMDs will likely play an important role in maximizing the science returns from next generation ground and space-based facilities.

  4. Nonlinear Analysis: Catastrophe Theory Modeling and Cobb's Cusp Surface Analysis Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Bradford D.; Carifio, James

    1995-01-01

    Cobb's Cusp Surface Analysis Program (CUSP) provides a way to estimate empirically and test a nonlinear cusp catastrophe model. A model of emotion during problem solving is used to introduce catastrophe theory modeling and is discussed in conjunction with how to run and interpret CUSP. (SLD)

  5. The relation between star formation and active nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.

    1987-01-01

    Three questions relevant to the relation between an active nucleus and surrounding star formation are discussed. The infrared stellar CO absorption bands can be used to identify galaxies with large populations of young, massive stars and thus can identify strong starburst unambiguously, such as in NGC 6240, and can help identify composite active/starburst systems such as Arp 220. An active nucleus is probably not required for LINER spectral characteristics; dusty starburst galaxies, particularly if they are nearly edge-on, can produce LINER spectra through the shock heating of their interstellar media by supernovae combined with the obscuration of their nuclei in the optical. The Galactic Center would be an ideal laboratory for studying the interaction of starbursts and active nuclei, if both could be demonstrated to occur there. Failure to detect a cusp in the stellar distribution raises questions about the presence of an active nucleus, which should be answered by additional observations in the near future.

  6. MOIRCS DEEP SURVEY. VIII. EVOLUTION OF STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY AS A FUNCTION OF STELLAR MASS IN GALAXIES SINCE z {approx} 3

    SciTech Connect

    Kajisawa, M.; Ichikawa, T.; Yamada, T.; Akiyama, M.; Uchimoto, Y. K.; Yoshikawa, T.; Onodera, M.

    2010-11-01

    We study the evolution of star formation activity of galaxies at 0.5 < z < 3.5 as a function of stellar mass, using very deep NIR data taken with the Multi-Object Infrared Camera and Spectrograph on the Subaru telescope in the GOODS-North region. The NIR imaging data reach K{approx} 23-24 Vega magnitude and they allow us to construct a nearly stellar-mass-limited sample down to {approx}10{sup 9.5-10} M{sub sun} even at z {approx} 3. We estimated star formation rates (SFRs) of the sample with two indicators, namely, the Spitzer/MIPS 24 {mu}m flux and the rest-frame 2800 A luminosity. The SFR distribution at a fixed M{sub star} shifts to higher values with increasing redshift at 0.5 < z < 3.5. More massive galaxies show stronger evolution of SFR at z {approx}> 1. We found galaxies at 2.5 < z < 3.5 show a bimodality in their SSFR distribution, which can be divided into two populations by a constant SSFR of {approx}2 Gyr{sup -1}. Galaxies in the low-SSFR group have SSFRs of {approx}0.5-1.0 Gyr{sup -1}, while the high-SSFR population shows {approx}10 Gyr{sup -1}. The cosmic SFR density (SFRD) is dominated by galaxies with M{sub star} = 10{sup 10-11} M{sub sun} at 0.5 < z < 3.5, while the contribution of massive galaxies with M{sub star} = 10{sup 11-11.5} M{sub sun} shows a strong evolution at z>1 and becomes significant at z {approx} 3, especially in the case with the SFR based on MIPS 24 {mu}m. In galaxies with M{sub star} = 10{sup 10-11.5} M{sub sun}, those with a relatively narrow range of SSFR ({approx}<1 dex) dominates the cosmic SFRD at 0.5 < z < 3.5. The SSFR of galaxies that dominate the SFRD systematically increases with redshift. At 2.5 < z < 3.5, the high-SSFR population, which is relatively small in number, dominates the SFRD. Major star formation in the universe at higher redshift seems to be associated with a more rapid growth of stellar mass of galaxies.

  7. THE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF z ∼ 8 GALAXIES FROM THE IRAC ULTRA DEEP FIELDS: EMISSION LINES, STELLAR MASSES, AND SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATES AT 650 MYR

    SciTech Connect

    Labbé, I.; Bouwens, R. J.; Franx, M.; Oesch, P. A.; Illingworth, G. D.; Magee, D.; González, V.; Trenti, M.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Stiavelli, M.

    2013-11-10

    Using new ultradeep Spitzer/InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) photometry from the IRAC Ultra Deep Field program, we investigate the stellar populations of a sample of 63 Y-dropout galaxy candidates at z ∼ 8, only 650 Myr after the big bang. The sources are selected from HST/ACS+WFC3/IR data over the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), two HUDF parallel fields, and wide area data over the CANDELS/GOODS-South. The new Spitzer/IRAC data increase the coverage in [3.6] and [4.5] to ∼120h over the HUDF reaching depths of ∼28 (AB,1σ). The improved depth and inclusion of brighter candidates result in direct ≥3σ InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) detections of 20/63 sources, of which 11/63 are detected at ≥5σ. The average [3.6]-[4.5] colors of IRAC detected galaxies at z ∼ 8 are markedly redder than those at z ∼ 7, observed only 130 Myr later. The simplest explanation is that we witness strong rest-frame optical emission lines (in particular [O III] λλ4959, 5007 + Hβ) moving through the IRAC bandpasses with redshift. Assuming that the average rest-frame spectrum is the same at both z ∼ 7 and z ∼ 8 we estimate a rest-frame equivalent width of contributing 0.56{sup +0.16}{sub -0.11} mag to the [4.5] filter at z ∼ 8. The corresponding W{sub Hα}=430{sup +160}{sub -110} Å implies an average specific star formation rate of sSFR=11{sub -5}{sup +11} Gyr{sup –1} and a stellar population age of 100{sub -50}{sup +100} Myr. Correcting the spectral energy distribution for the contribution of emission lines lowers the average best-fit stellar masses and mass-to-light ratios by ∼3 ×, decreasing the integrated stellar mass density to ρ{sup *}(z=8,M{sub UV}<-18)=0.6{sup +0.4}{sub -0.3}×10{sup 6} M{sub sun} Mpc{sup –3}.

  8. PRIMUS: CONSTRAINTS ON STAR FORMATION QUENCHING AND GALAXY MERGING, AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE STELLAR MASS FUNCTION FROM z = 0-1

    SciTech Connect

    Moustakas, John; Coil, Alison L.; Mendez, Alexander J.; Aird, James; Blanton, Michael R.; Cool, Richard J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Wong, Kenneth C.; Zhu, Guangtun; Arnouts, Stephane

    2013-04-10

    We measure the evolution of the stellar mass function (SMF) from z = 0-1 using multi-wavelength imaging and spectroscopic redshifts from the PRism MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). From PRIMUS we construct an i < 23 flux-limited sample of {approx}40, 000 galaxies at z = 0.2-1.0 over five fields totaling Almost-Equal-To 5.5 deg{sup 2}, and from the SDSS we select {approx}170, 000 galaxies at z = 0.01-0.2 that we analyze consistently with respect to PRIMUS to minimize systematic errors in our evolutionary measurements. We find that the SMF of all galaxies evolves relatively little since z = 1, although we do find evidence for mass assembly downsizing; we measure a Almost-Equal-To 30% increase in the number density of {approx}10{sup 10} M{sub sun} galaxies since z Almost-Equal-To 0.6, and a {approx}< 10% change in the number density of all {approx}> 10{sup 11} M{sub sun} galaxies since z Almost-Equal-To 1. Dividing the sample into star-forming and quiescent using an evolving cut in specific star formation rate, we find that the number density of {approx}10{sup 10} M{sub sun} star-forming galaxies stays relatively constant since z Almost-Equal-To 0.6, whereas the space density of {approx}> 10{sup 11} M{sub sun} star-forming galaxies decreases by Almost-Equal-To 50% between z Almost-Equal-To 1 and z Almost-Equal-To 0. Meanwhile, the number density of {approx}10{sup 10} M{sub sun} quiescent galaxies increases steeply toward low redshift, by a factor of {approx}2-3 since z Almost-Equal-To 0.6, while the number of massive quiescent galaxies remains approximately constant since z Almost-Equal-To 1. These results suggest that the rate at which star-forming galaxies are quenched increases with decreasing stellar mass, but that the bulk of the stellar mass buildup within the quiescent population occurs around {approx}10{sup 10.8} M{sub sun}. In addition, we conclude that mergers do not appear to be a dominant channel for the stellar mass

  9. Stellar chromospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Developments in the understanding and use of chromospheric diagnostics are discussed with emphasis on the following aspects: (1) trends emerging from semiempirical models of single stars; (2) the validity of claims that theoretical models of chromospheres are becoming realistic; (3) the correlation between the widths of Ca 2 H and K line emission cores and stellar absolute luminosity extending over 15 magnitudes (Wilson-Bappu relation); and (4) the existence of systematic flow patterns in stellar chromospheres.

  10. Polar cusp: optical and particle characteristics-dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Sandholt, P.E.; Egeland, A.; Asheim, S.; Lybekk, B.; Hardy, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Photometric observations from two stations on Svalbard, Norway, were used to map the location and dynamics of polar-cusp auroras. Coordinated observations of low-energy electron precipitation from satellite HILAT and optical observations from the ground are discussed. Cases are presented showing the dynamical behavior of cusp auroras and the local magnetic field related to changes in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and irregularities in the solar wind plasma. Dynamical phenomena with different time scales are studied. South and northward expansions of the midday sector of the auroral oval are discussed in relation to IMF variations and geomagnetic substorm activity. Intensifications and rapid poleward motions of discrete auroral structures in the cusp region are shown to be associated with local Pi type magnetic pulsations, each event lasting a few minutes. These small scale dynamical phenomena are discussed in relation to different models of plasma penetration across the dayside magnetopause, from the magnetosheath to the polar cusp region of the magnetosphere.

  11. Spatially resolved study of primary electron transport in magnetic cusps

    SciTech Connect

    Hubble, Aimee A.; Foster, John E.

    2012-01-15

    Spatially resolved primary electron current density profiles were measured using a planar Langmuir probe in the region above a magnetic cusp in a small ion thruster discharge chamber. The probe current maps obtained were used to study the electron collection mechanics in the cusp region in the limit of zero gas flow and no plasma production, and they allowed for the visualization of primary electron transport through the cusp. Attenuation coefficients and loss widths were calculated as a function of probe distance above the anode at various operating conditions. Finally, the collection mechanics between two magnetic cusps were studied and compared. It was found that primary electron collection was dominated by the upstream magnet ring.

  12. The evolution of stellar metallicity gradients of the Milky Way disk from LSS-GAC main sequence turn-off stars: a two-phase disk formation history?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Mao-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Huang, Yang; Wang, Chun; Ren, Juan-Juan; Chen, Bing-Qiu; Sun, Ning-Chen; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Huo, Zhi-Ying; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    Accurate measurements of stellar metallicity gradients in the radial and vertical directions of the disk and their temporal variations provide important constraints on the formation and evolution of the Milky Way disk. We use 297 042 main sequence turn-off stars selected from the LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anti-center (LSS-GAC) to determine the radial and vertical gradients of stellar metallicity, Δ[Fe/H]/ΔR and Δ[Fe/H]/Δ|Z| of the Milky Way disk in the direction of the anticenter. We determine ages of those turn-off stars by isochrone fitting and measure the temporal variations of metallicity gradients. We have carried out a detailed analysis of the selection effects resulting from the selection, observation and data reduction of LSS-GAC targets and the potential biases of a magnitude limited sample on the determinations of metallicity gradients. Our results show that the gradients, both in the radial and vertical directions, exhibit significant spatial and temporal variations. The radial gradients yielded by stars with the oldest ages (≳ 11 Gyr) are essentially zero at all heights from the disk midplane, while those given by younger stars are always negative. The vertical gradients deduced from stars with the oldest ages (≳ 11 Gyr) are negative and only show very weak variations with Galactocentric distance in the disk plane, R, while those yielded by younger stars show strong variations with R. After being essentially flat at the earliest epochs of disk formation, the radial gradients steepen as age decreases, reaching a maximum (steepest) at age 7-8 Gyr, and then they flatten again. Similar temporal trends are also found for the vertical gradients. We infer that the assembly of the Milky Way disk may have experienced at least two distinct phases. The earlier phase is probably related to a slow, pressure-supported collapse of gas, when the gas settles down to the disk mainly in the vertical direction. In the later phase, there are

  13. Resonant-plane locking and spin alignment in stellar-mass black-hole binaries: A diagnostic of compact-binary formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerosa, Davide; Kesden, Michael; Berti, Emanuele; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2013-05-01

    We study the influence of astrophysical formation scenarios on the precessional dynamics of spinning black-hole binaries by the time they enter the observational window of second- and third-generation gravitational-wave detectors, such as Advanced LIGO/Virgo, LIGO-India, KAGRA, and the Einstein Telescope. Under the plausible assumption that tidal interactions are efficient at aligning the spins of few-solar mass black-hole progenitors with the orbital angular momentum, we find that black-hole spins should be expected to preferentially lie in a plane when they become detectable by gravitational-wave interferometers. This “resonant plane” is identified by the conditions ΔΦ=0° or ΔΦ=±180°, where ΔΦ is the angle between the components of the black-hole spins in the plane orthogonal to the orbital angular momentum. If the angles ΔΦ can be accurately measured for a large sample of gravitational-wave detections, their distribution will constrain models of compact binary formation. In particular, it will tell us whether tidal interactions are efficient and whether a mechanism such as mass transfer, stellar winds, or supernovae can induce a mass-ratio reversal (so that the heavier black hole is produced by the initially lighter stellar progenitor). Therefore, our model offers a concrete observational link between gravitational-wave measurements and astrophysics. We also hope that it will stimulate further studies of precessional dynamics, gravitational-wave template placement, and parameter estimation for binaries locked in the resonant plane.

  14. Global dust attenuation in disc galaxies: strong variation with specific star formation and stellar mass, and the importance of sample selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devour, Brian M.; Bell, Eric F.

    2016-06-01

    We study the relative dust attenuation-inclination relation in 78 721 nearby galaxies using the axis ratio dependence of optical-near-IR colour, as measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. In order to avoid to the greatest extent possible attenuation-driven biases, we carefully select galaxies using dust attenuation-independent near- and mid-IR luminosities and colours. Relative u-band attenuation between face-on and edge-on disc galaxies along the star-forming main sequence varies from ˜0.55 mag up to ˜1.55 mag. The strength of the relative attenuation varies strongly with both specific star formation rate and galaxy luminosity (or stellar mass). The dependence of relative attenuation on luminosity is not monotonic, but rather peaks at M3.4 μm ≈ -21.5, corresponding to M* ≈ 3 × 1010 M⊙. This behaviour stands seemingly in contrast to some older studies; we show that older works failed to reliably probe to higher luminosities, and were insensitive to the decrease in attenuation with increasing luminosity for the brightest star-forming discs. Back-of-the-envelope scaling relations predict the strong variation of dust optical depth with specific star formation rate and stellar mass. More in-depth comparisons using the scaling relations to model the relative attenuation require the inclusion of star-dust geometry to reproduce the details of these variations (especially at high luminosities), highlighting the importance of these geometrical effects.

  15. The MOSDEF Survey: Dissecting the Star Formation Rate versus Stellar Mass Relation Using Hα and Hβ Emission Lines at z ≤ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivaei, Irene; Reddy, Naveen A.; Shapley, Alice E.; Kriek, Mariska; Siana, Brian; Mobasher, Bahram; Coil, Alison L.; Freeman, William R.; Sanders, Ryan; Price, Sedona H.; de Groot, Laura; Azadi, Mojegan

    2015-12-01

    We present results on the star formation rate (SFR) versus stellar mass (M*) relation (i.e., the “main sequence”) among star-forming galaxies at 1.37 ≤ z ≤ 2.61 using the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey. Based on a sample of 261 galaxies with Hα and Hβ spectroscopy, we have estimated robust dust-corrected instantaneous SFRs over a large range in M* (˜109.5-1011.5 M⊙). We find a correlation between log(SFR(Hα)) and log(M*) with a slope of 0.65 ± 0.08 (0.58 ± 0.10) at 1.4 < z < 2.6 (2.1 < z < 2.6). We find that different assumptions for the dust correction, such as using the color excess of the stellar continuum to correct the nebular lines, sample selection biases against red star-forming galaxies, and not accounting for Balmer absorption, can yield steeper slopes of the log(SFR)-log(M*) relation. Our sample is immune from these biases as it is rest-frame optically selected, Hα and Hβ are corrected for Balmer absorption, and the Hα luminosity is dust corrected using the nebular color excess computed from the Balmer decrement. The scatter of the log(SFR(Hα))-log(M*) relation, after accounting for the measurement uncertainties, is 0.31 dex at 2.1 < z < 2.6, which is 0.05 dex larger than the scatter in log(SFR(UV))-log(M*). Based on comparisons to a simulated SFR-M* relation with some intrinsic scatter, we argue that in the absence of direct measurements of galaxy-to-galaxy variations in the attenuation/extinction curves and the initial mass function, one cannot use the difference in the scatter of the SFR(Hα)- and SFR(UV)-M* relations to constrain the stochasticity of star formation in high-redshift galaxies.

  16. A CONSTRAINT ON BROWN DWARF FORMATION VIA EJECTION: RADIAL VARIATION OF THE STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR MASS FUNCTION OF THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER IC 2391

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreault, S.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.

    2009-12-01

    We present the stellar and substellar mass function (MF) of the open cluster IC 2391, plus its radial dependence, and use this to put constraints on the formation mechanism of brown dwarfs (BDs). Our multi-band optical and infrared photometric survey with spectroscopic follow-up covers 11 deg{sup 2}, making it the largest survey of this cluster to date. We observe a radial variation in the MF over the range 0.072-0.3 M {sub sun}, but no significant variation in the MF below the substellar boundary at the three cluster radius intervals is analyzed. This lack of radial variation for low masses is what we would expect with the ejection scenario for BD formation, although considering that IC 2391 has an age about three times older than its crossing time, we expect that BDs with a velocity greater than the escape velocity have already escaped the cluster. Alternatively, the variation in the MF of the stellar objects could be an indication that they have undergone mass segregation via dynamical evolution. We also observe a significant variation across the cluster in the color of the (background) field star locus in color-magnitude diagrams and conclude that this is due to variable background extinction in the Galactic plane. From our preliminary spectroscopic follow-up, to confirm BD status and cluster membership, we find that all candidates are M dwarfs (in either the field or the cluster), demonstrating the efficiency of our photometric selection method in avoiding contaminants (e.g., red giants). About half of our photometric candidates for which we have spectra are spectroscopically confirmed as cluster members; two are new spectroscopically confirmed BD members of IC 2391.

  17. STAR FORMATION RATES AND STELLAR MASSES OF H{alpha} SELECTED STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z = 0.84: A QUANTIFICATION OF THE DOWNSIZING

    SciTech Connect

    Villar, Victor; Gallego, Jesus; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo G.; Barro, Guillermo; Zamorano, Jaime; Noeske, Kai; Koo, David C. E-mail: j.gallego@fis.ucm.es E-mail: gbarro@fis.ucm.es E-mail: noeske@stsci.edu

    2011-10-10

    In this work we analyze the physical properties of a sample of 153 star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 0.84, selected by their H{alpha} flux with a narrowband filter. B-band luminosities of the objects are higher than those of local star-forming galaxies. Most of the galaxies are located in the blue cloud, though some objects are detected in the green valley and in the red sequence. After the extinction correction is applied, virtually all these red galaxies move to the blue sequence, unveiling their dusty nature. A check on the extinction law reveals that the typical extinction law for local starbursts is well suited for our sample but with E(B - V){sub stars} = 0.55 E(B - V){sub gas}. We compare star formation rates (SFRs) measured with different tracers (H{alpha}, far-ultraviolet, and infrared), finding that they agree within a factor of three after extinction correction. We find a correlation between the ratios SFR{sub FUV}/SFR{sub H{alpha}}, SFR{sub IR}/SFR{sub H{alpha}}, and the EW(H{alpha}) (i.e., weighted age), which accounts for part of the scatter. We obtain stellar mass estimations by fitting templates to multi-wavelength photometry. The typical stellar mass of a galaxy within our sample is {approx}10{sup 10} M{sub sun}. The SFR is correlated with stellar mass and the specific SFR decreases with it, indicating that massive galaxies are less affected by star formation processes than less massive ones. This result is consistent with the downsizing scenario. To quantify this downsizing we estimated the quenching mass M{sub Q} for our sample at z {approx} 0.84, finding that it declines from M{sub Q} {approx} 10{sup 12} M{sub sun} at z {approx} 0.84 to M{sub Q} {approx} 8 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun} at the local universe.

  18. Are dayside long-period pulsations related to the cusp?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, V.; Belakhovsky, V.; Engebretson, M. J.; Kozlovsky, A.; Yeoman, T.

    2015-03-01

    We compare simultaneous observations of long-period ultra-low-frequency (ULF) wave activity from a Svalbard/IMAGE fluxgate magnetometer latitudinal profile covering the expected cusp geomagnetic latitudes. Irregular Pulsations at Cusp Latitudes (IPCL) and narrowband Pc5 waves are found to be a ubiquitous element of ULF activity in the dayside high-latitude region. To identify the ionospheric projections of the cusp, we use the width of return signal of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar covering the Svalbard archipelago, predictions of empirical cusp models, augmented whenever possible by Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) identification of magnetospheric boundary domains. The meridional spatial structure of broadband dayside Pc5-6 pulsation spectral power has been found to have a localized latitudinal peak, not under the cusp proper as was previously thought, but several degrees southward from the equatorward cusp boundary. The earlier claims of the dayside monochromatic Pc5 wave association with the open-closed boundary also seems doubtful. Transient currents producing broadband Pc5-6 probably originate at the low-latitude boundary layer/central plasma sheet (LLBL/CPS) interface, though such identification with available DMSP data is not very precise. The occurrence of broadband Pc5-6 pulsations in the dayside boundary layers is a challenge to modelers because so far their mechanism has not been firmly identified.

  19. Magnetic Cusp Configuration of the SPL Plasma Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberger, Matthias; Chaudet, Elodie; Favre, Gilles; Lettry, Jacques; Kuechler, Detlef; Moyret, Pierre; Paoluzzi, Mauro; Prever-Loiri, Laurent; Schmitzer, Claus; Scrivens, Richard; Steyaert, Didier

    2011-09-26

    The Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) is a novel linear accelerator concept currently studied at CERN. As part of this study, a new Cs-free, RF-driven external antenna H{sup -} plasma generator has been developed to withstand an average thermal load of 6 kW. The magnetic configuration of the new plasma generator includes a dodecapole cusp field and a filter field separating the plasma heating and H{sup -} production regions. Ferrites surrounding the RF antenna serve in enhancing the coupling of the RF to the plasma. Due to the space requirements of the plasma chamber cooling circuit, the cusp magnets are pushed outwards compared to Linac4 and the cusp field strength in the plasma region is reduced by 40% when N-S magnetized magnets are used. The cusp field strength and plasma confinement can be improved by replacing the N-S magnets with offset Halbach elements of which each consists of three magnetic sub-elements with different magnetization direction. A design challenge is the dissipation of RF power induced by eddy currents in the cusp and filter magnets which may lead to overheating and demagnetization. In view of this, a copper magnet cage has been developed that shields the cusp magnets from the radiation of the RF antenna.

  20. Long-Period ULF Wave Activity in the Cusp Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, V.; Belakhovsky, V.; Engebretson, M. J.; Kozlovsky, A.

    2013-12-01

    We compare simultaneous observations of long-period ULF wave activity from the Svalbard/IMAGE and Greenland fluxgate magnetometer profiles covering the expected cusp geomagnetic latitudes. Irregular Pulsations at Cusp Latitudes (IPCL) and narrow-band Pc5 waves are found to be a ubiquitous element of ULF activity in the dayside high-latitude region. To identify the ionospheric projections of the cusp, we use the width of the return signal of the SuperDARN radar covering the Svalbard archipelago, predictions of empirical cusp models, and augmented whenever possible by DMSP identification of magnetospheric boundary domains. The meridional spatial structure of IPCL/Pc5 pulsation spectral power has been found to have a localized latitudinal peak, but not under the cusp proper as was previously thought, but several degrees southward from the equatorward cusp boundary. Possible mechanisms and their relevance to observational data are discussed. The occurrence of IPCL and Pc5 waves in the dayside boundary layers is a challenge to modelers, because so far their mechanism has not been firmly identified.

  1. Connection between cusp-core problem and too-big- to-fail problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kazuki; Mori, Masao; Ogiya, Go

    2015-08-01

    The standard paradigm of structure formation in the universe, the cold dark matter (CDM) cosmology, contains several crucial unsolved problems. Recent observation of nearby dwarf galaxies has revealed that the density profile of dark matter (DM) halo is constant at the center of these galaxies. However, cosmological N-body simulations always show steep power-law mass-density distribution at their centers. This discrepancy is a well-known unresolved problem in the CDM model, and so-called the ``cusp-core problem''. In addition, "too-big-to-fail problem" is another issue. Recent observations of nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies show that the masses of dark matter subhaloes in observed galaxies is significantly lower than those of the most massive subhaloes expected around Milky Way sized galaxies.To solve these problems, we study about the dynamical response of a virialized system with a central cusp to the energy feedback driven by supernova explosions using collisionless N-body simulations by the Nested-Particle-Mesh code. The galactic wind driven by supernova feedbacks loses energy by radiative cooling, and then falls back toward the galactic center. Subsequently, the starburst is enhanced again. This cycle of expansion and contraction of the interstellar gas leads to a recursive change in the gravitational potential. The resonance between DM particles and the density wave excited by the oscillating potential plays a significant role in the cusp-core transition of DM halos. Furthermore, we show that the cusp-core transition with the periodic supernova feedback solves the too-big-to-fail problem.

  2. Stellar feedback efficiencies: supernovae versus stellar winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierlinger, Katharina M.; Burkert, Andreas; Ntormousi, Evangelia; Fierlinger, Peter; Schartmann, Marc; Ballone, Alessandro; Krause, Martin G. H.; Diehl, Roland

    2016-02-01

    Stellar winds and supernova (SN) explosions of massive stars (`stellar feedback') create bubbles in the interstellar medium (ISM) and insert newly produced heavy elements and kinetic energy into their surroundings, possibly driving turbulence. Most of this energy is thermalized and immediately removed from the ISM by radiative cooling. The rest is available for driving ISM dynamics. In this work we estimate the amount of feedback energy retained as kinetic energy when the bubble walls have decelerated to the sound speed of the ambient medium. We show that the feedback of the most massive star outweighs the feedback from less massive stars. For a giant molecular cloud (GMC) mass of 105 M⊙ (as e.g. found in the Orion GMCs) and a star formation efficiency of 8 per cent the initial mass function predicts a most massive star of approximately 60 M⊙. For this stellar evolution model we test the dependence of the retained kinetic energy of the cold GMC gas on the inclusion of stellar winds. In our model winds insert 2.34 times the energy of an SN and create stellar wind bubbles serving as pressure reservoirs. We find that during the pressure-driven phases of the bubble evolution radiative losses peak near the contact discontinuity (CD), and thus the retained energy depends critically on the scales of the mixing processes across the CD. Taking into account the winds of massive stars increases the amount of kinetic energy deposited in the cold ISM from 0.1 per cent to a few per cent of the feedback energy.

  3. A TREND BETWEEN COLD DEBRIS DISK TEMPERATURE AND STELLAR TYPE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF WIDE-ORBIT PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Ballering, Nicholas P.; Rieke, George H.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Montiel, Edward

    2013-09-20

    Cold debris disks trace the limits of planet formation or migration in the outer regions of planetary systems, and thus have the potential to answer many of the outstanding questions in wide-orbit planet formation and evolution. We characterized the infrared excess spectral energy distributions of 174 cold debris disks around 546 main-sequence stars observed by both the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer. We found a trend between the temperature of the inner edges of cold debris disks and the stellar type of the stars they orbit. This argues against the importance of strictly temperature-dependent processes (e.g., non-water ice lines) in setting the dimensions of cold debris disks. Also, we found no evidence that delayed stirring causes the trend. The trend may result from outward planet migration that traces the extent of the primordial protoplanetary disk, or it may result from planet formation that halts at an orbital radius limited by the efficiency of core accretion.

  4. Strong stellar winds.

    PubMed

    Conti, P S; McCray, R

    1980-04-01

    The hottest and most luminous stars lose a substantial fraction of their mass in strong stellar winds. These winds not only affect the evolution of the star, they also carve huge expanding cavities in the surrounding interstellar medium, possibly affecting star formation. The winds are probably driven by radiation pressure, but uncertainties persist in their theoretical description. Strong x-ray sources associated with a few of these hot stars may be used to probe the stellar winds. The nature of the weak x-ray sources recently observed to be associated with many of these stars is uncertain. It is suggested that roughly 10 percent of the luminous hot stars may have as companions neutron stars or black holes orbiting within the stellar winds.

  5. Stellar Astrophysics with the World's largest Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikolajewska, Joanna; Olech, Arkadiusz

    The book reviews the most timely and interesting problems of stellar astrophysics, particularly those suitable for studies with the world's largest telescopes, and it can serve as an introduction to such studies. In particular it gives a comprehensive presentation of state-of-the-art research in stellar and planetary system formation, extra-solar planets, final stages of single and binary stellar evolution, and stellar populations in the Local Group of Galaxies, including observational techniques and technologies applicable to those important fields.

  6. Advanced stellarators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüter, Arnulf

    1983-03-01

    Toroidal confinement of a plasma by an external magnetic field is not compatible with axisymmetry, in contrast to confinement by the pinch effect of induced electric currents as in a tokomak or by the reversed field pinch configuration. The existence of magnetic surfaces throughout the region in which grad p ≠ 0 is therefore not guaranteed in such configurations, though it is necessary for MHD-equilibrium when the lines of force possess a finite twist (or "rotational transform"). These twisted equilibria are called stellarators. The other type of external confinement requires all lines of force to be closed upon themselves and p to be function of the well defined quantity Q = φ d l/ B only. The resulting "bumpy" tori are sometimes also referred to as being M + S like. By discussing specific examples it is shown that stellarator configurations exist which retain as much as possible the properties of M + S like configurations, combine these with the magnetic well, and with an approximation to the isodynamic requirement of D. Palumbo. These so-called Advanced Stellarators shown an improvement in predicted particle confinement and beta-limit compared to the classical stellarators. They can also be viewed as forming a system of linked stabilized mirrors of small mirror ratio. These fields can be produced by modular coils. A prototype of such a configuration is being designed by the stellarator division of IPP under the name of Wendelstein VII-AS. Expected physical data and technical details of W VII-AS are given.

  7. Linking Galaxies to Dark Matter Halos at z ~ 1 : Dependence of Galaxy Clustering on Stellar Mass and Specific Star Formation Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Im, Myungshin; Lee, Seong-Kook; Edge, Alastair C.; Wake, David A.; Merson, Alexander I.; Jeon, Yiseul

    2015-06-01

    We study the dependence of angular two-point correlation functions on stellar mass (M*) and specific star formation rate (sSFR) of {M}*\\gt {10}10{M}ȯ galaxies at z∼ 1. The data from the UK Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey Deep eXtragalactic Survey and Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey cover 8.2 deg2 sample scales larger than 100 {h}-1 {Mpc} at z∼ 1, allowing us to investigate the correlation between clustering, M*, and star formation through halo modeling. Based on halo occupation distributions (HODs) of M* threshold samples, we derive HODs for M* binned galaxies, and then calculate the {M}*/{M}{halo} ratio. The ratio for central galaxies shows a peak at {M}{halo}∼ {10}12{h}-1{M}ȯ , and satellites predominantly contribute to the total stellar mass in cluster environments with {M}*/{M}{halo} values of 0.01–0.02. Using star-forming galaxies split by sSFR, we find that main sequence galaxies ({log} {sSFR}/{{yr}}-1∼ -9) are mainly central galaxies in ∼ {10}12.5{h}-1{M}ȯ halos with the lowest clustering amplitude, while lower sSFR galaxies consist of a mixture of both central and satellite galaxies where those with the lowest M* are predominantly satellites influenced by their environment. Considering the lowest {M}{halo} samples in each M* bin, massive central galaxies reside in more massive halos with lower sSFRs than low mass ones, indicating star-forming central galaxies evolve from a low M*–high sSFR to a high M*–low sSFR regime. We also find that the most rapidly star-forming galaxies ({log} {sSFR}/{{yr}}-1\\gt -8.5) are in more massive halos than main sequence ones, possibly implying galaxy mergers in dense environments are driving the active star formation. These results support the conclusion that the majority of star-forming galaxies follow secular evolution through the sustained but decreasing formation of stars.

