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  1. Increasing Stem Cell Dose Promotes Posttransplant Immune Reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Shen, Sylvie; Dolnikov, Alla

    2017-01-16

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation can provide a successful therapeutic option for patients that have no suitable related donor. UCB transplantation is often limited by the relatively small hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) numbers in UCB especially for adult recipients. Early neutrophil and platelet engraftment correlates with the stem cell numbers in UCB transplant. Compared to other HSC sources, immune reconstitution following UCB transplant is slower and complicated by increased frequency of opportunistic infections. The effect of HSC numbers in UCB transplant on immune reconstitution was not thoroughly examined. Using immunocompromised mice transplanted with purified UCB CD34+ stem cells, we have demonstrated that increasing the numbers of CD34+ cells in the transplant promotes hematopoietic and immune reconstitution. At early stages posttransplant, high stem cell dose generated relatively more B cells, while lower dose generated more myeloid and T cells. Thus, the size of the stem cell graft appears to modulate the differentiation potential of infused stem cells. In addition, increasing stem cell dose in the transplant improved CD8+ T cell development and delayed late memory T cell skewing in expense of naive T cells highlighting the importance of HSC dose to maintain the pool of naive T cells able to develop strong immune responses. Transplantation of ex vivo expanded CD34+ cells did not promote, but rather delayed immune reconstitution suggesting the loss of primitive lymphoid precursor cells during ex vivo expansion.

  2. From adult stem cells to cancer stem cells: Oct-4 Gene, cell-cell communication, and hormones during tumor promotion.

    PubMed

    Trosko, James E

    2006-11-01

    Carcinogenesis is characterized by "initiation," "promotion," and "progression" phases. The "stem cell theory" and "de-differentiation" theories are used to explain the origin of cancer. Growth control for stem cells, which lack functional gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), involves negative soluble or niche factors, while for progenitor cells, it involves GJIC. Tumor promoters, hormones, and growth factors inhibit GJIC reversibly. Oncogenes stably inhibit GJIC. Cancer cells, which lack growth control and the ability to terminally differentiate and to apoptose, lack GJIC. The Oct3/4 gene, a POU (Pit-Oct-Unc) family of transcription factors was thought to be expressed only in embryonic stem cells and in tumor cells. With the availability of normal adult human stem cells, tests for the expression of Oct3/4 gene and the stem cell theory in human carcinogenesis became possible. Human breast, liver, pancreas, kidney, mesenchyme, and gastric stem cells, HeLa and MCF-7 cells, and canine tumors were tested with antibodies and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for Oct3/4. Adult human breast stem cells, immortalized nontumorigenic and tumor cell lines, but not the normal differentiated cells, expressed Oct3/4. Adult human differentiated cells lose their Oct-4 expression. Oct3/4 is expressed in a few cells found in the basal layer of human skin epidermis. The data demonstrate that normal adult stem cells and cancer stem cells maintain expression of Oct3/4, consistent with the stem cell hypothesis of carcinogenesis. These Oct-4 positive cells might represent the "cancer stem cells." A strategy to target "cancer stem cells" is to suppress the Oct-4 gene in order to cause the cells to differentiate.

  3. Promoting justice in stem cell intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Regenberg, Alan; Mathews, Debra J H

    2011-11-01

    According to the World Trade Organization, intellectual property rights are "rights given to persons over the creations of their minds. They usually give the creator an exclusive right over the use of his/her creation for a certain period of time." The rationale behind intellectual property rights is to offer a quid pro quo, between creators and the public, intended to spur innovation. Inventors gain exclusivity (and an opportunity for profits) in exchange for publicly disclosing details about their creations. The public gains free access to information - information that can then be used to support further innovation. Innovation is seen as an inherent good in this context, as it can lead to the development of things people need (e.g., treatments for disease, green energy technologies or a better mousetrap). Exclusive rights to intellectual property are managed via patents and licenses, with patenting being primarily regulated at the national level. Intellectual property rights are the dominant mechanism used in innovation policy, particularly in science. However, myriad modifications and alternatives to intellectual property rights have been proposed and utilized, including patent pooling, intellectual property exchanges and clearing houses, innovation prizes and open-source licenses. The challenges related to competing models of innovation policy present in a fairly consistent manner across most fields of science. However, this paper will focus exclusively on intellectual property rights and models of innovation policy in the context of stem cell science. It is not that the issues themselves are unique in this context, but rather that there are a series of factors that make a discussion of intellectual property rights and models of innovation policy particularly important in the context of stem cell science.

  4. Steroid signaling promotes stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila testis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yijie; Ma, Qing; Cherry, Christopher M; Matunis, Erika L

    2014-10-01

    Stem cell regulation by local signals is intensely studied, but less is known about the effects of hormonal signals on stem cells. In Drosophila, the primary steroid twenty-hydroxyecdysone (20E) regulates ovarian germline stem cells (GSCs) but was considered dispensable for testis GSC maintenance. Male GSCs reside in a microenvironment (niche) generated by somatic hub cells and adjacent cyst stem cells (CySCs). Here, we show that depletion of 20E from adult males by overexpressing a dominant negative form of the Ecdysone receptor (EcR) or its heterodimeric partner ultraspiracle (usp) causes GSC and CySC loss that is rescued by 20E feeding, uncovering a requirement for 20E in stem cell maintenance. EcR and USP are expressed, activated and autonomously required in the CySC lineage to promote CySC maintenance, as are downstream genes ftz-f1 and E75. In contrast, GSCs non-autonomously require ecdysone signaling. Global inactivation of EcR increases cell death in the testis that is rescued by expression of EcR-B2 in the CySC lineage, indicating that ecdysone signaling supports stem cell viability primarily through a specific receptor isoform. Finally, EcR genetically interacts with the NURF chromatin-remodeling complex, which we previously showed maintains CySCs. Thus, although 20E levels are lower in males than females, ecdysone signaling acts through distinct cell types and effectors to ensure both ovarian and testis stem cell maintenance.

  5. VEGF promotes tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of human glioblastoma stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Naoki; Soeda, Akio . E-mail: ccd29400@nyc.odn.ne.jp; Inagaki, Akihito; Onodera, Masafumi; Maruyama, Hidekazu; Hara, Akira; Kunisada, Takahiro; Mori, Hideki; Iwama, Toru

    2007-08-31

    There is increasing evidence for the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in malignant brain tumors, and these CSCs may play a pivotal role in tumor initiation, growth, and recurrence. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and the neurogenesis of neural stem cells. Using CSCs derived from human glioblastomas and a retrovirus expressing VEGF, we examined the effects of VEGF on the properties of CSCs in vitro and in vivo. Although VEGF did not affect the property of CSCs in vitro, the injection of mouse brains with VEGF-expressing CSCs led to the massive expansion of vascular-rich GBM, tumor-associated hemorrhage, and high morbidity, suggesting that VEGF promoted tumorigenesis via angiogenesis. These results revealed that VEGF induced the proliferation of VEC in the vascular-rich tumor environment, the so-called stem cell niche.

  6. Senescence from glioma stem cell differentiation promotes tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Ouchi, Rie; Okabe, Sachiko; Migita, Toshiro; Nakano, Ichiro; Seimiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a lethal brain tumor composed of heterogeneous cellular populations including glioma stem cells (GSCs) and differentiated non-stem glioma cells (NSGCs). While GSCs are involved in tumor initiation and propagation, NSGCs’ role remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that NSGCs undergo senescence and secrete pro-angiogenic proteins, boosting the GSC-derived tumor formation in vivo. We used a GSC model that maintains stemness in neurospheres, but loses the stemness and differentiates into NSGCs upon serum stimulation. These NSGCs downregulated telomerase, shortened telomeres, and eventually became senescent. The senescent NSGCs released pro-angiogenic proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factors and senescence-associated interleukins, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Conditioned medium from senescent NSGCs promoted proliferation of brain microvascular endothelial cells, and mixed implantation of GSCs and senescent NSGCs into mice enhanced the tumorigenic potential of GSCs. The senescent NSGCs seem to be clinically relevant, because both clinical samples and xenografts of GBM contained tumor cells that expressed the senescence markers. Our data suggest that senescent NSGCs promote malignant progression of GBM in part via paracrine effects of the secreted proteins. PMID:26775840

  7. Epigenetic modulators promote mesenchymal stem cell phenotype switches.

    PubMed

    Alexanian, Arshak R

    2015-07-01

    Discoveries in recent years have suggested that some tissue specific adult stem cells in mammals might have the ability to differentiate into cell types from different germ layers. This phenomenon has been referred to as stem cell transdifferentiation or plasticity. Despite controversy, the current consensus holds that transdifferentiation does occur in mammals, but only within a limited range. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the switches in phenotype and development of the methods that will promote such type of conversions can open up endless possibilities for regenerative medicine. Epigenetic control contributes to various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and DNA and histone covalent modifications play a key role in these processes. Recently, we have been able to convert human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into neural-like cells by exposing cells to epigenetic modifiers and neural inducing factors. The goal of this study was to investigate the stability and plasticity of these transdifferentiated cells. To this end, neurally induced MSCs (NI-hMSCs) were exposed to adipocyte inducing factors. Grown for 24-48 h in fat induction media NI-hMSCs reversed their morphology into fibroblast-like cells and regained their proliferative properties. After 3 weeks approximately 6% of hMSCs differentiated into multilocular or plurivacuolar adipocyte cells that demonstrated by Oil Red O staining. Re-exposure of these cultures or the purified adipocytes to neural induction medium induced the cells to re-differentiate into neuronal-like cells. These data suggest that cell plasticity can be manipulated by the combination of small molecule modulators of chromatin modifying enzymes and specific cell signaling pathways.

  8. CXCR4 activation promotes differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijun; Hua, Qiuhong; Tang, Kaiyi; Shi, Changjie; Xie, Xin; Zhang, Ru

    2016-11-19

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in many fundamental cellular responses such as growth, death, movement, transcription and excitation. Their roles in human stem cell neural specialization are not well understood. In this study, we aimed to identify GPCRs that may play a role in the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to neural stem cells (NSCs). Using a feeder-free hESC neural differentiation protocol, we found that the expression of several chemokine receptors changed dramatically during the hESC/NSC transition. Especially, the expression of CXCR4 increased approximately 50 folds in NSCs compared to the original hESCs. CXCR4 agonist SDF-1 promoted, whereas the antagonist AMD3100 delayed the neural induction process. In consistence with antagonizing CXCR4, knockdown of CXCR4 in hESCs also blocked the neural induction and cells with reduced CXCR4 were rarely positive for Nestin and Sox1-staining. Taken together, our results suggest that CXCR4 is involved in the neural induction process of hESC and it might be considered as a target to facilitate NSC production from hESCs in regenerative medicine.

  9. Somatic cell encystment promotes abscission in germline stem cells following a regulated block in cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Lenhart, Kari F; DiNardo, Stephen

    2015-07-27

    In many tissues, the stem cell niche must coordinate behavior across multiple stem cell lineages. How this is achieved is largely unknown. We have identified delayed completion of cytokinesis in germline stem cells (GSCs) as a mechanism that regulates the production of stem cell daughters in the Drosophila testis. Through live imaging, we show that a secondary F-actin ring is formed through regulation of Cofilin activity to block cytokinesis progress after contractile ring disassembly. The duration of this block is controlled by Aurora B kinase. Additionally, we have identified a requirement for somatic cell encystment of the germline in promoting GSC abscission. We suggest that this non-autonomous role promotes coordination between stem cell lineages. These findings reveal the mechanisms by which cytokinesis is inhibited and reinitiated in GSCs and why such complex regulation exists within the stem cell niche.

  10. Human neural stem cells promote proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells and enhance angiogenesis in ischemic rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Sun; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Seung U; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Transplantation of human neural stem cells into the dentate gyrus or ventricle of rodents has been reportedly to enhance neurogenesis. In this study, we examined endogenous stem cell proliferation and angiogenesis in the ischemic rat brain after the transplantation of human neural stem cells. Focal cerebral ischemia in the rat brain was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Human neural stem cells were transplanted into the subventricular zone. The behavioral performance of human neural stem cells-treated ischemic rats was significantly improved and cerebral infarct volumes were reduced compared to those in untreated animals. Numerous transplanted human neural stem cells were alive and preferentially localized to the ipsilateral ischemic hemisphere. Furthermore, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled endogenous neural stem cells were observed in the subventricular zone and hippocampus, where they differentiated into cells immunoreactive for the neural markers doublecortin, neuronal nuclear antigen NeuN, and astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein in human neural stem cells-treated rats, but not in the untreated ischemic animals. The number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-positive ⁄ anti-von Willebrand factor-positive proliferating endothelial cells was higher in the ischemic boundary zone of human neural stem cells-treated rats than in controls. Finally, transplantation of human neural stem cells in the brains of rats with focal cerebral ischemia promoted the proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells and their differentiation into mature neural-like cells, and enhanced angiogenesis. This study provides valuable insights into the effect of human neural stem cell transplantation on focal cerebral ischemia, which can be applied to the development of an effective therapy for stroke.

  11. Mesenchymal stem cell seeding promotes reendothelialization of the endovascular stent.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue; Wang, Guixue; Tang, Chaojun; Zhang, Dechuan; Li, Zhenggong; Du, Dingyuan; Zhang, Zhengcai

    2011-09-01

    This study is designed to make a novel cell seeding stent and to evaluate reendothelialization and anti-restenosis after the stent implantation. In comparison with cell seeding stents utilized in previous studies, Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have advantages on promoting of issue repair. Thus it was employed to improve the reendothelialization effects of endovascular stent in present work. MSCs were isolated by density gradient centrifugation and determined as CD29(+) CD44(+) CD34(-) cells by immunofluorescence and immunocytochemistry; gluten and polylysine coated stents were prepared by ultrasonic atomization spray, and MSCs seeded stents were made through rotation culture according to the optimized conditions that were determined in previous studies. The results from animal experiments, in which male New Zealand white rabbits were used, show that the reendothelialization of MSCs coated stents can be completed within one month; in comparison with 316L stainless steel stents (316L SS stents) and gluten and polylysine coated stents, the intimal hyperplasia and in-stent restenosis are significantly inhibited by MSCs coated stents. Endovascular stent seeded with MSCs promotes reendothelialization and inhibits the intimal hyperplasia and in-stent restenosis compared with the 316L SS stents and the gluten and polylysine coated stents.

  12. Interleukin-22 promotes intestinal-stem-cell-mediated epithelial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lindemans, Caroline A; Calafiore, Marco; Mertelsmann, Anna M; O'Connor, Margaret H; Dudakov, Jarrod A; Jenq, Robert R; Velardi, Enrico; Young, Lauren F; Smith, Odette M; Lawrence, Gillian; Ivanov, Juliet A; Fu, Ya-Yuan; Takashima, Shuichiro; Hua, Guoqiang; Martin, Maria L; O'Rourke, Kevin P; Lo, Yuan-Hung; Mokry, Michal; Romera-Hernandez, Monica; Cupedo, Tom; Dow, Lukas E; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E; Shroyer, Noah F; Liu, Chen; Kolesnick, Richard; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Hanash, Alan M

    2015-12-24

    Epithelial regeneration is critical for barrier maintenance and organ function after intestinal injury. The intestinal stem cell (ISC) niche provides Wnt, Notch and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signals supporting Lgr5(+) crypt base columnar ISCs for normal epithelial maintenance. However, little is known about the regulation of the ISC compartment after tissue damage. Using ex vivo organoid cultures, here we show that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), potent producers of interleukin-22 (IL-22) after intestinal injury, increase the growth of mouse small intestine organoids in an IL-22-dependent fashion. Recombinant IL-22 directly targeted ISCs, augmenting the growth of both mouse and human intestinal organoids, increasing proliferation and promoting ISC expansion. IL-22 induced STAT3 phosphorylation in Lgr5(+) ISCs, and STAT3 was crucial for both organoid formation and IL-22-mediated regeneration. Treatment with IL-22 in vivo after mouse allogeneic bone marrow transplantation enhanced the recovery of ISCs, increased epithelial regeneration and reduced intestinal pathology and mortality from graft-versus-host disease. ATOH1-deficient organoid culture demonstrated that IL-22 induced epithelial regeneration independently of the Paneth cell niche. Our findings reveal a fundamental mechanism by which the immune system is able to support the intestinal epithelium, activating ISCs to promote regeneration.

  13. Hymyc1 Downregulation Promotes Stem Cell Proliferation in Hydra vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosone, Alfredo; Marchesano, Valentina; Tino, Angela; Hobmayer, Bert; Tortiglione, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Hydra is a unique model for studying the mechanisms underlying stem cell biology. The activity of the three stem cell lineages structuring its body constantly replenishes mature cells lost due to normal tissue turnover. By a poorly understood mechanism, stem cells are maintained through self-renewal while concomitantly producing differentiated progeny. In vertebrates, one of many genes that participate in regulating stem cell homeostasis is the protooncogene c-myc, which has been recently identified also in Hydra, and found expressed in the interstitial stem cell lineage. In the present paper, by developing a novel strategy of RNA interference-mediated gene silencing (RNAi) based on an enhanced uptake of small interfering RNAi (siRNA), we provide molecular and biological evidence for an unexpected function of the Hydra myc gene (Hymyc1) in the homeostasis of the interstitial stem cell lineage. We found that Hymyc1 inhibition impairs the balance between stem cell self renewal/differentiation, as shown by the accumulation of stem cell intermediate and terminal differentiation products in genetically interfered animals. The identical phenotype induced by the 10058-F4 inhibitor, a disruptor of c-Myc/Max dimerization, demonstrates the specificity of the RNAi approach. We show the kinetic and the reversible feature of Hymyc1 RNAi, together with the effects displayed on regenerating animals. Our results show the involvement of Hymyc1 in the control of interstitial stem cell dynamics, provide new clues to decipher the molecular control of the cell and tissue plasticity in Hydra, and also provide further insights into the complex myc network in higher organisms. The ability of Hydra cells to uptake double stranded RNA and to trigger a RNAi response lays the foundations of a comprehensive analysis of the RNAi response in Hydra allowing us to track back in the evolution and the origin of this process. PMID:22292012

  14. Hymyc1 downregulation promotes stem cell proliferation in Hydra vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Ambrosone, Alfredo; Marchesano, Valentina; Tino, Angela; Hobmayer, Bert; Tortiglione, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Hydra is a unique model for studying the mechanisms underlying stem cell biology. The activity of the three stem cell lineages structuring its body constantly replenishes mature cells lost due to normal tissue turnover. By a poorly understood mechanism, stem cells are maintained through self-renewal while concomitantly producing differentiated progeny. In vertebrates, one of many genes that participate in regulating stem cell homeostasis is the protooncogene c-myc, which has been recently identified also in Hydra, and found expressed in the interstitial stem cell lineage. In the present paper, by developing a novel strategy of RNA interference-mediated gene silencing (RNAi) based on an enhanced uptake of small interfering RNAi (siRNA), we provide molecular and biological evidence for an unexpected function of the Hydra myc gene (Hymyc1) in the homeostasis of the interstitial stem cell lineage. We found that Hymyc1 inhibition impairs the balance between stem cell self renewal/differentiation, as shown by the accumulation of stem cell intermediate and terminal differentiation products in genetically interfered animals. The identical phenotype induced by the 10058-F4 inhibitor, a disruptor of c-Myc/Max dimerization, demonstrates the specificity of the RNAi approach. We show the kinetic and the reversible feature of Hymyc1 RNAi, together with the effects displayed on regenerating animals. Our results show the involvement of Hymyc1 in the control of interstitial stem cell dynamics, provide new clues to decipher the molecular control of the cell and tissue plasticity in Hydra, and also provide further insights into the complex myc network in higher organisms. The ability of Hydra cells to uptake double stranded RNA and to trigger a RNAi response lays the foundations of a comprehensive analysis of the RNAi response in Hydra allowing us to track back in the evolution and the origin of this process.

  15. Extracellular acidity strengthens mesenchymal stem cells to promote melanoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Peppicelli, Silvia; Bianchini, Francesca; Toti, Alessandra; Laurenzana, Anna; Fibbi, Gabriella; Calorini, Lido

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) participate to tumor stroma development and several evidence suggests that they play a role in facilitating cancer progression. Because melanoma often shows extracellular pH low enough to influence host cell as tumor cell behavior, the aim of this study is to elucidate whether acidity affects cross talk between MSC and melanoma cells to disclose new liaisons promoting melanoma progression, and to offer new therapeutic opportunities. We found that MSC grown in a low pH medium (LpH-MSC) stimulate melanoma xenografts more than MSC grown in a standard pH medium. LpH-MSC express a higher level of TGFβ that is instrumental of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype induction in melanoma cells. LpH-MSC profile also shows a switching to an oxidative phosphorylation metabolism that was accompanied by a forced glycolytic pathway of melanoma cells grown in LpH-MSC-conditioned medium. Metformin, an inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory chain was able to reconvert oxidative metabolism and abrogate TGFβ expression in LpH-MSC. In addition, esomeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor activated in acidosis, blocked TGFβ expression in LpH-MSC through the downregulation of IkB. Both agents, metformin and esomeprazole, inhibited EMT profile in melanoma cells grown in LpH-MSC medium, and reduced glycolytic markers. Thus, acidosis of tumor microenvironment potentiates the pro-tumoral activity of MSC and orchestrates for a new potential symbiosis, which could be target to limit melanoma progression. PMID:26496168

  16. Intravenous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promotes neural regeneration after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Anbari, Fatemeh; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Khoradmehr, Arezoo; Sadeghian, Fatemeh; Fesahat, Farzaneh; Nabi, Ali

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the supplement of lost nerve cells in rats with traumatic brain injury by intravenous administration of allogenic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, this study established a Wistar rat model of traumatic brain injury by weight drop impact acceleration method and administered 3 × 10(6) rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via the lateral tail vein. At 14 days after cell transplantation, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into neurons and astrocytes in injured rat cerebral cortex and rat neurological function was improved significantly. These findings suggest that intravenously administered bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can promote nerve cell regeneration in injured cerebral cortex, which supplement the lost nerve cells.

  17. Intravenous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promotes neural regeneration after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Anbari, Fatemeh; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Khoradmehr, Arezoo; Sadeghian, Fatemeh; Fesahat, Farzaneh; Nabi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the supplement of lost nerve cells in rats with traumatic brain injury by intravenous administration of allogenic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, this study established a Wistar rat model of traumatic brain injury by weight drop impact acceleration method and administered 3 × 106 rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via the lateral tail vein. At 14 days after cell transplantation, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into neurons and astrocytes in injured rat cerebral cortex and rat neurological function was improved significantly. These findings suggest that intravenously administered bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can promote nerve cell regeneration in injured cerebral cortex, which supplement the lost nerve cells. PMID:25206912

  18. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote cell proliferation and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Yijing; Tang, Huijuan; Guo, Yan; Guo, Jing; Huang, Bangxing; Fang, Fang; Cai, Jing Wang, Zehua

    2015-09-10

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) is an important component of tumor microenvironment. However, whether ADSCs have a hand in ovarian cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of human ADSCs derived from the omentum of normal donors on human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Direct and indirect co-culture models including ADSCs and human EOC cell lines were established and the effects of ADSCs on EOC cell proliferation were evaluated by EdU incorporation and flow cytometry. Transwell migration assays and detection of MMPs were performed to assess the invasion activity of EOC cells in vitro. Mouse models were established by intraperitoneal injection of EOC cells with or without concomitant ADSCs to investigate the role of ADSCs in tumor progression in vivo. We found that ADSCs significantly promoted proliferation and invasion of EOC cells in both direct and indirect co-culture assays. In addition, after co-culture with ADSCs, EOC cells secreted higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inhibition of MMP2 and MMP9 partially relieved the tumor-promoting effects of ADSCs in vitro. In mouse xenograft models, we confirmed that ADSCs promoted EOC growth and metastasis and elevated the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Our findings indicate that omental ADSCs play a promotive role during ovarian cancer progression. - Highlights: • Omental adipose derived stem cells enhanced growth and invasion properties of ovarian cancer cells. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in mice models. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted MMPs expression and secretion of ovarian cancer cells. • Elevated MMPs mediated the tumor promoting effects of ADSCs.

  19. Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  20. Nerve growth factor promotes in vitro proliferation of neural stem cells from tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Liu-Lin; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Neural stem cells promote neuronal regeneration and repair of brain tissue after injury, but have limited resources and proliferative ability in vivo. We hypothesized that nerve growth factor would promote in vitro proliferation of neural stem cells derived from the tree shrews, a primate-like mammal that has been proposed as an alternative to primates in biomedical translational research. We cultured neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews at embryonic day 38, and added nerve growth factor (100 μg/L) to the culture medium. Neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews cultured without nerve growth factor were used as controls. After 3 days, fluorescence microscopy after DAPI and nestin staining revealed that the number of neurospheres and DAPI/nestin-positive cells was markedly greater in the nerve growth factor-treated cells than in control cells. These findings demonstrate that nerve growth factor promotes the proliferation of neural stem cells derived from tree shrews.

  1. Graphene Oxide promotes embryonic stem cell differentiation to haematopoietic lineage

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Alegria, Eva; Iluit, Maria; Stefanska, Monika; Silva, Claudio; Heeg, Sebastian; Kimber, Susan J.; Kouskoff, Valerie; Lacaud, Georges; Vijayaraghavan, Aravind; Batta, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells represent a promising source of differentiated tissue-specific stem and multipotent progenitor cells for regenerative medicine and drug testing. The realisation of this potential relies on the establishment of robust and reproducible protocols of differentiation. Several reports have highlighted the importance of biomaterials in assisting directed differentiation. Graphene oxide (GO) is a novel material that has attracted increasing interest in the field of biomedicine. In this study, we demonstrate that GO coated substrates significantly enhance the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to both primitive and definitive haematopoietic cells. GO does not affect cell proliferation or survival of differentiated cells but rather enhances the transition of haemangioblasts to haemogenic endothelial cells, a key step during haematopoietic specification. Importantly, GO also improves, in addition to murine, human ES cell differentiation to blood cells. Taken together, our study reveals a positive role for GO in haematopoietic differentiation and suggests that further functionalization of GO could represent a valid strategy for the generation of large numbers of functional blood cells. Producing these cells would accelerate haematopoietic drug toxicity testing and treatment of patients with blood disorders or malignancies. PMID:27197878

  2. Cinnamtannin B-1 Promotes Migration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Accelerates Wound Healing in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Kosuke; Kuge, Katsunori; Ozawa, Noriyasu; Sahara, Shunya; Zaiki, Kaori; Nakaoji, Koichi; Hamada, Kazuhiko; Takenaka, Yukiko; Tanahashi, Takao; Tamai, Katsuto; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Maeda, Akito

    2015-01-01

    Substances that enhance the migration of mesenchymal stem cells to damaged sites have the potential to improve the effectiveness of tissue repair. We previously found that ethanol extracts of Mallotus philippinensis bark promoted migration of mesenchymal stem cells and improved wound healing in a mouse model. We also demonstrated that bark extracts contain cinnamtannin B-1, a flavonoid with in vitro migratory activity against mesenchymal stem cells. However, the in vivo effects of cinnamtannin B-1 on the migration of mesenchymal stem cells and underlying mechanism of this action remain unknown. Therefore, we examined the effects of cinnamtannin B-1 on in vivo migration of mesenchymal stem cells and wound healing in mice. In addition, we characterized cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells pharmacologically and structurally. The mobilization of endogenous mesenchymal stem cells into the blood circulation was enhanced in cinnamtannin B-1-treated mice as shown by flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood cells. Whole animal imaging analysis using luciferase-expressing mesenchymal stem cells as a tracer revealed that cinnamtannin B-1 increased the homing of mesenchymal stem cells to wounds and accelerated healing in a diabetic mouse model. Additionally, the cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells was pharmacologically susceptible to inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, phospholipase C, lipoxygenase, and purines. Furthermore, biflavonoids with similar structural features to cinnamtannin B-1 also augmented the migration of mesenchymal stem cells by similar pharmacological mechanisms. These results demonstrate that cinnamtannin B-1 promoted mesenchymal stem cell migration in vivo and improved wound healing in mice. Furthermore, the results reveal that cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells may be mediated by specific signaling pathways, and the flavonoid skeleton may be relevant to its effects on

  3. Cinnamtannin B-1 Promotes Migration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Accelerates Wound Healing in Mice.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kosuke; Kuge, Katsunori; Ozawa, Noriyasu; Sahara, Shunya; Zaiki, Kaori; Nakaoji, Koichi; Hamada, Kazuhiko; Takenaka, Yukiko; Tanahashi, Takao; Tamai, Katsuto; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Maeda, Akito

    2015-01-01

    Substances that enhance the migration of mesenchymal stem cells to damaged sites have the potential to improve the effectiveness of tissue repair. We previously found that ethanol extracts of Mallotus philippinensis bark promoted migration of mesenchymal stem cells and improved wound healing in a mouse model. We also demonstrated that bark extracts contain cinnamtannin B-1, a flavonoid with in vitro migratory activity against mesenchymal stem cells. However, the in vivo effects of cinnamtannin B-1 on the migration of mesenchymal stem cells and underlying mechanism of this action remain unknown. Therefore, we examined the effects of cinnamtannin B-1 on in vivo migration of mesenchymal stem cells and wound healing in mice. In addition, we characterized cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells pharmacologically and structurally. The mobilization of endogenous mesenchymal stem cells into the blood circulation was enhanced in cinnamtannin B-1-treated mice as shown by flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood cells. Whole animal imaging analysis using luciferase-expressing mesenchymal stem cells as a tracer revealed that cinnamtannin B-1 increased the homing of mesenchymal stem cells to wounds and accelerated healing in a diabetic mouse model. Additionally, the cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells was pharmacologically susceptible to inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, phospholipase C, lipoxygenase, and purines. Furthermore, biflavonoids with similar structural features to cinnamtannin B-1 also augmented the migration of mesenchymal stem cells by similar pharmacological mechanisms. These results demonstrate that cinnamtannin B-1 promoted mesenchymal stem cell migration in vivo and improved wound healing in mice. Furthermore, the results reveal that cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells may be mediated by specific signaling pathways, and the flavonoid skeleton may be relevant to its effects on

  4. IGFBP2 promotes glioma tumor stem cell expansion and survival

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, David; Hsieh, Antony; Stea, Baldassarre; Ellsworth, Ron

    2010-06-25

    IGFBP2 is overexpressed in the most common brain tumor, glioblastoma (GBM), and its expression is inversely correlated to GBM patient survival. Previous reports have demonstrated a role for IGFBP2 in glioma cell invasion and astrocytoma development. However, the function of IGFBP2 in the restricted, self-renewing, and tumorigenic GBM cell population comprised of tumor-initiating stem cells has yet to be determined. Herein we demonstrate that IGFBP2 is overexpressed within the stem cell compartment of GBMs and is integral for the clonal expansion and proliferative properties of glioma stem cells (GSCs). In addition, IGFBP2 inhibition reduced Akt-dependent GSC genotoxic and drug resistance. These results suggest that IGFBP2 is a selective malignant factor that may contribute significantly to GBM pathogenesis by enriching for GSCs and mediating their survival. Given the current dearth of selective molecular targets against GSCs, we anticipate our results to be of high therapeutic relevance in combating the rapid and lethal course of GBM.

  5. A comprehensive promoter landscape identifies a novel promoter for CD133 in restricted tissues, cancers, and stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Sompallae, Ramakrishna; Hofmann, Oliver; Maher, Christopher A.; Gedye, Craig; Behren, Andreas; Vitezic, Morana; Daub, Carsten O.; Devalle, Sylvie; Caballero, Otavia L.; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.; Cebon, Jonathan; Hide, Winston

    2013-01-01

    PROM1 is the gene encoding prominin-1 or CD133, an important cell surface marker for the isolation of both normal and cancer stem cells. PROM1 transcripts initiate at a range of transcription start sites (TSS) associated with distinct tissue and cancer expression profiles. Using high resolution Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) sequencing we characterize TSS utilization across a broad range of normal and developmental tissues. We identify a novel proximal promoter (P6) within CD133+ melanoma cell lines and stem cells. Additional exon array sampling finds P6 to be active in populations enriched for mesenchyme, neural stem cells and within CD133+ enriched Ewing sarcomas. The P6 promoter is enriched with respect to previously characterized PROM1 promoters for a HMGI/Y (HMGA1) family transcription factor binding site motif and exhibits different epigenetic modifications relative to the canonical promoter region of PROM1. PMID:24194746

  6. Fasting protects mice from lethal DNA damage by promoting small intestinal epithelial stem cell survival.

    PubMed

    Tinkum, Kelsey L; Stemler, Kristina M; White, Lynn S; Loza, Andrew J; Jeter-Jones, Sabrina; Michalski, Basia M; Kuzmicki, Catherine; Pless, Robert; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Piwnica-Worms, David; Piwnica-Worms, Helen

    2015-12-22

    Short-term fasting protects mice from lethal doses of chemotherapy through undetermined mechanisms. Herein, we demonstrate that fasting preserves small intestinal (SI) architecture by maintaining SI stem cell viability and SI barrier function following exposure to high-dose etoposide. Nearly all SI stem cells were lost in fed mice, whereas fasting promoted sufficient SI stem cell survival to preserve SI integrity after etoposide treatment. Lineage tracing demonstrated that multiple SI stem cell populations, marked by Lgr5, Bmi1, or HopX expression, contributed to fasting-induced survival. DNA repair and DNA damage response genes were elevated in SI stem/progenitor cells of fasted etoposide-treated mice, which importantly correlated with faster resolution of DNA double-strand breaks and less apoptosis. Thus, fasting preserved SI stem cell viability as well as SI architecture and barrier function suggesting that fasting may reduce host toxicity in patients undergoing dose intensive chemotherapy.

  7. Fasting protects mice from lethal DNA damage by promoting small intestinal epithelial stem cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Tinkum, Kelsey L.; Stemler, Kristina M.; White, Lynn S.; Loza, Andrew J.; Jeter-Jones, Sabrina; Michalski, Basia M.; Kuzmicki, Catherine; Pless, Robert; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Piwnica-Worms, David; Piwnica-Worms, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Short-term fasting protects mice from lethal doses of chemotherapy through undetermined mechanisms. Herein, we demonstrate that fasting preserves small intestinal (SI) architecture by maintaining SI stem cell viability and SI barrier function following exposure to high-dose etoposide. Nearly all SI stem cells were lost in fed mice, whereas fasting promoted sufficient SI stem cell survival to preserve SI integrity after etoposide treatment. Lineage tracing demonstrated that multiple SI stem cell populations, marked by Lgr5, Bmi1, or HopX expression, contributed to fasting-induced survival. DNA repair and DNA damage response genes were elevated in SI stem/progenitor cells of fasted etoposide-treated mice, which importantly correlated with faster resolution of DNA double-strand breaks and less apoptosis. Thus, fasting preserved SI stem cell viability as well as SI architecture and barrier function suggesting that fasting may reduce host toxicity in patients undergoing dose intensive chemotherapy. PMID:26644583

  8. Hydrophilic polyurethane matrix promotes chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Nalluri, Sandeep M; Krishnan, G Rajesh; Cheah, Calvin; Arzumand, Ayesha; Yuan, Yuan; Richardson, Caley A; Yang, Shuying; Sarkar, Debanjan

    2015-09-01

    Segmental polyurethanes exhibit biphasic morphology and can control cell fate by providing distinct matrix guided signals to increase the chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Polyethylene glycol (PEG) based hydrophilic polyurethanes can deliver differential signals to MSCs through their matrix phases where hard segments are cell-interactive domains and PEG based soft segments are minimally interactive with cells. These coordinated communications can modulate cell-matrix interactions to control cell shape and size for chondrogenesis. Biphasic character and hydrophilicity of polyurethanes with gel like architecture provide a synthetic matrix conducive for chondrogenesis of MSCs, as evidenced by deposition of cartilage-associated extracellular matrix. Compared to monophasic hydrogels, presence of cell interactive domains in hydrophilic polyurethanes gels can balance cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. These results demonstrate the correlation between lineage commitment and the changes in cell shape, cell-matrix interaction, and cell-cell adhesion during chondrogenic differentiation which is regulated by polyurethane phase morphology, and thus, represent hydrophilic polyurethanes as promising synthetic matrices for cartilage regeneration.

  9. Adenosine signaling promotes hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell emergence.

    PubMed

    Jing, Lili; Tamplin, Owen J; Chen, Michael J; Deng, Qing; Patterson, Shenia; Kim, Peter G; Durand, Ellen M; McNeil, Ashley; Green, Julie M; Matsuura, Shinobu; Ablain, Julien; Brandt, Margot K; Schlaeger, Thorsten M; Huttenlocher, Anna; Daley, George Q; Ravid, Katya; Zon, Leonard I

    2015-05-04

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge from aortic endothelium via the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition (EHT). The molecular mechanisms that initiate and regulate EHT remain poorly understood. Here, we show that adenosine signaling regulates hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) development in zebrafish embryos. The adenosine receptor A2b is expressed in the vascular endothelium before HSPC emergence. Elevated adenosine levels increased runx1(+)/cmyb(+) HSPCs in the dorsal aorta, whereas blocking the adenosine pathway decreased HSPCs. Knockdown of A2b adenosine receptor disrupted scl(+) hemogenic vascular endothelium and the subsequent EHT process. A2b adenosine receptor activation induced CXCL8 via cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) and mediated hematopoiesis. We further show that adenosine increased multipotent progenitors in a mouse embryonic stem cell colony-forming assay and in embryonic day 10.5 aorta-gonad-mesonephros explants. Our results demonstrate that adenosine signaling plays an evolutionary conserved role in the first steps of HSPC formation in vertebrates.

  10. Three-dimensional spheroid culture of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells promotes cell yield and stemness maintenance.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Guo, Gang; Li, Li; Chen, Fei; Bao, Ji; Shi, Yu-Jun; Bu, Hong

    2015-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation is a promising treatment of many diseases. However, conventional techniques with cells being cultured as a monolayer result in slow cell proliferation and insufficient yield to meet clinical demands. Three-dimensional (3D) culture systems are gaining attention with regard to recreating a complex microenvironment and to understanding the conditions experienced by cells. Our aim is to establish a novel 3D system for the culture of human umbilical cord MSCs (hUC-MSCs) within a real 3D microenvironment but with no digestion or passaging. Primary hUC-MSCs were isolated and grown in serum-free medium (SFM) on a suspension Rocker system. Cell characteristics including proliferation, phenotype and multipotency were recorded. The therapeutic effects of 3D-cultured hUC-MSCs on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver failure in mouse models were examined. In the 3D Rocker system, hUC-MSCs formed spheroids in SFM and maintained high viability and active proliferation. Compared with monolayer culture, the 3D-culture system yielded more hUC-MSCs cells within the same volume. The spheroids expressed higher levels of stem cell markers and displayed stronger multipotency. After transplantation into mouse, 3D hUC-MSCs significantly promoted the secretion of interferon-γ and interleukin-6 but inhibited that of tumor necrosis factor-α, thereby alleviating liver necrosis and promoting regeneration following CCl4 injury. The 3D culture of hUC-MSCs thus promotes cell yield and stemness maintenance and represents a promising strategy for hUC-MSCs expansion on an industrial scale with great potential for cell therapy and biotechnology.

  11. Rhesus monkey neural stem cell transplantation promotes neural regeneration in rats with hippocampal lesions.

    PubMed

    Ye, Li-Juan; Bian, Hui; Fan, Yao-Dong; Wang, Zheng-Bo; Yu, Hua-Lin; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Chen, Feng

    2016-09-01

    Rhesus monkey neural stem cells are capable of differentiating into neurons and glial cells. Therefore, neural stem cell transplantation can be used to promote functional recovery of the nervous system. Rhesus monkey neural stem cells (1 × 10(5) cells/μL) were injected into bilateral hippocampi of rats with hippocampal lesions. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that green fluorescent protein-labeled transplanted cells survived and grew well. Transplanted cells were detected at the lesion site, but also in the nerve fiber-rich region of the cerebral cortex and corpus callosum. Some transplanted cells differentiated into neurons and glial cells clustering along the ventricular wall, and integrated into the recipient brain. Behavioral tests revealed that spatial learning and memory ability improved, indicating that rhesus monkey neural stem cells noticeably improve spatial learning and memory abilities in rats with hippocampal lesions.

  12. Lin-28 promotes symmetric stem cell division and drives adaptive growth in the adult Drosophila intestine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Huan; Luhur, Arthur; Sokol, Nicholas

    2015-10-15

    Stem cells switch between asymmetric and symmetric division to expand in number as tissues grow during development and in response to environmental changes. The stem cell intrinsic proteins controlling this switch are largely unknown, but one candidate is the Lin-28 pluripotency factor. A conserved RNA-binding protein that is downregulated in most animals as they develop from embryos to adults, Lin-28 persists in populations of adult stem cells. Its function in these cells has not been previously characterized. Here, we report that Lin-28 is highly enriched in adult intestinal stem cells in the Drosophila intestine. lin-28 null mutants are homozygous viable but display defects in this population of cells, which fail to undergo a characteristic food-triggered expansion in number and have reduced rates of symmetric division as well as reduced insulin signaling. Immunoprecipitation of Lin-28-bound mRNAs identified Insulin-like Receptor (InR), forced expression of which completely rescues lin-28-associated defects in intestinal stem cell number and division pattern. Furthermore, this stem cell activity of lin-28 is independent of one well-known lin-28 target, the microRNA let-7, which has limited expression in the intestinal epithelium. These results identify Lin-28 as a stem cell intrinsic factor that boosts insulin signaling in intestinal progenitor cells and promotes their symmetric division in response to nutrients, defining a mechanism through which Lin-28 controls the adult stem cell division patterns that underlie tissue homeostasis and regeneration.

  13. Co-culture with Sertoli cells promotes proliferation and migration of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fenxi; Hong, Yan; Liang, Wenmei; Ren, Tongming; Jing, Suhua; Lin, Juntang

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-culture of Sertoli cells (SCs) with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of SCs dramatically increased proliferation and migration of UCMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of SCs stimulated expression of Mdm2, Akt, CDC2, Cyclin D, CXCR4, MAPKs. -- Abstract: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have been recently used in transplant therapy. The proliferation and migration of MSCs are the determinants of the efficiency of MSC transplant therapy. Sertoli cells are a kind of 'nurse' cells that support the development of sperm cells. Recent studies show that Sertoli cells promote proliferation of endothelial cells and neural stem cells in co-culture. We hypothesized that co-culture of UCMSCs with Sertoli cells may also promote proliferation and migration of UCMSCs. To examine this hypothesis, we isolated UCMSCs from human cords and Sertoli cells from mouse testes, and co-cultured them using a Transwell system. We found that UCMSCs exhibited strong proliferation ability and potential to differentiate to other cell lineages such as osteocytes and adipocytes. The presence of Sertoli cells in co-culture significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration potential of UCMSCs (P < 0.01). Moreover, these phenotypic changes were accompanied with upregulation of multiple genes involved in cell proliferation and migration including phospho-Akt, Mdm2, phospho-CDC2, Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3 as well as CXCR4, phospho-p44 MAPK and phospho-p38 MAPK. These findings indicate that Sertoli cells boost UCMSC proliferation and migration potential.

  14. Co-transplantation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Cxcr4 Gene-Transduced Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes Hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Li, Miao; Su, Guizhen; Zang, Yu; Yan, Zhiling; Cheng, Hai; Pan, Bin; Cao, Jiang; Wu, Qingyun; Zhao, Kai; Zhu, Feng; Zeng, Lingyu; Li, Zhenyu; Xu, Kailin

    2015-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising candidate for cellular therapies. Co-transplantation of MSCs and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) promotes successful engraftment and improves hematopoietic recovery. In this study, the effects of co-transplantation of HSCs and mouse bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs overexpressing CXCR4 (CXCR4-MSC) on CXCR4-MSC homing capacity and the reconstitution potential in lethally irradiated mice were evaluated. Recovery of donor-derived peripheral blood leukocytes and platelets was accelerated when CXCR4-MSCs were co-transplanted with BM cells. The frequency of c-kit(+)Sca(+)Lin(-) HSCs was higher in recipient BM following co-transplantation of CXCR4-MSCs compared with the EGFP-MSC control and the BMT only groups. Surprisingly, the rate of early engraftment of donor-derived BM cells in recipients co-transplanted with CXCR4-MSCs was slightly lower than in the absence of MSCs on day 7. Moreover, co-transplantation of CXCR4-MSCs regulated the balance of T helper cells subsets. Hematopoietic tissue reconstitution was evaluated by histopathological analysis of BM and spleen. Co-transplantation of CXCR4-MSCs was shown to promote the recovery of hematopoietic organs. These findings indicate that co-transplantation of CXCR4-MSCs promotes the early phase of hematopoietic recovery and sustained hematopoiesis.

  15. Diet-induced obesity promotes myelopoiesis in hematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Kanakadurga; DelProposto, Jennifer; Lee Morris, David; Zamarron, Brian; Mergian, Taleen; Maley, Nidhi; Cho, Kae Won; Geletka, Lynn; Subbaiah, Perla; Muir, Lindsey; Martinez-Santibanez, Gabriel; Nien-Kai Lumeng, Carey

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an activated macrophage phenotype in multiple tissues that contributes to tissue inflammation and metabolic disease. To evaluate the mechanisms by which obesity potentiates myeloid activation, we evaluated the hypothesis that obesity activates myeloid cell production from bone marrow progenitors to potentiate inflammatory responses in metabolic tissues. High fat diet-induced obesity generated both quantitative increases in myeloid progenitors as well as a potentiation of inflammation in macrophages derived from these progenitors. In vivo, hematopoietic stem cells from obese mice demonstrated the sustained capacity to preferentially generate inflammatory CD11c+ adipose tissue macrophages after serial bone marrow transplantation. We identified that hematopoietic MyD88 was important for the accumulation of CD11c+ adipose tissue macrophage accumulation by regulating the generation of myeloid progenitors from HSCs. These findings demonstrate that obesity and metabolic signals potentiate leukocyte production and that dietary priming of hematopoietic progenitors contributes to adipose tissue inflammation. PMID:25161889

  16. Luminal Microbes Promote Monocyte–Stem Cell Interactions Across a Healthy Colonic Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Skoczek, Dagmara A.; Walczysko, Petr; Horn, Nikki; Parris, Alyson; Clare, Simon; Williams, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium forms a vital barrier between luminal microbes and the underlying mucosal immune system. Epithelial barrier function is maintained by continuous renewal of the epithelium and is pivotal for gut homeostasis. Breaching of the barrier causes mobilization of immune cells to promote epithelial restitution. However, it is not known whether microbes at the luminal surface of a healthy epithelial barrier influence immune cell mobilization to modulate tissue homeostasis. Using a mouse colonic mucosal explant model, we demonstrate that close proximity of luminal microbes to a healthy, intact epithelium results in rapid mucus secretion and movement of Ly6C+7/4+ monocytes closer to epithelial stem cells. These early events are driven by the epithelial MyD88-signaling pathway and result in increased crypt cell proliferation and intestinal stem cell number. Over time, stem cell number and monocyte–crypt stem cell juxtapositioning return to homeostatic levels observed in vivo. We also demonstrate that reduced numbers of tissue Ly6C+ monocytes can suppress Lgr5EGFP+ stem cell expression in vivo and abrogate the response to luminal microbes ex vivo. The functional link between monocyte recruitment and increased crypt cell proliferation was further confirmed using a crypt–monocyte coculture model. This work demonstrates that the healthy gut epithelium mediates communication between luminal bacteria and monocytes, and monocytes can modulate crypt stem cell number and promote crypt cell proliferation to help maintain gut homeostasis. PMID:24907348

  17. Apple ethanol extract promotes proliferation of human adult stem cells, which involves the regenerative potential of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jienny; Shin, Moon Sam; Kim, Mi Ok; Jang, Sunghee; Oh, Sae Woong; Kang, Mingyeong; Jung, Kwangseon; Park, Yong Seek; Lee, Jongsung

    2016-09-01

    Tissue regeneration using adult stem cells (ASCs) has significant potential as a novel treatment for many degenerative diseases. Previous studies have established that age negatively affects the proliferation status and differentiation potential of ASCs, suggesting a possible limitation in their potential therapeutic use. Therefore, we hypothesized that apple extract might exert beneficial effects on ASCs. The specific objectives were to investigate the proliferative effect of apple ethanol extract on human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) and human cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (CB-MSCs), and identify the possible molecular mechanisms. Apple extract promoted proliferation of ADSCs and CB-MSCs as determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and Click-iT 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine flow cytometry assays. In addition, phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK (ERK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K), S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP), eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4B and eIF4E was induced stepwise in ADSCs. Furthermore, apple extract significantly induced the production of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 in both ADSCs and CB-MSCs. Similarly, apple extract-induced phosphorylation of the mTOR/p70S6K/S6RP/eIF4B/eIF4E pathway was blocked by pretreatment with PD98059, a specific ERK inhibitor. These results indicate that apple extract-induced proliferation of ADSCs under serum-free conditions is mediated by ERK-dependent cytokine production. Moreover, the beneficial effect of apple extract on proliferation of ASCs may overcome the limitation in therapeutic use of stem cells in tissue regeneration and maintenance of stem cell homeostasis.

  18. Sodium Tungstate for Promoting Mesenchymal Stem Cell Chondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Khader, Ateka; Sherman, Lauren S; Rameshwar, Pranela; Arinzeh, Treena L

    2016-12-15

    Articular cartilage has a limited ability to heal. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the bone marrow have shown promise as a cell type for cartilage regeneration strategies. In this study, sodium tungstate (Na2WO4), which is an insulin mimetic, was evaluated for the first time as an inductive factor to enhance human MSC chondrogenesis. MSCs were seeded onto three-dimensional electrospun scaffolds in growth medium (GM), complete chondrogenic induction medium (CCM) containing insulin, and CCM without insulin. Na2WO4 was added to the media leading to final concentrations of 0, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mM. Chondrogenic differentiation was assessed by biochemical analyses, immunostaining, and gene expression. Cytotoxicity using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCS) was also investigated. The chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs was enhanced in the presence of low concentrations of Na2WO4 compared to control, without Na2WO4. In the induction medium containing insulin, cells in 0.01 mM Na2WO4 produced significantly higher sulfated glycosaminoglycans, collagen type II, and chondrogenic gene expression than all other groups at day 28. Cells in 0.1 mM Na2WO4 had significantly higher collagen II production and significantly higher sox-9 and aggrecan gene expression compared to control at day 28. Cells in GM and induction medium without insulin containing low concentrations of Na2WO4 also expressed chondrogenic markers. Na2WO4 did not stimulate PBMC proliferation or apoptosis. The results demonstrate that Na2WO4 enhances chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs, does not have a toxic effect, and may be useful for MSC-based approaches for cartilage repair.

  19. Bidirectional Promoter Engineering for Single Cell MicroRNA Sensors in Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Sladitschek, Hanna L; Neveu, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs have emerged as important markers and regulators of cell identity. Precise measurements of cellular miRNA levels rely traditionally on RNA extraction and thus do not allow to follow miRNA expression dynamics at the level of single cells. Non-invasive miRNA sensors present an ideal solution but they critically depend on the performance of suitable ubiquitous promoters that reliably drive expression both in pluripotent and differentiated cell types. Here we describe the engineering of bidirectional promoters that drive the expression of precise ratiometric fluorescent miRNA sensors in single mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and their differentiated derivatives. These promoters are based on combinations of the widely used CAG, EF1α and PGK promoters as well as the CMV and PGK enhancers. miR-142-3p, which is known to be bimodally expressed in mESCs, served as a model miRNA to gauge the precision of the sensors. The performance of the resulting miRNA sensors was assessed by flow cytometry in single stable transgenic mESCs undergoing self-renewal or differentiation. EF1α promoters arranged back-to-back failed to drive the robustly correlated expression of two transgenes. Back-to-back PGK promoters were shut down during mESC differentiation. However, we found that a back-to-back arrangement of CAG promoters with four CMV enhancers provided both robust expression in mESCs undergoing differentiation and the best signal-to-noise for measurement of miRNA activity in single cells among all the sensors we tested. Such a bidirectional promoter is therefore particularly well suited to study the dynamics of miRNA expression during cell fate transitions at the single cell level.

  20. Prostaglandin E₂ promotes post-infarction cardiomyocyte replenishment by endogenous stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Ying-Chang; Wu, Jasmine M F; Yu, Chun-Keung; Wu, Kenneth K; Hsieh, Patrick C H

    2014-04-01

    Although self-renewal ability of adult mammalian heart has been reported, few pharmacological treatments are known to promote cardiomyocyte regeneration after injury. In this study, we demonstrate that the critical period of stem/progenitor cell-mediated cardiomyocyte replenishment is initiated within 7 days and saturates on day 10 post-infarction. Moreover, blocking the inflammatory reaction with COX-2 inhibitors may also reduce the capability of endogenous stem/progenitor cells to repopulate lost cells. Injection of the COX-2 product PGE2 enhances cardiomyocyte replenishment in young mice and recovers cell renewal through attenuating TGF-β1 signaling in aged mice. Further analyses suggest that cardiac stem cells are PGE2-responsive and that PGE2 may regulate stem cell activity directly through the EP2 receptor or indirectly by modulating its micro-environment in vivo. Our findings provide evidence that PGE2 holds great potential for cardiac regeneration.

  1. Keratin 15 promoter targets putative epithelial stem cells in the hair follicle bulge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaping; Lyle, Stephen; Yang, Zaixin; Cotsarelis, George

    2003-11-01

    Putative epithelial stem cells in the hair follicle bulge are thought to play pivotal roles in the homeostasis, aging, and carcinogenesis of the cutaneous epithelium. Elucidating the role of bulge cells in these processes has been hampered by the lack of gene promoters that target this area with specificity. Here we describe the isolation of the mouse keratin 15 (K15) promoter and demonstrate its utility for preferentially targeting hair follicle bulge cells in adult K15/lacZ transgenic mice. We found that patterns of K15 expression and promoter activity changed with age and correlated with levels of differentiation within the cutaneous epithelium; less differentiated keratinocytes in the epidermis of the neonatal mouse and in the bulge area of the adult mouse preferentially expressed K15. These findings demonstrate the utility of the K15 promoter for targeting epithelial stem cells in the hair follicle bulge and set the stage for elucidating the role of bulge cells in skin biology.

  2. Nerve growth factor promotes in vitro proliferation of neural stem cells from tree shrews

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Liu-lin; Chen, Zhi-wei; Wang, Ting-hua

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells promote neuronal regeneration and repair of brain tissue after injury, but have limited resources and proliferative ability in vivo. We hypothesized that nerve growth factor would promote in vitro proliferation of neural stem cells derived from the tree shrews, a primate-like mammal that has been proposed as an alternative to primates in biomedical translational research. We cultured neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews at embryonic day 38, and added nerve growth factor (100 μg/L) to the culture medium. Neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews cultured without nerve growth factor were used as controls. After 3 days, fluorescence microscopy after DAPI and nestin staining revealed that the number of neurospheres and DAPI/nestin-positive cells was markedly greater in the nerve growth factor-treated cells than in control cells. These findings demonstrate that nerve growth factor promotes the proliferation of neural stem cells derived from tree shrews. PMID:27212919

  3. TOO MANY MOUTHS promotes cell fate progression in stomatal development of Arabidopsis stems.

    PubMed

    Bhave, Neela S; Veley, Kira M; Nadeau, Jeanette A; Lucas, Jessica R; Bhave, Sanjay L; Sack, Fred D

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM), which encodes a receptor-like protein, cause stomatal patterning defects in Arabidopsis leaves but eliminate stomatal formation in stems. Stomatal development in wild-type and tmm stems was analyzed to define TMM function. Epidermal cells in young tmm stems underwent many asymmetric divisions characteristic of entry into the stomatal pathway. The resulting precursor cells, meristemoids, appropriately expressed cell fate markers such as pTMM:GFP. However, instead of progressing developmentally by forming a guard mother cell, the meristemoids arrested, dedifferentiated, and enlarged. Thus asymmetric divisions are necessary but not sufficient for stomatal formation in stems, and TMM promotes the fate and developmental progression of early precursor cells. Comparable developmental and mature stomatal phenotypes were also found in tmm hypocotyls and in the proximal flower stalk. TMM is also a positive regulator of meristemoid division in leaves suggesting that TMM generally promotes meristemoid activity. Our results are consistent with a model in which TMM interacts with other proteins to modulate precursor cell fate and progression in an organ and domain-specific manner. Finally, the consistent presence of a small number of dedifferentiated meristemoids in mature wild-type stems suggests that precursor cell arrest is a normal feature of Arabidopsis stem development.

  4. MiR-221 promotes stemness of breast cancer cells by targeting DNMT3b.

    PubMed

    Roscigno, Giuseppina; Quintavalle, Cristina; Donnarumma, Elvira; Puoti, Ilaria; Diaz-Lagares, Angel; Iaboni, Margherita; Fiore, Danilo; Russo, Valentina; Todaro, Matilde; Romano, Giulia; Thomas, Renato; Cortino, Giuseppina; Gaggianesi, Miriam; Esteller, Manel; Croce, Carlo M; Condorelli, Gerolama

    2016-01-05

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small part of the heterogeneous tumor cell population possessing self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potential as well as a great ability to sustain tumorigenesis. The molecular pathways underlying CSC phenotype are not yet well characterized. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small noncoding RNAs that play a powerful role in biological processes. Early studies have linked miRs to the control of self-renewal and differentiation in normal and cancer stem cells. We aimed to study the functional role of miRs in human breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), also named mammospheres. We found that miR-221 was upregulated in BCSCs compared to their differentiated counterpart. Similarly, mammospheres from T47D cells had an increased level of miR-221 compared to differentiated cells. Transfection of miR-221 in T47D cells increased the number of mammospheres and the expression of stem cell markers. Among miR-221's targets, we identified DNMT3b. Furthermore, in BCSCs we found that DNMT3b repressed the expression of various stemness genes, such as Nanog and Oct 3/4, acting on the methylation of their promoters, partially reverting the effect of miR-221 on stemness. We hypothesize that miR-221 contributes to breast cancer tumorigenicity by regulating stemness, at least in part through the control of DNMT3b expression.

  5. Electroacupuncture Promotes CNS-Dependent Release of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Tatiana E; Richardson, Matthew R; Beli, Eleni; Ripsch, Matthew S; George, John; Kim, Youngsook; Duan, Yaqian; Moldovan, Leni; Yan, Yuanqing; Bhatwadekar, Ashay; Jadhav, Vaishnavi; Smith, Jared A; McGorray, Susan; Bertone, Alicia L; Traktuev, Dmitri O; March, Keith L; Colon-Perez, Luis M; Avin, Keith; Sims, Emily; Mund, Julie A; Case, Jamie; Deng, Shaolin; Kim, Min Su; McDavitt, Bruce; Boulton, Michael E; Thinschmidt, Jeffrey; Li Calzi, Sergio; Fitz, Stephanie D; Fuchs, Robyn K; Warden, Stuart J; McKinley, Todd; Shekhar, Anantha; Febo, Marcelo; Johnson, Phillip L; Chang, Lung Ji; Gao, Zhanguo; Kolonin, Mikhail G; Lai, Song; Ma, Jinfeng; Dong, Xinzhong; White, Fletcher A; Xie, Huisheng; Yoder, Mervin C; Grant, Maria B

    2017-03-16

    Electro-acupuncture (EA) performed in rats and humans using front-limb acupuncture sites, LI-4 and LI-11, and Du-14 and Du-20 increased functional connectivity between the anterior hypothalamus and the amygdala and mobilized mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into the systemic circulation. In human subjects, the source of the MSC was found to be primarily adipose tissue whereas in rodents the tissue sources were considered more heterogeneous. Pharmacological disinhibition of rat hypothalamus enhanced sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and similarly resulted in a release of MSC into the circulation. EA-mediated SNS activation was further supported by browning of white adipose tissue in rats. EA treatment of rats undergoing partial rupture of the Achilles tendon resulted in reduced mechanical hyperalgesia, increased serum IL-10 levels and tendon remodeling, effects blocked in propranolol-treated rodents. To distinguish the afferent role of the peripheral nervous system, phosphoinositide-interacting regulator of transient receptor potential channels (Pirt)-GCaMP3 (genetically encoded calcium sensor) mice were treated with EA directed at hind limb immune points, ST-36 and Liv-3 and resulted in a rapid activation of primary sensory neurons. EA activated sensory ganglia and SNS centers to mediate the release of MSC that can enhance tissue repair, increase anti-inflammatory cytokine production and provide pronounced analgesic relief. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. CD73-mediated adenosine production promotes stem cell-like properties in mouse Tc17 cells.

    PubMed

    Flores-Santibáñez, Felipe; Fernández, Dominique; Meza, Daniel; Tejón, Gabriela; Vargas, Leonardo; Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Arredondo, Sebastián; Guixé, Victoria; Rosemblatt, Mario; Bono, María Rosa; Sauma, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    The CD73 ectonucleotidase catalyses the hydrolysis of AMP to adenosine, an immunosuppressive molecule. Recent evidence has demonstrated that this ectonucleotidase is up-regulated in T helper type 17 cells when generated in the presence of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and hence CD73 expression is related to the acquisition of immunosuppressive potential by these cells. TGF-β is also able to induce CD73 expression in CD8(+) T cells but the function of this ectonucleotidase in CD8(+) T cells is still unknown. Here, we show that Tc17 cells present high levels of the CD73 ectonucleotidase and produce adenosine; however, they do not suppress the proliferation of CD4(+) T cells. Interestingly, we report that adenosine signalling through A2A receptor favours interleukin-17 production and the expression of stem cell-associated transcription factors such as tcf-7 and lef-1 but restrains the acquisition of Tc1-related effector molecules such as interferon-γ and Granzyme B by Tc17 cells. Within the tumour microenvironment, CD73 is highly expressed in CD62L(+) CD127(+) CD8(+) T cells (memory T cells) and is down-regulated in GZMB(+) KLRG1(+) CD8(+) T cells (terminally differentiated T cells), demonstrating that CD73 is expressed in memory/naive cells and is down-regulated during differentiation. These data reveal a novel function of CD73 ectonucleotidase in arresting CD8(+) T-cell differentiation and support the idea that CD73-driven adenosine production by Tc17 cells may promote stem cell-like properties in Tc17 cells.

  7. Jawbone microenvironment promotes periodontium regeneration by regulating the function of periodontal ligament stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Wenjia; Liu, Yihan; Zhao, Xicong; Zhang, Hao; Luo, Zhuojing; Jin, Yan

    2017-01-01

    During tooth development, the jawbone interacts with dental germ and provides the development microenvironment. Jawbone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (JBMSCs) maintain this microenvironment for root and periodontium development. However, the effect of the jawbone microenvironment on periodontium tissue regeneration is largely elusive. Our previous study showed that cell aggregates (CAs) of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promoted periodontium regeneration on the treated dentin scaffold. Here, we found that JBMSCs enhanced not only the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) but also their adhesion to titanium (Ti) material surface. Importantly, the compound CAs of PDLSCs and JBMSCs regenerated periodontal ligament-like fibers and mineralized matrix on the Ti scaffold surface, both in nude mice ectopic and minipig orthotopic transplantations. Our data revealed that an effective regenerative microenvironment, reconstructed by JBMSCs, promoted periodontium regeneration by regulating PDLSCs function on the Ti material. PMID:28053317

  8. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Cocultured with Chondrocytes Promote the Proliferation of Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Articular cartilage injury and defect caused by trauma and chronic osteoarthritis vascularity are very common, while the repair of injured cartilage remains a great challenge due to its limited healing capacity. Stem cell-based tissue engineering provides a promising treatment option for injured articular cartilage because of the cells potential for multiple differentiations. However, its application has been largely limited by stem cell type, number, source, proliferation, and differentiation. We hypothesized that (1) adipose-derived stem cells are ideal seed cells for articular cartilage repair because of their accessibility and abundance and (2) the microenvironment of articular cartilage could induce adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) to differentiate into chondrocytes. In order to test our hypotheses, we isolated stem cells from rabbit adipose tissues and cocultured these ADSCs with rabbit articular cartilage chondrocytes. We found that when ADSCs were cocultured with chondrocytes, the proliferation of articular cartilage chondrocytes was promoted, the apoptosis of chondrocytes was inhibited, and the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of ADSCs was enhanced. The study on the mechanism of this coculture system indicated that the role of this coculture system is similar to the function of TGF-β1 in the promotion of chondrocytes. PMID:28133485

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate promotes the osteogenic differentiation of rat adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Fu, Yutuo; Zhang, Xin; Dai, Linghui; Zhu, Jingxian; Bi, Zhenggang; Ao, Yingfang; Zhou, Chunyan

    2014-04-01

    Adult stem cells hold great promise for use in tissue repair and regeneration. Recently, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were found to be an appealing alternative to bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) for bone tissue engineering. The main benefit of ADSCs is that they can be easily and abundantly available from adipose tissue. However, our prior study discovered an important phenomenon that BMSCs have greater osteogenic potential than ADSCs in vitro and epigenetic regulation plays a critical role in runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) expression and thus osteogenesis. In this study, we aimed to improve the osteogenic potential of ADSCs by histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaBu). We found that NaBu promoted rat ADSC osteogenic differentiation by altering the epigenetic modifications on the Runx2 promoter.

  10. Alternative promoters regulate transcription of the gene that encodes stem cell surface protein AC133.

    PubMed

    Shmelkov, Sergey V; Jun, Lin; St Clair, Ryan; McGarrigle, Deirdre; Derderian, Christopher A; Usenko, Jaroslav K; Costa, Carla; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Xinzheng; Rafii, Shahin

    2004-03-15

    AC133 is a member of a novel family of cell surface proteins with 5 transmembrane domains. The function of AC133 is unknown. Although AC133 mRNA is detected in different tissues, its expression in the hematopoietic system is restricted to CD34+ stem cells. AC133 is also expressed on stem cells of other tissues, including endothelial progenitor cells. However, despite the potential importance of AC133 to the field of stem cell biology, nothing is known about the transcriptional regulation of AC133 expression. In this report we showed that the human AC133 gene has at least 9 distinctive 5'-untranslated region (UTR) exons, resulting in the formation of at least 7 alternatively spliced 5'-UTR isoforms of AC133 mRNA, which are expressed in a tissue-dependent manner. We found that transcription of these AC133 isoforms is controlled by 5 alternative promoters, and we demonstrated their activity on AC133-expressing cell lines using a luciferase reporter system. We also showed that in vitro methylation of 2 of these AC133 promoters completely suppresses their activity, suggesting that methylation plays a role in their regulation. Identification of tissue-specific AC133 promoters may provide a novel method to isolate tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells.

  11. CUDR promotes liver cancer stem cell growth through upregulating TERT and C-Myc

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Hu; Zheng, Qidi; Li, Haiyan; Wu, Mengying; An, Jiahui; Gui, Xin; Li, Tianming; Lu, Dongdong

    2015-01-01

    Cancer up-regulated drug resistant (CUDR) is a novel non-coding RNA gene. Herein, we demonstrate excessive CUDR cooperates with excessive CyclinD1 or PTEN depletion to accelerate liver cancer stem cells growth and liver stem cell malignant transformation in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we reveal the decrease of PTEN in cells may lead to increase binding capacity of CUDR to CyclinD1. Therefore, CUDR-CyclinD1 complex loads onto the long noncoding RNA H19 promoter region that may lead to reduce the DNA methylation on H19 promoter region and then to enhance the H19 expression. Strikingly, the overexpression of H19 increases the binding of TERT to TERC and reduces the interplay between TERT with TERRA, thus enhancing the cell telomerase activity and extending the telomere length. On the other hand, insulator CTCF recruits the CUDR-CyclinD1 complx to form the composite CUDR-CyclinD1-insulator CTCF complex which occupancied on the C-myc gene promoter region, increasing the outcome of oncogene C-myc. Ultimately, excessive TERT and C-myc lead to liver cancer stem cell and hepatocyte-like stem cell malignant proliferation. To understand the novel functions of long noncoding RNA CUDR will help in the development of new liver cancer therapeutic and diagnostic approaches. PMID:26513297

  12. Ascorbic Acid Promotes the Stemness of Corneal Epithelial Stem/Progenitor Cells and Accelerates Epithelial Wound Healing in the Cornea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jialin; Lan, Jie; Liu, Dongle; Backman, Ludvig J; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Qingjun; Danielson, Patrik

    2017-03-09

    High concentration of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) has been found in corneal epithelium of various species. However, the specific functions and mechanisms of ascorbic acid in the repair of corneal epithelium are not clear. In this study, it was found that ascorbic acid accelerates corneal epithelial wound healing in vivo in mouse. In addition, ascorbic acid enhanced the stemness of cultured mouse corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells (TKE2) in vitro, as shown by elevated clone formation ability and increased expression of stemness markers (especially p63 and SOX2). The contribution of ascorbic acid on the stemness enhancement was not dependent on the promotion of Akt phosphorylation, as concluded by using Akt inhibitor, nor was the stemness found to be dependent on the regulation of oxidative stress, as seen by the use of two other antioxidants (GMEE and NAC). However, ascorbic acid was found to promote extracellular matrix (ECM) production, and by using two collagen synthesis inhibitors (AzC and CIS), the increased expression of p63 and SOX2 by ascorbic acid was decreased by around 50%, showing that the increased stemness by ascorbic acid can be attributed to its regulation of ECM components. Moreover, the expression of p63 and SOX2 was elevated when TKE2 cells were cultured on collagen I coated plates, a situation that mimics the in vivo situation as collagen I is the main component in the corneal stroma. This study shows direct therapeutic benefits of ascorbic acid on corneal epithelial wound healing and provides new insights into the mechanisms involved. © Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017.

