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Sample records for stephen jay gould

  1. Stephen Jay Gould on intelligence.

    PubMed

    Korb, K B

    1994-08-01

    In The Mismeasure of Man (1981) Stephen Jay Gould provides a typically readable history of one of our most vexatious intellectual enterprises: the scientific study of intelligence. Gould is successful, as always, in rendering the relevant scientific debates accessible to general readers. What Gould does less well is to carry through his attack on prior attempts to understand natural intelligence scientifically: attempting to muster all possible arguments against such science, he conjures up a variety of impossible arguments as well. One such argument urges that Gould's predecessors are not to be taken seriously because they are racists and have let their racism influence their scientific practice. Gould has no difficulty in demonstrating the influence of racism; where he goes astray is in his dismissal of such prior work as simply unscientific because the racist conclusions preceded the collection of data. Advancing hypotheses prior to experimentation is how all of science proceeds, and is no mark of inferior work. And no science is immune to influences--racist or otherwise--from the culture in which it is embedded, as Gould elsewhere readily acknowledges. Another failed argument claims that all of the factor analysts studying intelligence have committed the intellectual sin of reifying the factors uncovered in IQ tests--concluding that the factors are real solely on the basis of how a factor analysis summarizes IQ data. Gould concludes that factor analysis is worthless for the study of intelligence. However: (1) contrary to what Gould suggests, the factor analysts themselves warned against concluding that the factors "discovered" are physiologically real merely on the basis of a factor analysis; and (2) factor analysis nevertheless remains a strong candidate technique for developing causal models worth investigating subsequently by other means.

  2. Stephen Jay Gould on Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korb, Kevin B.

    1994-01-01

    Critiques ideas expressed by Gould in "The Mismeasure of Man." Agrees with Gould that many scientists who studied human intelligence were racist, but disagrees that their work must therefore necessarily be dismissed. Disputes Gould's claim that factor analysts who study human intelligence have reified their factors and that factor…

  3. Stephen Jay Gould as a political theorist.

    PubMed

    Prindle, David

    2006-01-01

    Before his death in 2002, paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould elaborated a large and inclusive theory of life's change. In this essay I concentrate on the aspects of Gould's vast theory that have the most direct political relevance. I briefly discuss his views on the philosophy of science. I examine the way he combined political values and methodology in a seamless, critical analysis of intelligence-testing and sociobiology. I concentrate most extensively on the impact his "punctuated equilibria" concept has made on contemporary political analysis, and I demonstrate that in their appropriation of this concept political scientists have violated the rules that Gould himself articulated for its use. In closing, I consider the possibility that a comprehensive theory of life, a theory that must include political values, might approach traditional questions of political thought more satisfyingly than has conventional philosophy.

  4. Science and the Humanities: Stephen Jay Gould's Quest to Join the High Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruse, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Stephen Jay Gould was a scientist, a paleobiologist, who was also a professional-level historian of science. This essay explores Gould's work, showing how he used the history of science to further his agenda as a working scientist.

  5. Joltin' Joe and the Pursuit of Excellence: An Interview with Stephen Jay Gould.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Mark F.

    1997-01-01

    Award-winning science author and Harvard professor Stephen Jay Gould shares some views on education and contemporary American culture. Gould's most enthusiastic school memory is singing in an all-city chorus. Harvard students are bright and motivated but have no shared culture, historical perspective, or foreign language proficiency. Gould favors…

  6. Science and the Humanities: Stephen Jay Gould's Quest to Join the High Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruse, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Stephen Jay Gould was a scientist, a paleobiologist, who was also a professional-level historian of science. This essay explores Gould's work, showing how he used the history of science to further his agenda as a working scientist.

  7. Reflections on Stephen Jay Gould's "The Mismeasure of Man" (1981): A Retrospective Review. Book Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John B.

    1995-01-01

    It is argued that the statements and accusations made by Stephen Jay Gould about the use of factor analysis are incorrect and unjustified and that tests properly designed for the purpose can adequately measure a "general" or "g" factor of intelligence, particularly in view of the developments in testing since "The…

  8. The History of Nature and the Nature of History: Stephen Jay Gould on Science, Philosophy, and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaser, Kent

    1999-01-01

    Considers Stephen Jay Gould's writings on the nature of history, specifically on the relationship between science and history. Addresses the scientific method, the foundations and procedures of historical explanation in science, history as contingency, and evolution as history. (CMK)

  9. Claiming Darwin: Stephen Jay Gould in contests over evolutionary orthodoxy and public perception, 1977-2002.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Myrna Perez

    2014-03-01

    This article analyzes the impact of the resurgence of American creationism in the early 1980s on debates within post-synthesis evolutionary biology. During this period, many evolutionists criticized Harvard biologist Stephen Jay Gould for publicizing his revisions to traditional Darwinian theory and opening evolution to criticism by creationists. Gould's theory of punctuated equilibrium was a significant source of contention in these disputes. Both he and his critics, including Richard Dawkins, claimed to be carrying the mantle of Darwinian evolution. By the end of the 1990s, the debate over which evolutionary thinkers were the rightful heirs to Darwin's evolutionary theory was also a conversation over whether Darwinism could be defended against creationists in the broader cultural context. Gould and others' claims to Darwin shaped the contours of a political, religious and scientific controversy.