  8. Stellar Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Gennady S.

    The matter in the Universe (its barionic component) is concentrated mainly in stars. Inside galaxies, stars contain more than 90% of the matter, and in galactic clusters, due to the existence of intercluster gas, stars contain more than 70% of the matter. The presence of heavy elements (heavier than carbon) in the intercluster gas, with an abundance of the order of one third of solar gas, indicates that almost all barionic matter in the Universe went through a stellar stage. According to modern views, the enrichment of intercluster gas by heavy elements happens due to outflow of matter from galaxies, where the production of heavy elements takes place due to stellar evolution. It follows from the cosmological models of a hot Universe that only hydrogen and helium, with very small additions of lithium, beryllium and boron, were produced in the Big Bang. All heavier elements, starting from carbon, are produced as a result of stellar evolution (see Sect.4.4, Vol. 1).

  9. Mergers and Star Formation: The Environment and Stellar Mass Growth of the Progenitors of Ultra-massive Galaxies since z = 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulcani, Benedetta; Marchesini, Danilo; De Lucia, Gabriella; Muzzin, Adam; Stefanon, Mauro; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Labbé, Ivo; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Milvang-Jensen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The growth of galaxies is a key problem in understanding the structure and evolution of the universe. Galaxies grow their stellar mass by a combination of star formation and mergers, with a relative importance that is redshift dependent. Theoretical models predict quantitatively different contributions from the two channels; measuring these from the data is a crucial constraint. Exploiting the UltraVISTA catalog and a unique sample of progenitors of local ultra-massive galaxies selected with an abundance matching approach, we quantify the role of the two mechanisms from z = 2 to 0. We also compare our results to two independent incarnations of semi-analytic models. At all redshifts, progenitors are found in a variety of environments, ranging from being isolated to having 5-10 companions with mass ratio at least 1:10 within a projected radius of 500 kpc. In models, progenitors have a systematically larger number of companions, entailing a larger mass growth for mergers than in observations, at all redshifts. Generally, in both observations and models, the inferred and the expected mass growth roughly agree, within the uncertainties. Overall, our analysis confirms the model predictions, showing how the growth history of massive galaxies is dominated by in situ star formation at z ˜ 2, both star formation and mergers at 1 < z < 2, and by mergers alone at z < 1. Nonetheless, detailed comparisons still point out tensions between the expected mass growth and our results, which might be due to either an incorrect progenitors-descendants selection, uncertainties on star-formation rate and mass estimates, or the adopted assumptions on merger rates.

  10. The initial conditions of isolated star formation - IX. Akari mapping of an externally heated pre-stellar core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutter, D.; Stamatellos, D.; Ward-Thompson, D.

    2009-07-01

    We present observations of L1155 and L1148 in the Cepheus molecular cloud, taken using the Far Infrared Surveyor (FIS) instrument on the Akari satellite. We compare these data to submillimetre data taken using the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, and far-infrared data taken with the imaging photo-polarimeter (ISOPHOT) camera on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) satellite. The Akari data cover a similar spectral window and are consistent with the ISO data. All of the data show a relation between the position of the peak of emission and the wavelength for the core of L1155. We interpret this as a temperature gradient. We fit modified blackbody curves to the spectral energy distributions at two positions in the core and see that the central core in L1155 (L1155C) is approximately 2° warmer at one edge than it is in the centre. We consider a number of possible heating sources and conclude that the A6V star BD+67 1263 is the most likely candidate. This star is at a distance of 0.7pc from the front of L1155C in the plane of the sky. We carry out radiative transfer modelling of the L1155C core including the effects from the nearby star. We find that we can generate a good fit to the observed data at all wavelengths, and demonstrate that the different morphologies of the core at different wavelengths can be explained by the observed 2° temperature gradient. The L1148 core exhibits a similar morphology to that of L1155C, and the data are also consistent with a temperature gradient across the core. In this case, the most likely heating source is the star BD197053. Our findings illustrate very clearly that the apparent observed morphology of a pre-stellar core can be highly dependent on the wavelength of the observation, and that temperature gradients must be taken into account before converting images into column density distributions. This is important to note when interpreting Akari and Spitzer data

  11. Radial Compression of a Non-neutral Plasma in a Non-uniform Magnetic Field of a Cusp Trap

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, H.; Mohri, A.; Kanai, Y.; Enomoto, Y.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2009-03-30

    Spectroscopic comparison of antihydrogen and hydrogen atoms is one of the best candidates for the stringent tests of the CPT symmetry, and intensive studies are being carried out by using Antiproton Decelerator at CERN. The ASACUSA collaboration has constructed a superconducting cusp trap for the formation, trapping and extraction of antihydrogen atoms, where a quadrupole magnetic field is generated by a pair of anti-Helmholtz coils with anti-parallel currents. The cusp configuration is considerably advantageous for the extraction of spin-polarized and ground-state antihydrogen beams that are ideal for the spectroscopic measurements of hyperfine structures of the ground state of antihydrogen. For the effective generation of antihydrogen atoms, it is essential to form high density and stable plasmas of antiproton and positrons. In this study, we applied a rotating electric field to an electron plasma in the inhomogeneous cusp magnetic field, and demonstrated the effective radial compression of a non-neutral plasma in a broad frequency range. The compression rate depended on the rotating frequency and had a broad peak extending on both sides of a longitudinal (1,0) mode frequency, which was the only observed characteristic frequency. The similar procedure can in principle be applied to positron and antiproton plasmas, and the results are one of necessary steps toward antihydrogen experiments in the cusp trap.

  12. How does tooth cusp radius of curvature affect brittle food item processing?

    PubMed

    Berthaume, Michael A; Dumont, Elizabeth R; Godfrey, Laurie R; Grosse, Ian R

    2013-07-01

    Tooth cusp sharpness, measured by radius of curvature (RoC), has been predicted to play a significant role in brittle/hard food item fracture. Here, we set out to test three existing hypotheses about this relationship: namely, the Blunt and Strong Cusp hypotheses, which predict that dull cusps will be most efficient at brittle food item fracture, and the Pointed Cusp hypothesis, which predicts that sharp cusps will be most efficient at brittle food item fracture using a four cusp bunodont molar. We also put forth and test the newly constructed Complex Cusp hypothesis, which predicts that a mixture of dull and sharp cusps will be most efficient at brittle food item fracture. We tested the four hypotheses using finite-element models of four cusped, bunodont molars. When testing the three existing hypotheses, we assumed all cusps had the same level of sharpness (RoC), and gained partial support for the Blunt Cusp hypotheses. We found no support for the Pointed Cusp or Strong Cusp hypotheses. We used the Taguchi sampling method to test the Complex Cusps hypothesis with a morphospace created by independently varying the radii of curvature of the four cusps in the buccolingual and mesiodistal directions. The optimal occlusal morphology for fracturing brittle food items consists of a combination of sharp and dull cusps, which creates high stress concentrations in the food item while stabilizing the food item and keeping the stress concentrations in the enamel low. This model performed better than the Blunt Cusp hypothesis, suggesting a role for optimality in the evolution of cusp form.

  13. THE MOSDEF SURVEY: DISSECTING THE STAR FORMATION RATE VERSUS STELLAR MASS RELATION USING Hα AND Hβ EMISSION LINES AT z ∼ 2

    SciTech Connect

    Shivaei, Irene; Reddy, Naveen A.; Siana, Brian; Mobasher, Bahram; Freeman, William R.; Groot, Laura de; Shapley, Alice E.; Sanders, Ryan; Kriek, Mariska; Price, Sedona H.; Coil, Alison L.; Azadi, Mojegan

    2015-12-20

    We present results on the star formation rate (SFR) versus stellar mass (M{sub *}) relation (i.e., the “main sequence”) among star-forming galaxies at 1.37 ≤ z ≤ 2.61 using the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey. Based on a sample of 261 galaxies with Hα and Hβ spectroscopy, we have estimated robust dust-corrected instantaneous SFRs over a large range in M{sub *} (∼10{sup 9.5}–10{sup 11.5} M{sub ⊙}). We find a correlation between log(SFR(Hα)) and log(M{sub *}) with a slope of 0.65 ± 0.08 (0.58 ± 0.10) at 1.4 < z < 2.6 (2.1 < z < 2.6). We find that different assumptions for the dust correction, such as using the color excess of the stellar continuum to correct the nebular lines, sample selection biases against red star-forming galaxies, and not accounting for Balmer absorption, can yield steeper slopes of the log(SFR)–log(M{sub *}) relation. Our sample is immune from these biases as it is rest-frame optically selected, Hα and Hβ are corrected for Balmer absorption, and the Hα luminosity is dust corrected using the nebular color excess computed from the Balmer decrement. The scatter of the log(SFR(Hα))–log(M{sub *}) relation, after accounting for the measurement uncertainties, is 0.31 dex at 2.1 < z < 2.6, which is 0.05 dex larger than the scatter in log(SFR(UV))–log(M{sub *}). Based on comparisons to a simulated SFR–M{sub *} relation with some intrinsic scatter, we argue that in the absence of direct measurements of galaxy-to-galaxy variations in the attenuation/extinction curves and the initial mass function, one cannot use the difference in the scatter of the SFR(Hα)– and SFR(UV)–M{sub *} relations to constrain the stochasticity of star formation in high-redshift galaxies.

  14. Freja observations of multiple injection events in cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberg, O.; Yamauchi, M.; Eliasson, L.; Lundin, R.

    The TICS (Three-dimensional Ion Composition Spectrometer) instrument on board the Freja satellite provides particle data with high spatial, temporal, spectral, and mass resolution. The Freja orbit (inclination 63°) is suitable for studies of the cusp since the satellite traverses this region longitudinally when the cusp is located lower than 75° geomagnetic latitude, i.e. when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) points southward. The satellite traverses the dayside polar region during two weeks every 100 days due to orbit precession, and nearly 50 cusp traversals were recorded during the first year of operation. Both multiple injections and single injections are clearly identified and distinguished, the former being more frequently observed than the latter. Freja has also resolved overlapping injections (special cases of multiple injections), for the first time at low altitudes.

  15. Cusp singularities in f(R) gravity: pros and cons

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pisin; Yeom, Dong-han

    2015-10-01

    We investigate cusp singularities in f(R) gravity, especially for Starobinsky and Hu-Sawicki dark energy models. We illustrate that, by using double-null numerical simulations, a cusp singularity can be triggered by gravitational collapses. This singularity can be cured by adding a quadratic term, but this causes a Ricci scalar bump that can be observed by an observer outside the event horizon. Comparing with cosmological parameters, it seems that it would be difficult to see super-Planckian effects by astrophysical experiments. On the other hand, at once there exists a cusp singularity, it can be a mechanism to realize a horizon scale curvature singularity that can be interpreted by a firewall.

  16. Stellar Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Michael J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen

    2003-05-01

    Preface; 1. A selective overview Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard and Michael J. Thompson; Part I. Stellar Convection and Oscillations: 2. On the diversity of stellar pulsations Wojciech A. Dziembowski; 3. Acoustic radiation and mode excitation by turbulent convection Günter Houdek; 4. Understanding roAp stars Margarida S. Cunha; 5. Waves in the magnetised solar atmosphere Colin S. Rosenthal; Part II. Stellar Rotation and Magnetic Fields: 6. Stellar rotation: a historical survey Leon Mestel; 7. The oscillations of rapidly rotating stars Michel Rieutord; 8. Solar tachocline dynamics: eddy viscosity, anti-friction, or something in between? Michael E. McIntyre; 9. Dynamics of the solar tachocline Pascale Garaud; 10. Dynamo processes: the interaction of turbulence and magnetic fields Michael Proctor; 11. Dynamos in planets Chris Jones; Part III. Physics and Structure of Stellar Interiors: 12. Solar constraints on the equation of state Werner Däppen; 13. 3He transport and the solar neutrino problem Chris Jordinson; 14. Mixing in stellar radiation zones Jean-Paul Zahn; 15. Element settling and rotation-induced mixing in slowly rotating stars Sylvie Vauclair; Part IV. Helio- and Asteroseismology: 16. Solar structure and the neutrino problem Hiromoto Shibahashi; 17. Helioseismic data analysis Jesper Schou; 18. Seismology of solar rotation Takashi Sekii; 19. Telechronohelioseismology Alexander Kosovichev; Part V. Large-Scale Numerical Experiments: 20. Bridges between helioseismology and models of convection zone dynamics Juri Toomre; 21. Numerical simulations of the solar convection zone Julian R. Elliott; 22. Modelling solar and stellar magnetoconvection Nigel Weiss; 23. Nonlinear magnetoconvection in the presence of a strong oblique field Keith Julien, Edgar Knobloch and Steven M. Tobias; 24. Simulations of astrophysical fluids Marcus Brüggen; Part VI. Dynamics: 25. A magic electromagnetic field Donald Lynden-Bell; 26. Continuum equations for stellar dynamics Edward A

  17. Stellar Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Michael J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen

    2008-02-01

    Preface; 1. A selective overview Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard and Michael J. Thompson; Part I. Stellar Convection and Oscillations: 2. On the diversity of stellar pulsations Wojciech A. Dziembowski; 3. Acoustic radiation and mode excitation by turbulent convection Günter Houdek; 4. Understanding roAp stars Margarida S. Cunha; 5. Waves in the magnetised solar atmosphere Colin S. Rosenthal; Part II. Stellar Rotation and Magnetic Fields: 6. Stellar rotation: a historical survey Leon Mestel; 7. The oscillations of rapidly rotating stars Michel Rieutord; 8. Solar tachocline dynamics: eddy viscosity, anti-friction, or something in between? Michael E. McIntyre; 9. Dynamics of the solar tachocline Pascale Garaud; 10. Dynamo processes: the interaction of turbulence and magnetic fields Michael Proctor; 11. Dynamos in planets Chris Jones; Part III. Physics and Structure of Stellar Interiors: 12. Solar constraints on the equation of state Werner Däppen; 13. 3He transport and the solar neutrino problem Chris Jordinson; 14. Mixing in stellar radiation zones Jean-Paul Zahn; 15. Element settling and rotation-induced mixing in slowly rotating stars Sylvie Vauclair; Part IV. Helio- and Asteroseismology: 16. Solar structure and the neutrino problem Hiromoto Shibahashi; 17. Helioseismic data analysis Jesper Schou; 18. Seismology of solar rotation Takashi Sekii; 19. Telechronohelioseismology Alexander Kosovichev; Part V. Large-Scale Numerical Experiments: 20. Bridges between helioseismology and models of convection zone dynamics Juri Toomre; 21. Numerical simulations of the solar convection zone Julian R. Elliott; 22. Modelling solar and stellar magnetoconvection Nigel Weiss; 23. Nonlinear magnetoconvection in the presence of a strong oblique field Keith Julien, Edgar Knobloch and Steven M. Tobias; 24. Simulations of astrophysical fluids Marcus Brüggen; Part VI. Dynamics: 25. A magic electromagnetic field Donald Lynden-Bell; 26. Continuum equations for stellar dynamics Edward A

  18. Dust Formation in Hot Stellar Winds: Infra-Red Imaging of the Wolf-Rayet Binary WR137

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, Anthony

    1997-07-01

    We propose to use NICMOS on HST to image the dust formed in the bow shock region of the 12.6-year elliptical-orbit binary WR 137 = HD 192641 {WC7+OB}, within a year after periastron passage, predicted to occur in late 1996 or early 1997. Ground -based IR photometry has shown that copious amounts of carbon- rich dust are formed just after periastron passage, when wind- wind collision compression is at its peak. WR 137 is the currently most favorable system for the direct detection of the extended dust formation region among all known WR episodic dust emitters. Imaging of the dust emitting region will directly test for the first time the concept of wind-wind collision and allow one to study how and where dust can form in such a hostile environment.

  19. ON THE ROLE OF DISKS IN THE FORMATION OF STELLAR SYSTEMS: A NUMERICAL PARAMETER STUDY OF RAPID ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Matzner, Christopher D.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Klein, Richard I.

    2010-01-10

    We study rapidly accreting, gravitationally unstable disks with a series of idealized global, numerical experiments using the code ORION. Our numerical parameter study focuses on protostellar disks, showing that one can predict disk behavior and the multiplicity of the accreting star system as a function of two dimensionless parameters which compare the infall rate to the disk sound speed and orbital period. Although gravitational instabilities become strong, we find that fragmentation into binary or multiple systems occurs only when material falls in several times more rapidly than the canonical isothermal limit. The disk-to-star accretion rate is proportional to the infall rate and governed by gravitational torques generated by low-m spiral modes. We also confirm the existence of a maximum stable disk mass: disks that exceed approx50% of the total system mass are subject to fragmentation and the subsequent formation of binary companions.

  20. Cusp Dynamics-Particle Acceleration by Alfven Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ergun, Robert E.; Parker, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    Successful results were obtained from this research project. This investigation answered and/or made progresses on each of the four important questions that were proposed: (1) How do Alfven waves propagate on dayside open field lines? (2) How are precipitating electrons influenced by propagating Alfven waves? (3) How are various cusp electron distributions generated? (4) How are Alfven waves modified by electrons? During the first year of this investigation, the input parameters, such as density and temperature altitude profiles, of the gyrofluid code on the cusp field lines were constructed based on 3-point satellite observations. The initial gyrofluid result was presented at the GEM meeting by Dr. Samuel Jones.

  1. The initial conditions for stellar protocluster formation. III. The Herschel counterparts of the Spitzer Dark Cloud catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peretto, N.; Lenfestey, C.; Fuller, G. A.; Traficante, A.; Molinari, S.; Thompson, M. A.; Ward-Thompson, D.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Galactic plane surveys of pristine molecular clouds are key for establishing a Galactic-scale view of star formation. For this reason, an unbiased sample of infrared dark clouds in the 10° < | l | < 65°, | b | < 1° region of the Galactic plane was built using Spitzer 8 μm extinction. However, intrinsic fluctuations in the mid-infrared background can be misinterpreted as foreground clouds. Aims: The main goal of this study is to disentangle real clouds in the Spitzer Dark Cloud (SDC) catalogue from artefacts due to fluctuations in the mid-infrared background. Methods: We constructed H2 column density maps at ~18″ resolution using the 160 μm and 250 μm data from the Herschel Galactic plane survey Hi-GAL. We also developed an automated detection scheme that confirms the existence of a SDC through its association with a peak on these Herschel column density maps. Detection simulations, along with visual inspection of a small sub-sample of SDCs, have been performed to get more insight into the limitations of our automated identification scheme. Results: Our analysis shows that 76( ± 19)% of the catalogued SDCs are real. This fraction drops to 55( ± 12)% for clouds with angular diameters larger than ~1 arcmin. The contamination of the PF09 catalogue by large spurious sources reflects the large uncertainties associated to the construction of the 8 μm background emission, a key stage in identiying SDCs. A comparison of the Herschel confirmed SDC sample with the BGPS and ATLASGAL samples shows that SDCs probe a unique range of cloud properties, reaching down to more compact and lower column density clouds than any of these two (sub-)millimetre Galactic plane surveys. Conclusions: Even though about half of the large SDCs are spurious sources, the vast majority of the catalogued SDCs do have a Herschel counterpart. The Herschel-confirmed sample of SDCs offers a unique opportunity to study the earliest stages of both low- and high-mass star formation across

  2. New emerging results on molecular gas, stars, and dust at z~2, as revealed by low star formation rate and low stellar mass star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Schaerer, Daniel; Combes, Francoise; Egami, Eiichi; Swinbank, Mark; Richard, Johan; Sklias, Panos; Rawle, Tim D.

    2015-08-01

    The large surveys of main sequence star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z~2, made at near-IR and mm wavelengths, have revolutionized our picture of galaxies at this critical epoch, where the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) density is at its peak and the stellar mass (Ms) assembly is rapid. They reveal that ~70% of SFGs are young, rotation dominated disk-like systems, yet dynamically hotter and geometrically thicker than local spirals, with larger molecular gas fractions (fgas).It is time to refine this modern picture of z~2 galaxies by extending the current studies toward the more numerous and typical SFGs, characterized by SFR1 from the literature, and allow us to revisit and propose new correlations between IR and CO luminosities, molecular gas, stellar and dust masses, specific SFR, molecular gas depletion timescales (tdepl), fgas, dust-to-gas ratios, and redshift, to be directly compared with galaxy evolution models.We find an increase of tdepl with Ms, as now revealed by low-Ms SFGs at z>1 and also observed at z=0, which contrasts with the acknowledged constant tdepl in "bathtub" models and refutes the linearity of the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. A steady increase of fgas with redshift is predicted by cosmological models and is observed from z~0 to z~1.5, but is followed by a mild increase toward higher redshifts, which we further confirm with our highest redshift CO measurement in an SFR* galaxy at z=3.6. We provide the first fgas measure in z>1 SFGs at the low-Ms end 109.4

  3. The Pan-STARRS1 medium-deep survey: The role of galaxy group environment in the star formation rate versus stellar mass relation and quiescent fraction out to z ∼ 0.8

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lihwai; Chen, Chin-Wei; Coupon, Jean; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Jian, Hung-Yu; Foucaud, Sebastien; Norberg, Peder; Bower, R. G.; Cole, Shaun; Arnalte-Mur, Pablo; Draper, P.; Heinis, Sebastien; Phleps, Stefanie; Chen, Wen-Ping; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Burgett, William; Chambers, K. C.; Denneau, L.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.; and others

    2014-02-10

    Using a large optically selected sample of field and group galaxies drawn from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium-Deep Survey (PS1/MDS), we present a detailed analysis of the specific star formation rate (SSFR)—stellar mass (M {sub *}) relation, as well as the quiescent fraction versus M {sub *} relation in different environments. While both the SSFR and the quiescent fraction depend strongly on stellar mass, the environment also plays an important role. Using this large galaxy sample, we confirm that the fraction of quiescent galaxies is strongly dependent on environment at a fixed stellar mass, but that the amplitude and the slope of the star-forming sequence is similar between the field and groups: in other words, the SSFR-density relation at a fixed stellar mass is primarily driven by the change in the star-forming and quiescent fractions between different environments rather than a global suppression in the star formation rate for the star-forming population. However, when we restrict our sample to the cluster-scale environments (M > 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉}), we find a global reduction in the SSFR of the star-forming sequence of 17% at 4σ confidence as opposed to its field counterpart. After removing the stellar mass dependence of the quiescent fraction seen in field galaxies, the excess in the quiescent fraction due to the environment quenching in groups and clusters is found to increase with stellar mass, although deeper and larger data from the full PS1/MDS will be required to draw firm conclusions. We argue that these results are in favor of galaxy mergers to be the primary environment quenching mechanism operating in galaxy groups whereas strangulation is able to reproduce the observed trend in the environment quenching efficiency and stellar mass relation seen in clusters. Our results also suggest that the relative importance between mass quenching and environment quenching depends on stellar mass—the mass quenching plays a dominant role in producing quiescent

  4. Multi-Point Electric Field Observations in the High-Altitude Cusp Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, H.; Escoubet, C.; Grard, R.; Masson, A.; Moullard, O.; Andre, M.; Eriksson, A. I.; Gustafsson, G.; Hull, A.; Mozer, F.; Lindqvist, P.; Pedersen, A.; Balogh, A.; Dunlop, M.; Fazakerley, A.; Taylor, M.

    2001-12-01

    In January-April 2001 the Cluster quartet crossed the cusp region twice per their 56 hours orbital period. These cusp encounters occurred at high altitudes, usually above 8 RE distance. Basically these encounters can be categorized into two groups. The first group consists of crossings where the satellites enter and exit the cusp at a rather constant altitude so that the satellites exit/enter the cusp through the entry layer, on the equatorial side of the cusp, and the plasma mantle, on the poleward side of the cusp. In the second group, the satellites' movement is quite parallel with respect to cusp orientation so that their altitude changes quickly with a rather constant latitude, and then the satellites enter/exit the cusp through the exterior cusp, in the magnetosheath just above the cusp. In this study we will investigate multi-point measurements with the Cluster electric field instrument (EFW) which let us study both plasma drift patterns and electron density variations (from the spacecraft potential data) within the cusp region. We also utilize simultaneous ion, electron, and magnetic field measurements that are important observations for our effort to interpret the EFW data. In particular we attempt to investigate both dynamical and structural aspects of the cusp, as with multi-point observations we have a chance to separate spatial and temporal features from the data.

  5. STELLAR TRANSITS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Beky, Bence; Kocsis, Bence E-mail: bkocsis@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are typically surrounded by a dense stellar population in galactic nuclei. Stars crossing the line of site in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) produce a characteristic transit light curve, just like extrasolar planets do when they transit their host star. We examine the possibility of finding such AGN transits in deep optical, UV, and X-ray surveys. We calculate transit light curves using the Novikov-Thorne thin accretion disk model, including general relativistic effects. Based on the expected properties of stellar cusps, we find that around 10{sup 6} solar mass SMBHs, transits of red giants are most common for stars on close orbits with transit durations of a few weeks and orbital periods of a few years. We find that detecting AGN transits requires repeated observations of thousands of low-mass AGNs to 1% photometric accuracy in optical, or {approx}10% in UV bands or soft X-ray. It may be possible to identify stellar transits in the Pan-STARRS and LSST optical and the eROSITA X-ray surveys. Such observations could be used to constrain black hole mass, spin, inclination, and accretion rate. Transit rates and durations could give valuable information on the circumnuclear stellar clusters as well. Transit light curves could be used to image accretion disks with unprecedented resolution, allowing us to resolve the SMBH silhouette in distant AGNs.

  6. Stellar Transits in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béky, Bence; Kocsis, Bence

    2013-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are typically surrounded by a dense stellar population in galactic nuclei. Stars crossing the line of site in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) produce a characteristic transit light curve, just like extrasolar planets do when they transit their host star. We examine the possibility of finding such AGN transits in deep optical, UV, and X-ray surveys. We calculate transit light curves using the Novikov-Thorne thin accretion disk model, including general relativistic effects. Based on the expected properties of stellar cusps, we find that around 106 solar mass SMBHs, transits of red giants are most common for stars on close orbits with transit durations of a few weeks and orbital periods of a few years. We find that detecting AGN transits requires repeated observations of thousands of low-mass AGNs to 1% photometric accuracy in optical, or ~10% in UV bands or soft X-ray. It may be possible to identify stellar transits in the Pan-STARRS and LSST optical and the eROSITA X-ray surveys. Such observations could be used to constrain black hole mass, spin, inclination, and accretion rate. Transit rates and durations could give valuable information on the circumnuclear stellar clusters as well. Transit light curves could be used to image accretion disks with unprecedented resolution, allowing us to resolve the SMBH silhouette in distant AGNs.

  7. Widths of Sobolev weight classes on a domain with cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'eva, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Order estimates for the Kolmogorov, Gelfand and linear widths of the unit ball in weighted Sobolev space on a domain with cusp in a weighted Lebesgue space are obtained. Certain limit conditions on the parameters are considered for which the estimates for widths may differ from those in the case of weight one and a domain with Lipschitz boundary. Bibliography: 52 titles.

  8. Oxygen Ion Heat Rate within Alfvenic Turbulence in the Cusp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Singh, Nagendra; Chandler, Michael O.

    2009-01-01

    The role that the cleft/cusp has in ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling makes it a dynamic and important region. It is directly exposed to the solar wind, making it possible for the entry of electromagnetic energy and precipitating electrons and ions from dayside reconnection and other dayside events. It is also a significant source of ionospheric plasma, contributing largely to the mass loading of the magnetosphere with large fluxes of outflowing ions. Crossing the cusp/cleft near 5100 km, the Polar instruments observe the common correlation of downward Poynting flux, ion energization, soft electron precipitation, broadband extremely low-frequency (BB-ELF) emissions, and density depletions. The dominant power in the BB-ELF emissions is now identified to be from spatially broad, low frequency Alfv nic structures. For a cusp crossing, we determine using the Electric Field Investigation (EFI), that the electric and magnetic field fluctuations are Alfv nic and the electric field gradients satisfy the inequality for stochastic acceleration. With all the Polar 1996 horizontal crossings of the cusp, we determine the O+ heating rate using the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) and Plasma Wave Investigation (PWI). We then compare this heating rate to other heating rates assuming the electric field gradient criteria exceeds the limit for stochastic acceleration for the remaining crossings. The comparison suggests that a stochastic acceleration mechanism is operational and the heating is controlled by the transverse spatial scale of the Alfvenic waves.

  9. Synthesis of cold antihydrogen in a cusp trap.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Y; Kuroda, N; Michishio, K; Kim, C H; Higaki, H; Nagata, Y; Kanai, Y; Torii, H A; Corradini, M; Leali, M; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Mascagna, V; Venturelli, L; Zurlo, N; Fujii, K; Ohtsuka, M; Tanaka, K; Imao, H; Nagashima, Y; Matsuda, Y; Juhász, B; Mohri, A; Yamazaki, Y

    2010-12-10

    We report here the first successful synthesis of cold antihydrogen atoms employing a cusp trap, which consists of a superconducting anti-Helmholtz coil and a stack of multiple ring electrodes. This success opens a new path to make a stringent test of the CPT symmetry via high precision microwave spectroscopy of ground-state hyperfine transitions of antihydrogen atoms.

  10. Synthesis of Cold Antihydrogen in a Cusp Trap

    SciTech Connect

    Enomoto, Y.; Nagata, Y.; Kanai, Y.; Mohri, A.; Kuroda, N.; Kim, C. H.; Torii, H. A.; Fujii, K.; Ohtsuka, M.; Tanaka, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Michishio, K.; Nagashima, Y.; Higaki, H.; Corradini, M.; Leali, M.; Lodi-Rizzini, E.; Mascagna, V.; Venturelli, L.; Zurlo, N.

    2010-12-10

    We report here the first successful synthesis of cold antihydrogen atoms employing a cusp trap, which consists of a superconducting anti-Helmholtz coil and a stack of multiple ring electrodes. This success opens a new path to make a stringent test of the CPT symmetry via high precision microwave spectroscopy of ground-state hyperfine transitions of antihydrogen atoms.

  11. Behavioral cusps: a developmental and pragmatic concept for behavior analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Rosales-Ruiz, J; Baer, D M

    1997-01-01

    Most concepts of development explain certain behavior changes as products or markers of the invariable succession of emerging periods, stages, refinements, or achievements that define and order much of an individual's life. A different but comparable concept can be derived from the most basic mechanisms of behavior analysis, which are its environmental contingencies, and from its most basic strategy, which is to study behavior as its subject matter. From a behavior-analytic perspective, the most fundamental developmental questions are (a) whether these contingencies vary in any systematic way across the life span, and thus make behavior change in a correspondingly systematic way; (b) whether some of these contingencies and their changes have more far-reaching consequences than others, in terms of the importance to the organism and others, of the behavior classes they change. Certain behavior changes open the door to especially broad or especially important further behavior change, leading to the concept of the behavioral cusp. A behavioral cusp, then, is any behavior change that brings the organism's behavior into contact with new contingencies that have even more far-reaching consequences. Of all the environmental contingencies that change or maintain behavior, those that accomplish cusps are developmental. Behavior change remains the fundamental phenomenon of development for a behavior-analytic view; a cusp is a special instance of behavior change, a change crucial to what can come next. PMID:9316263

  12. A rare case of multiple talon cusps in three siblings.

    PubMed

    Sarraf-Shirazi, Alireza; Rezaiefar, Minoo; Forghani, Maryam

    2010-01-01

    Talon cusp is an uncommon anomaly, whose etiology may be disturbances in the morphodifferentiation stage. Dens in dente is also a rare anomaly that is challenging in clinic as it may cause pulp necrosis or periapical lesions due to the communication with the oral cavity. This article reports multiple talon cusps on permanent maxillary and mandibular incisors and molars in 3 siblings. A 9-year-old boy presented with structures like nodules, shaped as cylindrical cones with a sharp point or a raindrop with deep developmental fissures on the palatal aspect of the maxillary central incisors, lingual aspect of the mandibular central incisors and labial aspect of both mandibular first molars. The buccal surface of the maxillary right central incisor was also affected. Some of them exhibited dens in dente. His 15-year-old sister had prominent talon cusps on the palatal surface of maxillary central incisors and buccal surface of the mandibular first molars and mandibular left second molar. His 7-year-old brother had only one trace talon on the maxillary left central incisor. No syndrome was identified in the patients. In conclusion, genetic inheritance may be a causative factor in talon cusp.