  13. Angiopoietin-Like Protein 3 Promotes Preservation of Stemness during Ex Vivo Expansion of Murine Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Farahbakhshian, Elnaz; Verstegen, Monique M.; Visser, Trudi P.; Kheradmandkia, Sima; Geerts, Dirk; Arshad, Shazia; Riaz, Noveen; Grosveld, Frank; van Til, Niek P.; Meijerink, Jules P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantations from umbilical cord blood or autologous HSCs for gene therapy purposes are hampered by limited number of stem cells. To test the ability to expand HSCs in vitro prior to transplantation, two growth factor cocktails containing stem cell factor, thrombopoietin, fms-related tyrosine kinase-3 ligand (STF) or stem cell factor, thrombopoietin, insulin-like growth factor-2, fibroblast growth factor-1 (STIF) either with or without the addition of angiopoietin-like protein-3 (Angptl3) were used. Culturing HSCs in STF and STIF media for 7 days expanded long-term repopulating stem cells content in vivo by ∼6-fold and ∼10-fold compared to freshly isolated stem cells. Addition of Angptl3 resulted in increased expansion of these populations by ∼17-fold and ∼32-fold, respectively, and was further supported by enforced expression of Angptl3 in HSCs through lentiviral transduction that also promoted HSC expansion. As expansion of highly purified lineage-negative, Sca-1+, c-Kit+ HSCs was less efficient than less pure lineage-negative HSCs, Angptl3 may have a direct effect on HCS but also an indirect effect on accessory cells that support HSC expansion. No evidence for leukemia or toxicity was found during long-term follow up of mice transplanted with ex vivo expanded HSCs or manipulated HSC populations that expressed Angptl3. We conclude that the cytokine combinations used in this study to expand HSCs ex vivo enhances the engraftment in vivo. This has important implications for allogeneic umbilical cord-blood derived HSC transplantations and autologous HSC applications including gene therapy. PMID:25170927

  14. WNT5A promotes stemness characteristics in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells leading to metastasis and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Li; Yin, Yan-Tao; Zheng, Fang-Jing; Peng, Li-Xia; Yang, Chang-Fu; Bao, Ying-Na; Liang, Ying-Ying; Li, Xin-Jian; Xiang, Yan-Qun; Sun, Rui; Li, An-Hua; Zou, Ru-Hai; Pei, Xiao-Qing; Huang, Bi-Jun; Kang, Tie-Bang; Liao, Duan-Fang; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Williams, Bart O; Qian, Chao-Nan

    2015-04-30

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has the highest metastasis rate among head and neck cancers with unclear mechanism. WNT5A belongs to the WNT family of cysteine-rich secreted glycoproteins. Our previous high-throughput gene expression profiling revealed that WNT5A was up-regulated in highly metastatic cells. In the present study, we first confirmed the elevated expression of WNT5A in metastatic NPC tissues at both the mRNA and protein levels. We then found that WNT5A promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in NPC cells, induced the accumulation of CD24-CD44+ cells and side population, which are believed to be cancer stem cell characteristics. Moreover, WNT5A promoted the migration and invasion of NPC cells in vitro, while in vivo treatment with recombinant WNT5A promoted lung metastasis. Knocking down WNT5A diminished NPC tumorigenesis in vivo. When elevated expression of WNT5A coincided with the elevated expression of vimentin in the primary NPC, the patients had a poorer prognosis. Among major signaling pathways, protein kinase C (PKC) signaling was activated by WNT5A in NPC cells. A positive feedback loop between WNT5A and phospho-PKC to promote EMT was also revealed. Taken together, these data suggest that WNT5A is an important molecule in promoting stem cell characteristics in NPC, leading to tumorigenesis and metastasis.

  15. Stem cell-based therapies to promote angiogenesis in ischemic cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Luqia; Kim, Joseph J.; Woo, Y. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of tissue ischemia associated with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. Stem and progenitor cells derived from bone marrow or from pluripotent stem cells have shown therapeutic benefit in boosting angiogenesis as well as restoring tissue function. Notably, adult stem and progenitor cells including mononuclear cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and mesenchymal stem cells have progressed into clinical trials and have shown positive benefits. In this review, we overview the major classes of stem and progenitor cells, including pluripotent stem cells, and summarize the state of the art in applying these cell types for treating myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. PMID:26683902

  16. The Mll2 branch of the COMPASS family regulates bivalent promoters in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Deqing; Garruss, Alexander S; Gao, Xin; Morgan, Marc A; Cook, Malcolm; Smith, Edwin R; Shilatifard, Ali

    2013-09-01

    Promoters of many developmentally regulated genes, in the embryonic stem cell state, have a bivalent mark of H3K27me3 and H3K4me3, proposed to confer precise temporal activation upon differentiation. Although Polycomb repressive complex 2 is known to implement H3K27 trimethylation, the COMPASS family member responsible for H3K4me3 at bivalently marked promoters was previously unknown. Here, we identify Mll2 (KMT2b) as the enzyme catalyzing H3K4 trimethylation at bivalentlymarked promoters in embryonic stem cells. Although H3K4me3 at bivalent genes is proposed to prime future activation, we detected no substantial defect in rapid transcriptional induction after retinoic acid treatment in Mll2-depleted cells. Our identification of the Mll2 complex as the COMPASS family member responsible for H3K4me3 marking bivalent promoters provides an opportunity to reevaluate and experimentally test models for the function of bivalency in the embryonic stem cell state and in differentiation.

  17. s-SHIP promoter expression marks activated stem cells in developing mouse mammary tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Lixia; Rohrschneider, Larry R.

    2010-01-01

    Mammary stem cells (MaSCs) play critical roles in normal development and perhaps tumorigenesis of the mammary gland. Using combined cell markers, adult MaSCs have been enriched in a basal cell population, but the exact identity of MaSCs remains unknown. We used the s-SHIP promoter to tag presumptive stem cells with GFP in the embryos of a transgenic mouse model. Here we show, in postnatal mammary gland development, that GFP+ cap cells in puberty and basal alveolar bud cells in pregnancy each exhibit self-renewal and regenerative capabilities for all mammary epithelial cells of a new functional mammary gland upon transplantation. Single GFP+ cells can regenerate the mammary epithelial network. GFP+ mammary epithelial cells are p63+, CD24mod, CD49fhigh, and CD29high; are actively proliferating; and express s-SHIP mRNA. Overall, our results identify the activated MaSC population in vivo at the forefront of rapidly developing terminal end buds (puberty) and alveolar buds (pregnancy) in the mammary gland. In addition, GFP+ basal cells are expanded in MMTV-Wnt1 breast tumors but not in ErbB2 tumors. These results enable MaSC in situ identification and isolation via a consistent single parameter using a new mouse model with applications for further analyses of normal and potential cancer stem cells. PMID:20810647

  18. Stem cells.

    PubMed

    Behr, Björn; Ko, Sae Hee; Wong, Victor W; Gurtner, Geoffrey C; Longaker, Michael T

    2010-10-01

    Stem cells are self-renewing cells capable of differentiating into multiple cell lines and are classified according to their origin and their ability to differentiate. Enormous potential exists in use of stem cells for regenerative medicine. To produce effective stem cell-based treatments for a range of diseases, an improved understanding of stem cell biology and better control over stem cell fate are necessary. In addition, the barriers to clinical translation, such as potential oncologic properties of stem cells, need to be addressed. With renewed government support and continued refinement of current stem cell methodologies, the future of stem cell research is exciting and promises to provide novel reconstructive options for patients and surgeons limited by traditional paradigms.

  19. Types of Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  20. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Angiogenesis: Potencial Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Merino-González, Consuelo; Zuñiga, Felipe A.; Escudero, Carlos; Ormazabal, Valeska; Reyes, Camila; Nova-Lamperti, Estefanía; Salomón, Carlos; Aguayo, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult multipotent stem cells that are able to differentiate into multiple specialized cell types including osteocytes, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. MSCs exert different functions in the body and have recently been predicted to have a major clinical/therapeutic potential. However, the mechanisms of self-renewal and tissue regeneration are not completely understood. It has been shown that the biological effect depends mainly on its paracrine action. Furthermore, it has been reported that the secretion of soluble factors and the release of extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, could mediate the cellular communication to induce cell-differentiation/self-renewal. This review provides an overview of MSC-derived exosomes in promoting angiogenicity and of the clinical relevance in a therapeutic approach. PMID:26903875

  1. Low-level visible light (LLVL) irradiation promotes proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lipovsky, Anat; Oron, Uri; Gedanken, Aharon; Lubart, Rachel

    2013-07-01

    Low-level visible light irradiation was found to stimulate proliferation potential of various types of cells in vitro. Stem cells in general are of significance for implantation in regenerative medicine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of low-level light irradiation on the proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs were isolated from the bone marrow, and light irradiation was applied at energy densities of 2.4, 4.8, and 7.2 J/cm(2). Illumination of the MSCs resulted in almost twofold increase in cell number as compared to controls. Elevated reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production was also observed in MSCs cultures following illumination with broadband visible light. The present study clearly demonstrates the ability of broadband visible light illumination to promote proliferation of MSCs in vitro. These results may have an important impact on wound healing.

  2. Rad6 upregulation promotes stem cell-like characteristics and platinum resistance in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Somasagara, Ranganatha R.; Tripathi, Kaushlendra; Spencer, Sebastian M.; Clark, David W.; Barnett, Reagan; Bachaboina, Lavanya; Scalici, Jennifer; Rocconi, Rodney P.; Piazza, Gary A.; Palle, Komaraiah

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth most deadly cancer in women in the United States and despite advances in surgical and chemotherapeutic treatments survival rates have not significantly improved in decades. The poor prognosis for ovarian cancer patients is largely due to the extremely high (80%) recurrence rate of ovarian cancer and because the recurrent tumors are often resistant to the widely utilized platinum-based chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, expression of Rad6, an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, was found to strongly correlate with ovarian cancer progression. Furthermore, in ovarian cancer cells Rad6 was found to stabilize β-catenin promoting stem cell-related characteristics, including expression of stem cell markers and anchorage-independent growth. Cancer stem cells can promote chemoresistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis, all of which are limiting factors in treating ovarian cancer. Thus it is significant that Rad6 overexpression led to increased resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug carboplatin and correlated with tumor cell invasion. These findings show the importance of Rad6 in ovarian cancer and emphasize the need for further studies of Rad6 as a potential target for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:26679603

  3. CD133+ cancer stem cells promoted by VEGF accelerate the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kai; Hao, Meijun; Ouyang, Yabo; Zheng, Jiasheng; Chen, Dexi

    2017-01-01

    The role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in inducing the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) remains unclear. Here, we found that a dramatic increase in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and an induction of local CD133+ CSCs are associated with early HCC recurrence, suggesting that VEGF expression and tumour stemness contribute to the relapse. In vitro studies demonstrated that VEGF, via activation of VEGFR2, increased the number of CD133+ CSCs and enhanced their capacity for self-renewal by inducing the expression of Nanog. In vivo studies further demonstrated that VEGF-treated CD133+ CSCs formed tumours larger than those developing from unstimulated cells and VEGF pre-treatment increased the tumorigenic cell frequency of primary HCC cells dependently on the presence of Nanog and VEGFR2. In HCC tissue derived from patients with early recurrence, almost all CD133+ cells were Nanog and p-VEGFR2 positive, suggesting that activation of VEGFR2 is critical for RFA-induced tumour stemness in HCC. In summary, RFA-induced VEGF promotes tumour stemness and accelerates tumourigenesis in HCC in a manner dependent on Nanog and VEGFR2, which is valuable for the prediction of HCC recurrence after RFA and the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:28134312

  4. Increased level of H19 long noncoding RNA promotes invasion, angiogenesis, and stemness of glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaochun; Yan, Yukui; Hu, Minghua; Chen, Xiande; Wang, Yaxian; Dai, Yi; Wu, Degang; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhuang, Zhixiang; Xia, Hongping

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT Increased levels of H19 long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) have been observed in many cancers, suggesting that overexpression of H19 may be important in the development of carcinogenesis. However, the role of H19 in human glioblastoma is still unclear. The object of this study was to examine the level of H19 in glioblastoma samples and investigate the role of H19 in glioblastoma carcinogenesis. METHODS Glioblastoma and nontumor brain tissue specimens were obtained from tissue obtained during tumor resection in 30 patients with glioblastoma. The level of H19 lncRNA was detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The role of H19 in invasion, angiogenesis, and stemness of glioblastoma cells was then investigated using commercially produced cell lines (U87 and U373). The effects of H19 overexpression on glioblastoma cell invasion and angiogenesis were detected by in vitro Matrigel invasion and endothelial tube formation assay. The effects of H19 on glioblastoma cell stemness and tumorigenicity were investigated by neurosphere formation and an in vivo murine xenograft model. RESULTS The authors found that H19 is significantly overexpressed in glioblastoma tissues, and the level of expression was associated with patient survival. In the subsequent investigations, the authors found that overexpression of H19 promotes glioblastoma cell invasion and angiogenesis in vitro. Interestingly, H19 was also significantly overexpressed in CD133(+) glioblastoma cells, and overexpression of H19 was associated with increased neurosphere formation of glioblastoma cells. Finally, stable overexpression of H19 was associated with increased tumor growth in the murine xenograft model. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study suggest that increased expression of H19 lncRNA promotes invasion, angiogenesis, stemness, and tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that H19 plays an important role in tumorigenicity and

  5. Niche signaling promotes stem cell survival in the Drosophila testis via the JAK-STAT target DIAP1.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Salman; Hétié, Phylis; Matunis, Erika L

    2015-08-01

    Tissue-specific stem cells are thought to resist environmental insults better than their differentiating progeny, but this resistance varies from one tissue to another, and the underlying mechanisms are not well-understood. Here, we use the Drosophila testis as a model system to study the regulation of cell death within an intact niche. This niche contains sperm-producing germline stem cells (GSCs) and accompanying somatic cyst stem cells (or CySCs). Although many signals are known to promote stem cell self-renewal in this tissue, including the highly conserved JAK-STAT pathway, the response of these stem cells to potential death-inducing signals, and factors promoting stem cell survival, have not been characterized. Here we find that both GSCs and CySCs resist cell death better than their differentiating progeny, under normal laboratory conditions and in response to potential death-inducing stimuli such as irradiation or starvation. To ask what might be promoting stem cell survival, we characterized the role of the anti-apoptotic gene Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (diap1) in testis stem cells. DIAP1 protein is enriched in the GSCs and CySCs and is a JAK-STAT target. diap1 is necessary for survival of both GSCs and CySCs, and ectopic up-regulation of DIAP1 in somatic cyst cells is sufficient to non-autonomously rescue stress-induced cell death in adjacent differentiating germ cells (spermatogonia). Altogether, our results show that niche signals can promote stem cell survival by up-regulation of highly conserved anti-apoptotic proteins, and suggest that this strategy may underlie the ability of stem cells to resist death more generally.

  6. Divergent roles of CXCR3 isoforms in promoting cancer stem-like cell survival and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanchun; Reader, Jocelyn C; Ma, Xinrong; Kundu, Namita; Kochel, Tyler; Fulton, Amy M

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that several chemokine receptors including CXCR3 contribute to metastasis of breast and other cancers, however, in order to target CXCR3 effectively, it is critical to understand the relative contribution of each CXCR3 isoform. Furthermore, the possible contribution of either major CXCR3 isoform (CXCR3-A, CXCR3-B) to cancer stem cell behavior has not been reported. We employed primary invasive ductal carcinomas, a panel of breast cell lines, and a xenograft model of metastatic breast cancer to examine the role of CXCR3 isoforms in the behavior of breast cancer stem-like cells and the contribution of each isoform to metastasis. In primary human breast cancer specimens as well as established breast cancer cell lines, CXCR3-A is more highly expressed than CXCR3-B. Conversely, immortalized normal MCF10A cells express more CXCR3-B relative to CXCR3-A. Overexpression of CXCR3-B in MDA-MB-231 basal-like cells inhibits CXCR3 ligand-stimulated proliferation, which is accompanied by reduced ligand-mediated activation of ERK1/2 and p38 kinases. Likewise, metastatic capacity is reduced in vivo by higher levels of CXCR3-B, and migratory and invasive properties are inhibited in vitro; conversely, silencing of CXCR3-B enhances lung colonization. In contrast to the anti-metastatic and anti-proliferative roles of CXCR3-B in the non-stem cell population, this isoform supports a cancer stem-like cell phenotype. CXCR3-B is markedly elevated in mammosphere-forming parental cells and overexpressing CXCR3-B further enhances mammosphere-forming potential as well as growth in soft agar; stem-like behavior is inhibited in MDA-MB-231shCXCR3-B cells. Targeting of both CXCR3 isoforms may be important to block the stem cell-promoting actions of CXCR3-B, while inhibiting the pro-proliferative and metastasis-promoting functions of CXCR3-A.

  7. Oleic acid promotes the expression of neural markers in differentiated human endometrial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kojour, Maryam Ali Mohammadie; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Kouchesfehani, Homa Mohseni; Jalali, Hanieh; Ebrahim, Mohammah Hosein Karbalaie

    2017-01-01

    Variety of neurodegenerative diseases in humans are caused by loss of cells along with loss of function and disability. Cell replacement therapy is a potential strategy to cure neurodegenerative diseases. Mesenchymal stem cells are pluripotent non-hematopoietic cells that can be isolated from numerous tissues. Human endometrial-derived stem cell (hEnSC) are the abundant and easy available source with no immunological response, for cell replacement therapy. In the nervous system, where fatty acids are found in huge amounts, they participate in its development and maintenance throughout life. Oleic acid is a kind of the saturated fatty acids which plays crucial role in brain development. Oleic acid released by astrocytes is used by neurons for the synthesis of phospholipids and is specifically incorporated into growth cones. Human endometrial-derived stem cells in the third passage were divided into 3 groups including: control, sham (cultured in full differentiation medium without oleic acid) and experimental group (cultured in full differentiation medium with oleic acid) to differentiate over a 18-day period. Data from Real-Time PCR showed that mRNA levels of NF and β-TUBULIN were increased significantly (p<0.05) in oleic acid treated cells in comparison to control and sham groups. Immunocytochemistry analysis of Chat and NF expression also showed the same results. The present study clearly demonstrates that oleic acid promotes neural differentiation of hEnSC through regulation of gene expression.

  8. Promotion of hepatic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on decellularized cell-deposited extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    He, Hongliang; Liu, Xiaozhen; Peng, Liang; Gao, Zhiliang; Ye, Yun; Su, Yujie; Zhao, Qiyi; Wang, Ke; Gong, Yihong; He, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between stem cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) are requisite for inducing lineage-specific differentiation and maintaining biological functions of mesenchymal stem cells by providing a composite set of chemical and structural signals. Here we investigated if cell-deposited ECM mimicked in vivo liver's stem cell microenvironment and facilitated hepatogenic maturation. Decellularization process preserved the fibrillar microstructure and a mix of matrix proteins in cell-deposited ECM, such as type I collagen, type III collagen, fibronectin, and laminin that were identical to those found in native liver. Compared with the cells on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) cultured on cell-deposited ECM showed a spindle-like shape, a robust proliferative capacity, and a suppressed level of intracellular reactive oxygen species, accompanied with upregulation of two superoxide dismutases. Hepatocyte-like cells differentiated from BM-MSCs on ECM were determined with a more intensive staining of glycogen storage, an elevated level of urea biosynthesis, and higher expressions of hepatocyte-specific genes in contrast to those on TCPS. These results demonstrate that cell-deposited ECM can be an effective method to facilitate hepatic maturation of BM-MSCs and promote stem-cell-based liver regenerative medicine.

  9. Promotion of haematopoietic activity in embryonic stem cells by the aorta-gonad-mesonephros microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Krassowska, Anna; Gordon-Keylock, Sabrina; Samuel, Kay; Gilchrist, Derek; Dzierzak, Elaine; Oostendorp, Robert; Forrester, Lesley M. . E-mail: l.forrester@ed.ac.uk; Ansell, John D.

    2006-11-01

    We investigated whether the in vitro differentiation of ES cells into haematopoietic progenitors could be enhanced by exposure to the aorta-gonadal-mesonephros (AGM) microenvironment that is involved in the generation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) during embryonic development. We established a co-culture system that combines the requirements for primary organ culture and differentiating ES cells and showed that exposure of differentiating ES cells to the primary AGM region results in a significant increase in the number of ES-derived haematopoietic progenitors. Co-culture of ES cells on the AM20-1B4 stromal cell line derived from the AGM region also increases haematopoietic activity. We conclude that factors promoting the haematopoietic activity of differentiating ES cells present in primary AGM explants are partially retained in the AM20.1B4 stromal cell line and that these factors are likely to be different to those required for adult HSC maintenance.

  10. Regulation of c-Myc Expression by Ahnak Promotes Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Generation*

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hee Jung; Kim, Jusong; Park, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Sang A.; Lee, Man Ryul; Kim, Kye-Seong; Kim, Jaesang; Bae, Yun Soo

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that Ahnak-mediated TGFβ signaling leads to down-regulation of c-Myc expression. Here, we show that inhibition of Ahnak can promote generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) via up-regulation of endogenous c-Myc. Consistent with the c-Myc inhibitory role of Ahnak, mouse embryonic fibroblasts from Ahnak-deficient mouse (Ahnak−/− MEF) show an increased level of c-Myc expression compared with wild type MEF. Generation of iPSC with just three of the four Yamanaka factors, Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 (hereafter 3F), was significantly enhanced in Ahnak−/− MEF. Similar results were obtained when Ahnak-specific shRNA was applied to wild type MEF. Of note, expressionof Ahnak was significantly induced during the formation of embryoid bodies from embryonic stem cells, suggesting that Ahnak-mediated c-Myc inhibition is involved in embryoid body formation and the initial differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. The iPSC from 3F-infected Ahnak−/− MEF cells (Ahnak−/−-iPSC-3F) showed expression of all stem cell markers examined and the capability to form three primary germ layers. Moreover, injection of Ahnak−/−-iPSC-3F into athymic nude mice led to development of teratoma containing tissues from all three primary germ layers, indicating that iPSC from Ahnak−/− MEF are bona fide pluripotent stem cells. Taken together, these data provide evidence for a new role for Ahnak in cell fate determination during development and suggest that manipulation of Ahnak and the associated signaling pathway may provide a means to regulate iPSC generation. PMID:26598518

  11. Adult stem cell theory of the multi-stage, multi-mechanism theory of carcinogenesis: role of inflammation on the promotion of initiated stem cells.

    PubMed

    Trosko, James E; Tai, Mei-Hui

    2006-01-01

    Inflammation, induced by microbial agents, radiation, endogenous or exogenous chemicals, has been associated with chronic diseases, including cancer. Since carcinogenesis has been characterized as consisting of the 'initiation', 'promotion' and 'progression' phases, the inflammatory process could affect any or all three phases. The stem cell theory of carcinogenesis has been given a revival, in that isolated human adult stem cells have been isolated and shown to be 'targets' for neoplastic transformation. Oct4, a transcription factor, has been associated with adult stem cells, as well as their immortalized and tumorigenic derivatives, but not with the normal differentiated daughters. These data are consistent with the stem cell theory of carcinogenesis. In addition, Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication (GJIC) seems to play a major role in cell growth. Inhibition of GJIC by non-genotoxic chemicals or various oncogenes seems to be the mechanism for the tumor promotion and progression phases of carcinogenesis. Many of the toxins, synthetic non-genotoxicants, and endogenous inflammatory factors have been shown to inhibit GJIC and act as tumor promoters. The inhibition of GJIC might be the mechanism by which the inflammatory process affects cancer and that to intervene during tumor promotion with anti-inflammatory factors might be the most efficacious anti-cancer strategy.

  12. The invention of WUS-like stem cell-promoting functions in plants predates leptosporangiate ferns.

    PubMed

    Nardmann, Judith; Werr, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The growth of land plants depends on stem cell-containing meristems which show major differences in their architecture from basal to higher plant species. In Arabidopsis, the stem cell niches in the shoot and root meristems are promoted by WUSCHEL (WUS) and WOX5, respectively. Both genes are members of a non-ancestral clade of the WUS-related homeobox (WOX) gene family, which is absent in extant bryophytes and lycophytes. Our analyses of five fern species suggest that a single WUS orthologue was present in the last common ancestor (LCA) of leptosporangiate ferns and seed plants. In the extant fern Ceratopteris richardii, the WUS pro-orthologue marks the pluripotent cell fate of immediate descendants of the root apical initial, so-called merophytes, which undergo a series of stereotypic cell divisions and give rise to all cell types of the root except the root cap. The invention of a WUS-like function within the WOX gene family in an ancestor of leptosporangiate ferns and seed plants and its amplification and sub-functionalisation to different stem cell niches might relate to the success of seed plants, especially angiosperms.

  13. Hyperexpressed Netrin-1 Promoted Neural Stem Cells Migration in Mice after Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haiyan; Song, Xiaoyan; Wang, Feng; Wang, Guodong; Wu, Yuncheng; Wang, Qiaoshu; Wang, Yongting; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous Netrin-1 (NT-1) protein was significantly increased after cerebral ischemia, which may participate in the repair after transient cerebral ischemic injury. In this work, we explored whether NT-1 can be steadily overexpressed by adeno-associated virus (AAV) and the exogenous NT-1 can promote neural stem cells migration from the subventricular zone (SVZ) region after cerebral ischemia. Adult CD-1 mice were injected stereotacticly with AAV carrying NT-1 gene (AAV-NT-1). Mice underwent 60 min of middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion 1 week after injection. We found that NT-1 mainly expressed in neuron and astrocyte, and the expression level of NT-1 significantly increased 1 week after AAV-NT-1 gene transfer and lasted for 28 days, even after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) as well (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry results showed that the number of neural stem cells was greatly increased in the SVZ region of AAV-NT-1-transduced mice compared with control mice. Our study showed that overexpressed NT-1 promoted neural stem cells migration from SVZ. This result suggested that NT-1 is a promising factor for repairing and remodeling after focal cerebral ischemia. PMID:27746720

  14. The Notch pathway promotes the cancer stem cell characteristics of CD90+ cells in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Wang, Peng; Wang, Ronghua; Wang, Jinlin; Liu, Man; Xiong, Si; Li, Yawen; Cheng, Bin

    2016-02-23

    CD90 has been identified as a marker for liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are responsible for tumorigenic activity, but it is not known how CD90+ cells contribute to tumor initiation and progression. Our data demonstrated that high expression of CD90 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) tissues correlated with venous filtration in HCC patients. CD90+ cells isolated from HCC cell lines exhibited increased tumorigenicity, chemoresistance, tumor invasion and metastasis. Notch pathway was activated in CD90+ cells and we found that inhibition of Notch pathway in CD90+ CSCs decreased tumorigenicity, cell invasion, migration and expression of stem cell related genes. Activation of Notch pathway in CD90- cells induced self-renewal, invasion and migration. Furthermore, we observed that cancer stem cell features were facilitated by stimulating G1-S transition in the cell cycle phase and inhibiting apoptosis mediated by Notch pathway. Our findings suggested CD90 could be used as a potential biomarker for HCC CSCs, and that cancer stem cell activity was elevated through up activated Notch pathway in CD90+ CSCs.

  15. Autocrine interleukin-23 promotes self-renewal of CD133+ ovarian cancer stem-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kailong; Yin, Pin; Jiang, Lupin; Liang, Zhiqing; Zhu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a group of cells which possess the ability of self-renewing and unlimited proliferation. And these CSCs are thought to be the cause of metastasis, recurrence and resistance. Recent study has found that pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemotactic factor mediate the self-renewing and differentiation of most of CSCs. Thus we speculate that ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSCs) can also maintain the ability of self-renewing and differentiation by releasing inflammatory factor. This report we discuss the biological characteristics and the specific molecular mechanism mediated by interleukin-23 (IL-23) and its receptor on the self-renewing of OCSCs. We found that OCSCs had high expression of IL-23 and IL-23R. IL-23 could promote the self-renewal ability of OCSCs and played a very important role to maintain the stable expression of stem cell markers in vitro. Moreover, we verified that IL-23 could maintain the potential tumorigenic of OCSCs in vivo and mediate the self-renewal ability and the formation of tumor in OCSCs by activating the signal pathways of STAT3 and NF-κB. In addition, human low differentiation tissues showed overexpression of IL-23. And IL-23 positively correlated to the expression level of CD133, Nanog and Oct4. In conclusion, Our discoveries demonstrate that autocrine IL-23 contribute to ovarian cancer malignancy through promoting the self-renewal of CD133+ ovarian cancer stem-like cells, and this suggests that IL-23 and its signaling pathway might serve as therapeutic targets for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:27738346

  16. Rigid microenvironments promote cardiac differentiation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshi, Armin; Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Haruko; Eaimkhong, Sarayoot; Evseenko, Denis; Reed, Jason; Stieg, Adam Z.; Gimzewski, James K.; Nakano, Atsushi

    2013-04-01

    While adult heart muscle is the least regenerative of tissues, embryonic cardiomyocytes are proliferative, with embryonic stem (ES) cells providing an endless reservoir. In addition to secreted factors and cell-cell interactions, the extracellular microenvironment has been shown to play an important role in stem cell lineage specification, and understanding how scaffold elasticity influences cardiac differentiation is crucial to cardiac tissue engineering. Though previous studies have analyzed the role of matrix elasticity on the function of differentiated cardiomyocytes, whether it affects the induction of cardiomyocytes from pluripotent stem cells is poorly understood. Here, we examine the role of matrix rigidity on cardiac differentiation using mouse and human ES cells. Culture on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates of varied monomer-to-crosslinker ratios revealed that rigid extracellular matrices promote a higher yield of de novo cardiomyocytes from undifferentiated ES cells. Using a genetically modified ES system that allows us to purify differentiated cardiomyocytes by drug selection, we demonstrate that rigid environments induce higher cardiac troponin T expression, beating rate of foci, and expression ratio of adult α- to fetal β- myosin heavy chain in a purified cardiac population. M-mode and mechanical interferometry image analyses demonstrate that these ES-derived cardiomyocytes display functional maturity and synchronization of beating when co-cultured with neonatal cardiomyocytes harvested from a developing embryo. Together, these data identify matrix stiffness as an independent factor that instructs not only the maturation of already differentiated cardiomyocytes but also the induction and proliferation of cardiomyocytes from undifferentiated progenitors. Manipulation of the stiffness will help direct the production of functional cardiomyocytes en masse from stem cells for regenerative medicine purposes.

  17. WNT3A promotes myogenesis of human embryonic stem cells and enhances in vivo engraftment

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yongsung; Suk, Samuel; Shih, Yu-Ru Vernon; Seo, Timothy; Du, Bin; Xie, Yun; Li, Ziyang; Varghese, Shyni

    2014-01-01

    The ability of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to differentiate into skeletal muscle cells is an important criterion in using them as a cell source to ameliorate skeletal muscle impairments. However, differentiation of hESCs into skeletal muscle cells still remains a challenge, often requiring introduction of transgenes. Here, we describe the use of WNT3A protein to promote in vitro myogenic commitment of hESC-derived cells and their subsequent in vivo function. Our findings show that the presence of WNT3A in culture medium significantly promotes myogenic commitment of hESC-derived progenitors expressing a mesodermal marker, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRA), as evident from the expression of myogenic markers, including DES, MYOG, MYH1, and MF20. In vivo transplantation of these committed cells into cardiotoxin-injured skeletal muscles of NOD/SCID mice reveals survival and engraftment of the donor cells. The cells contributed to the regeneration of damaged muscle fibers and the satellite cell compartment. In lieu of the limited cell source for treating skeletal muscle defects, the hESC-derived PDGFRA+ cells exhibit significant in vitro expansion while maintaining their myogenic potential. The results described in this study provide a proof-of-principle that myogenic progenitor cells with in vivo engraftment potential can be derived from hESCs without genetic manipulation. PMID:25084050

  18. Adipocytes promote prostate cancer stem cell self-renewal through amplification of the cholecystokinin autocrine loop

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kai-Dun; Liu, Ji; Jovanovic, Lidija; An, Jiyuan; Hill, Michelle M.; Vela, Ian; Lee, Terence Kin-Wah; Ma, Stephanie; Nelson, Colleen; Russell, Pamela J.; Clements, Judith A.; Ling, Ming-Tat

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has long been linked with prostate cancer progression, although the underlying mechanism is still largely unknown. Here, we report that adipocytes promote the enrichment of prostate cancer stem cells (CSCs) through a vicious cycle of autocrine amplification. In the presence of adipocytes, prostate cancer cells actively secrete the peptide hormone cholecystokinin (CCK), which not only stimulates prostate CSC self-renewal, but also induces cathepsin B (CTSB) production of the adipocytes. In return, CTSB facilitates further CCK secretion by the cancer cells. More importantly, inactivation of CCK receptor not only suppresses CTSB secretion by the adipocytes, but also synergizes the inhibitory effect of CTSB inhibitor on adipocyte-promoted prostate CSC self-renewal. In summary, we have uncovered a novel mechanism underlying the mutual interplay between adipocytes and prostate CSCs, which may help explaining the role of adipocytes in prostate cancer progression and provide opportunities for effective intervention. PMID:26700819

  19. Adipocytes promote prostate cancer stem cell self-renewal through amplification of the cholecystokinin autocrine loop.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kai-Dun; Liu, Ji; Jovanovic, Lidija; An, Jiyuan; Hill, Michelle M; Vela, Ian; Lee, Terence Kin-Wah; Ma, Stephanie; Nelson, Colleen; Russell, Pamela J; Clements, Judith A; Ling, Ming-Tat

    2016-01-26

    Obesity has long been linked with prostate cancer progression, although the underlying mechanism is still largely unknown. Here, we report that adipocytes promote the enrichment of prostate cancer stem cells (CSCs) through a vicious cycle of autocrine amplification. In the presence of adipocytes, prostate cancer cells actively secrete the peptide hormone cholecystokinin (CCK), which not only stimulates prostate CSC self-renewal, but also induces cathepsin B (CTSB) production of the adipocytes. In return, CTSB facilitates further CCK secretion by the cancer cells. More importantly, inactivation of CCK receptor not only suppresses CTSB secretion by the adipocytes, but also synergizes the inhibitory effect of CTSB inhibitor on adipocyte-promoted prostate CSC self-renewal. In summary, we have uncovered a novel mechanism underlying the mutual interplay between adipocytes and prostate CSCs, which may help explaining the role of adipocytes in prostate cancer progression and provide opportunities for effective intervention.

  20. FOXP1 functions as an oncogene in promoting cancer stem cell-like characteristics in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Jung; Seo, Eun Jin; Kim, Dae Kyoung; Lee, Su In; Kwon, Yang Woo; Jang, Il Ho; Kim, Ki-Hyung; Suh, Dong-Soo; Kim, Jae Ho

    2016-01-19

    Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate of all gynecological cancers with a high recurrence rate. It is important to understand the nature of recurring cancer cells to terminally eliminate ovarian cancer. The winged helix transcription factor Forkhead box P1 (FOXP1) has been reported to function as either oncogene or tumor-suppressor in various cancers. In the current study, we show that FOXP1 promotes cancer stem cell-like characteristics in ovarian cancer cells. Knockdown of FOXP1 expression in A2780 or SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells decreased spheroid formation, expression of stemness-related genes and epithelial to mesenchymal transition-related genes, cell migration, and resistance to Paclitaxel or Cisplatin treatment, whereas overexpression of FOXP1 in A2780 or SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells increased spheroid formation, expression of stemness-related genes and epithelial to mesenchymal transition-related genes, cell migration, and resistance to Paclitaxel or Cisplatin treatment. In addition, overexpression of FOXP1 increased promoter activity of ABCG2, OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2, among which the increases in ABCG2, OCT4, and SOX2 promoter activity were dependent on the presence of FOXP1-binding site. In xenotransplantation of A2780 ovarian cancer cells into nude mice, knockdown of FOXP1 expression significantly decreased tumor size. These results strongly suggest FOXP1 functions as an oncogene by promoting cancer stem cell-like characteristics in ovarian cancer cells. Targeting FOXP1 may provide a novel therapeutic opportunity for developing a relapse-free treatment for ovarian cancer patients.

  1. Rigid microenvironments promote cardiac differentiation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Arshi, Armin; Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Haruko; Eaimkhong, Sarayoot; Evseenko, Denis; Reed, Jason; Stieg, Adam Z; Gimzewski, James K; Nakano, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    While adult heart muscle is the least regenerative of tissues, embryonic cardiomyocytes are proliferative, with embryonic stem (ES) cells providing an endless reservoir. In addition to secreted factors and cell–cell interactions, the extracellular microenvironment has been shown to play an important role in stem cell lineage specification, and understanding how scaffold elasticity influences cardiac differentiation is crucial to cardiac tissue engineering. Though previous studies have analyzed the role of matrix elasticity on the function of differentiated cardiomyocytes, whether it affects the induction of cardiomyocytes from pluripotent stem cells is poorly understood. Here, we examine the role of matrix rigidity on cardiac differentiation using mouse and human ES cells. Culture on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates of varied monomer-to-crosslinker ratios revealed that rigid extracellular matrices promote a higher yield of de novo cardiomyocytes from undifferentiated ES cells. Using a genetically modified ES system that allows us to purify differentiated cardiomyocytes by drug selection, we demonstrate that rigid environments induce higher cardiac troponin T expression, beating rate of foci, and expression ratio of adult α- to fetal β- myosin heavy chain in a purified cardiac population. M-mode and mechanical interferometry image analyses demonstrate that these ES-derived cardiomyocytes display functional maturity and synchronization of beating when co-cultured with neonatal cardiomyocytes harvested from a developing embryo. Together, these data identify matrix stiffness as an independent factor that instructs not only the maturation of already differentiated cardiomyocytes but also the induction and proliferation of cardiomyocytes from undifferentiated progenitors. Manipulation of the stiffness will help direct the production of functional cardiomyocytes en masse from stem cells for regenerative medicine purposes. PMID:24311969

  2. Growth factors from tumor microenvironment possibly promote the proliferation of glioblastoma-derived stem-like cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Guo, JingJing; Niu, Rui; Huang, Wenhui; Zhou, Mengliang; Shi, Jixing; Zhang, Luyong; Liao, Hong

    2012-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiform is a lethal brain glial tumor characterized by low survival and high recurrence, partially attributed to the glioblastoma stem cells according to recent researches. Microenvironment or niche in tumor tissue is believed to provide essential support for the aberrant growth of tumor stem cells. In order to explore the effect of growth factors in tumor microenvironment on glioblastoma stem cells behavior, glioblastoma-derived stem-like cells (GDSCs) were isolated from adult human glioblastoma specimen with antibody against surface marker CD133 and were co-cultured with various tumor cells including U87MG cells, unsorted glioblastoma tumor cells, CD133(-) cells and normal rat primary astrocytes. Results suggested that tumor cells could promote GDSCs proliferation while non-tumor cells could not, and several growth factors were exclusively detected in the co-culture system with tumor cells. It was concluded that growth factors derived from tumor microenvironment possibly contributed to the uncontrolled proliferation of GDSCs.

  3. NOTCH-induced aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 deacetylation promotes breast cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Di; Mo, Yan; Li, Meng-Tian; Zou, Shao-Wu; Cheng, Zhou-Li; Sun, Yi-Ping; Xiong, Yue; Guan, Kun-Liang; Lei, Qun-Ying

    2014-12-01

    High aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity is a marker commonly used to isolate stem cells, particularly breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here, we determined that ALDH1A1 activity is inhibited by acetylation of lysine 353 (K353) and that acetyltransferase P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) and deacetylase sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) are responsible for regulating the acetylation state of ALDH1A1 K353. Evaluation of breast carcinoma tissues from patients revealed that cells with high ALDH1 activity have low ALDH1A1 acetylation and are capable of self-renewal. Acetylation of ALDH1A1 inhibited both the stem cell population and self-renewal properties in breast cancer. Moreover, NOTCH signaling activated ALDH1A1 through the induction of SIRT2, leading to ALDH1A1 deacetylation and enzymatic activation to promote breast CSCs. In breast cancer xenograft models, replacement of endogenous ALDH1A1 with an acetylation mimetic mutant inhibited tumorigenesis and tumor growth. Together, the results from our study reveal a function and mechanism of ALDH1A1 acetylation in regulating breast CSCs.

  4. Heterochromatin protein 1 promotes self-renewal and triggers regenerative proliferation in adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, An; Li, Yong-Qin; Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Ge; Wang, Jian-Yong; Li, Dang-Sheng; Qin, Yong-Wen; Shi, Yufang; Brewer, Gary; Jing, Qing

    2013-04-29

    Adult stem cells (ASCs) capable of self-renewal and differentiation confer the potential of tissues to regenerate damaged parts. Epigenetic regulation is essential for driving cell fate decisions by rapidly and reversibly modulating gene expression programs. However, it remains unclear how epigenetic factors elicit ASC-driven regeneration. In this paper, we report that an RNA interference screen against 205 chromatin regulators identified 12 proteins essential for ASC function and regeneration in planarians. Surprisingly, the HP1-like protein SMED-HP1-1 (HP1-1) specifically marked self-renewing, pluripotent ASCs, and HP1-1 depletion abrogated self-renewal and promoted differentiation. Upon injury, HP1-1 expression increased and elicited increased ASC expression of Mcm5 through functional association with the FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) complex, which consequently triggered proliferation of ASCs and initiated blastema formation. Our observations uncover an epigenetic network underlying ASC regulation in planarians and reveal that an HP1 protein is a key chromatin factor controlling stem cell function. These results provide important insights into how epigenetic mechanisms orchestrate stem cell responses during tissue regeneration.

  5. Chitosan promotes cancer progression and stem cell properties in association with Wnt signaling in colon and hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Po-Hsiang; Sekine, Keisuke; Chao, Hsiao-Mei; Hsu, Shan-hui; Chern, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a small population of cancer cells, have been considered to be the origin of cancer initiation, recurrence, and metastasis. Tumor microenvironment provides crucial signals for CSCs to maintain stem cell properties and promotes tumorigenesis. Therefore, establishment of an appropriate cell culture system to mimic the microenvironment for CSC studies is an important issue. In this study, we grew colon and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells on chitosan membranes and evaluated the tumor progression and the CSC properties. Experimental results showed that culturing cancer cells on chitosan increased cell motility, drug resistance, quiescent population, self-renewal capacity, and the expression levels of stemness and CSC marker genes, such as OCT4, NANOG, CD133, CD44, and EpCAM. Furthermore, we demonstrated that chitosan might activate canonical Wnt/β-catenin-CD44 axis signaling in CD44positive colon cancer cells and noncanonical Wnt-STAT3 signaling in CD44negative HCC cells. In conclusion, chitosan as culture substrates activated the essential signaling of CSCs and promoted CSC properties. The chitosan culture system provides a convenient platform for the research of CSC biology and screening of anticancer drugs. PMID:28367998

  6. Cobalt chloride pretreatment promotes cardiac differentiation of human embryonic stem cells under atmospheric oxygen level.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kwong-Man; Chan, Yau-Chi; Lee, Yee-Ki; Lai, Wing-Hon; Au, Ka-Wing; Fung, Man-Lung; Siu, Chung-Wah; Li, Ronald A; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2011-12-01

    Our previous study demonstrated the direct involvement of the HIF-1α subunit in the promotion of cardiac differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We report the use of cobalt chloride to induce HIF-1α stabilization in human ESCs to promote cardiac differentiation. Treatment of undifferentiated hES2 human ESCs with 50 μM cobalt chloride markedly increased protein levels of the HIF-1α subunit, and was associated with increased expression of early cardiac specific transcription factors and cardiotrophic factors including NK2.5, vascular endothelial growth factor, and cardiotrophin-1. When pretreated cells were subjected to cardiac differentiation, a notable increase in the occurrence of beating embryoid bodies and sarcomeric actinin-positive cells was observed, along with increased expression of the cardiac-specific markers, MHC-A, MHC-B, and MLC2V. Electrophysiological study revealed increased atrial- and nodal-like cells in the cobalt chloride-pretreated group. Confocal calcium imaging analysis indicated that the maximum upstroke and decay velocities were significantly increased in both noncaffeine and caffeine-induced calcium transient in cardiomyocytes derived from the cobalt chloride-pretreated cells, suggesting these cells were functionally more mature. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that cobalt chloride pretreatment of hES2 human ESCs promotes cardiac differentiation and the maturation of calcium homeostasis of cardiomyocytes derived from ESCs.

  7. The stem cell mobilizer StemEnhance does not promote tumor growth in an orthotopic model of human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Drapeau, Christian; Ma, Huaiyu; Yang, Zhijian; Tang, Li; Hoffman, Robert M; Schaeffer, David J

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDSC) have been implicated in tumor formation, though it is not clear whether they contribute to tumor growth. A novel mobilizer of BMDSC (StemEnhance; SE) was used to investigate whether its daily administration promotes tumor growth. Forty mice were surgically transplanted with human MDA-MB-435-GFP breast cancer into the mammary fat pad of nude mice, The mice were gavaged for six weeks with 300 mg/kg of SE. Tumor growth was monitored using live whole-body fluorescence imaging. At the end of the study, tumors were excised and weighed. At the start of the feeding trial, tumor areas for both control and experimental group were statistically identical. Tumor growth rate was slower in the SE group (p = 0.014) when compared to the control group. After 6 weeks, tumor areas were 40% larger in the control p < 0.01) and mean tumor weight was 35% smaller in the SE-treated group (0.44 g vs. 0.68 g; p = 0.031). Feeding of SE did not promote tumor growth but rather reduced the growth of human MDA-MB-435 breast cancer.

  8. The chemokine receptor CCR7 promotes mammary tumorigenesis through amplification of stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Boyle, S T; Ingman, W V; Poltavets, V; Faulkner, J W; Whitfield, R J; McColl, S R; Kochetkova, M

    2016-01-07

    The chemokine receptor CCR7 is widely implicated in breast cancer pathobiology. Although recent reports correlated high CCR7 levels with more advanced tumor grade and poor prognosis, limited in vivo data are available regarding its specific function in mammary gland neoplasia and the underlying mechanisms involved. To address these questions we generated a bigenic mouse model of breast cancer combined with CCR7 deletion, which revealed that CCR7 ablation results in a considerable delay in tumor onset as well as significantly reduced tumor burden. Importantly, CCR7 was found to exert its function by regulating mammary cancer stem-like cells in both murine and human tumors. In vivo experiments showed that loss of CCR7 activity either through deletion or pharmacological antagonism significantly decreased functional pools of stem-like cells in mouse primary mammary tumors, providing a mechanistic explanation for the tumor-promoting role of this chemokine receptor. These data characterize the oncogenic properties of CCR7 in mammary epithelial neoplasia and point to a new route for therapeutic intervention to target evasive cancer stem cells.

  9. Human mesenchymal stem cells promote survival of T cells in a quiescent state.

    PubMed

    Benvenuto, Federica; Ferrari, Stefania; Gerdoni, Ezio; Gualandi, Francesca; Frassoni, Francesco; Pistoia, Vito; Mancardi, Gianluigi; Uccelli, Antonio

    2007-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are part of the bone marrow that provides signals supporting survival and growth of bystander hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). MSC modulate also the immune response, as they inhibit proliferation of lymphocytes. In order to investigate whether MSC can support survival of T cells, we investigated MSC capacity of rescuing T lymphocytes from cell death induced by different mechanisms. We observed that MSC prolong survival of unstimulated T cells and apoptosis-prone thymocytes cultured under starving conditions. MSC rescued T cells from activation induced cell death (AICD) by downregulation of Fas receptor and Fas ligand on T cell surface and inhibition of endogenous proteases involved in cell death. MSC dampened also Fas receptor mediated apoptosis of CD95 expressing Jurkat leukemic T cells. In contrast, rescue from AICD was not associated with a significant change of Bcl-2, an inhibitor of apoptosis induced by cell stress. Accordingly, MSC exhibited a minimal capacity of rescuing Jurkat cells from chemically induced apoptosis, a process disrupting the mitochondrial membrane potential regulated by Bcl-2. These results suggest that MSC interfere with the Fas receptor regulated process of programmed cell death. Overall, MSC can inhibit proliferation of activated T cells while supporting their survival in a quiescent state, providing a model of their activity inside the HSC niche. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  10. Uric Acid Promotes Osteogenic Differentiation and Inhibits Adipogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Zhang; Chen, Zhi; Hou, Cang-Long; Tang, Yi-Xing; Wang, Fei; Fu, Qing-Ge

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the effect of uric acid on the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of human bone mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). The hBMSCs were isolated from bone marrow of six healthy donors. Cell morphology was observed by microscopy and cell surface markers (CD44 and CD34) of hBMSCs were analyzed by immunofluorescence. Cell morphology and immunofluorescence analysis showed that hBMSCs were successfully isolated from bone marrow. The number of hBMSCs in uric acid groups was higher than that in the control group on day 3, 4, and 5. Alizarin red staining showed that number of calcium nodules in uric acid groups was more than that of the control group. Oil red-O staining showed that the number of red fat vacuoles decreased with the increased concentration of uric acid. In summary, uric acid could promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs while inhibit adipogenic differentiation of hBMSCs.

  11. Dynamic hydrostatic pressure promotes differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, V; Damek-Poprawa, M; Nicoll, S B; Akintoye, S O

    2009-09-04

    The masticatory apparatus absorbs high occlusal forces, but uncontrolled parafunctional or orthodontic forces damage periodontal ligament (PDL), cause pulpal calcification, pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Morphology and functional differentiation of connective tissue cells can be controlled by mechanical stimuli but effects of uncontrolled forces on intra-pulpal homeostasis and ability of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to withstand direct external forces are unclear. Using dynamic hydrostatic pressure (HSP), we tested the hypothesis that direct HSP disrupts DPSC survival and odontogenic differentiation. DPSCs from four teenage patients were subjected to HSP followed by assessment of cell adhesion, survival and recovery capacity based on odontogenic differentiation, mineralization and responsiveness to bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). HSP down-regulated DPSC adhesion and survival but promoted differentiation by increasing mineralization, in vivo hard tissue regeneration and BMP-2 responsiveness despite reduced cell numbers. HSP-treated DPSCs displayed enhanced odontogenic differentiation, an indication of favorable recovery from HSP-induced cellular stress.

  12. Cell recognition molecule L1 promotes embryonic stem cell differentiation through the regulation of cell surface glycosylation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ying; Huang, Xiaohua; An, Yue; Ren, Feng; Yang, Zara Zhuyun; Zhu, Hongmei; Zhou, Lei; He, Xiaowen; Schachner, Melitta; Xiao, Zhicheng; Ma, Keli; Li, Yali

    2013-10-25

    Highlights: •Down-regulating FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression blocks L1-induced neuronal differentiation of ESCs. •Up-regulating FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression in L1-ESCs depends on the activation of PLCγ. •L1 promotes ESCs to differentiate into neuron through regulating cell surface glycosylation. -- Abstract: Cell recognition molecule L1 (CD171) plays an important role in neuronal survival, migration, differentiation, neurite outgrowth, myelination, synaptic plasticity and regeneration after injury. Our previous study has demonstrated that overexpressing L1 enhances cell survival and proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) through promoting the expression of FUT9 and ST3Gal4, which upregulates cell surface sialylation and fucosylation. In the present study, we examined whether sialylation and fucosylation are involved in ESC differentiation through L1 signaling. RNA interference analysis showed that L1 enhanced differentiation of ESCs into neurons through the upregulation of FUT9 and ST3Gal4. Furthermore, blocking the phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) signaling pathway with either a specific PLCγ inhibitor or knockdown PLCγ reduced the expression levels of both FUT9 and ST3Gal4 mRNAs and inhibited L1-mediated neuronal differentiation. These results demonstrate that L1 promotes neuronal differentiation from ESCs through the L1-mediated enhancement of FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression.

  13. The infarcted cardiac microenvironment cannot selectively promote embryonic stem cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, You-Ren; Li, Yang; Chen, Li; Yang, Xin-Chun; Su, Pi-Xiong; Cai, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Postinfarct congestive heart failure is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. It is controversial whether embryonic stem cells are feasible sources for in situ cardiac regeneration in infarcted hearts. In order to investigate whether the infarcted cardiac microenvironment could selectively promote embryonic stem cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes, we assessed the cardiac differentiation potential of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) injected into normal (n=16) or acutely infarcted rat hearts (n=18). We found that the transplanted 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-labeled mESCs were able to survive and form stable intracardiac grafts both in normal and infarcted hearts, along with macrophages found specifically in the engraftment area. Two to four weeks after mESC transplantation, we found that more DAPI-positive mESCs differentiated into cardiomyocytes, marked by cardiac troponin T (cTnT), in normal than those in infarcted hearts (2.67±0.79% vs. 1.06±0.52%, P<.01). However, the discrepancy between the percentage of DAPI-positive cells that express cTnT in normal and that in infarcted hearts was diminished after 4 weeks (1.17±0.98% vs. 1.07±1.02%, P>.05), when the transverse striation began to present in the mESCs-derived cardiomyocytes. In addition, mESCs differentiated into vimentin-positive cardiac fibroblasts in normal and infracted hearts. Our results indicated that transplanted mESCs cannot only survive but differentiate into cardiomyocytes in infarcted rat hearts. However, the infarcted cardiac microenvironment cannot selectively promote mESCs differentiation into cardiomyocytes.

  14. Keratose Hydrogels Promote Vascular Smooth Muscle Differentiation from C-kit Positive Human Cardiac Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Ledford, Benjamin T; Simmons, Jamelle; Chen, Miao; Fan, Huimin; Barron, Catherine; Liu, Zhongmin; Van Dyke, Mark; He, Jia-Qiang

    2017-03-28

    Stem cell-based therapies have demonstrated great potential for the treatment of cardiac diseases, e.g., myocardial infarction; however, low cell viability, low retention/engraftment, and uncontrollable in vivo differentiation after transplantation are still major limitations, which lead low therapeutic efficiency. Biomaterials provide a promising solution to overcome these issues due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, low/non-immunogenicity, and low/non-cytotoxicity. The present study aims to investigate the impacts of Keratose (KOS) hydrogel biomaterial on cellular viability, proliferation, and differentiation of c-kit+ human cardiac stem cells (hCSCs). Briefly, hCSCs were cultured on both KOS hydrogel-coated dishes and regular tissue culture dishes (Blank control). Cell viability, stemness, proliferation, cellular morphology, and cardiac lineage differentiation were compared between KOS hydrogel and the Blank control at different time points. We found that KOS hydrogel is effective in maintaining hCSCs without any observable toxic effects, although cell size and proliferation rate appeared smaller on the KOS hydrogel compared to the Blank control. To our surprise, KOS hydrogel significantly promoted vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation (~72%), while on the Blank control dishes, most of the hCSCs (~78%) became cardiomyocytes. Further, we also observed "endothelial cell tube-like" microstructures formed by differentiated VSMCs only on KOS hydrogel, suggesting a potential capability of the hCSC-derived VSMCs for in vitro angiogenesis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to discover the preferred differentiation of hCSCs toward VSMCs on KOS hydrogel. The underlying mechanism remains unknown. This innovative methodology may offer a new approach to generate a robust number of VSMCs simply by culturing hCSCs on KOS hydrogel, and the resulting VSMCs may be used in animal studies and clinical trials in

  15. c-Myc-Induced Survivin Is Essential for Promoting the Notch-Dependent T Cell Differentiation from Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Rizwanul; Song, Jianyong; Haque, Mohammad; Lei, Fengyang; Sandhu, Praneet; Ni, Bing; Zheng, Songguo; Fang, Deyu; Yang, Jin-Ming; Song, Jianxun

    2017-01-01

    Notch is indispensable for T cell lineage commitment, and is needed for thymocyte differentiation at early phases. During early stages of T cell development, active Notch prevents other lineage potentials including B cell lineage and myeloid cell (e.g., dendritic cell) lineage. Nevertheless, the precise intracellular signaling pathways by which Notch promotes T cell differentiation remain unclear. Here we report that the transcription factor c-Myc is a key mediator of the Notch signaling–regulated T cell differentiation. In a well-established in vitro differentiation model of T lymphocytes from hematopoietic stem cells, we showed that Notch1 and 4 directly promoted c-Myc expression; dominant-negative (DN) c-Myc inhibited early T cell differentiation. Moreover, the c-Myc expression activated by Notch signaling increased the expression of survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein. We further demonstrated that over-expression of c-Myc increased the abundance of survivin and the T cell differentiation thereof, whereas dn c-Myc reduced survivin levels and concomitantly retarded the differentiation. The c-Myc–dependent survivin induction is functionally germane, because Notch-dependent T cell differentiation was canceled by the depletion of survivin. These results identify both c-Myc and survivin as important mediators of the Notch signaling–regulated differentiation of T lymphocytes from hematopoietic stem cells. PMID:28272325

  16. Enrichment of Human Stem-Like Prostate Cells with s-SHIP Promoter Activity Uncovers a Role in Stemness for the Long Noncoding RNA H19.

    PubMed

    Bauderlique-Le Roy, Hélène; Vennin, Constance; Brocqueville, Guillaume; Spruyt, Nathalie; Adriaenssens, Eric; Bourette, Roland P

    2015-05-15

    Understanding normal and cancer stem cells should provide insights into the origin of prostate cancer and their mechanisms of resistance to current treatment strategies. In this study, we isolated and characterized stem-like cells present in the immortalized human prostate cell line, RWPE-1. We used a reporter system with green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the promoter of s-SHIP (for stem-SH2-domain-containing 5'-inositol phosphatase) whose stem cell-specific expression has been previously shown. We observed that s-SHIP-GFP-expressing RWPE-1 cells showed stem cell characteristics such as increased expression of stem cell surface markers (CD44, CD166, TROP2) and pluripotency transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2), and enhanced sphere-forming capacity and resistance to arsenite-induced cell death. Concomitant increased expression of the long noncoding RNA H19 was observed, which prompted us to investigate a putative role in stemness for this oncofetal gene. Targeted suppression of H19 with siRNA decreased Oct4 and Sox2 gene expression and colony-forming potential in RWPE-1 cells. Conversely, overexpression of H19 significantly increased gene expression of these two transcription factors and the sphere-forming capacity of RWPE-1 cells. Analysis of H19 expression in various prostate and mammary human cell lines revealed similarities with Sox2 expression, suggesting that a functional relationship may exist between H19 and Sox2. Collectively, we provide the first evidence that s-SHIP-GFP promoter reporter offers a unique marker for the enrichment of human stem-like cell populations and highlight a role in stemness for the long noncoding RNA H19.

  17. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promote the repair of islets from diabetic mice through paracrine actions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaodong; Song, Lujun; Shen, Kuntang; Wang, Hongshan; Qian, Mengjia; Niu, Weixin; Qin, Xinyu

    2014-05-05

    Transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to effectively lower blood glucose levels in diabetic individuals, but the mechanism has not been adequately explained. We hypothesized that MSCs exert beneficial paracrine actions on the injured islets by releasing biologically active factors. To prove our hypothesis, we tested the cytoprotective effect of conditioned medium from cultured MSCs on isolated islets exposed to STZ in vitro and on mice islets after the experimental induction of diabetes in vivo. We assessed islet regeneration in the presence of conditioned medium and explored the possible mechanisms involved. Transplantation of MSCs can ameliorate hyperglycemia in diabetic mice by promoting the regeneration of β cells. Both β cell replication and islet progenitors differentiation contribute to β cell regeneration. MSC transplantation resulted in increases in pAkt and pErk expression by islets in vivo. Treatment with MSC-CM promoted islet cell proliferation and resulted in increases in pAkt and pErk expression by islets in vitro. The MSC-CM-mediated induction of β cell proliferation was completely blocked by the PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 but not by the MEK/Erk inhibitor PD98059. Together, these data suggest that the PI3K/Akt signal pathway plays a critical role in β cell proliferation after MSC transplantation.

  18. DDX53 Promotes Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyuna; Kim, Youngmi; Jeoung, Dooil

    2017-01-01

    Although cancer/testis antigen DDX53 confers anti-cancer drug-resistance, the effect of DDX53 on cancer stem cell-like properties and autophagy remains unknown. MDA-MB-231 (CD133+) cells showed higher expression of DDX53, SOX-2, NANOG and MDR1 than MDA-MB-231 (CD133−). DDX53 increased in vitro self-renewal activity of MCF-7 while decreasing expression of DDX53 by siRNA lowered in vitro self-renewal activity of MDA-MB-231. DDX53 showed an interaction with EGFR and binding to the promoter sequences of EGFR. DDX53 induced resistance to anti-cancer drugs in MCF-7 cells while decreased expression of DDX53 by siRNA increased the sensitivity of MDA-MB-231 to anti-cancer drugs. Negative regulators of DDX53, such as miR-200b and miR-217, increased the sensitivity of MDA-MB-231 to anti-cancer drugs. MDA-MB-231 showed higher expression of autophagy marker proteins such as ATG-5, pBeclin1Ser15 and LC-3I/II compared with MCF-7. DDX53 regulated the expression of marker proteins of autophagy in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. miR-200b and miR-217 negatively regulated the expression of autophagy marker proteins. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed the direct regulation of ATG-5. The decreased expression of ATG-5 by siRNA increased the sensitivity to anti-cancer drugs in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, DDX53 promotes stem cell-like properties, autophagy, and confers resistance to anti-cancer drugs in breast cancer cells. PMID:28152297

  19. The Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Promoting Ovarian Cancer Growth and Spread

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Cells (MSC2) Attenuate Symptoms of Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy . Stem Cells Transl. Med. July 9. 557-565. 4. Ruth S. Waterman, Sarah L...Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC2) Attenuate Symptoms of Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy . Stem Cells Translational Medicine: 557–565. 15. Mantovani A...phenotypes, MSC1 and MSC2 [13]. These phenotypes were recently and successfully tested in the therapy of a mouse model of painful diabetic peripheral

  20. Human fetal liver stromal cells expressing erythropoietin promote hematopoietic development from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Ji, Lei; Yue, Wen; Shi, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Ruo-Yong; Li, Yan-Hua; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Xi, Jia-Fei; He, Li-Juan; Nan, Xue; Pei, Xue-Tao

    2012-02-01

    Blood cells transfusion and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) transplantation are important methods for cell therapy. They are widely used in the treatment of incurable hematological disorder, infectious diseases, genetic diseases, and immunologic deficiency. However, their availability is limited by quantity, capacity of proliferation and the risk of blood transfusion complications. Recently, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been shown to be an alternative resource for the generation of hematopoietic cells. In the current study, we describe a novel method for the efficient production of hematopoietic cells from hESCs. The stable human fetal liver stromal cell lines (hFLSCs) expressing erythropoietin (EPO) were established using the lentiviral system. We observed that the supernatant from the EPO transfected hFLSCs could induce the hESCs differentiation into hematopoietic cells, especially erythroid cells. They not only expressed fetal and embryonic globins but also expressed the adult-globin chain on further maturation. In addition, these hESCs-derived erythroid cells possess oxygen-transporting capacity, which indicated hESCs could generate terminally mature progenies. This should be useful for ultimately developing an animal-free culture system to generate large numbers of erythroid cells from hESCs and provide an experimental model to study early human erythropoiesis.

  1. XB130 promotes bronchioalveolar stem cell and Club cell proliferation in airway epithelial repair and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Toba, Hiroaki; Wang, Yingchun; Bai, Xiaohui; Zamel, Ricardo; Cho, Hae-Ra; Liu, Hongmei; Lira, Alonso; Keshavjee, Shaf; Liu, Mingyao

    2015-01-01

    Proliferation of bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs) is essential for epithelial repair. XB130 is a novel adaptor protein involved in the regulation of epithelial cell survival, proliferation and migration through the PI3K/Akt pathway. To determine the role of XB130 in airway epithelial injury repair and regeneration, a naphthalene-induced airway epithelial injury model was used with XB130 knockout (KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates. In XB130 KO mice, at days 7 and 14, small airway epithelium repair was significantly delayed with fewer number of Club cells (previously called Clara cells). CCSP (Club cell secreted protein) mRNA expression was also significantly lower in KO mice at day 7. At day 5, there were significantly fewer proliferative epithelial cells in the KO group, and the number of BASCs significantly increased in WT mice but not in KO mice. At day 7, phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3β, and the p85α subunit of PI3K was observed in airway epithelial cells in WT mice, but to a much lesser extent in KO mice. Microarray data also suggest that PI3K/Akt-related signals were regulated differently in KO and WT mice. An inhibitory mechanism for cell proliferation and cell cycle progression was suggested in KO mice. XB130 is involved in bronchioalveolar stem cell and Club cell proliferation, likely through the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway. PMID:26360608

  2. Episomal Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Promote Functional Recovery of Transected Murine Peripheral Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Huang-Kai; Cardona, Esteban; Chuang, Sheng-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic peripheral nerve neurotmesis occurs frequently and functional recovery is often slow and impaired. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have shown much promise in recent years due to its regenerative properties similar to that of embryonic stem cells. However, the potential of iPSCs in promoting the functional recovery of a transected peripheral nerve is largely unknown. This study is the first to investigate in vivo effects of episomal iPSCs (EiPSCs) on peripheral nerve regeneration in a murine sciatic nerve transection model. Episomal iPSCs refer to iPSCs that are generated via Oct3/4-Klf4-Sox2 plasmid reprogramming instead of the conventional viral insertion techniques. It represents a relatively safer form of iPSC production without permanent transgene integration which may raise questions regarding risks of genomic mutation. A minimal number of EiPSCs were added directly to the transected nerve. Functional recovery of the EiPSC group was significantly improved compared to the negative control group when assessed via serial five-toe spread measurement and gait analysis of ankle angles. EiPSC promotion of nerve regeneration was also evident on stereographic analysis of axon density, myelin thickness, and axonal cross-sectional surface area. Most importantly, the results observed in EiPSCs are similar to that of the embryonic stem cell group. A roughly ten-fold increase in neurotrophin-3 levels was seen in EiPSCs which could have contributed to peripheral nerve regeneration and recovery. No abnormal masses or adverse effects were noted with EiPSC administration after one year of follow-up. We have hence shown that functional recovery of the transected peripheral nerve can be improved with the use of EiPSC therapy, which holds promise for the future of nerve regeneration. PMID:27736950

  3. Bone marrow-derived myofibroblasts contribute to the mesenchymal stem cell niche and promote tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Quante, Michael; Tu, Shui Ping; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Gonda, Tamas; Wang, Sophie S.W.; Takashi, Shigeo; Baik, Gwang Ho; Shibata, Wataru; DiPrete, Bethany; Betz, Kelly S.; Friedman, Richard; Varro, Andrea; Tycko, Benjamin; Wang, Timothy C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) that express α-smooth-muscle-actin (αSMA) contribute to cancer progression, but their precise origin and role is unclear. Using mouse models of inflammation-induced gastric cancer, we show that at least 20% of CAFs originate from bone marrow (BM) and derive from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). αSMA+ myofibroblasts (MF) are niche cells normally present in BM and increase markedly during cancer progression. MSC-derived CAFs that are recruited to the dysplastic stomach express IL-6, Wnt5α and BMP4, show DNA-hypomethylation, and promote tumor growth. Moreover, CAFs are generated from MSCs and are recruited to the tumor in TGF-β- and SDF-1α-dependent manner. Carcinogenesis therefore involves expansion and relocation of BM-niche cells to the tumor to create a niche to sustain cancer progression. PMID:21316604

  4. The Histone Acetyltransferase MOF Promotes Induces Generation of Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xupeng; Yan, Shaohua; Fu, Changhao; Wei, Anhui

    2015-08-01

    Histone modification plays an important role in maintaining pluripotency and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The histone acetyltransferase MOF is a key regulator of ESCs; however, the role of MOF in the process of reprogramming back to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the function of MOF on the generation of iPSCs. We show that iPSCs contain high levels of MOF mRNA, and the expression level of MOF protein is dramatically upregulated following reprogramming. Most importantly, overexpression of MOF improves reprogramming efficiency and facilitates the formation of iPSCs, whereas small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of MOF impairs iPSCs generation during reprogramming. Further investigation reveals that MOF interacts with the H3K4 methyltransferase Wdr5 to promote endogenous Oct4 expression during the reprogramming process. Knockdown of MOF reduces H4K16ac and H3K4me3 modification at the Oct4 promoter. In conclusion, our data indicate that MOF is an important epigenetic regulator that is critical for efficient reprogramming.

