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Sample records for stellar mass functions

  1. Stellar Initial Mass Function: Trends With Galaxy Mass And Radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikh, Taniya

    2017-06-01

    There is currently no consensus about the exact shape and, in particular, the universality of the stellar initial mass function (IMF). For massive galaxies, it has been found that near-infrared (NIR) absorption features, which are sensitive to the ratio of dwarf to giant stars, deviate from a Milky Way-like IMF; their modelling seems to require a larger fraction of low mass stars. There are now increasing results looking at whether the IMF varies not only with galaxy mass, but also radially within galaxies. The SDSS-IV/MaNGA integral-field survey will provide spatially resolved spectroscopy for 10,000 galaxies at R 2000 from 360-1000nm. Spectra of early-type galaxies were stacked to achieve high S/N which is particularly important for features in the NIR. Trends with galaxy radius and mass were compared to stellar population models for a range of absorption features in order to separate degeneracies due to changes in stellar population parameters, such as age, metallicity and element abundances, with potential changes in the IMF. Results for 611 galaxies show that we do not require an IMF steeper than Kroupa as a function of galaxy mass or radius based on the NaI index. The Wing-Ford band hints towards a steeper IMF at large radii however we do not have reliable measurements for the most massive galaxies.

  2. Constraining the Initial Mass Function of unresolved stellar populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreras, I.; La Barbera, F.; Vazdekis, A.

    2015-05-01

    All studies of unresolved stellar populations rely on a proper characterization of the stellar initial mass function (IMF), i.e. the distribution of stellar masses at birth. Over the past few years, several avenues of research have suggested a systematic variation of the IMF in early-type galaxies, with a departure from the standard IMF in the most massive systems towards both an enhanced contribution from low-mass dwarves (derived from line strength constraints); and an excess of stellar M/L (from galaxy dynamics and gravitational lensing constraints). We present here some of the recent results, focusing on constraints based on spectral line strengths and the consequences derived from galactic chemical enrichment.

  3. Radial variation in the stellar mass functions of star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Vesperini, Enrico

    2016-12-01

    A number of recent observational studies of Galactic globular clusters have measured the variation in the slope of a cluster's stellar mass function α with clustercentric distance r. In order to gather a deeper understanding of the information contained in such observations, we have explored the evolution of α(r) for star clusters with a variety of initial conditions using a large suite of N-body simulations. We have specifically studied how the time evolution of α(r) is affected by initial size, mass, binary fraction, primordial mass segregation, black hole retention, an external tidal field, and the initial mass function itself. Previous studies have shown that the evolution of αG is closely related to the amount of mass-loss suffered by a cluster. Hence, for each simulation, we have also followed the evolution of the slope of the cluster's global stellar mass function, αG, and have shown that clusters follow a well-defined track in the αG-dα(r)/d(ln(r/rm)) plane. The location of a cluster on the αG-dα(r)/d(ln(r/rm)) plane can therefore constrain its dynamical history and, in particular, constrain possible variations in the stellar initial mass function. The αG-dα(r)/d(ln(r/rm)) plane thus serves as a key tool for fully exploiting the information contained in wide-field studies of cluster stellar mass functions.

  4. Testing galaxy formation models with galaxy stellar mass functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, S. H.; Mo, H. J.; Lan, T.-W.; Ménard, B.

    2017-01-01

    We compare predictions of a number of empirical models and numerical simulations of galaxy formation to the conditional stellar mass functions of galaxies in groups of different masses obtained recently by Lan et al. to test how well different models accommodate the data. The observational data clearly prefer a model in which star formation in low-mass haloes changes behaviour at a characteristic redshift zc ˜ 2. There is also tentative evidence that this characteristic redshift depends on environment, becoming zc ˜ 4 in regions that eventually evolve into rich clusters of galaxies. The constrained model is used to understand how galaxies form and evolve in dark matter haloes, and to make predictions for other statistical properties of the galaxy population, such as the stellar mass functions of galaxies at high z, the star formation, and stellar mass assembly histories in dark matter haloes. A comparison of our model predictions with those of other empirical models shows that different models can make vastly different predictions, even though all of them are tuned to match the observed stellar mass functions of galaxies.

  5. Massive stars reveal variations of the stellar initial mass function in the Milky Way stellar clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dib, Sami; Schmeja, Stefan; Hony, Sacha

    2017-01-01

    We investigate whether the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is universal, or whether it varies significantly among young stellar clusters in the Milky Way. We propose a method to uncover the range of variation of the parameters that describe the shape of the IMF for the population of young Galactic clusters.These parameters are the slopes in the low and high stellar mass regimes, γ and Γ, respectively, and the characteristic mass, Mch. The method relies exclusively on the high-mass content of the clusters, but is able to yield information on the distributions of parameters that describe the IMF over the entire stellar mass range. This is achieved by comparing the fractions of single and lonely massive O stars in a recent catalogue of the Milky Way clusters with a library of simulated clusters built with various distribution functions of the IMF parameters. The synthetic clusters are corrected for the effects of the binary population, stellar evolution, sample incompleteness, and ejected O stars. Our findings indicate that broad distributions of the IMF parameters are required in order to reproduce the fractions of single and lonely O stars in Galactic clusters. They also do not lend support to the existence of a cluster mass-maximum stellar mass relation. We propose a probabilistic formulation of the IMF whereby the parameters of the IMF are described by Gaussian distribution functions centred around γ = 0.91, Γ = 1.37, and Mch = 0.41 M⊙, and with dispersions of σγ = 0.25, σΓ = 0.60, and σ _{M_{ch}}=0.27 M⊙ around these values.

  6. The stellar mass function and star formation rate-stellar mass relation of galaxies at z ˜ 4-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsianis, A.; Tescari, E.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the evolution of the star formation rate-stellar mass relation (SFR-M⋆) and galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) of z ˜ 4-7 galaxies, using cosmological simulations run with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code P-GADGET3(XXL). We explore the effects of different feedback prescriptions (supernova-driven galactic winds and AGN feedback), initial stellar mass functions and metal cooling. We show that our fiducial model, with strong energy-driven winds and early active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback, is able to reproduce the observed stellar mass function obtained from Lyman-break selected samples of star-forming galaxies at redshift 6 ≤ z ≤ 7. At z ˜ 4, observed estimates of the GSMF vary according to how the sample was selected. Our simulations are more consistent with recent results from K-selected samples, which provide a better proxy of stellar masses and are more complete at the high-mass end of the distribution. We find that in some cases simulated and observed SFR-M⋆ relations are in tension, and this can lead to numerical predictions for the GSMF in excess of the GSMF observed. By combining the simulated SFR(M⋆) relationship with the observed star formation rate function at a given redshift, we argue that this disagreement may be the result of the uncertainty in the SFR-M⋆ (LUV-M⋆) conversion. Our simulations predict a population of faint galaxies not seen by current observations.

  7. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): stellar mass functions by Hubble type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelvin, Lee S.; Driver, Simon P.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Taylor, Edward N.; Graham, Alister W.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Baldry, Ivan; Bamford, Steven P.; Bauer, Amanda E.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brown, Michael J. I.; Colless, Matthew; Conselice, Christopher J.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Lara-López, Maritza A.; Liske, Jochen; López-Sánchez, Ángel R.; Loveday, Jon; Norberg, Peder; Phillipps, Steven; Popescu, Cristina C.; Prescott, Matthew; Sansom, Anne E.; Tuffs, Richard J.

    2014-10-01

    We present an estimate of the galaxy stellar mass function and its division by morphological type in the local (0.025 < z < 0.06) Universe. Adopting robust morphological classifications as previously presented (Kelvin et al.) for a sample of 3727 galaxies taken from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey, we define a local volume and stellar mass limited sub-sample of 2711 galaxies to a lower stellar mass limit of {M}=10^{9.0} M_{{⊙}}. We confirm that the galaxy stellar mass function is well described by a double-Schechter function given by {M}^{*}=10^{10.64} M_{{⊙}}, α1 = -0.43, φ 1^{*}=4.18dex^{-1} Mpc^{-3}, α2 = -1.50 and φ 2^{*}=0.74dex^{-1} Mpc^{-3}. The constituent morphological-type stellar mass functions are well sampled above our lower stellar mass limit, excepting the faint little blue spheroid population of galaxies. We find approximately 71{}_{-4}^{+3} per cent of the stellar mass in the local Universe is found within spheroid-dominated galaxies; ellipticals and S0-Sas. The remaining 29{}_{-3}^{+4} per cent falls predominantly within late-type disc-dominated systems, Sab-Scds and Sd-Irrs. Adopting reasonable bulge-to-total ratios implies that approximately half the stellar mass today resides in spheroidal structures, and half in disc structures. Within this local sample, we find approximate stellar mass proportions for E : S0-Sa : Sab-Scd : Sd-Irr of 34 : 37 : 24 : 5.

  8. What determines the stellar mass functions in globular clusters?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djorgovski, S.; Piotto, Giampaolo; Capaccioli, Massimo

    1993-01-01

    We analyze the dependence of stellar mass function slopes for a sample of 17 globular clusters on a variety of cluster parameters. The principal novelty of our approach is the use of appropriate multivariate statistical methods to disentangle the complex situation which is present in this problem: the slopes depend simultaneously on more than one variable, and many cluster parameters are mutually correlated. We find that the mass function slopes in the range M/M(solar) = 0.5-0.8 are largely determined by the position in the Galaxy and to a lesser extent by the cluster metallicity. Clusters closer to the Galactic center or plane have shallower mass function slopes. At a given distance to the Galactic center, clusters closer to the Galactic plane have shallower mass function slopes. At a given R(GC) and/or Z(GP), more metal-rich clusters have shallower mass function slopes. Thus, the monovariate correlations with the position or metallicity are both correct, but only partial, and in terms of slopes, biased descriptions of the situation. We present trivariate least-squares solutions where the mass function slopes can be predicted within the measurement accuracy. This relation can serve as a powerful observational constraint for theories of globular cluster formation and evolution, and it is one of the tightest correlations between globular cluster properties now known.

  9. Constraining the primordial initial mass function with stellar archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwig, Tilman; Bromm, Volker; Klessen, Ralf S.; Glover, Simon C. O.

    2015-03-01

    We present a new near-field cosmological probe of the initial mass function (IMF) of the first stars. Specifically, we constrain the lower mass limit of the Population III (Pop III) IMF with the total number of stars in large, unbiased surveys of the Milky Way. We model the early star formation history in a Milky Way-like halo with a semi-analytic approach, based on Monte Carlo sampling of dark matter merger trees, combined with a treatment of the most important feedback mechanisms. Assuming a logarithmically flat Pop III IMF and varying its low-mass limit, we derive the number of expected survivors of these first stars, using them to estimate the probability to detect any such Pop III fossil in stellar archaeological surveys. Following our analysis, the most promising region to find possible Pop III survivors is the stellar halo of the Milky Way, which is the best target for future surveys. We find that if no genuine Pop III survivor is detected in a sample size of 4 × 106 (2 × 107) halo stars with well-controlled selection effects, then we can exclude the hypothesis that the primordial IMF extended down below 0.8 M⊙ at a confidence level of 68 per cent (99 per cent). With the sample size of the Hamburg/European Southern Observatory survey, we can tentatively exclude Pop III stars with masses below 0.65 M⊙ with a confidence level of 95 per cent, although this is subject to significant uncertainties. To fully harness the potential of our approach, future large surveys are needed that employ uniform, unbiased selection strategies for high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up.

  10. The Low-mass Stellar Population in L1641: Evidence for Environmental Dependence of the Stellar Initial Mass Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Hartmann, Lee; Allen, Lori; Hernández, Jesús; Megeath, S. T.; Mosby, Gregory; Tobin, John J.; Espaillat, Catherine

    2012-06-01

    We present results from an optical photometric and spectroscopic survey of the young stellar population in L1641, the low-density star-forming region of the Orion A cloud south of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). Our goal is to determine whether L1641 has a large enough low-mass population to make the known lack of high-mass stars a statistically significant demonstration of environmental dependence of the upper mass stellar initial mass function (IMF). Our spectroscopic sample consists of IR-excess objects selected from the Spitzer/IRAC survey and non-excess objects selected from optical photometry. We have spectral confirmation of 864 members, with another 98 probable members; of the confirmed members, 406 have infrared excesses and 458 do not. Assuming the same ratio of stars with and without IR excesses in the highly extincted regions, L1641 may contain as many as ~1600 stars down to ~0.1 M ⊙, comparable within a factor of two to the ONC. Compared to the standard models of the IMF, L1641 is deficient in O and early B stars to a 3σ-4σ significance level, assuming that we know of all the massive stars in L1641. With a forthcoming survey of the intermediate-mass stars, we will be in a better position to make a direct comparison with the neighboring, dense ONC, which should yield a stronger test of the dependence of the high-mass end of the stellar IMF on environment.

  11. Investigating the Low-Mass Stellar Initial Mass Function in Draco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotoudeh, Seyed Soroush

    We present new analysis of the low-mass stellar initial mass function (˜0.4-0.8Mȯ) in the Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxy, Draco. Using archival HST/ACS and WFC3 optical imaging, we construct deep color-magnitude (CMD) diagrams in 3 different felds at 3 different galactocentric radii and measure the IMF by modeling the resolved lower main sequence. We model the optical color-magnitude diagrams of each feld assuming two different IMF models (power-law, log-normal), five different stellar evolution libraries (Padova, BaSTI, Dartmouth, Victoria, PARSEC), and a binary star model. For a single-sloped power-law IMF model, we find that the IMF slope steepens by up to 0.7 dex for radii between 150 and 300pc, while the binary fraction remains approximately constant. The absolute values of the IMF slopes at any radius depend strongly on the adopted stellar models, suggesting that current knowledge of the lower-main sequence stars is uncertain. In fact, utilizing different stellar models has resulted in up to 0.67 dex difference in the IMF slope. All fields show more consistent log-normal parameters, which are also in reasonable agreement with values for a standard Chabrier IMF. However, there are large degeneracies between the characteristic mass and dispersion of the log-normal, that can only be reduced with data that extends to lower stellar masses.

  12. THE LOW-MASS STELLAR POPULATION IN L1641: EVIDENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Hartmann, Lee; Allen, Lori; Hernandez, Jesus; Megeath, S. T.; Mosby, Gregory; Tobin, John J.; Espaillat, Catherine

    2012-06-10

    We present results from an optical photometric and spectroscopic survey of the young stellar population in L1641, the low-density star-forming region of the Orion A cloud south of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). Our goal is to determine whether L1641 has a large enough low-mass population to make the known lack of high-mass stars a statistically significant demonstration of environmental dependence of the upper mass stellar initial mass function (IMF). Our spectroscopic sample consists of IR-excess objects selected from the Spitzer/IRAC survey and non-excess objects selected from optical photometry. We have spectral confirmation of 864 members, with another 98 probable members; of the confirmed members, 406 have infrared excesses and 458 do not. Assuming the same ratio of stars with and without IR excesses in the highly extincted regions, L1641 may contain as many as {approx}1600 stars down to {approx}0.1 M{sub Sun }, comparable within a factor of two to the ONC. Compared to the standard models of the IMF, L1641 is deficient in O and early B stars to a 3{sigma}-4{sigma} significance level, assuming that we know of all the massive stars in L1641. With a forthcoming survey of the intermediate-mass stars, we will be in a better position to make a direct comparison with the neighboring, dense ONC, which should yield a stronger test of the dependence of the high-mass end of the stellar IMF on environment.

  13. The Environmental Dependence of the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function in the ECO Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richstein, Hannah; Berlind, Andreas A.; Calderon, Victor; Eckert, Kathleen D.; Kannappan, Sheila; Moffett, Amanda J.; Stark, David

    2017-01-01

    We study the environmental dependence of the galaxy stellar mass function in the ECO survey and compare it with models that associate galaxies with dark matter halos. Specifically, we quantify the environment of each galaxy in the ECO survey using an Nth nearest neighbor distance metric, and we measure how the galaxy stellar mass distribution varies from low density to high density environments. As expected, we find that massive galaxies preferentially populate high density regions, while low mass galaxies preferentially populate lower density environments. We investigate whether this trend can be explained simply by the stellar-to-halo mass relation combined with the environmental dependence of the halo mass function. In other words, we test the hypothesis that the stellar mass of a galaxy depends solely on the mass of its dark matter halo and does not exhibit a residual dependence on the halo’s larger environment. To test this hypothesis, we first construct mock ECO catalogs by populating dark matter halos in an N-body simulation with galaxies using a model that preserves the overall clustering strength of the galaxy population. We then assign stellar masses to the mock galaxies using physically motivated models that connect stellar mass to halo mass and are constrained to match the global ECO stellar mass function. Finally, we impose the radial and angular selection functions of the ECO survey and repeat our environmental analysis on the mock catalogs. We find that the environmental dependence of stellar mass in the mock catalogs is in agreement with that observed in the ECO survey. Our results are thus consistent with the simple hypothesis that galaxy stellar mass only depends on halo mass. The RESOLVE/ECO surveys were supported by NSF award AST-0955368.

  14. Formation and Assembly History of Stellar Components in Galaxies as a Function of Stellar and Halo Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2017-02-01

    Galaxy mass assembly is an end product of structure formation in the ΛCDM cosmology. As an extension of Lee & Yi, we investigate the assembly history of stellar components in galaxies as a function of halo environments and stellar mass using semi-analytic approaches. In our fiducial model, halo mass intrinsically determines the formation and assembly of the stellar mass. Overall, the ex situ fraction slowly increases in central galaxies with increasing halo mass but sharply increases for {log}{M}* /{M}ȯ ≳ 11. A similar trend is also found in satellite galaxies, which implies that mergers are essential to build stellar masses above {log}{M}* /{M}ȯ ∼ 11. We also examine the time evolution of the contribution of mass growth channels. Mergers become the primary channel in the mass growth of central galaxies when their host halo mass begins to exceed {log}{M}200/{M}ȯ ∼ 13. However, satellite galaxies seldom reach the merger-dominant phase despite their reduced star-formation activities due to environmental effects.

  15. RESOLVE and ECO: The Halo Mass-dependent Shape of Galaxy Stellar and Baryonic Mass Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Kathleen D.; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Stark, David V.; Moffett, Amanda J.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Norris, Mark A.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we present galaxy stellar and baryonic (stars plus cold gas) mass functions (SMF and BMF) and their halo mass dependence for two volume-limited data sets. The first, RESOLVE-B, coincides with the Stripe 82 footprint and is extremely complete down to baryonic mass M bary ˜ 109.1 M ⊙, probing the gas-rich dwarf regime below M bary ˜ 1010 M ⊙. The second, ECO, covers a ˜40× larger volume (containing RESOLVE-A) and is complete to M bary ˜ 109.4 M ⊙. To construct the SMF and BMF we implement a new “cross-bin sampling” technique with Monte Carlo sampling from the full likelihood distributions of stellar or baryonic mass. Our SMFs exhibit the “plateau” feature starting below M star ˜ 1010 M ⊙ that has been described in prior work. However, the BMF fills in this feature and rises as a straight power law below ˜1010 M ⊙, as gas-dominated galaxies become the majority of the population. Nonetheless, the low-mass slope of the BMF is not as steep as that of the theoretical dark matter halo MF. Moreover, we assign group halo masses by abundance matching, finding that the SMF and BMF, separated into four physically motivated halo mass regimes, reveal complex structure underlying the simple shape of the overall MFs. In particular, the satellite MFs are depressed below the central galaxy MF “humps” in groups with mass <1013.5 M ⊙ yet rise steeply in clusters. Our results suggest that satellite destruction and stripping are active from the point of nascent group formation. We show that the key role of groups in shaping MFs enables reconstruction of a given survey’s SMF or BMF based on its group halo mass distribution.

  16. Constraints on the Evolution of the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function I: Role of Star Formation, Mergers, and Stellar Stripping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contini, E.; Kang, Xi; Romeo, A. D.; Xia, Q.

    2017-03-01

    We study the connection between the observed star formation rate-stellar mass (SFR-M *) relation and the evolution of the stellar mass function (SMF) by means of a subhalo abundance matching technique coupled to merger trees extracted from an N-body simulation. Our approach, which considers both galaxy mergers and stellar stripping, is to force the model to match the observed SMF at redshift z> 2, and let it evolve down to the present time according to the observed SFR-M * relation. In this study, we use two different sets of SMFs and two SFR-M * relations: a simple power law and a relation with a mass-dependent slope. Our analysis shows that the evolution of the SMF is more consistent with an SFR-M * relation with a mass-dependent slope, in agreement with predictions from other models of galaxy evolution and recent observations. In order to fully and realistically describe the evolution of the SMF, both mergers and stellar stripping must be considered, and we find that both have almost equal effects on the evolution of SMF at the massive end. Taking into account the systematic uncertainties in the observed data, the high-mass end of the SMF obtained by considering stellar stripping results in good agreement with recent observational data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. At {log} {M}* < 11.2, our prediction at z = 0.1 is close to Li & White data, but the high-mass end ({log} {M}* > 11.2) is in better agreement with D’Souza et al. data which account for more massive galaxies.

  17. Bondi-Hoyle-Littleton accretion and the upper-mass stellar initial mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier; Hartmann, Lee W.; Pérez-Goytia, Nadia; Kuznetsova, Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    We report on a series of numerical simulations of gas clouds with self-gravity forming sink particles, adopting an isothermal equation of state to isolate the effects of gravity from thermal physics on the resulting sink mass distributions. Simulations starting with supersonic velocity fluctuations develop sink mass functions with a high-mass power-law tail dN/d log M ∝ MΓ, Γ = -1 ± 0.1, independent of the initial Mach number of the velocity field. Similar results but with weaker statistical significance hold for a simulation starting with initial density fluctuations. This mass function power-law dependence agrees with the asymptotic limit found by Zinnecker assuming Bondi-Hoyle-Littleton (BHL) accretion, even though the mass accretion rates of individual sinks show significant departures from the predicted dot{M}∝ M^2 behaviour. While BHL accretion is not strictly applicable due to the complexity of the environment, we argue that the final mass functions are the result of a relative M2 dependence resulting from gravitationally focused accretion. Our simulations may show the power-law mass function particularly clearly compared with others because our adoption of an isothermal equation of state limits the effects of thermal physics in producing a broad initial fragmentation spectrum; Γ → -1 is an asymptotic limit found only when sink masses grow well beyond their initial values. While we have purposely eliminated many additional physical processes (radiative transfer, feedback) which can affect the stellar mass function, our results emphasize the importance of gravitational focusing for massive star formation.

  18. Stellar mass functions of galaxies, discs and spheroids at z ˜ 0.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanjavur, Karun; Simard, Luc; Bluck, Asa F. L.; Mendel, Trevor

    2016-06-01

    We present the stellar mass functions (SMFs) and mass densities of galaxies, and their spheroid and disc components in the local (z ˜ 0.1) Universe over the range 8.9 ≤ log(M/M⊙) ≤ 12 from spheroid+disc decompositions and corresponding stellar masses of a sample of over 600 000 galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven spectroscopic sample. The galaxy SMF is well represented by a single Schechter function (M* = 11.116 ± 0.011, α = -1.145 ± 0.008), though with a hint of a steeper faint end slope. The corresponding stellar mass densities are (2.670 ± 0.110), (1.687 ± 0.063) and (0.910 ± 0.029)× 108 M⊙ Mpc-3 for galaxies, spheroids and discs, respectively. We identify a crossover stellar mass of log(M/M⊙) = 10.3 ± 0.030 at which the spheroid and disc SMFs are equal. Relative contributions of four distinct spheroid/disc dominated sub-populations to the overall galaxy SMF are also presented. The mean disc-to-spheroid stellar mass ratio shows a five-fold disc dominance at the low-mass end, decreasing monotonically with a corresponding increase in the spheroidal fraction till the two are equal at a galaxy stellar mass, log(M/M⊙) = 10.479 ± 0.013; the dominance of spheroids then grows with increasing stellar mass. The relative numbers of composite disc and spheroid-dominated galaxies show peaks in their distributions, perhaps indicative of a preferred galaxy mass. Our characterization of the low-redshift galaxy population provides stringent constraints for numerical simulations to reproduce.

  19. Systematic variation of the stellar initial mass function in early-type galaxies.

    PubMed

    Cappellari, Michele; McDermid, Richard M; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, M; Crocker, Alison F; Davies, Roger L; Davis, Timothy A; de Zeeuw, P T; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M

    2012-04-25

    Much of our knowledge of galaxies comes from analysing the radiation emitted by their stars, which depends on the present number of each type of star in the galaxy. The present number depends on the stellar initial mass function (IMF), which describes the distribution of stellar masses when the population formed, and knowledge of it is critical to almost every aspect of galaxy evolution. More than 50 years after the first IMF determination, no consensus has emerged on whether it is universal among different types of galaxies. Previous studies indicated that the IMF and the dark matter fraction in galaxy centres cannot both be universal, but they could not convincingly discriminate between the two possibilities. Only recently were indications found that massive elliptical galaxies may not have the same IMF as the Milky Way. Here we report a study of the two-dimensional stellar kinematics for the large representative ATLAS(3D) sample of nearby early-type galaxies spanning two orders of magnitude in stellar mass, using detailed dynamical models. We find a strong systematic variation in IMF in early-type galaxies as a function of their stellar mass-to-light ratios, producing differences of a factor of up to three in galactic stellar mass. This implies that a galaxy's IMF depends intimately on the galaxy's formation history.

  20. The high mass end of the stellar mass function: Dependence on stellar population models and agreement between fits to the light profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, M.; Meert, A.; Sheth, R. K.; Fischer, J.-L.; Huertas-Company, M.; Maraston, C.; Shankar, F.; Vikram, V.

    2017-01-01

    We quantify the systematic effects on the stellar mass function which arise from assumptions about the stellar population, as well as how one fits the light profiles of the most luminous galaxies at z ˜ 0.1. When comparing results from the literature, we are careful to separate out these effects. Our analysis shows that while systematics in the estimated comoving number density which arise from different treatments of the stellar population remain of order ≤0.5 dex, systematics in photometry are now about 0.1 dex, in contrast to some recent claims in the literature. Compared to these more recent analyses, previous work based on Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) pipeline photometry leads to underestimates of ρ★( ≥ M★) by factors of 3 - 10 in the mass range 1011 - 1011.6M⊙, but up to a factor of 100 at higher stellar masses. This impacts studies which match massive galaxies to dark matter halos. Although systematics which arise from different treatments of the stellar population remain of order ≤0.5 dex, our finding that systematics in photometry now amount to only about 0.1 dex in the stellar mass density is a significant improvement with respect to a decade ago. Our results highlight the importance of using the same stellar population and photometric models whenever low and high redshift samples are compared.

  1. A Fragmentation-Coalescence Model for the Initial Stellar Mass Function: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshii, Y.; Saio, H.

    The authors have derived the initial stellar mass function, taking into account both effects of fragmentation of the gas clouds and coalescence among the fragments themselves. Protostars formed in a parent cloud establish a mean radiation field which interacts with grains to heat the gas, hence the next-generation protostars are necessarily massive. The coalescence among the fragments modifies the massive part of the mass spectrum. If one assumes L(m) ∝ m3 for protostars, a Salpeter-like initial stellar mass function is obtained.

  2. The impact of Spitzer infrared data on stellar mass estimates - and a revised galaxy stellar mass function at 0 < z < 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, F.; Feulner, G.; Hopp, U.

    2008-01-01

    Aims:We estimate stellar masses of galaxies in the high redshift universe with the intention of determining the influence of newly available Spitzer/IRAC infrared data on the analysis. Based on the results, we probe the mass assembly history of the universe. Methods: We use the GOODS-MUSIC catalog, which provides multiband photometry from the U-filter to the 8 μm Spitzer band for almost 15 000 galaxies with either spectroscopic (for ≈7% of the sample) or photometric redshifts, and apply a standard model fitting technique to estimate stellar masses. We than repeat our calculations with fixed photometric redshifts excluding Spitzer photometry and directly compare the outcomes to look for systematic deviations. Finally we use our results to compute stellar mass functions and mass densities up to redshift z = 5. Results: We find that stellar masses tend to be overestimated on average if further constraining Spitzer data are not included into the analysis. Whilst this trend is small up to intermediate redshifts z ⪉ 2.5 and falls within the typical error in mass, the deviation increases strongly for higher redshifts and reaches a maximum of a factor of three at redshift z ≈ 3.5. Thus, up to intermediate redshifts, results for stellar mass density are in good agreement with values taken from literature calculated without additional Spitzer photometry. At higher redshifts, however, we find a systematic trend towards lower mass densities if Spitzer/IRAC data are included.

  3. STAR FORMATION: STATISTICAL MEASURE OF THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE PRESTELLAR CORE MASS FUNCTION AND THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Chabrier, Gilles; Hennebelle, Patrick

    2010-12-10

    We present a simple statistical analysis of recent numerical simulations exploring the correlation between the core mass function (CMF) obtained from the fragmentation of a molecular cloud and the stellar mass function which forms from these collapsing cores. Our analysis shows that the distributions of bound cores and sink particles obtained in the simulations are consistent with the sinks being formed predominantly from their parent core mass reservoir, with a statistical dispersion of the order of one-third of the core mass. Such a characteristic dispersion suggests that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is relatively tightly correlated to the parent CMF, leading to two similar distributions, as observed. This in turn argues in favor of the IMF being essentially determined at the early stages of core formation and being only weakly affected by the various environmental factors beyond the initial core mass reservoir, at least in the mass range explored in the present study. Accordingly, the final IMF of a star-forming region should be determined reasonably accurately, statistically speaking, from the initial CMF, provided some uniform efficiency factor. The calculations also show that these statistical fluctuations, due to, e.g., variations among the core properties, broaden the low-mass tail of the IMF compared with the parent CMF, providing an explanation for the fact that the latter appears to underestimate the number of 'pre brown dwarf' cores compared with the observationally derived brown dwarf IMF.

  4. Stellar mass functions: methods, systematics and results for the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, Anna K.; Schawinski, Kevin; Bruderer, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    We present a comprehensive method for determining stellar mass functions, and apply it to samples in the local Universe. We combine the classical 1/Vmax approach with STY, a parametric maximum likelihood method and step-wise maximum likelihood, a non-parametric maximum likelihood technique. In the parametric approach, we are assuming that the stellar mass function can be modelled by either a single or a double Schechter function and we use a likelihood ratio test to determine which model provides a better fit to the data. We discuss how the stellar mass completeness as a function of z biases the three estimators and how it can affect, especially the low-mass end of the stellar mass function. We apply our method to Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 data in the redshift range from 0.02 to 0.06. We find that the entire galaxy sample is best described by a double Schechter function with the following parameters: log (M*/M⊙) = 10.79 ± 0.01, log (Φ ^{{ast }}_1/h^3 Mpc^{-3}) = -3.31 ± 0.20, α1 = -1.69 ± 0.10, log (Φ ^{{ast }}_2/h^3 Mpc^{-3}) = -2.01 ± 0.28 and α2 = -0.79 ± 0.04. We also use morphological classifications from Galaxy Zoo and halo mass, overdensity, central/satellite, colour and specific star formation rate measurements to split the galaxy sample into over 130 subsamples. We determine and present the stellar mass functions and the best-fitting Schechter function parameters for each of these subsamples.

  5. Testing the Environmental Dependence of the Stellar Initial Mass Function - the Case of L1641

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Wen-hsin; Hartmann, L.; Allen, L.; Hernandez, J.; Megeath, T.

    2012-01-01

    To test the proposition that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) depends on the environmental density, we conducted an optical spectroscopic and photometric survey of the young stellar population in L1641, a low-density, star-forming region of the Orion A cloud south of the dense Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). We used low-resolution optical spectra and optical photometry, as well as the Spitzer IRAC photometry (Megeath et al. 2011) to identify members and obtain spectral types. As of now, we have confirmed and spectral-typed 648 members and project a total number of 780 members with moderate extinction. Our study suggests a comparison between L1641 and the ONC can yield a statistically-significant test of the dependence of the upper mass portion of the stellar initial mass function upon environment. Our preliminary results indicate that L1641 may well be deficient in O and early B stars.

  6. Dynamical versus Stellar Masses in Compact Early-type Galaxies: Further Evidence for Systematic Variation in the Stellar Initial Mass Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Charlie; Dutton, Aaron A.; Graves, Genevieve J.; Mendel, J. Trevor; van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2013-10-01

    Several independent lines of evidence suggest that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in early-type galaxies becomes increasingly "bottom-heavy" with increasing galaxy mass and/or velocity dispersion, σ. Here we consider evidence for IMF variation in a sample of relatively compact early-type galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These galaxies are of sufficiently high stellar density that a dark halo likely makes a minor contribution to the total dynamical mass, M dyn, within one effective radius. We fit our detailed stellar population synthesis models to the stacked absorption line spectra of these galaxies in bins of σ and find evidence from IMF-sensitive spectral features for a bottom-heavy IMF at high σ. We also apply simple "mass-follows-light" dynamical models to the same data and find that M dyn is significantly higher than what would be expected if these galaxies were stellar dominated and had a universal Milky Way IMF. Adopting M dyn ≈ M * therefore implies that the IMF is "heavier" at high σ. Most importantly, the quantitative amount of inferred IMF variation is very similar between the two techniques, agreeing to within <~ 0.1 dex in mass. The agreement between two independent techniques, when applied to the same data, provides compelling evidence for systematic variation in the IMF as a function of early-type galaxy velocity dispersion. Any alternative explanations must reproduce both the results from dynamical and stellar population-based techniques.

  7. DYNAMICAL VERSUS STELLAR MASSES IN COMPACT EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: FURTHER EVIDENCE FOR SYSTEMATIC VARIATION IN THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Charlie; Dutton, Aaron A.; Graves, Genevieve J.; Mendel, J. Trevor; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2013-10-20

    Several independent lines of evidence suggest that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in early-type galaxies becomes increasingly 'bottom-heavy' with increasing galaxy mass and/or velocity dispersion, σ. Here we consider evidence for IMF variation in a sample of relatively compact early-type galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These galaxies are of sufficiently high stellar density that a dark halo likely makes a minor contribution to the total dynamical mass, M {sub dyn}, within one effective radius. We fit our detailed stellar population synthesis models to the stacked absorption line spectra of these galaxies in bins of σ and find evidence from IMF-sensitive spectral features for a bottom-heavy IMF at high σ. We also apply simple 'mass-follows-light' dynamical models to the same data and find that M {sub dyn} is significantly higher than what would be expected if these galaxies were stellar dominated and had a universal Milky Way IMF. Adopting M {sub dyn} ≈ M {sub *} therefore implies that the IMF is 'heavier' at high σ. Most importantly, the quantitative amount of inferred IMF variation is very similar between the two techniques, agreeing to within ∼< 0.1 dex in mass. The agreement between two independent techniques, when applied to the same data, provides compelling evidence for systematic variation in the IMF as a function of early-type galaxy velocity dispersion. Any alternative explanations must reproduce both the results from dynamical and stellar population-based techniques.

  8. The High-mass Stellar Initial Mass Function in M31 Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Johnson, L. Clifton; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Beerman, Lori C.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Hogg, David W.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Bell, Eric F.; Boyer, Martha L.; Gouliermis, Dimitrios; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Kalirai, Jason S.; Lewis, Alexia R.; Seth, Anil C.; Skillman, Evan D.

    2015-06-01

    We have undertaken the largest systematic study of the high-mass stellar initial mass function (IMF) to date using the optical color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of 85 resolved, young (4 {Myr}\\lt t\\lt 25 {Myr}), intermediate mass star clusters (103-104 M⊙), observed as part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury program. We fit each cluster’s CMD to measure its mass function (MF) slope for stars ≳2 M⊙. By modeling the ensemble of clusters, we find the distribution of MF slopes is best described by Γ = +{1.45}-0.06+0.03 with a very small intrinsic scatter and no drastic outliers. This model allows the MF slope to depend on cluster mass, size, and age, but the data imply no significant dependencies within this regime of cluster properties. The lack of an age dependence suggests that the MF slope has not significantly evolved over the first ˜25 Myr and provides direct observational evidence that the measured MF represents the IMF. Taken together, this analysis—based on an unprecedented large sample of young clusters, homogeneously constructed CMDs, well-defined selection criteria, and consistent principled modeling—implies that the high-mass IMF slope in M31 clusters is universal. The IMF has a slope (Γ = +{1.45}-0.06+0.03; statistical uncertainties) that is slightly steeper than the canonical Kroupa (+1.30) and Salpeter (+1.35) values, and our measurement of it represents a factor of ˜20 improvement in precision over the Kroupa IMF (+1.30 ± 0.7). Using our inference model on select Milky Way (MW) and LMC high-mass IMF studies from the literature, we find {Γ }{MW}˜ +1.15+/- 0.1 and {Γ }{LMC}˜ +1.3+/- 0.1, both with intrinsic scatter of ˜0.3-0.4 dex. Thus, while the high-mass IMF in the Local Group may be universal, systematics in the literature of IMF studies preclude any definitive conclusions; homogenous investigations of the high-mass IMF in the local universe are needed to overcome this limitation. Consequently, the present study

  9. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the galaxy stellar mass function at z < 0.06

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldry, I. K.; Driver, S. P.; Loveday, J.; Taylor, E. N.; Kelvin, L. S.; Liske, J.; Norberg, P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Brough, S.; Hopkins, A. M.; Bamford, S. P.; Peacock, J. A.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Conselice, C. J.; Croom, S. M.; Jones, D. H.; Parkinson, H. R.; Popescu, C. C.; Prescott, M.; Sharp, R. G.; Tuffs, R. J.

    2012-03-01

    We determine the low-redshift field galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) using an area of 143 deg2 from the first three years of the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. The magnitude limits of this redshift survey are r < 19.4 mag over two-thirds and 19.8 mag over one-third of the area. The GSMF is determined from a sample of 5210 galaxies using a density-corrected maximum volume method. This efficiently overcomes the issue of fluctuations in the number density versus redshift. With H0= 70 km s-1 Mpc-1, the GSMF is well described between 108 and 1011.5 M⊙ using a double Schechter function with ?, ?, α1=-0.35, ? and α2=-1.47. This result is more robust to uncertainties in the flow-model corrected redshifts than from the shallower Sloan Digital Sky Survey main sample (r < 17.8 mag). The upturn in the GSMF is also seen directly in the i-band and K-band galaxy luminosity functions. Accurately measuring the GSMF below 108 M⊙ is possible within the GAMA survey volume but as expected requires deeper imaging data to address the contribution from low surface-brightness galaxies.

  10. Stellar Mass Function of Active and Quiescent Galaxies via the Continuity Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapi, A.; Mancuso, C.; Bressan, A.; Danese, L.

    2017-09-01

    The continuity equation is developed for the stellar mass content of galaxies and exploited to derive the stellar mass function of active and quiescent galaxies over the redshift range z∼ 0{--}8. The continuity equation requires two specific inputs gauged from observations: (i) the star formation rate functions determined on the basis of the latest UV+far-IR/submillimeter/radio measurements and (ii) average star formation histories for individual galaxies, with different prescriptions for disks and spheroids. The continuity equation also includes a source term taking into account (dry) mergers, based on recent numerical simulations and consistent with observations. The stellar mass function derived from the continuity equation is coupled with the halo mass function and with the SFR functions to derive the star formation efficiency and the main sequence of star-forming galaxies via the abundance-matching technique. A remarkable agreement of the resulting stellar mass functions for active and quiescent galaxies of the galaxy main sequence, and of the star formation efficiency with current observations is found; the comparison with data also allows the characteristic timescales for star formation and quiescence of massive galaxies, the star formation history of their progenitors, and the amount of stellar mass added by in situ star formation versus that contributed by external merger events to be robustly constrained. The continuity equation is shown to yield quantitative outcomes that detailed physical models must comply with, that can provide a basis for improving the (subgrid) physical recipes implemented in theoretical approaches and numerical simulations, and that can offer a benchmark for forecasts on future observations with multiband coverage, as will become routinely achievable in the era of JWST.

  11. RECONCILING THE OBSERVED STAR-FORMING SEQUENCE WITH THE OBSERVED STELLAR MASS FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Leja, Joel; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Franx, Marijn; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2015-01-10

    We examine the connection between the observed star-forming sequence (SFR ∝ M {sup α}) and the observed evolution of the stellar mass function in the range 0.2 < z < 2.5. We find that the star-forming sequence cannot have a slope α ≲ 0.9 at all masses and redshifts because this would result in a much higher number density at 10 < log (M/M {sub ☉}) < 11 by z = 1 than is observed. We show that a transition in the slope of the star-forming sequence, such that α = 1 at log (M/M {sub ☉}) < 10.5 and α = 0.7-0.13z (Whitaker et al.) at log (M/M {sub ☉}) > 10.5, greatly improves agreement with the evolution of the stellar mass function. We then derive a star-forming sequence that reproduces the evolution of the mass function by design. This star-forming sequence is also well described by a broken power law, with a shallow slope at high masses and a steep slope at low masses. At z = 2, it is offset by ∼0.3 dex from the observed star-forming sequence, consistent with the mild disagreement between the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) and recent observations of the growth of the stellar mass density. It is unclear whether this problem stems from errors in stellar mass estimates, errors in SFRs, or other effects. We show that a mass-dependent slope is also seen in other self-consistent models of galaxy evolution, including semianalytical, hydrodynamical, and abundance-matching models. As part of the analysis, we demonstrate that neither mergers nor hidden low-mass quiescent galaxies are likely to reconcile the evolution of the mass function and the star-forming sequence. These results are supported by observations from Whitaker et al.

  12. SALPETER NORMALIZATION OF THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION FOR MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shetty, Shravan; Cappellari, Michele

    2014-05-10

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) is a key parameter for studying galaxy evolution. Here we measure the IMF mass normalization for a sample of 68 field galaxies in the redshift range 0.7-0.9 within the Extended Groth Strip. To do this we derive the total (stellar + dark matter) mass-to-light [(M/L)] ratio using axisymmetric dynamical models. Within the region where we have kinematics (about one half-light radius), the models assume (1) that mass follows light, implying negligible differences between the slope of the stellar and total density profiles, (2) constant velocity anisotropy (β{sub z}≡1−σ{sub z}{sup 2}/σ{sub R}{sup 2}=0.2), and (3) that galaxies are seen at the average inclination for random orientations (i.e., i = 60°, where i = 90° represents edge-on). The dynamical models are based on anisotropic Jeans equations, constrained by Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging and the central velocity dispersion of the galaxies, extracted from good-quality spectra taken by the DEEP2 survey. The population (M/L) are derived from full-spectrum fitting of the same spectra with a grid of simple stellar population models. Recent dynamical modeling results from the ATLAS{sup 3D} project and numerical simulations of galaxy evolution indicate that the dark matter fraction within the central regions of our galaxies should be small. This suggests that our derived total (M/L) should closely approximate the stellar M/L. Our comparison of the dynamical (M/L) and the population (M/L) then implies that for galaxies with stellar mass M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}, the average normalization of the IMF is consistent with a Salpeter slope, with a substantial scatter. This is similar to what is found within a similar mass range for nearby galaxies.

  13. Salpeter Normalization of the Stellar Initial Mass Function for Massive Galaxies at z ~ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, Shravan; Cappellari, Michele

    2014-05-01

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) is a key parameter for studying galaxy evolution. Here we measure the IMF mass normalization for a sample of 68 field galaxies in the redshift range 0.7-0.9 within the Extended Groth Strip. To do this we derive the total (stellar + dark matter) mass-to-light [(M/L)] ratio using axisymmetric dynamical models. Within the region where we have kinematics (about one half-light radius), the models assume (1) that mass follows light, implying negligible differences between the slope of the stellar and total density profiles, (2) constant velocity anisotropy (\\beta _{z}\\equiv 1-\\sigma _z^2/\\sigma _R^2=0.2), and (3) that galaxies are seen at the average inclination for random orientations (i.e., i = 60°, where i = 90° represents edge-on). The dynamical models are based on anisotropic Jeans equations, constrained by Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging and the central velocity dispersion of the galaxies, extracted from good-quality spectra taken by the DEEP2 survey. The population (M/L) are derived from full-spectrum fitting of the same spectra with a grid of simple stellar population models. Recent dynamical modeling results from the ATLAS3D project and numerical simulations of galaxy evolution indicate that the dark matter fraction within the central regions of our galaxies should be small. This suggests that our derived total (M/L) should closely approximate the stellar M/L. Our comparison of the dynamical (M/L) and the population (M/L) then implies that for galaxies with stellar mass M * >~ 1011 M ⊙, the average normalization of the IMF is consistent with a Salpeter slope, with a substantial scatter. This is similar to what is found within a similar mass range for nearby galaxies.

  14. A fragmentation-coalescence model for the initial stellar mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshii, Y.; Saio, H.

    1985-08-01

    The authors have derived the initial stellar mass function (IMF), taking into account both effects of fragmentation of the gas clouds and coalescence among the fragments themselves. For fragmentation Silk's scenario is adopted, i.e., protostars formed in a parent cloud establish a mean field of radiation which interacts with grains to heat the gas. The maximum mass of stars is determined by the constraint that the local Jeans length should be smaller than the mean separation among preexisting protostars. The effects of coalescence upon the resulting mass spectrum are studied. If one assumes L(m) ∝ m3 for protostars, a Salpeter-like initial stellar mass function is obtained, whereas for L(m) ∝ m1.5, the resulting slope of the IMF becomes nearly flat.

  15. CONNECTION BETWEEN DYNAMICALLY DERIVED INITIAL MASS FUNCTION NORMALIZATION AND STELLAR POPULATION PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    McDermid, Richard M.; Cappellari, Michele; Bayet, Estelle; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Davis, Timothy A.; De Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Kuntschner, Harald; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom; Naab, Thorsten; and others

    2014-09-10

    We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS{sup 3D} project. We study trends between our dynamically derived IMF normalization α{sub dyn} ≡ (M/L){sub stars}/(M/L){sub Salp} and absorption line strengths, and interpret these via single stellar population-equivalent ages, abundance ratios (measured as [α/Fe]), and total metallicity, [Z/H]. We find that old and alpha-enhanced galaxies tend to have on average heavier (Salpeter-like) mass normalization of the IMF, but stellar population does not appear to be a good predictor of the IMF, with a large range of α{sub dyn} at a given population parameter. As a result, we find weak α{sub dyn}-[α/Fe] and α{sub dyn} –Age correlations and no significant α{sub dyn} –[Z/H] correlation. The observed trends appear significantly weaker than those reported in studies that measure the IMF normalization via the low-mass star demographics inferred through stellar spectral analysis.

  16. Matching the Evolution of the Stellar Mass Function Using Log-Normal Star Formation Histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, Louis E.; Gladders, Michael D.; Dressler, Alan; Oemler, Augustus, Jr.; Poggianti, Bianca; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2015-03-01

    We show that a model consisting of individual, log-normal star formation histories for a volume-limited sample of z ≈ 0 galaxies reproduces the evolution of the total and quiescent stellar mass functions at z ≲ 2.5 and stellar masses {{M}*}≥slant {{10}10} {{M}⊙ }. This model has previously been shown to reproduce the star formation rate/stellar mass relation (SFR-{{M}*}) over the same interval, is fully consistent with the observed evolution of the cosmic SFR density at z≤slant 8, and entails no explicit “quenching” prescription. We interpret these results/features in the context of other models demonstrating a similar ability to reproduce the evolution of (1) the cosmic SFR density, (2) the total/quiescent stellar mass functions, and (3) the SFR-{{M}*} relation, proposing that the key difference between modeling approaches is the extent to which they stress/address diversity in the (star-forming) galaxy population. Finally, we suggest that observations revealing the timescale associated with dispersion in SFR({{M}*}) will help establish which models are the most relevant to galaxy evolution.

  17. The initial mass function and global rates of mass, momentum, and energy input to the interstellar medium via stellar winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Buren, D.

    1985-01-01

    Published observational data are compiled and analyzed, using theoretical stellar-evolution models to determine the global rates of mass, momentum, and energy injected into the interstellar medium (ISM) by stellar winds. Expressions derived include psi = 0.00054 x (M to the -1.03) stars formed/sq kpc yr log M (where M is the initial mass function in solar mass units) and mass-loss = (2 x 10 to the -13th) x (L to the 1.25) solar mass/yr (with L in solar luminosity units). It is found that the wind/supernova injection of energy into the ISM and the mass loss from stars of 5 solar mass or more are approximately balanced by the dissipation of energy by cloud-cloud collisions and the formation of stars, respectively.

  18. The initial mass function and global rates of mass, momentum, and energy input to the interstellar medium via stellar winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Buren, D.

    1985-01-01

    Published observational data are compiled and analyzed, using theoretical stellar-evolution models to determine the global rates of mass, momentum, and energy injected into the interstellar medium (ISM) by stellar winds. Expressions derived include psi = 0.00054 x (M to the -1.03) stars formed/sq kpc yr log M (where M is the initial mass function in solar mass units) and mass-loss = (2 x 10 to the -13th) x (L to the 1.25) solar mass/yr (with L in solar luminosity units). It is found that the wind/supernova injection of energy into the ISM and the mass loss from stars of 5 solar mass or more are approximately balanced by the dissipation of energy by cloud-cloud collisions and the formation of stars, respectively.

  19. Environmental dependence of the galaxy stellar mass function in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification Data

    SciTech Connect

    Etherington, J.; Thomas, D.; Maraston, C.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Bechtol, K.; Pforr, J.; Pellegrini, P.; Gschwend, J.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Maia, M. A. G.; da Costa, L. N.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Hartley, W. G.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Tarle, G.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-01-04

    Measurements of the galaxy stellar mass function are crucial to understand the formation of galaxies in the Universe. In a hierarchical clustering paradigm it is plausible that there is a connection between the properties of galaxies and their environments. Evidence for environmental trends has been established in the local Universe. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) provides large photometric datasets that enable further investigation of the assembly of mass. In this study we use ~3.2 million galaxies from the (South Pole Telescope) SPT-East field in the DES science verification (SV) dataset. From grizY photometry we derive galaxy stellar masses and absolute magnitudes, and determine the errors on these properties using Monte-Carlo simulations using the full photometric redshift probability distributions. We compute galaxy environments using a fixed conical aperture for a range of scales. We construct galaxy environment probability distribution functions and investigate the dependence of the environment errors on the aperture parameters. We compute the environment components of the galaxy stellar mass function for the redshift range 0.15 < z < 1.05. For z < 0.75 we find that the fraction of massive galaxies is larger in high density environment than in low density environments. We show that the low density and high density components converge with increasing redshift up to z ~ 1.0 where the shapes of the mass function components are indistinguishable. As a result, our study shows how high density structures build up around massive galaxies through cosmic time.

  20. EVIDENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF THE UPPER STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION IN ORION A

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Hartmann, Lee; Tobin, John J.; Ingleby, Laura; Allen, Lori; Hernandez, Jesus; Megeath, S. T.

    2013-02-20

    We extend our previous study of the stellar population of L1641, the lower-density star-forming region of the Orion A cloud south of the dense Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), with the goal of testing whether there is a statistically significant deficiency of high-mass stars in low-density regions. Previously, we compared the observed ratio of low-mass stars to high-mass stars with theoretical models of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) to infer a deficiency of the highest-mass stars in L1641. We expand our population study to identify the intermediate-mass (late B to G) L1641 members in an attempt to make a more direct comparison with the mass function of the nearby ONC. The spectral-type distribution and the K-band luminosity function of L1641 are similar to those of the ONC, but problems of incompleteness and contamination prevent us from making a detailed test for differences. We limit our analysis to statistical tests of the ratio of high-mass to low-mass stars, which indicate a probability of only 3% that the ONC and the southern region of L1641 were drawn from the same population, supporting the hypothesis that the upper-mass end of the IMF is dependent on environmental density.

  1. Evidence for Environmental Dependence of the Upper Stellar Initial Mass Function in Orion A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Hartmann, Lee; Allen, Lori; Hernández, Jesús; Megeath, S. T.; Tobin, John J.; Ingleby, Laura

    2013-02-01

    We extend our previous study of the stellar population of L1641, the lower-density star-forming region of the Orion A cloud south of the dense Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), with the goal of testing whether there is a statistically significant deficiency of high-mass stars in low-density regions. Previously, we compared the observed ratio of low-mass stars to high-mass stars with theoretical models of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) to infer a deficiency of the highest-mass stars in L1641. We expand our population study to identify the intermediate-mass (late B to G) L1641 members in an attempt to make a more direct comparison with the mass function of the nearby ONC. The spectral-type distribution and the K-band luminosity function of L1641 are similar to those of the ONC, but problems of incompleteness and contamination prevent us from making a detailed test for differences. We limit our analysis to statistical tests of the ratio of high-mass to low-mass stars, which indicate a probability of only 3% that the ONC and the southern region of L1641 were drawn from the same population, supporting the hypothesis that the upper-mass end of the IMF is dependent on environmental density.

  2. Evidence for two distinct stellar initial mass functions: probing for clues to the dichotomy

    SciTech Connect

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Pessev, Peter M.

    2014-12-01

    We present new measurements of the velocity dispersions of 11 Local Group globular clusters using spatially integrated spectra, to expand our sample of clusters with precise integrated-light velocity dispersions to 29, over 4 different host galaxies. This sample allows us to further our investigation of the stellar mass function among clusters, with a particular emphasis on a search for the driver of the apparent bimodal nature of the inferred stellar initial mass function (IMF). We confirm our previous result that clusters fall into two classes. If, as we argue, this behavior reflects a variation in the stellar IMF, the cause of that variation is not clear. The variations do not correlate with formation epoch as quantified by age, metallicity quantified by [Fe/H], host galaxy, or internal structure as quantified by velocity dispersion, physical size, relaxation time, or luminosity. The stellar mass-to-light ratios, Y{sub *}, of the high and low Y{sub *} cluster populations are well-matched to those found in recent studies of early and late type galaxies, respectively.

  3. Luminosity and Stellar Mass Functions of Local Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Gallego, Jesús; Zamorano, Jaime; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Gil de Paz, Armando; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso

    2003-04-01

    We present the optical and near-infrared luminosity and mass functions of the local star-forming galaxies in the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) Survey. A bivariate method that explicitly deals with the Hα selection of the survey is used when estimating these functions. Total stellar masses have been calculated on a galaxy-by-galaxy basis taking into account differences in star formation histories. The main difference between the luminosity distributions of the UCM sample and the luminosity functions of the local galaxy population is a lower normalization (φ*), indicating a lower global volume density of UCM galaxies. The typical near-infrared luminosity (L*) of local star-forming galaxies is fainter than that of normal galaxies. This is a direct consequence of the lower stellar masses of our objects. However, at optical wavelengths (B and r), the luminosity enhancement arising from the young stars leads to M* values that are similar to those of normal galaxies. The fraction of the total optical and near-infrared luminosity density in the local universe associated with star-forming galaxies is 10%-20%. Fitting the total stellar mass function using a Schechter parameterization, we obtain α=-1.15+/-0.15, logM*=10.82+/-0.17 Msolar, and logφ*=-3.04+/-0.20 Mpc-3. This gives an integrated total stellar mass density of 107.83+/-0.07 Msolar Mpc-3 in local star-forming galaxies (H0=70 km s-1 Mpc-1, ΩM=0.3, and Λ=0.7). The volume-averaged burst strength of the UCM galaxies is b=0.04+/-0.01, defined as the ratio of the mass density of stars formed in recent bursts (with an age of <10 Myr) to the total stellar mass density in UCM galaxies. Finally, we derive that in the local universe, 13%+/-3% of the total baryon mass density in the form of stars is associated with star-forming galaxies.

  4. Evidence for top-heavy stellar initial mass functions with increasing density and decreasing metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Michael; Kroupa, Pavel; Dabringhausen, Jörg; Pawlowski, Marcel S.

    2012-05-01

    Residual-gas expulsion after cluster formation has recently been shown to leave an imprint in the low-mass present-day stellar mass function (PDMF) which allowed the estimation of birth conditions of some Galactic globular clusters (GCs) such as mass, radius and star formation efficiency. We show that in order to explain their characteristics (masses, radii, metallicity and PDMF) their stellar initial mass function (IMF) must have been top heavy. It is found that the IMF is required to become more top heavy the lower the cluster metallicity and the larger the pre-GC cloud-core density are. The deduced trends are in qualitative agreement with theoretical expectation. The results are consistent with estimates of the shape of the high-mass end of the IMF in the Arches cluster, Westerlund 1, R136 and NGC 3603, as well as with the IMF independently constrained for ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs). The latter suggests that GCs and UCDs might have formed along the same channel or that UCDs formed via mergers of GCs. A Fundamental Plane is found which describes the variation of the IMF with density and metallicity of the pre-GC cloud cores. The implications for the evolution of galaxies and chemical enrichment over cosmological times are expected to be major.

  5. Environmental dependence of the galaxy stellar mass function in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etherington, J.; Thomas, D.; Maraston, C.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Bechtol, K.; Pforr, J.; Pellegrini, P.; Gschwend, J.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Maia, M. A. G.; da Costa, L. N.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Hartley, W. G.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Tarle, G.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Measurements of the galaxy stellar mass function are crucial to understand the formation of galaxies in the Universe. In a hierarchical clustering paradigm, it is plausible that there is a connection between the properties of galaxies and their environments. Evidence for environmental trends has been established in the local Universe. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) provides large photometric data sets that enable further investigation of the assembly of mass. In this study, we use ∼3.2 million galaxies from the (South Pole Telescope) SPT-East field in the DES science verification (SV) data set. From grizY photometry, we derive galaxy stellar masses and absolute magnitudes, and determine the errors on these properties using Monte Carlo simulations using the full photometric redshift probability distributions. We compute galaxy environments using a fixed conical aperture for a range of scales. We construct galaxy environment probability distribution functions and investigate the dependence of the environment errors on the aperture parameters. We compute the environment components of the galaxy stellar mass function for the redshift range 0.15 < z < 1.05. For z < 0.75, we find that the fraction of massive galaxies is larger in high-density environment than in low-density environments. We show that the low-density and high-density components converge with increasing redshift up to z ∼ 1.0 where the shapes of the mass function components are indistinguishable. Our study shows how high-density structures build up around massive galaxies through cosmic time.

  6. Environmental dependence of the galaxy stellar mass function in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification Data

    DOE PAGES

    Etherington, J.; Thomas, D.; Maraston, C.; ...

    2016-01-04

    Measurements of the galaxy stellar mass function are crucial to understand the formation of galaxies in the Universe. In a hierarchical clustering paradigm it is plausible that there is a connection between the properties of galaxies and their environments. Evidence for environmental trends has been established in the local Universe. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) provides large photometric datasets that enable further investigation of the assembly of mass. In this study we use ~3.2 million galaxies from the (South Pole Telescope) SPT-East field in the DES science verification (SV) dataset. From grizY photometry we derive galaxy stellar masses and absolutemore » magnitudes, and determine the errors on these properties using Monte-Carlo simulations using the full photometric redshift probability distributions. We compute galaxy environments using a fixed conical aperture for a range of scales. We construct galaxy environment probability distribution functions and investigate the dependence of the environment errors on the aperture parameters. We compute the environment components of the galaxy stellar mass function for the redshift range 0.15 < z < 1.05. For z < 0.75 we find that the fraction of massive galaxies is larger in high density environment than in low density environments. We show that the low density and high density components converge with increasing redshift up to z ~ 1.0 where the shapes of the mass function components are indistinguishable. As a result, our study shows how high density structures build up around massive galaxies through cosmic time.« less

  7. Cosmic History of the Integrated Galactic Stellar Initial Mass Function: A Simulation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; De, Tuli; Warlu, Bharat; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Theoretical and indirect observational evidence suggests that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) increases with redshift. On the other hand, star formation rates (SFRs) may be as high as 100 {M}⊙ yr-1 in starburst galaxies. These may lead to the formation of massive clusters, hence massive stars, making the integrated galactic stellar initial mass function (IGIMF) top-heavy (i.e., the proportion of massive stars is higher than that of less massive stars). We investigate the joint effect of evolving the IMF and several measures of SFRs in dependence on the galaxy-wide IMF. The resulting IGIMFs have slopes {α }2,{IGIMF} in the high-mass regime, which is highly dependent on the minimum mass of the embedded cluster ({M}{ecl,{min}}), SFR, and mass-spectrum indices of embedded clusters (β). It is found that for z ˜ 0-2, {α }2,{IGIMF} becomes steeper (i.e., bottom-heavy), for z ˜ 2-4, {α }2,{IGIMF} becomes flatter (i.e., top-heavy ), and from z ˜ 4 onward, {α }2,{IGIMF} again becomes steeper. The effects are faster for higher values of β. {α }2,{IGIMF} is also for higher values of {M}{ecl,{min}}. All of these effects may be attributable to the joint effect of increasing the temperature of the ambient medium as well as varying the SFR with increasing redshift.

  8. CLASH-VLT: The stellar mass function and stellar mass density profile of the z = 0.44 cluster of galaxies MACS J1206.2-0847

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annunziatella, M.; Biviano, A.; Mercurio, A.; Nonino, M.; Rosati, P.; Balestra, I.; Presotto, V.; Girardi, M.; Gobat, R.; Grillo, C.; Kelson, D.; Medezinski, E.; Postman, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Brescia, M.; Demarco, R.; Fritz, A.; Koekemoer, A.; Lemze, D.; Lombardi, M.; Sartoris, B.; Umetsu, K.; Vanzella, E.; Bradley, L.; Coe, D.; Donahue, M.; Infante, L.; Kuchner, U.; Maier, C.; Regős, E.; Verdugo, M.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-11-01

    Context. The study of the galaxy stellar mass function (SMF) in relation to the galaxy environment and the stellar mass density profile, ρ⋆(r), is a powerful tool to constrain models of galaxy evolution. Aims: We determine the SMF of the z = 0.44 cluster of galaxies MACS J1206.2-0847 separately for passive and star-forming (SF) galaxies, in different regions of the cluster, from the center out to approximately 2 virial radii. We also determine ρ⋆(r) to compare it to the number density and total mass density profiles. Methods: We use the dataset from the CLASH-VLT survey. Stellar masses are obtained by spectral energy distribution fitting with the MAGPHYS technique on 5-band photometric data obtained at the Subaru telescope. We identify 1363 cluster members down to a stellar mass of 109.5 M⊙, selected on the basis of their spectroscopic (~1/3 of the total) and photometric redshifts. We correct our sample for incompleteness and contamination by non members. Cluster member environments are defined using either the clustercentric radius or the local galaxy number density. Results: The whole cluster SMF is well fitted by a double Schechter function, which is the sum of the two Schechter functions that provide good fits to the SMFs of, separately, the passive and SF cluster populations. The SMF of SF galaxies is significantly steeper than the SMF of passive galaxies at the faint end. The SMF of the SF cluster galaxies does not depend on the environment. The SMF of the passive cluster galaxies has a significantly smaller slope (in absolute value) in the innermost (≤ 0.50 Mpc, i.e., ~0.25 virial radii), and in the highest density cluster region than in more external, lower density regions. The number ratio of giant/subgiant galaxies is maximum in this innermost region and minimum in the adjacent region, but then gently increases again toward the cluster outskirts. This is also reflected in a decreasing radial trend of the average stellar mass per cluster galaxy

  9. M dwarfs in the Local Milky Way: The Field Low-Mass Stellar Luminosity and Mass Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Bochanski, Jr, John J.

    2008-01-01

    Modern sky surveys, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two-Micron All Sky Survey, have revolutionized how Astronomy is done. With millions of photometric and spectroscopic observations, global observational properties can be studied with unprecedented statistical significance. Low-mass stars dominate the local Milky Way, with tens of millions observed by SDSS within a few kpc. Thus, they make ideal tracers of the Galactic potential, and the thin and thick disks. In this thesis dissertation, I present my efforts to characterize the local low-mass stellar population, using a collection of observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). First, low-mass stellar template spectra were constructed from the co-addition of thousands of SDSS spectroscopic observations. These template spectra were used to quantify the observable changes introduced by chromospheric activity and metallicity. Furthermore, the average ugriz colors were measured as a function of spectral type. Next, the local kinematic structure of the Milky Way was quantified, using a special set of SDSS spectroscopic observations. Combining proper motions and radial velocities (measured using the spectral templates), along with distances, the full UVW space motions of over 7000 low-mass stars along one line of sight were computed. These stars were also separated kinematically to investigate other observational differences between the thin and thick disks. Finally, this dissertation details a project designed to measure the luminosity and mass functions of low-mass stars. Using a new technique optimized for large surveys, the field luminosity function (LF) and local stellar density profile are measured simultaneously. The sample size used to estimate the LF is nearly three orders of magnitude larger than any previous study, offering a definitive measurement of this quantity. The observed LF is transformed into a mass function (MF) and compared to previous studies.

  10. Perspectives on Intracluster Enrichment and the Stellar Initial Mass Function in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowenstein, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The amount of metals in the Intracluster Medium (ICM) in rich galaxy clusters exceeds that expected based on the observed stellar population by a large factor. We quantify this discrepancy--which we term the "cluster elemental abundance paradox"--and investigate the required properties of the ICM-enriching population. The necessary enhancement in metal enrichment may, in principle, originate in the observed stellar population if a larger fraction of stars in the supernova-progenitor mass range form from an initial mass function (IMF) that is either bottom-light or top-heavy, with the latter in some conflict with observed ICM abundance ratios. Other alternatives that imply more modest revisions to the IMF, mass return and remnant fractions, and primordial fraction, posit an increase in the fraction of 3-8 solar mass stars that explode as SNIa or assume that there are more stars than conventionally thought--although the latter implies a high star formation efficiency. We discuss the feasibility of these various solutions and the implications for the diversity of star formation, the process of elliptical galaxy formation, and the nature of this hidden source of ICM metal enrichment in light of recent evidence of an elliptical galaxy IMF that, because it is skewed to low masses, deepens the paradox.

  11. Solutions of the coagulation equation with time-dependent coagulation rates. [For stellar formation mass functions

    SciTech Connect

    Lejeune, C.; Bastien, P.

    1986-10-01

    In attempting to reproduce the initial stellar mass function, the authors solved analytically the coagulation equation with an explicit time dependence in the coagulation rate in order to simulate the gravitational collapse of the fragments upon themselves as they move within the progenitor cloud. Two separate cases have been studied, with and without a mass dependence in the coagulation rate. The solutions show that: (1) inclusion of self-gravitation can change the results to the point of preventing coalescence to work altogether, depending on the values of the two free parameters; (2) the precise form of the mass dependence of the coagulation rate is not of prime importance in most situations of astrophysical interest; (3) coagulation alone is not sufficient to yield a realistic mass spectrum, and fragmentation must also be taken into account. 30 references.

  12. The galaxy stellar mass function and its evolution with time show no dependence on global environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulcani, B.; Poggianti, B. M.; Oemler, A.; Dressler, A.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; De Lucia, G.; Moretti, A.; Gladders, M.; Abramson, L.; Halliday, C.

    2013-02-01

    We present an analysis of the galaxy stellar mass function in different environments at intermediate redshift (0.3 ≤ z ≤ 0.8) for two mass-limited galaxy samples. We use the IMACS Cluster Building Survey (ICBS; M∗ ≥ 1010.5 M⊙) to study cluster, group and field galaxies at z = 0.3-0.45, and the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS; M∗ ≥ 1010.2 M⊙) to investigate cluster and group galaxies at z = 0.4-0.8. Our analysis thus includes galaxies with masses reaching just below that of the Milky Way. Excluding the brightest cluster galaxies, we show that the shape of the mass distribution does not seem to depend on global environment, Our two main results are: (1) Galaxies in the virialised regions of clusters, in groups, and in the field follow similar mass distributions. (2) Comparing the ICBS and EDisCS mass functions to mass functions in the local universe, we detect evolution from z ~ 0.4-0.6 to z ~ 0.07 in the sense that the population of low-mass galaxies has grown with time with respect to the population of massive galaxies. This evolution is independent of environment, i.e., the same for clusters and the field. Furthermore, considering only cluster galaxies, we find that no differences can be detected in their mass functions either within the virialised regions, or when we compare galaxies inside and outside the virial radius. Finally, we find that red and blue galaxies have different mass functions. However, the shapes of the mass functions of blue and red galaxies do not seem to depend on their environment (clusters groups and the field). This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  13. Origin of a Bottom-heavy Stellar Initial Mass Function in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekki, Kenji

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the origin of a bottom-heavy stellar initial mass function (IMF) recently observed in elliptical galaxies by using chemical evolution models with a non-universal IMF. We adopt the variable Kroupa IMF with the three slopes (α1, α2, and α3) dependent on metallicities ([Fe/H]) and densities (ρg) of star-forming gas clouds and thereby search for the best IMF model that can reproduce (1) the observed steep IMF slope (α2 ~ 3, i.e., bottom-heavy) for low stellar masses (m <= 1 M ⊙) and (2) the correlation of α2 with chemical properties of elliptical galaxies in a self-consistent manner. We find that if the IMF slope α2 depends on both [Fe/H] and ρg, then elliptical galaxies with higher [Mg/Fe] can have steeper α2 (~3) in our models. We also find that the observed positive correlation of stellar mass-to-light ratios (M/L) with [Mg/Fe] in elliptical galaxies can be quantitatively reproduced in our models with α2vpropβ[Fe/H] + γlog ρg, where β ~ 0.5 and γ ~ 2. We discuss whether the IMF slopes for low-mass (α2) and high-mass stars (α3) need to vary independently from each other to explain a number of IMF-related observational results self-consistently. We also briefly discuss why α2 depends differently on [Fe/H] in dwarf and giant elliptical galaxies.

  14. What do simulations predict for the galaxy stellar mass function and its evolution in different environments?

    SciTech Connect

    Vulcani, Benedetta; Bundy, Kevin; More, Surhud; De Lucia, Gabriella; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Calvi, Rosa

    2014-06-10

    We present a comparison between the observed galaxy stellar mass function and the one predicted from the De Lucia and Blaizot semi-analytic model applied to the Millennium Simulation, for cluster satellites and galaxies in the field (meant as a wide portion of the sky, including all environments), in the local universe (z ∼ 0.06), and at intermediate redshift (z ∼ 0.6), with the aim to shed light on the processes which regulate the mass distribution in different environments. While the mass functions in the field and in its finer environments (groups, binary, and single systems) are well matched in the local universe down to the completeness limit of the observational sample, the model overpredicts the number of low-mass galaxies in the field at z ∼ 0.6 and in clusters at both redshifts. Above M {sub *} = 10{sup 10.25} M {sub ☉}, it reproduces the observed similarity of the cluster and field mass functions but not the observed evolution. Our results point out two shortcomings of the model: an incorrect treatment of cluster-specific environmental effects and an overefficient galaxy formation at early times (as already found by, e.g., Weinmann et al.). Next, we consider only simulations. Also using the Guo et al. model, we find that the high-mass end of the mass functions depends on halo mass: only very massive halos host massive galaxies, with the result that their mass function is flatter. Above M {sub *} = 10{sup 9.4} M {sub ☉}, simulations show an evolution in the number of the most massive galaxies in all environments. Mass functions obtained from the two prescriptions are different, however, results are qualitatively similar, indicating that the adopted methods to model the evolution of central and satellite galaxies still have to be better implemented in semi-analytic models.