  13. Observational Constraints on Stellar Flares and Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarnio, Alicia

    2016-07-01

    Multi-wavelength surveys have catalogued a wealth of stellar flare data for stars representing a broad range of masses and ages. Young solar analogs inform our understanding of the Sun's evolution and the influence of its activity on early solar system formation, while field star observations allow us to place its current activity into context within a statistical ensemble of main-sequence G-type stars. At the same time, stellar observations probe a variety of interior and coronal conditions, providing constraints on models of equilibrium (and loss thereof!) for magnetic structures. In this review, I will focus on our current understanding of stellar flares, prominences, and coronal mass ejections as a function of stellar parameters. As our interpretation of stellar data relies heavily on solar-stellar analogy, I will explore how far into extreme stellar parameter spaces this comparison can be invoked.

  14. Star formation history of Canis Major R1. I. Wide-Field X-ray study of the young stellar population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregorio-Hetem, J.; Montmerle, T.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Marciotto, E.; Preibisch, T.; Zinnecker, H.

    2009-11-01

    Aims: The CMa R1 star-forming region contains several compact clusters as well as many young early-B stars. It is associated with a well-known bright rimmed nebula, the nature of which is unclear (fossil HII region or supernova remnant). To help elucidate the nature of the nebula, our goal was to reconstruct the star-formation history of the CMa R1 region, including the previously unknown older, fainter low-mass stellar population, using X-rays. Methods: We analyzed images obtained with the ROSAT satellite, covering 5 sq. deg. Complementary VRI photometry was performed with the Gemini South telescope. Colour-magnitude and colour-colour diagrams were used in conjunction with pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks to derive the masses and ages of the X-ray sources. Results: The ROSAT images show two distinct clusters. One is associated with the known optical clusters near Z CMa, to which 40 members are added. The other, which we name the “GU CMa” cluster, is new, and contains 60 members. The ROSAT sources are young stars with masses down to M_star 0.5 M_⊙, and ages up to 10 Myr. The mass functions of the two clusters are similar, but the GU CMa cluster is older than the cluster around Z CMa by at least a few Myr. Also, the GU CMa cluster is away from any molecular cloud, implying that star formation must have ceased; on the contrary (as already known), star formation is very active in the Z CMa region. Based in part on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  15. The impact of realistic models of mass segregation on the event rate of extreme-mass ratio inspirals and cusp re-growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Preto, Miguel

    2011-05-01

    One of the most interesting sources of gravitational waves (GWs) for LISA is the inspiral of compact objects on to a massive black hole (MBH), commonly referred to as an 'extreme-mass ratio inspiral' (EMRI). The small object, typically a stellar black hole, emits significant amounts of GW along each orbit in the detector bandwidth. The slowly, adiabatic inspiral of these sources will allow us to map spacetime around MBHs in detail, as well as to test our current conception of gravitation in the strong regime. The event rate of this kind of source has been addressed many times in the literature and the numbers reported fluctuate by orders of magnitude. On the other hand, recent observations of the Galactic centre revealed a dearth of giant stars inside the inner parsec relative to the numbers theoretically expected for a fully relaxed stellar cusp. The possibility of unrelaxed nuclei (or, equivalently, with no or only a very shallow cusp, or core) adds substantial uncertainty to the estimates. Having this timely question in mind, we run a significant number of direct-summation N-body simulations with up to half a million particles to calibrate a much faster orbit-averaged Fokker-Planck code. We show that, under quite generic initial conditions, the time required for the growth of a relaxed, mass segregated stellar cusp is shorter than a Hubble time for MBHs with M• <~ 5 × 106 Modot (i.e. nuclei in the range of LISA). We then investigate the regime of strong mass segregation (SMS) for models with two different stellar mass components. Given the most recent stellar mass normalization for the inner parsec of the Galactic centre, SMS has the significant impact of boosting the EMRI rates by a factor of ~10 in comparison to what would result from a 7/4-Bahcall and Wolf cusp resulting in ~250 events per Gyr per Milky Way type galaxy. Such an intrinsic rate should translate roughly into ~102-7 × 102 sbh's (EMRIs detected by LISA over a mission lifetime of 2 or 5 years

  16. Cluster Observations of Ion Dispersions near the Exterior Cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escoubet, C.; Grison, B.; Berchem, J.; Trattner, K. J.; Pitout, F.; Richard, R. L.; Taylor, M. G.; Laakso, H. E.; Masson, A.; Dunlop, M. W.; Dandouras, I. S.; Reme, H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Daly, P. W.

    2013-12-01

    The cusps are the places where the Earth's magnetic field lines, connected to the inner side of the magnetopause, converge. It is therefore the place where signatures of processes occurring near the subsolar point, in the tail lobes, as well as near the dawn and dusk flanks are observed. The main process that injects solar wind plasma into the polar cusp is now generally accepted to be magnetic reconnection. Depending on the IMF direction, this process will take place equatorward (for IMF southward), poleward (for IMF northward) or on the side (for IMF azimuthal) of the cusp. We report a Cluster crossing on 5 January 2002 near the exterior cusp on the southern dusk side. The IMF was mainly azimuthal (IMF-By around -5 nT), the solar wind speed around 280 km/s and the density around 5 cm-3. The four Cluster spacecraft were still in the "magnetotail" configuration with two perfect tetrahedra of 2000 km around apogee and turning into an elongated configuration near the magnetopause. C4 was the first spacecraft to enter the cusp around 19:52:04 UT, followed by C2 at 19:52:35 UT, C1 at 19:54:24 UT and C3 at 20:13:15 UT. C4 and C1 observed two ion energy dispersions at 20:10 UT and 20:40 UT and C3 at 20:35 UT and 21:15 UT. We will investigate the origin of the injections forming the dispersions and if these can be explained by the reconnection between the interplanetary magnetic field and the Earth's magnetic field.

  17. Cluster Observations of Particle Injections in the Exterior Cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escoubet, C. P.; Grison, B.; Berchem, J.; Trattner, K. J.; Lavraud, B.; Pitout, F.; Soucek, J.; Richard, R. L.; Laakso, H. E.; Masson, A.; Dunlop, M. W.; Dandouras, I. S.; Reme, H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Daly, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    The main process that injects solar wind plasma into the polar cusp is now generally accepted to be magnetic reconnection. Depending on the IMF direction, this process takes place equatorward (for IMF southward), poleward (for IMF northward) or on the dusk or dawn sides (for IMF azimuthal) of the cusp. We report a Cluster crossing on 5 January 2002 near the exterior cusp on the southern dusk side. The IMF was mainly azimuthal (IMF-By around -5 nT), the solar wind speed lower than usual around 280 km/s with the density of order 5 cm-3. The four Cluster spacecraft had an elongated configuration near the magnetopause. C4 was the first spacecraft to enter the cusp around 19:52:04 UT, followed by C2 at 19:52:35 UT, C1 at 19:54:24 UT and C3 at 20:13:15 UT. C4 and C1 observed two ion energy dispersions at 20:10 UT and 20:40 UT and C3 at 20:35 UT and 21:15 UT. Using the time of flight technique on the upgoing and downgoing ions, which leads to energy dispersions, we obtain distances of the ion sources between 14 and 20 RE from the spacecraft. Using Tsyganenko model, we find that these sources are located on the dusk flank, past the terminator. The first injection by C3 is seen at approximately the same time as the 2nd injection on C1 but their sources at the magnetopause were separated by more than 7 RE. This would imply that two distinct sources were active at the same time on the dusk flank of the magnetosphere. In addition, a flow reversal was observed at the magnetopause on C4 which would be an indication that reconnection is taking place near the exterior cusp.

  18. A UV-to-MIR Monitoring of DR Tau: Exploring How Water Vapor in the Planet Formation Region is Affected by Stellar Accretion Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzatti, A.; Meyer, M. R.; Manara, C. F.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Testi, L.

    2014-01-01

    Young stars are known to show variability due to non-steady mass accretion rate from their circumstellar disks. Accretion flares can produce strong energetic irradiation and heating that may affect the disk in the planet formation region, close to the central star. During an extreme accretion outburst in the young star EX Lupi, the prototype of EXor variables, remarkable changes in molecular gas emission from ~1 AU in the disk have recently been observed. Here, we focus on water vapor and explore how it is affected by variable accretion luminosity in T Tauri stars. We monitored a young highly variable solar-mass star, DR Tau, using simultaneously two high/medium-resolution spectrographs at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope: VISIR at 12.4 μm to observe water lines from the disk and X-shooter covering from 0.3 to 2.5 μm to constrain the stellar accretion. Three epochs spanning timescales from several days to several weeks were obtained. The accretion luminosity was estimated to change within a factor of ~2 and no change in water emission was detected at a significant level. In comparison with EX Lupi and EXor outbursts, DR Tau suggests that the less long-lived and weaker variability phenomena typical of T Tauri stars may leave water at planet-forming radii in the disk mostly unaffected. We propose that these systems may provide evidence for two processes that act over different timescales: ultraviolet photochemistry in the disk atmosphere (faster) and heating of the deeper disk layers (slower).

  19. A UV-to-MIR monitoring of DR Tau: Exploring how water vapor in the planet formation region is affected by stellar accretion variability

    SciTech Connect

    Banzatti, A.; Meyer, M. R.; Manara, C. F.; Testi, L.; Pontoppidan, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    Young stars are known to show variability due to non-steady mass accretion rate from their circumstellar disks. Accretion flares can produce strong energetic irradiation and heating that may affect the disk in the planet formation region, close to the central star. During an extreme accretion outburst in the young star EX Lupi, the prototype of EXor variables, remarkable changes in molecular gas emission from ∼1 AU in the disk have recently been observed. Here, we focus on water vapor and explore how it is affected by variable accretion luminosity in T Tauri stars. We monitored a young highly variable solar-mass star, DR Tau, using simultaneously two high/medium-resolution spectrographs at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope: VISIR at 12.4 μm to observe water lines from the disk and X-shooter covering from 0.3 to 2.5 μm to constrain the stellar accretion. Three epochs spanning timescales from several days to several weeks were obtained. The accretion luminosity was estimated to change within a factor of ∼2 and no change in water emission was detected at a significant level. In comparison with EX Lupi and EXor outbursts, DR Tau suggests that the less long-lived and weaker variability phenomena typical of T Tauri stars may leave water at planet-forming radii in the disk mostly unaffected. We propose that these systems may provide evidence for two processes that act over different timescales: ultraviolet photochemistry in the disk atmosphere (faster) and heating of the deeper disk layers (slower).

  20. Introduction to stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scilla, Degl'Innocenti

    2016-04-01

    This contribution is meant as a first brief introduction to stellar physics. First I shortly describe the main physical processes active in stellar structures then I summarize the most important features during the stellar life-cycle.

  1. Computational Study of Primary Electrons in the Cusp Region of an Ion Engine's Discharge Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stueber, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor); Deshpande, Shirin S.; Mahalingam, Sudhakar; Menart, James A.

    2004-01-01

    In this work a computer code called PRIMA is used to study the motion of primary electrons in the magnetic cusp region of the discharge chamber of an ion engine. Even though the amount of wall area covered by the cusps is very small, the cusp regions are important because prior computational analyses have indicated that most primary electrons leave the discharge chamber through the cusps. The analysis presented here focuses on the cusp region only. The affects of the shape and size of the cusp region on primary electron travel are studied as well as the angle and location at which the electron enters the cusp region. These affects are quantified using the confinement length and the number density distributions of the primary electrons. In addition to these results comparisons of the results from PRIMA are made to experimental results for a cylindrical discharge chamber with two magnetic rings. These comparisons indicate the validity of the computer code called PRIMA.

  2. STELLARATOR INJECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1962-09-01

    A method and means are described for injecting energetic neutral atoms or molecular ions into dense magnetically collimated plasma columns of stellarators and the like in such a manner that the atoms or ions are able to significantly penetrate the column before being ionized by collision with the plasma constituent particles. Penetration of the plasma column by the neutral atoms or molecular ions is facilitated by superposition of two closely spaced magnetic mirrors on the plasma confinement field. The mirrors are moved apart to magnetically sweep plasma from a region between the mirrors and establish a relatively low plasma density therein. By virture of the low density, neutral atoms or molecular ions injected into the region significantly penetrate the plasma column before being ionized. Thereafter, the mirrors are diminished to permit the injected material to admix with the plasma in the remainder of the column. (AEC)

  3. He II emitters in the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey: Population III star formation or peculiar stellar populations in galaxies at 2 < z < 4.6?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassata, P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; Cucciati, O.; Garilli, B.; Zamorani, G.; Adami, C.; Bardelli, S.; Le Brun, V.; Lemaux, B.; Maccagni, D.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Zucca, E.

    2013-08-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to identify He II emitters at 2 < z < 4.6 and to constrain the source of the hard ionizing continuum that powers the He II emission. Methods: We assembled a sample of 277 galaxies with a highly reliable spectroscopic redshift at 2 < z < 4.6 from the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) Deep and Ultra-Deep data, and we identified 39 He II λ1640 emitters. We studied their spectral properties, measuring the fluxes, equivalent widths (EW), and full width at half maximum (FWHM) for most relevant lines, including He II λ1640, Lyα line, Si II λ1527, and C IV λ1549. Results: About 10% of galaxies at z ~ 3 and iAB ≤ 24.75 show He II in emission, with rest frame equivalent widths EW0 ~ 1-7 Å, equally distributed between galaxies with Lyα in emission or in absorption. We find 11 (3.9% of the global population) reliable He II emitters with unresolved He II lines (FWHM0 < 1200 km s-1), 13 (4.6% of the global population) reliable emitters with broad He II emission (FWHM0 > 1200 km s-1), 3 active galactic nuclei (AGN), and an additional 12 possible He II emitters. The properties of the individual broad emitters are in agreement with expectations from a Wolf-Rayet (W-R) model. Instead, the properties of the narrow emitters are not compatible with this model, nor with predictions of gravitational cooling radiation produced by gas accretion, unless this is severely underestimated by current models by more than two orders of magnitude. Rather, we find that the EW of the narrow He II line emitters are in agreement with expectations for a Population III (PopIII) star formation, if the episode of star formation is continuous, and we calculate that a PopIII star formation rate (SFR) of 0.1-10 M⊙ yr-1 alone is enough to sustain the observed He II flux. Conclusions: We conclude that narrow He II emitters are powered either by the ionizing flux from a stellar population rare at z ~ 0 but much more common at z ~ 3, or by PopIII star formation. As proposed by

  4. Dark Halos: The Flattening of the Density Cusp by Dynamical Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Zant, Amr; Shlosman, Isaac; Hoffman, Yehuda

    2001-10-01

    N-body simulations and analytical calculations of the gravitational collapse in an expanding universe predict that halos should form with a diverging inner density profile, the cusp. There are some observational indications that the dark matter distribution in galaxies might be characterized by a finite core. This ``core catastrophe'' has prompted a search for alternatives to the cold dark matter (CDM) cosmogony. It is shown here that the discrepancy between theory and observations can be very naturally resolved within the standard CDM model, provided that gas is not initially smoothly distributed in the dark matter halo but rather is concentrated in clumps of mass >=0.01% of the total mass of the system. Dynamical friction acting on these lumps moving in the background of the dark matter particles dissipates the clumps' orbital energy and deposits it in the dark matter. Using Monte Carlo simulations, it is shown that the dynamical friction provides a strong enough drag and that with realistic baryonic mass fractions, the available orbital energy of the clumps is sufficient to heat the halo and turn the primordial cusp into a finite, nondiverging core-overcoming the competing effect of adiabatic contraction due to the gravitational influence of the shrinking baryonic component. Depending on the initial conditions, the total density distribution may become either more or less centrally concentrated. Possible consequences of the proposed mechanism for other problems in the CDM model and for the formation and early evolution of the baryonic component of galaxies are also briefly discussed.

  5. Cusps and cores in the presence of galactic bulges

    SciTech Connect

    Popolo, A. Del; Hiotelis, N. E-mail: hiotelis@ipta.demokritos.gr

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study how the presence of bulge formation in galaxies influence their inner density profile, by means of an extended version of the Del Popolo (2009) semi-analytical model. As in Del Popolo (2009), the model takes into account the effect of baryons adiabatic contraction, ordered and random angular momentum, dynamical friction, and adds to the previous the effect of gas cooling, star formation, supernova feedback, and reionization. Our model shows that dwarf galaxies are bulgeless, in agreement with observations showing that the large majority of them has no stellar bulges, and are characterized by a flat profile well described by a Burkert profile. We then studied the effect of a bulge, added to the cored DM halo, on the density profile. In the case of a galaxy having a mass 10{sup 11}M{sub ⊙} the inner density profile has a slope α ≅ 0.65, for a bulge of 4.5 × 10{sup 9}M{sub ⊙} , while if bulge formation is not considered, the slope would be α ≅ 0.55. If the bulge is larger, 6.5 × 10{sup 9}M{sub ⊙} the slope is α ≅ 0.7. In the case of a larger galaxy with 10{sup 12}M{sub ⊙} the slope is α ≅ 0.85, while in absence of bulge it is α ≅ 0.75. We finally study how the inner slope α changes with the bulge mass, and we find a correlation among the two quantities. The result shows that bulge formation has an important role in shaping the inner DM density profile in agreement with Inoue and Saitoh (2011) result. The result implies that going from Sc to SO Hubble type the slope is slightly steepening due to the bulge formation, and due to the fact that early type galaxies have larger bulges.

  6. Stellar Vampires Unmasked

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-10-01

    Astronomers have found possible proofs of stellar vampirism in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, they found that some hot, bright, and apparently young stars in the cluster present less carbon and oxygen than the majority of their sisters. This indicates that these few stars likely formed by taking their material from another star. "This is the first detection of a chemical signature clearly pointing to a specific scenario to form so-called 'Blue straggler stars' in a globular cluster", said Francesco Ferraro, from the Astronomy Department of Bologna University (Italy) and lead-author of the paper presenting the results. Blue stragglers are unexpectedly young-looking stars found in stellar aggregates, such as globular clusters, which are known to be made up of old stars. These enigmatic objects are thought to be created in either direct stellar collisions or through the evolution and coalescence of a binary star system in which one star 'sucks' material off the other, rejuvenating itself. As such, they provide interesting constraints on both binary stellar evolution and star cluster dynamics. To date, the unambiguous signatures of either stellar traffic accidents or stellar vampirism have not been observed, and the formation mechanisms of Blue stragglers are still a mystery. The astronomers used ESO's Very Large Telescope to measure the abundance of chemical elements at the surface of 43 Blue straggler stars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae [1]. They discovered that six of these Blue straggler stars contain less carbon and oxygen than the majority of these peculiar objects. Such an anomaly indicates that the material at the surface of the blue stragglers comes from the deep interiors of a parent star [2]. Such deep material can reach the surface of the blue straggler only during the mass transfer process occurring between two stars in a binary system. Numerical simulations indeed show that the coalescence of stars should not

  7. Stellar Mass Distributions in Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongxin; Hunter, D.; LITTLE THINGS Team

    2011-01-01

    We present the radial distributions of the stellar mass and the star formation histories for a large sample of dwarf irregular galaxies assembled by the LITTLE THINGS project (Local Irregulars That Trace Luminosity Extremes The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey, http://www.lowell.edu/users/dah/littlethings/index.html). Specifically, utilizing the multi-band data including FUV/NUV/UBV/Hα/3.6μm, and with the CB07 stellar population synthesis models, we analyze the variations of the SEDs as a function of radius. By studying the relationship between the stellar mass, star formation histories, star formation and HI gas, we will discuss the possible star formation modes and the roles played by the stellar mass and gas in determining the star formation in dwarf irregular galaxies in general. We gratefully acknowledge funding for this research from the National Science Foundation (AST-0707563).

  8. Cusped magnetic field mercury ion thruster. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of a uniform current density profile in the exhaust beam of an electrostatic ion thruster is discussed in terms of thrust level and accelerator system lifetime. A residence time approach is used to explain the nonuniform beam current density profile of the divergent magnetic field thruster. Mathematical expressions are derived which relate the thruster discharge power loss, propellant utilization, and double to single ion density ratio to the geometry and plasma properties of the discharge chamber. These relationships are applied to a cylindrical discharge chamber model of the thruster. Experimental results are presented for a wide range of the discharge chamber length. The thruster designed for this investigation was operated with a cusped magnetic field as well as a divergent field geometry, and the cusped field geometry is shown to be superior from the standpoint of beam profile uniformity, performance, and double ion population.

  9. TIDE Observations of Cusp and Cleft Multiple Ion Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Chandler, Michael O.; Moore, Thomas E.

    2000-01-01

    The southern pole pass of Polar/TIDe at 5000 km allows a study of the distributions of the cusp and cleft. We discuss observations of TIDE (Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment) as it passes the southern pole on March 29, 1999. A mixture of several cold outflowing ions (0.3-10 eV) are measured simultaneously with magnetospheric precipitation (greater than 100 eV). We will show a study of these multiple plasma distributions, their source, and their interaction.

  10. Particle Detectors and Data Analysis for Cusp Transient Features Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, James R.

    1998-01-01

    On December 3, 1997, a rocket payload (36.152) was launched from Ny Alesund into the dark cusp at 0906:00 U (1206:00 LT) during an interval of southward B(sub Z), and positive B(sub y). Launch occurred during a time interval of northeastward moving auroral forms observed between 0845 and 0945 UT by ground-based meridian scanning photometers. Ground photometric measurements during the flight show that the payload passed over the poleward portion of the most intense 6300 A emissions of the dayside cusp/cleft region. Electrons of energy up to a few hundred eV were detected immediately upon instrument turn-on at an altitude of 205 km and throughout the flight until the payload reached an altitude of approximately 197 km on the downleg. Electron spectra were either quasithermal with peak energies approximately 100 eV or showed evidence of acceleration along the magnetic field line by potentials of 100-200 V. Precipitating ions were observed throughout much of the flight. Their spectra were broadly peaked in energy with the peak energy decreasing from approximately 500 eV to approximately 250 eV as the payload flew approximately westward over the dayside precipitationregion. Structure(spatial or temporal intensity variation) was observed between T + 180 s and T + approximately 400 s. At the rocket altitudes(less than 450km) the ions were observed to be precipitating. During the flight, the DMSPF-13 satellite passed through the all-sky imager field-of-view just poleward of the brightest dayside emissions enabling the identification of plasma sheet and boundary layer regions along the orbit. We thus conclude that particle fluxes detected by the rocket flight were either cusp plasma or boundary layer/mantle plasmajust poleward of the dayside cusp/cleft. Further investigation of the particle characteristics and their relationship to ionospheric convection patterns is continuing.

  11. Particle Detectors and Data Analysis for Cusp Transient Features Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, James R.

    1999-01-01

    On December 3, 1997, a rocket payload (36.152) was launched from N(sub y) Alesund into the dark cusp at 0906:00 U (1206:00 LT) during an interval of southward B(sub z) and positive B(sub y). Launch occurred during a time interval of northeastward moving auroral forms observed between 0845 and 0945 UT by ground-based meridian scanning photometers. Ground photometric measurements during the flight show that the payload passed over the poleward portion of the most intense 6300 A emissions of the dayside cusp/cleft region. Electrons of energy up to a few hundred eV were detected immediately upon instrument turn-on at an altitude of 205 km and throughout the flight until the payload reached an altitude of -197 km on the downleg. Electron spectra were either quasithermal with peak energies -100 eV or showed evidence of acceleration along the magnetic field line by potentials of 100-200 V. Precipitating ions were observed throughout much of the flight. Their spectra were broadly peaked in energy with the peak energy decreasing from -500 eV to -250 eV as the payload flew approximately westward over the dayside precipitation region. Structure (spatial or temporal intensity variation) was observed between T + 180 s and T + -400 s. At the rocket altitudes (<450 km) the ions were observed to be precipitating. During the flight, the DMSP F-13 satellite passed through the all-sky imager field-of-view just poleward of the brightest dayside emissions enabling the identification of plasma sheet and boundary layer regions along the orbit. We thus conclude that particle fluxes detected by the rocket flight were either cusp plasma or boundary layer/mantle plasma just poleward of the dayside cusp/cleft. A paper describing the fields and plasmas observed during the flight is now being prepared for publication.

  12. Field aligned current observations in the polar cusp ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledley, B. G.; Farthing, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    Vector magnetic field measurements made during a sounding rocket flight in the polar cusp ionosphere show field fluctuations in the lower F-region which are interpreted as being caused by the payload's passage through a structured field aligned current system. The field aligned currents have a characteristic horizontal scale size of one kilometer. Analysis of one large field fluctuation gives a current density of 0.0001 amp/m sq.

  13. High-altitude Cusp Precipitation for Different IMF Orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemecek, Z.; Safrankova, J.; Simunek, J.

    2005-12-01

    Reconnection is the most important process in the magnetospheric physics. Dayside reconnection of interplanetary and terrestrial magnetic fields supplies the magnetosphere with a huge amount of the solar wind plasma that is then released due to reconnection occurring in the tail. In spite of its principal importance, reconnection is still understood insufficiently. The main problem is probably connected with the fact that both MHD and kinetic processes are equally important for its initialization and further development. Experimental investigations are difficult because reconnection spots are limited in space and time and a probability that a spacecraft is located in appropriate time at a right position is very low. However, all possible places where magnetopause reconnection can occur are magnetically connected to the cusp and thus the plasma proceeding along reconnected magnetic field lines brings information on reconnection. As observed by the various spacecraft at both low and high altitudes, a cusp precipitation is often characterized by ion energy dispersion. During southward IMF, ion energy falls with increasing magnetic latitudes due to the convection electric field operating as a velocity filter on particles from the injection point to the observation point. The high-energy ions rapidly reach lower latitudes and the lower-energy ions appear later at higher latitudes. By contrast, if reconnection takes place in the tail lobes, the high-energy ions quickly reach higher latitudes, whereas the low-energy ions are convected to lower latitudes and thus the ion energy-latitude dispersion signifies the boundary of open and closed magnetic field lines. We are presenting case studies of crossings of the cusp region at high altitudes which reveal that both spatial and temporal changes should be taken into account for an explanation of the observed features. Moreover, our study shows that the cusp can be supplied from two simultaneously operating reconnection sites

  14. Kinetic solutions for electrons in multi-cusp ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan Hualin; Hu Chundong

    2011-11-28

    Some analytical kinetic solutions are obtained for the primary and plasma electrons in multi-cusp ion source. The characteristics based on these solutions are discussed, such as frictional coefficient, collision frequency, electron current, electron diffusion, electron density, and electrical conductivity. A code based on one of these solutions is developed to discuss the plasma electrons diffusion; the simulation results are qualitatively consistent with our current experiences.

  15. Rip currents, mega-cusps, and eroding dunes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thornton, E.B.; MacMahan, J.; Sallenger, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    Dune erosion is shown to occur at the embayment of beach mega-cusps O(200 m alongshore) that are associated with rip currents. The beach is the narrowest at the embayment of the mega-cusps allowing the swash of large storm waves coincident with high tides to reach the toe of the dune, to undercut the dune and to cause dune erosion. Field measurements of dune, beach, and rip current morphology are acquired along an 18 km shoreline in southern Monterey Bay, California. This section of the bay consists of a sandy shoreline backed by extensive dunes, rising to heights exceeding 40 m. There is a large increase in wave height going from small wave heights in the shadow of a headland, to the center of the bay where convergence of waves owing to refraction over the Monterey Bay submarine canyon results in larger wave heights. The large alongshore gradient in wave height results in a concomitant alongshore gradient in morphodynamic scale. The strongly refracted waves and narrow bay aperture result in near normal wave incidence, resulting in well-developed, persistent rip currents along the entire shoreline. The alongshore variations of the cuspate shoreline are found significantly correlated with the alongshore variations in rip spacing at 95% confidence. The alongshore variations of the volume of dune erosion are found significantly correlated with alongshore variations of the cuspate shoreline at 95% confidence. Therefore, it is concluded the mega-cusps are associated with rip currents and that the location of dune erosion is associated with the embayment of the mega-cusp.

  16. Cusp diffraction catastrophe from spheroids: generalized rainbows and inverse scattering.

    PubMed

    Marston, P L

    1985-12-01

    The angular location of the recently discovered cusp pattern in the far-field scattering from an oblate spheroid is calculated as a function of the aspect ratio D/H. The calculation assumes the diameter D > lambda and is limited to illumination perpendicular to the short axis of the spheroid. It agrees with observations for water drops in the range 1.22 < D/H < 1.37 with D ~ 1 mm. PMID:19730494

  17. Dental management of a talon cusp on a primary incisor.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Richard K; Chussid, Steven

    2007-01-01

    There are many treatment options for the pediatric patient with a talon cusp (TC). The purpose of this paper was to report the case of a TC involving a primary maxillary right central incisor in a 14-month-old male causing displacement of the affected tooth. The etiology of a TC is thought to be a disturbance during the morphodifferentiation stage of tooth development. Clinical problems include: (1) occlusal interferences; (2) esthetic disturbances; (3) accidental cusp fracture; (4) tongue irritation; (5) nursing difficulty; (6) caries; and (7) displacement of the affected tooth. The TC affecting the central incisor was reduced over a period of 4 visits, followed by immediate placement of a 5% sodium fluoride varnish at the conclusion of each reduction visit. Restoration of esthetics and function was evident within 1 month following complete cusp reduction. There were no clinical signs of any problems related to the reduction, and the prognosis was considered to be guarded. The pediatric patient was placed on a 6-month oral hygiene maintenance follow-up.

  18. A super-cusp divertor configuration for tokamaks

    DOE PAGES

    Ryutov, D. D.

    2015-08-26

    Our study demonstrates a remarkable flexibility of advanced divertor configurations created with the remote poloidal field coils. The emphasis here is on the configurations with three poloidal field nulls in the divertor area. We are seeking the structures where all three nulls lie on the same separatrix, thereby creating two zones of a very strong flux expansion, as envisaged in the concept of Takase’s cusp divertor. It turns out that the set of remote coils can produce a cusp divertor, with additional advantages of: (i) a large stand-off distance between the divertor and the coils and (ii) a thorough controlmore » that these coils exert over the fine features of the configuration. In reference to these additional favourable properties acquired by the cusp divertor, the resulting configuration could be called ‘a super-cusp’. General geometrical features of the three-null configurations produced by remote coils are described. Furthermore, issues on the way to practical applications include the need for a more sophisticated control system and possible constraints related to excessively high currents in the divertor coils.« less

  19. A super-cusp divertor configuration for tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D. D.

    2015-08-26

    Our study demonstrates a remarkable flexibility of advanced divertor configurations created with the remote poloidal field coils. The emphasis here is on the configurations with three poloidal field nulls in the divertor area. We are seeking the structures where all three nulls lie on the same separatrix, thereby creating two zones of a very strong flux expansion, as envisaged in the concept of Takase’s cusp divertor. It turns out that the set of remote coils can produce a cusp divertor, with additional advantages of: (i) a large stand-off distance between the divertor and the coils and (ii) a thorough control that these coils exert over the fine features of the configuration. In reference to these additional favourable properties acquired by the cusp divertor, the resulting configuration could be called ‘a super-cusp’. General geometrical features of the three-null configurations produced by remote coils are described. Furthermore, issues on the way to practical applications include the need for a more sophisticated control system and possible constraints related to excessively high currents in the divertor coils.