  5. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells repair spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury by promoting axonal growth and anti-autophagy.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fei; Meng, Chunyang; Lu, Rifeng; Li, Lei; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Hao; Qin, Yonggang; Guo, Li

    2014-09-15

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into neurons and astrocytes after transplantation in the spinal cord of rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury. Although bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are known to protect against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury through anti-apoptotic effects, the precise mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were cultured and proliferated, then transplanted into rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury via retro-orbital injection. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence with subsequent quantification revealed that the expression of the axonal regeneration marker, growth associated protein-43, and the neuronal marker, microtubule-associated protein 2, significantly increased in rats with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation compared with those in rats with spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. Furthermore, the expression of the autophagy marker, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B, and Beclin 1, was significantly reduced in rats with the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation compared with those in rats with spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of growth associated protein-43 and neurofilament-H increased but light chain 3B and Beclin 1 decreased in rats with the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. Our results therefore suggest that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation promotes neurite growth and regeneration and prevents autophagy. These responses may likely be mechanisms underlying the protective effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  6. Electrical Stimulation Promotes Cardiac Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Damián; Millard, Rodney; Sivakumaran, Priyadharshini; Wong, Raymond C. B.; Crombie, Duncan E.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Liang, Helena; Hung, Sandy S. C.; Pébay, Alice; Shepherd, Robert K.; Dusting, Gregory J.; Lim, Shiang Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are an attractive source of cardiomyocytes for cardiac repair and regeneration. In this study, we aim to determine whether acute electrical stimulation of human iPSCs can promote their differentiation to cardiomyocytes. Methods. Human iPSCs were differentiated to cardiac cells by forming embryoid bodies (EBs) for 5 days. EBs were then subjected to brief electrical stimulation and plated down for 14 days. Results. In iPS(Foreskin)-2 cell line, brief electrical stimulation at 65 mV/mm or 200 mV/mm for 5 min significantly increased the percentage of beating EBs present by day 14 after plating. Acute electrical stimulation also significantly increased the cardiac gene expression of ACTC1, TNNT2, MYH7, and MYL7. However, the cardiogenic effect of electrical stimulation was not reproducible in another iPS cell line, CERA007c6. Beating EBs from control and electrically stimulated groups expressed various cardiac-specific transcription factors and contractile muscle markers. Beating EBs were also shown to cycle calcium and were responsive to the chronotropic agents, isoproterenol and carbamylcholine, in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that brief electrical stimulation can promote cardiac differentiation of human iPS cells. The cardiogenic effect of brief electrical stimulation is dependent on the cell line used. PMID:26788064

  7. Simultaneous engagement of mechanical stretching and surface pattern promotes cardiomyogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Seo Rin; Kang, Yun Gyeong; Shin, Ji Won; Shin, Jung-Woog

    2017-02-01

    It has been widely recognized and proved that biophysical factors for mimicking in vivo conditions should be also considered to have stem cells differentiated into desired cell type in vitro along with biochemical factors. Biophysical factors include substrate and biomechanical conditions. This study focused on the effect of biomimetic mechanical stretching along with changes in substrate topography to influence on cardiomyogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Elastic micropatterned substrates were made to mimic the geometric conditions surrounding cells in vivo. To mimic biomechanical conditions due to beating of the heart, mechanical stretching was applied parallel to the direction of the pattern (10% elongation, 0.5 Hz, 4 h/day). Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) was used as a biochemical factor. The micropatterned substrate was found more effective in the alignment of cytoskeleton and cardiomyogenic differentiation compared with flat substrate. Significantly higher expression levels of related markers [GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4), troponin I, troponin T, natriuretic peptide A (NPPA)] were observed when mechanical stretching was engaged on micropatterned substrate. In addition, 4 days of mechanical stretching was associated with higher levels of expression than 2 days of stretching. These results indicate that simultaneous engagement of biomimetic environment such as substrate pattern and mechanical stimuli effectively promotes the cardiomyogenic differentiation of hMSCs in vitro. The suggested method which tried to mimic in vivo microenvironment would provide systematic investigation to control cardiomyogenic differentiation of hMSCs.

  8. Notch4+ cancer stem-like cells promote the metastatic and invasive ability of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xian; Sun, Baocun; Zhu, Dongwang; Zhao, Xiulan; Sun, Ran; Zhang, Yanhui; Zhang, Danfang; Dong, Xueyi; Gu, Qiang; Li, Yanlei; Liu, Fang

    2016-08-01

    Sphere formation in conditioned serum-free culture medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor (tumorospheres) is considered useful for the enrichment of cancer stem-like cells, also known as tumor-initiating cells. We used a gene expression microarray to investigate the gene expression profile of melanoma cancer stem-like cells (MCSLCs). The results showed that MCSLCs highly expressed the following Notch signaling pathway molecules: Notch3 (NM_008716), Notch4 (NM_010929), Dtx4 (NM_172442), and JAG2 (NM_010588). Immunofluorescence staining showed tumorosphere cells highly expressed Notch4. Notch4(high) B16F10 cells were isolated by FACS, and Western blotting showed that high Notch4 expression is related to the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated proteins. Reduced invasive and migratory properties concomitant with the downregulation of the EMT markers Twist1, vimentin, and VE-cadherin and the overexpression of E-cadherin was observed in human melanoma A375 and MUM-2B cells. In these cells, Notch4 was also downregulated, both by Notch4 gene knockdown and by application of the γ-secretase inhibitor, DAPT. Mechanistically, the re-overexpression of Twist1 by the transfection of cells with a Twist1 expression plasmid led to an increase in VE-cadherin expression and a decrease in E-cadherin expression. Immunohistochemical analysis of 120 human melanoma tissues revealed a significant correlation between the high expression of Notch4 and the metastasis of melanoma. Taken together, our findings indicate that Notch4+ MCSLCs trigger EMT and promote the metastasis of melanoma cells.

  9. Drug-based modulation of endogenous stem cells promotes functional remyelination in vivo.

    PubMed

    Najm, Fadi J; Madhavan, Mayur; Zaremba, Anita; Shick, Elizabeth; Karl, Robert T; Factor, Daniel C; Miller, Tyler E; Nevin, Zachary S; Kantor, Christopher; Sargent, Alex; Quick, Kevin L; Schlatzer, Daniela M; Tang, Hong; Papoian, Ruben; Brimacombe, Kyle R; Shen, Min; Boxer, Matthew B; Jadhav, Ajit; Robinson, Andrew P; Podojil, Joseph R; Miller, Stephen D; Miller, Robert H; Tesar, Paul J

    2015-06-11

    Multiple sclerosis involves an aberrant autoimmune response and progressive failure of remyelination in the central nervous system. Prevention of neural degeneration and subsequent disability requires remyelination through the generation of new oligodendrocytes, but current treatments exclusively target the immune system. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells are stem cells in the central nervous system and the principal source of myelinating oligodendrocytes. These cells are abundant in demyelinated regions of patients with multiple sclerosis, yet fail to differentiate, thereby representing a cellular target for pharmacological intervention. To discover therapeutic compounds for enhancing myelination from endogenous oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, we screened a library of bioactive small molecules on mouse pluripotent epiblast stem-cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Here we show seven drugs function at nanomolar doses selectively to enhance the generation of mature oligodendrocytes from progenitor cells in vitro. Two drugs, miconazole and clobetasol, are effective in promoting precocious myelination in organotypic cerebellar slice cultures, and in vivo in early postnatal mouse pups. Systemic delivery of each of the two drugs significantly increases the number of new oligodendrocytes and enhances remyelination in a lysolecithin-induced mouse model of focal demyelination. Administering each of the two drugs at the peak of disease in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis results in striking reversal of disease severity. Immune response assays show that miconazole functions directly as a remyelinating drug with no effect on the immune system, whereas clobetasol is a potent immunosuppressant as well as a remyelinating agent. Mechanistic studies show that miconazole and clobetasol function in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells through mitogen-activated protein kinase and glucocorticoid receptor

  10. Hypoxia inducible factor 1α promotes survival of mesenchymal stem cells under hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Bingke; Li, Feng; Fang, Jie; Xu, Limin; Sun, Chengmei; Han, Jianbang; Hua, Tian; Zhang, Zhongfei; Feng, Zhiming; Jiang, Xiaodan

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are ideal materials for cell therapy. Research has indicated that hypoxia benefits MSC survival, but little is known about the underlying mechanism. This study aims to uncover potential mechanisms involving hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1A) to explain the promoted MSC survival under hypoxia. MSCs were obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats and cultured under normoxia or hypoxia condition. The overexpression vector or small interfering RNA of Hif1a gene was transfected to MSCs, after which cell viability, apoptosis and expression of HIF1A were analyzed by MTT assay, flow cytometry, qRT-PCR and Western blot. Factors in p53 pathway were detected to reveal the related mechanisms. Results showed that hypoxia elevated MSCs viability and up-regulated HIF1A (P < 0.05) as previously reported. HIF1A overexpression promoted viability (P < 0.01) and suppressed apoptosis (P < 0.001) under normoxia. Correspondingly, HIF1A knockdown inhibited viability (P < 0.05) and promoted apoptosis (P < 0.01) of MSCs under hypoxia. Expression analysis suggested that p53, phosphate-p53 and p21 were repressed by HIF1A overexpression and promoted by HIF1A knockdown, and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) expression had the opposite pattern (P < 0.05). These results suggest that HIF1A may improve viability and suppress apoptosis of MSCs, implying the protective effect of HIF1A on MSC survival under hypoxia. The underlying mechanisms may involve the HIF1A-suppressed p53 pathway. This study helps to explain the mechanism of MSC survival under hypoxia, and facilitates the application of MSCs in cell therapy. PMID:28386377

  11. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote growth and angiogenesis of breast and prostate tumors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to migrate to tumor tissues. This behavior of MSCs has been exploited as a tumor-targeting strategy for cell-based cancer therapy. However, the effects of MSCs on tumor growth are controversial. This study was designed to determine the effect of MSCs on the growth of breast and prostate tumors. Methods Bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) were isolated and characterized. Effects of BM-MSCs on tumor cell proliferation were analyzed in a co-culture system with mouse breast cancer cell 4T1 or human prostate cancer cell DU145. Tumor cells were injected into nude mice subcutaneously either alone or coupled with BM-MSCs. The expression of cell proliferation and angiogenesis-related proteins in tumor tissues were immunofluorescence analyzed. The angiogenic effect of BM-MSCs was detected using a tube formation assay. The effects of the crosstalk between tumor cells and BM-MSCs on expression of angiogenesis related markers were examined by immunofluorescence and real-time PCR. Results Both co-culturing with mice BM-MSCs (mBM-MSCs) and treatment with mBM-MSC-conditioned medium enhanced the growth of 4T1 cells. Co-injection of 4T1 cells and mBM-MSCs into nude mice led to increased tumor size compared with injection of 4T1 cells alone. Similar experiments using DU145 cells and human BM-MSCs (hBM-MSCs) instead of 4T1 cells and mBM-MSCs obtained consistent results. Compared with tumors induced by injection of tumor cells alone, the blood vessel area was greater in tumors from co-injection of tumor cells with BM-MSCs, which correlated with decreased central tumor necrosis and increased tumor cell proliferation. Furthermore, both conditioned medium from hBM-MSCs alone and co-cultures of hBM-MSCs with DU145 cells were able to promote tube formation ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. When hBM-MSCs are exposed to the DU145 cell environment, the expression of markers associated with neovascularization (macrophage

  12. Thymosin beta-4 promotes mesenchymal stem cell proliferation via an interleukin-8-dependent mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Byung-Joon; Yang, Yoolhee; Kyung Shim, Su; Yang, Heung-Mo; Cho, Daeho; Ik Bang, Sa

    2013-10-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great promise for the field of tissue regeneration. Because only a limited number of MSCs can be obtained from each donor site, it is important to establish standard methods for MSC expansion using growth and trophic factors. Thymosin β4 (Tβ4) is a novel trophic factor that has antimicrobial effects and the potential to promote tissue repair. Tβ4 is a ubiquitous, naturally-occurring peptide in the wound bed. Therefore, the relationship between Tβ4 and MSCs, especially adjacent adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs), merits consideration. Exogenous Tβ4 treatment enhanced the proliferation of human ASCs, resulting in prominent nuclear localization of PCNA immunoreactivity. In addition, exogenous Tβ4 also increased IL-8 secretion and blocking of IL-8 with neutralizing antibodies decreased Tβ4-induced ASC proliferation, suggesting that IL-8 is a critical mediator of Tβ4-enhanced proliferation. Moreover, Tβ4 activated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and increased the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. These observation provide that Tβ4 promotes the expansion of human ASCs via an IL-8-dependent mechanism that involves the ERK and NF-κB pathways. Therefore, Tβ4 could be used as a tool for MSC expansion in cell therapeutics. - Highlights: • This is fundamental information required to correlate Tβ4 with MSC expansion. • MSC expansion by Tβ4 is involved in enhancement of IL-8 and ERK/NF-κB pathway. • Tβ4 could be used as a tool for MSC expansion in cell therapeutics.

  13. Novel cell lines isolated from mouse embryonic stem cells exhibiting de novo methylation of the E-cadherin promoter.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Kate; Keramari, Maria; Soncin, Francesca; Segal, Joe M; Mohamet, Lisa; Miazga, Natalie; Ritson, Sarah; Bobola, Nicoletta; Merry, Catherine L R; Ward, Christopher M

    2014-11-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and epiblast stem cells represent the naïve and primed pluripotent states, respectively. These cells self-renew via distinct signaling pathways and can transition between the two states in the presence of appropriate growth factors. Manipulation of signaling pathways has therefore allowed the isolation of novel pluripotent cell types such as Fibroblast growth factor, Activin and BIO-derived stem cells and IESCs. However, the effect of cell seeding density on pluripotency remains unexplored. In this study, we have examined whether mESCs can epigenetically regulate E-cadherin to enter a primed-like state in response to low cell seeding density. We show that low density seeding in the absence of leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) induces decreased apoptosis and maintenance of pluripotency via Activin/Nodal, concomitant with loss of E-cadherin, Signal transducer and activator of transcription phosphorylation, and chimera-forming ability. These cells, E-cadherin negative proliferating stem cells (ENPSCs) can be reverted to a naïve phenotype by addition of LIF or forced E-cadherin expression. However, prolonged culture of ENPSCs without LIF leads to methylation of the E-cadherin promoter (ENPSC(M)), which cannot be reversed by LIF supplementation, and increased histone H3K27 and decreased H3K4 trimethylation. Transcript analysis of ENPSC(M) revealed a primed-like phenotype and their differentiation leads to enrichment of neuroectoderm cells. The generation of ENPSCs is similar to tumorigenesis as ENPSCs exhibit transcript alterations associated with neoplasia, hyperplasia, carcinoma, and metastasis. We therefore describe a novel cell model to elucidate the role of E-cadherin in pluripotency and to investigate epigenetic regulation of this gene during mESC differentiation and tumor metastasis.

  14. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes from different sources selectively promote neuritic outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Verrilli, M A; Caviedes, A; Cabrera, A; Sandoval, S; Wyneken, U; Khoury, M

    2016-04-21

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from bone marrow (BM) have been shown to promote neuronal growth and survival. However, the comparative effects of MSCs of different sources, including menstrual MSCs (MenSCs), BM, umbilical cord and chorion stem cells on neurite outgrowth have not yet been explored. Moreover, the modulatory effects of MSCs may be mediated by paracrine mechanisms, i.e. by molecules contained in the MSC secretome that includes soluble factors and extracellular vesicles such as microvesicles and/or exosomes. The biogenesis of microvesicles, characterized by a vesicle diameter of 50 to 1000 nm, involves membrane shedding while exosomes, of 30 to 100 nm in diameter, originate in the multivesicular bodies within cells. Both vesicle types, which can be harvested from the conditioned media of cell cultures by differential centrifugation steps, regulate the function of target cells due to their molecular content of microRNA, mRNA, proteins and lipids. Here, we compared the effect of human menstrual MSCs (MenSCs) mediated by cell-cell contact, by their total secretome or by secretome-derived extracellular vesicles on neuritic outgrowth in primary neuronal cultures. The contact of MenSCs with cortical neurons inhibited neurite outgrowth while their total secretome enhanced it. The extracellular vesicle fractions showed a distinctive effect: while the exosome-enriched fraction enhanced neurite outgrowth, the microvesicle-enriched fraction displayed an inhibitory effect. When we compared exosome fractions of different human MSC sources, MenSC exosomes showed superior effects on the growth of the longest neurite in cortical neurons and had a comparable effect to BM-SC exosomes on neurite outgrowth in dorsal root ganglia neurons. Thus, the growth-stimulating effects of exosomes derived from MenSCs as well as the opposing effects of both extracellular vesicle fractions provide important information regarding the potential use of MenSCs as therapeutic

  15. Allogenic human serum, a clinical grade serum supplement for promoting human periodontal ligament stem cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Arpornmaeklong, Premjit; Sutthitrairong, Chotika; Jantaramanant, Piyathida; Pripatnanont, Prisana

    2016-12-13

    Exposing human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) to animal proteins during cell expansion would compromise quality and safety of the hPDLSCs for clinical applications. The current study aimed to evaluate the replacement of animal based serum by human serum for the expansion of hPDLSCs. Human PDLSCs were cultured in culture media supplemented with 4 types of serums, Group A: fetal bovine serum (FBS), Group B: allogeneic human male AB serum (HS) and Group C in-house autologous (Auto-HS) and Group D: in-house allogeneic human serums (Allo-HS). Exhibitions of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) characteristics of hPDLSCs were examined. Then growth and osteogenic differentiation potential of hPDLSCs in FBS and HS at passages 5 and 15 were compared to investigate effects of serum supplements on growth and expansion stability of the expanded hPDLSCs. After that, growth and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs in Auto- and Allo-HS were investigated. Flow cytometrical analyses, functional differentiations, cell growth kinetic, cytogenetic analysis, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and calcium content assays and oil red O and von Kossa staining were performed. Results showed that at passage 5, HS promoted growth and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs and extensive cell expansion, decreased growth and differentiation potential of the expanded hPDLSCs, particularly in HS. Growth and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs in Auto-HS and Allo-HS were not different. In summary, allogeneic human serum could be a replacement to FBS for hPDLSC expansion. In vitro cell expansion of hPDLSCs should be minimal to ensure optimal cell quality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Human Amnion-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Osteogenic Differentiation in Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Influencing the ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuli; Jiang, Fei; Liang, Yi; Shen, Ming; Chen, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs) are considered to be an important resource in the field of tissue engineering because of their anti-inflammatory properties and fewer ethical issues associated with their use compared with other sources of stem cells. HAMSCs can be obtained from human amniotic membranes, a readily available and abundant tissue. However, the potential of HAMSCs as seed cells for treating bone deficiency is unknown. In this study, HAMSCs were used to promote proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs) in a Transwell coculture system. Proliferation levels were investigated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining of 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU). Osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization were evaluated in chromogenic alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity substrate assays, Alizarin red S staining, and RT-PCR analysis of early HBMSCs osteogenic marker expression. We demonstrated that HAMSCs stimulated increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mRNA expression of osteogenic marker genes, and mineralized matrix deposition. Moreover, the effect of HAMSCs was significantly inhibited by U0126, a highly selective inhibitor of extracellular signaling-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling. We demonstrate that HAMSCs promote osteogenic differentiation in HBMSCs by influencing the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. These observations confirm the potential of HAMSCs as a seed cell for the treatment of bone deficiency. PMID:26697075

  17. ERG promotes T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia and is transcriptionally regulated in leukemic cells by a stem cell enhancer.

    PubMed

    Thoms, Julie A I; Birger, Yehudit; Foster, Sam; Knezevic, Kathy; Kirschenbaum, Yael; Chandrakanthan, Vashe; Jonquieres, Georg; Spensberger, Dominik; Wong, Jason W; Oram, S Helen; Kinston, Sarah J; Groner, Yoram; Lock, Richard; MacKenzie, Karen L; Göttgens, Berthold; Izraeli, Shai; Pimanda, John E

    2011-06-30

    The Ets-related gene (ERG) is an Ets-transcription factor required for normal blood stem cell development. ERG expression is down-regulated during early T-lymphopoiesis but maintained in T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), where it is recognized as an independent risk factor for adverse outcome. However, it is unclear whether ERG is directly involved in the pathogenesis of T-ALL and how its expression is regulated. Here we demonstrate that transgenic expression of ERG causes T-ALL in mice and that its knockdown reduces the proliferation of human MOLT4 T-ALL cells. We further demonstrate that ERG expression in primary human T-ALL cells is mediated by the binding of other T-cell oncogenes SCL/TAL1, LMO2, and LYL1 in concert with ERG, FLI1, and GATA3 to the ERG +85 enhancer. This enhancer is not active in normal T cells but in transgenic mice targets expression to fetal liver c-kit(+) cells, adult bone marrow stem/progenitors and early CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative thymic progenitors. Taken together, these data illustrate that ERG promotes T-ALL and that failure to extinguish activity of stem cell enhancers associated with regulatory transcription factors such as ERG can contribute to the development of leukemia.

  18. Chinese preparation Xuesaitong promotes the mobilization of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in rats with cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Sheng; Zhang, Bao-Xia; Du, Mei-Mei; Wang, Xiao-Ya; Li, Wei

    2016-02-01

    After cerebral ischemia, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are mobilized and travel from the bone marrow through peripheral circulation to the focal point of ischemia to initiate tissue regeneration. However, the number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells mobilized into peripheral circulation is not enough to exert therapeutic effects, and the method by which blood circulation is promoted to remove blood stasis influences stem cell homing. The main ingredient of Xuesaitong capsules is Panax notoginseng saponins, and Xuesaitong is one of the main drugs used for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis. We established rat models of cerebral infarction by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery and then intragastrically administered Xuesaitong capsules (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg per day) for 28 successive days. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that in rats with cerebral infarction, middle- and high-dose Xuesaitong significantly increased the level of stem cell factors and the number of CD117-positive cells in plasma and bone marrow and significantly decreased the number of CD54- and CD106-positive cells in plasma and bone marrow. The effect of low-dose Xuesaitong on these factors was not obvious. These findings demonstrate that middle- and high-dose Xuesaitong and hence Panax notoginseng saponins promote and increase the level and mobilization of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in peripheral blood.

  19. Surface topography of hydroxyapatite promotes osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanlei; Han, Weiqi; He, Wei; Li, Jianlei; Wang, Jirong; Feng, Haotian; Qian, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Effective and safe induction of osteogenic differentiation is one of the key elements of bone tissue engineering. Surface topography of scaffold materials was recently found to promote osteogenic differentiation. Utilization of this topography may be a safer approach than traditional induction by growth factors or chemicals. The aim of this study is to investigate the enhancement of osteogenic differentiation by surface topography and its mechanism of action. Hydroxyapatite (HA) discs with average roughness (Ra) of surface topography ranging from 0.2 to 1.65 μm and mean distance between peaks (RSm) ranging from 89.7 to 18.6 μm were prepared, and human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) were cultured on these discs. Optimal osteogenic differentiation was observed on discs with surface topography characterized by Ra ranging from 0.77 to 1.09 μm and RSm ranging from 53.9 to 39.3 μm. On this surface configuration of HA, hBMSCs showed oriented attachment, F-actin arrangement, and a peak in the expression of Yes-associated protein (YAP) and PDZ binding motif (TAZ) (YAP/TAZ). These results indicated that the surface topography of HA promoted osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs, possibly by increasing cell attachment and promoting the YAP/TAZ signaling pathway.

  20. SLIT/ROBO2 Signaling Promotes Mammary Stem Cell Senescence by Inhibiting Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Harburg, Gwyndolen; Compton, Jennifer; Liu, Wei; Iwai, Naomi; Zada, Shahrzad; Marlow, Rebecca; Strickland, Phyllis; Zeng, Yi Arial; Hinck, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Summary WNT signaling stimulates the self-renewal of many types of adult stem cells, including mammary stem cells (MaSCs), but mechanisms that limit this activity are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that SLIT2 restricts stem cell renewal by signaling through ROBO2 in a subset of basal cells to negatively regulate WNT signaling. The absence of SLIT/ROBO2 signaling leads to increased levels of nuclear β-catenin. Robo2 loss does not increase the number of stem cells; instead, stem cell renewal is enhanced in the absence of SLIT/ROBO2 signaling. This is due to repressed expression of p16INK4a, which, in turn, delays MaSC senescence. Together, our studies support a model in which SLITs restrict the expansion of MaSCs by countering the activity of WNTs and limiting self-renewal. PMID:25241737

  1. Role of injured pancreatic extract promotes bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells efficiently differentiate into insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hongbin; Wang, Yunshuai; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Hui; Zhou, Hanxin; Li, Fu-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be successfully induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) by a variety of small molecules and cytokines in vitro. However, problems remain, such as low transdifferentiation efficiency and poor maturity of trans-differentiated cells. The damaged pancreatic cells secreted a large amount of soluble proteins, which were able to promote pancreative islet regeneration and MSCs differentiation. In this study, we utilized the rat injured pancreatic tissue extract to modulate rat bone marrow-derived MSCs differentiation into IPCs by the traditional two-step induction. Our results showed that injured pancreatic tissue extract could effectively promote the trans-differentiation efficiency and maturity of IPCs by the traditional induction. Moreover, IPCs were able to release more insulin in a glucose-dependent manner and ameliorate better the diabetic conditions of streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats. Our study provides a new strategy to induce an efficient and directional differentiation of MSCs into IPCs.

  2. Carbon nanotube rope with electrical stimulation promotes the differentiation and maturity of neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Jie; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Wang, Tzu-Wei

    2012-09-24

    In recent years, the utilization of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the field of neuroscience has forever changed the approach to nerve-related research. The array of novel properties CNTs possess allows them to interact with neurons at the nanodimensional scale. In this study, a CNT rope substrate is developed to allow the electrical stimulation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in culture medium and the in situ observation of the response of these stem cells after stimulation. CNTs are synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and prepared into a ropelike structure with a diameter of 1 mm and length of 1.5 cm. NSCs are differentiated on the CNT rope substrate while the direction of neurite outgrowth, phenotype, and maturity of the NSCs are analyzed. Fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy demonstrate that neurite extension favors the direction of the spiral topography on the CNT rope. NSCs plated on CNT ropes are boosted towards differentiated neurons in the early culture stage when compared to conventional tissue culture plates via the analysis of neuronal gene and protein expressions by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining, respectively. Furthermore, a set of electrical stimulation parameters (5 mV, 0.5 mA, 25 ms intermittent stimulation) promotes neuronal maturity while also increasing the speed of neurite outgrowth. These results indicate that an electroconductive CNT rope substrate along with electrical stimulation may have a synergistic effect on promoting neurite elongation and boosting effects on the differentiation of NSCs into mature neuronal cells for therapeutic application in neural regeneration.

  3. Cigarette smoke promotes drug resistance and expansion of cancer stem cell-like side population.

    PubMed

    An, Yi; Kiang, Alan; Lopez, Jay Patrick; Kuo, Selena Z; Yu, Michael Andrew; Abhold, Eric L; Chen, Jocelyn S; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Ongkeko, Weg M

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that many patients continue to smoke cigarettes after being diagnosed with cancer. Although smoking cessation has typically been presumed to possess little therapeutic value for cancer, a growing body of evidence suggests that continued smoking is associated with reduced efficacy of treatment and a higher incidence of recurrence. We therefore investigated the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on drug resistance in the lung cancer and head and neck cancer cell lines A549 and UMSCC-10B, respectively. Our results showed that CSC significantly increased the cellular efflux of doxorubicin and mitoxantrone. This was accompanied by membrane localization and increased expression of the multi-drug transporter ABCG2. The induced efflux of doxorubicin was reversed upon addition of the specific ABCG2 inhibitor Fumitremorgin C, confirming the role of ABCG2. Treatment with CSC increased the concentration of phosphorylated Akt, while addition of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 blocked doxorubicin extrusion, suggesting that Akt activation is required for CSC-induced drug efflux. In addition, CSC was found to promote resistance to doxorubicin as determined by MTS assays. This CSC-induced doxurbicin-resistance was mitigated by mecamylamine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitor, suggesting that nicotine is at least partially responsible for the effect of CSC. Lastly, CSC increased the size of the side population (SP), which has been linked to a cancer stem cell-like phenotype. In summary, CSC promotes chemoresistance via Akt-mediated regulation of ABCG2 activity, and may also increase the proportion of cancer stem-like cells, contributing to tumor resilience. These findings underscore the importance of smoking cessation following a diagnosis of cancer, and elucidate the mechanisms of continued smoking that may be detrimental to treatment.

  4. Lingo-1 shRNA and Notch signaling inhibitor DAPT promote differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells into neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jue; Ye, Zhizhong; Zheng, Shuhui; Chen, Luming; Wan, Yong; Deng, Yubin; Yang, Ruirui

    2016-03-01

    Determination of the exogenous factors that regulate differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells into neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes is an important step in the clinical therapy of spinal cord injury (SCI). The Notch pathway inhibits the differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells and Lingo-1 is a strong negative regulator for myelination and axon growth. While Lingo-1 shRNA and N-[N-(3, 5-difluorophenacetyl)-1-alanyl]-S-Phenylglycinet-butylester (DAPT), a Notch pathway inhibitor, have been used separately to help repair SCI, the results have been unsatisfactory. Here we investigated and elucidated the preliminary mechanism for the effect of Lingo-1 shRNA and DAPT on neural stem/progenitor cells differentiation. We found that neural stem/progenitor cells from E14 rat embryos expressed Nestin, Sox-2 and Lingo-1, and we optimized the transduction of neural stem/progenitor cells using lentiviral vectors encoding Lingo-1 shRNA. The addition of DAPT decreased the expression of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) as well as the downstream genes Hes1 and Hes5. Expression of NeuN, CNPase and GFAP in DAPT treated cells and expression of NeuN in Lingo-1 shRNA treated cells confirmed differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells into neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. These results revealed that while Lingo-1 shRNA and Notch signaling inhibitor DAPT both promoted differentiation of neural stem cells into neurons, only DAPT was capable of driving neural stem/progenitor cells differentiation into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Since we were able to show that both Lingo-1 shRNA and DAPT could drive neural stem/progenitor cells differentiation, our data might aid the development of more effective SCI therapies using Lingo-1 shRNA and DAPT.

  5. Adhesion to Vitronectin and Collagen I Promotes Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Plopper, George E.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms controlling human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) differentiation are not entirely understood. We hypothesized that the contact with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins normally found in bone marrow would promote osteogenic differentiation of hMSC in vitro. To test this hypothesis, we cultured hMSC on purified ECM proteins in the presence or absence of soluble osteogenic supplements, and assayed for the presence of well-established differentiation markers (production of mineralized matrix, osteopontin, osteocalcin, collagen I, and alkaline phosphatase expression) over a 16-day time course. We found that hMSC adhere to ECM proteins with varying affinity (fibronectin>collagen I≥collagen IV≥vitronectin>laminin-1) and through distinct integrin receptors. Importantly, the greatest osteogenic differentiation occurred in cells plated on vitronectin and collagen I and almost no differentiation took place on fibronectin or uncoated plates. We conclude that the contact with vitronectin and collagen I promotes the osteogenic differentiation of hMSC, and that ECM contact alone may be sufficient to induce differentiation in these cells. PMID:15123885

  6. Untested, unproven, and unethical: the promotion and provision of autologous stem cell therapies in Australia.

    PubMed

    McLean, Alison K; Stewart, Cameron; Kerridge, Ian

    2015-02-09

    An increasing number of private clinics in Australia are marketing and providing autologous stem cell therapies to patients. Although advocates point to the importance of medical innovation and the primacy of patient choice, these arguments are unconvincing. First, it is a stark truth that these clinics are flourishing while the efficacy and safety of autologous stem cell therapies, outside of established indications for hematopioetic stem cell transplantation, are yet to be shown. Second, few of these therapies are offered within clinical trials. Third, patients with chronic and debilitating illnesses, who are often the ones who take up these therapies, incur significant financial burdens in the expectation of benefiting from these treatments. Finally, the provision of these stem cell therapies does not follow the established pathways for legitimate medical advancement. We argue that greater regulatory oversight and professional action are necessary to protect vulnerable patients and that at this time the provision of unproven stem cell therapies outside of clinical trials is unethical.

  7. Neural stem cell transplantation promotes behavioral recovery in a photothrombosis stroke model

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junning; Gao, Junwei; Hou, Boru; Liu, Jixing; Chen, Sihua; Yan, Guizhong; Ren, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapy provides a promising approach for treat stroke. Neural stem cells isolated from mice hippocampus possessing the capacity of differentiate into neurons and astrocytes both in vitro and vivo. Here, we investigated the capability of neural stem cell transplantation in photothrombosis stroke model. Nissl staining revealed that the cortical infarct significantly decreased by 16.32% (Vehicle: 27.93le: an mm3, n=6, NSC: 23.37le: ai mm3, n=6, P<0.05) in the NSC group compared with the vehicle. More over transplantation of neural stem cells significantly (P<0.01) improved neurological performance compared with vehicle. These results indicate that transplantation of neural stem cell is an effective therapy in ischemic stroke. PMID:26339348

  8. BCR/ABL can promote CD19+ cell growth but not render them long-term stemness

    PubMed Central

    Li, Donghe; Zhao, Xuemei; Zhang, Ruihong; Jiao, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer stem cells are a subpopulation of malignant cells that have the capacity of both self-renewal and reconstitution of the cancer. Eradication of cancer stem cells is crucial for curing the malignant disease. Previous studies in hematopoietic malignancies showed that leukemia stem cells (LSCs) in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) chronic phase are originated from a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), while LSCs in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) can either be derived from HSCs or be transformed from myeloid progenitors. But in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), the origin of leukemia stem cells is not clear. In this study, we tested whether BCR/ABL could transform B-lineage committed CD19+ cells to LSCs. Methods The B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia mouse model was generated by transplanting BCR/ABL-containing retrovirus infected bone marrow (BM) cells or CD19+ cells into recipient mice. In the secondary or tertiary transplantation experiment, the GFP+ cells (leukemic cells) were isolated from primary or secondary B-ALL mice. In addition, the frequency of leukemia stem cells was determined by limited dilution assay. Results We found that transducing BCR/ABL in CD19+ cells can promote their colony formation in vitro and induce B-ALL like disease in vivo. However, only BCR/ABL transduced whole BM cells can be transplanted multiple times in recipient mice, and the frequency of long-term LSCs from the latter ranges from 1/135 to 1/629. Conclusions These studies suggest that BCR/ABL is unable to confer the long-term stemness to committed B-lymphoid progenitors and imply that CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T cell therapy may not be effective in eradicating LSCs in BCR/ABL+ B-ALL. PMID:28066787

  9. Mesenchymal stem cell-loaded cardiac patch promotes epicardial activation and repair of the infarcted myocardium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang-Li; Wang, Hai-Jie; Li, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Yong-Li; Wu, Xue-Ping; Tan, Yu-Zhen

    2017-02-28

    Cardiac patch is considered a promising strategy for enhancing stem cell therapy of myocardial infarction (MI). However, the underlying mechanisms for cardiac patch repairing infarcted myocardium remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of PCL/gelatin patch loaded with MSCs on activating endogenous cardiac repair. PCL/gelatin patch was fabricated by electrospun. The patch enhanced the survival of the seeded MSCs and their HIF-1α, Tβ4, VEGF and SDF-1 expression and decreased CXCL14 expression in hypoxic and serum-deprived conditions. In murine MI models, the survival and distribution of the engrafted MSCs and the activation of the epicardium were examined, respectively. At 4 weeks after transplantation of the cell patch, the cardiac functions were significantly improved. The engrafted MSCs migrated across the epicardium and into the myocardium. Tendency of HIF-1α, Tβ4, VEGF, SDF-1 and CXCL14 expression in the infarcted myocardium was similar with expression in vitro. The epicardium was activated and epicardial-derived cells (EPDCs) migrated into deep tissue. The EPDCs differentiated into endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, and some of EPDCs showed to have differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Density of blood and lymphatic capillaries increased significantly. More c-kit(+) cells were recruited into the infarcted myocardium after transplantation of the cell patch. The results suggest that epicardial transplantation of the cell patch promotes repair of the infarcted myocardium and improves cardiac functions by enhancing the survival of the transplanted cells, accelerating locality paracrine, and then activating the epicardium and recruiting endogenous c-kit(+) cells. Epicardial transplantation of the cell patch may be applied as a novel effective MI therapy.

  10. PAX4 promotes PDX1-induced differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into insulin-secreting cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lifa; Xu, Congjing; Zhou, Shuping; Liu, Xueke; Wang, Jian; Liu, Xinkuang; Qian, Suping; Xin, Yingru; Gao, Yi; Zhu, Yongqiang; Tang, Xiaolong

    2017-01-01

    A shortage of postmortem pancreatic tissue for islet isolation impedes the application of cell replacement therapy in patients with diabetes. As an alternative for islet cell transplantation, transcription factors, including PDX1, PAX4, and neurogenin-3, that aid in the formation of insulin-producing β cells during development have been investigated. The present study evaluated the effects of PAX4 and PDX1 on the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into insulin-producing β-like cells in vitro using recombinant adenoviruses carrying PDX1 or PDX1 plus PAX4. RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence assays were used to detect the expression levels of relevant genes and proteins, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to determine the amount of insulin and C-peptide secreted by the virus-infected cells following stimulation with high glucose. The results showed that PAX4 markedly enhanced the propensity of PDX1-positive MSCs to form mature islet-like clusters and functional insulin-producing β-like cells. Our findings provide a novel foundation for generating β-like cells from MSCs with PAX4 and PDX1 for future clinical application. PMID:28386318

  11. Arctigenin protects against neuronal hearing loss by promoting neural stem cell survival and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinghua; Chen, Mo; Ding, Yan; Wang, Qin

    2017-03-01

    Neuronal hearing loss has become a prevalent health problem. This study focused on the function of arctigenin (ARC) in promoting survival and neuronal differentiation of mouse cochlear neural stem cells (NSCs), and its protection against gentamicin (GMC) induced neuronal hearing loss. Mouse cochlea was used to isolate NSCs, which were subsequently cultured in vitro. The effects of ARC on NSC survival, neurosphere formation, differentiation of NSCs, neurite outgrowth, and neural excitability in neuronal network in vitro were examined. Mechanotransduction ability demonstrated by intact cochlea, auditory brainstem response (ABR), and distortion product optoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) amplitude in mice were measured to evaluate effects of ARC on GMC-induced neuronal hearing loss. ARC increased survival, neurosphere formation, neuron differentiation of NSCs in mouse cochlear in vitro. ARC also promoted the outgrowth of neurites, as well as neural excitability of the NSC-differentiated neuron culture. Additionally, ARC rescued mechanotransduction capacity, restored the threshold shifts of ABR and DPOAE in our GMC ototoxicity murine model. This study supports the potential therapeutic role of ARC in promoting both NSCs proliferation and differentiation in vitro to functional neurons, thus supporting its protective function in the therapeutic treatment of neuropathic hearing loss in vivo.

  12. Vectofusin-1, a New Viral Entry Enhancer, Strongly Promotes Lentiviral Transduction of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fenard, David; Ingrao, Dina; Seye, Ababacar; Buisset, Julien; Genries, Sandrine; Martin, Samia; Kichler, Antoine; Galy, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Gene transfer into hCD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs) using human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-based lentiviral vectors (LVs) has several promising therapeutic applications. Yet, efficiency, safety, and cost of LV gene therapy could be ameliorated by enhancing target cell transduction levels and reducing the amount of LV used on the cells. Several transduction enhancers already exist such as fibronectin fragments and cationic compounds, but all present limitations. In this study, we describe a new transduction enhancer called Vectofusin-1, which is a short cationic peptide, active on several LV pseudotypes. Vectofusin-1 is used as a soluble additive to safely increase the frequency of transduced HSCs and to augment the level of transduction to one or two copies of vector per cell in a vector dose-dependent manner. Vectofusin-1 acts at the entry step by promoting the adhesion and the fusion between viral and cellular membranes. Vectofusin-1 is therefore a promising additive that could significantly ameliorate hCD34+ cell-based gene therapy. PMID:23653154

  13. Enhanced Hematopoietic Stem Cell Self-Renewal-Promoting Ability of Clonal Primary Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem cells Versus Their Osteogenic Progeny.

    PubMed

    He, Qiling; Scott Swindle, Claude; Wan, Chao; Flynn, Robert J; Oster, Robert A; Chen, Dongquan; Zhang, Fengjie; Shu, Yinglan; Klug, Christopher A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term self-renewing hematopoietic stem cell (LT-HSC) homeostasis within the bone marrow (BM) of adult mammals is regulated by complex interactions between LT-HSC and a number of niche-associated cell types including mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC), osteoblasts (OB), macrophage, and neuronal cells in close proximity with the vasculature. Here, we cloned and functionally characterized a murine BM MSC subpopulation that was uniformly Nestin(+) Lepr (+) Sca-1(+) CD146(+) and could be stably propagated with high colony-forming unit fibroblast re-cloning efficiency. MSC synergized with SCF and IL-11 to support a 20-fold expansion in true LT-HSC after 10-days of in vitro coculture. Optimal stimulation of LT-HSC expansion was minimally dependent on Notch signaling but was significantly enhanced by global inhibition of Wnt signaling. The self-renewal-promoting activity of MSC was progressively lost when MSC clones were differentiated into mature OB. This suggests that the stage of osteoblast development may significantly impact the ability of osteolineage cells to support LT-HSC homeostasis in vivo. Stem Cells 2017;35:473-484.

  14. DUOX1 silencing in lung cancer promotes EMT, cancer stem cell characteristics and invasive properties

    PubMed Central

    Little, A C; Sham, D; Hristova, M; Danyal, K; Heppner, D E; Bauer, R A; Sipsey, L M; Habibovic, A; van der Vliet, A

    2016-01-01

    Dual oxidase 1 (DUOX1) is an oxidant-generating enzyme within the airway epithelium that participates in innate airway host defense and epithelial homeostasis. Recent studies indicate that DUOX1 is suppressed in lung cancers by epigenetic silencing, although the importance of DUOX1 silencing in lung cancer development or progression is unknown. Here we show that loss of DUOX1 expression in a panel of lung cancer cell lines is strongly associated with loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin. Moreover, RNAi-mediated DUOX1 silencing in lung epithelial cells and the cancer cell line NCI-H292 was found to result in loss of epithelial characteristics/molecular features (altered morphology, reduced barrier function and loss of E-cadherin) and increased mesenchymal features (increased migration, anchorage-independent growth and gain of vimentin/collagen), suggesting a direct contribution of DUOX1 silencing to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), an important feature of metastatic cancer. Conversely, overexpression of DUOX1 in A549 cells was capable of reversing EMT features. DUOX1 silencing in H292 cells also led to enhanced resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as erlotinib, and enhanced levels of cancer stem cell (CSC) markers CD133 and ALDH1. Furthermore, acquired resistance of H292 cells to erlotinib resulted in enhanced EMT and CSC features, as well as loss of DUOX1. Finally, compared with control H292 cells, H292-shDUOX1 cells displayed enhanced invasive features in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, our findings indicate that DUOX1 silencing in lung epithelial cancer cells promotes features of EMT, and may be strongly associated with invasive and metastatic lung cancer. PMID:27694834

  15. Mesenchymal stem cells promote osteosarcoma cell survival and drug resistance through activation of STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shen; Wang, Lei; Fan, Qiming; Hao, Yongqiang; Fan, Cunyi; Tang, Ting-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the tumor microenvironment plays a key role in the development of drug resistant tumor cells. In this study, we tried to determine whether the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the tumor microenvironment contribute to the increased chemoresistance of osteosarcoma. We found that exposure of Saos-2 and U2-OS cells to MSCs conditioned medium (CM) increased the viable cells in the presence of therapeutic concentrations of doxorubicin or cisplatin. Meanwhile, the MSC CM-associated pro-proliferative effects were accompanied by reduced caspase 3/7 activity and Annexin V binding. We confirmed that STAT3 activation by IL-6 regulates MSCs-induced chemoresistance. Blockade of this signal re-sensitized drug-resistant Saos-2 cells to drug treatment. Using a osteosarcoma mouse model with co-injection of MSCs with Saos-2cells, we found that inhibition of STAT3 prolonged the survival time of tumor bearing mice by suppressing tumor growth and increasing the sensitivity of tumor cells to doxorubicin. Finally, we demonstrated that increased expression of p-STAT3, multidrug resistance protein (MRP) and P-glycoprotein (MDR-1) was associated with high chemotherapy resistance in clinical osteosarcoma samples. Collectively, our findings suggest that MSCs within the tumor microenvironment may represent a new target to enhance chemotherapeutic efficacy in osteosarcoma patients. PMID:27340780

  16. The novel steroidal alkaloids dendrogenin A and B promote proliferation of adult neural stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Khalifa, Shaden A.M.; Medina, Philippe de; Erlandsson, Anna; El-Seedi, Hesham R.; Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine; Poirot, Marc

    2014-04-11

    Highlights: • Dendrogenin A and B are new aminoalkyl oxysterols. • Dendrogenins stimulated neural stem cells proliferation. • Dendrogenins induce neuronal outgrowth from neurospheres. • Dendrogenins provide new therapeutic options for neurodegenerative disorders. - Abstract: Dendrogenin A (DDA) and dendrogenin B (DDB) are new aminoalkyl oxysterols which display re-differentiation of tumor cells of neuronal origin at nanomolar concentrations. We analyzed the influence of dendrogenins on adult mice neural stem cell proliferation, sphere formation and differentiation. DDA and DDB were found to have potent proliferative effects in neural stem cells. Additionally, they induce neuronal outgrowth from neurospheres during in vitro cultivation. Taken together, our results demonstrate a novel role for dendrogenins A and B in neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation which further increases their likely importance to compensate for neuronal cell loss in the brain.

  17. Mesenchymal stem cell contact promotes CCN1 splicing and transcription in myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Dotterweich, Julia; Ebert, Regina; Kraus, Sabrina; Tower, Robert J; Jakob, Franz; Schütze, Norbert

    2014-06-25

    CCN family member 1 (CCN1), also known as cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61), belongs to the extracellular matrix-associated CCN protein family. The diverse functions of these proteins include regulation of cell migration, adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and survival/apoptosis, induction of angiogenesis and cellular senescence. Their functions are partly overlapping, largely non-redundant, cell-type specific, and depend on the local microenvironment. To elucidate the role of CCN1 in the crosstalk between stromal cells and myeloma cells, we performed co-culture experiments with primary mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and the interleukin-6 (IL-6)-dependent myeloma cell line INA-6. Here we show that INA-6 cells display increased transcription and induction of splicing of intron-retaining CCN1 pre-mRNA when cultured in contact with MSC. Protein analyses confirmed that INA-6 cells co-cultured with MSC show increased levels of CCN1 protein consistent with the existence of a pre-mature stop codon in intron 1 that abolishes translation of unspliced mRNA. Addition of recombinant CCN1-Fc protein to INA-6 cells was also found to induce splicing of CCN1 pre-mRNA in a concentration-dependent manner. Only full length CCN1-Fc was able to induce mRNA splicing of all introns, whereas truncated recombinant isoforms lacking domain 4 failed to induce intron splicing. Blocking RGD-dependent integrins on INA-6 cells resulted in an inhibition of these splicing events. These findings expand knowledge on splicing of the proangiogenic, matricellular factor CCN1 in the tumor microenvironment. We propose that contact with MSC-derived CCN1 leads to splicing and enhanced transcription of CCN1 which further contributes to the translation of angiogenic factor CCN1 in myeloma cells, supporting tumor viability and myeloma bone disease.

  18. Increasing doublecortin expression promotes migration of human embryonic stem cell-derived neurons.

    PubMed

    Filipovic, Radmila; Santhosh Kumar, Saranya; Fiondella, Chris; Loturco, Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Human embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal progenitors (hNPs) provide a potential source for cellular replacement following neurodegenerative diseases. One of the greatest challenges for future neuron replacement therapies will be to control extensive cell proliferation and stimulate cell migration of transplanted cells. The doublecortin (DCX) gene encodes the protein DCX, a microtubule-associated protein essential for the migration of neurons in the human brain. In this study, we tested whether increasing the expression of DCX in hNPs would favorably alter their proliferation and migration. Migration and proliferation of hNPs was compared between hNPs expressing a bicistronic DCX/IRES-GFP transgene and those expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene introduced by piggyBac-mediated transposition. The DCX-transfected hNPs showed a significant decrease in their proliferation and migrated significantly further on two different substrates, Matrigel and brain slices. Additionally, a dense network of nestin-positive (+) and vimentin+ fibers were found to extend from neurospheres transplanted onto brain slices, and this fiber growth was increased from neurospheres containing DCX-transfected hNPs. In summary, our results show that increased DCX expression inhibits proliferation and promotes migration of hNPs.

  19. Stem Cells on Biomaterials for Synthetic Grafts to Promote Vascular Healing

    PubMed Central

    Babczyk, Patrick; Conzendorf, Clelia; Klose, Jens; Schulze, Margit; Harre, Kathrin; Tobiasch, Edda

    2014-01-01

    This review is divided into two interconnected parts, namely a biological and a chemical one. The focus of the first part is on the biological background for constructing tissue-engineered vascular grafts to promote vascular healing. Various cell types, such as embryonic, mesenchymal and induced pluripotent stem cells, progenitor cells and endothelial- and smooth muscle cells will be discussed with respect to their specific markers. The in vitro and in vivo models and their potential to treat vascular diseases are also introduced. The chemical part focuses on strategies using either artificial or natural polymers for scaffold fabrication, including decellularized cardiovascular tissue. An overview will be given on scaffold fabrication including conventional methods and nanotechnologies. Special attention is given to 3D network formation via different chemical and physical cross-linking methods. In particular, electron beam treatment is introduced as a method to combine 3D network formation and surface modification. The review includes recently published scientific data and patents which have been registered within the last decade. PMID:26237251

  20. PERK Limits Drosophila Lifespan by Promoting Intestinal Stem Cell Proliferation in Response to ER Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifen; Ryoo, Hyung Don; Qi, Yanyan; Jasper, Heinrich

    2015-05-01

    Intestinal homeostasis requires precise control of intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation. In Drosophila, this control declines with age largely due to chronic activation of stress signaling and associated chronic inflammatory conditions. An important contributor to this condition is the age-associated increase in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Here we show that the PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) integrates both cell-autonomous and non-autonomous ER stress stimuli to induce ISC proliferation. In addition to responding to cell-intrinsic ER stress, PERK is also specifically activated in ISCs by JAK/Stat signaling in response to ER stress in neighboring cells. The activation of PERK is required for homeostatic regeneration, as well as for acute regenerative responses, yet the chronic engagement of this response becomes deleterious in aging flies. Accordingly, knocking down PERK in ISCs is sufficient to promote intestinal homeostasis and extend lifespan. Our studies highlight the significance of the PERK branch of the unfolded protein response of the ER (UPRER) in intestinal homeostasis and provide a viable strategy to improve organismal health- and lifespan.

  1. Hierarchical Micro-Nano Surface Topography Promotes Long-Term Maintenance of Undifferentiated Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Jaggy, Mona; Zhang, Ping; Greiner, Alexandra M; Autenrieth, Tatjana J; Nedashkivska, Victoria; Efremov, Alexander N; Blattner, Christine; Bastmeyer, Martin; Levkin, Pavel A

    2015-10-14

    Understanding of stem cell-surface interactions and, in particular, long-term maintenance of stem cell pluripotency on well-defined synthetic surfaces is crucial for fundamental research and biomedical applications of stem cells. Here, we show that synthetic surfaces possessing hierarchical micro-nano roughness (MN-surfaces) promote long-term self-renewal (>3 weeks) of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) as monitored by the expression levels of the pluripotency markers octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), Nanog, and alkaline phosphatase. On the contrary, culturing of mESCs on either smooth (S-) or nanorough polymer surfaces (N-surfaces) leads to their fast differentiation. Moreover, we show that regular passaging of mESCs on the hierarchical MN-polymer surface leads to an increased homogeneity and percentage of Oct4-positive stem cell colonies as compared to mESCs grown on fibroblast feeder cells. Immunostaining revealed the absence of focal adhesion markers on all polymer substrates studied. However, only the MN-surfaces elicited the formation of actin-positive cell protrusions, indicating an alternative anchorage mechanism involved in the maintenance of mESC stemness.

  2. Kuwanon V Inhibits Proliferation, Promotes Cell Survival and Increases Neurogenesis of Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Sun-Young; Park, Min-Hye; Lee, Mina; Kim, Jae-Ouk; Lee, Ha-Rim; Han, Byung Woo; Svendsen, Clive N.; Sung, Sang Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) have the ability to proliferate and differentiate into neurons and glia. Regulation of NSC fate by small molecules is important for the generation of a certain type of cell. The identification of small molecules that can induce new neurons from NSCs could facilitate regenerative medicine and drug development for neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we screened natural compounds to identify molecules that are effective on NSC cell fate determination. We found that Kuwanon V (KWV), which was isolated from the mulberry tree (Morus bombycis) root, increased neurogenesis in rat NSCs. In addition, during NSC differentiation, KWV increased cell survival and inhibited cell proliferation as shown by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine pulse experiments, Ki67 immunostaining and neurosphere forming assays. Interestingly, KWV enhanced neuronal differentiation and decreased NSC proliferation even in the presence of mitogens such as epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2. KWV treatment of NSCs reduced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, increased mRNA expression levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, down-regulated Notch/Hairy expression levels and up-regulated microRNA miR-9, miR-29a and miR-181a. Taken together, our data suggest that KWV modulates NSC fate to induce neurogenesis, and it may be considered as a new drug candidate that can regenerate or protect neurons in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25706719

  3. Snail-induced EMT promotes cancer stem cell-like properties in head and neck cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ota, Ichiro; Masui, Takashi; Kurihara, Miyako; Yook, Jong-In; Mikami, Shinji; Kimura, Takahiro; Shimada, Keiji; Konishi, Noboru; Yane, Katsunari; Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Kitahara, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key process involved in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. Furthermore, EMT can induce a cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotype in a number of tumor types. We demonstrated that Snail is one of the master regulators that promotes EMT and mediates cancer cell migration and invasion in many types of malignancies including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In the present study, we investigated the role of Snail in inducing and maintaining CSC-like properties through EMT in HNSCC. We established HNSCC cell lines transfected with Snail. Stem cell markers were evaluated with real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis. CSC properties were assessed using sphere formation and WST-8 assays as well as chemosensitivity and chick chorioallantoic membrane in vivo invasion assays. Introduction of Snail induced EMT properties in HNSCC cells. Moreover, Snail-induced EMT maintained the CSC-like phenotype, and enhanced sphere formation capability, chemoresistance and invasive ability. These data suggest that Snail could be one of the critical molecular targets for the development of therapeutic strategies for HNSCC.

  4. Inhibition of Sirt1 promotes neural progenitors toward motoneuron differentiation from human embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yun; Wang, Jing; Chen, Guian; Fan, Dongsheng; Deng, Min

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} Nicotinamide inhibit Sirt1. {yields} MASH1 and Ngn2 activation. {yields} Increase the expression of HB9. {yields} Motoneurons formation increases significantly. -- Abstract: Several protocols direct human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) toward differentiation into functional motoneurons, but the efficiency of motoneuron generation varies based on the human ESC line used. We aimed to develop a novel protocol to increase the formation of motoneurons from human ESCs. In this study, we tested a nuclear histone deacetylase protein, Sirt1, to promote neural precursor cell (NPC) development during differentiation of human ESCs into motoneurons. A specific inhibitor of Sirt1, nicotinamide, dramatically increased motoneuron formation. We found that about 60% of the cells from the total NPCs expressed HB9 and {beta}III-tubulin, commonly used motoneuronal markers found in neurons derived from ESCs following nicotinamide treatment. Motoneurons derived from ESC expressed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a positive marker of mature motoneuron. Moreover, we also examined the transcript levels of Mash1, Ngn2, and HB9 mRNA in the differentiated NPCs treated with the Sirt1 activator resveratrol (50 {mu}M) or inhibitor nicotinamide (100 {mu}M). The levels of Mash1, Ngn2, and HB9 mRNA were significantly increased after nicotinamide treatment compared with control groups, which used the traditional protocol. These results suggested that increasing Mash1 and Ngn2 levels by inhibiting Sirt1 could elevate HB9 expression, which promotes motoneuron differentiation. This study provides an alternative method for the production of transplantable motoneurons, a key requirement in the development of hESC-based cell therapy in motoneuron disease.

  5. RhoA promotes epidermal stem cell proliferation via PKN1-cyclin D1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fan; Zhan, Rixing; Chen, Liang; Dai, Xia; Wang, Wenping; Guo, Rui; Li, Xiaoge; Li, Zhe; Wang, Liang; Huang, Shupeng; Shen, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Objective Epidermal stem cells (ESCs) play a critical role in wound healing, but the mechanism underlying ESC proliferation is not well defined. Here, we explore the effects of RhoA on ESC proliferation and the possible underlying mechanism. Methods Human ESCs were enriched by rapid adhesion to collagen IV. RhoA(+/+)(G14V), RhoA(-/-)(T19N) and pGFP control plasmids were transfected into human ESCs. The effect of RhoA on cell proliferation was detected by cell proliferation and DNA synthesis assays. Induction of PKN1 activity by RhoA was determined by immunoblot analysis, and the effects of PKN1 on RhoA in terms of inducing cell proliferation and cyclin D1 expression were detected using specific siRNA targeting PKN1. The effects of U-46619 (a RhoA agonist) and C3 transferase (a RhoA antagonist) on ESC proliferation were observed in vivo. Results RhoA had a positive effect on ESC proliferation, and PKN1 activity was up-regulated by the active RhoA mutant (G14V) and suppressed by RhoA T19N. Moreover, the ability of RhoA to promote ESC proliferation and DNA synthesis was interrupted by PKN1 siRNA. Additionally, cyclin D1 protein and mRNA expression levels were up-regulated by RhoA G14V, and these effects were inhibited by siRNA-mediated knock-down of PKN1. RhoA also promoted ESC proliferation via PKN in vivo. Conclusion This study shows that the effect of RhoA on ESC proliferation is mediated by activation of the PKN1-cyclin D1 pathway in vitro, suggesting that RhoA may serve as a new therapeutic target for wound healing. PMID:28222172

  6. The human desmin promoter drives robust gene expression for skeletal muscle stem cell-mediated gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Jonuschies, Jacqueline; Antoniou, Michael; Waddington, Simon; Boldrin, Luisa; Muntoni, Francesco; Thrasher, Adrian; Morgan, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors (LVs) represent suitable candidates to mediate gene therapy for muscular dystrophies as they infect dividing and non-dividing cells and integrate their genetic material into the host genome, thereby theoretically mediating longterm expression. We evaluated the ability of LVs where a GFP reporter gene was under the control of five different promoters, to transduce and mediate expression in myogenic and non-myogenic cells in vitro and in skeletal muscle fibres and stem (satellite) cells in vivo. We further analysed lentivirally-transduced satellite cell-derived myoblasts following their transplantation into dystrophic, immunodeficient mouse muscles. The spleen focus-forming virus promoter mediated the highest gene expression in all cell types; the CBX3-HNRPA2B1 ubiquitously-acting chromatin opening element (UCOE) promoter was also active in all cells, whereas the human desmin promoter in isolation or fused with UCOE had lower activity in non-muscle cells. Surprisingly, the human skeletal muscle actin promoter was also active in immune cells. The human desmin promoter mediated robust, persistent reporter gene expression in myogenic cells in vitro, and satellite cells and muscle fibres in vivo. The human desmin promoter combined with UCOE did not significantly increase transgene expression. Therefore, our data indicate that the desmin promoter is suitable for the development of therapeutic purposes.

  7. Nanostructured TiO2 Surfaces Promote Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation to Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Vercellino, Marco; Ceccarelli, Gabriele; Cristofaro, Francesco; Balli, Martina; Bertoglio, Federico; Bruni, Gianna; Benedetti, Laura; Avanzini, Maria Antonietta; Imbriani, Marcello; Visai, Livia

    2016-01-01

    Micro- and nano-patterning/modification are emerging strategies to improve surfaces properties that may influence critically cells adherence and differentiation. Aim of this work was to study the in vitro biological reactivity of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) to a nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2) surface in comparison to a coverglass (Glass) in two different culture conditions: with (osteogenic medium (OM)) and without (proliferative medium (PM)) osteogenic factors. To evaluate cell adhesion, hBMSCs phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (pFAK) foci were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) at 24 h: the TiO2 surface showed a higher number of pFAK foci with respect to Glass. The hBMSCs differentiation to osteoblasts was evaluated in both PM and OM culture conditions by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), CLSM and real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) at 28 days. In comparison with Glass, TiO2 surface in combination with OM conditions increased the content of extracellular bone proteins, calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed, both in PM and OM, that TiO2 surface increased at seven and 28 days the expression of osteogenic genes. All together, these results demonstrate the capability of TiO2 nanostructured surface to promote hBMSCs osteoblast differentiation and its potentiality in biomedical applications. PMID:28335251

  8. Transdifferentiation-Induced Neural Stem Cells Promote Recovery of Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jianhua; Zhang, Maoying; Li, Shaowu; Wu, Bingshan; Nie, Xiaohu; Jiao, Jiao; Zhao, Hao; Wang, Shanshan; Yang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yesen; Sun, Yilin; Wicha, Max S.; Chang, Alfred E.; Gao, Shaorong; Li, Qiao; Xu, Ruxiang

    2015-01-01

    Induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) can be directly transdifferentiated from somatic cells. One potential clinical application of the iNSCs is for nerve regeneration. However, it is unknown whether iNSCs function in disease models. We produced transdifferentiated iNSCs by conditional overexpressing Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Mycin mouse embryonic fibroblasts. They expanded readily in vitro and expressed NSC mRNA profile and protein markers. These iNSCs differentiated into mature astrocytes, neurons and oligodendrocytes in vitro. Importantly, they reduced lesion size, promoted the recovery of motor and sensory function as well as metabolism status in middle cerebral artery stroke rats. These iNSCs secreted nerve growth factors, which was associated with observed protection of neurons from apoptosis. Furthermore, iNSCs migrated to and passed through the lesion in the cerebral cortex, where Tuj1+ neurons were detected. These findings have revealed the function of transdifferentiated iNSCs in vivo, and thus provide experimental evidence to support the development of personalized regenerative therapy for CNS diseases by using genetically engineered autologous somatic cells. PMID:26352672

  9. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 promotes human adipose tissue-derived stem cell survival and chronic wound healing

    PubMed Central

    LI, QIANG; GUO, YANPING; CHEN, FEIFEI; LIU, JING; JIN, PEISHENG

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) hold great potential for the stem cell-based therapy of cutaneous wound healing. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) activates CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)4+ and CXCR7+ cells and plays an important role in wound healing. Increasing evidence suggests a critical role for SDF-1 in cell apoptosis and the survival of mesenchymal stem cells. However, the function of SDF-1 in the apoptosis and wound healing ability of ADSCs is not well understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of SDF-1 on the apoptosis and therapeutic effect of ADSCs in cutaneous chronic wounds in vitro and in vivos. By flow cytometric analysis, it was found that hypoxia and serum free promoted the apoptosis of ADSCs. When pretreated with SDF-1, the apoptosis of ADSCs induced by hypoxia and serum depletion was partly recovered. Furthermore, in vivo experiments established that the post-implantation cell survival and chronic wound healing ability of ADSCs were increased following pretreatment with SDF-1 in a diabetic mouse model of chronic wound healing. To explore the potential mechanism underlying the effect of SDF-1 on ADSC apoptosis, western blot analysis was employed and the results indicate that SDF-1 may protect against cell apoptosis in hypoxic and serum-free conditions through activation of the caspase signaling pathway in ADSCs. This study provides evidence that SDF-1 pretreatment can increase the therapeutic effect of ADSCs in cutaneous chronic wounds in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27347016

  10. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy promotes the improvement and recovery of renal function in a preclinical model

    PubMed Central

    Urt-Filho, Antônio; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano; Hermeto, Larissa Correa; Pesarini, João Renato; de David, Natan; Cantero, Wilson de Barros; Falcão, Gustavo; Marks, Guido; Antoniolli-Silva, Andréia Conceição Milan Brochado

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Acute renal failure (ARF) is an extremely important public health issue in need of novel therapies. The present study aimed to evaluate the capacity of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy to promote the improvement and recovery of renal function in a preclinical model. Wistar rats were used as the experimental model, and our results show that cisplatin (5mg/kg) can efficiently induce ARF, as measured by changes in biochemical (urea and creatinine) and histological parameters. MSC therapy performed 24h after the administration of chemotherapy resulted in normalized plasma urea and creatinine levels 30 and 45d after the onset of kidney disease. Furthermore, MSC therapy significantly reduced histological changes (intratubular cast formation in protein overload nephropathy and tubular hydropic degeneration) in this ARF model. Thus, considering that current therapies for ARF are merely palliative and that MSC therapy can promote the improvement and recovery of renal function in this model system, we suggest that innovative/alternative therapies involving MSCs should be considered for clinical studies in humans to treat ARF. PMID:27275667

  11. Human hair follicle pluripotent stem (hfPS) cells promote regeneration of peripheral-nerve injury: an advantageous alternative to ES and iPS cells.

    PubMed

    Amoh, Yasuyuki; Kanoh, Maho; Niiyama, Shiro; Hamada, Yuko; Kawahara, Katsumasa; Sato, Yuichi; Hoffman, Robert M; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2009-08-01

    The optimal source of stem cells for regenerative medicine is a major question. Embryonic stem (ES) cells have shown promise for pluripotency but have ethical issues and potential to form teratomas. Pluripotent stem cells have been produced from skin cells by either viral-, plasmid- or transposon-mediated gene transfer. These stem cells have been termed induced pluripotent stem cells or iPS cells. iPS cells may also have malignant potential and are inefficiently produced. Embryonic stem cells may not be suited for individualized therapy, since they can undergo immunologic rejection. To address these fundamental problems, our group is developing hair follicle pluripotent stem (hfPS) cells. Our previous studies have shown that mouse hfPS cells can differentiate to neurons, glial cells in vitro, and other cell types, and can promote nerve and spinal cord regeneration in vivo. hfPS cells are located above the hair follicle bulge in what we have termed the hfPS cell area (hfPSA) and are nestin positive and keratin 15 (K-15) negative. Human hfPS cells can also differentiate into neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. In the present study, human hfPS cells were transplanted in the severed sciatic nerve of the mouse where they differentiated into glial fibrillary-acidic-protein (GFAP)-positive Schwann cells and promoted the recovery of pre-existing axons, leading to nerve generation. The regenerated nerve recovered function and, upon electrical stimulation, contracted the gastrocnemius muscle. The hfPS cells can be readily isolated from the human scalp, thereby providing an accessible, autologous and safe source of stem cells for regenerative medicine that have important advantages over ES or iPS cells.

  12. mir-300 promotes self-renewal and inhibits the differentiation of glioma stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Daming; Yang, Guang; Chen, Xin; Li, Chunmei; Wang, Lu; Liu, Yaohua; Han, Dayong; Liu, Huailei; Hou, Xu; Zhang, Weiguang; Li, Chenguang; Han, Zhanqiang; Gao, Xin; Zhao, Shiguang

    2014-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that have been critically implicated in several human cancers. miRNAs are thought to participate in various biological processes, including proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and even the regulation of the stemness properties of cancer stem cells. In this study, we explore the potential role of miR-300 in glioma stem-like cells (GSLCs). We isolated GSLCs from glioma biopsy specimens and identified the stemness properties of the cells through neurosphere formation assays, multilineage differentiation ability analysis, and immunofluorescence analysis of glioma stem cell markers. We found that miR-300 is commonly upregulated in glioma tissues, and the expression of miR-300 was higher in GSLCs. The results of functional experiments demonstrated that miR-300 can enhance the self-renewal of GSLCs and reduce differentiation toward both astrocyte and neural fates. In addition, LZTS2 is a direct target of miR-300. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the critical role of miR-300 in GSLCs and its functions in LZTS2 inhibition and describe a new approach for the molecular regulation of tumor stem cells.