  15. Galaxy luminosities, stellar masses, sizes, velocity dispersions as a function of morphological type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, M.; Shankar, F.; Hyde, J. B.; Mei, S.; Marulli, F.; Sheth, R. K.

    2010-06-01

    We provide fits to the distribution of galaxy luminosity, size, velocity dispersion and stellar mass as a function of concentration index Cr and morphological type in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). (Our size estimate, a simple analogue of the SDSS cmodel magnitude, is new: it is computed using a combination of seeing-corrected quantities in the SDSS data base, and is in substantially better agreement with results from more detailed bulge/disc decompositions.) We also quantify how estimates of the fraction of `early'- or `late'-type galaxies depend on whether the samples were cut in colour, concentration or light profile shape, and compare with similar estimates based on morphology. Our fits show that ellipticals account for about 20 per cent of the r-band luminosity density, , and 25 per cent of the stellar mass density, ρ* including S0s and Sas increases these numbers to 33 per cent and 40 per cent, and 50 per cent and 60 per cent, respectively. The values of and ρ*, and the mean sizes, of E, E+S0 and E+S0+Sa samples are within 10 per cent of those in the Hyde & Bernardi, Cr >= 2.86 and Cr >= 2.6 samples, respectively. Summed over all galaxy types, we find ρ* ~ 3 × 108MsolarMpc-3 at z ~ 0. This is in good agreement with expectations based on integrating the star formation history. However, compared to most previous work, we find an excess of objects at large masses, up to a factor of ~10 at M* ~ 5 × 1011Msolar. The stellar mass density further increases at large masses if we assume different initial mass functions for elliptical and spiral galaxies, as suggested by some recent chemical evolution models, and results in a better agreement with the dynamical mass function. We also show that the trend for ellipticity to decrease with luminosity is primarily because the E/S0 ratio increases at large L. However, the most massive galaxies, M* >= 5 × 1011Msolar, are less concentrated and not as round as expected if one extrapolates from lower L, and they are

  16. THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM ABSORPTION LINE SPECTROSCOPY. II. RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Charlie; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2012-11-20

    The spectral absorption lines in early-type galaxies contain a wealth of information regarding the detailed abundance pattern, star formation history, and stellar initial mass function (IMF) of the underlying stellar population. Using our new population synthesis model that accounts for the effect of variable abundance ratios of 11 elements, we analyze very high quality absorption line spectra of 38 early-type galaxies and the nuclear bulge of M31. These data extend to 1 {mu}m and they therefore include the IMF-sensitive spectral features Na I, Ca II, and FeH at 0.82 {mu}m, 0.86 {mu}m, and 0.99 {mu}m, respectively. The models fit the data well, with typical rms residuals {approx}< 1%. Strong constraints on the IMF and therefore the stellar mass-to-light ratio, (M/L){sub stars}, are derived for individual galaxies. We find that the IMF becomes increasingly bottom-heavy with increasing velocity dispersion and [Mg/Fe]. At the lowest dispersions and [Mg/Fe] values the derived IMF is consistent with the Milky Way (MW) IMF, while at the highest dispersions and [Mg/Fe] values the derived IMF contains more low-mass stars (is more bottom-heavy) than even a Salpeter IMF. Our best-fit (M/L){sub stars} values do not exceed dynamically based M/L values. We also apply our models to stacked spectra of four metal-rich globular clusters in M31 and find an (M/L){sub stars} that implies fewer low-mass stars than a MW IMF, again agreeing with dynamical constraints. We discuss other possible explanations for the observed trends and conclude that variation in the IMF is the simplest and most plausible.

  17. THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AT 0.9 < z < 1.5

    SciTech Connect

    Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Trujillo, Ignacio; Vazdekis, Alexandre; Barro, Guillermo; Charlot, Stéphane; Cava, Antonio; Ferreras, Ignacio; Barbera, Francesco La; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Cenarro, A. Javier

    2015-01-01

    We explore the stellar initial mass function (IMF) of a sample of 49 massive quiescent galaxies (MQGs) at 0.9 < z < 1.5. We base our analysis on intermediate resolution spectro-photometric data in the GOODS-N field taken in the near-infrared and optical with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 G141 grism and the Survey for High-z Absorption Red and Dead Sources. To constrain the slope of the IMF, we have measured the TiO{sub 2} spectral feature, whose strength depends strongly on the content of low-mass stars, as well as on stellar age. Using ultraviolet to near-infrared individual and stacked spectral energy distributions, we have independently estimated the stellar ages of our galaxies. Knowing the age of the stellar population, we interpret the strong differences in the TiO{sub 2} feature as an IMF variation. In particular, for the heaviest z ∼ 1 MQGs (M > 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}), we find an average age of 1.7 ± 0.3 Gyr and a bottom-heavy IMF (Γ {sub b} = 3.2 ± 0.2). Lighter MQGs (2 × 10{sup 10} < M < 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}) at the same redshift are younger on average (1.0 ± 0.2 Gyr) and present a shallower IMF slope (Γ{sub b}=2.7{sub −0.4}{sup +0.3}). Our results are in good agreement with the findings about the IMF slope in early-type galaxies of similar mass in the present-day universe. This suggests that the IMF, a key characteristic of the stellar populations in galaxies, is bottom-heavier for more massive galaxies and has remained unchanged in the last ∼8 Gyr.

  18. A hierarchical Bayesian approach for reconstructing the initial mass function of single stellar populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dries, M.; Trager, S. C.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies based on the integrated light of distant galaxies suggest that the initial mass function (IMF) might not be universal. Variations of the IMF with galaxy type and/or formation time may have important consequences for our understanding of galaxy evolution. We have developed a new stellar population synthesis (SPS) code specifically designed to reconstruct the IMF. We implement a novel approach combining regularization with hierarchical Bayesian inference. Within this approach, we use a parametrized IMF prior to regulate a direct inference of the IMF. This direct inference gives more freedom to the IMF and allows the model to deviate from parametrized models when demanded by the data. We use Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling techniques to reconstruct the best parameters for the IMF prior, the age and the metallicity of a single stellar population. We present our code and apply our model to a number of mock single stellar populations with different ages, metallicities and IMFs. When systematic uncertainties are not significant, we are able to reconstruct the input parameters that were used to create the mock populations. Our results show that if systematic uncertainties do play a role, this may introduce a bias on the results. Therefore, it is important to objectively compare different ingredients of SPS models. Through its Bayesian framework, our model is well suited for this.

  19. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Environmental effects shaping the galaxy stellar mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidzon, I.; Cucciati, O.; Bolzonella, M.; De Lucia, G.; Zamorani, G.; Arnouts, S.; Moutard, T.; Ilbert, O.; Garilli, B.; Scodeggio, M.; Guzzo, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bel, J.; Bottini, D.; Branchini, E.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; de la Torre, S.; Di Porto, C.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Granett, B. R.; Guennou, L.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.

    2016-02-01

    We exploit the first public data release of VIPERS to investigate environmental effects in the evolution of galaxies between z ~ 0.5 and 0.9. The large number of spectroscopic redshifts (more than 50 000) over an area of about 10 deg2 provides a galaxy sample with high statistical power. The accurate redshift measurements (σz = 0.00047(1 + zspec)) allow us to robustly isolate galaxies living in the lowest and highest density environments (δ< 0.7 and δ> 4, respectively) as defined in terms of spatial 3D density contrast δ. We estimate the stellar mass function of galaxies residing in these two environments and constrain the high-mass end (ℳ ≳ 1011 ℳ⊙) with unprecedented precision. We find that the galaxy stellar mass function in the densest regions has a different shape than was measured at low densities, with an enhancement of massive galaxies and a hint of a flatter (less negative) slope at z< 0.8. We normalise each mass function to the comoving volume occupied by the corresponding environment and relate estimates from different redshift bins. We observe an evolution of the stellar mass function of VIPERS galaxies in high densities, while the low-density one is nearly constant. We compare these results to semi-analytical models and find consistent environmental signatures in the simulated stellar mass functions. We discuss how the halo mass function and fraction of central/satellite galaxies depend on the environments considered, making intrinsic and environmental properties of galaxies physically coupled, hence difficult to disentangle. The evolution of our low-density regions is described well by the formalism introduced by Peng et al. (2010, ApJ, 721, 193), and is consistent with the idea that galaxies become progressively passive because of internal physical processes. The same formalism could also describe the evolution of the mass function in the high density regions, but only if a significant contribution from dry mergers is considered. Based on

  20. Stochastic stellar cluster initial mass functions: Models and impact on integrated cluster parameter determination

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, P.; Kotulla, R.; De Grijs, R.; Wicker, J.

    2013-12-01

    Stellar clusters are regularly used to study the evolution of their host galaxy. Except for a few nearby galaxies, these studies rely on the interpretation of integrated cluster properties, especially integrated photometry observed using multiple filters (i.e., the spectral energy distribution, SED). To allow interpretation of such observations, we present a large set of GALEV cluster models using the realistic approach of adopting stochastically sampled stellar initial mass functions. We provide models for a wide range of cluster masses (10{sup 3}-2 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}), metallicities (–2.3 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ +0.18 dex), foreground extinction, and 184 regularly used filters. We analyze various sets of stochastic cluster SEDs by fitting them with non-stochastic models, which is the procedure commonly used in this field. We identify caveats and quantify the fitting uncertainties associated with this standard procedure. We show that this can yield highly unreliable fitting results, especially for low-mass clusters.

  1. AN INVENTORY OF THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Tortora, C.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Napolitano, N. R.

    2013-03-01

    Given a flurry of recent claims for systematic variations in the stellar initial mass function (IMF), we carry out the first inventory of the observational evidence using different approaches. This includes literature results, as well as our own new findings from combined stellar population synthesis (SPS) and Jeans dynamical analyses of data on {approx}4500 early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the SPIDER project. We focus on the mass-to-light ratio mismatch relative to the Milky Way IMF, {delta}{sub IMF}, correlated against the central stellar velocity dispersion, {sigma}{sub *}. We find a strong correlation between {delta}{sub IMF} and {sigma}{sub *}, for a wide set of dark matter (DM) model profiles. These results are robust if a uniform halo response to baryons is adopted across the sample. The overall normalization of {delta}{sub IMF} and the detailed DM profile are less certain, but the data are consistent with standard cold DM halos and a central DM fraction that is roughly constant with {sigma}{sub *}. For a variety of related studies in the literature, using SPS, dynamics, and gravitational lensing, similar results are found. Studies based solely on spectroscopic line diagnostics agree on a Salpeter-like IMF at high {sigma}{sub *} but differ at low {sigma}{sub *}. Overall, we find that multiple independent lines of evidence appear to be converging on a systematic variation in the IMF, such that high-{sigma}{sub *} ETGs have an excess of low-mass stars relative to spirals and low-{sigma}{sub *} ETGs. Robust verification of super-Salpeter IMFs in the highest-{sigma}{sub *} galaxies will require additional scrutiny of scatter and systematic uncertainties. The implications for the distribution of DM are still inconclusive.

  2. Merger-driven evolution of the effective stellar initial mass function of massive early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Nipoti, Carlo; Treu, Tommaso

    2017-02-01

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) of early-type galaxies is the combination of the IMF of the stellar population formed in situ and that of accreted stellar populations. Using as an observable the effective IMF αIMF, defined as the ratio between the true stellar mass of a galaxy and the stellar mass inferred assuming a Salpeter IMF, we present a theoretical model for its evolution as a result of dry mergers. We use a simple dry-merger evolution model, based on cosmological N-body simulations, together with empirically motivated prescriptions for the IMF to make predictions on how the effective IMF of massive early-type galaxies changes from z = 2 to z = 0. We find that the IMF normalization of individual galaxies becomes lighter with time. At fixed velocity dispersion, αIMF is predicted to be constant with redshift. Current dynamical constraints on the evolution of the IMF are in slight tension with this prediction, even though systematic uncertainties, including the effect of radial gradients in the IMF, prevent a conclusive statement. The correlation of αIMF with stellar mass becomes shallower with time, while the correlation between αIMF and velocity dispersion is mostly preserved by dry mergers. We also find that dry mergers can mix the dependence of the IMF on stellar mass and velocity dispersion, making it challenging to infer, from z = 0 observations of global galactic properties, what is the quantity that is originally coupled with the IMF.

  3. Constraints on galaxy formation models from the galaxy stellar mass function and its evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Luiz Felippe S.; Vernon, Ian; Bower, Richard G.

    2017-04-01

    We explore the parameter space of the semi-analytic galaxy formation model GALFORM, studying the constraints imposed by measurements of the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) and its evolution. We use the Bayesian emulator method to quickly eliminate vast implausible volumes of the parameter space and zoom in on the most interesting regions, allowing us to identify a set of models that match the observational data within model uncertainties. We find that the GSMF strongly constrains parameters related to quiescent star formation in discs, stellar and active galactic nucleus feedback and threshold for disc instabilities, but weakly restricts other parameters. Constraining the model using local data alone does not usually select models that match the evolution of the GSMF well. Nevertheless, we show that a small subset of models provides acceptable match to GSMF data out to redshift 1.5. We explore the physical significance of the parameters of these models, in particular exploring whether the model provides a better description if the mass loading of the galactic winds generated by starbursts (β0,burst) and quiescent discs (β0,disc) is different. Performing a principal component analysis of the plausible volume of the parameter space, we write a set of relations between parameters obeyed by plausible models with respect to GSMF evolution. We find that while β0,disc is strongly constrained by GSMF evolution data, constraints on β0,burst are weak. Although it is possible to find plausible models for which β0,burst = β0,disc, most plausible models have β0,burst > β0,disc, implying - for these - larger stellar feedback efficiency at higher redshifts.

  4. Habitable zones exposed: astrosphere collapse frequency as a function of stellar mass.

    PubMed

    Smith, David S; Scalo, John M

    2009-09-01

    Stellar astrospheres--the plasma cocoons carved out of the interstellar medium by stellar winds--are one of several buffers that partially screen planetary atmospheres and surfaces from high-energy radiation. Screening by astrospheres is continually influenced by the passage of stars through the fluctuating density field of the interstellar medium (ISM). The most extreme events occur inside dense interstellar clouds, where the increased pressure may compress an astrosphere to a size smaller than the liquid-water habitable-zone distance. Habitable planets then enjoy no astrospheric buffering from exposure to the full flux of galactic cosmic rays and interstellar dust and gas, a situation we call "descreening" or "astrospheric collapse." Under such conditions the ionization fraction in the atmosphere and contribution to radiation damage of putative coding organisms at the surface would increase significantly, and a series of papers have suggested a variety of global responses to descreening. These possibilities motivate a more careful calculation of the frequency of descreening events. Using a ram-pressure balance model, we compute the size of the astrosphere in the apex direction as a function of parent-star mass and velocity and ambient interstellar density, emphasizing the importance of gravitational focusing of the interstellar flow. The interstellar densities required to descreen planets in the habitable zone of solar- and subsolar-mass stars are found to be about 600(M/M[middle dot in circle])(-2) cm(-3) for the Sun's velocity relative to the local ISM. Such clouds are rare and small, indicating that descreening encounters are rare. We use statistics from two independent catalogues of dense interstellar clouds to derive a dependence of descreening frequency on the parent-star mass that decreases strongly with decreasing stellar mass, due to the weaker gravitational focusing and smaller habitable-zone distances for lower-mass stars. We estimate an uncertain

  5. ON THE TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF THE STELLAR MASS FUNCTION IN GALACTIC CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    De Marchi, Guido; Paresce, Francesco; Portegies Zwart, Simon E-mail: paresce@iasfbo.inaf.i

    2010-07-20

    We show that we can obtain a good fit to the present-day stellar mass functions (MFs) of a large sample of young and old Galactic clusters in the range 0.1-10 M{sub sun} with a tapered power-law distribution function with an exponential truncation of the form dN/dm{proportional_to}m{sup {alpha}} [1 -e{sup -}(m/m{sub c}){sup {beta}}]. The average value of the power-law index {alpha} is {approx}-2, that of {beta} is {approx}2.5, whereas the characteristic mass m{sub c} is in the range 0.1-0.8 M {sub sun} and does not seem to vary in any systematic way with the present cluster parameters such as metal abundance, total cluster mass, or central concentration. However, m{sub c} shows a remarkable correlation with the dynamical age of the cluster, namely, m{sub c} /M {sub sun} {approx_equal} 0.15 + 0.5 x {tau}{sup 3/4}{sub dyn}, where {tau}{sub dyn} is the dynamical age taken as the ratio of cluster age and dissolution time. The small scatter seen around this correlation is consistent with the uncertainties in the estimated value of {tau}{sub dyn}. We attribute the observed trend to the onset of mass segregation via two-body relaxation in a tidal environment, causing the preferential loss of low-mass stars from the cluster and hence a drift of the characteristic mass m{sub c} toward higher values. If dynamical evolution is indeed at the origin of the observed trend, it would seem plausible that high-concentration globular clusters, now with median m{sub c} {approx_equal} 0.33 M{sub sun}, were born with a stellar MF very similar to that measured today in the youngest Galactic clusters and with a value of m{sub c} {approx_equal} 0.15 M{sub sun}. This hypothesis is consistent with the absence of a turnover in the MF of the Galactic bulge down to the observational limit at {approx}0.2 M{sub sun} and, if correct, it would carry the implication that the characteristic mass is not set by the thermal Jeans mass of the cloud.

  6. PERSPECTIVES ON INTRACLUSTER ENRICHMENT AND THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION IN ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Loewenstein, Michael

    2013-08-10

    Stars formed in galaxy cluster potential wells must be responsible for the high level of enrichment measured in the intracluster medium (ICM); however, there is increasing tension between this truism and the parsimonious assumption that the stars in the generally old population studied optically in cluster galaxies emerged from the same formation sites at the same epochs. We construct a phenomenological cluster enrichment model to demonstrate that ICM elemental abundances are underestimated by a factor >2 for standard assumptions about the stellar population-a discrepancy we call the ''cluster elemental abundance paradox''. Recent evidence of an elliptical galaxy initial mass function (IMF) skewed to low masses deepens the paradox. We quantify the adjustments to the star formation efficiency and IMF, and Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) production efficiency, required to resolve this while being consistent with the observed ICM abundance pattern. The necessary enhancement in metal enrichment may, in principle, originate in the observed stellar population if a larger fraction of stars in the supernova-progenitor mass range form from an IMF that is either bottom-light or top-heavy, with the latter in some conflict with observed ICM abundance ratios. Other alternatives that imply more modest revisions to the IMF, mass return and remnant fractions, and primordial fraction, posit an increase in the fraction of 3-8 M{sub Sun} stars that explode as SNIa or assume that there are more stars than conventionally thought-although the latter implies a high star formation efficiency. We discuss the feasibility of these various solutions and the implications for the diversity of star formation in the universe, the process of elliptical galaxy formation, and the origin of this ''hidden'' source of ICM metal enrichment.

  7. The Low-mass Population in the Young Cluster Stock 8: Stellar Properties and Initial Mass Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Jessy; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Samal, Manash R.; Fang, Qiliang; Panwar, Neelam

    2017-02-01

    The evolution of H ii regions/supershells can trigger a new generation of stars/clusters at their peripheries, with environmental conditions that may affect the initial mass function, disk evolution, and star formation efficiency. In this paper we study the stellar content and star formation processes in the young cluster Stock 8, which itself is thought to be formed during the expansion of a supershell. We present deep optical photometry along with JHK and 3.6 and 4.5 μm photometry from UKIDSS and Spitzer-IRAC. We use multicolor criteria to identify the candidate young stellar objects in the region. Using evolutionary models, we obtain a median log(age) of ∼6.5 (∼3.0 Myr) with an observed age spread of ∼0.25 dex for the cluster. Monte Carlo simulations of the population of Stock 8, based on estimates for the photometric uncertainty, differential reddening, binarity, and variability, indicate that these uncertainties introduce an age spread of ∼0.15 dex. The intrinsic age spread in the cluster is ∼0.2 dex. The fraction of young stellar objects surrounded by disks is ∼35%. The K-band luminosity function of Stock 8 is similar to that of the Trapezium cluster. The initial mass function (IMF) of Stock 8 has a Salpeter-like slope at >0.5 M ⊙ and flattens and peaks at ∼0.4 M ⊙, below which it declines into the substellar regime. Although Stock 8 is surrounded by several massive stars, there seems to be no severe environmental effect in the form of the IMF due to the proximity of massive stars around the cluster.

  8. The initial mass functions of M31 and M32 through far red stellar absorption features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieleniewski, Simon; Houghton, Ryan C. W.; Thatte, Niranjan; Davies, Roger L.

    2015-09-01

    Using the Oxford Short Wavelength Integral Field specTrograph, we investigate radial variations of several initial mass function (IMF) dependent absorption features in M31 and M32. We obtain high signal-to-noise spectra at six pointings along the major axis of M31 out to ˜700 arcsec (2.7 kpc) and a single pointing of the central 10 pc for M32. In M31 the sodium Na I λ8190 index shows a flat equivalent width profile at ˜0.4 Å through the majority of the bulge, with a strong gradient up to 0.8 Å in the central 10 arcsec (38 pc); the Wing-Ford FeH λ9916 index is measured to be constant at 0.4 Å for all radii; and calcium triplet CaT λλ8498, 8542, 8662 shows a gradual increase through the bulge towards the centre. M32 displays flat profiles for all three indices, with FeH at ˜0.5 Å, very high CaT at ˜0.8 Å and low Na I at ˜0.1 Å. We analyse these data using stellar population models. We find that M31 is well described on all scales by a Chabrier IMF, with a gradient in sodium enhancement of [Na/Fe] ˜ +0.3 dex in the outer bulge, rising within the central 10 arcsec to perhaps [Na/Fe] ˜ +1.0 dex in the nuclear region. We find M32 is described by a Chabrier IMF and young stellar age in line with other studies. Models show that CaT is much more sensitive to metallicity and [α/Fe] than to IMF. We note that the centres of M31 and M32 have very high stellar densities and yet we measure Chabrier IMFs in these regions.

  9. Effects of dynamical evolution on the stellar mass function of multiple population globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesperini, Enrico

    2013-10-01

    Many observational studies have shown that globular clusters {GCs} host multiple stellar populations, challenging the standard view of GC formation, in which GCs are simple stellar populations composed of stars of uniform age and chemical composition.Theoretical models of multiple-population GC formation predict that second-generation {SG} stars form in a compact subsystem embedded in a more extended first-generation {FG} cluster. Observational studies have found that in several GCs SG stars are indeed more concentrated in the cluster inner regions and still retain memory of the initial segregation predicted by theoretical models. We propose to study the effects of dynamical evolution on the stellar mass function {MF} in multiple-population GCs. No study has previously addressed this problem in this context, taking into account the structural properties predicted by models of formation and evolution of multiple-population GCs and exploring the evolution of the SG and FG MFs. We will study the evolution of the total MF of the cluster as well as the individual MFs of the FG and SG populations. We will address a series of questions concerning the evolution of both the global MF and the local MF {measured at different distances from the cluster center}, and the relation between the present-day MF and the initial MF. We will determine how the evolution of the combined MF, and the differences between the FG and the SG MFs, can be used to explore the formation and dynamics of multiple-population GCs. As observational studies of these clusters continue to improve, our work will provide the tools needed to interpret existing data and guide future observational projects.

  10. The MLP distribution: a modified lognormal power-law model for the stellar initial mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Shantanu; Gil, M.; Auddy, Sayantan

    2015-05-01

    This work explores the mathematical properties of a distribution introduced by Basu & Jones (2004), and applies it to model the stellar initial mass function (IMF). The distribution arises simply from an initial lognormal distribution, requiring that each object in it subsequently undergoes exponential growth but with an exponential distribution of growth lifetimes. This leads to a modified lognormal with a power-law (MLP) distribution, which can in fact be applied to a wide range of fields where distributions are observed to have a lognormal-like body and a power-law tail. We derive important properties of the MLP distribution, like the cumulative distribution, the mean, variance, arbitrary raw moments, and a random number generator. These analytic properties of the distribution can be used to facilitate application to modelling the IMF. We demonstrate how the MLP function provides an excellent fit to the IMF compiled by Chabrier and how this fit can be used to quickly identify quantities like the mean, median, and mode, as well as number and mass fractions in different mass intervals.

  11. On the true shape of the upper end of the stellar initial mass function. The case of R136

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, S.; Kroupa, P.

    2012-11-01

    Context. The shape of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) of a star cluster near its upper mass limit is a focal topic of investigation as it determines the high mass stellar content and hence the dynamics of the cluster at its embedded phase as well as during its young gas-free phase. The massive stellar content of a young cluster, however, can be substantially modified due to the dynamical ejections of the massive stars so that the present-day high-mass stellar mass function (hereafter MF) can be different than that with which the cluster is born. Aims: In the present study, we provide a preliminary estimate of this evolution of the high-mass IMF of a young cluster due to early ejections of massive stars, using the Large Magellanic Cloud massive, young cluster R136 as an example. Methods: To that end, we utilize the results of the state-of-the-art calculations by Banerjee et al. (2012, ApJ, 746, 15) comprising direct N-body computations of realistic, binary-rich, mass-segregated models of R136. In particular, these calculations provide the ejection fraction of stars as a function of stellar mass. Results: We find that if the measured IMF of R136 is granted to be canonical, as observations indicate, then the "true" high-mass IMF of R136 at its birth must be at least moderately top-heavy when corrected for the dynamical escape of massive stars. Conclusions: The top-heaviness of the true high-mass IMF over the observationally determined one is a general feature of massive, young clusters where the dynamical ejection of massive stars is efficient. We discuss its implications and possible improvements over our current estimate.

  12. Deconstructing the galaxy stellar mass function with UKIDSS and CANDELS: the impact of colour, structure and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortlock, Alice; Conselice, Christopher. J.; Hartley, William G.; Duncan, Ken; Lani, Caterina; Ownsworth, Jamie R.; Almaini, Omar; Wel, Arjen van der; Huang, Kuang-Han; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Fontana, Adriano; Dekel, Avishai; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Ferguson, Harry C.; Faber, Sandra M.; Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.

    2015-02-01

    We combine photometry from the Ultra Deep Survey (UDS), Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) UDS and CANDELS the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South (GOODS-S) surveys to construct the galaxy stellar mass function probing both the low- and high-mass end accurately in the redshift range 0.3 < z < 3. The advantages of using a homogeneous concatenation of these data sets include meaningful measures of environment in the UDS, due to its large area (0.88 deg2), and the high-resolution deep imaging in CANDELS (H160 > 26.0), affording us robust measures of structural parameters. We construct stellar mass functions for the entire sample as parametrized by the Schechter function, and find that there is a decline in the values of φ and of α with higher redshifts, and a nearly constant M* up to z ˜ 3. We divide the galaxy stellar mass function by colour, structure, and environment and explore the links between environmental overdensity, morphology, and the quenching of star formation. We find that a double Schechter function describes galaxies with high Sérsic index (n > 2.5), similar to galaxies which are red or passive. The low-mass end of the n > 2.5 stellar mass function is dominated by blue galaxies, whereas the high-mass end is dominated by red galaxies. This shows that there is a possible link between morphological evolution and star formation quenching in high mass galaxies, which is not seen in lower mass systems. This in turn suggests that there are strong mass-dependent quenching mechanisms. In addition, we find that the number density of high-mass systems is elevated in dense environments, suggesting that an environmental process is building up massive galaxies quicker in over densities than in lower densities.

  13. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Variation of the Stellar Initial Mass Function in Spiral and Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongyu; Ge, Junqiang; Mao, Shude; Cappellari, Michele; Long, R. J.; Li, Ran; Emsellem, Eric; Dutton, Aaron A.; Li, Cheng; Bundy, Kevin; Thomas, Daniel; Drory, Niv; Lopes, Alexandre Roman

    2017-04-01

    We perform Jeans anisotropic modeling (JAM) on elliptical and spiral galaxies from the MaNGA DR13 sample. By comparing the stellar mass-to-light ratios estimated from stellar population synthesis and from JAM, we find a systematic variation of the initial mass function (IMF) similar to that in the earlier {{ATLAS}}3{{D}} results. Early-type galaxies (elliptical and lenticular) with lower velocity dispersions within one effective radius are consistent with a Chabrier-like IMF, while galaxies with higher velocity dispersions are consistent with a more bottom-heavy IMF such as the Salpeter IMF. Spiral galaxies have similar systematic IMF variations, but with slightly different slopes and larger scatters, due to the uncertainties caused by the higher gas fractions and extinctions for these galaxies. Furthermore, we examine the effects of stellar mass-to-light ratio gradients on our JAM modeling, and we find that the trends become stronger after considering the gradients.

  14. AN EMPIRICAL CONNECTION BETWEEN THE ULTRAVIOLET COLOR OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AND THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Gil de Paz, Armando; Bouquin, Alexandre Y. K.

    2014-01-01

    Using new UV magnitudes for a sample of early-type galaxies (ETGs) with published stellar mass-to-light ratios, Y{sub *}, we find a correlation between UV color and Y{sub *} that is tighter than those previously identified between Y{sub *} and either the central stellar velocity dispersion, metallicity, or alpha enhancement. The sense of the correlation is that galaxies with larger Y{sub *} are bluer in the UV. We conjecture that differences in the lower mass end of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) are related to the nature of the extreme horizontal branch populations that are generally responsible for the UV flux in ETGs. If so, then UV color can be used to identify ETGs with particular IMF properties and to estimate Y{sub *}.

  15. The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury. IV. A Probabilistic Approach to Inferring the High-mass Stellar Initial Mass Function and Other Power-law Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Hogg, David W.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel T.; Lang, Dustin; Johnson, L. Clifton; Beerman, Lori C.; Bell, Eric F.; Gordon, Karl D.; Gouliermis, Dimitrios; Kalirai, Jason S.; Skillman, Evan D.; Williams, Benjamin F.

    2013-01-01

    We present a probabilistic approach for inferring the parameters of the present-day power-law stellar mass function (MF) of a resolved young star cluster. This technique (1) fully exploits the information content of a given data set; (2) can account for observational uncertainties in a straightforward way; (3) assigns meaningful uncertainties to the inferred parameters; (4) avoids the pitfalls associated with binning data; and (5) can be applied to virtually any resolved young cluster, laying the groundwork for a systematic study of the high-mass stellar MF (M >~ 1 M ⊙). Using simulated clusters and Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the probability distribution functions, we show that estimates of the MF slope, α, are unbiased and that the uncertainty, Δα, depends primarily on the number of observed stars and on the range of stellar masses they span, assuming that the uncertainties on individual masses and the completeness are both well characterized. Using idealized mock data, we compute the theoretical precision, i.e., lower limits, on α, and provide an analytic approximation for Δα as a function of the observed number of stars and mass range. Comparison with literature studies shows that ~3/4 of quoted uncertainties are smaller than the theoretical lower limit. By correcting these uncertainties to the theoretical lower limits, we find that the literature studies yield langαrang = 2.46, with a 1σ dispersion of 0.35 dex. We verify that it is impossible for a power-law MF to obtain meaningful constraints on the upper mass limit of the initial mass function, beyond the lower bound of the most massive star actually observed. We show that avoiding substantial biases in the MF slope requires (1) including the MF as a prior when deriving individual stellar mass estimates, (2) modeling the uncertainties in the individual stellar masses, and (3) fully characterizing and then explicitly modeling the completeness for stars of a given mass. The precision on MF

  16. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY. IV. A PROBABILISTIC APPROACH TO INFERRING THE HIGH-MASS STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AND OTHER POWER-LAW FUNCTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Clifton Johnson, L.; Beerman, Lori C.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Hogg, David W.; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel T.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Gouliermis, Dimitrios; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Lang, Dustin; Bell, Eric F.; Gordon, Karl D.; Kalirai, Jason S.; Skillman, Evan D.

    2013-01-10

    We present a probabilistic approach for inferring the parameters of the present-day power-law stellar mass function (MF) of a resolved young star cluster. This technique (1) fully exploits the information content of a given data set; (2) can account for observational uncertainties in a straightforward way; (3) assigns meaningful uncertainties to the inferred parameters; (4) avoids the pitfalls associated with binning data; and (5) can be applied to virtually any resolved young cluster, laying the groundwork for a systematic study of the high-mass stellar MF (M {approx}> 1 M {sub Sun }). Using simulated clusters and Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the probability distribution functions, we show that estimates of the MF slope, {alpha}, are unbiased and that the uncertainty, {Delta}{alpha}, depends primarily on the number of observed stars and on the range of stellar masses they span, assuming that the uncertainties on individual masses and the completeness are both well characterized. Using idealized mock data, we compute the theoretical precision, i.e., lower limits, on {alpha}, and provide an analytic approximation for {Delta}{alpha} as a function of the observed number of stars and mass range. Comparison with literature studies shows that {approx}3/4 of quoted uncertainties are smaller than the theoretical lower limit. By correcting these uncertainties to the theoretical lower limits, we find that the literature studies yield ({alpha}) = 2.46, with a 1{sigma} dispersion of 0.35 dex. We verify that it is impossible for a power-law MF to obtain meaningful constraints on the upper mass limit of the initial mass function, beyond the lower bound of the most massive star actually observed. We show that avoiding substantial biases in the MF slope requires (1) including the MF as a prior when deriving individual stellar mass estimates, (2) modeling the uncertainties in the individual stellar masses, and (3) fully characterizing and then explicitly modeling the

  17. On the link between energy equipartition and radial variation in the stellar mass function of star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Vesperini, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    We make use of N-body simulations to determine the relationship between two observable parameters that are used to quantify mass segregation and energy equipartition in star clusters. Mass segregation can be quantified by measuring how the slope of a cluster's stellar mass function α changes with clustercentric distance r, and then calculating δ _α = d α (r)/d ln(r/r_m), where rm is the cluster's half-mass radius. The degree of energy equipartition in a cluster is quantified by η, which is a measure of how stellar velocity dispersion σ depends on stellar mass m via σ(m) ∝ m-η. Through a suite of N-body star cluster simulations with a range of initial sizes, binary fractions, orbits, black hole retention fractions, and initial mass functions, we present the co-evolution of δα and η. We find that measurements of the global η are strongly affected by the radial dependence of σ and mean stellar mass and the relationship between η and δα depends mainly on the cluster's initial conditions and the tidal field. Within rm, where these effects are minimized, we find that η and δα initially share a linear relationship. However, once the degree of mass segregation increases such that the radial dependence of σ and mean stellar mass become a factor within rm, or the cluster undergoes core collapse, the relationship breaks down. We propose a method for determining η within rm from an observational measurement of δα. In cases where η and δα can be measured independently, this new method offers a way of measuring the cluster's dynamical state.

  18. Variations of the stellar initial mass function in semi-analytical models: implications for the mass assembly and the chemical enrichment of galaxies in the GAEA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontanot, Fabio; De Lucia, Gabriella; Hirschmann, Michaela; Bruzual, Gustavo; Charlot, Stéphane; Zibetti, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the implications of the integrated galaxy-wide stellar initial mass function (IGIMF) approach in the framework of the semi-analytical model GAEA (GAlaxy Evolution and Assembly), which features a detailed treatment of chemical enrichment and stellar feedback. The IGIMF provides an analytic description of the dependence of the stellar IMF shape on the rate of star formation in galaxies. We find that our model with a universal IMF predicts a rather flat [α/Fe]-stellar mass relation. The model assuming the IGIMF, instead, is able to reproduce the observed increase of α-enhancement with stellar mass, in agreement with previous studies. This is mainly due to the fact that massive galaxies are characterized by larger star formation rates at high redshift, leading to stronger α-enhancement with respect to low-mass galaxies. At the same time, the IGIMF hypothesis does not affect significantly the trend for shorter star formation time-scales for more massive galaxies. We argue that in the IGIMF scenario the [α/Fe] ratios are good tracers of the highest star formation events. The final stellar masses and mass-to-light ratio of our model massive galaxies are larger than those estimated from the synthetic photometry assuming a universal IMF, providing a self-consistent interpretation of similar recent results, based on dynamical analysis of local early-type galaxies.

  19. VARIATIONS IN THE MASS FUNCTIONS OF CLUSTERED AND ISOLATED YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Helen; Myers, Philip C.

    2012-02-01

    We analyze high-quality, complete stellar catalogs for four young (roughly 1 Myr) and nearby (within {approx}300 pc) star-forming regions: Taurus, Lupus3, ChaI, and IC348, which have been previously shown to have stellar groups whose properties are similar to those of larger clusters such as the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). We find that stars at higher stellar surface densities within a region or belonging to groups tend to have a relative excess of more massive stars, over a wide range of masses. We find statistically significant evidence for this result in Taurus and IC348 as well as in the ONC. These differences correspond to having typically a {approx}10%-20% higher mean mass in the more clustered environment. Stars in ChaI show no evidence for a trend with either surface density or grouped status, and there are too few stars in Lupus3 to make any definitive interpretation. Models of clustered star formation do not typically extend to sufficiently low masses or small group sizes in order for their predictions to be tested, but our results suggest that this regime is important to consider.

  20. TRENDS IN MOLECULAR EMISSION FROM DIFFERENT EXTRAGALACTIC STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Banerji, M.; Viti, S.; Williams, D. A.

    2009-10-01

    Banerji et al. suggested that top-heavy stellar initial mass functions (IMFs) in galaxies may arise when the interstellar physical conditions inhibit low-mass star formation, and they determined the physical conditions under which this suppression may or may not occur. In this work, we explore the sensitivity of the chemistry of interstellar gas under a wide range of conditions. We use these results to predict the relative velocity-integrated antenna temperatures of the CO rotational spectrum for several models of high-redshift active galaxies which may produce both top-heavy and unbiased IMFs. We find that while active galaxies with solar metallicity (and top-heavy IMFs) produce higher antenna temperatures than those with subsolar metallicity (and unbiased IMFs), the actual rotational distribution is similar. The high-J to peak CO ratio however may be used to roughly infer the metallicity of a galaxy provided we know whether it is active or quiescent. The metallicity strongly influences the shape of the IMF. High-order CO transitions are also found to provide a good diagnostic for high far-UV intensity and low metallicity counterparts of Milky Way type systems both of which show some evidence for having top-heavy IMFs. We also compute the relative abundances of molecules known to be effective tracers of high-density gas in these galaxy models. We find that the molecules CO and CS may be used to distinguish between solar and subsolar metallicities in active galaxies at high redshift whereas HCN, HNC, and CN are found to be relatively insensitive to the IMF shape at the large visual magnitudes typically associated with extragalactic sources.

  1. Stellar mass and color dependence of the three-point correlation function of galaxies in the local universe

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Hong; Li, Cheng; Jing, Y. P.; Börner, Gerhard

    2014-01-10

    The three-point correlation function (3PCF) for galaxies provides an opportunity to measure the non-Gaussianity generated from nonlinear structure formation and also probes information about galaxy formation and evolution that is generally not available from the two-point correlation function (2PCF). We measure the 3PCF of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 main sample galaxies in both redshift and projected spaces on scales up to 40 h {sup –1} Mpc. We explore the dependence of the 3PCF on galaxy stellar mass and color in order to constrain the formation and evolution for galaxies of different properties. The study of the dependence on these properties also helps better constrain the relation between galaxy stellar mass and color and the properties of their hosting dark-matter halos. We focus on the study of the reduced 3PCF, Q, defined as the ratio between the 3PCF and the sum of the products of the 2PCFs. We find a very weak stellar-mass dependence of Q in both redshift and projected spaces. On small scales, more massive galaxies tend to have slightly higher amplitudes of Q. The shape dependence of Q is also weak on these small scales, regardless of stellar mass and color. The reduced 3PCF has a strong color dependence for the low-mass galaxies, while no significant dependence on color is found for the high-mass galaxies. Low-mass red galaxies have higher amplitudes and stronger shape dependence of the reduced 3PCF than the blue galaxies, implying that these low-mass red galaxies tend to populate filamentary structures. The linear galaxy bias model fails to interpret the color dependence of Q, emphasizing the importance of a nonvanishing quadratic bias parameter in the correct modeling of the galaxy color distribution.

  2. Color-magnitude relations within globular cluster systems of giant elliptical galaxies: The effects of globular cluster mass loss and the stellar initial mass function

    SciTech Connect

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik E-mail: kruijssen@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2014-01-01

    Several recent studies have provided evidence for a 'bottom-heavy' stellar initial mass function (IMF) in massive elliptical galaxies. Here we investigate the influence of the IMF shape on the recently discovered color-magnitude relation (CMR) among globular clusters (GCs) in such galaxies. To this end we use calculations of GC mass loss due to stellar and dynamical evolution to evaluate (1) the shapes of stellar mass functions in GCs after 12 Gyr of evolution as a function of current GC mass along with their effects on integrated-light colors and mass-to-light ratios, and (2) their impact on the effects of GC self-enrichment using the 2009 'reference' model of Bailin and Harris. As to the class of metal-poor GCs, we find the observed shape of the CMR (often referred to as the 'blue tilt') to be very well reproduced by Bailin and Harris's reference self-enrichment model once 12 Gyr of GC mass loss is taken into account. The influence of the IMF on this result is found to be insignificant. However, we find that the observed CMR among the class of metal-rich GCs (the 'red tilt') can only be adequately reproduced if the IMF was bottom-heavy (–3.0 ≲ α ≲ –2.3 in dN/dM∝M{sup α}), which causes the stellar mass function at subsolar masses to depend relatively strongly on GC mass. This constitutes additional evidence that the metal-rich stellar populations in giant elliptical galaxies were formed with a bottom-heavy IMF.

  3. The local stellar luminosity function and mass-to-light ratio in the near-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, A.; Fuchs, B.; Jahreiß, H.; Flynn, C.; Dettbarn, C.; Rybizki, J.

    2015-07-01

    A new sample of stars, representative of the solar neighbourhood luminosity function (LF), is constructed from the Hipparcos catalogue and the Fifth Catalogue of Nearby Stars. We have cross-matched to sources in the Two Micron All Sky Survey catalogue so that for all stars individually determined near-infrared (NIR) photometry is available on a homogeneous system (typically Ks). The spatial completeness of the sample has been carefully determined by statistical methods, and the NIR LF of the stars has been derived by direct star counts. We find a local volume luminosity of 0.121 ± 0.004 LK⊙ pc-3, corresponding to a volumetric mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of M/L_K = 0.31 ± 0.02 {M}_{⊙}/L_{K⊙}, where giants contribute 80 per cent to the light but less than 2 per cent to the stellar mass. We derive the surface brightness of the solar cylinder with the help of a vertical disc model. We find a surface brightness of 99 LK⊙ pc-2 with an uncertainty of approximately 10 per cent. This corresponds to an M/L for the solar cylinder of M/L_K = 0.34 {M}_{⊙}/L_{K⊙}. The M/L for the solar cylinder is only 10 per cent larger than the local value despite the fact that the local population has a much larger contribution of young stars. It turns out that the effective scaleheights of the lower main sequence carrying most of the mass is similar to that of the giants, which are dominating the NIR light. The corresponding colour for the solar cylinder is V - K = 2.89 mag compared to the local value of V - K = 2.46 mag. An extrapolation of the local surface brightness to the whole Milky Way yields a total luminosity of MK = -24.2 mag. The Milky Way falls in the range of K band Tully-Fisher relations from the literature.

  4. Dead, Undead, and Zombie Zones in Protostellar Disks as a Function of Stellar Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Ercolano, Barbara; Turner, Neal J.

    2013-02-01

    We investigate the viability of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in X-ray ionized viscous accretion disks around both solar-type stars and very low mass stars. In particular, we determine the disk regions where the MRI can be shut off either by Ohmic resistivity (the so-called dead and undead zones) or by ambipolar diffusion (a region we term the zombie zone). We consider two stellar masses: M * = 0.7 M ⊙ and 0.1 M ⊙. In each case, we assume that: the disk surface density profile is that of a scaled Minimum Mass Solar Nebula, with M disk/M * = 0.01 as suggested by current data; disk ionization is driven primarily by stellar X-rays, complemented by cosmic rays and radionuclides; and the stellar X-ray luminosity scales with bolometric luminosity as LX /L * ≈ 10-3.5, as observed. Ionization rates are calculated with the MOCCASIN Monte Carlo X-ray transport code, and ionization balance determined using a simplified chemical network, including well-mixed 0.1 μm grains at various levels of depletion. We find that (1) ambipolar diffusion is the primary factor controlling MRI activity in disks around both solar-type and very low mass classical T Tauri stars. Assuming that the MRI yields the maximum possible field strength at each radius, we further find that: (2) the MRI-active layer constitutes only ~5%-10% of the total disk mass; (3) the accretion rate (\\dot{M}) varies radially in both magnitude and sign (inward or outward), implying time-variable accretion as well as the creation of disk gaps and overdensities, with consequences for planet formation and migration; (4) achieving the empirical accretion rates in solar-type and very low mass stars requires a depletion of well-mixed small grains (via grain growth and/or settling) by a factor of 10-1000 relative to the standard dust-to-gas mass ratio of 10-2 and (5) the current non-detection of polarized emission from field-aligned grains in the outer disk regions is consistent with active MRI at those radii.

  5. DEAD, UNDEAD, AND ZOMBIE ZONES IN PROTOSTELLAR DISKS AS A FUNCTION OF STELLAR MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Ercolano, Barbara; Turner, Neal J. E-mail: ercolano@usm.lmu.de

    2013-02-10

    We investigate the viability of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in X-ray ionized viscous accretion disks around both solar-type stars and very low mass stars. In particular, we determine the disk regions where the MRI can be shut off either by Ohmic resistivity (the so-called dead and undead zones) or by ambipolar diffusion (a region we term the zombie zone). We consider two stellar masses: M {sub *} = 0.7 M {sub Sun} and 0.1 M {sub Sun }. In each case, we assume that: the disk surface density profile is that of a scaled Minimum Mass Solar Nebula, with M {sub disk}/M {sub *} = 0.01 as suggested by current data; disk ionization is driven primarily by stellar X-rays, complemented by cosmic rays and radionuclides; and the stellar X-ray luminosity scales with bolometric luminosity as L{sub X} /L {sub *} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -3.5}, as observed. Ionization rates are calculated with the MOCCASIN Monte Carlo X-ray transport code, and ionization balance determined using a simplified chemical network, including well-mixed 0.1 {mu}m grains at various levels of depletion. We find that (1) ambipolar diffusion is the primary factor controlling MRI activity in disks around both solar-type and very low mass classical T Tauri stars. Assuming that the MRI yields the maximum possible field strength at each radius, we further find that: (2) the MRI-active layer constitutes only {approx}5%-10% of the total disk mass; (3) the accretion rate ( M-dot ) varies radially in both magnitude and sign (inward or outward), implying time-variable accretion as well as the creation of disk gaps and overdensities, with consequences for planet formation and migration; (4) achieving the empirical accretion rates in solar-type and very low mass stars requires a depletion of well-mixed small grains (via grain growth and/or settling) by a factor of 10-1000 relative to the standard dust-to-gas mass ratio of 10{sup -2}; and (5) the current non-detection of polarized emission from field

  6. Reconstructing the galaxy density field with photometric redshifts. I. Methodology and validation on stellar mass functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malavasi, N.; Pozzetti, L.; Cucciati, O.; Bardelli, S.; Cimatti, A.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Measuring environment for large numbers of galaxies in the distant Universe is an open problem in astrophysics, as environment is important in determining many properties of galaxies during their formation and evolution. In order to measure galaxy environments, we need galaxy positions and redshifts. Photometric redshifts are more easily available for large numbers of galaxies, but at the price of larger uncertainties than spectroscopic redshifts. Aims: We study how photometric redshifts affect the measurement of galaxy environment and how the reconstruction of the density field may limit an analysis of the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) in different environments. Methods: Through the use of mock galaxy catalogues, we measured galaxy environment with a fixed aperture method, using each galaxy's true and photometric redshifts. We varied the parameters defining the fixed aperture volume and explored different configurations. We also used photometric redshifts with different uncertainties to simulate the case of various surveys. We then computed GSMF of the mock galaxy catalogues as a function of redshift and environment to see how the environmental estimate based on photometric redshifts affects their analysis. Results: We found that the most extreme environments can be reconstructed in a fairly accurate way only when using high-precision photometric redshifts with σΔz/ (1 + z) ≲ 0.01, with a fraction ≥ 60 ÷ 80% of galaxies placed in the correct density quartile and a contamination of ≤10% by opposite quartile interlopers. A length of the volume in the radial direction comparable to the ±1.5σ error of photometric redshifts and a fixed aperture radius of a size similar to the physical scale of the studied environment grant a better reconstruction than other volume configurations. When using this kind of an estimate of the density field, we found that any difference between the starting GSMF (divided accordingly to the true galaxy environment

  7. THE EVOLUTION OF THE STELLAR MASS FUNCTION OF GALAXIES FROM z = 4.0 AND THE FIRST COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF ITS UNCERTAINTIES: EVIDENCE FOR MASS-DEPENDENT EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Marchesini, Danilo; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Franx, Marijn; Labbe, Ivo; Wuyts, Stijn

    2009-08-20

    We present the evolution of the stellar mass function (SMF) of galaxies from z = 4.0 to z = 1.3 measured from a sample constructed from the deep near-infrared Multi-wavelength Survey by Yale-Chile, the Faint Infrared Extragalactic Survey, and the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-Chandra Deep Field South surveys, all having very high-quality optical to mid-infrared data. This sample, unique in that it combines data from surveys with a large range of depths and areas in a self-consistent way, allowed us to (1) minimize the uncertainty due to cosmic variance and empirically quantify its contribution to the total error budget; (2) simultaneously probe the high-mass end and the low-mass end (down to {approx}0.05 times the characteristic stellar mass) of the SMF with good statistics; and (3) empirically derive the redshift-dependent completeness limits in stellar mass. We provide, for the first time, a comprehensive analysis of random and systematic uncertainties affecting the derived SMFs, including the effect of metallicity, extinction law, stellar population synthesis model, and initial mass function. We find that the mass density evolves by a factor of {approx}17{sup +7}{sub -10} since z = 4.0, mostly driven by a change in the normalization {phi}*. If only random errors are taken into account, we find evidence for mass-dependent evolution, with the low-mass end evolving more rapidly than the high-mass end. However, we show that this result is no longer robust when systematic uncertainties due to the SED-modeling assumptions are taken into account. Another significant uncertainty is the contribution to the overall stellar mass density of galaxies below our mass limit; future studies with WFC3 will provide better constraints on the SMF at masses below 10{sup 10} M{sub sun} at z>2. Taking our results at face value, we find that they are in conflict with semianalytic models of galaxy formation. The models predict SMFs that are in general too steep, with too many

  8. THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION OF ULTRA-FAINT DWARF GALAXIES: EVIDENCE FOR IMF VARIATIONS WITH GALACTIC ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Geha, Marla; Brown, Thomas M.; Tumlinson, Jason; Kalirai, Jason S.; Avila, Roberto J.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Simon, Joshua D.; Kirby, Evan N.; VandenBerg, Don A.; Munoz, Ricardo R.; Guhathakurta, Puragra E-mail: tbrown@stsci.edu

    2013-07-01

    We present constraints on the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in two ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies, Hercules and Leo IV, based on deep Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging. The Hercules and Leo IV galaxies are extremely low luminosity (M{sub V} = -6.2, -5.5), metal-poor (([Fe/H]) = -2.4, -2.5) systems that have old stellar populations (>11 Gyr). Because they have long relaxation times, we can directly measure the low-mass stellar IMF by counting stars below the main-sequence turnoff without correcting for dynamical evolution. Over the stellar mass range probed by our data, 0.52-0.77 M{sub Sun }, the IMF is best fit by a power-law slope of {alpha}= 1.2{sub -0.5}{sup +0.4} for Hercules and {alpha} = 1.3 {+-} 0.8 for Leo IV. For Hercules, the IMF slope is more shallow than a Salpeter ({alpha} = 2.35) IMF at the 5.8{sigma} level, and a Kroupa ({alpha} = 2.3 above 0.5 M{sub Sun }) IMF slope at 5.4{sigma} level. We simultaneously fit for the binary fraction, f{sub binary}, finding f{sub binary}= 0.47{sup +0.16}{sub -0.14} for Hercules, and 0.47{sup +0.37}{sub -0.17} for Leo IV. The UFD binary fractions are consistent with that inferred for Milky Way stars in the same mass range, despite very different metallicities. In contrast, the IMF slopes in the UFDs are shallower than other galactic environments. In the mass range 0.5-0.8 M{sub Sun }, we see a trend across the handful of galaxies with directly measured IMFs such that the power-law slopes become shallower (more bottom-light) with decreasing galactic velocity dispersion and metallicity. This trend is qualitatively consistent with results in elliptical galaxies inferred via indirect methods and is direct evidence for IMF variations with galactic environment.

  9. Mass functions for globular cluster main sequences based on CCD photometry and stellar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure, Robert D.; Vandenberg, Don A.; Smith, Graeme H.; Fahlman, Gregory G.; Richer, Harvey B.; Hesser, James E.; Harris, William E.; Stetson, Peter B.; Bell, R. A.

    1986-08-01

    Main-sequence luminosity functions constructed from CCD observations of globular clusters reveal a strong trend in slope with metal abundance. Theoretical luminosity functions constructed from VandenBerg and Bell's (1985) isochrones have been fitted to the observations and reveal a trend between x, the power-law index of the mass function, and metal abundance. The most metal-poor clusters require an index of about x = 2.5, whereas the most metal-rich clusters exhibit an index of x of roughly -0.5. The luminosity functions for two sparse clusters, E3 and Pal 5, are distinct from those of the more massive clusters, in that they show a turndown which is possibly a result of mass loss or tidal disruption.

  10. Shaping the Globular Cluster Mass Function by Stellar-Dynamical Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Dean E.; Fall, S. Michael

    2008-06-01

    We show that the globular cluster mass function (GCMF) in the Milky Way depends on cluster half-mass density, ρh, in the sense that the turnover mass MTO increases with ρh while the width of the GCMF decreases. We argue that this is the expected signature of the slow erosion of a mass function that initially rose toward low masses, predominantly through cluster evaporation driven by internal two-body relaxation. We find excellent agreement between the observed GCMF—including its dependence on internal density ρh, central concentration c, and Galactocentric distance rgc—and a simple model in which the relaxation-driven mass-loss rates of clusters are approximated by -dM/dt = μev propto ρh1/2. In particular, we recover the well-known insensitivity of MTO to rgc. This feature does not derive from a literal ``universality'' of the GCMF turnover mass, but rather from a significant variation of MTO with ρh—the expected outcome of relaxation-driven cluster disruption—plus significant scatter in ρh as a function of rgc. Our conclusions are the same if the evaporation rates are assumed to depend instead on the mean volume or surface densities of clusters inside their tidal radii, as μev propto ρt1/2 or μev propto Σt3/4—alternative prescriptions that are physically motivated but involve cluster properties (ρt and Σt) that are not as well defined or as readily observable as ρh. In all cases the normalization of μev required to fit the GCMF implies cluster lifetimes that are within the range of standard values (although falling toward the low end of this range). Our analysis does not depend on any assumptions or information about velocity anisotropy in the globular cluster system.

  11. The Stellar Initial Mass Function in Early-type Galaxies from Absorption Line Spectroscopy. I. Data and Empirical Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Conroy, Charlie

    2012-11-01

    The strength of gravity-sensitive absorption lines in the integrated light of old stellar populations is one of the few direct probes of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) outside of the Milky Way. Owing to the advent of fully depleted CCDs with little or no fringing it has recently become possible to obtain accurate measurements of these features. Here, we present spectra covering the wavelength ranges 0.35-0.55 μm and 0.72-1.03 μm for the bulge of M31 and 34 early-type galaxies from the SAURON sample, obtained with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer on Keck. The signal-to-noise ratio is >~ 200 Å-1 out to 1 μm, which is sufficient to measure gravity-sensitive features for individual galaxies and to determine how they depend on other properties of the galaxies. Combining the new data with previously obtained spectra for globular clusters in M31 and the most massive elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster, we find that the dwarf-sensitive Na I λ8183, 8195 doublet and the FeH λ9916 Wing-Ford band increase systematically with velocity dispersion, while the giant-sensitive Ca II λ8498, 8542, 8662 triplet decreases with dispersion. These trends are consistent with a varying IMF, such that galaxies with deeper potential wells have more dwarf-enriched mass functions. In a companion paper, we use a comprehensive stellar population synthesis model to demonstrate that IMF effects can be separated from age and abundance variations and quantify the IMF variation among early-type galaxies.

  12. THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM ABSORPTION LINE SPECTROSCOPY. I. DATA AND EMPIRICAL TRENDS

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Conroy, Charlie

    2012-11-20

    The strength of gravity-sensitive absorption lines in the integrated light of old stellar populations is one of the few direct probes of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) outside of the Milky Way. Owing to the advent of fully depleted CCDs with little or no fringing it has recently become possible to obtain accurate measurements of these features. Here, we present spectra covering the wavelength ranges 0.35-0.55 {mu}m and 0.72-1.03 {mu}m for the bulge of M31 and 34 early-type galaxies from the SAURON sample, obtained with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer on Keck. The signal-to-noise ratio is {approx}> 200 A{sup -1} out to 1 {mu}m, which is sufficient to measure gravity-sensitive features for individual galaxies and to determine how they depend on other properties of the galaxies. Combining the new data with previously obtained spectra for globular clusters in M31 and the most massive elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster, we find that the dwarf-sensitive Na I {lambda}8183, 8195 doublet and the FeH {lambda}9916 Wing-Ford band increase systematically with velocity dispersion, while the giant-sensitive Ca II {lambda}8498, 8542, 8662 triplet decreases with dispersion. These trends are consistent with a varying IMF, such that galaxies with deeper potential wells have more dwarf-enriched mass functions. In a companion paper, we use a comprehensive stellar population synthesis model to demonstrate that IMF effects can be separated from age and abundance variations and quantify the IMF variation among early-type galaxies.

  13. Galaxy bimodality versus stellar mass and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldry, I. K.; Balogh, M. L.; Bower, R. G.; Glazebrook, K.; Nichol, R. C.; Bamford, S. P.; Budavari, T.

    2006-12-01

    We analyse a z < 0.1 galaxy sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey focusing on the variation in the galaxy colour bimodality with stellar mass and projected neighbour density Σ, and on measurements of the galaxy stellar mass functions. The characteristic mass increases with environmental density from about 1010.6 to (Kroupa initial mass function, H0 = 70) for Σ in the range 0.1-10Mpc-2. The galaxy population naturally divides into a red and blue sequence with the locus of the sequences in colour-mass and colour-concentration indices not varying strongly with environment. The fraction of galaxies on the red sequence is determined in bins of 0.2 in logΣ and bins). The red fraction fr generally increases continuously in both Σ and such that there is a unified relation: . Two simple functions are proposed which provide good fits to the data. These data are compared with analogous quantities in semi-analytical models based on the Millennium N-body simulation: the Bower et al. and Croton et al. models that incorporate active galactic nucleus feedback. Both models predict a strong dependence of the red fraction on stellar mass and environment that is qualitatively similar to the observations. However, a quantitative comparison shows that the Bower et al. model is a significantly better match; this appears to be due to the different treatment of feedback in central galaxies.

  14. Dark halo response and the stellar initial mass function in early-type and late-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, Aaron A.; Conroy, Charlie; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Simard, Luc; Mendel, J. Trevor; Courteau, Stéphane; Dekel, Avishai; More, Surhud; Prada, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the origin of the relations between stellar mass and optical circular velocity for early-type galaxies (ETGs) and late-type galaxies (LTGs) - the Faber-Jackson (FJ) and Tully-Fisher (TF) relations. We combine measurements of dark halo masses (from satellite kinematics and weak lensing), and the distribution of baryons in galaxies (from a new compilation of galaxy scaling relations), with constraints on dark halo structure from cosmological simulations. The principal unknowns are the halo response to galaxy formation and the stellar initial mass function (IMF). The slopes of the TF and FJ relations are naturally reproduced for a wide range of halo response and IMFs. However, models with a universal IMF and universal halo response cannot simultaneously reproduce the zero-points of both the TF and FJ relations. For a model with a universal Chabrier IMF, LTGs require halo expansion, while ETGs require halo contraction. A Salpeter IMF is permitted for high-mass (σ≳ 180 km s-1) ETGs, but is inconsistent for intermediate masses, unless Vcirc(Re)/σe≳ 1.6. If the IMF is universal and close to Chabrier, we speculate that the presence of a major merger may be responsible for the contraction in ETGs while clumpy accreting streams and/or feedback leads to expansion in LTGs. Alternatively, a recently proposed variation in the IMF disfavours halo contraction in both types of galaxies. Finally we show that our models naturally reproduce flat and featureless circular velocity profiles within the optical regions of galaxies without fine-tuning.

  15. The Evolution of the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function at z = 4-8: A Steepening Low-mass-end Slope with Increasing Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Mimi; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Grazian, A.; Lu, Yu; Papovich, Casey; Salmon, Brett; Somerville, Rachel S.; Dickinson, Mark; Duncan, K.; Faber, Sandy M.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Fontana, Adriano; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish; Lee, Seong-Kook; Merlin, Emiliano; Willner, S. P.

    2016-07-01

    We present galaxy stellar mass functions (GSMFs) at z = 4-8 from a rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) selected sample of ˜4500 galaxies, found via photometric redshifts over an area of ˜280 arcmin2 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS)/Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) fields and the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The deepest Spitzer/IRAC data to date and the relatively large volume allow us to place a better constraint at both the low- and high-mass ends of the GSMFs compared to previous space-based studies from pre-CANDELS observations. Supplemented by a stacking analysis, we find a linear correlation between the rest-frame UV absolute magnitude at 1500 Å ({M}{{UV}}) and logarithmic stellar mass ({log}{M}* ) that holds for galaxies with {log}({M}* /{M}⊙ )≲ 10. We use simulations to validate our method of measuring the slope of the {log}{M}* -M UV relation, finding that the bias is minimized with a hybrid technique combining photometry of individual bright galaxies with stacked photometry for faint galaxies. The resultant measured slopes do not significantly evolve over z = 4-8, while the normalization of the trend exhibits a weak evolution toward lower masses at higher redshift. We combine the {log}{M}* -M UV distribution with observed rest-frame UV luminosity functions at each redshift to derive the GSMFs, finding that the low-mass-end slope becomes steeper with increasing redshift from α =-{1.55}-0.07+0.08 at z = 4 to α =-{2.25}-0.35+0.72 at z = 8. The inferred stellar mass density, when integrated over {M}* ={10}8-1013 M ⊙, increases by a factor of {10}-2+30 between z = 7 and z = 4 and is in good agreement with the time integral of the cosmic star formation rate density.

  16. The luminosity and stellar mass functions of red W1-W2 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, J. A.; Rosenberg, J. L.; Satyapal, S.; Secrest, N. J.

    2016-11-01

    We present a study of nearby galaxies as a function of their [3.4]-[4.6] colour. Galaxies that are red in their [3.4]-[4.6] colour contain heated dust and the reddest systems ([3.4]-[4.6] > 0.5) are classified as active galactic nuclei (AGN) by some selection criteria. The sample discussed here includes nearby galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) that are also in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) catalogue. We calculate the number density of galaxies, in the form of the luminosity and mass functions, using the V/Vmax method and a stepwise maximum likelihood method that has been modified to account for the additional colour selection. The reddest galaxies which have [3.4]-[4.6] > 0.8 and are sometimes classified as AGN by their colour make up 0.2 per cent of nearby galaxies. However, the reddest galaxies are a rising fraction of the low-mass galaxy population. Identifying the lowest mass (M < 108 M⊙) red ([3.4]-[4.6] > 0.8) galaxies as AGN is surprising given that none are optical AGN or composites, in contrast with their more massive (M > 1010 M⊙) red galaxy counterparts that are dominated by optical AGN and composites (86.4 per cent). We also show that these low-mass red galaxies are associated with higher specific star formation rates than their bluer counterparts. While the properties of this relatively rare segment of nearby low-mass galaxies are intriguing, particularly if they are associated with AGN activity, there is not yet enough evidence to determine whether it is AGN or unusual star formation that is driving red colours in these systems.

  17. The role of interstellar filaments in the origin of the stellar initial mass function: Insights from Herschel observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Philippe; Könyves, Vera; Roy, Arabindo; Arzoumanian, Doris

    The origin of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is one of the most debated issues in astrophysics. Two major features of the IMF are 1) a fairly robust power-law slope at the high-mass end (Salpeter 1955), and 2) a broad peak around ~ 0.3 M ⊙ corresponding to a characteristic stellar mass scale (cf. Elmegreen et al. 2008). In recent years, the dominant theoretical model proposed to account for these features has been the ``gravo-turbulent fragmentation'' picture (e.g., Hennebelle & Chabrier 2008; Hopkins 2012) whereby the properties of interstellar turbulence lead to the Salpeter power law and gravity sets the characteristic mass scale (Jeans mass). We discuss modifications to this picture based on extensive submillimeter continuum imaging observations of nearby molecular clouds with the Herschel Space Observatory which emphasize the importance of filamentary geometry (André et al. 2010; Könyves et al. 2015). The Herschel results point to the key role of the quasi-universal filamentary structure pervading the cold interstellar medium and support a scenario in which star formation occurs in two main steps (cf. André et al. 2014): first, the dissipation of kinetic energy in large-scale turbulent MHD flows generates ~ 0.1 pc-wide filaments (Arzoumanian et al. 2011) in the cold ISM; second, the densest filaments grow and fragment into prestellar cores (and ultimately protostars) by gravitational instability above a critical threshold ~ 16 M ⊙/pc in mass per unit length or ~ 160 M ⊙/pc2 in gas surface density (A V ~ 8). In our observationally-driven scenario, the dense cores making up the peak of the prestellar core mass function (CMF) - likely responsible for the peak of the IMF - result from gravitational fragmentation of filaments near the critical threshold for global gravitational instability. The power-law tail of the CMF/IMF arises from the growth of the Kolmogorov-like power spectrum of initial density fluctuations [P(k) ~ k -1.6+/-0.3] measured

  18. Towards a Complete Study of the Initial Mass Function and Early Kinematics Evolution of the 25 Orionis Stellar Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, G.; Román-Zúñiga, C.; Downes, J. J.

    2017-07-01

    We present the advances of an ongoing project to construct the photometric and spectroscopic system-IMF of the 25 Orionis stellar group with a statistically complete sample across the whole mass range of the group (0.01mass members.

  19. KINETyS: constraining spatial variations of the stellar initial mass function in early-type galaxies★

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alton, Padraig D.; Smith, Russell J.; Lucey, John R.

    2017-06-01

    The heavyweight stellar initial mass function (IMF) observed in the cores of massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) has been linked to formation of their cores in an initial swiftly quenched rapid starburst. However, the outskirts of ETGs are thought to be assembled via the slow accumulation of smaller systems in which the star formation is less extreme; this suggests that the form of the IMF should exhibit a radial trend in ETGs. Here, we report radial stellar population gradients out to the half-light radii of a sample of eight nearby ETGs. Spatially resolved spectroscopy at 0.8-1.35 μm from the Very Large Telescope's K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph instrument was used to measure radial trends in the strengths of a variety of IMF-sensitive absorption features (including some which are previously unexplored). We find weak or no radial variation in some of these which, given a radial IMF trend, ought to vary measurably, e.g. for the Wing-Ford band, we measure a gradient of +0.06 ± 0.04 per decade in radius. Using stellar population models to fit stacked and individual spectra, we infer that the measured radial changes in absorption feature strengths are primarily accounted for by abundance gradients, which are fairly consistent across our sample (e.g. we derive an average [Na/H] gradient of -0.53 ± 0.07). The inferred contribution of dwarf stars to the total light typically corresponds to a bottom-heavy IMF, but we find no evidence for radial IMF variations in the majority of our sample galaxies.

  20. The Stellar Initial Mass Function in Early-type Galaxies from Absorption Line Spectroscopy. III. Radial Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Conroy, Charlie; Villaume, Alexa; Brodie, Jean; Romanowsky, Aaron J.

    2017-06-01

    There is good evidence that the centers of massive early-type galaxies have a bottom-heavy stellar initial mass function (IMF) compared to that of the Milky Way. Here we study the radial variation of the IMF within such galaxies, using a combination of high-quality Keck spectroscopy and a new suite of stellar population synthesis models that cover a wide range in metallicity. As in the previous studies in this series, the models are fitted directly to the spectra and treat all elemental abundance ratios as free parameters. Using newly obtained spectroscopy for six galaxies, including deep data extending to ˜ 1{R}{{e}} for the galaxies NGC 1407, NGC 1600, and NGC 2695, we find that the IMF varies strongly with galactocentric radius. For all six galaxies the IMF is bottom-heavy in the central regions, with average mass-to-light ratio “mismatch” parameter α \\equiv {({\\text{}}M/L)/({\\text{}}M/L)}{MW}≈ 2.5 at R = 0. The IMF rapidly becomes more bottom-light with increasing radius, flattening off near the Milky Way value (α ≈ 1.1) at R> 0.4{R}{{e}}. A consequence is that the luminosity-weighted average IMF depends on the measurement aperture: within R={R}{{e}} we find < α {> }L=1.3{--}1.5, consistent with recent lensing and dynamical results from SLACS and {{ATLAS}}3{{D}}. Our results are also consistent with several earlier studies that were based on analyses of radial gradients of line indices. The observed IMF gradients support galaxy formation models in which the central regions of massive galaxies had a different formation history than their outer parts. Finally, we make use of the high signal-to-noise central spectra of NGC 1407 and NGC 2695 to demonstrate how we can disentangle IMF effects and abundance effects.