  20. Mandibular facial talon cusp: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Rv; Chatra, L; Shenai, P; Kishore, S; Nithin, S; Savitha, D; Prabhu, V

    2014-03-01

    Talon cusp (TC) is a relatively uncommon developmental anomaly characterized by cusp-like projections from the cemento-enamel junction to a variable distance toward the incisal edge of an anterior tooth. It usually presents on palatal/lingual surface of the anterior teeth. Studies have revealed that it consists of enamel, dentine and a variable amount of pulp tissue. Presence of this cusp on the facial surface of an anterior tooth is a rare finding with very few cases being reported in the literature. The effects of TCs are mainly aesthetic and functional. The management requires a sufficient knowledge of the present clinical entity and the problems associated with it. Early detection and treatment plays a very vital role in avoiding the future complications. The present case reports a 25-year-old male patient with a facial TC on the mandibular left central incisor in which a prophylactic enameloplasty was carried out to avoid the stagnation of debris and stain. PMID:25031904

  1. The Tordo 1 polar cusp barium plasma injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Davis, T. N.; Jeffries, R. A.; Roach, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    In January 1975, two barium plasma injection experiments were carried out with rockets launched into the upper atmosphere where field lines from the dayside cusp region intersect the ionosphere. The Tordo 1 experiment took place near the beginning of a worldwide magnetic storm. It became a polar cap experiment almost immediately as convection perpendicular to the magnetic field moved the fluorescent plasma jet away from the cusp across the polar cap in an antisunward direction. Convection across the polar cap with an average velocity of more than 1 km/s was observed for nearly 40 min until the barium flux tubes encountered large electron fields associated with a poleward bulge of the auroral oval near Greenland. Prior to the encounter with the aurora near Greenland there is evidence of upward acceleration of the barium ions while they were in the polar cap. The three-dimensional observations of the plasma orientation and motion give an insight into convection from the cusp region across the polar cap, the orientation of the polar cap magnetic field lines out to several earth radii, the causes of polar cap magnetic perturbations, and parallel acceleration processes.

  2. Sex assessment efficacy of permanent maxillary first molar cusp dimensions in Indians

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Achla Bharti; Angadi, Punnya V.; Yadav, Sumit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The human first maxillary molar provides clues about evolution and is functionally important. It has four main cusps, and each cusp has an independent growth pattern and different evolutionary background. Though less explored, the analysis based on measurement of each cusp appears to be more meaningful biologically than conventional measurements of the whole crown. Aim: This study aimed to demonstrate the extent of sexual dimorphism in permanent maxillary first molar cusp diameters and their potential utility in sex prediction among Indians using logistic regression analysis (LRA). Materials and Methods: The mesiodistal and buccolingual (BL) crown diameters along with cusp dimensions and cusp indices of right maxillary first molar were measured in an Indian sample (149 males, 151 females; age range of 18–30 years). The possible sex dimorphism in these parameters was evaluated, and LRA was performed to ascertain their usefulness in sex prediction. Results: BL crown dimension and the hypocone (distolingual) cusp showed the highest sexual dimorphism. The combination of metacone and hypocone, i.e., distal cusp diameters among cusp parameters showed the highest accuracy (61.3%). While, on combining all the crown and cusp diameters together the overall accuracy was raised (64.3%). Conclusion: This study supports the ontogeny hypothesis suggesting that early-forming mesial cusps demonstrate less sexual variation as compared to subsequently formed distal cusps in the maxillary molar. Though the sex identification accuracy for cusp diameters of the permanent maxillary first molar in Indians is relatively moderate (≈61%), it can be used as an adjunct for sexing of adult Indians in forensic contexts. PMID:26681853

  3. Cusp latitude and the optimal solar wind coupling function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, P. T.; Sotirelis, T.; Liou, K.; Meng, C.-I.; Rich, F. J.

    2006-09-01

    Previous work has established that the linear correlation of the low-altitude particle cusp latitude with the southward component of the IMF is about 0.70. Several possibly better candidate functions for determining the coupling between the magnetosphere and the solar wind have been advanced, but none have been evaluated in terms of the cusp, which is a site of direct solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. On the basis of 11 years of DMSP satellite particle data from 1984-1994 (with verification from the subsequent 11 years, 1995-2005), we find that the best solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function involves electric field dimensions, such as the half wave rectifier (vBs) and the Kan-Lee electric field (EKL = vBTsin2(θc/2), where θc is the IMF clock angle). Both the half wave rectifier (r = 0.77) and the Kan-Lee (r = 0.78) functions have a linear correlation with cusp latitude which is noticeably better than the Bz function used in previous work, and also better than the ɛ parameter (ɛ = vB2sin4(θc/2)). However, the best correlation is with a function whose clock angle dependence is intermediate between the pure half wave rectifier (which implies no merging for Bz > 0) and the Kan-Lee function. Namely, EWAV = vBTsin4(θc/2) correlates with cusp latitude at the r = 0.81 level. This latter clock angle dependence has been previously suggested at various times by J. R. Wygant, by S.-I. Akasofu, and by V. M. Vasyliunas. The improved result holds for both the equatorward and poleward edge of the cusp, and regardless of how the IMF is propagated. Earlier work on cross polar cap potentials and on nightside auroral luminosity also favored the EWAV function, which in combination with our findings suggests a widely applicable result. Dayside merging is thus clearly not purely component driven, as the half wave rectifier formula implies. These results also suggest, albeit less convincingly, that merging shuts down for increasingly northward IMF more rapidly than the Kan

  4. The Cusp/Core problem: supernovae feedback versus the baryonic clumps and dynamical friction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Popolo, A.; Pace, F.

    2016-05-01

    In the present paper, we compare the predictions of two well known mechanisms considered able to solve the cusp/core problem (a. supernova feedback; b. baryonic clumps-DM interaction) by comparing their theoretical predictions to recent observations of the inner slopes of galaxies with masses ranging from dSphs to normal spirals. We compare the α-V_{rot} and the α-M_{ast} relationships, predicted by the two models with high resolution data coming from Adams et al. (Astrophys. J. 789, 63, 2014), Simon et al. (Astrophys. J. 621, 757, 2005), LITTLE THINGS (Oh et al. in Astron. J. 149, 180, 2015), THINGS dwarves (Oh et al. in Astron. J. 141, 193, 2011a; Oh et al. in Astron. J. 142, 224, 2011b), THINGS spirals (Oh et al. in Astron. J. 149, 180, 2015), Sculptor, Fornax and the Milky Way. The comparison of the theoretical predictions with the complete set of data shows that the two models perform similarly, while when we restrict the analysis to a smaller subsample of higher quality, we show that the method presented in this paper (baryonic clumps-DM interaction) performs better than the one based on supernova feedback. We also show that, contrarily to the first model prediction, dSphs of small mass could have cored profiles. This means that observations of cored inner profiles in dSphs having a stellar mass <106 M_{⊙} not necessarily imply problems for the ΛCDM model.

  5. GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM STELLAR COLLAPSE

    SciTech Connect

    C. L. FRYER

    2001-01-01

    Stellar core-collapse plays an important role in nearly all facets of astronomy: cosmology (as standard candles), formation of compact objects, nucleosynthesis and energy deposition in galaxies. In addition, they release energy in powerful explosions of light over a range of energies, neutrinos, and the subject of this meeting, gravitational waves. Because of this broad range of importance, astronomers have discovered a number of constraints which can be used to help them understand the importance of stellar core-collapse as gravitational wave sources.

  6. High-altitude cusp: The tremendous large and extremely dynamic region in geospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Fritz, T. A.

    2003-04-01

    High-altitude dayside cusps (both northern and southern) are the tremendous large and extremely dynamic regions in geospace. They have a size of as large as 6 Re and are always there day after day. Turbulent diamagnetic cavities have been observed there. Associated with these cavities are charged particles with energies from 20 keV up to 10 MeV. The intensities of the cusp energetic ions are observed to increase by as large as four orders of the magnitude when compared to regions adjacent to the cusp which includes the magnetosheath. Their seed populations is a mixture of ionospheric and solar wind particles. Some of the diamagnetic cavities were independent of the IMF directions, suggesting that the cusp diamagnetic cavities are different from the magnetospheric sash predicted by MHD simulations. Turbulent electrical field with an amplitude of about 10 mV/m also presents in the cusp, and a cusp resonant acceleration mechanism is suggested.

  7. Energetic particle measurements during a Cluster crossing of a complex high altitude cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Theodore A.

    The Cluster spacecraft were outbound over the Northern Hemisphere on 26 February 2001, at approximately 12:00 MLT, approaching the magnetosheath through the high-altitude cusp region. Due to motions of the cusp, the spacecraft made more than 11 crossings of the boundary of the cusp region before exiting into the magnetosheath. Previously reported studies of this period have compared two methods of 4-spacecraft boundary analysis, one using PEACE data and one using FGM data [Taylor, et al., Annales Geophysicae (2004) 22: 3707-3719]. A third method employing the existence of an energetic particle layer on the cusp boundary measured by the RAPID experiment is presented that permits both the motion of the boundary of this complex passage to be tracked in even greater detail and to establish the capability of the cusp to actually trap energetic electrons within the accompanying cusp diamagnetic cavities that are observed.

  8. Energetic particle measurements during a Cluster crossing of a complex high altitude cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C.; Fritz, T. A.

    2008-05-01

    The Cluster spacecraft were outbound over the Northern Hemisphere on 26 February 2001, at approximately 12:00 MLT, approaching the magnetosheath through the high-altitude cusp region. Due to motions of the cusp, the spacecraft made more than 11 crossings of the boundary of the cusp region before exiting into the magnetosheath. Previously reported studies of this period have compared two methods of 4-spacecraft boundary analysis, one using PEACE data and one using FGM data [Taylor, et al., Annales Geophysicae (2004) 22: 3707-3719]. A third method employing the existence of an energetic particle layer on the cusp boundary measured by the RAPID experiment is presented that permits both the motion of the boundary of this complex passage to be tracked in even greater detail and to establish the capability of the cusp to actually trap energetic electrons within the accompanying cusp diamagnetic cavities that are observed.

  9. Policy change for infants born at the "cusp of viability": a Canadian NICU experience.

    PubMed

    Mahgoub, Linda; van Manen, Michael; Byrne, Paul; Tyebkhan, Juzer M

    2014-11-01

    Resuscitation and life-support treatments for infants born at the "cusp of viability" continue to be subject to clinical and ethical debate. Reported positive outcomes for these infants led our Neonatal Program to critically review our historic practice of discouraging resuscitation of infants born at <24 weeks' gestational age. This practice change required a multifaceted, collaborative approach including neonatal, perinatal, and obstetric efforts. An exceptional experience was the formation of a dedicated working group that included invaluable input from parents who had lived the NICU experience. The inclusion of family members in the development of clinical policy was a novel experience for NICU staff, which we feel ultimately resulted in a more ethically sound approach to the care of these infants and their families. In this article, we explore our experience of the process of policy change, which although detailed and transparent was also complex and challenging in development and implementation.

  10. Stellar Populations of Shell Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsten, Scott; Zenteno, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the inner (out to ˜1 effective radius) stellar populations in a sample of 9 shell galaxies. We derive stellar population parameters from long slit spectra by both analyzing the Lick indices of the galaxies and by fitting high resolution SSP model spectra to the full galaxy spectra. The results from the two methods agree reasonably well. We find the presence of young stellar populations in several of the galaxies, implying recent star formation and allowing us to speculate on the age of the shells. Analyzing the metallicity gradients in our sample, we find an average metallicity gradient of -0.16±0.10 dex/decade in radius. Finally, we compare this with galaxy evolution models to try to constrain the merging history of shell galaxies. We argue that our galaxies likely have undergone major mergers in their past but it is unclear whether the shells formed from these events or from separate minor mergers.

  11. Stellar Metamorphosis:

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [TOP LEFT AND RIGHT] The Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 has captured images of the birth of two planetary nebulae as they emerge from wrappings of gas and dust, like butterflies breaking out of their cocoons. These images highlight a fleeting phase in the stellar burnout process, occurring just before dying stars are transformed into planetary nebulae. The left-hand image is the Cotton Candy nebula, IRAS 17150-3224; the right-hand image, the Silkworm nebula, IRAS 17441-2411. Called proto-planetary nebulae, these dying stars have been caught in a transition phase between a red giant and a planetary nebula. This phase is only about 1,000 years long, very short in comparison to the 1 billion-year lifetime of a star. These images provide the earliest snapshots of the transition process. Studying images of proto-planetary nebulae is important to understanding the process of star death. A star begins to die when it has exhausted its thermonuclear fuel - hydrogen and helium. The star then becomes bright and cool (red giant phase) and swells to several tens of times its normal size. It begins puffing thin shells of gas off into space. These shells become the star's cocoon. In the Hubble images, the shells are the concentric rings seen around each nebula. But the images also reveal the nebulae breaking out from those shells. The butterfly-like wings of gas and dust are a common shape of planetary nebulae. Such butterfly shapes are created by the 'interacting winds' process, in which a more recent 'fast wind' - material propelled by radiation from the hot central star - punches a hole in the cocoon, allowing the nebula to emerge. (This 'interacting wind' theory was first proposed by Dr. Sun Kwok to explain the origin of planetary nebulae, and has been subsequently proven successful in explaining their shapes.) The nebulae are being illuminated by light from the invisible central star, which is then reflected toward us. We are viewing the nebulae

  12. Non-parametric cell-based photometric proxies for galaxy morphology: methodology and application to the morphologically defined star formation-stellar mass relation of spiral galaxies in the local universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grootes, M. W.; Tuffs, R. J.; Popescu, C. C.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Seibert, M.; Kelvin, L. S.

    2014-02-01

    We present a non-parametric cell-based method of selecting highly pure and largely complete samples of spiral galaxies using photometric and structural parameters as provided by standard photometric pipelines and simple shape fitting algorithms. The performance of the method is quantified for different parameter combinations, using purely human-based classifications as a benchmark. The discretization of the parameter space allows a markedly superior selection than commonly used proxies relying on a fixed curve or surface of separation. Moreover, we find structural parameters derived using passbands longwards of the g band and linked to older stellar populations, especially the stellar mass surface density μ* and the r-band effective radius re, to perform at least equally well as parameters more traditionally linked to the identification of spirals by means of their young stellar populations, e.g. UV/optical colours. In particular, the distinct bimodality in the parameter μ*, consistent with expectations of different evolutionary paths for spirals and ellipticals, represents an often overlooked yet powerful parameter in differentiating between spiral and non-spiral/elliptical galaxies. We use the cell-based method for the optical parameter set including re in combination with the Sérsic index n and the i-band magnitude to investigate the intrinsic specific star formation rate-stellar mass relation (ψ*-M*) for a morphologically defined volume-limited sample of local Universe spiral galaxies. The relation is found to be well described by ψ _* ∝ M_*^{-0.5} over the range of 109.5 ≤ M* ≤ 1011 M⊙ with a mean interquartile range of 0.4 dex. This is somewhat steeper than previous determinations based on colour-selected samples of star-forming galaxies, primarily due to the inclusion in the sample of red quiescent discs.

  13. Novel Matricing Technique for Management of Fractured Cusp Conundrum – A Clinician’s Corner

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Priya Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal tooth fracture can be classified as craze lines, fractured cusp, cracked tooth, split tooth and vertical root fracture based on extent and severity of the fracture line. The most common type of longitudinal tooth fracture is fractured cusp that poses the treatment dilemma. Retention of the fractured cusp segment temporarily with matrix band followed by permanent bonded restoration and finally removal of tooth fragment during crown preparation is a novel technique. This paper throws light on a matricing and holding technique for the management of supra-crestally fractured palatal cusp of maxillary first premolar in a 29-year-old Asian male. PMID:27190970

  14. The Anemic Stellar Halo of M101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holwerda, Benne

    2014-10-01

    Models of galaxy formation in a cosmological context predict that massive disk galaxies should have richly-structured extended stellar halos, containing ~10% of a galaxy's stars, originating in large part from the tidal disruption of dwarf galaxies. Observations of a number of nearby disk galaxies have generally agreed with these expectations. Recent new observations in integrated light with a novel array of low scattered-light telephoto lenses have failed to convincingly detect a stellar halo in the nearby massive face-on disk galaxy M101 (van Dokkum et al. 2014). They argue that any halo has to have <0.3% of the mass of the galaxy. This halo would be the least massive of any massive disk galaxy in the local Universe (by factors of several) -- such a halo is not predicted or naturally interpreted by the models, and would present a critical challenge to the picture of ubiquitous stellar halos formed from the debris of disrupting dwarf galaxies.We propose to resolve the stellar populations of this uniquely anemic stellar halo for 6 orbits with HST (ACS and WFC3), allowing us to reach surface brightness limits sufficient to clearly detect and characterize M101's stellar halo if it carries more than 0.1% of M101's mass. With resolved stellar populations, we can use the gradient of stellar populations as a function of radius to separate stellar halo from disk, which is impossible using integrated light observations. The resolved stellar populations will reveal the halo mass to much greater accuracy, measure the halo radial profile, constrain any halo lopsidedness, estimate the halo's stellar metallicity, and permit an analysis of outer disk stellar populations.

  15. Kinematics of Metal-poor Stars in the Galaxy. III. Formation of the Stellar Halo and Thick Disk as Revealed from a Large Sample of Nonkinematically Selected Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Masashi; Beers, Timothy C.

    2000-06-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the space motions of 1203 solar-neighborhood stars with metal abundances [Fe/H]<=-0.6, on the basis of a catalog, of metal-poor stars selected without kinematic bias recently revised and supplemented by Beers et al. This sample, having available proper motions, radial velocities, and distance estimates for stars with a wide range of metal abundances, is by far the largest such catalog to be assembled to date. We show that the stars in our sample with [Fe/H]<=-2.2, which likely represent a ``pure'' halo component, are characterized by a radially elongated velocity ellipsoid (σU,σV,σW)=(141+/-11, 106+/-9, 94+/-8) km s-1 and small prograde rotation =30 to 50 km s-1, consistent with previous analysis of this sample by Beers and Sommer-Larsen based on radial velocity information alone. In contrast to the previous analysis, we find a decrease in with increasing distance from the Galactic plane for stars that are likely to be members of the halo population (Δ/Δ|Z|=-52+/-6 km s-1 kpc-1), which may represent the signature of a dissipatively formed flattened inner halo. Unlike essentially all previous kinematically selected catalogs, the metal-poor stars in our sample exhibit a diverse distribution of orbital eccentricities, e, with no apparent correlation between [Fe/H] and e. This demonstrates, clearly and convincingly, that the evidence offered in 1962 by Eggen, Lynden-Bell, & Sandage for a rapid collapse of the Galaxy, an apparent correlation between the orbital eccentricity of halo stars with metallicity, is basically the result of their proper-motion selection bias. However, even in our nonkinematically selected sample, we have identified a small concentration of high-e stars at [Fe/H]~-1.7, which may originate, in part, from infalling gas during the early formation of the Galaxy. We find no evidence for an additional thick disk component for stellar abundances [Fe/H]<=-2.2. The kinematics of the intermediate

  16. Ion cyclotron waves observed in the polar cusp.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredricks, R. W.; Russell, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    During the penetration by Ogo 5 of the low-latitude disturbed polar cusp region on Nov. 1, 1968, while a major magnetic storm was in progress, a variety of plasma wave activity was observed. Observations of waves with amplitudes less than 2% of the background magnetic field intensity and having frequencies between approximately 0.67 and 0.87 times the local proton gyrofrequency are described. The polarization of these waves indicates that they are propagating at an appreciable angle to the local geomagnetic field line direction. The source of these waves has not been determined, but currents and gradient drifts are suggested as possible agents.

  17. Anode current density distribution in a cusped field thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Huan Liu, Hui Meng, Yingchao; Zhang, Junyou; Yang, Siyu; Hu, Peng; Chen, Pengbo; Yu, Daren

    2015-12-15

    The cusped field thruster is a new electric propulsion device that is expected to have a non-uniform radial current density at the anode. To further study the anode current density distribution, a multi-annulus anode is designed to directly measure the anode current density for the first time. The anode current density decreases sharply at larger radii; the magnitude of collected current density at the center is far higher compared with the outer annuli. The anode current density non-uniformity does not demonstrate a significant change with varying working conditions.

  18. Cusp catastrophe model for binge drinking in a college population.

    PubMed

    Smerz, Kelly E; Guastello, Stephen J

    2008-04-01

    A cusp catastrophe model for binge drinking behavior was developed and tested with attitude toward alcohol consumption and peer influence as the two control parameters. Similar models were also developed for frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Participants were 1,247 students who completed the Long Form of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey. The results were strongest for the binge drinking criterion (R(2) = .90), compared to a linear model (R(2) = .34) that is usually associated with the Theory of Planned Behavior or Theory of Reasoned Action. The results have numerous implications for the development of interventions and for future research.

  19. [Atrial tachycardia ablated from the non-coronary aortic cusp].

    PubMed

    Baszko, Artur; Krzyzanowski, Krzysztof; Zinka, Elzbieta; Grajek, Stefan

    2007-02-01

    We present a case of a patient with drug resistant atrial tachycardia which was ablated from the noncoronary aortic cusp. Tachycardia was adenosine-sensitive and was characterized by a long RP' interval and low amplitude P waves (biphasic in II, III, aVF and V1-V2 leads, and positive in aVL). The earliest atrial activation during tachycardia was recorded at His region and from non-coronary aortic sinus of Valsalva. RF ablation at this area terminated tachycardia and did not impair atrio-ventricular conduction. PMID:17366369

  20. Early science from the Pan-STARRS1 Optical Galaxy Survey (POGS): Maps of stellar mass and star formation rate surface density obtained from distributed-computing pixel-SED fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilker, David A.; Vinsen, K.; Galaxy Properties Key Project, PS1

    2014-01-01

    To measure resolved galactic physical properties unbiased by the mask of recent star formation and dust features, we are conducting a citizen-scientist enabled nearby galaxy survey based on the unprecedented optical (g,r,i,z,y) imaging from Pan-STARRS1 (PS1). The PS1 Optical Galaxy Survey (POGS) covers 3π steradians (75% of the sky), about twice the footprint of SDSS. Whenever possible we also incorporate ancillary multi-wavelength image data from the ultraviolet (GALEX) and infrared (WISE, Spitzer) spectral regimes. For each cataloged nearby galaxy with a reliable redshift estimate of z < 0.05 - 0.1 (dependent on donated CPU power), publicly-distributed computing is being harnessed to enable pixel-by-pixel spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting, which in turn provides maps of key physical parameters such as the local stellar mass surface density, crude star formation history, and dust attenuation. With pixel SED fitting output we will then constrain parametric models of galaxy structure in a more meaningful way than ordinarily achieved. In particular, we will fit multi-component (e.g. bulge, bar, disk) galaxy models directly to the distribution of stellar mass rather than surface brightness in a single band, which is often locally biased. We will also compute non-parametric measures of morphology such as concentration, asymmetry using the POGS stellar mass and SFR surface density images. We anticipate studying how galactic substructures evolve by comparing our results with simulations and against more distant imaging surveys, some of which which will also be processed in the POGS pipeline. The reliance of our survey on citizen-scientist volunteers provides a world-wide opportunity for education. We developed an interactive interface which highlights the science being produced by each volunteer’s own CPU cycles. The POGS project has already proven popular amongst the public, attracting about 5000 volunteers with nearly 12,000 participating computers, and is

  1. Probing the Hierarchy in Stellar Clustering Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios

    2015-08-01

    The formation of stars is a ``social'' process. It leads to the assembly of young stars at various length-scales into structures of diverse degrees of self-binding, from gravitationally-bound star clusters to unbound stellar associations, and beyond. These different young stellar systems are, however, not independent to each other. In nearby star-forming regions compact clusters appear at few 1-pc scales as the nested centers of star formation within loose stellar aggregations of few 10-pc sizes. Resolved populations across whole galaxies show that these structures are themselves components of larger stellar complexes with typical sizes of few 100-pc, and this structural behavior seems to extend to kpc scales in galactic super-structures and spiral arms. From the stellar clustering point-of-view, star formation behaves as a scale-free process, expressed by power-laws in size distributions and correlation functions. The origins of the self-similar stellar structural morphology, the scales where it changes behavior, and how these scales are determined, are fundamental questions to our understanding of star formation. Star-forming complexes in the Magellanic Clouds, imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope, provide a complete stellar sampling, necessary to address these questions across length-scales of typical molecular clouds. I will present the spatial distribution of newly-born stars and evidence of its origins, its correlation to molecular gas morphology, and the connection between star formation rate derived from star-counts and gas surface density, across the star-forming complex N66 in the Small Magellanic Cloud. I will discuss our findings in terms of stellar clustering at birth, its hierarchical behavior, and its relation to the ISM morphology in an attempt to disentangle the physical conditions between clustered and non-clustered star formation within a giant molecular cloud.

  2. History of Stellar Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the history of stellar interferometry from the suggestion of Fizeau that stellar interferometry was possible,to the use of the Mark I, II and III for astrometry. Photographs, and parts of original articles are presented.

  3. Stellar halos around Local Group galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnachie, Alan W.

    2016-08-01

    The Local Group is now home to 102 known galaxies and candidates, with many new faint galaxies continuing to be discovered. The total stellar mass range spanned by this population covers a factor of close to a billion, from the faintest systems with stellar masses of order a few thousand to the Milky Way and Andromeda, with stellar masses of order 1011 M ⊙. Here, I discuss the evidence for stellar halos surrounding Local Group galaxies spanning from dwarf scales (with the case of the Andromeda II dwarf spheroidal), though to intermediate mass systems (M33) and finishing with M31. Evidence of extended stellar populations and merging is seen across the luminosity function, indicating that the processes that lead to halo formation are common at all mass scales.

  4. Early stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahler, Steven W.

    1994-01-01

    Research into the formation and early evolution of stars is currently an area of great interest and activity. The theoretical and observational foundations for this development are reviewed in this paper. By now, the basic physics governing cloud collapse is well understood, as is the structure of the resulting protostars. However, the theory predicts protostellar luminosities that are greater than those of most infrared sources. Observationally, it is thought that protostars emit powerful winds that push away remnant cloud gas, but both the origin of these winds and the nature of their interaction with ambient gas are controversial. Finally, the theory of pre-main-sequence stars has been modified to incorporate more realistic initial conditions. This improvement helps to explain the distribution of such stars in the H-R diagram. Many important issues, such as the origin of binary stars and stellar clusters, remain as challenges for future research.

  5. Aortic cusp extension valvuloplasty: repair with an extracellular patch

    PubMed Central

    Pawlak, Szymon; Śliwka, Joanna; Urlik, Maciej; Maruszewski, Marcin; Kukulski, Tomasz; Nożyński, Jerzy; Zembala, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The proportion of valve repair procedures is increasing in experienced centers. The aim of the study was to assess the clinical and echocardiographic outcomes after aortic valve reconstruction with a novel surgical technique. Material and methods The study group consisted of 30 patients (23 male and 7 female) at a mean age of 35 ± 14 years. In patients with aortic root aneurysm the reimplantation or Florida sleeve technique was used. A sub-commissural annuloplasty, plication of the free edge of the cusp, shaving, and commissurotomy were performed. At this stage of surgery aortic repair was then attempted by cusp extension. Since 2013 the strips have been tailored from extracellular matrix. Results The mean aortic cross-clamp time was 90 ± 32 min. The mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 126 ± 38 min. There was no in-hospital death. Re-exploration for bleeding was required in 1 patient. During follow-up, 1 patient needed reoperation at 1 year due to endocarditis. All patients remained alive in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class I. The echocardiographic findings remained unchanged in all cases during follow-up. Conclusions Our modification of aortic valve repair results in a good outcome. PMID:26855646

  6. Cusps and cuspidal edges at fluid interfaces: Existence and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krechetnikov, R.

    2015-04-01

    One of the intriguing questions in fluid dynamics is on the interrelation between dynamic singularities in the solutions of fluid dynamic equations - unboundedness of the velocity field in an appropriate norm - and the geometric ones - divergence of curvature at fluid interfaces. The present work focuses on two generic interfacial singularities - genuine cusps and cuspidal edges - found here in both two and three dimensions thus establishing a relation between real fluid interfaces and geometric singularity theory. The key finding is the necessary condition for the existence of geometric singularities, which is a variation of surface tension. It is also established here that the dynamic and geometric singularities entail each other only in the case of three-dimensional cusps. Explicit asymptotic solutions for the flow field and interface shape near steady-state singularities at fluid interfaces are developed as well. The practical motivation for the present study comes from the fundamental role interfacial singularities play in sustaining self-driven conversion of chemical into mechanical energy.

  7. Cusps and cuspidal edges at fluid interfaces: existence and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krechetnikov, Rouslan

    2015-11-01

    One of the intriguing questions in fluid dynamics is on the interrelation between dynamic singularities in the solutions of fluid dynamic equations - unboundedness of the velocity field in an appropriate norm - and the geometric ones - divergence of curvature at fluid interfaces. The present talk focuses on two generic interfacial singularities - genuine cusps and cuspidal edges - found here in both two and three dimensions thus establishing a relation between real fluid interfaces and geometric singularity theory. The key new finding is the necessary condition for the existence of geometric singularities, which is a variation of surface tension. It is also established here that the dynamic and geometric singularities entail each other only in the case of three-dimensional cusps. Explicit asymptotic solutions for the flow field and interface shape near steady-state singularities at fluid interfaces are developed as well. The practical motivation for the present study comes from the fundamental role interfacial singularities play in sustaining self-driven conversion of chemical into mechanical energy.

  8. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF THE MILKY WAY THICK DISK AND STELLAR HALO. I. IMPLICATIONS OF [{alpha}/Fe] FOR STAR FORMATION HISTORIES IN THEIR PROGENITORS

    SciTech Connect

    Ishigaki, Miho N.; Aoki, Wako; Chiba, Masashi E-mail: aoki.wako@nao.ac.jp

    2012-07-01

    We present the abundance analysis of 97 nearby metal-poor (-3.3 < [Fe/H] <-0.5) stars having kinematic characteristics of the Milky Way (MW) thick disk and inner and outer stellar halos. The high-resolution, high-signal-to-noise optical spectra for the sample stars have been obtained with the High Dispersion Spectrograph mounted on the Subaru Telescope. Abundances of Fe, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti have been derived using a one-dimensional LTE abundance analysis code with Kurucz NEWODF model atmospheres. By assigning membership of the sample stars to the thick disk, inner halo, or outer halo components based on their orbital parameters, we examine abundance ratios as a function of [Fe/H] and kinematics for the three subsamples in wide metallicity and orbital parameter ranges. We show that, in the metallicity range of -1.5 < [Fe/H] {<=}-0.5, the thick disk stars show constantly high mean [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] ratios with small scatter. In contrast, the inner and the outer halo stars show lower mean values of these abundance ratios with larger scatter. The [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], and [Ca/Fe] for the inner and the outer halo stars also show weak decreasing trends with [Fe/H] in the range [Fe/H] >-2. These results favor the scenarios that the MW thick disk formed through rapid chemical enrichment primarily through Type II supernovae of massive stars, while the stellar halo has formed at least in part via accretion of progenitor stellar systems having been chemically enriched with different timescales.

  9. The Dark Matter Halo Shape of NGC 2976 via Stellar Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. J.; Gebhardt, K.; Hill, G. J.; Blanc, G. A.; van den Bosch, R.

    2010-10-01

    The observations of kinematics in low surface brightness (LSB) and dwarf late type galaxies have stubbornly resisted giving clear evidence for the cuspy Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) dark matter (DM) halo profiles that simulations with ACDM inputs predict (Navarro, Frenk, & White 1996a). Instead, most LSBs and late type dwarfs suggest cored DM halos (Kuzio de Naray, McGaugh, & de Blok 2008) or the observations are not yet constraining enough to rule out cusps (Swaters et al. 2003; Simon et al. 2005). The most viable theory to explain cored DM halos relies on the gravitational perturbation of a growing baryonic disk that is then rapidly removed causing the halo to expand to a cored equilibrium (Navarro, Eke, & Frenk 1996b), so this problem looms large over small galaxy formation and growth. Some works have studied nearby disk galaxy kinematics for DM halo shapes with longslit stellar kinematics (Corsini et al. 1999; Corbelli & Walterbos 2007), but the best constraints come from 2D spectroscopy. So far, NGC 2976 has made the cleanest case for a cored DM halo via gaseous kinematics (Simon et al. 2003). We here report on observations of NGC 2976 with the large field-of-view fiber fed Visible Integral field Replicable Unit Spectrograph Prototype (VIRUS-P) (Hill et al. 2008) to concurrently measure the gaseous and stellar kinematics and probe the DM halo. We find a velocity field likely indicating a weak bar's influence. We cannot yet discriminate between a cuspy DM halo or a purely baryonic potential, but our data and models disfavor a cored DM halo.