  13. Exosomes Secreted from Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Prevent Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head by Promoting Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaolin; Li, Qing; Niu, Xin; Hu, Bin; Chen, Shengbao; Song, Wenqi; Ding, Jian; Zhang, Changqing; Wang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Local ischemia is the main pathological performance in osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). There is currently no effective therapy to promote angiogenesis in the femoral head. Recent studies revealed that exosomes secreted by induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (iPS-MSC-Exos) have great therapeutic potential in ischemic tissues, but whether they could promote angiogenesis in ONFH has not been reported, and little is known regarding the underlying mechanism. Methods: iPS-MSC-Exos were intravenously injected to a steroid-induced rat osteonecrosis model. Samples of the femoral head were obtained 3 weeks after all the injections. The effects were assessed by measuring local angiogenesis and bone loss through histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, micro-CT and three-dimensional microangiography. The effects of exosomes on endothelial cells were studied through evaluations of proliferation, migration and tube-forming analyses. The expression levels of angiogenic related PI3K/Akt signaling pathway of endothelial cells were evaluated following stimulation of iPS-MSC-Exos. The promoting effects of exosomes were re-evaluated following blockade of PI3K/Akt. Results: The in vivo study revealed that administration of iPS-MSC-Exos significantly prevented bone loss, and increased microvessel density in the femoral head compared with control group. We found that iPS-MSC-Exos significantly enhanced the proliferation, migration and tube-forming capacities of endothelial cells in vitro. iPS-MSC-Exos could activate PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in endothelial cells. Moreover, the promoting effects of iPS-MSC-Exos were abolished after blockade of PI3K/Akt on endothelial cells. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that transplantation of iPS-MSC-Exos exerts a preventative effect on ONFH by promoting local angiogenesis and preventing bone loss. The promoting effect might be attributed to activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway on

  14. Homeobox gene Rhox5 is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms in cancer and stem cells and promotes cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Homeobox genes murine Rhox5 and human RHOXF1 are expressed in early embryonic stages and then mostly restricted to germline tissues in normal adult, yet they are aberrantly expressed in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo . Here we study the epigenetic regulation and potential functions of Rhox5 gene. Findings In Rhox5 -silenced or extremely low expresser cells, we observed low levels of active histone epigenetic marks (H3ac, H4ac and H3K4me2) and high levels of repressive mark H3K9me2 along with DNA hypermethylation in the promoter. In Rhox5 low expresser cells, we typically observed modest levels of both active and repressive histone marks along with moderate DNA methylation. In Rhox5 highly expressed CT26 cancer cells, we observed DNA hypomethylation along with high levels of both active and repressive histone marks. Epigenetic drugs (retinoic acid and MS-275) induced F9 cell differentiation with enhanced Rhox5 expression and dynamic changes of epigenetic marks. Finally, Rhox5 knockdown by small hairpin RNA (shRNA) in CT26 colon cancer decreased cell proliferation and migration in vitro and tumor growth in vivo . Conclusions Both DNA methylation and histone methylation/acetylation play key roles in modulating Rhox5 expression in various cell types. The stem cell-like "bivalent domain", an epigenetic feature originally identified in key differentiation genes within stem cells, exists in the Rhox5 gene promoter in not only embryonic stem cells but also cancer cells, cancer stem cells, and differentiated Sertoli cells. As Ras signaling-dependent Rhox5 expression promotes tumor growth, Rhox5 may be an ideal target for therapeutic intervention in cancer. PMID:21609483

  15. Phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor bisperoxovanadium endows myogenic cells with enhanced muscle stem cell functions via epigenetic modulation of Sca-1 and Pw1 promoters.

    PubMed

    Smeriglio, Piera; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Masciarelli, Silvia; Madaro, Luca; Iosue, Ilaria; Marrocco, Valeria; Relaix, Frédéric; Fazi, Francesco; Marazzi, Giovanna; Sassoon, David A; Bouché, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the regulation of the stem cell fate is fundamental for designing novel regenerative medicine strategies. Previous studies have suggested that pharmacological treatments with small molecules provide a robust and reversible regulation of the stem cell program. Previously, we showed that treatment with a vanadium compound influences muscle cell fatein vitro In this study, we demonstrate that treatment with the phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor bisperoxovanadium (BpV) drives primary muscle cells to a poised stem cell stage, with enhanced function in muscle regenerationin vivofollowing transplantation into injured muscles. Importantly, BpV-treated cells displayed increased self-renewal potentialin vivoand replenished the niche in both satellite and interstitial cell compartments. Moreover, we found that BpV treatment induces specific activating chromatin modifications at the promoter regions of genes associated with stem cell fate, includingSca-1andPw1 Thus, our findings indicate that BpV resets the cell fate program by specific epigenetic regulations, such that the committed myogenic cell fate is redirected to an earlier progenitor cell fate stage, which leads to an enhanced regenerative stem cell potential.-Smeriglio, P., Alonso-Martin, S., Masciarelli, S., Madaro, L., Iosue, I., Marrocco, V., Relaix, F., Fazi, F., Marazzi, G., Sassoon, D. A., Bouché, M. Phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor bisperoxovanadium endows myogenic cells with enhanced muscle stem cell functionsviaepigenetic modulation of Sca-1 and Pw1 promoters.

  16. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells (skeletal stem cells) Cell-based therapies Cell culture Cell division Chromosome Clone Cloning Cord blood stem cells Culture medium Differentiation Directed differentiation DNA Ectoderm Embryo Embryoid ...

  17. Nitric oxide promotes epidermal stem cell migration via cGMP-Rho GTPase signalling

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Rixing; He, Weifeng; Wang, Fan; Yao, Zhihui; Tan, Jianglin; Xu, Rui; Zhou, Junyi; Wang, Yuzhen; Li, Haisheng; Wu, Jun; LUO, Gaoxing

    2016-01-01

    The migration and reepithelization of epidermal stem cells (ESCs) are the most critical processes in wound healing. The gaseous messenger nitric oxide (NO) has multiple biological effects, but its actions on ESCs are poorly understood. In this study, an NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), was found to facilitate the in vitro migration of human ESCs (huESCs) in both live-imaging and scratch models. In addition, pull-down assays demonstrated that SNAP could activate the small GTPases RhoA and Rac1 of the Rho family, but not Cdc42. Moreover, the effects of SNAP on the migration and F-actin polymerization of ESCs could be blocked by inhibitors of cGMP, PKG, RhoA or Rac1, and by a specific siRNA of RhoA or Rac1, but not by a Cdc42 inhibitor or siRNA. Furthermore, the roles of NO in ESC migration via cGMP-Rho GTPase signalling in vivo were confirmed by tracing 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labelled cells in a superficial, partial-thickness scald mouse model. Thus, the present study demonstrated that the NO donor SNAP could promote huESC migration in vitro. Furthermore, NO was found to induce ESC migration via cGMP-Rho GTPase RhoA and Rac1 signalling, but not Cdc42 signalling, both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:27469024

  18. Staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid promotes osteogenic differentiation of mouse mesenchymal stem cells by increasing autophagic activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wang, Yuan; Cao, Zhen; Dou, Ce; Bai, Yun; Liu, Chuan; Dong, Shiwu; Fei, Jun

    2017-02-16

    This study sought to explore the effect of staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA) on autophagy in mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and then influence osteogenesis through the change of autophagy. C3H10T1/2 cells were induced by osteogenic medium with the treatment of LTA at different concentrations (1, 5, 10 μg/mL); 3-methyladenine (3-MA) were used as the autophagy inhibitor, and rapamycin (rapamycin, Rap) were used to activate autophagy; the effects on osteogenesis were detected by alkaline phosphatase staining, alizarin red staining, real-time quantitative PCR, and western blotting; autophagic activity was investigated by the expression of LC3-Ⅱand p62 proteins. Compared with control group, the expression of osteogenesis markers was significantly up-regulated with the LTA treatment on the mRNA and protein level; the positive rate of alkaline phosphatase was enhanced in the LTA groups; and the formation of calcium nodules was increased simultaneously. The expression of LC3-Ⅱ protein was increased in LTA groups, while the expression of p62 protein was decreased. Inhibition of autophagy significantly reduced the effect of LTA on osteogenesis of MSCs; the promotion of LTA on osteogenic differentiation was further enhanced when adding rapamycin to activate autophagic activity. It provides new insight of prevention and treatment for bone infection.

  19. VEGF expression in mesenchymal stem cells promotes bone formation of tissue-engineered bones.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boling; Li, Xihai; Liang, Guiqing; Liu, Xianxiang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo vascularization and bone formation activity of tissue-engineered bone constructed using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transfected with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The expression of VEGF165 in rat bone marrow MSCs was confirmed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The MSCs were cultured together with nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen (NHAC) to form tissue-engineered bone. Untransfected MSCs were used as controls. The mice were sacrificed, and the bone xenografts were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and quantified for the degree of vascularization and new bone formation. Based on our results, expression of the VEGF165 gene was detected using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry following transfection and 4 weeks of selection. The co-cultured NHAC- and VEGF-transfected MSCs had significantly higher alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity compared to the controls (P<0.05). In the mice that received the tissue-engineered bone xenografts, clumps of cartilage cells, irregular bone-like tissue and microvessels were observed. The growth of these structures progressed with time. In the control mice, however, only small amounts of bone-like and fibrotic tissue were observed. The differences between the control and experimental groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, VEGF165‑transfected bone marrow MSCs promotes vascularization of tissue-engineered bone and ectopic osteogenesis.

  20. Downregulation of Nrf2 promotes autophagy-dependent osteoblastic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jiang; Wang, Haining; Zhai, Yue; Park, Hyun; Wang, Jian; Ji, Fang; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2016-12-10

    Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) are an important source of stem cells for tissue repair and regeneration; therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate stem cell differentiation into a specific lineage is critical. The NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway and autophagy promote cell survival in response to oxidative stress. However, the roles of Nrf2 and autophagy in bone metabolism under oxidative stress are controversial. Here, we explored the involvement of Nrf2 signaling and autophagy on the differentiation of ADSCs under conditions of oxidative stress. Exposure of ADSCs to H2O2 promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation concomitant with the reduction of cell viability, upregulation of Nrf2, the induction of apoptosis and autophagy, and the promotion of osteogenesis. Suppression of autophagic activity at particular stages resulted in the activation of the Nrf2 pathway, whereas osteoblastic differentiation of ADSCs was inhibited upon ROS stimulation. Silencing of Nrf2 promoted autophagy and osteoblastic differentiation upon ROS stimulation in vitro, and this effect was confirmed in vivo in a mouse model, in which bone formation was enhanced in mice receiving Nrf2-knockdown ADSCs. Taken together, these findings indicate that a negative interaction between the Nrf2 pathway and autophagy may modulate oxidative stress-induced ADSC osteogenesis, and suggest that Nrf2 is a potential target to regulate the differentiation of ADSCs into a specific lineage.

  1. The potential for resident lung mesenchymal stem cells to promote functional tissue regeneration: understanding microenvironmental cues.

    PubMed

    Foronjy, Robert F; Majka, Susan M

    2012-12-01

    Tissue resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are important regulators of tissue repair or regeneration, fibrosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and tumor formation. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are currently being considered and tested in clinical trials as a potential therapy in patients with such inflammatory lung diseases including, but not limited to, chronic lung disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), pulmonary fibrosis (PF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/emphysema and asthma. However, our current understanding of tissue resident lung MSCs remains limited. This review addresses how environmental cues impact on the phenotype and function of this endogenous stem cell pool. In addition, it examines how these local factors influence the efficacy of cell-based treatments for lung diseases.

  2. Short Report: Olfactory Ensheathing Cells Promote Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells and Robust Neurite Extension

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Rosh; Sethi, Roshan; Redmond, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Aims The goal of this study was to gain insight into the signaling between olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) and neural stem cells (NSCs). We sought to understand the impact of OECs on NSC differentiation and neurite extension and to begin to elucidate the factors involved in these interactions to provide new targets for therapeutic interventions. Materials and Methods We utilized lines of OECs that have been extremely well characterized in vitro and in vivo along with well studied NSCs in gels to determine the impact of the coculture in three dimensions. To further elucidate the signaling, we used conditioned media from the OECs as well as fractioned components on NSCs to determine the molecular weight range of the soluble factors that was most responsible for the NSC behavior. Results We found that the coculture of NSCs and OECs led to robust NSC differentiation and extremely long neural processes not usually seen with NSCs in three dimensional gels in vitro. Through culture of NSCs with fractioned OEC media, we determined that molecules larger than 30 kDa have the greatest impact on the NSC behavior. Conclusions Overall, our findings suggest that cocultures of NSCs and OECs may be a novel combination therapy for neural injuries including spinal cord injury (SCI). Furthermore, we have identified a class of molecules which plays a substantial role in the behavior that provides new targets for investigating pharmacological therapies. PMID:24996386

  3. Myeloproliferative neoplasm stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mead, Adam J; Mullally, Ann

    2017-03-23

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) arise in the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment as a result of the acquisition of somatic mutations in a single HSC that provides a selective advantage to mutant HSC over normal HSC and promotes myeloid differentiation to engender a myeloproliferative phenotype. This population of somatically mutated HSC, which initiates and sustains MPNs, is termed MPN stem cells. In >95% of cases, mutations that drive the development of an MPN phenotype occur in a mutually exclusive manner in 1 of 3 genes: JAK2, CALR, or MPL The thrombopoietin receptor, MPL, is the key cytokine receptor in MPN development, and these mutations all activate MPL-JAK-STAT signaling in MPN stem cells. Despite common biological features, MPNs display diverse disease phenotypes as a result of both constitutional and acquired factors that influence MPN stem cells, and likely also as a result of heterogeneity in the HSC in which MPN-initiating mutations arise. As the MPN clone expands, it exerts cell-extrinsic effects on components of the bone marrow niche that can favor the survival and expansion of MPN stem cells over normal HSC, further sustaining and driving malignant hematopoiesis. Although developed as targeted therapies for MPNs, current JAK2 inhibitors do not preferentially target MPN stem cells, and as a result, rarely induce molecular remissions in MPN patients. As the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the clonal dominance of MPN stem cells advances, this will help facilitate the development of therapies that preferentially target MPN stem cells over normal HSC.

  4. CD44 promotes the migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells toward glioma

    PubMed Central

    YIN, QIANG; ZHOU, YANG-YANG; WANG, PENG; MA, LI; LI, PENG; WANG, XIAO-GUANG; SHE, CHUN-HUA; LI, WEN-LIANG

    2016-01-01

    Previous in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit tropism for gliomas. However, the mechanism underlying this directed migration remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible mechanism underlying platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced chemotactic migration of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) toward glioma. Rat glioma C6 cell-conditioned medium was utilized to evaluate the chemotactic response of BMSCs toward glioma using an in vitro migration assay. Recombinant rat PDGF-BB was added to C6 cell-conditioned medium to assess its effect on the tropism of BMSCs. The effect of PDGF-BB on the expression levels of cluster of differentiation (CD)44 in BMSCs was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence assays. The results revealed that chemotactic migration was induced in BMSCs by rat glioma C6 cell-conditioned medium, which was enhanced by PDGF-BB treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence assays showed that CD44 expression was upregulated in BMSCs following treatment with 40 ng/ml PDGF-BB for 12 h. Additionally, 3-h pretreatment with the anti-CD44 neutralizing antibody OX-50 was observed to attenuate the tropism of BMSCs toward glioma in the presence or absence of PDGF-BB. The results of the present study indicate that CD44 mediates the tropism of BMSCs toward glioma, and PDGF-BB promotes the migration of BMSCs toward glioma via the upregulation of CD44 expression in BMSCs. These findings suggest CD44 inhibition may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of glioma. PMID:27073479

  5. Stem Cell Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  6. Interleukin 3 promotes the in vitro proliferation of murine pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed Central

    Spivak, J L; Smith, R R; Ihle, J N

    1985-01-01

    Medium conditioned by activated T lymphocytes stimulates the in vitro proliferation of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells (spleen colony-forming units [CFU-S]) but the factors involved have not been identified. Because the lymphokine interleukin 3 (IL-3) enhances in vitro colony formation by committed hematopoietic progenitor cells, we examined the effect of IL-3 on the in vitro proliferation of CFU-S using an 11-d spleen colony assay. When mouse marrow cells were placed in liquid culture, CFU-S content declined progressively and by 96 h only 13% of the CFU-S remained. By contrast, after 96 h in the presence of 20 U/ml of IL-3, the number of CFU-S were the same as that in the initial inoculum. Although the number of CFU-S eventually declined, they could still be recovered after 264 h of culture. In the absence of IL-3, the number of CFU-S synthesizing DNA was negligible; in its presence, greater than 20% of the CFU-S were in cycle. IL-3 stimulated CFU-S proliferation at a concentration of 0.2 U/ml. The dose-response curve was similar to that observed for other biologic effects of the lymphokine, and as little as 1 h of exposure to IL-3 enhanced the survival of CFU-S in vitro. Treatment of marrow cells with anti-Thy 1.2 antibody and complement before exposure to IL-3 did not inhibit spleen colony formation, but treatment of the cells with anti-Thy 1.2 antibody and complement after exposure to IL-3 reduced CFU-S recovery after 96 h of culture by 45%. The cell composition of day 11 spleen colonies formed by IL-3-treated marrow cells was similar to that of colonies formed by untreated marrow cells. Finally, day 11 CFU-S persisting in the marrow of mice treated with 5-fluorouracil required IL-3 for proliferation in vitro. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-3 promotes the proliferation of CFU-S in vitro, increases the number of CFU-S synthesizing DNA, but does not alter their commitment program, and the target cell population includes CFU-S with self

  7. Tumor-Activated Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Promote Osteosarcoma Stemness and Migratory Potential via IL-6 Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Cortini, Margherita; Massa, Annamaria; Avnet, Sofia; Bonuccelli, Gloria; Baldini, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive bone malignancy with a high relapse rate despite combined treatment with surgery and multiagent chemotherapy. As for other cancers, OS-associated microenvironment may contribute to tumor initiation, growth, and metastasis. We consider mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) as a relevant cellular component of OS microenvironment, and have previously found that the interaction between MSC and tumor cells is bidirectional: tumor cells can modulate their peripheral environment that in turn becomes more favorable to tumor growth through metabolic reprogramming. Here, we determined the effects of MSC on OS stemness and migration, two major features associated with recurrence and chemoresistance. The presence of stromal cells enhanced the number of floating spheres enriched in cancer stem cells (CSC) of the OS cell population. Furthermore, the co-culturing with MSC stimulated the migratory capacity of OS via TGFβ1 and IL-6 secretion, and the neutralizing antibody anti-IL-6 impaired this effect. Thus, stromal cells in combination with OS spheres exploit a vicious cycle where the presence of CSC stimulates mesenchymal cytokine secretion, which in turn increases stemness, proliferation, migration, and metastatic potential of CSC, also through the increase of expression of adhesion molecules like ICAM-1. Altogether, our data corroborate the concept that a comprehensive knowledge of the interplay between tumor and stroma that also includes the stem-like fraction of tumor cells is needed to develop novel and effective anti-cancer therapies. PMID:27851822

  8. ICOSL expression in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promotes induction of regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Si-Na; Jeon, Myung-Shin; Yi, TacGhee; Song, Sun U.

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can modulate lymphocyte proliferation and function. One of the immunomodulatory functions of MSCs involves CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), which negatively regulate inflammatory responses. MSC-mediated Treg induction is supposed to be regulated by mechanisms requiring both soluble and cell contact-dependent factors. Although the involvement of soluble factors has been revealed, the contact-dependent mechanisms in MSC-mediated Treg induction remain unclear. We attempted to identify molecule(s) other than secreted factors that are responsible for MSC-mediated Treg induction and to uncover the underlying mechanisms. Under in vitro Treg-inducing conditions, ICOSL expression in MSCs coincided with Treg induction in co-cultures of MSCs with CD4+ T cells. When cultured in a transwell plate, MSCs failed to induce Tregs. Neutralization or knockdown of ICOSL significantly reduced Tregs and their IL-10 release. ICOSL overexpression in MSCs promoted induction of functional Tregs. ICOSL-ICOS signaling promoted Treg differentiation from CD4+ T cells through activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt pathway. MSCs primed with Interleukin-1β significantly induced Tregs through ICOSL upregulation. We demonstrated that the Treg-inducing activity of MSCs is proportionate to their basal ICOSL expression. This study provides evidence that ICOSL expression in human MSCs plays an important role in contact-dependent regulation of MSC-mediated Treg induction. PMID:28290526

  9. Fetal kidney stem cells ameliorate cisplatin induced acute renal failure and promote renal angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ashwani Kumar; Jadhav, Sachin H; Tripathy, Naresh Kumar; Nityanand, Soniya

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether fetal kidney stem cells (fKSC) ameliorate cisplatin induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats and promote renal angiogenesis. METHODS: The fKSC were isolated from rat fetuses of gestation day 16 and expanded in vitro up to 3rd passage. They were characterized for the expression of mesenchymal and renal progenitor markers by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry, respectively. The in vitro differentiation of fKSC towards epithelial lineage was evaluated by the treatment with specific induction medium and their angiogenic potential by matrigel induced tube formation assay. To study the effect of fKSC in ARF, fKSC labeled with PKH26 were infused in rats with cisplatin induced ARF and, the blood and renal tissues of the rats were collected at different time points. Blood biochemical parameters were studied to evaluate renal function. Renal tissues were evaluated for renal architecture, renal cell proliferation and angiogenesis by immunohistochemistry, renal cell apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick-end labeling assay and early expression of angiogenic molecules viz. vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by western blot. RESULTS: The fKSC expressed mesenchymal markers viz. CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105 as well as renal progenitor markers viz. Wt1, Pax2 and Six2. They exhibited a potential to form CD31 and Von Willebrand factor expressing capillary-like structures and could be differentiated into cytokeratin (CK)18 and CK19 positive epithelial cells. Administration of fKSC in rats with ARF as compared to administration of saline alone, resulted in a significant improvement in renal function and histology on day 3 (2.33 ± 0.33 vs 3.50 ± 0.34, P < 0.05) and on day 7 (0.83 ± 0.16 vs 2.00 ± 0.25, P < 0.05). The infused PKH26 labeled fKSC were observed to engraft in damaged renal tubules and showed increased proliferation and reduced

  10. Apigenin promotes osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells through JNK and p38 MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Chenhui; Zha, Xuan; Xu, Zhoumei; Li, Li; Liu, Yuyu; Xu, Liangliang; Cui, Liao; Xu, Daohua; Zhu, Baohua

    2015-09-01

    Apigenin is a plant-derived flavonoid and has been reported to prevent bone loss in ovariectomized mice, but the role of apigenin on osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) has not been reported. In the present study, the effect of apigenin on osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs was explored. Our results showed that apigenin treatment significantly increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization in hMSCs. RT-PCR revealed that apigenin markedly up-regulated the mRNA expression of osteopontin (OPN) and the transcription factors runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2). The expression of Runx2 and osterix (OSX) proteins were also increased in hMSCs differentiating into osteoblasts after treatment with apigenin. Furthermore, we investigated the signaling pathways responsible for osteogenic differentiation of apigenin in hMSCs. We found that apigenin treatment significantly increased the levels of p-JNK, p-p38 in hMSCs and addition of the inhibitors of JNK (SP600125) or p38 MAPK (SB203580) eliminated the stimulating effects of apigenin. In addition, addition of SP600125 or SB203580 also blocked apigenin-induced ALP activity, OPN, Runx2, and OSX expression and meanwhile inhibited bone nodule formation. Taken together, these findings suggest apigenin promotes the osteogenesis of hMSCs through activation of JNK and p38 MAPK signal pathways which leads to Runx2 and OSX expressions to induce the formation of bone nodule.

  11. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Promotes Proliferation, Differentiation, and Migration of Neural Stem Cells via BDNF Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Di; Wang, Kuo-Chuan; Tsai, Yi-Fen; Chou, Pin-Chun; Tsai, Li-Kai; Chien, Chung-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Patients who suffer from subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) usually have long-term neurological impairments. Endogenous neurogenesis might play a potential role in functional recovery after SAH; however, the underlying neurogenesis mechanism is still unclear. We assessed the extent of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) to better understand the neurogenesis mechanism after SAH. We performed a rat model of SAH to examine the extent of neurogenesis in the SVZ and assessed functional effects of the neurotrophic factors in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on neural stem cells (NSCs) after SAH. In this study, the proliferation, differentiation, and migratory capacities of NSCs in the SVZ were significantly increased on days 5 and 7 post SAH. Furthermore, treatment of cultured rat fetal NSCs with the CSF collected from rats on days 5 and 7 post SAH enhanced their proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of the CSF detected a marked increase in the concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Treating the cultured NSCs with recombinant BDNF (at the same concentration as that in the CSF) or with CSF from SAH rats, directly, stimulated proliferation, differentiation, and migration to a similar extent. BDNF expression was upregulated in the SVZ of rats on days 5 and 7 post SAH, and BDNF release occurred from NSCs, astrocytes, and microglia in the SVZ. These results indicate that SAH triggers the expression of BDNF, which promotes the proliferation, differentiation, and migration of NSCs in the SVZ after SAH. PMID:27832087

  12. Modular Peptides Promote Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation on Biomaterial Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Sam; Lee, Jae Sung; Murphy, William L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Molecular design strategies in biomedical applications often involve creating modular “fusion” proteins, in which distinct domains within a single molecule can perform multiple functions. We have synthesized a new class of modular peptides that include a biologically active sequence derived from the growth factor BMP-2 and a series of hydroxyapatite-binding sequences inspired by the N-terminal α-helix of osteocalcin. These modular peptides can bind in a sequence-dependent manner to the surface of “bone-like” hydroxyapatite coatings, which are nucleated and grown on a biodegradable polymer surface via a biomimetic process. The BMP2-derived sequence of the modular peptides is biologically active, as measured by its ability to promote osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Our study indicates that the modular peptides described here are multifunctional, and the characteristics of this approach suggest that it can potentially be applied to a range of biomaterials for regenerative medicine applications. PMID:19665062

  13. Cyclic tension promotes osteogenic differentiation in human periodontal ligament stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tao; Qiu, Lin; Chang, Huijun; Yang, Yanchun; Jian, Congxiang; Xiong, Jian; Zhou, Jixiang; Dong, Shiwu

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic forces result in alveolar bone resorption and formation predominantly on the pressure and tension sides of the tooth roots, respectively. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) have demonstrated the capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts, and they play important roles in maintaining homeostasis and regenerating periodontal tissues. However, little is known about how PDLSCs contribute to osteoblastogenesis during orthodontic tooth movement on the tension side. In this study, we applied a 12% cyclic tension force to PDLSCs cultured in osteoinductive medium. The osteogenic markers Runx2, ALP, and OCN were detected at the mRNA and protein levels at different time points using real-time PCR and western blot analyses. We discovered that the mRNA and protein levels of Runx2, ALP and OCN were significantly up-regulated after 6, 12 and 24 hours of mechanical loading on PDLSCs compared to levels in unstimulated PDLSCs (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates, for the first time, the effects of mechanical tensile strain on the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs, as examined with a Flexcell FX-4000T Tension Plus System. Our findings suggested that cyclic tension could promote the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs. Furthermore, the effects of orthodontic force on alveolar bone remodeling might be achieved by PDLSCs.

  14. Gelatin Scaffolds Containing Partially Sulfated Cellulose Promote Mesenchymal Stem Cell Chondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gloria Portocarrero; Menezes, Roseline; Vincent, Richard; Hammond, Willis; Rizio, Louis; Collins, George; Arinzeh, Treena Livingston

    2017-03-12

    Articular cartilage has a limited capacity to heal after damage from injury or degenerative disease. Tissue engineering constructs that more closely mimic the native cartilage microenvironment can be utilized to promote repair. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), a major component of the cartilage extracellular matrix, have the ability to sequester growth factors due to their level and spatial distribution of sulfate groups. This study evaluated the use of a GAG mimetic, cellulose sulfate, as a scaffolding material for cartilage tissue engineering. Cellulose sulfate can be synthesized to have a similar level and spatial distribution of sulfates as chondroitin sulfate C (CSC), the naturally occurring GAG. This partially sulfated cellulose (pSC) was incorporated into a fibrous gelatin construct by the electrospinning process. Scaffolds were characterized for fiber morphology and overall stability over time in an aqueous environment, growth factor interaction, and for supporting mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) chondrogenesis in vitro. All scaffold groups had micron-sized fibers and maintained overall stability in aqueous environments. Increasing concentrations of the transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGF-β3) were detected on scaffolds with increasing pSC. MSC chondrogenesis was enhanced on the scaffold with the highest pSC concentration as seen with the highest collagen type II production, collagen type II immunostaining, expression of cartilage-specific genes, and ratio of collagen type II to collagen type I production. These studies demonstrated the potential of partially sulfated cellulose sulfate as a scaffolding material for cartilage tissue engineering.

  15. Crosstalk of mesenchymal stem cells and macrophages promotes cardiac muscle repair.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Zhang, Guoru; Wang, Yaling; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Yang; An, Yu; Li, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has potential therapeutic effects on cardiac muscle repair. However, the underlying mechanism remains not completely clarified. Here we show that transplantation of MSCs significantly increased local recruitment of macrophages to facilitate cardiac muscle repair. MSCs-induced recovery of cardiac function and attenuation of fibrosis after injury were all abolished by either impaired macrophage infiltration, or by MSCs depletion after macrophage recruitment. However, angiogenesis seemed to be only affected by depletion of macrophages, but not by depletion of MSCs, suggesting that macrophages are responsible for the augmented angiogenesis after MSCs transplantation, while MSCs do not directly contribute to angiogenesis in the functional cardiac repair. Moreover, high level of transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1) was detected in macrophages and high level of BMP7 was detected in MSCs, suggesting that MSCs not only may recruit macrophages to enhance angiogenesis to promote regeneration, but also may secrete BMP7 to contradict the fibrogenic effect of TGFβ1 by macrophages. Our study thus sheds new insight on the interaction of MSCs and macrophages in a functional cardiac repair triggered by MSCs transplantation.

  16. Boron Nitride Nanotubes Reinforce Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffolds and Promote the Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Cijun; Gao, Chengde; Feng, Pei; Xiao, Tao; Yu, Kun; Deng, Youwen; Peng, Shuping

    2016-05-01

    Incorporating boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) into ceramic matrices is a promising strategy for obtaining multifunctional composites. In this study, the application of BNNTs in reinforcing β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds manufactured using laser sintering is demonstrated. BNNTs contribute to the effective inhibition of both grain growth and phase transformation in β-TCP. Moreover, they can strengthen the grain boundaries and boost the fracture mode transition from intergranular to transgranular. BNNTs play an active role in reinforcing β-TCP in terms of load transfer and energy absorption by the synergistic mechanisms of pull-out, peel-off, crack bridging and deflection. With a BNNT content of 4 wt%, the elastic modulus, hardness, compressive strength and fracture toughness of β-TCP increase by 46%, 39%, 109% and 35%, respectively. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) were isolated with high purity, and surface molecule characterization revealed that they were CD90+, CD29+, CD73+, CD31-, CD34- and CD45-. UC-MSCs on BNNTs/β-TCP scaffolds were characterized by more positive Alizarin Red staining as well as up-regulated expression of osteoblast markers, as revealed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunofluorescence staining. These results are the first to demonstrate that BNNTs promote the osteogenic differentiation of UC-MSCs, indicating good osteoinductive properties for use in bone scaffolds. This study paves the way for the potential use of a BNNT/β-TCP scaffold in bone repair.

  17. Electric fields guide migration of epidermal stem cells and promote skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Gu, Wei; Du, Juan; Reid, Brian; Deng, Xianjian; Liu, Zhidai; Zong, Zhaowen; Wang, Haiyan; Yao, Bo; Yang, Ce; Yan, Jun; Zeng, Ling; Chalmers, Laura; Zhao, Min; Jiang, Jianxin

    2012-01-01

    Migration of epidermal stem cells (EpSCs) into wounds may play an important role in wound healing. Endogenous electric fields (EFs) arise naturally at wounds. Consistent with previous reports, we measured outward electric currents at rat skin wounds using vibrating probes. Topical use of prostaglandin E2 significantly promoted wound healing. However, it is not known whether EpSCs respond to EFs. We first isolated and characterized EpSCs from rat skin. We then demonstrated that EpSCs isolated from the epidermis migrated directionally toward the cathode in EFs of 50-400 mV/mm. The directedness values increased in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. The migration speed of EpSCs was significantly increased in EFs. EFs induced asymmetric polymerization of intracellular F-actin and activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B pathways. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, or PI3K significantly inhibited the cathodal distribution of F-actin and the electrotactic response of EpSCs. These data for the first time show that EpSCs possess obvious electrotaxis, in which the epidermal growth factor receptor-mitogen activated protein kinase-PI3K pathways are involved. These data thus suggest a novel aspect of electric signaling in wound healing-to stimulate and guide migration of EpSCs and to regulate wound healing.

  18. Stem cell factor-mediated activation pathways promote murine eosinophil CCL6 production and survival.

    PubMed

    Dolgachev, Vladislav; Thomas, Molly; Berlin, Aaron; Lukacs, Nicholas W

    2007-04-01

    Eosinophil activation during allergic diseases has a detrimental role in the generation of pathophysiologic responses. Stem cell factor (SCF) has recently shown an inflammatory, gene-activating role on eosinophils and contributes to the generation of pathophysiologic changes in the airways during allergic responses. The data in the present study outline the signal transduction events that are induced by SCF in eosinophils and further demonstrate that MEK-mediated signaling pathways are crucial for SCF-induced CCL6 chemokine activation and eosinophil survival. SCF-mediated eosinophil activation was demonstrated to include PI-3K activation as well as MEK/MAPK phosphorylation pathways. Subsequent analysis of CCL6 gene activation and production induced by SCF in the presence or absence of rather specific inhibitors for certain pathways demonstrated that the MEK/MAPK pathway but not the PI-3K pathway was crucial for the SCF-induced CCL6 gene activation. These same signaling pathways were shown to initiate antiapoptotic events and promote eosinophil survival, including up-regulation of BCL2 and BCL3. Altogether, SCF appears to be a potent eosinophil activation and survival factor.

  19. Quercetin-3-O-glucuronide promotes the proliferation and migration of neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Baral, Samrat; Pariyar, Ramesh; Kim, Jaehyo; Lee, Ho-Sub; Seo, Jungwon

    2017-04-01

    Quercetin is a bioactive compound exerting therapeutic effects on in vivo animal models of neurodegeneration or neurotoxicity. However, the narrow therapeutic dose-range of quercetin has been a point of concern since previous studies have demonstrated that quercetin induces cytotoxicity in vitro. Quercetin is metabolized to quercetin glucuronates such as quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3GA), primarily detected in the plasma and the brain. Here, we examined whether and how quercetin or Q3GA regulates neural stem cells (NSCs) in vivo and in vitro. Immunohistochemistry showed that oral administration of quercetin increased nestin-, DCX-, BrdU/DCX-, and BrdU/NeuN-positive cells in the dentate gyrus of mice. However, quercetin decreased the viability of human embryonic NSCs in culture, accompanied by decreased Akt phosphorylation and increased cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP. In contrast, Q3GA increased BrdU-positive cell proliferation, Akt phosphorylation, and cyclin D1 expression. PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 reversed Q3GA-induced Akt phosphorylation and cyclin D1 expression, thereby reducing Q3GA-induced proliferation. Furthermore, Q3GA increased the protein secretion of BDNF and its blockade using anti-BDNF antibody reversed Q3GA-induced proliferation. Under differentiation state, Q3GA promotes NSC migration, along with increased mRNA expression of CXCR4. Moreover, Q3GA significantly reversed scopolamine-induced reduction of Akt phosphorylation in the mouse hippocampus and ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairments. Our results demonstrate that quercetin and its metabolite Q3GA control NSC viability in a converse manner through contrary regulation of Akt, accounting for the conflicting effects of quercetin in vivo and in vitro. This study provides a novel mechanism for the positive effects of Q3GA on neurogenesis and suggests its therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Laminin-521 Promotes Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheet Formation on Light-Induced Cell Sheet Technology

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell sheets (rBMSC sheets) are attractive for cell-based tissue engineering. However, methods of culturing rBMSC sheets are critically limited. In order to obtain intact rBMSC sheets, a light-induced cell sheet method was used in this study. TiO2 nanodot films were coated with (TL) or without (TN) laminin-521. We investigated the effects of laminin-521 on rBMSCs during cell sheet culturing. The fabricated rBMSC sheets were subsequently assessed to study cell sheet viability, reattachment ability, cell sheet thickness, collagen type I deposition, and multilineage potential. The results showed that laminin-521 could promote the formation of rBMSC sheets with good viability under hyperconfluent conditions. Cell sheet thickness increased from an initial 26.7 ± 1.5 μm (day 5) up to 47.7 ± 3.0 μm (day 10). Moreover, rBMSC sheets maintained their potential of osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation. This study provides a new strategy to obtain rBMSC sheets using light-induced cell sheet technology. PMID:28164129

  1. Diazepam Binding Inhibitor Promotes Stem Cell Expansion Controlling Environment-Dependent Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dumitru, Ionut; Neitz, Angela; Alfonso, Julieta; Monyer, Hannah

    2017-03-18

    Plasticity of adult neurogenesis supports adaptation to environmental changes. The identification of molecular mediators that signal these changes to neural progenitors in the niche has remained elusive. Here we report that diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) is crucial in supporting an adaptive mechanism in response to changes in the environment. We provide evidence that DBI is expressed in stem cells in all neurogenic niches of the postnatal brain. Focusing on the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) and employing multiple genetic manipulations in vivo, we demonstrate that DBI regulates the balance between preserving the stem cell pool and neurogenesis. Specifically, DBI dampens GABA activity in stem cells, thereby sustaining the proproliferative effect of physical exercise and enriched environment. Our data lend credence to the notion that the modulatory effect of DBI constitutes a general mechanism that regulates postnatal neurogenesis.

  2. Role of Injured Pancreatic Extract Promotes Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Efficiently Differentiate into Insulin-Producing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hongbin; Wang, Yunshuai; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Hui; Zhou, Hanxin; Li, Fu-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be successfully induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) by a variety of small molecules and cytokines in vitro. However, problems remain, such as low transdifferentiation efficiency and poor maturity of trans-differentiated cells. The damaged pancreatic cells secreted a large amount of soluble proteins, which were able to promote pancreative islet regeneration and MSCs differentiation. In this study, we utilized the rat injured pancreatic tissue extract to modulate rat bone marrow-derived MSCs differentiation into IPCs by the traditional two-step induction. Our results showed that injured pancreatic tissue extract could effectively promote the trans-differentiation efficiency and maturity of IPCs by the traditional induction. Moreover, IPCs were able to release more insulin in a glucose-dependent manner and ameliorate better the diabetic conditions of streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats. Our study provides a new strategy to induce an efficient and directional differentiation of MSCs into IPCs. PMID:24058711

  3. miR-367 promotes proliferation and stem-like traits in medulloblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaid, Carolini; Silva, Patrícia B G; Cortez, Beatriz A; Rodini, Carolina O; Semedo-Kuriki, Patricia; Okamoto, Oswaldo K

    2015-01-01

    In medulloblastoma, abnormal expression of pluripotency factors such as LIN28 and OCT4 has been correlated with poor patient survival. The miR-302/367 cluster has also been shown to control self-renewal and pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, but there is limited, mostly correlational, information about these pluripotency-related miRNA in cancer. We evaluated whether aberrant expression of such miRNA could affect tumor cell behavior and stem-like traits, thereby contributing to the aggressiveness of medulloblastoma cells. Basal expression of primary and mature forms of miR-367 were detected in four human medulloblastoma cell lines and expression of the latter was found to be upregulated upon enforced expression of OCT4A. Transient overexpression of miR-367 significantly enhanced tumor features typically correlated with poor prognosis; namely, cell proliferation, 3-D tumor spheroid cell invasion and the ability to generate neurosphere-like structures enriched in CD133 expressing cells. A concurrent downregulation of the miR-367 cancer-related targets RYR3, ITGAV and RAB23, was also detected in miR-367-overexpressing cells. Overall, these findings support the pro-oncogenic activity of miR-367 in medulloblastoma and reveal a possible mechanism contributing to tumor aggressiveness, which could be further explored to improve patient stratification and treatment of this important type of pediatric brain cancer. PMID:26250335

  4. CpG island erosion, polycomb occupancy and sequence motif enrichment at bivalent promoters in mammalian embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mantsoki, Anna; Devailly, Guillaume; Joshi, Anagha

    2015-11-19

    In embryonic stem (ES) cells, developmental regulators have a characteristic bivalent chromatin signature marked by simultaneous presence of both activation (H3K4me3) and repression (H3K27me3) signals and are thought to be in a 'poised' state for subsequent activation or silencing during differentiation. We collected eleven pairs (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) of ChIP sequencing datasets in human ES cells and eight pairs in murine ES cells, and predicted high-confidence (HC) bivalent promoters. Over 85% of H3K27me3 marked promoters were bivalent in human and mouse ES cells. We found that (i) HC bivalent promoters were enriched for developmental factors and were highly likely to be differentially expressed upon transcription factor perturbation; (ii) murine HC bivalent promoters were occupied by both polycomb repressive component classes (PRC1 and PRC2) and grouped into four distinct clusters with different biological functions; (iii) HC bivalent and active promoters were CpG rich while H3K27me3-only promoters lacked CpG islands. Binding enrichment of distinct sets of regulators distinguished bivalent from active promoters. Moreover, a 'TCCCC' sequence motif was specifically enriched in bivalent promoters. Finally, this analysis will serve as a resource for future studies to further understand transcriptional regulation during embryonic development.

  5. CpG island erosion, polycomb occupancy and sequence motif enrichment at bivalent promoters in mammalian embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Mantsoki, Anna; Devailly, Guillaume; Joshi, Anagha

    2015-01-01

    In embryonic stem (ES) cells, developmental regulators have a characteristic bivalent chromatin signature marked by simultaneous presence of both activation (H3K4me3) and repression (H3K27me3) signals and are thought to be in a ‘poised’ state for subsequent activation or silencing during differentiation. We collected eleven pairs (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) of ChIP sequencing datasets in human ES cells and eight pairs in murine ES cells, and predicted high-confidence (HC) bivalent promoters. Over 85% of H3K27me3 marked promoters were bivalent in human and mouse ES cells. We found that (i) HC bivalent promoters were enriched for developmental factors and were highly likely to be differentially expressed upon transcription factor perturbation; (ii) murine HC bivalent promoters were occupied by both polycomb repressive component classes (PRC1 and PRC2) and grouped into four distinct clusters with different biological functions; (iii) HC bivalent and active promoters were CpG rich while H3K27me3-only promoters lacked CpG islands. Binding enrichment of distinct sets of regulators distinguished bivalent from active promoters. Moreover, a ‘TCCCC’ sequence motif was specifically enriched in bivalent promoters. Finally, this analysis will serve as a resource for future studies to further understand transcriptional regulation during embryonic development. PMID:26582124

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells combined with biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics promote bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Livingston, T L; Gordon, S; Archambault, M; Kadiyala, S; McIntosh, K; Smith, A; Peter, S J

    2003-03-01

    The reconstruction and repair of large bone defects, resulting from trauma, cancer or metabolic disorders, is a major clinical challenge in orthopaedics. Clinically available biological and synthetic grafts have clear limitations that necessitate the development of new graft materials and/or strategies. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), obtained from the adult bone marrow, are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into various mesenchymal tissues. Of particular interest is the ability of these cells to differentiate into osteoblasts, or bone-forming cells. At Osiris, we have extensively characterized MSCs and have demonstrated MSCs can induce bone repair when implanted in vivo in combination with a biphasic calcium phosphate, specifically hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate. This article reviews previous and current studies utilizing mesenchymal stem cells and biphasic calcium phosphates in bone repair.

  7. Autophagy Promoted the Degradation of Mutant ATXN3 in Neurally Differentiated Spinocerebellar Ataxia-3 Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Zhanhui; Luo, Min; Niu, Xiaohua; Chen, Yuchang; Xie, Yingjun; He, Wenyin; Song, Bing; Xian, Yexing; Fan, Di; OuYang, Shuming

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia-3 (SCA3) is the most common dominant inherited ataxia worldwide and is caused by an unstable CAG trinucleotide expansion mutation within the ATXN3 gene, resulting in an expanded polyglutamine tract within the ATXN3 protein. Many in vitro studies have examined the role of autophagy in neurodegenerative disorders, including SCA3, using transfection models with expression of pathogenic proteins in normal cells. In the current study, we aimed to develop an improved model for studying SCA3 in vitro using patient-derived cells. The patient-derived iPS cells presented a phenotype similar to that of human embryonic stem cells and could be differentiated into neurons. Additionally, these cells expressed abnormal ATXN3 protein without changes in the CAG repeat length during culture for at least 35 passages as iPS cells, up to 3 passages as neural stem cells, and after 4 weeks of neural differentiation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that neural differentiation in these iPS cells was accompanied by autophagy and that rapamycin promoted autophagy through degradation of mutant ATXN3 proteins in neurally differentiated spinocerebellar ataxia-3 human induced pluripotent stem cells (p < 0.05). In conclusion, patient-derived iPS cells are a good model for studying the mechanisms of SCA3 and may provide a tool for drug discovery in vitro. PMID:27847820

  8. Akt signaling leads to stem cell activation and promotes tumor development in epidermis.

    PubMed

    Segrelles, Carmen; García-Escudero, Ramón; Garín, Maria I; Aranda, Juan F; Hernández, Pilar; Ariza, José M; Santos, Mirentxu; Paramio, Jesús M; Lorz, Corina

    2014-07-01

    Hair follicle stem cells (HF-SCs) alternate between periods of quiescence and proliferation, to finally differentiate into all the cell types that constitute the hair follicle. Also, they have been recently identified as cells of origin in skin cancer. HF-SCs localize in a precise region of the hair follicle, the bulge, and molecular markers for this population have been established. Thus, HF-SCs are good model to study the potential role of oncogenic activations on SC physiology. Expression of a permanently active form of Akt (myrAkt) in basal cells leads to Akt hyperactivation specifically in the CD34(+)Itga6(H) population. This activation causes bulge stem cells to exit from quiescence increasing their response to proliferative stimuli and affecting some functions such as cell migration. HF-SC identity upon Akt activation is preserved; in this sense, increased proliferation does not result in stem cell exhaustion with age suggesting that Akt activation does not affect self-renewal an important aspect for normal tissue maintenance and cancer development. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of HF-SC isolated from myrAkt and wild-type epidermis underscores changes in metabolic pathways characteristic of cancer cells. These differences manifest during a two-step carcinogenesis protocol in which Akt activation in HF-SCs results in increased tumor development and malignant transformation.

  9. University Festival Promotes STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quagliata, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    STEM education is argued as an essential ingredient in preparing our children for careers of the future. This study describes a university festival that includes the promotion of STEM-related career interests in young people among its goals. A total of 203 participants between the age of 7 and 17 completed both pre-event and post-event surveys. In…

  10. The advantages of hair follicle pluripotent stem cells over embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Amoh, Yasuyuki; Katsuoka, Kensei; Hoffman, Robert M

    2010-12-01

    Multipotent adult stem cells have many potential therapeutic applications. Our recent findings suggest that hair follicles are a promising source of easily accessible multipotent stem cells. Stem cells in the hair follicle area express the neural stem cell marker nestin, suggesting that hair-follicle stem cells and neural stem cells have common features. Nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells can form neurons and other cell types, and thus adult hair follicle stem cells could have important therapeutic applications, particularly for neurologic diseases. Transplanted hair follicle stem cells promote the functional recovery of injured peripheral nerve and spinal cord. Recent findings suggest that direct transplantation of hair-follicle stem cells without culture can promote nerve repair, which makes them potentially clinically practical. Human hair follicle stem cells as well as mouse hair follicle stem cells promote nerve repair and can be applied to test the hypothesis that human hair follicle stem cells can provide a readily available source of neurologically therapeutic stem cells. The use of hair follicle stem cells for nerve regeneration overcomes critical problems of embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells in that the hair follicle stem cells are multipotent, readily accessible, non-oncogenic, and are not associated with ethical issues.

  11. Diclofenac and triamcinolone acetonide impair tenocytic differentiation and promote adipocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tendinopathies are often empirically treated with oral/topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications and corticosteroid injections despite their unclear effects on tendon regeneration. Recent studies indicate that tendon progenitors exhibit stem cell-like properties, i.e., differentiation to osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes, in addition to tenocytes. Our present study aims at understanding the effects of triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac on tenocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Methods The murine fibroblast C3H10T1/2 cell line was induced to tenocytic differentiation by growth differentiation factor-7. Cell proliferation and differentiation with the exposure of different concentrations of triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac were measured by WST-1 assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, respectively. Results Cell proliferation was decreased in a concentration-dependent manner when exposed to triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac. In addition to tenocytic differentiation, adipocyte formation was observed, both at gene expression and microscopic level, when the cells were exposed to triamcinolone acetonide or high concentrations of diclofenac. Conclusions Our results indicate that triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac might alter mesenchymal stem cell differentiation in a nonfavorable way regarding tendon regeneration; therefore, these medications should be used with more caution clinically. PMID:24004657

  12. Stem cells and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Goodell, Margaret A; Rando, Thomas A

    2015-12-04

    Research into stem cells and aging aims to understand how stem cells maintain tissue health, what mechanisms ultimately lead to decline in stem cell function with age, and how the regenerative capacity of somatic stem cells can be enhanced to promote healthy aging. Here, we explore the effects of aging on stem cells in different tissues. Recent research has focused on the ways that genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and the extrinsic environmental milieu influence stem cell functionality over time. We describe each of these three factors, the ways in which they interact, and how these interactions decrease stem cell health over time. We are optimistic that a better understanding of these changes will uncover potential strategies to enhance stem cell function and increase tissue resiliency into old age.

  13. UV-activated 7-dehydrocholesterol-coated titanium implants promote differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Satué, María; Ramis, Joana M; Monjo, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolites are essential for bone regeneration and mineral homeostasis. The vitamin D precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol can be used after UV irradiation to locally produce active vitamin D by osteoblastic cells. Furthermore, UV-irradiated 7-dehydrocholesterol is a biocompatible coating for titanium implants with positive effects on osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we examined the impact of titanium implants surfaces coated with UV-irradiated 7-dehydrocholesterol on the osteogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells. First, the synthesis of cholecalciferol (D3) was achieved through the incubation of the UV-activated 7-dehydrocholesterol coating for 48 h at 23℃. Further, we investigated in vitro the biocompatibility of this coating in human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells and its potential to enhance their differentiation towards the osteogenic lineage. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells cultured onto UV-irradiated 7-dehydrocholesterol-coated titanium implants surfaces, combined with osteogenic supplements, upregulated the gene expression of several osteogenic markers and showed higher alkaline phosphatase activity and calcein blue staining, suggesting increased mineralization. Thus, our results show that the use of UV irradiation on 7-dehydrocholesterol -treated titanium implants surfaces generates a bioactive coating that promotes the osteogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, with regenerative potential for improving osseointegration in titanium-based bone anchored implants.

  14. SREBP-2 promotes stem cell-like properties and metastasis by transcriptional activation of c-Myc in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangyan; Wu, Jason Boyang; Li, Qinlong; Shigemura, Katsumi; Chung, Leland W.K.; Huang, Wen-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) transcription factor mainly controls cholesterol biosynthesis and homeostasis in normal cells. The role of SREBP-2 in lethal prostate cancer (PCa) progression remains to be elucidated. Here, we showed that expression of SREBP-2 was elevated in advanced pathologic grade and metastatic PCa and significantly associated with poor clinical outcomes. Biofunctional analyses demonstrated that SREBP-2 induced PCa cell proliferation, invasion and migration. Furthermore, overexpression of SREBP-2 increased the PCa stem cell population, prostasphere-forming ability and tumor-initiating capability, whereas genetic silencing of SREBP-2 inhibited PCa cell growth, stemness, and xenograft tumor growth and metastasis. Clinical and mechanistic data showed that SREBP-2 was positively correlated with c-Myc and induced c-Myc activation by directly interacting with an SREBP-2-binding element in the 5′-flanking c-Myc promoter region to drive stemness and metastasis. Collectively, these clinical and experimental results reveal a novel role of SREBP-2 in the induction of a stem cell-like phenotype and PCa metastasis, which sheds light on translational potential by targeting SREBP-2 as a promising therapeutic approach in PCa. PMID:26883200

  15. Recombinant Human Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Promotes Cementogenic Differentiation of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hexiu; Choung, Han-Wool; Lim, Ki-Taek; Jin, Bin; Jin, Chengbiao; Chung, Jong-Hoon; Choung, Pill-Hoon

    2015-12-01

    The periodontium, consisting of gingiva, periodontal ligament (PDL), cementum, and alveolar bone, is necessary for the maintenance of tooth function. Specifically, the regenerative abilities of cementum with inserted PDL are important for the prevention of tooth loss. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), which are located in the connective tissue PDL between the cementum and alveolar bone, are an attractive candidate for hard tissue formation. We investigated the effects of recombinant human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (rhPAI-1) on cementogenic differentiation of human PDLSCs (hPDLSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Untreated and rhPAI-1-treated hPDLSCs mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) and dentin matrix were transplanted subcutaneously into the dorsal surface of immunocompromised mice to assess their capacity for hard tissue formation at 8 and 10 weeks posttransplantation. rhPAI-1 accelerated mineral nodule formation and increased the mRNA expression of cementoblast-associated markers in hPDLSCs. We also observed that rhPAI-1 upregulated the levels of osterix (OSX) and cementum protein 1 (CEMP1) through Smad2/3 and p38 pathways, whereas specific inhibitors of Smad3 and p38 inhibited the enhancement of mineralization of hPDLSCs by rhPAI-1. Furthermore, transplantation of hPDLSCs with rhPAI-1 showed a great ability to promote cementogenic differentiation. Notably, rhPAI-1 induced hPDLSCs to regenerate cementum-like tissue with PDL fibers inserted into newly formed cementum-like tissue. These results suggest that rhPAI-1 may play a key role in cementogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs. rhPAI-1 with hPDLSCs may be a good candidate for future clinical applications in periodontal tissue regeneration and possibly in tooth root bioengineering.

  16. Recombinant Human Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Promotes Cementogenic Differentiation of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hexiu; Choung, Han-Wool; Lim, Ki-Taek; Jin, Bin; Jin, Chengbiao; Chung, Jong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The periodontium, consisting of gingiva, periodontal ligament (PDL), cementum, and alveolar bone, is necessary for the maintenance of tooth function. Specifically, the regenerative abilities of cementum with inserted PDL are important for the prevention of tooth loss. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), which are located in the connective tissue PDL between the cementum and alveolar bone, are an attractive candidate for hard tissue formation. We investigated the effects of recombinant human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (rhPAI-1) on cementogenic differentiation of human PDLSCs (hPDLSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Untreated and rhPAI-1-treated hPDLSCs mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) and dentin matrix were transplanted subcutaneously into the dorsal surface of immunocompromised mice to assess their capacity for hard tissue formation at 8 and 10 weeks posttransplantation. rhPAI-1 accelerated mineral nodule formation and increased the mRNA expression of cementoblast-associated markers in hPDLSCs. We also observed that rhPAI-1 upregulated the levels of osterix (OSX) and cementum protein 1 (CEMP1) through Smad2/3 and p38 pathways, whereas specific inhibitors of Smad3 and p38 inhibited the enhancement of mineralization of hPDLSCs by rhPAI-1. Furthermore, transplantation of hPDLSCs with rhPAI-1 showed a great ability to promote cementogenic differentiation. Notably, rhPAI-1 induced hPDLSCs to regenerate cementum-like tissue with PDL fibers inserted into newly formed cementum-like tissue. These results suggest that rhPAI-1 may play a key role in cementogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs. rhPAI-1 with hPDLSCs may be a good candidate for future clinical applications in periodontal tissue regeneration and possibly in tooth root bioengineering. PMID:25808697

  17. Mesenchymal stem cells promote colorectal cancer progression through AMPK/mTOR-mediated NF-κB activation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-Bing; Liu, Yang; Wang, Gui-Hua; Xu, Xiao; Cai, Yang; Wang, Hong-Yi; Li, Yan-Qi; Meng, Hong-Fang; Dai, Fu; Jin, Ji-De

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exert a tumor-promoting effect in a variety of human cancers. This study was designed to identify the molecular mechanisms related to the tumor-promoting effect of MSCs in colorectal cancer. In vitro analysis of colorectal cancer cell lines cultured in MSC conditioned media (MSC-CM) showed that MSC-CM significantly promoted the progression of the cancer cells by enhancing cell proliferation, migration and colony formation. The tumorigenic effect of MSC-CM was attributed to altered expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and inhibition of apoptosis. Furthermore, MSC-CM induced high level expression of a number of pluripotency factors in the cancer cells. ELISAs revealed MSC-CM contained higher levels of IL-6 and IL-8, which are associated with the progression of cancer. Moreover, MSC-CM downregulated AMPK mRNA and protein phosphorylation, but upregulated mTOR mRNA and protein phosphorylation. The NF-κB pathway was activated after addition of MSC-CM. An in vivo model in Balb/C mice confirmed the ability of MSC-CM to promote the invasion and proliferation of colorectal cancer cells. This study indicates that MSCs promote the progression of colorectal cancer via AMPK/mTOR-mediated NF-κB activation. PMID:26892992

  18. Nukbone® promotes proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human amniotic membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez-Fuentes, Nayeli; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana G.; Enríquez-Jiménez, Juana; Alcántara-Quintana, Luz E.; Fuentes-Mera, Lizeth; Piña-Barba, María C.; Zepeda-Rodríguez, Armando; and others

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Nukbone showed to be a good scaffold for adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. •Nukbone induced osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. •Results showed that Nukbone offer an excellent option for bone tissue regeneration due to properties. -- Abstract: Bovine bone matrix Nukbone® (NKB) is an osseous tissue-engineering biomaterial that retains its mineral and organic phases and its natural bone topography and has been used as a xenoimplant for bone regeneration in clinics. There are not studies regarding its influence of the NKB in the behavior of cells during the repairing processes. The aim of this research is to demonstrate that NKB has an osteoinductive effect in human mesenchymal stem cells from amniotic membrane (AM-hMSCs). Results indicated that NKB favors the AM-hMSCs adhesion and proliferation up to 7 days in culture as shown by the scanning electron microscopy and proliferation measures using an alamarBlue assay. Furthermore, as demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, it was detected that two gene expression markers of osteoblastic differentiation: the core binding factor and osteocalcin were higher for AM-hMSCs co-cultured with NKB in comparison with cultivated cells in absence of the biomaterial. As the results indicate, NKB possess the capability for inducing successfully the osteoblastic differentiation of AM-hMSC, so that, NKB is an excellent xenoimplant option for repairing bone tissue defects.

  19. Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells promotes mineralization within a biodegradable peptide hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Castillo Diaz, Luis A; Elsawy, Mohamed; Saiani, Alberto; Gough, Julie E; Miller, Aline F

    2016-01-01

    An attractive strategy for the regeneration of tissues has been the use of extracellular matrix analogous biomaterials. Peptide-based fibrillar hydrogels have been shown to mimic the structure of extracellular matrix offering cells a niche to undertake their physiological functions. In this study, the capability of an ionic-complementary peptide FEFEFKFK (F, E, and K are phenylalanine, glutamic acid, and lysine, respectively) hydrogel to host human mesenchymal stem cells in three dimensions and induce their osteogenic differentiation is demonstrated. Assays showed sustained cell viability and proliferation throughout the hydrogel over 12 days of culture and these human mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into osteoblasts simply upon addition of osteogenic stimulation. Differentiated osteoblasts synthesized key bone proteins, including collagen-1 (Col-1), osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase. Moreover, mineralization occurred within the hydrogel. The peptide hydrogel is a naturally biodegradable material as shown by oscillatory rheology and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, where both viscoelastic properties and the degradation of the hydrogel were monitored over time, respectively. These findings demonstrate that a biodegradable octapeptide hydrogel can host and induce the differentiation of stem cells and has the potential for the regeneration of hard tissues such as alveolar bone. PMID:27493714

  20. PEDF promotes self-renewal of limbal stem cell and accelerates corneal epithelial wound healing.

    PubMed

    Ho, Tsung-Chuan; Chen, Show-Li; Wu, Ju-Yun; Ho, Mei-Ying; Chen, Lee-Jen; Hsieh, Jui-Wen; Cheng, Huey-Chuan; Tsao, Yeou-Ping

    2013-09-01

    Limbal epithelial stem cell (LSC) transplantation is a prevalent therapeutic method for patients with LSC deficiency. The maintenance of stem cell characteristics in the process of culture expansion is critical for the success of ocular surface reconstruction. Pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) increased the numbers of holoclone in LSC monolayer culture and preserved the stemness of LSC in suspension culture by evidence of ΔNp63α, Bmi-1, and ABCG2 expression. BrdU pulse-labeling assay also demonstrated that PEDF stimulated LSCs proliferation. In air-lift culture of limbal equivalent, PEDF was capable of increasing the numbers of ΔNp63α-positive cells. The mitogenic effect of PEDF was found to be mediated by the phosphorylations of p38 MAPK and STAT3 in LSCs. Synthetic 44-mer PEDF (residues 78-121) was as effective as the full length PEDF in LSC expansion in suspension culture and limbal equivalent formation, as well as the activation of p38 MAPK and STAT3. In mice subjecting to mechanical removal of cornea epithelium, 44-mer PEDF facilitated corneal wound healing. Microscopically, 44-mer PEDF advanced the early proliferative response in limbus, increased the proliferation of ΔNp63α-positive cells both in limbus and in epithelial healing front, and assisted the repopulation of limbus in the late phase of wound healing. In conclusion, the capability of expanding LSC in cell culture and in animal indicates the potential of PEDF and its fragment (e.g., 44-mer PEDF) in ameliorating limbal stem cell deficiency; and their uses as therapeutics for treating corneal wound.

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells preconditioned with trimetazidine promote neovascularization of hearts under hypoxia/reoxygenation injury

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaowu; Yang, Junjie; Wang, Ying; Zhang, You; Ii, Masaaki; Shen, Zhenya; Hui, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cell-based angiogenesis is a promising treatment for ischemic diseases; however, survival of implanted cells is impaired by the ischemic microenvironment. In this study, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for cell transplantation were preconditioned with trimetazidine (TMZ). We hypothesized that TMZ enhances the survival rate of MSCs under hypoxic stimuli through up-regulation of HIF1-α. Methods and results: Bone marrow-derived rat mesenchymal stem cells were preconditioned with 10 μM TMZ for 6 h. TMZ preconditioning of MSCs remarkably increased cell viability and the expression of HIF1-α and Bcl-2, when cells were under hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) stimuli. But the protective effects of TMZ were abolished after knocking down of HIF-1α. Three days after implantation of the cells into the peri-ischemic zone of rat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury model, survival of the TMZ-preconditioned MSCs was high. Furthermore, capillary density and cardiac function were significantly better in the rats implanted with TMZ-preconditioned MSCs 28 days after cell injection. Conclusions: TMZ preconditioning increased the survival rate of MSCs, through up-regulation of HIF1-α, thus contributing to neovascularization and improved cardiac function of rats subjected to myocardial I/R injury. PMID:26629255

  2. Cell-permeable p38 MAP kinase promotes migration of adult neural stem/progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Hamanoue, Makoto; Morioka, Kazuhito; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Ohsawa, Keiko; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Tsuburaya, Kayo; Akasaka, Yoshikiyo; Mikami, Tetsuo; Ogata, Toru; Takamatsu, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) can migrate toward sites of injury, but the migration activity of NPCs is insufficient to regenerate damaged brain tissue. In this study, we showed that p38 MAP kinase (p38) is expressed in doublecortin-positive adult NPCs. Experiments using the p38 inhibitor SB203580 revealed that endogenous p38 participates in NPC migration. To enhance NPC migration, we generated a cell-permeable wild-type p38 protein (PTD-p38WT) in which the HIV protein transduction domain (PTD) was fused to the N-terminus of p38. Treatment with PTD-p38WT significantly promoted the random migration of adult NPCs without affecting cell survival or differentiation; this effect depended on the cell permeability and kinase activity of the fusion protein. These findings indicate that PTD-p38WT is a novel and useful tool for unraveling the roles of p38, and that this protein provides a reasonable approach for regenerating the injured brain by enhancing NPC migration. PMID:27067799

  3. Tonsil-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiate into a Schwann Cell Phenotype and Promote Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Namhee; Park, Saeyoung; Choi, Yoonyoung; Park, Joo-Won; Hong, Young Bin; Park, Hyun Ho Choi; Yu, Yeonsil; Kwak, Geon; Kim, Han Su; Ryu, Kyung-Ha; Kim, Jae Kwang; Jo, Inho; Choi, Byung-Ok; Jung, Sung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Schwann cells (SCs), which produce neurotropic factors and adhesive molecules, have been reported previously to contribute to structural support and guidance during axonal regeneration; therefore, they are potentially a crucial target in the restoration of injured nervous tissues. Autologous SC transplantation has been performed and has shown promising clinical results for treating nerve injuries and donor site morbidity, and insufficient production of the cells have been considered as a major issue. Here, we performed differentiation of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (T-MSCs) into SC-like cells (T-MSC-SCs), to evaluate T-MSC-SCs as an alternative to SCs. Using SC markers such as CAD19, GFAP, MBP, NGFR, S100B, and KROX20 during quantitative real-time PCR we detected the upregulation of NGFR, S100B, and KROX20 and the downregulation of CAD19 and MBP at the fully differentiated stage. Furthermore, we found myelination of axons when differentiated SCs were cocultured with mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons. The application of T-MSC-SCs to a mouse model of sciatic nerve injury produced marked improvements in gait and promoted regeneration of damaged nerves. Thus, the transplantation of human T-MSCs might be suitable for assisting in peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:27834852

  4. Tonsil-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiate into a Schwann Cell Phenotype and Promote Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Jung, Namhee; Park, Saeyoung; Choi, Yoonyoung; Park, Joo-Won; Hong, Young Bin; Park, Hyun Ho Choi; Yu, Yeonsil; Kwak, Geon; Kim, Han Su; Ryu, Kyung-Ha; Kim, Jae Kwang; Jo, Inho; Choi, Byung-Ok; Jung, Sung-Chul

    2016-11-09

    Schwann cells (SCs), which produce neurotropic factors and adhesive molecules, have been reported previously to contribute to structural support and guidance during axonal regeneration; therefore, they are potentially a crucial target in the restoration of injured nervous tissues. Autologous SC transplantation has been performed and has shown promising clinical results for treating nerve injuries and donor site morbidity, and insufficient production of the cells have been considered as a major issue. Here, we performed differentiation of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (T-MSCs) into SC-like cells (T-MSC-SCs), to evaluate T-MSC-SCs as an alternative to SCs. Using SC markers such as CAD19, GFAP, MBP, NGFR, S100B, and KROX20 during quantitative real-time PCR we detected the upregulation of NGFR, S100B, and KROX20 and the downregulation of CAD19 and MBP at the fully differentiated stage. Furthermore, we found myelination of axons when differentiated SCs were cocultured with mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons. The application of T-MSC-SCs to a mouse model of sciatic nerve injury produced marked improvements in gait and promoted regeneration of damaged nerves. Thus, the transplantation of human T-MSCs might be suitable for assisting in peripheral nerve regeneration.

  5. Human mesenchymal stem cells promote growth of osteosarcoma: involvement of interleukin-6 in the interaction between human mesenchymal stem cells and Saos-2.

    PubMed

    Bian, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Qi-Ming; Li, Gang; Xu, Wen-Ting; Tang, Ting-Ting

    2010-12-01

    Our previous study showed that exogenous human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) targeted established osteosarcoma and promoted its growth and pulmonary metastasis in vivo. As a follow-up, the present study aimed to investigate how hMSCs would interact with Saos-2 through autocrine/paracrine communication. The results showed that co-injection of hMSCs with Saos-2 into the proximal tibia of nude mice could promote tumor growth and progression. In vitro, the proliferation of Saos-2 and hMSCs was promoted by each other's conditioned medium, in which interleukin-6 (IL-6) played an important role. Osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs could be inhibited by conditioned medium of Saos-2, in which IL-6 was also involved. Furthermore, decreased IL-6 secretion by hMSCs during its osteogenesis and increased IL-6 secretion in response to conditioned medium of Saos-2 were observed. Based on these data, we suggest that there was a positive feedback loop of IL-6 in the interaction between hMSCs and Saos-2.

  6. Up-regulation of glycolysis promotes the stemness and EMT phenotypes in gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hengqiang; Duan, Qingke; Zhang, Zhengle; Li, Hehe; Wu, Heshui; Shen, Qiang; Wang, Chunyou; Yin, Tao

    2017-02-28

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-type cells are considered as underlying causes of chemoresistance, tumour recurrence and metastasis in pancreatic cancer. We aimed to describe the mechanisms - particularly glycolysis - involved in the regulation of the CSC and EMT phenotypes. We used a gemcitabine-resistant (GR) Patu8988 cell line, which exhibited clear CSC and EMT phenotypes and showed reliance on glycolysis. Inhibition of glycolysis using 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of gemcitabine and inhibited the CSC and EMT phenotypes in GR cells both in vitro and in vivo. Intriguingly, the use of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) restored the CSC and EMT phenotypes. H2 O2 produced changes similar to those of 2-DG, indicating that ROS were involved in the acquired cancer stemness and EMT phenotypes of GR cells. Moreover, doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1), a pancreatic CSC marker, was highly expressed and regulated the stemness and EMT phenotypes in GR cell. Both 2-DG and H2 O2 treatment suppressed DCLK1 expression, which was also rescued by NAC. Together, these findings revealed that glycolysis promotes the expression of DCLK1 and maintains the CSC and EMT phenotypes via maintenance of low ROS levels in chemoresistant GR cells. The glycolysis-ROS-DCLK1 pathway may be potential targets for reversing the malignant behaviour of pancreatic cancer.