  1. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the galaxy stellar mass function to z = 0.1 from the r-band selected equatorial regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, A. H.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Driver, S. P.; Alpaslan, M.; Andrews, S. K.; Baldry, I. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Colless, M.; da Cunha, E.; Davies, L. J. M.; Graham, Alister W.; Holwerda, B. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Kafle, P. R.; Kelvin, L. S.; Loveday, J.; Maddox, S. J.; Meyer, M. J.; Moffett, A. J.; Norberg, P.; Phillipps, S.; Rowlands, K.; Taylor, E. N.; Wang, L.; Wilkins, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    We derive the low-redshift galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF), inclusive of dust corrections, for the equatorial Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) data set covering 180 deg2. We construct the mass function using a density-corrected maximum volume method, using masses corrected for the impact of optically thick and thin dust. We explore the galactic bivariate brightness plane (M⋆-μ), demonstrating that surface brightness effects do not systematically bias our mass function measurement above 107.5 M⊙. The galaxy distribution in the M-μ plane appears well bounded, indicating that no substantial population of massive but diffuse or highly compact galaxies are systematically missed due to the GAMA selection criteria. The GSMF is fitted with a double Schechter function, with M^\\star =10^{10.78± 0.01± 0.20} M_{⊙}, φ ^\\star _1=(2.93± 0.40)× 10^{-3} h_{70}^3 Mpc-3, α1 = -0.62 ± 0.03 ± 0.15, φ ^\\star _2=(0.63± 0.10)× 10^{-3} h_{70}^3 Mpc-3 and α2 = -1.50 ± 0.01 ± 0.15. We find the equivalent faint end slope as previously estimated using the GAMA-I sample, although we find a higher value of M^\\star. Using the full GAMA-II sample, we are able to fit the mass function to masses as low as 107.5 M⊙, and assess limits to 106.5 M⊙. Combining GAMA-II with data from G10-COSMOS, we are able to comment qualitatively on the shape of the GSMF down to masses as low as 106 M⊙. Beyond the well-known upturn seen in the GSMF at 109.5, the distribution appears to maintain a single power-law slope from 109 to 106.5. We calculate the stellar mass density parameter given our best-estimate GSMF, finding Ω _\\star = 1.66^{+0.24}_{-0.23}± 0.97 h^{-1}_{70} × 10^{-3}, inclusive of random and systematic uncertainties.

  2. The Correlation between Halo Mass and Stellar Mass for the Most Massive Galaxies in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinker, Jeremy L.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Guo, Hong; Leauthaud, Alexie; Maraston, Claudia; Masters, Karen; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Thomas, Daniel; Tojeiro, Rita; Weiner, Benjamin; Zehavi, Idit; Olmstead, Matthew D.

    2017-04-01

    We present measurements of the clustering of galaxies as a function of their stellar mass in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We compare the clustering of samples using 12 different methods for estimating stellar mass, isolating the method that has the smallest scatter at fixed halo mass. In this test, the stellar mass estimate with the smallest errors yields the highest amplitude of clustering at fixed number density. We find that the PCA stellar masses of Chen et al. clearly have the tightest correlation with halo mass. The PCA masses use the full galaxy spectrum, differentiating them from other estimates that only use optical photometric information. Using the PCA masses, we measure the large-scale bias as a function of {M}* for galaxies with {log}{M}* ≥slant 11.4, correcting for incompleteness at the low-mass end of our measurements. Using the abundance matching ansatz to connect dark matter halo mass to stellar mass, we construct theoretical models of b({M}* ) that match the same stellar mass function but have different amounts of scatter in stellar mass at fixed halo mass, {σ }{logM* }. Using this approach, we find {σ }{logM* }={0.18}-0.02+0.01. This value includes both intrinsic scatter as well as random errors in the stellar masses. To partially remove the latter, we use repeated spectra to estimate statistical errors on the stellar masses, yielding an upper limit to the intrinsic scatter of 0.16 dex.

  3. Evidence for a non-universal stellar initial mass function in low-redshift high-density early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, Aaron A.; Mendel, J. Trevor; Simard, Luc

    2012-05-01

    We determine an absolute calibration of stellar mass-to-light ratios for the densest ≃3 per cent of early-type galaxies in the local Universe (redshift z≃ 0.08) from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. This sample of ˜4000 galaxies has, assuming a Chabrier initial mass function (IMF), effective stellar surface densities Σe > 2500 M⊙ pc-2, stellar population synthesis (SPS) stellar masses log10(MSPS/M⊙) < 10.8 and aperture velocity dispersions of ? (68 per cent range). In contrast to typical early-type galaxies, we show that these dense early-type galaxies follow the virial Fundamental Plane, which suggests that mass follows light. With the additional assumption that any dark matter does not follow the light, the dynamical masses of dense galaxies provide a direct measurement of stellar masses. Our dynamical masses (Mdyn), obtained from the spherical Jeans equations, are only weakly sensitive to the choice of anisotropy (β) due to the relatively large aperture of the SDSS fibre for these galaxies: Rap≃ 1.5Re. Assuming isotropic orbits (β= 0), we find a median log10(Mdyn/MSPS) = 0.233 ± 0.003, consistent with a Salpeter IMF, while more bottom-heavy IMFs and standard Milky Way IMFs are strongly disfavoured. Our results are consistent with, but do not require, a dependence of the IMF on dynamical mass or velocity dispersion. We find evidence for a colour dependence to the IMF such that redder galaxies have heavier IMFs with Mdyn/MSPS∝ (g-r)1.13 ± 0.09. This may reflect a more fundamental dependence of the IMF on the age or metallicity of a stellar population, or the density at which the stars formed.

  4. Estimates of the Planet Yield from Ground-based High-contrast Imaging Observations as a Function of Stellar Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crepp, Justin R.; Johnson, John Asher

    2011-06-01

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the number of extrasolar planets that are directly detectable in the solar neighborhood using current and forthcoming high-contrast imaging instruments. Our calculations take into consideration the important factors that govern the likelihood for imaging a planet, including the statistical properties of stars in the solar neighborhood, correlations between star and planet properties, observational effects, and selection criteria. We consider several different ground-based surveys, both biased and unbiased, and express the resulting planet yields as a function of stellar mass. Selecting targets based on their youth and visual brightness, we find that strong correlations between star mass and planet properties are required to reproduce high-contrast imaging results to date (i.e., HR 8799, β Pic). Using the most recent empirical findings for the occurrence rate of gas-giant planets from radial velocity (RV) surveys, our simulations indicate that naive extrapolation of the Doppler planet population to semimajor axes accessible to high-contrast instruments provides an excellent agreement between simulations and observations using present-day contrast levels. In addition to being intrinsically young and sufficiently bright to serve as their own beacon for adaptive optics correction, A-stars have a high planet occurrence rate and propensity to form massive planets in wide orbits, making them ideal targets. The same effects responsible for creating a multitude of detectable planets around massive stars conspire to reduce the number orbiting low-mass stars. However, in the case of a young stellar cluster, where targets are approximately the same age and situated at roughly the same distance, MK-stars can easily dominate the number of detections because of an observational bias related to small number statistics. The degree to which low-mass stars produce the most planet detections in this special case depends upon whether multiple

  5. ESTIMATES OF THE PLANET YIELD FROM GROUND-BASED HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING OBSERVATIONS AS A FUNCTION OF STELLAR MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Crepp, Justin R.; Johnson, John Asher

    2011-06-01

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the number of extrasolar planets that are directly detectable in the solar neighborhood using current and forthcoming high-contrast imaging instruments. Our calculations take into consideration the important factors that govern the likelihood for imaging a planet, including the statistical properties of stars in the solar neighborhood, correlations between star and planet properties, observational effects, and selection criteria. We consider several different ground-based surveys, both biased and unbiased, and express the resulting planet yields as a function of stellar mass. Selecting targets based on their youth and visual brightness, we find that strong correlations between star mass and planet properties are required to reproduce high-contrast imaging results to date (i.e., HR 8799, {beta} Pic). Using the most recent empirical findings for the occurrence rate of gas-giant planets from radial velocity (RV) surveys, our simulations indicate that naive extrapolation of the Doppler planet population to semimajor axes accessible to high-contrast instruments provides an excellent agreement between simulations and observations using present-day contrast levels. In addition to being intrinsically young and sufficiently bright to serve as their own beacon for adaptive optics correction, A-stars have a high planet occurrence rate and propensity to form massive planets in wide orbits, making them ideal targets. The same effects responsible for creating a multitude of detectable planets around massive stars conspire to reduce the number orbiting low-mass stars. However, in the case of a young stellar cluster, where targets are approximately the same age and situated at roughly the same distance, MK-stars can easily dominate the number of detections because of an observational bias related to small number statistics. The degree to which low-mass stars produce the most planet detections in this special case depends upon whether

  6. The Efficiency of Stellar Reionization: Effects of Rotation, Metallicity, and Initial Mass Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, Michael W.; Shull, J. Michael

    2015-02-01

    We compute the production rate of photons in the ionizing Lyman continua (LyC) of H I (λ <= 912 Å), He I (λ <= 504 Å), and He II (λ <= 228 Å) using recent stellar evolutionary tracks coupled to a grid of non-LTE, line-blanketed WM-basic model atmospheres. The median LyC production efficiency is Q LyC = (6 ± 2) × 1060 LyC photons per M ⊙ of star formation (range [3.1-9.4] × 1060), corresponding to a revised calibration of 1053.3 ± 0.2 photons s-1 per M ⊙ yr-1. Efficiencies in the helium continua are QHe \\scriptsize{I} ≈ 1060 photons M⊙ -1 and QHe \\scriptsize{II} ≈ 1056 photons M⊙ -1 at solar metallicity and larger at low metallicity. The critical star formation rate needed to maintain reionization against recombinations at z ≈ 7 is \\dot{ρ }_SFR = (0.012 M⊙ yr-1 Mpc-3) [(1+z) / 8]3 (CH / 3) (0.2/ f_esc) for fiducial values of the intergalactic medium (IGM) clumping factor C H ≈ 3 and LyC escape fraction f esc ≈ 0.2. The boost in LyC production efficiency is an important ingredient, together with metallicity, C H, and f esc, in assessing whether IGM reionization was complete by z ≈ 7. Monte Carlo sampled spectra of coeval starbursts during the first 5 Myr have intrinsic flux ratios of F(1500)/F(900) ≈ 0.4-0.5 and F(912-)/F(912+) ≈ 0.4-0.7 in the far-UV (1500 Å), the LyC (900 Å), and at the Lyman edge (912 Å). These ratios can be used to calibrate the LyC escape fractions in starbursts.

  7. The Evolution of the Stellar Mass Functions of Star-forming and Quiescent Galaxies to z = 4 from the COSMOS/UltraVISTA Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzin, Adam; Marchesini, Danilo; Stefanon, Mauro; Franx, Marijn; McCracken, Henry J.; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Dunlop, James S.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Brammer, Gabriel; Labbé, Ivo; van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2013-11-01

    We present measurements of the stellar mass functions (SMFs) of star-forming and quiescent galaxies to z = 4 using a sample of 95,675 Ks -selected galaxies in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field. The SMFs of the combined population are in good agreement with previous measurements and show that the stellar mass density of the universe was only 50%, 10%, and 1% of its current value at z ~ 0.75, 2.0, and 3.5, respectively. The quiescent population drives most of the overall growth, with the stellar mass density of these galaxies increasing as ρstarvprop(1 + z)-4.7 ± 0.4 since z = 3.5, whereas the mass density of star-forming galaxies increases as ρstarvprop(1 + z)-2.3 ± 0.2. At z > 2.5, star-forming galaxies dominate the total SMF at all stellar masses, although a non-zero population of quiescent galaxies persists to z = 4. Comparisons of the Ks -selected star-forming galaxy SMFs with UV-selected SMFs at 2.5 < z < 4 show reasonable agreement and suggest that UV-selected samples are representative of the majority of the stellar mass density at z > 3.5. We estimate the average mass growth of individual galaxies by selecting galaxies at fixed cumulative number density. The average galaxy with log(M star/M ⊙) = 11.5 at z = 0.3 has grown in mass by only 0.2 dex (0.3 dex) since z = 2.0 (3.5), whereas those with log(M star/M ⊙) = 10.5 have grown by >1.0 dex since z = 2. At z < 2, the time derivatives of the mass growth are always larger for lower-mass galaxies, which demonstrates that the mass growth in galaxies since that redshift is mass-dependent and primarily bottom-up. Lastly, we examine potential sources of systematic uncertainties in the SMFs and find that those from photo-z templates, stellar population synthesis modeling, and the definition of quiescent galaxies dominate the total error budget in the SMFs. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under ESO programme ID 179.A-2005 and on data products

  8. THE EVOLUTION OF THE STELLAR MASS FUNCTIONS OF STAR-FORMING AND QUIESCENT GALAXIES TO z = 4 FROM THE COSMOS/UltraVISTA SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn; Labbé, Ivo; Marchesini, Danilo; Stefanon, Mauro; McCracken, Henry J.; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Dunlop, James S.; Brammer, Gabriel; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2013-11-01

    We present measurements of the stellar mass functions (SMFs) of star-forming and quiescent galaxies to z = 4 using a sample of 95,675 K{sub s} -selected galaxies in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field. The SMFs of the combined population are in good agreement with previous measurements and show that the stellar mass density of the universe was only 50%, 10%, and 1% of its current value at z ∼ 0.75, 2.0, and 3.5, respectively. The quiescent population drives most of the overall growth, with the stellar mass density of these galaxies increasing as ρ{sub star}∝(1 + z){sup –4.7±0.4} since z = 3.5, whereas the mass density of star-forming galaxies increases as ρ{sub star}∝(1 + z){sup –2.3±0.2}. At z > 2.5, star-forming galaxies dominate the total SMF at all stellar masses, although a non-zero population of quiescent galaxies persists to z = 4. Comparisons of the K{sub s} -selected star-forming galaxy SMFs with UV-selected SMFs at 2.5 < z < 4 show reasonable agreement and suggest that UV-selected samples are representative of the majority of the stellar mass density at z > 3.5. We estimate the average mass growth of individual galaxies by selecting galaxies at fixed cumulative number density. The average galaxy with log(M{sub star}/M{sub ☉}) = 11.5 at z = 0.3 has grown in mass by only 0.2 dex (0.3 dex) since z = 2.0 (3.5), whereas those with log(M{sub star}/M{sub ☉}) = 10.5 have grown by >1.0 dex since z = 2. At z < 2, the time derivatives of the mass growth are always larger for lower-mass galaxies, which demonstrates that the mass growth in galaxies since that redshift is mass-dependent and primarily bottom-up. Lastly, we examine potential sources of systematic uncertainties in the SMFs and find that those from photo-z templates, stellar population synthesis modeling, and the definition of quiescent galaxies dominate the total error budget in the SMFs.

  9. The Arches cluster out to its tidal radius: dynamical mass segregation and the effect of the extinction law on the stellar mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, M.; Stolte, A.; Brandner, W.; Hußmann, B.; Motohara, K.

    2013-08-01

    The Galactic center is the most active site of star formation in the Milky Way, where particularly high-mass stars have formed very recently and are still forming today. However, since we are looking at the Galactic center through the Galactic disk, knowledge of extinction is crucial when studying this region. The Arches cluster is a young, massive starburst cluster near the Galactic center. We observed the Arches cluster out to its tidal radius using Ks-band imaging obtained with NAOS/CONICA at the VLT combined with Subaru/CISCO J-band data to gain a full understanding of the cluster mass distribution. We show that the determination of the mass of the most massive star in the Arches cluster, which had been used in previous studies to establish an upper mass limit for the star formation process in the Milky Way, strongly depends on the assumed slope of the extinction law. Assuming the two regimes of widely used infrared extinction laws, we show that the difference can reach up to 30% for individually derived stellar masses and ΔAKs ~ 1 magnitude in acquired Ks-band extinction, while the present-day mass function slope changes by ~ 0.17 dex. The present-day mass function slope derived assuming the more recent extinction law increases from a flat slope of αNishi = -1.50 ± 0.35 in the core (r < 0.2 pc) to αNishi = -2.21 ± 0.27 in the intermediate annulus (0.2 < r < 0.4 pc), where the Salpeter slope is -2.3. The mass function steepens to αNishi = -3.21 ± 0.30 in the outer annulus (0.4 < r < 1.5 pc), indicating that the outer cluster region is depleted of high-mass stars. This picture is consistent with mass segregation owing to the dynamical evolution of the cluster. Based on observations collected at the ESO/VLT under Program ID 081.D-0572(B) (PI: Brandner) and ID 71.C-0344(A) (PI: Eisenhauer, retrieved from the ESO archive). Also based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.Full Table 5 is

  10. Truncated accretion discs around stellar mass objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, C. R. M. X.

    2011-03-01

    This thesis explores dynamical and radiative processes that occur in accretion flows around various stellar-mass objects. The work is divided into two separate themes: the interaction between strong stellar magnetic fields and accretion flows (chapters 2, 3, and 4) and radiative processes and accretion flow geometry in black holes at low luminosity (chapter 5).

  11. Stellar-to-halo mass relation of cluster galaxies

    DOE PAGES

    Niemiec, Anna; Jullo, Eric; Limousin, Marceau; ...

    2017-07-04

    In the formation of galaxy groups and clusters, the dark matter haloes containing satellite galaxies are expected to be tidally stripped in gravitational interactions with the host. We use galaxy-galaxy weak lensing to measure the average mass of dark matter haloes of satellite galaxies as a function of projected distance to the centre of the host, since stripping is expected to be greater for satellites closer to the centre of the cluster. We further classify the satellites according to their stellar mass: assuming that the stellar component of the galaxy is less disrupted by tidal stripping, stellar mass can bemore » used as a proxy of the infall mass. We study the stellar to halo mass relation of satellites as a function of the cluster-centric distance to measure tidal stripping. We use the shear catalogues of the DES science veri cation archive, the CFHTLenS and the CFHT Stripe 82 surveys, and we select satellites from the redMaPPer catalogue of clusters. For galaxies located in the outskirts of clusters, we nd a stellar to halo mass relation in good agreement with the theoretical expectations from Moster, Naab & White (2013) for central galaxies. In the centre of the cluster, we nd that this relation is shifted to smaller halo mass for a given stellar mass. We interpret this nding as further evidence for tidal stripping of dark matter haloes in high density environments.« less

  12. Stellar-to-halo mass relation of cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemiec, Anna; Jullo, Eric; Limousin, Marceau; Giocoli, Carlo; Erben, Thomas; Hildebrant, Hendrik; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Leauthaud, Alexie; Makler, Martin; Moraes, Bruno; Pereira, Maria E. S.; Shan, Huanyuan; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic

    2017-10-01

    In the formation of galaxy groups and clusters, the dark matter haloes containing satellite galaxies are expected to be tidally stripped in gravitational interactions with the host. We use galaxy-galaxy weak lensing to measure the average mass of dark matter haloes of satellite galaxies as a function of projected distance to the centre of the host, since stripping is expected to be greater for satellites closer to the centre of the cluster. We further classify the satellites according to their stellar mass: Assuming that the stellar component of the galaxy is less disrupted by tidal stripping, stellar mass can be used as a proxy of the infall mass. We study the stellar-to-halo mass relation of satellites as a function of the cluster-centric distance to measure tidal stripping. We use the shear catalogues of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) science verification archive, the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) and the CFHT Stripe 82 surveys, and we select satellites from the redMaPPer catalogue of clusters. For galaxies located in the outskirts of clusters, we find a stellar-to- halo mass relation in good agreement with the theoretical expectations from Moster et al. for central galaxies. In the centre of the cluster, we find that this relation is shifted to smaller halo mass for a given stellar mass. We interpret this finding as further evidence for tidal stripping of dark matter haloes in high-density environments.

  13. Initial mass functions from ultraviolet stellar photometry: A comparison of Lucke and Hodge OB associations near 30 Doradus with the nearby field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Jesse K.; Isensee, Joan E.; Cornett, Robert H.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew M.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1994-01-01

    UV stellar photometry is presented for 1563 stars within a 40 minutes circular field in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), excluding the 10 min x 10 min field centered on R136 investigated earlier by Hill et al. (1993). Magnitudes are computed from images obtained by the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) in bands centered at 1615 A and 2558 A. Stellar masses and extinctions are estimated for the stars in associations using the evolutionary models of Schaerer et al. (1993), assuming the age is 4 Myr and that the local LMC extinction follows the Fitzpatrick (1985) 30 Dor extinction curve. The estimated slope of the initial mass function (IMF) for massive stars (greater than 15 solar mass) within the Lucke and Hodge (LH) associations is Gamma = -1.08 +/- 0.2. Initial masses and extinctions for stars not within LH associations are estimated assuming that the stellar age is either 4 Myr or half the stellar lifetime, whichever is larger. The estimated slope of the IMF for massive stars not within LH associations is Gamma = -1.74 +/- 0.3 (assuming continuous star formation), compared with Gamma = -1.35, and Gamma = -1.7 +/- 0.5, obtained for the Galaxy by Salpeter (1955) and Scalo (1986), respectively, and Gamma = -1.6 obtained for massive stars in the Galaxy by Garmany, Conti, & Chiosi (1982). The shallower slope of the association IMF suggests that not only is the star formation rate higher in associations, but that the local conditions favor the formation of higher mass stars there. We make no corrections for binaries or incompleteness.

  14. Initial mass functions from ultraviolet stellar photometry: A comparison of Lucke and Hodge OB associations near 30 Doradus with the nearby field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Jesse K.; Isensee, Joan E.; Cornett, Robert H.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew M.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1994-01-01

    UV stellar photometry is presented for 1563 stars within a 40 minutes circular field in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), excluding the 10 min x 10 min field centered on R136 investigated earlier by Hill et al. (1993). Magnitudes are computed from images obtained by the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) in bands centered at 1615 A and 2558 A. Stellar masses and extinctions are estimated for the stars in associations using the evolutionary models of Schaerer et al. (1993), assuming the age is 4 Myr and that the local LMC extinction follows the Fitzpatrick (1985) 30 Dor extinction curve. The estimated slope of the initial mass function (IMF) for massive stars (greater than 15 solar mass) within the Lucke and Hodge (LH) associations is Gamma = -1.08 +/- 0.2. Initial masses and extinctions for stars not within LH associations are estimated assuming that the stellar age is either 4 Myr or half the stellar lifetime, whichever is larger. The estimated slope of the IMF for massive stars not within LH associations is Gamma = -1.74 +/- 0.3 (assuming continuous star formation), compared with Gamma = -1.35, and Gamma = -1.7 +/- 0.5, obtained for the Galaxy by Salpeter (1955) and Scalo (1986), respectively, and Gamma = -1.6 obtained for massive stars in the Galaxy by Garmany, Conti, & Chiosi (1982). The shallower slope of the association IMF suggests that not only is the star formation rate higher in associations, but that the local conditions favor the formation of higher mass stars there. We make no corrections for binaries or incompleteness.

  15. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): stellar mass estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Edward N.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Baldry, Ivan K.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Driver, Simon P.; Kelvin, Lee S.; Hill, David T.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Jones, D. H.; Sharp, R. G.; Thomas, Daniel; Liske, Jochen; Loveday, Jon; Norberg, Peder; Peacock, J. A.; Bamford, Steven P.; Brough, Sarah; Colless, Matthew; Cameron, Ewan; Conselice, Christopher J.; Croom, Scott M.; Frenk, C. S.; Gunawardhana, Madusha; Kuijken, Konrad; Nichol, R. C.; Parkinson, H. R.; Phillipps, S.; Pimbblet, K. A.; Popescu, C. C.; Prescott, Matthew; Sutherland, W. J.; Tuffs, R. J.; van Kampen, Eelco; Wijesinghe, D.

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes the first catalogue of photometrically derived stellar mass estimates for intermediate-redshift (z < 0.65; median z= 0.2) galaxies in the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) spectroscopic redshift survey. These masses, as well as the full set of ancillary stellar population parameters, will be made public as part of GAMA data release 2. Although the GAMA database does include near-infrared (NIR) photometry, we show that the quality of our stellar population synthesis fits is significantly poorer when these NIR data are included. Further, for a large fraction of galaxies, the stellar population parameters inferred from the optical-plus-NIR photometry are formally inconsistent with those inferred from the optical data alone. This may indicate problems in our stellar population library, or NIR data issues, or both; these issues will be addressed for future versions of the catalogue. For now, we have chosen to base our stellar mass estimates on optical photometry only. In light of our decision to ignore the available NIR data, we examine how well stellar mass can be constrained based on optical data alone. We use generic properties of stellar population synthesis models to demonstrate that restframe colour alone is in principle a very good estimator of stellar mass-to-light ratio, M*/Li. Further, we use the observed relation between restframe (g-i) and M*/Li for real GAMA galaxies to argue that, modulo uncertainties in the stellar evolution models themselves, (g-i) colour can in practice be used to estimate M*/Li to an accuracy of ≲0.1 dex (1σ). This 'empirically calibrated' (g-i)-M*/Li relation offers a simple and transparent means for estimating galaxies' stellar masses based on minimal data, and so provides a solid basis for other surveys to compare their results to z≲0.4 measurements from GAMA.

  16. Scaling Stellar Mass Estimates of Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Brandon Michael; McQuinn, Kristen B.; Cannon, John M.; Dalcanton, Julianne; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Williams, Benjamin F.; van Zee, Liese

    2017-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical imaging of resolved stellar populations has been used to constrain the star formation history (SFH) and chemical evolution of many nearby dwarf galaxies. However, even for dwarf galaxies, the angle subtended by nearby systems can be greater than the HST field of view. Thus, estimates of stellar mass from the HST footprint do not accurately represent the total mass of the system, impacting how SFH results can be used in holistic comparisons of galaxy properties. Here, we use the SFHs of dwarfs combined with stellar population synthesis models to determine mass-to-light ratios for individual galaxies, and compare these values with measured infrared luminosities from Spitzer IRAC data. In this way, we determine what fraction of mass is not included in the HST field of view. To test our methodology, we focus on dwarfs whose stellar disks are contained within the HST observations. Then, we also apply this method to galaxies with larger angular sizes to scale the stellar masses accordingly.

  17. The new semi-analytic code GalICS 2.0 - reproducing the galaxy stellar mass function and the Tully-Fisher relation simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaneo, A.; Blaizot, J.; Devriendt, J. E. G.; Mamon, G. A.; Tollet, E.; Dekel, A.; Guiderdoni, B.; Kucukbas, M.; Thob, A. C. R.

    2017-10-01

    GalICS 2.0 is a new semi-analytic code to model the formation and evolution of galaxies in a cosmological context. N-body simulations based on a Planck cosmology are used to construct halo merger trees, track subhaloes, compute spins and measure concentrations. The accretion of gas on to galaxies and the morphological evolution of galaxies are modelled with prescriptions derived from hydrodynamic simulations. Star formation and stellar feedback are described with phenomenological models (as in other semi-analytic codes). GalICS 2.0 computes rotation speeds from the gravitational potential of the dark matter, the disc and the central bulge. As the rotation speed depends not only on the virial velocity but also on the ratio of baryons to dark matter within a galaxy, our calculation predicts a different Tully-Fisher relation from models in which vrot ∝ vvir. This is why, GalICS 2.0 is able to reproduce the galaxy stellar mass function and the Tully-Fisher relation simultaneously. Our results are also in agreement with halo masses from weak lensing and satellite kinematics, gas fractions, the relation between star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass, the evolution of the cosmic SFR density, bulge-to-disc ratios, disc sizes and the Faber-Jackson relation.

  18. The ATLAS3D project - XX. Mass-size and mass-σ distributions of early-type galaxies: bulge fraction drives kinematics, mass-to-light ratio, molecular gas fraction and stellar initial mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellari, Michele; McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, M.; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2013-07-01

    ) and dwarf irregulars (Im), respectively. We use dynamical models to analyse our kinematic maps. We show that σe traces the bulge fraction, which appears to be the main driver for the observed trends in the dynamical (M/L)JAM and in indicators of the (M/L)pop of the stellar population like Hβ and colour, as well as in the molecular gas fraction. A similar variation along contours of σe is also observed for the mass normalization of the stellar initial mass function (IMF), which was recently shown to vary systematically within the ETGs' population. Our preferred relation has the form log _{10} [(M/L)_stars/(M/L)_Salp]=a+b× log _{10}({σ _e}/130 {km s^{-1}}) with a = -0.12 ± 0.01 and b = 0.35 ± 0.06. Unless there are major flaws in all stellar population models, this trend implies a transition of the mean IMF from Kroupa to Salpeter in the interval log _{10}({σ _e}/{km s}^{-1})≈ 1.9-2.5 (or {σ _e}≈ 90-290 km s-1), with a smooth variation in between, consistently with what was shown in Cappellari et al. The observed distribution of galaxy properties on the MP provides a clean and novel view for a number of previously reported trends, which constitute special two-dimensional projections of the more general four-dimensional parameters trends on the MP. We interpret it as due to a combination of two main effects: (i) an increase of the bulge fraction, which increases σe, decreases Re, and greatly enhance the likelihood for a galaxy to have its star formation quenched, and (ii) dry merging, increasing galaxy mass and Re by moving galaxies along lines of roughly constant σe (or steeper), while leaving the population nearly unchanged.

  19. A High-resolution Multiband Survey of Westerlund 2 with the Hubble Space Telescope. III. The Present-day Stellar Mass Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidler, Peter; Nota, Antonella; Grebel, Eva K.; Sabbi, Elena; Pasquali, Anna; Tosi, Monica; Christian, Carol

    2017-03-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the spatial distribution of the stellar population and the present-day mass function (PDMF) of the Westerlund 2 (Wd2) region using the data from our high-resolution multiband survey with the Hubble Space Telescope. We used state-of-the-art artificial star tests to determine spatially resolved completeness maps for each of the broadband filters. We reach a level of completeness of 50% down to F555W=24.8 mag (0.7 {M}⊙ ) and F814W=23.3 mag (0.2 {M}⊙ ) in the optical and F125W=20.2 mag and F160W=19.4 mag (both 0.12 {M}⊙ ) in the infrared throughout the field of view. We had previously reported that the core of Wd2 consists of two clumps: namely the main cluster and the northern clump. From the spatial distribution of the completeness-corrected population, we find that their stellar surface densities are 1114 {stars} {{pc}}-2 and 555 {stars} {{pc}}-2, respectively, down to F814W=21.8 mag. We find that the PDMF of Wd2 has a slope of {{Γ }}=-1.46+/- 0.06, which translates to a total stellar cluster mass of (3.6+/- 0.3)\\cdot {10}4 {M}⊙ . The spatial analysis of the PDMF reveals that the cluster population is mass-segregated and most likely primordial. In addition, we report the detection of a stellar population of spatially uniformly distributed low-mass (< 0.15 {M}⊙ ) stars, extending into the gas ridges of the surrounding gas and dust cloud, as well as a confined region of reddened stars, likely caused by a foreground CO cloud. We find hints that a cloud-cloud collision might be the origin of the formation of Wd2.

  20. Stellar mass map and dark matter distribution in M 31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamm, A.; Tempel, E.; Tenjes, P.; Tihhonova, O.; Tuvikene, T.

    2012-10-01

    Aims: Stellar mass distribution in the Andromeda galaxy (M 31) is estimated using optical and near-infrared imaging data. Combining the derived stellar mass model with various kinematical data, properties of the dark matter (DM) halo of the galaxy are constrained. Methods: SDSS observations through the ugriz filters and the Spitzer imaging at 3.6 microns are used to sample the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the galaxy at each imaging pixel. Intrinsic dust extinction effects are taken into account by using far-infrared observations. Synthetic SEDs created with different stellar population synthesis models are fitted to the observed SEDs, providing estimates for the stellar mass surface density at each pixel. The stellar mass distribution of the galaxy is described with a 3-dimensional model consisting of a nucleus, a bulge, a disc, a young disc and a halo component, each following the Einasto density distribution (relations between different functional forms of the Einasto density distribution are given in Appendix B). By comparing the stellar mass distribution to the observed rotation curve and kinematics of outer globular clusters and satellite galaxies, the DM halo parameters are estimated. Results: Stellar population synthesis models suggest that M 31 is dominated by old (≳7 Gyr) stars throughout the galaxy, with the lower limit for the stellar mass-to-light ratios M/Lr ≳ 4 M⊙/L⊙. The upper limit M/Lr ≲ 6 M⊙/L⊙ is given by the rotation curve of the galaxy. The total stellar mass is (10-15) × 1010 M⊙, 30% of which is in the bulge and 56% in the disc. None of the tested DM distribution models (Einasto, NFW, Moore, Burkert) can be falsified on the basis of the stellar matter distribution and the rotation curve of the galaxy. The virial mass M200 of the DM halo is (0.8-1.1) × 1012 M⊙ and the virial radius is R200 = 189-213 kpc, depending on the DM distribution. For the Einasto profile, the average density of the DM halo within the central

  1. The Nature of Hβ+[OIII] and [OII] emitters to z ˜ 5 with HiZELS: stellar mass functions and the evolution of EWs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khostovan, Ali Ahmad; Sobral, David; Mobasher, Bahram

    2016-06-01

    I will present our recent-study of the properties of ~ 7000 narrow-band selected galaxies with strong Hβ+[OIII] and [OII] nebular emission lines from the High-z Emission Line Survey (HiZELS) between z ~ 0.8 - 5.0. Our sample covers a wide range in stellar mass(M_stellar ˜ 10^7.5-10^12.0 M⊙), rest-frame equivalent widths (EW_rest˜ 10-10^5 A), and line luminosities (L_line ˜ 10^40.5-10^43.2 erg s-1) allowing us to study the properties of typical active/star-forming galaxies. I will present our measurements of the Hβ+[OIII]-selected and [OII]-selected stellar mass functions and densities out to z ~ 3.5 where we find that for the Hβ+[OIII]-selected stellar mass functions both M* and φ* increases with cosmic time, which may be due to the [OIII] selection including an increasing fraction of AGN at lower redshifts. The [OII]-selected stellar mass functions show a constant M* ≈ 10^11.6 M⊙ and a strong, increasing evolution with cosmic time in φ* in line with Hα studies. I will also present our measurements in the evolution of the rest-frame equivalent widths for both emission-lines up to z ~ 5. This is the first time that the EW_rest evolution has been directly measured for Hβ+[OIII] and [OII] emitters up to these redshifts (z > 1). We find evidence for a slower evolution for z > 2 in the H β+[OIII] EW_rest and a decreasing trend for z > 3 in the [OII] EW_rest evolution, which would imply low [OII] EW at the highest redshifts and higher [OIII]/[OII] line ratios. This suggests that the ionization parameter at higher redshift is significantly higher than the local Universe, although other factors such as changes in metallicities and abundances over cosmic time can influence the [OIII]/[OII] evolution. Our results set the stage for future near-IR space-based narrow-band and spectroscopic surveys to test our extrapolated predictions and also produce z > 5 measurements to constrain the high-z end of the EW_rest and [OIII]/[OII] evolution.

  2. Planck's dusty GEMS. III. A massive lensing galaxy with a bottom-heavy stellar initial mass function at z = 1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañameras, R.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Kneissl, R.; Limousin, M.; Gavazzi, R.; Scott, D.; Dole, H.; Frye, B.; Koenig, S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Oteo, I.

    2017-03-01

    We study the properties of the foreground galaxy of the Ruby, the brightest gravitationally lensed high-redshift galaxy on the sub-millimeter sky as probed by the Planck satellite, and part of our sample of Planck's dusty GEMS. The Ruby consists of an Einstein ring of 1.4'' diameter at z = 3.005 observed with ALMA at 0.1'' resolution, centered on a faint, red, massive lensing galaxy seen with HST/WFC3, which itself has an exceptionally high redshift, z = 1.525 ± 0.001, as confirmed with VLT/X-shooter spectroscopy. Here we focus on the properties of the lens and the lensing model obtained with LENSTOOL. The rest-frame optical morphology of this system is strongly dominated by the lens, while the Ruby itself is highly obscured, and contributes less than 10% to the photometry out to the K band. The foreground galaxy has a lensing mass of (3.70 ± 0.35) × 1011M⊙. Magnification factors are between 7 and 38 for individual clumps forming two image families along the Einstein ring. We present a decomposition of the foreground and background sources in the WFC3 images, and stellar population synthesis modeling with a range of star-formation histories for Chabrier and Salpeter initial mass functions (IMFs). Only the stellar mass range obtained with the latter agrees well with the lensing mass. This is consistent with the bottom-heavy IMFs of massive high-redshift galaxies expected from detailed studies of the stellar masses and mass profiles of their low-redshift descendants, and from models of turbulent gas fragmentation. This may be the first direct constraint on the IMF in a lens at z = 1.5, which is not a cluster central galaxy. Based on ALMA data obtained with program 2015.1.01518S and VLT data obtained with programs 291.A-5014 and 295.A-5017.

  3. Mass loss and stellar superwinds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vink, Jorick S.

    2017-09-01

    Mass loss bridges the gap between massive stars and supernovae (SNe) in two major ways: (i) theoretically, it is the amount of mass lost that determines the mass of the star prior to explosion and (ii) observations of the circumstellar material around SNe may teach us the type of progenitor that made the SN. Here, I present the latest models and observations of mass loss from massive stars, both for canonical massive O stars, as well as very massive stars that show Wolf-Rayet type features. This article is part of the themed issue 'Bridging the gap: from massive stars to supernovae'.

  4. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): the stellar mass budget of galaxy spheroids and discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffett, Amanda J.; Lange, Rebecca; Driver, Simon P.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Kelvin, Lee S.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Andrews, Stephen K.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Cluver, Michelle E.; Colless, Matthew; Davies, Luke J. M.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Liske, Jochen; Meyer, Martin

    2016-11-01

    We build on a recent photometric decomposition analysis of 7506 Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey galaxies to derive stellar mass function fits to individual spheroid and disc component populations down to a lower mass limit of log(M*/M⊙) = 8. We find that the spheroid/disc mass distributions for individual galaxy morphological types are well described by single Schechter function forms. We derive estimates of the total stellar mass densities in spheroids (ρspheroid = 1.24 ± 0.49 × 108 M⊙ Mpc -3h0.7) and discs (ρdisc = 1.20 ± 0.45 × 108 M⊙ Mpc -3h0.7), which translates to approximately 50 per cent of the local stellar mass density in spheroids and 48 per cent in discs. The remaining stellar mass is found in the dwarf `little blue spheroid' class, which is not obviously similar in structure to either classical spheroid or disc populations. We also examine the variation of component mass ratios across galaxy mass and group halo mass regimes, finding the transition from spheroid to disc mass dominance occurs near galaxy stellar mass ˜1011 M⊙ and group halo mass ˜1012.5 M⊙h-1. We further quantify the variation in spheroid-to-total mass ratio with group halo mass for central and satellite populations as well as the radial variation of this ratio within groups.

  5. THE GROWTH OF GALAXY STELLAR MASS WITHIN DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Zehavi, Idit; Patiri, Santiago; Zheng Zheng

    2012-02-20

    We study the evolution of stellar mass in galaxies as a function of host halo mass, using the 'MPA' and 'Durham' semi-analytic models, implemented on the Millennium Run simulation. For both models, the stellar mass of the central galaxies increases rapidly with halo mass at the low-mass end and more slowly in halos of larger masses at the three redshifts probed (z {approx} 0, 1, 2). About 45% of the stellar mass in central galaxies in present-day halos less massive than {approx}10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub Sun} is already in place at z {approx} 1, and this fraction increases to {approx}65% for more massive halos. The baryon conversion efficiency into stars has a peaked distribution with halo mass, and the peak location shifts toward lower mass from z {approx} 1 to z {approx} 0. The stellar mass in low-mass halos grows mostly by star formation since z {approx} 1, while in high-mass halos most of the stellar mass is assembled by mergers, reminiscent of 'downsizing'. We compare our findings to empirical results from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and DEEP2 surveys utilizing galaxy clustering measurements to study galaxy evolution. The theoretical predictions are in qualitative agreement with these phenomenological results, but there are large discrepancies. The most significant one concerns the number of stars already in place in the progenitor galaxies at z {approx} 1, which is about a factor of two larger in both semi-analytic models. We demonstrate that methods studying galaxy evolution from the galaxy-halo connection are powerful in constraining theoretical models and can guide future efforts of modeling galaxy evolution. Conversely, semi-analytic models serve an important role in improving such methods.

  6. Characterizing simulated galaxy stellar mass histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, J. D.; van de Voort, Freeke

    2015-02-01

    Cosmological galaxy formation simulations can now produce rich and diverse ensembles of galaxy histories. These simulated galaxy histories, taken all together, provide an answer to the question `How do galaxies form?' for the models used to construct them. We characterize such galaxy history ensembles both to understand their properties and to identify points of comparison for histories within a given galaxy formation model or between different galaxy formation models and simulations. We focus primarily on stellar mass histories of galaxies with the same final stellar mass, for six final stellar mass values and for three different simulated galaxy formation models (a semi-analytic model built upon the dark matter Millennium simulation and two models from the hydrodynamical OverWhelmingly Large Simulations project). Using principal component analysis (PCA) to classify scatter around the average stellar mass history, we find that one fluctuation dominates for all sets of histories we consider, although its shape and contribution can vary between samples. We correlate the PCA characterization with several z = 0 galaxy properties (to connect with survey observables) and also compare it to some other galaxy history properties. We then explore separating galaxy stellar mass histories into classes, using the largest PCA contribution, k-means clustering, and simple Gaussian mixture models. For three component models, these different methods often gave similar results. These history classification methods provide a succinct and often quick way to characterize changes in the full ensemble of histories of a simulated population as physical assumptions are varied, to compare histories of different simulated populations to each other, and to assess the relation of simulated histories to fixed time observations.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF OTHER GALAXY PROPERTIES FOR HIGH STELLAR MASS AND LOW STELLAR MASS GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Xinfa; Wen Xiaoqing; Xu Jianying; Ding Yingping; Huang Tong

    2010-06-10

    At a stellar mass of 3 x 10{sup 10} M {sub {Theta}} we divide the volume-limited Main galaxy sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 (SDSS DR6) into two distinct families and explore the environmental dependence of galaxy properties for High Stellar Mass (HSM) and Low Stellar Mass (LSM) galaxies. It is found that for HSM and LSM galaxies, the environmental dependence of some typical galaxy properties, such as color, morphologies, and star formation activities, is still very strong, which at least shows that the stellar mass is not fundamental in correlations between galaxy properties and the environment. We also note that the environmental dependence of the size for HSM and LSM galaxies is fairly weak, which is mainly due to the galaxy size being insensitive to environment.

  8. A Critical Assessment of Stellar Mass Measurement Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobasher, Bahram; Dahlen, Tomas; Ferguson, Henry C.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Barro, Guillermo; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Johnson, Seth; Lu, Yu; Papovich, Casey J.; Pforr, Janine; Salvato, Mara; Somerville, Rachel S.; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Bell, Eric; Conselice, Christopher J.; Dickinson, Mark E.; Faber, Sandra M.; Fazio, Giovanni; Finlator, Kristian; Galametz, Audrey; Gawiser, Eric; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Grogin, Norman A.; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Koo, David C.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Reddy, Naveen; Santini, Paola; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2015-07-01

    identify the most fundamental parameters affecting stellar mass estimate in galaxies, with the following results. (1) No significant bias in Δ log(M) was found among different codes, with all having comparable scatter (σ ({{Δ }}{log}(M))=0.136 dex). The estimated stellar mass values are seriously affected by low photometric S/N, with the rms scatter increasing for galaxies with {H}{AB}\\gt 26 mag; (2) A source of error contributing to the scatter in Δ log(M) is found to be due to photometric uncertainties (0.136 dex) and low resolution in age and extinction grids when generating the SED templates; (3) The median of stellar masses among different methods provides a stable measure of the mass associated with any given galaxy (σ ({{Δ }}{log}(M))=0.142 dex); (4) The Δ log(M) values are strongly correlated with deviations in age (defined as the difference between the estimated and expected values), with a weaker correlation with extinction; (5) The rms scatter in the estimated stellar masses due to free parameters (after fixing redshifts and initial mass function) are quantified and found to be σ ({{Δ }}{log}(M))=0.110 dex; (6) Using the observed data, we studied the sensitivity of stellar masses to both the population synthesis codes and inclusion of nebular emission lines and found them to affect the stellar mass by 0.2 and 0.3 dex respectively.

  9. PRIMUS: CONSTRAINTS ON STAR FORMATION QUENCHING AND GALAXY MERGING, AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE STELLAR MASS FUNCTION FROM z = 0-1

    SciTech Connect

    Moustakas, John; Coil, Alison L.; Mendez, Alexander J.; Aird, James; Blanton, Michael R.; Cool, Richard J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Wong, Kenneth C.; Zhu, Guangtun; Arnouts, Stephane

    2013-04-10

    We measure the evolution of the stellar mass function (SMF) from z = 0-1 using multi-wavelength imaging and spectroscopic redshifts from the PRism MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). From PRIMUS we construct an i < 23 flux-limited sample of {approx}40, 000 galaxies at z = 0.2-1.0 over five fields totaling Almost-Equal-To 5.5 deg{sup 2}, and from the SDSS we select {approx}170, 000 galaxies at z = 0.01-0.2 that we analyze consistently with respect to PRIMUS to minimize systematic errors in our evolutionary measurements. We find that the SMF of all galaxies evolves relatively little since z = 1, although we do find evidence for mass assembly downsizing; we measure a Almost-Equal-To 30% increase in the number density of {approx}10{sup 10} M{sub sun} galaxies since z Almost-Equal-To 0.6, and a {approx}< 10% change in the number density of all {approx}> 10{sup 11} M{sub sun} galaxies since z Almost-Equal-To 1. Dividing the sample into star-forming and quiescent using an evolving cut in specific star formation rate, we find that the number density of {approx}10{sup 10} M{sub sun} star-forming galaxies stays relatively constant since z Almost-Equal-To 0.6, whereas the space density of {approx}> 10{sup 11} M{sub sun} star-forming galaxies decreases by Almost-Equal-To 50% between z Almost-Equal-To 1 and z Almost-Equal-To 0. Meanwhile, the number density of {approx}10{sup 10} M{sub sun} quiescent galaxies increases steeply toward low redshift, by a factor of {approx}2-3 since z Almost-Equal-To 0.6, while the number of massive quiescent galaxies remains approximately constant since z Almost-Equal-To 1. These results suggest that the rate at which star-forming galaxies are quenched increases with decreasing stellar mass, but that the bulk of the stellar mass buildup within the quiescent population occurs around {approx}10{sup 10.8} M{sub sun}. In addition, we conclude that mergers do not appear to be a dominant channel for the stellar mass

  10. The galaxy stellar mass function at 3.5 ≤z ≤ 7.5 in the CANDELS/UDS, GOODS-South, and HUDF fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazian, A.; Fontana, A.; Santini, P.; Dunlop, J. S.; Ferguson, H. C.; Castellano, M.; Amorin, R.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Barro, G.; Behroozi, P.; Boutsia, K.; Caputi, K. I.; Chary, R. R.; Dekel, A.; Dickinson, M. E.; Faber, S. M.; Fazio, G. G.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Galametz, A.; Giallongo, E.; Giavalisco, M.; Grogin, N. A.; Guo, Y.; Kocevski, D.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Koo, D. C.; Lee, K.-S.; Lu, Y.; Merlin, E.; Mobasher, B.; Nonino, M.; Papovich, C.; Paris, D.; Pentericci, L.; Reddy, N.; Renzini, A.; Salmon, B.; Salvato, M.; Sommariva, V.; Song, M.; Vanzella, E.

    2015-03-01

    Context. The form and evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) at high redshifts provide crucial information on star formation history and mass assembly in the young Universe, close or even prior to the epoch of reionization. Aims: We used the unique combination of deep optical/near-infrared/mid-infrared imaging provided by HST, Spitzer, and the VLT in the CANDELS-UDS, GOODS-South, and HUDF fields to determine the GSMF over the redshift range 3.5 ≤ z ≤ 7.5. Methods: We used the HST WFC3/IR near-infrared imaging from CANDELS and HUDF09, reaching H ≃ 27 - 28.5 over a total area of 369 arcmin2, in combination with associated deep HST ACS optical data, deep Spitzer IRAC imaging from the SEDS programme, and deep Y and K-band VLT Hawk-I images from the HUGS programme, to select a galaxy sample with high-quality photometric redshifts. These have been calibrated with more than 150 spectroscopic redshifts in the range 3.5 ≤ z ≤ 7.5, resulting in an overall precision of σz/ (1 + z) ~ 0.037. With this database we have determined the low-mass end of the high-redshift GSMF with unprecedented precision, reaching down to masses as low as M∗ ~ 109 M⊙ at z = 4 and ~6 × 109 M⊙ at z = 7. Results: We find that the GSMF at 3.5 ≤ z ≤ 7.5 depends only slightly on the recipes adopted to measure the stellar masses, namely the photometric redshifts, the star formation histories, the nebular contribution, or the presence of AGN in the parent sample. The low-mass end of the GSMF is steeper than has been found at lower redshifts, but appears to be unchanged over the redshift range probed here. Meanwhile the high-mass end of the GSMF appears to evolve primarily in density, although there is also some evidence of evolution in characteristic mass. Our results are very different from previous mass function estimates based on converting UV galaxy luminosity functions into mass functions via tight mass-to-light relations. Integrating our evolving GSMF over mass, we

  11. Variations of the stellar initial mass function in the progenitors of massive early-type galaxies and in extreme starburst environments

    SciTech Connect

    Chabrier, Gilles; Hennebelle, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    We examine variations of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in extreme environments within the formalism derived by Hennebelle and Chabrier. We focus on conditions encountered in progenitors of massive early-type galaxies and starburst regions. We show that, when applying the concept of turbulent Jeans mass as the characteristic mass for fragmentation in a turbulent medium, the peak of the IMF in such environments is shifted toward smaller masses, leading to a bottom-heavy IMF, as suggested by various observations. In very dense and turbulent environments, we predict that the high-mass tail of the IMF can become even steeper than the standard Salpeter IMF, with a limit for the power-law exponent α ≅ –2.7, in agreement with recent observational determinations. This steepening is a direct consequence of the high densities and Mach values in such regions but also of the time dependence of the fragmentation process, as incorporated in the Hennebelle-Chabrier theory. We provide analytical parameterizations of these IMFs in such environments to be used in galaxy evolution calculations. We also calculate the star-formation rates and the mass-to-light ratios expected under such extreme conditions and show that they agree well with the values inferred in starburst environments and massive high-redshift galaxies. This reinforces the paradigm of star formation as being a universal process, i.e., the direct outcome of gravitationally unstable fluctuations in a density field initially generated by large-scale, shock-dominated turbulence. This globally enables us to infer the variations of the stellar IMF and related properties for atypical galactic conditions.

  12. The evolving slope of the stellar mass function at 0.6 ≤ z < 4.5 from deep WFC3 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, P.; Fontana, A.; Grazian, A.; Salimbeni, S.; Fontanot, F.; Paris, D.; Boutsia, K.; Castellano, M.; Fiore, F.; Gallozzi, S.; Giallongo, E.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Menci, N.; Pentericci, L.; Somerville, R. S.

    2012-02-01

    We used Early Release Science (ERS) observations taken with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) in the GOODS-S field to study the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) at 0.6 ≤ z < 4.5. Deep WFC3 near-IR data (for Y as faint as 27.3, J and H as faint as 27.4 AB mag at 5σ), as well as deep KS (as faint as 25.5 at 5σ) Hawk-I band data, provide an exquisite data set with which determine in an unprecedented way the low-mass end of the GSMF, allowing an accurate probe of masses as low as M∗ ≃ 7.6 × 109 M⊙ at z ~ 3. Although the area used is relatively small (~33 arcmin2), we found generally good agreement with previous studies on the entire mass range. Our results show that the slope of the faint-end increases with redshift, from α = -1.44 ± 0.03 at z ~ 0.8 to α = -1.86 ± 0.16 at z ~ 3, although indications exist that it does not steepen further between z ~ 3 and z ~ 4. This result is insensitive to any uncertainty in the M∗ parameter. The steepness of the GSMF faint-end solves the well-known disagreement between the stellar mass density (SMD) and the integrated star-formation history at z > 2. However, we confirm that there appears to be an excess of integrated star formation with respect to the SMD at z < 2, by a factor of ~2-3. Our comparison of the observations with theoretical predictions shows that the models forecast a greater abundance of low mass galaxies, at least up to z ~ 3, as well as a dearth of massive galaxies at z ~ 4 with respect to the data, and that the predicted SMD is generally overestimated at z ≲ 2.

  13. Stellar Mass Functions of Galaxies At 4 < z < 7 from an IRAC-selected Sample in Cosmos/Ultravista: Limits on the Abundance of Very Massive Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanon, Mauro; Marchesini, Danilo; Muzzin, Adam; Brammer, Gabriel; Dunlop, James S.; Franx, Marijin; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Labbé, Ivo; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2015-04-01

    We build a Spitzer IRAC-complete catalog of objects complementing the Ks-band selected UltraVISTA catalog with objects detected in IRAC only. To identify massive (log ({{M}*}/{{M}⊙ })\\gt 11) galaxies at 4\\lt z\\lt 7, we consider the systematic effects on photometric redshift measurements from the introduction of an old and dusty template and of a bayesian prior on luminosity, as well as the systematic effects from different star formation histories (SFHs) and from nebular emission lines in estimated stellar population properties. Our results are most affected by the luminosity prior, while nebular lines and SFHs marginally increase the measurement dispersion; the samples include 52 to 382 galaxies, depending on the adopted configuration. Using these results we investigate, for the first time, the evolution of the massive end of the stellar mass functions (SMFs) at 4\\lt z\\lt 7. Given the rarity of massive galaxies at these redshifts, cosmic variance and Poisson noise dominate the total error budget. The SMFs obtained excluding the luminosity prior show no evolution from z˜ 6.5 to z˜ 3.5, indicating that massive galaxies could already be present at early epochs. The luminosity prior reduces the number of z\\gt 4 massive galaxies by 83%, implying a rapid growth of massive galaxies in the first 1.5 Gyr of cosmic history. The stellar-mass complete sample includes one candidate of a very massive (log ({{M}*}/{{M}⊙ })˜ 11.5), quiescent galaxy at z˜ 5.4 with MIPS 24 μ m detection, suggesting the presence of an obscured active galactic nucleus. Finally, we show that the observed number of 4\\lt z\\lt 7 massive galaxies matches the number of massive galaxies at 3\\lt z\\lt 6 predicted by current galaxy formation models.

  14. New axes for the stellar mass fundamental plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L* Schechter, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Multiple lines of argument, both observational and theoretical, point to a tight correlation between the stellar velocity dispersion observed for an early-type galaxy and the mass of the dark matter halo in which it is embedded. While effective radius and surface brightness measure properties of the stellar (baryonic) component, the stellar velocity dispersion tells us the mass, virial radius and velocity dispersion of the dark matter component. The stellar effective radius may be divided by the halo radius, and the stellar mass (inferred from the stellar surface brightness) divided by the halo mass to give new axes for the fundamental plane. The stellar velocity dispersion is then a measure of the overall size of the dark matter halo. The two dimensionless axes tell us the ratios of the stellar mass to halo mass and stellar extent to halo extent. If themass of a halo alone determined everything about the embedded galaxy, there would be a unique stellar mass fraction and a unique stellar radius fraction for a given dispersion, forming a fundamental line. If there is a range of stellar mass fractions and a range of stellar radius fractions, and if they are independent, the line will blow up into a sausage. The fact that it fans out into a plane and not a sausage tells us that the deviations in mass fraction and radius fraction from the fundamental line must be strongly correlated.

  15. AN ANOMALOUS QUIESCENT STELLAR MASS BLACK HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Mark T.; Miller, Jon M.

    2011-06-10

    We present the results of a 40 ks Chandra observation of the quiescent stellar mass black hole GS 1354-64. A total of 266 net counts are detected at the position of this system. The resulting spectrum is found to be consistent with the spectra of previously observed quiescent black holes, i.e., a power law with a photon index of {Gamma} {approx} 2. The inferred luminosity in the 0.5-10 keV band is found to lie in the range 0.5-6.5 x 10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1}, where the uncertainty in the distance is the dominant source of this large luminosity range. Nonetheless, this luminosity is over an order of magnitude greater than that expected from the known distribution of quiescent stellar mass black hole luminosities and makes GS 1354-64 the only known stellar mass black hole to disagree with this relation. This observation suggests the possibility of significant accretion persisting in the quiescent state.

  16. The nature of Hβ+[O III] and [O II] emitters to z ˜ 5 with HiZELS: stellar mass functions and the evolution of EWs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khostovan, A. A.; Sobral, D.; Mobasher, B.; Smail, I.; Darvish, B.; Nayyeri, H.; Hemmati, S.; Stott, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the properties of ˜7000 narrow-band selected galaxies with strong Hβ+[O III] and [O II] nebular emission lines from the High-z Emission-Line Survey between z ˜ 0.8 and 5.0. Our sample covers a wide range in stellar mass (Mstellar ˜ 107.5-12.0 M⊙), rest-frame equivalent widths (EWrest˜10-105 Å), and line luminosities (Lline ˜ 1040.5-43.2 erg s-1). We measure the Hβ+[O III]-selected stellar mass functions out to z ˜ 3.5 and find that both M⋆ and φ⋆ increases with cosmic time. The [O II]-selected stellar mass functions show a constant M⋆ ≈ 1011.6 M⊙ and a strong, increasing evolution with cosmic time in φ⋆ in line with Hα studies. We also investigate the evolution of the EWrest as a function of redshift with a fixed mass range (109.5-10.0 M⊙) and find an increasing trend best represented by (1 + z)3.81 ± 0.14 and (1 + z)2.72 ± 0.19 up to z ˜ 2 and ˜3 for Hβ+[O III] and [O II] emitters, respectively. This is the first time that the EWrest evolution has been directly measured for Hβ+[O III] and [O II] emitters up to these redshifts. There is evidence for a slower evolution for z > 2 in the Hβ+[O III] EWrest and a decreasing trend for z > 3 in the [O II] EWrest evolution, which would imply low [O II] EW at the highest redshifts and higher [O III]/[O II] line ratios. This suggests that the ionization parameter at higher redshift may be significantly higher than the local Universe. Our results set the stage for future near-IR space-based spectroscopic surveys to test our extrapolated predictions and also produce z > 5 measurements to constrain the high-z end of the EWrest and [O III]/[O II] evolution.

  17. A STELLAR-MASS-DEPENDENT DROP IN PLANET OCCURRENCE RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Dániel

    2015-01-10

    The Kepler spacecraft has discovered a large number of planets with up to one-year periods and down to terrestrial sizes. While the majority of the target stars are main-sequence dwarfs of spectral type F, G, and K, Kepler covers stars with effective temperatures as low as 2500 K, which corresponds to M stars. These cooler stars allow characterization of small planets near the habitable zone, yet it is not clear if this population is representative of that around FGK stars. In this paper, we calculate the occurrence of planets around stars of different spectral types as a function of planet radius and distance from the star and show that they are significantly different from each other. We further identify two trends. First, the occurrence of Earth- to Neptune-sized planets (1-4 R {sub ⊕}) is successively higher toward later spectral types at all orbital periods probed by Kepler; planets around M stars occur twice as frequently as around G stars, and thrice as frequently as around F stars. Second, a drop in planet occurrence is evident at all spectral types inward of a ∼10 day orbital period, with a plateau further out. By assigning to each spectral type a median stellar mass, we show that the distance from the star where this drop occurs is stellar mass dependent, and scales with semi-major axis as the cube root of stellar mass. By comparing different mechanisms of planet formation, trapping, and destruction, we find that this scaling best matches the location of the pre-main-sequence co-rotation radius, indicating efficient trapping of migrating planets or planetary building blocks close to the star. These results demonstrate the stellar-mass dependence of the planet population, both in terms of occurrence rate and of orbital distribution. The prominent stellar-mass dependence of the inner boundary of the planet population shows that the formation or migration of planets is sensitive to the stellar parameters.

  18. STELLAR POPULATIONS IN THE CENTRAL 0.5 pc OF THE GALAXY. II. THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, J. R.; Do, T.; Ghez, A. M.; Morris, M. R.; Yelda, S.; Matthews, K. E-mail: tuan.do@uci.edu E-mail: morris@astro.ucla.edu

    2013-02-20

    The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way plays host to a massive, young cluster that may have formed in one of the most inhospitable environments in the Galaxy. We present new measurements of the global properties of this cluster, including the initial mass function (IMF), age, and cluster mass. These results are based on Keck laser-guide-star adaptive optics observations used to identify the young stars and measure their Kp-band luminosity function as presented in Do et al. A Bayesian inference methodology is developed to simultaneously fit the global properties of the cluster utilizing the observations and extensive simulations of synthetic star clusters. We find that the slope of the mass function for this cluster is {alpha} = 1.7 {+-} 0.2, which is steeper than previously reported, but still flatter than the traditional Salpeter slope of 2.35. The age of the cluster is between 2.5 and 5.8 Myr with 95% confidence, which is a younger age than typically adopted but consistent within the uncertainties of past measurements. The exact age of the cluster is difficult to determine since our results show two distinct age solutions (3.9 Myr and 2.8 Myr) due to model degeneracies in the relative number of Wolf-Rayet and OB stars. The total cluster mass is between 14,000 and 37,000 M {sub Sun} above 1 M {sub Sun} and it is necessary to include multiple star systems in order to fit the observed luminosity function and the number of observed Wolf-Rayet stars. The new IMF slope measurement is now consistent with X-ray observations indicating a factor of 10 fewer X-ray emitting pre-main-sequence stars than expected when compared with a Salpeter IMF. The young cluster at the Galactic center is one of the few definitive examples of an IMF that deviates significantly from the near-universal IMFs found in the solar neighborhood.

  19. Stellar Mass Versus Stellar Velocity Dispersion: Which is Better for Linking Galaxies to Their Dark Matter Halos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Wang, Lixin; Jing, Y. P.

    2013-01-01

    It was recently suggested that compared to its stellar mass (M *), the central stellar velocity dispersion (σ*) of a galaxy might be a better indicator for its host dark matter halo mass. Here we test this hypothesis by estimating the dark matter halo mass for central galaxies in groups as a function of M * and σ*. For this we have estimated the redshift-space cross-correlation function (CCF) between the central galaxies at given M * and σ* and a reference galaxy sample, from which we determine both the projected CCF, wp (rp ), and the velocity dispersion profile. A halo mass is then obtained from the average velocity dispersion within the virial radius. At fixed M *, we find very weak or no correlation between halo mass and σ*. In contrast, strong mass dependence is clearly seen even when σ* is limited to a narrow range. Our results thus firmly demonstrate that the stellar mass of central galaxies is still a good (if not the best) indicator for dark matter halo mass, better than the stellar velocity dispersion. The dependence of galaxy clustering on σ* at fixed M *, as recently discovered by Wake et al., may be attributed to satellite galaxies, for which the tidal stripping occurring within halos has stronger effect on stellar mass than on central stellar velocity dispersion.

  20. The Search for Stellar Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villadsen, Jacqueline Rose

    2017-05-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) may dramatically impact habitability and atmospheric composition of planets around magnetically active stars, including young solar analogs and many M dwarfs. Theoretical predictions of such effects are limited by the lack of observations of stellar CMEs. This thesis addresses this gap through a search for the spectral and spatial radio signatures of CMEs on active M dwarfs. Solar CMEs produce radio bursts with a distinctive spectral signature, narrow-band plasma emission that drifts to lower frequency as a CME expands outward. To search for analogous events on nearby stars, I worked on system design, software, and commissioning for the Starburst project, a wideband single-baseline radio interferometry backend dedicated to stellar observations. In addition, I led a survey of nearby active M dwarfs with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), detecting coherent radio bursts in 13 out of 23 epochs, over a total of 58 hours. This survey's ultra-wide bandwidth (0.23-6.0 GHz) dynamic spectroscopy, unprecedented for stellar observations, revealed diverse behavior in the time-frequency plane. Flare star UV Ceti produced complex, luminous events reminiscent of brown dwarf aurorae; AD Leo sustained long-duration, intense, narrow-band "storms"; and YZ CMi emitted a burst with substructure with rapid frequency drift, resembling solar Type III bursts, which are attributed to electrons moving at speeds of order 10% of the speed of light. To search for the spatial signature of CMEs, I led 8.5-GHz observations with the Very Long Baseline Array simultaneous to 24 hours of the VLA survey. This program detected non-thermal continuum emission from the stars in all epochs, as well as continuum flares on AD Leo and coherent bursts on UV Ceti, enabling measurement of the spatial offset between flaring and quiescent emission. These observations demonstrate the diversity of stellar transients that can be expected in time-domain radio surveys, especially

  1. The Search for Stellar Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villadsen, Jacqueline; Hallinan, Gregg; Monroe, Ryan; Bourke, Stephen; Starburst Program Team

    2017-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) may dramatically impact habitability and atmospheric composition of planets around magnetically active stars, including young solar analogs and many M dwarfs. Theoretical predictions of such effects are limited by the lack of observations of stellar CMEs. My thesis addresses this gap through a search for the spectral and spatial radio signatures of CMEs on active M dwarfs.Solar CMEs produce radio bursts with a distinctive spectral signature, narrow-band plasma emission that drifts to lower frequency as a CME expands outward. To search for analogous events on nearby stars, I worked on system design, software, and commissioning for the Starburst project, a wideband single-baseline radio interferometry backend dedicated to stellar observations. In addition, I led a survey of nearby active M dwarfs with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA), detecting 12 bright (>10 mJy) radio bursts in 58 hours. This survey’s ultra-wide bandwidth (0.23-6.0 GHz) dynamic spectroscopy, unprecedented for stellar observations, revealed diverse behavior in the time-frequency plane. Flare star UV Ceti produced complex, luminous events reminiscent of brown dwarf aurorae; AD Leo sustained long-duration, intense, narrow-band "storms"; and YZ CMi emitted a burst with substructure with rapid frequency drift, resembling solar Type III bursts, which are attributed to electrons moving at speeds of order 10% of the speed of light.To search for the spatial signature of CMEs, I led 8.5-GHz observations with the Very Long Baseline Array simultaneous to 24 hours of the JVLA survey. This program detected non-thermal continuum emission from the stars in all epochs, as well as continuum flares on AD Leo and coherent bursts on UV Ceti, enabling measurement of the spatial offset between flaring and quiescent emission.These observations demonstrate the diversity of stellar transients that can be expected in time-domain radio surveys, especially with the advent of large low

  2. MOIRCS DEEP SURVEY. VIII. EVOLUTION OF STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY AS A FUNCTION OF STELLAR MASS IN GALAXIES SINCE z {approx} 3

    SciTech Connect

    Kajisawa, M.; Ichikawa, T.; Yamada, T.; Akiyama, M.; Uchimoto, Y. K.; Yoshikawa, T.; Onodera, M.

    2010-11-01

    We study the evolution of star formation activity of galaxies at 0.5 < z < 3.5 as a function of stellar mass, using very deep NIR data taken with the Multi-Object Infrared Camera and Spectrograph on the Subaru telescope in the GOODS-North region. The NIR imaging data reach K{approx} 23-24 Vega magnitude and they allow us to construct a nearly stellar-mass-limited sample down to {approx}10{sup 9.5-10} M{sub sun} even at z {approx} 3. We estimated star formation rates (SFRs) of the sample with two indicators, namely, the Spitzer/MIPS 24 {mu}m flux and the rest-frame 2800 A luminosity. The SFR distribution at a fixed M{sub star} shifts to higher values with increasing redshift at 0.5 < z < 3.5. More massive galaxies show stronger evolution of SFR at z {approx}> 1. We found galaxies at 2.5 < z < 3.5 show a bimodality in their SSFR distribution, which can be divided into two populations by a constant SSFR of {approx}2 Gyr{sup -1}. Galaxies in the low-SSFR group have SSFRs of {approx}0.5-1.0 Gyr{sup -1}, while the high-SSFR population shows {approx}10 Gyr{sup -1}. The cosmic SFR density (SFRD) is dominated by galaxies with M{sub star} = 10{sup 10-11} M{sub sun} at 0.5 < z < 3.5, while the contribution of massive galaxies with M{sub star} = 10{sup 11-11.5} M{sub sun} shows a strong evolution at z>1 and becomes significant at z {approx} 3, especially in the case with the SFR based on MIPS 24 {mu}m. In galaxies with M{sub star} = 10{sup 10-11.5} M{sub sun}, those with a relatively narrow range of SSFR ({approx}<1 dex) dominates the cosmic SFRD at 0.5 < z < 3.5. The SSFR of galaxies that dominate the SFRD systematically increases with redshift. At 2.5 < z < 3.5, the high-SSFR population, which is relatively small in number, dominates the SFRD. Major star formation in the universe at higher redshift seems to be associated with a more rapid growth of stellar mass of galaxies.

  3. Observing stellar mass and supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    During the last 50 years, great progress has been made in observing stellar-mass black holes (BHs) in binary systems and supermassive BHs in galactic nuclei. In 1964, Zeldovich and Salpeter showed that in the case of nonspherical accretion of matter onto a BH, huge energy releases occur. The theory of disk accretion of matter onto BHs was developed in 1972-1973 by Shakura and Sunyaev, Pringle and Rees, and Novikov and Thorne. Up to now, 100 years after the creation of Albert Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, which predicts the existence of BHs, the masses of tens of stellar-mass BHs ( M_BH=(4-35) M_⊙) and many hundreds of supermassive BHs ( M_BH=(10^6-1010) M_⊙) have been determined. A new field of astrophysics, so-called BH demography, is developing. The recent discovery of gravitational waves from BH mergers in binary systems opens a new era in BH studies.

  4. Mass loss in 2D rotating stellar models

    SciTech Connect

    Lovekin, Caterine; Deupree, Bob

    2010-10-05

    Radiatively driven mass loss is an important factor in the evolution of massive stars . The mass loss rates depend on a number of stellar parameters, including the effective temperature and luminosity. Massive stars are also often rapidly rotating, which affects their structure and evolution. In sufficiently rapidly rotating stars, both the effective temperature and radius vary significantly as a function of latitude, and hence mass loss rates can vary appreciably between the poles and the equator. In this work, we discuss the addition of mass loss to a 2D stellar evolution code (ROTORC) and compare evolution sequences with and without mass loss. Preliminary results indicate that a full 2D calculation of mass loss using the local effective temperature and luminosity can significantly affect the distribution of mass loss in rotating main sequence stars. More mass is lost from the pole than predicted by 1D models, while less mass is lost at the equator. This change in the distribution of mass loss will affect the angular momentum loss, the surface temperature and luminosity, and even the interior structure of the star. After a single mass loss event, these effects are small, but can be expected to accumulate over the course of the main sequence evolution.