  10. Facial talon cusp on mandibular incisor: a rare case report with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Suresh K; Verma, Pradhuman; Dutta, Sanjay; Verma, Kanika Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Talon cusp is a relatively rare developmental dental anomaly thought to arise as a result of evagination on the surface of a tooth crown before calcification has occurred. It is characterized by cusp-like projections from the cingulum area, or cemento-enamel junction of maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth, in both the primary and permanent dentition, usually observed on the lingual surface of the affected tooth. The cusp may or may not contain an extension of the pulp. The etiology remains unknown. The incidence is 0.04-8%. Any tooth may have a talon cusp but most of the cases involve maxillary lateral incisors. The anomaly has been reported to be rare especially when it occurs on mandibular teeth. This article reports a case of talon cusp on permanent mandibular central incisor that too on facial aspect which makes it a rare entity. PMID:25099002

  11. Node dynamics and cusps size distribution at the border of liquid sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villermaux, E.; Almarcha, C.

    2016-08-01

    We study the intrinsic dynamics of cusps, or indentations, moving along a liquid sheet border, and characterize their ensemble statistics. Gordillo and collaborators [J. Fluid Mech. 754, R1 (2014), 10.1017/jfm.2014.397] have shown that the symmetrical stationary cusp is the only structure accommodating for both mass and momentum conservation at a steadily receding liquid sheet rim. Cusps are also known to typically move along a sheet border, to present an asymmetry, and to be distributed in size around a mean. We show here why a heterogeneous assembly of cusps traveling along the sheet rim occurs spontaneously, why big and small cusps coexist at the same time, and, more precisely, we establish a specific link between the microscopic dynamics directing their motion, and the ensemble averaged distribution of their sizes.

  12. Stellar Imager (SI) Space Mission: Stellar Magnetic Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. G.

    2006-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a UV-Optical, Space-Based interferometer designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and stellar interiors (via asteroseismology) and of the Universe in general. SI is identified as a "Flagship and Landmark Discovery Mission" in the 2005 Sun Solar System Connection (SSSC) Roadmap and as a candidate for a "Pathways to Life Observatory" in the Exploration of the Universe Division (EUD) Roadmap (May, 2005). The ultra-sharp images of the Stellar Imager will revolutionize our view of many dynamic astrophysical processes: The 0.1 mas resolution of this deep-space telescope will transform point sources into extended sources, and snapshots into evolving views. SI'S science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. SI'S prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives in support of the Living With a Star program in the Exploration Era. SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. In this paper we will discuss the science goals of the SI Mission and a mission architecture that could meet those goals.

  13. Feedbacks of Composition and Neutral Density Changes on the Structure of the Cusp Density Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkman, D. G.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Clemmons, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's magnetospheric cusp provides direct access of energetic particles to the thermosphere. These particles produce ionization and kinetic (particle) heating of the atmosphere. The increased ionization coupled with enhanced electric fields in the cusp produces increased Joule heating and ion drag forcing. These energy inputs cause large wind and temperature changes in the cusp region. Measurements by the CHAMP satellite (460-390- km altitude) have shown strongly enhanced density in the cusp region. The Streak mission (325-123 km), on the other hand, showed a relative depletion. The atmospheric response in the cusp can be sensitive to composition and neutral density changes. In response to heating in the cusp, air of heavier mean molecular weight is brought up from lower altitudes significantly affecting pressure gradients. This opposes the effects of temperature change due to heating and in-turn affects the density and winds produced in the cusp. Also changes in neutral density change the interaction between precipitating particles and the atmosphere and thus change heating rates and ionization in the region affected by cusp precipitation. In this study we assess the sensitivity of the wind and neutral density structure in the cusp region to changes in the mean molecular weight induced by neutral dynamics, and the changes in particle heating rates and ionization which result from changes in neutral density. We use a high resolution two-dimensional time-dependent nonhydrostatic nonlinear dynamical model where inputs can be systematically altered. The resolution of the model allows us to examine the complete range of cusp widths. We compare the current simulations to observations by CHAMP and Streak. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by The Aerospace Corporation's Technical Investment program

  14. Variation in Cuspal Morphology in Maxillary First Permanent Molar with Report of 3 Cusp Molar- A Prevalence Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Human teeth has always been known for morphological variations in both the crown and root structures. The corono-morphological variations can be in the form of extra cusp or missing cusp. Permanent maxillary first molars are the biggest teeth in maxillary arch and have a high anchorage value and are known for their four cusp and five cusp patterns, if present with cusp of Carebelli. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cuspal variations and quantification of cusps of permanent maxillary first molar in Malwa population. Materials and Methods A total of 1249 individuals were studied at Government College of Dentistry, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India, to evaluate the number of cusps in permanent maxillary first molars. Results Of the studied 1249 individuals, permanent maxillary first molars had five cusps in 407 (32.6%) cases while 838 (67.08%) cases had four cusp and four (0.32%) cases had three cusps. The four cases having three cusp permanent maxillary first molars were present unilaterally and only in females. Conclusion This article emphasizes the presence of permanent maxillary first molar with only three cusps in the Malwa population of India. It also reviews the literature in respect to this rare anomaly and calls for continuous and close monitoring to report such cases in the future. PMID:27790576

  15. An Immature Type II Dens Invaginatus in a Mandibular Lateral Incisor with Talon's Cusp: A Clinical Dilemma to Confront

    PubMed Central

    Singal, Deepa; Giri, K. Y.; Keerthi, S. Sruthi

    2014-01-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) is a malformation of teeth probably resulting from an infolding of the dental papilla during tooth development. DI is classified as type I, II, and III by Oehlers depending on the severity of malformation. The maxillary lateral incisor is the most commonly affected tooth. Structural defects do exist in the depth of the invagination pits, and as a consequence, the early development of caries and the subsequent necrosis of the dental pulp, as well as abscess and cyst formation are clinical implications associated with DI. Occasionally, we can see more than one developmental anomaly occurring in a single tooth. In such cases it becomes important to identify the anomalies and initiate a proper treatment plan for good prognosis. In this paper, an unusual case of DI which clinically presented as a huge talons cusp affecting a mandibular lateral incisor tooth is described. This case report illustrates grinding of the talons cusp followed by nonsurgical endodontic management of dens invaginatus type II with an immature apex and periapical lesions, in which Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) shows a complete periapical healing with bone formation at the site of the lesions. PMID:24660071

  16. Spherical Stellarators and Stellarator-Hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, P. E.

    1997-11-01

    Stellarators are typically the large aspect ratio devices, A ≈ 7-10, and the lowest-A stellarators ever built have A ≈ 5. Following the increasing interest in very compact tokamak devices, called Spherical Tokamaks (ST), an interest has also emerged recently in very compact stellarator devices with A <= 3.5, as their attractiveness for fusion is being demonstrated [1-4]. These stellarators have been called, in analogy with the ST, the Spherical Stellarators (SS). The SS devices have a number of unique features and benefit from the strong bootstrap current. The SS concept shows a path to a compact, high-β, and steady-state fusion reactor, which can be relatively simple and inexpensive. We will report on the latest results obtained, discuss various types of coil configurations advantageous for the SS, and present results of the first round of configuration optimization. Applications to ST devices [5] and new results for stellarator-spheromak hybrids [6] will be presented as well. [1] P.E. Moroz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 651 (1996); [2] P.E. Moroz, Phys. Plasmas 3, 3055 (1996); [3] P.E. Moroz, D.B. Batchelor et al., Fusion Tech. 30, 1347 (1996); [4] P.E. Moroz, Plasma Phys. Reports 23, 502 (1997); [5] P.E. Moroz, Nucl. Fusion 37, No. 7 (1997); [6] P.E. Moroz, Sherwood Fus. Theor. Conf., Madison, 3C31 (1997). *Supported by DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER54395.

  17. 15 cm cusped magnetic field mercury ion thruster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, J. R.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The importance of achieving a uniform current density in the exhaust beam of an electrostatic ion thruster is discussed in terms of thrust level and accelerator grid lifetime. A neutral residence time approach is used to propose a magnetic field geometry which should produce a highly uniform beam current density. The discharge chamber length to diameter ratio is shown to be an important optimization parameter and experimental evaluation of the cusped field thruster over a wide range of this parameter is presented. Beam profile measurements 5 cm downstream of the accelerator grid indicate a beam profile flatness parameter which is 25% greater than the SERT II value. Flatness parameters extrapolated to the plane of the accelerator grid are demonstrated to be as high as 0.9.

  18. Density holes in the cusp and polar cap regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaland, S.; Svenes, K.; Lybekk, B.; Pedersen, A.

    2012-04-01

    Observations have shown that spatially limited density depletions are ubiquitous features of the solar wind and bow shock regions. Recent observations from the Cluster satellites indicate that such density holes also exist at or near the exterior cusp. The density holes are often associated with strong electric fields and high parallel electron velocities. Since the plasma densities are often very low, it is often not possible to determine the density from conventional particle instruments. In this study, we have used high resolution spacecraft potential measurements to obtain more accurate density estimates as well as size and motion these structures. Typical electron densities are in the range 0.01 - 0.1 ccm and the spatial dimensions varies from a few hundred to several thousand km.

  19. MHD Flow Visualization of Magnetopause and Polar Cusps Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Kessel, R. L.; Shao, X.; Boller, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    Detailed analysis of Wind, Geotail, and Cluster data shows how magnetopause boundary and polar cusps vortices associated with high speed streams can be a carrier of energy flux to the Earth's magnetosphere. For our analysis time interval, March 29 . - April 5 2002, the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) is primarily northward and MHD simulations of vortices along the flanks within nine hours of the time interval suggest that a Kelvin Helmholtz (KH) instability is likely present. Vortices were classified by solar wind input provided by the Wind satellite located 70-80 RE upstream from Earth. We present statistics for a total of 304 vortices found near the ecliptic plane on the magnetopause flanks, 273 with northward IMF and 31 with southward IMF. The vortices generated under northward IMF were more driven into the dawnside than into the duskside, being substantially more ordered on the duskside. Most of the vortices were large in scale, up to 10 RE, and with a rotation axis closely aligned with the Z(sub GSE) direction. They rotated preferentially clockwise on the dawnside, and. counter-clockwise on the duskside. Those generated under southward IMF were less ordered, fewer in number, and also smaller in diameter. Significant vortex activity occurred on the nightside region of the magnetosphere for these southward cases in contrast to the northward IMF cases on which most of the activity was driven onto the magnetopause flanks. Magnetopause crossings seen by the Geotail spacecraft for the time interval were analyzed and compared with the MHD simulation to validate our results. Vortices over the polar cusps are also being analyzed and the simulation results will be compared to the multi-point measurements of the four Cluster satellites.

  20. MHD Flow Visualization of Magnetopause and Polar Cusps Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Kessel, R. L.; Shao, X.; Boller, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    Detailed analysis of Wind, Geotail, and Cluster data shows how magnetopause boundary and polar cusps vortices associated with high speed streams can be a carrier of energy flux to the Earth s magnetosphere. For our analysis time interval, March 29 . - April 5 2002, the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) is primarily northward and MHD simulations of vortices along the flanks within nine hours of the time interval suggest that a Kelvin Helmholtz (KH) instability is likely present. Vortices were classified by solar wind input provided by the Wind satellite located 70-80 RE upstream from Earth. We present statistics for a total of 304 vortices found near the ecliptic plane on the magnetopause flanks, 273 with northward IMF and 31 with southward IMF. The vortices generated under northward IMF were more driven into the dawnside than into the duskside, being substantially more ordered on the duskside. Most of the vortices were large in scale, up to 10 RE, and with a rotation axis closely aligned with the ZGSE direction. They rotated preferentially clockwise on the dawnside, and. counter-clockwise on the duskside. Those generated under southward IMF were less ordered, fewer in number, and also smaller in diameter. Significant vortex activity occurred on the nightside region of the magnetosphere for these southward cases in contrast to the northward IMF cases on which most of the activity was driven onto the magnetopause flanks. Magnetopause crossings seen by the Geotail spacecraft for the time interval were analyzed and compared with the MHD simulation to validate our results. Vortices over the polar cusps are also being analyzed and the simulation results will be compared to the multi-point measurements of the four Cluster satellites.

  1. Sounding rocket observations of particle data in the cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mella, M.; Lynch, K.; Kintner, P.; Lundberg, E.; Lessard, M.

    2008-12-01

    The winter 2008 Scifer-2 sounding rocket campaign studied ionospheric outflow in the cusp region. The rocket was launched on January 18, 2008 at 0730 UT from the Andoya Rocket Range in Norway, reaching an apogee of 1468 km over the Eiscat Svalbard Radar. The Scifer 2 campaign was designed as a joint case study, involving both ground and in situ observations, of the low altitude signatures of ionospheric outflow. In situ observations show a thermal ion population with temperatures around 0.6 - 0.8 eV, while ESR observes the temperature at lower altitudes to be ~0.2 eV. This difference is a result of calculating the average over all in situ look directions, which would artificially raise the temperature. In addition to the thermal ion population, there are several bursts of a hotter population of ions with temperatures ranging between 12 -20 eV, along with concurrent elevated wave activity. These hotter ions appear to have been accelerated to energies of several hundred eV, and show interesting velocity dispersion signatures with repeated bands at increasing energies. These two populations are not observed simultaneously, but rather are localized in different regions bordering one another. Additionally, the pitch angle distributions for each of these populations are different. Similar signatures have been seen by other nightside low altitude sounding rockets where upgoing low energy ions are seen adjacent to and coincident with higher energy ion precipitation. Neither observed ion population has a clear local relationship to the variations in the ambient electron temperature, which is a tracer for soft precipitation. We will continue to explore these populations and their boundaries as a case study of structuring in particle signatures in the cusp.

  2. Quasistatic electric field structures and field-aligned currents in the polar cusp region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Knut; Moen, Joran; Pedersen, Arne

    2010-05-01

    Quasistatic electric field structures in the vicinity of the cusp have been studied using Cluster data. There are two categories of electric potential structures, S-shaped and U-shaped. In previous studies in the nightside auroral region, the S-shaped potential was uniquely related to the boundary transition between low density and high density plasma regimes, leading to the conclusion that the electric field profile depends on whether the plasma populations on each side of the boundary can support intense field-aligned and Pedersen currents. In this study in the dayside cusp this is not the case, and a different explanation has to be sought. Most electric field structures are associated with the start of the cusp ion dispersion or with injection signatures within the cusp, and the field-aligned currents associated with these structures are found to be consistent with the cusp currents expected for the IMF By polarity at the time. This indicates that the electric field structures are generated by the cusp current system, or modified by the cusp current system to be consistent with the required currents. Furthermore, we provide firm evidence for the dayside Region 1 current to be located on open field lines, which have been postulated but to our knowledge heretofore not experimentally verified.

  3. Cusp observation at Saturn's high-latitude magnetosphere by the Cassini spacecraft

    PubMed Central

    Jasinski, J M; Arridge, C S; Lamy, L; Leisner, J S; Thomsen, M F; Mitchell, D G; Coates, A J; Radioti, A; Jones, G H; Roussos, E; Krupp, N; Grodent, D; Dougherty, M K; Waite, J H

    2014-01-01

    We report on the first analysis of magnetospheric cusp observations at Saturn by multiple in situ instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft. Using this we infer the process of reconnection was occurring at Saturn's magnetopause. This agrees with remote observations that showed the associated auroral signatures of reconnection. Cassini crossed the northern cusp around noon local time along a poleward trajectory. The spacecraft observed ion energy-latitude dispersions—a characteristic signature of the terrestrial cusp. This ion dispersion is “stepped,” which shows that the reconnection is pulsed. The ion energy-pitch angle dispersions suggest that the field-aligned distance from the cusp to the reconnection site varies between ∼27 and 51 RS. An intensification of lower frequencies of the Saturn kilometric radiation emissions suggests the prior arrival of a solar wind shock front, compressing the magnetosphere and providing more favorable conditions for magnetopause reconnection. Key Points We observe evidence for reconnection in the cusp plasma at Saturn We present evidence that the reconnection process can be pulsed at Saturn Saturn's cusp shows similar characteristics to the terrestrial cusp PMID:25821276

  4. Gravitational-wave stochastic background from kinks and cusps on cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Oelmez, S.; Mandic, V.; Siemens, X.

    2010-05-15

    We compute the contribution of kinks on cosmic string loops to stochastic background of gravitational waves (SBGW). We find that kinks contribute at the same order as cusps to the SBGW. We discuss the accessibility of the total background due to kinks as well as cusps to current and planned gravitational-wave detectors, as well as to the big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and pulsar timing constraints. As in the case of cusps, we find that current data from interferometric gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, are sensitive to areas of parameter space of cosmic string models complementary to those accessible to pulsar, BBN, and CMB bounds.

  5. Stellar coronae from Einstein - Observations and theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, R.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    Einstein Observatory observations of stellar X-ray emission are presented and their implications for the formation of stellar coronae and the problem of stellar angular momentum loss are discussed. Solar coronal X-ray observations and observations of stellar coronae made prior to Einstein are reviewed, and it is noted that they already suggest that the standard theory of acoustic coronal heating is inadequate. The principal results of the Einstein/CfA stellar survey are summarized, with attention given to variations of the level of X-ray flux detected along the main sequence, the decline of X-ray flux with increasing age of giants and supergiants, and indications of a large range of X-ray emission levels within a given type, which are clearly incompatible with models for acoustic flux generation. A new theory to explain stellar coronae and hence X-ray emission from them is then proposed in which stellar magnetic fields play the key role in determining the level of coronal emission, and the modulation of the surface magnetic flux level and the level of stressing of surface magnetic fields essentially determine the variation of mean coronal activity in the H-R diagram.

  6. The Dynamical Evolution of Stellar-Mass Black Holes in Dense Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morscher, Maggie

    Globular clusters are gravitationally bound systems containing up to millions of stars, and are found ubiquitously in massive galaxies, including the Milky Way. With densities as high as a million stars per cubic parsec, they are one of the few places in the Universe where stars interact with one another. They therefore provide us with a unique laboratory for studying how gravitational interactions can facilitate the formation of exotic systems, such as X-ray binaries containing black holes, and merging double black hole binaries, which are produced much less efficiently in isolation. While telescopes can provide us with a snapshot of what these dense clusters look like at present, we must rely on detailed numerical simulations to learn about their evolution. These simulations are quite challenging, however, since dense star clusters are described by a complicated set of physical processes occurring on many different length and time scales, including stellar and binary evolution, weak gravitational scattering encounters, strong resonant binary interactions, and tidal stripping by the host galaxy. Until very recently, it was not possible to model the evolution of systems with millions of stars, the actual number contained in the largest clusters, including all the relevant physics required describe these systems accurately. The Northwestern Group's Henon Monte Carlo code, CMC, which has been in development for over a decade, is a powerful tool that can be used to construct detailed evolutionary models of large star clusters. With its recent parallelization, CMC is now capable of addressing a particularly interesting unsolved problem in astrophysics: the dynamical evolution of stellar black holes in dense star clusters. Our current understanding of the stellar initial mass function and massive star evolution suggests that young globular clusters may have formed hundreds to thousands of stellar-mass black holes, the remnants of stars with initial masses from 20 - 100

  7. Beyond the Break: Observational Evidence of Stellar Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoachim, Peter; Roškar, R.; Debattista, V. P.

    2012-01-01

    We use the VIRUS-P IFU spectrograph to observe 6 nearby disk galaxies. In three cases (NGC 2684, NGC 6155, and NGC 7437), we find that a downward break in the disk surface brightness profile corresponds with a change in the dominant stellar population with the interior being dominated by active star formation and the exterior having older stellar populations. This is similar to theoretical models that predict surface brightness breaks are caused by stellar migration, with the outer disk being populated from scattered old interior stars. In three more cases (IC 1132, NGC 4904, and NGC 6691), we find no significant change in the stellar population as one crosses the break radius. In these galaxies, both the inner and outer disks are dominated by active star formation and younger stellar populations. While radial migration can contribute to radial profile breaks, it appears multiple mechanisms are required to explain all of our observed stellar profile breaks.

  8. Stellar Snowflake Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Stellar Snowflake Cluster Combined Image [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2 Infrared Array CameraFigure 3 Multiband Imaging Photometer

    Newborn stars, hidden behind thick dust, are revealed in this image of a section of the Christmas Tree cluster from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, created in joint effort between Spitzer's infrared array camera and multiband imaging photometer instruments.

    The newly revealed infant stars appear as pink and red specks toward the center of the combined image (fig. 1). The stars appear to have formed in regularly spaced intervals along linear structures in a configuration that resembles the spokes of a wheel or the pattern of a snowflake. Hence, astronomers have nicknamed this the 'Snowflake' cluster.

    Star-forming clouds like this one are dynamic and evolving structures. Since the stars trace the straight line pattern of spokes of a wheel, scientists believe that these are newborn stars, or 'protostars.' At a mere 100,000 years old, these infant structures have yet to 'crawl' away from their location of birth. Over time, the natural drifting motions of each star will break this order, and the snowflake design will be no more.

    While most of the visible-light stars that give the Christmas Tree cluster its name and triangular shape do not shine brightly in Spitzer's infrared eyes, all of the stars forming from this dusty cloud are considered part of the cluster.

    Like a dusty cosmic finger pointing up to the newborn clusters, Spitzer also illuminates the optically dark and dense Cone nebula, the tip of which can be seen towards the bottom left corner of each image.

    This combined image shows the presence of organic molecules mixed with dust as wisps of green, which have been illuminated by nearby star formation. The larger yellowish dots neighboring the baby red stars in the Snowflake Cluster are massive stellar infants forming

  9. Pulsed Flows Along a Cusp Structure Observed with SOO/AIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Barbara; Demoulin, P.; Mandrini, C. H.; Mays, M. L.; Ofman, L.; Driel-Gesztelyi, L. Van; Viall, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    We present observations of a cusp-shaped structure that formed after a flare and coronal mass ejection on 14 February 2011. Throughout the evolution of the cusp structure, blob features up to a few Mm in size were observed flowing along the legs and stalk of the cusp at projected speeds ranging from 50 to 150 km/sec. Around two dozen blob features, on order of 1 - 3 minutes apart, were tracked in multiple AlA EUV wavelengths. The blobs flowed outward (away from the Sun) along the cusp stalk, and most of the observed speeds were either constant or decelerating. We attempt to reconstruct the 3-D magnetic field of the evolving structure, discuss the possible drivers of the flows (including pulsed reconnect ion and tearing mode instability), and compare the observations to studies of pulsed reconnect ion and blob flows in the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere.

  10. Plasma waves in the dayside polar cusp. II - Magnetopause and polar magnetosheath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.; Fredricks, R. W.; Neugebauer, M.; Russell, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    During the outbound pass of Nov. 1, 1968, Ogo 5 sporadically encountered the low-altitude polar cusp at low magnetic latitudes. The spacecraft remained in the cusp beyond six earth radii, and it then traversed the interface region between the magnetospheric cusp and the magnetosheath. Two large scale discontinuities were detected in this sheath-cusp transition region, and several possible interpretations are evaluated here. At 1427 UT, local changes in magnetic field orientation and the variation in ULF magnetic power spectral density were typical of shifts detected at the magnetopause, although the spacecraft did not traverse a true boundary of warm plasma at this point. The second discontinuity, detected at 1456 UT, resembled a collisionless shock, and it was characterized by observations of intense, impulsive VLF electric field bursts and rapid local variations in both total ion flux and differential electron flux. The simplest interpretation is that Ogo 5 had traversed a standing shock within the sheath.

  11. Poynting Flux Deposition in the Northern Hemisphere Near-Cusp Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knipp, D. J.; Crowley, G.

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a seven-year data base (2000-2006) of Poynting flux observations from the DMSP F-15 satellite. The satellite orbits in 09-21 LT meridian and often cuts through the cusp on the northern hemisphere dayside. In the vicinity of the cusp the Poynting flux values are often enhanced by a factor of 2-10 compared to surrounding regions. The enhanced energy deposition in this region is consistent with recent reports of enhanced neutral density in the vicinity of the cusp and with data assimilation results that show heating in a longitudinal swath across the high-latitude dayside region [Crowley et al., 2010]. We find particular enhancements during intervals of large IMF By and high speed flow in the solar wind. We provide a statistical view of the cusp region energization based on distributions of magnetic field perturbations and ion drift measurements.

  12. Magnetic field structure influence on primary electron cusp losses for micro-scale discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Dankongkakul, Ben; Araki, Samuel J.; Wirz, Richard E.

    2014-04-15

    An experimental effort was used to examine the primary electron loss behavior for micro-scale (≲3 cm diameter) discharges. The experiment uses an electron flood gun source and an axially aligned arrangement of ring-cusps to guide the electrons to a downstream point cusp. Measurements of the electron current collected at the point cusp show an unexpectedly complex loss pattern with azimuthally periodic structures. Additionally, in contrast to conventional theory for cusp losses, the overall radii of the measured collection areas are over an order of magnitude larger than the electron gyroradius. Comparing these results to Monte Carlo particle tracking simulations and a simplified analytical analysis shows that azimuthal asymmetries of the magnetic field far upstream of the collection surface can substantially affect the electron loss structure and overall loss area.

  13. Esthetic management of double tooth associated with talon cusp using a laminate veneer.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Wayne José Batista; do Couto, Cintia Fernandes; Barros, Renata Nunes; Zarranz, Laila; Jorge, Mônica Zacharias; de Gouvêa, Cresus Vínicius Depes

    2014-01-01

    Double tooth and talon cusp are tooth shape anomalies with rare co-occurrences in a single tooth. Double tooth is a developmental anomaly that leads to the eruption of fused teeth and may contribute to compromised esthetics, pain, caries, and tooth crowding. Talon cusp is a rare developmental extra cusp-like projection on the cingulum area that may cause functional and esthetic problems. Differential diagnosis of these anomalies may be complicated. A multidisciplinary approach for the esthetic and functional rehabilitation of double teeth is important. Various treatment methods have been described in the literature for the different types and morphological variations of double teeth. The purpose of this paper is to report the case of an unusual combination of double tooth and talon cusp on a permanent maxillary incisor and describe its esthetic and functional rehabilitation using a porcelain laminate veneer. PMID:25514262

  14. Quasistatic electric field structures and field-aligned currents in the polar cusp region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, K. S.; Moen, J. I.; Pedersen, A.

    2010-10-01

    Cluster data have been examined for quasi-stationary electric field structures and field-aligned currents (FACs) in the vicinity of the dayside cusp region. We have related the measurements to the Region 1/Region 2 (R1/R2) current system and the cusp current system. It has been theoretically proposed that the dayside R1 current may be located on open field lines, and experimental evidence has been shown for R1 currents partially on open field lines. We document that R1 currents may flow entirely on open field lines. The electric field structures are found to occur at plasma density gradients in the cusp. They are associated with strong FACs with current directions that are consistent with the cusp currents. This indicates that the electric field structures are closely coupled to the cusp current system. The electric equipotential structures linking the perpendicular electric fields seen at Cluster altitudes to field-aligned electric fields at lower altitudes fall into one of two categories: S shape or U shape. Both types are found at both the equatorward edge of the cusp ion dispersion and at the equatorward edge of injection events within the cusp. Previous studies in the nightside auroral region attributed the S-shaped potential structures to the boundary transition between the low-density polar cap and the high-density plasma sheet, concluding that the shape of the electric potential structure depends on whether the plasma populations on each side of the structure can support intense currents. This explanation is not applicable for the S-shaped structures observed in the dayside cusp region.

  15. Lower bounds to energies for cusped-gaussian wavefunctions. [hydrogen atom ground state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaves, J. O.; Walsh, B. C.; Steiner, E.

    1974-01-01

    Calculations for the ground states of H, He, and Be, conducted by Steiner and Sykes (1972), show that the inclusion of a very small number of cusp functions can lead to a substantial enhancement of the quality of the Gaussian basis used in molecular wavefunction computations. The properties of the cusped-Gaussian basis are investigated by a calculation of lower bounds concerning the ground state energy of the hydrogen atom.

  16. SI: The Stellar Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Karovska, Margarita

    2006-01-01

    The ultra-sharp images of the Stellar Imager (SI) will revolutionize our view of many dynamic astrophysical processes: The 0.1 milliarcsec resolution of this deep-space telescope will transform point sources into extended sources, and simple snapshots into spellbinding evolving views. SI s science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. SI s prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives in support of the Living With a Star program in the Exploration Era by imaging a sample of magnetically active stars with enough resolution to map their evolving dynamo patterns and their internal flows. By exploring the Universe at ultra-high resolution, SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magnetohydrodynamically controlled structures and processes in the Universe.

  17. Design of a cusped field thruster for drag-free flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Chen, P. B.; Sun, Q. Q.; Hu, P.; Meng, Y. C.; Mao, W.; Yu, D. R.

    2016-09-01

    Drag-free flight has played a more and more important role in many space missions. The thrust control system is the key unit to achieve drag-free flight by providing a precise compensation for the disturbing force except gravity. The cusped field thruster has shown a significant potential to be capable of the function due to its long life, high efficiency, and simplicity. This paper demonstrates a cusped field thruster's feasibility in drag-free flight based on its instinctive characteristics and describes a detailed design of a cusped field thruster made by Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT). Furthermore, the performance test is conducted, which shows that the cusped field thruster can achieve a continuously variable thrust from 1 to 20 mN with a low noise and high resolution below 650 W, and the specific impulse can achieve 1800 s under a thrust of 18 mN and discharge voltage of 1000 V. The thruster's overall performance indicates that the cusped field thruster is quite capable of achieving drag-free flight. With the further optimization, the cusped field thruster will exhibit a more extensive application value.

  18. Experimental and analytical investigation of a modified ring cusp NSTAR engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengupta, Anita

    2005-01-01

    A series of experimental measurements on a modified laboratory NSTAR engine were used to validate a zero dimensional analytical discharge performance model of a ring cusp ion thruster. The model predicts the discharge performance of a ring cusp NSTAR thruster as a function the magnetic field configuration, thruster geometry, and throttle level. Analytical formalisms for electron and ion confinement are used to predict the ionization efficiency for a given thruster design. Explicit determination of discharge loss and volume averaged plasma parameters are also obtained. The model was used to predict the performance of the nominal and modified three and four ring cusp 30-cm ion thruster configurations operating at the full power (2.3 kW) NSTAR throttle level. Experimental measurements of the modified engine configuration discharge loss compare well with the predicted value for propellant utilizations from 80 to 95%. The theory, as validated by experiment, indicates that increasing the magnetic strength of the minimum closed reduces maxwellian electron diffusion and electrostatically confines the ion population and subsequent loss to the anode wall. The theory also indicates that increasing the cusp strength and minimizing the cusp area improves primary electron confinement increasing the probability of an ionization collision prior to loss at the cusp.

  19. FRACTURE RESISTANCE OF WEAKENED TEETH RESTORED WITH CONDENSABLE RESIN WITH AND WITHOUT CUSP COVERAGE

    PubMed Central

    Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi; de Oliveira, Otávio; Mondelli, José

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This in vitro study evaluated the fracture resistance of weakened human premolars (MOD cavity preparation and pulp chamber roof removal) restored with condensable resin composite with and without cusp coverage. Material and Methods: Thirty human maxillary premolars were divided into three groups: Group A (control), sound teeth; Group B, wide MOD cavities prepared and the pulp chamber roof removed and restored with resin composite without cusp coverage; Group C, same as Group B with 2.0 mm of buccal and palatal cusps reduced and restored with the same resin. The teeth were included in metal rings with self-curing acrylic resin, stored in water for 24 h and thereafter subjected to a compressive axial load in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. Results: The mean fracture resistance values ± standart deviation (kgf) were: group A: 151.40 ± 55.32, group B: 60.54 ± 12.61, group C: 141.90 ± 30.82. Statistically significant differences were found only between Group B and the other groups (p<0.05). The condensable resin restoration of weakened human premolars with cusp coverage significantly increased the fracture resistance of the teeth as compared to teeth restored without cusp coverage. Conclusion: The results showed that cusp coverage with condensable resin might be a safe option for restoring weakened endodontically treated teeth. PMID:19466244

  20. The True Cusp, a Unique Signature at Low- and Mid-Altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, W. R.; Winningham, J. D.; Parks, G. K.