  7. G-CSF displays restricted ability to promote Sca-1(+) cardiac stem cell proliferation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Luo, Haijian; Bassi, Giulio; Tessari, Maddalena; Yang, Zhenyu; Faggian, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a controversial chemical in cardiac cell therapy. Myocardial homing of mobilized bone marrow-derived cells is thought to play a critical role in observed G-CSF-induced cardiac repair; meanwhile, the activation of proliferative potential of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) residing in the heart is a significant challenge. The present study aims to investigate whether G-CSF receptor is expressed in adult resident Sca-1(+) CSCs and determine the effect of G-CSF treatment on the proliferation of CSCs. For cardiac cells isolation, 12-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were anesthetized in a chamber containing 2.5% isoflurane in oxygen, euthanized by CO2 inhalation and then sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Magnetic-activated cell sorting was employed to acquire highly purified Sca-1(+) CSCs. We found that G-CSF receptor was expressed in adult resident Sca-1(+) CSCs by immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting. Exposure of Sca-1(+) cells to G-CSF in the culture medium for 72 h induced time-dependent but self-limiting cell cycle acceleration with a restricted effect on the CSC proliferation. As a result, it has provided a new insight to focus on the association between cardiac G-CSF therapy and adult resident stem cell activation. It may suggest gaining a deeper insight into the mechanisms of the interaction between CSCs and G-CSF to develop a synergistic strategy based on resident stem cell and G-CSF therapy for heart disease.

  8. Gain of BDNF Function in Engrafted Neural Stem Cells Promotes the Therapeutic Potential for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Chun; Lien, Cheng-Chang; Hou, Wen-Hsien; Chiang, Po-Min; Tsai, Kuen-Jer

    2016-06-06

    Stem cell-based therapy is a potential treatment for neurodegenerative diseases, but its application to Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains limited. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is critical in the pathogenesis and treatment of AD. Here, we present a novel therapeutic approach for AD treatment using BDNF-overexpressing neural stem cells (BDNF-NSCs). In vitro, BDNF overexpression was neuroprotective to beta-amyloid-treated NSCs. In vivo, engrafted BDNF-NSCs-derived neurons not only displayed the Ca(2+)-response fluctuations, exhibited electrophysiological properties of mature neurons and integrated into local brain circuits, but recovered the cognitive deficits. Furthermore, BDNF overexpression improved the engrafted cells' viability, neuronal fate, neurite complexity, maturation of electrical property and the synaptic density. In contrast, knockdown of the BDNF in BDNF-NSCs diminished stem cell-based therapeutic efficacy. Together, our findings indicate BDNF overexpression improves the therapeutic potential of engrafted NSCs for AD via neurogenic effects and neuronal replacement, and further support the feasibility of NSC-based ex vivo gene therapy for AD.

  9. Melatonin promotes goat spermatogonia stem cells (SSCs) proliferation by stimulating glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) production in Sertoli cells

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Bowen; Li, Bo; Wu, Chongyang; Wu, Jiang; Yan, Yuan; Shang, Rui; Bai, Chunling; Li, Guangpeng; Hua, Jinlian

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin has been reported to be an important endogenous hormone for regulating neurogenesis, immunityand the biological clock. Recently, the effects of melatonin on neural stem cells (NSCs), mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells(iPSCs) have been reported; however, the effects of melatonin on spermatogonia stem cells (SSCs) are not clear. Here, 1μM and 1nM melatonin was added to medium when goat SSCs were cultured in vitro, the results showed that melatonin could increase the formation and size of SSC colonies. Real-time quantitative PCR (QRT-PCR) and western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of SSC proliferation and self-renewal markers were up-regulated. Meanwhile, QRT-PCR results showed that melatonin inhibit the mRNA expression level of SSC differentiation markers. ELISA analysis showed an obvious increase in the concentration of GDNF (a niche factor secreted by Sertoli cells) in the medium when treated with melatonin. Meanwhile, the phosphorylation level of AKT, a downstream of GDNF-GFRa1-RET pathway was activated. In conclusion, melatonin promotes goat SSC proliferation by stimulating GDNF production in Sertoli cells. PMID:27769051

  10. Laser biomodulation on stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Timon C.; Duan, Rui; Li, Yan; Li, Xue-Feng; Tan, Li-Ling; Liu, Songhao

    2001-08-01

    Stem cells are views from the perspectives of their function, evolution, development, and cause. Counterintuitively, most stem cells may arise late in development, to act principally in tissue renewal, thus ensuring an organisms long-term survival. Surprisingly, recent reports suggest that tissue-specific adult stem cells have the potential to contribute to replenishment of multiple adult tissues. Stem cells are currently in the news for two reasons: the successful cultivation of human embryonic stem cell lines and reports that adult stem cells can differentiate into developmentally unrelated cell types, such as nerve cells into blood cells. The spotlight on stem cells has revealed gaps in our knowledge that must be filled if we are to take advantage of their full potential for treating devastating degenerative diseases such as Parkinsons's disease and muscular dystrophy. We need to know more about the intrinsic controls that keep stem cells as stem cells or direct them along particular differentiation pathways. Such intrinsic regulators are, in turn, sensitive to the influences of the microenvironment, or niche, where stem cells normally reside. Both intrinsic and extrinsic signals regular stem cell fate and some of these signals have now been identified. Vacek et al and Wang et al have studied the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro. There experiments show there is indeed the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro, and the present effect is the promotion of haemopoietic stem cells proliferation. In other words, low intensity laser irradiation can act as an extrinsic signal regulating stem cell fate. In this paper, we study how low intensity laser can be used to regulate stem cell fate from the viewpoint of collective phototransduction.

  11. Retinoic acid promotes the proliferation of primordial germ cell-like cells differentiated from mouse skin-derived stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui; Wang, Jun-Jie; Cheng, Shun-Feng; Ge, Wei; Sun, Yuan-Chao; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Rui; Li, Lan; Li, Bo; Shen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Skin-derived stem cells (SDSCs) have the potential to differentiate into gametes and are a potential resource for research and clinical applications. Sufficient amount of primordial germ cells (PGCs) is an important requirement for successful differentiation of SDSCs into gametes in vitro. Retinoic acid (RA), a vitamin A-derived small lipophilic molecule, promotes the growth of PGCs in vivo; however, the role of RA on the proliferation of PGC-like cells (PGCLCs) derived from SDSCs remains unknown. In this study, SDSCs were induced to differentiate into the embryoid body and cocultured with mouse fibroblasts to form PGCLCs. The proliferation of PGCLCs with the presence of various concentrations of RA was investigated in vitro. Immunofluorescence labeling showed that the 5-Bromo-2-deoxyUridine-positive ratio of PGCLCs was increased after the cells were treated with 5-μM RA, and flow cytometry results showed that the number of cells in the S phase was increased significantly. The messenger RNA expression levels of cell cycle-related genes, CCND1 and CDK2, were also increased. Furthermore, RA effectively promoted the external proliferation of endogenous PGCs when 11.5-days postcoitum fetal mouse genital ridges were cultured in vitro. In conclusion, 5-μM RA promoted the proliferation of SDSCs-derived PGCLCs and endogenous PGCs. Our study will provide a valuable model system for studying the differentiation of stem cells into gametes in vitro.

  12. The CCR4-NOT complex mediates deadenylation and degradation of stem cell mRNAs and promotes planarian stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Solana, Jordi; Gamberi, Chiara; Mihaylova, Yuliana; Grosswendt, Stefanie; Chen, Chen; Lasko, Paul; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Aboobaker, A Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms are of fundamental importance to form robust genetic networks, but their roles in stem cell pluripotency remain poorly understood. Here, we use freshwater planarians as a model system to investigate this and uncover a role for CCR4-NOT mediated deadenylation of mRNAs in stem cell differentiation. Planarian adult stem cells, the so-called neoblasts, drive the almost unlimited regenerative capabilities of planarians and allow their ongoing homeostatic tissue turnover. While many genes have been demonstrated to be required for these processes, currently almost no mechanistic insight is available into their regulation. We show that knockdown of planarian Not1, the CCR4-NOT deadenylating complex scaffolding subunit, abrogates regeneration and normal homeostasis. This abrogation is primarily due to severe impairment of their differentiation potential. We describe a stem cell specific increase in the mRNA levels of key neoblast genes after Smed-not1 knock down, consistent with a role of the CCR4-NOT complex in degradation of neoblast mRNAs upon the onset of differentiation. We also observe a stem cell specific increase in the frequency of longer poly(A) tails in these same mRNAs, showing that stem cells after Smed-not1 knock down fail to differentiate as they accumulate populations of transcripts with longer poly(A) tails. As other transcripts are unaffected our data hint at a targeted regulation of these key stem cell mRNAs by post-transcriptional regulators such as RNA-binding proteins or microRNAs. Together, our results show that the CCR4-NOT complex is crucial for stem cell differentiation and controls stem cell-specific degradation of mRNAs, thus providing clear mechanistic insight into this aspect of neoblast biology.

  13. The CCR4-NOT Complex Mediates Deadenylation and Degradation of Stem Cell mRNAs and Promotes Planarian Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Solana, Jordi; Gamberi, Chiara; Mihaylova, Yuliana; Grosswendt, Stefanie; Chen, Chen; Lasko, Paul; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Aboobaker, A. Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms are of fundamental importance to form robust genetic networks, but their roles in stem cell pluripotency remain poorly understood. Here, we use freshwater planarians as a model system to investigate this and uncover a role for CCR4-NOT mediated deadenylation of mRNAs in stem cell differentiation. Planarian adult stem cells, the so-called neoblasts, drive the almost unlimited regenerative capabilities of planarians and allow their ongoing homeostatic tissue turnover. While many genes have been demonstrated to be required for these processes, currently almost no mechanistic insight is available into their regulation. We show that knockdown of planarian Not1, the CCR4-NOT deadenylating complex scaffolding subunit, abrogates regeneration and normal homeostasis. This abrogation is primarily due to severe impairment of their differentiation potential. We describe a stem cell specific increase in the mRNA levels of key neoblast genes after Smed-not1 knock down, consistent with a role of the CCR4-NOT complex in degradation of neoblast mRNAs upon the onset of differentiation. We also observe a stem cell specific increase in the frequency of longer poly(A) tails in these same mRNAs, showing that stem cells after Smed-not1 knock down fail to differentiate as they accumulate populations of transcripts with longer poly(A) tails. As other transcripts are unaffected our data hint at a targeted regulation of these key stem cell mRNAs by post-transcriptional regulators such as RNA-binding proteins or microRNAs. Together, our results show that the CCR4-NOT complex is crucial for stem cell differentiation and controls stem cell-specific degradation of mRNAs, thus providing clear mechanistic insight into this aspect of neoblast biology. PMID:24367277

  14. KIN enhances stem cell-like properties to promote chemoresistance in colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Miao; Zhang, Zhenwei; Yu, Honglan; Xue, Conglong; Yuan, Kaitao; Miao, Mingyong; Shi, Hanping

    2014-05-23

    Chemotherapy is widely used in colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment, especially in advanced stage patients. However, it is inevitable to develop chemoresistance. Recently, cancer cells acquired stem cell-like properties or cancer stem cells (CSC) were proved to attribute to chemoresistance. Here, we found that KIN protein was elevated in CRC cell lines and tissue specimens as compared to normal controls. Upregulation of KIN positively correlates with the metastatic status of CRC patients. Patients with high KIN expression showed poor prognosis and were with a short survival time. Overexpression of KIN enhanced, while silencing KIN impaired, chemoresistance to oxaliplatin (Ox) or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in CRC cell lines. Further investigation demonstrated that overexpression of KIN rendered CRC cells enriching CSC markers and CSC phenotype, and silencing KIN reduced CSC markers and CSC phenotype. Our findings suggest that the KIN level may be a suitable marker for predicting chemotherapy response in CRC, and silencing KIN plus chemotherapy may be a novel therapy for CRC treatment.

  15. PPARγ agonists promote differentiation of cancer stem cells by restraining YAP transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Rattanakorn, Kirk; Gadi, Abhilash; Verma, Narendra; Maurizi, Giulia; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Coarfa, Cristian; Kennedy, Oran D.; Garabedian, Michael J.; Basilico, Claudio; Mansukhani, Alka

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is a highly aggressive pediatric bone cancer in which most tumor cells remain immature and fail to differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts. However, OS cells readily respond to adipogenic stimuli suggesting they retain mesenchymal stem cell-like properties. Here we demonstrate that nuclear receptor PPARγ agonists such as the anti-diabetic, thiazolidinedione (TZD) drugs induce growth arrest and cause adipogenic differentiation in human, mouse and canine OS cells as well as in tumors in mice. Gene expression analysis reveals that TZDs induce lipid metabolism pathways while suppressing targets of the Hippo-YAP pathway, Wnt signaling and cancer-related proliferation pathways. Significantly, TZD action appears to be restricted to the high Sox2 expressing cancer stem cell population and is dependent on PPARγ expression. TZDs also affect growth and cell fate by causing the cytoplasmic sequestration of the transcription factors SOX2 and YAP that are required for tumorigenicity. Finally, we identify a TZD-regulated gene signature based on Wnt/Hippo target genes and PPARγ that predicts patient outcomes. Together, this work highlights a novel connection between PPARγ agonist in inducing adipogenesis and mimicking the tumor suppressive hippo pathway. It also illustrates the potential of drug repurposing for TZD-based differentiation therapy for osteosarcoma. PMID:27528232

  16. NEDD9 may regulate hepatocellular carcinoma cell metastasis by promoting epithelial-mesenchymal-transition and stemness via repressing Smad7

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Zhu, Shaojun; Yue, Shuqiang

    2017-01-01

    Overexpression of neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) is a prognostic marker of many cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the functions and mechanisms of NEDD9 are unclear. We found that upregulation of NEDD9 promoted migration, invasion and cell-to-extracellular matrix adhesion of HCC cells. NEDD9 also induced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and expression of matrix metalloprotein 2 (MMP2). Increased aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity and CD133-positive cells were observed in HCC cells with high expression of NEDD9, corresponding to greater sphere formation in cancer stem cells (CSCs). NEDD9 deregulated Smad7 expression to inhibit Smad signaling and binding to the FAK-Src-Crk complex. We propose that this is the mechanism by which NEDD9 induced CSC properties. PMID:27974675

  17. Enhancer of polycomb coordinates multiple signaling pathways to promote both cyst and germline stem cell differentiation in the Drosophila adult testis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lijuan; Shi, Zhen; Chen, Xin

    2017-02-01

    Stem cells reside in a particular microenvironment known as a niche. The interaction between extrinsic cues originating from the niche and intrinsic factors in stem cells determines their identity and activity. Maintenance of stem cell identity and stem cell self-renewal are known to be controlled by chromatin factors. Herein, we use the Drosophila adult testis which has two adult stem cell lineages, the germline stem cell (GSC) lineage and the cyst stem cell (CySC) lineage, to study how chromatin factors regulate stem cell differentiation. We find that the chromatin factor Enhancer of Polycomb [E(Pc)] acts in the CySC lineage to negatively control transcription of genes associated with multiple signaling pathways, including JAK-STAT and EGF, to promote cellular differentiation in the CySC lineage. E(Pc) also has a non-cell-autonomous role in regulating GSC lineage differentiation. When E(Pc) is specifically inactivated in the CySC lineage, defects occur in both germ cell differentiation and maintenance of germline identity. Furthermore, compromising Tip60 histone acetyltransferase activity in the CySC lineage recapitulates loss-of-function phenotypes of E(Pc), suggesting that Tip60 and E(Pc) act together, consistent with published biochemical data. In summary, our results demonstrate that E(Pc) plays a central role in coordinating differentiation between the two adult stem cell lineages in Drosophila testes.

  18. Enhancer of polycomb coordinates multiple signaling pathways to promote both cyst and germline stem cell differentiation in the Drosophila adult testis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lijuan; Shi, Zhen; Chen, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Stem cells reside in a particular microenvironment known as a niche. The interaction between extrinsic cues originating from the niche and intrinsic factors in stem cells determines their identity and activity. Maintenance of stem cell identity and stem cell self-renewal are known to be controlled by chromatin factors. Herein, we use the Drosophila adult testis which has two adult stem cell lineages, the germline stem cell (GSC) lineage and the cyst stem cell (CySC) lineage, to study how chromatin factors regulate stem cell differentiation. We find that the chromatin factor Enhancer of Polycomb [E(Pc)] acts in the CySC lineage to negatively control transcription of genes associated with multiple signaling pathways, including JAK-STAT and EGF, to promote cellular differentiation in the CySC lineage. E(Pc) also has a non-cell-autonomous role in regulating GSC lineage differentiation. When E(Pc) is specifically inactivated in the CySC lineage, defects occur in both germ cell differentiation and maintenance of germline identity. Furthermore, compromising Tip60 histone acetyltransferase activity in the CySC lineage recapitulates loss-of-function phenotypes of E(Pc), suggesting that Tip60 and E(Pc) act together, consistent with published biochemical data. In summary, our results demonstrate that E(Pc) plays a central role in coordinating differentiation between the two adult stem cell lineages in Drosophila testes. PMID:28196077

  19. Crosstalk between bone marrow-derived myofibroblasts and gastric cancer cells regulates cancer stemness and promotes tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jindong; Jiacheng, Lin; Chen, Gang; Jin, Huanyu; Liu, Anna B.; Pyo, Hyunseung; Ye, Jing; Zhu, Yanbo; Wang, Hong; Chen, Haoyan; Fang, Jingyuan; Cai, Li; Wang, Timothy C.; Yang, Chung S.; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells play important roles in cancer development and progression. Our previous studies demonstrated that murine bone marrow-derived myofibroblasts (BMFs) enhanced tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of BMF actions. We found that co-injection of BMFs with gastric cancer cells markedly promoted tumorigenesis. Co-cultured BMFs or BMF-conditioned medium (BMF-CM) induced the formation of spheres, which expressed stem cell signatures and exhibited features of self-renewal, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and tumor initiation. Furthermore, CD44+ fractions in spheres were able to initiate tumorigenesis and reestablish tumors in serially passaged xenografts. In co-culture systems, BMFs secreted high levels of murine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), while cancer cells produced high level of transformation growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). BMF-CM and IL-6 activated BMFs to produce mHGF, which activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and upregulated TGF-β1 in human cancer cells. In return, cancer cell-CM stimulated BMFs to produce IL-6, which was inhibited by anti-TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody. Blockade of HGF/Met, JAK2/STAT3 and TGF-β1 signaling by specific inhibitors inhibited BMF-induced sphere formation. STAT3 knockdown in cancer cells also inhibited BMF-induced sphere formation and tumorigenesis. Moreover, TGF-β1 overexpression in cancer cells was co-related with IL-6 and HGF overexpression in stromal cells in human gastric cancer tissues. Our results demonstrate that BMF-derived IL-6/HGF and cancer cell-derived TGF-β1 mediate the interactions between BMFs and gastric cancer cells, which regulate cancer stemness and promote tumorigenesis. Targeting inhibition of the interactions between BMFs and cancer cells may be a new strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:27109105

  20. Platelet lysates promote mesenchymal stem cell expansion: a safety substitute for animal serum in cell-based therapy applications.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Christelle; Ernou, Isabelle; Zhang, Yizhou; Llense, Jean-Roch; Begot, Laurent; Holy, Xavier; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques

    2005-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as emergent "universal" cells and various tissue repair programs using MSCs are in development. In vitro expansion of MSCs is conventionally achieved in medium containing fetal calf serum (FCS) and is increased by addition of growth factors. However, for widespread clinical applications, contact of MSCs with FCS must be minimized since it is a putative source of prion or virus transmission. Therefore, because platelets are a natural source of growth factors, we sought to investigate in vitro MSC expansion in response to platelet lysates (PL) obtained from platelet-rich plasma. Human MSCs were expanded in FCS (+/-bFGF)- or PL-supplemented medium through a process of subculture. We demonstrated that PL-containing medium is enriched by growth factors (platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor (TGF-beta), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) ...) and showed that PL is able to promote MSC expansion, to decrease the time required to reach confluence, and to increase CFU-F size, as compared to the FCS medium. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MSCs cultured in the presence of PL maintain their osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation properties and retain their immunosuppressive activity. Therefore, we propose that PL may be a powerful and safe substitute for FCS in development of tissue- and cellular-engineered products in clinical settings using MSCs.

  1. Layered double hydroxide nanoparticles promote self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells through the PI3K signaling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Youjun; Zhu, Rongrong; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Wenrui; Sun, Xiaoyu; Wu, Xianzheng; Cheng, Liming; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Shilong

    2015-06-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) hold great potential for regenerative medicine due to their two unique characteristics: self-renewal and pluripotency. Several groups of nanoparticles have shown promising applications in directing the stem cell fate. Herein, we investigated the cellular effects of layered double hydroxide nanoparticles (LDH NPs) on mouse ESCs (mESCs) and the associated molecular mechanisms. Mg-Al-LDH NPs with an average diameter of ~100 nm were prepared by hydrothermal methods. To determine the influences of LDH NPs on mESCs, cellular cytotoxicity, self-renewal, differentiation potential, and the possible signaling pathways were explored. Evaluation of cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release, ROS generation and apoptosis demonstrated the low cytotoxicity of LDH NPs. The alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of pluripotency genes in mESCs were examined, which indicated that exposure to LDH NPs could support self-renewal and inhibit spontaneous differentiation of mESCs under feeder-free culture conditions. The self-renewal promotion was further proved to be independent of the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Furthermore, cells treated with LDH NPs maintained the potential to differentiate into all three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo through formation of embryoid bodies and teratomas. In addition, we observed that LDH NPs initiated the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, while treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 could block the effects of LDH NPs on mESCs. The results confirmed that the promotion of self-renewal by LDH NPs was associated with activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Altogether, our studies identified a new role of LDH NPs in maintaining self-renewal of mouse ES cells which could potentially be applied in stem cell research.Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) hold great potential for regenerative medicine due to their two unique characteristics: self-renewal and pluripotency. Several groups of nanoparticles

  2. Stem Cell Sciences plc.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Sebnem

    2006-09-01

    Stem Cell Sciences' core objective is to develop safe and effective stem cell-based therapies for currently incurable diseases. In order to achieve this goal, Stem Cell Sciences recognizes the need for multiple technologies and a globally integrated stem cell initiative. The key challenges for the successful application of stem cells in the clinic is the need for a reproducible supply of pure, fully characterized stem cells that have been grown in suitable conditions for use in the clinic.

  3. FoxM1 Promotes Stemness and Radio-Resistance of Glioblastoma by Regulating the Master Stem Cell Regulator Sox2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Geon; Cho, Hee Jin; Kim, Yeonghwan; Rheey, Jinguen; Shin, Kayoung; Seo, Yun Jee; Choi, Yeon-Sook; Lee, Jung-Il; Lee, Jeongwu; Joo, Kyeung Min; Nam, Do-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and most lethal brain tumor. As current standard therapy consisting of surgery and chemo-irradiation provides limited benefit for GBM patients, novel therapeutic options are urgently required. Forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) transcription factor is an oncogenic regulator that promotes the proliferation, survival, and treatment resistance of various human cancers. The roles of FoxM1 in GBM remain incompletely understood, due in part to pleotropic nature of the FoxM1 pathway. Here, we show the roles of FoxM1 in GBM stem cell maintenance and radioresistance. ShRNA-mediated FoxM1 inhibition significantly impeded clonogenic growth and survival of patient-derived primary GBM cells with marked downregulation of Sox2, a master regulator of stem cell phenotype. Ectopic expression of Sox2 partially rescued FoxM1 inhibition-mediated effects. Conversely, FoxM1 overexpression upregulated Sox2 expression and promoted clonogenic growth of GBM cells. These data, with a direct binding of FoxM1 in the Sox2 promoter region in GBM cells, suggest that FoxM1 regulates stemness of primary GBM cells via Sox2. We also found significant increases in FoxM1 and Sox2 expression in GBM cells after irradiation both in vitro and in vivo orthotopic tumor models. Notably, genetic or a small-molecule FoxM1 inhibitor-mediated FoxM1 targeting significantly sensitized GBM cells to irradiation, accompanying with Sox2 downregulation. Finally, FoxM1 inhibition combined with irradiation in a patient GBM-derived orthotopic model significantly impeded tumor growth and prolonged the survival of tumor bearing mice. Taken together, these results indicate that the FoxM1-Sox2 signaling axis promotes clonogenic growth and radiation resistance of GBM, and suggest that FoxM1 targeting combined with irradiation is a potentially effective therapeutic approach for GBM. PMID:26444992

  4. Dynamic compression and co-culture with nucleus pulposus cells promotes proliferation and differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jun; Wang, Huan; Liu, Guo; Xu, Zhanjiang; Li, Feng; Fang, Huang

    2014-03-21

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are a set of multi potent stem cells potentially used in cartilage tissue engineering. We hypothesized that the effect of dynamic compression and co-culture with nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) promotes ASC proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. A controlled dynamic compression loading device was utilized to stimulate ASCs obtained from Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and identified by flow cytometry. The proliferation index was measured by carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) staining. Dynamic compression, as well as co-culture enhanced chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs as indicated by the expression of SOX-9, type-II collagen and aggrecan, which were measured by real-time PCR and Western blot. In our study, we found dynamic compression promoted the proliferation of ASCs and induced its differentiation into NP-like cells. Combination of dynamic compression and co-culture showed an additive effect on NP-like cell differentiation.

  5. Low level light promotes the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jin-Chul; Rhee, Yun-Hee; Choi, Sun-Hyang; Kim, Dae Yu; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2015-03-01

    Low-level light irradiation (LLLI) reported to stimulate the proliferation or differentiation of a variety of cell types. However, very little is known about the effect of light therapy on stem cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of LLLI on the molecular physiological change of human bone marrow derived stem cells (hBMSC) by wavelength (470, 630, 660, 740 and 850, 50mW). The laser diode was performed with different time interval (0, 7.5, 15, 30J/cm2, 50mW) on hBMSC. To determine the molecular physiological changes of cellular level of hBMSC, the clonogenic assay, ATP assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection, mitochondria membrane potential (MMPΦ) staining and calcium efflux assay were assessed after irradiation. There was a difference between with and without irradiation on hBMSCs. An energy density up to 30 J/cm² improved the cell proliferation in comparison to the control group. Among these irradiated group, 630 and 660nm were significantly increased the cell proliferation. The cellular level of ATP and calcium influx was increased with energy dose-dependent in all LLLI groups. Meanwhile, ROS and MMPΦ were also increased after irradiation except 470nm. It can be concluded that LLLI using infrared light and an energy density up to 30 J/cm² has a positive stimulatory effect on the proliferation or differentiation of hBMSCs. Our results suggest that LLLI may influence to the mitochondrial membrane potential activity through ATP synthesis and increased cell metabolism which leads to cell proliferation and differentiation.

  6. The deubiquitinase USP54 is overexpressed in colorectal cancer stem cells and promotes intestinal tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Fraile, Julia M; Campos-Iglesias, Diana; Rodríguez, Francisco; Español, Yaiza; Freije, José M P

    2016-11-15

    Ubiquitin-Specific Proteases (USPs) are deubiquitinating enzymes frequently deregulated in human malignancies. Here, we show that USP54 is overexpressed in intestinal stem cells and demonstrate that its downregulation in colorectal carcinoma cells impedes tumorigenesis. We have generated mutant mice deficient for this deubiquitinase, which are viable and fertile, and protected against chemically-induced colorectal carcinoma. Furthermore, we show that USP54 is upregulated in human colon cancer and associates with poor prognosis. In agreement with these results, Usp54 downregulation in mouse melanoma cells inhibits lung metastasis formation. Collectively, this work has uncovered the pro-tumorigenic properties of USP54, highlighting the importance of deubiquitinating enzymes as promising targets for the development of specific anti-cancer therapies.

  7. The deubiquitinase USP54 is overexpressed in colorectal cancer stem cells and promotes intestinal tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fraile, Julia M.; Campos-Iglesias, Diana; Rodríguez, Francisco; Español, Yaiza; Freije, José M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitin-Specific Proteases (USPs) are deubiquitinating enzymes frequently deregulated in human malignancies. Here, we show that USP54 is overexpressed in intestinal stem cells and demonstrate that its downregulation in colorectal carcinoma cells impedes tumorigenesis. We have generated mutant mice deficient for this deubiquitinase, which are viable and fertile, and protected against chemically-induced colorectal carcinoma. Furthermore, we show that USP54 is upregulated in human colon cancer and associates with poor prognosis. In agreement with these results, Usp54 downregulation in mouse melanoma cells inhibits lung metastasis formation. Collectively, this work has uncovered the pro-tumorigenic properties of USP54, highlighting the importance of deubiquitinating enzymes as promising targets for the development of specific anti-cancer therapies. PMID:27769071

  8. Biochanin a promotes osteogenic but inhibits adipogenic differentiation: evidence with primary adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Shu-Jem; Yeh, Yao-Tsung; Su, Shu-Hui; Chang, Kee-Lung; Shyu, Huey-Wen; Chen, Kuan-Ming; Yeh, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Biochanin A has promising effects on bone formation in vivo, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear yet. This study therefore aimed to investigate whether biochanin A regulates osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation using primary adipose-derived stem cells. The effects of biochanin A (at a physiologically relevant concentration of 0.1-1 μM) were assessed in vitro using various approaches, including Oil red O staining, Nile red staining, alizarin red S staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, flow cytometry, RT-PCR, and western blotting. The results showed that biochanin A significantly suppressed adipocyte differentiation, as demonstrated by the inhibition of cytoplasmic lipid droplet accumulation, along with the inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ ), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and leptin and osteopontin (OPN) mRNA expression, in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, treatment of cells with 0.3 μM biochanin A increased the mineralization and ALP activity, and stimulated the expression of the osteogenic marker genes ALP and osteocalcin (OCN). Furthermore, biochanin A induced the expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) proteins. These observations suggest that biochanin A prevents adipogenesis, enhances osteoblast differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells, and has beneficial regulatory effects in bone formation.

  9. Periodontitis promotes the proliferation and suppresses the differentiation potential of human periodontal ligament stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Wang, Shi; Wang, Jianguo; Jin, Fang

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the periodontitis-associated changes in the number, proliferation and differentiation potential of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). Cultures of human periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) were established from healthy donors and donors with periodontitis. The numbers of stem cell were characterized using flow cytometry. PDLSCs were isolated from the PDLCs by immunomagnetic bead selection. Colony‑forming abilities, osteogenic and adipogenic potential, gene expression of cementoblast phenotype, alkaline phosphatase activity and in vivo differentiation capacities were then evaluated. Periodontitis caused an increase in the proliferation of PDLSCs and a decrease in the commitment to the osteoblast lineage. This is reflected by changes in the expression of osteoblast markers. When transplanted into immunocompromised mice, PDLSCs from the healthy donors exhibited the capacity to produce cementum PDL‑like structures, whereas, the inflammatory PDLSCs transplants predominantly formed connective tissues. In conclusion, the data from the present study suggest that periodontitis affects the proliferation and differentiation potential of human PDLSCs in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Inhibiting PPARγ by erythropoietin while upregulating TAZ by IGF1 synergistically promote osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianwei; Wei, Fangyuan; Ma, Yuquan

    2016-09-09

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is reported to promote osteogenesis and inhibit adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) through inhibiting PPARγ, while insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is able to enhance osteogenesis via upregulating transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ). The different targets of EPO and IGF1 suggested their potential synergism to enhance osteogenesis. In this study, we aimed to determine the potential synergism of EPO and IGF1 and its efficacy on MSC differentiation. Rat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) were separately treated with EPO, IGF1 and EPO/IGF1. It was observed that the co-treatment using EPO and IGF1 was able to potently promote the osteogenic differentiation of rat ADSCs compared with EPO or IGF1 alone, which offered a promising effective option to strengthen bone tissue regeneration for bone defects. Further, we demonstrated that the enhanced osteogenic differentiation by EPO and IGF1 co-treatment was almost counteracted by activating PPARγ through PPARγ agonist, RSG, and blocking TAZ through TAZ silencing RNA, siTAZ. Thus, it could be concluded that EPO and IGF1 possessed a potent synergism in promoting osteogenic differentiation, and the synergism was mainly attributed to co-regulation of different osteogenic regulators PPARγ and TAZ, which were targeted genes of EPO and IGF1 respectively.

  11. Leptin as a mediator of tumor-stromal interactions promotes breast cancer stem cell activity.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Cinzia; Chemi, Francesca; Panza, Salvatore; Barone, Ines; Bonofiglio, Daniela; Lanzino, Marilena; Cordella, Angela; Campana, Antonella; Hashim, Adnan; Rizza, Pietro; Leggio, Antonella; Győrffy, Balázs; Simões, Bruno M; Clarke, Robert B; Weisz, Alessandro; Catalano, Stefania; Andò, Sebastiano

    2016-01-12

    Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) play crucial roles in tumor initiation, metastasis and therapeutic resistance. A strict dependency between BCSCs and stromal cell components of tumor microenvironment exists. Thus, novel therapeutic strategies aimed to target the crosstalk between activated microenvironment and BCSCs have the potential to improve clinical outcome. Here, we investigated how leptin, as a mediator of tumor-stromal interactions, may affect BCSC activity using patient-derived samples (n = 16) and breast cancer cell lines, and determined the potential benefit of targeting leptin signaling in these model systems. Conditioned media (CM) from cancer-associated fibroblasts and breast adipocytes significantly increased mammosphere formation in breast cancer cells and depletion of leptin from CM completely abrogated this effect. Mammosphere cultures exhibited increased leptin receptor (OBR) expression and leptin exposure enhanced mammosphere formation. Microarray analyses revealed a similar expression profile of genes involved in stem cell biology among mammospheres treated with CM and leptin. Interestingly, leptin increased mammosphere formation in metastatic breast cancers and expression of OBR as well as HSP90, a target of leptin signaling, were directly correlated with mammosphere formation in metastatic samples (r = 0.68/p = 0.05; r = 0.71/p = 0.036, respectively). Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated that OBR and HSP90 expression were associated with reduced overall survival in breast cancer patients (HR = 1.9/p = 0.022; HR = 2.2/p = 0.00017, respectively). Furthermore, blocking leptin signaling by using a full leptin receptor antagonist significantly reduced mammosphere formation in breast cancer cell lines and patient-derived samples. Our results suggest that leptin/leptin receptor signaling may represent a potential therapeutic target that can block the stromal-tumor interactions driving BCSC-mediated disease progression.

  12. A fetal human heart cardiac-inducing RNA (CIR) promotes the differentiation of stem cells into cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Kochegarov, Andrei; Moses-Arms, Ashley; Lemanski, Larry F

    2015-08-01

    A specific human fetal heart RNA has been discovered, which has the ability to induce myocardial cell formation from mouse embryonic and human-induced pluripotent stem cells in culture. In this study, commercially obtained RNA from human fetal heart was cloned, sequenced, and synthesized using standard laboratory approaches. Molecular analyses of the specific fetal cardiac-inducing RNA (CIR), revealed that it is a fragment of N-sulfoglucosaminesulfohydrolase and the caspase recruitment domain family member 14 precursor. Stem cells transfected with CIRs often form into spindle-shaped cells characteristic of cardiomyocytes,and express the cardiac-specific contractile protein marker, troponin-T, in addition to tropomyosin and α-actinin as detected by immunohistochemical staining. Expression of these contractile proteins showed organization into sarcomeric myofibrils characteristic of striated cardiac muscle cells. Computer analyses of the RNA secondary structures of the active CIR show significant similarities to a RNA from salamander or myofibril-inducing RNA (MIR), which also promotes non-muscle cells to differentiate into cardiac muscle. Thus, these two RNAs, salamander MIR and the newly discovered human-cloned CIR reported here, appear to have evolutionarily conserved secondary structures suggesting that both play major roles in vertebrate heart development and, particularly, in the differentiation of cardiomyocytes from non-muscle cells during development.

  13. [Present status of research in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for promoting the healing of diabetic ulcer].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shu-Juan; Jia, Chi-Yu

    2012-08-01

    The delayed healing of diabetic ulcer has been haunting the surgeons and researchers for a long time. Although we have been researching and exploring the effective therapies for many years, the progress has been limited. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have gradually won worldwide attention for their characteristics of differentiating into tissue repair cells and secreting multiple cytokines as well as growth factors. In recent years, the role of BMSCs in the treatment of diabetic ulcer has been drawing more and more attention. This article reviewed the advancement in the research of BMSCs in promoting the healing of diabetic ulcer. Through a discussion of the treatment of diabetic ulcer, the related research in BMSCs, as well as its role in diabetic ulcer treatment, the mechanism of BMSCs in promoting healing of diabetic ulcers is discussed. We expect through further research, unified criteria for the quality of BMSCs, application approach and dosage of BMSCs could be established.

  14. Three RNA binding proteins form a complex to promote differentiation of germline stem cell lineage in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di; Wu, Chan; Zhao, Shaowei; Geng, Qing; Gao, Yu; Li, Xin; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Zhaohui

    2014-11-01

    In regenerative tissues, one of the strategies to protect stem cells from genetic aberrations, potentially caused by frequent cell division, is to transiently expand the stem cell daughters before further differentiation. However, failure to exit the transit amplification may lead to overgrowth, and the molecular mechanism governing this regulation remains vague. In a Drosophila mutagenesis screen for factors involved in the regulation of germline stem cell (GSC) lineage, we isolated a mutation in the gene CG32364, which encodes a putative RNA-binding protein (RBP) and is designated as tumorous testis (tut). In tut mutant, spermatogonia fail to differentiate and over-amplify, a phenotype similar to that in mei-P26 mutant. Mei-P26 is a TRIM-NHL tumor suppressor homolog required for the differentiation of GSC lineage. We found that Tut binds preferentially a long isoform of mei-P26 3'UTR, and is essential for the translational repression of mei-P26 reporter. Bam and Bgcn are both RBPs that have also been shown to repress mei-P26 expression. Our genetic analyses indicate that tut, bam, or bgcn is required to repress mei-P26 and to promote the differentiation of GSCs. Biochemically, we demonstrate that Tut, Bam, and Bgcn can form a physical complex in which Bam holds Tut on its N-terminus and Bgcn on its C-terminus. Our in vivo and in vitro evidence illustrate that Tut acts with Bam, Bgcn to accurately coordinate proliferation and differentiation in Drosophila germline stem cell lineage.

  15. Three RNA Binding Proteins Form a Complex to Promote Differentiation of Germline Stem Cell Lineage in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shaowei; Geng, Qing; Gao, Yu; Li, Xin; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Zhaohui

    2014-01-01

    In regenerative tissues, one of the strategies to protect stem cells from genetic aberrations, potentially caused by frequent cell division, is to transiently expand the stem cell daughters before further differentiation. However, failure to exit the transit amplification may lead to overgrowth, and the molecular mechanism governing this regulation remains vague. In a Drosophila mutagenesis screen for factors involved in the regulation of germline stem cell (GSC) lineage, we isolated a mutation in the gene CG32364, which encodes a putative RNA-binding protein (RBP) and is designated as tumorous testis (tut). In tut mutant, spermatogonia fail to differentiate and over-amplify, a phenotype similar to that in mei-P26 mutant. Mei-P26 is a TRIM-NHL tumor suppressor homolog required for the differentiation of GSC lineage. We found that Tut binds preferentially a long isoform of mei-P26 3′UTR, and is essential for the translational repression of mei-P26 reporter. Bam and Bgcn are both RBPs that have also been shown to repress mei-P26 expression. Our genetic analyses indicate that tut, bam, or bgcn is required to repress mei-P26 and to promote the differentiation of GSCs. Biochemically, we demonstrate that Tut, Bam, and Bgcn can form a physical complex in which Bam holds Tut on its N-terminus and Bgcn on its C-terminus. Our in vivo and in vitro evidence illustrate that Tut acts with Bam, Bgcn to accurately coordinate proliferation and differentiation in Drosophila germline stem cell lineage. PMID:25412508

  16. The RUNX1 +24 enhancer and P1 promoter identify a unique subpopulation of hematopoietic progenitor cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, Patrick I; Xi, Jiafei; Ma, Chao; Adlakha, Mitali; Kaufman, Dan S

    2015-04-01

    Derivation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from human pluripotent stem cells remains a key goal for the fields of developmental biology and regenerative medicine. Here, we use a novel genetic reporter system to prospectively identify and isolate early hematopoietic cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent cells (iPSCs). Cloning the human RUNX1c P1 promoter and +24 enhancer to drive expression of tdTomato (tdTom) in hESCs and iPSCs, we demonstrate that tdTom expression faithfully enriches for RUNX1c-expressing hematopoietic progenitor cells. Time-lapse microscopy demonstrated the tdTom(+) hematopoietic cells to emerge from adherent cells. Furthermore, inhibition of primitive hematopoiesis by blocking Activin/Nodal signaling promoted the expansion and/or survival of the tdTom(+) population. Notably, RUNX1c/tdTom(+) cells represent only a limited subpopulation of the CD34(+) CD45(+) and CD34(+) CD43(+) cells with a unique genetic signature. Using gene array analysis, we find significantly lower expression of Let-7 and mir181a microRNAs in the RUNX1c/tdTom(+) cell population. These phenotypic and genetic analyses comparing the RUNX1c/tdTom(+) population to CD34(+) CD45(+) umbilical cord blood and fetal liver demonstrate several key differences that likely impact the development of HSCs capable of long-term multilineage engraftment from hESCs and iPSCs.

  17. Micro- and Macrostructured PLGA/Gelatin Scaffolds Promote Early Cardiogenic Commitment of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Cibrario Rocchietti, Elisa; Gagliardi, Mariacristina; Turinetto, Valentina; Sassi, Maria Paola; Barbani, Niccoletta

    2016-01-01

    The biomaterial scaffold plays a key role in most tissue engineering strategies. Its surface properties, micropatterning, degradation, and mechanical features affect not only the generation of the tissue construct in vitro, but also its in vivo functionality. The area of myocardial tissue engineering still faces significant difficulties and challenges in the design of bioactive scaffolds, which allow composition variation to accommodate divergence in the evolving myocardial structure. Here we aimed at verifying if a microstructured bioartificial scaffold alone can provoke an effect on stem cell behavior. To this purpose, we fabricated microstructured bioartificial polymeric constructs made of PLGA/gelatin mimicking anisotropic structure and mechanical properties of the myocardium. We found that PLGA/gelatin scaffolds promoted adhesion, elongation, ordered disposition, and early myocardial commitment of human mesenchymal stem cells suggesting that these constructs are able to crosstalk with stem cells in a precise and controlled manner. At the same time, the biomaterial degradation kinetics renders the PLGA/gelatin constructs very attractive for myocardial regeneration approaches. PMID:27822229

  18. VEGF treatment promotes bone marrow-derived CXCR4+ mesenchymal stromal stem cell differentiation into vessel endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiming; Xia, Shudong; Fang, Hanyun; Pan, Jiansheng; Jia, Yinfeng; Deng, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Stem/progenitor cells serve an important role in the process of blood vessel repair. However, the mechanism of vascular repair mediated by C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4-positive (CXCR4+) bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) following myocardial infarction remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on vessel endothelial differentiation from BMSCs. CXCR4+ BMSCs were isolated from the femoral bone marrow of 2-month-old mice and the cells were treated with VEGF. Expression of endothelial cell markers and the functional properties were assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry and vascular formation analyses. The results indicated that the CXCR4+ BMSCs from femoral bone marrow cells expressed putative cell surface markers of mesenchymal stem cells. Treatment with VEGF induced platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) expression at the transcriptional and translational levels, compared with untreated controls. Moreover, VEGF treatment induced CXCR4+ BMSCs to form hollow tube-like structures on Matrigel, suggesting that the differentiated endothelial cells had the functional properties of blood vessels. The results demonstrate that the CXCR4+ BMSCs were able to differentiate into vessel endothelial cells following VEGF treatment. For cell transplantation in vascular disease, it may be concluded that CXCR4+ BMSCs are a novel source of endothelial progenitor cells with high potential for application in vascular repair. PMID:28352314

  19. A novel strategy to enhance mesenchymal stem cell migration capacity and promote tissue repair in an injury specific fashion.

    PubMed

    Xinaris, C; Morigi, M; Benedetti, V; Imberti, B; Fabricio, A S; Squarcina, E; Benigni, A; Gagliardini, E; Remuzzi, G

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) of bone marrow origin appear to be an attractive candidate for cell-based therapies. However, the major barrier to the effective implementation of MSC-based therapies is the lack of specific homing of exogenously infused cells and overall the inability to drive them to the diseased or damaged tissue. In order to circumvent these limitations, we developed a preconditioning strategy to optimize MSC migration efficiency and potentiate their beneficial effect at the site of injury. Initially, we screened different molecules by using an in vitro injury-migration setting, and subsequently, we evaluated the effectiveness of the different strategies in mice with acute kidney injury (AKI). Our results showed that preconditioning of MSCs with IGF-1 before infusion improved cell migration capacity and restored normal renal function after AKI. The present study demonstrates that promoting migration of MSCs could increase their therapeutic potential and indicates a new therapeutic paradigm for organ repair.

  20. Human carcinoma-associated mesenchymal stem cells promote ovarian cancer chemotherapy resistance via a BMP4/HH signaling loop.

    PubMed

    Coffman, Lan G; Choi, Yun-Jung; McLean, Karen; Allen, Benjamin L; di Magliano, Marina Pasca; Buckanovich, Ronald J

    2016-02-09

    The tumor microenvironment is critical to cancer growth and therapy resistance. We previously characterized human ovarian carcinoma-associated mesenchymal stem cells (CA-MSCs). CA-MSCs are multi-potent cells that can differentiate into tumor microenvironment components including fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and adipocytes. We previously reported CA-MSCs, compared to normal MSCs, express high levels of BMP proteins and promote tumor growth by increasing numbers of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). We demonstrate here that ovarian tumor cell-secreted Hedgehog (HH) induces CA-MSC BMP4 expression. CA-MSC-derived BMP4 reciprocally increases ovarian tumor cell HH expression indicating a positive feedback loop. Interruption of this loop with a HH pathway inhibitor or BMP4 blocking antibody decreases CA-MSC-derived BMP4 and tumor-derived HH preventing enrichment of CSCs and reversing chemotherapy resistance. The impact of HH inhibition was only seen in CA-MSC-containing tumors, indicating the importance of a humanized stroma. These results are reciprocal to findings in pancreatic and bladder cancer, suggesting HH signaling effects are tumor tissue specific warranting careful investigation in each tumor type. Collectively, we define a critical positive feedback loop between CA-MSC-derived BMP4 and ovarian tumor cell-secreted HH and present evidence for the further investigation of HH as a clinical target in ovarian cancer.

  1. p53 isoform Δ133p53 promotes efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cells and ensures genomic integrity during reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lu; Pan, Xiao; Chen, Haide; Rao, Lingjun; Zeng, Yelin; Hang, Honghui; Peng, Jinrong; Xiao, Lei; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have great potential in regenerative medicine, but this depends on the integrity of their genomes. iPS cells have been found to contain a large number of de novo genetic alterations due to DNA damage response during reprogramming. Thus, to maintain the genetic stability of iPS cells is an important goal in iPS cell technology. DNA damage response can trigger tumor suppressor p53 activation, which ensures genome integrity of reprogramming cells by inducing apoptosis and senescence. p53 isoform Δ133p53 is a p53 target gene and functions to not only antagonize p53 mediated apoptosis, but also promote DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here we report that Δ133p53 is induced in reprogramming. Knockdown of Δ133p53 results 2-fold decrease in reprogramming efficiency, 4-fold increase in chromosomal aberrations, whereas overexpression of Δ133p53 with 4 Yamanaka factors showes 4-fold increase in reprogamming efficiency and 2-fold decrease in chromosomal aberrations, compared to those in iPS cells induced only with 4 Yamanaka factors. Overexpression of Δ133p53 can inhibit cell apoptosis and promote DNA DSB repair foci formation during reprogramming. Our finding demonstrates that the overexpression of Δ133p53 not only enhances reprogramming efficiency, but also results better genetic quality in iPS cells. PMID:27874035

  2. Alteration of protein prenylation promotes spermatogonial differentiation and exhausts spermatogonial stem cells in newborn mice

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Fan; Jiang, Chen; Wang, Xiu-Xing; Zhu, Rui-Lou; Wang, Qiang; Yao, Bing; Li, Chao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Spermatogenesis in adulthood depends on the successful neonatal establishment of the spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) pool and gradual differentiation during puberty. The stage-dependent changes in protein prenylation in the seminiferous epithelium might be important during the first round of spermatogenesis before sexual maturation, but the mechanisms are unclear. We have previous found that altered prenylation in Sertoli cells induced spermatogonial apoptosis in the neonatal testis, resulting in adult infertility. Now we further explored the role of protein prenylation in germ cells, using a conditional deletion of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (Ggpps) in embryonic stage and postmeiotic stage respectively. We observed infertility of Ggpps−/− Ddx4-Cre mice that displayed a Sertoli-cell-only syndrome phenotype, which resulted from abnormal spermatogonial differentiation and SSC depletion during the prepubertal stage. Analysis of morphological characteristics and cell-specific markers revealed that spermatogonial differentiation was enhanced from as early as the 7th postnatal day in the first round of spermatogenesis. Studies of the molecular mechanisms indicated that Ggpps deletion enhanced Rheb farnesylation, which subsequently activated mTORC1 and facilitated spermatogonial differentiation. In conclusion, the prenylation balance in germ cells is crucial for spermatogonial differentiation fate decision during the prepubertal stage, and the disruption of this process results in primary infertility. PMID:27374985

  3. Low-Dose Pesticide Mixture Induces Senescence in Normal Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) and Promotes Tumorigenic Phenotype in Premalignant MSC.

    PubMed

    Hochane, Mazene; Trichet, Valerie; Pecqueur, Claire; Avril, Pierre; Oliver, Lisa; Denis, Jerome; Brion, Regis; Amiaud, Jerome; Pineau, Alain; Naveilhan, Philippe; Heymann, Dominique; Vallette, François M; Olivier, Christophe

    2017-03-01

    Humans are chronically exposed to multiple environmental pollutants such as pesticides with no significant evidence about the safety of such poly-exposures. We exposed mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to very low doses of mixture of seven pesticides frequently detected in food samples for 21 days in vitro. We observed a permanent phenotype modification with a specific induction of an oxidative stress-related senescence. Pesticide mixture also induced a shift in MSC differentiation towards adipogenesis but did not initiate a tumorigenic transformation. In modified MSC in which a premalignant phenotype was induced, the exposure to pesticide mixture promoted tumorigenic phenotype both in vitro and in vivo after cell implantation, in all nude mice. Our results suggest that a common combination of pesticides can induce a premature ageing of adult MSC, and as such could accelerate age-related diseases. Exposure to pesticide mixture may also promote the tumorigenic transformation in a predisposed stromal environment. Abstract Video Link: https://youtu.be/mfSVPTol-Gk Stem Cells 2017;35:800-811.

  4. ΔNp63 promotes stem cell activity in mammary gland development and basal-like breast cancer by enhancing Fzd7 expression and Wnt signalling.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Rumela; Wei, Yong; Hwang, Julie; Hang, Xiang; Andres Blanco, Mario; Choudhury, Abrar; Tiede, Benjamin; Romano, Rose-Anne; DeCoste, Christina; Mercatali, Laura; Ibrahim, Toni; Amadori, Dino; Kannan, Nagarajan; Eaves, Connie J; Sinha, Satrajit; Kang, Yibin

    2014-10-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that cancer is populated and maintained by tumour-initiating cells (TICs) with stem-like properties similar to those of adult tissue stem cells. Despite recent advances, the molecular regulatory mechanisms that may be shared between normal and malignant stem cells remain poorly understood. Here we show that the ΔNp63 isoform of the Trp63 transcription factor promotes normal mammary stem cell (MaSC) activity by increasing the expression of the Wnt receptor Fzd7, thereby enhancing Wnt signalling. Importantly, Fzd7-dependent enhancement of Wnt signalling by ΔNp63 also governs tumour-initiating activity of the basal subtype of breast cancer. These findings establish ΔNp63 as a key regulator of stem cells in both normal and malignant mammary tissues and provide direct evidence that breast cancer TICs and normal MaSCs share common regulatory mechanisms.

  5. Low magnitude high frequency vibration promotes adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stem cells via P38 MAPK signal

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haiyang; Gan, Xueqi

    2017-01-01

    Low magnitude high frequency vibration (LMHFV) has been mainly reported for its influence on the musculoskeletal system, particularly the bone tissue. In the bone structure, osteogenic activity is the main focus of study with regards to LMHFV. However, adipogenesis, another important mode of differentiation in the bone marrow cavity that might be affected by LMHFV, is much less researched. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism of how LMHFV influences adipogenesis still needs to be understood. Here, we tested the effect of LMHFV (0.3g, 40 Hz, amplitude: 50μm), 15min/d, on multipotent stem cells (MSCs), which are the common progenitors of osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic and myogenic cells. It is previously shown that LMHFV promotes osteogenesis of MSCs. In this study, we further revealed its effect on adipo-differentiation of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) and studied the underlying signaling pathway. We found that when treated with LMHFV, the cells showed a higher expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα, adiponectin and showed more oil droplets. After vibration, the protein expression of PPARγ increased, and the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was enhanced. After treating cells with SB203580, a specific p38 inhibitor, both the protein level of PPARγ illustrated by immunofluorescent staining and the oil droplets number, were decreased. Altogether, this indicates that p38 MAPK is activated during adipogenesis of BMSCs, and this is promoted by LMHFV. Our results demonstrating that specific parameters of LMHFV promotes adipogenesis of MSCs and enhances osteogenesis, highlights an unbeneficial side effect of vibration therapy used for preventing obesity and osteoporosis. PMID:28253368

  6. RNA interference mediated JAM-A gene silencing promotes human epidermal stem cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tong; Wu, Minjuan; Guo, Xiaocan; Liu, Houqi

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the study was to explore the influence of junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) gene decoration on proliferation and differentiation of human epidermal stem cells (hEpSCs). JAM-A gene and JAM-A interference gene lentivirus eukaryotic expression vectors were established. The recombinant lentivirus was introduced into hEpSCs to observe and detect viral transfection by fluorescence microscopy and Western blot, respectively. After confirmation of successful introduction of the target gene, cell growth curves were mapped out by cytometry to detect cell proliferation in different groups. The expression of hEpSCs labeled molecules was detected by immunofluorescence, and cell safety was detected by teratoma test in all groups. (1) Fluorescence microscopy showed that in the JAM-A over-expression (JAM-A(ov) EpSCs) group, the green fluorescence was mainly distributed in the cell membrane; in the JAM-A interference (JAM-A(kd) EpSCs) group and blank vector (GFP EpSCs) group, all cell bodies were luminous. Western blot showed that JAM-A protein was up-regulated in JAM-A(ov) EpSCs and down-regulated in JAM-A(kd) EpSCs. (2) Growth curves showed that hEpSCs entered the quick-growing phase 4 days after inoculation and reached the platform phase at day 7. JAM-A(ov) EpSCs proliferated more slowly than GFP EpSCs, while JAM-A(kd) EpSCs proliferated significantly faster than GFP EpSCs. (3) Immunofluorescence showed that the expression of transient amplification epidermal marker keratin 14, hEpSCs marker keratin I9 and β-integrin was down-regulated in JAM-A(kd) EpSCs group as compared to that in the GFP EpSCs group, and the expression of epidermal terminal differentiation marker K10 was negative in the JAM-A(kd) EpSCs group. There was no significant difference in the expression of specific molecules between JAM-A(ov) EpSCs and hEpSCs. (4) The result of teratoma test was negative in all groups. The proliferative ability of hEpSCs was increased markedly after down

  7. Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN3 promotes drug resistance and stem cell-like characteristics in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuqin; Cao, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Fan; Ni, Guantai; Luo, Qian; Wang, Man; Tao, Xiang; Xia, Hongping

    2016-01-01

    The current standard treatment for ovarian cancer is aggressive surgery followed by platinum-based combination chemotherapy. Recurrence and chemotherapeutic drug resistance are the two main factors that account for the high mortality of most ovarian cancers. Liposomal doxorubicin is primarily used for the treatment of ovarian cancer when the disease has progressed after platinum-based chemotherapy. However, relatively little is known about the genomic changes that contribute to both cisplatin and doxorubicin resistance in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) under the selective pressure of chemotherapy. Here, we found that protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN3 gene expression was substantially increased in both cisplatin and doxorubicin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Silencing of PTPN3 restored sensitivity to cisplatin and doxorubicin in resistant ovarian cancer cells. Down-regulation of PTPN3 also inhibited cell cycle progression, migration, stemness in vitro and the tumorigenicity of resistant ovarian cancer cells in vivo. Meanwhile, the expression of PTPN3 was found to be regulated by miR-199 in resistant ovarian cancer cells. These findings suggest that PTPN3 promotes tumorigenicity, stemness and drug resistance in ovarian cancer, and thus is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:27833130

  8. Bmi-1 promotes the invasion and migration of colon cancer stem cells through the downregulation of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zefeng; Bu, Xiaoling; Chen, Hao; Wang, Qiyi; Sha, Weihong

    2016-10-01

    Metastasis and recurrence are the challenges of cancer therapy. Recently, mounting evidence has suggested that cancer stem cells (CSCs) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are critical factors in tumor metastasis and recurrence. The oncogene, Bmi-1, promotes the development of hematologic malignancies and many solid tumors. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms through which Bmi-1 promotes the invasion and migration of colon CSCs (CCSCs) using the HCT116 colon cancer cell line. Sphere formation medium and magnetic‑activated cell sorting were used to enrich and screen the CCSCs. CD133 and CD44 were regarded as markers of CCSCs and they were found to be co-expressed in the HCT116 colon cancer cell line. Colony formation assay, cell proliferation assay and viability assay using the Cell Counting Kit-8, and transplantation assay using nude mice injected with CCSCs were used to examine the CCSCs. The CD133+CD44+ HCT116 cells exhibited greater cloning efficiency, an enhanced proliferative ability, increased cell viability and stronger tumorigenicity; these cells were used as the CCSCs for subsequent experiments. In addition, the invasive and migratory abilities of the CD133+CD44+ HCT116 cells were markedly decreased when Bmi-1 was silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results of RT-qPCR and western blot analysis suggested that Bmi-1 had a negative effect on E-cadherin expression. On the whole, our findings suggest that Bmi-1 promotes the invasion and migration of CCSCs through the downregulation of E-cadherin, possibly by inducing EMT. Our findings thus indicate that Bmi-1 may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of colon cancer.

  9. Discrete shoot and root stem cell-promoting WUS/WOX5 functions are an evolutionary innovation of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Nardmann, Judith; Reisewitz, Pascal; Werr, Wolfgang

    2009-08-01

    The morphologically diverse bodies of seed plants comprising gymnosperms and angiosperms, which separated some 350 Ma, grow by the activity of meristems containing stem cell niches. In the dicot model Arabidopsis thaliana, these are maintained by the stem cell-promoting functions of WUS and WUSCHEL-related homeobox 5 (WOX5) in the shoot and the root, respectively. Both genes are members of the WOX gene family, which has a monophyletic origin in green algae. The establishment of the WOX gene phylogeny from basal land plants through gymnosperms to basal and higher angiosperms reveals three major branches: a basal clade consisting of WOX13-related genes present in some green algae and throughout all land plant genomes, a second clade containing WOX8/9/11/12 homologues, and a modern clade restricted to seed plants. The analysis of the origin of the modern branch in two basal angiosperms (Amborella trichopoda and Nymphaea jamesoniana) and three gymnosperms (Pinus sylvestris, Ginkgo biloba, and Gnetum gnemon) shows that all members of the modern clade consistently found in monocots and dicots exist at the base of the angiosperm lineage, including WUS and WOX5 orthologues. In contrast, our analyses identify a single WUS/WOX5 homologue in all three gymnosperm genomes, consistent with a monophyletic origin in the last common ancestor of gymnosperms and angiosperms. Phylogenetic data, WUS- and WOX5-specific evolutionary signatures, as well as the expression pattern and stem cell-promoting function of the single gymnosperm WUS/WOX5 pro-orthologue in Arabidopsis indicate a gene duplication event followed by subfunctionalization at the base of angiosperms.

  10. Stem cells' exodus: a journey to immortality.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Lewallen, Michelle; Xie, Ting

    2013-01-28

    Stem cell niches provide a regulatory microenvironment that retains stem cells and promotes self-renewal. Recently in Developmental Cell, Rinkevich et al. (2013) showed that cell islands (CIs) of Botryllus schlosseri, a colonial chordate, provide niches for maintaining cycling stem cells that migrate from degenerated CIs to newly formed buds.

  11. High-dose, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide to promote graft-host tolerance after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Luznik, Leo

    2010-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease, or GVHD, is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Here, we describe a novel method for preventing GVHD after alloHSCT using high-dose, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (Cy). Post-transplantation Cy promotes tolerance in alloreactive host and donor T cells, leading to suppression of both graft rejection and GVHD after alloHSCT. High-dose, post-transplantation Cy facilitates partially HLA-mismatched HSCT without severe GVHD and is effective as sole prophylaxis of GVHD after HLA-matched alloHSCT. By reducing the morbidity and mortality of alloHSCT, post-transplantation Cy may expand the applications of this therapy to the treatment of autoimmune diseases and non-malignant hematologic disorders such as sickle cell disease. PMID:20066512

  12. Nat1 promotes translation of specific proteins that induce differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Hayami; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Yamamoto, Takuya; Iwasaki, Mio; Narita, Megumi; Nakamura, Masahiro; Rand, Tim A.; Nakagawa, Masato; Watanabe, Akira; Yamanaka, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    Novel APOBEC1 target 1 (Nat1) (also known as “p97,” “Dap5,” and “Eif4g2”) is a ubiquitously expressed cytoplasmic protein that is homologous to the C-terminal two thirds of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (Eif4g1). We previously showed that Nat1-null mouse embryonic stem cells (mES cells) are resistant to differentiation. In the current study, we found that NAT1 and eIF4G1 share many binding proteins, such as the eukaryotic translation initiation factors eIF3 and eIF4A and ribosomal proteins. However, NAT1 did not bind to eIF4E or poly(A)-binding proteins, which are critical for cap-dependent translation initiation. In contrast, compared with eIF4G1, NAT1 preferentially interacted with eIF2, fragile X mental retardation proteins (FMR), and related proteins and especially with members of the proline-rich and coiled-coil–containing protein 2 (PRRC2) family. We also found that Nat1-null mES cells possess a transcriptional profile similar, although not identical, to the ground state, which is established in wild-type mES cells when treated with inhibitors of the ERK and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) signaling pathways. In Nat1-null mES cells, the ERK pathway is suppressed even without inhibitors. Ribosome profiling revealed that translation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 (Map3k3) and son of sevenless homolog 1 (Sos1) is suppressed in the absence of Nat1. Forced expression of Map3k3 induced differentiation of Nat1-null mES cells. These data collectively show that Nat1 is involved in the translation of proteins that are required for cell differentiation. PMID:28003464

  13. Embryonic stem cell-specific microRNAs regulate the G1-S transition and promote rapid proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yangming; Baskerville, Scott; Shenoy, Archana; Babiarz, Joshua E; Baehner, Lauren; Blelloch, Robert

    2008-12-01

    Dgcr8 knockout embryonic stem (ES) cells lack microprocessor activity and hence all canonical microRNAs (miRNAs). These cells proliferate slowly and accumulate in G1 phase of the cell cycle. Here, by screening a comprehensive library of individual miRNAs in the background of the Dgcr8 knockout ES cells, we report that multiple ES cell-specific miRNAs, members of the miR-290 family, rescue the ES cell proliferation defect. Furthermore, rescued cells no longer accumulate in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. These miRNAs function by suppressing several key regulators of the G1-S transition. These results show that post-transcriptional regulation by miRNAs promotes the G1-S transition of the ES cell cycle, enabling rapid proliferation of these cells. Our screening strategy provides an alternative and powerful approach for uncovering the role of individual miRNAs in biological processes, as it overcomes the common problem of redundancy and saturation in the miRNA system.

  14. A Flavonoid Compound Promotes Neuronal Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells via PPAR-β Modulating Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Yu-qin; Pan, Zong-fu; Chen, Wen-teng; Xu, Min-hua; Zhu, Dan-yan; Yu, Yong-ping; Lou, Yi-jia

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little is known regarding mitochondrial metabolism in neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells. By using a small molecule, present research has investigated the pattern of cellular energy metabolism in neural progenitor cells derived from mouse ES cells. Flavonoid compound 4a faithfully facilitated ES cells to differentiate into neurons morphologically and functionally. The expression and localization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) were examined in neural progenitor cells. PPAR-β expression showed robust upregulation compared to solvent control. Treatment with PPAR-β agonist L165041 alone or together with compound 4a significantly promoted neuronal differentiation, while antagonist GSK0660 blocked the neurogenesis-promoting effect of compound 4a. Consistently, knockdown of PPAR-β in ES cells abolished compound 4a-induced neuronal differentiation. Interestingly, we found that mitochondrial fusion protein Mfn2 was also abolished by sh-PPAR-β, resulting in abnormal mitochondrial Ca2+ ([Ca2+]M) transients as well as impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics. In conclusion, we demonstrated that by modulating mitochondrial energy metabolism through Mfn2 and mitochondrial Ca2+, PPAR-β took an important role in neuronal differentiation induced by flavonoid compound 4a. PMID:27315062

  15. Nuclear Factor I-C promotes proliferation and differentiation of apical papilla-derived human stem cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Zhihua; Jiang, Yong; Niu, Zhongying; Fu, Lei; Luo, Zhirong; Cooper, Paul R.; Smith, Anthony J.; He, Wenxi

    2015-03-15

    The transcription factor Nuclear Factor I-C (NFIC) has been implicated in the regulation of tooth root development, where it may be anticipated to impact on the behavior of stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) and root odontoblast activity. We hypothesized that NFIC may provide an important target for promoting dentin/root regeneration. In the present study, the effects of NFIC on the proliferation and differentiation of SCAPs were investigated. Over-expression of NFIC increased cell proliferation, mineralization nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in SCAPs. Furthermore, NFIC up-regulated the mRNA levels of odontogenic-related markers, ALP, osteocalcin and collagen type I as well as dentin sialoprotein protein levels. In contrast, knockdown of NFIC by si-RNA inhibited the mineralization capacity of SCAPs and down-regulated the expression of odontogenic-related markers. In conclusion, the results indicated that upregulation of NFIC activity in SCAPs may promote osteo/odontoblastic differentiation of SCAPs. - Highlights: • NFIC promotes the proliferation of SCAPs in vitro. • NFIC promotes osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs in vitro. • Knockdown of NFIC inhibits odontogenic differentiation in SCAPs.

  16. Retrovirus delivered neurotrophin-3 promotes survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human fetal neural stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haixia; Li, Minjie; Song, Tusheng; Qian, Yihua; Xiao, Xinli; Chen, Xinlin; Zhang, Pengbo; Feng, Xinshun; Parker, Terence; Liu, Yong

    2008-10-22

    Poor survival and insufficient neuronal differentiation are the main obstacles to neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation therapy. Genetic modification of NSCs with neurotrophins is considered a promising approach to overcome these difficulties. In this study, the effects on survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human fetal NSCs (hfNSCs) were observed after infection by a neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) recombinant retrovirus. The hfNSCs, from 12-week human fetal brains formed neurospheres, expressed the stem cell marker nestin and differentiated into the three main cell types of the nervous system. NT-3 recombinant retrovirus (Retro-NT-3) infected hfNSCs efficiently expressed NT-3 gene for at least 8 weeks, presented an accelerated proliferation, and therefore produced an increased number of neurospheres and after differentiation in vitro, contained a higher percentage of neuronal cells. Eight weeks after infection, 37.9+/-4.2% of hfNSCs in the Retro-NT-3 infection group expressed the neuronal marker, this was significantly higher than the control and mock infection groups. NT-3 transduced hfNSCs also displayed longer protruding neurites compared with other groups. Combined these results demonstrate that NT-3 modification promote the survival/proliferation, neuronal differentiation and growth of neurites of hfNSCs in vitro. This study proposes recombinant retrovirus mediated NT-3 modification may provide a promising means to resolve the poor survival and insufficient neuronal differentiation of NSCs.