  5. THE VMC SURVEY. XVIII. RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF THE LOW-MASS, 0.55–0.82 M{sub ⊙} STELLAR MASS FUNCTION IN THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER 47 TUCANAE

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chaoli; Li, Chengyuan; De Grijs, Richard; Bekki, Kenji; Deng, Licai; For, Bi-Qing; Zaggia, Simone; Rubele, Stefano; Piatti, Andrés E.; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Marconi, Marcella; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Chen, Li E-mail: grijs@pku.edu.cn

    2015-12-20

    We use near-infrared observations obtained as part of the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) Survey of the Magellanic Clouds (VMC), as well as two complementary Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data sets, to study the luminosity and mass functions (MFs) as a function of clustercentric radius of the main-sequence stars in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae. The HST observations indicate a relative deficit in the numbers of faint stars in the central region of the cluster compared with its periphery, for 18.75 ≤ m{sub F606W} ≤ 20.9 mag (corresponding to a stellar mass range of 0.55 < m{sub *}/M{sub ⊙} < 0.73). The stellar number counts at 6.′7 from the cluster core show a deficit for 17.62 ≤ m{sub F606W} ≤ 19.7 mag (i.e., 0.65 < m{sub *}/M{sub ⊙} < 0.82), which is consistent with expectations from mass segregation. The VMC-based stellar MFs exhibit power-law shapes for masses in the range 0.55 < m{sub *}/M{sub ⊙} < 0.82. These power laws are characterized by an almost constant slope, α. The radial distribution of the power-law slopes α thus shows evidence of the importance of both mass segregation and tidal stripping, for both the first- and second-generation stars in 47 Tuc.

  6. GAMA: Stellar Mass Assembly in Galaxy Bulges and Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffett, Amanda J.; Driver, Simon P.; Lange, Rebecca; Robotham, Aaron; Kelvin, Lee; GAMA Team

    2016-01-01

    The Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey has to date obtained spectra, redshifts, and 21-band multi-facility photometry for over 200,000 galaxies in five survey regions that total nearly 300 square degrees on sky. We consider here a low-redshift (z<0.06), volume-limited subsample of ~8,000 GAMA galaxies that have been morphologically classified by the survey team. In order to quantify the separate bulge and disk properties of these galaxies, we apply a large-scale automated procedure for fitting images with 2D, multi-component structure models, including evaluation of fit convergence using a grid of input parameter values for each galaxy. From this analysis, we calculate the total bulge and disk contributions to the local galaxy stellar mass budget and derive mass-size relations for both pure spheroid/disk systems and the separate bulge/disk components of multi-component galaxies. We further examine the fraction of total stellar mass assembled in spheroid and disk structures as a function of galaxy environment, where environment is quantified on multiple scales from membership in large-scale filaments to groups/clusters and down to local pairings. We then discuss the effect of environmental conditions on the mechanisms of stellar mass assembly, including the implied balance between merger accumulation and in situ mass growth in different environment regimes.

  7. The Distribution of Stellar Mass-To Ratio in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng

    We have used the final data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to estimate the projected autocorrelation function, wp(rp), for the stellar mass of galaxies, as well as their stellar light in the SDSS five photometric bands. All these quantities are robustly and precisely determined over scales 10h-1 kpc < rp < 30h-1 Mpc. Ratios of wp(rp) between two given wavebands are proportional to the mean color of correlated stars at rp from a randomly chosen star, while the ratio of stellar mass to luminosity autocorrelations measures an analogous mean stellar mass-to-light ratio (M*/L). These measurements provide a precise quantitative characterization of the well-known dependence of stellar populations on environment, which, when combined with accurate luminosity and stellar mass functions, is expected to provide a compact way to constrain Halo Occupation Distribution models that try to represent all the correlations in detail.

  8. The Role Of Environment In Stellar Mass Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    In this talk I give a brief summary of methods to measure galaxy environment. I then discuss the dependence of stellar population properties on environmental density: it turns out that the latter are driven by galaxy mass, and galaxy environment only plays a secondary role, mostly at late times in low-mass galaxies. I show that this evidence has now been extended to stellar population gradients using the IFU survey SDSS/MaNGA that again turn out to be independent of environment, including central-satellite classification. Finally I present results from the DES, where the dependence of the stellar mass function with redshift and environmental density is explored. It is found that the fraction of massive galaxies is larger in high density environments than in low density environments. The low density and high density components converge with increasing redshift up to z 1.0 where the shapes of the mass function components are indistinguishable. This study shows how high density structures build up around massive galaxies through cosmic time, which sets new valuable constraints on galaxy formation models.

  9. NEW CONSTRAINTS ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE STELLAR-TO-DARK MATTER CONNECTION: A COMBINED ANALYSIS OF GALAXY-GALAXY LENSING, CLUSTERING, AND STELLAR MASS FUNCTIONS FROM z = 0.2 to z = 1

    SciTech Connect

    Leauthaud, Alexie; Tinker, Jeremy; Bundy, Kevin; George, Matthew R.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Busha, Michael T.; Schrabback, Tim; Massey, Richard; Rhodes, Jason; Benson, Andrew; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Ilbert, Olivier; Le Fevre, Oliver; Capak, Peter; Cortes, Marina; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lilly, Simon; McCracken, Henry J.; Salvato, Mara; and others

    2012-01-10

    Using data from the COSMOS survey, we perform the first joint analysis of galaxy-galaxy weak lensing, galaxy spatial clustering, and galaxy number densities. Carefully accounting for sample variance and for scatter between stellar and halo mass, we model all three observables simultaneously using a novel and self-consistent theoretical framework. Our results provide strong constraints on the shape and redshift evolution of the stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) from z = 0.2 to z = 1. At low stellar mass, we find that halo mass scales as M{sub h} {proportional_to}M{sup 0.46}{sub *} and that this scaling does not evolve significantly with redshift from z = 0.2 to z = 1. The slope of the SHMR rises sharply at M{sub *} > 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} and as a consequence, the stellar mass of a central galaxy becomes a poor tracer of its parent halo mass. We show that the dark-to-stellar ratio, M{sub h} /M{sub *}, varies from low to high masses, reaching a minimum of M{sub h} /M{sub *} {approx} 27 at M{sub *} = 4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} and M{sub h} = 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }. This minimum is important for models of galaxy formation because it marks the mass at which the accumulated stellar growth of the central galaxy has been the most efficient. We describe the SHMR at this minimum in terms of the 'pivot stellar mass', M{sup piv}{sub *}, the 'pivot halo mass', M{sup piv}{sub h}, and the 'pivot ratio', (M{sub h} /M{sub *}){sup piv}. Thanks to a homogeneous analysis of a single data set spanning a large redshift range, we report the first detection of mass downsizing trends for both M{sup piv}{sub h} and M{sup piv}{sub *}. The pivot stellar mass decreases from M{sup piv}{sub *} = 5.75 {+-} 0.13 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} at z = 0.88 to M{sup piv}{sub *} = 3.55 {+-} 0.17 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} at z = 0.37. Intriguingly, however, the corresponding evolution of M{sup piv}{sub h

  10. Stellar Atmospheres, Atmospheric Extension, and Fundamental Parameters: Weighing Stars Using the Stellar Mass Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilson, Hilding R.; Baron, Fabien; Norris, Ryan; Kloppenborg, Brian; Lester, John B.

    2016-10-01

    One of the great challenges of understanding stars is measuring their masses. The best methods for measuring stellar masses include binary interaction, asteroseismology, and stellar evolution models, but these methods are not ideal for red giant and supergiant stars. In this work, we propose a novel method for inferring stellar masses of evolved red giant and supergiant stars using interferometric and spectrophotometric observations combined with spherical model stellar atmospheres to measure what we call the stellar mass index, defined as the ratio between the stellar radius and mass. The method is based on the correlation between different measurements of angular diameter, used as a proxy for atmospheric extension, and fundamental stellar parameters. For a given star, spectrophotometry measures the Rosseland angular diameter while interferometric observations generally probe a larger limb-darkened angular diameter. The ratio of these two angular diameters is proportional to the relative extension of the stellar atmosphere, which is strongly correlated to the star’s effective temperature, radius, and mass. We show that these correlations are strong and can lead to precise measurements of stellar masses.

  11. The stellar mass distribution of S4G disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-García, Simón; Salo, Heikki; Laurikainen, Eija

    2017-03-01

    We use 3.6 μm imaging from the S4G survey to characterize the typical stellar density profiles (Σ*) and bars as a function of fundamental galaxy parameters (e.g. the total stellar mass M *), providing observational constraints for galaxy simulation models to be compared with. We rescale galaxy images to a common frame determined by the size in physical units, by their disk scalelength, or by their bar size and orientation. We stack the resized images to obtain statistically representative average stellar disks and bars. For a given M * bin (>= 109 M ⊙), we find a significant difference in the stellar density profiles of barred and non-barred systems that gives evidence for bar-induced secular evolution of disk galaxies: (i) disks in barred galaxies show larger scalelengths and fainter extrapolated central surface brightnesses, (ii) the mean surface brightness profiles of barred and non-barred galaxies intersect each other slightly beyond the mean bar length, most likely at the bar corotation, and (iii) the central mass concentration of barred galaxies is larger (by almost a factor 2 when T < 5) than in their non-barred counterparts. We also show that early- and intermediate-type spirals (0 <= T < 5) host intrinsically narrower bars than the later types and S0s, whose bars are oval-shaped. We show a clear correlation between galaxy family and bar ellipticity.

  12. The X-Ray Luminosity Functions of Field Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries in Early-Type Galaxies: Evidence for a Stellar Age Dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Berkeley, M.; Zezas, A.; Alexander, D. M.; Basu-Zych, A.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fragos, T.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Kalogera, V.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present direct constraints on how the formation of low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) populations in galactic fields depends on stellar age. In this pilot study, we utilize Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to detect and characterize the X-ray point source populations of three nearby early-type galaxies: NGC 3115, 3379, and 3384. The luminosity-weighted stellar ages of our sample span approximately equal to 3-10 Gyr. X-ray binary population synthesis models predict that the field LMXBs associated with younger stellar populations should be more numerous and luminous per unit stellar mass than older populations due to the evolution of LMXB donor star masses. Crucially, the combination of deep Chandra and HST observations allows us to test directly this prediction by identifying and removing counterparts to X-ray point sources that are unrelated to the field LMXB populations, including LMXBs that are formed dynamically in globular clusters, Galactic stars, and background AGN/galaxies. We find that the "young" early-type galaxy NGC 3384 (approximately equals 2-5 Gyr) has an excess of luminous field LMXBs (L(sub x) approximately greater than (5-10) × 10(exp 37) erg s(exp -1)) per unit K-band luminosity (L(sub K); a proxy for stellar mass) than the "old" early-type galaxies NGC 3115 and 3379 (approximately equals 8-10 Gyr), which results in a factor of 2-3 excess of L(sub X)/L(sub K) for NGC 3384. This result is consistent with the X-ray binary population synthesis model predictions; however, our small galaxy sample size does not allow us to draw definitive conclusions on the evolution field LMXBs in general. We discuss how future surveys of larger galaxy samples that combine deep Chandra and HST data could provide a powerful new benchmark for calibrating X-ray binary population synthesis models.

  13. Intermediate to low-mass stellar content of Westerlund 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandner, W.; Clark, J. S.; Stolte, A.; Waters, R.; Negueruela, I.; Goodwin, S. P.

    2008-01-01

    We have analysed near-infrared NTT/SofI observations of the starburst cluster Westerlund 1, which is among the most massive young clusters in the Milky Way. A comparison of colour-magnitude diagrams with theoretical main-sequence and pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks yields improved extinction and distance estimates of AKs = 1.13 ± 0.03 mag and d = 3.55 ± 0.17 kpc (DM = 12.75 ± 0.10 mag). The pre-main sequence population is best fit by a Palla & Stahler isochrone for an age of 3.2 Myr, while the main sequence population is in agreement with a cluster age of 3 to 5 Myr. An analysis of the structural parameters of the cluster yields that the half-mass radius of the cluster population increases towards lower mass, indicative of the presence of mass segregation. The cluster is clearly elongated with an eccentricity of 0.20 for stars with masses between 10 and 32 M_⊙, and 0.15 for stars with masses in the range 3 to 10 M_⊙. We derive the slope of the stellar mass function for stars with masses between 3.4 and 27 M_⊙. In an annulus with radii between 0.75 and 1.5 pc from the cluster centre, we obtain a slope of Γ = -1.3. Closer in, the mass function of Westerlund 1 is shallower with Γ = -0.6. The extrapolation of the mass function for stars with masses from 0.08 to 120 M_⊙ yields an initial total stellar mass of ≈52 000 M_⊙, and a present-day mass of 20 000 to 45 000 M_⊙ (about 10 times the stellar mass of the Orion nebula cluster, and 2 to 4 times the mass of the NGC 3603 young cluster), indicating that Westerlund 1 is the most massive starburst cluster identified to date in the Milky Way. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile, and retrieved from the ESO archive (Prog ID 67.C-0514).

  14. Uncertainties and Systematic Effects on the estimate of stellar masses in high z galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimbeni, S.; Fontana, A.; Giallongo, E.; Grazian, A.; Menci, N.; Pentericci, L.; Santini, P.

    2009-05-01

    We discuss the uncertainties and the systematic effects that exist in the estimates of the stellar masses of high redshift galaxies, using broad band photometry, and how they affect the deduced galaxy stellar mass function. We use at this purpose the latest version of the GOODS-MUSIC catalog. In particular, we discuss the impact of different synthetic models, of the assumed initial mass function and of the selection band. Using Chariot & Bruzual 2007 and Maraston 2005 models we find masses lower than those obtained from Bruzual & Chariot 2003 models. In addition, we find a slight trend as a function of the mass itself comparing these two mass determinations with that from Bruzual & Chariot 2003 models. As consequence, the derived galaxy stellar mass functions show diverse shapes, and their slope depends on the assumed models. Despite these differences, the overall results and scenario is observed in all these cases. The masses obtained with the assumption of the Chabrier initial mass function are in average 0.24 dex lower than those from the Salpeter assumption, at all redshifts, causing a shift of galaxy stellar mass function of the same amount. Finally, using a 4.5 μm-selected sample instead of a Ks-selected one, we add a new population of highly absorbed, dusty galaxies at z~=2-3 of relatively low masses, yielding stronger constraints on the slope of the galaxy stellar mass function at lower masses.

  15. Stellar evolution at high mass including the effect of a stellar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R.; Chin, C.-W.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of a stellar wind on the evolution of stars in the mass range from 15 to 120 solar masses is investigated. All the stellar models are constructed with the use of Cox-Stewart opacities. Four possible cases of mass loss are considered: (1) no mass loss at all; (2) substantial mass loss from stars in all stages of evolution; (3) heavy mass loss from red supergiants only; and (4) sudden and very heavy mass loss from luminous yellow supergiants. The assumption of mass loss during the main-sequence phase of evolution is found to lead to a lowering of the luminosity and, unless the mass loss is extremely heavy, of the effective temperature as well. A comparison of the adopted mass-loss rates with observed rates suggests that stellar winds are probably not an important factor in the evolution of main-sequence stars and supergiants unless the initial masses are greater than about 30 solar masses.

  16. The Evolution of the Fractions of Quiescent and Star-forming Galaxies as a Function of Stellar Mass Since z = 3: Increasing Importance of Massive, Dusty Star-forming Galaxies in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martis, Nicholas S.; Marchesini, Danilo; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Muzzin, Adam; Labbé, Ivo; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Stefanon, Mauro; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2016-08-01

    Using the UltraVISTA DR1 and 3D-HST catalogs, we construct a stellar-mass-complete sample, unique for its combination of surveyed volume and depth, to study the evolution of the fractions of quiescent galaxies, moderately unobscured star-forming galaxies, and dusty star-forming galaxies as a function of stellar mass over the redshift interval 0.2 ≤ z ≤ 3.0. We show that the role of dusty star-forming galaxies within the overall galaxy population becomes more important with increasing stellar mass and grows rapidly with increasing redshift. Specifically, dusty star-forming galaxies dominate the galaxy population with {log}({M}{{star}}/{M}⊙ )≳ 10.3 at z ≳ 2. The ratio of dusty and non-dusty star-forming galaxies as a function of stellar mass changes little with redshift. Dusty star-forming galaxies dominate the star-forming population at {log}({M}{{star}}/{M}⊙ )≳ 10.0{--}10.5, being a factor of ˜3-5 more common, while unobscured star-forming galaxies dominate at {log}({M}{{star}}/{M}⊙ )≲ 10. At {log}({M}{{star}}/{M}⊙ )\\gt 10.5, red galaxies dominate the galaxy population at all redshift z < 3, either because they are quiescent (at late times) or dusty star-forming (in the early universe).

  17. Hunting for Stellar Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Heidi; Vida, Krisztián; Leitzinger, Martin; Odert, Petra; Kovács, Orsolya Eszter

    2017-10-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are explosive events that occur basically daily on the Sun. It is thought that these events play a crucial role in the angular momentum and mass loss of late-type stars, and also shape the environment in which planets form and live. Stellar CMEs can be detected in optical spectra in the Balmer lines, especially in Hα, as blue-shifted extra emission/absorption. To increase the detection probability one can monitor young open clusters, in which the stars are due to their youth still rapid rotators, and thus magnetically active and likely to exhibit a large number of CMEs. Using ESO facilities and the Nordic Optical Telescope we have obtained time series of multi-object spectroscopic observations of late-type stars in six open clusters with ages ranging from 15 Myrs to 300 Myrs. Additionally, we have studied archival data of numerous active stars. These observations will allow us to obtain information on the occurrence rate of CMEs in late-type stars with different ages and spectral types. Here we report on the preliminary outcome of our studies.

  18. Diverse stellar haloes in nearby Milky Way mass disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmsen, Benjamin; Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; de Jong, Roelof S.; Bailin, Jeremy; Radburn-Smith, David J.; Holwerda, Benne W.

    2017-04-01

    We have examined the resolved stellar populations at large galactocentric distances along the minor axis (from 10 kpc up to between 40 and 75 kpc), with limited major axis coverage, of six nearby highly inclined Milky Way (MW) mass disc galaxies using Hubble Space Telescope data from the Galaxy haloes, Outer discs, Substructure, Thick discs, and Star clusters (GHOSTS) survey. We select red giant branch stars to derive stellar halo density profiles. The projected minor axis density profiles can be approximated by power laws with projected slopes of -2 to -3.7 and a diversity of stellar halo masses of 1-6 × 109 M⊙, or 2-14 per cent of the total galaxy stellar masses. The typical intrinsic scatter around a smooth power-law fit is 0.05-0.1 dex owing to substructure. By comparing the minor and major axis profiles, we infer projected axis ratios c/a at ∼25 kpc between 0.4and0.75. The GHOSTS stellar haloes are diverse, lying between the extremes charted out by the (rather atypical) haloes of the MW and M31. We find a strong correlation between the stellar halo metallicities and the stellar halo masses. We compare our results with cosmological models, finding good agreement between our observations and accretion-only models where the stellar haloes are formed by the disruption of dwarf satellites. In particular, the strong observed correlation between stellar halo metallicity and mass is naturally reproduced. Low-resolution hydrodynamical models have unrealistically high stellar halo masses. Current high-resolution hydrodynamical models appear to predict stellar halo masses somewhat higher than observed but with reasonable metallicities, metallicity gradients, and density profiles.

  19. The High Mass Stellar IMF in M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisz, Daniel R.; PHAT

    2015-01-01

    I will present a progress report on our analysis of the high mass stellar initial mass (IMF) in M31 from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury program (PHAT), an 828-orbit HST survey of 1/3 of M31's star-forming disk. To date, we have measured the present day mass function (MF) above 2 M⊙ for nearly 1000 young star clusters (< 300 Myr) by modeling their resolved star color-magnitude diagrams. The MF slopes of individual clusters show a tremendous degree of scatter, with some clusters differing substantially from Salpeter. There appears to be little correlation between physical properties of the clusters (e.g., mass, age) and their MF slopes. From analysis of the ensemble of clusters, we recover a global MF that is both steeper than Salpeter and one that exhibits a high degree of variance, which, if taken at face value, does not appear comapabilte with a universal IMF model. We are using an extensive suite of artificial clusters, designed to mimic observations, to investigate whether effects such as finite sampling statistics, dynamical evolution (e.g., mass segregation), stellar multiplicity, cluster membership, crowding, and/or completeness can be responsible for the observed MF properties, or if the M31 cluster population has an intrinsically non-universal IMF.

  20. The dark and stellar mass assembly of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila-Reese, V.; Firmani, C.

    2011-10-01

    The emerging empirical picture of galaxy stellar mass (M_s) assembly shows that galaxy population buildup proceeds from top to down in M_s. By connecting galaxies to ΛCDM halos and their histories, individual (average) M_s growth tracks can be inferred. These tracks show that massive galaxies assembled their M_s the earlier the more massive the halo, and that less massive galaxies are yet actively growing in M_s, the more active the less massive is the halo. The predicted star formation rates as a function of mass and the downsizing of the typical mass that separate active galaxies from the passive ones agree with direct observational determinations. This implies that the ΛCDM scenario is consistent with these observations. The challenge remains in explaining how the M_s assembly (downsizing) systematically shifts from the corresponding halo mass assembly (upsizing).

  1. THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Farr, Will M.; Sravan, Niharika; Kalogera, Vicky; Cantrell, Andrew; Kreidberg, Laura; Bailyn, Charles D.; Mandel, Ilya E-mail: niharika.sravan@gmail.com E-mail: andrew.cantrell@yale.edu E-mail: charles.bailyn@yale.edu

    2011-11-10

    We perform a Bayesian analysis of the mass distribution of stellar-mass black holes using the observed masses of 15 low-mass X-ray binary systems undergoing Roche lobe overflow and 5 high-mass, wind-fed X-ray binary systems. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo calculations, we model the mass distribution both parametrically-as a power law, exponential, Gaussian, combination of two Gaussians, or log-normal distribution-and non-parametrically-as histograms with varying numbers of bins. We provide confidence bounds on the shape of the mass distribution in the context of each model and compare the models with each other by calculating their relative Bayesian evidence as supported by the measurements, taking into account the number of degrees of freedom of each model. The mass distribution of the low-mass systems is best fit by a power law, while the distribution of the combined sample is best fit by the exponential model. This difference indicates that the low-mass subsample is not consistent with being drawn from the distribution of the combined population. We examine the existence of a 'gap' between the most massive neutron stars and the least massive black holes by considering the value, M{sub 1%}, of the 1% quantile from each black hole mass distribution as the lower bound of black hole masses. Our analysis generates posterior distributions for M{sub 1%}; the best model (the power law) fitted to the low-mass systems has a distribution of lower bounds with M{sub 1%}>4.3 M{sub sun} with 90% confidence, while the best model (the exponential) fitted to all 20 systems has M{sub 1%}>4.5 M{sub sun} with 90% confidence. We conclude that our sample of black hole masses provides strong evidence of a gap between the maximum neutron star mass and the lower bound on black hole masses. Our results on the low-mass sample are in qualitative agreement with those of Ozel et al., although our broad model selection analysis more reliably reveals the best-fit quantitative description of the

  2. Geometrical beaming of stellar mass ULXs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Matthew J.; King, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    The presence or lack of eclipses in the X-ray light curves of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) can be directly linked to the accreting system geometry. In the case where the compact object is stellar mass and radiates isotropically, we should expect eclipses by a main-sequence to sub-giant secondary star on the recurrence time-scale of hours to days. X-ray light curves are now available for large numbers of ULXs as a result of the latest XMM-Newton catalogue. We determine the amount of fractional variability that should be injected into an otherwise featureless light curve for a given set of system parameters as a result of eclipses and compare this to the available data. We find that the vast majority of sources for which the variability has been measured to be non-zero and for which available observations meet the criteria for eclipse searches, have fractional variabilities which are too low to derive from eclipses and so must be viewed such that θ ≤ cos- 1(R*/a). This would require that the disc subtends a larger angle than that of the secondary star and is therefore consistent with a conical outflow formed from super-critical accretion rates and implies some level of geometrical beaming in ULXs.

  3. Stellar Mass Loss in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Iain

    2009-10-01

    This work investigates stellar mass loss in globular clusters. It comprises of optical and infra-red photometric imaging and spectroscopy, plus radio interferometry observations. I present mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of stars in the globular clusters 47 Tucanae and ω Centauri, finding 47 Tuc V1 (and possibly V18) and ω Cen V6 surrounded by circumstellar silicate dust. ω Cen V42 may also be surrounded by carbon-rich dust. Much of this work is devoted to finding the threshold for dust production and the mass-loss rates from cluster stars with both chromospherically- and dust- or pulsation-driven winds. Using very-high-resolution optical photometry, I have identified the transition between the two driving regimes as being at earlier spectral types than in solar-metallicity stars, suggesting that pulsation and continuum-driving become the dominant wind drivers at around K5-M3, or ~1500 Lsun. In a similar vein, I have modelled spectral energy distributions of stars in ω Centauri using new photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope and literature photometry. The total mass-loss rate for the cluster is & 1.2+/-0.6 x 10^-6 Msun yr-1, some 30% of which is from two stars - V6 and V42. This implies the cluster is being cleaned of gas and dust every ~10^5 years. Dust production appears to be efficient on both the red and asymptotic giant branches, even at the cluster's low metallicity ([Fe/H] = -1.62). I also derive a new distance to the cluster of 4850 ± 200 (statistical) ± 200 (systematic) pc with a reddening of E(B-V) = 0.08±0.02±0.02 mag and a differential reddening of delta[E(B-V)] < 0.02 mag. Finally, I also present new observations of the high velocity hydrogen cloud in the vicinity of ω Centauri, finding that it is likely not associated with the cluster.

  4. [Automatic Measurement of the Stellar Atmospheric Parameters Based Mass Estimation].

    PubMed

    Tu, Liang-ping; Wei, Hui-ming; Luo, A-li; Zhao, Yong-heng

    2015-11-01

    We have collected massive stellar spectral data in recent years, which leads to the research on the automatic measurement of stellar atmospheric physical parameters (effective temperature Teff, surface gravity log g and metallic abundance [Fe/ H]) become an important issue. To study the automatic measurement of these three parameters has important significance for some scientific problems, such as the evolution of the universe and so on. But the research of this problem is not very widely, some of the current methods are not able to estimate the values of the stellar atmospheric physical parameters completely and accurately. So in this paper, an automatic method to predict stellar atmospheric parameters based on mass estimation was presented, which can achieve the prediction of stellar effective temperature Teff, surface gravity log g and metallic abundance [Fe/H]. This method has small amount of computation and fast training speed. The main idea of this method is that firstly it need us to build some mass distributions, secondly the original spectral data was mapped into the mass space and then to predict the stellar parameter with the support vector regression (SVR) in the mass space. we choose the stellar spectral data from the United States SDSS-DR8 for the training and testing. We also compared the predicted results of this method with the SSPP and achieve higher accuracy. The predicted results are more stable and the experimental results show that the method is feasible and can predict the stellar atmospheric physical parameters effectively.

  5. The 6dF Galaxy Survey: dependence of halo occupation on stellar mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutler, Florian; Blake, Chris; Colless, Matthew; Jones, D. Heath; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Campbell, Lachlan; Parker, Quentin; Saunders, Will; Watson, Fred

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we study the stellar mass dependence of galaxy clustering in the 6dF Galaxy Survey (6dFGS). The near-infrared selection of 6dFGS allows more reliable stellar mass estimates compared to optical bands used in other galaxy surveys. Using the halo occupation distribution model, we investigate the trend of dark matter halo mass and satellite fraction with stellar mass by measuring the projected correlation function, wp(rp). We find that the typical halo mass (M1) as well as the satellite power-law index (α) increases with stellar mass. This indicates (1) that galaxies with higher stellar mass sit in more massive dark matter haloes and (2) that these more massive dark matter haloes accumulate satellites faster with growing mass compared to haloes occupied by low stellar mass galaxies. Furthermore, we find a relation between M1 and the minimum dark matter halo mass (Mmin) of M1 ≈ 22 Mmin, in agreement with similar findings for Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies. The satellite fraction of 6dFGS galaxies declines with increasing stellar mass from 21 per cent at Mstellar = 2.6 × 1010 h-2 M⊙ to 12 per cent at Mstellar = 5.4 × 1010 h-2 M⊙ indicating that high stellar mass galaxies are more likely to be central galaxies. We compare our results to two different semi-analytic models derived from the Millennium Simulation, finding some disagreement. Our results can be used for placing new constraints on semi-analytic models in the future, particularly the behaviour of luminous red satellites. Finally, we compare our results to studies of halo occupation using galaxy-galaxy weak lensing. We find good overall agreement, representing a valuable cross-check for these two different tools of studying the matter distribution in the Universe.

  6. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): galaxy close pairs, mergers and the future fate of stellar mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robotham, A. S. G.; Driver, S. P.; Davies, L. J. M.; Hopkins, A. M.; Baldry, I. K.; Agius, N. K.; Bauer, A. E.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cluver, M.; De Propris, R.; Drinkwater, M. J.; Holwerda, B. W.; Kelvin, L. S.; Lara-Lopez, M. A.; Liske, J.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Loveday, J.; Mahajan, S.; McNaught-Roberts, T.; Moffett, A.; Norberg, P.; Obreschkow, D.; Owers, M. S.; Penny, S. J.; Pimbblet, K.; Prescott, M.; Taylor, E. N.; van Kampen, E.; Wilkins, S. M.

    2014-11-01

    We use a highly complete subset of the Galaxy And Mass Assembly II (GAMA-II) redshift sample to fully describe the stellar mass dependence of close pairs and mergers between 108 and 1012 M⊙. Using the analytic form of this fit we investigate the total stellar mass accreting on to more massive galaxies across all mass ratios. Depending on how conservatively we select our robust merging systems, the fraction of mass merging on to more massive companions is 2.0-5.6 per cent. Using the GAMA-II data we see no significant evidence for a change in the close pair fraction between redshift z = 0.05 and 0.2. However, we find a systematically higher fraction of galaxies in similar mass close pairs compared to published results over a similar redshift baseline. Using a compendium of data and the function γM = A(1 + z)m to predict the major close pair fraction, we find fitting parameters of A = 0.021 ± 0.001 and m = 1.53 ± 0.08, which represents a higher low-redshift normalization and shallower power-law slope than recent literature values. We find that the relative importance of in situ star formation versus galaxy merging is inversely correlated, with star formation dominating the addition of stellar material below M^* and merger accretion events dominating beyond M^*. We find mergers have a measurable impact on the whole extent of the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF), manifest as a deepening of the `dip' in the GSMF over the next ˜Gyr and an increase in M^* by as much as 0.01-0.05 dex.

  7. The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury: A Bayesian Method for Constraining the High Mass Stellar IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Fouesneau, M.; Hogg, D. W.; Rix, H. W.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Johnson, L. C.; PHAT Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The high mass stellar initial mass function (IMF) underpins virtually all of extragalactic astrophysics. However, measurements of the IMF above a few solar masses exhibit significant dispersion, and recent evidence is suggestive of environmentally dependent IMF variations. The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT)program is a multi-wavelength survey including hundreds of resolved young clusters extending from the near-UV to near-IR, allowing for a systematic study of the high mass stellar IMF for a large set of clusters over a wide range of environments. Here, we present a new Bayesian technique aimed at constraining the properties of the high mass IMF for resolved stars in individual clusters. This method probabilistically considers uncertainties in stellar mass, completeness, and cluster membership, and uses a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to sample the posterior probability distribution. The MCMC analysis allows us to constrain both the slope of the IMF and the upper stellar mass limit for a single cluster, while fully exploring all associated uncertainties and degeneracies. We present simulations that explore the potential biases introduced by the number of observed stars, stellar mass uncertainties, completeness, aging effects and age spread, and binary stars. The application of this technique to the young cluster population in the PHAT survey will result in the one the most comprehensive investigations of the high mass stellar IMF to date. PHAT is supported by HST GO-12055 administered by NASA.

  8. Low Mass Stellar Companions to Nearby A and B Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullikson, Kevin; Kraus, Adam L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent discoveries of planets orbiting retired A-stars on close orbits and young A-stars on very wide orbits have renewed interest in the properties of nearby intermediate-mass stars. Especially interesting are the young stars, because directly-imaged planets orbiting them may be bright enough for characterization (e.g. HR 8799, Beta Pictoris, etc). However, intermediate-mass stars and especially young intermediate mass stars are part of multiple systems more often than not. Close stellar companions may affect the formation and orbital evolution of any planets, and the properties of the companions can help constrain the binary formation mechanism. The mass ratio distribution of a population of stars, especially if it is significantly different from the distribution for wide companions, is helpful to distinguish companions that were born in or affected by the circumprimary disk from those which formed through fragmentation of the molecular core. We have conducted a spectroscopic survey of 400 nearby A- and B-type stars, aimed at detecting stellar companions as late as M4 for all orbital separations <100 AU. We have searched for companions to the stars by cross-correlating the spectra against model templates for F-M type stars; a significant peak in the cross-correlation function indicates a detection. Our cross-correlation technique can detect low-mass companions with orbits that are too wide to detect with radial velocity monitoring and too small to detect with imaging techniques, making it complementary to work already done. We present initial results from our survey and present the distribution of mass ratios for inner companions.

  9. How well can we really estimate the stellar masses of galaxies from broad-band photometry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Peter D.; Lacey, Cedric G.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Cole, Shaun

    2013-10-01

    The estimated stellar masses of galaxies are widely used to characterize how the galaxy population evolves over cosmic time. If stellar masses can be estimated in a robust manner, free from any bias, global diagnostics such as the stellar mass function can be used to constrain the physics of galaxy formation. We explore how galaxy stellar masses, estimated by fitting broad-band spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with stellar population models, can be biased as a result of commonly adopted assumptions for the star formation and chemical enrichment histories, recycled fractions and dust attenuation curves of galaxies. We apply the observational technique of broad-band SED fitting to model galaxy SEDs calculated by the theoretical galaxy formation model GALFORM, isolating the effect of each of these assumptions. We find that, averaged over the entire galaxy population, the common assumption of exponentially declining star formation histories does not, by itself, adversely affect stellar mass estimation. However, we also show that this result does not hold when considering galaxies that have undergone a recent burst of star formation. We show that fixing the metallicity in SED fitting or using sparsely sampled metallicity grids can introduce mass-dependent systematics into stellar mass estimates. We find that the common assumption of a star-dust geometry corresponding to a uniform foreground dust screen can cause the stellar masses of dusty model galaxies to be significantly underestimated. Finally, we show that stellar mass functions recovered by applying SED fitting to model galaxies at high redshift can differ significantly in both shape and normalization from the intrinsic mass functions predicted by a given model. In particular, the effects of dust can reduce the normalization at the high-mass end by up to 0.6 dex in some cases. Given these differences, our methodology of using stellar masses estimated from model galaxy SEDs offers a new, self-consistent way to

  10. STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLES IN YOUNG GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, J. Craig; Johnson, Vincent E-mail: flint88@mail.utexas.edu

    2011-09-10

    We explore the potential cumulative energy production of stellar-mass black holes in early galaxies. Stellar-mass black holes may accrete substantially from the higher density interstellar media (ISMs) of primordial galaxies, and their energy release would be distributed more uniformly over the galaxies, perhaps providing a different mode of energy feedback into young galaxies than central supermassive black holes. We construct a model for the production and growth of stellar-mass black holes over the first few gigayears of a young galaxy. With the simplifying assumption of a constant density of the ISM, n {approx} 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}, we estimate the number of accreting stellar-mass black holes to be {approx}10{sup 6} and the potential energy production to be as high as 10{sup 61} erg over several billion years. For densities less than 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}, stellar-mass black holes are unlikely to reach their Eddington limit luminosities. The framework we present could be incorporated in numerical simulations to compute the feedback from stellar-mass black holes with inhomogeneous, evolving ISMs.

  11. The Stellar Initial Mass Function in Early-type Galaxies from Absorption Line Spectroscopy. IV. A Super-Salpeter IMF in the Center of NGC 1407 from Non-parametric Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Charlie; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Villaume, Alexa

    2017-03-01

    It is now well-established that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) can be determined from the absorption line spectra of old stellar systems, and this has been used to measure the IMF and its variation across the early-type galaxy population. Previous work focused on measuring the slope of the IMF over one or more stellar mass intervals, implicitly assuming that this is a good description of the IMF and that the IMF has a universal low-mass cutoff. In this work we consider more flexible IMFs, including two-component power laws with a variable low-mass cutoff and a general non-parametric model. We demonstrate with mock spectra that the detailed shape of the IMF can be accurately recovered as long as the data quality is high (S/N ≳ 300 Å‑1) and cover a wide wavelength range (0.4–1.0 μm). We apply these flexible IMF models to a high S/N spectrum of the center of the massive elliptical galaxy NGC 1407. Fitting the spectrum with non-parametric IMFs, we find that the IMF in the center shows a continuous rise extending toward the hydrogen-burning limit, with a behavior that is well-approximated by a power law with an index of ‑2.7. These results provide strong evidence for the existence of extreme (super-Salpeter) IMFs in the cores of massive galaxies.

  12. A new methodology to test galaxy formation models using the dependence of clustering on stellar mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, David J. R.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Mitchell, Peter D.; Helly, John C.; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Lacey, Cedric G.; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Simha, Vimal; Farrow, Daniel J.

    2015-09-01

    We present predictions for the two-point correlation function of galaxy clustering as a function of stellar mass, computed using two new versions of the GALFORM semi-analytic galaxy formation model. These models make use of a high resolution, large volume N-body simulation, set in the 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe cosmology. One model uses a universal stellar initial mass function (IMF), while the other assumes different IMFs for quiescent star formation and bursts. Particular consideration is given to how the assumptions required to estimate the stellar masses of observed galaxies (such as the choice of IMF, stellar population synthesis model, and dust extinction) influence the perceived dependence of galaxy clustering on stellar mass. Broad-band spectral energy distribution fitting is carried out to estimate stellar masses for the model galaxies in the same manner as in observational studies. We show clear differences between the clustering signals computed using the true and estimated model stellar masses. As such, we highlight the importance of applying our methodology to compare theoretical models to observations. We introduce an alternative scheme for the calculation of the merger time-scales for satellite galaxies in GALFORM, which takes into account the dark matter subhalo information from the simulation. This reduces the amplitude of small-scale clustering. The new merger scheme offers improved or similar agreement with observational clustering measurements, over the redshift range 0 < z < 0.7. We find reasonable agreement with clustering measurements from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly Survey, but find larger discrepancies for some stellar mass ranges and separation scales with respect to measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey, depending on the GALFORM model used.

  13. Stellar Evolution Models of Classical Cepheids Require Enhanced Mass Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilson, Hilding; Langer, N.; Engle, S. G.; Guinan, E. F.; Izzard, R. G.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of rates of period change of Classical Cepheids probe stellar physics and evolution. Additionally, better understanding of Cepheid structure and evolution provides greater insight into their use as standard candles and tools for measuring the Hubble constant. In this work, we compare rates of period change measured for about 200 Galactic Cepheids to population synthesis models of Cepheids including convective core overshooting and enhanced mass loss. Rates of period change predicted from stellar evolution models without mass loss do not agree with observed rates whereas including enhanced mass loss yield predicted rates in better agreement with observations. The results suggest that enhanced mass loss must be a ubiquitous property of Classical Cepheids.

  14. Can Stellar Mass Black Holes BE Quark Stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Cheng, K. S.; Kovács, Zoltán

    We investigate the possibility that stellar mass black holes, with masses in the range of 3:8M⊙ and 6M⊙, respectively, could be in fact quark stars in the Color-Flavor-Locked (CFL) phase. Depending on the value of the gap parameter, rapidly rotating CFL quark stars can achieve much higher masses than standard neutron stars, thus making them possible stellar mass black hole candidates. Moreover, quark stars have a very low luminosity and a completely absorbing surface - the infalling matter on the surface of the quark star is converted into quark matter. A possibility of distinguishing CFL quark stars from stellar mass black holes could be through the study of thin accretion disks around rapidly rotating quark stars and Kerr type black holes, respectively. Strange stars exhibit a low luminosity, but high temperature bremsstrahlung spectrum, which, in combination with the emission properties of the accretion disk, may be the key signature to differentiate massive strange stars from black hole.

  15. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). A precise measurement of the galaxy stellar mass function and the abundance of massive galaxies at redshifts 0.5 < z < 1.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidzon, I.; Bolzonella, M.; Coupon, J.; Ilbert, O.; Arnouts, S.; de la Torre, S.; Fritz, A.; De Lucia, G.; Iovino, A.; Granett, B. R.; Zamorani, G.; Guzzo, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bel, J.; Bottini, D.; Branchini, E.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Marinoni, C.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Moutard, T.; Nichol, R. C.; Percival, W. J.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.

    2013-10-01

    We measure the evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function from z = 1.3 to z = 0.5 using the first 53 608 redshifts of the ongoing VIMOS Public Extragalactic Survey (VIPERS). Thanks to its large volume and depth, VIPERS provides a detailed picture of the galaxy distribution at z ≃ 0.8, when the Universe was ≃7 Gyr old. We carefully estimate the uncertainties and systematic effects associated with the SED fitting procedure used to derive galaxy stellar masses. We estimate the galaxy stellar mass function at several epochs between z = 0.5 and 1.3, discussing the amount of cosmic variance affecting our estimate in detail. We find that Poisson noise and cosmic variance of the galaxy mass function in the VIPERS survey are comparable to the statistical uncertainties of large surveys in the local universe. VIPERS data allow us to determine with unprecedented accuracy the high-mass tail of the galaxy stellar mass function, which includes a significant number of galaxies that are too rare to detect with any of the past spectroscopic surveys. At the epochs sampled by VIPERS, massive galaxies had already assembled most of their stellar mass. We compare our results with both previous observations and theoretical models. We apply a photometric classification in the (U - V) rest-frame colour to compute the mass function of blue and red galaxies, finding evidence for the evolution of their contribution to the total number density budget: the transition mass above which red galaxies dominate is found to be about 1010.4 ℳ⊙ at z ≃ 0.55, and it evolves proportionally to (1 + z)3. We are able to separately trace the evolution of the number density of blue and red galaxies with masses above 1011.4 ℳ⊙, in a mass range barely studied in previous work. We find that for such high masses, red galaxies show a milder evolution with redshift, when compared to objects at lower masses. At the same time, we detect a population of similarly massive blue galaxies, which are no

  16. ACCURATE LOW-MASS STELLAR MODELS OF KOI-126

    SciTech Connect

    Feiden, Gregory A.; Chaboyer, Brian; Dotter, Aaron

    2011-10-10

    The recent discovery of an eclipsing hierarchical triple system with two low-mass stars in a close orbit (KOI-126) by Carter et al. appeared to reinforce the evidence that theoretical stellar evolution models are not able to reproduce the observational mass-radius relation for low-mass stars. We present a set of stellar models for the three stars in the KOI-126 system that show excellent agreement with the observed radii. This agreement appears to be due to the equation of state implemented by our code. A significant dispersion in the observed mass-radius relation for fully convective stars is demonstrated; indicative of the influence of physics currently not incorporated in standard stellar evolution models. We also predict apsidal motion constants for the two M dwarf companions. These values should be observationally determined to within 1% by the end of the Kepler mission.

  17. Andromeda Optical & Infrared Disk Survey: Stellar Populations and Mass Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sick, Jonathan; Courteau, Stephane; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Dalcanton, Julianne; de Jong, Roelof S.; McDonald, Michael; Tully, R. Brent

    2015-01-01

    M31 is ideal for understanding the structure and stellar populations of spiral galaxies thanks to its proximity and our external vantage point. The Andromeda Optical & Infrared Disk Survey (ANDROIDS) has used MegaCam and WIRCam on the Canada-France Hawaii Telescope to map the M31 bulge and disk out to R=40 kpc in ugriJKs bands. Through careful sky monitoring and modelling, ANDROIDS is uniquely able to observe both the resolved stars and integrated spectral energy distributions (SEDs) over M31's entire disk (complimenting HST's PHAT program). By simultaneously fitting stellar populations with isochrones and SED models for M31, we can assess the systematic uncertainties of SED fits to more distant unresolved systems, and constrain the stellar populations that contribute to each bandpass. We pay close attention to the near-IR light of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in stellar population models. ANDROIDS has also surveyed M31 in narrowband TiO and CN bands, enabling a clean classification of Carbon AGB stars, and a mapping the ratio of Carbon and M-type AGB stars (C/M) across the entire disk. The correlation between C/M and stellar metallicity is useful for constraining the NIR colors of more distant galaxies. We also present a hierarchical Bayesian model of pixel-by-pixel stellar populations, yielding the most detailed map of M31's stellar mass and star formation history to date. We find that a full six-band optical-NIR fit provides the best constraints to stellar mass, a triumph for modern NIR stellar population synthesis models, though the results are consistent with an optical-only fits. Fits based on the popular g-i color combination find M/L* ratios biased by 0.1 dex, while color-mass-to-light prescriptions in the literature may differ by 0.3 dex. This result affirms that panchromatic SED modelling is crucial even for stellar mass estimation, let alone age and metallicity. Overall, we estimate the stellar mass of M31, within R=30 kpc, to be 10.3 (+2.3, -1

  18. RELATIONS BETWEEN CENTRAL BLACK HOLE MASS AND TOTAL GALAXY STELLAR MASS IN THE LOCAL UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Reines, Amy E.; Volonteri, Marta

    2015-11-10

    Scaling relations between central black hole (BH) mass and host galaxy properties are of fundamental importance to studies of BH and galaxy evolution throughout cosmic time. Here we investigate the relationship between BH mass and host galaxy total stellar mass using a sample of 262 broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the nearby universe (z < 0.055), as well as 79 galaxies with dynamical BH masses. The vast majority of our AGN sample is constructed using Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopy and searching for Seyfert-like narrow-line ratios and broad Hα emission. BH masses are estimated using standard virial techniques. We also include a small number of dwarf galaxies with total stellar masses M{sub stellar} ≲ 10{sup 9.5} M{sub ⊙} and a subsample of the reverberation-mapped AGNs. Total stellar masses of all 341 galaxies are calculated in the most consistent manner feasible using color-dependent mass-to-light ratios. We find a clear correlation between BH mass and total stellar mass for the AGN host galaxies, with M{sub BH} ∝ M{sub stellar}, similar to that of early-type galaxies with dynamically detected BHs. However, the relation defined by the AGNs has a normalization that is lower by more than an order of magnitude, with a BH-to-total stellar mass fraction of M{sub BH}/M{sub stellar} ∼ 0.025% across the stellar mass range 10{sup 8} ≤ M{sub stellar}/M{sub ⊙} ≤ 10{sup 12}. This result has significant implications for studies at high redshift and cosmological simulations in which stellar bulges cannot be resolved.

  19. Galaxy cosmological mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Amanda R.; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.; Stoeger, William R.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: This paper studies the galaxy cosmological mass function (GCMF) in a semi-empirical relativistic approach that uses observational data provided by recent galaxy redshift surveys. Methods: Starting from a previously presented relation between the mass-to-light ratio, the selection function obtained from the luminosity function (LF) data and the luminosity density, the average luminosity L, and the average galactic mass ℳg were computed in terms of the redshift. ℳg was also alternatively estimated by means of a method that uses the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF). Comparison of these two forms of deriving the average galactic mass allowed us to infer a possible bias introduced by the selection criteria of the survey. We used the FORS Deep Field galaxy survey sample of 5558 galaxies in the redshift range 0.5 stellar mass-to-light ratio and its GSMF data. Results: Assuming ℳg0 ≈ 1011ℳ⊙ as the local value of the average galactic mass, the LF approach results in LB ∝ (1 + z)(2.40 ± 0.03) and ℳg ∝ (1 + z)(1.1 ± 0.2). However, using the GSMF results to calculate the average galactic mass produces ℳg ∝ (1 + z)(- 0.58 ± 0.22). We chose the latter result because it is less biased. We then obtained the theoretical quantities of interest, such as the differential number counts, to finally calculate the GCMF, which can be fitted by a Schechter function, but whose fitted parameter values are different from the values found in the literature for the GSMF. Conclusions: This GCMF behavior follows the theoretical predictions from the cold dark matter models in which the less massive objects form first, followed later by more massive ones. In the range 0.5

  20. Dynamical and Stellar Masses of Lyman-alpha Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, S.; McLinden, E.; Richardson, M. L.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Tilvi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    We have observed strong nebular lines of [OIII] and H alpha for Lyman-alpha galaxies at z=2-3.1 using Keck+NIRSPEC, LBT+LUCIFER, and Gemini+NIFS. [OIII] 5007 is strong enough to dominate the 2 micron K band fluxes of these galaxies, and leads to an overestimate of the stellar mass of the galaxy by an order of magnitude. After correcting for the observed [OIII] lines, we infer low masses and young ages for these galaxies. We also use the physical widths of the rest-optical lines, combined with spatial sizes from HST imaging, to obtain direct dynamical mass estimates of Lyman alpha galaxies (which cannot be done using the resonantly scattered Lyman alpha line). Finally, we combine our stellar mass estimates and line widths to place these galaxies on the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation. We find that the stellar masses required to reproduce the observed light are lower than one would expect based on the galaxies' line widths. The stellar mass densities of these galaxies are comparable to those of elliptical galaxies today. We gratefully acknowledge support from NSF grant NSF-AST-0808165.

  1. MASSCLEANCOLORS-MASS-DEPENDENT INTEGRATED COLORS FOR STELLAR CLUSTERS DERIVED FROM 30 MILLION MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, Bogdan; Hanson, M. M. E-mail: margaret.hanson@uc.edu

    2010-04-10

    We present Monte Carlo models of open stellar clusters with the purpose of mapping out the behavior of integrated colors with mass and age. Our cluster simulation package allows for stochastic variations in the stellar mass function to evaluate variations in integrated cluster properties. We find that UBVK colors from our simulations are consistent with simple stellar population (SSP) models, provided the cluster mass is large, M {sub cluster} {>=} 10{sup 6} M {sub sun}. Below this mass, our simulations show two significant effects. First, the mean value of the distribution of integrated colors moves away from the SSP predictions and is less red, in the first 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 8} years in UBV colors, and for all ages in (V - K). Second, the 1{sigma} dispersion of observed colors increases significantly with lower cluster mass. We attribute the former to the reduced number of red luminous stars in most of the lower mass clusters and the latter to the increased stochastic effect of a few of these stars on lower mass clusters. This latter point was always assumed to occur, but we now provide the first public code able to quantify this effect. We are completing a more extensive database of magnitudes and colors as a function of stellar cluster age and mass that will allow the determination of the correlation coefficients among different bands, and improve estimates of cluster age and mass from integrated photometry.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SDSS bulge, disk and total stellar mass estimates (Mendel+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendel, J. T.; Simard, L.; Palmer, M.; Ellison, S. L.; Patton, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalog of bulge, disk, and total stellar mass estimates for ~660000 galaxies in the Legacy area of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data (SDSS) Release 7. These masses are based on a homogeneous catalog of g- and r-band photometry described by Simard et al. (2011, Cat. J/ApJS/196/11), which we extend here with bulge+disk and Sersic profile photometric decompositions in the SDSS u, i, and z bands. We discuss the methodology used to derive stellar masses from these data via fitting to broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and show that the typical statistical uncertainty on total, bulge, and disk stellar mass is ~0.15 dex. Despite relatively small formal uncertainties, we argue that SED modeling assumptions, including the choice of synthesis model, extinction law, initial mass function, and details of stellar evolution likely contribute an additional 60% systematic uncertainty in any mass estimate based on broadband SED fitting. We discuss several approaches for identifying genuine bulge+disk systems based on both their statistical likelihood and an analysis of their one-dimensional surface-brightness profiles, and include these metrics in the catalogs. Estimates of the total, bulge and disk stellar masses for both normal and dust-free models and their uncertainties are made publicly available here. (4 data files).

  3. A Catalog of Bulge, Disk, and Total Stellar Mass Estimates for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendel, J. Trevor; Simard, Luc; Palmer, Michael; Ellison, Sara L.; Patton, David R.

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalog of bulge, disk, and total stellar mass estimates for ~660,000 galaxies in the Legacy area of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data (SDSS) Release 7. These masses are based on a homogeneous catalog of g- and r-band photometry described by Simard et al., which we extend here with bulge+disk and Sérsic profile photometric decompositions in the SDSS u, i, and z bands. We discuss the methodology used to derive stellar masses from these data via fitting to broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and show that the typical statistical uncertainty on total, bulge, and disk stellar mass is ~0.15 dex. Despite relatively small formal uncertainties, we argue that SED modeling assumptions, including the choice of synthesis model, extinction law, initial mass function, and details of stellar evolution likely contribute an additional 60% systematic uncertainty in any mass estimate based on broadband SED fitting. We discuss several approaches for identifying genuine bulge+disk systems based on both their statistical likelihood and an analysis of their one-dimensional surface-brightness profiles, and include these metrics in the catalogs. Estimates of the total, bulge and disk stellar masses for both normal and dust-free models and their uncertainties are made publicly available here.

  4. A NEW METHOD FOR DERIVING THE STELLAR BIRTH FUNCTION OF RESOLVED STELLAR POPULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Gennaro, M.; Brown, T. M.; Gordon, K. D.; Tchernyshyov, K.

    2015-07-20

    We present a new method for deriving the stellar birth function (SBF) of resolved stellar populations. The SBF (stars born per unit mass, time, and metallicity) is the combination of the initial mass function (IMF), the star formation history (SFH), and the metallicity distribution function (MDF). The framework of our analysis is that of Poisson Point Processes (PPPs), a class of statistical models suitable when dealing with points (stars) in a multidimensional space (the measurement space of multiple photometric bands). The theory of PPPs easily accommodates the modeling of measurement errors as well as that of incompleteness. Our method avoids binning stars in the color–magnitude diagram and uses the whole likelihood function for each data point; combining the individual likelihoods allows the computation of the posterior probability for the population's SBF. Within the proposed framework it is possible to include nuisance parameters, such as distance and extinction, by specifying their prior distributions and marginalizing over them. The aim of this paper is to assess the validity of this new approach under a range of assumptions, using only simulated data. Forthcoming work will show applications to real data. Although it has a broad scope of possible applications, we have developed this method to study multi-band Hubble Space Telescope observations of the Milky Way Bulge. Therefore we will focus on simulations with characteristics similar to those of the Galactic Bulge.

  5. A Comprehensive Analysis of Uncertainties Affecting the Stellar Mass-Halo Mass Relation for 0

    SciTech Connect

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Conroy, Charlie; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2010-06-07

    We conduct a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between central galaxies and their host dark matter halos, as characterized by the stellar mass - halo mass (SM-HM) relation, with rigorous consideration of uncertainties. Our analysis focuses on results from the abundance matching technique, which assumes that every dark matter halo or subhalo above a specific mass threshold hosts one galaxy. We provide a robust estimate of the SM-HM relation for 0 < z < 1 and discuss the quantitative effects of uncertainties in observed galaxy stellar mass functions (GSMFs) (including stellar mass estimates and counting uncertainties), halo mass functions (including cosmology and uncertainties from substructure), and the abundance matching technique used to link galaxies to halos (including scatter in this connection). Our analysis results in a robust estimate of the SM-HM relation and its evolution from z=0 to z=4. The shape and evolution are well constrained for z < 1. The largest uncertainties at these redshifts are due to stellar mass estimates (0.25 dex uncertainty in normalization); however, failure to account for scatter in stellar masses at fixed halo mass can lead to errors of similar magnitude in the SM-HM relation for central galaxies in massive halos. We also investigate the SM-HM relation to z = 4, although the shape of the relation at higher redshifts remains fairly unconstrained when uncertainties are taken into account. We find that the integrated star formation at a given halo mass peaks at 10-20% of available baryons for all redshifts from 0 to 4. This peak occurs at a halo mass of 7 x 10{sup 11} M{sub {circle_dot}} at z = 0 and this mass increases by a factor of 5 to z = 4. At lower and higher masses, star formation is substantially less efficient, with stellar mass scaling as M{sub *} {approx} M{sub h}{sup 2.3} at low masses and M{sub *} {approx} M{sub h}{sup 0.29} at high masses. The typical stellar mass for halos with mass less than 10{sup 12} M

  6. Connecting stellar mass and star-formation rate to dark matter halo mass out to z ˜ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Farrah, D.; Oliver, S. J.; Amblard, A.; Béthermin, M.; Bock, J.; Conley, A.; Cooray, A.; Halpern, M.; Heinis, S.; Ibar, E.; Ilbert, O.; Ivison, R. J.; Marsden, G.; Roseboom, I. G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Schulz, B.; Smith, A. J.; Viero, M.; Zemcov, M.

    2013-05-01

    We have constructed an extended halo model (EHM) which relates the total stellar mass and star-formation rate (SFR) to halo mass (Mh). An empirical relation between the distribution functions of total stellar mass of galaxies and host halo mass, tuned to match the spatial density of galaxies over 0 < z < 2 and the clustering properties at z ˜ 0, is extended to include two different scenarios describing the variation of SFR on Mh. We also present new measurements of the redshift evolution of the average SFR for star-forming galaxies of different stellar masses up to z = 2, using data from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey for infrared bright galaxies. Combining the EHM with the halo accretion histories from numerical simulations, we trace the stellar mass growth and star-formation history in haloes spanning a range of masses. We find that: (1) the intensity of the star-forming activity in haloes in the probed mass range has steadily decreased from z ˜ 2 to 0; (2) at a given epoch, haloes in the mass range between a few times 1011 M⊙ and a few times 1012 M⊙ are the most efficient at hosting star formation; (3) the peak of SFR density shifts to lower mass haloes over time; and (4) galaxies that are forming stars most actively at z ˜ 2 evolve into quiescent galaxies in today's group environments, strongly supporting previous claims that the most powerful starbursts at z ˜ 2 are progenitors of today's elliptical galaxies.

  7. The stellar masses and specific star-formation rates of submillimetre galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michałowski, M. J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Cirasuolo, M.; Hjorth, J.; Hayward, C. C.; Watson, D.

    2012-05-01

    Establishing the stellar masses, and hence specific star-formation rates of submillimetre galaxies is crucial for determining the role of such objects in the cosmic history of galaxy/star formation. However, there is as yet no consensus over the typical stellar masses of submillimetre galaxies, as illustrated by the widely differing results reported from recent optical-infrared studies of submillimetre galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts z ≃ 2-3. Specifically, even for the same set of submillimetre galaxies, the reported average stellar masses have ranged over an order of magnitude, from ≃5 × 1010 M⊙ to ≃5 × 1011 M⊙. Here we study how different methods of analysis can lead to such widely varying results. We find that, contrary to recent claims in the literature, potential contamination of IRAC 3-8 μm photometry from hot dust associated with an active nucleus is not the origin of the published discrepancies in derived stellar masses. Instead, we expose in detail how inferred stellar mass depends on assumptions made in the photometric fitting, and quantify the individual and cumulative effects of different choices of initial mass function, different "brands" of evolutionary synthesis models, and different forms of assumed star-formation history. We review current observational evidence for and against these alternatives as well as clues from the hydrodynamical simulations, and conclude that, for the most justifiable choices of these model inputs, the average stellar mass of luminous (S850 ≳ 5 mJy) submillimetre galaxies is ≃2 × 1011 M⊙ to within a factor ≃2. We also check and confirm that this number is perfectly reasonable in the light of the latest measurements of the dynamical masses of these objects (≃2-6 × 1011 M⊙ from CO (1-0) observations), and the evolving stellar mass function of the overall galaxy population. Galaxy stellar masses of this order imply that the average specific star-formation rate of submillimetre galaxies is

  8. The mass spectrum of compact remnants from the PARSEC stellar evolution tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, Mario; Mapelli, Michela; Bressan, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    The mass spectrum of stellar mass black holes (BHs) is highly uncertain. Dynamical mass measurements are available only for few (˜10) BHs in X-ray binaries, while theoretical models strongly depend on the hydrodynamics of supernova (SN) explosions and on the evolution of massive stars. In this paper, we present and discuss the mass spectrum of compact remnants that we obtained with SEVN, a new public population-synthesis code, which couples the PARSEC stellar evolution tracks with up-to-date recipes for SN explosion (depending on the carbon-oxygen mass of the progenitor, on the compactness of the stellar core at pre-SN stage and on a recent two-parameter criterion based on the dimensionless entropy per nucleon at pre-SN stage). SEVN can be used both as a stand-alone code and in combination with direct-summation N-body codes (STARLAB, HIGPUS). The PARSEC stellar evolution tracks currently implemented in SEVN predict significantly larger values of the carbon-oxygen core mass with respect to previous models. For most of the SN recipes we adopt, this implies substantially larger BH masses at low metallicity (≤2 × 10-3), than other population synthesis codes. The maximum BH mass found with SEVN is ˜25, 60 and 130 M⊙ at metallicity Z = 2 × 10-2, 2 × 10-3 and 2 × 10-4, respectively. Mass loss by stellar winds plays a major role in determining the mass of BHs for very massive stars (≥90 M⊙), while the remnant mass spectrum depends mostly on the adopted SN recipe for lower progenitor masses. We discuss the implications of our results for the transition between neutron star and BH mass, and for the expected number of massive BHs (with mass >25 M⊙) as a function of metallicity.

  9. Stellar mass buildup in galaxies in the first 1.5 Gyr of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Valentino

    In this thesis we have made extensive use of the deepest optical and infrared images currently available from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Spitzer Space Telescope to study the properties of the stellar populations and the stellar mass buildup in galaxies in the first 1.5 Gyr after the Big Bang. The star formation Rates (SFRs) estimated for LBGs at z ≳ 4 are generally in the range 1 -- 100 M⊙ yr--1. The stellar mass estimates are most robust for sources with good Spitzer/IRAC detections, corresponding to galaxies with stellar masses ≳ 108.5 M⊙ at z ˜ 4 ( ≳ 109.5 M⊙ at z ˜ 7). For sources with lower rest-frame optical luminosities, that, as a result, are individually undetected in IRAC, their average stellar masses have been studied in a stacking analysis of a large number of sources. This enables us to reach stellar masses ˜ 10 7.8 M⊙ at z ˜ 4. The stellar masses show a fairly tight correlation with UV luminosity or SFR, and the zeropoint of the relation does not seem to evolve strongly with redshift. We have taken advantage of the UV luminosity vs. stellar mass relation observed in LBGs at z ≳ 4 -- 7 to derive the stellar mass function (SMF) of galaxies at these redshifts. The method uses a combination of the UV LF and the mean UV vs. stellar mass relation (including the scatter, estimated to be ˜ 0.5 dex at bright luminosities at z ˜ 4). This method allows an analytic estimate of the low mass slope of the SMF. This slope (the power-law exponent of the SMF at low masses), is estimated to be in the --1.44 -- --1.55, range which is flatter than the UV LF faint end slope at these redshifts ( ≲ --1.74). This means that low mass systems contribute less to the total stellar mass density (SMD) of the Universe than would have been estimated assuming a constant mass-to-UV-light ratio. We show that this is also much flatter than the theoretical predictions from simulations, which generally over-predict the number density of low mass

  10. The structure of galaxies : the division of stellar mass by morphological type and structural component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelvin, Lee Steven

    This thesis explores the relation between galaxy structure, morphology and stellar mass. In the first part I present single-Sersic two-dimensional model fits to 167,600 galaxies modelled independently in the ugrizYJHK bandpasses using reprocessed Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven (SDSS DR7) and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey Large Area Survey (UKIDSS LAS) imaging data available via the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) data base. In order to facilitate this study, we developed Structural Investigation of Galaxies via Model Analysis (SIGMA): an automated wrapper around several contemporary astronomy software packages. We confirm that variations in global structural measurements with wavelength arise due to the effects of dust attenuation and stellar population/metallicity gradients within galaxies. In the second part of this thesis we establish a volume-limited sample of 3,845 galaxies in the local Universe and visually classify these galaxies according to their morphological Hubble type. We find that single-Sersic photometry accurately reproduces the morphology luminosity functions predicted in the literature. We employ multi-component Sersic profiling to provide bulge-disk decompositions for this sample, allowing for the luminosity and stellar mass to be divided between the key structural components: spheroids and disks. Grouping the stellar mass in these structures by the evolutionary mechanisms that formed them, we find that hot-mode collapse, merger or otherwise turbulent mechanisms account for ~46% of the total stellar mass budget, cold-mode gas accretion and splashback mechanisms account for ~48% of the total stellar mass budget and secular evolutionary processes for ~6.5% of the total stellar mass budget in the local (z<0.06) Universe.

  11. Effect of mass gain on stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, R.; Zinnecker, H.

    A fully hydrodynamical treatment is given of the stationary isothermal accretion problem onto a moving gravitating point mass. It is noted that the derivation is purely analytical. It is found that the accretion rate is more than a factor of 50 higher than the accretion rate derived from the partially nonhydrodynamical treatment by Hoyle and Lyttleton (1939) or Bondi and Hoyle (1944). It is thought that his result may have some bearing on the evolutionary tracks of young pre-Main Sequence stars still embedded in their parent protocluster cloud. Also discussed is the work of Federova (1979), who investigated the pre-Main Sequence evolution of degenerate low mass 'stars' with strong accretion of protocluster cloud material. It is suggested that the stars that lie below the Main Sequence in young clusters could strongly accrete matter at the pre-Main Sequence stage. It is also suggested that the observed lack of low mass stars in open galactic clusters (van den Bergh, 1961) compared to the field may derive from the accretion of residual gas preferentially by low mass stars.

  12. RETIRED A STARS: THE EFFECT OF STELLAR EVOLUTION ON THE MASS ESTIMATES OF SUBGIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, John Asher; Morton, Timothy D.; Wright, Jason T.

    2013-01-20

    Doppler surveys have shown that the occurrence rate of Jupiter-mass planets appears to increase as a function of stellar mass. However, this result depends on the ability to accurately measure the masses of evolved stars. Recently, Lloyd called into question the masses of subgiant stars targeted by Doppler surveys. Lloyd argues that very few observable subgiants have masses greater than 1.5 M {sub Sun }, and that most of them have masses in the range 1.0-1.2 M {sub Sun }. To investigate this claim, we use Galactic stellar population models to generate an all-sky distribution of stars. We incorporate the effects that make massive subgiants less numerous, such as the initial mass function and differences in stellar evolution timescales. We find that these effects lead to negligibly small systematic errors in stellar mass estimates, in contrast to the Almost-Equal-To 50% errors predicted by Lloyd. Additionally, our simulated target sample does in fact include a significant fraction of stars with masses greater than 1.5 M {sub Sun }, primarily because the inclusion of an apparent magnitude limit results in a Malmquist-like bias toward more massive stars, in contrast to the volume-limited simulations of Lloyd. The magnitude limit shifts the mean of our simulated distribution toward higher masses and results in a relatively smaller number of evolved stars with masses in the range 1.0-1.2 M {sub Sun }. We conclude that, within the context of our present-day understanding of stellar structure and evolution, many of the subgiants observed in Doppler surveys are indeed as massive as main-sequence A stars.

  13. CONSTRAINING SATELLITE GALAXY STELLAR MASS LOSS AND PREDICTING INTRAHALO LIGHT. I. FRAMEWORK AND RESULTS AT LOW REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Douglas F.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Zentner, Andrew R.

    2012-08-01

    We introduce a new technique that uses galaxy clustering to constrain how satellite galaxies lose stellar mass and contribute to the diffuse 'intrahalo light' (IHL). We implement two models that relate satellite galaxy stellar mass loss to the detailed knowledge of subhalo dark matter mass loss. Model 1 assumes that the fractional stellar mass loss of a galaxy, from the time of merging into a larger halo until the final redshift, is proportional to the fractional amount of dark matter mass loss of the subhalo it lives in. Model 2 accounts for a delay in the time that stellar mass is lost due to the fact that the galaxy resides deep in the potential well of the subhalo and the subhalo may experience dark matter mass loss for some time before the galaxy is affected. We use these models to predict the stellar masses of a population of galaxies and we use abundance matching to predict the clustering of several r-band luminosity threshold samples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Abundance matching assuming no stellar mass loss (akin to abundance matching at the time of subhalo infall) overestimates the correlation function on small scales ({approx}< 1 Mpc), while allowing too much stellar mass loss leads to an underestimate of small-scale clustering. For each luminosity threshold sample, we are thus able to constrain the amount of stellar mass loss required to match the observed clustering. We find that satellite galaxy stellar mass loss is strongly luminosity dependent, with less luminous satellite galaxies experiencing substantially more efficient stellar mass loss than luminous satellites. With constrained stellar mass loss models, we can infer the amount of stellar mass that is deposited into the IHL. We find that both of our model predictions for the mean amount of IHL as a function of halo mass are consistent with current observational measurements. However, our two models predict a different amount of scatter in the IHL from halo to halo, with Model 2 being

  14. The universal stellar mass-stellar metallicity relation for dwarf galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Evan N.; Bullock, James S.; Cohen, Judith G.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Gallazzi, Anna

    2013-12-20

    We present spectroscopic metallicities of individual stars in seven gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxies (dIrrs), and we show that dIrrs obey the same mass-metallicity relation as the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellites of both the Milky Way and M31: Z{sub ∗}∝M{sub ∗}{sup 0.30±0.02}. The uniformity of the relation is in contradiction to previous estimates of metallicity based on photometry. This relationship is roughly continuous with the stellar mass-stellar metallicity relation for galaxies as massive as M {sub *} = 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}. Although the average metallicities of dwarf galaxies depend only on stellar mass, the shapes of their metallicity distributions depend on galaxy type. The metallicity distributions of dIrrs resemble simple, leaky box chemical evolution models, whereas dSphs require an additional parameter, such as gas accretion, to explain the shapes of their metallicity distributions. Furthermore, the metallicity distributions of the more luminous dSphs have sharp, metal-rich cut-offs that are consistent with the sudden truncation of star formation due to ram pressure stripping.

  15. Indicators of Stellar Mass in the Photometric H-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, John B.; Khatu, V. C.; Neilson, Hilding R.