    2001-12-01

    Recent observations have been made at low- and mid-altitudes of highly localized "true cusp" crossings made by the current DMSP F-series spacecraft and Cluster-II. These signatures are remarkably similar to the low-altitude measurements of DE-2, Astrid-2, UARS, and DMSP F-10 reported previously in Keith et. al. (2001). These new observations support the idea of a unique "true" or magnetic cusp that is a mapping of the magnetopause current layer to low altitudes. This is consistent with a narrow, wedge-shaped cusp that follows from antiparallel merging (Crooker, 1988). Mid- and exterior cusp data from the set of Cluster-II spacecraft show that this feature remains coherent out to several Re, greatly expanding the region available for the study of these signatures. Keith, W. R., J. D. Winningham and O. Norberg, A New, Unique Signature of the True Cusp, Ann. Geophys., V. 19, 611, June, 2001. Crooker, N. U., Mapping the Merging Potential From the Magnetopause to the Ionosphere Through the Dayside Cusp, J. Geophys. Res., V. 93, 7,338, 1988. >http://cluster.space.swri.edu/~waynek/agu.html

  1. Stellar chromospheres, coronae, and winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinelli, J. P.; Macgregor, K. B.

    1986-01-01

    It has now been found that one or more of the phenomena of chromospheres, coronae, and winds are present in stars of every class. A review is provided of the observational and theoretical results pertaining to the thermal and dynamical structure of early- and late-type stellar atmospheres. Single stars either on the main sequence or in the postmain sequence stages of evolution are considered. In the context of a study of late-type stars, the specific case of the sun is also examined. The observational evidence for the presence of chromospheres in late-type stellar atmospheres is discussed, taking into account spectral diagnostics and line formation, an observational summary and aspects of location in the H-R diagram, and the Wilson-Bappu effect. Attention is also given to observational evidence for the presence of transition regions and coronae in late-type stellar atmospheres, chromospheric and coronal heating mechanisms, observational evidence for mass loss, and the winds and coronae of early-type stars.

  2. Stellar chromospheres, coronae, and winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassinelli, J. P.; MacGregor, K. B.

    It has now been found that one or more of the phenomena of chromospheres, coronae, and winds are present in stars of every class. A review is provided of the observational and theoretical results pertaining to the thermal and dynamical structure of early- and late-type stellar atmospheres. Single stars either on the main sequence or in the postmain sequence stages of evolution are considered. In the context of a study of late-type stars, the specific case of the sun is also examined. The observational evidence for the presence of chromospheres in late-type stellar atmospheres is discussed, taking into account spectral diagnostics and line formation, an observational summary and aspects of location in the H-R diagram, and the Wilson-Bappu effect. Attention is also given to observational evidence for the presence of transition regions and coronae in late-type stellar atmospheres, chromospheric and coronal heating mechanisms, observational evidence for mass loss, and the winds and coronae of early-type stars.

  3. On the properties of turbulent boundary layer over polar cusps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, S.; Büchner, J.; Consolini, G.; Nikutowski, B.; Zelenyi, L.; Amata, E.; Auster, H. U.; Blecki, J.; Dubinin, E.; Fornacon, K. H.; Kawano, H.; Klimov, S.; Marcucci, F.; Nemecek, Z.; Pedersen, A.; Rauch, J. L.; Romanov, S.; Safrankova, J.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Skalsky, A.; Song, P.; Yermolaev, Yu.

    We study properties of nonlinear magnetic fluctuations in the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) over polar cusps during a typical TBL crossing on 19 June 1998. Interball-1data in the summer TBL are compared with that of Geotail in solar wind (SW) and Polar in the northern TBL. In the TBL two characteristic slopes are seen: ~ - 1 at (0.004- 0.08) Hz and ~ - 2.2 at (0.08-2) Hz. We present evidences that random current sheets with features of coherent solitons can result in: (i) slopes of ~ - 1 in the magnetic power spectra; (ii) demagnetization of the SW plasma in "diamagnetic bubbles"; (iii) nonlinear, presumably, 3-wave phase coupling with cascade features; (iiii) departure from the Gaussian statistics. We discuss the above TBL properties in terms of intermittency and self-organization of nonlinear systems, and compare them with kinetic simulations of reconnected current sheet at the nonlinear state. Virtual satellite data in the model current sheet reproduce valuable cascade-like spectral and bi-spectral properties of the TBL turbulence.

  4. Hot electron confinement in a microwave heated spindle cusp

    SciTech Connect

    Prelas, M.A.

    1991-08-01

    The Plasma Research Laboratory at the University of Missouri-Columbia was established with awards from the McDonnel Douglas Foundation, ARMCO, Union Electric, Black and Vetch, Kansas City Power and Light, the National Science Foundation, and DOE. The Plasma Research Lab's major effort is the Missouri Magnetic Mirror (MMM or M{sup 3}) Project. The technical goals of MMM have been (1) Diagnostic Development, (2) Plasma Physics in the Cusp geometry, (3) plasma-wall interactions, (4) impurity effects in a steady-state plasma, and (5) Development of Diagnostics for use in harsh plasma processing environments. The other major goal of MMM has remained providing a facility for hands-on training in experimental plasma physics. The major experimental facility of MMM is the MMM Modified Experiment (M4X). Other research efforts in the Plasma Research Laboratory include small efforts in cold fusion, toroidal magnetic confinement, and inertial confinement and a potentially major effort in direct conversion of nuclear energy.

  5. Hot electron confinement in a microwave heated spindle cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prelas, M. A.

    1991-08-01

    The Plasma Research Laboratory at the University of Missouri-Columbia was established with awards from the McDonnell Douglas Foundation, ARMCO, Union Electric, Black and Vetch, Kansas City Power and Light, the National Science Foundation, and DOE. The Plasma Research Lab's major effort is the Missouri Magnetic Mirror (MMM or M(exp 3)) Project. The technical goals of MMM have been (1) Diagnostic Development, (2) Plasma Physics in the Cusp geometry, (3) plasma-wall interactions, (4) impurity effects in a steady-state plasma, and (5) Development of Diagnostics for use in harsh plasma processing environments. The other major goal of MMM has remained providing a facility for hands-on training in experimental plasma physics. The major experimental facility of MMM is the MMM Modified Experiment (M4X). Other research efforts in the Plasma Research Laboratory include small efforts in cold fusion, toroidal magnetic confinement, and inertial confinement and a potentially major effort in direct conversion of nuclear energy.

  6. Nonlinear focusing of acoustic shock waves at a caustic cusp.

    PubMed

    Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François; Thomas, Jean-Louis

    2005-02-01

    The present study investigates the focusing of acoustical weak shock waves incoming on a cusped caustic. The theoretical model is based on the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya equation and its specific boundary conditions. Based on the so-called Guiraud's similitude law for a step shock, a new explanation about the wavefront unfolding due to nonlinear self-refraction is proposed. This effect is shown to be associated not only to nonlinearities, as expected by previous authors, but also to the nonlocal geometry of the wavefront. Numerical simulations confirm the sensitivity of the process to wavefront geometry. Theoretical modeling and numerical simulations are substantiated by an original experiment. This one is carried out in two steps. First, the canonical Pearcey function is synthesized in linear regime by the inverse filter technique. In the second step, the same wavefront is emitted but with a high amplitude to generate shock waves during the propagation. The experimental results are compared with remarkable agreement to the numerical ones. Finally, applications to sonic boom are briefly discussed. PMID:15759678

  7. Turbulence in the Earth's cusp region: k-filtering analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Cao, J.; Fu, H.; Liu, W.

    2013-12-01

    On April 13 2002, four Cluster spacecraft with separation up to 127 km measured similar turbulence in the Earth's mid-altitude cusp region during southward IMF Bz. Using the k-filtering technique, we obtain the propagation angle and dispersion relation of the turbulence. The propagation angle is quite large and ranges from 80° to 92°, meaning that the turbulence propagates perpendicularly to the background magnetic field. By comparing the dispersion relationship with the linear solution of the Vlasov kinetic theory obtained by WHAMP, we conclude that the turbulence is Kinetic Alfvén mode (KAWs). The regions of KAWs are located within an inhomogeneous high density plasma background, suggesting that it is the ion drift, not field aligned ion beam that plays an important role in the wave generation. The magnetic flied fluctuation spectrum resembles the classical Kolmogorov power law under the proton gyrofrequency ωci, but breaks and steepens near ωci, indicating that the KAW may be powered by a turbulent cascade transverse to the magnetic field from large MHD scales to proton gyroradius scales.

  8. Electrostatic acceleration of helicon plasma using a cusped magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, S.; Baba, T.; Uchigashima, A.; Iwakawa, A.; Sasoh, A.; Yokota, S.; Yamazaki, T.; Shimizu, H.

    2014-11-10

    The electrostatic acceleration of helicon plasma is investigated using an electrostatic potential exerted between the ring anode at the helicon source exit and an off-axis hollow cathode in the downstream region. In the downstream region, the magnetic field for the helicon source, which is generated by a solenoid coil, is modified using permanent magnets and a yoke, forming an almost magnetic field-free region surrounded by an annular cusp field. Using a retarding potential analyzer, two primary ion energy peaks, where the lower peak corresponds to the space potential and the higher one to the ion beam, are detected in the field-free region. Using argon as the working gas with a helicon power of 1.5 kW and a mass flow rate of 0.21 mg/s, the ion beam energy is on the order of the applied acceleration voltage. In particular, with an acceleration voltage lower than 150 V, the ion beam energy even exceeds the applied acceleration voltage by an amount on the order of the electron thermal energy at the exit of the helicon plasma source. The ion beam energy profile strongly depends on the helicon power and the applied acceleration voltage. Since by this method the whole working gas from the helicon plasma source can, in principle, be accelerated, this device can be applied as a noble electrostatic thruster for space propulsion.

  9. Binary interactions and multiple stellar populations in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dengkai

    2015-08-01

    Observations revealed the presence of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters (GCs) that exhibit wide abundance variations and multiple sequences in Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We present a scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in GCs. In this scenario, initial GCs are single-generation clusters, and our model predicts that the abundance anomalous stars observed in GCs are the merged stars and the accretor stars produced by binary interactions, which are rapidly rotating stars at the moment of their formation. The stellar population with binaries can reproduce two important observational evidences of multiple stellar populations, the Na-O anticorrelation and the multiple sequences in HR diagram. This suggests that binary interactions may be a possible scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in GCs.

  10. Stellar Archaeology with Gaia: The Galactic White Dwarf Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gänsicke, B.; Tremblay, P.; Barstow, M.; Bono, G.; Burleigh, M.; Casewell, S.; Dhillon, V.; Farihi, J.; Garcia-Berro, E.; Geier, S.; Gentile-Fusillo, N.; Hermes, J.; Hollands, M.; Istrate, A.; Jordan, S.; Knigge, C.; Manser, C.; Marsh, T.; Nelemans, G.; Pala, A.; Raddi, R.; Tauris, T.; Toloza, O.; Veras, D.; Werner, K.; Wilson, D.

    2016-10-01

    Gaia will identify several 105 white dwarfs, most of which will be in the solar neighborhood at distances of a few hundred parsecs. Ground-based optical follow-up spectroscopy of this sample of stellar remnants is essential to unlock the enormous scientific potential it holds for our understanding of stellar evolution, and the Galactic formation history of both stars and planets.

  11. Galactic stellar populations: current and new perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haywood, M.

    2014-11-01

    Present studies on the evolution of the Milky Way are driven and shaped by how we conceive its stellar populations, in an on going process started by W. Baade seventy years ago. Despite much progress and advances in our understanding of these populations, inspection of their main properties is however hardly indicative of the path the Milky Way has followed to build up its mass. This is not only a matter of (stellar) age measurement, but more so the consequence of how we interprete the structures that we see in our Galaxy, often through the filter of our definitions of stellar populations. The panorama presented in the following pages opens the possibility that the present "filter" is not fully adequate. I start these Lectures with a summary of the main properties of the disks, bulge, and halo, and then present some of the new directions in the interpretation of the structure and evolution of the disk(s), with emphasis on chemical evolution. I discuss recent results in our understanding of the bulge, its stellar components and chemical evolution. Finally, I present the ideas currently proposed to explain the formation of the Galactic stellar halo. I conclude by examining how deeply all these new results question our present definition of stellar populations.

  12. Evolution of M1 crown size and cusp proportions in the genus Homo

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Rolf; Bailey, Shara; Wood, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Previous research into tooth crown dimensions and cusp proportions has proved to be a useful way to identify taxonomic differences in Pliocene and Pleistocene fossil hominins. The present study has identified changes in both M1 crown size and cusp proportions within the genus Homo, with M1 overall crown size reduction apparently occurring in two main stages. The first stage (a reduction of ca. 17%) is associated with the emergence of Homo ergaster and Homo erectus sensu stricto. The second stage (a reduction of ca. 10%) occurs in Homo sapiens, but the reduced modern human M1 tooth crown size was only attained in Upper Paleolithic times. The absolute sizes of the individual cusps are highly positively correlated with overall crown size and dental reduction produces a reduction in the absolute size of each of the cusps. Most of the individual cusps scale isometrically with crown size, but the paracone shows a negative allometric relationship, indicating that the reduction in paracone size is less than in the other M1 cusps. Thus, the phylogenetically oldest cusp in the upper molars also seems to be the most stable cusp (at least in the M1). The most striking change in M1 cusp proportions is a change in the relative size of the areas of the paracone and metacone. The combination of a small relative paracone and a large relative metacone generally characterizes specimens attributed to early Homo, and the presence of this character state in Australopithecus andParanthropus suggests it may represent the primitive condition for the later part of the hominin clade. In contrast, nearly all later Homo taxa, with the exception of Homo antecessor, show the opposite condition (i.e. a relatively large paracone and a relatively small metacone). This change in the relationship between the relative sizes of the paracone and metacone is related to an isometric reduction of the absolute size of the metacone. This metacone reduction occurs in the context of relative stability in the

  13. Evolution of M1 crown size and cusp proportions in the genus Homo.

    PubMed

    Quam, Rolf; Bailey, Shara; Wood, Bernard

    2009-05-01

    Previous research into tooth crown dimensions and cusp proportions has proved to be a useful way to identify taxonomic differences in Pliocene and Pleistocene fossil hominins. The present study has identified changes in both M(1) crown size and cusp proportions within the genus Homo, with M(1) overall crown size reduction apparently occurring in two main stages. The first stage (a reduction of ca. 17%) is associated with the emergence of Homo ergaster and Homo erectus sensu stricto. The second stage (a reduction of ca. 10%) occurs in Homo sapiens, but the reduced modern human M(1) tooth crown size was only attained in Upper Paleolithic times. The absolute sizes of the individual cusps are highly positively correlated with overall crown size and dental reduction produces a reduction in the absolute size of each of the cusps. Most of the individual cusps scale isometrically with crown size, but the paracone shows a negative allometric relationship, indicating that the reduction in paracone size is less than in the other M(1) cusps. Thus, the phylogenetically oldest cusp in the upper molars also seems to be the most stable cusp (at least in the M(1)). The most striking change in M(1) cusp proportions is a change in the relative size of the areas of the paracone and metacone. The combination of a small relative paracone and a large relative metacone generally characterizes specimens attributed to early Homo, and the presence of this character state in Australopithecus and Paranthropus suggests it may represent the primitive condition for the later part of the hominin clade. In contrast, nearly all later Homo taxa, with the exception of Homo antecessor, show the opposite condition (i.e. a relatively large paracone and a relatively small metacone). This change in the relationship between the relative sizes of the paracone and metacone is related to an isometric reduction of the absolute size of the metacone. This metacone reduction occurs in the context of relative

  14. Simulating Convection in Stellar Envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Joel

    sensitive to changes in opacity which are in response to adjustments to the metallicity and helium abundance. We find that increasing the metallicity forces the location of the transition region to lower densities and pressures, and results in larger mean and turbulent velocities throughout the superadiabatic region. We also quantify the degree of convective overshoot in the atmosphere, and show that it increases with metallicity as well. The signature of helium differs from that of metallicity in the manner in which the photospheric velocity distribution is affected. We also find that helium abundance and surface gravity behave largely in similar ways, but differ in the way they affect the mean molecular weight. A simple model for spectral line formation suggests that the bisectors and absolute Doppler shifts of spectral lines depend on the helium abundance. We look at the effect of alpha-element enhancement and find that it has a considerably smaller effect on the convective dynamics in the superadiabatic layer compared to that of helium abundance. Improving the treatment of convection in stellar models remains one of the primary applications of RHD simulations. A simple and direct way to introduce the effect of 3D convection into 1D stellar models is through the surface boundary condition. Usually the atmospheric structure of a stellar model is defined beforehand in the form of a T-tau relation, and is kept fixed at chemical compositions and stages of evolution. Extracting mean atmospheric stratifications from simulations provides a means of introducing surface boundary conditions to stellar models that self-consistently include the effects of realistic convection and overshoot. We apply data from simulations to stellar models in this manner to measure how realistic atmospheric stratifications relate to the value of the mixing length parameter in calibrated stellar models. Moving beyond improving the surface boundary condition, we also explore a method for calibrating

  15. Stellarator-Spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Moroz, P.E.

    1997-03-01

    A novel concept for magnetic plasma confinement, Stellarator-Spheromak (SSP), is proposed. Numerical analysis with the classical-stellarator-type outboard stellarator windings demonstrates a number of potential advantages of SSP for controlled nuclear fusion. Among the main ones are: simple and compact magnet coil configuration, absence of material structures (e.g. magnet coils or conducting walls) in the center of the torus, high rotational transform, and a possibility of MHD equilibria with very high {beta} (pressure/magnetic pressure) of the confined plasma.

  16. STECKMAP: STEllar Content and Kinematics via Maximum A Posteriori likelihood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocvirk, P.

    2011-08-01

    STECKMAP stands for STEllar Content and Kinematics via Maximum A Posteriori likelihood. It is a tool for interpreting galaxy spectra in terms of their stellar populations through the derivation of their star formation history, age-metallicity relation, kinematics and extinction. The observed spectrum is projected onto a temporal sequence of models of single stellar populations, so as to determine a linear combination of these models that best fits the observed spectrum. The weights of the various components of this linear combination indicate the stellar content of the population. This procedure is regularized using various penalizing functions. The principles of the method are detailed in Ocvirk et al. 2006.

  17. The impact of stellar evolution on planetary system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodenheimer, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The connection between stellar evolution and planet formation is investigated. Particular attention is given to the problem posed by the fact that the formation of Jupiter occurred before the formation of Mars and that the formation of the solid core of Saturn was completed before the dissipation of the gas in the nebula. Several possible solutions to this problem are suggested.

  18. The Stagger-grid: A grid of 3D stellar atmosphere models. II. Horizontal and temporal averaging and spectral line formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magic, Z.; Collet, R.; Hayek, W.; Asplund, M.

    2013-12-01

    Aims: We study the implications of averaging methods with different reference depth scales for 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres computed with the Stagger-code. The temporally and spatially averaged (hereafter denoted as ⟨3D⟩) models are explored in the light of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) spectral line formation by comparing spectrum calculations using full 3D atmosphere structures with those from ⟨3D⟩ averages. Methods: We explored methods for computing mean ⟨3D⟩ stratifications from the Stagger-grid time-dependent 3D radiative hydrodynamical atmosphere models by considering four different reference depth scales (geometrical depth, column-mass density, and two optical depth scales). Furthermore, we investigated the influence of alternative averages (logarithmic, enforced hydrostatic equilibrium, flux-weighted temperatures). For the line formation we computed curves of growth for Fe i and Fe ii lines in LTE. Results: The resulting ⟨3D⟩ stratifications for the four reference depth scales can be very different. We typically find that in the upper atmosphere and in the superadiabatic region just below the optical surface, where the temperature and density fluctuations are highest, the differences become considerable and increase for higher Teff, lower log g, and lower [Fe / H]. The differential comparison of spectral line formation shows distinctive differences depending on which ⟨3D⟩ model is applied. The averages over layers of constant column-mass density yield the best mean ⟨3D⟩ representation of the full 3D models for LTE line formation, while the averages on layers at constant geometrical height are the least appropriate. Unexpectedly, the usually preferred averages over layers of constant optical depth are prone to increasing interference by reversed granulation towards higher effective temperature, in particular at low metallicity. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgMean ⟨3D⟩ models are

  19. New emerging results on molecular gas, stars, and dust at z ~ 2, as revealed by low star formation rate and low stellar mass star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Zamojski, Michel; Schaerer, Daniel; Combes, Françoise; Egami, Eiichi; Sklias, Panos; Swinbank, Mark A.; Richard, Johan; Rawle, Tim

    Recent CO surveys of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z ~ 2 have revolutionized our picture of massive galaxies. It is time to expand these studies toward the more common z ~ 2 SFGs with SFR < 40 M ⊙ yr-1 and M * < 2.5 × 1010 M⊙. We have derived molecular gas, stars, and dust in 8 such lensed SFGs. They extend the L IR-L'CO(1-0) distribution of massive z>1 SFGs and increase the spread of the SFG star formation efficiency (SFE). A single star formation relation is found when combining all existing CO-detected galaxies. Our low-M * SFGs also reveal a SFE decrease with M * as found locally. A rise of the molecular gas fraction (f gas) with redshift is observed up to z ~ 1.6, but it severely flattens toward higher redshifts. We provide the first insight into the f gas upturn at the low-M * end 109.4 < M */M⊙ < 1010 reaching f gas ~ 0.7, it is followed by a f gas decrease toward higher M *. Finally, we find a non-universal dust-to-gas ratio among local and high-redshift SFGs and starbursts with near-solar metallicities.

  20. A Classification Scheme for Young Stellar Objects Using the WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER ALLWISE Catalog: Revealing Low-Density Star Formation in the Outer Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koening, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.

    2014-01-01

    We present an assessment of the performance of WISE and the AllWISE data release in a section of the Galactic Plane. We lay out an approach to increasing the reliability of point source photometry extracted from the AllWISE catalog in Galactic Plane regions using parameters provided in the catalog. We use the resulting catalog to construct a new, revised young star detection and classification scheme combining WISE and 2MASS near and mid-infrared colors and magnitudes and test it in a section of the Outer Milky Way. The clustering properties of the candidate Class I and II stars using a nearest neighbor density calculation and the two-point correlation function suggest that the majority of stars do form in massive star forming regions, and any isolated mode of star formation is at most a small fraction of the total star forming output of the Galaxy. We also show that the isolated component may be very small and could represent the tail end of a single mechanism of star formation in line with models of molecular cloud collapse with supersonic turbulence and not a separate mode all to itself.

  1. THE DYNAMICAL EVOLUTION OF STELLAR BLACK HOLES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Morscher, Meagan; Pattabiraman, Bharath; Rodriguez, Carl; Rasio, Frederic A.; Umbreit, Stefan

    2015-02-10

    Our current understanding of the stellar initial mass function and massive star evolution suggests that young globular clusters (GCs) may have formed hundreds to thousands of stellar-mass black holes (BHs), the remnants of stars with initial masses from ∼20-100 M {sub ☉}. Birth kicks from supernova explosions may eject some BHs from their birth clusters, but most should be retained. Using a Monte Carlo method we investigate the long-term dynamical evolution of GCs containing large numbers of stellar BHs. We describe numerical results for 42 models, covering a broad range of realistic initial conditions, including up to 1.6 × 10{sup 6} stars. In almost all models we find that significant numbers of BHs (up to ∼10{sup 3}) are retained all the way to the present. This is in contrast to previous theoretical expectations that most BHs should be ejected dynamically within a few gigayears The main reason for this difference is that core collapse driven by BHs (through the Spitzer {sup m}ass segregation instability{sup )} is easily reverted through three-body processes, and involves only a small number of the most massive BHs, while lower-mass BHs remain well-mixed with ordinary stars far from the central cusp. Thus the rapid segregation of stellar BHs does not lead to a long-term physical separation of most BHs into a dynamically decoupled inner core, as often assumed previously. Combined with the recent detections of several BH X-ray binary candidates in Galactic GCs, our results suggest that stellar BHs could still be present in large numbers in many GCs today, and that they may play a significant role in shaping the long-term dynamical evolution and the present-day dynamical structure of many clusters.

  2. Finding the Orientation of the Stellar Spin Axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Tessa D.; Lesage, Anna-Lea

    2016-01-01

    The stellar position angle is defined as the projection of the stellar spin axis on the night sky, as measured from North to East. Measuring the stellar position angle gives information that can be used for stellar spin axis evolution and binary formation theories. Current methods to find this angle use imaging with long baseline interferometry for fast rotating stars. There is a lack of observational techniques to find the orientation of the stellar rotation axis for slow rotating stars, which make up the vast majority of stellar population. We developed a new method for determining the absolute stellar position angle for slow rotating stars using a spectro-astrometric analysis of high resolution long-slit spectra. We used the 2m Thueringer Landessternwarte (TLS) telescope to obtain high resolution spectra (R=60,000) with multiple slit orientations to test this method. The stellar rotation causes a tilt in the stellar lines, and the angle of this tilt depends on the stellar position angle and the orientation of the slit. We used a cross-correlation method to compare the subpixel displacements of the position of the photocenter at each slit orientation with telluric lines to obtain the tilt amplitude. We report the results of finding the position angle of the slow rotating K giant Aldebaran and fast rotating reference stars like Vega.

  3. On the cusp anomalous dimension in the ladder limit of mathcal{N}=4 SYM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccaria, Matteo; Fachechi, Alberto; Macorini, Guido

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the cusp anomalous dimension in the (leading) ladder limit of mathcal{N}=4 SYMandpresentnewresultsforitshigher-orderperturbativeexpansion. Westudy two different limits with respect to the cusp angle ϕ. The first is the light-like regime where x = e iϕ → 0. This limit is characterised by a non-trivial expansion of the cusp anomaly as a sum of powers of log x, where the maximum exponent increases with the loop order. The coefficients of this expansion have remarkable transcendentality features and can be expressed by products of single zeta values. We show that the whole logarithmic expansion is fully captured by a solvable Woods-Saxon like one-dimensional potential. From the exact solution, we extract generating functions for the cusp anomaly as well as for the various specific transcendental structures appearing therein. The second limit that we discuss is the regime of small cusp angle. In this somewhat simpler case, we show how to organise the quantum mechanical perturbation theory in a novel efficient way by means of a suitable all-order Ansatz for the ground state of the associated Schrödinger problem. Our perturbative setup allows to systematically derive higher-order perturbative corrections in powers of the cusp angle as explicit non-perturbative functions of the effective coupling. This series approximation is compared with the numerical solution of the Schrödinger equation to show that we can achieve very good accuracy over the whole range of coupling and cusp angle. Our results have been obtained by relatively simple techniques. Nevertheless, they provide several non-trivial tests useful to check the application of Quantum Spectral Curve methods to the ladder approximation at non zero ϕ, in the two limits we studied.

  4. Stellar atmospheric structural patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    The thermodynamics of stellar atmospheres is discussed. Particular attention is given to the relation between theoretical modeling and empirical evidence. The characteristics of distinctive atmospheric regions and their radical structures are discussed.

  5. Bifurcation of the cusp: Implications for understanding boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, N. C.; Burke, W. J.; Moen, J.; Sandholt, P. E.; Lester, M.; Ober, D. M.; Weimer, D. R.; White, W. E.

    Event analyses and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modeling provide complementary insights into solar-wind/magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) has a stronger Y than Z component. The sources for convection and particle precipitation within the cusp become spatially bifurcated. Incoming surfaces of constant phase in the interplanetary electric field (IEF) can be tilted with respect to the Sun-Earth line. This forces the two hemispheres to respond to the same elements of the solar wind stream at significantly different times. We consider a case in which ground and rocket measurements indicate that IEF phase planes interacted first with the magnetopause in the Southern Hemisphere at lag times significantly less than the simple adjection time between an L1 monitor and Earth. Magnetic merging on the Northern Hemisphere magnetopause occurred later. The timing differences are related to the phase-plane tilts and the strong IMF BX. Auroral emissions created by electrons injected from the Southern Hemisphere merging line can appear in close proximity to those from Northern Hemisphere sites, within an all-sky imager's field-of-view. Bifurcation is driven by IMF BY, while BX controls differences in the timing of interactions with the two hemispheres. Detailed harmonization of auroral features with interplanetary drivers strongly supports the utility of the antiparallel merging criterion for estimating when and where the IMF-magnetosphere interactions occur. We compare empirical results with MHD simulations to help constrain interpretations of magnetospheric boundary layers. Merging at high latitudes creates layers of open field lines that drape over the dayside magnetosphere to form an open boundary layer. MHD modeling suggests that open boundary layers may become quite thick along the magnetospheric flank equatorward of the sash. Simulations and the empirical results indicate that merging in the conjugate hemisphere drives the smaller

  6. Ionospheric signatures of cusp latitude Pc 3 pulsations

    SciTech Connect

    Engebretson, M.J.; Anderson, B.J. ); Cahill, L.J. Jr. ); Arnoldy, R.L. ); Rosenberg, T.J. ); Carpenter, D.L. ); Gail, W.B. ); Eather, R.H. )

    1990-03-01

    The authors have compared search coil magnetometer, riometer, photometer, and ELF-VLF receiver data obtained at South Pole Station and McMurdo, Antarctica, during selected days in March and April 1986. Narrow-band magnetic pulsations in the Pc 3 period range are observed simultaneously at both stations in the dayside sector during times of low interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) cone angle, but are considerably stronger at South Pole, which is located at a latitude near the nominal foot point of the daysie cusp/cleft region. Pulsations in auroral light a 427.8 nm wavelength are often observed with magnetic pulsations at South Pole, but such optical pulsations are not observed at McMurdo. When Pc 3 pulsations are present, they exhibit nearly identical frequencies, proportional to the magnitude of the IMF, in magnetometer, photometer, and ELF-VLF receiver signals at South Pole Station and in magnetometer signals at McMurdo. Singals from the 30-MHz riometer at South Pole are modulated in concert with the magnetic and optical variations during periods of broadband pulsation activity, but no riometer variations are noted during periods of narrow-band activity. Because riometers are sensitive to electrons of auroral energies (several keV and above), while the 427.8-nm photometer is sensitive to precipitation with much lower energies, they interpret these observatons as showing that precipitating magnetosheathlike electrons (with energies {le} 1 keV) at nominal dayside cleft latitudes are at times modulated with frequencies similar to those of upstream waves. They suggest that these particles may play an important role, via modification of ionospheric currents and conductivities, in the transmission of upstream wave signals into the magnetosphere and in the generation of dayside high-latitude Pc 3 pulsations.

  7. Influence of inelastic collisions with hydrogen atoms on the formation of AlI and SiI lines in stellar spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashonkina, L. I.; Belyaev, A. K.; Shi, J.-R.

    2016-06-01

    We have performed calculations by abandoning the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (within the so-called non-LTE approach) for Al I and Si I with model atmospheres corresponding to stars of spectral types F-G-Kwith differentmetal abundances. To take into account inelastic collisions with hydrogen atoms, for the first time we have applied the cross sections calculated by Belyaev et al. using model approaches within the formalism of the Born-Oppenheimer quantum theory. We show that for Al I non-LTE leads to higher ionization (overionization) than in LTE in the spectral line formation region and to a weakening of spectral lines, which is consistent with earlier non-LTE studies. However, our results, especially for the subordinate lines, differ quantitatively from the results of predecessors. Owing to their large cross sections, the ion-pair production and mutual neutralization processes Al I( nl) + HI(1 s) ↔ Al II(3 s 2) + H- provide a close coupling of highly excited Al I levels with the Al II ground state, which causes the deviations from the equilibrium level population to decrease compared to the calculations where the collisions only with electrons are taken into account. For three moderately metal-deficient dwarf stars, the aluminum abundance has been determined from seven Al I lines in different models of their formation. Under the assumption of LTE and in non-LTE calculations including the collisions only with electrons, the Al I 3961 ˚A resonance line gives a systematically lower abundance than the mean abundance from the subordinate lines, by 0.25-0.45 dex. The difference for each star is removed by taking into account the collisions with hydrogen atoms, and the rms error of the abundance derived from all seven Al I lines decreases by a factor of 1.5-3 compared to the LTE analysis. We have calculated the non- LTE corrections to the abundance for six subordinate Al I lines as a function of the effective temperature (4500 K ≤ T eff ≤ 6500 K

  8. Oscillations in stellar atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, A.; Ringuelet, A. E.; Fontenla, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric excitation and propagation of oscillations are analyzed for typical pulsating stars. The linear, plane-parallel approach for the pulsating atmosphere gives a local description of the phenomenon. From the local analysis of oscillations, the minimum frequencies are obtained for radially propagating waves. The comparison of the minimum frequencies obtained for a variety of stellar types is in good agreement with the observed periods of the oscillations. The role of the atmosphere in the globar stellar pulsations is thus emphasized.