  17. Tethered IL-15 augments antitumor activity and promotes a stem-cell memory subset in tumor-specific T cells

    PubMed Central

    Hurton, Lenka V.; Singh, Harjeet; Najjar, Amer M.; Switzer, Kirsten C.; Mi, Tiejuan; Maiti, Sourindra; Olivares, Simon; Rabinovich, Brian; Huls, Helen; Forget, Marie-Andrée; Datar, Vrushali; Kebriaei, Partow; Lee, Dean A.; Champlin, Richard E.; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy retargeting T cells to CD19 via a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is an investigational treatment capable of inducing complete tumor regression of B-cell malignancies when there is sustained survival of infused cells. T-memory stem cells (TSCM) retain superior potential for long-lived persistence, but challenges exist in manufacturing this T-cell subset because they are rare among circulating lymphocytes. We report a clinically relevant approach to generating CAR+ T cells with preserved TSCM potential using the Sleeping Beauty platform. Because IL-15 is fundamental to T-cell memory, we incorporated its costimulatory properties by coexpressing CAR with a membrane-bound chimeric IL-15 (mbIL15). The mbIL15-CAR T cells signaled through signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 to yield improved T-cell persistence independent of CAR signaling, without apparent autonomous growth or transformation, and achieved potent rejection of CD19+ leukemia. Long-lived T cells were CD45ROnegCCR7+CD95+, phenotypically most similar to TSCM, and possessed a memory-like transcriptional profile. Overall, these results demonstrate that CAR+ T cells can develop long-term persistence with a memory stem-cell phenotype sustained by signaling through mbIL15. This observation warrants evaluation in clinical trials. PMID:27849617

  18. Tethered IL-15 augments antitumor activity and promotes a stem-cell memory subset in tumor-specific T cells.

    PubMed

    Hurton, Lenka V; Singh, Harjeet; Najjar, Amer M; Switzer, Kirsten C; Mi, Tiejuan; Maiti, Sourindra; Olivares, Simon; Rabinovich, Brian; Huls, Helen; Forget, Marie-Andrée; Datar, Vrushali; Kebriaei, Partow; Lee, Dean A; Champlin, Richard E; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2016-11-29

    Adoptive immunotherapy retargeting T cells to CD19 via a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is an investigational treatment capable of inducing complete tumor regression of B-cell malignancies when there is sustained survival of infused cells. T-memory stem cells (TSCM) retain superior potential for long-lived persistence, but challenges exist in manufacturing this T-cell subset because they are rare among circulating lymphocytes. We report a clinically relevant approach to generating CAR(+) T cells with preserved TSCM potential using the Sleeping Beauty platform. Because IL-15 is fundamental to T-cell memory, we incorporated its costimulatory properties by coexpressing CAR with a membrane-bound chimeric IL-15 (mbIL15). The mbIL15-CAR T cells signaled through signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 to yield improved T-cell persistence independent of CAR signaling, without apparent autonomous growth or transformation, and achieved potent rejection of CD19(+) leukemia. Long-lived T cells were CD45RO(neg)CCR7(+)CD95(+), phenotypically most similar to TSCM, and possessed a memory-like transcriptional profile. Overall, these results demonstrate that CAR(+) T cells can develop long-term persistence with a memory stem-cell phenotype sustained by signaling through mbIL15. This observation warrants evaluation in clinical trials.

  19. [Pancreatic cancer stem cell].

    PubMed

    Hamada, Shin; Masamune, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-05-01

    Prognosis of pancreatic cancer remains dismal due to the resistance against conventional therapies. Metastasis and massive invasion toward surrounding organs hamper radical resection. Small part of entire cancer cells reveal resistance against chemotherapy or radiotherapy, increased tumorigenicity and migratory phenotype. These cells are called as cancer stem cells, as a counter part of normal stem cells. In pancreatic cancer, several cancer stem cell markers have been identified, which enabled detailed characterization of pancreatic cancer stem cells. Recent researches clarified that conventional chemotherapy itself could increase cancer cells with stem cell-phenotype, suggesting the necessity of cancer stem cell-targeting therapy. Based on these observations, pancreatic cancer stem cell-targeting therapies have been tested, which effectively eliminated cancer stem cell fraction and attenuated cancer progression in experimental models. Clinical efficacy of these therapies need to be evaluated, and cancer stem cell-targeting therapy will contribute to improve the prognosis of pancreatic cancer.

  20. Knock-down of ZBED6 in insulin-producing cells promotes N-cadherin junctions between beta-cells and neural crest stem cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuan; Xie, Beichen; Qi, Yu; Wallerman, Ola; Vasylovska, Svitlana; Andersson, Leif; Kozlova, Elena Nickolaevna; Welsh, Nils

    2016-01-01

    The role of the novel transcription factor ZBED6 for the adhesion/clustering of insulin-producing mouse MIN6 and βTC6 cells was investigated. Zbed6-silencing in the insulin producing cells resulted in increased three-dimensional cell-cell clustering and decreased adhesion to mouse laminin and human laminin 511. This was paralleled by a weaker focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation at laminin binding sites. Zbed6-silenced cells expressed less E-cadherin and more N-cadherin at cell-to-cell junctions. A strong ZBED6-binding site close to the N-cadherin gene transcription start site was observed. Three-dimensional clustering in Zbed6-silenced cells was prevented by an N-cadherin neutralizing antibody and by N-cadherin knockdown. Co-culture of neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) with Zbed6-silenced cells, but not with control cells, stimulated the outgrowth of NCSC processes. The cell-to-cell junctions between NCSCs and βTC6 cells stained more intensely for N-cadherin when Zbed6-silenced cells were co-cultured with NCSCs. We conclude that ZBED6 decreases the ratio between N- and E-cadherin. A lower N- to E-cadherin ratio may hamper the formation of three-dimensional beta-cell clusters and cell-to-cell junctions with NCSC, and instead promote efficient attachment to a laminin support and monolayer growth. Thus, by controlling beta-cell adhesion and cell-to-cell junctions, ZBED6 might play an important role in beta-cell differentiation, proliferation and survival. PMID:26750727

  1. JAM-A promotes wound healing by enhancing both homing and secretory activities of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Minjuan; Ji, Shizhao; Xiao, Shichu; Kong, Zhengdong; Fang, He; Zhang, Yunqing; Ji, Kaihong; Zheng, Yongjun; Liu, Houqi; Xia, Zhaofan

    2015-10-01

    The homing ability and secretory function of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are key factors that influence cell involvement in wound repair. These factors are controlled by multilayer regulatory circuitry, including adhesion molecules, core transcription factors (TFs) and certain other regulators. However, the role of adhesion molecules in this regulatory circuitry and their underlying mechanism remain undefined. In the present paper, we demonstrate that an adhesion molecule, junction adhesion molecule A (JAM-A), may function as a key promoter molecule to regulate skin wound healing by MSCs. In in vivo experiments, we show that JAM-A up-regulation promoted both MSC homing to full-thickness skin wounds and wound healing-related cytokine secretion by MSCs. In vitro experiments also showed that JAM-A promoted MSC proliferation and migration by activating T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1). We suggest that JAM-A up-regulation can increase the proliferation, cytokine secretion and wound-homing ability of MSCs, thus accelerating the repair rate of full-thickness skin defects. These results may provide insights into a novel and potentially effective approach to improve the efficacy of MSC treatment.

  2. Genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) promote axonal regeneration and prevent hypersensitivity after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Gentaro; Tsoulfas, Pantelis; Toh, Satoshi; McNiece, Ian; Bramlett, Helen M; Dietrich, W Dalton

    2013-10-01

    Neurotrophins and the transplantation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (MSCs) are both candidate therapies targeting spinal cord injury (SCI). While some studies have suggested the ability of MSCs to transdifferentiate into neural cells, other SCI studies have proposed anti-inflammatory and other mechanisms underlying established beneficial effects. We grafted rat MSCs genetically modified to express MNTS1, a multineurotrophin that binds TrkA, TrkB and TrkC, and p75(NTR) receptors or MSC-MNTS1/p75(-) that binds mainly to the Trk receptors. Seven days after contusive SCI, PBS-only, GFP-MSC, MSC-MNTS1/GFP or MSC-MNTS1/p75(-)/GFP were delivered into the injury epicenter. All transplanted groups showed reduced inflammation and cystic cavity size compared to control SCI rats. Interestingly, transplantation of the MSC-MNTS1 and MSC-MNTS1/p75(-), but not the naïve MSCs, enhanced axonal growth and significantly prevented cutaneous hypersensitivity after SCI. Moreover, transplantation of MSC-MNTS1/p75(-) promoted angiogenesis and modified glial scar formation. These findings suggest that MSCs transduced with a multineurotrophin are effective in promoting cell growth and improving sensory function after SCI. These novel data also provide insight into the neurotrophin-receptor dependent mechanisms through which cellular transplantation leads to functional improvement after experimental SCI.

  3. Demineralized Bone Matrix Scaffolds Modified by CBD-SDF-1α Promote Bone Regeneration via Recruiting Endogenous Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiajia; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Wen; Liang, Hui; Shi, Qin; Li, Xiaoran; Chen, Yanyan; Zhuang, Yan; Dai, Jianwu

    2016-10-07

    The reconstruction of bone usually depends on substitute transplantation, which has drawbacks including the limited bone substitutes available, comorbidity, immune rejection, and limited endogenous bone regeneration. Here, we constructed a functionalized bone substitute by combining application of the demineralized bone matrix (DBM) and collagen-binding stromal-cell-derived factor-1α (CBD-SDF-1α). DBM was a poriferous and biodegradable bone substitute, derived from bovine bone and consisting mainly of collagen. CBD-SDF-1α could bind to collagen and be controllably released from the DBM to mobilize stem cells. In a rat femur defect model, CBD-SDF-1α-modified DBM scaffolds could efficiently mobilize CD34(+) and c-kit(+) endogenous stem cells homing to the injured site at 3 days after implantation. According to the data from micro-CT, CBD-SDF-1α-modified DBM scaffolds could help the bone defects rejoin with mineralization accumulated and bone volume expanded. Interestingly, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteopontin (OPN) were highly expressed in CBD-SDF-1α group at an early time after implantation, while osteocalcin (OCN) was more expanded. H&E and Masson's trichrome staining showed that the CBD-SDF-1α-modified DBM scaffold group had more osteoblasts and that the bone defect rejoined earlier. The ultimate strength of the regenerated bone was investigated by three-point bending, showing that the CBD-SDF-1α group had superior strength. In conclusion, CBD-SDF-1α-modified DBM scaffolds could promote bone regeneration by recruiting endogenous stem cells.

  4. Periostin Promotes Neural Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation following Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury.

    PubMed

    Ma, Si-Min; Chen, Long-Xia; Lin, Yi-Feng; Yan, Hu; Lv, Jing-Wen; Xiong, Man; Li, Jin; Cheng, Guo-Qiang; Yang, Yi; Qiu, Zi-Long; Zhou, Wen-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation are required to replace neurons damaged or lost after hypoxic-ischemic events and recover brain function. Periostin (POSTN), a novel matricellular protein, plays pivotal roles in the survival, migration, and regeneration of various cell types, but its function in NSCs of neonatal rodent brain is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of POSTN in NSCs following hypoxia-ischemia (HI). We found that POSTN mRNA levels significantly increased in differentiating NSCs. The proliferation and differentiation of NSCs in the hippocampus is compromised in POSTN knockout mice. Moreover, NSC proliferation and differentiation into neurons and astrocytes significantly increased in cultured NSCs treated with recombinant POSTN. Consistently, injection of POSTN into neonatal hypoxic-ischemic rat brains stimulated NSC proliferation and differentiation in the subventricular and subgranular zones after 7 and 14 days of brain injury. Lastly, POSTN treatment significantly improved the spatial learning deficits of rats subjected to HI. These results suggest that POSTN significantly enhances NSC proliferation and differentiation after HI, and provides new insights into therapeutic strategies for the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

  5. Mucosally transplanted mesenchymal stem cells stimulate intestinal healing by promoting angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Manieri, Nicholas A.; Mack, Madison R.; Himmelrich, Molly D.; Worthley, Daniel L.; Hanson, Elaine M.; Eckmann, Lars; Wang, Timothy C.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is an emerging field of regenerative medicine; however, it is often unclear how these cells mediate repair. Here, we investigated the use of MSCs in the treatment of intestinal disease and modeled abnormal repair by creating focal wounds in the colonic mucosa of prostaglandin-deficient mice. These wounds developed into ulcers that infiltrated the outer intestinal wall. We determined that penetrating ulcer formation in this model resulted from increased hypoxia and smooth muscle wall necrosis. Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) stimulated VEGF-dependent angiogenesis to prevent penetrating ulcers. Treatment of mucosally injured WT mice with a VEGFR inhibitor resulted in the development of penetrating ulcers, further demonstrating that VEGF is critical for mucosal repair. We next used this model to address the role of transplanted colonic MSCs (cMSCs) in intestinal repair. Compared with intravenously injected cMSCs, mucosally injected cMSCs more effectively prevented the development of penetrating ulcers, as they were more efficiently recruited to colonic wounds. Importantly, mucosally injected cMSCs stimulated angiogenesis in a VEGF-dependent manner. Together, our results reveal that penetrating ulcer formation results from a reduction of local angiogenesis and targeted injection of MSCs can optimize transplantation therapy. Moreover, local MSC injection has potential for treating diseases with features of abnormal angiogenesis and repair. PMID:26280574

  6. The function of Msx1 gene in promoting meiosis of dairy goat male germline stem cells (mGSCs).

    PubMed

    Mu, Hailong; Wu, Jiang; Zhu, Haijing; Li, Na; Tang, Furong; Yao, Xi; Yang, Churong; Peng, Sha; Li, Guangpeng; Hua, Jinlian

    2013-12-01

    During sequential stages of meiosis, numerous cytoplasmic and nuclear events take place in which many germline and non-germline genes involved. It is demonstrated that the germline gene Stra8 and synaptonemal complex protein 3 (Scp3) play an important role in the meiosis. Recently, studies showed Msx1, a DNA-binding protein taking part in the skeletal development, also having a functional attractive factor to Stra8 and Scp3 in the meiosis. In this study, we cloned the gene Msx1 then transfected the Msx1 constructed recombination plasmid, pMsx1-Ires2-AcGFP, into the dairy goat germline stem cells (male germline stem cells) and analysed the effects of Msx1 on the expression of Stra8 and Scp3. The results showed that Msx1 could enhance the expression of Stra8 and Scp3 and promote the meiosis in goat testicular cells. Bmp4 activated the expression of Msx1 and Stra8. This study suggests that Msx1 plays an important role in spermatogenesis and meiosis.

  7. Down-regulation of Dicer1 promotes cellular senescence and decreases the differentiation and stem cell-supporting capacities of mesenchymal stromal cells in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Youshan; Wu, Dong; Fei, Chengming; Guo, Juan; Gu, Shuncheng; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Feng; Zhang, Zheng; Wu, Lingyun; Li, Xiao; Chang, Chunkang

    2015-02-01

    Although it has been reported that mesenchymal stromal cells are unable to provide sufficient hematopoietic support in myelodysplastic syndrome, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we found that mesenchymal stromal cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndrome displayed a significant increase in senescence, as evidenced by their decreased proliferative capacity, flattened morphology and increased expression of SA-β-gal and p21. Senescent mesenchymal stromal cells from patients had decreased differentiation potential and decreased stem cell support capacity. Gene knockdown of Dicer1, which was down-regulated in mesenchymal stromal cells from patients, induced senescence. The differentiation and stem cell-supporting capacities were significantly inhibited by Dicer1 knockdown. Overexpression of Dicer1 in mesenchymal stromal cells from patients reversed cellular senescence and enhanced stem cell properties. Furthermore, we identified reduced expression in the microRNA-17 family (miR-17-5p, miR-20a/b, miR-106a/b and miR-93) as a potential factor responsible for increased p21 expression, a key senescence mediator, in Dicer1 knockdown cells. Moreover, we found that miR-93 and miR-20a expression levels were significantly reduced in mesenchymal stromal cells from patients and miR-93/miR-20a gain of function resulted in a decrease of cellular senescence. Collectively, the results of our study show that mesenchymal stromal cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndrome are prone to senescence and that Dicer1 down-regulation promotes cellular senescence and decreases the differentiation and stem cell-supporting capacities of mesenchymal stromal cells. Dicer1 down-regulation seems to contribute to the insufficient hematopoietic support capacities of mesenchymal stromal cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.

  8. Cryptomphalus aspersa Mollusc Egg Extract Promotes Regenerative Effects in Human Dermal Papilla Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Alameda, María Teresa; Morel, Esther; Parrado, Concepción; González, Salvador; Juarranz, Ángeles

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test, by an in vitro approach, whether a natural extract derived from eggs of the mollusc Cryptomphalus aspersa (e-CAF) that seems to present regenerative properties, can enhance the mobilization of human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs) and play a role on tissue repair and regeneration. We have tested HHDPCs proliferation by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide (MTT) assay; cell migration by using a wound healing assay, as well as the modulation of the expression of cytoskeletal (F-actin and vimentin) and cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) (vinculin and P-FAK) proteins. We also explored whether e-CAF could lead HHDPCs to keratinocytes and/or fibroblasts by evaluating the expression of specific markers. We have compared these e-CAF effects with those induced by TGFβ1, implicated in regulation of cell proliferation and migration. e-CAF promotes proliferation and migration of HHDPCs cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner; it also increases the migratory behavior and the expression of adhesion molecules. These results support the fact that e-CAF could play a role on skin regeneration and be used for the prevention or repair of damaged tissue, either due to external causes or as a result of cutaneous aging. PMID:28230777

  9. Downregulation of COMMD1 by miR-205 promotes a positive feedback loop for amplifying inflammatory- and stemness-associated properties of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yeh, D-W; Chen, Y-S; Lai, C-Y; Liu, Y-L; Lu, C-H; Lo, J-F; Chen, L; Hsu, L-C; Luo, Y; Xiang, R; Chuang, T-H

    2016-05-01

    Sustained activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in cancer cells has been shown to promote inflammation, expansion of cancer stem cell (CSC) population, and tumor development. In contrast, recent studies reveal that CSCs exhibit increased inflammation due to constitutive NF-κB activation; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, the analysis of microarray data revealed upregulation of NF-κB-regulated pro-inflammatory genes and downregulation of copper metabolism MURR1 domain-containing 1 (COMMD1) during the enrichment for stemness in SAS head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells. The 3'-UTR of COMMD1 mRNA contains microRNA (miR)-205 target site. Parallel studies with HNSCC and NSCLC cells indicated that miR-205 is upregulated upon NF-κB activation and suppresses COMMD1 expression in stemness-enriched cancer cells. COMMD1 negatively regulates the inflammatory responses induced by TLR agonists, IL-1β, and TNF-α by targeting RelA for degradation. The shRNA-mediated downregulation of COMMD1 in cancer cells enhanced inflammatory response, generating favorable conditions for macrophage recruitment. In addition, genes associated with stemness were also upregulated in these cells, which exhibited increased potential for anchorage-independent growth. Furthermore, COMMD1 downregulation promoted in vivo tumorigenesis and tumor growth, and tumors derived from COMMD1-knockdown cells displayed elevated level of NF-κB activation, increased expression of inflammatory- and stemness-associated genes, and contain expanded population of tumor-associated leukocytes and stemness-enriched cancer cells. These results suggest that COMMD1 downregulation by miR-205 promotes tumor development by modulating a positive feedback loop that amplifies inflammatory- and stemness-associated properties of cancer cells.

  10. Silk-Fibroin and Graphene Oxide Composites Promote Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cell Spontaneous Differentiation into Osteo/Cementoblast-Like Cells.

    PubMed

    Vera-Sánchez, Mar; Aznar-Cervantes, Salvador; Jover, Eva; García-Bernal, David; Oñate-Sánchez, Ricardo E; Hernández-Romero, Diana; Moraleda, Jose M; Collado-González, Mar; Rodríguez-Lozano, Francisco Javier; Cenis, Jose Luis

    2016-11-15

    Graphene represents one of the most interesting additions to the tissue engineering toolbox. Novel graphene-based composites are required to improve the beneficial graphene properties in terms of tridimensional polymeric structure, conferring a higher mechanical strength and favoring the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Here, we have demonstrated in a wide range of composite combinations, the successful use of graphene and silk-fibroin constructs for future bioengineering applications in the field of clinical regenerative dentistry using human periodontal ligament stem cells. Our results provide exciting new data for the development of suitable scaffolds that allow good cell engrafting, preservation of cell viability and proliferation, promotion of spontaneous osteoblastic differentiation, and importantly, stimulation of a higher cementum physiological synthesis than using other different available biomaterials.

  11. Overexpression of microRNA-124 promotes the neuronal differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Defeng; Chen, Yi; Han, Yaxin; Lv, Chen; Tu, Guanjun

    2014-06-15

    microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important regulatory role in the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells. In this study, we examined the effects of miRNA-124 (miR-124) overexpression in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. In particular, we focused on the effect of overexpression on the differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neurons. First, we used GeneChip technology to analyze the expression of miRNAs in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, neural stem cells and neurons. miR-124 expression was substantially reduced in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells compared with the other cell types. We constructed a lentiviral vector overexpressing miR-124 and transfected it into bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Intracellular expression levels of the neuronal early markers β-III tubulin and microtubule-associated protein-2 were significantly increased, and apoptosis induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation was reduced in transfected cells. After miR-124-transfected bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into the injured rat spinal cord, a large number of cells positive for the neuronal marker neurofilament-200 were observed in the transplanted region. The Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotion scores showed that the motor function of the hind limb of rats with spinal cord injury was substantially improved. These results suggest that miR-124 plays an important role in the differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neurons. Our findings should facilitate the development of novel strategies for enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for spinal cord injury.

  12. SHP2 phosphatase promotes mast cell chemotaxis toward stem cell factor via enhancing activation of the Lyn/Vav/Rac signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Namit; Everingham, Stephanie; Ramdas, Baskar; Kapur, Reuben; Craig, Andrew W B

    2014-05-15

    SHP2 protein-tyrosine phosphatase (encoded by Ptpn11) positively regulates KIT (CD117) signaling in mast cells and is required for mast cell survival and homeostasis in mice. In this study, we uncover a role of SHP2 in promoting chemotaxis of mast cells toward stem cell factor (SCF), the ligand for KIT receptor. Using an inducible SHP2 knockout (KO) bone marrow-derived mast cell (BMMC) model, we observed defects in SCF-induced cell spreading, polarization, and chemotaxis. To address the mechanisms involved, we tested whether SHP2 promotes activation of Lyn kinase that was previously shown to promote mast cell chemotaxis. In SHP2 KO BMMCs, SCF-induced phosphorylation of the inhibitory C-terminal residue (pY507) was elevated compared with control cells, and phosphorylation of activation loop (pY396) was diminished. Because Lyn also was detected by substrate trapping assays, these results are consistent with SHP2 activating Lyn directly by dephosphorylation of pY507. Further analyses revealed a SHP2- and Lyn-dependent pathway leading to phosphorylation of Vav1, Rac activation, and F-actin polymerization in SCF-treated BMMCs. Treatment of BMMCs with a SHP2 inhibitor also led to impaired chemotaxis, consistent with SHP2 promoting SCF-induced chemotaxis of mast cells via a phosphatase-dependent mechanism. Thus, SHP2 inhibitors may be useful to limit SCF/KIT-induced mast cell recruitment to inflamed tissues or the tumor microenvironment.

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells promote a primitive phenotype CD34+c-kit+ in human cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells during ex vivo expansion.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pardo, Viviana M; Vernot, Jean Paul

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) and exogenously added cytokines on the proliferation, primitive cell subpopulation maintenance (including the c-kit+ marker) and clonogenic capacity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). BM-MSC were collected from volunteer donors, isolated and characterized. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected from healthy full-term deliveries. UCB-CD34+ cells were cultured in the presence or absence of BM-MSC and/or cytokines for 3 and 7 days. CD34+ cell proliferation was evaluated using the CSFE method and cell phenotype was determined by CD34, c-kit, CD33, CD38, HLA-DR, cyCD22 and cyCD3 detection. Cell clonogenic ability was also assessed. Exogenously added SCF, TPO and FLT3L increased CD34+ cell proliferation in the presence or absence of BM-MSC, but with concomitant cell differentiation. Without any added cytokines, BM-MSC are able to increase the percentage of primitive progenitors as evaluated by c-kit expression and CFU-GEMM increase. Interestingly, this latter effect was dependent on both cell-cell interactions and secreted factors. A 7-day co-culture period will be optimal for obtaining an increased primitive HSC level. Including c-kit as a marker for primitive phenotype evaluation has shown the relevance of BM-MSC and their secreted factors on UCB-HSC stemness function. This effect could be dissociated from that of the addition of exogenous cytokines, which induced cellular differentiation instead.

  14. Biofabricated marine hydrozoan: a bioactive crystalline material promoting ossification of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch-Gottlib, Liat; Geresh, Shimona; Vago, Razi

    2006-04-01

    This study introduces a novel three-dimensional biomatrix obtained from the marine hydrocoral Millepora dichotoma as a scaffold for hard tissue engineering. Millepora dichotoma was biofabricated under field and laboratory conditions. Three-dimensional biomatrices were made in order to convert mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to exemplify osteoblastic phenotype. We investigated the effect of the biomatrices on MSCs proliferation and differentiation at 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, and 42 days. Different analyses were made: light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), calcium incorporation to newly formed tissue (alizarin red), bone nodule formation (von Kossa), fat aggregate formation (oil red O), collagen type I immunofluorescence, DNA concentrations, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and osteocalcin concentrations. MSCs seeded on Millepora dichotoma biomatrices showed higher levels of calcium and phosphate incorporation and higher type I collagen levels than did control Porites lutea biomatrices. ALP activity revealed that MSCs seeded on M. dichotoma biomatrices are highly osteogenic compared to those on control biomatrices. The osteocalcin content of MSCs seeded on M. dichotoma remained constant up to 2 weeks before rising to surpass that of seeded P. lutea biomatrices after 28 days. Our study thus showed that M. dichotoma biomatrices enhance the differentiation of MSCs into osteoblast and hence have excellent potential as bioscaffold for hard tissue engineering.

  15. Pregnane X-receptor promotes stem cell-mediated colon cancer relapse.

    PubMed

    Planque, Chris; Rajabi, Fatemeh; Grillet, Fanny; Finetti, Pascal; Bertucci, François; Gironella, Meritxell; Lozano, Juan José; Beucher, Bertrand; Giraud, Julie; Garambois, Véronique; Vincent, Charles; Brown, Daniel; Caillo, Ludovic; Kantar, Jovana; Pelegrin, André; Prudhomme, Michel; Ripoche, Jérémie; Bourgaux, Jean François; Ginestier, Christophe; Castells, Antoni; Hollande, Frédéric; Pannequin, Julie; Pascussi, Jean Marc

    2016-08-30

    Colorectal cancer lethality usually results from post-treatment relapse in the majority of stage II-IV patients, due to the enhanced resistance of Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs). Here, we show that the nuclear receptor Pregnane X Receptor (PXR, NR1I2), behaves as a key driver of CSC-mediated tumor recurrence. First, PXR is specifically expressed in CSCs, where it drives the expression of genes involved in self-renewal and chemoresistance. Clinically, high levels of PXR correlate with poor recurrence-free survival in a cohort of >200 stage II/III colorectal cancer patients treated with chemotherapy, for whom finding biomarkers of treatment outcome is an urgent clinical need. shRNA silencing of PXR increased the chemo-sensitivity of human colon CSCs, reduced their self-renewal and tumor-initiating potential, and drastically delayed tumor recurrence in mice following chemotherapy. This study uncovers PXR as a key factor for CSC self-renewal and chemoresistance and targeting PXR thus represents a promising strategy to minimize colorectal cancer relapse by selectively sensitizing CSCs to chemotherapy.

  16. Pregnane X-receptor promotes stem cell-mediated colon cancer relapse

    PubMed Central

    Grillet, Fanny; Finetti, Pascal; Bertucci, François; Gironella, Meritxell; Lozano, Juan José; Beucher, Bertrand; Giraud, Julie; Garambois, Véronique; Vincent, Charles; Brown, Daniel; Caillo, Ludovic; Kantar, Jovana; Pelegrin, André; Prudhomme, Michel; Ripoche, Jérémie; Bourgaux, Jean François; Ginestier, Christophe; Castells, Antoni; Hollande, Frédéric; Pannequin, Julie; Pascussi, Jean Marc

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer lethality usually results from post-treatment relapse in the majority of stage II-IV patients, due to the enhanced resistance of Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs). Here, we show that the nuclear receptor Pregnane X Receptor (PXR, NR1I2), behaves as a key driver of CSC-mediated tumor recurrence. First, PXR is specifically expressed in CSCs, where it drives the expression of genes involved in self-renewal and chemoresistance. Clinically, high levels of PXR correlate with poor recurrence-free survival in a cohort of >200 stage II/III colorectal cancer patients treated with chemotherapy, for whom finding biomarkers of treatment outcome is an urgent clinical need. shRNA silencing of PXR increased the chemo-sensitivity of human colon CSCs, reduced their self-renewal and tumor-initiating potential, and drastically delayed tumor recurrence in mice following chemotherapy. This study uncovers PXR as a key factor for CSC self-renewal and chemoresistance and targeting PXR thus represents a promising strategy to minimize colorectal cancer relapse by selectively sensitizing CSCs to chemotherapy. PMID:27448961

  17. TNF receptor signaling inhibits cardiomyogenic differentiation of cardiac stem cells and promotes a neuroadrenergic-like fate.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Tariq; Xu, Yuanyuan; Ismahil, Mohamed Ameen; Li, Qianhong; Jones, Steven P; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Bolli, Roberto; Prabhu, Sumanth D

    2016-11-01

    Despite expansion of resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs; c-kit(+)Lin(-)) after myocardial infarction, endogenous repair processes are insufficient to prevent adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure (HF). This suggests that the microenvironment in post-ischemic and failing hearts compromises CSC regenerative potential. Inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), are increased after infarction and in HF; whether they modulate CSC function is unknown. As the effects of TNF are specific to its two receptors (TNFRs), we tested the hypothesis that TNF differentially modulates CSC function in a TNFR-specific manner. CSCs were isolated from wild-type (WT), TNFR1-/-, and TNFR2-/- adult mouse hearts, expanded and evaluated for cell competence and differentiation in vitro in the absence and presence of TNF. Our results indicate that TNF signaling in murine CSCs is constitutively related primarily to TNFR1, with TNFR2 inducible after stress. TNFR1 signaling modestly diminished CSC proliferation, but, along with TNFR2, augmented CSC resistance to oxidant stress. Deficiency of either TNFR1 or TNFR2 did not impact CSC telomerase activity. Importantly, TNF, primarily via TNFR1, inhibited cardiomyogenic commitment during CSC differentiation, and instead promoted smooth muscle and endothelial fates. Moreover, TNF, via both TNFR1 and TNFR2, channeled an alternate CSC neuroadrenergic-like fate (capable of catecholamine synthesis) during differentiation. Our results suggest that elevated TNF in the heart restrains cardiomyocyte differentiation of resident CSCs and may enhance adrenergic activation, both effects that would reduce the effectiveness of endogenous cardiac repair and the response to exogenous stem cell therapy, while promoting adverse cardiac remodeling.

  18. Advanced glycosylation end product promotes forkhead box O1 and inhibits Wnt pathway to suppress capacities of epidermal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jie; Wang, Peng; Yu, Zhimin; Lai, Wei; Cao, Yi; Huang, Pinbo; Xu, Qiaodong; Yu, Menglei; Xu, Junyao; Huang, Zitong; Zeng, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is frequently accompanied by chronic complications like delayed wound healing, which is consider to be attributed to the accumulation of advanced glycosylation end product (AGE). However, the impacts of AGE on epidermal stem cells (ESCs) are largely unknown. This study aims to address the influence and mechanism of AGE on ESCs. ESCs isolated from rats were cultured in AGE-modified bovine serum albumin and transfected with small interfering RNA to knock down AGE-specific receptor (AGER). Expression of stem cell markers integrin β1 (ITGB1) and keratin 19 (KRT19), cell viability, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were examined. Wnt pathway-related factors Wnt family member 1 (WNT1), WNT3A, β-catenin, v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC), cyclin D1 (CCND1) and matrix metallopeptidase 7 (MMP7) were quantified. The interaction between forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) and β-catenin was assessed by co-immunoprecipitation. Results indicated that AGE down-regulated ITGB1 and KRT19 expression, suppressed ESC viability and promoted apoptosis, and ROS level (P < 0.01), implying decreased capacities of ESCs. AGE also promoted AGER and FOXO1, while AGER knockdown had the opposite effects. Moreover, AGER knockdown elevated the level of WNT1, WNT3A, MYC, CCND1 and MMP7 that were suppressed by AGE (P < 0.01). Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that FOXO1 could compete with lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 to interact with β-catenin, which might help to elucidate the mechanism of AGE repressing ESCs. This study helps to understand the mechanism of accumulated AGE in affecting ESC capacities, and provides potential therapeutic targets to meliorate diabetic wound healing. PMID:28078027

  19. Glutamate promotes neural stem cell proliferation by increasing the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor of astrocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, C X; Xu, X; Chen, X L; Yang, P B; Zhang, J S; Liu, Y

    2015-09-20

    The high levels of glutamate might involve in neurogenesis after brain injuries. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of glutamate on the proliferation of rat embryonic neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) through regulating the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression of astrocytes (ASTs) in vitro, and the cyclin D1 expression of NSCs. The results showed that glutamate promoted the expression and secretion of VEGF of rat astrocytes by activating group I mGluRs. Astrocyte conditioned medium-containing Glu [ACM (30%)] promoted the proliferation of embryonic NSCs compared with normal astrocyte conditioned medium+Glu [N-ACM (30%)+Glu (30 μM)] by increasing cell activity, diameter of neurospheres, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and cell division; while ACM+VEGF neutralizing antibody [ACM (30%)+VEGF NAb (15 μg/ml)] significantly inhibited the proliferation of embryonic NSCs compared with ACM (30%). ACM (30%) increased the expressions of cyclin D1 and decreased cell death compared with N-ACM (30%)+Glu (30 μM). ACM (30%)+VEGF NAb (15 μg/ml) decreased the expressions of cyclin D1 and increased cell death compared with ACM (30%). These results demonstrated that glutamate could also indirectly promote the proliferation of rat embryonic NSCs through inducing the VEGF expression of ASTs in vitro, and VEGF may increase the expression of cyclin D1. These finding suggest that glutamate may be a major molecule for regulating embryonic NSC proliferation and facilitate neural repair in the process of NSC transplants after brain injuries.

  20. Polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate structures loaded with adipose stem cells promote skin healing with reduced scarring.

    PubMed

    Zonari, Alessandra; Martins, Thaís M M; Paula, Ana Cláudia C; Boeloni, Jankerle N; Novikoff, Silviene; Marques, Alexandra P; Correlo, Vitor M; Reis, Rui L; Goes, Alfredo M

    2015-04-01

    Currently available skin substitutes are still associated with a range of problems including poor engraftment resulting from deficient vascularization, and excessive scar formation, among others. Trying to overcome these issues, this work proposes the combination of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) structures with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to offer biomechanical and biochemical signaling cues necessary to improve wound healing in a full-thickness model. PHBV scaffold maintained the wound moisture and demonstrated enough mechanical properties to withstand wound contraction. Also, exudate and inflammatory cell infiltration enhanced the degradation of the structure, and thus healing progression. After 28 days all the wounds were closed and the PHBV scaffold was completely degraded. The transplanted ASCs were detected in the wound area only at day 7, correlating with an up-regulation of VEGF and bFGF at this time point that consequently led to a significant higher vessel density in the group that received the PHBV loaded with ASCs. Subsequently, the dermis formed in the presence of the PHBV loaded with ASCs possesses a more complex collagen structure. Additionally, an anti-scarring effect was observed in the presence of the PHBV scaffold indicated by a down-regulation of TGF-β1 and α-SMA together with an increase of TGF-β3, when associated with ASCs. These results indicate that although PHBV scaffold was able to guide the wound healing process with reduced scarring, the presence of ASCs was crucial to enhance vascularization and provide a better quality neo-skin. Therefore, we can conclude that PHBV loaded with ASCs possesses the necessary bioactive cues to improve wound healing with reduced scarring.

  1. Decellularized extracellular matrix of human umbilical vein endothelial cells promotes endothelial differentiation of stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ting; Heng, Boon Chin; Xu, Jianguang; Zhu, Shaoyue; Yuan, Changyong; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Zhang, Chengfei

    2017-04-01

    Dental stem cells can serve as a potential source of functional endothelial cells for tissue engineering applications, but the endothelial-lineage differentiation efficiency is rather low even with growth factors and mechanical stimuli, which greatly limits their clinical applications. This is partly due to the deficiency of standard two-dimensional (2-D) culture systems, which is unable to recapitulate the three-dimensional (3-D) in vivo milieu that is rich in extracellular matrix. Hence, we extracted decellularized extracellular matrix from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs-DECM) to provide a bioactive substratum conducive to the endothelial differentiation of dental stem cells. Compared to cells plated on tissue culture polystyrene (TCP), stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) cultured on the HUVECs-DECM demonstrated more regular arrangement and elongated morphology. HUVECs-DECM significantly enhanced the rapid adhesion and proliferation rates of SHED, as demonstrated by WST-8 assay and immunocytochemistry indicating higher expression levels of vinculin by newly adherent SHED on HUVECs-DECM versus TCP. In addition, there was twofold to fivefold higher mRNA expression levels of endothelial-specific markers CD31 and VEGFR-2 in SHED after seven days of culture on DECM versus TCP. Functional testing with in vitro matrigel angiogenesis assay identified more capillary-like structure formation with significantly higher tubule length in SHED induced by DECM versus TCP. Hence, the results of this study provide a better understanding of the unique characteristics of cell-specific ECM and demonstrated the potential use of HUVECs-DECM as a culture substratum conducive for stimulating the endothelial differentiation of SHED for therapeutic angiogenic applications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1083-1093, 2017.

  2. Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells seeded on cartilaginous endplates promote Intervertebral Disc Regeneration through Extracellular Matrix Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Catarina Leite; Teixeira, Graciosa Q.; Ribeiro-Machado, Cláudia; Caldeira, Joana; Costa, Madalena; Figueiredo, Francisco; Fernandes, Rui; Aguiar, Paulo; Grad, Sibylle; Barbosa, Mário A.; Gonçalves, Raquel M.

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is characterized by significant biochemical and histomorphological alterations, such as loss of extracellular matrix (ECM) integrity, by abnormal synthesis of ECM main components, resultant from altered anabolic/catabolic cell activities and cell death. Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell (MSC) migration towards degenerated IVD may represent a viable strategy to promote tissue repair/regeneration. Here, human MSCs (hMSCs) were seeded on top of cartilaginous endplates (CEP) of nucleotomized IVDs of bovine origin and cultured ex vivo up to 3 weeks. hMSCs migrated from CEP towards the lesion area and significantly increased expression of collagen type II and aggrecan in IVD, namely in the nucleus pulposus. Concomitantly, hMSCs stimulated the production of growth factors, promoters of ECM synthesis, such as fibroblast growth factor 6 (FGF-6) and 7 (FGF-7), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGF-R), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1sR). Overall, our results demonstrate that CEP can be an alternative route to MSC-based therapies for IVD regeneration through ECM remodeling, thus opening new perspectives on endogenous repair capacity through MSC recruitment. PMID:27652931

  3. FAM83A is amplified and promotes cancer stem cell-like traits and chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Huang, J; Liu, Z; Liang, Q; Zhang, N; Jin, Y

    2017-03-13

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also known as tumor-initiating cells (TICs), contribute to tumorigenesis, resistance to chemoradiotherapy and recurrence in human cancers, suggesting targeting CSCs may represent a potential therapeutic strategy. In the current study, we found family with sequence similarity 83, member A (FAM83A) is significantly overexpressed and associated with poorer overall survival and disease-free survival in pancreatic cancer. Overexpression of FAM83A markedly promoted, whereas inhibition of FAM83A decreased, CSC-like traits and chemoresistance both in vitro and in an in vivo mouse model of pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, overexpression of FAM83A activated the well-characterized CSC-associated pathways transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Importantly, the FAM83A locus was amplified in a number of human cancers and silencing FAM83A in associated cancer cell lines inhibited activation of the WNT/β-catenin and TGF-β signaling pathways and reduced tumorigenicity. Taken together, these results indicate that FAM83A has a vital oncogenic role to promote pancreatic cancer progression and may represent a potential clinical target.

  4. Transforming growth factor-beta1 promotes the migration and invasion of sphere-forming stem-like cell subpopulations in esophageal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Dongli; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Jieyao; Chen, Xinfeng; Ping, Yu; Liu, Shasha; Shi, Xiaojuan; Li, Lifeng; Wang, Liping; Huang, Lan; Zhang, Bin; and others

    2015-08-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most lethal solid malignancies. Mounting evidence demonstrates that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are able to cause tumor initiation, metastasis and responsible for chemotherapy and radiotherapy failures. As CSCs are thought to be the main reason of therapeutic failure, these cells must be effectively targeted to elicit long-lasting therapeutic responses. We aimed to enrich and identify the esophageal cancer cell subpopulation with stem-like properties and help to develop new target therapy strategies for CSCs. Here, we found esophageal cancer cells KYSE70 and TE1 could form spheres in ultra low attachment surface culture and be serially passaged. Sphere-forming cells could redifferentiate and acquire morphology comparable to parental cells, when return to adherent culture. The sphere-forming cells possessed the key criteria that define CSCs: persistent self-renewal, overexpression of stemness genes (SOX2, ALDH1A1 and KLF4), reduced expression of differentiation marker CK4, chemoresistance, strong invasion and enhanced tumorigenic potential. SB525334, transforming growth factor-beta 1(TGF-β1) inhibitor, significantly inhibited migration and invasion of sphere-forming stem-like cells and had no effect on sphere-forming ability. In conclusion, esophageal cancer sphere-forming cells from KYSE70 and TE1 cultured in ultra low attachment surface possess cancer stem cell properties, providing a model for CSCs targeted therapy. TGF-β1 promotes the migration and invasion of sphere-forming stem-like cells, which may guide future studies on therapeutic strategies targeting these cells. - Highlights: • Esophageal cancer sphere-forming cells possess cancer stem cell properties. • Sphere-forming cells enhance TGF-β1 pathway activity. • TGF-β 1 inhibitor suppresses the migration and invasion of sphere-forming cells.

  5. Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) is required for promoting chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Buhrmann, Constanze; Busch, Franziska; Shayan, Parviz; Shakibaei, Mehdi

    2014-08-08

    Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, has been linked to anabolic effects in cartilage, although the mechanisms of SIRT1 signaling during differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to chondrocytes are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of SIRT1-mediated signaling during chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. High density and alginate cultures of MSCs were treated with chondrogenic induction medium with/without the SIRT1 inhibitor nicotinamide, antisense oligonucleotides against SIRT1 (SIRT1-ASO), IL-1β, and/or resveratrol. Transient transfection of MSCs with SIRT1-antisense oligonucleotides, nicotinamide, and IL-1β inhibited chondrogenesis-induced down-regulation of cartilage-specific proteins, cartilage-specific transcription factor Sox9, and enhanced NF-κB-regulated gene products involved in the inflammatory and degradative processes in cartilage (MMP-9, COX-2, and caspase-3), and NF-κB phosphorylation, acetylation, and activation of IκBα kinase. In contrast, the SIRT1 activator resveratrol or BMS-345541 (inhibitor of IKK) inhibited IL-1β- and NAM-induced suppression of cartilage-specific proteins, Sox9, and up-regulation of NF-κB-regulated gene products. Moreover, SIRT1 was found to interact directly with NF-κB and resveratrol-suppressed IL-1β and NAM but not SIRT1-ASO-induced NF-κB phosphorylation, acetylation, and activation of IκBα kinase. Knockdown of SIRT1 by mRNA abolished the inhibitory effects of resveratrol on inflammatory and apoptotic signaling and Sox9 expression, suggesting the essential role of this enzyme. Finally, the modulatory effects of resveratrol were found to be mediated at least in part by the association between SIRT1 and Sox9. These results indicate for the first time that SIRT1 supports chondrogenic development of MSCs at least in part through inhibition/deacetylation of NF-κB and activation of Sox9.

  6. Liver cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sell, Stewart; Leffert, Hyam L

    2008-06-10

    In an effort to review the evidence that liver cancer stem cells exist, two fundamental questions must be addressed. First, do hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) arise from liver stem cells? Second, do HCCs contain cells that possess properties of cancer stem cells? For many years the finding of preneoplastic nodules in the liver during experimental induction of HCCs by chemicals was interpreted to support the hypothesis that HCC arose by dedifferentiation of mature liver cells. More recently, recognition of the role of small oval cells in the carcinogenic process led to a new hypothesis that HCC arises by maturation arrest of liver stem cells. Analysis of the cells in HCC supports the presence of cells with stem-cell properties (ie, immortality, transplantability, and resistance to therapy). However, definitive markers for these putative cancer stem cells have not yet been found and a liver cancer stem cell has not been isolated.

  7. Promotion Effects of miR-375 on the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; Zheng, Yunfei; Zhang, Shan; Jia, Lingfei; Zhou, Yongsheng

    2017-03-14

    MicroRNA plays an important role in bone tissue engineering; however, its role and function in osteogenic differentiation warrant further investigation. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-375 was upregulated during the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs). Overexpression of miR-375 significantly enhanced hASCs osteogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, while knockdown of miR-375 inhibited the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. Mechanistically, microarray analysis revealed DEPTOR as a target of miR-375 in hASCs. Knockdown of DEPTOR accelerated the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs by inhibiting AKT signaling, which mimics miR-375 overexpression. Furthermore, we confirmed that miR-375 regulated osteogenesis by targeting YAP1, and that YAP1 reversely bound to miR-375 promoter to inhibit miR-375 expression. Taken together, our results suggested that miR-375 promoted the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs via the YAP1/DEPTOR/AKT regulatory network, indicating that miR-375-targeted therapy might be a valuable approach to promote bone regeneration.

  8. Mesenchymal to Epithelial Transition Mediated by CDH1 Promotes Spontaneous Reprogramming of Male Germline Stem Cells to Pluripotency.

    PubMed

    An, Junhui; Zheng, Yu; Dann, Christina Tenenhaus

    2017-02-14

    Cultured spermatogonial stem cells (GSCs) can spontaneously form pluripotent cells in certain culture conditions. However, GSC reprogramming is a rare event that is largely unexplained. We show GSCs have high expression of mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) suppressors resulting in a developmental barrier inhibiting GSC reprogramming. Either increasing OCT4 or repressing transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling promotes GSC reprogramming by upregulating CDH1 and boosting MET. Reducing ZEB1 also enhances GSC reprogramming through its direct effect on CDH1. RNA sequencing shows that rare GSCs, identified as CDH1(+) after trypsin digestion, are epithelial-like cells. CDH1(+) GSCs exhibit enhanced reprogramming and become more prevalent during the course of reprogramming. Our results provide a mechanistic explanation for the spontaneous emergence of pluripotent cells from GSC cultures; namely, rare GSCs upregulate CDH1 and initiate MET, processes normally kept in check by ZEB1 and TGF-β signaling, thereby ensuring germ cells are protected from aberrant acquisition of pluripotency.

  9. CD133+ ovarian cancer stem-like cells promote non-stem cancer cell metastasis via CCL5 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Wei; Huang, Jiani; Chen, Junying; He, Luhang; Liang, Zhiqing; Guo, Bo; Li, Yongsheng; Xie, Rongkai; Zhu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs, also called cancer stem-like cells, CSLCs) can function as “seed cells” for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Here, we report that, in the presence of CD133+ ovarian CSLCs, CD133− non-CSLCs can undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like process and display enhanced metastatic capacity in vitro and in vivo. Highly elevated expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) and its receptors chemokine (C-C motif) receptor (CCR) 1/3/5 are observed in clinical and murine metastatic tumor tissues from epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Mechanistically, paracrine CCL5 from ovarian CSLCs activates the NF-κB signaling pathway in ovarian non-CSLCs via binding CCR1/3/5, thereby inducing EMT and tumor invasion. Taken together, our results redefine the metastatic potential of non-stem cancer cells and provide evidence that targeting the CCL5:CCR1/3/5-NF-κB pathway could be an effective strategy to prevent ovarian cancer metastasis. PMID:25788271

  10. The co-factor of LIM domains (CLIM/LDB/NLI) maintains basal mammary epithelial stem cells and promotes breast tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Salmans, Michael L; Yu, Zhengquan; Watanabe, Kazuhide; Cam, Eric; Sun, Peng; Smyth, Padhraic; Dai, Xing; Andersen, Bogi

    2014-07-01

    Mammary gland branching morphogenesis and ductal homeostasis relies on mammary stem cell function for the maintenance of basal and luminal cell compartments. The mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of the basal cell compartment are currently unknown. We explored these mechanisms in the basal cell compartment and identified the Co-factor of LIM domains (CLIM/LDB/NLI) as a transcriptional regulator that maintains these cells. Clims act within the basal cell compartment to promote branching morphogenesis by maintaining the number and proliferative potential of basal mammary epithelial stem cells. Clim2, in a complex with LMO4, supports mammary stem cells by directly targeting the Fgfr2 promoter in basal cells to increase its expression. Strikingly, Clims also coordinate basal-specific transcriptional programs to preserve luminal cell identity. These basal-derived cues inhibit epidermis-like differentiation of the luminal cell compartment and enhance the expression of luminal cell-specific oncogenes ErbB2 and ErbB3. Consistently, basal-expressed Clims promote the initiation and progression of breast cancer in the MMTV-PyMT tumor model, and the Clim-regulated branching morphogenesis gene network is a prognostic indicator of poor breast cancer outcome in humans.

  11. Arsenic Promotes NF-Kb-Mediated Fibroblast Dysfunction and Matrix Remodeling to Impair Muscle Stem Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Changqing; Ferrari, Ricardo; Beezhold, Kevin; Stearns-Reider, Kristen; D’Amore, Antonio; Haschak, Martin; Stolz, Donna; Robbins, Paul D.; Barchowsky, Aaron; Ambrosio, Fabrisia

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is a global health hazard that impacts over 140 million individuals worldwide. Epidemiological studies reveal prominent muscle dysfunction and mobility declines following arsenic exposure; yet, mechanisms underlying such declines are unknown. The objective of this study was to test the novel hypothesis that arsenic drives a maladaptive fibroblast phenotype to promote pathogenic myomatrix remodeling and compromise the muscle stem (satellite) cell (MuSC) niche. Mice were exposed to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic in drinking water before receiving a local muscle injury. Arsenic-exposed muscles displayed pathogenic matrix remodeling, defective myofiber regeneration and impaired functional recovery, relative to controls. When naïve human MuSCs were seeded onto three-dimensional decellularized muscle constructs derived from arsenic-exposed muscles, cells displayed an increased fibrogenic conversion and decreased myogenicity, compared with cells seeded onto control constructs. Consistent with myomatrix alterations, fibroblasts isolated from arsenic-exposed muscle displayed sustained expression of matrix remodeling genes, the majority of which were mediated by NF-κB. Inhibition of NF-κB during arsenic exposure preserved normal myofiber structure and functional recovery after injury, suggesting that NF-κB signaling serves as an important mechanism of action for the deleterious effects of arsenic on tissue healing. Taken together, the results from this study implicate myomatrix biophysical and/or biochemical characteristics as culprits in arsenic-induced MuSC dysfunction and impaired muscle regeneration. It is anticipated that these findings may aid in the development of strategies to prevent or revert the effects of arsenic on tissue healing and, more broadly, provide insight into the influence of the native myomatrix on stem cell behavior. PMID:26537186

  12. Stem Cell Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... transplant is a procedure that infuses healthy blood stem cells into your body to replace your damaged or ... A bone marrow transplant is also called a stem cell transplant. A bone marrow transplant may be necessary ...

  13. Nuclear Factor I-C promotes proliferation and differentiation of apical papilla-derived human stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Zhihua; Jiang, Yong; Niu, Zhongying; Fu, Lei; Luo, Zhirong; Cooper, Paul R; Smith, Anthony J; He, Wenxi

    2015-03-15

    The transcription factor Nuclear Factor I-C (NFIC) has been implicated in the regulation of tooth root development, where it may be anticipated to impact on the behavior of stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) and root odontoblast activity. We hypothesized that NFIC may provide an important target for promoting dentin/root regeneration. In the present study, the effects of NFIC on the proliferation and differentiation of SCAPs were investigated. Over-expression of NFIC increased cell proliferation, mineralization nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in SCAPs. Furthermore, NFIC up-regulated the mRNA levels of odontogenic-related markers, ALP, osteocalcin and collagen type I as well as dentin sialoprotein protein levels. In contrast, knockdown of NFIC by si-RNA inhibited the mineralization capacity of SCAPs and down-regulated the expression of odontogenic-related markers. In conclusion, the results indicated that upregulation of NFIC activity in SCAPs may promote osteo/odontoblastic differentiation of SCAPs.

  14. Promoting tumor penetration of nanoparticles for cancer stem cell therapy by TGF-β signaling pathway inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zu-Qi; Chen, Kai-Ge; Yu, Xiao-Yuan; Zhao, Gui; Shen, Song; Cao, Zhi-Ting; Luo, Ying-Li; Wang, Yu-Cai; Wang, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which hold a high capacity for self-renewal, play a central role in the development, metastasis, and recurrence of various malignancies. CSCs must be eradicated to cure instances of cancer; however, because they can reside far from tumor vessels, they are not easily targeted by drug agents carried by nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems. We herein demonstrate that promoting tumor penetration of nanoparticles by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling pathway inhibition facilitates CSC therapy. In our study, we observed that although nanoparticles carrying siRNA targeting the oncogene polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) efficiently killed breast CSCs derived from MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro, this intervention enriched CSCs in the residual tumor tissue following systemic treatment. However, inhibition of the TGF-β signaling pathway with LY364947, an inhibitor of TGF-β type I receptor, promoted the penetration of nanoparticles in tumor tissue, significantly ameliorating the intratumoral distribution of nanoparticles in MDA-MB-231 xenografts and further leading to enhanced internalization of nanoparticles by CSCs. As a result, synergistic treatment with a nanoparticle drug delivery system and LY364947 inhibited tumor growth and reduced the proportion of CSCs in vivo. This study suggests that enhanced tumor penetration of drug-carrying nanoparticles can enhance CSCs clearance in vivo and consequently provide superior anti-tumor effects.

  15. Human adipose-derived stem cells promote vascularization of collagen-based scaffolds transplanted into nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Cherubino, Mario; Valdatta, Luigi; Balzaretti, Riccardo; Pellegatta, Igor; Rossi, Federica; Protasoni, Marina; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Accolla, Roberto S; Bernardini, Giovanni; Gornati, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    Aim: After in vivo implantation of cell-loaded devices, only the cells close to the capillaries can obtain nutrients to maintain their functions. It is known that factors secreted by stem cells, rather than stem cells themselves, are fundamental to guarantee new vascularization in the area of implant. Materials & methods: To investigate this possibility, we have grafted mice with Bilayer and Flowable Integra® scaffolds, loaded or not with human adipose-derived stem cells. Results: Our results support the therapeutic potential of human adipose-derived stem cells to induce new vascular networks of engineered organs and tissues. Conclusion: This finding suggests that our approach can help to form new vascular networks that allow sufficient vascularization of engineered organs and tissues in cases of difficult wound healing due to ischemic conditions. PMID:26965659

  16. Systemic and Local Administration of Allogeneic Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes Fracture Healing in Rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuo; Xu, Liangliang; Zhang, Yifeng; Sun, Yuxin; Li, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are immune privileged and a cell source for tissue repair. Previous studies showed that there is systemic mobilization of osteoblastic precursors to the fracture site. We hypothesized that both systemic and local administration of allogeneic MSCs may promote fracture healing. Bone marrow-derived MSCs and skin fibroblasts were isolated from GFP Sprague-Dawley rats, cultured, and characterized. Closed transverse femoral fracture with internal fixation was established in 48 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were randomly assigned into four groups receiving PBS injection, MSC systemic injection, fibroblast systemic injection, and MSC fracture site injection; 2 × 10(6) cells were injected at 4 days after fracture. All animals were sacrificed at 5 weeks after fracture; examinations included weekly radiograph, micro-CT, mechanical testing, histology, immunohistochemistry, and double immunofluorescence. The callus size of MSC injection groups was significantly larger among all the groups. Radiographs and 3D reconstruction images showed that the fracture gaps united in the MSC injected groups, while gaps were still seen in the fibroblast and PBS injection groups. The mechanical properties were significantly higher in the MSC injection groups than those in the fibroblast and PBS groups, but no difference was found between the MSC local and systemic injection groups. Immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence demonstrated that GFP-positive MSCs were present in the callus in the MSC injection groups at 5 weeks after fracture, and some differentiated into osteoblasts. Quantitative analysis revealed the number of GFP-positive cells in the callus in the MSC systemic injection group was significantly lower than that of the MSC local injection group. The proportion of GFP osteoblasts in GFP-positive cells in the MSC systemic injection group was significantly lower than that of the MSC local injection group. These findings provide critical

  17. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 promotes induction of cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells in serum-based embryoid body development.

    PubMed

    Takei, Shunsuke; Ichikawa, Hinako; Johkura, Kohei; Mogi, Akimi; No, Heesung; Yoshie, Susumu; Tomotsune, Daihachiro; Sasaki, Katsunori

    2009-06-01

    Cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem (ES) cells are a potential source for cell-based therapy for heart diseases. We studied the effect of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) on cardiac induction from human H1 ES cells during embryoid body (EB) development. Suspension culture for 4 days with 20% FBS produced the best results for the differentiation of early mesoderm and cardiomyocytes. The addition of Noggin reduced the incidence of beating EBs from 23.6% to 5.3%, which indicated the involvement of BMP signaling in the spontaneous cardiac differentiation. In this condition, treatment with 12.5-25 ng/ml BMP-4 during the 4-day suspension optimally promoted the cardiomyocyte differentiation. The incidence of beating EBs at 25 ng/ml BMP-4 reached 95.8% on day 6 of expansion and then plateaued until day 20. In real-time PCR analysis, the cardiac development-related genes MESP1 and Nkx2.5 were upregulated in the EB outgrowths by 25 ng/ml BMP-4. The activation of BMP signaling in EBs was confirmed by the increase in the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and by the nuclear localization of phospho-Smad1/5/8 and Smad4. The addition of 150 ng/ml Noggin considerably decreased the incidence of beating EBs and Nkx2.5 expression, and Noggin alone increased Nestin expression and neural differentiation in EB outgrowths. The cardiomyocytes induced by 25 ng/ml BMP-4 showed proper cell biological characteristics and a course of differentiation as judged from isoproterenol administration, gene expression, protein assay, immunoreactivity, and subcellular structures. No remarkable change in the extent of apoptosis and proliferation in the cardiomyocytes was observed by BMP-4 treatment. These findings showed that BMP-4 in combination with FBS at the appropriate time and concentrations significantly promotes cardiomyocyte induction from human ES cells.

  18. Monomeric, porous type II collagen scaffolds promote chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaddon, M.; Burrows, M.; Ferreira, S. A.; Dazzi, F.; Apperley, J. F.; Bradshaw, A.; Brand, D. D.; Czernuszka, J.; Gentleman, E.

    2017-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common cause of pain and disability and is often associated with the degeneration of articular cartilage. Lesions to the articular surface, which are thought to progress to OA, have the potential to be repaired using tissue engineering strategies; however, it remains challenging to instruct cell differentiation within a scaffold to produce tissue with appropriate structural, chemical and mechanical properties. We aimed to address this by driving progenitor cells to adopt a chondrogenic phenotype through the tailoring of scaffold composition and physical properties. Monomeric type-I and type-II collagen scaffolds, which avoid potential immunogenicity associated with fibrillar collagens, were fabricated with and without chondroitin sulfate (CS) and their ability to stimulate the chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells was assessed. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that cells produced abundant collagen type-II on type-II scaffolds and collagen type-I on type-I scaffolds. Gene expression analyses indicated that the addition of CS – which was released from scaffolds quickly – significantly upregulated expression of type II collagen, compared to type-I and pure type-II scaffolds. We conclude that collagen type-II and CS can be used to promote a more chondrogenic phenotype in the absence of growth factors, potentially providing an eventual therapy to prevent OA.

  19. Monomeric, porous type II collagen scaffolds promote chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tamaddon, M.; Burrows, M.; Ferreira, S. A.; Dazzi, F.; Apperley, J. F.; Bradshaw, A.; Brand, D. D.; Czernuszka, J.; Gentleman, E.

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common cause of pain and disability and is often associated with the degeneration of articular cartilage. Lesions to the articular surface, which are thought to progress to OA, have the potential to be repaired using tissue engineering strategies; however, it remains challenging to instruct cell differentiation within a scaffold to produce tissue with appropriate structural, chemical and mechanical properties. We aimed to address this by driving progenitor cells to adopt a chondrogenic phenotype through the tailoring of scaffold composition and physical properties. Monomeric type-I and type-II collagen scaffolds, which avoid potential immunogenicity associated with fibrillar collagens, were fabricated with and without chondroitin sulfate (CS) and their ability to stimulate the chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells was assessed. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that cells produced abundant collagen type-II on type-II scaffolds and collagen type-I on type-I scaffolds. Gene expression analyses indicated that the addition of CS – which was released from scaffolds quickly – significantly upregulated expression of type II collagen, compared to type-I and pure type-II scaffolds. We conclude that collagen type-II and CS can be used to promote a more chondrogenic phenotype in the absence of growth factors, potentially providing an eventual therapy to prevent OA. PMID:28256634

  20. Autocrine Secretion of Progastrin Promotes the Survival and Self-Renewal of Colon Cancer Stem-like Cells.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Julie; Failla, Laura M; Pascussi, Jean-Marc; Lagerqvist, Ebba L; Ollier, Jérémy; Finetti, Pascal; Bertucci, François; Ya, Chu; Gasmi, Imène; Bourgaux, Jean-François; Prudhomme, Michel; Mazard, Thibault; Ait-Arsa, Imade; Houhou, Leila; Birnbaum, Daniel; Pélegrin, André; Vincent, Charles; Ryall, James G; Joubert, Dominique; Pannequin, Julie; Hollande, Frédéric

    2016-06-15

    Subpopulations of cancer stem-like cells (CSC) are thought to drive tumor progression and posttreatment recurrence in multiple solid tumors. However, the mechanisms that maintain stable proportions of self-renewing CSC within heterogeneous tumors under homeostatic conditions remain poorly understood. Progastrin is a secreted peptide that exhibits tumor-forming potential in colorectal cancer, where it regulates pathways known to modulate colon CSC behaviors. In this study, we investigated the role of progastrin in regulating CSC phenotype in advanced colorectal cancer. Progastrin expression and secretion were highly enriched in colon CSC isolated from human colorectal cancer cell lines and colon tumor biopsies. Progastrin expression promoted CSC self-renewal and survival, whereas its depletion by RNA interference-mediated or antibody-mediated strategies altered the homeostatic proportions of CSC cells within heterogeneous colorectal cancer tumors. Progastrin downregulation also decreased the frequency of ALDH(high) cells, impairing their tumor-initiating potential, and inhibited the high glycolytic activity of ALDH(high) CSC to limit their self-renewal capability. Taken together, our results show how colorectal CSC maintain their tumor-initiating and self-renewal capabilities by secreting progastrin, thereby contributing to the tumor microenvironment to support malignancy. Cancer Res; 76(12); 3618-28. ©2016 AACR.

  1. ATG4A promotes tumor metastasis by inducing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem-like properties in gastric cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shi-Wei; Ping, Yi-Fang; Jiang, Yu-Xing; Luo, Xiao; Zhang, Xia; Bian, Xiu-Wu; Yu, Pei-Wu

    2016-01-01

    The metastasis of tumor cells to distant organs is an ominous feature of gastric cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer cells remain elusive. In this study, we found that the expression of ATG4A, an autophagy-regulating molecule, was significantly increased in gastric cancer tissues and was significantlycorrelated with the gastric cancer differentiation degree, tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis. ATG4A over-expression significantly promoted gastric cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo, as well as promoted gastric cancer cell stem-like properties and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype. By contrast, ATG4A knockdown inhibited the migration, invasion and metastasis of cancer cells, as well as the stem-like properties and EMT phenotype. Mechanistically, ATG4A promotes gastric cancer cell stem-like properties and the EMT phenotype through the activation of Notch signaling not via autophagy, and using the Notch signaling inhibitor DAPT attenuated the effects of ATG4A on gastric cancer cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that ATG4A promotes the metastasis of gastric cancer cells via the Notch signaling pathway, which is an autophagy-independent mechanism. PMID:27276686

  2. Ensconsin/Map7 promotes microtubule growth and centrosome separation in Drosophila neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gallaud, Emmanuel; Caous, Renaud; Pascal, Aude; Bazile, Franck; Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Huet, Sébastien; Poirier, Guy G.; Chrétien, Denis; Richard-Parpaillon, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The mitotic spindle is crucial to achieve segregation of sister chromatids. To identify new mitotic spindle assembly regulators, we isolated 855 microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) from Drosophila melanogaster mitotic or interphasic embryos. Using RNAi, we screened 96 poorly characterized genes in the Drosophila central nervous system to establish their possible role during spindle assembly. We found that Ensconsin/MAP7 mutant neuroblasts display shorter metaphase spindles, a defect caused by a reduced microtubule polymerization rate and enhanced by centrosome ablation. In agreement with a direct effect in regulating spindle length, Ensconsin overexpression triggered an increase in spindle length in S2 cells, whereas purified Ensconsin stimulated microtubule polymerization in vitro. Interestingly, ensc-null mutant flies also display defective centrosome separation and positioning during interphase, a phenotype also detected in kinesin-1 mutants. Collectively, our results suggest that Ensconsin cooperates with its binding partner Kinesin-1 during interphase to trigger centrosome separation. In addition, Ensconsin promotes microtubule polymerization during mitosis to control spindle length independent of Kinesin-1. PMID:24687279

  3. Plant stem cell niches.

    PubMed

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  4. Promoted adipogenesis of rat mesenchymal stem cells by transfection of small interfering RNA complexed with a cationized dextran.

    PubMed

    Nagane, Kentaro; Jo, Jun-ichiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of small interfering RNA (siRNA) complexed with a cationized dextran of nonviral carrier to biologically modify the adipogenesis extent of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Spermine was chemically introduced to the hydroxyl groups of dextran to prepare the cationized dextran (spermine-dextran). The spermine-dextran could form a complex with siRNA, and the physicochemical properties were changed by the molecular weight of dextran, the molar percentage of spermine introduced to dextran, and the molar ratio of nitrogen molecule of spermine-dextran to the phosphorous ones of siRNA (N/P ratio). The gene expression level of luciferase or green fluorescence protein was significantly suppressed by transfection with the complex of spermine-dextran and siRNA. The gene expression level by the complex decreased with an increase in the extent of complex internalized. Biochemical experiments revealed that culture in an adipogenic differentiation medium allowed MSC to differentiate into adipogenic cells. However, upon culturing with siRNA of anti-transcription coactivator containing PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) for osteogenic differentiation complexed with the spermine-dextran, the adipogenesis of MSC was further promoted. It is concluded that the spemine-dextran was a promising nonviral carrier to suppress the expression level of differentiation gene, resulting in the modification of cell differentiation direction.

  5. Notch signaling induces retinal stem-like properties in perinatal neural retina progenitors and promotes symmetric divisions in adult retinal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Balenci, Laurent; van der Kooy, Derek

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the mechanisms regulating retinal stem cell (RSC) activity is fundamental for future stem cell-based therapeutic purposes. By combining gain and loss of function approaches, we addressed whether Notch signaling may play a selective role in retinal stem versus retinal progenitor cells in both developing and adult eyes. Inhibition of either Notch or fibroblast growth factor signaling reduced proliferation of retinal stem and retinal progenitor cells, and inhibited RSC self-renewal. Conversely, exogenous Delta-like 3 and direct intrinsic Notch activation stimulated expansionary symmetric divisions in adult RSCs with the concomitant upregulation of Hes5. Knocking down Hes5 expression specifically decreased the numbers, but not the diameters, of adult RSC primary spheres, indicating that HES5 is the downstream effector of Notch receptor in controlling adult RSC proliferation. In addition, constitutive Notch activation induced retinal stem-like asymmetric self-renewal properties, with no expansion (no symmetrical division) in perinatal neural retina progenitor cells. These findings highlight central roles of Notch signaling activity in regulating the modes of division of retinal stem and retinal progenitor cells.

  6. IL-22(+)CD4(+) T cells promote colorectal cancer stemness via STAT3 transcription factor activation and induction of the methyltransferase DOT1L.

    PubMed

    Kryczek, Ilona; Lin, Yanwei; Nagarsheth, Nisha; Peng, Dongjun; Zhao, Lili; Zhao, Ende; Vatan, Linda; Szeliga, Wojciech; Dou, Yali; Owens, Scott; Zgodzinski, Witold; Majewski, Marek; Wallner, Grzegorz; Fang, Jingyuan; Huang, Emina; Zou, Weiping

    2014-05-15

    Little is known about how the immune system impacts human colorectal cancer invasiveness and stemness. Here we detected interleukin-22 (IL-22) in patient colorectal cancer tissues that was produced predominantly by CD4(+) T cells. In a mouse model, migration of these cells into the colon cancer microenvironment required the chemokine receptor CCR6 and its ligand CCL20. IL-22 acted on cancer cells to promote activation of the transcription factor STAT3 and expression of the histone 3 lysine 79 (H3K79) methytransferase DOT1L. The DOT1L complex induced the core stem cell genes NANOG, SOX2, and Pou5F1, resulting in increased cancer stemness and tumorigenic potential. Furthermore, high DOT1L expression and H3K79me2 in colorectal cancer tissues was a predictor of poor patient survival. Thus, IL-22(+) cells promote colon cancer stemness via regulation of stemness genes that negatively affects patient outcome. Efforts to target this network might be a strategy in treating colorectal cancer patients.