    2017-02-01

    Extensive infrared spectral surveys, such as the APOGEE survey in the H-band, are now being conducted, many targeting the Galactic Bulge and recording observations of primarily red giant stars. However, because stars of different masses converge to the red giant region, the masses of single red giant stars are poorly constrained. These surveys are now using spectral resolving powers that are high enough to measure the equivalent widths of individual spectral lines, which are mostly from molecular species. Because other observations can constrain or determine the star’s luminosity and radius, we have computed spherical stellar atmospheres for a fixed luminosity and radius but for a range of masses. We then computed the H-band flux spectrum for each model and searched for spectral lines that are sensitive to mass. Our synthetic spectra reveal many lines of CO that become weaker with increasing stellar mass. To explore this, we created a ratio of equivalent widths using a representative, unblended CO line and an unblended OH line that did not vary with mass. We found that this ratio varied about 30% over the mass range from 0.8 {M}ȯ to 2.4 {M}ȯ . We repeated the spectral analysis using spherical model stellar atmospheres computed with a composition ≈ 1/3 solar and found that the ratio displayed a very similar dependence on mass. The presence in the H-band of spectral features sensitive to the masses of red giant stars opens up the potential of constraining more tightly the physical properties of the stars making up the galactic bulge and globular clusters.

  16. Brightest group galaxies: stellar mass and star formation rate (paper I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozaliasl, Ghassem; Finoguenov, Alexis; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Mirkazemi, Mohammad; Erfanianfar, Ghazaleh; Tanaka, Masayuki

    2016-05-01

    We study the distribution and evolution of the stellar mass and the star formation rate (SFR) of the brightest group galaxies (BGGs) over 0.04 < z < 1.3 using a large sample of 407 X-ray galaxy groups selected from the COSMOS, AEGIS, and XMM-LSS fields. We compare our results with predictions from the semi-analytic models based on the Millennium simulation. In contrast to model predictions, we find that, as the Universe evolves, the stellar mass distribution evolves towards a normal distribution. This distribution tends to skew to low-mass BGGs at all redshifts implying the presence of a star-forming population of the BGGs with MS ˜ 1010.5 M⊙ which results in the shape of the stellar mass distribution deviating from a normal distribution. In agreement with the models and previous studies, we find that the mean stellar mass of BGGs grows with time by a factor of ˜2 between z = 1.3 and z = 0.1, however, the significant growth occurs above z = 0.4. The BGGs are not entirely a dormant population of galaxies, as low-mass BGGs in low-mass haloes are more active in forming stars than the BGGs in more massive haloes, over the same redshift range. We find that the average SFR of the BGGs evolves steeply with redshift and fraction of the passive BGGs increases as a function of increasing stellar mass and halo mass. Finally, we show that the specific SFR of the BGGs within haloes with M200 ≤ 1013.4 M⊙ decreases with increasing halo mass at z < 0.4.

  17. Deep JH Imaging of the LITTLE THINGS Galaxies: Stellar Mass Assembly in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongxin; Hunter, Deidre; Herrmann, Kim; LITTLE THINGS Team

    2011-02-01

    We propose to obtain deep broadband JH images for 6 dwarf irregular galaxies (dIm) which are part of a larger sample assembled by the LITTLE THINGS project (a VLA Large Proposal). Using the NIR data requested here and other multi-band data we have collected, we will, for the first time, construct high-quality spectral energy distributions (SEDs) covering the whole spectral range of stellar emission for a representative sample of dIm galaxies. dIm galaxies numerically dominate the local Universe, yet our understanding of the star formation processes in dIm galaxies is very poor. For example, the star formation rate profile often correlates closely with the stellar surface brightness profile of the older stars, but not with the gas, and we do not know why. Also, abrupt changes in the slope of the stellar exponential profile imply a change in the star formation process at the surface brightness breaks according to some models, but this has not been shown observationally. With the SEDs constructed as a function of radius within each galaxy and our stellar population synthesis technique, we will answer the questions: 1) How is the stellar mass across the disks assembled throughout the lifetime of dwarf irregular galaxies? 2) Are there corresponding surface mass density breaks at the surface brightness breaks seen in many dIm galaxies? And is there any difference in the stellar populations before and beyond the surface brightness breaks?

  18. Deep JH Imaging of the LITTLE THINGS Galaxies: Stellar Mass Assembly in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongxin; Hunter, Deidre; Herrmann, Kim; Little Things Team

    2011-08-01

    We propose to obtain deep broadband JH images for 2 dwarf irregular galaxies (dIm) which are part of a larger sample assembled by the LITTLE THINGS project (a VLA Large Proposal). Using the NIR data requested here and other multi-band data we have collected, we will, for the first time, construct high-quality spectral energy distributions (SEDs) covering the whole spectral range of stellar emission for a representative sample of dIm galaxies. dIm galaxies numerically dominate the local universe, yet our understanding of the star formation processes in dIm galaxies is very poor. For example, the star formation rate profile often correlates closely with the stellar surface brightness profile of the older stars, but not with the gas, and we do not know why. Also, abrupt changes in the slope of the stellar exponential profile imply a change in the star formation process at the surface brightness breaks according to some models, but this has not been shown observationally. With the SEDs constructed as a function of radius within each galaxy and our stellar population synthesis technique, we will answer the questions: 1) How is the stellar mass across the disks assembled throughout the lifetime of dwarf irregular galaxies? 2) Are there corresponding surface mass density breaks at the surface brightness breaks seen in many dIm galaxies? 3) Is there any difference in the stellar populations before and beyond the surface brightness breaks?

  19. Stellar Mass Radial Profiles of Pan-STARRS MDS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zheng; Thilker, D. A.; Heckman, T. M.

    2013-01-01

    Six-band (ugrizy) surface brightness radial profiles are derived for a sample of 48 late-type face-on non-interacting nearby galaxies using the Pan-STARRS Medium Deep Survey stack imaging (grizy) and the CFHT deep u-band imaging data. The surface brightnesses are measured down to ~ 29-30 ABmag/arcsec^2. The SB radial profiles are then fed into the advanced SED fitting software MAGPHYS (da Cunha et al. 2008) to derive radial profiles of stellar mass surface density as well as other parameters, such as metallicity and star formation history. The output stellar mass surface density profiles can be classified into three types (single exponential, down-bending, and up-bending), which is consistent with the results of Polen & Trujillo (2006). But the up-bending profiles are more common than indicated in PT06.

  20. The Stellar Populations of Deeply Embedded Young Clusters: Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Emergent Mass Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Michael R.

    1996-04-01

    The goal of this thesis is to test the following hypothesis: the initial distribution of stellar masses from a single "episode" of star formation is independent of the local physical conditions of the region. In other words, is the initial mass function (IMF) strictly universal over spatial scales d < 1 \\ pc and over time intervals Delta-tau << 3 x 10^6 yrs? We discuss the utility of embedded clusters in addressing this question. Using a combination of spectroscopic and photometric techniques, we seek to characterize emergent mass distributions of embedded clusters in order to compare them both with each other and with the field star IMF. Medium resolution (R=1000) near-infrared spectra obtainable with the current generation of NIR grating spectrographs can provide estimates of the photospheric temperatures of optically-invisible stars. Deriving these spectral types requires a three--step process; i) setting up a classification scheme based on near-infrared spectra of spectral standards; ii) understanding the effects of accretion on this classification scheme by studying optically-visible young stellar objects; and iii) applying this classification technique to the deeply embedded clusters. Combining near-infrared photometry with spectral types, accurate stellar luminosities can be derived for heavily reddened young stars thus enabling their placement in the H-R diagram. From their position in the H-R diagram, masses and ages of stars can be estimated from comparison with theoretical pre-main sequence evolutionary models. Because it is not practical to obtain complete spectroscopic samples of embedded cluster members, a technique is developed based solely on near-IR photometry for estimating stellar luminosities from flux--limited surveys. We then describe how spectroscopic surveys of deeply embedded clusters are necessary in order to adopt appropriate mass-luminosity relationships. Stellar luminosity functions constructed from complete extinction-limited samples

  1. THE CLOSE STELLAR COMPANIONS TO INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Trenti, Michele

    2016-03-01

    When embedded in dense cluster cores, intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) acquire close stellar or stellar-remnant companions. These companions are not only gravitationally bound, but also tend to hierarchically isolate from other cluster stars through series of multibody encounters. In this paper we study the demographics of IMBH companions in compact star clusters through direct N-body simulations. We study clusters initially composed of 10{sup 5} or 2 × 10{sup 5} stars with IMBHs of 75 and 150 solar masses, and we follow their evolution for 6–10 Gyr. A tight, innermost binary pair of IMBH and stellar object rapidly forms. The IMBH has a companion with an orbital semimajor axis at least three times tighter than the second-most-bound object over 90% of the time. These companionships have typical periods on the order of years and are subject to cycles of exchange and destruction. The most frequently observed, long-lived pairings persist for ∼10{sup 7} years. The demographics of IMBH companions in clusters are diverse: they include both main-sequence, giant stars and stellar remnants. Companion objects may reveal the presence of an IMBH in a cluster in one of several ways. The most-bound companion stars routinely suffer grazing tidal interactions with the IMBH, offering a dynamical mechanism to produce repeated flaring episodes like those seen in the IMBH candidate HLX-1. The stellar winds of companion stars provide a minimum quiescent accretion rate for IMBHs, with implications for radio searches for IMBH accretion in globular clusters. Finally, gravitational wave inspirals of compact objects occur with promising frequency.

  2. The Close Stellar Companions to Intermediate-mass Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, Morgan; Trenti, Michele; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2016-03-01

    When embedded in dense cluster cores, intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) acquire close stellar or stellar-remnant companions. These companions are not only gravitationally bound, but also tend to hierarchically isolate from other cluster stars through series of multibody encounters. In this paper we study the demographics of IMBH companions in compact star clusters through direct N-body simulations. We study clusters initially composed of 105 or 2 × 105 stars with IMBHs of 75 and 150 solar masses, and we follow their evolution for 6-10 Gyr. A tight, innermost binary pair of IMBH and stellar object rapidly forms. The IMBH has a companion with an orbital semimajor axis at least three times tighter than the second-most-bound object over 90% of the time. These companionships have typical periods on the order of years and are subject to cycles of exchange and destruction. The most frequently observed, long-lived pairings persist for ˜107 years. The demographics of IMBH companions in clusters are diverse: they include both main-sequence, giant stars and stellar remnants. Companion objects may reveal the presence of an IMBH in a cluster in one of several ways. The most-bound companion stars routinely suffer grazing tidal interactions with the IMBH, offering a dynamical mechanism to produce repeated flaring episodes like those seen in the IMBH candidate HLX-1. The stellar winds of companion stars provide a minimum quiescent accretion rate for IMBHs, with implications for radio searches for IMBH accretion in globular clusters. Finally, gravitational wave inspirals of compact objects occur with promising frequency.

  3. Model atmospheres of sub-stellar mass objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubeny, Ivan

    2017-07-01

    We present an outline of basic assumptions and governing structural equations describing atmospheres of sub-stellar mass objects, in particular the extrasolar giant planets and brown dwarfs. Although most of the presentation of the physical and numerical background is generic, details of the implementation pertain mostly to the code cooltlusty. We also present a review of numerical approaches and computer codes devised to solve the structural equations, and make a critical evaluation of their efficiency and accuracy.

  4. Probing the Mass Distribution and Stellar Populations of M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Johnny; Martini, P.; Thompson, T. A.

    2012-01-01

    M82 is often considered the archetypical starburst galaxy because of its spectacular starbust-driven superwind. Its close proximity of 3.6 Mpc and nearly edge-on geometry make it a unique laboratory for studying the physics of rapid star formation and violent galactic winds. In addition, there is evidence that it has been tidally-truncated by its interaction with M81 and therefore has essentially no dark matter halo. The mass distribution of this galaxy is needed to estimate the power of its superwind, as well as determine if a dark matter halo is still present. Numerous studies have used stellar and gas dynamics to estimate the mass distribution, yet the substantial dust attenuation has been a significant challenge. We have measured the stellar kinematics in the near-infrared K-band with the LUCI-1 spectrograph at the Large Binocular Telescope. We used the '2CO stellar absorption bandhead at 2.29µm to measure the stellar rotation curve out to ˜4kpc, and our results confirm that the dark matter halo is still present. This is in stark contrast with the nearly Keplerian gas dynamics measured with HI and CO emission from the interstellar medium. We estimate M82's dynamical mass to be ˜1010 M⊙. We have also measured the equivalent width of the 12CO bandhead to provide new constraints on the spatial extent of the red supergiant population. The variation in the CO equivalent width with radius clearly shows that supergiants dominate the light within 0.5kpc radius. The superwind is likely launched from this region, where we estimate the enclosed mass is 2×109 M⊙.

  5. Einstein's Gift: Stellar Mass Black Holes in the LIGO Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadonati, Laura; Georgia Institute of Technology, LIGO-Virgo Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of gravitational waves from the coalescence of black hole binary systems in LIGO has provided the first evidence for heavy stellar mass black holes. In this talk, I will review the observational evidence for black holes in LIGO data, its astrophysical implications and the plans for the near and long term future of ground based gravitational wave detection of black hole binary coalescences.

  6. A New Method for Deriving the Stellar Birth Function of Resolved Stellar Populations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennaro, M.; Tchernyshyov, K.; Brown, T. M.; Gordon, K. D.

    2015-07-01

    We present a new method for deriving the stellar birth function (SBF) of resolved stellar populations. The SBF (stars born per unit mass, time, and metallicity) is the combination of the initial mass function (IMF), the star formation history (SFH), and the metallicity distribution function (MDF). The framework of our analysis is that of Poisson Point Processes (PPPs), a class of statistical models suitable when dealing with points (stars) in a multidimensional space (the measurement space of multiple photometric bands). The theory of PPPs easily accommodates the modeling of measurement errors as well as that of incompleteness. Our method avoids binning stars in the color-magnitude diagram and uses the whole likelihood function for each data point; combining the individual likelihoods allows the computation of the posterior probability for the population's SBF. Within the proposed framework it is possible to include nuisance parameters, such as distance and extinction, by specifying their prior distributions and marginalizing over them. The aim of this paper is to assess the validity of this new approach under a range of assumptions, using only simulated data. Forthcoming work will show applications to real data. Although it has a broad scope of possible applications, we have developed this method to study multi-band Hubble Space Telescope observations of the Milky Way Bulge. Therefore we will focus on simulations with characteristics similar to those of the Galactic Bulge. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at STScI, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  7. The dependence of convective core overshooting on stellar mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claret, A.; Torres, G.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Convective core overshooting extends the main-sequence lifetime of a star. Evolutionary tracks computed with overshooting are very different from those that use the classical Schwarzschild criterion, which leads to rather different predictions for the stellar properties. Attempts over the last two decades to calibrate the degree of overshooting with stellar mass using detached double-lined eclipsing binaries have been largely inconclusive, mainly because of a lack of suitable observational data. Aims: We revisit the question of a possible mass dependence of overshooting with a more complete sample of binaries, and examine any additional relation there might be with evolutionary state or metal abundance Z. Methods: We used a carefully selected sample of 33 double-lined eclipsing binaries strategically positioned in the H-R diagram with accurate absolute dimensions and component masses ranging from 1.2 to 4.4 M⊙. We compared their measured properties with stellar evolution calculations to infer semi-empirical values of the overshooting parameter αov for each star. Our models use the common prescription for the overshoot distance dov = αovHp, where Hp is the pressure scale height at the edge of the convective core as given by the Schwarzschild criterion, and αov is a free parameter. Results: We find a relation between αov and mass, which is defined much more clearly than in previous work, and indicates a significant rise up to about 2 M⊙ followed by little or no change beyond this mass. No appreciable dependence is seen with evolutionary state at a given mass, or with metallicity at a given mass although the stars in our sample span a range of a factor of ten in [Fe/H], from -1.01 to + 0.01.

  8. Stellar density profile and mass of the Milky Way bulge from VVV data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenti, E.; Zoccali, M.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Minniti, D.; Alonso-García, J.; Marchetti, E.; Hempel, M.; Renzini, A.; Rejkuba, M.

    2016-03-01

    We present the first stellar density profile of the Milky Way bulge that reaches latitude b = 0°. The profile was derived by counting red clump stars within the colour-magnitude diagram that was constructed using the new PSF-fitting photometry from VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) survey data. The new stellar density map covers the area between | l | ≤ 10° and | b | ≤ 4.5° with unprecedented accuracy, allowing the stellar kinematics from the Giraffe Inner Bulge Spectroscopic Survey (GIBS) to be linked to the stellar mass density distribution. In particular, the location of the central velocity-dispersion peak from GIBS matches a high over-density in the VVV star count map. By scaling the total luminosity function (LF) obtained from all VVV fields to the LF from Zoccali et al.(2003), we obtain the first fully empirical estimate of the mass in stars and in remnants of the Galactic bulge. Within (| b | < 9.5°, | l | < 10°), the Milky Way bulge stellar mass is 2.0 ± 0.3 × 1010M⊙. Based on observations taken within the ESO/VISTA Public Survey VVV under the programme ID 179.B-2002 (PI: Minniti).

  9. Stellar haloes in Milky Way mass galaxies: from the inner to the outer haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissera, Patricia B.; Beers, Timothy C.; Carollo, Daniela; Scannapieco, Cecilia

    2014-04-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the chemical properties of the stellar haloes of Milky Way mass galaxies, analysing the transition between the inner to the outer haloes. We find the transition radius between the relative dominance of the inner-halo and outer-halo stellar populations to be ˜15-20 kpc for most of our haloes, similar to that inferred for the Milky Way from recent observations. While the number density of stars in the simulated inner-halo populations decreases rapidly with distance, the outer-halo populations contribute about 20-40 per cent in the fiducial solar neighbourhood, in particular at the lowest metallicities. We have determined [Fe/H] profiles for our simulated haloes; they exhibit flat or mild gradients, in the range [-0.002, -0.01] dex kpc-1. The metallicity distribution functions exhibit different features, reflecting the different assembly history of the individual stellar haloes. We find that stellar haloes formed with larger contributions from massive subgalactic systems have steeper metallicity gradients. Very metal-poor stars are mainly contributed to the halo systems by lower mass satellites. There is a clear trend among the predicted metallicity distribution functions that a higher fraction of low-metallicity stars are found with increasing radius. These properties are consistent with the range of behaviours observed for stellar haloes of nearby galaxies.

  10. RESEARCH PAPER: Old stellar population synthesis: new age and mass estimates for Mayall II = G1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jun; de Grijs, Richard; Fan, Zhou; Rey, Soo-Chang; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Zhou, Xu; Wu, Jiang-Hua; Jiang, Zhao-Ji; Chen, Jian-Sheng; Lee, Kyungsook; Sohn, Sangmo Tony

    2009-06-01

    Mayall II = G1 is one of the most luminous globular clusters (GCs) in M31. Here, we determine its age and mass by comparing multicolor photometry with theoretical stellar population synthesis models. Based on far- and near-ultraviolet GALEX photometry, broad-band UBVRI, and infrared JHKS 2MASS data, we construct the most extensive spectral energy distribution of G1 to date, spanning the wavelength range from 1538 to 20 000 Å. A quantitative comparison with a variety of simple stellar population (SSP) models yields a mean age which is consistent with G1 being among the oldest building blocks of M31 and having formed within ~1.7 Gyr after the Big Bang. Irrespective of the SSP model or stellar initial mass function adopted, the resulting mass estimates (of order 107 Modot) indicate that G1 is one of the most massive GCs in the Local Group. However, we speculate that the cluster's exceptionally high mass suggests that it may not be a genuine GC. Our results also suggest that G1 may contain, on average, (1.65±0.63) × 102 Lodot far-ultraviolet-bright, hot, extreme horizontal-branch stars, depending on the adopted SSP model. In addition, we demonstrate that extensive multi-passband photometry coupled with SSP analysis enables one to obtain age estimates for old SSPs that have similar accuracies as those from integrated spectroscopy or resolved stellar photometry, provided that some of the free parameters can be constrained independently.

  11. Stellar Populations of Deeply Embedded Young Clusters: Near--Infrared Spectroscopy and Emergent Mass Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Michael R.

    1996-02-01

    The goal of this thesis is to test the following hypothesis: the initial distribution of stellar masses from a single ``episode'' of star formation is independent of the local physical conditions of the region. In other words, is the initial mass function (IMF) strictly universal over spatial scales d < 1 pc and over time intervals Δ τ << 3 × 106yrs? We discuss the utility of embedded clusters in addressing this question. Using a combination of spectroscopic and photometric techniques, we seek to characterize emergent mass distributions of embedded clusters in order to compare them both with each other and with the field star IMF. Medium resolution (R = 1000) near--infrared spectra obtainable with the current generation of NIR grating spectrographs can provide estimates of the photospheric temperatures of optically--invisible stars. Deriving these spectral types requires a three--step process; i) setting up a classification scheme based on near--infrared spectra of spectral standards; ii) understanding the effects of accretion on this classification scheme by studying optically--visible young stellar objects; and iii) applying this classification technique to the deeply embedded clusters. Combining near--infrared photometry with spectral types, accurate stellar luminosities can be derived for heavily reddened young stars thus enabling their placement in the H--R diagram. From their position in the H--R diagram, masses and ages of stars can be estimated from comparison with theoretical pre--main sequence evolutionary models. Because it is not practical to obtain complete spectroscopic samples of embedded cluster members, a technique is developed based solely on near--IR photometry for estimating stellar luminosities from flux--limited surveys. We then describe how spectroscopic surveys of deeply embedded clusters are necessary in order to adopt appropriate mass--luminosity relationships. Stellar luminosity functions constructed from complete extinction

  12. Stellar evolution at high mass with convective core overshooting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.; Chin, C.-W.

    1985-01-01

    The transition from stellar evolution models with no convective core overshooting (CCO) at all to models in which homogeneous mixing due to CCO reaches far beyond the formal convective core boundary is systematically explored. Overshooting is parameterized in terms of the ratio d/H(p), where d is the distance of convective overshoot beyond the formal convective core boundary and H(p) is the local pressure scale height. It is concluded that CCO in very massive main sequence stars produces a great expansion of the stellar envelope if d/H(p) is large but not excessively large. CCO does not entirely suppress convective instability above the overshoot zone in the envelopes of main sequence stars more massive than about 15 solar masses. A general comparison of theoretically constructed isochrones for young stars with observed main sequence turnups indicates that the observed turnups are longer, brighter, and cooler at the tip than those expected on thfe basis of standard evolutionary theory.

  13. THE OBSERVED RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, DUST EXTINCTION, AND STAR FORMATION RATE IN LOCAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zahid, H. J.; Kewley, L. J.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Yates, R. M.

    2013-02-15

    In this study, we investigate the relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and star formation rate (SFR) using {approx}150,000 star-forming galaxies from SDSS DR7. We show that the relation between dust extinction and SFR changes with stellar mass. For galaxies at the same stellar mass, dust extinction is anti-correlated with the SFR at stellar masses <10{sup 10} M {sub Sun }. There is a sharp transition in the relation at a stellar mass of 10{sup 10} M {sub Sun }. At larger stellar masses, dust extinction is positively correlated with the SFR for galaxies at the same stellar mass. The observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR presented in this study helps to confirm similar trends observed in the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR. The relation reported in this study provides important new constraints on the physical processes governing the chemical evolution of galaxies. The correlation between SFR and dust extinction for galaxies with stellar masses >10{sup 10} M {sub Sun} is shown to extend to the population of quiescent galaxies suggesting that the physical processes responsible for the observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR may be related to the processes leading to the shutdown of star formation in galaxies.

  14. REPRODUCING THE STELLAR MASS/HALO MASS RELATION IN SIMULATED {Lambda}CDM GALAXIES: THEORY VERSUS OBSERVATIONAL ESTIMATES

    SciTech Connect

    Munshi, Ferah; Governato, F.; Loebman, S.; Quinn, T.; Brooks, A. M.; Christensen, C.; Shen, S.; Moster, B.; Wadsley, J.

    2013-03-20

    We examine the present-day total stellar-to-halo mass (SHM) ratio as a function of halo mass for a new sample of simulated field galaxies using fully cosmological, {Lambda}CDM, high-resolution SPH + N-body simulations. These simulations include an explicit treatment of metal line cooling, dust and self-shielding, H{sub 2}-based star formation (SF), and supernova-driven gas outflows. The 18 simulated halos have masses ranging from a few times 10{sup 8} to nearly 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }. At z = 0, our simulated galaxies have a baryon content and morphology typical of field galaxies. Over a stellar mass range of 2.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3}-4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} we find extremely good agreement between the SHM ratio in simulations and the present-day predictions from the statistical abundance matching technique presented in Moster et al. This improvement over past simulations is due to a number systematic factors, each decreasing the SHM ratios: (1) gas outflows that reduce the overall SF efficiency but allow for the formation of a cold gas component; (2) estimating the stellar masses of simulated galaxies using artificial observations and photometric techniques similar to those used in observations; and (3) accounting for a systematic, up to 30% overestimate in total halo masses in DM-only simulations, due to the neglect of baryon loss over cosmic times. Our analysis suggests that stellar mass estimates based on photometric magnitudes can underestimate the contribution of old stellar populations to the total stellar mass, leading to stellar mass errors of up to 50% for individual galaxies. These results highlight that implementing a realistic high density threshold for SF considerably reduces the overall SF efficiency due to more effective feedback. However, we show that in order to reduce the perceived tension between the SF efficiency in galaxy formation models and in real galaxies, it is very important to use proper techniques to

  15. RETENTION OF STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Morscher, Meagan; Umbreit, Stefan; Farr, Will M.; Rasio, Frederic A. E-mail: s-umbreit@northwestern.edu E-mail: rasio@northwestern.edu

    2013-01-20

    Globular clusters should be born with significant numbers of stellar-mass black holes (BHs). It has been thought for two decades that very few of these BHs could be retained through the cluster lifetime. With masses {approx}10 M{sub Sun }, BHs are {approx}20 times more massive than an average cluster star. They segregate into the cluster core, where they may eventually decouple from the remainder of the cluster. The small-N core then evaporates on a short timescale. This is the so-called Spitzer instability. Here we present the results of a full dynamical simulation of a globular cluster containing many stellar-mass BHs with a realistic mass spectrum. Our Monte Carlo simulation code includes detailed treatments of all relevant stellar evolution and dynamical processes. Our main finding is that old globular clusters could still contain many BHs at present. In our simulation, we find no evidence for the Spitzer instability. Instead, most of the BHs remain well mixed with the rest of the cluster, with only the innermost few tens of BHs segregating significantly. Over the 12 Gyr evolution, fewer than half of the BHs are dynamically ejected through strong binary interactions in the cluster core. The presence of BHs leads to long-term heating of the cluster, ultimately producing a core radius on the high end of the distribution for Milky Way globular clusters (and those of other galaxies). A crude extrapolation from our model suggests that the BH-BH merger rate from globular clusters could be comparable to the rate in the field.

  16. The Galaxy Cosmological Mass Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, A. R.; Iribarrem, A.; Ribeiro, M. B.; Stoeger, W. R.

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work is to present a semi-empirical relativistic approach which uses the general model connecting cosmological theory to observational data derived from galaxy surveys (Ribeiro & Stoeger 2003, ApJ, 592, 1) to study the galactic mass evolution. For this purpose we define a new quantity named the galaxy cosmological mass function (GCMF). We used the FORS Deep Field survey sample of 5558 galaxies in the redshift range 0.5 < z < 5.0 and its luminosity function in the B-band, as well as this sample's stellar masses. We obtained that the GCMF behaves as a power-law given by ζ (z) ∝ [M_{g}(z)]^{-2.3± 0.4}, where M_{g} is the average galactic mass in the studied redshift interval. This result can be seen as an average of the galaxy stellar mass function pattern found in the literature, where more massive galaxies were assembled earlier than less massive ones.

  17. The Scaling of Stellar Mass and Central Stellar Velocity Dispersion for Quiescent Galaxies at z<0.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahid, H. Jabran; Geller, Margaret J.; Fabricant, Daniel G.; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2016-12-01

    We examine the relation between stellar mass and central stellar velocity dispersion—the M * σ relation—for massive quiescent galaxies at z < 0.7. We measure the local relation from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the intermediate redshift relation from the Smithsonian Hectospec Lensing Survey. Both samples are highly complete (>85%) and we consistently measure the stellar mass and velocity dispersion for the two samples. The M * σ relation and its scatter are independent of redshift with σ \\propto {M}* 0.3 for M * ≳ 1010.3 M ⊙. The measured slope of the M * σ relation is the same as the scaling between the total halo mass and the dark matter halo velocity dispersion obtained by N-body simulations. This consistency suggests that massive quiescent galaxies are virialized systems, where the central dark matter concentration is either a constant or negligible fraction of the stellar mass. The relation between the total galaxy mass (stellar + dark matter) and the central stellar velocity dispersion is consistent with the observed relation between the total mass of a galaxy cluster and the velocity dispersion of the cluster members. This result suggests that the central stellar velocity dispersion is directly proportional to the velocity dispersion of the dark matter halo. Thus, the central stellar velocity dispersion is a fundamental, directly observable property of galaxies, which may robustly connect galaxies to dark matter halos in N-body simulations. To interpret the results further in the context of ΛCDM, it would be useful to analyze the relationship between the velocity dispersion of stellar particles and the velocity dispersion characterizing their dark matter halos in high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulations.

  18. Hierarchical Galaxy Growth and Scatter in the Stellar Mass-Halo Mass Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Meng; Conroy, Charlie; Behroozi, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The relation between galaxies and dark matter halos reflects the combined effects of many distinct physical processes. Observations indicate that the z = 0 stellar mass-halo mass (SMHM) relation has remarkably small scatter in stellar mass at fixed halo mass (≲0.2 dex), with little dependence on halo mass. We investigate the origins of this scatter by combining N-body simulations with observational constraints on the SMHM relation. We find that at the group and cluster scale ({M}{vir}\\gt {10}14 {M}⊙ ) the scatter due purely to hierarchical assembly is ≈ 0.16 dex, which is comparable to recent direct observational estimates. At lower masses, mass buildup since z≈ 2 is driven largely by in situ growth. We include a model for the in situ buildup of stellar mass and find that an intrinsic scatter in this growth channel of 0.2 dex produces a relation between scatter and halo mass that is consistent with observations from {10}12 {M}⊙ \\lt {M}{vir}\\lt {10}14.75 {M}⊙ . The approximately constant scatter across a wide range of halo masses at z = 0 thus appears to be a coincidence, as it is determined largely by in situ growth at low masses and by hierarchical assembly at high masses. These results indicate that the scatter in the SMHM relation can provide unique insight into the regularity of the galaxy formation process.

  19. THE FATE OF STELLAR MASS LOSS IN CENTRAL CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Voit, G. Mark; Donahue, Megan

    2011-09-10

    Star formation within the central galaxies of galaxy clusters is often interpreted as being fueled by cooling of the hot intracluster medium. However, the star-forming gas is dusty, and Spitzer spectra show that the dust properties are similar to those in more normal star-forming environments, in which the dust has come from the winds of dying stars. Here we consider whether the primary source of the star-forming gas in central cluster galaxies could be normal stellar mass loss. We show that the overall stellar mass-loss rate in a large central galaxy ({approx}4-8 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) is at least as large as the observed star formation rates in all but the most extreme cases and must be included in any assessment of the gas-mass budget of a central cluster galaxy. We also present arguments suggesting that the gas shed by stars in galaxy clusters with high core pressures and short central cooling times may remain cool and distinct from its hot surroundings, thereby preserving the dust within it.

  20. Structure and evolution of high-mass stellar mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glebbeek, Evert; Gaburov, Evghenii; Portegies Zwart, Simon; Pols, Onno R.

    2013-10-01

    In young dense clusters repeated collisions between massive stars may lead to the formation of a very massive star (above 100 M⊙). In the past, the study of the long-term evolution of merger remnants has mostly focused on collisions between low-mass stars (up to about 2 M⊙) in the context of blue-straggler formation. The evolution of collision products of more massive stars has not been as thoroughly investigated. In this paper, we study the long-term evolution of a number of stellar mergers formed by the head-on collision of a primary star with a mass of 5-40 M⊙ with a lower mass star at three points in its evolution in order to better understand their evolution. We use smooth particle hydrodynamics calculations to model the collision between the stars. The outcome of this calculation is reduced to one dimension and imported into a stellar evolution code. We follow the subsequent evolution of the collision product through the main sequence at least until the onset of helium burning. We find that little hydrogen is mixed into the core of the collision products, in agreement with previous studies of collisions between low-mass stars. For collisions involving evolved stars, we find that during the merger the surface nitrogen abundance can be strongly enhanced. The evolution of most of the collision products proceeds analogously to that of normal stars with the same mass, but with a larger radius and luminosity. However, the evolution of collision products that form with a hydrogen-depleted core is markedly different from that of normal stars with the same mass. They undergo a long-lived period of hydrogen-shell burning close to the main-sequence band in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and spend the initial part of core-helium burning as compact blue supergiants.

  1. The Magellanic Analog Dwarf Companions and Stellar Halos (MADCASH) Survey: Near-Field Cosmology with Resolved Stellar Populations Around Local Volume LMC Stellar-Mass Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Sand, David J.; Willman, Beth; Brodie, Jean P.; Crnojevic, Denija; Peter, Annika; Price, Paul A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Spekkens, Kristine; Strader, Jay

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the first results of our observational program to comprehensively map nearly the entire virial volumes of roughly LMC stellar mass galaxies at distances of ~2-4 Mpc. The MADCASH (Magellanic Analog Dwarf Companions And Stellar Halos) survey will deliver the first census of the dwarf satellite populations and stellar halo properties within LMC-like environments in the Local Volume. These will inform our understanding of the recent DES discoveries of dwarf satellites tentatively affiliated with the LMC/SMC system. We will detail our discovery of the faintest known dwarf galaxy satellite of an LMC stellar-mass host beyond the Local Group, based on deep Subaru+HyperSuprimeCam imaging reaching ~2 magnitudes below its TRGB. We will summarize the survey results and status to date, highlighting some challenges encountered and lessons learned as we process the data for this program through a prototype LSST pipeline. Our program will examine whether LMC stellar mass dwarfs have extended stellar halos, allowing us to assess the relative contributions of in-situ stars vs. merger debris to their stellar populations and halo density profiles. We outline the constraints on galaxy formation models that will be provided by our observations of low-mass galaxy halos and their satellites.

  2. Very Low Mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-like Stars from MARVELS. IV. A Candidate Brown Dwarf or Low-mass Stellar Companion to HIP 67526

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Peng; Ge, Jian; Cargile, Phillip; Crepp, Justin R.; De Lee, Nathan; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Esposito, Massimiliano; Ferreira, Letícia D.; Femenia, Bruno; Fleming, Scott W.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Ghezzi, Luan; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Hebb, Leslie; Lee, Brian L.; Ma, Bo; Stassun, Keivan G.; Wang, Ji; Wisniewski, John P.; Agol, Eric; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Chang, Liang; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz; Eastman, Jason D.; Ebelke, Garrett; Gary, Bruce; Kane, Stephen R.; Li, Rui; Liu, Jian; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Muna, Demitri; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Oravetz, Audrey; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Pepper, Joshua; Paegert, Martin; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Rebolo, Rafael; Santiago, Basilio X.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shelden Bradley, Alaina C.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Snedden, Stephanie; van Eyken, J. C.; Wan, Xiaoke; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Zhao, Bo

    2013-09-01

    We report the discovery of a candidate brown dwarf (BD) or a very low mass stellar companion (MARVELS-5b) to the star HIP 67526 from the Multi-object Apache point observatory Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The radial velocity curve for this object contains 31 epochs spread over 2.5 yr. Our Keplerian fit, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, reveals that the companion has an orbital period of 90.2695^{+0.0188}_{-0.0187} days, an eccentricity of 0.4375 ± 0.0040, and a semi-amplitude of 2948.14^{+16.65}_{-16.55} m s-1. Using additional high-resolution spectroscopy, we find the host star has an effective temperature T eff = 6004 ± 34 K, a surface gravity log g (cgs) =4.55 ± 0.17, and a metallicity [Fe/H] =+0.04 ± 0.06. The stellar mass and radius determined through the empirical relationship of Torres et al. yields 1.10 ± 0.09 M ⊙ and 0.92 ± 0.19 R ⊙. The minimum mass of MARVELS-5b is 65.0 ± 2.9M Jup, indicating that it is likely to be either a BD or a very low mass star, thus occupying a relatively sparsely populated region of the mass function of companions to solar-type stars. The distance to this system is 101 ± 10 pc from the astrometric measurements of Hipparcos. No stellar tertiary is detected in the high-contrast images taken by either FastCam lucky imaging or Keck adaptive optics imaging, ruling out any star with mass greater than 0.2 M ⊙ at a separation larger than 40 AU.

  3. VERY LOW MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. IV. A CANDIDATE BROWN DWARF OR LOW-MASS STELLAR COMPANION TO HIP 67526

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Peng; Ge Jian; De Lee, Nathan; Fleming, Scott W.; Lee, Brian L.; Ma Bo; Wang, Ji; Cargile, Phillip; Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan G.; Crepp, Justin R.; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Ferreira, Leticia D.; Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I.; Ghezzi, Luan; Wisniewski, John P.; Agol, Eric; and others

    2013-09-15

    We report the discovery of a candidate brown dwarf (BD) or a very low mass stellar companion (MARVELS-5b) to the star HIP 67526 from the Multi-object Apache point observatory Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The radial velocity curve for this object contains 31 epochs spread over 2.5 yr. Our Keplerian fit, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, reveals that the companion has an orbital period of 90.2695{sup +0.0188}{sub -0.0187} days, an eccentricity of 0.4375 {+-} 0.0040, and a semi-amplitude of 2948.14{sup +16.65}{sub -16.55} m s{sup -1}. Using additional high-resolution spectroscopy, we find the host star has an effective temperature T{sub eff} = 6004 {+-} 34 K, a surface gravity log g (cgs) =4.55 {+-} 0.17, and a metallicity [Fe/H] =+0.04 {+-} 0.06. The stellar mass and radius determined through the empirical relationship of Torres et al. yields 1.10 {+-} 0.09 M{sub Sun} and 0.92 {+-} 0.19 R{sub Sun }. The minimum mass of MARVELS-5b is 65.0 {+-} 2.9M{sub Jup}, indicating that it is likely to be either a BD or a very low mass star, thus occupying a relatively sparsely populated region of the mass function of companions to solar-type stars. The distance to this system is 101 {+-} 10 pc from the astrometric measurements of Hipparcos. No stellar tertiary is detected in the high-contrast images taken by either FastCam lucky imaging or Keck adaptive optics imaging, ruling out any star with mass greater than 0.2 M{sub Sun} at a separation larger than 40 AU.

  4. Galaxy metallicities depend primarily on stellar mass and molecular gas mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothwell, M. S.; Maiolino, R.; Cicone, C.; Peng, Y.; Wagg, J.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: We present an analysis of the behaviour of galaxies in a four-dimensional parameter space defined by stellar mass, metallicity, star formation rate, and molecular gas mass. We analyse a combined sample of 227 galaxies that draws from a number of surveys across the redshift range 0 < z < 2 (>90% of the sample at z 0) and covers >3 decades in stellar mass. Methods: Using principal component analysis, we demonstrate that galaxies in our sample lie on a 2D plane within this 4D parameter space, which is indicative of galaxies that exist in an equilibrium between gas inflow and outflow. Furthermore, we find that the metallicity of galaxies depends only on stellar mass and molecular gas mass. In other words, gas-phase metallicity has a negligible dependence on star formation rate once the correlated effect of molecular gas content is accounted for. Results: The well-known fundamental metallicity relation which describes a close and tight relationship between metallicity and SFR (at fixed stellar mass) is therefore entirely a by-product of the underlying physical relationship with molecular gas mass (through the Schmidt-Kennicutt relation).

  5. SPIDER. V. MEASURING SYSTEMATIC EFFECTS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXY STELLAR MASSES FROM PHOTOMETRIC SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION FITTING

    SciTech Connect

    Swindle, R.; Gal, R. R.; La Barbera, F.; De Carvalho, R. R.

    2011-10-15

    We present robust statistical estimates of the accuracy of early-type galaxy stellar masses derived from spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting as functions of various empirical and theoretical assumptions. Using large samples consisting of {approx}40,000 galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS; ugriz), of which {approx}5000 are also in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (YJHK), with spectroscopic redshifts in the range 0.05 {<=} z {<=} 0.095, we test the reliability of some commonly used stellar population models and extinction laws for computing stellar masses. Spectroscopic ages (t), metallicities (Z), and extinctions (A{sub V} ) are also computed from fits to SDSS spectra using various population models. These external constraints are used in additional tests to estimate the systematic errors in the stellar masses derived from SED fitting, where t, Z, and A{sub V} are typically left as free parameters. We find reasonable agreement in mass estimates among stellar population models, with variation of the initial mass function and extinction law yielding systematic biases on the mass of nearly a factor of two, in agreement with other studies. Removing the near-infrared bands changes the statistical bias in mass by only {approx}0.06 dex, adding uncertainties of {approx}0.1 dex at the 95% CL. In contrast, we find that removing an ultraviolet band is more critical, introducing 2{sigma} uncertainties of {approx}0.15 dex. Finally, we find that the stellar masses are less affected by the absence of metallicity and/or dust extinction knowledge. However, there is a definite systematic offset in the mass estimate when the stellar population age is unknown, up to a factor of 2.5 for very old (12 Gyr) stellar populations. We present the stellar masses for our sample, corrected for the measured systematic biases due to photometrically determined ages, finding that age errors produce lower stellar masses by {approx}0.15 dex, with errors of {approx}0.02 dex at the

  6. Mass loss from red giants: its development, dust properties, and dependence on the stellar parameters mass, luminosity and metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Peter; Blommaert, Joris; Cioni, Maria-Rosa; Feast, Michael; Groenewegen, Martin; Habing, Harm; Hony, Sacha; Loup, Cecile; Matsuura, Mikako; Omont, Alain; Waters, Rens; Whitelock, Patricia; Zijlstra, Albert; van Loon, Jacco

    2004-09-01

    We wish to obtain low resolution IRS spectra of highly evolved, low and intermediate mass stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. Our sample of stars consists of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in both the general field of the Clouds and in clusters, and it complements the GTO samples of Houck and Kemper. The stars range from lower luminosity stars with small mass loss rates in the two clusters NGC419 and NGC1978 to dust-enshrouded stars in the "superwind" phase. The stars have been studied from the ground (mostly by members of this team) in order to determine spectral types, pulsation periods and amplitudes, and optical and near-infrared fluxes. Our aim is to use the IRS spectra to empirically determine the dependence of mass loss rate on stellar mass, luminosity, pulsation period and amplitude, and metallicity. We will also examine the dust properties as a function of mass loss rate, luminosity and photospheric chemical type. The AGB mass loss law resulting from this study will allow accurate AGB stellar evolution calculations to be made, meaning that reliable estimates can be made of the total mass loss from an AGB star, the stellar remnant mass, and the amounts of nucleosynthetic products ejected. Since the rate of mass return to, and enrichment of, the interstellar medium by low and intermediate mass stars depends critically on the mass loss rate and surface enrichment during the AGB phase, an accurate mass loss law will greatly enhance the reliability of galactic enrichment models. Our total request is for 31.4 hours.

  7. Organized chaos: scatter in the relation between stellar mass and halo mass in small galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Bullock, James S.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bardwell, Emma

    2017-01-01

    We use Local Group galaxy counts together with the ELVIS N-body simulations to explore the relationship between the scatter and slope in the stellar mass versus halo mass relation at low masses, M⋆ ≃ 105-108 M⊙. Assuming models with lognormal scatter about a median relation of the form M_star ∝ M_halo^α, the preferred log-slope steepens from α ≃ 1.8 in the limit of zero scatter to α ≃ 2.6 in the case of 2 dex of scatter in M⋆ at fixed halo mass. We provide fitting functions for the best-fitting relations as a function of scatter, including cases where the relation becomes increasingly stochastic with decreasing mass. We show that if the scatter at fixed halo mass is large enough (≳ 1 dex) and if the median relation is steep enough (α ≳ 2), then the `too-big-to-fail' problem seen in the Local Group can be self-consistently eliminated in about ˜5-10 per cent of realizations. This scenario requires that the most massive subhaloes host unobservable ultra-faint dwarfs fairly often; we discuss potentially observable signatures of these systems. Finally, we compare our derived constraints to recent high-resolution simulations of dwarf galaxy formation in the literature. Though simulation-to-simulation scatter in M⋆ at fixed Mhalo is large among different authors (˜2 dex), individual codes produce relations with much less scatter and usually give relations that would overproduce local galaxy counts.

  8. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY. III. MEASURING AGES AND MASSES OF PARTIALLY RESOLVED STELLAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Beerman, Lori C.; Johnson, L. Clifton; Fouesneau, Morgan; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Ben F.; Seth, Anil C.; Bell, Eric F.; Bianchi, Luciana C.; Caldwell, Nelson; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Kalirai, Jason S.; Larsen, Soren S.; Melbourne, Jason L.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skillman, Evan D.

    2012-12-01

    The apparent age and mass of a stellar cluster can be strongly affected by stochastic sampling of the stellar initial mass function (IMF), when inferred from the integrated color of low-mass clusters ({approx}<10{sup 4} M {sub Sun }). We use simulated star clusters to show that these effects are minimized when the brightest, rapidly evolving stars in a cluster can be resolved, and the light of the fainter, more numerous unresolved stars can be analyzed separately. When comparing the light from the less luminous cluster members to models of unresolved light, more accurate age estimates can be obtained than when analyzing the integrated light from the entire cluster under the assumption that the IMF is fully populated. We show the success of this technique first using simulated clusters, and then with a stellar cluster in M31. This method represents one way of accounting for the discrete, stochastic sampling of the stellar IMF in less massive clusters and can be leveraged in studies of clusters throughout the Local Group and other nearby galaxies.

  9. Mergers of accreting stellar-mass black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, H.; Umemura, M.; Gouda, N.

    2016-11-01

    We present post-Newtonian N-body simulations on mergers of accreting stellar-mass black holes (BHs), where such general relativistic effects as the pericentre shift and gravitational wave (GW) emission are taken into consideration. The attention is concentrated on the effects of the dynamical friction and the Hoyle-Lyttleton mass accretion by ambient gas. We consider a system composed of 10 BHs with initial mass of 30 M⊙. As a result, we show that mergers of accreting stellar-mass BHs are classified into four types: a gas drag-driven, an interplay-driven, a three-body-driven, or an accretion-driven merger. We find that BH mergers proceed before significant mass accretion, even if the accretion rate is ˜10 Eddington accretion rate, and then all BHs can merge into one heavy BH. Using the simulation results for a wide range of parameters, we derive a critical accretion rate (dot{m}_c), below which the BH growth is promoted faster by mergers. Also, it is found that the effect of the recoil by the GW emission can reduce dot{m}_c especially in gas number density higher than 108 cm-3, and enhance the escape probability of merged BHs. Very recently, a gravitational wave event, GW150914, as a result of the merger of a ˜30 M⊙ BH binary has been detected. Based on the present simulations, the BH merger in GW150914 is likely to be driven by three-body encounters accompanied by a few M⊙ of gas accretion, in high-density environments like dense interstellar clouds or galactic nuclei.

  10. CCFpams: Atmospheric stellar parameters from cross-correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malavolta, Luca; Lovis, Christophe; Pepe, Francesco; Sneden, Christopher; Udry, Stephane

    2017-07-01

    CCFpams allows the measurement of stellar temperature, metallicity and gravity within a few seconds and in a completely automated fashion. Rather than performing comparisons with spectral libraries, the technique is based on the determination of several cross-correlation functions (CCFs) obtained by including spectral features with different sensitivity to the photospheric parameters. Literature stellar parameters of high signal-to-noise (SNR) and high-resolution HARPS spectra of FGK Main Sequence stars are used to calibrate the stellar parameters as a function of CCF areas.

  11. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) . Exploring the dependence of the three-point correlation function on stellar mass and luminosity at 0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moresco, M.; Marulli, F.; Moscardini, L.; Branchini, E.; Cappi, A.; Davidzon, I.; Granett, B. R.; de la Torre, S.; Guzzo, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Carbone, C.; Coupon, J.; Cucciati, O.; De Lucia, G.; Franzetti, P.; Fritz, A.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Małek, K.; McCracken, H. J.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.

    2017-08-01

    Aims: The three-point correlation function (3PCF) is a powerful probe to investigate the clustering of matter in the Universe in a complementary way with respect to lower-order statistics, providing additional information with respect to the two-point correlation function and allowing us to shed light on biasing, non-linear processes, and deviations from Gaussian statistics. In this paper, we analyse the first data release of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), determining the dependence of the three-point correlation function on luminosity and stellar mass at z = [ 0.5,1.1 ]. Methods: We exploit the VIPERS Public Data Release 1, consisting of more than 50 000 galaxies with B-band magnitudes in the range - 21.6 ≲ MB - 5log (h) ≲ - 19.9 and stellar masses in the range 9.8 ≲ log (M⋆ [ h-2M⊙ ] ) ≲ 10.7. We measure both the connected 3PCF and the reduced 3PCF in redshift space, probing different configurations and scales, in the range 2.5 stellar masses in the range we explored. These trends, already observed at low redshifts, are confirmed for the first time to be still valid up to z = 1.1, providing support to the hierarchical scenario for which massive and bright systems are expected to be more clustered. The possibility of using the measured 3PCF to provide independent constraints on the linear galaxy bias b has also been explored, showing promising results in agreement with other probes. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile under programmes 182.A-0886 (LP) at the Very Large Telescope, and also based on observations obtained with Mega

  12. THE RELATION BETWEEN BLACK HOLE MASS AND HOST SPHEROID STELLAR MASS OUT TO z {approx} 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bennert, Vardha N.; Auger, Matthew W.; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak; Malkan, Matthew A. E-mail: tt@physics.ucsb.edu E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2011-12-01

    We combine Hubble Space Telescope images from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey with archival Very Large Telescope and Keck spectra of a sample of 11 X-ray-selected broad-line active galactic nuclei in the redshift range 1 < z < 2 to study the black-hole-mass-stellar-mass relation out to a look-back time of 10 Gyr. Stellar masses of the spheroidal component (M{sub sph,*}) are derived from multi-filter surface photometry. Black hole masses (M{sub BH}) are estimated from the width of the broad Mg II emission line and the 3000 A nuclear luminosity. Comparing with a uniformly measured local sample and taking into account selection effects, we find evolution in the form M{sub BH}/M{sub sph,*}{proportional_to}(1 + z){sup 1.96{+-}}0{sup .55}, in agreement with our earlier studies based on spheroid luminosity. However, this result is more accurate because it does not require a correction for luminosity evolution and therefore avoids the related and dominant systematic uncertainty. We also measure total stellar masses (M{sub host,*}). Combining our sample with data from the literature, we find M{sub BH}/M{sub host,*}{proportional_to}(1 + z){sup 1.15{+-}0.15}, consistent with the hypothesis that black holes (in the range M{sub BH} {approx} 10{sup 8-9} M{sub Sun }) pre-date the formation of their host galaxies. Roughly, one-third of our objects reside in spiral galaxies; none of the host galaxies reveal signs of interaction or major merger activity. Combined with the slower evolution in host stellar masses compared to spheroid stellar masses, our results indicate that secular evolution or minor mergers play a non-negligible role in growing both BHs and spheroids.

  13. Stellar energy transfer by keV-mass scalars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffelt, Georg G.; Starkman, Glenn D.

    1989-08-01

    We investigate the effects of massive pseudoscalar particles χ on stellar evolution, focusing on the case where these new states interact only with electrons. If the effective fine-structure constant αx is sufficiently small, they escape freely and rob stellar interiors of energy; if it is so large that they scatter or decay in the star, they contribute to the radiative energy transfer. In this case, their thermal number density must be suppressed by a Boltzmann factor e-mx/T in order to avoid excessive heat transport. We derive general expressions for the energy transport by massive bosons and calculate all relevant contributions to the opacity in the limit mx>>T. In order to avoid either excessive energy loss or excessive energy transport in the Sun, we exclude the parameter range -19+0.32mx-4.5 lnmx<~lnαx<~2.3 -0.32mx+0.5 lnmx, where the particle mass mx is in units of keV. More restrictive constraints are derived from the observed properties of horizontal-branch stars. This excludes a recent suggestion that the presence of a γχ channel accounts for the anomalous decay width of orthopositronium. We stress the importance of numerical studies of both horizontal-branch stars and red giants.

  14. Mass transfer between debris discs during close stellar encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jílková, Lucie; Hamers, Adrian S.; Hammer, Michael; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2016-04-01

    We study mass transfers between debris discs during stellar encounters. We carried out numerical simulations of close flybys of two stars, one of which has a disc of planetesimals represented by test particles. We explored the parameter space of the encounters, varying the mass ratio of the two stars, their pericentre and eccentricity of the encounter, and its geometry. We find that particles are transferred to the other star from a restricted radial range in the disc and the limiting radii of this transfer region depend on the parameters of the encounter. We derive an approximate analytic description of the inner radius of the region. The efficiency of the mass transfer generally decreases with increasing encounter pericentre and increasing mass of the star initially possessing the disc. Depending on the parameters of the encounter, the transfer particles have a specific distribution in the space of orbital elements (semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, and argument of pericentre) around their new host star. The population of the transferred particles can be used to constrain the encounter through which it was delivered. We expect that many stars experienced transfer among their debris discs and planetary systems in their birth environment. This mechanism presents a formation channel for objects on wide orbits of arbitrary inclinations, typically having high eccentricity but possibly also close to circular (eccentricities of about 0.1). Depending on the geometry, such orbital elements can be distinct from those of the objects formed around the star.

  15. Prediction of stellar masses with Finch and Skea geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kileba Matondo, D.; Mafa Takisa, P.; Maharaj, S. D.; Ray, S.

    2017-10-01

    The Finch and Skea spacetime produces stars which are physically reasonable. In this investigation we use a particular solution of the generalised Finch and Skea model of Maharaj et al. (Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 26:1750014, 2016) to study the mass and radius. We generate masses and radii for three cases: charged anisotropic, charged isotropic and uncharged isotropic distributions for observed compact objects. Physical features of the model show the non-negligible influence of charge and anisotropy on the mass and radius within the stellar objects. The model parameters values are fixed based on physical requirements and stability conditions of compact stars. We show that the model is consistent with the observed masses of selected pulsars PSR J1614-2230, PSR J1903+0327, 4U 1820-30, Cen X-3, EXO 1785-248 and LMC X-4. The investigation reveals that the Finch and Skea geometry is physically relevant for the study of observed compact stars.

  16. The masses and spins of neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. Coleman; Miller, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    Stellar-mass black holes and neutron stars represent extremes in gravity, density, and magnetic fields. They therefore serve as key objects in the study of multiple frontiers of physics. In addition, their origin (mainly in core-collapse supernovae) and evolution (via accretion or, for neutron stars, magnetic spindown and reconfiguration) touch upon multiple open issues in astrophysics. In this review, we discuss current mass and spin measurements and their reliability for neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes, as well as the overall importance of spins and masses for compact object astrophysics. Current masses are obtained primarily through electromagnetic observations of binaries, although future microlensing observations promise to enhance our understanding substantially. The spins of neutron stars are straightforward to measure for pulsars, but the birth spins of neutron stars are more difficult to determine. In contrast, even the current spins of stellar-mass black holes are challenging to measure. As we discuss, major inroads have been made in black hole spin estimates via analysis of iron lines and continuum emission, with reasonable agreement when both types of estimate are possible for individual objects, and future X-ray polarization measurements may provide additional independent information. We conclude by exploring the exciting prospects for mass and spin measurements from future gravitational wave detections, which are expected to revolutionize our understanding of strong gravity and compact objects.

  17. THE GALACTIC CENTER CLOUD G2-A YOUNG LOW-MASS STAR WITH A STELLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Scoville, N.; Burkert, A.

    2013-05-10

    We explore the possibility that the G2 gas cloud falling in toward SgrA* is the mass-loss envelope of a young T Tauri star. As the star plunges to smaller radius at 1000-6000 km s{sup -1}, a strong bow shock forms where the stellar wind is impacted by the hot X-ray emitting gas in the vicinity of SgrA*. For a stellar mass-loss rate of 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and wind velocity 100 km s{sup -1}, the bow shock will have an emission measure (EM = n {sup 2} vol) at a distance {approx}10{sup 16} cm, similar to that inferred from the IR emission lines. The ionization of the dense bow shock gas is potentially provided by collisional ionization at the shock front and cooling radiation (X-ray and UV) from the post shock gas. The former would predict a constant line flux as a function of distance from SgrA*, while the latter will have increasing emission at lesser distances. In this model, the star and its mass-loss wind should survive pericenter passage since the wind is likely launched at 0.2 AU and this is much less than the Roche radius at pericenter ({approx}3 AU for a stellar mass of 2 M{sub Sun }). In this model, the emission cloud will probably survive pericenter passage, discriminating this scenario from others.

  18. Stellarators

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, D.A.

    2004-03-15

    Stellarators are toroidal devices where the required rotational transform of the magnetic field lines is generated by external field coils and not via an induced net toroidal plasma current. This confinement scheme has the advantages that, in principle, steady-state plasma operation is possible and that it does not have to brace itself against disruptions of a toroidal plasma current. At the cost of having to give up toroidal symmetry the properties of the stellarator field can be tailored to suit reactor needs. Research focuses on the plasma confinement properties of different stellarator fields and investigates the problems arising when one extrapolates to reactor parameters.

  19. The stellar mass-halo mass relation of isolated field dwarfs: a critical test of ΛCDM at the edge of galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, J. I.; Iorio, G.; Agertz, O.; Fraternali, F.

    2017-01-01

    We fit the rotation curves of isolated dwarf galaxies to directly measure the stellar mass-halo mass relation (M★ - M200) over the mass range 5 {×} 10^5 ≲ M_{*} / M_⊙ ≲ 108. By accounting for cusp-core transformations due to stellar feedback, we find a monotonic relation with little scatter. Such monotonicity implies that abundance matching should yield a similar M★ - M200 if the cosmological model is correct. Using the `field galaxy' stellar mass function from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the halo mass function from the Λ Cold Dark Matter Bolshoi simulation, we find remarkable agreement between the two. This holds down to M200 ˜ 5 × 109 M⊙, and to M200 ˜ 5 × 108 M⊙ if we assume a power law extrapolation of the SDSS stellar mass function below M★ ˜ 107 M⊙. However, if instead of SDSS we use the stellar mass function of nearby galaxy groups, then the agreement is poor. This occurs because the group stellar mass function is shallower than that of the field below M★ ˜ 109 M⊙, recovering the familiar `missing satellites' and `too big to fail' problems. Our result demonstrates that both problems are confined to group environments and must, therefore, owe to `galaxy formation physics' rather than exotic cosmology. Finally, we repeat our analysis for a Λ Warm Dark Matter cosmology, finding that it fails at 68% confidence for a thermal relic mass of mWDM < 1.25 keV, and mWDM < 2 keV if we use the power law extrapolation of SDSS. We conclude by making a number of predictions for future surveys based on these results.

  20. THE STELLAR-TO-HALO MASS RELATION FOR LOCAL GROUP GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Brook, C. B.; Cintio, A. Di; Knebe, A.; Yepes, G.; Gottlöber, S.; Hoffman, Y.; Garrison-Kimmel, S.

    2014-03-20

    We contend that a single power-law halo mass distribution is appropriate for direct matching to the stellar masses of observed Local Group dwarf galaxies, allowing the determination of the slope of the stellar mass-halo mass relation for low-mass galaxies. Errors in halo masses are well defined as the Poisson noise of simulated Local Group realizations, which we determine using local volume simulations. For the stellar mass range 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}stellar mass-halo mass relation follows a power law with slope of 3.1, significantly steeper than most values in the literature. This steep relation between stellar and halo masses would indicate that Local Group dwarf galaxies are hosted by dark matter halos with a small range of mass. Our methodology is robust down to the stellar mass to which the census of observed Local Group galaxies is complete, but the significant uncertainty in the currently measured slope of the stellar-to-halo mass relation will decrease dramatically if the Local Group completeness limit was 10{sup 6.5} M {sub ☉} or below, highlighting the importance of pushing such limit to lower masses and larger volumes.

  1. Clustered star formation and the origin of stellar masses.

    PubMed

    Pudritz, Ralph E

    2002-01-04

    Star clusters are ubiquitous in galaxies of all types and at all stages of their evolution. We also observe them to be forming in a wide variety of environments, ranging from nearby giant molecular clouds to the supergiant molecular clouds found in starburst and merging galaxies. The typical star in our galaxy and probably in others formed as a member of a star cluster, so star formation is an intrinsically clustered and not an isolated phenomenon. The greatest challenge regarding clustered star formation is to understand why stars have a mass spectrum that appears to be universal. This review examines the observations and models that have been proposed to explain these fundamental issues in stellar formation.

  2. How Lyman Alpha Emission Depends on Galaxy Stellar Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyarzún, Grecco A.; Blanc, Guillermo A.; González, Valentino; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I., III; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Lira, Paulina; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we show how the stellar mass (M *) of galaxies affects the 3 < z < 4.6 Lyα equivalent width (EW) distribution. To this end, we design a sample of 629 galaxies in the M * range 7.6\\lt {log}{M}*/{M}⊙ \\lt 10.6 from the 3D-HST/CANDELS survey. We perform spectroscopic observations of this sample using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System, allowing us to measure Lyα fluxes and use 3D-HST/CANDELS ancillary data. In order to study the Lyα EW distribution dependence on M *, we split the whole sample in three stellar mass bins. We find that, in all bins, the distribution is best represented by an exponential profile of the form {dN}({M}*)/d{EW}={W}0{({M}*)}-1A({M}*){e}-{EW/{W}0({M}*)}. Through a Bayesian analysis, we confirm that lower M * galaxies have higher Lyα EWs. We also find that the fraction A of galaxies featuring emission and the e-folding scale W 0 of the distribution anti-correlate with M *, recovering expressions of the forms A({M}*)=-0.26(.13){log}{M}*/{M}⊙ +3.01(1.2) and {W}0({M}*)=-15.6(3.5){log}{M}*/{M}⊙ +166(34). These results are crucial for proper interpretation of Lyα emission trends reported in the literature that may be affected by strong M * selection biases.

  3. THE METALLICITIES OF LOW STELLAR MASS GALAXIES AND THE SCATTER IN THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Zahid, H. J.; Bresolin, F.; Kewley, L. J.; Coil, A. L.; Dave, R.

    2012-05-10

    In this investigation, we quantify the metallicities of low-mass galaxies by constructing the most comprehensive census to date. We use galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and DEEP2 survey and estimate metallicities from their optical emission lines. We also use two smaller samples from the literature that have metallicities determined by the direct method using the temperature sensitive [O III]{lambda}4363 line. We examine the scatter in the local mass-metallicity (MZ) relation determined from {approx}20,000 star-forming galaxies in the SDSS and show that it is larger at lower stellar masses, consistent with the theoretical scatter in the MZ relation determined from hydrodynamical simulations. We determine a lower limit for the scatter in metallicities of galaxies down to stellar masses of {approx}10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} which is only slightly smaller than the expected scatter inferred from the SDSS MZ relation and significantly larger than what has been previously established in the literature. The average metallicity of star-forming galaxies increases with stellar mass. By examining the scatter in the SDSS MZ relation, we show that this is mostly due to the lowest metallicity galaxies. The population of low-mass, metal-rich galaxies have properties that are consistent with previously identified galaxies that may be transitional objects between gas-rich dwarf irregulars and gas-poor dwarf spheroidals and ellipticals.

  4. EFFECT OF UNCERTAINTIES IN STELLAR MODEL PARAMETERS ON ESTIMATED MASSES AND RADII OF SINGLE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Sarbani; Verner, Graham A.; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne E-mail: gav@bison.ph.bham.ac.uk E-mail: y.p.elsworth@bham.ac.uk

    2012-02-10

    Accurate and precise values of radii and masses of stars are needed to correctly estimate properties of extrasolar planets. We examine the effect of uncertainties in stellar model parameters on estimates of the masses, radii, and average densities of solar-type stars. We find that in the absence of seismic data on solar-like oscillations, stellar masses can be determined to a greater accuracy than either stellar radii or densities; but to get reasonably accurate results the effective temperature, log g, and metallicity must be measured to high precision. When seismic data are available, stellar density is the most well-determined property, followed by radius, with mass the least well-determined property. Uncertainties in stellar convection, quantified in terms of uncertainties in the value of the mixing length parameter, cause the most significant errors in the estimates of stellar properties.

  5. The incidence of stellar mergers and mass gainers among massive stars

    SciTech Connect

    De Mink, S. E.; Sana, H.; Langer, N.; Izzard, R. G.; Schneider, F. R. N.

    2014-02-10

    Because the majority of massive stars are born as members of close binary systems, populations of massive main-sequence stars contain stellar mergers and products of binary mass transfer. We simulate populations of massive stars accounting for all major binary evolution effects based on the most recent binary parameter statistics and extensively evaluate the effect of model uncertainties. Assuming constant star formation, we find that 8{sub −4}{sup +9}% of a sample of early-type stars are the products of a merger resulting from a close binary system. In total we find that 30{sub −15}{sup +10}% of massive main-sequence stars are the products of binary interaction. We show that the commonly adopted approach to minimize the effects of binaries on an observed sample by excluding systems detected as binaries through radial velocity campaigns can be counterproductive. Systems with significant radial velocity variations are mostly pre-interaction systems. Excluding them substantially enhances the relative incidence of mergers and binary products in the non-radial velocity variable sample. This poses a challenge for testing single stellar evolutionary models. It also raises the question of whether certain peculiar classes of stars, such as magnetic O stars, are the result of binary interaction and it emphasizes the need to further study the effect of binarity on the diagnostics that are used to derive the fundamental properties (star-formation history, initial mass function, mass-to-light ratio) of stellar populations nearby and at high redshift.

  6. Stellar feedback from high-mass X-ray binaries in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artale, M. C.; Tissera, P. B.; Pellizza, L. J.

    2015-04-01

    We explored the role of X-ray binaries composed by a black hole and a massive stellar companion [black hole X-ray binaries (BHXs)] as sources of kinetic feedback by using hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. Following previous results, our BHX model selects metal-poor stars (Z = [0, 10-4]) as possible progenitors. The model that better reproduces observations assumes that an ˜20 per cent fraction of low-metallicity black holes are in binary systems which produces BHXs. These sources are estimated to deposit ˜1052 erg of kinetic energy per event. With these parameters and in the simulated volume, we find that the energy injected by BHXs represents ˜30 per cent of the total energy released by Type II supernova and BHX events at redshift z ˜ 7 and then decreases rapidly as baryons get chemically enriched. Haloes with virial masses smaller than ˜1010 M⊙ (or Tvir ≲ 105 K) are the most directly affected ones by BHX feedback. These haloes host galaxies with stellar masses in the range 107-108 M⊙. Our results show that BHX feedback is able to keep the interstellar medium warm, without removing a significant gas fraction, in agreement with previous analytical calculations. Consequently, the stellar-to-dark matter mass ratio is better reproduced at high redshift. Our model also predicts a stronger evolution of the number of galaxies as a function of the stellar mass with redshift when BHX feedback is considered. These findings support previous claims that the BHXs could be an effective source of feedback in early stages of galaxy evolution.

  7. Stellar SEDs from 0.3 to 2.5 μm: Tracing the Stellar Locus and Searching for Color Outliers in the SDSS and 2MASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, K. R.; Ivezić, Ž.; Schlegel, D.; Finkbeiner, D.; Padmanabhan, N.; Lupton, R. H.; Agüeros, M. A.; Bochanski, J. J.; Hawley, S. L.; West, A. A.; Seth, A.; Kimball, A.; Gogarten, S. M.; Claire, M.; Haggard, D.; Kaib, N.; Schneider, D. P.; Sesar, B.

    2007-12-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) are rich resources for studying stellar astrophysics and the structure and formation history of the Galaxy. As new surveys and instruments adopt similar filter sets, it is increasingly important to understand the properties of the ugrizJHKs stellar locus, both to inform studies of "normal" main-sequence stars and enable robust searches for point sources with unusual colors. Using a sample of ~600,000 point sources detected by SDSS and 2MASS, we tabulate the position and width of the ugrizJHKs stellar locus as a function of g - i color, and provide accurate polynomial fits. We map the Morgan-Keenan spectral type sequence to the median stellar locus by using synthetic photometry of spectral standards and by analyzing 3000 SDSS stellar spectra with a custom spectral typing pipeline, described in the Appendix to this paper. We develop an algorithm to calculate a point source's minimum separation from the stellar locus in a seven-dimensional color space, and use it to robustly identify objects with unusual colors, as well as spurious SDSS/2MASS matches. Analysis of a final catalog of 2117 color outliers identifies 370 white-dwarf/M dwarf (WDMD) pairs, 93 QSOs, and 90 M giant/carbon star candidates, and demonstrates that WDMD pairs and QSOs can be distinguished on the basis of their J - Ks and r - z colors. We also identify a group of objects with correlated offsets in the u - g versus g - r and g - r versus r - i color-color spaces, but subsequent follow-up is required to reveal the nature of these objects. Future applications of this algorithm to a matched SDSS-UKIDSS catalog may well identify additional classes of objects with unusual colors by probing new areas of color-magnitude space.

  8. CONVERTING FROM 3.6 AND 4.5 {mu}m FLUXES TO STELLAR MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Eskew, Michael; Zaritsky, Dennis; Meidt, Sharon E-mail: dzaritsky@as.arizona.edu

    2012-06-15

    We use high spatial resolution maps of stellar mass and infrared flux of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) to calibrate a conversion between 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m fluxes and stellar mass, M{sub *} = 10{sup 5.65} F{sup 2.85}{sub 3.6} F{sup -1.85}{sub 4.5}(D/0.05){sup 2} M{sub Sun }, where fluxes are in Jy and D is the luminosity distance to the source in Mpc, and to provide an approximate empirical estimate of the fractional internal uncertainty in M{sub *} of 0.3{radical}(N/10{sup 6}), where N is the number of stars in the region. We find evidence that young stars and hot dust contaminate the measurements, but attempts to remove this contamination using data that are far superior to what are generally available for unresolved galaxies resulted in marginal gains in accuracy. The scatter among mass estimates for regions in the LMC is comparable to that found by previous investigators when modeling composite populations, and so we conclude that our simple conversion is as precise as possible for the data and models currently available. Our results allow for a reasonably bottom-heavy initial mass function, such as Salpeter or heavier, and moderately disfavor lighter versions such as a diet-Salpeter or Chabrier initial mass function.