  9. Bilateral dens evaginatus (talon cusp) in permanent maxillary lateral incisors: a rare developmental dental anomaly with great clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Manuja, Naveen; Chaudhary, Seema; Nagpal, Rajni; Rallan, Mandeep

    2013-01-01

    Talon cusp is an accessory cusp-like structure which projects from the cingulum area or cementoenamel junction. It is important for dentists to be aware of the potential complications that may occur with talon cusp. Early diagnosis and treatment is important, especially to prevent pulpal complications in permanent teeth which may be in developing stage in paediatric patients. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of bilateral talon cusp in permanent maxillary lateral incisors. Associated dental anomalies and clinical problems are discussed along with successful management of the case with conservative therapy. PMID:23813995

  10. Stellar Populations. A User Guide from Low to High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greggio, Laura; Renzini, Alvio

    2011-09-01

    This textbook is meant to illustrate the specific role played by stellar population diagnostics in our attempt to understand galaxy formation and evolution. The book starts with a rather unconventional summary of the results of stellar evolution theory (Chapter 1), as they provide the basis for the construction of synthetic stellar populations. Current limitations of stellar models are highlighted, which arise from the necessity to parametrize all those physical processes that involve bulk mass motions, such as convection, mixing, mass loss, etc. Chapter 2 deals with the foundations of the theory of synthetic stellar populations, and illustrates their energetics and metabolic functions, providing basic tools that will be used in subsequent chapters. Chapters 3 and 4 deal with resolved stellar populations, first addressing some general problems encountered in photometric studies of stellar fields. Then some highlights are presented illustrating our current capacity of measuring stellar ages in Galactic globular clusters, in the Galactic bulge and in nearby galaxies. Chapter 5 is dedicated to the exemplification of synthetic spectra of simple as well as composite stellar populations, drawing attention to those spectral features that may depend on less secure results of stellar evolution models. Chapter 6 illustrates how synthetic stellar populations are used to derive basic galaxy properties, such as star formation rates, stellar masses, ages and metallicities, and does so for galaxies at low as well as at high redshifts. Chapter 7 is dedicated to supernovae, distinguishing them in core collapse and thermonuclear cases, describing the evolution of their rates for various star formation histories, and estimating the supernova productivity of stellar populations and their chemical yields. In Chapter 8 the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is discussed, first showing how even apparently small IMF variations may have large effects on the demo! graphy of stellar

  11. On the universal stellar law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, Alexander

    stars. In this connection, comparison with estimations of temperatures using of the regression dependences for multi-planet extrasolar systems [8] testifies the obtained results entirely. References 1. Krot, A.M.:2009, A statistical approach to investigate the formation of the solar system. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals41(3), 1481-1500. 2. Krot, A.M.:2012, A models of forming planets and distribution of planetary distances and orbits in the solar system based on the statistical theory of spheroidal bodies. In:Solar System: Structure, Formation and Exploration, ch.9 (Ed. by Matteo de Rossi). New York, Nova Science Publishers, pp. 201-264. - ISBN: 978-1-62100-057-0. 3. Krot, A. M.:2012, A statistical theory of formation of gravitating cosmogonicbodies. Minsk,Bel. Navuka, 4. 448 p. - ISBN 978-985-08-1442-5 [monograph in Russian]. 5. Eddington, A.S.: 1916,On the radiative equilibrium of the stars.Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc.84 (7), 525-528. 6. Jeans, J.: 1929, Astronomy and cosmogony. Cambridge, University Press. 7. Chandrasekhar, S.:1939, An introduction to the study of stellar structure.Cambridge, University Press. 8. Pintr, P., Peřinová, V., Lukš, A., Pathak, A.:2013, Statistical and regression analyses of detected extrasolar systems. Planetary and Space Science, 75(1), 37-45.

  12. FAST Observations of Acceleration Processes in the Cusp--Evidence for Parallel Electric Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R. F.. Jr.; Carlson, C.; McFadden, J.; Ergun, R.; Clemmons, J.; Klumpar D.; Strangeway, R.

    1999-01-01

    The existence of precipitating keV ions in the Earth's cusp originating at the magnetosheath provide unique means to test our understanding of particle acceleration and parallel electric fields in the lower altitude acceleration region. On numerous occasions, the FAST (The Fast Auroral Snapshot) spacecraft has encountered the Earth's cusp regions near its apogee of 4175 km which are characterized by their signatures of dispersed keV ion injections. The FAST instruments also reveal a complex microphysics inherent to many, but not all, of the cusp regions encountered by the spacecraft, that include upgoing ion beams and conics, inverted-V electrons, upgoing electron beams, and spikey DC-coupled electric fields and plasma waves. Detailed inspection of the FAST data often show clear modulation of the precipitating magnetosheath ions that indicate that they are affected by local electric potentials. For example, the magnetosheath ion precipitation is sometimes abruptly shut off precisely in regions where downgoing localized inverted-V electrons are observed. Such observations support the existence of a localized process, such as parallel electric fields, above the spacecraft which accelerate the electrons downward and consequently impede the precipitating ion precipitation. Other acceleration events in the cusp are sometimes organized with an apparent cellular structure that suggests Alfven waves or other large-scale phenomena are controlling the localized potentials. We examine several cusp encounters by the FAST satellite where the modulation of energetic session on acceleration particle populations reveals evidence of localized acceleration, most likely by parallel electric fields.

  13. Observations of EMIC Waves in the Exterior Cusp Region and in the Nearby Magnetosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grison, B.; Escoubet, C. P.; Santolik, O.; Lavraud, B.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

    2014-12-01

    In the early years (2000-2004) of the mission, Cluster crossed the most distant part of the polar cusps. On 05/01/2002, Cluster enters the distant cusp region on the duskside of the southern hemisphere (inbound). The spacecraft are successively crossing the magnetopause between 19:50 UT (SC4) and 20:15 UT (SC3). The interplanetary conditions during the crossing were stable with a dominant negative By. The magnetometer (FGM) data indicates that the entry into the cusp takes place in a region where the magnetic field lines in the magnetosheath are anti-parallel with the field lines in the magnetosphere. Despite this clear picture, the global encounter is rather complex: one can notice partial magnetopause crossings, magnetic null points, and intense monochromatic waves on both sides of the magnetopause.We investigate electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves observed in the cusp and in the nearby magnetosheath, just before the magnetopause crossing by the spacecraft. Left-handed monochromatic waves observed in the cusp display different duration and frequency (below and above the local proton gyrofrequency) on each spacecraft. Both the Poynting flux of these emissions and the simultaneously recorded ion flows propagate in the same direction - toward the Earth. The wavenumber are determined in two ways: considering the Doppler shift and from direct measurements of the refractive index. We analyze these wave parameters and the local plasma conditions to explain the wave generation process on each side of the magnetopause.

  14. The age structure of stellar populations in the solar vicinity. Clues of a two-phase formation history of the Milky Way disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haywood, Misha; Di Matteo, Paola; Lehnert, Matthew D.; Katz, David; Gómez, Ana

    2013-12-01

    We analyze a sample of solar neighborhood stars that have high-quality abundance determinations and show that there are two distinct regimes of [α/Fe] versus age, which we identify as the epochs of the thick and thin disk formation. A tight correlation between metallicity and [α/Fe] versus age is clearly identifiable for thick disk stars, implying that this population formed from a well mixed interstellar medium, probably initially in starburst and then more quiescently, over a time scale of 4-5 Gyr. Thick disk stars have vertical velocity dispersions which correlate with age, with the youngest objects of this population having small scale heights similar to those of thin disk stars. A natural consequence of these two results is that a vertical metallicity gradient is expected in this population. We suggest that the youngest thick disk set the initial conditions from which the inner thin disk started to form about 8 Gyr ago, at [Fe/H] in the range of (-0.1, +0.1) dex and [α/Fe] ~ 0.1 dex. This also provides an explanation for the apparent coincidence between the existence of a step in metallicity at 7-10 kpc in the thin disk and the confinement of the thick disk within R < 10 kpc. We suggest that the outer thin disk developed outside the influence of the thick disk, giving rise to a separate structure, but also that the high alpha-enrichment of those regions may originate from a primordial pollution of the outer regions by the gas expelled from the forming thick disk. Metal-poor thin disk stars ([Fe/H] < -0.4 dex) in the solar vicinity, whose properties are best explained by them originating in the outer disk, are shown to be as old as the youngest thick disk (9-10 Gyr). This implies that the outer thin disk started to form while the thick disk was still forming stars in the inner parts of the Galaxy. Hence, while the overall inner (thick+thin) disk is comprised of two structures with different scale lengths and whose combination may give the impression of an

  15. Studying Stellar Halos with Future Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greggio, Laura; Falomo, Renato; Uslenghi, Michela

    2015-08-01

    Stellar halos around galaxies retain fundamental evidence of the processes which lead to their build up. Sophisticated models of galaxy formation in a cosmological context yield quantitative predictions about various observable characteristics, including the amount of substructure, the slope of radial mass profiles and three dimensional shapes, and the properties of the stellar populations in the galaxies halos. The comparison of such models with the observations leads to constraints on the general picture of galaxy formation in the hierarchical Universe, as well as on the physical processes taking place in the halos formation. With the current observing facilities, stellar halos can be effectively probed only for a limited number of nearby galaxies. In this contribution we illustrate the progress which we expect in this field with the future large aperture ground based telescopes (E-ELT and TNT), and with JWST. In particular we adress the following issues: (I) the characterization of the stellar populations in the halos innermost regions and substructures, (ii) the measurement of the halos profiles and shapes , and the halos mass content, (iii) the study of Globular Clusters inhabiting the halos of distant galaxies. In order to assess the expected capabilities of future facilities we present the results of a set of simulated images to evaluate to which level of accuracy it will be possible to probe the halos of distant galaxies.

  16. The HORUS Observatory - A Next Generation 2.4m UV-Optical Mission To Study Planetary, Stellar And Galactic Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scowen, Paul A.; SDT, HORUS

    2013-01-01

    The High-ORbit Ultraviolet-visible Satellite (HORUS) is a 2.4-meter class UV-optical space telescope that will conduct a comprehensive and systematic study of the astrophysical processes and environments relevant for the births and life cycles of stars and their planetary systems, to investigate and understand the range of environments, feedback mechanisms, and other factors that most affect the outcome of the star and planet formation process. To do so, HORUS will provide 100 times greater imaging efficiency and more than 10 times greater UV spectroscopic sensitivity than has existed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HORUS mission will contribute vital information on how solar systems form and whether habitable planets should be common or rare. It also will investigate the structure, evolution, and destiny of galaxies and universe. This program relies on focused capabilities unique to space that no other planned NASA mission will provide: near-UV/visible (200-1075nm) wide-field, diffraction-limited imaging; and high-sensitivity, high-resolution UV (100-170nm) spectroscopy. The core HORUS design will provide wide field of view imagery and high efficiency point source FUV spectroscopy using a novel combination of spectral selection and field sharing. The HORUS Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA) design is based on modern light weight mirror technology with a faster primary mirror to shorten the overall package and thereby reduce mass. The OTA uses a three-mirror anastigmat configuration to provide excellent imagery over a large FOV - and is exactly aligned to use one of the recently released f/1.2 NRO OTAs as part of its design. The UV/optical Imaging Cameras use two 21k x 21k Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs). The FUV spectrometer uses cross strip anode based MCPs. This poster presents results from a 2010 design update requested by the NRC Decadal Survey, and reflects updated costs and technology to the original 2004 study. It is now one of the most mature 2.4m UVOIR

  17. Recent advances in modeling stellar interiors (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, Joyce Ann

    2010-01-01

    Advances in stellar interior modeling are being driven by new data from large-scale surveys and high-precision photometric and spectroscopic observations. Here we focus on single stars in normal evolutionary phases; we will not discuss the many advances in modeling star formation, interacting binaries, supernovae, or neutron stars. We review briefly: (1) updates to input physics of stellar models; (2) progress in two and three-dimensional evolution and hydrodynamic models; (3) insights from oscillation data used to infer stellar interior structure and validate model predictions (asteroseismology). We close by highlighting a few outstanding problems, e.g., the driving mechanisms for hybrid {gamma} Dor/{delta} Sct star pulsations, the cause of giant eruptions seen in luminous blue variables such as {eta} Car and P Cyg, and the solar abundance problem.

  18. The Stellar Imager (SI) "Vision Mission"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K.; Danchi, W.; Leitner, J.; Liu, A.; Lyon, R.; Mazzuca, L.; Moe, R.; Chenette, D.; Schrijver, C.; Kilston, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a Vision Mission in the Sun-Earth Connection (SEC) NASA Roadmap, conceived for the purpose of understanding the effects of stellar magnetic fields, the dynamos that generate them, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars in which they exist. The ultimate goal is to achieve the best possible forecasting of solar/stellar activity and its impact on life in the Universe. The science goals of SI require an ultra-high angular resolution, at ultraviolet wavelengths, on the order of 100 micro-arcsec and baselines on the order of 0.5 km. These requirements call for a large, multi-spacecraft (greater than 20) imaging interferometer, utilizing precision formation flying in a stable environment, such as in a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L2 point. In this paper, we present an update on the ongoing SI mission concept and technology development studies.

  19. The Stellar Imager (SI) "Vision Mission"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K.; Danchi, W.; Leitner, J.; Liu, A.; Lyon, R.; Mazzuca, L.; Moe, R.; Chenette, D.; Schrijver, C.; Kilston, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a Vision Mission in the Sun-Earth Connection (SEC) NASA Roadmap, conceived for the purpose of understanding the effects of stellar magnetic fields, the dynamos that generate them, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars in which they exist. The ultimate goal is to achieve the best possible forecasting of solar/stellar activity and its impact on life in the Universe. The science goals of SI require an ultra-high angular resolution, a t ultraviolet wavelengths, on the order of 100 micro-arcsec and baselines on the order of 0.5 km. These requirements call for a large, multi-spacecraft (>20) imaging interferometer, utilizing precision formation flying in a stable environment, such as in a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L2 point. In this paper, we present an update on the ongoing SI mission concept and technology development studies.

  20. PREFACE: A Stellar Journey A Stellar Journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, M.

    2008-10-01

    The conference A Stellar Journey was held in Uppsala, Sweden, 23 27June 2008, in honour of Professor Bengt Gustafsson's 65th birthday. The choice of Uppsala as the location for this event was obvious given Bengt's long-standing association with the city stemming back to his school days. With the exception of a two-year postdoc stint in Copenhagen, five years as professor at Stockholm University and two years as director of the Sigtuna foundation, Bengt has forged his illustrious professional career at Uppsala University. The symposium venue was Museum Gustavianum, once the main building of the oldest university in Scandinavia. The title of the symposium is a paraphrasing of Bengt's popular astronomy book Kosmisk Resa (in English: Cosmic Journey) written in the early eighties. I think this aptly symbolizes his career that has been an astronomical voyage from near to far, from the distant past to the present. The original book title was modified slightly to reflect that most of his work to date has dealt with stars in one way or another. In addition it also gives credit to Bengt's important role as a guiding light for a very large number of students, colleagues and collaborators, indeed for several generations of astronomers. For me personally, the book Kosmisk Resa bears particular significance as it has shaped my life rather profoundly. Although I had already decided to become an astronomer, when I first read the book as a 14-year-old I made up my mind then and there that I would study under Bengt Gustafsson and work on stars. Indeed I have remained true to this somewhat audacious resolution. I suspect that a great number of us have similar stories how Bengt has had a major influence on our lives, whether on the professional or personal level. Perhaps Bengt's most outstanding characteristic is his enthralling enthusiasm. This is equally true whether he is pondering some scientific conundrum, supervising students or performing in front of an audience, be it an

  1. Las Campanas Stellar Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, Igor; Zolotukhin, Ivan; Beletsky, Yuri; Worthey, Guy

    2015-08-01

    Stellar libraries are fundamental tools required to understand stellar populations in star clusters and galaxies as well as properties of individual stars. Comprehensive libraries exist in the optical domain, but the near-infrared (NIR) domain stays a couple of decades behind. Here we present the Las Campanas Stellar Library project aiming at obtaining high signal-to-noise intermediate-resolution (R=8000) NIR spectra (0.83<λ<2.5μm) for a sample of 1200 stars in the Southern sky using the Folded-port InfraRed Echelette spectrograph at the 6.5-m Magellan Baade telescope. We developed a dedicated observing strategy and customized the telescope control software in order to achieve the highest possible level of data homogeniety. As of 2015, we observed about 600 stars of all spectral types and luminosity classes making our library the largest homogeneous collection of stellar spectra covering the entire NIR domain. We also re-calibrated in flux and wavelength the two existing optical stellar libraries, INDO-US and UVES-POP and followed up about 400 non-variable stars in the NIR in order to get complete optical-NIR coverage. Worth mentioning that our current sample includes about 80 AGB stars and a few dozens of bulge/LMC/SMC stars.

  2. THE DUAL ORIGIN OF STELLAR HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotov, Adi; Hogg, David W.; Willman, Beth; Brooks, Alyson M.; Brook, Chris B.; Stinson, Greg E-mail: bwillman@haverford.edu

    2009-09-10

    We investigate the formation of the stellar halos of four simulated disk galaxies using high-resolution, cosmological SPH + N-body simulations. These simulations include a self-consistent treatment of all the major physical processes involved in galaxy formation. The simulated galaxies presented here each have a total mass of {approx}10{sup 12} M{sub sun}, but span a range of merger histories. These simulations allow us to study the competing importance of in situ star formation (stars formed in the primary galaxy) and accretion of stars from subhalos in the building of stellar halos in a {lambda}CDM universe. All four simulated galaxies are surrounded by a stellar halo, whose inner regions (r < 20 kpc) contain both accreted stars, and an in situ stellar population. The outer regions of the galaxies' halos were assembled through pure accretion and disruption of satellites. Most of the in situ halo stars formed at high redshift out of smoothly accreted cold gas in the inner 1 kpc of the galaxies' potential wells, possibly as part of their primordial disks. These stars were displaced from their central locations into the halos through a succession of major mergers. We find that the two galaxies with recently quiescent merger histories have a higher fraction of in situ stars ({approx}20%-50%) in their inner halos than the two galaxies with many recent mergers ({approx}5%-10% in situ fraction). Observational studies concentrating on stellar populations in the inner halo of the Milky Way will be the most affected by the presence of in situ stars with halo kinematics, as we find that their existence in the inner few tens of kpc is a generic feature of galaxy formation.

  3. A Cusp Catastrophe Model for Team Learning, Team Potency and Team Culture.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Teresa; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Lourenco, Paulo Renato; Dimas, Isabel; Pinheiro, Margarida

    2016-10-01

    This paper examines team learning behaviors within a nonlinear dynamical system (NDS) perspective. The present research is based on a sample of 36 project workgroups, where data were collected at two moments of their life cycle, with visual analogue scales. Using both the least squares method and maximum likelihood, it proposes a cusp catastrophe model for explaining team learning. The cusp model is superior to its linear alternatives and implements team culture as the asymmetry variable and team potency as bifurcation. The findings of cusp structure in the data support the existence of discontinuous shifts in learning behavior and furthermore a proposition that the punctuated equilibrium model (PEM) might be a reasonable model for describing group functioning, since it encompasses such sudden changes between distinct stages (attractors). A discussion on small group research is also provided by highlighting the nonlinear dynamics of team processes, along with further implications for research and practice. PMID:27550707

  4. A Cusp Density Enhancement Study using e-POP Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, B.

    2015-12-01

    CHAMP satellite observations have confirmed neutral density enhancements which are localized to the high latitude polar cusp region. These small-scale density structures are consistently correlated with strong fine-scale field-aligned currents. A possible driver of these density enhancements is soft electron precipitation which, through processes associated with ion-outflow, results in a density enhancement in the cusp vicinity at the altitudes observed by CHAMP. We investigate this mechanism with recent observations from the CASSIOPE / e-POP satellite and numerical simulations. In-situ data for selected cusp transit events are presented. Numerical simulation predictions are discussed comparing two electron-precipitation models: a fine-scale ion-outflow model and a global-scale Joule heating / increased conductivity model (CMIT).

  5. Utilising copper screen-printed electrodes (CuSPE) for the electroanalytical sensing of sulfide.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Bhawana; Bernalte, Elena; Smith, Jamie P; Foster, Christopher W; Linton, Patricia E; Sawant, Shilpa N; Banks, Craig E

    2016-02-21

    A mediatorless sulfide electrochemical sensing platform utilising a novel nanocopper-oxide screen-printed electrodes (CuSPE) is reported for the first time. The state-of-the-art screen-printed electrochemical sensors demonstrate their capability to quantify sulfide within both the presence and absence of an array of interferents with good levels of sensitivity and repeatability. The direct sensing (using linear sweep voltammetry) of sulfide utilising the CuSPEs provides a mediatorless approach for the detection of sulfide, yielding useful analytical signatures that can be successfully quantified. The proposed novel protocol using the CuSPEs is successfully applied to the sensing of sulfide within drinking water exhibiting a high level of recovery.

  6. A Cusp Catastrophe Model for Team Learning, Team Potency and Team Culture.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Teresa; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Lourenco, Paulo Renato; Dimas, Isabel; Pinheiro, Margarida

    2016-10-01

    This paper examines team learning behaviors within a nonlinear dynamical system (NDS) perspective. The present research is based on a sample of 36 project workgroups, where data were collected at two moments of their life cycle, with visual analogue scales. Using both the least squares method and maximum likelihood, it proposes a cusp catastrophe model for explaining team learning. The cusp model is superior to its linear alternatives and implements team culture as the asymmetry variable and team potency as bifurcation. The findings of cusp structure in the data support the existence of discontinuous shifts in learning behavior and furthermore a proposition that the punctuated equilibrium model (PEM) might be a reasonable model for describing group functioning, since it encompasses such sudden changes between distinct stages (attractors). A discussion on small group research is also provided by highlighting the nonlinear dynamics of team processes, along with further implications for research and practice.

  7. On the Cusp around Central Black Holes in Luminous Elliptical Galaxies.

    PubMed

    Nakano; Makino

    1999-11-10

    In this Letter, we show that a massive black hole (MBH) that falls into the center of a galaxy on the dynamical timescale leaves a weak cusp (rho~r-1&solm0;2) around it, which is in good agreement with the recent observations of luminous elliptical galaxies by the Hubble Space Telescope. Such an event is a natural outcome of the merging of two galaxies that have central MBHs. This is the only known mechanism for forming weak cusps in luminous elliptical galaxies. Therefore, the existence of the weak cusps indicates that the central black holes of luminous elliptical galaxies have fallen to the center from outside, most likely during a major merger event. PMID:10525458

  8. Holographic cusped Wilson loops in q-deformed AdS5 × S5 spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Nan; Chen, Hui-Huang; Wu, Jun-Bao

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a minimal surface in q-deformed AdS5×S5 with a cusp boundary is studied in detail. This minimal surface is dual to a cusped Wilson loop in dual field theory. We find that the area of the minimal surface has both logarithmic squared divergence and logarithmic divergence. The logarithmic squared divergence cannot be removed by either Legendre transformation or the usual geometric subtraction. We further make an analytic continuation to the Minkowski signature, taking the limit such that the two edges of the cusp become light-like, and extract the anomalous dimension from the coefficient of the logarithmic divergence. This anomalous dimension goes back smoothly to the results in the undeformed case when we take the limit that the deformation parameter goes to zero. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11105154, 11222549, 11275207), K. C. Wong Education Foundation and Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS

  9. In vitro repair of fractured fiber-reinforced cusp-replacing composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Fennis, Willem M M; Kreulen, Cees M; Tezvergil, Arzu; Lassila, Lippo V J; Vallittu, Pekka K; Creugers, Nico H J

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To assess fracture resistance and failure mode of repaired fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) cusp-replacing restorations. Methods. Sixteen extracted human premolars with fractured cusp-replacing woven (Group (A)) or unidirectional (Group (B)) FRC restorations from a previous loading experiment were repaired with resin composite and loaded to fracture. Results. Differences in fracture loads between groups were not statistically significant (P = 0.34). Fracture loads of repaired specimens were significantly lower than those of original specimens (P = 0.02 for Group (A) and P < 0.001 for Group (B)). Majority of specimens showed failure along the repaired surface. In Group (B) 89% of specimens showed intact tooth substrate after restoration fracture, while this was 28% in Group (A) (P = 0.04). Conclusion. Fractured cusp-replacing FRC restorations that are repaired with resin composite show about half of fracture resistance of original restorations. Mode of failure with a base of unidirectional fibers is predominantly adhesive.

  10. Star Formation in Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: star formation; galactic infrared emission; molecular clouds; OB star luminosity; dust grains; IRAS observations; galactic disks; stellar formation in Magellanic clouds; irregular galaxies; spiral galaxies; starbursts; morphology of galactic centers; and far-infrared observations.

  11. The Stellar Imager (SI)"Vision Mission"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Ken; Danchi, W.; Leitner, J.; Liu, A.; Lyon, R.; Mazzuca, L.; Moe, R.; Chenette, D.; Karovska, M.; Allen, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a "Vision" mission in the Sun-Earth Connection (SEC) Roadmap, conceived for the purpose of understanding the effects of stellar magnetic fields, the dynamos that generate them, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars in which they exist. The ultimate goal is to achieve the best possible forecasting of solar/stellar magnetic activity and its impact on life in the Universe. The science goals of SI require an ultra-high angular resolution, at ultraviolet wavelengths, on the order of 100 micro-arcsec and thus baselines on the order of 0.5 km. These requirements call for a large, multi-spacecraft (less than 20) imaging interferometer, utilizing precision formation flying in a stable environment, such as in a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L2 point. SI's resolution will make it an invaluable resource for many other areas of astrophysics, including studies of AGN s, supernovae, cataclysmic variables, young stellar objects, QSO's, and stellar black holes. ongoing mission concept and technology development studies for SI. These studies are designed to refine the mission requirements for the science goals, define a Design Reference Mission, perform trade studies of selected major technical and architectural issues, improve the existing technology roadmap, and explore the details of deployment and operations, as well as the possible roles of astronauts and/or robots in construction and servicing of the facility.

  12. Detecting Inter-Cusp and Inter-Tooth Wear Patterns in Rhinocerotids

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lucy A.; Kaiser, Thomas M.; Schwitzer, Christoph; Müller, Dennis W. H.; Codron, Daryl; Clauss, Marcus; Schulz, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Extant rhinos are the largest extant herbivores exhibiting dietary specialisations for both browse and grass. However, the adaptive value of the wear-induced tooth morphology in rhinos has not been widely studied, and data on individual cusp and tooth positions have rarely been published. We evaluated upper cheek dentition of browsing Diceros bicornis and Rhinoceros sondaicus, mixed-feeding R. unicornis and grazing Ceratotherium simum using an extended mesowear method adapted for rhinos. We included single cusp scoring (EM(R)-S) to investigate inter-cusp and inter-tooth wear patterns. In accordance with previous reports, general mesowear patterns in D. bicornis and R. sondaicus were attrition-dominated and C. simum abrasion-dominated, reflecting their respective diets. Mesowear patterns for R. unicornis were more attrition-dominated than anticipated by the grass-dominated diet, which may indicate a low intake of environmental abrasives. EM(R)-S increased differentiation power compared to classical mesowear, with significant inter-cusp and inter-tooth differences detected. In D. bicornis, the anterior cusp was consistently more abrasion-dominated than the posterior. Wear differences in cusp position may relate to morphological adaptations to dietary regimes. Heterogeneous occlusal surfaces may facilitate the comminution of heterogeneous browse, whereas uniform, broad grinding surfaces may enhance the comminution of physically more homogeneous grass. A negative tooth wear gradient was found in D. bicornis, R. sondaicus and R. unicornis, with wear patterns becoming less abrasion-dominated from premolars to molars. No such gradients were evident in C. simum which displayed a uniform wear pattern. In browsers, premolars may be exposed to higher relative grit loads, which may result in the development of wear gradients. The second premolar may also have a role in food cropping. In grazers, high absolute amounts of ingested abrasives may override other signals, leading to

  13. Extremely Large Diamagnetic Cavities Observed In The Dayside High-altitute Cusps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiasheng; Fritz, Theodore A.

    Some extremely large diamagnetic cavities have been observed in April, 1999 when the POLAR spacecraft was crossing through the dayside high-altitude cusp regions. These diamagnetic cavities were associated with strong magnetic field turbulence. Some of the diamagnetic cavities were independent of the IMF directions, which is unexpected by the current MHD models, suggesting that the diamagnetic cavities are different from the magnetospheric sash. The size of the cavities were found to be as large as 6 Re. Associated with these cavities are ions with energies from 40 keV up to 8 MeV that are more typical of the trapped ring current and radiation belt populations than the solar wind. The intensities of the energetic ions were observed to increase by as large as four orders of the magnitudes during the cavity crossings, indicating the dayside high-altitude cusp diamagnetic cavity is a key region for transferring the solar wind energy, mass, and momentum into the Earth's magnetosphere. The charge state distribution of these cusp cavity ions was indicative of their seed populations being a mixture of the ionospheric and the solar wind particles. By their geometry cusp mag- netic field lines are connected to all of the magnetopause boundary layers and these cavity charged particles will form an energetic particle layer on the magnetopause. These energetic particles in the cusp diamagnetic cavity together with the cusp's con- nectivity have significant global impacts on the geospace environment research and will be shedding light on the long-standing unsolved fundamental issue about the ori- gins of the energetic particles in the ring current and in upstream ion events.

  14. Experimental and Computational Investigation of a Plasma Ion Accelerator with Multiple Magnetic Field Cusps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Christopher; Cappelli, Mark

    2011-10-01

    A cusped-field discharge produces efficient ionization by trapping electrons from an external cathode through magnetic mirroring between adjacent magnetic cusps. These discharges have applications in space propulsion, particularly at low power (under 200W). However, the underlying physics driving electron transport and ionization in these devices is still poorly understood. In the current study, the plasma potential of a 40-250 W cylindrical cusped-field discharge is characterized using a floating emissive probe. The potential exhibits a spatial structure that mimics visible light emission; elevated potential is observed in a surrounding conical region downstream of the discharge channel, concomitant with ion emission. The experimentally measured plasma potential is used in single-electron particle simulations to investigate transport processes associated with electron migration from the external cathode to the anode at the base of the discharge channel. A cusped-field discharge produces efficient ionization by trapping electrons from an external cathode through magnetic mirroring between adjacent magnetic cusps. These discharges have applications in space propulsion, particularly at low power (under 200W). However, the underlying physics driving electron transport and ionization in these devices is still poorly understood. In the current study, the plasma potential of a 40-250 W cylindrical cusped-field discharge is characterized using a floating emissive probe. The potential exhibits a spatial structure that mimics visible light emission; elevated potential is observed in a surrounding conical region downstream of the discharge channel, concomitant with ion emission. The experimentally measured plasma potential is used in single-electron particle simulations to investigate transport processes associated with electron migration from the external cathode to the anode at the base of the discharge channel. The authors acknowledge support from the Air Force Office of

  15. Ethnic Association of Cusp of Carabelli Trait and Shoveling Trait in an Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Manju, M; Praveen, R; Umesh, W

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Variations in the structure of teeth have always been of great interest to the dentist from the scientific as well as practical point of view. Additionally, ever since decades inter trait relationships have been a useful means to categorize populations to which an individual belongs. Aim To determine the association between Cusp of Carabelli and Shoveling Trait in a selected Indian population native of Bangalore city, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1885 children aged between 7-10 years. Casts of the study subjects were made to study the presence of Cusp of Carabelli of right maxillary permanent molar and shoveling trait of right maxillary permanent central incisor using the Dahlberg’s classification and Hrdliucka’s classification respectively. Linear regression was used to assess the association of cusp of carabelli trait with the tooth dimensions and logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of the carabelli trait with gender and presence/absence of shoveling. Results A 40.5% of subjects had Cusp of Carabelli on first molar and 68.2% had shoveling on upper central incisor. The study revealed positive association between the two traits studied in the population. A significant difference was also found with presence of Cusp of Carabelli and the buccolingual tooth dimension of the maxillary molar (p<0.05). Conclusion There is an association between the Cusp of Carabelli and the shoveling trait in the present study population, and this will be valuable in the determination of ethnic origin of an individual. PMID:27135008

  16. Origins of Stellar Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Kathryn V.

    2016-08-01

    This contribution reviews ideas about the origins of stellar halos. It includes discussion of the theoretical understanding of and observational evidence for stellar populations formed ``in situ'' (meaning formed in orbits close to their current ones), ``kicked-out'' (meaning formed in the inner galaxy in orbits unlike their current ones) and ``accreted'' (meaning formed in a dark matter halo other than the one they currently occupy). At this point there is general agreement that a significant fraction of any stellar halo population is likely ``accreted''. There is modest evidence for the presence of a ``kicked-out'' population around both the Milky Way and M31. Our theoretical understanding of and the observational evidence for an ``in situ'' population are less clear.