  7. Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Promotes the Migration of Corneal Epithelial Stem/progenitor Cells by Up-regulation of MMPs through the Phosphorylation of Akt

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jialin; Chen, Peng; Backman, Ludvig J.; Zhou, Qingjun; Danielson, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    The migration of limbal epithelial stem cells is important for the homeostasis and regeneration of corneal epithelium. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been found to promote corneal epithelial wound healing by activating corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells. However, the possible effect of CNTF on the migration of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells is not clear. This study found the expression of CNTF in mouse corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells (TKE2) to be up-regulated after injury, on both gene and protein level. CNTF promoted migration of TKE2 in a dose-dependent manner and the peak was seen at 10 ng/ml. The phosphorylation level of Akt (p-Akt), and the expression of MMP3 and MMP14, were up-regulated after CNTF treatment both in vitro and in vivo. Akt and MMP3 inhibitor treatment delayed the migration effect by CNTF. Finally, a decreased expression of MMP3 and MMP14 was observed when Akt inhibitor was applied both in vitro and in vivo. This study provides new insights into the role of CNTF on the migration of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and its inherent mechanism of Up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases through the Akt signalling pathway. PMID:27174608

  8. Runx2-Modified Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Promote Tendon Graft Integration in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Ma, Yong; Fu, Xin; Liu, Qiang; Shao, Zhenxing; Dai, Linghui; Pi, Yanbin; Hu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jiying; Duan, Xiaoning; Chen, Wenqing; Chen, Ping; Zhou, Chunyan; Ao, Yingfang

    2016-01-08

    Runx2 is a powerful osteo-inductive factor and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are multipotent. However, it is unknown whether Runx2-overexpressing ADSCs (Runx2-ADSCs) could promote anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. We evaluated the effect of Runx2-ADSCs on ACL reconstruction in vitro and in vivo. mRNA expressions of osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and collagen I (COLI) increased over time in Runx2-ADSCs. Runx2 overexpression inhibited LPL and PPARγ mRNA expressions. Runx2 induced alkaline phosphatase activity markedly. In nude mice injected with Runx2-ADSCs, promoted bone formation was detected by X-rays 8 weeks after injection. The healing of tendon-to-bone in a rabbit model of ACL reconstruction treated with Runx2-ADSCs, fibrin glue only and an RNAi targeting Runx2, was evaluated with CT 3D reconstruction, histological analysis and biomechanical methods. CT showed a greater degree of new bone formation around the bone tunnel in the group treated with Runx2-ADSCs compared with the fibrin glue group and RNAi Runx2 group. Histology showed that treatment with Runx2-ADSCs led to a rapid and significant increase at the tendon-to-bone compared with the control groups. Biomechanical tests demonstrated higher tendon pullout strength in the Runx2-ADSCs group at early time points. The healing of the attachment in ACL reconstruction was enhanced by Runx2-ADSCs.

  9. Morin hydrate promotes inner ear neural stem cell survival and differentiation and protects cochlea against neuronal hearing loss.

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Jia, Zhanwei; Zhang, Ying; Ren, Xiumin

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of morin hydrate on neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from mouse inner ear and its potential in protecting neuronal hearing loss. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays were employed to assess the effect of morin hydrate on the viability and proliferation of in vitro NSC culture. The NSCs were then differentiated into neurons, in which neurosphere formation and differentiation were evaluated, followed by neurite outgrowth and neural excitability measurements in the subsequent in vitro neuronal network. Mechanotransduction of cochlea ex vivo culture and auditory brainstem responses threshold and distortion product optoacoustic emissions amplitude in mouse ototoxicity model were also measured following gentamicin treatment to investigate the protective role of morin hydrate against neuronal hearing loss. Morin hydrate improved viability and proliferation, neurosphere formation and neuronal differentiation of inner ear NSCs, and promoted in vitro neuronal network functions. In both ex vivo and in vivo ototoxicity models, morin hydrate prevented gentamicin-induced neuronal hearing loss. Morin hydrate exhibited potent properties in promoting growth and differentiation of inner ear NSCs into functional neurons and protecting from gentamicin ototoxicity. Our study supports its clinical potential in treating neuronal hearing loss.

  10. Human mesenchymal stem cells alter macrophage phenotype and promote regeneration via homing to the kidney following ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Wise, Andrea F; Williams, Timothy M; Kiewiet, Mensiena B G; Payne, Natalie L; Siatskas, Christopher; Samuel, Chrishan S; Ricardo, Sharon D

    2014-05-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) ameliorate injury and accelerate repair in many organs, including the kidney, although the reparative mechanisms and interaction with macrophages have not been elucidated. This study investigated the reparative potential of human bone marrow-derived MSCs and traced their homing patterns following administration to mice with ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury using whole body bioluminescence imaging. The effect of MSCs on macrophage phenotype following direct and indirect coculture was assessed using qPCR. Human cytokine production was measured using multiplex arrays. After IR, MSCs homed to injured kidneys where they afforded protection indicated by decreased proximal tubule kidney injury molecule-1 expression, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels. SDS-PAGE and immunofluorescence labeling revealed MSCs reduced collagen α1(I) and IV by day 7 post-IR. Gelatin zymography confirmed that MSC treatment significantly increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity in IR kidneys, which contributed to a reduction in total collagen. Following direct and indirect coculture, macrophages expressed genes indicative of an anti-inflammatory "M2" phenotype. MSC-derived human GM-CSF, EGF, CXCL1, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, PDGF-AA, and CCL5 were identified in culture supernatants. In conclusion, MSCs home to injured kidneys and promote repair, which may be mediated by their ability to promote M2 macrophage polarization.

  11. Ibandronate promotes osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells by regulating the expression of microRNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Qiang; Zhao, Zhi-Ning; Cheng, Jing-Tao; Zhang, Bin; Xu, Jie; Huang, Fei; Zhao, Rui-Ni; Chen, Yong-Jin

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Ibandronate significantly promote the proliferation of PDLSC cells. {yields} Ibandronate enhanced the expression of ALP, COL-1, OPG, OCN, Runx2. {yields} The expression of a class of miRNAs, e.g., miR-18a, miR-133a, miR-141 and miR-19a, was significantly modified in PDLSC cells cultured with ibandronate. {yields} Ibandronate regulates the expression of diverse bone formation-related genes via miRNAs in PDLSCs. {yields} Ibandronate can suppress the activity of osteoclast while promoting the proliferation of osteoblast by regulating the expression of microRNAs. -- Abstract: Bisphosphonates (BPs) have a profound effect on bone resorption and are widely used to treat osteoclast-mediated bone diseases. They suppress bone resorption by inhibiting the activity of mature osteoclasts and/or the formation of new osteoclasts. Osteoblasts may be an alternative target for BPs. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) exhibit osteoblast-like features and are capable of differentiating into osteoblasts or cementoblasts. This study aimed to determine the effects of ibandronate, a nitrogen-containing BP, on the proliferation and the differentiation of PDLSCs and to identify the microRNAs (miRNAs) that mediate these effects. The PDLSCs were treated with ibandronate, and cell proliferation was measured using the MTT (3-dimethylthiazol-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The expression of genes and miRNAs involved in osteoblastic differentiation was assayed using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Ibandronate promoted the proliferation of PDLSCs and enhanced the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen (COL-1), osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteocalcin (OCN), and Runx2. The expression of miRNAs, including miR-18a, miR-133a, miR-141 and miR-19a, was significantly altered in the PDLSCs cultured with ibandronate. In PDLSCs, ibandronate regulates the expression of diverse bone formation

  12. Nail stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sellheyer, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Our knowledge on stem cells of the hair follicle has increased exponentially after the bulge was characterized as the stem cell niche two decades ago. In contrast, little is known about stem cells in the nail unit. Whereas hair follicles are plentiful and easy to access, the human body has only twenty nails and they are rarely biopsied. Therefore, examining fetal material offers unique advantages. In the following mini-review, our current knowledge on nail stem cells is summarized and analogies to the hair follicle stem cells are drawn.

  13. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) promotes the neural differentiation of full-term amniotic fluid-derived stem cells towards neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liyang; Zhao, Mingyan; Ye, Wei; Huang, Jinzhi; Chu, Jiaqi; Yan, Shouquan; Wang, Chaojun; Zeng, Rong

    2016-08-01

    The amniotic fluid has a heterogeneous population of cells. Some human amniotic fluid-derived stem (hAFS) cells have been shown to harbor the potential to differentiate into neural cells. However, the neural differentiation efficiency of hAFS cells remains low. In this study, we isolated CD117-positive hAFS cells from amniotic fluid and then examined the pluripotency of these cells through the formation of embryoid bodies (EBs). Additionally, we induced the neural differentiation of these cells using neuroectodermal medium. This study revealed that the GSK3-beta inhibitor SB216763 was able to stimulate the proliferation of CD117-positive hAFS cells without influencing their undifferentiated state. Moreover, SB216763 can efficiently promote the neural differentiation of CD117-positive hAFS cells towards neural progenitor cells in the presence of DMEM/F12 and N2 supplement. These findings provide an easy and low-cost method to maintain the proliferation of hAFS cells, as well as induce an efficacious generation of neural progenitor cells from hAFS cells. Such induction of the neural commitment of hAFS cells may provide an option for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by hAFS cells-based therapies.

  14. Prolonged and repetitive exposure to Porphyromonas gingivalis increases aggressiveness of oral cancer cells by promoting acquisition of cancer stem cell properties.

    PubMed

    Ha, Na Hee; Woo, Bok Hee; Kim, Da Jeong; Ha, Eun Sin; Choi, Jeom Il; Kim, Sung Jo; Park, Bong Soo; Lee, Ji Hye; Park, Hae Ryoun

    2015-12-01

    Periodontitis is the most common chronic inflammatory condition occurring in the human oral cavity, but our knowledge on its contribution to oral cancer is rather limited. To define crosstalk between chronic periodontitis and oral cancer, we investigated whether Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major pathogen of chronic periodontitis, plays a role in oral cancer progression. To mimic chronic irritation by P. gingivalis in the oral cavity, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells were infected with P. gingivalis twice a week for 5 weeks. Repeated infection of oral cancer cells by P. gingivalis resulted in morphological changes of host cancer cells into an elongated shape, along with the decreased expression of epithelial cell markers, suggesting acquisition of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype. The prolonged exposure to P. gingivalis also promoted migratory and invasive properties of OSCC cells and provided resistance against a chemotherapeutic agent, all of which are described as cellular characteristics undergoing EMT. Importantly, long-term infection by P. gingivalis induced an increase in the expression level of CD44 and CD133, well-known cancer stem cell markers, and promoted the tumorigenic properties of infected cancer cells compared to non-infected controls. Furthermore, increased invasiveness of P. gingivalis-infected OSCC cells was correlated with enhanced production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-10 that was stimulated by interleukin-8 (IL-8) release. This is the first report demonstrating that P. gingivalis can increase the aggressiveness of oral cancer cells via epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like changes and the acquisition of stemness, implicating P. gingivalis as a potential bacterial risk modifier.

  15. Learn About Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... develops and ages, the number and type of stem cells changes. Totipotent cells are no longer present after dividing into the cells that generate the placenta and umbilical cord. Pluripotent cells ... organs and tissues. The stem cells that stay in your body throughout your ...

  16. Pre-treatment of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells with interleukin-6 abolishes their growth-promoting effect on gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Cai, Jie; Huang, Feng; Zhu, Mengchu; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Tingting; Zhang, Xu; Qian, Hui; Xu, Wenrong

    2015-02-01

    The inflammatory microenvironment contributes to cancer development and progression. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), as important stromal cells, may be 'educated' by the inflammatory microenvironment to support the development of gastric cancer. Cytokines are a key component of cancer-related inflammation. Interleukin (IL)-6, as an inflammatory cytokine, has multiple roles in cancer. However, whether MSCs can be 'educated' by IL-6 to support gastric cancer remains unknown. In the present study, we focused on the phenotype and function of human umbilical cord-derived MSCs hUC‑MSCs pre-treated with IL-6 in gastric cancer. We found that the protein levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were upregulated, and phosphorylated nuclear factor (NF)-κB protein levels were downregulated in the hUC‑MSCs pre-treated with IL-6, as shown by western blot analysis. The levels of tumor‑promoting cytokines, including chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5), platelet-derived growth factor‑BB (PDGF‑BB), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor α(TNFα), were markedly reduced in the hUC‑MSCs following treatment with IL-6, as shown by RT-qPCR. In in vitro experiments, we co-cultured MSCs with N-methyl‑N'‑nitro‑N‑nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)‑transformed GES-1 gastric epithelial cells or SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells. Transwell and colony-forming cell assays revealed that the hUC-MSCs significantly promoted gastric cellular migration and proliferation. However, following treatment with IL-6, the hUC-MSCs had no growth-promoting effect on the gastric epithelial cells and gastric cancer cells. In in vivo experiments, we co-transplanted MSCs and SGC-7901 cells into nude mice in order to establish a nude mouse model of gastric cancer. The hUC-MSCs significantly promoted the growth gastric tumors through the promotion of cell proliferation and the inhibition of cell apoptosis. On the contrary, pre-treatment with IL-6 provided the hUC‑MSCs with

  17. Hepatocyte growth factor modification promotes the amelioration effects of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells on rat acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Qian, Hui; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Yan, Yongmin; Ye, Shengqin; Peng, Xiujuan; Li, Wei; Xu, Wenrong

    2011-01-01

    Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSCs) are particularly attractive cells for cellular and gene therapy in acute kidney injury (AKI). Adenovirus-mediated gene therapy has been limited by immune reaction and target genes selection. However, in the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of hepatocyte growth factor modified hucMSCs (HGF-hucMSCs) in ischemia/reperfusion-induced AKI rat models. In vivo animal models were generated by subjecting to 60 min of bilateral renal injury by clamping the renal pedicles and then introduced HGF-hucMSCs via the left carotid artery. Our results revealed that serum creatinine and urea nitrogen levels decreased to the baseline more quickly in HGF-hucMSCs-treated group than that in hucMSCs- or green fluorescent protein-hucMSCs-treated groups at 72 h after injury. The percent of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells in HGF-hucMSCs-treated group was higher than that in the hucMSCs or green fluorescent protein-hucMSCs-treated groups. Moreover, injured renal tissues treated with HGF-hucMSCs also exhibited less hyperemia and renal tubule cast during the recovery process. Immunohistochemistry and living body imaging confirmed that HGF-hucMSCs localize to areas of renal injury. Real-time polymerase chain reaction result showed that HGF-hucMSCs also inhibited caspase-3 and interleukin-1β mRNA expression in injured renal tissues. Western blot also showed HGF-hucMSCs-treated groups had lower expression of interleukin-1β. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling method indicated that HGF-hucMSCs-treated group had the least apoptosis cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that HGF modification promotes the amelioration of ischemia/reperfusion-induced rat renal injury via antiapoptotic and antiinflammatory mechanisms; thus, providing a novel therapeutic application for hucMSCs in AKI.

  18. Reactive astrocytes promote the metastatic growth of breast cancer stem-like cells by activating Notch signalling in brain.

    PubMed

    Xing, Fei; Kobayashi, Aya; Okuda, Hiroshi; Watabe, Misako; Pai, Sudha K; Pandey, Puspa R; Hirota, Shigeru; Wilber, Andrew; Mo, Yin-Yuan; Moore, Brian E; Liu, Wen; Fukuda, Koji; Iiizumi, Megumi; Sharma, Sambad; Liu, Yin; Wu, Kerui; Peralta, Elizabeth; Watabe, Kounosuke

    2013-03-01

    Brain metastasis of breast cancer profoundly affects the cognitive and sensory functions as well as morbidity of patients, and the 1 year survival rate among these patients remains less than 20%. However, the pathological mechanism of brain metastasis is as yet poorly understood. In this report, we found that metastatic breast tumour cells in the brain highly expressed IL-1β which then 'activated' surrounding astrocytes. This activation significantly augmented the expression of JAG1 in the astrocytes, and the direct interaction of the reactivated astrocytes and cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) significantly stimulated Notch signalling in CSCs. We also found that the activated Notch signalling in CSCs up-regulated HES5 followed by promoting self-renewal of CSCs. Furthermore, we have shown that the blood-brain barrier permeable Notch inhibitor, Compound E, can significantly suppress the brain metastasis in vivo. These results represent a novel paradigm for the understanding of how metastatic breast CSCs re-establish their niche for their self-renewal in a totally different microenvironment, which opens a new avenue to identify a novel and specific target for the brain metastatic disease.

  19. Semaphorin 3A Shifts Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells towards Osteogenic Phenotype and Promotes Bone Regeneration In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiangwei; Tan, Naiwen; Zhou, Yuchao; Zhou, Xueying; Chen, Hui; Wei, Hongbo; Chen, Ji; Xu, Xiaoru; Zhang, Sijia

    2016-01-01

    Adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are considered as the promising seed cells for bone regeneration. However, the lower osteogenic differentiation capacity limits its therapeutic efficacy. Identification of the key molecules governing the differences between ASCs and BMSCs would shed light on manipulation of ASCs towards osteogenic phenotype. In this study, we screened semaphorin family members in ASCs and BMSCs and identified Sema3A as an osteogenic semaphorin that was significantly and predominantly expressed in BMSCs. The analyses in vitro showed that the overexpression of Sema3A in ASCs significantly enhanced the expression of bone-related genes and extracellular matrix calcium deposition, while decreasing the expression of adipose-related genes and thus lipid droplet formation, resembling a BMSCs phenotype. Furthermore, Sema3A modified ASCs were then engrafted into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds to repair the critical-sized calvarial defects in rat model. As expected, Sema3A modified ASCs encapsulation significantly promoted new bone formation with higher bone volume fraction and bone mineral density. Additionally, Sema3A was found to simultaneously increase multiple Wnt related genes and thus activating Wnt pathway. Taken together, our study here identifies Sema3A as a critical gene for osteogenic phenotype and reveals that Sema3A-modified ASCs would serve as a promising candidate for bettering bone defect repair. PMID:27721834

  20. Injectable hydrogel promotes early survival of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived oligodendrocytes and attenuates longterm teratoma formation in a spinal cord injury model.

    PubMed

    Führmann, T; Tam, R Y; Ballarin, B; Coles, B; Elliott Donaghue, I; van der Kooy, D; Nagy, A; Tator, C H; Morshead, C M; Shoichet, M S

    2016-03-01

    Transplantation of pluripotent stem cells and their differentiated progeny has the potential to preserve or regenerate functional pathways and improve function after central nervous system injury. However, their utility has been hampered by poor survival and the potential to form tumors. Peptide-modified biomaterials influence cell adhesion, survival and differentiation in vitro, but their effectiveness in vivo remains uncertain. We synthesized a peptide-modified, minimally invasive, injectable hydrogel comprised of hyaluronan and methylcellulose to enhance the survival and differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Cells were transplanted subacutely after a moderate clip compression rat spinal cord injury. The hydrogel, modified with the RGD peptide and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-A), promoted early survival and integration of grafted cells. However, prolific teratoma formation was evident when cells were transplanted in media at longer survival times, indicating that either this cell line or the way in which it was cultured is unsuitable for human use. Interestingly, teratoma formation was attenuated when cells were transplanted in the hydrogel, where most cells differentiated to a glial phenotype. Thus, this hydrogel promoted cell survival and integration, and attenuated teratoma formation by promoting cell differentiation.

  1. Transforming growth factor-β1 promotes homing of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Si, Xiaoyun; Liu, Ximing; Li, Jingjing; Wu, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds: Acute ischemia reperfusion-induced kidney injury is a common cause of acute renal failure, and it is also an important cause of delayed recovery of transplanted kidney functions and even loss of function. However, there is no effective treatment method in clinical applications presently. Objective: The objective was to investigate effects of transforming growth factor-β1 on homing of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: Effects of TGF-β1 over-expression in MSCs on expression of CXCR4 and chemotactic effect to SDF-1 were investigated by in vitro transmembrane chemotaxis. Anti-TGF-β1 antibody was incubated with ischemia reperfusion injury renal tissue homogenate and effects of anti-TGF-β1 antibody were observed. In addition, effects of TGF-β1 gene transfection and anti-CXCR4 antibody treatment in MSCs on expression of SDF-1/CXCR4 axis of renal tissues and damage repair were further explored. Results: Expression of TGF-β1 mRNA in the IRI group increased significantly, and MSCs transplantation could enhance expression of CXCR4 mRNA in rats of the IRI group, the expression of CXCR4 can be decreased by the anti-TGF-β1 antibody and the anti-CXCR4 antibody. TGF-β1 induced homing of MSCs in repair of renal ischemic reperfusion injury by regulating expression of CXCR4 on cell membranes. Blue fluorescence of DAPI-positive MSCs cells of renal parenchyma in the IRI+MSC group was enhanced significantly, which was significantly inhibited by anti-TGF-β1 and anti-CXCR4 antibody, and the inhibitory effect of anti-CXCR4 antibody was more obvious than that of anti-TGF-β1 antibody. Conclusion: Transforming growth factor-β1 promotes homing of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, which will provide useful data on role of TGF-β1 in regulating SDF-1/CXCR4 axis-induced MSCs homing. PMID:26722423

  2. The use of biomaterials for cell function enhancement: acceleration of fibroblast migration and promotion of stem cell proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Sisi

    , while remained constant for the cells on the flat surfaces. The increased speed on the 8microm fiber surfaces could be correlated with a 20% increase in the nuclear deformation, and a decrease around 30% in the number of focal adhesion during the same observation period. RNA expression of Myosin IIA, a protein which complexes to the actin and is responsible for exertion of traction forces during migration was not upregulated during this process. On the other hand, histochemical staining of Myosin IIA showed that the protein had re-organized into large fibers which spanned the length of the cells. Observation of the cell morphology indicated that a new mode of motion had been established. Rather than the classical retraction of the cytoplasm followed by center of mass translation, which was observed on the flat surfaces, the cells were now moving by a contractile motion around the nucleus similar to that found in muscular motion. This mode was found to be more efficient when undergoing oriented motion. In addition to orientation, surface mechanics are also important in the tissue regeneration process. This study demonstrated that mechanical factors are important for the maintenance of pluripotency and control of proliferation rates. CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) were transduced with ICD (intracellular domain)-Notch and plated on gelatin hydrogels, whose moduli were controlled by the crosslinking ratio. On the softer hydrogel, a synergy was achieved which resulted in more than a five-fold increase in proliferation and a four-fold increase in the preservation of stemness, while HSCs maintained their ability to differentiate into multiple blood cell lineages. These results point the way for achieving clinically significant expansion of human HSCs.

  3. Histone Demethylase Expression Enhances Human Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Efficiency and Promotes Derivation of Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Young Gie; Matoba, Shogo; Liu, Yuting; Eum, Jin Hee; Lu, Falong; Jiang, Wei; Lee, Jeoung Eun; Sepilian, Vicken; Cha, Kwang Yul; Lee, Dong Ryul; Zhang, Yi

    2015-12-03

    The extremely low efficiency of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derivation using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) limits its potential application. Blastocyst formation from human SCNT embryos occurs at a low rate and with only some oocyte donors. We previously showed in mice that reduction of histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) through ectopic expression of the H3K9me3 demethylase Kdm4d greatly improves SCNT embryo development. Here we show that overexpression of a related H3K9me3 demethylase KDM4A improves human SCNT, and that, as in mice, H3K9me3 in the human somatic cell genome is an SCNT reprogramming barrier. Overexpression of KDM4A significantly improves the blastocyst formation rate in human SCNT embryos by facilitating transcriptional reprogramming, allowing efficient derivation of SCNT-derived ESCs using adult Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) patient somatic nuclei donors. This conserved mechanistic insight has potential applications for improving SCNT in a variety of contexts, including regenerative medicine.

  4. Lin28a promotes self-renewal and proliferation of dairy goat spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) through regulation of mTOR and PI3K/AKT

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Fanglin; Zhou, Zhe; Li, Na; Zheng, Liming; Wu, Chongyang; Niu, Bowen; Tang, Furong; He, Xin; Li, Guangpeng; Hua, Jinlian

    2016-01-01

    Lin28a is a conserved RNA-binding protein that plays an important role in development, pluripotency, stemness maintenance, proliferation and self-renewal. Early studies showed that Lin28a serves as a marker of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and promotes the proliferation capacity of mouse SSCs. However, there is little information about Lin28a in livestock SSCs. In this study, we cloned Capra hircus Lin28a CDS and found that it is evolutionarily conserved. Lin28a is widely expressed in different tissues of Capra hircus, but is expressed at a high level in the testis. Lin28a is specifically located in the cytoplasm of Capra hircus spermatogonial stem cells and may also be a marker of dairy goat spermatogonial stem cells. Lin28a promoted proliferation and maintained the self-renewal of GmGSCs-I-SB in vivo and in vitro. Lin28a-overexpressing GmGSCs-I-SB showed an enhanced proliferation rate, which might be due to increased PCNA expression. Moreover, Lin28a maintained the self-renewal of GmGSCs-I-SB by up-regulating the expression of OCT4, SOX2, GFRA1, PLZF and ETV5. Furthermore, we found that Lin28a may activate the AKT, ERK, and mTOR signaling pathways to promote the proliferation and maintain the self-renewal of GmGSCs-I-SB. PMID:27941834

  5. In Vitro Characterization of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated from Different Tissues with a Potential to Promote Complex Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Matula, Zsolt; Szigeti, Anna; Várady, György; Szalma, József; Szabó, Gyula; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balázs; Német, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    Bone tissue regeneration is a major, worldwide medical need, and several strategies have been developed to support the regeneration of extensive bone defects, including stem cell based bone grafts. In addition to the application of stem cells with high osteogenic potential, it is important to maintain proper blood flow in a bone graft to avoid inner graft necrosis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may form both osteocytes and endothelial cells; therefore we examined the combined in vitro osteogenic and endothelial differentiation capacities of MSCs derived from adipose tissue, Wharton's jelly, and periodontal ligament. Based on a detailed characterization presented here, MSCs isolated from adipose tissue and periodontal ligament may be most appropriate for generating vascularized bone grafts. PMID:27999599

  6. Novel lentiviral vectors displaying "early-acting cytokines" selectively promote survival and transduction of NOD/SCID repopulating human hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Verhoeyen, Els; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Olivier, Delphine; Izac, Brigitte; Trono, Didier; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, Anne; Cosset, François-Loïc

    2005-11-15

    A major limitation of current lentiviral vectors (LVs) is their inability to govern efficient gene transfer into quiescent cells, such as human CD34(+) cells, that reside in the G(0) phase of the cell cycle and that are highly enriched in hematopoietic stem cells. This hampers their application for gene therapy of hematopoietic cells. Here, we designed novel LVs that overcome this restriction by displaying "early-acting cytokines" on their surface. Display of thrombopoietin, stem cell factor, or both cytokines on the LV surface allowed efficient gene delivery into quiescent cord blood CD34(+) cells. Moreover, these surface-engineered LVs preferentially transduced and promoted survival of resting CD34(+) cells rather than cycling cells. Finally, and most importantly, these novel LVs allowed superior gene transfer in the most immature CD34(+) cells as compared to conventional LVs, even when the latter vectors were used to transduce cells in the presence of recombinant cytokines. This was demonstrated by their capacity to promote selective transduction of CD34(+) cell in in vitro derived long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) colonies and of long-term NOD/SCID repopulating cells (SRCs) in vivo.

  7. Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells-Derived Exosomes Promote Survival of Retinal Ganglion Cells Through miRNA-Dependent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mead, Ben; Tomarev, Stanislav

    2017-04-01

    The loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and their axons is one of the leading causes of blindness and includes traumatic (optic neuropathy) and degenerative (glaucoma) eye diseases. Although no clinical therapies are in use, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have demonstrated significant neuroprotective and axogenic effects on RGC in both of the aforementioned models. Recent evidence has shown that MSC secrete exosomes, membrane enclosed vesicles (30-100 nm) containing proteins, mRNA and miRNA which can be delivered to nearby cells. The present study aimed to isolate exosomes from bone marrow-derived MSC (BMSC) and test them in a rat optic nerve crush (ONC) model. Treatment of primary retinal cultures with BMSC-exosomes demonstrated significant neuroprotective and neuritogenic effects. Twenty-one days after ONC and weekly intravitreal exosome injections; optical coherence tomography, electroretinography, and immunohistochemistry was performed. BMSC-derived exosomes promoted statistically significant survival of RGC and regeneration of their axons while partially preventing RGC axonal loss and RGC dysfunction. Exosomes successfully delivered their cargo into inner retinal layers and the effects were reliant on miRNA, demonstrated by the diminished therapeutic effects of exosomes derived from BMSC after knockdown of Argonaute-2, a key miRNA effector molecule. This study supports the use of BMSC-derived exosomes as a cell-free therapy for traumatic and degenerative ocular disease. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1273-1285.

  8. Stress and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tower, John

    2012-01-01

    The unique properties and functions of stem cells make them particularly susceptible to stresses and also lead to their regulation by stress. Stem cell division must respond to the demand to replenish cells during normal tissue turnover as well as in response to damage. Oxidative stress, mechanical stress, growth factors, and cytokines signal stem cell division and differentiation. Many of the conserved pathways regulating stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are also stress-response pathways. The long life span and division potential of stem cells create a propensity for transformation (cancer) and specific stress responses such as apoptosis and senescence act as antitumor mechanisms. Quiescence regulated by CDK inhibitors and a hypoxic niche regulated by FOXO transcription factor function to reduce stress for several types of stem cells to facilitate long-term maintenance. Aging is a particularly relevant stress for stem cells, because repeated demands on stem cell function over the life span can have cumulative cell-autonomous effects including epigenetic dysregulation, mutations, and telomere erosion. In addition, aging of the organism impairs function of the stem cell niche and systemic signals, including chronic inflammation and oxidative stress.

  9. [Research on effect of Baimai powder effective compounds group promotes neurogenesis and maintains of neural stem cells after cerebral infarction].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing-Shan; Chen, Xiao-Yu; Zhuang, Shu-Juan; Li, Ke-Qin

    2013-11-01

    The neural stem cells (NSCs), play a crucial role in stroke treatment, which can be regulated by a few of traditional Chinese medicines. In this study, the effect of the Mongolian medicine Baimai powder effective compounds group (BMECG) on the proliferation of NSCs has been investigated. The cultured NSCs which were isolated from newborn rat cerebral cortical in vitro were exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxgenation (OGD/R). The CFSE immunofluorescence staining was employed to identify the proliferation of NSCs by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) was established on Kunming mice, and all groups were ig for 7 d respectively. The neurobehavioral changes was studied with rota-rod treadmill test, after that, the brain of mice were detected by immunohistochemistry with labeling of Nestin and pathological observation at 7 days after BCAO. It was found that, proliferation of NSCs was increased by BMECG in in vitro and in vivo. And BMECG significantly improved the time of staying in the rota-rod, it can promote the foundction of in cerebral cortex. It is concluded that these results further support the hypothesis that neuroprotective effect of BMECG may relate to the ability of stimulating self-renew of NSCs, which can be provided a new insight and strategy of anti-neuropathy of stroke.

  10. Curcumin Promotes Autophagic Survival of a Sub-Set of Colon Cancer Stem Cells, which are Ablated by DCLK1-siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Kantara, Carla; O’Connell, Malaney; Sarkar, Shubhashish; Moya, Stephanie; Ullrich, Robert; Singh, Pomila

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin is known to induce apoptosis of cancer cells by different mechanisms, but its effects on cancer stem-like cells have been less investigated. Here we report that curcumin promotes the survival of DCLK1-positive colon cancer stem-like cells (CSC), potentially confounding application of its anticancer properties. At optimal concentrations, curcumin greatly reduced expression levels of stem cell markers (DCLK1/CD44/ALDHA1/Lgr5/Nanog) in 3D spheroid cultures and tumor xenografts derived from colon cancer cells. However, curcumin unexpectedly induced proliferation and autophagic survival of a subset of DCLK1-positive CSCs. Spheroid cultures were disintegrated by curcumin in vitro but re-grew within 30–40 days of treatment, suggesting a survival benefit from autophagy, permitting long-term persistence of CRC. Notably, RNAi-mediated silencing of DCLK1 triggered apoptotic cell death of colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and abolished CRC survival in response to curcumin; combination of DCLK1-siRNA and curcumin dramatically reversed CSC phenotype, contributing to attenuation of the growth of spheroid cultures and tumor xenografts. Taken together, our findings confirm a role of DCLK1 in colon cancer stem cells and highlight DCLK1 as a target to enhance antitumor properties of curcumin. PMID:24626093

  11. MiR-9 promotes osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells by inhibiting DKK1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangyun; Xu, Hao; Kou, Jianqiang; Wang, Qianqian; Zheng, Xiujun; Yu, Tengbo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of miR-9 and its mechanism on the osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Real-time PCR and western blotting were used to study gene expression. Assay of Alkaline phosphatase activity and alizarin red staining were used to examine osteoblast differentiation. Transfection of miR-9 mimics or lent-shmiR-9 was used to modulate the level of miR-9 in C2C12. Overexpression of miR-9 in C2C12 cells stimulated alkaline phosphatase activity and osteoblast mineralization, as well as the expression of osteoblast marker genes Col I, Ocn and Bsp. Gene silencing of miR-9 in C2C12 resulted in the suppression of alkaline phosphatase activity and osteoblast mineralization, as well as the expression of Col I, Ocn and Bsp. DKK1 mRNA was not affected by miR-9 overexpression, however, DKK1 protein was significantly decreased. Moreover, DKK1 3'-UTR mediated transcriptional luciferase activity was also significantly suppressed by miR-9 overexpression. DKK1 mRNA was not affected by miR-9 gene silencing, however, DKK1 protein was significantly stimulated. Moreover, DKK1 3'-UTR mediated transcriptional luciferase activity was significantly stimulated by miR-9 gene silencing, and suppressed by miR-9 overexpression, however, DKK1 3'-UTR mutant mediated luciferase activity was unaffected. The siRNA derived gene silencing of DKK1 blocked the inhibiting effect of shmiR-9 on the expression of alkaline phosphatase; and blocked the inhibiting effect of shmiR-9 on the expression of ColI, Ocn and Bsp. MiR-9 promotes osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal cell C2C12 by suppressing the gene expression of DKK1.

  12. Conserved Dopamine Neurotrophic Factor-Transduced Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Axon Regeneration and Functional Recovery of Injured Sciatic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Nie, Lin; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Yuan-Qiang; Wang, Shuai-Shuai; Cheng, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a common disease that often results in axonal degeneration and the loss of neurons, ultimately leading to limited nerve regeneration and severe functional impairment. Currently, there are no effective treatments for PNI. In the present study, we transduced conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in collagen tubes to investigate their regenerative effects on rat peripheral nerves in an in vivo transection model. Scanning electron microscopy of the collagen tubes demonstrated their ability to be resorbed in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of the CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after application of CDNF-MSCs. Quantitative analysis of neurofilament 200 (NF200) and S100 immunohistochemistry showed significant enhancement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration in the group receiving CDNF-MSCs (CDNF-MSCs group) compared with the control groups. Myelination thickness, axon diameter and the axon-to fiber diameter ratio (G-ratio) were significantly higher in the CDNF-MSCs group at 8 and 12 weeks after nerve transection surgery. After surgery, the sciatic functional index, target muscle weight, wet weight ratio of gastrocnemius muscle and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracing demonstrated functional recovery. Light and electron microscopy confirmed successful regeneration of the sciatic nerve. The greater numbers of HRP-labeled neuron cell bodies and increased sciatic nerve index values (SFI) in the CDNF-MSCs group suggest that CDNF exerts neuroprotective effects in vivo. We also observed higher target muscle weights and a significant improvement in muscle atrophism in the CDNF-MSCs group. Collectively, these findings indicate that CDNF gene therapy delivered by MSCs is capable of promoting nerve regeneration and functional recovery, likely because of the significant neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of CDNF and the superior environment offered by MSCs and collagen tubes. PMID

  13. Promoting Cartilage Stem Cell Activity to Improve Recovery from Joint Fracture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Gene expression profiling was used to assess the phenotypic relatedness of migrating cells to normal chondrocytes and marrow stromal cells (MSCs...Bioscience, San Jose, CA). The multi-potency of pCPCs was tested by culturing under chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic conditions (44). For...or adipogenic media for 14 days to evaluate their differentiation potential,. After the induction of chondrogenic differentiation, the cultured

  14. By promoting cell differentiation, miR-100 sensitizes basal-like breast cancer stem cells to hormonal therapy.

    PubMed

    Petrelli, Annalisa; Carollo, Rosachiara; Cargnelutti, Marilisa; Iovino, Flora; Callari, Maurizio; Cimino, Daniela; Todaro, Matilde; Mangiapane, Laura Rosa; Giammona, Alessandro; Cordova, Adriana; Montemurro, Filippo; Taverna, Daniela; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Stassi, Giorgio; Giordano, Silvia

    2015-02-10

    Basal-like breast cancer is an aggressive tumor subtype with a poor response to conventional therapies. Tumor formation and relapse are sustained by a cell subset of Breast Cancer Stem Cells (BrCSCs). Here we show that miR-100 inhibits maintenance and expansion of BrCSCs in basal-like cancer through Polo-like kinase1 (Plk1) down-regulation. Moreover, miR-100 favors BrCSC differentiation, converting a basal like phenotype into luminal. It induces the expression of a functional estrogen receptor (ER) and renders basal-like BrCSCs responsive to hormonal therapy. The key role played by miR-100 in breast cancer free-survival is confirmed by the analysis of a cohort of patients' tumors, which shows that low expression of miR-100 is a negative prognostic factor and is associated with gene signatures of high grade undifferentiated tumors. Our findings indicate a new possible therapeutic strategy, which could make aggressive breast cancers responsive to standard treatments.

  15. Colorectal cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Salama, Paul; Platell, Cameron

    2009-10-01

    Somatic stem cells reside at the base of the crypts throughout the colonic mucosa. These cells are essential for the normal regeneration of the colonic epithelium. The stem cells reside within a special 'niche' comprised of intestinal sub-epithelial myofibroblasts that tightly control their function. It has been postulated that mutations within these adult colonic stem cells may induce neoplastic changes. Such cells can then dissociate from the epithelium and travel into the mesenchyme and thus form invasive cancers. This theory is based on the observation that within a colon cancer, less than 1% of the neoplastic cells have the ability to regenerate the tumour. It is this group of cells that exhibits characteristics of colonic stem cells. Although anti-neoplastic agents can induce remissions by inhibiting cell division, the stem cells appear to be remarkably resistant to both standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These stem cells may therefore persist after treatment and form the nucleus for cancer recurrence. Hence, future treatment modalities should focus specifically on controlling the cancer stem cells. In this review, we discuss the biology of normal and malignant colonic stem cells.

  16. trans-10,cis-12 CLA promotes osteoblastogenesis via SMAD mediated mechanism in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonggun; Park, Yooheon; Park, Yeonhwa

    2014-05-01

    The inverse relationship between osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells has been linked to overall bone mass. It has previously been reported that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits adipogenesis via a peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) mediated mechanism, while it increases osteoblastogenesis via a PPARγ-independent mechanism in mesenchymal stem cells. This suggests potential implication of CLA on improving bone mass. Thus the purpose of this study was to determine involvement of CLA on regulation of osteoblastogenesis in murine mesenchymal stem cells by focusing on the Mothers against decapentaplegic (MAD)-related family of molecules 8 (SMAD8), one of key regulators of osteoblastogenesis. The trans-10,cis-12 CLA, but not the cis-9,trans-11, significantly increased osteoblastogenesis via SMAD8, and inhibited adipogenesis independent of SMAD8, while inhibiting factors regulating osteoclastogenesis in this model. These suggest that CLA may help improve osteoblastogenesis via a SMAD8 mediated mechanism.

  17. trans-10,cis-12 CLA promotes osteoblastogenesis via SMAD mediated mechanism in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonggun; Park, Yooheon; Park, Yeonhwa

    2014-01-01

    The inverse relationship between osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells has been linked to overall bone mass. It has previously been reported that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits adipogenesis via a peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) mediated mechanism, while it increases osteoblastogenesis via a PPARγ-independent mechanism in mesenchymal stem cells. This suggests potential implication of CLA on improving bone mass. Thus the purpose of this study was to determine involvement of CLA on regulation of osteoblastogenesis in murine mesenchymal stem cells by focusing on the Mothers against decapentaplegic (MAD)-related family of molecules 8 (SMAD8), one of key regulators of osteoblastogenesis. The trans-10,cis-12 CLA, but not the cis-9,trans-11, significantly increased osteoblastogenesis via SMAD8, and inhibited adipogenesis independent of SMAD8, while inhibiting factors regulating osteoclastogenesis in this model. These suggest that CLA may help improve osteoblastogenesis via a SMAD8 mediated mechanism. PMID:25035711

  18. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine promotes the differentiation of resident Sca-1 positive cardiac stem cells to cardiomyocytes through lipid raft/JNK/STAT3 and β-catenin signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjing; Liu, Honghong; Liu, Pingping; Yin, Deling; Zhang, Shangli; Zhao, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Resident cardiac Sca-1-positive (+) stem cells may differentiate into cardiomyocytes to improve the function of damaged hearts. However, little is known about the inducers and molecular mechanisms underlying the myogenic conversion of Sca-1(+) stem cells. Here we report that sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC), a naturally occurring bioactive lipid, induces the myogenic conversion of Sca-1(+) stem cells, as evidenced by the increased expression of cardiac transcription factors (Nkx2.5 and GATA4), structural proteins (cardiac Troponin T), transcriptional enhancer (Mef2c) and GATA4 nucleus translocation. First, SPC activated JNK and STAT3, and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 or STAT3 inhibitor stattic impaired the SPC-induced expression of cardiac transcription factors and GATA4 nucleus translocation, which suggests that JNK and STAT3 participated in SPC-promoted cardiac differentiation. Moreover, STAT3 activation was inhibited by SP600125, whereas JNK was inhibited by β-cyclodextrin as a lipid raft breaker, which indicates a lipid raft/JNK/STAT3 pathway involved in SPC-induced myogenic transition. β-Catenin, degraded by activated GSK3β, was inhibited by SPC. Furthermore, GSK3β inhibitors weakened but the β-catenin inhibitor promoted SPC-induced differentiation. We found no crosstalk between the lipid raft/JNK/STAT3 and β-catenin pathway. Our study describes a lipid, SPC, as an endogenic inducer of myogenic conversion in Sca-1(+) stem cells with low toxicity and high efficiency for uptake.

  19. Glycoprotein Ibalpha promoter drives megakaryocytic lineage-restricted expression after hematopoietic stem cell transduction using a self-inactivating lentiviral vector.

    PubMed

    Lavenu-Bombled, Cécile; Izac, Brigitte; Legrand, Faézeh; Cambot, Marie; Vigier, Agathe; Massé, Jean-Marc; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, Anne

    2007-06-01

    Megakaryocytic (MK) lineage is an attractive target for cell/gene therapy approaches, aiming at correcting platelet protein deficiencies. However, MK cells are short-lived cells, and their permanent modification requires modification of hematopoietic stem cells with an integrative vector such as a lentiviral vector. Glycoprotein (Gp) IIb promoter, the most studied among the MK regulatory sequences, is also active in stem cells. To strictly limit transgene expression to the MK lineage after transduction of human CD34(+) hematopoietic cells with a lentiviral vector, we looked for a promoter activated later during MK differentiation. Human cord blood, bone marrow, and peripheral-blood mobilized CD34(+) cells were transduced with a human immunodeficiency virus-derived self-inactivating lentiviral vector encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the transcriptional control of GpIbalpha, GpIIb, or EF1alpha gene regulatory sequences. Both GpIbalpha and GpIIb promoters restricted GFP expression (analyzed by flow cytometry and immunoelectron microscopy) in MK cells among the maturing progeny of transduced cells. However, only the GpIbalpha promoter was strictly MK-specific, whereas GpIIb promoter was leaky in immature progenitor cells not yet engaged in MK cell lineage differentiation. We thus demonstrate the pertinence of using a 328-base-pair fragment of the human GpIbalpha gene regulatory sequence, in the context of a lentiviral vector, to tightly restrict transgene expression to the MK lineage after transduction of human CD34(+) hematopoietic cells. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  20. Fast and safe fabrication of a free-standing chitosan/alginate nanomembrane to promote stem cell delivery and wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yi; Xu, Rui; Darabi, Mohammad Ali; Zhong, Wen; Luo, Gaoxing; Xing, Malcolm MQ; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Polymeric ultrathin membranes that are compatible with cells offer tremendous advantages for tissue engineering. In this article, we report a free-standing nanomembrane that was developed using a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique with a safe and sacrificial substrate method. After ionization, two oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, alginate and chitosan, were alternately deposited on a substrate of a solidified gelatin block to form an ultrathin nanomembrane. The space between the two adjacent layers was ∼200 nm. The thickness of the nanomembrane was proportional to the number of layers. The temperature-sensitive gelatin gel served as a sacrificial template at 37°C. The free-standing nanomembrane promoted bone marrow stem cell adhesion and proliferation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to analyze green-fluorescent-protein-positive mesenchymal stem cells from the wounds, which showed a significantly high survival and proliferation from the nanomembrane when cells were transplanted to mouse dorsal skin that had a full-thickness burn. The bone-marrow-stem-cell-loaded nanomembrane also accelerated wound contraction and epidermalization. Therefore, this methodology provides a fast and facile approach to construct free-standing ultrathin scaffolds for tissue engineering. The biocompatibility and free-standing nature of the fabricated nanomembrane may be particularly useful for stem cell delivery and wound healing. PMID:27354789

  1. Association of a murine leukaemia stem cell gene signature based on nucleostemin promoter activity with prognosis of acute myeloid leukaemia in patients.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohamed A E; Naka, Kazuhito; Yoshida, Akiyo; Fuse, Kyoko; Kasada, Atsuo; Hoshii, Takayuki; Tadokoro, Yuko; Ueno, Masaya; Ohta, Kumiko; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Takahashi, Chiaki; Hirao, Atsushi

    2014-07-18

    Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a heterogeneous neoplastic disorder in which a subset of cells function as leukaemia-initiating cells (LICs). In this study, we prospectively evaluated the leukaemia-initiating capacity of AML cells fractionated according to the expression of a nucleolar GTP binding protein, nucleostemin (NS). To monitor NS expression in living AML cells, we generated a mouse AML model in which green fluorescent protein (GFP) is expressed under the control of a region of the NS promoter (NS-GFP). In AML cells, NS-GFP levels were correlated with endogenous NS mRNA. AML cells with the highest expression of NS-GFP were very immature blast-like cells, efficiently formed leukaemia colonies in vitro, and exhibited the highest leukaemia-initiating capacity in vivo. Gene expression profiling analysis revealed that cell cycle regulators and nucleotide metabolism-related genes were highly enriched in a gene set associated with leukaemia-initiating capacity that we termed the 'leukaemia stem cell gene signature'. This gene signature stratified human AML patients into distinct clusters that reflected prognosis, demonstrating that the mouse leukaemia stem cell gene signature is significantly associated with the malignant properties of human AML. Further analyses of gene regulation in leukaemia stem cells could provide novel insights into diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to AML.

  2. The Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Promoting Ovarian Cancer Growth and Spread

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    of exosomes reduced infarct size in a mouse model of myocardial 17 ischemia/reperfusion injury. 18 The particles could be visualized by electron... myocardial infarction , TSG-6 knockdown in MSCs significantly 5 reduced their anti-inflammatory therapeutic effect. The administration of recombinant TSG...26 Lee, R. H., A. A. Pulin, et al. (2009). "Intravenous hMSCs improve myocardial infarction in 27 mice because cells embolized in lung are activated

  3. Mll2 is required for H3K4 trimethylation on bivalent promoters in embryonic stem cells, whereas Mll1 is redundant.

    PubMed

    Denissov, Sergei; Hofemeister, Helmut; Marks, Hendrik; Kranz, Andrea; Ciotta, Giovanni; Singh, Sukhdeep; Anastassiadis, Konstantinos; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Stewart, A Francis

    2014-02-01

    Trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) at the promoters of actively transcribed genes is a universal epigenetic mark and a key product of Trithorax group action. Here, we show that Mll2, one of the six Set1/Trithorax-type H3K4 methyltransferases in mammals, is required for trimethylation of bivalent promoters in mouse embryonic stem cells. Mll2 is bound to bivalent promoters but also to most active promoters, which do not require Mll2 for H3K4me3 or mRNA expression. By contrast, the Set1 complex (Set1C) subunit Cxxc1 is primarily bound to active but not bivalent promoters. This indicates that bivalent promoters rely on Mll2 for H3K4me3 whereas active promoters have more than one bound H3K4 methyltransferase, including Set1C. Removal of Mll1, sister to Mll2, had almost no effect on any promoter unless Mll2 was also removed, indicating functional backup between these enzymes. Except for a subset, loss of H3K4me3 on bivalent promoters did not prevent responsiveness to retinoic acid, thereby arguing against a priming model for bivalency. In contrast, we propose that Mll2 is the pioneer trimethyltransferase for promoter definition in the naïve epigenome and that Polycomb group action on bivalent promoters blocks the premature establishment of active, Set1C-bound, promoters.

  4. Intraoperative Stem Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Mónica Beato; Cabral, Joaquim M.S.; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells hold significant promise for regeneration of tissue defects and disease-modifying therapies. Although numerous promising stem cell approaches are advancing in clinical trials, intraoperative stem cell therapies offer more immediate hope by integrating an autologous cell source with a well-established surgical intervention in a single procedure. Herein, the major developments in intraoperative stem cell approaches, from in vivo models to clinical studies, are reviewed, and the potential regenerative mechanisms and the roles of different cell populations in the regeneration process are discussed. Although intraoperative stem cell therapies have been shown to be safe and effective for several indications, there are still critical challenges to be tackled prior to adoption into the standard surgical armamentarium. PMID:22809140

  5. Loss of androgen receptor expression promotes a stem-like cell phenotype in prostate cancer through STAT3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Anne; Herrmann, Andreas; Cherryholmes, Gregory; Kowolik, Claudia; Buettner, Ralf; Pal, Sumanta; Yu, Hua; Müller-Newen, Gerhard; Jove, Richard

    2014-02-15

    Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is important for prostate cancer progression. However, androgen-deprivation and/or AR targeting-based therapies often lead to resistance. Here, we demonstrate that loss of AR expression results in STAT3 activation in prostate cancer cells. AR downregulation further leads to development of prostate cancer stem-like cells (CSC), which requires STAT3. In human prostate tumor tissues, elevated cancer stem-like cell markers coincide with those cells exhibiting high STAT3 activity and low AR expression. AR downregulation-induced STAT3 activation is mediated through increased interleukin (IL)-6 expression. Treating mice with soluble IL-6 receptor fusion protein or silencing STAT3 in tumor cells significantly reduced prostate tumor growth and CSCs. Together, these findings indicate an opposing role of AR and STAT3 in prostate CSC development.

  6. Proportion of collagen type II in the extracellular matrix promotes the differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells into nucleus pulposus cells.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yiqing; Zhou, Xiaopeng; Liu, Dongyu; Li, Hao; Liang, Chengzhen; Li, Fangcai; Chen, Qixin

    2016-01-01

    During degeneration process, the catabolism of collagen type II and anabolism of collagen type I in nucleus pulposus (NP) may influence the bioactivity of transplanted cells. Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) were cultured as a micromass or in a series of gradual proportion hydrogels of a mix of collagen types I and II. Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were detected using CCK-8 and LDH assays respectively. The expression of differentiation-related genes and proteins, including SOX9, aggrecan, collagen type I, and collagen type II, was examined using RT-qPCR and Western blotting. Novel phenotypic genes were also detected by RT-qPCR and western blotting. Alcian blue and dimethylmethylene blue assays were used to investigate sulfate proteoglycan expression, and PI3K/AKT, MAPK/ERK, and Smad signaling pathways were examined by Western blotting. The results showed collagen hydrogels have good biocompatibility, and cell proliferation increased after collagen type II treatment. Expressions of SOX9, aggrecan, and collagen type II were increased in a collagen type II dependent manner. Sulfate proteoglycan synthesis increased in proportion to collagen type II concentration. Only hADMSCs highly expressed NP cell marker KRT19 in collagen type II culture. Additionally, phosphorylated Smad3, which is associated with phosphorylated ERK, was increased after collagen type II-stimulation. The concentration and type of collagen affect hADMSC differentiation into NP cells. Collagen type II significantly ameliorates hADMSC differentiation into NP cells and promotes extracellular matrix synthesis. Therefore, anabolism of collagen type I and catabolism of type II may attenuate the differentiation and biosynthesis of transplanted stem cells.

  7. The C228T mutation of TERT promoter frequently occurs in bladder cancer stem cells and contributes to tumorigenesis of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Du, Ying; He, Luyun; Cai, Zhiming; Wang, Jiansong; Fan, Zusen

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. Bladder cancer stem cells (BCSCs) have been isolated recently but have not been defined yet. Here we sorted BCSCs from bladder tumor tissues or normal bladder stem cells (NBBCs) from adjacent normal bladder tissues. We found that the C228T mutation (chr5, 1, 295, 228 C > T) of TERT promoter frequently occurs in BCSCs, but not exist in NBBCs. Importantly, introducing the C228T mutation in NBBCs causes TERT overexpression and transformation of bladder cancer. Restoration of the C228T mutation to T228C in BCSCs can recover the TERT expression to a basal level and abolish tumor formation. Additionally, the C228T mutation of TERT promoter triggers TERT expression leading to increased telomerase activity. TERT expression levels are consistent with clinical severity and prognosis of bladder cancer. PMID:26143634

  8. Photoactivation of ROS production in situ transiently activates cell proliferation in mouse skin and in the hair follicle stem cell niche promoting hair growth and wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Elisa; Calvo, María I.; Blázquez-Castro, Alfonso; Vecchio, Daniela; Zamarrón, Alicia; de Almeida, Irma Joyce Dias; Stockert, Juan C.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Juarranz, Ángeles; Espada, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the regulation of hair follicle cycle and skin homeostasis is poorly characterized. ROS have been traditionally linked to human disease and ageing, but recent findings suggest that can also have beneficial physiological functions in vivo in mammals. To test this hypothesis, we transiently switched on in situ ROS production in mouse skin. This process activated cell proliferation in the tissue and, interestingly, in the bulge region of the hair follicle, a major reservoir of epidermal stem cells, promoting hair growth as well as stimulating tissue repair after severe burn injury. We further show that these effects were associated with a transient Src kinase phosphorylation at Tyr416 and with a strong transcriptional activation of the prolactin family 2 subfamily c of growth factors. Our results point to potentially relevant modes of skin homeostasis regulation and demonstrate that a local and transient ROS production can regulate stem cell and tissue function in the whole organism. PMID:26134949

  9. Human breast adipose‑derived stem cells: characterization and differentiation into mammary gland‑like epithelial cells promoted by autologous activated platelet‑rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shi-En; Li, Hong-Mian; Liu, Da-Lie; Nan, Hua; Xu, Kun-Ming; Zhao, Pei-Ran; Liang, Shuang-Wu

    2014-08-01

    Human adipose‑derived stem cells (ASCs) isolated from various body sites have been widely investigated in basic and clinical studies. However, ASCs derived from human breast tissue (hbASCs) have not been extensively investigated. In order to expand our understanding of hbASCs and examine their potential applications in stem cell research and cell‑based therapy, hbASCs were isolated from discarded surgical fat tissue following reduction mammoplasty and a comprehensive characterization of these hbASCs was performed, including analysis of their cellular morphology, growth features, cell surface protein markers and multilineage differentiation capacity. These hbASCs expressed cluster of differentiation (CD)44, CD49d, CD90 and CD105, but did not express CD31 and CD34. Subsequently, the hbASCs were differentiated into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes in vitro. In order to examine the potential applications of hbASCs in breast reconstruction, an approach to promote in vitro differentiation of hbASCs into mammary gland‑like epithelial cells (MGECs) was developed using activated autologous platelet‑rich plasma (PRP). A proliferation phase and a subsequent morphological conversion phase were observed during this differentiation process. PRP significantly promoted the growth of hbASCs in the proliferation phase and increased the eventual conversion rate of hbASCs into MGECs. Thus, to the best of our knowledge, the present study provided the first comprehensive characterization of hbASCs and validated their multipotency. Furthermore, it was revealed that activated autologous PRP was able to enhance the differentiation efficiency of hbASCs into MGECs. The present study and other studies of hbASCs may aid the development of improved breast reconstruction strategies.

  10. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell activation during chronic dermatitis provoked by constitutively active aryl-hydrocarbon receptor driven by Keratin 14 promoter.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shohei; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Motohashi, Hozumi

    2014-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) activate aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Because PAHs are known as a risk factor for allergic diseases, PAH-induced AhR activation is expected to be involved in the development of the pathology. We previously generated transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active AhR (AhR-CA) under the control of Keratin 14 (K14) promoter (AhR-CA mouse). The mice develop chronic dermatitis with immune imbalance toward Th2 predominance, indicating that the AhR activation driven by K14 promoter provokes allergic response. Because hematopoietic cells actively participate in the development of allergic inflammation, it is important to understand the hematopoietic status under allergic conditions. To clarify how the K14 promoter-driven AhR activation influences hematopoiesis, we analyzed bone marrow and spleen of AhR-CA mice. We verified that AhR-CA was expressed in keratinocytes and thymic epithelial cells but not in hematopoietic cells. The AhR-CA mice with full-blown dermatitis exhibited leukocytosis and skewed differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells toward granulocyte-monocyte lineages. They also showed a significant expansion of short-term hematopoietic stem cells and multipotent progenitors and a subtle reduction in long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs). Their spleens were enlarged and abundantly accumulated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. AhR-CA mice at the early stage of dermatitis did not show leukocytosis or splenomegaly but exhibited the granulocyte-monocyte skewing and the reduction in LT-HSCs. Thus, AhR activation driven by K14 promoter already alters the hematopoietic differentiation and reduces LT-HSCs at the initial stage of dermatitis development. These results suggest that nonhematopoietic exposure to PAHs triggers allergic response and concomitantly affects hematopoiesis.

  11. Methods for Stem Cell Production and Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claudio, Pier Paolo (Inventor); Valluri, Jagan V. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for rapidly expanding a stem cell population with or without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention relates to methods for rapidly increasing the life span of stem cell populations without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention also relates to methods for increasing the sensitivity of cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions and in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The methods of the present invention can also be used to proliferate cancer cells by culturing them in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The present invention also relates to methods for testing the sensitivity of cancer cells and cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer cells and cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce tissue for use in transplantation by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors to promote differentiation of cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions.

  12. Promoting effect of small molecules in cardiomyogenic and neurogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Khanabdali, Ramin; Saadat, Anbarieh; Fazilah, Maizatul; Bazli, Khairul Fidaa’ Khairul; Qazi, Rida-e-Maria; Khalid, Ramla Sana; Hasan Adli, Durriyyah Sharifah; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Naeem, Nadia; Khan, Irfan; Salim, Asmat; Shamsuddin, ShamsulAzlin Ahmad; Mohan, Gokula

    2016-01-01

    Small molecules, growth factors, and cytokines have been used to induce differentiation of stem cells into different lineages. Similarly, demethylating agents can trigger differentiation in adult stem cells. Here, we investigated the in vitro differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into cardiomyocytes by a demethylating agent, zebularine, as well as neuronal-like cells by β-mercaptoethanol in a growth factor or cytokines-free media. Isolated bone marrow-derived MSCs cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology. These cells expressed positive markers for CD29, CD44, and CD117 and were negative for CD34 and CD45. After treatment with 1 μM zebularine for 24 hours, the MSCs formed myotube-like structures after 10 days in culture. Expression of cardiac-specific genes showed that treated MSCs expressed significantly higher levels of cardiac troponin-T, Nkx2.5, and GATA-4 compared with untreated cells. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that differentiated cells also expressed cardiac proteins, GATA-4, Nkx 2.5, and cardiac troponin-T. For neuronal differentiation, MSCs were treated with 1 and 10 mM β-mercaptoethanol overnight for 3 hours in complete and serum-free Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium, respectively. Following overnight treatment, neuron-like cells with axonal and dendritic-like projections originating from the cell body toward the neighboring cells were observed in the culture. The mRNA expression of neuronal-specific markers, Map2, Nefl, Tau, and Nestin, was significantly higher, indicating that the treated cells differentiated into neuronal-like cells. Immunostaining showed that differentiated cells were positive for the neuronal markers Flk, Nef, Nestin, and β-tubulin. PMID:26766903

  13. Promoting effect of small molecules in cardiomyogenic and neurogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Khanabdali, Ramin; Saadat, Anbarieh; Fazilah, Maizatul; Bazli, Khairul Fidaa' Khairul; Qazi, Rida-e-Maria; Khalid, Ramla Sana; Hasan Adli, Durriyyah Sharifah; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Naeem, Nadia; Khan, Irfan; Salim, Asmat; Shamsuddin, ShamsulAzlin Ahmad; Mohan, Gokula

    2016-01-01

    Small molecules, growth factors, and cytokines have been used to induce differentiation of stem cells into different lineages. Similarly, demethylating agents can trigger differentiation in adult stem cells. Here, we investigated the in vitro differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into cardiomyocytes by a demethylating agent, zebularine, as well as neuronal-like cells by β-mercaptoethanol in a growth factor or cytokines-free media. Isolated bone marrow-derived MSCs cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology. These cells expressed positive markers for CD29, CD44, and CD117 and were negative for CD34 and CD45. After treatment with 1 μM zebularine for 24 hours, the MSCs formed myotube-like structures after 10 days in culture. Expression of cardiac-specific genes showed that treated MSCs expressed significantly higher levels of cardiac troponin-T, Nkx2.5, and GATA-4 compared with untreated cells. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that differentiated cells also expressed cardiac proteins, GATA-4, Nkx 2.5, and cardiac troponin-T. For neuronal differentiation, MSCs were treated with 1 and 10 mM β-mercaptoethanol overnight for 3 hours in complete and serum-free Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, respectively. Following overnight treatment, neuron-like cells with axonal and dendritic-like projections originating from the cell body toward the neighboring cells were observed in the culture. The mRNA expression of neuronal-specific markers, Map2, Nefl, Tau, and Nestin, was significantly higher, indicating that the treated cells differentiated into neuronal-like cells. Immunostaining showed that differentiated cells were positive for the neuronal markers Flk, Nef, Nestin, and β-tubulin.

  14. Stem Cell Transplants (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth > For Teens > Stem Cell Transplants Print ... Does it Take to Recover? Coping What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every ...

  15. Stem Cell Transplants (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth > For Teens > Stem Cell Transplants A ... Does it Take to Recover? Coping What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every ...

  16. Promoting the selection and maintenance of fetal liver stem/progenitor cell colonies by layer-by-layer polypeptide tethered supported lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-Chi; Liu, Yung-Chiang; Tsai, Hsuan-Ang; Shen, Chia-Ning; Chang, Ying-Chih

    2014-12-10

    In this study, we designed and constructed a series of layer-by-layer polypeptide adsorbed supported lipid bilayer (SLB) films as a novel and label-free platform for the isolation and maintenance of rare populated stem cells. In particular, four alternative layers of anionic poly-l-glutamic acid and cationic poly-l-lysine were sequentially deposited on an anionic SLB. We found that the fetal liver stem/progenitor cells from the primary culture were selected and formed colonies on all layer-by-layer polypeptide adsorbed SLB surfaces, regardless of the number of alternative layers and the net charges on those layers. Interestingly, these isolated stem/progenitor cells formed colonies which were maintained for an 8 day observation period. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation measurements showed that all SLB-polypeptide films were protein resistant with serum levels significantly lower than those on the polypeptide multilayer films without an underlying SLB. We suggest the fluidic SLB promotes selective binding while minimizing the cell-surface interaction due to its nonfouling nature, thus limiting stem cell colonies from spreading.

  17. HC-HA/PTX3 Purified From Amniotic Membrane Promotes BMP Signaling in Limbal Niche Cells to Maintain Quiescence of Limbal Epithelial Progenitor/Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szu-Yu; Han, Bo; Zhu, Ying-Ting; Mahabole, Megha; Huang, Jie; Beebe, David C; Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2015-11-01

    To explore how limbal niche cells (LNCs) may control quiescence, self-renewal, and corneal epithelial lineage commitment/differentiation of limbal epithelial progenitor/stem cells (LEPCs), we have established an in vitro sphere assay by reunion between the two cell types in three-dimensional Matrigel. The resultant sphere exhibits inhibition of corneal epithelial lineage commitment/differentiation and marked clonal growth of LEPCs, of which the latter is correlated with activation of canonical Wnt signaling. Herein, we have created a similar reunion assay in immobilized heavy chain-hyaluronic acid/pentraxin 3 (HC-HA/PTX3), which is purified from amniotic membrane (AM) and consists of a complex formed by hyaluronic covalently linked to heavy chain 1 of inter-α-inhibitor and noncovalently linked to pentraxin 3. The resultant spheres exhibited similar suppression of corneal epithelial lineage commitment/differentiation but upregulation of quiescence markers including nuclear translocation of Bmi-1, and negligible clonal growth of LEPCs. This outcome was correlated with the suppression of canonical Wnt but activation of noncanonical (Planar cell polarity) Wnt signaling as well as BMP signaling in both LEPCs and LNCs. The activation of BMP signaling in LNCs was pivotal because nuclear translocation of pSmad1/5/8 was prohibited in hLEPCs when reunioned with mLNCs of conditionally deleted Bmpr1a;Acvr1(DCKO) mice. Furthermore, ablation of BMP signaling in LEPCs led to upregulation of cell cycle genes, downregulation of Bmi-1, nuclear exclusion of phosphorylated Bmi-1, and marked promotion of the clonal growth of LEPCs. Hence, HC-HA/PTX3 uniquely upregulates BMP signaling in LNCs which leads to BMP signaling in LEPCs to achieve quiescence, helping explain how AM transplantation is clinically useful to be used as a matrix for ex vivo expansion of LEPCs and to treat corneal blindness caused by limbal stem cells deficiency.

  18. Graphene/single-walled carbon nanotube hybrids promoting osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells by activating p38 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xinxin; Yang, Wen; Shao, Zengwu; Yang, Shuhua; Liu, Xianzhe

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials are becoming increasingly significant in biomedical fields since they exhibit exceptional physicochemical and biocompatible properties. Today, the stem cells offer potentially new therapeutic approaches in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, the induction of differentiation into specific lineages remains challenging, which provoked us to explore the biomedical applications of carbon nanomaterials in stem cells. In this study, we investigated the interactions between graphene/single-walled carbon nanotube (G/SWCNT) hybrids and rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) and focused on the proliferation and differentiation of rMSCs treated with G/SWCNT hybrids. Cell viability and morphology were evaluated using cell counting kit-8 assay and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. Osteogenic differentiation evaluated by alkaline phosphatase activity of MSCs proved to be higher after treatment with G/SWCNT hybrids, and the mineralized matrix nodule formation was also enhanced. In addition, the expression levels of osteogenic-associated genes were upregulated, while the adipocyte-specific markers were downregulated. Consistent with these results, we illustrated that the effect of G/SWCNT hybrids on the process of osteogenic differentiation of rMSCs can be modulated by activating the p38 signaling pathway and inhibiting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway. Nevertheless, our study suggests that carbon nanomaterials offer a promising platform for regenerative medicine in the near future. PMID:27799770

  19. LIN28B Activation by PRL-3 Promotes Leukemogenesis and a Stem Cell-like Transcriptional Program in AML.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianbiao; Chan, Zit-Liang; Bi, Chonglei; Lu, Xiao; Chong, Phyllis S Y; Chooi, Jing-Yuan; Cheong, Lip-Lee; Liu, Shaw-Cheng; Ching, Ying Qing; Zhou, Yafeng; Osato, Motomi; Tan, Tuan Zea; Ng, Chin Hin; Ng, Siok-Bian; Wang, Shi; Zeng, Qi; Chng, Wee-Joo

    2017-03-01

    PRL-3 (PTP4A3), a metastasis-associated phosphatase, is also upregulated in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is associated with poor prognosis, but the underlying molecular mechanism is unknown. Here, constitutive expression of PRL-3 in human AML cells sustains leukemogenesis in vitro and in vivo Furthermore, PRL-3 phosphatase activity dependently upregulates LIN28B, a stem cell reprogramming factor, which in turn represses the let-7 mRNA family, inducing a stem cell-like transcriptional program. Notably, elevated levels of LIN28B protein independently associate with worse survival in AML patients. Thus, these results establish a novel signaling axis involving PRL-3/LIN28B/let-7, which confers stem cell-like properties to leukemia cells that is important for leukemogenesis.Implications: The current study offers a rationale for targeting PRL-3 as a therapeutic approach for a subset of AML patients with poor prognosis. Mol Cancer Res; 15(3); 294-303. ©2016 AACR.