  9. Converting from 3.6 and 4.5 μm Fluxes to Stellar Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskew, Michael; Zaritsky, Dennis; Meidt, Sharon

    2012-06-01

    We use high spatial resolution maps of stellar mass and infrared flux of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) to calibrate a conversion between 3.6 and 4.5 μm fluxes and stellar mass, M * = 105.65 F 2.85 3.6 F -1.85 4.5(D/0.05)2 M ⊙, where fluxes are in Jy and D is the luminosity distance to the source in Mpc, and to provide an approximate empirical estimate of the fractional internal uncertainty in M * of 0.3\\sqrt{N/10^6}, where N is the number of stars in the region. We find evidence that young stars and hot dust contaminate the measurements, but attempts to remove this contamination using data that are far superior to what are generally available for unresolved galaxies resulted in marginal gains in accuracy. The scatter among mass estimates for regions in the LMC is comparable to that found by previous investigators when modeling composite populations, and so we conclude that our simple conversion is as precise as possible for the data and models currently available. Our results allow for a reasonably bottom-heavy initial mass function, such as Salpeter or heavier, and moderately disfavor lighter versions such as a diet-Salpeter or Chabrier initial mass function.

  10. Electromagnetic Signals Following Stellar-mass Black Hole Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mink, S. E.; King, A.

    2017-04-01

    It is often assumed that gravitational-wave (GW) events resulting from the merger of stellar-mass black holes are unlikely to produce electromagnetic (EM) counterparts. We point out that the progenitor binary has probably shed a mass ≳10 M ⊙ during its prior evolution. If even a tiny fraction of this gas is retained in a circumbinary disk, the sudden mass loss and recoil of the merged black hole shocks and heats it within hours of the GW event. Whether the resulting EM signal is detectable is uncertain. The optical depth through the disk is likely to be high enough that the prompt emission consists only of photons from its optically thin skin, while the majority may take years to emerge. However, if some mechanism can release more photons in a time comparable to the few-hour energy production time, the peak luminosity of the EM signal could be detectable. For a disk retaining only ˜10-3 of the mass shed in the earlier binary evolution, medium-energy X-rays to infrared emission would be observable hours after the GW event for source distances of ˜500 Mpc. Events like this may already have been observed, but ascribed to unidentified active galactic nuclei. Improved sky localization should eventually allow identification based on spatial coincidence. A detection would provide unique constraints on formation scenarios and potentially offer tests of strong-field general relativity. Accordingly, we argue that the high scientific payoff of an EM detection fully justifies search campaigns.

  11. Accretion onto the first stellar mass black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Marcelo A.; Wise, John H.; Abel, Tom

    2009-08-05

    The first stars, forming at redshifts z > 15 in minihalos with M {approx} 10{sup 5-6} M{sub {circle_dot}} may leave behind remnant black holes, which could conceivably have been the 'seeds' for the supermassive black holes observed at z {approx}< 7. We study remnant black hole growth through accretion, including for the first time the radiation emitted due to accretion, with adaptive mesh refinement cosmological radiation-hydrodynamical simulations. The effects of photo-ionization and heating dramatically affect the large-scale inflow, resulting in negligible mass growth. We compare cases with accretion luminosity included and neglected to show that accretion radiation drastically changes the environment within 100 pc of the black hole, increasing gas temperatures by an order of magnitude. Gas densities are reduced and further star formation in the same minihalo is prevented for the two hundred million years we followed. Without radiative feedback included most seed black holes do not gain mass as efficiently as has been hoped for in previous theories, implying that black hole remnants of Pop III stars in minihalos are not likely to be miniquasars. Most importantly, however, our calculations demonstrate that if these black holes are indeed accreting close to the Bondi-Hoyle rate with ten percent radiative efficiency they have a dramatic local effect in regulating star formation in the first galaxies. This suggests a novel mechanism for massive black hole formation - stellar-mass black holes may have suppressed fragmentation and star formation after falling into halos with virial temperatures {approx} 10{sup 4} K, facilitating intermediate mass black hole formation at their centers.

  12. INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF INTERMEDIATE-MASS YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Pitann, Jan; Bouwman, Jeroen; Krause, Oliver; Henning, Thomas; Hennemann, Martin

    2011-12-10

    In this paper, we present Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectroscopy for 14 intermediate-mass young stellar objects (YSOs). We use Spitzer spectroscopy to investigate the physical properties of these sources and their environments. Our sample can be divided into two types of objects: young isolated, embedded objects with spectra that are dominated by ice and silicate absorption bands, and more evolved objects that are dominated by extended emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pure H{sub 2} rotational lines. We are able to constrain the illuminating FUV fields by classifying the PAH bands below 9 {mu}m. For most of the sources we are able to detect several atomic fine structure lines. In particular, the [Ne II] line appearing in two regions could originate from unresolved photodissociation regions or J-shocks. We relate the identified spectral features to observations obtained from NIR through submillimeter imaging. The spatial extent of several H{sub 2} and PAH bands is matched with morphologies identified in previous Infrared Array Camera observations. This also allows us to distinguish between the different H{sub 2} excitation mechanisms. In addition, we calculate the optical extinction from the silicate bands and use this to constrain the spectral energy distribution fit, allowing us to estimate the masses of these YSOs.

  13. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. X. Stellar, Dynamical, and Total Mass Correlations of Massive Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, M. W.; Treu, T.; Bolton, A. S.; Gavazzi, R.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Marshall, P. J.; Moustakas, L. A.; Burles, S.

    2010-11-01

    We use stellar masses, surface photometry, strong-lensing masses, and stellar velocity dispersions (σ e/2) to investigate empirical correlations for the definitive sample of 73 early-type galaxies (ETGs) that are strong gravitational lenses from the SLACS survey. The traditional correlations (fundamental plane (FP) and its projections) are consistent with those found for non-lens galaxies, supporting the thesis that SLACS lens galaxies are representative of massive ETGs (dimensional mass M dim = 1011-1012 M sun). The addition of high-precision strong-lensing estimates of the total mass allows us to gain further insights into their internal structure: (1) the average slope of the total mass-density profile ( ρ_tot∝ r^{-γ'}) is langγ'rang = 2.078 ± 0.027 with an intrinsic scatter of 0.16 ± 0.02; (2) γ' correlates with effective radius (re ) and central mass density, in the sense that denser galaxies have steeper profiles; (3) the dark matter (DM) fraction within re /2 is a monotonically increasing function of galaxy mass and size (due to a mass-dependent central cold DM distribution or due to baryonic DM—stellar remnants or low-mass stars—if the initial mass function is non-universal and its normalization increases with mass); (4) the dimensional mass M dim ≡ 5re σ2 e/2/G is proportional to the total (lensing) mass M _{r_{e}/2}, and both increase more rapidly than stellar mass M * (M _* ∝ {M}_{r_{e}/2}^{0.8}); (5) the mass plane (MP), obtained by replacing surface brightness with surface mass density in the FP, is found to be tighter and closer to the virial relation than the FP and the M*P, indicating that the scatter of those relations is dominated by stellar population effects; (6) we construct the fundamental hyper-plane by adding stellar masses to the MP and find the M * coefficient to be consistent with zero and no residual intrinsic scatter. Our results demonstrate that the dynamical structure of ETGs is not scale invariant and that it is

  14. GALAXY STELLAR MASS ASSEMBLY BETWEEN 0.2 < z < 2 FROM THE S-COSMOS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Ilbert, O.; Le Floc'h, E.; Kartaltepe, J.; Sanders, D. B.; Salvato, M.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N.; Aussel, H.; McCracken, H. J.; Mobasher, B.; Arnouts, S.; Bundy, K.; Tasca, L.; Cassata, P.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fevre, O.; Koekemoer, A.; Lilly, S.; Surace, J.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2010-02-01

    We follow the galaxy stellar mass assembly by morphological and spectral type in the COSMOS 2 deg{sup 2} field. We derive the stellar mass functions and stellar mass densities from z = 2 to z = 0.2 using 196,000 galaxies selected at F{sub 3.6{mu}m} > 1 muJy with accurate photometric redshifts ({sigma}{sub (z{sub phot}-z{sub spec})/(1+z{sub spec})}=0.008 at i {sup +} < 22.5). Using a spectral classification, we find that z {approx} 1 is an epoch of transition in the stellar mass assembly of quiescent galaxies. Their stellar mass density increases by 1.1 dex between z = 1.5-2 and z = 0.8-1 ({Delta}t {approx} 2.5 Gyr), but only by 0.3 dex between z = 0.8-1 and z {approx} 0.1 ({Delta}t {approx} 6 Gyr). Then, we add the morphological information and find that 80%-90% of the massive quiescent galaxies (log M {approx} 11) have an elliptical morphology at z < 0.8. Therefore, a dominant mechanism links the shutdown of star formation and the acquisition of an elliptical morphology in massive galaxies. Still, a significant fraction of quiescent galaxies present a Spi/Irr morphology at low mass (40%-60% at log M approx 9.5), but this fraction is smaller than predicted by semi-analytical models using a 'halo quenching' recipe. We also analyze the evolution of star-forming galaxies and split them into 'intermediate activity' and 'high activity' galaxies. We find that the most massive 'high activity' galaxies end their high star formation rate phase first. Finally, the space density of massive star-forming galaxies becomes lower than the space density of massive elliptical galaxies at z < 1. As a consequence, the rate of 'wet mergers' involved in the formation of the most massive ellipticals must decline very rapidly at z < 1, which could explain the observed slow down in the assembly of these quiescent and massive sources.

  15. ACCRETION ONTO THE FIRST STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Marcelo A.; Abel, Tom Wise, John H

    2009-08-20

    The first stars, forming at redshifts z > 15 in minihalos with M {approx} 10{sup 5-6} M {sub sun} may leave behind remnant black holes, which could conceivably have been the 'seeds' for the supermassive black holes observed at z {approx}< 7. We study remnant black hole growth through accretion, including for the first time the radiation emitted due to accretion, with adaptive mesh refinement cosmological radiation-hydrodynamical simulations. The effects of photoionization and heating dramatically affect the large-scale inflow, resulting in negligible mass growth. We compare cases with accretion luminosity included and neglected to show that accretion radiation drastically changes the environment within 100 pc of the black hole, increasing gas temperatures by an order of magnitude. Gas densities are reduced and further star formation in the same minihalo is prevented for the 200 million years we followed. Without radiative feedback included most seed black holes do not gain mass as efficiently as has been hoped for in previous theories, implying that black hole remnants of population III stars in minihalos are not likely to be miniquasars. Most importantly, however, our calculations demonstrate that if these black holes are indeed accreting close to the Bondi-Hoyle rate with 10% radiative efficiency they have a dramatic local effect in regulating star formation in the first galaxies. This suggests a novel mechanism for massive black hole formation-stellar-mass black holes may have suppressed fragmentation and star formation after falling into halos with virial temperatures {approx}10{sup 4} K, facilitating massive black hole formation at their centers.

  16. Calculation of the magnetic surface function gradient in stellarators with broken stellarator symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Nemov, V. V.; Kasilov, S. V.; Kernbichler, W.; Seiwald, B.

    2010-05-15

    The computation of the gradient of the magnetic surface function, nablapsi, plays an essential role in plasma physics, e.g., for investigations of plasma equilibrium currents or transport fluxes in stellarators. The evaluation of nablapsi becomes more complicated if the magnetic field B does not exhibit stellarator symmetry. Here, a scheme for computation of nablapsi for magnetic configurations which do not show stellarator symmetry is presented. The proposed method is based on computations of gradients of integrals of magnetic field line equations. This new technique for nablapsi calculations is applied to Uragan-2M [O. S. Pavlichenko for the U-2M group, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 35, B223 (1993)]. Taking into account the influence of current feeds and detachable joints of the helical winding the magnetic configuration does not exhibit stellarator symmetry. Computations of nablapsi, the effective ripple epsilon{sub eff}, and the geometrical factor lambda{sub b} for the bootstrap current in the 1/nu transport regime are performed.

  17. Stellar Absorption Line Analysis of Local Star-forming Galaxies: The Relation between Stellar Mass, Metallicity, Dust Attenuation, and Star Formation Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahid, H. Jabran; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Conroy, Charlie; Andrews, Brett; Ho, I.-Ting

    2017-09-01

    We analyze the optical continuum of star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by fitting stacked spectra with stellar population synthesis models to investigate the relation between stellar mass, stellar metallicity, dust attenuation, and star formation rate. We fit models calculated with star formation and chemical evolution histories that are derived empirically from multi-epoch observations of the stellar mass–star formation rate and the stellar mass–gas-phase metallicity relations, respectively. We also fit linear combinations of single-burst models with a range of metallicities and ages. Star formation and chemical evolution histories are unconstrained for these models. The stellar mass–stellar metallicity relations obtained from the two methods agree with the relation measured from individual supergiant stars in nearby galaxies. These relations are also consistent with the relation obtained from emission-line analysis of gas-phase metallicity after accounting for systematic offsets in the gas-phase metallicity. We measure dust attenuation of the stellar continuum and show that its dependence on stellar mass and star formation rate is consistent with previously reported results derived from nebular emission lines. However, stellar continuum attenuation is smaller than nebular emission line attenuation. The continuum-to-nebular attenuation ratio depends on stellar mass and is smaller in more massive galaxies. Our consistent analysis of stellar continuum and nebular emission lines paves the way for a comprehensive investigation of stellar metallicities of star-forming and quiescent galaxies.

  18. Ultraviolet to infrared emission of z > 1 galaxies: Can we derive reliable star formation rates and stellar masses?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buat, V.; Heinis, S.; Boquien, M.; Burgarella, D.; Charmandaris, V.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Le Borgne, D.; Morrison, G.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Our knowledge of the cosmic mass assembly relies on measurements of star formation rates (SFRs) and stellar masses (Mstar), of galaxies as a function of redshift. These parameters must be estimated in a consistent way with a good knowledge of systematics before studying their correlation and the variation of the specific SFR. Constraining these fundamental properties of galaxies across the Universe is of utmost importance if we want to understand galaxy formation and evolution. Methods: We seek to derive SFRs and stellar masses in distant galaxies and to quantify the main uncertainties affecting their measurement. We explore the impact of the assumptions made in their derivation with standard calibrations or through a fitting process, as well as the impact of the available data, focusing on the role of infrared emission originating from dust. Results: We build a sample of galaxies with z > 1, all observed from the ultraviolet to the infrared in their rest frame. The data are fitted with the code CIGALE, which is also used to build and analyse a catalogue of mock galaxies. Models with different star formation histories are introduced: an exponentially decreasing or increasing SFR and a more complex one coupling a decreasing SFR with a younger burst of constant star formation. We define different sets of data, with or without a good sampling of the ultraviolet range, near-infrared, and thermal infrared data. Variations of the metallicity are also investigated. The impact of these different cases on the determination of stellar mass and SFR are analysed. Conclusions: Exponentially decreasing models with a redshift formation of the stellar population zf ≃ 8 cannot fit the data correctly. All the other models fit the data correctly at the price of unrealistically young ages when the age of the single stellar population is taken to be a free parameter, especially for the exponentially decreasing models. The best fits are obtained with two stellar populations. As

  19. The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey. Tracing the galaxy stellar mass assembly history over the last 8 Gyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergani, D.; Scodeggio, M.; Pozzetti, L.; Iovino, A.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Zamorani, G.; Maccagni, D.; Lamareille, F.; Le Fèvre, O.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; Guzzo, L.; Bottini, D.; Le Brun, V.; Picat, J. P.; Scaramella, R.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Ciliegi, P.; Foucaud, S.; Gavignaud, I.; Ilbert, O.; McCracken, H. J.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Radovich, M.; Zucca, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Brinchmann, J.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; Gregorini, L.; Perez-Montero, E.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, P.; Temporin, S.

    2008-08-01

    Aims: Our aim is to investigate the history of mass assembly for galaxies of different stellar masses and types. Methods: We selected a mass-limited sample of 4048 objects from the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) in the redshift interval 0.5 ≤ z ≤ 1.3. We then used an empirical criterion, based on the amplitude of the 4000 ÅBalmer break (D_n4000), to separate the galaxy population into spectroscopically early- and late-type systems. The equivalent width of the [OII]3727 line is used as proxy for the star formation activity. We also derived a type-dependent stellar mass function in three redshift bins. Results: We discuss to what extent stellar mass drives galaxy evolution, showing for the first time the interplay between stellar ages and stellar masses over the past 8 Gyr. Low-mass galaxies have small D_n4000 and at increasing stellar mass, the galaxy distribution moves to higher D_n4000 values as observed in the local Universe. As cosmic time goes by, we witness an increasing abundance of massive spectroscopically early-type systems at the expense of the late-type systems. This spectral transformation of late-type systems into old massive galaxies at lower redshift is a process started at early epochs (z > 1.3) and continuing efficiently down to the local Universe. This is also confirmed by the evolution of our type-dependent stellar mass function. The underlying stellar ages of late-type galaxies apparently do not show evolution, most likely as a result of a continuous and efficient formation of new stars. All star formation activity indicators consistently point towards a star formation history peaked in the past for massive galaxies, with little or no residual star formation taking place in the most recent epochs. In contrast, most of the low-mass systems show just the opposite characteristics, with significant star formation present at all epochs. The activity and efficiency of forming stars are mechanisms that depend on galaxy stellar mass, and the stellar

  20. The galaxy population of Abell 1367: the stellar mass-metallicity relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouhcine, M.; Kriwattanawong, W.; James, P. A.

    2011-04-01

    Using wide baseline broad-band photometry, we analyse the stellar population properties of a sample of 72 galaxies, spanning a wide range of stellar masses and morphological types, in the nearby spiral-rich and dynamically young galaxy cluster Abell 1367. The sample galaxies are distributed from the cluster centre out to approximately half the cluster Abell radius. The optical/near-infrared colours are compared with simple stellar population synthesis models from which the luminosity-weighted stellar population ages and metallicities are determined. The locus of the colours of elliptical galaxies traces a sequence of varying metallicity at a narrow range of luminosity-weighted stellar ages. Lenticular galaxies in the red sequence, however, exhibit a substantial spread of luminosity-weighted stellar metallicities and ages. For red-sequence lenticular galaxies and blue cloud galaxies, low-mass galaxies tend to be on average dominated by stellar populations of younger luminosity-weighted ages. Sample galaxies exhibit a strong correlation between integrated stellar mass and luminosity-weighted stellar metallicity. Galaxies with signs of morphological disturbance and ongoing star formation activity, tend to be underabundant with respect to passive galaxies in the red sequence of comparable stellar masses. We argue that this could be due to tidally driven gas flows towards the star-forming regions, carrying less enriched gas and diluting the pre-existing gas to produce younger stellar populations with lower metallicities than would be obtained prior to the interaction. Finally, we find no statistically significant evidence for changes in the luminosity-weighted ages and metallicities for either red-sequence or blue-cloud galaxies, at fixed stellar mass, with location within the cluster. We dedicate this work to the memory of our friend and colleague C. Moss who died suddenly recently.

  1. Models of stellar population at high redshift, as constrainedby PN yields and luminosity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraston, C.

    The stellar phase of Thermally-Pulsating Asymptotic giant branch is the last major evolutionary stage of intermediate-mass stars which afterwards evolve into planetary nebulae. The TP-AGB phase is affected by mass-loss and instabilities which notoriously make its theoretical modelling uncertain. This review focuses on the effects such modelling has on stellar population models for galaxies, with particular focus on the high-z Universe where galaxies are young and contain a large number of short-living TP-AGB stars. I shall present the models, discuss how different prescriptions for the treatment of the TP-AGB affect the theoretical integrated spectral energy distribution and how these compare to galaxy data, and discuss implications for the PN nebulae luminosity function stemming from the various assumptions. Finally I shall discuss the inclusion of hot evolved stars on stellar population models and how they compare to data for old galaxies at our present time.

  2. Binary black hole mergers from globular clusters: Masses, merger rates, and the impact of stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Carl L.; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2016-04-01

    The recent discovery of GW150914, the binary black hole merger detected by Advanced LIGO, has the potential to revolutionize observational astrophysics. But to fully utilize this new window into the Universe, we must compare these new observations to detailed models of binary black hole formation throughout cosmic time. Expanding upon our previous work [C. L. Rodriguez, M. Morscher, B. Pattabiraman, S. Chatterjee, C.-J. Haster, and F. A. Rasio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 051101 (2015).], we study merging binary black holes formed in globular clusters using our Monte Carlo approach to stellar dynamics. We have created a new set of 52 cluster models with different masses, metallicities, and radii to fully characterize the binary black hole merger rate. These models include all the relevant dynamical processes (such as two-body relaxation, strong encounters, and three-body binary formation) and agree well with detailed direct N -body simulations. In addition, we have enhanced our stellar evolution algorithms with updated metallicity-dependent stellar wind and supernova prescriptions, allowing us to compare our results directly to the most recent population synthesis predictions for merger rates from isolated binary evolution. We explore the relationship between a cluster's global properties and the population of binary black holes that it produces. In particular, we derive a numerically calibrated relationship between the merger times of ejected black hole binaries and a cluster's mass and radius. With our improved treatment of stellar evolution, we find that globular clusters can produce a significant population of massive black hole binaries that merge in the local Universe. We explore the masses and mass ratios of these binaries as a function of redshift, and find a merger rate of ˜5 Gpc-3yr-1 in the local Universe, with 80% of sources having total masses from 32 M⊙ to 64 M⊙. Under standard assumptions, approximately one out of every seven binary black hole mergers

  3. The stellar-to-halo mass relation of GAMA galaxies from 100 deg2 of KiDS weak lensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Uitert, Edo; Cacciato, Marcello; Hoekstra, Henk; Brouwer, Margot; Sifón, Cristóbal; Viola, Massimo; Baldry, Ivan; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Brown, M. J. I.; Choi, Ami; Driver, Simon P.; Erben, Thomas; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Joachimi, Benjamin; Kuijken, Konrad; Liske, Jochen; Loveday, Jon; McFarland, John; Miller, Lance; Nakajima, Reiko; Peacock, John; Radovich, Mario; Robotham, A. S. G.; Schneider, Peter; Sikkema, Gert; Taylor, Edward N.; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs

    2016-07-01

    We study the stellar-to-halo mass relation of central galaxies in the range 9.7 < log 10(M*/h- 2 M⊙) < 11.7 and z < 0.4, obtained from a combined analysis of the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS) and the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. We use ˜100 deg2 of KiDS data to study the lensing signal around galaxies for which spectroscopic redshifts and stellar masses were determined by GAMA. We show that lensing alone results in poor constraints on the stellar-to-halo mass relation due to a degeneracy between the satellite fraction and the halo mass, which is lifted when we simultaneously fit the stellar mass function. At M* > 5 × 1010 h- 2 M⊙, the stellar mass increases with halo mass as {˜ }M_h^{0.25}. The ratio of dark matter to stellar mass has a minimum at a halo mass of 8 × 1011 h-1 M⊙ with a value of M_h/M_{*}=56_{-10}^{+16} [h]. We also use the GAMA group catalogue to select centrals and satellites in groups with five or more members, which trace regions in space where the local matter density is higher than average, and determine for the first time the stellar-to-halo mass relation in these denser environments. We find no significant differences compared to the relation from the full sample, which suggests that the stellar-to-halo mass relation does not vary strongly with local density. Furthermore, we find that the stellar-to-halo mass relation of central galaxies can also be obtained by modelling the lensing signal and stellar mass function of satellite galaxies only, which shows that the assumptions to model the satellite contribution in the halo model do not significantly bias the stellar-to-halo mass relation. Finally, we show that the combination of weak lensing with the stellar mass function can be used to test the purity of group catalogues.

  4. The Dynamical Evolution of Stellar-Mass Black Holes in Dense Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morscher, Maggie

    Globular clusters are gravitationally bound systems containing up to millions of stars, and are found ubiquitously in massive galaxies, including the Milky Way. With densities as high as a million stars per cubic parsec, they are one of the few places in the Universe where stars interact with one another. They therefore provide us with a unique laboratory for studying how gravitational interactions can facilitate the formation of exotic systems, such as X-ray binaries containing black holes, and merging double black hole binaries, which are produced much less efficiently in isolation. While telescopes can provide us with a snapshot of what these dense clusters look like at present, we must rely on detailed numerical simulations to learn about their evolution. These simulations are quite challenging, however, since dense star clusters are described by a complicated set of physical processes occurring on many different length and time scales, including stellar and binary evolution, weak gravitational scattering encounters, strong resonant binary interactions, and tidal stripping by the host galaxy. Until very recently, it was not possible to model the evolution of systems with millions of stars, the actual number contained in the largest clusters, including all the relevant physics required describe these systems accurately. The Northwestern Group's Henon Monte Carlo code, CMC, which has been in development for over a decade, is a powerful tool that can be used to construct detailed evolutionary models of large star clusters. With its recent parallelization, CMC is now capable of addressing a particularly interesting unsolved problem in astrophysics: the dynamical evolution of stellar black holes in dense star clusters. Our current understanding of the stellar initial mass function and massive star evolution suggests that young globular clusters may have formed hundreds to thousands of stellar-mass black holes, the remnants of stars with initial masses from 20 - 100

  5. The frequency and stellar-mass dependence of boxy/peanut-shaped bulges in barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwin, Peter; Debattista, Victor P.

    2017-06-01

    From a sample of 84 local barred, moderately inclined disc galaxies, we determine the fraction that hosts boxy or peanut-shaped (B/P) bulges (the vertically thickened inner parts of bars). We find that the frequency of B/P bulges in barred galaxies is a very strong function of stellar mass: 79 per cent of the bars in galaxies with log (M⋆/M⊙)w ≳ 10.4 have B/P bulges, while only 12 per cent of those in lower mass galaxies do. (We find a similar dependence in data published by Yoshino & Yamauchi for edge-on galaxies.) There are also strong trends with other galaxy parameters - e.g. Hubble type: 77 per cent of S0-Sbc bars, but only 15 per cent of Sc-Sd bars, have B/P bulges - but these appear to be side effects of the correlations of these parameters with stellar mass. In particular, despite indications from models that a high gas content can suppress bar buckling, we find no evidence that the (atomic) gas mass ratio M_{H I + He}/M_{\\star } affects the presence of B/P bulges, once the stellar-mass dependence is controlled for. The semimajor axes of B/P bulges range from one-quarter to three-quarters of the full bar size, with a mean of Rbox/Lbar = 0.42 ± 0.09 and Rbox/aɛ = 0.53 ± 0.12 (where Rbox is the size of the B/P bulge and aɛ and Lbar are lower and upper limits on the size of the bar).

  6. THE STELLAR-TO-HALO MASS RELATION OF LOCAL GALAXIES SEGREGATES BY COLOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Yang, Xiaohu; Foucaud, Sebastien; Jing, Y. P.; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Drory, Niv

    2015-02-01

    By means of a statistical approach that combines different semi-empirical methods of galaxy-halo connection, we derive the stellar-to-halo mass relations (SHMR) of local blue and red central galaxies. We also constrain the fraction of halos hosting blue/red central galaxies and the occupation statistics of blue and red satellites as a function of halo mass, M {sub h}. For the observational input we use the blue and red central/satellite galaxy stellar mass functions and two-point correlation functions in the stellar mass range of 9 < log(M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) <12. We find that: (1) the SHMR of central galaxies is segregated by color, with blue centrals having a SHMR above that of red centrals; at log(M {sub h}/M {sub ☉}) ∼12, the M {sub *}-to-M {sub h} ratio of the blue centrals is ≈0.05, which is ∼1.7 times larger than the value of red centrals. (2) The constrained scatters around the SHMRs of red and blue centrals are ≈0.14 and ≈0.11 dex, respectively. The scatter of the average SHMR of all central galaxies changes from ∼0.20 dex to ∼0.14 dex in the 11.3 < log(M {sub h}/M {sub ☉}) <15 range. (3) The fraction of halos hosting blue centrals at M{sub h}=10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} is 87%, but at 2 × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉} decays to ∼20%, approaching a few percent at higher masses. The characteristic mass at which this fraction is the same for blue and red galaxies is M{sub h}≈7×10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}. Our results suggest that the SHMR of central galaxies at large masses is shaped by mass quenching. At low masses processes that delay star formation without invoking too strong supernova-driven outflows could explain the high M {sub *}-to-M {sub h} ratios of blue centrals as compared to those of the scarce red centrals.

  7. Powerful, Rotating Disk Winds from Stellar-mass Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. M.; Fabian, A. C.; Kaastra, J.; Kallman, T.; King, A. L.; Proga, D.; Raymond, J.; Reynolds, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an analysis of ionized X-ray disk winds found in the Fe K band of four stellar-mass black holes observed with Chandra, including 4U 1630-47, GRO J1655-40, H 1743-322, and GRS 1915+105. High-resolution photoionization grids were generated in order to model the data. Third-order gratings spectra were used to resolve complex absorption profiles into atomic effects and multiple velocity components. The Fe xxv line is found to be shaped by contributions from the intercombination line (in absorption), and the Fe xxvi line is detected as a spin-orbit doublet. The data require 2-3 absorption zones, depending on the source. The fastest components have velocities approaching or exceeding 0.01c, increasing mass outflow rates and wind kinetic power by orders of magnitude over prior single-zone models. The first-order spectra require re-emission from the wind, broadened by a degree that is loosely consistent with Keplerian orbital velocities at the photoionization radius. This suggests that disk winds are rotating with the orbital velocity of the underlying disk, and provides a new means of estimating launching radii—crucial to understanding wind driving mechanisms. Some aspects of the wind velocities and radii correspond well to the broad-line region in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), suggesting a physical connection. We discuss these results in terms of prevalent models for disk wind production and disk accretion itself, and implications for massive black holes in AGNs.

  8. Magnetic Fields In Early Stellar Evolution: Improving Mass And Age Estimates For Young Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiden, Gregory A.

    2016-11-01

    Inhibition of convection by strong magnetic fields has been implicated as a potential culprit for the observed systematic errors with stellar models predictions. I test this hypothesis using stellar evolution models that include effects of strong magnetic fields on stellar structure and the efficiency of convection. I show that models including inhibition of convection due to magnetic fields producebetter age consistency across effective temperature domains and alterthe slope of the mass-radius relation to predict an age consistentwith the HR diagram.

  9. The SLUGGS Survey: stellar masses and effective radii of early-type galaxies from Spitzer Space Telescope 3.6 μm imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Duncan A.; Sinpetru, Luciana; Savorgnan, Giulia; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Usher, Christopher; Brodie, Jean

    2017-02-01

    Galaxy starlight at 3.6 μm is an excellent tracer of stellar mass. Here we use the latest 3.6 μm imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope to measure the total stellar mass and effective radii in a homogeneous way for a sample of galaxies from the SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey. These galaxies are representative of nearby early-type galaxies in the stellar mass range of 10 < log M*/M⊙ < 11.7 and our methodology can be applied to other samples of early-type galaxies. We model each galaxy in 2D and estimate its total asymptotic magnitude from a 1D curve-of-growth. Magnitudes are converted into stellar masses using a 3.6 μm mass-to-light ratio from the latest stellar population models of Röck et al., assuming a Kroupa initial mass function. We apply a ratio based on each galaxy's mean mass-weighted stellar age within one effective radius (the mass-to-light ratio is insensitive to galaxy metallicity for the generally old stellar ages and high metallicities found in massive early-type galaxies). Our 3.6 μm stellar masses agree well with masses derived from 2.2 μm data. From the 1D surface brightness profile, we fit a single Sérsic law, excluding the very central regions. We measure the effective radius, Sérsic n parameter and effective surface brightness for each galaxy. We find that galaxy sizes derived from shallow optical imaging and the 2MASS survey tend to underestimate the true size of the largest, most massive galaxies in our sample. We adopt the 3.6 μm stellar masses and effective radii for the SLUGGS survey galaxies.

  10. Dartmouth Stellar Evolution Database and the ACS Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters II. Stellar Evolution Tracks, Isochrones, Luminosity Functions, and Synthetic Horizontal-Branch Models

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dotter, A; Chaboyer, B; Jevremovic, D; Kostov, V; Baron, E; Ferguson, J; Sarajedini, A; Anderson, J

    The Dartmouth Stellar Evolution Database is a collection of stellar evolution tracks and isochrones that spans a range of [Fe/H] from -2.5 to +0.5, [a/Fe] from -0.2 to +0.8 (for [Fe/H]<=0) or +0.2 (for [Fe/H]>0), and initial He mass fractions from Y=0.245 to 0.40. Stellar evolution tracks were computed for masses between 0.1 and 4 Msolar, allowing isochrones to be generated for ages as young as 250 Myr. For the range in masses where the core He flash occurs, separate He-burning tracks were computed starting from the zero age horizontal branch. The tracks and isochrones have been transformed to the observational plane in a variety of photometric systems including standard UBV(RI)C, Stromgren uvby, SDSS ugriz, 2MASS JHKs, and HST ACS/WFC and WFPC2. The Dartmouth Stellar Evolution Database is accessible through a Web site at http://stellar.dartmouth.edu/~models/ where all tracks, isochrones, and additional files can be downloaded. [Copied from online abstract of paper titled "Darmouth Stellar Evolution Database" authored by Dotter, Chaboyer, Jevremovic, Kostov, Baron, Ferguson, and Jason. Abstract is located at http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ApJS..178...89D] Web tools are also available at the home page (http://stellar.dartmouth.edu/~models/index.html). These tools allow users to create isochrones and convert them to luminosity functions or create synthetic horizontal branch models.

  11. A grid of MHD models for stellar mass loss and spin-down rates of solar analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, O.; Drake, J. J.

    2014-03-01

    Stellar winds are believed to be the dominant factor in the spin-down of stars over time. However, stellar winds of solar analogs are poorly constrained due to observational challenges. In this paper, we present a grid of magnetohydrodynamic models to study and quantify the values of stellar mass loss and angular momentum loss rates as a function of the stellar rotation period, magnetic dipole component, and coronal base density. We derive simple scaling laws for the loss rates as a function of these parameters, and constrain the possible mass loss rate of stars with thermally driven winds. Despite the success of our scaling law in matching the results of the model, we find a deviation between the 'solar dipole' case and a real case based on solar observations that overestimates the actual solar mass loss rate by a factor of three. This implies that the model for stellar fields might require a further investigation with additional complexity. Mass loss rates in general are largely controlled by the magnetic field strength, with the wind density varying in proportion to the confining magnetic pressure B {sup 2}. We also find that the mass loss rates obtained using our grid models drop much faster with the increase in rotation period than scaling laws derived using observed stellar activity. For main-sequence solar-like stars, our scaling law for angular momentum loss versus poloidal magnetic field strength retrieves the well-known Skumanich decline of angular velocity with time, Ω{sub *}∝t {sup –1/2}, if the large-scale poloidal magnetic field scales with rotation rate as B{sub p}∝Ω{sub ⋆}{sup 2}.

  12. Ultraviolet to Mid-Infrared Observations of Star-forming Galaxies at z~2: Stellar Masses and Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapley, Alice E.; Steidel, Charles C.; Erb, Dawn K.; Reddy, Naveen A.; Adelberger, Kurt L.; Pettini, Max; Barmby, Pauline; Huang, Jiasheng

    2005-06-01

    We present the broadband UV through mid-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of a sample of 72 spectroscopically confirmed star-forming galaxies at z=2.30+/-0.3. Located in a 72 arcmin2 field centered on the bright background QSO, HS 1700+643, these galaxies were preselected to lie at z~2 solely on the basis of their rest-frame UV colors and luminosities and should be representative of UV-selected samples at high redshift. In addition to deep ground-based photometry spanning from 0.35 to 2.15 μm, we make use of Spitzer IRAC data, which probe the rest-frame near-IR at z~2. The range of stellar populations present in the sample is investigated with simple, single-component stellar population synthesis models. The inability to constrain the form of the star formation history limits our ability to determine the parameters of extinction, age, and star formation rate without using external multiwavelength information. Emphasizing stellar mass estimates, which are much less affected by these uncertainties, we find =10.32+/-0.51 for the sample. The addition of Spitzer IRAC data as a long-wavelength baseline reduces stellar mass uncertainties by a factor of 1.5-2 relative to estimates based on optical-Ks photometry alone. However, the total stellar mass estimated for the sample is remarkably insensitive to the inclusion of IRAC data. We find correlations between stellar mass and rest-frame R band (observed Ks) and rest-frame 1.4 μm (observed 4.5 μm) luminosities, although with significant scatter. Even at rest-frame 1.4 μm, the mass-to-light ratio varies by a factor of 15 indicating that even the rest-frame near-IR, when taken alone, is a poor indicator of stellar mass in star-forming galaxies at z~2. Allowing for the possibility of episodic star formation, we find that typical galaxies in our sample could contain up to 3 times more stellar mass in an old underlying burst than what was inferred from single-component modeling. In contrast, mass

  13. Autocorrelations of stellar light and mass at z˜ 0 and ˜1: from SDSS to DEEP2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; White, Simon D. M.; Chen, Yanmei; Coil, Alison L.; Davis, Marc; De Lucia, Gabriella; Guo, Qi; Jing, Y. P.; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Zhang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    We present measurements of projected autocorrelation functions wp(rp) for the stellar mass of galaxies and for their light in the U, B and V bands, using data from the third data release of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey and the final data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We investigate the clustering bias of stellar mass and light by comparing these to projected autocorrelations of dark matter estimated from the Millennium Simulations (MS) at z= 1 and 0.07, the median redshifts of our galaxy samples. All of the autocorrelation and bias functions show systematic trends with spatial scale and waveband which are impressively similar at the two redshifts. This shows that the well-established environmental dependence of stellar populations in the local Universe is already in place at z= 1. The recent MS-based galaxy formation simulation of Guo et al. reproduces the scale-dependent clustering of luminosity to an accuracy better than 30 per cent in all bands and at both redshifts, but substantially overpredicts mass autocorrelations at separations below about 2 Mpc. Further comparison of the shapes of our stellar mass bias functions with those predicted by the model suggests that both the SDSS and DEEP2 data prefer a fluctuation amplitude of σ8˜ 0.8 rather than the σ8= 0.9 assumed by the MS.

  14. A short review of relativistic iron lines from stellar-mass black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    % In this contribution, I briefly review recent progress in detecting and measuring the properties of relativistic iron lines observed in stellar-mass black hole systems, and the aspects of these lines that are most relevant to studies of similar lines in Seyfert-1 AGN. In particular, the lines observed in stellar-mass black holes are not complicated by complex low-energy absorption or partial-covering of the central engine, and strong lines are largely independent of the model used to fit the underlying broad-band continuum flux. Indeed, relativistic iron lines are the most robust diagnostic of black hole spin that is presently available to observers, with specific advantages over the systematics-plagued disk continuum. If accretion onto stellar-mass black holes simply scales with mass, then the widespread nature of lines in stellar-mass black holes may indicate that lines should be common in Seyfert-1 AGN, though perhaps harder to detect.

  15. On the Stellar Masses of Giant Clumps in Distant Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Schaerer, Daniel; Cava, Antonio; Mayer, Lucio; Tamburello, Valentina

    2017-02-01

    We analyze stellar masses of clumps drawn from a compilation of star-forming galaxies at 1.1 < z < 3.6. Comparing clumps selected in different ways, and in lensed or blank field galaxies, we examine the effects of spatial resolution and sensitivity on the inferred stellar masses. Large differences are found, with median stellar masses ranging from ∼ {10}9 {M}ȯ for clumps in the often-referenced field galaxies to ∼ {10}7 {M}ȯ for fainter clumps selected in deep-field or lensed galaxies. We argue that the clump masses, observed in non-lensed galaxies with a limited spatial resolution of ∼1 kpc, are artificially increased due to the clustering of clumps of smaller mass. Furthermore, we show that the sensitivity threshold used for the clump selection affects the inferred masses even more strongly than resolution, biasing clumps at the low-mass end. Both improved spatial resolution and sensitivity appear to shift the clump stellar mass distribution to lower masses, qualitatively in agreement with clump masses found in recent high-resolution simulations of disk fragmentation. We discuss the nature of the most massive clumps, and we conclude that it is currently not possible to properly establish a meaningful clump stellar mass distribution from observations and to infer the existence and value of a characteristic clump mass scale.

  16. Stellar-mass black holes in young massive and open stellar clusters and their role in gravitational-wave generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sambaran

    2017-05-01

    Stellar-remnant black holes (BH) in dense stellar clusters have always drawn attention due to their potential in a number of phenomena, especially the dynamical formation of binary black holes (BBH), which potentially coalesce via gravitational-wave radiation. This study presents a preliminary set of evolutionary models of compact stellar clusters with initial masses ranging over 1.0 × 104-5.0 × 104 M⊙, and half-mass radius of 2 or 1 pc, which is typical for young massive and starburst clusters. They have metallicities between 0.05 Z⊙ and Z⊙. Including contemporary schemes for stellar wind and remnant formation, such model clusters are evolved, for the first time, using the state-of-the-art direct N-body evolution program nbody7, until their dissolution or at least for 10 Gyr. That way, a self-regulatory behaviour in the effects of dynamical interactions among the BHs is demonstrated. In contrast to earlier studies, the BBH coalescences obtained in these models show a prominence in triple-mediated coalescences while being bound to the clusters, compared to those occurring among the BBHs that are dynamically ejected from the clusters. A broader mass spectrum of the BHs and lower escape velocities of the clusters explored here might cause this difference, which is yet to be fully understood. Among the BBH coalescences obtained here, there are ones that resemble the detected GW151226, LVT151012 and GW150914 events and also ones that are even more massive. A preliminary estimate suggests few 10-100 s of BBH coalescences per year, originating due to dynamics in stellar clusters that can be detected by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) at its design sensitivity.

  17. Stellar-mass black holes in young massive and open stellar clusters and their role in gravitational-wave generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sambaran

    2017-01-01

    Stellar-remnant black holes (BH) in dense stellar clusters have always drawn attention due to their potential in a number of phenomena, especially the dynamical formation of binary black holes (BBH), which potentially coalesce via gravitational-wave (GW) radiation. This study presents a preliminary set of evolutionary models of compact stellar clusters with initial masses ranging over 1.0 × 104M⊙ - 5.0 × 104M⊙, and half-mass radius of 2 or 1 pc, that is typical for young massive and starburst clusters. They have metallicities between 0.05Z⊙ - Z⊙. Including contemporary schemes for stellar wind and remnant formation, such model clusters are evolved, for the first time, using the state-of-the-art direct N-body evolution program NBODY7, until their dissolution or at least for 10 Gyr. That way, a self-regulatory behaviour in the effects of dynamical interactions among the BHs is demonstrated. In contrast to earlier studies, the BBH coalescences obtained in these models show a prominence in triple-mediated coalescences while being bound to the clusters, compared to those occurring among the BBHs that are dynamically ejected from the clusters. A broader mass spectrum of the BHs and lower escape velocities of the clusters explored here might cause this difference, which is yet to be fully understood. Among the BBH coalescences obtained here, there are ones that resemble the detected GW151226, LVT151012, and GW150914 events and also ones which are even more massive. A preliminary estimate suggests few 10s-100s of BBH coalescences per year, originating due to dynamics in stellar clusters, that can be detected by the LIGO at its design sensitivity.

  18. The core mass growth and stellar lifetime of thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch stars

    SciTech Connect

    Kalirai, Jason S.; Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel; Marigo, Paola E-mail: paola.marigo@unipd.it

    2014-02-10

    We establish new constraints on the intermediate-mass range of the initial-final mass relation, and apply the results to study the evolution of stars on the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB). These constraints derive from newly discovered (bright) white dwarfs in the nearby Hyades and Praesepe star clusters, including a total of 18 high signal-to-noise ratio measurements with progenitor masses of M {sub initial} = 2.8-3.8 M {sub ☉}. We also include a new analysis of existing white dwarfs in the older NGC 6819 and NGC 7789 star clusters, M {sub initial} = 1.6 and 2.0 M {sub ☉}. Over this range of initial masses, stellar evolutionary models for metallicity Z {sub initial} = 0.02 predict the maximum growth of the core of TP-AGB stars. By comparing the newly measured remnant masses to the robust prediction of the core mass at the first thermal pulse on the AGB (i.e., from stellar interior models), we establish several findings. First, we show that the stellar core mass on the AGB grows rapidly from 10% to 30% for stars with M {sub initial} = 1.6 to 2.0 M {sub ☉}. At larger masses, the core-mass growth decreases steadily to ∼10% at M {sub initial} = 3.4 M {sub ☉}, after which there is a small hint of a upturn out to M {sub initial} = 3.8 M {sub ☉}. These observations are in excellent agreement with predictions from the latest TP-AGB evolutionary models in Marigo et al. We also compare to models with varying efficiencies of the third dredge-up and mass loss, and demonstrate that the process governing the growth of the core is largely the stellar wind, while the third dredge-up plays a secondary, but non-negligible role. Based on the new white dwarf measurements, we perform an exploratory calibration of the most popular mass-loss prescriptions in the literature, as well as of the third dredge-up efficiency as a function of the stellar mass. Finally, we estimate the lifetime and the integrated luminosity of stars on the TP-AGB to peak at t

  19. THE MASS DEPENDENCE BETWEEN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS AND THEIR STELLAR HOSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Sean M.; Rosenfeld, Katherine A.; Kraus, Adam L.; Wilner, David J.

    2013-07-10

    We present a substantial extension of the millimeter (mm) wave continuum photometry catalog for circumstellar dust disks in the Taurus star-forming region, based on a new ''snapshot'' {lambda} = 1.3 mm survey with the Submillimeter Array. Combining these new data with measurements in the literature, we construct a mm-wave luminosity distribution, f(L{sub mm}), for Class II disks that is statistically complete for stellar hosts with spectral types earlier than M8.5 and has a 3{sigma} depth of roughly 3 mJy. The resulting census eliminates a longstanding selection bias against disks with late-type hosts, and thereby demonstrates that there is a strong correlation between L{sub mm} and the host spectral type. By translating the locations of individual stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram into masses and ages, and adopting a simple conversion between L{sub mm} and the disk mass, M{sub d} , we confirm that this correlation corresponds to a statistically robust relationship between the masses of dust disks and the stars that host them. A Bayesian regression technique is used to characterize these relationships in the presence of measurement errors, data censoring, and significant intrinsic scatter: the best-fit results indicate a typical 1.3 mm flux density of {approx}25 mJy for 1 M{sub Sun} hosts and a power-law scaling L{sub mm}{proportional_to}M{sub *}{sup 1.5-2.0}. We suggest that a reasonable treatment of dust temperature in the conversion from L{sub mm} to M{sub d} favors an inherently linear M{sub d} {proportional_to}M{sub *} scaling, with a typical disk-to-star mass ratio of {approx}0.2%-0.6%. The measured rms dispersion around this regression curve is {+-}0.7 dex, suggesting that the combined effects of diverse evolutionary states, dust opacities, and temperatures in these disks imprint a full width at half-maximum range of a factor of {approx}40 on the inferred M{sub d} (or L{sub mm}) at any given host mass. We argue that this relationship between M{sub d

  20. Effects of Stellar-Mass Black Holes on Massive Star Cluster Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sourav; Morscher, Meagan; Rodriguez, Carl L.; Pattabiraman, Bharat; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2017-03-01

    Recent observations have revealed the existence of stellar mass black hole (BH) candidates in some globular clusters (GC) in the Milky Way and in other galaxies. Given that the detection of BHs is challenging, these detections likely indicate the existence of large populations of BHs in these clusters. This is in direct contrast to the past understanding that at most a handful of BHs may remain in old GCs due to quick mass segregation and rapid mutual dynamical ejection. Modern realistic star-by-star numerical simulations suggest that the retention fraction of BHs is typically much higher than what was previously thought. The BH dynamics near the cluster center leads to dynamical formation of new binaries and dynamical ejections, and acts as a persistent and significant energy source for these clusters. We have started exploring effects of BHs on the global evolution and survival of star clusters. We find that the evolution as well as survival of massive star clusters can critically depend on the details of the initial assumptions related to BH formation physics, such as natal kick distribution, and the initial stellar mass function (IMF). In this article we will present our latest results.

  1. The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G): Stellar Masses, Sizes, and Radial Profiles for 2352 Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Sheth, Kartik; Regan, Michael; Kim, Taehyun; Laine, Jarkko; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Gil de Paz, Armando; Comeron, Sebastien; Hinz, Joannah; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Bouquin, Alexandre Y. K.; Schinnerer, Eva; Ho, Luis; Zaritsky, Dennis; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Madore, Barry; Holwerda, Benne; Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; Knapen, Johan H.; Meidt, Sharon; Querejeta, Miguel; Mizusawa, Trisha; Seibert, Mark; Laine, Seppo; Courtois, Helene

    2015-07-01

    The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies is a volume, magnitude, and size-limited survey of 2352 nearby galaxies with deep imaging at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. In this paper, we describe our surface photometry pipeline and showcase the associated data products that we have released to the community. We also identify the physical mechanisms leading to different levels of central stellar mass concentration for galaxies with the same total stellar mass. Finally, we derive the local stellar mass-size relation at 3.6 μm for galaxies of different morphologies. Our radial profiles reach stellar mass surface densities below ˜ 1 {M}⊙ {{pc}}-2. Given the negligible impact of dust and the almost constant mass-to-light ratio at these wavelengths, these profiles constitute an accurate inventory of the radial distribution of stellar mass in nearby galaxies. From these profiles we have also derived global properties such as asymptotic magnitudes (and the corresponding stellar masses), isophotal sizes and shapes, and concentration indices. These and other data products from our various pipelines (science-ready mosaics, object masks, 2D image decompositions, and stellar mass maps) can be publicly accessed at IRSA (http://irsa.ipac.caltech.edu/data/SPITZER/S4G/).

  2. Establishing a relation between the mass and the spin of stellar-mass black holes.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Indrani; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2013-08-09

    Stellar mass black holes (SMBHs), forming by the core collapse of very massive, rapidly rotating stars, are expected to exhibit a high density accretion disk around them developed from the spinning mantle of the collapsing star. A wide class of such disks, due to their high density and temperature, are effective emitters of neutrinos and hence called neutrino cooled disks. Tracking the physics relating the observed (neutrino) luminosity to the mass, spin of black holes (BHs) and the accretion rate (M) of such disks, here we establish a correlation between the spin and mass of SMBHs at their formation stage. Our work shows that spinning BHs are more massive than nonspinning BHs for a given M. However, slowly spinning BHs can turn out to be more massive than spinning BHs if M at their formation stage was higher compared to faster spinning BHs.

  3. THE STELLAR MASS STRUCTURE OF MASSIVE GALAXIES FROM z = 0 TO z = 2.5: SURFACE DENSITY PROFILES AND HALF-MASS RADII

    SciTech Connect

    Szomoru, Daniel; Franx, Marijn; Labbe, Ivo; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Trenti, Michele; Illingworth, Garth D.; Oesch, Pascal

    2013-02-15

    We present stellar mass surface density profiles of a mass-selected sample of 177 galaxies at 0.5 < z < 2.5, obtained using very deep Hubble Space Telescope optical and near-infrared data over the GOODS-South field, including recent CANDELS data. Accurate stellar mass surface density profiles have been measured for the first time for a complete sample of high-redshift galaxies more massive than 10{sup 10.7} M {sub Sun }. The key advantage of this study compared to previous work is that the surface brightness profiles are deconvolved for point-spread function smoothing, allowing accurate measurements of the structure of the galaxies. The surface brightness profiles account for contributions from complex galaxy structures such as rings and faint outer disks. Mass profiles are derived using radial rest-frame ug color profiles and a well-established empirical relation between these colors and the stellar mass-to-light ratio. We derive stellar half-mass radii from the mass profiles, and find that these are on average {approx}25% smaller than rest-frame g-band half-light radii. This average size difference of 25% is the same at all redshifts, and does not correlate with stellar mass, specific star formation rate, effective surface density, Sersic index, or galaxy size. Although on average the difference between half-mass size and half-light size is modest, for approximately 10% of massive galaxies this difference is more than a factor of two. These extreme galaxies are mostly extended, disk-like systems with large central bulges. These results are robust, but could be impacted if the central dust extinction becomes high. ALMA observations can be used to explore this possibility. These results provide added support for galaxy growth scenarios wherein massive galaxies at these epochs grow by accretion onto their outer regions.

  4. Intense accretion and mass loss of a very low mass young stellar object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, M.; Comerón, F.

    2001-12-01

    We present visible and near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of LS-RCrA 1, a faint, very late-type object (M 6.5-M 7) seen in the direction of the R Coronae Australis star forming complex. While its emission spectrum shows prominent features of accretion and mass loss typical of young stellar objects, its underlying continuum and photometric properties are puzzling when trying to derive a mass and age based on pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks: the object appears to be far too faint for a young member of the R Coronae Australis complex of its spectral type. We speculate that this may be due to either its evolution along pre-main sequence tracks being substantially altered by the intense accretion, or to a combination of partial blocking and scattering of the light of the object by a nearly edge-on circumstellar disk. The rich emission line spectrum superimposed on the stellar continuum is well explained by an intense accretion process: the Halpha , CaII infrared triplet, and HeI 6678 lines show equivalent widths typical of very active classical T Tauri stars. The near-infrared observations show anomalously weak spectral features and no significant excess emission in the K band, which we tentatively interpret as indicating line filling due to emission in a magnetic accretion funnel flow. At the same time, numerous, strong forbidden optical lines ([OI], [NII] and [SII]) and H2 emission at 2.12 mu m suggest that the object is simultaneously undergoing mass loss, providing another example that shows that mass loss and accretion are closely related processes. Such an intense accretion and mass loss activity is observed for the first time in a young stellar object in the transition region between low mass stars and brown dwarfs, and provides a valuable observational test on the effects of accretion on the evolution of objects with such low masses. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory in La Silla and Cerro Paranal (Chile), in

  5. Stellar-mass black holes and ultraluminous x-ray sources.

    PubMed

    Fender, Rob; Belloni, Tomaso

    2012-08-03

    We review the likely population, observational properties, and broad implications of stellar-mass black holes and ultraluminous x-ray sources. We focus on the clear empirical rules connecting accretion and outflow that have been established for stellar-mass black holes in binary systems in the past decade and a half. These patterns of behavior are probably the keys that will allow us to understand black hole feedback on the largest scales over cosmological time scales.

  6. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: The Infrared Excess of UV-Selected z = 2-10 Galaxies as a Function of UV-Continuum Slope and Stellar Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwens, Rychard J.; Aravena, Manuel; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; da Cunha, Elisabete; Labbé, Ivo; Bauer, Franz E.; Bertoldi, Frank; Carilli, Chris; Chapman, Scott; Daddi, Emanuele; Hodge, Jacqueline; Ivison, Rob J.; Karim, Alex; Le Fevre, Olivier; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kazuaki; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian R.; van der Werf, Paul; Weiss, Axel; Cox, Pierre; Elbaz, David; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jorge; Infante, Leopoldo; Oesch, Pascal; Wagg, Jeff; Wilkins, Steve

    2016-12-01

    We make use of deep 1.2 mm continuum observations (12.7 μJy beam-1 rms) of a 1 arcmin2 region in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field to probe dust-enshrouded star formation from 330 Lyman-break galaxies spanning the redshift range z = 2-10 (to ˜2-3 M ⊙ yr-1 at 1σ over the entire range). Given the depth and area of ASPECS, we would expect to tentatively detect 35 galaxies, extrapolating the Meurer z ˜ 0 IRX-β relation to z ≥ 2 (assuming dust temperature T d ˜ 35 K). However, only six tentative detections are found at z ≳ 2 in ASPECS, with just three at >3σ. Subdividing our z = 2-10 galaxy samples according to stellar mass, UV luminosity, and UV-continuum slope and stacking the results, we find a significant detection only in the most massive (>109.75 M ⊙) subsample, with an infrared excess (IRX = L IR/L UV) consistent with previous z ˜ 2 results. However, the infrared excess we measure from our large selection of sub-L ∗ (<109.75 M ⊙) galaxies is {0.11}-0.42+0.32 ± 0.34 (bootstrap and formal uncertainties) and {0.14}-0.14+0.15 ± 0.18 at z = 2-3 and z = 4-10, respectively, lying below even an IRX-β relation for the Small Magellanic Cloud (95% confidence). These results demonstrate the relevance of stellar mass for predicting the IR luminosity of z ≳ 2 galaxies. We find that the evolution of the IRX-stellar mass relationship depends on the evolution of the dust temperature. If the dust temperature increases monotonically with redshift (\\propto {(1+z)}0.32) such that T d ˜ 44-50 K at z ≥ 4, current results are suggestive of little evolution in this relationship to z ˜ 6. We use these results to revisit recent estimates of the z ≥ 3 star formation rate density.

  7. 3D mapping of stellar populations in galaxies as a function of environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory) is a6-year SDSS-IV survey that will obtain resolved spectroscopy from 3600A to 10300 A for a representative sample of 10,000 nearby galaxies. MaNGA will allow the internal kinematics and spatially-resolved properties of stellar populations and gas inside galaxies to be studied as a function of local environment and halo mass for the very first time. I will present results from our analysis of the first year MaNGA data. The main focus is on the 3-dimensional distribution of stellar population properties in galaxies - formation age, element abundance, IMF slope - studying how these vary spatially in galaxies as a function of galaxy environment and dark matter halo mass.

  8. Galaxy formation in the Planck cosmology - I. Matching the observed evolution of star formation rates, colours and stellar masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriques, Bruno M. B.; White, Simon D. M.; Thomas, Peter A.; Angulo, Raul; Guo, Qi; Lemson, Gerard; Springel, Volker; Overzier, Roderik

    2015-08-01

    We have updated the Munich galaxy formation model to the Planck first-year cosmology, while modifying the treatment of baryonic processes to reproduce recent data on the abundance and passive fractions of galaxies from z = 3 down to z = 0. Matching these more extensive and more precise observational results requires us to delay the reincorporation of wind ejecta, to lower the surface density threshold for turning cold gas into stars, to eliminate ram-pressure stripping in haloes less massive than {˜ }10^{14}{ M_{⊙}}, and to modify our model for radio mode feedback. These changes cure the most obvious failings of our previous models, namely the overly early formation of low-mass galaxies and the overly large fraction of them that are passive at late times. The new model is calibrated to reproduce the observed evolution both of the stellar mass function and of the distribution of star formation rate at each stellar mass. Massive galaxies (log M⋆/M⊙ ≥ 11.0) assemble most of their mass before z = 1 and are predominantly old and passive at z = 0, while lower mass galaxies assemble later and, for log M⋆/M⊙ ≤ 9.5, are still predominantly blue and star forming at z = 0. This phenomenological but physically based model allows the observations to be interpreted in terms of the efficiency of the various processes that control the formation and evolution of galaxies as a function of their stellar mass, gas content, environment and time.

  9. Stellar mass to halo mass relation from galaxy clustering in VUDS: a high star formation efficiency at z ≃ 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durkalec, A.; Le Fèvre, O.; de la Torre, S.; Pollo, A.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Lemaux, B. C.; Maccagni, D.; Pentericci, L.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Thomas, R.; Vanzella, E.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Amorín, R.; Bardelli, S.; Cassarà, L. P.; Castellano, M.; Cimatti, A.; Cucciati, O.; Fontana, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Ilbert, O.; Paltani, S.; Ribeiro, B.; Schaerer, D.; Scodeggio, M.; Sommariva, V.; Talia, M.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Capak, P.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; Cuby, J. G.; Dunlop, J.; Fotopoulou, S.; Koekemoer, A.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Mellier, Y.; Pforr, J.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Wang, P. W.

    2015-04-01

    The relation between the galaxy stellar mass M⋆ and the dark matter halo mass Mh gives important information on the efficiency in forming stars and assembling stellar mass in galaxies. We present measurements of the ratio of stellar mass to halo mass (SMHR) at redshifts 2 < z < 5, obtained from the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey. We use halo occupation distribution (HOD) modelling of clustering measurements on ~3000 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts to derive the dark matter halo mass Mh, and spectral energy density fitting over a large set of multi-wavelength data to derive the stellar mass M⋆ and compute the SMHR = M⋆/Mh. We find that the SMHR ranges from 1% to 2.5% for galaxies with M⋆ = 1.3 × 109 M⊙ to M⋆ = 7.4 × 109 M⊙ in DM halos with Mh = 1.3 × 1011 M⊙ to Mh = 3 × 1011 M⊙. We derive the integrated star formation efficiency (ISFE) of these galaxies and find that the star formation efficiency is a moderate 6-9% for lower mass galaxies, while it is relatively high at 16% for galaxies with the median stellar mass of the sample ~ 7 × 109 M⊙. The lower ISFE at lower masses may indicate that some efficient means of suppressing star formation is at work (like SNe feedback), while the high ISFE for the average galaxy at z ~ 3 indicates that these galaxies efficiently build up their stellar mass at a key epoch in the mass assembly process. Based on our results, we propose a possible scenario in which the average massive galaxy at z ~ 3 begins to experience truncation of its star formation within a few million years. Based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, under Large Program 185.A-0791.

  10. Removing Biases in Resolved Stellar Mass Maps of Galaxy Disks through Successive Bayesian Marginalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-García, Eric E.; González-Lópezlira, Rosa A.; Magris C., Gladis; Bruzual A., Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Stellar masses of galaxies are frequently obtained by fitting stellar population synthesis models to galaxy photometry or spectra. The state of the art method resolves spatial structures within a galaxy to assess the total stellar mass content. In comparison to unresolved studies, resolved methods yield, on average, higher fractions of stellar mass for galaxies. In this work we improve the current method in order to mitigate a bias related to the resolved spatial distribution derived for the mass. The bias consists in an apparent filamentary mass distribution and a spatial coincidence between mass structures and dust lanes near spiral arms. The improved method is based on iterative Bayesian marginalization, through a new algorithm we have named Bayesian Successive Priors (BSP). We have applied BSP to M51 and to a pilot sample of 90 spiral galaxies from the Ohio State University Bright Spiral Galaxy Survey. By quantitatively comparing both methods, we find that the average fraction of stellar mass missed by unresolved studies is only half what previously thought. In contrast with the previous method, the output BSP mass maps bear a better resemblance to near-infrared images.

  11. STELLAR MASSES FROM THE CANDELS SURVEY: THE GOODS-SOUTH AND UDS FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, P.; Fontana, A.; Castellano, M.; Grazian, A.; Amorin, R.; Ferguson, H. C.; Mobasher, B.; Barro, G.; Hsu, L. T.; Salvato, M.; Wuyts, S.; Galametz, A.; Lee, B.; Lee, S.-K.; Pforr, J.; Wiklind, T.; Almaini, O.; Cooper, M. C.; Weiner, B.; and others

    2015-03-10

    We present the public release of the stellar mass catalogs for the GOODS-S and UDS fields obtained using some of the deepest near-IR images available, achieved as part of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey project. We combine the effort from 10 different teams, who computed the stellar masses using the same photometry and the same redshifts. Each team adopted their preferred fitting code, assumptions, priors, and parameter grid. The combination of results using the same underlying stellar isochrones reduces the systematics associated with the fitting code and other choices. Thanks to the availability of different estimates, we can test the effect of some specific parameters and assumptions on the stellar mass estimate. The choice of the stellar isochrone library turns out to have the largest effect on the galaxy stellar mass estimates, resulting in the largest distributions around the median value (with a semi interquartile range larger than 0.1 dex). On the other hand, for most galaxies, the stellar mass estimates are relatively insensitive to the different parameterizations of the star formation history. The inclusion of nebular emission in the model spectra does not have a significant impact for the majority of galaxies (less than a factor of 2 for ∼80% of the sample). Nevertheless, the stellar mass for the subsample of young galaxies (age <100 Myr), especially in particular redshift ranges (e.g., 2.2 < z < 2.4, 3.2 < z < 3.6, and 5.5 < z < 6.5), can be seriously overestimated (by up to a factor of 10 for <20 Myr sources) if nebular contribution is ignored.

  12. Stellar dynamics in the strong-lensing central galaxy of Abell 1201: a low stellar mass-to-light ratio, a large central compact mass and a standard dark matter halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Russell J.; Lucey, John R.; Edge, Alastair C.

    2017-10-01

    We analyse the stellar kinematics of the z = 0.169 brightest cluster galaxy in Abell 1201, using integral field observations acquired with the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer on the Very Large Telescope. This galaxy has a gravitationally lensed arc located at unusually small radius (∼5 kpc), allowing us to constrain the mass distribution using lensing and stellar dynamical information over the same radial range. We measure a velocity dispersion profile which is nearly flat at σ ≈ 285 km s-1 in the inner ∼5 kpc, and then rises steadily to σ ≈ 360 km s-1 at ∼30 kpc. We analyse the kinematics using axisymmetric Jeans models, finding that the data require both a significant dark matter halo (to fit the rising outer profile) and a compact central component, with mass Mcen ≈ 2.5 × 1010 M⊙ (to fit the flat σ in the inner regions). The latter component could represent a supermassive black hole, in which case it would be among the largest known to date. Alternatively Mcen could describe excess mass associated with a gradient in the stellar mass-to-light ratio. Imposing a standard Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) dark matter density profile, we recover a stellar mass-to-light ratio ϒ, which is consistent with a Milky Way-like initial mass function (IMF). By anchoring the models using the lensing mass constraint, we break the degeneracy between ϒ and the inner slope γ of the dark matter profile, finding γ = 1.0 ± 0.1, consistent with the NFW form. We show that our results are quite sensitive to the treatment of the central mass in the models. Neglecting Mcen biases the results towards both a heavier-than-Salpeter IMF and a shallower-than-NFW dark matter slope (γ ≈ 0.5).

  13. Haloes light and dark: dynamical models of the stellar halo and constraints on the mass of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, A. A.; Evans, N. W.

    2015-11-01

    We develop a flexible set of action-based distribution functions (DFs) for stellar haloes. The DFs have five free parameters, controlling the inner and outer density slope, break radius, flattening, and anisotropy, respectively. The DFs generate flattened stellar haloes with a rapidly varying logarithmic slope in density, as well as a spherically aligned velocity ellipsoid with a long axis that points towards the Galactic Centre - all attributes possessed by the stellar halo of the Milky Way. We use our action-based DF to model the blue horizontal branch stars extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as stellar halo tracers in a spherical Galactic potential. As the selection function is hard to model, we fix the density law from earlier studies and solve for the anisotropy and gravitational potential parameters. Our best-fitting model has a velocity anisotropy that becomes more radially anisotropic on moving outwards. It changes from β ≈ 0.4 at Galactocentric radius of 15 kpc to ≈0.7 at 60 kpc. This is a gentler increase than is typically found in simulations of stellar haloes built from the multiple accretion of smaller systems. We find the potential corresponds to an almost flat rotation curve with amplitude of ≈200 km s-1 at these distances. This implies an enclosed mass of ≈4.5 × 1011 M⊙ within a spherical shell of radius 50 kpc.

  14. The origin of scatter in the stellar mass-halo mass relation of central galaxies in the EAGLE simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthee, Jorryt; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Bower, Richard; Theuns, Tom

    2017-02-01

    We use the hydrodynamical EAGLE simulation to study the magnitude and origin of the scatter in the stellar mass-halo mass relation for central galaxies. We separate cause and effect by correlating stellar masses in the baryonic simulation with halo properties in a matched dark matter only (DMO) simulation. The scatter in stellar mass increases with redshift and decreases with halo mass. At z = 0.1, it declines from 0.25 dex at M200, DMO ≈ 1011 M⊙ to 0.12 dex at M200, DMO ≈ 1013 M⊙, but the trend is weak above 1012 M⊙. For M200, DMO < 1012.5 M⊙ up to 0.04 dex of the scatter is due to scatter in the halo concentration. At fixed halo mass, a larger stellar mass corresponds to a more concentrated halo. This is likely because higher concentrations imply earlier formation times and hence more time for accretion and star formation, and/or because feedback is less efficient in haloes with higher binding energies. The maximum circular velocity, Vmax, DMO, and binding energy are therefore more fundamental properties than halo mass, meaning that they are more accurate predictors of stellar mass, and we provide fitting formulae for their relations with stellar mass. However, concentration alone cannot explain the total scatter in the M_star - M_{200, DMO} relation, and it does not explain the scatter in Mstar-Vmax, DMO. Halo spin, sphericity, triaxiality, substructure and environment are also not responsible for the remaining scatter, which thus could be due to more complex halo properties or non-linear/stochastic baryonic effects.

  15. Stellar photometry and astrometry with discrete point spread functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mighell, Kenneth J.

    2005-08-01

    The key features of the MATPHOT algorithm for precise and accurate stellar photometry and astrometry using discrete point spread functions (PSFs) are described. A discrete PSF is a sampled version of a continuous PSF, which describes the two-dimensional probability distribution of photons from a point source (star) just above the detector. The shape information about the photon scattering pattern of a discrete PSF is typically encoded using a numerical table (matrix) or an FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) image file. Discrete PSFs are shifted within an observational model using a 21-pixel-wide damped sinc function, and position-partial derivatives are computed using a five-point numerical differentiation formula. Precise and accurate stellar photometry and astrometry are achieved with undersampled CCD (charge-coupled device) observations by using supersampled discrete PSFs that are sampled two, three or more times more finely than the observational data. The precision and accuracy of the MATPHOT algorithm is demonstrated by using the C-language MPD code to analyse simulated CCD stellar observations; measured performance is compared with a theoretical performance model. Detailed analysis of simulated Next Generation Space Telescope observations demonstrate that millipixel relative astrometry and mmag photometric precision is achievable with complicated space-based discrete PSFs.

  16. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): probing the merger histories of massive galaxies via stellar populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreras, I.; Hopkins, A. M.; Gunawardhana, M. L. P.; Sansom, A. E.; Owers, M. S.; Driver, S.; Davies, L.; Robotham, A.; Taylor, E. N.; Konstantopoulos, I.; Brough, S.; Norberg, P.; Croom, S.; Loveday, J.; Wang, L.; Bremer, M.