  17. Sparse field stellar photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, N.

    The past few years have seen substantial developments in the capability of high speed measuring machines in the field of automated stellar photometry. However, it is only very recently that these machines have started to make any impact on stellar astronomy, and even now their potential is scarcely being exploited. In this review, after describing some of the limitations on photometric precision, empirical results are used to demonstrate the sort of accuracies that are possible with the UK Schmidt plate plus COSMOS/APM images-scan combination. The astronomical results obtained to date from these machines are discussed, and some consideration is given to the future role of measuring machines in stellar astronomy.

  18. Real time evolvable hardware for optimal reconfiguration of cusp-like pulse shapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanchares, Juan; Garnica, Oscar; Risco-Martín, José L.; Hidalgo, J. Ignacio; Colmenar, J. Manuel; Cuesta-Infante, Alfredo

    2014-11-01

    The design of a cusp-like digital pulse shaper for particle energy measurements requires the definition of four parameters whose values are defined based on the nature of the shaper input signal (timing, noise, …) provided by a sensor. However, after high doses of radiation, sensors degenerate and their output signals do not meet the original characteristics, which may lead to erroneous measurements of the particle energies. We present in this paper an evolvable cusp-like digital shaper, which is able to auto-recalibrate the original hardware implementation into a new design that match the original specifications under the new sensor features.

  19. Inter-cusp Ion and Electron Transport in a Nstar-derivative Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2001-01-01

    Diffusion of electrons and ions to anode surfaces between the magnetic cusps of a NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness ion thruster has been characterized. Ion flux measurements were made at the anode and at the screen grid electrode. The measurements indicated that the average ion current density at the anode and at the screen grid were approximately equal. Additionally, it was found that the electron flux to the anode between cusps is best described by the classical cross-field diffusion coefficient.

  20. Multi-point observations of Ion Dispersions near the Exterior Cusp with Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escoubet, C.-Philippe; Grison, Benjamin; Berchem, Jean; Trattner, Kralheinz; Pitout, Frederic; Richard, Robert; Taylor, Matt; Soucek, Jan; Laakso, Harri; Masson, Arnaud; Dunlop, Malcolm; Dandouras, Iannis; Reme, Henri; Fazakerley, Andrew; Daly, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The exterior cusp is the most external region of the polar magnetosphere in direct contact with the plasma and the magnetic field from the solar wind. Unlike the rest of the magnetopause surface, the exterior cusp is a singular region with small and turbulent magnetic field and where large entry of plasma from solar origin takes place. The main process that injects solar wind plasma into the polar cusp is now generally accepted to be magnetic reconnection. Depending on the IMF direction, this process will take place equatorward (for IMF southward), poleward (for IMF northward) or on the dusk or dawn sides (for IMF azimuthal) of the cusp. We report a Cluster crossing on 5 January 2002 near the exterior cusp on the southern dusk side. The IMF was mainly azimuthal (IMF-By around -5 nT), the solar wind speed lower than usual around 280 km/s and the density around 5 cm-3. The four Cluster spacecraft were still in the "magnetotail" configuration with two perfect tetrahedra of 2000 km around apogee and turning into an elongated configuration near the magnetopause. C4 was the first spacecraft to enter the cusp around 19:52:04 UT, followed by C2 at 19:52:35 UT, C1 at 19:54:24 UT and C3 at 20:13:15 UT. C4 and C1 observed two ion energy dispersions at 20:10 UT and 20:40 UT and C3 at 20:35 UT and 21:15 UT. Using the time of flight technique on the upgoing and downgoing ions in the dispersions, we obtain an altitude of the sources of these ions between 14 and 20 RE. Using Tsyganenko model, these sources are located on the dusk flank, past the terminator. In addition, before entering the cusp, the magnetopause crossing was characterized by a large shear in By and bipolar plasma flows, suggesting that reconnection was taking place near the exterior cusp. We will discuss the extent of the reconnection line along the flank of the magnetopause based on these observations.

  1. Gamma-ray bursts from cusps on superconducting cosmic strings at large redshifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paczynski, Bohdan

    1988-01-01

    Babul et al. (1987) proposed that some gamma-ray bursts may be caused by energy released at the cusps of oscillating loops made of superconducting cosmic strings. It is claimed that there were some errors and omissions in that work, which are claimed to be corrected in the present paper. Arguments are presented, that given certain assumptions, the cusps on oscillating superconducting cosmic strings produce highly collimated and energetic electromagnetic bursts and that a fair fraction of electromagnetic energy is likely to come out as gamma rays.

  2. Sparse field stellar photometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, N.

    The past few years have seen substantial developments in the capability of high speed measuring machines in the field of automated stellar photometry. In this review, after describing some of the limitations on photometric precision, empirical results are used to demonstrate the sort of accuracies that are possible with the UK Schmidt plate plus COSMOS/APM images-scan combination. The astronomical results obtained to date from these machines are discussed, and some consideration is given to the future role of measuring machines in stellar astronomy.

  3. Young Stellar Objects in the Orion B Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petr-Gotzens, M. G.; Alcalá, J. M.; Spezzi, L.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Stanke, Th.; Lombardi, M.; Alves, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Wide-field near-infrared imaging surveys offer an excellent opportunity to obtain spatially complete samples of young stars in nearby star-forming regions. By studying their spatial distribution and individual properties, the global star formation characteristics of a region can be established. Near-infrared wide-field imaging observations of a significantly large area in the Orion Molecular Cloud B, obtained with the VISTA telescope on Cerro Paranal are presented. On the basis of photometric selection criteria, we have identified 186 candidate young stellar objects that are associated with the stellar clusters NGC 2068 and NGC 2071, and with the stellar group around HH24-26. Overall, Orion B shows a lot of similarities in its star formation characteristics with other Galactic star-forming regions: a star formation efficiency of a few percent, a stellar mass distribution very similar to that of the Orion Trapezium cluster, and a high observed fraction of circumstellar discs.

  4. Flexible helical-axis stellarator

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Jeffrey H.; Hender, Timothy C.; Carreras, Benjamin A.; Cantrell, Jack L.; Morris, Robert N.

    1988-01-01

    An 1=1 helical winding which spirals about a conventional planar, circular central conductor of a helical-axis stellarator adds a significant degree of flexibility by making it possible to control the rotational transform profile and shear of the magnetic fields confining the plasma in a helical-axis stellarator. The toroidal central conductor links a plurality of toroidal field coils which are separately disposed to follow a helical path around the central conductor in phase with the helical path of the 1=1 winding. This coil configuration produces bean-shaped magnetic flux surfaces which rotate around the central circular conductor in the same manner as the toroidal field generating coils. The additional 1=1 winding provides flexible control of the magnetic field generated by the central conductor to prevent the formation of low-order resonances in the rotational transform profile which can produce break-up of the equilibrium magnetic surfaces. Further, this additional winding can deepen the magnetic well which together with the flexible control provides increased stability.

  5. PREFACE: A Stellar Journey A Stellar Journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, M.

    2008-10-01

    The conference A Stellar Journey was held in Uppsala, Sweden, 23 27June 2008, in honour of Professor Bengt Gustafsson's 65th birthday. The choice of Uppsala as the location for this event was obvious given Bengt's long-standing association with the city stemming back to his school days. With the exception of a two-year postdoc stint in Copenhagen, five years as professor at Stockholm University and two years as director of the Sigtuna foundation, Bengt has forged his illustrious professional career at Uppsala University. The symposium venue was Museum Gustavianum, once the main building of the oldest university in Scandinavia. The title of the symposium is a paraphrasing of Bengt's popular astronomy book Kosmisk Resa (in English: Cosmic Journey) written in the early eighties. I think this aptly symbolizes his career that has been an astronomical voyage from near to far, from the distant past to the present. The original book title was modified slightly to reflect that most of his work to date has dealt with stars in one way or another. In addition it also gives credit to Bengt's important role as a guiding light for a very large number of students, colleagues and collaborators, indeed for several generations of astronomers. For me personally, the book Kosmisk Resa bears particular significance as it has shaped my life rather profoundly. Although I had already decided to become an astronomer, when I first read the book as a 14-year-old I made up my mind then and there that I would study under Bengt Gustafsson and work on stars. Indeed I have remained true to this somewhat audacious resolution. I suspect that a great number of us have similar stories how Bengt has had a major influence on our lives, whether on the professional or personal level. Perhaps Bengt's most outstanding characteristic is his enthralling enthusiasm. This is equally true whether he is pondering some scientific conundrum, supervising students or performing in front of an audience, be it an

  6. Stellar magnetic cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baliunas, S. L.

    2004-05-01

    Is hope for understanding the solar magnetic cycle to be found in stars? Observations of stars with significant sub-surface convective zones -- masses smaller than about 1.5 solar masses on the lower main sequence and many types of cool, post-main-sequence stars -- indicate the presence of surface and atmospheric inhomogeneities analogous to solar magnetic features, making stellar magnetic activity a cosmically widespread phenomenon. Observations have been made primarily in visible wavelengths, and important information has also been derived from the ultraviolet and x-ray spectrum regions. Interannual to interdecadal variability of spectrum indicators of stellar magnetic features is common, and in some cases similar in appearance to the 11-year sunspot cycle. Successful models of the physical processes responsible for stellar magnetic cycles, typically cast as a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo, require advances in understanding not only convection but also the magnetic field's interaction with it. The observed facts that underpin the hope for models will be summarized. Properties of stellar magnetic cycles will be compared and contrasted with those of the sun, including inferences from paleo-environmental reservoirs that contain information on solar century- to millennial-scale magnetic variability. Partial support of this research came from NASA NAG5-7635, NRC COBASE, CRDF 322, MIT-MSG 5710001241, JPL 1236821, AF 49620-02-1-0194, Richard Lounsberry Foundation, Langley-Abbot, Rollins, Scholarly Studies and James Arthur Funds (Smithsonian Institution) and several generous individuals.

  7. A Stellar Demonstrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the stellar demonstrator is to help explain the movement of stars. In particular, students have difficulties understanding why, if they are living in the Northern Hemisphere, they may observe starts in the Southern Hemisphere, or why circumpolar stars are not the same in different parts of Europe. Using the demonstrator, these…

  8. Progress Toward Attractive Stellarators

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, G H; Brown, T G; Gates, D A; Lu, K P; Zarnstorff, M C; Boozer, A H; Harris, J H; Meneghini, O; Mynick, H E; Pomphrey, N; Reiman, A H; Xanthopoulos, P

    2011-01-05

    The quasi-axisymmetric stellarator (QAS) concept offers a promising path to a more compact stellarator reactor, closer in linear dimensions to tokamak reactors than previous stellarator designs. Concept improvements are needed, however, to make it more maintainable and more compatible with high plant availability. Using the ARIES-CS design as a starting point, compact stellarator designs with improved maintenance characteristics have been developed. While the ARIES-CS features a through-the-port maintenance scheme, we have investigated configuration changes to enable a sector-maintenance approach, as envisioned for example in ARIES AT. Three approaches are reported. The first is to make tradeoffs within the QAS design space, giving greater emphasis to maintainability criteria. The second approach is to improve the optimization tools to more accurately and efficiently target the physics properties of importance. The third is to employ a hybrid coil topology, so that the plasma shaping functions of the main coils are shared more optimally, either with passive conductors made of high-temperature superconductor or with local compensation coils, allowing the main coils to become simpler. Optimization tools are being improved to test these approaches.

  9. Introduction to Stellar Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm-Vitense, Erika

    1992-01-01

    This book is the final one in a series of three texts which together provide a modern, complete and authoritative account of our present knowledge of the stars. It discusses the internal structure and the evolution of stars, and is completely self-contained. There is an emphasis on the basic physics governing stellar structure and the basic ideas on which our understanding of stellar structure is based. The book also provides a comprehensive discussion of stellar evolution. Careful comparison is made between theory and observation, and the author has thus provided a lucid and balanced introductory text for the student. As for volumes 1 and 2, volume 3 is self-contained and can be used as an independent textbook. The author has not only taught but has also published many original papers in this subject. Her clear and readable style should make this text a first choice for undergraduate and beginning graduate students taking courses in astronomy and particularly in stellar astrophysics.

  10. Clumps in stellar winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vink, J. S.

    2014-07-01

    We discuss the origin and quantification of wind clumping and mass-loss rates (Ṁ), particularly in close proximity to the Eddington (Γ) limit, relevant for very massive stars (VMS). We present evidence that clumping may not be the result of the line-deshadowing instability (LDI), but that clumps are already present in the stellar photosphere.

  11. Opacity of stellar matter

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, F J

    1998-09-17

    New efforts to calculate opacity have produced significant improvements in the quality of stellar models. The most dramatic effect has been large opacity enhancements for stars subject to large amplitude pulsations. Significant improvement in helioseismic modeling has also been obtained. A description and comparisons of the new opacity efforts are give

  12. isochrones: Stellar model grid package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Timothy D.

    2015-03-01

    Isochrones, written in Python, simplifies common tasks often done with stellar model grids, such as simulating synthetic stellar populations, plotting evolution tracks or isochrones, or estimating the physical properties of a star given photometric and/or spectroscopic observations.

  13. Trends of stellar entropy along stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Avellar, Guilherme Bronzato, Marcio; Alvares de Souza, Rodrigo; Horvath, Jorge Ernesto

    2016-02-01

    This paper is devoted to discussing the difference in the thermodynamic entropy budget per baryon in each type of stellar object found in the Universe. We track and discuss the actual decrease of the stored baryonic thermodynamic entropy from the most primitive molecular cloud up to the final fate of matter in black holes, passing through evolved states of matter as found in white dwarfs and neutron stars. We then discuss the case of actual stars with different masses throughout their evolution, clarifying the role of the virial equilibrium condition for the decrease in entropy and related issues. Finally, we discuss the role of gravity in driving the composition and the structural changes of stars with different Main Sequence masses during their evolution up to the final product. Particularly, we discuss the entropy of a black hole in this context arguing that the dramatic increase in its entropy, differently from the other cases, is due to the gravitational field itself.

  14. Solar and stellar photospheric abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    The determination of photospheric abundances in late-type stars from spectroscopic observations is a well-established field, built on solid theoretical foundations. Improving those foundations to refine the accuracy of the inferred abundances has proven challenging, but progress has been made. In parallel, developments on instrumentation, chiefly regarding multi-object spectroscopy, have been spectacular, and a number of projects are collecting large numbers of observations for stars across the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, promising important advances in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. After providing a brief description of the basic physics and input data involved in the analysis of stellar spectra, a review is made of the analysis steps, and the available tools to cope with large observational efforts. The paper closes with a quick overview of relevant ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys, and highlights of recent research on photospheric abundances.

  15. Stellar Pulsations and Stellar Evolution: Conflict, Cohabitation, or Symbiosis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Achim

    While the analysis of stellar pulsations allows the determination of current properties of a star, stellar evolution models connect it with its previous history. In many cases results from both methods do not agree. In this review some classical and current cases of disagreement are presented. In some cases these conflicts led to an improvement of the theory of stellar evolution, while in others they still remain unsolved. Some well-known problems of stellar physics are pointed out as well, for which it is hoped that seismology—or in general the analysis of stellar pulsations—will help to resolve them. The limits of this symbiosis will be discussed as well.

  16. Cusp Anomalous Dimension in Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory at Strong Coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, B.; Korchemsky, G. P.; Kotanski, J.

    2008-03-07

    We construct an analytical solution to the integral equation which is believed to describe logarithmic growth of the anomalous dimensions of high-spin operators in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and use it to determine the strong coupling expansion of the cusp anomalous dimension.

  17. The Relationship between Victimization at School and Achievement: The Cusp Catastrophe Model for Reading Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Antoniou, Faye; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Morgan, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between victimization and academic achievement from a nonlinear perspective using a cusp catastrophe model. Participants were 62 students with identified learning disabilities (LD) using statewide criteria in Greece. Students participated in a 2-year cohort-sequential design. Reading assessments involved measures of…

  18. Electromagnetic and electrostatic emissions at the cusp-magnetosphere interface during substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. A.; Fairfield, D. H.; Wu, C. S.

    1979-01-01

    Strongly peaked electrostatic emissions near 10.0 kHz and electromagnetic emissions near 0.56 kHz have been observed by the VLF wave detector on board Imp 6 on crossings from the earth's magnetosphere into the polar cusp during the occurrence of large magnetospheric substorms. The electrostatic emissions were observed to be closely confined to the cusp-magnetosphere interface. The electromagnetic emissions were of somewhat broader spatial extent and were seen on higher-latitude field lines within the cusp. Using these plasma wave observations and additional information provided by plasma, magnetometer and particle measurements made simultaneously on Imp 6, theories are constructed to explain each of the two classes of emission. The electromagnetic waves are modeled as whistlers, and the electrostatic waves as electron-cyclotron harmonics. The resulting growth rates predict power spectra similar to those observed for both emission classes. The electrostatic waves may play a significant role via enhanced diffusion in the relaxation of the sharp substorm time cusp-magnetosphere boundary to a more diffuse quiet time boundary.

  19. On the Cusp of Cyberspace: Adolescents' Online Text Use in Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Margaret A.

    2011-01-01

    This discourse analysis study examines the use of online texts in the live conversations of adolescents at and around computers in the Young Adult section of a Midwestern public library serving a diverse SES population. On the cusp of cyberspace, where online texts influence conversation and the conversation influences the creation of online…

  20. Prevalence of talon cusps in a Portuguese population: Forensic identification significance of a rare trait

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Ricardo Jorge; Cardoso, Hugo F.V.; Caldas, Inês Morais

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental techniques are frequently used in human identification; some of those include comparative analyses of dental features that, being rare or unique to an individual, can establish a positive identification. The usefulness of each feature depends on its population, frequency, and uniqueness. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of talon cusps in a Portuguese population. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was performed. Three hundred and two patients were studied, and talon cusps presence was assessed. Statistical tests were carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 17 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical analysis relied primarily on descriptive statistics and crosstabs, with Chi-square analysis. Results: Results showed that talon cusps were observed in only 6.3% of patients. The maxillary lateral incisors were the most common teeth showing this feature (82.1% of all teeth). Conclusion: It can be concluded that talon cusps are an uncommon trait in these Portuguese population, and therefore, it is a feature that can be potentially very useful in forensic human identification, when antemortem dental records are available. PMID:24688559

  1. The Cubesat mission to study Solar Particles (CuSP), an interplanetary cubesat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, E. R.; Desai, M. I.; Allegrini, F.; Jahn, J. M.; Kanekal, S.; Livi, S. A.; Murphy, N.; Ogasawara, K.; Paschalidis, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Cubesat mission to study Solar Particles (CuSP) is a funded 6U interplanetary cubesat scheduled to fly on the EM-1 SLS launch in 2018. CuSP has three small but capable instruments from the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Its primary scientific goal is high-cadence precise measurements of the suprathermal (ST) tail in the solar wind. The suprathermal tail is the critical bridge between the thermal solar wind plasma and the dangerous high-energy solar energetic particles. CuSP also measures the energy spectra and composition of the ~1-50 MeV/nucleon H-Fe ions that evolve from the STs and the interplanetary magnetic field that is closely coupled to the particle distributions. CuSP is a stepping-stone to future interplanetary cubesats, smallsats, and constellations for both scientific and space weather applications. The challenges for this mission and future missions will also be discussed.

  2. Explaining health care utilization for panic attacks using cusp catastrophe modeling.

    PubMed

    Katerndahl, David

    2008-10-01

    Despite increased health care utilization, patients with panic disorder continue to report unmet needs. The objective was to compare the fit of linear and Cusp Catastrophe Modeling in explaining changes in utilization of emergency, general and mental health settings, and self-treatments for panic symptoms. This community-based study surveyed 97 subjects with panic attacks drawn from a sample of randomly-selected adults from randomly-selected households. The stressor (splitting) variable used was Phobic Anxiety while predisposing variables included Family Health Care Utilization, Perceived Life Threat and Need For Treatment, and Treatment Experience. Outcomes consisted of the number of sites and self-treatments used for panic symptoms when first seeking care and during the 2 months prior to survey. Use of mental health sites and self-treatments demonstrated superior modeling with cusp catastrophe approaches using treatment experience as the predisposing variable, accounting for 47% and 38% of variances respectively, improving the fit by over 20% compared to the best linear models in both cases. Cusp catastrophe modeling accounted for more variance than all linear models when describing use of mental health settings and self-treatments. Cusp catastrophe may explain bimodal distributions in behavior, delays in behavior change, and sudden shifts in behavior in stressful situations. PMID:18765074

  3. THE RESOLVED STELLAR HALO OF NGC 253

    SciTech Connect

    Bailin, Jeremy; Bell, Eric F.; Chappell, Samantha N.; Radburn-Smith, David J.; De Jong, Roelof S.

    2011-07-20

    We have obtained Magellan/IMACS and Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging data that resolve red giant branch stars in the stellar halo of the starburst galaxy NGC 253. The HST data cover a small area, and allow us to accurately interpret the ground-based data, which cover 30% of the halo to a distance of 30 kpc, allowing us to make detailed quantitative measurements of the global properties and structure of a stellar halo outside of the Local Group. The geometry of the halo is significantly flattened in the same sense as the disk, with a projected axis ratio of b/a {approx} 0.35 {+-} 0.1. The total stellar mass of the halo is estimated to be M{sub halo} {approx} (2.5 {+-} 1.5) x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}, or 6% of the total stellar mass of the galaxy, and has a projected radial dependence that follows a power law of index -2.8 {+-} 0.6, corresponding to a three-dimensional power-law index of {approx} - 4. The total luminosity and profile shape that we measure for NGC 253 are somewhat larger and steeper than the equivalent values for the Milky Way and M31, but are well within the scatter of model predictions for the properties of stellar halos built up in a cosmological context. Structure within the halo is seen at a variety of scales: there is small kpc-scale density variation and a large shelf-like feature near the middle of the field. The techniques that have been developed will be essential for quantitatively comparing our upcoming larger sample of observed stellar halos to models of halo formation.

  4. EXPONENTIAL GALAXY DISKS FROM STELLAR SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Struck, Curtis E-mail: curt@iastate.edu

    2013-10-01

    Stellar scattering off of orbiting or transient clumps is shown to lead to the formation of exponential profiles in both surface density and velocity dispersion in a two-dimensional non-self gravitating stellar disk with a fixed halo potential. The exponential forms for both nearly flat rotation curves and near-solid-body rotation curves. The exponential does not depend on initial conditions, spiral arms, bars, viscosity, star formation, or strong shear. After a rapid initial development, the exponential saturates to an approximately fixed scale length. The inner exponential in a two-component profile has a break radius comparable to the initial disk radius; the outer exponential is primarily scattered stars.

  5. THREE-DIMENSIONAL STELLAR KINEMATICS AT THE GALACTIC CENTER: MEASURING THE NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTER SPATIAL DENSITY PROFILE, BLACK HOLE MASS, AND DISTANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Do, T.; Martinez, G. D.; Bullock, J.; Kaplinghat, M.; Peter, A. H. G.; Yelda, S.; Ghez, A.; Phifer, K.; Lu, J. R.

    2013-12-10

    We present three-dimensional (3D) kinematic observations of stars within the central 0.5 pc of the Milky Way (MW) nuclear star cluster (NSC) using adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy from the Keck telescopes. Recent observations have shown that the cluster has a shallower surface density profile than expected for a dynamically relaxed cusp, leading to important implications for its formation and evolution. However, the true 3D profile of the cluster is unknown due to the difficulty in de-projecting the stellar number counts. Here, we use spherical Jeans modeling of individual proper motions and radial velocities to constrain, for the first time, the de-projected spatial density profile, cluster velocity anisotropy, black hole mass (M {sub BH}), and distance to the Galactic center (R {sub 0}) simultaneously. We find that the inner stellar density profile of the late-type stars, ρ(r)∝r {sup –γ}, have a power law slope γ=0.05{sub −0.60}{sup +0.29}, much more shallow than the frequently assumed Bahcall-Wolf slope of γ = 7/4. The measured slope will significantly affect dynamical predictions involving the cluster, such as the dynamical friction time scale. The cluster core must be larger than 0.5 pc, which disfavors some scenarios for its origin. Our measurement of M{sub BH}=5.76{sub −1.26}{sup +1.76}×10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} and R{sub 0}=8.92{sub −0.55}{sup +0.58} kpc is consistent with that derived from stellar orbits within 1'' of Sgr A*. When combined with the orbit of S0-2, the uncertainty on R {sub 0} is reduced by 30% (8.46{sub −0.38}{sup +0.42} kpc). We suggest that the MW NSC can be used in the future in combination with stellar orbits to significantly improve constraints on R {sub 0}.

  6. Coulomb ensemble of diamagnetic dust particles in a cusp magnetic trap under microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myasnikov, Maxim

    Strongly coupled Coulomb systems (SCCS) are of considerable fundamental and applied interest. They have been theoretically and experimentally investigated during many decades. In recent years, ordered dust structures of liquid-like and crystalline type in discharge plasma is often considered as a physical model of SCCS that can visually be observed. Using such structures of charged dust particles, one can investigate the processes of phase transitions, waves, and instabilities on kinetic level. For confinement and investigation of strongly coupled systems of charged dust particles, we propose to use a trap based on the known possibility of the levitation of diamagnetic bodies in a nonuniform steady-state magnetic field. For the investigation of Coulomb clusters of diamagnetic particles in nonuniform magnetic field the experimental setup with the region of stable levitation about 400 cm(3) and magnetic field gradient of 0.04 T/cm was produced. Preliminary experiments were carried out on the board of International Space Station with carbon particles with sizes of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mum in the argon atmosphere under atmospheric pressure. The preliminary analysis of the experiments allowed us to determine the formation of large cluster of carbon particles in the magnet trap. A number of particles in the cluster was about 2000. The oscillations of the cluster were observed, the maximum amplitude of the oscillations was 0.49 cm, the oscillation period - 10 s and damping factor - 0.07 s(-1) . From the balance of electrostatic and magnetic forces the dust charges were evaluated. The charge value for the particles with size of 400 mum was q_{p}≈ 4* 10(4) e. Next we performed MD simulation of the observed processes of the cluster formation and oscillation. To account for the magnetic forces confining a cluster we have numerically calculated the magnetic field distribution in the cusp trap and approximate it by a simple expression with reasonable accuracy. Results of the

  7. HF radar signatures of the cusp and low-latitude boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, K. B.; Dudeney, J. R.; Greenwald, R. A.; Pinnock, M.; Newell, P. T.; Rodger, A. S.; Mattin, N.; Meng, C.-I.

    1995-01-01

    Continuous ground-based observations of ionospheric and magnetospheric regions are critical to the Geospace Environmental Modeling (GEM) program. It is therefore important to establish clear intercalibrations between different ground-based instruments and satellites in order to clearly place the ground-based observations in context with the corresponding in situ satellite measurements. HF-radars operating at high latitudes are capable of observing very large spatial regions of the ionosphere on a nearly continuous basis. In this paper we report on an intercalibration study made using the Polar Anglo-American Conjugate Radar Experiment radars located at Goose Bay, Labrador, and Halley Station, Antarctica, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites. The DMSP satellite data are used to provide clear identifications of the ionospheric cusp and the low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL). The radar data for eight cusp events and eight LLBL events have been examined in order to determine a radar signature of these ionospheric regions. This intercalibraion indicates that the cusp is always characterized by wide, complex Doppler power spectra, whereas the LLBL is usually found to have spectra dominated by a single component. The distribution of spectral widths in the cusp is of a generally Gaussian form with a peak at about 220 m/s. The distribution of spectral widths in the LLBL is more like an exponential distribution, with the peak of the distribution occurring at about 50 m/s. There are a few cases in the LLBL where the Doppler power spectra are strikingly similar to those observed in the cusp.

  8. The Effects of Stellar Dynamics on the Evolution of Young, Dense Stellar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkus, H.; van Bever, J.; Vanbeveren, D.

    In this paper, we report on first results of a project in Brussels in which we study the effects of stellar dynamics on the evolution of young dense stellar systems using 3 decades of expertise in massive-star evolution and our population (number and spectral) synthesis code. We highlight an unconventionally formed object scenario (UFO-scenario) for Wolf Rayet binaries and study the effects of a luminous blue variable-type instability wind mass-loss formalism on the formation of intermediate-mass black holes.

  9. Molecular clouds. [significance in stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaddeus, P.

    1977-01-01

    An attempt is made to understand star formation in the context of the dense interstellar molecular gas from which stars are made. Attention is given to how molecular observations (e.g., UV spectroscopy and radio 21-cm and recombination line observations) provide data on the physical state of the dense interstellar gas; observations of H II regions, stellar associations, and dark nebulae are discussed. CO clouds are studied with reference to radial velocity, temperature, density, ionization, magnetic field.

  10. The spatial structure of young stellar clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Michael A.

    Star formation is an extremely active area of astronomical research, and young stellar clusters in our Galaxy offer a useful laboratory where star-formation processes can be studied. Young stars form from the the gravitational collapse of molecular clouds that have a hierarchical spatial structure. This leads to stars forming in clustered environments, often with thousands of other young stars in environments that are strongly affected by feedback from massive O-type stars. The environments in these massive star-forming regions (MSFR) can affect how stars form and whether the young stellar clusters remain bound after star formation ends, both of which are questions that have received considerable attention from researchers. Studies of stellar populations in Galactic MSFRs are made difficult due to large numbers of fields stars in the Galactic Plane, large areas of the sky that must be surveyed, high optical extinction from dust, and nebulosity in the the optical and infrared. The Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX) uses multiwavelength observations to overcome some of these difficulties, providing some of the most complete, clean membership lists for 20 MSFRs within 3.6 kpc of the Sun. I described X-ray catalogs and mid-infrared catalogs that were used in this survey. The spatial distribution of young stars in 17 MYStIX regions are used to probe the origin and dynamics of the young stellar clusters. Intrinsic stellar surface-density maps are made for each region, which reveal complex structures with dense subclusters. I examine in detail one of the nearest MYStIX young stellar clusters, W 40 (d = 500 pc), which has properties similar to many of the subclusters in more massive and more distant star-forming regions. The cluster in W 40 has a simple structure with mass segregation, indicating that it has undergone dynamical evolution, even though its young age (~0.8 Myr) is insufficient for relaxation from two-body interactions

  11. Magellanic Clouds: Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mould, J.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Magellanic Clouds (figure 1) have long been seen as the prototypical young STELLAR POPULATION. The presence of young GLOBULAR CLUSTERS in the Clouds spoke to southern hemisphere observers of the opportunity to study close up processes which have not occurred in the Milky Way for a long time. Young globulars are also seen in other gas-rich, highly disturbed environments, such as merging galaxi...

  12. DOLPHOT: Stellar photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolphin, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    DOLPHOT is a stellar photometry package that was adapted from HSTphot f