  20. Research Note Mesenchymal stem cells from skin lesions of psoriasis patients promote proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, R F; Wang, F; Wang, Q; Zhao, X C; Zhang, K M

    2015-12-22

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by excessive proliferation and abnormal differentiation and apoptosis of keratinocytes (KCs). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from skin lesions of psoriasis patients demonstrate abnormal cytokine secretion, which may affect KC proliferation and apoptosis. Here, we explored how MSCs from skin lesions of psoriasis patients affect HaCaT cell proliferation and apoptosis. First, flow cytometry and multipotent differentiation methods were used to identify skin MSCs, which were then co-cultured with HaCaT cells. HaCaT cell proliferation was analyzed in real-time, and cell cycle progression and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. Cell morphologies and multipotencies of skin MSCs were similar between the psoriasis group and healthy control group, with high levels of CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, and CD105 and limited expression of CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR. MSCs from skin lesions of psoriasis patients promote KC proliferation more potently and are less capable of inducing KC apoptosis. This may underlie KC proliferation and abnormal apoptosis in psoriasis skin lesions, which results in abnormal thickening of the epidermis.

  1. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplantation following Partial Hepatectomy: A New Concept to Promote Liver Regeneration—Systematic Review of the Literature Focused on Experimental Studies in Rodent Models

    PubMed Central

    Katselis, Charalambos; Apostolou, Konstantinos; Feretis, Themistoklis; Lymperi, Maria; Konstadoulakis, Manousos M.; Zografos, George C.

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive source for regenerative medicine because they are easily accessible through minimally invasive methods and have the potential to enhance liver regeneration (LG) and improve liver function, following partial hepatectomy (PH) and acute or chronic liver injury. A systematic review of the literature was conducted for articles published up to September 1st, 2016, using the MEDLINE database. The keywords that were used in various combinations were as follows: “Mesenchymal stem cells”, “transplantation”, “stem cells”, “adipose tissue derived stem cells”, “bone marrow-derived stem cells”, “partial hepatectomy”, “acute liver failure”, “chronic liver failure”, “liver fibrosis”, “liver cirrhosis”, “rats”, “mice”, and “liver regeneration”. All introduced keywords were searched for separately in MeSH Database to control relevance and terminological accuracy and validity. A total of 41 articles were identified for potential inclusion and reviewed in detail. After a strict selection process, a total of 28 articles were excluded, leaving 13 articles to form the basis of this systematic review. MSCs transplantation promoted LG and improved liver function. Furthermore, MSCs had the ability to differentiate in hepatocyte-like cells, increase survival, and protect hepatocytes by paracrine mechanisms. MSCs transplantation may provide beneficial effects in the process of LG after PH and acute or chronic liver injury. They may represent a new therapeutic option to treat posthepatectomy acute liver failure. PMID:28386285

  2. PEDF & stem cells: niche vs. nurture.

    PubMed

    Fitchev, Philip; Chung, Chuhan; Plunkett, Beth A; Brendler, Charles B; Crawford, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    Anti-angiogenic pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a multifunctional 50kD secreted glycoprotein emerging as a key factor in stem cell renewal. Characteristics of the stem cell niche can be highly dependent on location, access to the vasculature, oxygen tension and neighboring cells. In the neural stem cell (NSC) niche, specifically the subventricular zone, PEDF actively participates in the self renewal process and promotes stemness by upregulating Notch signaling effectors Hes1 and Hes5. The local vascular endothelial cells and ependymal cells are the likely sources of PEDF for the NSC while mesenchymal and retinal stem cells can actually produce PEDF. The opposing actions of PEDF and VEGF on various cells are recapitulated in the NSC niche. Intraventricular injection of PEDF promotes stem cell renewal, while injection of VEGF prompts differentiation and neurogenesis in the subventricular zone. Enhancing the expression of PEDF in stem cells has promising therapeutic implications. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing PEDF effectively inhibited pathologic angiogenesis in the murine eye and these same cells suppressed hepatocellular carcinoma growth. As a protein with bioactivities in nearly all normal organ systems, it is likely that PEDF will continue to gain visibility as an essential component in the development and delivery of novel stem cell-based therapies to combat disease.

  3. Pharmacological inhibition of DNA methyltransferase 1 promotes neuronal differentiation from rodent and human nasal olfactory stem/progenitor cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Franco, I; Ortiz-López, L; Roque-Ramírez, B; Ramírez-Rodríguez, G B; Lamas, M

    2017-05-01

    Nasal olfactory stem and neural progenitor cells (NOS/PCs) are considered possible tools for regenerative stem cell therapies in neurodegenerative diseases. Neurogenesis is a complex process regulated by extrinsic and intrinsic signals that include DNA-methylation and other chromatin modifications that could be experimentally manipulated in order to increase neuronal differentiation. The aim of the present study was the characterization of primary cultures and consecutive passages (P2-P10) of NOS/PCs isolated from male Swiss-Webster (mNOS/PCs) or healthy humans (hNOS/PCs). We evaluated and compared cellular morphology, proliferation rates and the expression pattern of pluripotency-associated markers and DNA methylation-associated gene expression in these cultures. Neuronal differentiation was induced by exposure to all-trans retinoic acid and forskolin for 7 days and evaluated by morphological analysis and immunofluorescence against neuronal markers MAP2, NSE and MAP1B. In response to the inductive cues mNOS/PCs expressed NSE (75.67%) and MAP2 (35.34%); whereas the majority of the hNOS/PCs were immunopositive to MAP1B. Treatment with procainamide, a specific inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), increases in the number of forskolin'/retinoic acid-induced mature neuronal marker-expressing mNOS/PCs cells and enhances neurite development in hNOS/PCs. Our results indicate that mice and human nasal olfactory stem/progenitors cells share pluripotency-related gene expression suggesting that their application for stem cell therapy is worth pursuing and that DNA methylation inhibitors could be efficient tools to enhance neuronal differentiation from these cells.

  4. A methylcellulose and collagen based temperature responsive hydrogel promotes encapsulated stem cell viability and proliferation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Payne, Christina; Dolan, Eimear B; O'Sullivan, Janice; Cryan, Sally-Ann; Kelly, Helena M

    2017-02-01

    With the number of stem cell-based therapies emerging on the increase, the need for novel and efficient delivery technologies to enable therapies to remain in damaged tissue and exert their therapeutic benefit for extended periods, has become a key requirement for their translation. Hydrogels, and in particular, thermoresponsive hydrogels, have the potential to act as such delivery systems. Thermoresponsive hydrogels, which are polymer solutions that transform into a gel upon a temperature increase, have a number of applications in the biomedical field due to their tendency to maintain a liquid state at room temperature, thereby enabling minimally invasive administration and a subsequent ability to form a robust gel upon heating to physiological temperature. However, various hurdles must be overcome to increase the clinical translation of hydrogels as a stem cell delivery system, with barriers including their low tensile strength and their inadequate support of cell viability and attachment. In order to address these issues, a methylcellulose based hydrogel was formulated in combination with collagen and beta glycerophosphate, and key development issues such as injectability and sterilisation processes were examined. The polymer solution underwent thermogelation at ~36 °C as determined by rheological analysis, and when gelled, was sufficiently robust to resist significant disintegration in the presence of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) while concomitantly allowing for diffusion of methylene blue dye solution into the gel. We demonstrate that human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) encapsulated within the gel remained viable and showed raised levels of dsDNA at increasing time points, an indication of cell proliferation. Mechanical testing showed the "injectability", i.e. force required for delivery of the polymer solution through devices such as a syringe, needle or catheter. Sterilisation of the freeze-dried polymer wafer via gamma irradiation showed no adverse

  5. Carbon nanotube-based substrates promote cardiogenesis in brown adipose-derived stem cells via β1-integrin-dependent TGF-β1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hongyu; Mou, Yongchao; Li, Yi; Li, Xia; Chen, Zi; Duval, Kayla; Huang, Zhu; Dai, Ruiwu; Tang, Lijun; Tian, Fuzhou

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapy remains one of the promising approaches for cardiac repair and regeneration. However, its applications are restricted by the limited efficacy of cardiac differentiation. To address this issue, we examined whether carbon nanotubes (CNTs) would provide an instructive extracellular microenvironment to facilitate cardiogenesis in brown adipose-derived stem cells (BASCs) and to elucidate the underlying signaling pathways. In this study, we systematically investigated a series of cellular responses of BASCs due to the incorporation of CNTs into collagen (CNT-Col) substrates that promoted cell adhesion, spreading, and growth. Moreover, we found that CNT-Col substrates remarkably improved the efficiency of BASCs cardiogenesis by using fluorescence staining and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Critically, CNTs in the substrates accelerated the maturation of BASCs-derived cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, the underlying mechanism for promotion of BASCs cardiac differentiation by CNTs was determined by immunostaining, quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting assay. It is notable that β1-integrin-dependent TGF-β1 signaling pathway modulates the facilitative effect of CNTs in cardiac differentiation of BASCs. Therefore, it is an efficient approach to regulate cardiac differentiation of BASCs by the incorporation of CNTs into the native matrix. Importantly, our findings can not only facilitate the mechanistic understanding of molecular events initiating cardiac differentiation in stem cells, but also offer a potentially safer source for cardiac regenerative medicine. PMID:27660434

  6. Insulin-like Growth Factor-II (IGF-II) and IGF-II Analogs with Enhanced Insulin Receptor-a Binding Affinity Promote Neural Stem Cell Expansion*

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Amber N.; Chidambaram, Shravanthi; Forbes, Briony E.; Wood, Teresa L.; Levison, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to employ genetically engineered IGF-II analogs to establish which receptor(s) mediate the stemness promoting actions of IGF-II on mouse subventricular zone neural precursors. Neural precursors from the subventricular zone were propagated in vitro in culture medium supplemented with IGF-II analogs. Cell growth and identity were analyzed using sphere generation and further analyzed by flow cytometry. F19A, an analog of IGF-II that does not bind the IGF-2R, stimulated an increase in the proportion of neural stem cells (NSCs) while decreasing the proportion of the later stage progenitors at a lower concentration than IGF-II. V43M, which binds to the IGF-2R with high affinity but which has low binding affinity to the IGF-1R and to the A isoform of the insulin receptor (IR-A) failed to promote NSC growth. The positive effects of F19A on NSC growth were unaltered by the addition of a functional blocking antibody to the IGF-1R. Altogether, these data lead to the conclusion that IGF-II promotes stemness of NSCs via the IR-A and not through activation of either the IGF-1R or the IGF-2R. PMID:24398690

  7. Rab27A mediated by NF-κB promotes the stemness of colon cancer cells via up-regulation of cytokine secretion

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaozhao; Wang, Shan; Wang, Lifeng; Wei, Mengying; Lu, Wei; Du, Zhichao; Ye, Zichen; Yang, Guodong; Yuan, Fang; Ma, Yanxia; Lei, Xiaoying; Lu, Zifan

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidences have unveiled critical roles of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in tumorigenicity, but how interactions between CSC and tumor environments help maintain CSC initiation remains obscure. The small GTPases Rab27A regulates autocrine and paracrine cytokines by monitoring exocytosis of extracellular vesicles, and is reported to promote certain tumor progression. We observe that overexpression of Rab27A increased sphere formation efficiency (SFE) by increasing the proportion of CD44+ and PKH26high cells in HT29 cell lines, and accelerating the growth of colosphere with higher percentage of cells at S phase. Mechanism study revealed that the supernatant derived from HT29 sphere after Rab27A overexpression was able to expand sphere numbers with elevated secretion of VEGF and TGF-β. In tumor implanting nude mice model, tumor initiation rates and tumor sizes were enhanced by Rab27A with obvious angiogenesis. As a contrast, knocking down Rab27A impaired the above effects. More importantly, the correlation between higher p65 level and Rab27A in colon sphere was detected, p65 was sufficient to induce up-regulation of Rab27A and a functional NF-κB binding site in the Rab27A promoter was demonstrated. Altogether, our findings reveal a unique mechanism that tumor environment related NF-κB signaling promotes various colon cancer stem cells (cCSCs) properties via an amplified paracrine mechanism regulated by higher Rab27A level. PMID:27556511

  8. Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor (PEDF) Expression Induced by EGFRvIII Promotes Self-renewal and Tumor Progression of Glioma Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jinlong; Park, Gunwoo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Hong, Jun Hee; Kim, Youn-Jae; Jin, Xiong; Kang, Sangjo; Jung, Ji-Eun; Kim, Jeong-Yub; Yun, Hyeongsun; Lee, Jeong Eun; Kim, Minkyung; Chung, Junho; Kim, Hyunggee; Nakano, Ichiro; Gwak, Ho-Shin; Yoo, Heon; Yoo, Byong Chul; Kim, Jong Heon; Hur, Eun-Mi; Lee, Jeongwu; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Park, Myung-Jin; Park, Jong Bae

    2015-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) has been associated with glioma stemness, but the direct molecular mechanism linking the two is largely unknown. Here, we show that EGFRvIII induces the expression and secretion of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) via activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), thereby promoting self-renewal and tumor progression of glioma stem cells (GSCs). Mechanistically, PEDF sustained GSC self-renewal by Notch1 cleavage, and the generated intracellular domain of Notch1 (NICD) induced the expression of Sox2 through interaction with its promoter region. Furthermore, a subpopulation with high levels of PEDF was capable of infiltration along corpus callosum. Inhibition of PEDF diminished GSC self-renewal and increased survival of orthotopic tumor-bearing mice. Together, these data indicate the novel role of PEDF as a key regulator of GSC and suggest clinical implications.

  9. Hematopoietic Stem Cells Therapies.

    PubMed

    Chivu-Economescu, Mihaela; Rubach, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapies are recognized as a new way to treat various diseases and injuries, with a wide range of health benefits. The goal is to heal or replace diseased or destroyed organs or body parts with healthy new cells provided by stem cell transplantation. The current practical form of stem cell therapy is the hematopoietic stem cells transplant applied for the treatment of hematological disorders. There are over 2100 clinical studies in progress concerning hematopoietic stem cell therapies. All of them are using hematopoietic stem cells to treat various diseases like: cancers, leukemia, lymphoma, cardiac failure, neural disorders, auto-immune diseases, immunodeficiency, metabolic or genetic disorders. Several challenges are to be addressed prior to developing and applying large scale cell therapies: 1) to explain and control the mechanisms of differentiation and development toward a specific cell type needed to treat the disease, 2) to obtain a sufficient number of desired cell type for transplantation, 3) to overcome the immune rejection and 4) to show that transplanted cells fulfill their normal functions in vivo after transplants.

  10. Short-Term Spheroid Formation Enhances the Regenerative Capacity of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells by Promoting Stemness, Angiogenesis, and Chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Nai-Chen; Chen, Szu-Yu; Li, Jia-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) represent an important source of mesenchymal stem cells for clinical application. During in vitro culture, ASCs quickly lose the expression of transcription factors associated with pluripotency and self-renewal (Sox-2, Oct-4, and Nanog) and CXCR4, the key receptor responsible for stem cell homing. To enhance their therapeutic potential despite in vitro passages, we examined whether ASCs exhibit superior regenerative capacity by expanding them in monolayers following short-term spheroid formation. Spheroid-derived ASCs retained the expression pattern of cell surface markers and adipogenic/osteogenic differentiation capabilities of ASCs constantly cultured in monolayers. However, spheroid-derived ASCs exhibited higher expansion efficiency with less senescence. Moreover, spheroid-derived ASCs expressed significantly higher levels of pluripotency markers, CXCR4, and angiogenic growth factors. Enhanced in vitro migration, associated with the increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9 and MMP-13), was also observed in spheroid-derived ASCs. The enhanced migration and MMP expression could be inhibited by a CXCR4-specific peptide antagonist, AMD3100. Using a murine model with healing-impaired cutaneous wounds, we observed faster healing and enhanced angiogenesis in the wounds treated with spheroid-derived ASCs. Significantly more cellular engraftment of spheroid-derived ASCs in the cutaneous wound tissue was also noted, with evidence of ASC differentiation toward endothelial and epidermal lineages. These findings suggest that short-term spheroid formation of ASCs before monolayer culture enhances their properties of stemness, angiogenesis, and chemotaxis and thereby increases their regenerative potential for therapeutic use. PMID:23847001

  11. In vivo programming of tumor antigen-specific T lymphocytes from pluripotent stem cells to promote cancer immunosurveillance.

    PubMed

    Lei, Fengyang; Zhao, Baohua; Haque, Rizwanul; Xiong, Xiaofang; Budgeon, Lynn; Christensen, Neil D; Wu, Yuzhang; Song, Jianxun

    2011-07-15

    Adoptive T-cell immunotherapy has garnered wide attention, but its effective use is limited by the need of multiple ex vivo manipulations and infusions that are complex and expensive. In this study, we show how highly reactive antigen (Ag)-specific CTLs can be generated from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to provide an unlimited source of functional CTLs for adoptive immunotherapy. iPS cell-derived T cells can offer the advantages of avoiding possible immune rejection and circumventing ethical and practical issues associated with other stem cell types. iPS cells can be differentiated into progenitor T cells in vitro by stimulation with the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (DL1) overexpressed on bone marrow stromal cells, with complete maturation occurring upon adoptive transfer into Rag1-deficient mice. Here, we report that these iPS cells can be differentiated in vivo into functional CTLs after overexpression of MHC I-restricted Ag-specific T-cell receptors (TCR). In this study, we generated murine iPS cells genetically modified with ovalbumin (OVA)-specific and MHC-I restricted TCR (OT-I) by retrovirus-mediated transduction. After their adoptive transfer into recipient mice, the majority of OT-I/iPS cells underwent differentiation into CD8+ CTLs. TCR-transduced iPS cells developed in vivo responded in vitro to peptide stimulation by secreting interleukin 2 and IFN-γ. Most importantly, adoptive transfer of TCR-transduced iPS cells triggered infiltration of OVA-reactive CTLs into tumor tissues and protected animals from tumor challenge. Taken together, our findings offer proof of concept for a potentially more efficient approach to generate Ag-specific T lymphocytes for adoptive immunotherapy.

  12. Hemato-endothelial differentiation from lentiviral-transduced human embryonic stem cells retains durable reporter gene expression under the control of ubiquitin promoter.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hua; Lin, Xiaolong; Feng, Youji; Xie, Yi; Han, Jinlan; Zhang, Yueping; Wang, Zack Z; Chen, Tong

    2010-01-01

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells are able to give rise to a variety of cell lineages under specific culture condition. An effective strategy for stable genetic modification in hES cells may provide a powerful tool for study of human embryogenesis and cell-based therapies. However, gene silences are documented in hES cells. In current study, we investigated whether genes controlled under ubiquitin promoter are expressed during hematopoietic-endothelial differentiation in hES cells. Undifferentiated hES cells (H1) were transduced by lentivirus encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene under ubiquitin promoter. GFP-expressing hES cells (GFP-H1) were established after several rounds of mechanical selection under fluorescence microscope. GFP gene was stably expressed in hES cells throughout prolonged (> 50 passages) cultivation, and in differentiated embryo body (EB) and teratoma. Hematopoietic and endothelial markers, including KDR (VEGFR2), CD34, CD31, Tie-2, GATA-1 and GATA-2, were expressed at similar levels during hES cell differentiation in parent hES cells and GFP-H1 hES cells. CD34(+) cells isolated from GFP-H1 hES cells were capable to generate hematopoietic colony-forming cells and tubular structure-forming cells. Differentiated GFP-EB formed vasculature structures in a semi-solid sprouting EB model. These results indicated that a transgene under ubiquitin promoter in lentiviral transduced hES cells retained its expression in undifferentiated hES cells and in hES-derived hematopoietic and endothelial cells. With the view of embryonic mesodermal developing events in humans, genetic modification of hES cells by lentiviral vectors provides a powerful tool for study of hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis.

  13. Human dental pulp stem cells can differentiate into Schwann cells and promote and guide neurite outgrowth in an aligned tissue-engineered collagen construct in vitro.

    PubMed

    Martens, Wendy; Sanen, Kathleen; Georgiou, Melanie; Struys, Tom; Bronckaers, Annelies; Ameloot, Marcel; Phillips, James; Lambrichts, Ivo

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the differentiation potential of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) toward Schwann cells, together with their functional capacity with regard to myelination and support of neurite outgrowth in vitro. Successful Schwann cell differentiation was confirmed at the morphological and ultrastructural level by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, compared to undifferentiated hDPSCs, immunocytochemistry and ELISA tests revealed increased glial marker expression and neurotrophic factor secretion of differentiated hDPSCs (d-hDPSCs), which promoted survival and neurite outgrowth in 2-dimensional dorsal root ganglia cultures. In addition, neurites were myelinated by d-hDPSCs in a 3-dimensional collagen type I hydrogel neural tissue construct. This engineered construct contained aligned columns of d-hDPSCs that supported and guided neurite outgrowth. Taken together, these findings provide the first evidence that hDPSCs are able to undergo Schwann cell differentiation and support neural outgrowth in vitro, proposing them to be good candidates for cell-based therapies as treatment for peripheral nerve injury.

  14. MiR-1207 overexpression promotes cancer stem cell-like traits in ovarian cancer by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Geyan; Liu, Aibin; Zhu, Jinrong; Lei, Fangyong; Wu, Shu; Zhang, Xin; Ye, Liping; Cao, Lixue; He, Shanyang

    2015-10-06

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is strictly controlled by multiple negative regulators. However, how tumor cells override the negative regulatory effects to maintain constitutive activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which is commonly observed in various cancers, remains puzzling. In current study, we reported that overexpression of miR-1207 in ovarian cancer activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling by directly targeting and suppressing secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1), AXIN2 and inhibitor of β-catenin and TCF-4 (ICAT), which are vital negative regulators of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. We found that the expression of miR-1207 was ubiquitously upregulated in both ovarian cancer tissues and cells, which inversely correlated with patient overall survival. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-1207 enhanced, while silencing miR-1207 reduced, stem cell-like traits of ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, including tumor sphere formation capability and proportion of SP+ and CD133+ cells. Importantly, upregulating miR-1207 promoted, while silencing miR-1207 inhibited, the tumorigenicity of ovarian cancer cells. Hence, our results suggest that miR-1207 plays a vital role in promoting the cancer stem cell-like phenotype in ovarian cancer and might represent a potential target for anti-ovarian cancer therapy.

  15. Stem Cell Organoid Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiaolei; Mead, Benjamin E.; Safaee, Helia; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.; Levy, Oren

    2016-01-01

    Organoid systems leverage the self-organizing properties of stem cells to create diverse multi-cellular tissue proxies. Most organoid models only represent single or partial components of a tissue, and it is often difficult to control the cell type, organization, and cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions within these systems. Herein, we discuss basic approaches to generate stem cell-based organoids, their advantages and limitations, and how bioengineering strategies can be used to steer the cell composition and their 3D organization within organoids to further enhance their utility in research and therapies. PMID:26748754

  16. Engineering Stem Cell Organoids.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaolei; Mead, Benjamin E; Safaee, Helia; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M; Levy, Oren

    2016-01-07

    Organoid systems leverage the self-organizing properties of stem cells to create diverse multi-cellular tissue proxies. Most organoid models only represent single or partial components of a tissue, and it is often difficult to control the cell type, organization, and cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions within these systems. Herein, we discuss basic approaches to generate stem cell-based organoids, their advantages and limitations, and how bioengineering strategies can be used to steer the cell composition and their 3D organization within organoids to further enhance their utility in research and therapies.

  17. Human dental pulp-derived stem cells promote locomotor recovery after complete transection of the rat spinal cord by multiple neuro-regenerative mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Akihito; Matsubara, Kohki; Nakamura, Shoko; Naruse, Mami; Yamagata, Mari; Sakamoto, Kazuma; Tauchi, Ryoji; Wakao, Norimitsu; Imagama, Shiro; Hibi, Hideharu; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ueda, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) often leads to persistent functional deficits due to loss of neurons and glia and to limited axonal regeneration after injury. Here we report that transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells into the completely transected adult rat spinal cord resulted in marked recovery of hind limb locomotor functions. Transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells or skin-derived fibroblasts led to substantially less recovery of locomotor function. The human dental pulp stem cells exhibited three major neuroregenerative activities. First, they inhibited the SCI-induced apoptosis of neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, which improved the preservation of neuronal filaments and myelin sheaths. Second, they promoted the regeneration of transected axons by directly inhibiting multiple axon growth inhibitors, including chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and myelin-associated glycoprotein, via paracrine mechanisms. Last, they replaced lost cells by differentiating into mature oligodendrocytes under the extreme conditions of SCI. Our data demonstrate that tooth-derived stem cells may provide therapeutic benefits for treating SCI through both cell-autonomous and paracrine neuroregenerative activities.

  18. Hypoxia-inducible factor-2 alpha promotes the proliferation of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells through the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chengxing; Yu, Jiong; Pan, Qiaoling; Yang, Jinfeng; Hao, Guangshu; Wang, Yingjie; Li, Lanjuan; Cao, Hongcui

    2016-01-01

    Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs) reside in a physiologically low-oxygen microenvironment. Hypoxia influences a variety of stem cell cellular activities, frequently involving hypoxia-inducible factor-2 alpha (HIF-2α). This research showed that hPMSCs cultured in hypoxic conditions (5% O2) exhibited a more naïve morphology and had a higher proliferative capability and higher HIF-2α expression than hPMSCs cultured in normoxic conditions (21% O2). Similar to the hypoxic cultures, hPMSCs over-expressing HIF-2α showed higher proliferative potential and higher expression of CCND1 (CyclinD1), MYC (c-Myc), POU5F1 (Oct4) and the components of the MAPK/ERK pathway. In contrast, these genes were down-regulated in the HIF-2α-silenced hPMSCs. After adding the MAPK/ERK inhibitor PD0325901, cell growth and the expression of CCND1 and MYC were inhibited. Furthermore, the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that HIF-2α bound to the MAPK3 (ERK1) promoter, indicative of its direct regulation of MAPK/ERK components at the transcriptional level during hPMSC expansion. Taken together, our results suggest that HIF-2α facilitated the preservation of hPMSC stemness and promoted their proliferation by regulating CCND1 and MYC through the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. PMID:27765951

  19. Gain of BDNF Function in Engrafted Neural Stem Cells Promotes the Therapeutic Potential for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cheng-Chun; Lien, Cheng-Chang; Hou, Wen-Hsien; Chiang, Po-Min; Tsai, Kuen-Jer

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapy is a potential treatment for neurodegenerative diseases, but its application to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) remains limited. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is critical in the pathogenesis and treatment of AD. Here, we present a novel therapeutic approach for AD treatment using BDNF-overexpressing neural stem cells (BDNF-NSCs). In vitro, BDNF overexpression was neuroprotective to beta-amyloid-treated NSCs. In vivo, engrafted BDNF-NSCs-derived neurons not only displayed the Ca2+-response fluctuations, exhibited electrophysiological properties of mature neurons and integrated into local brain circuits, but recovered the cognitive deficits. Furthermore, BDNF overexpression improved the engrafted cells’ viability, neuronal fate, neurite complexity, maturation of electrical property and the synaptic density. In contrast, knockdown of the BDNF in BDNF-NSCs diminished stem cell-based therapeutic efficacy. Together, our findings indicate BDNF overexpression improves the therapeutic potential of engrafted NSCs for AD via neurogenic effects and neuronal replacement, and further support the feasibility of NSC-based ex vivo gene therapy for AD. PMID:27264956

  20. [On plant stem cells and animal stem cells].

    PubMed

    You, Yun; Jiang, Chao; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of plant and animal stem cells can highlight core aspects of stem-cell biology. In both kingdoms, stem cells are defined by their clonogenic properties and are maintained by intercellular signals. The signaling molecules are different in plants and animals stem cell niches, but the roles of argonaute and polycomb group proteins suggest that there are some molecular similarities.

  1. Conditioned Medium from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) Promotes Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal-Like Transition (EMT-Like) in Glioma Cells In vitro.

    PubMed

    Iser, Isabele C; Ceschini, Stefanie M; Onzi, Giovana R; Bertoni, Ana Paula S; Lenz, Guido; Wink, Márcia R

    2016-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have recently been described to home to brain tumors and to integrate into the tumor-associated stroma. Understanding the communication between cancer cells and MSCs has become fundamental to determine whether MSC-tumor interactions should be exploited as a vehicle for therapeutic agents or considered a target for intervention. Therefore, we investigated whether conditioned medium from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs-CM) modulate glioma tumor cells by analyzing several cell biology processes in vitro. C6 rat glioma cells were treated with ADSCs-CM, and cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell viability, cell morphology, adhesion, migration, and expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related surface markers were analyzed. ADSCs-CM did not alter cell viability, cell cycle, and growth rate of C6 glioma cells but increased their migratory capacity. Moreover, C6 cells treated with ADSC-CM showed reduced adhesion and underwent changes in cell morphology. Up-regulation of EMT-associated markers (vimentin, MMP2, and NRAS) was also observed following treatment with ADSC-CM. Our findings demonstrate that the paracrine factors released by ADSCs are able to modulate glioma cell biology. Therefore, ADSC-tumor cell interactions in a tumor microenvironment must be considered in the design of clinical application of stem cell therapy. Graphical Abstract Factors released by adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) may modulate the biology of C6 glioma cells. When C6 cells are exposed to a conditioned medium from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs-CM), some of these cells can undergo an EMT-like process and trans-differentiate into cells with a more mesenchymal phenotype, characterized by enhanced expression of EMT-related surface markers, reduced cell adhesion capacity, increased migratory capacity, as well as changes in cell and nuclei morphology.

  2. Structure-based discovery of NANOG variant with enhanced properties to promote self-renewal and reprogramming of pluripotent stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Yohei; Caboni, Laura; Das, Debanu; Yumoto, Fumiaki; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Nguyen, Phuong; Farr, Carol L.; Chiu, Hsiu -Ju; Miller, Mitchell D.; Elsliger, Marc -André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Tomoda, Kiichiro; Conklin, Bruce R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Yamanaka, Shinya; Fletterick, Robert J.

    2015-03-30

    NANOG (from Irish mythology Tír na nÓg) transcription factor plays a central role in maintaining pluripotency, cooperating with OCT4 (also known as POU5F1 or OCT3/4), SOX2, and other pluripotency factors. Although the physiological roles of the NANOG protein have been extensively explored, biochemical and biophysical properties in relation to its structural analysis are poorly understood. Here we determined the crystal structure of the human NANOG homeodomain (hNANOG HD) bound to an OCT4 promoter DNA, which revealed amino acid residues involved in DNA recognition that are likely to be functionally important. We generated a series of hNANOG HD alanine substitution mutants based on the protein–DNA interaction and evolutionary conservation and determined their biological activities. Some mutant proteins were less stable, resulting in loss or decreased affinity for DNA binding. Overexpression of the orthologous mouse NANOG (mNANOG) mutants failed to maintain self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells without leukemia inhibitory factor. These results suggest that these residues are critical for NANOG transcriptional activity. Interestingly, one mutant, hNANOG L122A, conversely enhanced protein stability and DNA-binding affinity. The mNANOG L122A, when overexpressed in mouse embryonic stem cells, maintained their expression of self-renewal markers even when retinoic acid was added to forcibly drive differentiation. When overexpressed in epiblast stem cells or human induced pluripotent stem cells, the L122A mutants enhanced reprogramming into ground-state pluripotency. These findings indicate that structural and biophysical information on key transcriptional factors provides insights into the manipulation of stem cell behaviors and a framework for rational protein engineering.

  3. Structure-based discovery of NANOG variant with enhanced properties to promote self-renewal and reprogramming of pluripotent stem cells

    DOE PAGES

    Hayashi, Yohei; Caboni, Laura; Das, Debanu; ...

    2015-03-30

    NANOG (from Irish mythology Tír na nÓg) transcription factor plays a central role in maintaining pluripotency, cooperating with OCT4 (also known as POU5F1 or OCT3/4), SOX2, and other pluripotency factors. Although the physiological roles of the NANOG protein have been extensively explored, biochemical and biophysical properties in relation to its structural analysis are poorly understood. Here we determined the crystal structure of the human NANOG homeodomain (hNANOG HD) bound to an OCT4 promoter DNA, which revealed amino acid residues involved in DNA recognition that are likely to be functionally important. We generated a series of hNANOG HD alanine substitution mutantsmore » based on the protein–DNA interaction and evolutionary conservation and determined their biological activities. Some mutant proteins were less stable, resulting in loss or decreased affinity for DNA binding. Overexpression of the orthologous mouse NANOG (mNANOG) mutants failed to maintain self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells without leukemia inhibitory factor. These results suggest that these residues are critical for NANOG transcriptional activity. Interestingly, one mutant, hNANOG L122A, conversely enhanced protein stability and DNA-binding affinity. The mNANOG L122A, when overexpressed in mouse embryonic stem cells, maintained their expression of self-renewal markers even when retinoic acid was added to forcibly drive differentiation. When overexpressed in epiblast stem cells or human induced pluripotent stem cells, the L122A mutants enhanced reprogramming into ground-state pluripotency. These findings indicate that structural and biophysical information on key transcriptional factors provides insights into the manipulation of stem cell behaviors and a framework for rational protein engineering.« less

  4. Basic fibroblast growth factor promotes stem Leydig cell development and inhibits LH-stimulated androgen production by regulating microRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Lei; Liang, Rui; Ge, Ren-Shan; Zhang, Yufei; Zhang, Qihao; Xiang, Qi; Huang, Yadong; Su, Zhijian

    2014-10-01

    Leydig cells are the primary source of testosterone in the testes, and their steroidogenic function is strictly controlled by the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis. Emerging evidence has indicated that fibroblast growth factors play a role in regulating stem Leydig cell development and steroidogenesis, but little is known about the regulatory mechanism. Using a seminiferous tubule culture system, we demonstrated that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) can promote stem Leydig cell proliferation and commitment toward differentiation in testosterone-producing Leydig cells. However, these promoting effects decreased with an increase in the bFGF dose. Previous studies have reported that bFGF inhibits luteinizing hormone (LH)-stimulated androgen production by downregulating the mRNA expression of steroidogenic genes in immature Leydig cells. However, the expression levels of 677 microRNAs did not change significantly during the LH-mediated process of testosterone synthesis. Five microRNAs (miR-29a, -29c, -142-3p, -451 and -335) were identified, and their expression in immature Leydig cells was regulated simultaneously by bFGF and LH. These results suggested that the inhibition of LH-stimulated androgen production may be modulated by a change in bFGF-mediated microRNA expression, which further impacts the signaling pathway of testosterone biosynthesis and steroidogenic gene expression.

  5. MEF promotes stemness in the pathogenesis of gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Bazzoli, Elena; Pulvirenti, Teodoro; Oberstadt, Moritz C.; Perna, Fabiana; Wee, Boyoung; Schultz, Nikolaus; Huse, Jason T.; Fomchenko, Elena I.; Voza, Francesca; Tabar, Viviane; Brennan, Cameron W.; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Nimer, Stephen D.; Holland, Eric C.; Squatrito, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Summary High-grade gliomas are aggressive and uniformly fatal tumors, composed of a heterogeneous population of cells that include many with stem cell-like properties. The acquisition of stem-like traits might contribute to glioma initiation, growth and recurrence. Here we investigated the role of the transcription factor myeloid Elf-1 like factor (MEF, also known as ELF4) in glioma. We found that MEF is highly expressed in both human and mouse GBMs and its absence impairs gliomagenesis in a PDGF-driven glioma mouse model. We show that modulation of MEF levels in both mouse neural stem cells and human glioblastoma cells, has a significant impact on neurosphere formation. Moreover, we identify Sox2 as a direct downstream target of MEF. Taken together, our studies implicate MEF as a previously unrecognized gatekeeper gene in gliomagenesis by promoting stem cell characteristics through Sox2 activation. PMID:23217424

  6. MEF promotes stemness in the pathogenesis of gliomas.

    PubMed

    Bazzoli, Elena; Pulvirenti, Teodoro; Oberstadt, Moritz C; Perna, Fabiana; Wee, Boyoung; Schultz, Nikolaus; Huse, Jason T; Fomchenko, Elena I; Voza, Francesca; Tabar, Viviane; Brennan, Cameron W; DeAngelis, Lisa M; Nimer, Stephen D; Holland, Eric C; Squatrito, Massimo

    2012-12-07

    High-grade gliomas are aggressive and uniformly fatal tumors, composed of a heterogeneous population of cells that include many with stem-cell-like properties. The acquisition of stem-like traits might contribute to glioma initiation, growth, and recurrence. Here we investigated the role of the transcription factor myeloid Elf-1 like factor (MEF, also known as ELF4) in gliomas. We found that MEF is highly expressed in both human and mouse glioblastomas and its absence impairs gliomagenesis in a PDGF-driven glioma mouse model. We show that modulation of MEF levels in both mouse neural stem cells and human glioblastoma cells has a significant impact on neurosphere formation. Moreover, we identify Sox2 as a direct downstream target of MEF. Taken together, our studies implicate MEF as a previously unrecognized gatekeeper gene in gliomagenesis that promotes stem cell characteristics through Sox2 activation.

  7. Hypoxia promotes CEMP1 expression and induces cementoblastic differentiation of human dental stem cells in an HIF-1-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwajung; Jin, Hexiu; Kim, Jin-Young; Lim, Ki-Taek; Choung, Han-Wool; Park, Joo-Young; Chung, Jong Hoon; Choung, Pill-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Cementum covering the tooth root provides attachment for the tooth proper to the surrounding alveolar bone via non-mineralized periodontal ligament (PDL). Cementum protein 1 (CEMP1) has been shown to induce a cementoblastic phenotype in cementoblast precursors cells of PDL. Oxygen availability is a critical signal for correct development of many tissues; however, its role in tooth root and periodontium development remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that reduced oxygen tension increased CEMP1 expression, mineral deposition, and alkaline phosphatase activity in human dental stem cells such as PDL stem cells and periapical follicular stem cells. Since an oxemic state is transduced by the transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), we performed experiments to determine whether this protein was responsible for the observed changes. We noted that when HIF-1 was activated by gene introduction or chemically, CEMP1 expression and mineralization increased. In contrast, when HIF-1α was silenced, CEMP1 expression and mineralization did not increase in vitro. Furthermore, we showed for the first time that mouse tooth root and periodontium development occurs partly under hypoxic conditions, particularly at the apical part and latently at the PDL space in vivo. Desferrioxamine, an HIF-1 stimulator, enhances CEMP1 expression in the mouse PDL space, suggesting that hypoxia affects cementogenesis of PDL cells lining the surface of the developing tooth root in an HIF-1-dependent manner. These results suggest that HIF-1 activators may have the ability to stimulate regeneration of the tooth root and cementum formation.

  8. The Src homology 2 protein Shb promotes cell cycle progression in murine hematopoietic stem cells by regulation of focal adhesion kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafsson, Karin; Heffner, Garrett; Wenzel, Pamela L.; Curran, Matthew; Grawé, Jan; McKinney-Freeman, Shannon L.; Daley, George Q.; Welsh, Michael

    2013-07-15

    The widely expressed adaptor protein Shb has previously been reported to contribute to T cell function due to its association with the T cell receptor and furthermore, several of Shb's known interaction partners are established regulators of blood cell development and function. In addition, Shb deficient embryonic stem cells displayed reduced blood cell colony formation upon differentiation in vitro. The aim of the current study was therefore to explore hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell function in the Shb knockout mouse. Shb deficient bone marrow contained reduced relative numbers of long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) that exhibited lower proliferation rates. Despite this, Shb knockout LT-HSCs responded promptly by entering the cell cycle in response to genotoxic stress by 5-fluorouracil treatment. In competitive LT-HSC transplantations, Shb null cells initially engrafted as well as the wild-type cells but provided less myeloid expansion over time. Moreover, Shb knockout bone marrow cells exhibited elevated basal activities of focal adhesion kinase/Rac1/p21-activated kinase signaling and reduced responsiveness to Stem Cell Factor stimulation. Consequently, treatment with a focal adhesion kinase inhibitor increased Shb knockout LT-HSC proliferation. The altered signaling characteristics thus provide a plausible mechanistic explanation for the changes in LT-HSC proliferation since these signaling intermediates have all been shown to participate in LT-HSC cell cycle control. In summary, the loss of Shb dependent signaling in bone marrow cells, resulting in elevated focal adhesion kinase activity and reduced proliferative responses in LT-HSCs under steady state hematopoiesis, confers a disadvantage to the maintenance of LT-HSCs over time. -- Highlights: • Shb is an adaptor protein operating downstream of tyrosine kinase receptors. • Shb deficiency reduces hematopoietic stem cell proliferation. • The proliferative effect of Shb occurs via increased

  9. rFN/Cad-11-Modified Collagen Type II Biomimetic Interface Promotes the Adhesion and Chondrogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongfeng; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Zhengsheng; Kang, Fei; Yang, Bo; Kang, Xia; Wen, Can; Yan, Yanfei; Jiang, Bo; Fan, Yujiang

    2013-01-01

    Properties of the cell-material interface are determining factors in the successful function of cells for cartilage tissue engineering. Currently, cell adhesion is commonly promoted through the use of polypeptides; however, due to their lack of complementary or modulatory domains, polypeptides must be modified to improve their ability to promote adhesion. In this study, we utilized the principle of matrix-based biomimetic modification and a recombinant protein, which spans fragments 7–10 of fibronectin module III (heterophilic motif ) and extracellular domains 1–2 of cadherin-11 (rFN/Cad-11) (homophilic motif ), to modify the interface of collagen type II (Col II) sponges. We showed that the designed material was able to stimulate cell proliferation and promote better chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro than both the FN modified surfaces and the negative control. Further, the Col II/rFN/Cad-11-MSCs composite stimulated cartilage formation in vivo; the chondrogenic effect of Col II alone was much less significant. These results suggested that the rFN/Cad-11-modified collagen type II biomimetic interface has dual biological functions of promoting adhesion and stimulating chondrogenic differentiation. This substance, thus, may serve as an ideal scaffold material for cartilage tissue engineering, enhancing repair of injured cartilage in vivo. PMID:23919505

  10. Mesenchymal dental stem cells in regenerative dentistry.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Francisco-Javier; Insausti, Carmen-Luisa; Iniesta, Francisca; Blanquer, Miguel; Ramírez, María-del-Carmen; Meseguer, Luis; Meseguer-Henarejos, Ana-Belén; Marín, Noemí; Martínez, Salvador; Moraleda, José-María

    2012-11-01

    In the last decade, tissue engineering is a field that has been suffering an enormous expansion in the regenerative medicine and dentistry. The use of cells as mesenchymal dental stem cells of easy access for dentist and oral surgeon, immunosuppressive properties, high proliferation and capacity to differentiate into odontoblasts, cementoblasts, osteoblasts and other cells implicated in the teeth, suppose a good perspective of future in the clinical dentistry. However, is necessary advance in the known of growth factors and signalling molecules implicated in tooth development and regeneration of different structures of teeth. Furthermore, these cells need a fabulous scaffold that facility their integration, differentiation, matrix synthesis and promote multiple specific interactions between cells. In this review, we give a brief description of tooth development and anatomy, definition and classification of stem cells, with special attention of mesenchymal stem cells, commonly used in the cellular therapy for their trasdifferentiation ability, non ethical problems and acceptable results in preliminary clinical trials. In terms of tissue engineering, we provide an overview of different types of mesenchymal stem cells that have been isolated from teeth, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), dental follicle progenitor stem cells (DFPCs), and stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs), growth factors implicated in regeneration teeth and types of scaffolds for dental tissue regeneration.

  11. Surgery-induced wound response promotes stem-like and tumor-initiating features of breast cancer cells, via STAT3 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Segatto, Ilenia; Berton, Stefania; Sonego, Maura; Massarut, Samuele; Perin, Tiziana; Piccoli, Erica; Colombatti, Alfonso; Vecchione, Andrea; Baldassarre, Gustavo; Belletti, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is clinically linked to cancer but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Surgery itself elicits a range of inflammatory responses, suggesting that it could represent a perturbing factor in the process of local recurrence and/or metastasis formation. Post-surgery wound fluids (WF), drained from breast cancer patients, are rich in cytokines and growth factors, stimulate the in vitro growth of breast cancer cells and are potent activators of the STAT transcription factors. We wondered whether STAT signaling was functionally involved in the response of breast cancer cells to post-surgical inflammation. We discovered that WF induced the enrichment of breast cancer cells with stem-like phenotypes, via activation of STAT3. In vitro, WF highly stimulated mammosphere formation and self-renewal of breast cancer cells. In vivo, STAT3 signaling was critical for breast cancer cell tumorigenicity and for the formation of local relapse after surgery. Overall, we demonstrate here that surgery-induced inflammation promotes stem-like phenotypes and tumor-initiating abilities of breast cancer cells. Interfering with STAT3 signaling with a peri-surgical treatment is sufficient to strongly suppress this process. The understanding of the crosstalk between breast tumor-initiating cells and their microenvironment may open the way to successful targeting of these cells in their initial stages of growth and be eventually curative. PMID:25026286

  12. Surgery-induced wound response promotes stem-like and tumor-initiating features of breast cancer cells, via STAT3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Segatto, Ilenia; Berton, Stefania; Sonego, Maura; Massarut, Samuele; Perin, Tiziana; Piccoli, Erica; Colombatti, Alfonso; Vecchione, Andrea; Baldassarre, Gustavo; Belletti, Barbara

    2014-08-15

    Inflammation is clinically linked to cancer but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Surgery itself elicits a range of inflammatory responses, suggesting that it could represent a perturbing factor in the process of local recurrence and/or metastasis. Post-surgery wound fluids (WF), drained from breast cancer patients, are rich in cytokines and growth factors, stimulate the in vitro growth of breast cancer cells and are potent activators of the STAT transcription factors. We wondered whether STAT signaling was functionally involved in the response of breast cancer cells to post-surgical inflammation. We discovered that WF induced the enrichment of breast cancer cells with stem-like phenotypes, via activation of STAT3. In vitro, WF highly stimulated mammosphere formation and self-renewal of breast cancer cells. In vivo, STAT3 signaling was critical for breast cancer cell tumorigenicity and for the formation of local relapse after surgery. Overall, we demonstrate here that surgery-induced inflammation promotes stem-like phenotypes and tumor-initiating abilities of breast cancer cells. Interfering with STAT3 signaling with a peri-surgical treatment was sufficient to strongly suppress this process. The understanding of the crosstalk between breast tumor-initiating cells and their microenvironment may open the way to successful targeting of these cells in their initial stages of growth and be eventually curative.

  13. Müller glial cells induce stem cell properties in retinal progenitors in vitro and promote their further differentiation into photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Simón, María V; De Genaro, Pablo; Abrahan, Carolina E; de los Santos, Beatriz; Rotstein, Nora P; Politi, Luis E

    2012-02-01

    Using stem cells to replace lost neurons is a promising strategy for treating retinal neurodegenerative diseases. Among their multiple functions, Müller glial cells are retina stem cells, with a robust regenerative potential in lower vertebrates, which is much more restricted in mammals. In rodents, most retina progenitors exit the cell cycle immediately after birth, differentiate as neurons, and then cannot reenter the cell cycle. Here we demonstrate that, in mixed cultures with Müller glial cells, rat retina progenitor cells expressed stem cell properties, maintained their proliferative potential, and were able to preserve these properties and remain mitotically active after several consecutive passages. Notably, these progenitors retained the capacity to differentiate as photoreceptors, even after successive reseedings. Müller glial cells markedly stimulated differentiation of retina progenitors; these cells initially expressed Crx and then developed as mature photoreceptors that expressed characteristic markers, such as opsin and peripherin. Moreover, they were light responsive, insofar as they decreased their cGMP levels when exposed to light, and they also showed high-affinity glutamate uptake, a characteristic of mature photoreceptors. Our present findings indicate that, in addition to giving rise to new photoreceptors, Müller glial cells might instruct a pool of undifferentiated cells to develop and preserve stem cell characteristics, even after successive reseedings, and then stimulate their differentiation as functional photoreceptors. This complementary mechanism might contribute to enlarge the limited regenerative capacity of mammalian Müller cells.

  14. CCN1 secreted by tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells promotes endothelial cell angiogenesis via integrin αv β3 and AMPK.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon Shin; Hwang, Soojin; Jin, Yoon Mi; Yu, Yeonsil; Jung, Sung-Ae; Jung, Sung-Chul; Ryu, Kyung-Ha; Kim, Han Su; Jo, Inho

    2015-01-01

    CCN1 is highly expressed in cancer cells and has been identified in the secretome of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC). Although secreted CCN1 is known to promote angiogenesis, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we examined whether our recently-established tonsil-derived MSC (T-MSC) secrete CCN1 and, if any, how CCN1 promotes the angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Compared with untreated control T-MSC, a higher level of CCN1 was secreted by T-MSC treated with activin A and sonic hedgehog, drugs known to induce endodermal differentiation. Expectedly, conditioned medium collected from differentiated T-MSC (DCM) significantly increased HUVEC migration and tube formation compared with that from control T-MSC (CCM), and these stimulatory effects were reversed by neutralization with anti-CCN1 antibody. Treatment with recombinant human CCN1 (rh-CCN1) alone also mimicked the stimulatory effects of DCM. Furthermore, treatment with either DCM or rh-CCN1 increased the phosphorylation of AMP kinase (AMPK), and ectopic expression of siRNA of the AMPK gene inhibited all observed effects of both DCM and rh-CCN1. However, no alteration of intracellular ATP levels or phosphorylation of LKB1, a well-known upstream factor of AMPK activation, was observed under our conditions. Finally, the neutralization of integrin α(v) β(3) with anti-integrin α(v) β(3) antibody almost completely reversed the effects of CCN1 on AMPK phosphorylation, and EC migration and tube formation. Taken together, we demonstrated that T-MSC increase the secretion of CCN1 in response to endodermal differentiation and that integrin α(v) β(3) and AMPK mediate CCN1-induced EC migration and tube formation independent of intracellular ATP levels alteration.

  15. mTOR signaling promotes stem cell activation via counterbalancing BMP-mediated suppression during hair regeneration.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhili; Lei, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xudong; Zhang, Huishan; Liu, Shuang; Chen, Qi; Hu, Huimin; Wang, Xinyue; Ning, Lina; Cao, Yujing; Zhao, Tongbiao; Zhou, Jiaxi; Chen, Ting; Duan, Enkui

    2015-02-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo cycles of degeneration (catagen), rest (telogen), and regeneration (anagen) phases. Anagen begins when the hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) obtain sufficient activation cues to overcome suppressive signals, mainly the BMP pathway, from their niche cells. Here, we unveil that mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is activated in HFSCs, which coincides with the HFSC activation at the telogen-to-anagen transition. By using both an inducible conditional gene targeting strategy and a pharmacological inhibition method to ablate or inhibit mTOR signaling in adult skin epithelium before anagen initiation, we demonstrate that HFs that cannot respond to mTOR signaling display significantly delayed HFSC activation and extended telogen. Unexpectedly, BMP signaling activity is dramatically prolonged in mTOR signaling-deficient HFs. Through both gain- and loss-of-function studies in vitro, we show that mTORC1 signaling negatively affects BMP signaling, which serves as a main mechanism whereby mTORC1 signaling facilitates HFSC activation. Indeed, in vivo suppression of BMP by its antagonist Noggin rescues the HFSC activation defect in mTORC1-null skin. Our findings reveal a critical role for mTOR signaling in regulating stem cell activation through counterbalancing BMP-mediated repression during hair regeneration.

  16. Bortezomib and Filgrastim in Promoting Stem Cell Mobilization in Patients With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma or Multiple Myeloma Undergoing Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular

  17. Poly-L-ornithine enhances migration of neural stem/progenitor cells via promoting α-Actinin 4 binding to actin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Hongfei; Yu, Anyong; Chen, Jingyu; Yuan, Jichao; Yin, Yi; Duanmu, Wangsheng; Tan, Liang; Yang, Yang; Lan, Chuan; Chen, Weixiang; Feng, Hua; Hu, Rong

    2016-01-01

    The recruitment of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) for brain restoration after injury is a promising regenerative therapeutic strategy. This strategy involves enhancing proliferation, migration and neuronal differentation of NSPCs. To date, the lack of biomaterials, which facilitate these processes to enhance neural regeneration, is an obstacle for the cell replacement therapies. Our previous study has shown that NSPCs grown on poly-L-ornithine (PO) could proliferate more vigorously and differentiate into more neurons than that on Poly-L-Lysine (PLL) and Fibronectin (FN). Here, we demonstrate that PO could promote migration of NSPCs in vitro, and the underlying mechanism is PO activates α-Actinins 4 (ACTN4), which is firstly certified to be expessed in NSPCs, to promote filopodia formation and therefore enhances NSPCs migration. Taken together, PO might serve as a better candidate for transplanted biomaterials in the regenerative therapeutic strategy, compared with PLL and FN. PMID:27874083

  18. DOT1L Activity Promotes Proliferation and Protects Cortical Neural Stem Cells from Activation of ATF4-DDIT3-Mediated ER Stress In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Roidl, Deborah; Hellbach, Nicole; Bovio, Patrick P; Villarreal, Alejandro; Heidrich, Stefanie; Nestel, Sigrun; Grüning, Björn A; Boenisch, Ulrike; Vogel, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the lysine methyltransferase DOT1L/KMT4 has important roles in proliferation, survival, and differentiation of stem cells in development and in disease. We investigated the function of DOT1L in neural stem cells (NSCs) of the cerebral cortex. The pharmacological inhibition and shRNA-mediated knockdown of DOT1L impaired proliferation and survival of NSCs. DOT1L inhibition specifically induced genes that are activated during the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Chromatin-immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that two genes encoding for central molecules involved in the ER stress response, Atf4 and Ddit3 (Chop), are marked with H3K79 methylation. Interference with DOT1L activity resulted in transcriptional activation of both genes accompanied by decreased levels of H3K79 dimethylation. Although downstream effectors of the UPR, such as Ppp1r15a/Gadd34, Atf3, and Tnfrsf10b/Dr5 were also transcriptionally activated, this most likely occurred in response to increased ATF4 expression rather than as a direct consequence of altered H3K79 methylation. While stem cells are particularly vulnerable to stress, the UPR and ER stress have not been extensively studied in these cells yet. Since activation of the ER stress program is also implicated in directing stem cells into differentiation or to maintain a proliferative status, the UPR must be tightly regulated. Our and published data suggest that histone modifications, including H3K4me3, H3K14ac, and H3K79me2, are implicated in the control of transcriptional activation of ER stress genes. In this context, the loss of H3K79me2 at the Atf4- and Ddit3-promoters appears to mark a point-of-no-return that activates the death program in NSCs.

  19. Dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ashri, Nahid Y.; Ajlan, Sumaiah A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from their relative accessibility and pleasant handling properties. The purpose of this article is to review the biological principles of periodontal tissue engineering, along with the challenges facing the development of a consistent and clinically relevant tissue regeneration platform. This article includes an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors. PMID:26620980

  20. Activin B Regulates Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Promote Skin Wound Healing via Activation of the MAPK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Xu, Pengcheng; Wang, Xueer; Zhang, Min; Yan, Yuan; Chen, Yinghua; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Lin

    2017-04-07

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including skin cells, and they can provide an abundant source of cells for skin tissue engineering and skin wound healing. The purpose of this study is to explore the therapeutic effects of activin B in combination with ADSCs and the possible signaling mechanism. In this study, we found that activin B was able to promote ADSC migration by inducing actin stress fiber formation in vitro. In vivo, activin B in combination with ADSCs was capable of enhancing α-SMA expression and wound closure. This combined treatment also promoted fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation and accelerated re-epithelialization and collagen deposition. Moreover, activin B in combination with ADSCs boosted angiogenesis in the wound area. Further study of the mechanism revealed that activation of JNK and ERK signaling, but not p38 signaling, were required for activin B-induced ADSC actin stress fiber formation and cell migration. These results showed that activin B was able to activate JNK and ERK signaling pathways to induce actin stress fiber formation and ADSC migration to promote wound healing. These results suggest that combined treatment with activin B and ADSCs is a promising therapeutic strategy for the management of serious skin wounds.

  1. Constitutive expression of Wnt/β‑catenin target genes promotes proliferation and invasion of liver cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yu-Wei; Li, Yang; Zhang, Jian-Wen; Zhang, Tong; Fu, Bin-Sheng; Zhang, Qi; Jiang, Nan

    2016-04-01

    Wnt/β‑catenin is an important signaling pathways involved in the tumorgenesis, progression and maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs). In the present study, the role of Wnt/β‑catenin signaling in CSC‑mediated tumorigenesis and invasion in liver CSCs was investigated. A small population of cancer stem‑like side population (SP) cells (3.6%) from liver cancer samples were identified. The cells were highly resistant to drug treatment due to the enhanced expression of drug efflux pumps, such as ABC subfamily G member 2, multidrug resistance protein 1 and ATP‑binding cassette subfamily B member 5. Furthermore, using TOPflash and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, Wnt/β‑catenin signaling and the transcriptional regulation of Wnt/β‑catenin target genes including dickkopf Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor 1, axis inhibition protein 2 and cyclin D1 were observed to be markedly upregulated in liver cancer SP cells. As a consequence, SP cells possessed infinite cell proliferation potential and the ability to generating tumor spheres. In addition, upon reducing Wnt/β‑catenin signaling, the rates of proliferation, tumor sphere formation and tumor invasion of SP cells were markedly reduced. Therefore, these data suggest that Wnt/β‑catenin signaling is a potential therapeutic target to reduce CSC‑mediated tumorigenicity and invasion in liver cancer.

  2. Cell therapy with embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes encapsulated in injectable nanomatrix gel enhances cell engraftment and promotes cardiac repair.

    PubMed

    Ban, Kiwon; Park, Hun-Jun; Kim, Sangsung; Andukuri, Adinarayana; Cho, Kyu-Won; Hwang, Jung Wook; Cha, Ho Jin; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Woan-Sang; Jun, Ho-Wook; Yoon, Young-Sup

    2014-10-28

    A significant barrier to the therapeutic use of stem cells is poor cell retention in vivo. Here, we evaluate the therapeutic potential and long-term engraftment of cardiomyocytes (CMs) derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) encapsulated in an injectable nanomatrix gel consisting of peptide amphiphiles incorporating cell adhesive ligand Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (PA-RGDS) in experimental myocardial infarction (MI). We cultured rat neonatal CMs in PA-RGDS for 7 days and found that more than 90% of the CMs survived. Next, we intramyocardially injected mouse CM cell line HL-1 CMs with or without PA-RGDS into uninjured hearts. Histologic examination and flow cytometry analysis of digested heart tissues showed approximately 3-fold higher engraftment in the mice that received CMs with PA-RGDS compared to those without PA-RGDS. We further investigated the therapeutic effects and long-term engraftment of mESC-CMs with PA-RGDS on MI in comparison with PBS control, CM-only, and PA-RGDS only. Echocardiography demonstrated that the CM-only and CM+PA-RGDS groups showed higher cardiac function at week 2 compared to other groups. However, from 3 weeks, higher cardiac function was maintained only in the CM+PA-RGDS group; this was sustained for 12 weeks. Confocal microscopic examination of the cardiac tissues harvested at 14 weeks demonstrated sustained engraftment and integration of mESC-CMs into host myocardium in the CM+PA-RGDS group only. This study for the first time demonstrated that PA-RGDS encapsulation can enhance survival of mESC-derived CMs and improve cardiac function post-MI. This nanomatrix gel-mediated stem cell therapy can be a promising option for treating MI.

  3. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote proliferation and migration in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells through activation of the ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Zhang, Chunfu; Ding, Yanling; Zhai, Wei; Liu, Kui; Bu, Fan; Tu, Tao; Sun, Lingxian; Zhu, Wei; Zhou, Fangfang; Qi, Wenkai; Hu, Jiabo; Chen, Huabiao; Sun, Xiaochun

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to migrate to tumor tissues and to play an important role in cancer progression. However, the effects of MSCs on tumor progression remain controversial. The purpose of the present study was to detect the effects of human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hUC‑MSCs) on the human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB‑231 and MCF-7 in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. MSCs were isolated and identified from umbilical cord tissues. MDA-MB‑231 and MCF-7 cells were treated with conditioned medium (CM) from 10 and 20% umbilical cord MSCs (UC-MSCs), and the resulting changes in proliferation and migration were investigated. The 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)‑2,5-diphenyl‑2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and plate clone formation assays were used to assess the effect on proliferation, and the effects of CM on MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 migration were assessed through scratch wound and Transwell migration assays. The expression of cell proliferation- and metastasis-related genes and proteins and activation of the ERK signaling pathway were analyzed by RT-PCR and western blot assays. UC-MSCs are characteristically similar to bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) and exhibit multipotential differentiation capability (i.e., osteoblasts and adipocytes). The MTT, plate clone formation, scratch wound and Transwell migration assay results revealed that 10 and 20% CM promoted the proliferation and migration to higher levels than those observed in the control group. Our findings showed that UC-MSC-CM inhibited E-cadherin expression, increased the expression of N-cadherin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and enhanced the expression of ZEB1, a transcription factor involved in epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition (EMT), through activation of the ERK pathway. U0126, an inhibitor of ERK, reversed the effects of UC-MSC-CM on breast cancer cell proliferation and migration. We conclude that UC-MSCs promote the proliferation and migration of breast

  4. Reversing breast cancer stem cell into breast somatic stem cell.

    PubMed

    Wijaya, L; Agustina, D; Lizandi, A O; Kartawinata, M M; Sandra, F

    2011-02-01

    Stem cells have an important role in cell biology, allowing tissues to be renewed by freshly created cells throughout their lifetime. The specific micro-environment of stem cells is called stem cell niche; this environment influences the development of stem cells from quiescence through stages of differentiation. Recent advance researches have improved the understanding of the cellular and molecular components of the micro-environment--or niche--that regulates stem cells. We point out an important trend to the study of niche activity in breast cancers. Breast cancer has long been known to conserve a heterogeneous population of cells. While the majority of cells that make up tumors are destined to differentiate and eventually stop dividing, only minority populations of cells, termed cancer stem cell, possess extensive self renewal capability. These cancer stem cells possess characteristics of both stem cells and cancer cells. Breast cancer stem cells reversal to breast somatic stem cells offer a new therapy, that not only can stop the spread of breast cancer cells, but also can differentiate breast cancer stem cells into normal breast somatic stem cells. These can replace damaged breast tissue. Nevertheless, the complexity of realizing this therapy approach needs further research.

  5. Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells and chorionic plate-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote axon survival in a rat model of optic nerve crush injury.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sokjoong; Rho, Seungsoo; Kim, Gijin; Kim, So-Ra; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Kang, Myungseo; Lew, Helen

    2016-05-01

    The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in cell therapy in regenerative medicine has great potential, particularly in the treatment of nerve injury. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) reportedly contains stem cells, which have been widely used as a hematopoietic source and may have therapeutic potential for neurological impairment. Although ongoing research is dedicated to the management of traumatic optic nerve injury using various measures, novel therapeutic strategies based on the complex underlying mechanisms responsible for optic nerve injury, such as inflammation and/or ischemia, are required. In the present study, a rat model of optic nerve crush (ONC) injury was established in order to examine the effects of transplanting human chorionic plate-derived MSCs (CP‑MSCs) isolated from the placenta, as well as human UCB mononuclear cells (CB-MNCs) on compressed rat optic nerves. Expression markers for inflammation, apoptosis, and optic nerve regeneration were analyzed, as well as the axon survival rate by direct counting. Increased axon survival rates were observed following the injection of CB‑MNCs at at 1 week post-transplantation compared with the controls. The levels of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP‑43) were increased after the injection of CB‑MNCs or CP‑MSCs compared with the controls, and the expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) were also significantly increased following the injection of CB-MNCs or CP-MSCs. ERM-like protein (ERMN) and SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2 (SRGAP2) were found to be expressed in the optic nerves of the CP‑MSC-injected rats with ONC injury. The findings of our study suggest that the administration of CB‑MNCs or CP‑MSCs may promote axon survival through systemic concomitant mechanisms involving GAP‑43 and HIF‑1α. Taken together, these findings provide further understanding of the mechanisms repsonsible for optic nerve injury and may aid in the development of novel cell

  6. Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells and chorionic plate-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote axon survival in a rat model of optic nerve crush injury

    PubMed Central

    CHUNG, SOKJOONG; RHO, SEUNGSOO; KIM, GIJIN; KIM, SO-RA; BAEK, KWANG-HYUN; KANG, MYUNGSEO; LEW, HELEN

    2016-01-01

    The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in cell therapy in regenerative medicine has great potential, particularly in the treatment of nerve injury. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) reportedly contains stem cells, which have been widely used as a hematopoietic source and may have therapeutic potential for neurological impairment. Although ongoing research is dedicated to the management of traumatic optic nerve injury using various measures, novel therapeutic strategies based on the complex underlying mechanisms responsible for optic nerve injury, such as inflammation and/or ischemia, are required. In the present study, a rat model of optic nerve crush (ONC) injury was established in order to examine the effects of transplanting human chorionic plate-derived MSCs (CP-MSCs) isolated from the placenta, as well as human UCB mononuclear cells (CB-MNCs) on compressed rat optic nerves. Expression markers for inflammation, apoptosis, and optic nerve regeneration were analyzed, as well as the axon survival rate by direct counting. Increased axon survival rates were observed following the injection of CB-MNCs at at 1 week post-transplantation compared with the controls. The levels of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) were increased after the injection of CB-MNCs or CP-MSCs compared with the controls, and the expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) were also significantly increased following the injection of CB-MNCs or CP-MSCs. ERM-like protein (ERMN) and SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2 (SRGAP2) were found to be expressed in the optic nerves of the CP-MSC-injected rats with ONC injury. The findings of our study suggest that the administration of CB-MNCs or CP-MSCs may promote axon survival through systemic concomitant mechanisms involving GAP-43 and HIF-1α. Taken together, these findings provide further understanding of the mechanisms repsonsible for optic nerve injury and may aid in the development of novel cell-based therapeutic strategies with

  7. Dickkopf 3 Promotes the Differentiation of a Rostrolateral Midbrain Dopaminergic Neuronal Subset In Vivo and from Pluripotent Stem Cells In Vitro in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Fukusumi, Yoshiyasu; Meier, Florian; Götz, Sebastian; Matheus, Friederike; Irmler, Martin; Beckervordersandforth, Ruth; Faus-Kessler, Theresa; Minina, Eleonora; Rauser, Benedict; Zhang, Jingzhong; Arenas, Ernest; Andersson, Elisabet; Niehrs, Christof; Beckers, Johannes; Simeone, Antonio; Wurst, Wolfgang; Prakash, Nilima

    2015-09-30

    secreted modulator of WNT (Wingless-related MMTV integration site)/β-catenin signaling, is both necessary and sufficient for the proper differentiation and survival of a rostrolateral (parabrachial pigmented nucleus and dorsomedial substantia nigra pars compacta) mesodiencephalic dopaminergic neuron subset, using Dkk3 mutant mice and murine primary ventral midbrain and pluripotent stem cells. The progressive loss of these dopamine-producing mesodiencephalic neurons is a hallmark of human Parkinson's disease, which can up to now not be halted by clinical treatments of this disease. Thus, the soluble DKK3 protein might be a promising new agent for the improvement of current protocols for the directed differentiation of pluripotent and multipotent stem cells into mesodiencephalic dopaminergic neurons and for the promotion of their survival in situ.

  8. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)-inhibitor SB216763 promotes the conversion of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into neural precursors in adherent culture.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liyang; Zhao, Mingyan; Li, Peng; Kong, Junchao; Liu, Zhijun; Chen, Yonghua; Huang, Rui; Chu, Jiaqi; Quan, Juanhua; Zeng, Rong

    2017-01-01

    The ability to generate neural progenitor cells from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) has provided an option to treat neurodegenerative diseases. To establish a method for this purpose, we characterized the early neural markers of hUC-MSCs-derived cells under different conditions. We found that neither the elimination of signals for alternative fate nor N2 supplement was sufficient to differentiate hUC-MSCs into neural precursor cells, but the GSK3 inhibitor SB216763 could promote an efficient neural commitment of hUC-MSCs. The results indicated that Wnt/β-catenin might play an important role during the early neural differentiation of hUC-MSCs. Here, we report a method for hUC-MSCs to commit efficiently into a neural fate within a short period of time. This protocol provides an efficient method for hUC-MSCs-based neural regeneration.

  9. Electrical stimulation using conductive polymer polypyrrole promotes differentiation of human neural stem cells: a biocompatible platform for translational neural tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Elise; Kobayashi, Nao R; Higgins, Michael J; Quigley, Anita F; Jamali, Sina; Moulton, Simon E; Kapsa, Robert M I; Wallace, Gordon G; Crook, Jeremy M

    2015-04-01

    Conductive polymers (CPs) are organic materials that hold great promise for biomedicine. Potential applications include in vitro or implantable electrodes for excitable cell recording and stimulation and conductive scaffolds for cell support and tissue engineering. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of electroactive CP polypyrrole (PPy) containing the anionic dopant dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS) to differentiate novel clinically relevant human neural stem cells (hNSCs). Electrical stimulation of PPy(DBS) induced hNSCs to predominantly β-III Tubulin (Tuj1) expressing neurons, with lower induction of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expressing glial cells. In addition, stimulated cultures comprised nodes or clusters of neurons with longer neurites and greater branching than unstimulated cultures. Cell clusters showed a similar spatial distribution to regions of higher conductivity on the film surface. Our fi