    2017-06-01

    The merging history of galaxies can be traced with studies of dynamically close pairs. These consist of a massive primary galaxy and a less massive secondary (or satellite) galaxy. The study of the stellar populations of secondary (lower mass) galaxies in close pairs provides a way to understand galaxy growth by mergers. Here we focus on systems involving at least one massive galaxy - with stellar mass above 1011M⊙ in the highly complete Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Our working sample comprises 2692 satellite galaxy spectra (0.1 ≤ z ≤ 0.3). These spectra are combined into high S/N stacks, and binned according to both an 'internal' parameter, the stellar mass of the satellite galaxy (i.e. the secondary), and an 'external' parameter, selecting either the mass of the primary in the pair, or the mass of the corresponding dark matter halo. We find significant variations in the age of the populations with respect to environment. At fixed mass, satellites around the most massive galaxies are older and possibly more metal-rich, with age differences ˜1-2 Gyr within the subset of lower mass satellites (˜1010 M⊙). These variations are similar when stacking with respect to the halo mass of the group where the pair is embedded. The population trends in the lower mass satellites are consistent with the old stellar ages found in the outer regions of massive galaxies.

  17. ON THE LAST 10 BILLION YEARS OF STELLAR MASS GROWTH IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Samuel N.

    2012-02-01

    The star formation rate-stellar mass relation (SFR-M{sub *}) and its evolution (i.e., the SFR main sequence) describe the growth rate of galaxies of a given stellar mass and at a given redshift. Assuming that present-day star-forming galaxies (SFGs) were always star forming in the past, these growth rate observations can be integrated to calculate average star formation histories (SFHs). Using this Main Sequence Integration (MSI) approach, we trace present-day massive SFGs back to when they were 10%-20% of their current stellar mass. The integration is robust throughout those epochs: the SFR data underpinning our calculations are consistent with the evolution of stellar mass density in this regime. Analytic approximations to these SFHs are provided. Integration-based results reaffirm previous suggestions that current SFGs formed virtually all of their stellar mass at z < 2. It follows that massive galaxies observed at z > 2 are not the typical progenitors of SFGs today. We also check MSI-based SFHs against those inferred from analysis of the fossil record-from spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of SFGs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of resolved stars in dwarf irregular galaxies. Once stellar population age uncertainties are accounted for, the main sequence is in excellent agreement with SED-based SFHs (from VESPA). Extrapolating SFR main sequence observations to dwarf galaxies, we find differences between MSI results and SFHs from CMD analysis of Advanced Camera for Surveys Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury and Local Group galaxies. Resolved dwarfs appear to grow much slower than main sequence trends imply, and also slower than slightly higher mass SED-analyzed galaxies. This difference may signal problems with SFH determinations, but it may also signal a shift in star formation trends at the lowest stellar masses.

  18. On the last 10 billion years of stellar mass growth in star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Samuel Nicholas

    The star formation rate - stellar mass relation (SFR-M ∗) and its evolution (i.e., the SFR main sequence) describes the growth rate of galaxies of a given stellar mass and at a given redshift. Assuming that present-day star-forming galaxies were always star-forming in the past, these growth rate observations can be integrated to calculate average Star Formation Histories (SFHs). Using this Main Sequence Integration (MSI) approach, we trace present-day massive star-forming galaxies back to when they were 10-20% of their current stellar mass. The integration is robust throughout those epochs: the SFR data underpinning our calculations is consistent with the evolution of stellar mass density in this regime. Analytic approximations to these SFHs are provided. Integration-based results reaffirm previous suggestions that current star-forming galaxies formed virtually all of their stellar mass at z < 2. It follows that massive galaxies observed at z > 2 are not the typical progenitors of star-forming galaxies today. We also check MSI-based SFHs against those inferred from analysis of the fossil record - from spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of star-forming galaxies in the SDSS, and color magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of resolved stars in dwarf irregular galaxies. Once stellar population age uncertainties are accounted for, the main sequence is in excellent agreement with SED-based SFHs (from VESPA). Extrapolating SFR main sequence observations to dwarf galaxies, we find differences between MSI results and SFHs from CMD analysis of ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) and Local Group (LG) galaxies. Resolved dwarfs appear to grow much slower than main sequence trends imply, and also slower than slightly higher mass SED-analyzed galaxies. This difference may signal problems with SFH determinations, but it may also signal a shift in star formation trends at the lowest stellar masses.

  19. AGE AND MASS SEGREGATION OF MULTIPLE STELLAR POPULATIONS IN GALACTIC NUCLEI AND THEIR OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Perets, Hagai B.; Mastrobuono-Battisti, Alessandra

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear stellar clusters (NSCs) are known to exist around massive black holes in galactic nuclei. They are thought to have formed through in situ star formation following gas inflow to the nucleus of the galaxy and/or through the infall of multiple stellar clusters. Here we study the latter, and explore the composite structure of the NSC and its relation to the various stellar populations originating from its progenitor infalling clusters. We use N-body simulations of cluster infalls and show that this scenario may produce observational signatures in the form of age segregation: the distribution of the stellar properties (e.g., stellar age and/or metallicity) in the NSCs reflects the infall history of the different clusters. The stellar populations of clusters, infalling at different times (dynamical ages), are differentially segregated in the NSC and are not fully mixed even after a few gigayears of evolution. Moreover, the radial properties of stellar populations in the progenitor cluster are mapped to their radial distribution in the final NSC, potentially leading to efficient mass segregation in NSCs, even those where relaxation times are longer than a Hubble time. Finally, the overall structures of the stellar populations present non-spherical configurations and show significant cluster to cluster population differences.

  20. Redshift evolution of stellar mass versus gas fraction relation in 0 < z < 2 regime: observational constraint for galaxy formation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morokuma-Matsui, Kana; Baba, Junichi

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the redshift evolution of molecular gas mass fraction (f_mol = M_mol/M_star +M_mol, where Mmol is molecular gas mass and M⋆ is stellar mass) of galaxies in the redshift range of 0 < z < 2 as a function of the stellar mass by combining carbon monoxide (CO) literature data. We observe a stellar-mass dependence of the fmol evolution where massive galaxies have largely depleted their molecular gas at z = 1, whereas the fmol value of less massive galaxies drastically decreases from z = 1. We compare the observed M⋆ - fmol relation with theoretical predictions from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations and semi-analytical models for galaxy formation. Although the theoretical studies approximately reproduce the observed mass dependence of the fmol evolution, they tend to underestimate the fmol values, particularly of less massive (<1010 M⊙) and massive galaxies (>1011 M⊙) when compared with the observational values. Our result suggests the importance of the feedback models which suppress the star formation while simultaneously preserving the molecular gas in order to reproduce the observed M⋆ - fmol relation.

  1. The Mass of the Most Massive Star in Stellar Clusters Determined from 25 Million MASSCLEAN Monte Carlo Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Bogdan; Hanson, M. M.; Borissova, J.; Kurtev, R.; Ivanov, V.; Larsen, S. S.; Catelan, M.; Minniti, D.; Lucas, P.

    2013-06-01

    Is there a maximum universal stellar mass, or might the maximum stellar mass in a cluster be tied to the mass of the associated cluster? Direct measurements of the maximum stellar mass of hundreds of young stellar clusters would help us to answer this fundamental question. However, such information does not presently exist. We are mindful that the most massive star in a stellar cluster can have a strong influence on the integrated magnitudes and colors of their host stellar cluster, especially clusters in the low-mass range. Thinking strategically, this color variation provides us with a mechanism for divulging the properties of that most massive star. We performed 25 million MASSCLEAN Monte Carlo simulations of stellar clusters in the 200-1000 M_Sun range in the U, B, and V bands. These simulations were then used to estimate the mass of the most massive star for 40 young, low-mass LMC clusters. In a similar way, the integrated colors and magnitudes in VISTA's Z, Y, J, H, and Ks bands can also be used to estimate the mass of the most massive star in VISTA-identified stellar clusters. Is the IMF for one hundred young 1000 solar mass clusters the same at the high end as ten young 10,000 solar mass clusters? Using the VISTA's clusters, we intend to answer the question, "Does the lower mass of a stellar cluster artificially steepen the high-mass IMF?".

  2. Testing galaxy quenching theories with scatter in the stellar-to-halo mass relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinker, Jeremy L.

    2017-05-01

    We use the scatter in the stellar-to-halo mass relation to constrain galaxy evolution models. If the efficiency of converting accreted baryons into stars varies with time, haloes of the same present-day mass but different formation histories will have different z = 0 galaxy stellar mass. This is one of the sources of scatter in stellar mass at fixed halo mass, σlog M*. For massive haloes that undergo rapid quenching of star formation at z ˜ 2, different mechanisms that trigger this quenching yield different values of σlog M*. We use this framework to test various models in which quenching begins after a galaxy crosses a threshold in one of the following physical quantities: redshift, halo mass, stellar mass and stellar-to-halo mass ratio. Our model is highly idealized, with other sources of scatter likely to arise as more physics is included. Thus, our test is whether a model can produce scatter lower than observational bounds, leaving room for other sources. Recent measurements find σlog M* = 0.16 dex for 1011 M⊙ galaxies. Under the assumption that the threshold is constant with time, such a low value of σlog M* rules out all of these models with the exception of quenching by a stellar mass threshold. Most physical quantities, such as metallicity, will increase scatter if they are uncorrelated with halo formation history. Thus, to decrease the scatter of a given model, galaxy properties would correlate tightly with formation history, creating testable predictions for their clustering. Understanding why σlog M* is so small may be key to understanding the physics of galaxy formation.

  3. RECENT STELLAR MASS ASSEMBLY OF LOW-MASS STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT REDSHIFTS 0.3 < z < 0.9

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, Lucía; Gallego, Jesús; De Paz, Armando Gil; Villar, Víctor; Tresse, Laurence; Charlot, Stéphane; Barro, Guillermo

    2015-01-20

    The epoch when low-mass star-forming galaxies (LMSFGs) form the bulk of their stellar mass is uncertain. While some models predict an early formation, others favor a delayed scenario until later ages of the universe. We present constraints on the star formation histories (SFHs) of a sample of LMSFGs obtained through the analysis of their spectral energy distributions using a novel approach that (1) consistently combines photometric (broadband) and spectroscopic (equivalent widths of emission lines) data, and (2) uses physically motivated SFHs with non-uniform variations of the star formation rate (SFR) as a function of time. The sample includes 31 spectroscopically confirmed LMSFGs (7.3 ≤ log M {sub *}/M {sub ☉} ≤ 8.0), at 0.3 < z {sub spec} < 0.9, in the Extended-Chandra Deep Field-South field. Among them, 24 were selected with photometric stellar mass log M {sub *}/M {sub ☉} < 8.0, 0.3 < z {sub phot} < 1.0, and m {sub NB816,} {sub AB} < 26 mag; the remaining 7 were selected as blue compact dwarfs within the same photometric redshift and magnitude ranges. We also study a secondary sample of 43 more massive spectroscopically confirmed galaxies (8.0 < log M {sub *}/M {sub ☉} ≤ 9.1), selected with the same criteria. The SFRs and stellar masses derived for both samples place our targets on the standard main sequence of star-forming galaxies. The median SFH of LMSFGs at intermediate redshifts appears to form 90% of the median stellar mass inferred for the sample in the ∼0.5-1.8 Gyr immediately preceding the observation. These results suggest a recent stellar mass assembly for LMSFGs, consistent with the cosmological downsizing trends. We find similar median SFH timescales for the more massive secondary sample.

  4. THE PROTOSTELLAR MASS FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, Christopher F.; Offner, Stella S. R. E-mail: soffner@cfa.harvard.ed

    2010-06-10

    The protostellar mass function (PMF) is the present-day mass function of the protostars in a region of star formation. It is determined by the initial mass function weighted by the accretion time. The PMF thus depends on the accretion history of protostars and in principle provides a powerful tool for observationally distinguishing different protostellar accretion models. We consider three basic models here: the isothermal sphere model, the turbulent core model, and an approximate representation of the competitive accretion model. We also consider modified versions of these accretion models, in which the accretion rate tapers off linearly in time. Finally, we allow for an overall acceleration in the rate of star formation. At present, it is not possible to directly determine the PMF since protostellar masses are not currently measurable. We carry out an approximate comparison of predicted PMFs with observation by using the theory to infer the conditions in the ambient medium in several star-forming regions. Tapered and accelerating models generally agree better with observed star formation times than models without tapering or acceleration, but uncertainties in the accretion models and in the observations do not allow one to rule out any of the proposed models at present. The PMF is essential for the calculation of the protostellar luminosity function, however, and this enables stronger conclusions to be drawn.

  5. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Hydrogen lines in red giants directly trace stellar mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergemann, Maria; Serenelli, Aldo; Schönrich, Ralph; Ruchti, Greg; Korn, Andreas; Hekker, Saskia; Kovalev, Mikhail; Mashonkina, Lyudmila; Gilmore, Gerry; Randich, Sofia; Asplund, Martin; Rix, Hans-Walter; Casey, Andrew R.; Jofre, Paula; Pancino, Elena; Recio-Blanco, Alejandra; de Laverny, Patrick; Smiljanic, Rodolfo; Tautvaisiene, Grazina; Bayo, Amelia; Lewis, Jim; Koposov, Sergey; Hourihane, Anna; Worley, Clare; Morbidelli, Lorenzo; Franciosini, Elena; Sacco, Germano; Magrini, Laura; Damiani, Francesco; Bestenlehner, Joachim M.

    2016-10-01

    Red giant stars are perhaps the most important type of stars for Galactic and extra-galactic archaeology: they are luminous, occur in all stellar populations, and their surface temperatures allow precise abundance determinations for many different chemical elements. Yet, the full star formation and enrichment history of a galaxy can be traced directly only if two key observables can be determined for large stellar samples: age and chemical composition. While spectroscopy is a powerful method to analyse the detailed abundances of stars, stellar ages are the missing link in the chain, since they are not a direct observable. However, spectroscopy should be able to estimate stellar masses, which for red giants directly infer ages provided their chemical composition is known. Here we establish a new empirical relation between the shape of the hydrogen line in the observed spectra of red giants and stellar mass determined from asteroseismology. The relation allows determining stellar masses and ages with an accuracy of 10-15%. The method can be used with confidence for stars in the following range of stellar parameters: 4000 < Teff < 5000 K, 0.5 < log g< 3.5, -2.0 < [Fe/H] < 0.3, and luminosities log L/LSun < 2.5. Our analysis provides observational evidence that the Hα spectral characteristics of red giant stars are tightly correlated with their mass and therefore their age. We also show that the method samples well all stellar populations with ages above 1 Gyr. Targeting bright giants, the method allows obtaining simultaneous age and chemical abundance information far deeper than would be possible with asteroseismology, extending the possible survey volume to remote regions of the Milky Way and even to neighbouring galaxies such as Andromeda or the Magellanic Clouds even with current instrumentation, such as the VLT and Keck facilities.

  6. Dynamical masses of the low-mass stellar binary AB Doradus B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azulay, R.; Guirado, J. C.; Marcaide, J. M.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Ros, E.; Jauncey, D. L.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Preston, R. A.; Reynolds, J. E.; Tognelli, E.; Ventura, P.

    2015-06-01

    Context. AB Doradus is the main system of the AB Doradus moving group. It is a quadruple system formed by two widely separated binaries of pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars: AB Dor A/C and AB Dor Ba/Bb. The pair AB Dor A/C has been extensively studied and its dynamical masses have been determined with high precision, thus making AB Dor C a benchmark for calibrating PMS stellar models. If the orbit and dynamical masses of the pair AB Dor Ba/Bb could be determined, they could play a similar role to that of AB Dor C in calibrating PMS models, and would also help to better understand the dynamics of the whole AB Doradus system. Aims: We aim to determine the individual masses of the pair AB Dor Ba/Bb using VLBI observations and archive infrared data as part of a larger program that monitors binary systems in the AB Doradus moving group. Methods: We observed the system AB Dor B between 2007 and 2013 with the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA) at a frequency of 8.4 GHz in phase-reference mode. Results: We detected, for the first time, compact radio emission from both stars in the binary, AB Dor Ba and AB Dor Bb. This result allowed us to determine the orbital parameters of both the relative and absolute orbits and, consequently, their individual dynamical masses: 0.28 ± 0.05 M⊙ and 0.25 ± 0.05 M⊙, respectively. Conclusions: Comparisons of the dynamical masses with the prediction of PMS evolutionary models show that the models underpredict the dynamical masses of the binary components Ba and Bb by 10-30% and 10-40%, respectively, although they still agree at the 2σ level. Some of the stellar models considered favor an age between 50 and 100 Myr for this system, while others predict older ages. We also discuss the evolutionary status of AB Dor Ba/Bb in terms of an earlier double-double star scenario that might explain the strong radio emission detected in both components.

  7. The building up of the black hole mass -stellar mass relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamastra, Alessandra

    We derive the growth of SMBHs relative to the stellar content of their host galaxy predicted under the assumption of BH accretion triggered by galaxy encounters occurring during their merging histories. The latter are described through Monte Carlo realizations, and are con-nected to gas processes, star formation and BH accretion using a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation in a cosmological framework. This allows us to connect the star formation process in the host galaxies to the growth of Supermassive Black Holes. We show that, within this framework, the ratio Γ ≡ (MBH /M∗ )(z)/(MBH /M∗ )(z = 0) between the Black Hole mass and the galactic stellar mass (normalized to the local value) depends on both BH mass and red-shift. While the average value and the spread of Γ(z) increase with z, such an effect is larger for massive BHs, reaching values Γ ≈ 5 for massive Black Holes (M ≥ 109 M ) at z 4, in agreement with recent observations of high-redshift QSOs; this is due to the the effectiveness of interactions in triggering BH accretion in high-density environments (where massive haloes form) at high redshifts. To test such a model against observations, we worked out specific pre-dictions for sub-samples of the simulated galaxies corresponding to the different observational samples for which measurements of Γ have been obtained. We found that for Broad Line AGNs at intermediate redshifts 1 z 2 values of Γ ≈ 2 are expected, with a mild trend toward larger value for increasing BH mass. Instead, when we select from our Monte Carlo simulations only extremely gas rich, rapidly star forming galaxies at the epoch of peak in the cosmic star formation (2 ≤ z ≤ 3), we find low values 0.3 ≤ Γ ≤ 1.5, consistent with recent observational findings on samples of sub-mm galaxies; in the framework of our model, these objects end up at z = 0 in low-to-intermediate mass BHs (M ≤ 109 M ), and they do not represent typical paths leading to local massive

  8. A robust sample of galaxies at redshifts 6.0stellar populations, star formation rates and stellar masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLure, R. J.; Dunlop, J. S.; de Ravel, L.; Cirasuolo, M.; Ellis, R. S.; Schenker, M.; Robertson, B. E.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Stark, D. P.; Bowler, R. A. A.

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of a photometric redshift analysis designed to identify z≥ 6 galaxies from the near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope imaging in three deep fields [Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), HUDF09-2 and Early Release Science] covering a total area of 45 square arcmin. By adopting a rigorous set of criteria for rejecting low-redshift interlopers, and by employing a deconfusion technique to allow the available ultradeep IRAC imaging to be included in the candidate-selection process, we have derived a robust sample of 70 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) spanning the redshift range 6.0 < z < 8.7. Based on our final sample, we investigate the distribution of ultraviolet (UV) spectral slopes (fλ∝λβ), finding a variance-weighted mean value of <β>=-2.05 ± 0.09 which, contrary to some previous results, is not significantly bluer than displayed by lower redshift starburst galaxies. We confirm the correlation between UV luminosity and stellar mass reported elsewhere, but based on fitting galaxy templates featuring a range of star formation histories (SFHs), metallicities and reddening, we find that, at z≥ 6, the range in mass-to-light ratio (M★/LUV) at a given UV luminosity could span a factor of ≃50. Focusing on a subsample of 21 candidates with IRAC detections at ?m, we find that L★ LBGs at z≃ 6.5 have a median stellar mass of M★= (2.1 ± 1.1) × 109 M⊙ (Chabrier initial mass function) and a median specific star formation rate (sSFR) of 1.9 ± 0.8 Gyr-1. Using the same subsample, we have investigated the influence of nebular continuum and line emission, finding that for the majority of candidates (16 out of 21), the best-fitting stellar masses are reduced by less than a factor of 2.5. However, galaxy template fits exploring a plausible range of SFHs and metallicities provide no compelling evidence of a clear connection between SFR and stellar mass at these redshifts. Finally, a detailed comparison of our final sample with the results of previous

  9. Dynamics of Dwarf Galaxies Disfavor Stellar-Mass Black Holes as Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koushiappas, Savvas M.; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-07-01

    We study the effects of black hole dark matter on the dynamical evolution of stars in dwarf galaxies. We find that mass segregation leads to a depletion of stars in the center of dwarf galaxies and the appearance of a ring in the projected stellar surface density profile. Using Segue 1 as an example we show that current observations of the projected surface stellar density rule out at the 99.9% confidence level the possibility that more than 6% of the dark matter is composed of black holes with a mass of few tens of solar masses.

  10. The Pleiades mass function: Models versus observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraux, E.; Kroupa, P.; Bouvier, J.

    2004-10-01

    Two stellar-dynamical models of binary-rich embedded proto-Orion-Nebula-type clusters that evolve to Pleiades-like clusters are studied with an emphasis on comparing the stellar mass function with observational constraints. By the age of the Pleiades (about 100 Myr) both models show a similar degree of mass segregation which also agrees with observational constraints. This thus indicates that the Pleiades is well relaxed and that it is suffering from severe amnesia. It is found that the initial mass function (IMF) must have been indistinguishable from the standard or Galactic-field IMF for stars with mass m ≲ 2 M⊙, provided the Pleiades precursor had a central density of about 104.8 stars/pc3. A denser model with 105.8 stars/pc3 also leads to reasonable agreement with observational constraints, but owing to the shorter relaxation time of the embedded cluster it evolves through energy equipartition to a mass-segregated condition just prior to residual-gas expulsion. This model consequently preferentially loses low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (BDs), but the effect is not very pronounced. The empirical data indicate that the Pleiades IMF may have been steeper than the Salpeter for stars with m⪆ 2 M⊙.

  11. Stellar Activity and Mass Loss from A and F Supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    This grant supported the observing and data analysis for FUSE Cycle 4 project DO47 to observe five late-A and F supergiants using a total observing allocation of 150 ksec. Stellar activity on A and F supergiants has been poorly studied in the past; primarily because the photospheric continuum dominates any chromospheric ( 10 4 K) or transition region (TR; 10 5 K) emission lines far into the ultraviolet. FUSE observations of A and F supergiants offer one of the best methods to study stellar activity on these stars, because many activity indicators longward of 1200 A are swamped by the photospheric continuum emission. We used FUSE FUV spectra to search for 0 VI and C I11 TR emission lines and obtained data for t Car (A8 Ib, for 60.5 ksec, on 2003 Apr 27), 8 Sco (F1 11, 22.7 ksec, 2003 Aug 2), ct Per (F5 Ib, 30.8 ksec, 2003 Oct l), a UMi (F7 Ib-11, 23.9 ksec, 2003 Oct 14), and y Cyg (F8 Ib, 25.8 ksec, 2003 Oct 18). These observations used the large LWRS aperture and collected data in time-tagged mode. The LWRS aperture is large enough that the target should remain within the aperture with the normal level of FUSE pointing jitter and target drift. We examined the stellar signal and found that the targets were well within the aperture throughout the observation. The data were split into night-time and day-time data so that the effects of airglow emission were recognizable, and combined day and night spectra were generated using CALFUSE 2.4.0 .

  12. A break in the high-redshift stellar mass Tully-Fisher relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Lise; Hjorth, Jens

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the stellar-mass Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) between the stellar mass and the integrated gas velocity dispersion, quantified by the kinematic estimator S0.5 measured from strong emission lines in spectra of galaxies at 0 < z < 5. We combine luminosity-selected galaxies ('high-luminosity sample') with galaxies selected in other ways ('low-luminosity sample') to cover a range in stellar mass that spans almost five orders of magnitude: 7.0 ≲ log M*/M⊙ ≲ 11.5. We find that the logarithmic power-law slope and normalization of the TFR are independent of redshift out to z ∼ 3. The scatter in the TFR is <0.5 dex such that the gas velocity dispersion can be used as a proxy for the stellar mass of a galaxy independently of its redshift. At z > 3, the scatter increases and the existence of a correlation is not obvious. The high-luminosity sample exhibits a flatter slope of 1.5 ± 0.2 at z < 3 compared to the low-luminosity sample slope of 2.9 ± 0.3, suggesting a turnover in the TFR. The combined sample is well fit with a break in the TFR at a characteristic stellar-mass scale of M* ∼ 1010 M⊙, with no significant evolution out to z ∼ 3. We demonstrate that a break in the TFR with a steeper slope at the low-mass end is a natural consequence of galaxy models with a mass-dependent stellar-to-halo mass ratio.

  13. The panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury. V. Ages and masses of the year 1 stellar clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Fouesneau, Morgan; Johnson, L. Clifton; Weisz, Daniel R.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Bell, Eric F.; Bianchi, Luciana; Caldwell, Nelson; Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Larsen, Søren S.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Seth, Anil C.; Skillman, Evan D.

    2014-05-10

    We present ages and masses for 601 star clusters in M31 from the analysis of the six filter integrated light measurements from near-ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths, made as part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT). We derive the ages and masses using a probabilistic technique, which accounts for the effects of stochastic sampling of the stellar initial mass function. Tests on synthetic data show that this method, in conjunction with the exquisite sensitivity of the PHAT observations and their broad wavelength baseline, provides robust age and mass recovery for clusters ranging from ∼10{sup 2} to 2 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}. We find that the cluster age distribution is consistent with being uniform over the past 100 Myr, which suggests a weak effect of cluster disruption within M31. The age distribution of older (>100 Myr) clusters falls toward old ages, consistent with a power-law decline of index –1, likely from a combination of fading and disruption of the clusters. We find that the mass distribution of the whole sample can be well described by a single power law with a spectral index of –1.9 ± 0.1 over the range of 10{sup 3}-3 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}. However, if we subdivide the sample by galactocentric radius, we find that the age distributions remain unchanged. However, the mass spectral index varies significantly, showing best-fit values between –2.2 and –1.8, with the shallower slope in the highest star formation intensity regions. We explore the robustness of our study to potential systematics and conclude that the cluster mass function may vary with respect to environment.

  14. A stellar evolution paradigm based on specific mass loss and feedback modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuntz, Manfred; Stencel, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    We present a new paradigm for stellar evolution which deals with a detailed treatment of mass loss and feedback modes. The paradigm is presented as a logical diagram which describes the respective dependencies of atmospheric properties relevant to mass loss generation.

  15. Burying a binary: Dynamical mass loss and a continuous optically thick outflow explain the candidate stellar merger V1309 Scorpii

    SciTech Connect

    Pejcha, Ondřej

    2014-06-10

    V1309 Sco was proposed to be a stellar merger and a common envelope transient based on the pre-outburst light curve of a contact eclipsing binary with a rapidly decaying orbital period. Using published data, I show that the period decay timescale P/ P-dot of V1309 Sco decreased from ∼1000 to ∼170 yr in ≲ 6 yr, which implies a very high value of P{sup ¨}. I argue that V1309 Sco experienced an onset of dynamical mass loss through the outer Lagrange point, which eventually obscured the binary. The photosphere of the resulting continuous optically thick outflow expands as the mass-loss rate increases, explaining the ∼200 day rise to optical maximum. The model yields the mass-loss rate of the binary star as a function of time and fits the observed light curve remarkably well. It is also possible to observationally constrain the properties of the surface layers undergoing the dynamical mass loss. V1309 Sco is thus a prototype of a new class of stellar transients distinguished by a slow rise to optical maximum that are driven by dynamical mass loss from a binary. I discuss the implications of these findings for stellar transients and other suggested common envelope events.

  16. The Mass of the Most Massive Star in Stellar Clusters Determined from 25 Million MASSCLEAN Monte Carlo Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, B.; Hanson, M. M.; Borissova, J.; Kurtev, R.; Ivanov, D. V.; Larsen, S. S.; Minniti, D.; Lucas, P.

    2013-06-01

    Is there a maximum universal stellar mass, or might the maximum stellar mass in a cluster be tied to the mass of the associated cluster? Direct measurements of the maximum stellar mass of hundreds of young stellar clusters would help us to answer this fundamental question. However, such information does not presently exist. We are mindful that the most massive star in a stellar cluster can have a strong influence on the integrated magnitudes and colors of their host stellar cluster, especially clusters in the low-mass range. Thinking strategically, this color variation provides us with a mechanism for divulging the properties of that most massive star. We performed 25 million MASSCLEAN Monte Carlo simulations of stellar clusters in the 200-1000 Mo range in the U, B and V bands. These simulations were then used to estimate the mass of the most massive star for 40 young, low-mass LMC clusters. In a similar way, the integrated colors and magnitudes in VISTAs Z, Y, J, H, and K_s bands can also be used to estimate the mass of the most massive star in VISTA-identified stellar clusters. Is the IMF for one hundred young 1000 Mo clusters the same at the high end as ten young 10,000 Mo clusters? Using the VISTAs clusters, we intend to answer the question: ``Does the lower mass of a stellar cluster artificially steepen the high-mass IMF?''

  17. THE SLOAN LENS ACS SURVEY. X. STELLAR, DYNAMICAL, AND TOTAL MASS CORRELATIONS OF MASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Auger, M. W.; Treu, T.; Marshall, P. J.; Bolton, A. S.; Gavazzi, R.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Moustakas, L. A.

    2010-11-20

    We use stellar masses, surface photometry, strong-lensing masses, and stellar velocity dispersions ({sigma}{sub e/2}) to investigate empirical correlations for the definitive sample of 73 early-type galaxies (ETGs) that are strong gravitational lenses from the SLACS survey. The traditional correlations (fundamental plane (FP) and its projections) are consistent with those found for non-lens galaxies, supporting the thesis that SLACS lens galaxies are representative of massive ETGs (dimensional mass M{sub dim} = 10{sup 11}-10{sup 12} M{sub sun}). The addition of high-precision strong-lensing estimates of the total mass allows us to gain further insights into their internal structure: (1) the average slope of the total mass-density profile ({rho}{sub tot}{proportional_to}r{sup -}{gamma}') is ({gamma}') = 2.078 {+-} 0.027 with an intrinsic scatter of 0.16 {+-} 0.02; (2) {gamma}' correlates with effective radius (r{sub e}) and central mass density, in the sense that denser galaxies have steeper profiles; (3) the dark matter (DM) fraction within r{sub e} /2 is a monotonically increasing function of galaxy mass and size (due to a mass-dependent central cold DM distribution or due to baryonic DM-stellar remnants or low-mass stars-if the initial mass function is non-universal and its normalization increases with mass); (4) the dimensional mass M{sub dim} {identical_to} 5r{sub e} {sigma}{sup 2}{sub e/2}/G is proportional to the total (lensing) mass M{sub r{sub e/2}}, and both increase more rapidly than stellar mass M{sub *} (M{sub *{proportional_to}}M{sub r{sub e/2}{sup 0.8}); (5) the mass plane (MP), obtained by replacing surface brightness with surface mass density in the FP, is found to be tighter and closer to the virial relation than the FP and the M{sub *}P, indicating that the scatter of those relations is dominated by stellar population effects; (6) we construct the fundamental hyper-plane by adding stellar masses to the MP and find the M{sub *} coefficient to be

  18. Galaxy Zoo 2: A Study of Bar Fraction Versus Stellar Mass and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortson, Lucy; Bamford, S.; Lintott, C.; Schawinski, K.; Smith, A.; Whyte, L.; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2010-01-01

    Galaxy Zoo has involved ¼ million of the public through the Internet in providing morphological classifications of nearly a million galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Galaxy Zoo 2 is a follow on project and has already recorded more than 40 million detailed morphological classifications on the brightest 250,000 galaxies in the SDSS. Among the most interesting products is a catalog of 10,000 barred spirals - an order of magnitude increase on the sample sizes used in most current population studies of barred spirals. In this poster we present a first look at the properties of this catalog focusing in particular on the fraction of spirals with bars as a function of environment, stellar mass and star formation history. Barred spirals are a sensitive indicator of the dynamical state of a galaxy and we discuss the implications for the evolution of the spiral population.

  19. Protostar mass functions in young clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Philip C.

    2014-01-20

    In an improved model of protostar mass functions (PMFs), protostars gain mass from isothermal cores in turbulent clumps. Their mass accretion rate is similar to Shu accretion at low mass and to reduced Bondi accretion at high mass. Accretion durations follow a simple expression in which higher-mass protostars accrete for longer times. These times are set by ejections, stellar feedback, and gravitational competition, which terminate accretion and reduce its efficiency. The mass scale is the mass of a critically stable isothermal core. In steady state, the PMF approaches a power law at high mass because of competition between clump accretion and accretion stopping. The power law exponent is the ratio of the timescales of accretion and accretion stopping. The protostar luminosity function (PLF) peaks near 1 L {sub ☉} because of inefficient accretion of core gas. Models fit observed PLFs in four large embedded clusters. These indicate that their underlying PMFs may be top-heavy compared with the initial mass function, depending on the protostar radius model.

  20. DISSECTING THE STELLAR-MASS-SFR CORRELATION IN z = 1 STAR-FORMING DISK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Salmi, F.; Daddi, E.; Elbaz, D.; Sargent, M. T.; Bethermin, M.; Renzini, A.; Le Borgne, D. E-mail: edaddi@cea.fr

    2012-07-20

    Using a mass-limited sample of 24 {mu}m detected, star-forming galaxies at 0.5 < z < 1.3, we study the mass-star formation rate (SFR) correlation and its tightness. The correlation is well defined ({sigma} = 0.28 dex) for disk galaxies (n{sub Sersic} < 1.5), while more bulge-dominated objects often have lower specific SFRs (sSFRs). For disk galaxies, a much tighter correlation ({sigma} = 0.19 dex) is obtained if the rest-frame H-band luminosity is used instead of stellar mass derived from multi-color photometry. The sSFR correlates strongly with rest-frame optical colors (hence luminosity-weighted stellar age) and also with clumpiness (which likely reflects the molecular gas fraction). This implies that most of the observed scatter is real, despite its low level, and not dominated by random measurement errors. After correcting for these differential effects a remarkably small dispersion remains ({sigma} = 0.14 dex), suggesting that measurement errors in mass or SFR are {approx}< 0.10 dex, excluding systematic uncertainties. Measurement errors in stellar masses, the thickening of the correlation due to real sSFR variations, and varying completeness with stellar mass, can spuriously bias the derived slope to lower values due to the finite range over which observables (mass and SFR) are available. When accounting for these effects, the intrinsic slope for the main sequence for disk galaxies gets closer to unity.

  1. DECam Survey for Substellar and Low-mass Stellar Members of Sco-Cen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamajek, Eric E.; Moolekamp, Fred; James, David; Luhman, Kevin; Pecaut, Mark; Metchev, Stanimir A.; Denbo, Sara; Bell, Cameron P. M.

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of a DECam imaging survey for low-mass stellar and substellar objects in the nearby Sco-Cen OB association. The DECam survey was taken in izY bands in 2013 and 2015 and covered $\\sim$87 deg$^2$ in the two nearest and oldest subgroups, Upper Cen-Lup ($\\sim$142 pc) and Lower Cen-Cru ($\\sim$118 pc; both with mean ages $\\sim$16 Myr). Using color-magnitude and proper motion selection, we identify 391 candidate Sco-Cen members with masses ranging from near the D-burning limit of $\\sim$13 M$_{Jup}$, through the H-burning limit, up to $\\sim$0.4 M$_\\odot$. Our initial spectroscopic follow-up with the ARCoIRIS and COSMOS spectrographs for 19 objects have yielded young M dwarfs showing signatures of low surface-gravity. Our survey yields the first constraints on the substellar and low-mass initial mass function and disk fraction in the two oldest Sco-Cen subgroups, and will yield a large sample of young, low-surface gravity M and L-type objects of constrained age, distance, and chemical composition. We acknowledge support from NSF award AST-1313029 and the REU Site in Physics and Astrophysics at the University of Rochester supported by NSF award PHY-1156339.

  2. Stellar mass distribution of S4G disk galaxies and signatures of bar-induced secular evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-García, S.; Salo, H.; Laurikainen, E.

    2016-12-01

    Context. Models of galaxy formation in a cosmological framework need to be tested against observational constraints, such as the average stellar density profiles (and their dispersion) as a function of fundamental galaxy properties (e.g. the total stellar mass). Simulation models predict that the torques produced by stellar bars efficiently redistribute the stellar and gaseous material inside the disk, pushing it outwards or inwards depending on whether it is beyond or inside the bar corotation resonance radius. Bars themselves are expected to evolve, getting longer and narrower as they trap particles from the disk and slow down their rotation speed. Aims: We use 3.6 μm photometry from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) to trace the stellar distribution in nearby disk galaxies (z ≈ 0) with total stellar masses 108.5 ≲ M∗/M⊙ ≲ 1011 and mid-IR Hubble types - 3 ≤ T ≤ 10. We characterize the stellar density profiles (Σ∗), the stellar contribution to the rotation curves (V3.6 μm), and the m = 2 Fourier amplitudes (A2) as a function of M∗ and T. We also describe the typical shapes and strengths of stellar bars in the S4G sample and link their properties to the total stellar mass and morphology of their host galaxy. Methods: For 1154 S4G galaxies with disk inclinations lower than 65°, we perform a Fourier decomposition and rescale their images to a common frame determined by the size in physical units, by their disk scalelength, and for 748 barred galaxies by both the length and orientation of their bars. We stack the resized density profiles and images to obtain statistically representative average stellar disks and bars in bins of M∗ and T. Based on the radial force profiles of individual galaxies we calculate the mean stellar contribution to the circular velocity. We also calculate average A2 profiles, where the radius is normalized to R25.5. Furthermore, we infer the gravitational potentials from the synthetic bars to

  3. Mass-loss From Evolved Stellar Populations In The Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebel, David

    2012-01-01

    I have conducted a study of a sample of 30,000 evolved stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and 6,000 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), covering their variability, mass-loss properties, and chemistry. The initial stages of of my thesis work focused on the infrared variability of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars in the LMC. I determined the period-luminosity (P-L) relations for 6 separate sequences of 30,000 evolved star candidates at 8 wavelengths, as a function of photometrically assigned chemistry, and showed that the P-L relations are different for different chemical populations (O-rich or C-rich). I also present results from the Grid of Red supergiant and Asymptotic giant branch star ModelS (GRAMS) radiative transfer (RT) model grid applied to the evolved stellar population of the LMC. GRAMS is a pre-computed grid of RT models of RSG and AGB stars and surrounding circumstellar dust. Best-fit models are determined based on 12 bands of photometry from the optical to the mid-infrared. Using a pre-computed grid, I can present the first reasonably detailed radiative transfer modeling for tens of thousands of stars, allowing me to make statistically accurate estimations of the carbon-star luminosity function and the global dust mass return to the interstellar medium from AGB stars, both key parameters for stellar population synthesis models to reproduce. In the SAGE-Var program, I used the warm Spitzer mission to take 4 additional epochs of observations of 7500 AGB stars in the LMC and SMC. These epochs, combined with existing data, enable me to derive mean fluxes at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, that will be used for tighter constraints for GRAMS, which is currently limited by the variability induced error on the photometry. This work is support by NASA NAG5-12595 and Spitzer contract 1415784.

  4. The halo-to-stellar mass ratio in the S4G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-García, Simón; Salo, Heikki; Laurikainen, Eija

    2017-03-01

    We use 3.6 μm photometry for 1154 disk galaxies (i < 65°) in the S4G (Sheth et al. 2010). We obtain the average stellar component of the circular velocity (V disk) and the mean (dark matter) halo-to-stellar mass ratio (M halo/M *) inside the optical radius (R opt) in bins of total stellar mass (M *, from Muñoz-Mateos et al. 2015), providing observational constraints for galaxy formation models to be tested against. We find the M halo/M * - M * relation in good agreement with the best-fit model at z ~ 0 in ΛCDM cosmological simulations (e.g. Moster 2010), assuming that the dark matter halo within R opt comprises a constant fraction (~ 4%) of its total mass.

  5. Stellar and Circumstellar Properties of Low-Mass, Young, Subarcsecond Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhns, Sara; Prato, L. A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the stellar and circumstellar characteristics of close (< 1''), young (< 2 to 3 Myr), low-mass (<1 solar mass) binary stars in the Taurus star forming region. Low-resolution (R ~ 2000) spectra were taken in the K-band using adaptive optics to separate the observations for each component and identify the individual spectral types, extinction, and K-band excess. Combining these data with stellar luminosities allows us to estimate the stellar masses and ages. We also measured equivalent widths of the hydrogen Brackett gamma line in order to estimate the strength of gas accretion. We obtained spectra for six binary systems with separations from 1'' down to 0.3''. In the CZ Tau binary we found that the fainter secondary star spectrum appears to be of earlier spectral type than the primary; we speculate on the origin of this inversion.

  6. Peculiar Transients as Probes of Stellar Evolution and Mass-Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drout, Maria; Berger, Edo; Pan-STARRS1 CFA/JHU Transient Team

    2016-01-01

    Multi-wavelength observations of supernovae not only probe the explosion mechanism, but also carry information about the configuration of the star at the moment of collapse and the mass-loss history of the progenitor system in the years immediately preceding its death. The study of supernovae therefore offers us one of our only observational views of the final stages of stellar evolution. As a result, the discovery by wide-field dedicated surveys of new classes of astronomical transients at an ever-increasing rate has both expanded the types of stellar systems that we can directly probe and challenged some of our existing views of how these uncertain final stages proceed. In this talk I will discuss my thesis work on several types of new and peculiar astronomical transients and what their properties, intrinsic rates, and explosion environments are teaching us about stellar evolution and stellar death.

  7. The Stellar Mass-Halo Mass Relation for Low-mass X-Ray Groups At 0.5< z< 1 in the CDFS With CSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Shannon G.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Williams, Rik J.; Mulchaey, John S.; Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Shectman, Stephen A.

    2015-02-01

    Since z˜ 1, the stellar mass density locked in low-mass groups and clusters has grown by a factor of ˜8. Here, we make the first statistical measurements of the stellar mass content of low-mass X-ray groups at 0.5\\lt z\\lt 1, enabling the calibration of stellar-to-halo mass scales for wide-field optical and infrared surveys. Groups are selected from combined Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations in the Chandra Deep Field South. These ultra-deep observations allow us to identify bona fide low-mass groups at high redshift and enable measurements of their total halo masses. We compute aggregate stellar masses for these halos using galaxies from the Carnegie-Spitzer-IMACS (CSI) spectroscopic redshift survey. Stars comprise ˜3%-4% of the total mass of group halos with masses {{10}12.8}\\lt {{M}200}/{{M}⊙ }\\lt {{10}13.5} (about the mass of Fornax and one-fiftieth the mass of Virgo). Complementing our sample with higher mass halos at these redshifts, we find that the stellar-to-halo mass ratio decreases toward higher halo masses, consistent with other work in the local and high redshift universe. The observed scatter about the stellar-halo mass relation is σ ˜ 0.25 dex, which is relatively small and suggests that total group stellar mass can serve as a rough proxy for halo mass. We find no evidence for any significant evolution in the stellar-halo mass relation since z≲ 1. Quantifying the stellar content in groups since this epoch is critical given that hierarchical assembly leads to such halos growing in number density and hosting increasing shares of quiescent galaxies. This Letter includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. This research is based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  8. AGN Host Galaxy Properties And Mass Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiorno, Angela

    2016-10-01

    Supermassive black hole growth, nuclear activity, and galaxy evolution have been found to be closely related. In the context of AGN-galaxy coevolution, I will discuss about the relation found between the host galaxy properties and the central BH and I will present the latest determination of the host galaxy stellar mass function (HGMF), and the specific accretion rate distribution function (SARDF), derived from the XMM-COSMOS sample up to z˜2.5, with particular focus on AGN feedback as possible responsible mechanism for galaxy quenching.

  9. Stellar encounter driven red-giant star mass loss in globular clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquato, Mario; Moraghan, Anthony; Chung, Chul; Lee, Young-Wook; De Luca, Andrea; Raimondo, Gabriella; Carini, Roberta; Brocato, Enzo

    2014-07-01

    Globular cluster (GC) color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) are reasonably well understood in terms of standard stellar evolution. However, there are still some open issues, such as fully accounting for the horizontal branch (HB) morphology in terms of chemical and dynamical parameters. Mass loss on the red giant branch (RGB) shapes the mass distribution of the HB stars, and the color distribution in turn. The physical mechanisms driving mass loss are still unclear, as direct observations fail to reveal a clear correlation between mass-loss rate and stellar properties. The HB mass distribution is further complicated by helium-enhanced multiple stellar populations due to differences in the evolving mass along the HB. We present a simple analytical mass-loss model based on tidal stripping through Roche-Lobe overflow during stellar encounters. Our model naturally results in a non-Gaussian mass-loss distribution with high skewness and contains only two free parameters. We fit it to the HB mass distribution of four Galactic GCs, as obtained from fitting the CMD with zero age HB models. The best-fit model accurately reproduces the observed mass distribution. If confirmed on a wider sample of GCs, our results would account for the effects of dynamics in RGB mass-loss processes and provide a physically motivated procedure for synthetic CMDs of GCs. Our physical modeling of mass loss may result in the ability to disentangle the effects of dynamics and helium-enhanced multiple populations on the HB morphology and is instrumental in making HB morphology a probe of the dynamical state of GCs, leading to an improved understanding of their evolution.

  10. Stellar Encounter Driven Red-giant Star Mass Loss in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquato, Mario; de Luca, Andrea; Raimondo, Gabriella; Carini, Roberta; Moraghan, Anthony; Chung, Chul; Brocato, Enzo; Lee, Young-Wook

    2014-07-01

    Globular cluster (GC) color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) are reasonably well understood in terms of standard stellar evolution. However, there are still some open issues, such as fully accounting for the horizontal branch (HB) morphology in terms of chemical and dynamical parameters. Mass loss on the red giant branch (RGB) shapes the mass distribution of the HB stars, and the color distribution in turn. The physical mechanisms driving mass loss are still unclear, as direct observations fail to reveal a clear correlation between mass-loss rate and stellar properties. The HB mass distribution is further complicated by helium-enhanced multiple stellar populations due to differences in the evolving mass along the HB. We present a simple analytical mass-loss model based on tidal stripping through Roche-Lobe overflow during stellar encounters. Our model naturally results in a non-Gaussian mass-loss distribution with high skewness and contains only two free parameters. We fit it to the HB mass distribution of four Galactic GCs, as obtained from fitting the CMD with zero age HB models. The best-fit model accurately reproduces the observed mass distribution. If confirmed on a wider sample of GCs, our results would account for the effects of dynamics in RGB mass-loss processes and provide a physically motivated procedure for synthetic CMDs of GCs. Our physical modeling of mass loss may result in the ability to disentangle the effects of dynamics and helium-enhanced multiple populations on the HB morphology and is instrumental in making HB morphology a probe of the dynamical state of GCs, leading to an improved understanding of their evolution.

  11. A Steeper than Linear Disk Mass-Stellar Mass Scaling Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascucci, I.; Testi, L.; Herczeg, G. J.; Long, F.; Manara, C. F.; Hendler, N.; Mulders, G. D.; Krijt, S.; Ciesla, F.; Henning, Th.; Mohanty, S.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Apai, D.; Szűcs, L.; Sacco, G.; Olofsson, J.

    2016-11-01

    The disk mass is among the most important input parameter for every planet formation model to determine the number and masses of the planets that can form. We present an ALMA 887 μm survey of the disk population around objects from ˜2 to 0.03 M ⊙ in the nearby ˜2 Myr old Chamaeleon I star-forming region. We detect thermal dust emission from 66 out of 93 disks, spatially resolve 34 of them, and identify two disks with large dust cavities of about 45 au in radius. Assuming isothermal and optically thin emission, we convert the 887 μm flux densities into dust disk masses, hereafter M dust. We find that the {M}{dust}{--}{M}* relation is steeper than linear and of the form M dust ∝ (M *)1.3-1.9, where the range in the power-law index reflects two extremes of the possible relation between the average dust temperature and stellar luminosity. By reanalyzing all millimeter data available for nearby regions in a self-consistent way, we show that the 1-3 Myr old regions of Taurus, Lupus, and Chamaeleon I share the same {M}{dust}{--}{M}* relation, while the 10 Myr old Upper Sco association has a steeper relation. Theoretical models of grain growth, drift, and fragmentation reproduce this trend and suggest that disks are in the fragmentation-limited regime. In this regime millimeter grains will be located closer in around lower-mass stars, a prediction that can be tested with deeper and higher spatial resolution ALMA observations.

  12. Quantifying the line-of-sight mass distributions for time-delay lenses with stellar masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Cristian; Fassnacht, Chris; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry; Auger, Matt; Koopmans, Leon; Marshall, Phil; Wong, Kenneth; Collett, Thomas; Agnello, Adriano; Blandford, Roger; Courbin, Frederic; Hilbert, Stefan; Meylan, Georges; Sluse, Dominique

    2014-12-01

    Measuring cosmological parameters with a realistic account of systematic uncertainties is currently one of the principal challenges of physical cosmology. Building on our recent successes with two gravitationally lensed systems, we have started a program to achieve accurate cosmographic measurements from five gravitationally lensed quasars. We aim at measuring H_0 with an accuracy better than 4%, comparable to but independent from measurements by current BAO, SN or Cepheid programs. The largest current contributor to the error budget in our sample is uncertainty about the line-of-sight mass distribution and environment of the lens systems. In this proposal, we request wide-field u-band imaging of the only lens in our sample without already available Spitzer/IRCA observations, B1608+656. The proposed observations are critical for reducing these uncertainties by providing accurate redshifts and in particular stellar masses for galaxies in the light cones of the target lens system. This will establish lensing as a powerful and independent tool for determining cosmography, in preparation for the hundreds of time-delay lenses that will be discovered by future surveys.

  13. Stellar Rotation: A Clue to the Origin of High-Mass Stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, S. C.; Strom, S. E.; Dror, D.; Lanz, L.; Venn, K.

    2006-08-01

    We present the results of a study aimed at assessing whether low- and high-mass stars form similarly. Our approach is (1) to examine the observed projected rotational velocities among a large sample of newly formed stars spanning a range in mass between 0.2 and 50 Msolar and (2) to search for evidence of a discontinuity in rotational properties that might indicate a difference in the stellar formation process at some characteristic mass. Our database includes recently published values of vsini for young intermediate- and low-mass stars in Orion, as well as new observations of O stars located in young clusters and OB associations. We find that the median of the quantity vobs/vc (observed rotational speed divided by equatorial breakup velocity) is typically about 0.15 and shows no evidence of a discontinuity over the full range of stellar masses, while the quantity Jsini/M (derived angular momentum per unit mass) exhibits a slow, monotonic rise (J/M~M0.3) with increasing mass with no evidence of a discontinuity. We suggest that these observations are most simply interpreted as indicative of a single stellar formation and angular momentum regulation mechanism, one that results in rotation rates well below breakup and angular momenta per unit mass that differ systematically by no more than a factor of 3-4 over a mass range spanning a factor of 250.

  14. THE PROGENITOR MASS OF SN 2011dh FROM STELLAR POPULATION ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Jeremiah W.; Jennings, Zachary G.; Williams, Benjamin; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Dolphin, Andrew E. E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com

    2011-11-20

    Using Hubble Space Telescope photometry, we characterize the age of the stellar association in the vicinity of supernova (SN) 2011dh and use it to infer the zero-age main-sequence mass (M{sub ZAMS}) of the progenitor star. We find two distinct and significant star formation (SF) events with ages of <6 and 17{sup +3}{sub -4} Myr, and the corresponding M{sub ZAMS} are >29 and 13{sup +2}{sub -1} M{sub Sun }, respectively. These two bursts represent 18{sup +4}{sub -9}% (young) and 64{sup +10}{sub -14}% (old) of the total SF in the last 50 Myr. Adopting these fractions as probabilities suggests that the most probable M{sub ZAMS} is 13{sup +2}{sub -1} M{sub Sun }. These results are most sensitive to the luminosity function along the well-understood main sequence (MS) and are less sensitive to uncertain late-stage stellar evolution. Therefore, they stand even if the progenitor suffered disruptive post-MS evolution (e.g., eruptive mass loss or binary Roche-lobe overflow). Progenitor identification will help to further constrain the appropriate population. Even though pre-explosion images show a yellow supergiant (YSG) at the site of the SN, panchromatic SN light curves suggest a more compact star as the progenitor. In spite of this, our results suggest an association between the YSG and the SN. Not only was the star located at the SN site, but reinforcing an association, the star's bolometric luminosity is consistent with the final evolutionary stage of the 17 Myr old starburst. If the YSG disappears, then M{sub ZAMS} = 13{sup +2}{sub -1} M{sub Sun }, but if it persists, then our results allow the possibility that the progenitor was an unseen star of >29 M{sub Sun }.

  15. The Dependence of Galaxy Clustering on Stellar-mass Assembly History for LRGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Pérez, Enrique; Prada, Francisco; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Favole, Ginevra; Klypin, Anatoly; Cid Fernandes, Roberto; González Delgado, Rosa M.; Domínguez, Alberto; Bolton, Adam S.; García-Benito, Rubén; Jullo, Eric; Niemiec, Anna

    2017-10-01

    We analyze the spectra of 300,000 luminous red galaxies (LRGs) with stellar masses {M}* ≳ {10}11 {M}ȯ from the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). By studying their star formation histories, we find two main evolutionary paths converging into the same quiescent galaxy population at z∼ 0.55. Fast-growing LRGs assemble 80% of their stellar mass very early on (z∼ 5), whereas slow-growing LRGs reach the same evolutionary state at z∼ 1.5. Further investigation reveals that their clustering properties on scales of ∼1–30 Mpc are, at a high level of significance, also different. Fast-growing LRGs are found to be more strongly clustered and reside in overall denser large-scale structure environments than slow-growing systems, for a given stellar-mass threshold. Our results show a dependence of clustering on a property that is directly related to the evolution of galaxies, i.e., the stellar-mass assembly history, for a homogeneous population of similar mass and color. In a forthcoming work, we will address the halo connection in the context of galaxy assembly bias.

  16. The evolution in the stellar mass of brightest cluster galaxies over the past 10 billion years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellstedt, Sabine; Lidman, Chris; Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn; Guatelli, Susanna; Hill, Allison R.; Hoekstra, Henk; Kurinsky, Noah; Labbe, Ivo; Marchesini, Danilo; Marsan, Z. Cemile; Safavi-Naeini, Mitra; Sifón, Cristóbal; Stefanon, Mauro; van de Sande, Jesse; van Dokkum, Pieter; Weigel, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Using a sample of 98 galaxy clusters recently imaged in the near-infrared with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) New Technology Telescope, WIYN telescope and William Herschel Telescope, supplemented with 33 clusters from the ESO archive, we measure how the stellar mass of the most massive galaxies in the universe, namely brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), increases with time. Most of the BCGs in this new sample lie in the redshift range 0.2 < z < 0.6, which has been noted in recent works to mark an epoch over which the growth in the stellar mass of BCGs stalls. From this sample of 132 clusters, we create a subsample of 102 systems that includes only those clusters that have estimates of the cluster mass. We combine the BCGs in this subsample with BCGs from the literature, and find that the growth in stellar mass of BCGs from 10 billion years ago to the present epoch is broadly consistent with recent semi-analytic and semi-empirical models. As in other recent studies, tentative evidence indicates that the stellar mass growth rate of BCGs may be slowing in the past 3.5 billion years. Further work in collecting larger samples, and in better comparing observations with theory using mock images, is required if a more detailed comparison between the models and the data is to be made.

  17. Transient Mass-loss Analysis of Solar Observations Using Stellar Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosley, M. K.; Osten, R. A.; Norman, C.

    2017-08-01

    Low-frequency dynamic spectra of radio bursts from nearby stars offer the best chance to directly detect the stellar signature of transient mass loss on low-mass stars. Crosley et al. (2016) proposes a multi-wavelength methodology to determine coronal mass ejection (CME) parameters, such as speed, mass, and kinetic energy. We test the validity and accuracy of the results derived from the methodology by using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite X-ray observations and Bruny Island Radio Spectrometer radio observations. These are analogous observations to those that would be found in the stellar studies. Derived results from these observations are compared to direct white light measurements of the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph. We find that, when a pre-event temperature can be determined, the accuracy of CME speeds are within a few hundred km s-1, and are reliable when specific criteria has been met. CME mass and kinetic energies are only useful in determining the approximate order of magnitude measurements when considering the large errors associated to them. These results will be directly applicable to the interpretation of any detected stellar events and the derivation of stellar CME properties.

  18. EVOLUTION OF PLANETARY ORBITS WITH STELLAR MASS LOSS AND TIDAL DISSIPATION

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Fred C.; Bloch, Anthony M.

    2013-11-10

    Intermediate mass stars and stellar remnants often host planets, and these dynamical systems evolve because of mass loss and tides. This paper considers the combined action of stellar mass loss and tidal dissipation on planetary orbits in order to determine the conditions required for planetary survival. Stellar mass loss is included using a so-called Jeans model, described by a dimensionless mass loss rate γ and an index β. We use an analogous prescription to model tidal effects, described here by a dimensionless dissipation rate Γ and two indices (q, p). The initial conditions are determined by the starting value of angular momentum parameter η{sub 0} (equivalently, the initial eccentricity) and the phase θ of the orbit. Within the context of this model, we derive an analytic formula for the critical dissipation rate Γ, which marks the boundary between orbits that spiral outward due to stellar mass loss and those that spiral inward due to tidal dissipation. This analytic result Γ = Γ(γ, β, q, p, η{sub 0}, θ) is essentially exact for initially circular orbits and holds to within an accuracy of ≈50% over the entire multi-dimensional parameter space, where the individual parameters vary by several orders of magnitude. For stars that experience mass loss, the stellar radius often displays quasi-periodic variations, which produce corresponding variations in tidal forcing; we generalize the calculation to include such pulsations using a semi-analytic treatment that holds to the same accuracy as the non-pulsating case. These results can be used in many applications, e.g., to predict/constrain properties of planetary systems orbiting white dwarfs.

  19. When the Jeans Do Not Fit: How Stellar Feedback Drives Stellar Kinematics and Complicates Dynamical Modeling in Low-mass Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Badry, Kareem; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Geha, Marla; Quataert, Eliot; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kereš, Dusan; Chan, T. K.; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2017-02-01

    In low-mass galaxies, stellar feedback can drive gas outflows that generate non-equilibrium fluctuations in the gravitational potential. Using cosmological zoom-in baryonic simulations from the Feedback in Realistic Environments project, we investigate how these fluctuations affect stellar kinematics and the reliability of Jeans dynamical modeling in low-mass galaxies. We find that stellar velocity dispersion and anisotropy profiles fluctuate significantly over the course of galaxies’ starburst cycles. We therefore predict an observable correlation between star formation rate and stellar kinematics: dwarf galaxies with higher recent star formation rates should have systemically higher stellar velocity dispersions. This prediction provides an observational test of the role of stellar feedback in regulating both stellar and dark-matter densities in dwarf galaxies. We find that Jeans modeling, which treats galaxies as virialized systems in dynamical equilibrium, overestimates a galaxy’s dynamical mass during periods of post-starburst gas outflow and underestimates it during periods of net inflow. Short-timescale potential fluctuations lead to typical errors of ∼20% in dynamical mass estimates, even if full three-dimensional stellar kinematics—including the orbital anisotropy—are known exactly. When orbital anisotropy is not known a priori, typical mass errors arising from non-equilibrium fluctuations in the potential are larger than those arising from the mass-anisotropy degeneracy. However, Jeans modeling alone cannot reliably constrain the orbital anisotropy, and problematically, it often favors anisotropy models that do not reflect the true profile. If galaxies completely lose their gas and cease forming stars, fluctuations in the potential subside, and Jeans modeling becomes much more reliable.

  20. Transiting Sub-stellar companions of Intermediate-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastian, Daniel; Guenther, Eike W.; Heber, Ulrich; Geier, Stephan; Grziwa, Sascha

    2015-09-01

    We use the CoRoT-survey to search for transiting close-in planets of intermediate-mass stars (M* = 1.3 - 2.1 M⊙). We present recent results of our survey. RV-surveys and direct imaging campaigns showed, that intermediate-mass main-sequence stars have more massive planets then solar-like stars. Even brown dwarfs have been found. In our study we concentrated on short-period planets for which a mass-determination is possible. The detection of close-in planets of intermediate-mass stars put strong constraints on the timescales of the formation and migration. We already have identified transiting Jupiter-like planet candidates with short orbital periods and observed these candidates with high-resolution echelle-spectrographs at various Telescopes.

  1. Weight functions in adiabatic stellar pulsations. I - Radially symmetric motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesnell, W. Dean

    1987-09-01

    Through the use of two classes of simple stellar models, the author illustrates a weight function for radial pulsations that can be interpreted in terms of two types of potential energy. The traditional weight function is related to the present one via an integration by parts, and it is argued that both formulations should be examined to minimize possible errors that can arise from neglecting several surface terms. The present form provides a different interpretation of radial oscillations of stars with small central condensations. The author also follows the radial fundamental of a highly centrally condensed polytrope through the dynamic instability at γ = 4/3 and demonstrates that the envelope is not involved in the instability.

  2. FRIENDS OF HOT JUPITERS. III. AN INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SEARCH FOR LOW-MASS STELLAR COMPANIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Piskorz, Danielle; Knutson, Heather A.; Ngo, Henry; Batygin, Konstantin; Muirhead, Philip S.; Crepp, Justin R.; Hinkley, Sasha; Morton, Timothy D.

    2015-12-01

    Surveys of nearby field stars indicate that stellar binaries are common, yet little is known about the effects that these companions may have on planet formation and evolution. The Friends of Hot Jupiters project uses three complementary techniques to search for stellar companions to known planet-hosting stars: radial velocity monitoring, adaptive optics imaging, and near-infrared spectroscopy. In this paper, we examine high-resolution K band infrared spectra of fifty stars hosting gas giant planets on short-period orbits. We use spectral fitting to search for blended lines due to the presence of cool stellar companions in the spectra of our target stars, where we are sensitive to companions with temperatures between 3500 and 5000 K and projected separations less than 100 AU in most systems. We identify eight systems with candidate low-mass companions, including one companion that was independently detected in our AO imaging survey. For systems with radial velocity accelerations, a spectroscopic non-detection rules out scenarios involving a stellar companion in a high inclination orbit. We use these data to place an upper limit on the stellar binary fraction at small projected separations, and show that the observed population of candidate companions is consistent with that of field stars and also with the population of wide-separation companions detected in our previous AO survey. We find no evidence that spectroscopic stellar companions are preferentially located in systems with short-period gas giant planets on eccentric and/or misaligned orbits.

  3. Disk-mediated accretion burst in a high-mass young stellar object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caratti O Garatti, A.; Stecklum, B.; Garcia Lopez, R.; Eislöffel, J.; Ray, T. P.; Sanna, A.; Cesaroni, R.; Walmsley, C. M.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; de Wit, W. J.; Moscadelli, L.; Greiner, J.; Krabbe, A.; Fischer, C.; Klein, R.; Ibañez, J. M.

    2016-11-01

    Solar-mass stars form via disk-mediated accretion. Recent findings indicate that this process is probably episodic in the form of accretion bursts, possibly caused by disk fragmentation. Although it cannot be ruled out that high-mass young stellar objects arise from the coalescence of their low-mass brethren, the latest results suggest that they more likely form via disks. It follows that disk-mediated accretion bursts should occur. Here we report on the discovery of the first disk-mediated accretion burst from a roughly twenty-solar-mass high-mass young stellar object. Our near-infrared images show the brightening of the central source and its outflow cavities. Near-infrared spectroscopy reveals emission lines typical for accretion bursts in low-mass protostars, but orders of magnitude more luminous. Moreover, the released energy and the inferred mass-accretion rate are also orders of magnitude larger. Our results identify disk-accretion as the common mechanism of star formation across the entire stellar mass spectrum.

  4. TOWARD UNDERSTANDING STELLAR RADIAL VELOCITY JITTER AS A FUNCTION OF WAVELENGTH: THE SUN AS A PROXY

    SciTech Connect

    Marchwinski, Robert C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Robertson, Paul; Ramsey, Lawrence; Harder, Jerald E-mail: suvrath@astro.psu.edu E-mail: lwr@psu.edu

    2015-01-01

    Using solar spectral irradiance measurements from the SORCE spacecraft and the F/F' technique, we have estimated the radial velocity (RV) scatter induced on the Sun by stellar activity as a function of wavelength. Our goal was to evaluate the potential advantages of using new near-infrared (NIR) spectrographs to search for low-mass planets around bright F, G, and K stars by beating down activity effects. Unlike M dwarfs, which have higher fluxes and therefore greater RV information content in the NIR, solar-type stars are brightest at visible wavelengths, and, based solely on information content, are better suited to traditional optical RV surveys. However, we find that the F/F' estimated RV noise induced by stellar activity is diminished by up to a factor of four in the NIR versus the visible. Observations with the upcoming future generation of NIR instruments can be a valuable addition to the search for low-mass planets around bright FGK stars in reducing the amount of stellar noise affecting RV measurements.

  5. Connection between Stellar Mass Distributions within Galaxies and Quenching Since z = 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosleh, Moein; Tacchella, Sandro; Renzini, Alvio; Carollo, C. Marcella; Molaeinezhad, Alireza; Onodera, Masato; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Lilly, Simon

    2017-03-01

    We study the history from z∼ 2 to z∼ 0 of the stellar mass assembly of quiescent and star-forming galaxies in a spatially resolved fashion. For this purpose, we use multi-wavelength imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) over the GOODS fields and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for the local population. We present the radial stellar mass surface density profiles of galaxies with {M}* > {10}10 {M}ȯ , corrected for mass-to-light ratio ({M}* /L) variations, and derive the half-mass-radius (R m ), central stellar mass surface density within 1 kpc ({{{Σ }}}1) and surface density at R m ({{{Σ }}}m) for star-forming and quiescent galaxies and study their evolution with redshift. At fixed stellar mass, the half-mass sizes of quiescent galaxies increase from z∼ 2 to z∼ 0 by a factor of ∼ 3-5, whereas the half-mass sizes of star-forming galaxies increase only slightly, by a factor of ∼2. The central densities {{{Σ }}}1 of quiescent galaxies decline slightly (by a factor of ≲ 1.7) from z∼ 2 to z∼ 0, while for star-forming galaxies {{{Σ }}}1 increases with time, at fixed mass. We show that the central density {{{Σ }}}1 has a tighter correlation with specific star-formation rate (sSFR) than {{{Σ }}}m and for all masses and redshifts galaxies with higher central density are more prone to be quenched. Reaching a high central density ({{{Σ }}}1≳ {10}10 {M}ȯ {{kpc}}2) seems to be a prerequisite for the cessation of star formation, though a causal link between high {{{Σ }}}1 and quenching is difficult to prove and their correlation can have a different origin.

  6. INSIGHTS ON THE STELLAR MASS-METALLICITY RELATION FROM THE CALIFA SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    González Delgado, R. M.; García-Benito, R.; Pérez, E.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; López Fernández, R.; Sánchez, S. F.; Alves, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Galbany, L.; Gallazzi, A.; Husemann, B.; Bekeraite, S.; Jungwiert, B.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; De Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Marino, R. A. [CEI Campus Moncloa, UCM-UPM, Departamento de Astrofísica y CC. de la Atmósfera, Facultad de CC. Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s Collaboration: CALIFA collaboration920; and others

    2014-08-10

    We use spatially and temporally resolved maps of stellar population properties of 300 galaxies from the CALIFA integral field survey to investigate how the stellar metallicity (Z {sub *}) relates to the total stellar mass (M {sub *}) and the local mass surface density (μ{sub *}) in both spheroidal- and disk-dominated galaxies. The galaxies are shown to follow a clear stellar mass-metallicity relation (MZR) over the whole 10{sup 9}-10{sup 12} M {sub ☉} range. This relation is steeper than the one derived from nebular abundances, which is similar to the flatter stellar MZR derived when we consider only young stars. We also find a strong relation between the local values of μ{sub *} and Z {sub *} (the μZR), betraying the influence of local factors in determining Z {sub *}. This shows that both local (μ{sub *}-driven) and global (M {sub *}-driven) processes are important in determining metallicity in galaxies. We find that the overall balance between local and global effects varies with the location within a galaxy. In disks, μ{sub *} regulates Z {sub *}, producing a strong μZR whose amplitude is modulated by M {sub *}. In spheroids it is M {sub *} that dominates the physics of star formation and chemical enrichment, with μ{sub *} playing a minor, secondary role. These findings agree with our previous analysis of the star formation histories of CALIFA galaxies, which showed that mean stellar ages are mainly governed by surface density in galaxy disks and by total mass in spheroids.

  7. The rise and fall of stellar across the peak of cosmic star formation history: effects of mergers versus diffuse stellar mass acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welker, C.; Dubois, Y.; Devriendt, J.; Pichon, C.; Kaviraj, S.; Peirani, S.

    2017-02-01

    Building galaxy merger trees from a state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, Horizon-AGN, we perform a statistical study of how mergers and diffuse stellar mass acquisition processes drive galaxy morphologic properties above z > 1. By diffuse mass acquisition here, we mean both accretion of stars by unresolved mergers (relative stellar mass growth smaller than 4.5 per cent) as well as in situ star formation when no resolved mergers are detected along the main progenitor branch of a galaxy. We investigate how stellar densities, galaxy sizes and galaxy morphologies (defined via shape parameters derived from the inertia tensor of the stellar density) depend on mergers of different mass ratios. We investigate how stellar densities, effective radii and shape parameters derived from the inertia tensor depend on mergers of different mass ratios. We find strong evidence that diffuse stellar accretion and in situ formation tend to flatten small galaxies over cosmic time, leading to the formation of discs. On the other hand, mergers, and not only the major ones, exhibit a propensity to puff up and destroy stellar discs, confirming the origin of elliptical galaxies. We confirm that mergers grow galaxy sizes more efficiently than diffuse processes (r_{0.5}∝ M_s^{0.85} and r_{0.5}∝ M_s^{0.1} on average, respectively) and we also find that elliptical galaxies are more susceptible to grow in size through mergers than disc galaxies with a size-mass evolution r_{0.5}∝ M_s^{1.2} instead of r_{0.5}∝ M_s^{-0.5}-M^{0.5} for discs depending on the merger mass ratio. The gas content drives the size-mass evolution due to merger with a faster size growth for gas-poor galaxies r_{0.5}∝ M_s2 than for gas-rich galaxies r0.5 ∝ Ms.

  8. Compact groups of galaxies selected by stellar mass: the 2MASS compact group catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Giménez, Eugenia; Mamon, Gary A.; Pacheco, Marcela; Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia; Alonso, M. Victoria

    2012-10-01

    We present a photometric catalogue of compact groups of galaxies (p2MCGs) automatically extracted from the Two-Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) extended source catalogue. A total of 262 p2MCGs are identified, following the criteria defined by Hickson, of which 230 survive visual inspection (given occasional galaxy fragmentation and blends in the 2MASS parent catalogue). Only one quarter of these 230 groups were previously known compact groups (CGs). Among the 144 p2MCGs that have all their galaxies with known redshifts, 85 (59 per cent) have four or more accordant galaxies. This v2MCG sample of velocity-filtered p2MCGs constitutes the largest sample of CGs (with N ≥ 4) catalogued to date, with both well-defined selection criteria and velocity filtering, and is the first CG sample selected by stellar mass. It is fairly complete up to Kgroup ˜ 9 and radial velocity of ˜6000 km s-1. We compared the properties of the 78 v2MCGs with median velocities greater than 3000 km s-1 with the properties of other CG samples, as well as those (mvCGs) extracted from the semi-analytical model (SAM) of Guo et al. run on the high-resolution Millennium-II simulation. This mvCG sample is similar (i.e. with 2/3 of physically dense CGs) to those we had previously extracted on three other SAMs run on the Millennium simulation with 125 times worse spatial and mass resolutions. The space density of v2MCGs within 6000 km s-1 is 8.0 × 10-5 h3 Mpc-3, i.e. four times that of the Hickson sample [Hickson Compact Group (HCG)] up to the same distance and with the same criteria used in this work, but still 40 per cent less than that of mvCGs. The v2MCG constitutes the first group catalogue to show a statistically large first-second ranked galaxy magnitude gap according to Tremaine-Richstone statistics, as expected if the first ranked group members tend to be the products of galaxy mergers, and as confirmed in the mvCGs. The v2MCG is also the first observed sample to show that first-ranked galaxies

  9. Compact stars in the braneworld: A new branch of stellar configurations with arbitrarily large mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugones, Germán; Arbañil, José D. V.

    2017-03-01

    We study the properties of compact stars in the Randall-Sundrum type-II braneworld (BW) model. To this end, we solve the braneworld generalization of the stellar structure equations for a static fluid distribution with spherical symmetry considering that the spacetime outside the star is described by a Schwarzschild metric. First, the stellar structure equations are integrated employing the so-called causal limit equation of state (EOS), which is constructed using a well-established EOS at densities below a fiducial density, and the causal EOS P =ρ above it. It is a standard procedure in general relativistic stellar structure calculations to use such EOSs for obtaining a limit in the mass radius diagram, known as the causal limit, above which no stellar configurations are possible if the EOS fulfills the condition that the sound velocity is smaller than the speed of light. We find that the equilibrium solutions in the braneworld model can violate the general relativistic causal limit, and for sufficiently large mass they approach asymptotically to the Schwarzschild limit M =2 R . Then, we investigate the properties of hadronic and strange quark stars using two typical EOSs: a nonlinear relativistic mean-field model for hadronic matter and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) bag model for quark matter. For masses below ˜1.5 M⊙- 2 M⊙ , the mass versus radius curves show the typical behavior found within the frame of general relativity. However, we also find a new branch of stellar configurations that can violate the general relativistic causal limit and that, in principle, may have an arbitrarily large mass. The stars belonging to this new branch are supported against collapse by the nonlocal effects of the bulk on the brane. We also show that these stars are always stable under small radial perturbations. These results support the idea that traces of extra dimensions might be found in astrophysics, specifically through the analysis of masses and

  10. PRIMUS: The Dependence of AGN Accretion on Host Stellar Mass and Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aird, James; Coil, Alison L.; Moustakas, John; Blanton, Michael R.; Burles, Scott M.; Cool, Richard J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Smith, M. Stephen M.; Wong, Kenneth C.; Zhu, Guangtun

    2012-02-01

    We present evidence that the incidence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and the distribution of their accretion rates do not depend on the stellar masses of their host galaxies, contrary to previous studies. We use hard (2-10 keV) X-ray data from three extragalactic fields (XMM-LSS, COSMOS, and ELAIS-S1) with redshifts from the Prism Multi-object Survey to identify 242 AGNs with L 2-10 keV = 1042-44 erg s-1 within a parent sample of ~25,000 galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0 over ~3.4 deg2 and to i ~ 23. We find that although the fraction of galaxies hosting an AGN at fixed X-ray luminosity rises strongly with stellar mass, the distribution of X-ray luminosities is independent of mass. Furthermore, we show that the probability that a galaxy will host an AGN can be defined by a universal Eddington ratio distribution that is independent of the host galaxy stellar mass and has a power-law shape with slope -0.65. These results demonstrate that AGNs are prevalent at all stellar masses in the range 9.5 and that the same physical processes regulate AGN activity in all galaxies in this stellar mass range. While a higher AGN fraction may be observed in massive galaxies, this is a selection effect related to the underlying Eddington ratio distribution. We also find that the AGN fraction drops rapidly between z ~ 1 and the present day and is moderately enhanced (factor ~2) in galaxies with blue or green optical colors. Consequently, while AGN activity and star formation appear to be globally correlated, we do not find evidence that the presence of an AGN is related to the quenching of star formation or the color transformation of galaxies.

  11. DO NOT FORGET THE FOREST FOR THE TREES: THE STELLAR-MASS HALO-MASS RELATION IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Tonnesen, Stephanie; Cen, Renyue E-mail: cen@astro.princeton.edu

    2015-10-20

    The connection between dark matter halos and galactic baryons is often not well constrained nor well resolved in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. Thus, halo occupation distribution models that assign galaxies to halos based on halo mass are frequently used to interpret clustering observations, even though it is well known that the assembly history of dark matter halos is related to their clustering. In this paper we use high-resolution hydrodynamical cosmological simulations to compare the halo and stellar mass growth of galaxies in a large-scale overdensity to those in a large-scale underdensity (on scales of about 20 Mpc). The simulation reproduces assembly bias, in which halos have earlier formation times in overdense environments than in underdense regions. We find that the ratio of stellar mass to halo mass is larger in overdense regions in central galaxies residing in halos with masses between 10{sup 11} and 10{sup 12.9} M{sub ⊙}. When we force the local density (within 2 Mpc) at z = 0 to be the same for galaxies in the large-scale over- and underdensities, we find the same results. We posit that this difference can be explained by a combination of earlier formation times, more interactions at early times with neighbors, and more filaments feeding galaxies in overdense regions. This result puts the standard practice of assigning stellar mass to halos based only on their mass, rather than considering their larger environment, into question.

  12. DETECTION OF LOW-MASS-RATIO STELLAR BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Gullikson, Kevin; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    O- and B-type stars are often found in binary systems, but the low binary mass-ratio regime is relatively unexplored due to observational difficulties. Binary systems with low mass ratios may have formed through fragmentation of the circumstellar disk rather than molecular cloud core fragmentation. We describe a new technique sensitive to G- and K-type companions to early B stars, a mass ratio of roughly 0.1, using high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra. We apply this technique to a sample of archived VLT/CRIRES observations of nearby B stars in the CO bandhead near 2300 nm. While there are no unambiguous binary detections in our sample, we identify HIP 92855 and HIP 26713 as binary candidates warranting follow-up observations. We use our non-detections to determine upper limits to the frequency of FGK stars orbiting early B-type primaries.

  13. A Calibration of the Stellar Mass Fundamental Plane at z ~ 0.5 Using the Micro-lensing-induced Flux Ratio Anomalies of Macro-lensed Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schechter, Paul L.; Pooley, David; Blackburne, Jeffrey A.; Wambsganss, Joachim

    2014-10-01

    We measure the stellar mass surface densities of early-type galaxies by observing the micro-lensing of macro-lensed quasars caused by individual stars, including stellar remnants, brown dwarfs, and red dwarfs too faint to produce photometric or spectroscopic signatures. Instead of observing multiple micro-lensing events in a single system, we combine single-epoch X-ray snapshots of 10 quadruple systems, and compare the measured relative magnifications for the images with those computed from macro-models. We use these to normalize a stellar mass fundamental plane constructed using a Salpeter initial mass function with a low-mass cutoff of 0.1 M ⊙ and treat the zeropoint of the surface mass density as a free parameter. Our method measures the graininess of the gravitational potential produced by individual stars, in contrast to methods that decompose a smooth total gravitational potential into two smooth components, one stellar and one dark. We find the median likelihood value for the normalization factor F by which the Salpeter stellar masses must be multiplied is 1.23, with a one sigma confidence range, dominated by small number statistics, of 0.77 . Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-9854.

  14. THE XMM CLUSTER SURVEY: THE STELLAR MASS ASSEMBLY OF FOSSIL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Craig D.; Miller, Christopher J.; Richards, Joseph W.; Deadman, Paul-James; Lloyd-Davies, E. J.; Kathy Romer, A.; Mehrtens, Nicola; Liddle, Andrew R.; Hoyle, Ben; Hilton, Matt; Stott, John P.; Capozzi, Diego; Collins, Chris A.; Sahlen, Martin; Stanford, S. Adam; Viana, Pedro T. P.

    2012-06-10

    This paper presents both the result of a search for fossil systems (FSs) within the XMM Cluster Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the results of a study of the stellar mass assembly and stellar populations of their fossil galaxies. In total, 17 groups and clusters are identified at z < 0.25 with large magnitude gaps between the first and fourth brightest galaxies. All the information necessary to classify these systems as fossils is provided. For both groups and clusters, the total and fractional luminosity of the brightest galaxy is positively correlated with the magnitude gap. The brightest galaxies in FSs (called fossil galaxies) have stellar populations and star formation histories which are similar to normal brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). However, at fixed group/cluster mass, the stellar masses of the fossil galaxies are larger compared to normal BCGs, a fact that holds true over a wide range of group/cluster masses. Moreover, the fossil galaxies are found to contain a significant fraction of the total optical luminosity of the group/cluster within 0.5 R{sub 200}, as much as 85%, compared to the non-fossils, which can have as little as 10%. Our results suggest that FSs formed early and in the highest density regions of the universe and that fossil galaxies represent the end products of galaxy mergers in groups and clusters.

  15. Dynamical modelling of the galactic bulge and bar: the Milky Way's pattern speed, stellar and dark matter mass distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portail, Matthieu; Gerhard, Ortwin; Wegg, Christopher; Ness, Melissa

    2017-02-01

    We construct a large set of dynamical models of the galactic bulge, bar and inner disc using the made-to-measure method. Our models are constrained to match the red clump giant density from a combination of the VVV, UKIDSS and 2MASS infrared surveys together with stellar kinematics in the bulge from the BRAVA and OGLE surveys, and in the entire bar region from the ARGOS Survey. We are able to recover the bar pattern speed and the stellar and dark matter mass distributions in the bar region, thus recovering the entire galactic effective potential. We find a bar pattern speed of 39.0 ± 3.5 km s- 1 kpc- 1, placing the bar corotation radius at 6.1 ± 0.5 kpc and making the Milky Way bar a typical fast rotator. We evaluate the stellar mass of the long bar and bulge structure to be Mbar/bulge = 1.88 ± 0.12 × 1010 M⊙, larger than the mass of disc in the bar region, Minner disc = 1.29 ± 0.12 × 1010 M⊙. The total dynamical mass in the bulge volume is 1.85 ± 0.05 × 1010 M⊙. Thanks to more extended kinematic data sets and recent measurement of the bulge initial mass function, our models have a low dark matter fraction in the bulge of 17 ± 2 per cent. We find a dark matter density profile which flattens to a shallow cusp or core in the bulge region. Finally, we find dynamical evidence for an extra central mass of ∼ 0.2 × 1010 M⊙, probably in a nuclear disc or discy pseudo-bulge.

  16. Star-forming galaxies in intermediate-redshift clusters: stellar versus dynamical masses of luminous compact blue galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randriamampandry, S. M.; Crawford, S. M.; Bershady, M. A.; Wirth, G. D.; Cress, C. M.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the stellar masses of the class of star-forming objects known as luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) by studying a sample of galaxies in the distant cluster MS 0451.6-0305 at z ≈ 0.54 with ground-based multicolour imaging and spectroscopy. For a sample of 16 spectroscopically confirmed cluster LCBGs (colour B - V < 0.5, surface brightness μB < 21 mag arcsec-2 and magnitude MB < -18.5), we measure stellar masses by fitting spectral energy distribution (SED) models to multiband photometry, and compare with dynamical masses [determined from velocity dispersion in the range 10 < σv(km s- 1) < 80] we previously obtained from their emission-line spectra. We compare two different stellar population models that measure stellar mass in star-bursting galaxies, indicating correlations between the stellar age, extinction and stellar mass derived from the two different SED models. The stellar masses of cluster LCBGs are distributed similarly to those of field LCBGs, but the cluster LCBGs show lower dynamical-to-stellar mass ratios (Mdyn/M⋆ = 2.6) than their field LCBG counterparts (Mdyn/M⋆ = 4.8), echoing trends noted previously in low-redshift dwarf elliptical galaxies. Within this limited sample, the specific star formation rate declines steeply with increasing mass, suggesting that these cluster LCBGs have undergone vigorous star formation.

  17. The stellar mass-size relation for the most isolated galaxies in the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Lorenzo, M.; Sulentic, J.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Argudo-Fernández, M.

    2013-09-01

    Disentangling processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies is a fundamental challenge in extragalactic research. In this sense, the current belief that galaxies grow by the action of minor mergers makes the study of the stellar mass-size relation in different environments an important tool for distinguishing effects of internal and external processes. The aim of this work is to study the effects of environment on the growth in size of galaxies. As part of Analysis of the Interstellar Medium of Isolated GAlaxies (AMIGA project), we examine the stellar mass-size relation for a sample of the most isolated galaxies in the local Universe interpreted as stellar systems where evolution has been mainly governed by internal processes. Effects of environment on the stellar mass-size relation are evaluated by comparing our results with samples of less isolated early- and late-type galaxies, as well as, for the first time, different spiral subtypes. Stellar masses in our sample were derived by fitting the SED of each galaxy with KCORRECT. We used two different size estimators, the half-light radius obtained with SEXTRACTOR and the effective radius calculated by fitting a Sérsic profile to the i-band image of each galaxy using GALFIT. We found good agreement between those size estimators when the Sérsic index fell in the range 2.5 < n < 4.5 and 0.5 < n < 2.5 for (visually classified) early- and late-type galaxies, respectively. We find no difference in the stellar mass-size relation for very isolated and less isolated early-type galaxies. We find that late-type isolated galaxies are ˜1.2 times larger than less isolated objects with similar mass. Isolated galaxies and comparison samples were divided into six morphological ranges (E/S0, Spirals, Sb, Sbc, Sc and Scd-Sdm) and five stellar mass bins between log (M*) = [9,11.5]. In all cases, the relation is better defined and has less scatter for the isolated galaxies. We find that as the morphological type becomes

  18. The Importance of Preventive Feedback: Inference from Observations of the Stellar Masses and Metallicities of Milky Way Dwarf Galaxies

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Yu; Benson, Andrew; Wetzel, Andrew; ...

    2017-08-31

    Dwarf galaxies are known to have remarkably low star formation efficiency due to strong feedback. Adopting the dwarf galaxies of the Milky Way (MW) as a laboratory, we explore a flexible semi-analytic galaxy formation model to understand how the feedback processes shape the satellite galaxies of the MW. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo, we exhaustively search a large parameter space of the model and rigorously show that the general wisdom of strong outflows as the primary feedback mechanism cannot simultaneously explain the stellar mass function and the mass–metallicity relation of the MW satellites. An extended model that assumes that amore » fraction of baryons is prevented from collapsing into low-mass halos in the first place can be accurately constrained to simultaneously reproduce those observations. Here, the inference suggests that two different physical mechanisms are needed to explain the two different data sets. In particular, moderate outflows with weak halo mass dependence are needed to explain the mass–metallicity relation, and prevention of baryons falling into shallow gravitational potentials of low-mass halos (e.g., "pre-heating") is needed to explain the low stellar mass fraction for a given subhalo mass.« less

  19. The Importance of Preventive Feedback: Inference from Observations of the Stellar Masses and Metallicities of Milky Way Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yu; Benson, Andrew; Wetzel, Andrew; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Tonnesen, Stephanie; Peter, Annika H. G.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2017-09-01

    Dwarf galaxies are known to have remarkably low star formation efficiency due to strong feedback. Adopting the dwarf galaxies of the Milky Way (MW) as a laboratory, we explore a flexible semi-analytic galaxy formation model to understand how the feedback processes shape the satellite galaxies of the MW. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo, we exhaustively search a large parameter space of the model and rigorously show that the general wisdom of strong outflows as the primary feedback mechanism cannot simultaneously explain the stellar mass function and the mass–metallicity relation of the MW satellites. An extended model that assumes that a fraction of baryons is prevented from collapsing into low-mass halos in the first place can be accurately constrained to simultaneously reproduce those observations. The inference suggests that two different physical mechanisms are needed to explain the two different data sets. In particular, moderate outflows with weak halo mass dependence are needed to explain the mass–metallicity relation, and prevention of baryons falling into shallow gravitational potentials of low-mass halos (e.g., “pre-heating”) is needed to explain the low stellar mass fraction for a given subhalo mass.

  20. A New Measurement of the Stellar Mass Density at z~5: Implications for the Sources of Cosmic Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, D. P.; Bunker, A. J.; Ellis, R. S.; Eyles, L. P.; Lacy, M.

    2007-04-01

    We present a new measurement of the integrated stellar mass per comoving volume at redshift 5 determined via spectral energy fitting drawn from a sample of 214 photometrically selected galaxies with z'850LP<26.5 in the southern GOODS field. Following recent procedures introduced by Eyles et al., we estimate stellar masses for various subsamples for which reliable and unconfused Spitzer IRAC detections are available. A spectroscopic sample of 14 of the most luminous sources with z=4.92 provides a firm lower limit to the stellar mass density of 1×106 Msolar Mpc-3. Several galaxies in this subsample have masses of order 1011 Msolar, implying that significant earlier activity occurred in massive systems. We then consider a larger sample whose photometric redshifts in the publicly available GOODS-MUSIC catalog lie in the range 4.4mass stars. After excising probable stellar contaminants and using the z'850LP-J color to exclude any remaining foreground red galaxies, we conclude that 196 sources are likely to be at z~=5. The implied mass density from the unconfused IRAC fraction of this sample, scaled to the total available, is 6×106 Msolar Mpc-3. We discuss the uncertainties, as well as the likelihood that we have underestimated the true mass density. By including fainter and quiescent sources, the total integrated density could be as high as 1×107 Msolar Mpc-3. Even accounting for 25% cosmic variance within a single GOODS field, such a high mass density only 1.2 Gyr after the big bang has interesting consequences for the implied past average star formation during the period when cosmic reionization is now thought to have taken place. Using the currently available (but highly uncertain) rate of decline in the star formation history over 5mass at z

  1. Older and colder: The impact of starspots on stellar masses, ages, and lithium during the pre-main sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somers, Garrett

    2016-01-01

    clusters, studying the initial mass function, measuring planet formation timescales, and inferring the lifetimes of circum-stellar disks.

  2. The search of the stellar clusters in vicinity of YSOs with high and middle masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azatyan, N. M.; Nikoghosyan, E. H.

    2016-09-01

    The results of the searching on the bases of GPS UKIDSS survey's data of dense compact stellar clusters in the vicinity of 20 YSOs with high and middle masses are presented. Totally, we have revealed clusters in 13 areas. Around 5 objects (IRAS 18151-1208, IRAS 18316-0602, IRAS 19110+1045, IRAS 19213+1723, IRAS 20056+3350) they are newly detected. The radii and stellar density have significant gradient: from 0.2 to 2.7 pc and from 3 to 1000 stars/pc2 respectively.

  3. Atmospheric stellar parameters from cross-correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malavolta, L.; Lovis, C.; Pepe, F.; Sneden, C.; Udry, S.

    2017-08-01

    The increasing number of spectra gathered by spectroscopic sky surveys and transiting exoplanet follow-up has pushed the community to develop automated tools for atmospheric stellar parameters determination. Here we present a novel approach that allows the measurement of temperature (Teff), metallicity ([Fe/H]) and gravity (log g) within a few seconds and in a completely automated fashion. Rather than performing comparisons with spectral libraries, our technique is based on the determination of several cross-correlation functions (CCFs) obtained by including spectral features with different sensitivity to the photospheric parameters. We use literature stellar parameters of high signal-to-noise (SNR), high-resolution HARPS spectra of FGK main-sequence stars to calibrate Teff, [Fe/H] and log g as a function of CCF parameters. Our technique is validated using low-SNR spectra obtained with the same instrument. For FGK stars we achieve a precision of σ _{{T_eff}} = 50 K, σlog g = 0.09 dex and σ _{{{[Fe/H]}}} =0.035 dex at SNR = 50, while the precision for observation with SNR ≳ 100 and the overall accuracy are constrained by the literature values used to calibrate the CCFs. Our approach can easily be extended to other instruments with similar spectral range and resolution or to other spectral range and stars other than FGK dwarfs if a large sample of reference stars is available for the calibration. Additionally, we provide the mathematical formulation to convert synthetic equivalent widths to CCF parameters as an alternative to direct calibration. We have made our tool publicly available.

  4. Boron as a Probe of Stellar Structure and Mass Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Douglas

    1991-07-01

    Observations of Boron, an easily destroyed element, will be used to probe processes which circulate or remove and destroy material in cool stars. These include mass loss, diffusion, meridional circulation, convective overshoot, and turbulence and rotationially-driven mixing. 1. The destruction of light elements in the sun is not understood but is a key to understanding internal mixing in cool stars. Alpha Centauri A and B will be measured to study mixing in stars respectively slightly more and less massive than the sun. Beta Hyi will be studied as an example of a 1.0 solar mass, partially evolved star. 2. The rates of mixing processes, especialy those which are expected to operate only on long timescales, will be studied by observing two stars in the intermediate age cluster NGC 752. One star will be from inside the "Lithium Gap" region in the F stars, and one star from outside the gap. 3. Two red giants and subgiants will be observed to help measure the amount of mass lost on the giant branch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NOTE: THIS PROPOSAL ONLY USES SIDE 2 OF THE GHRS. We are aware of the GHRS condition (as the P.I. is GHRS Instrument Scientist.)

  5. The global and local stellar mass assembly histories of galaxies from the MaNGA survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Medel, Hétor J.; Sánchez,, Sebastián F.; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Hernández-Toledo, Héctor M., J.; González, J. Jesús; Drory, Niv; Bundy, Kevin; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Cano-Díaz, Mariana; Malanushenko, Elena; Pan, Kaike; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Thomas, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    By means of the fossil record method implemented through Pipe3D we reconstruct the global and radial stellar mass growth histories (MGHs) of a large sample of galaxies in the mass range 10^{8.5}M⊙-10^{11.5}M⊙ from the MaNGA survey. We find that: (1) The main driver of the global MGHs is mass, with more massive galaxies assembling their masses earlier (downsizing). (2) For most galaxies in their late evolutionary stages, the innermost regions formed earlier than the outermost ones (inside-out). This behaviour is stronger for blue/late-type galaxies.

  6. ANALYTICAL EXPRESSIONS FOR THE ENVELOPE BINDING ENERGY OF GIANTS AS A FUNCTION OF BASIC STELLAR PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Loveridge, A. J.; Van der Sluys, M. V.; Kalogera, V.

    2011-12-10

    The common-envelope (CE) phase is an important stage in the evolution of binary stellar populations. The most common way to compute the change in orbital period during a CE is to relate the binding energy of the envelope of the Roche-lobe filling giant to the change in orbital energy. Especially in population-synthesis codes, where the evolution of millions of stars must be computed and detailed evolutionary models are too expensive computationally, simple approximations are made for the envelope binding energy. In this study, we present accurate analytic prescriptions based on detailed stellar-evolution models that provide the envelope binding energy for giants with metallicities between Z = 10{sup -4} and Z = 0.03 and masses between 0.8 M{sub Sun} and 100 M{sub Sun }, as a function of the metallicity, mass, radius, and evolutionary phase of the star. Our results are also presented in the form of electronic data tables and Fortran routines that use them. We find that the accuracy of our fits is better than 15% for 90% of our model data points in all cases, and better than 10% for 90% of our data points in all cases except the asymptotic giant branches for three of the six metallicities we consider. For very massive stars (M {approx}> 50 M{sub Sun }), when stars lose more than {approx}20% of their initial mass due to stellar winds, our fits do not describe the models as accurately. Our results are more widely applicable-covering wider ranges of metallicity and mass-and are of higher accuracy than those of previous studies.

  7. Probing the turbulent mixing strength in protoplanetary disks across the stellar mass range: no significant variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulders, G. D.; Dominik, C.

    2012-03-01

    Context. Dust settling and grain growth are the first steps in the planet-formation process in protoplanetary disks. These disks are observed around stars with different spectral types, and there are indications that the disks around lower mass stars are significantly flatter, which could indicate that they settle and evolve faster, or in a different way. Aims: We aim to test this hypothesis by modeling the median spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of three samples of protoplanetary disks: around Herbig stars, T Tauri stars and brown dwarfs. We focus on the turbulent mixing strength to avoid a strong observational bias from disk and stellar properties that depend on stellar mass. Methods: We generated SEDs with the radiative transfer code MCMax, using a hydrostatic disk structure and settling the dust in a self-consistent way with the α-prescription to probe the turbulent mixing strength. Results: We are able to fit all three samples with a disk with the same input parameters, scaling the inner edge to the dust evaporation radius and disk mass to millimeter photometry. The Herbig stars require a special treatment for the inner rim regions, while the T Tauri stars require viscous heating, and the brown dwarfs lack a good estimate of the disk mass because only few millimeter detections exist. Conclusions: We find that the turbulent mixing strength does not vary across the stellar mass range for a fixed grain size distribution and gas-to-dust ratio. Regions with the same temperature have a self-similar vertical structure independent of stellar mass, but regions at the same distance from the central star appear more settled in disks around lower mass stars. We find a relatively low turbulent mixing strength of α = 10-4 for a standard grain size distribution, but our results are also consistent with α = 10-2 for a grain size distribution with fewer small grains or a lower gas-to-dust ratio.

  8. YOUNG STELLAR CLUSTERS WITH A SCHUSTER MASS DISTRIBUTION. I. STATIONARY WINDS

    SciTech Connect

    Palous, Jan; Wuensch, Richard; Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, Filiberto; Martinez-Gonzalez, Sergio; Silich, Sergiy; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo

    2013-08-01

    Hydrodynamic models for spherically symmetric winds driven by young stellar clusters with a generalized Schuster stellar density profile are explored. For this we use both semi-analytic models and one-dimensional numerical simulations. We determine the properties of quasi-adiabatic and radiative stationary winds and define the radius at which the flow turns from subsonic to supersonic for all stellar density distributions. Strongly radiative winds significantly diminish their terminal speed and thus their mechanical luminosity is strongly reduced. This also reduces their potential negative feedback into their host galaxy interstellar medium. The critical luminosity above which radiative cooling becomes dominant within the clusters, leading to thermal instabilities which make the winds non-stationary, is determined, and its dependence on the star cluster density profile, core radius, and half-mass radius is discussed.

  9. Towards an Extended Binary Black Hole Search using Advanced LIGO: from Stellar to Intermediate-Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Debnandini; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Intermediate mass black hole (IMBH) binaries, make up the mass space between stellar-mass and super massive black holes, with their total mass in the range of about 100 to 100,000 solar masses. Detection of IMBH mergers would help us explore their formation channels. The IMBH search is currently sensitive to coalescences of black hole binaries covering a total mass range between 50-600 solar masses. Recent publications in astrophysics point to the physical importance of the IMBH search (they may shed light on certain supernova mechanisms). In light of the conclusion of the 1st Advanced LIGO search conducted between September 2015 and January 2016 (O1 run), I will provide an update on the IMBH search (software GstLAL based, using matched-filter) on this data and will discuss the feasibility of including the IMBH search with the stellar-mass black hole search space (total mass range 2-100 solar masses), thus achieving a combined search for future runs. NSF PHY-1607585.

  10. Mass and metallicity requirement in stellar models for galactic chemical evolution applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Côté, Benoit; West, Christopher; Heger, Alexander; Ritter, Christian; O'Shea, Brian W.; Herwig, Falk; Travaglio, Claudia; Bisterzo, Sara

    2016-12-01

    We used a one-zone chemical evolution model to address the question of how many masses and metallicities are required in grids of massive stellar models in order to ensure reliable galactic chemical evolution predictions. We used a set of yields that includes seven masses between 13 and 30 M⊙, 15 metallicities between 0 and 0.03 in mass fraction, and two different remnant mass prescriptions. We ran several simulations where we sampled subsets of stellar models to explore the impact of different grid resolutions. Stellar yields from low- and intermediate-mass stars and from Type Ia supernovae have been included in our simulations, but with a fixed grid resolution. We compared our results with the stellar abundances observed in the Milky Way for O, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, and Mn. Our results suggest that the range of metallicity considered is more important than the number of metallicities within that range, which only affects our numerical predictions by about 0.1 dex. We found that our predictions at [Fe/H] ≲ -2 are very sensitive to the metallicity range and the mass sampling used for the lowest metallicity included in the set of yields. Variations between results can be as high as 0.8 dex. At higher [Fe/H], we found that the required number of masses depends on the element of interest and on the remnant mass prescription. With a monotonic remnant mass prescription where every model explodes as a core-collapse supernova, the mass resolution induces variations of 0.2 dex on average. But with a remnant mass prescription that includes islands of non-explodability, the mass resolution can cause variations of about 0.2-0.7 dex depending on the choice of the lower limit of the metallicity range. With such a remnant mass prescription, explosive or non-explosive models can be missed if not enough masses are selected, resulting in over- or underestimations of the mass ejected by massive stars.

  11. The Stellar Content of Intermediate-Mass Star-Forming Regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Michael; Kobulnicky, H.; Alexander, M.; Vargas Alvarez, C.; Arvidsson, K.; Kerton, C.

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to understand the factors that govern the transition from low- to high-mass star formation, we report near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of stars within a sample of intermediate-mass star-forming regions (IMSFRs). Some IMSFRs appear to contain compact <1 pc embedded clusters at an early evolutionary stage similar to compact HII regions, but lacking the massive ionizing central star(s). The IMSFRs have photodissociation regions with diameters 1 pc powered by the equivalent of an early B star, but because all sources lack radio free-free emission, they must host a collection of less massive stars. These spectroscopic observations using FLAMINGOS on the Kitt Peak 4 m telescope, coupled with 2MASS and UKIDSS infrared imaging, identify which candidate IMSFRs host probable stellar clusters and address the nature of their most massive stellar constituents.

  12. A Study of Central Galaxy Rotation with Stellar Mass and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva-Altamirano, Paola; Brough, Sarah; Tran, Kim-Vy; Jimmy; Miller, Christopher; Bremer, Malcom N.; Phillipps, Steven; Sharp, Rob; Colless, Matthew; Lara-López, Maritza A.; López-Sánchez, Ángel R.; Pimbblet, Kevin; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Couch, Warrick J.

    2017-02-01

    We present a pilot analysis of the influence of galaxy stellar mass and cluster environment on the probability of slow rotation in 22 central galaxies at mean redshift z = 0.07. This includes new integral-field observations of five central galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, observed with the SPIRAL integral-field spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. The composite sample presented here spans a wide range of stellar masses, 10.9 < log({M}* /{M}ȯ )< 12.0, and are embedded in halos ranging from groups to clusters, 12.9 < log({M}200/{M}ȯ )< 15.6. We find a mean probability of slow rotation in our sample of P(SR) = 54+/- 7%. Our results show an increasing probability of slow rotation in central galaxies with increasing stellar mass. However, when we examine the dependence of slow rotation on host cluster halo mass, we do not see a significant relationship. We also explore the influence of cluster dominance on slow rotation in central galaxies. Clusters with low dominance are associated with dynamically younger systems. We find that cluster dominance has no significant effect on the probability of slow rotation in central galaxies. These results conflict with a paradigm in which halo mass alone predetermines central galaxy properties.

  13. Luminosity functions for very low mass stars and brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Gregory; Bodenheimer, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the luminosity function for low-mass objects to constrain the stellar initial mass function at the low-mass end is reported. The ways in which luminosity functions for low-mass stars are affected by star formation histories, brown dwarf and premain-sequence cooling rates and main-sequence mass luminosity relations, and the IMF are examined. Cooling rates and the mass-luminosity relation are determined through a new series of evolutionary calculations for very low mass stars and brown dwarfs in the range 0.05-0.50 solar mass. Model luminosity functions are constructed for specific comparison with the results of four recent observational surveys. The likelihood that the stellar mass function in the solar neighborhood is increasing at masses near the bottom of the main sequence and perhaps at lower masses is confirmed. In the most optimistic case, brown dwarfs contribute half of the local missing disk mass. The actual contribution is likely to be considerably less.

  14. Evolution of the brightest cluster galaxies: the influence of morphology, stellar mass and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dongyao; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Conselice, Christopher J.

    2015-11-01

    Using a sample of 425 nearby brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) from von der Linden et al., we study the relationship between their internal properties (stellar masses, structural parameters and morphologies) and their environment. More massive BCGs tend to inhabit denser regions and more massive clusters than lower mass BCGs. Furthermore, cDs, which are BCGs with particularly extended envelopes, seem to prefer marginally denser regions and tend to be hosted by more massive haloes than elliptical BCGs. cD and elliptical BCGs show parallel positive correlations between their stellar masses and environmental densities. However, at a fixed environmental density, cDs are, on average, ˜40 per cent more massive. Our results, together with the findings of previous studies, suggest an evolutionary link between elliptical and cD BCGs. We suggest that most present-day cDs started their life as ellipticals, which subsequently grew in stellar mass and size due to mergers. In this process, the cD envelope developed. The large scatter in the stellar masses and sizes of the cDs reflects their different merger histories. The growth of the BCGs in mass and size seems to be linked to the hierarchical growth of the structures they inhabit: as the groups and clusters became denser and more massive, the BCGs at their centres also grew. This process is nearing completion since the majority (˜60 per cent) of the BCGs in the local Universe have cD morphology. However, the presence of galaxies with intermediate morphological classes (between ellipticals and cDs) suggests that the growth and morphological transformation of some BCGs is still ongoing.

  15. A stellar-mass black hole population in the globular cluster NGC 6101?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peuten, M.; Zocchi, A.; Gieles, M.; Gualandris, A.; Hénault-Brunet, V.

    2016-11-01

    Dalessandro et al. observed a similar distribution for blue straggler stars and main-sequence turn-off stars in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6101, and interpreted this feature as an indication that this cluster is not mass-segregated. Using direct N-body simulations, we find that a significant amount of mass segregation is expected for a cluster with the mass, radius and age of NGC 6101. Therefore, the absence of mass segregation cannot be explained by the argument that the cluster is not yet dynamically evolved. By varying the retention fraction of stellar-mass black holes, we show that segregation is not observable in clusters with a high black hole retention fraction (>50 per cent after supernova kicks and >50 per cent after dynamical evolution). Yet all model clusters have the same amount of mass segregation in terms of the decline of the mean mass of stars and remnants with distance to the centre. We also discuss how kinematics can be used to further constrain the presence of a stellar-mass black hole population and distinguish it from the effect of an intermediate-mass black hole. Our results imply that the kick velocities of black holes are lower than those of neutron stars. The large retention fraction during its dynamical evolution can be explained if NGC 6101 formed with a large initial radius in a Milky Way satellite.

  16. PRIMUS+DEEP2: The Dependence of Galaxy Clustering on Stellar Mass and Specific Star Formation Rate at 0.2 < z < 1.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coil, Alison L.; Mendez, Alexander J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Moustakas, John

    2017-04-01

    We present results on the clustering properties of galaxies as a function of both stellar mass and specific star formation rate (sSFR) using data from the PRIMUS and DEEP2 galaxy redshift surveys spanning 0.2< z< 1.2. We use spectroscopic redshifts of over 100,000 galaxies covering an area of 7.2 deg2 over five separate fields on the sky, from which we calculate cosmic variance errors. We find that the galaxy clustering amplitude is as strong of a function of sSFR as of stellar mass, and that at a given sSFR, it does not significantly depend on stellar mass within the range probed here. We further find that within the star-forming population and at a given stellar mass, galaxies above the main sequence of star formation with higher sSFR are less clustered than galaxies below the main sequence with lower sSFR. We also find that within the quiescent population, galaxies with higher sSFR are less clustered than galaxies with lower sSFR, at a given stellar mass. We show that the galaxy clustering amplitude smoothly increases with both increasing stellar mass and decreasing sSFR, implying that galaxies likely evolve across the main sequence, not only along it, before galaxies eventually become quiescent. These results imply that the relation of stellar mass to halo mass, which connects galaxies to dark matter halos, likely depends on sSFR.

  17. THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY: CLUSTERING DEPENDENCE ON GALAXY STELLAR MASS AND STAR FORMATION RATE AT z {approx} 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mostek, Nick; Coil, Alison L.; Cooper, Michael; Davis, Marc; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Weiner, Benjamin J.

    2013-04-10

    We present DEEP2 galaxy clustering measurements at z {approx} 1 as a function of stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), and specific SFR (sSFR). We find a strong positive correlation between stellar mass and clustering amplitude on 1-10 h {sup -1} Mpc scales for blue, star-forming galaxies with 9.5 < log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) < 11 and no dependence for red, quiescent galaxies with 10.5 < log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) < 11.5. Using recently re-calibrated DEEP2 SFRs from restframe B-band magnitude and optical colors, we find that within the blue galaxy population at z {approx} 1 the clustering amplitude increases strongly with increasing SFR and decreasing sSFR. For red galaxies there is no significant correlation between clustering amplitude and either SFR or sSFR. Blue galaxies with high SFR or low sSFR are as clustered on large scales as red galaxies. We find that the clustering trend observed with SFR can be explained mostly, but not entirely, by the correlation between stellar mass and clustering amplitude for blue galaxies. We also show that galaxies above the star-forming 'main sequence' are less clustered than galaxies below the main sequence, at a given stellar mass. These results are not consistent with the high-sSFR population being dominated by major mergers. We also measure the clustering amplitude on small scales ({<=}0.3 h {sup -1} Mpc) and find an enhanced clustering signal relative to the best-fit large-scale power law for red galaxies with high stellar mass, blue galaxies with high SFR, and both red and blue galaxies with high sSFR. The increased small-scale clustering for galaxies with high sSFRs is likely linked to triggered star formation in interacting galaxies. These measurements provide strong constraints on galaxy evolution and halo occupation distribution models at z {approx} 1.

  18. Effect of Local Environment and Stellar Mass on Galaxy Quenching and Morphology at 0.5 < z < 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawinwanichakij, Lalitwadee; Papovich, Casey; Quadri, Ryan F.; Glazebrook, Karl; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Allen, Rebecca J.; Bell, Eric F.; Croton, Darren J.; Dekel, Avishai; Ferguson, Henry C.; Forrest, Ben; Grogin, Norman A.; Guo, Yicheng; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Labbé, Ivo; Lucas, Ray A.; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Spitler, Lee R.; Straatman, Caroline M. S.; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Tomczak, Adam; van Dokkum, Pieter

    2017-10-01

    We study galactic star formation activity as a function of environment and stellar mass over 0.5 < z < 2.0 using the FourStar Galaxy Evolution (ZFOURGE) survey. We estimate the galaxy environment using a Bayesian-motivated measure of the distance to the third nearest neighbor for galaxies to the stellar mass completeness of our survey, {log}(M/{M}ȯ )> 9 (9.5) at z = 1.3 (2.0). This method, when applied to a mock catalog with the photometric-redshift precision ({σ }z/(1+z)≲ 0.02) of ZFOURGE, accurately recovers galaxies in low- and high-density environments. We quantify the environmental quenching efficiency and show that at z> 0.5, it depends on galaxy stellar mass, demonstrating that the effects of quenching related to (stellar) mass and environment are not separable. In high-density environments, the mass and environmental quenching efficiencies are comparable for massive galaxies ({log}(M/{M}ȯ )≳ 10.5) at all redshifts. For lower-mass galaxies ({log}{(M/M)}ȯ )≲ 10), the environmental quenching efficiency is very low at z≳ 1.5, but increases rapidly with decreasing redshift. Environmental quenching can account for nearly all quiescent lower-mass galaxies ({log}(M/{M}ȯ )∼ 9{--}10), which appear primarily at z≲ 1.0. The morphologies of lower-mass quiescent galaxies are inconsistent with those expected of recently quenched star-forming galaxies. Some environmental process must transform the morphologies on similar timescales as the environmental quenching itself. The evolution of the environmental quenching favors models that combine gas starvation (as galaxies become satellites) with gas exhaustion through star formation and outflows (“overconsumption”), and additional processes such as galaxy interactions, tidal stripping, and disk fading to account for the morphological differences between the quiescent and star-forming galaxy populations. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory

  19. GAMA/H-ATLAS: The Dust Opacity-Stellar Mass Surface Density Relation for Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grootes, M. W.; Tuffs, R. J.; Popescu, C. C.; Pastrav, B.; Andrae, E.; Gunawardhana, M.; Kelvin, L. S.; Liske, J.; Seibert, M.; Taylor, E. N.; Graham, Alister W.; Baes, M.; Baldry, I. K.; Bourne, N.; Brough, S.; Cooray, A.; Dariush, A.; De Zotti, G.; Driver, S. P.; Dunne, L.; Gomez, H.; Hopkins, A. M.; Hopwood, R.; Jarvis, M.; Loveday, J.; Maddox, S.; Madore, B. F.; Michałowski, M. J.; Norberg, P.; Parkinson, H. R.; Prescott, M.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Smith, D. J. B.; Thomas, D.; Valiante, E.

    2013-03-01

    We report the discovery of a well-defined correlation between B-band face-on central optical depth due to dust, τ ^f_B, and the stellar mass surface density, μ*, of nearby (z <= 0.13) spiral galaxies: {log}(τ ^{f}_{B}) = 1.12(+/- 0.11) \\cdot {log}({μ _{*}}/{{M}_{⊙ } {kpc}^{-2}}) - 8.6(+/- 0.8). This relation was derived from a sample of spiral galaxies taken from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, which were detected in the FIR/submillimeter (submm) in the Herschel-ATLAS science demonstration phase field. Using a quantitative analysis of the NUV attenuation-inclination relation for complete samples of GAMA spirals categorized according to stellar mass surface density, we demonstrate that this correlation can be used to statistically correct for dust attenuation purely on the basis of optical photometry and Sérsic-profile morphological fits. Considered together with previously established empirical relationships of stellar mass to metallicity and gas mass, the near linearity and high constant of proportionality of the τ ^f_B - μ_{*} relation disfavors a stellar origin for the bulk of refractory grains in spiral galaxies, instead being consistent with the existence of a ubiquitous and very rapid mechanism for the growth of dust in the interstellar medium. We use the τ ^f_B - μ_{*} relation in conjunction with the radiation transfer model for spiral galaxies of Popescu & Tuffs to derive intrinsic scaling relations between specific star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, and stellar surface density, in which attenuation of the UV light used for the measurement of SFR is corrected on an object-to-object basis. A marked reduction in scatter in these relations is achieved which we demonstrate is due to correction of both the inclination-dependent and face-on components of attenuation. Our results are consistent with a general picture of spiral galaxies in which most of the submm emission originates from grains residing in translucent structures

  20. GAMA/H-ATLAS: THE DUST OPACITY-STELLAR MASS SURFACE DENSITY RELATION FOR SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Grootes, M. W.; Tuffs, R. J.; Andrae, E.; Popescu, C. C.; Pastrav, B.; Gunawardhana, M.; Taylor, E. N.; Kelvin, L. S.; Driver, S. P.; Liske, J.; Seibert, M.; Graham, Alister W.; Baes, M.; Baldry, I. K.; Bourne, N.; Brough, S.; Cooray, A.; Dariush, A.; De Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; and others

    2013-03-20

    We report the discovery of a well-defined correlation between B-band face-on central optical depth due to dust, {tau}{sup f}{sub B}, and the stellar mass surface density, {mu}{sub *}, of nearby (z {<=} 0.13) spiral galaxies. This relation was derived from a sample of spiral galaxies taken from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, which were detected in the FIR/submillimeter (submm) in the Herschel-ATLAS science demonstration phase field. Using a quantitative analysis of the NUV attenuation-inclination relation for complete samples of GAMA spirals categorized according to stellar mass surface density, we demonstrate that this correlation can be used to statistically correct for dust attenuation purely on the basis of optical photometry and Sersic-profile morphological fits. Considered together with previously established empirical relationships of stellar mass to metallicity and gas mass, the near linearity and high constant of proportionality of the {tau}{sub B}{sup f} - {mu}{sub *} relation disfavors a stellar origin for the bulk of refractory grains in spiral galaxies, instead being consistent with the existence of a ubiquitous and very rapid mechanism for the growth of dust in the interstellar medium. We use the {tau}{sub B}{sup f} - {mu}{sub *} relation in conjunction with the radiation transfer model for spiral galaxies of Popescu and Tuffs to derive intrinsic scaling relations between specific star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, and stellar surface density, in which attenuation of the UV light used for the measurement of SFR is corrected on an object-to-object basis. A marked reduction in scatter in these relations is achieved which we demonstrate is due to correction of both the inclination-dependent and face-on components of attenuation. Our results are consistent with a general picture of spiral galaxies in which most of the submm emission originates from grains residing in translucent structures, exposed to UV in the diffuse interstellar

  1. Mass-loss rates, ionization fractions, shock velocities, and magnetic fields of stellar jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartigan, Patrick; Morse, Jon A.; Raymond, John

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we calculate emission-line ratios from a series of planar radiative shock models that cover a wide range of shock velocities, preshock densities, and magnetic fields. The models cover the initial conditions relevant to stellar jets, and we show how to estimate the ionization fractions and shock velocities in jets directly from observations of the strong emission lines in these flows. The ionization fractions in the HH 34, HH 47, and HH 111 jets are approximately 2%, considerably smaller than previous estimates, and the shock velocities are approximately 30 km/s. For each jet the ionization fractions were found from five different line ratios, and the estimates agree to within a factor of approximately 2. The scatter in the estimates of the shock velocities is also small (+/- 4 km/s). The low ionization fractions of stellar jets imply that the observed electron densities are much lower than the total densities, so the mass-loss rates in these flows are correspondingly higher (approximately greater than 2 x 10(exp -7) solar mass/yr). The mass-loss rates in jets are a significant fraction (1%-10%) of the disk accretion rates onto young stellar objects that drive the outflows. The momentum and energy supplied by the visible portion of a typical stellar jet are sufficient to drive a weak molecular outflow. Magnetic fields in stellar jets are difficult to measure because the line ratios from a radiative shock with a magnetic field resemble those of a lower velocity shock without a field. The observed line fluxes can in principle indicate the strength of the field if the geometry of the shocks in the jet is well known.

  2. Hunting stellar-mass black holes in X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corral-Santana, J. M.

    2017-07-01

    In the last 50 years of X-ray astronomy we have detected nearly 60 Galactic stellar-mass black hole (BH) candidates in transient X-ray binaries, i.e. systems with low-mass companions and sporadic outburst episodes. In addition, we have detected 2 more systems with high-mass companion stars. Only 17 out of the ˜60 transients have been dynamically confirmed although we have established strong constrains in two more systems. In this contribution, we will introduce the X-ray binaries, summarise their status and present the latest advances in the field.

  3. Exploring Systematic Effects in the Relation Between Stellar Mass, Gas Phase Metallicity, and Star Formation Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telford, O. Grace; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Conroy, Charlie

    2016-08-01

    There is evidence that the well-established mass-metallicity relation in galaxies is correlated with a third parameter: star formation rate (SFR). The strength of this correlation may be used to disentangle the relative importance of different physical processes (e.g., infall of pristine gas, metal-enriched outflows) in governing chemical evolution. However, all three parameters are susceptible to biases that might affect the observed strength of the relation between them. We analyze possible sources of systematic error, including sample bias, application of signal-to-noise ratio cuts on emission lines, choice of metallicity calibration, uncertainty in stellar mass determination, aperture effects, and dust. We present the first analysis of the relation between stellar mass, gas phase metallicity, and SFR using strong line abundance diagnostics from Dopita et al. for ˜130,000 star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and provide a detailed comparison of these diagnostics in an appendix. Using these new abundance diagnostics yields a 30%-55% weaker anti-correlation between metallicity and SFR at fixed stellar mass than that reported by Mannucci et al. We find that, for all abundance diagnostics, the anti-correlation with SFR is stronger for the relatively few galaxies whose current SFRs are elevated above their past average SFRs. This is also true for the new abundance diagnostic of Dopita et al., which gives anti-correlation between Z and SFR only in the high specific star formation rate (sSFR) regime, in contrast to the recent results of Kashino et al. The poorly constrained strength of the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR must be carefully accounted for in theoretical studies of chemical evolution.

  4. The Specific Star Formation Rate and Stellar Mass Fraction of Low-mass Central Galaxies in Cosmological Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila-Reese, V.; Colín, P.; González-Samaniego, A.; Valenzuela, O.; Firmani, C.; Velázquez, H.; Ceverino, D.

    2011-08-01

    By means of cosmological N-body + hydrodynamics simulations of galaxies in the context of the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) scenario we explore the specific star formation rates (SSFR = SFR/Ms , Ms is the stellar mass) and stellar mass fractions (Fs ≡ Ms /Mh , Mh is the halo mass) for sub-M* field galaxies at different redshifts (0 <~ z <~ 1.5). Distinct low-mass halos (2.5 <~ Mh /1010 M sun <~ 50 at z = 0) were selected for the high-resolution re-simulations. The Hydrodynamics Adaptive Refinement Tree (ART) code was used and some variations of the sub-grid parameters were explored. Most simulated galaxies, specially those with the highest resolutions, have significant disk components and their structural and dynamical properties are in reasonable agreement with observations of sub-M* field galaxies. However, the SSFRs are 5-10 times smaller than the averages of several (compiled and homogenized here) observational determinations for field blue/star-forming galaxies at z < 0.3 (at low masses, most observed field galaxies are actually blue/star forming). This inconsistency seems to remain even at z ~ 1-1.5, although it is less drastic. The Fs of simulated galaxies increases with Mh as semi-empirical inferences show. However, the values of Fs at z ≈ 0 are ~5-10 times larger in the simulations than in the inferences; these differences increases probably to larger factors at z ~ 1-1.5. The inconsistencies reported here imply that simulated low-mass galaxies (0.2 <~ Ms /109 M sun <~ 30 at z = 0) assembled their stellar masses much earlier than observations suggest. Our results confirm the predictions found by means of ΛCDM-based models of disk galaxy formation and evolution for isolated low-mass galaxies, and highlight that our understanding and implementation of astrophysics into simulations and models are still lacking vital ingredients.

  5. Photometric monitoring of open clusters: Low-mass eclipsing binary stars and the stellar mass-luminosity-radius relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebb, Leslie

    2006-06-01

    This thesis describes a photometric monitoring survey of Galactic star clusters designed to detect low-mass eclipsing binary star systems through variations in their relative lightcurves. The aim is to use cluster eclipsing binaries to measure the masses and radii of M-dwarf stars with ages and metallicities known from studies of brighter cluster stars. This information will provide an improved calibration of the mass-luminosity-radius relation for low-mass stars, be used to test stellar structure and evolution models, and help quantify the contribution of low-mass stars to the global mass census in the Galaxy. The survey is designed to detect eclipse events in stars of ~0.3 M_sun and consists of 600 Gbytes of raw imaging data on six open clusters with a range of ages (~ 0.15 - 4 Gyr) and metallicites (~ -0.2 - 0.0 dex). The clusters NGC 1647 and M 35 contain excellent candidate systems showing eclipse like variations in brightness and photometry consistent with cluster membership. The analysis of these clusters and the eclipsing M-dwarf stars detected in them are presented. Analysis of the candidate system in NGC 1647 confirms the object as a newly discovered M-dwarf eclipsing binary in the cluster with compenent masses of M 1 = 0.47 ± 0.05[Special characters omitted.] and M 2 = 0.19 ± 0.02[Special characters omitted.] . The small mass ratio ( M 2 / M 1 ) and low secondary mass of this object provide an unprecedented opportunity to test stellar models. We find that no stellar evolution models are consistent with all the properties of both M-dwarf stars in the eclipsing binary. The candidate in M 35 has been confirmed as an M-dwarf eclipsing binary, and the masses of the individual components are estimated to be M 1 ~ 0.25 M_sun and M 2 ~ 0.15 M_sun . Additional high resolution spectroscopic and photometric observations, for which we have applied and been awarded time, are necessary to accurately derive the intrinsic properties of the individual stellar

  6. The K20 survey. VI. The distribution of the stellar masses in galaxies up to z ≃ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Donnarumma, I.; Renzini, A.; Cimatti, A.; Zamorani, G.; Menci, N.; Daddi, E.; Giallongo, E.; Mignoli, M.; Perna, C.; Salimbeni, S.; Saracco, P.; Broadhurst, T.; Cristiani, S.; D'Odorico, S.; Gilmozzi, R.

    2004-09-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the stellar mass content of galaxies up to z=2.5 as obtained from the K20 spectrophotometric galaxy sample. We have applied and compared two different methods to estimate the stellar mass M* from broad-band photometry: a Maximal Age approach, where we maximize the age of the stellar population to obtain the maximal mass compatible with the observed R-K color, and a Best Fit model, where the best-fitting spectrum to the complete UBVRIzJKs multicolor distribution is used. We find that the M*/L ratio decreases with redshift: in particular, the average M*/L ratio of early type galaxies decreases with z, with a scatter that is indicative of a range of star-formation time-scales and redshift of formation. More important, the typical M*/L ~ratio of massive early type galaxies is larger than that of less massive ones, suggesting that their stellar population formed at higher z. We show that the final K20 galaxy sample spans a range of stellar masses from M*=109 M⊙ to M*=1012 M⊙: massive galaxies (M*≥1011 M⊙) are common at 0.5Stellar Mass Function at various z, of which we observe only a mild evolution (i.e. by 20-30%) up to z≃ 1. At z>1, the evolution in the normalization of the GSMF appears to be much faster: at z≃ 2, about 35% of the present day stellar mass in objects with M* ≃ 1011 M⊙ appear to have assembled. We also detect a change in the physical nature of the most massive galaxies: at z ⪉ 0.7, all galaxies with M>1011 M⊙ are early type, while at higher z a population of massive star-forming galaxies progressively appears. We finally analyze our results in the framework of Λ-CDM hierarchical models. First, we show that the large number of massive galaxies detected at high z does not violate any fundamental Λ-CDM constraint based on the number of massive DM halos. Then, we compare our results with the predictions of several renditions of both

  7. THE STELLAR MASS–HALO MASS RELATION FOR LOW-MASS X-RAY GROUPS AT 0.5< z< 1 IN THE CDFS WITH CSI

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Shannon G.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Williams, Rik J.; Mulchaey, John S.; Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Shectman, Stephen A.

    2015-01-30

    Since z∼1, the stellar mass density locked in low-mass groups and clusters has grown by a factor of ∼8. Here, we make the first statistical measurements of the stellar mass content of low-mass X-ray groups at 0.5stellar-to-halo mass scales for wide-field optical and infrared surveys. Groups are selected from combined Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations in the Chandra Deep Field South. These ultra-deep observations allow us to identify bona fide low-mass groups at high redshift and enable measurements of their total halo masses. We compute aggregate stellar masses for these halos using galaxies from the Carnegie-Spitzer-IMACS (CSI) spectroscopic redshift survey. Stars comprise ∼3%–4% of the total mass of group halos with masses 10{sup 12.8}mass of Fornax and one-fiftieth the mass of Virgo). Complementing our sample with higher mass halos at these redshifts, we find that the stellar-to-halo mass ratio decreases toward higher halo masses, consistent with other work in the local and high redshift universe. The observed scatter about the stellar–halo mass relation is σ∼0.25 dex, which is relatively small and suggests that total group stellar mass can serve as a rough proxy for halo mass. We find no evidence for any significant evolution in the stellar–halo mass relation since z≲1. Quantifying the stellar content in groups since this epoch is critical given that hierarchical assembly leads to such halos growing in number density and hosting increasing shares of quiescent galaxies.

  8. Black Holes across the Mass Spectrum-from Stellar Mass BH to ULXs and AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard

    2006-01-01

    I will discuss the observational characteristics of black holes and how they compare across the 10^8 range in mass and as a function of luminosity and apparent Eddington ratio. I will concentrate on the broad band spectrum, the timing signatures and the energy budget of these objects. In particular I will stress the similarities and differences in the x-ray spectra and power density spectra of AGN, ultraluminous x-ray sources and galactic black holes as a function of 'state'. I will also discuss the nature of the Fe K line and other diagnostics of the regions near the event horizon.

  9. The Initial Mass Function of Early-Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treu, Tommaso; Auger, Matthew W.; Koopmans, Léon V. E.; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Marshall, Philip J.; Bolton, Adam S.

    2010-02-01

    We determine an absolute calibration of the initial mass function (IMF) of early-type galaxies, by studying a sample of 56 gravitational lenses identified by the Sloan Lenses ACS Survey. Under the assumption of standard Navarro, Frenk, and White dark matter halos, a combination of lensing, dynamical, and stellar population synthesis models is used to disentangle the stellar and dark matter contribution for each lens. We define an "IMF mismatch" parameter α≡M LD *,Ein/M SPS *,Ein as the ratio of stellar mass inferred by a joint lensing and dynamical model (M LD *,Ein) to the current stellar mass inferred from stellar populations synthesis models (M SPS *,Ein). We find that a Salpeter IMF provides stellar masses in agreement with those inferred by lensing and dynamical models (langlog αrang = -0.00 ± 0.03 ± 0.02), while a Chabrier IMF underestimates them (langlog αrang = 0.25 ± 0.03 ± 0.02). A tentative trend is found, in the sense that α appears to increase with galaxy velocity dispersion. Taken at face value, this result would imply a non-universal IMF, perhaps dependent on metallicity, age, or abundance ratios of the stellar populations. Alternatively, the observed trend may imply non-universal dark matter halos with inner density slope increasing with velocity dispersion. While the degeneracy between the two interpretations cannot be broken without additional information, the data imply that massive early-type galaxies cannot have both a universal IMF and universal dark matter halos. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 10174, 10587, 10886, 10494, 10798, and 11202.

  10. Stellar evolution at high mass with semiconvective mixing according to the Schwarzschild criterion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R.; Chin, C.-W.

    1976-01-01

    Evolutionary sequences for stellar models with 10, 15, 30, and 60 solar masses, as well as four different initial chemical compositions, are calculated to the end of core helium burning using the Schwarzschild criterion for convection. The results are analyzed in terms of the modifications of interior structure and surface parameters induced by semiconvective mixing as a result of adopting the Schwarzschild criterion. It is found that the main differences from results based on the Ledoux criterion are the great extent of the convectively unstable layers in the intermediate zone and the eventual development of a fully convective zone at the base of the semiconvective one. It is shown that semiconvection develops outside the convective core just after the ZAMS stage for masses greater than 12 solar masses and just before the stage of central hydrogen exhaustion for masses greater than 6 solar masses. The present models are found to be insufficiently hot in comparison with the bulk of observed stable blue supergiants and to predict far too many red supergiants fro the range above 20 solar masses. It is concluded that something is fundamentally wrong with the models, the most likely suspects being the stellar opacities adopted and the neglect of mass loss.

  11. On the theoretical framework of magnetized outflows from stellar-mass black holes and related observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulou, D. M.; Contopoulos, I.; Kazanas, D.; Steiner, J. F.; Papadopoulos, D. B.; Laycock, S. G. T.

    2016-09-01

    The spins of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) and the power outputs of their jets are measurable quantities. Unfortunately, the currently employed methods do not agree and the results are controversial. Two major issues concern the measurements of BH spin and beam (jet) power. The former issue can be resolved by future observations. But the latter issue can be resolved now, if we pay attention to what is expected from theoretical considerations. The question of whether a correlation has been found between the power outputs of few objects and the spins of their BHs is moot because BH beam power does not scale with the square of the spin of the BH. We show that the theoretical BH beam power is a strongly non-linear function of spin that cannot be approximated by a quadratic relation, as is generally stated when the influence of the magnetic field is not accounted for in the Blandford & Znajek model. The BH beam power of ballistic jets should scale a lot more steeply with BH spin irrespective of the magnetic field assumed to thread the horizon and the spin range considered. This behaviour may already be visible in the analyses of radio observations by Narayan & McClintock and Russell et al. In agreement with previous studies, we also find that the power output that originates in the inner regions of the surrounding accretion discs is higher than that from the BHs and it cannot be ignored in investigations of continuous compact jets from these systems.

  12. On the Theoretical Framework of Magnetized Outflows from Stellar-Mass Black Holes and Related Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christodoulou, D. M.; Contopoulos, I.; Kazanas, D.; Steiner, J. F.; Papadopoulos, D. B.; Laycock, S. G. T.

    2016-01-01

    The spins of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) and the power outputs of their jets are measurable quantities. Unfortunately, the currently employed methods do not agree and the results are controversial. Two major issues concern the measurements of BH spin and beam (jet) power. The former issue can be resolved by future observations. But the latter issue can be resolved now, if we pay attention to what is expected from theoretical considerations. The question of whether a correlation has been found between the power outputs of few objects and the spins of their BHs is moot because BH beam power does not scale with the square of the spin of the BH. We show that the theoretical BH beam power is a strongly nonlinear function of spin that cannot be approximated by a quadratic relation, as is generally stated when the influence of the magnetic field is not accounted for in the Blandford & Znajek model. The BH beam power of ballistic jets should scale a lot more steeply with BH spin irrespective of the magnetic field assumed to thread the horizon and the spin range considered. This behavior may already be visible in the analyses of radio observations by Narayan & McClintock and Russell et al. In agreement with previous studies, we also find that the power output that originates in the inner regions of the surrounding accretion disks is higher than that from the BHs and it cannot be ignored in investigations of continuous compact jets from these systems.

  13. SMOOTH(ER) STELLAR MASS MAPS IN CANDELS: CONSTRAINTS ON THE LONGEVITY OF CLUMPS IN HIGH-REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wuyts, Stijn; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Genzel, Reinhard; Lutz, Dieter; Guo Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro; Barro, Guillermo; Faber, Sandra M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; McGrath, Elizabeth; Dekel, Avishai; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lotz, Jennifer; Hathi, Nimish P.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Newman, Jeffrey A.; and others

    2012-07-10

    We perform a detailed analysis of the resolved colors and stellar populations of a complete sample of 323 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at 0.5 < z < 1.5 and 326 SFGs at 1.5 < z < 2.5 in the ERS and CANDELS-Deep region of GOODS-South. Galaxies were selected to be more massive than 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} and have specific star formation rates (SFRs) above 1/t{sub H} . We model the seven-band optical ACS + near-IR WFC3 spectral energy distributions of individual bins of pixels, accounting simultaneously for the galaxy-integrated photometric constraints available over a longer wavelength range. We analyze variations in rest-frame color, stellar surface mass density, age, and extinction as a function of galactocentric radius and local surface brightness/density, and measure structural parameters on luminosity and stellar mass maps. We find evidence for redder colors, older stellar ages, and increased dust extinction in the nuclei of galaxies. Big star-forming clumps seen in star formation tracers are less prominent or even invisible in the inferred stellar mass distributions. Off-center clumps contribute up to {approx}20% to the integrated SFR, but only 7% or less to the integrated mass of all massive SFGs at z {approx} 1 and z {approx} 2, with the fractional contributions being a decreasing function of wavelength used to select the clumps. The stellar mass profiles tend to have smaller sizes and M20 coefficients, and higher concentration and Gini coefficients than the light distribution. Our results are consistent with an inside-out disk growth scenario with brief (100-200 Myr) episodic local enhancements in star formation superposed on the underlying disk. Alternatively, the young ages of off-center clumps may signal inward clump migration, provided this happens efficiently on the order of an orbital timescale.

  14. Relations between stellar mass and electron temperature-based metallicity for star-forming galaxies in a wide mass range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei-Bin; Liang, Yan-Chun; Shao, Xu; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Zhao, Gang; Hammer, Francois; Zhang, Yong; Flores, Hector; Ruan, Gui-Ping; Zhou, Li

    2014-07-01

    We select 947 star-forming galaxies from SDSS-DR7 with [O III]λ4363 emission lines detected at a signal-to-noise ratio larger than 5σ. Their electron temperatures and direct oxygen abundances are then determined. We compare the results from different methods. t2, the electron temperature in the low ionization region, estimated from t3, that in the high ionization region, is compared using three analysis relations between t2 - t3. These show obvious differences, which result in some different ionic oxygen abundances. The results of t3, t2, O++/H+ and O+/H+ derived by using methods from IRAF and literature are also compared. The ionic abundances O++/H+ are higher than O+/H+ for most cases. The different oxygen abundances derived from Te and the strong-line ratios show a clear discrepancy, which is more obvious following increasing stellar mass and strong-line ratio R23. The sample of galaxies from SDSS with detected [O III]λ4363 have lower metallicites and higher star formation rates, so they may not be typical representatives of the whole population of galaxies. Adopting data objects from Andrews & Martini, Liang et al. and Lee et al. data, we derive new relations of stellar mass and metallicity for star-forming galaxies in a much wider stellar mass range: from 106 Msolar to 1011 Msolar.

  15. Growing massive black holes through supercritical accretion of stellar-mass seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, A.; Haardt, F.; Dotti, M.; Fiacconi, D.; Mayer, L.; Madau, P.

    2016-03-01

    The rapid assembly of the massive black holes that power the luminous quasars observed at z ˜ 6-7 remains a puzzle. Various direct collapse models have been proposed to head-start black hole growth from initial seeds with masses ˜105 M⊙, which can then reach a billion solar mass while accreting at the Eddington limit. Here, we propose an alternative scenario based on radiatively inefficient supercritical accretion of stellar-mass holes embedded in the gaseous circumnuclear discs (CNDs) expected to exist in the cores of high-redshift galaxies. Our sub-pc resolution hydrodynamical simulations show that stellar-mass holes orbiting within the central 100 pc of the CND bind to very high density gas clumps that arise from the fragmentation of the surrounding gas. Owing to the large reservoir of dense cold gas available, a stellar-mass black hole allowed to grow at super-Eddington rates according to the `slim-disc' solution can increase its mass by three orders of magnitudes within a few million years. These findings are supported by simulations run with two different hydro codes, RAMSES based on the Adaptive Mesh Refinement technique and GIZMO based on a new Lagrangian Godunov-type method, and with similar, but not identical, sub-grid recipes for star formation, supernova feedback, black hole accretion and feedback. The low radiative efficiency of supercritical accretion flows are instrumental to the rapid mass growth of our black holes, as they imply modest radiative heating of the surrounding nuclear environment.

  16. Nucleosynthesis in AGB stars traced by oxygen isotopic ratios. I. Determining the stellar initial mass by means of the 17O/18O ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Nutte, R.; Decin, L.; Olofsson, H.; Lombaert, R.; de Koter, A.; Karakas, A.; Milam, S.; Ramstedt, S.; Stancliffe, R. J.; Homan, W.; Van de Sande, M.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: We seek to investigate the 17O/18O ratio for a sample of AGB stars containing M-, S-, and C-type stars. These ratios are evaluated in relation to fundamental stellar evolution parameters: the stellar initial mass and pulsation period. Methods: Circumstellar 13C16O, 12C17O, and 12C18O line observations were obtained for a sample of nine stars with various single-dish long-wavelength facilities. Line intensity ratios are shown to relate directly to the surface 17O/18O abundance ratio. Results: Stellar evolution models predict the 17O/18O ratio to be a sensitive function of initial mass and to remain constant throughout the entire TP-AGB phase for stars initially less massive than 5 M⊙. This makes the measured ratio a probe of the initial stellar mass. Conclusions: Observed 17O/18O ratios are found to be well in the range predicted by stellar evolution models that do not consider convective overshooting. From this, accurate initial mass estimates are calculated for seven sources. For the remaining two sources, there are two mass solutions, although there is a larger probability that the low-mass solution is correct. Finally, we present hints at a possible separation between M/S- and C-type stars when comparing the 17O/18O ratio to the stellar pulsation period. The reduced spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/600/A71

  17. Neutral stellar winds that drive bipolar outflows in low-mass protostars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizano, Susana; Heiles, Carl; Koo, Bon-Ghul; Shu, Frank H.; Rodriguez, Luis F.

    1988-01-01

    The Arecibo radio telescope at the 21-cm line of atomic hydrogen has been used to detect a neutral atomic wind in the bipolar flow source HH 7-11. An atomic mass of about 0.015 solar associated with the rapidly flowing gas is deduced. The stellar mass-loss rate is roughly 3 x 10 to the -6th solar mass/yr if the crossing time of the decelerating wind is 5000 yr. The excess emission in the H I line core gives a total duration of the outflow of about 70,000 yr. A detailed analysis of the H I line shape yields a reasonable deceleration rate for the atomic wind if the stellar wind continuously entrains ambient molecular gas as it propagates from the protostar. A stellar wind with the described characteristics and a terminal velocity of 170 km/s would be more than sufficient to drive the known extended CO bipolar outflow in HH 7-11.

  18. Neutral stellar winds that drive bipolar outflows in low-mass protostars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizano, Susana; Heiles, Carl; Koo, Bon-Ghul; Shu, Frank H.; Rodriguez, Luis F.

    1988-01-01

    The Arecibo radio telescope at the 21-cm line of atomic hydrogen has been used to detect a neutral atomic wind in the bipolar flow source HH 7-11. An atomic mass of about 0.015 solar associated with the rapidly flowing gas is deduced. The stellar mass-loss rate is roughly 3 x 10 to the -6th solar mass/yr if the crossing time of the decelerating wind is 5000 yr. The excess emission in the H I line core gives a total duration of the outflow of about 70,000 yr. A detailed analysis of the H I line shape yields a reasonable deceleration rate for the atomic wind if the stellar wind continuously entrains ambient molecular gas as it propagates from the protostar. A stellar wind with the described characteristics and a terminal velocity of 170 km/s would be more than sufficient to drive the known extended CO bi