  10. Before hierarchy: the rise and fall of Stephen Jay Gould's first macroevolutionary synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dresow, Max W

    2017-06-01

    Few of Stephen Jay Gould's accomplishments in evolutionary biology have received more attention than his hierarchical theory of evolution, which postulates a causal discontinuity between micro- and macroevolutionary events. But Gould's hierarchical theory was his second attempt to supply a theoretical framework for macroevolutionary studies-and one he did not inaugurate until the mid-1970s. In this paper, I examine Gould's first attempt: a proposed fusion of theoretical morphology, multivariate biometry and the experimental study of adaptation in fossils. This early "macroevolutionary synthesis" was predicated on the notion that parallelism and convergence dominate the history of higher taxa, and moreover, that they can be explained in terms of adaptation leading to mechanical improvement. In this paper, I explore the origins and contents of Gould's first macroevolutionary synthesis, as well as the reasons for its downfall. In addition, I consider how various developments during the mid-1970s led Gould to identify hierarchy and constraint as the leading themes of macroevolutionary studies-and adaptation as a macroevolutionary red herring.

  11. "Replaying Life's Tape": Simulations, metaphors, and historicity in Stephen Jay Gould's view of life.

    PubMed

    Sepkoski, David

    2016-08-01

    In a famous thought experiment, Stephen Jay Gould asked whether, if one could somehow rewind the history of life back to its initial starting point, the same results would obtain when the "tape" was run forward again. This hypothetical experiment is generally understood as a metaphor supporting Gould's philosophy of evolutionary contingency, which he developed and promoted from the late 1980s until his death in 2002. However, there was a very literal, non-metaphorical inspiration for Gould's thought experiment: since the early 1970s, Gould, along with a group of other paleontologists, was actively engaged in attempts to model and reconstruct the history of life using computer simulations and database analysis. These simulation projects not only demonstrate the impact that computers had on data analysis in paleontology, but also shed light on the close relationship between models and empirical data in data-oriented science. In a sense, I will argue, the models developed by paleontologists through simulation and quantitative analysis of the empirical fossil record in the 1970s and beyond were literal attempts to "replay life's tape" by reconstructing the history of life as data.

  12. Stephen Jay Gould and the Value of Neutrality of Science During the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Myrna

    2016-12-01

    Stephen Jay Gould was a paleontologist and scientific celebrity at the close of the twentieth century, most famous for his popular writings on evolution and his role in the American creationist controversies of that era. In the early 1980s, Gould was drawn into the "nuclear winter" episode through his friendship with Carl Sagan, an astronomer and popular science celebrity. Sagan helped develop the theory of nuclear winter and subsequently used the theory as evidence to petition the United States government to scale back its nuclear armament. The theory of nuclear winter claimed that even a small nuclear exchange could result in a atmospheric blackening akin to the extinction event of the late Cretaceous. Gould was not a climate scientist but he testified before the U.S. House of Representatives as an expert on historical extinction events. Gould's insistence on the value-neutrality of nuclear winter reveals much about the moral politics of science in late Cold War America. Coming at the heels of leftist scientific activism of the 1980s, the nuclear winter episode demonstrates how value-neutrality emerged the salient feature of scientific involvement in American politics in this period.

  13. Science, Intelligence, and Educational Policy: The Mismeasure of Frankenstein (with Apologies to Mary Shelley and Stephen Jay Gould).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zappardino, Pamela

    Stephen Jay Gould points out in "The Mismeasure of Man" (1981), "Science, since people must do it, is a socially embedded activity. It progresses by hunch, vision, and intuition." The legacy of the traditional construct of intelligence and its measurement through intelligence quotient (IQ) tests has not been educational improvement. Its legacy in…

  14. This view of science: Stephen Jay Gould as historian of science and scientific historian, popular scientist and scientific popularizer.

    PubMed

    Shermer, Michael B

    2002-08-01

    Science historian Ronald Numbers once remarked that the two most influential historians of science of the 20th century were Thomas Kuhn and Stephen Jay Gould. All historians are deeply familiar with Kuhn's work and influence, and most know of the remarkable impact Gould has had on evolutionary theory through both his professional and popular works. But little attention has been paid to the depth, scope, and importance of Gould's rôle as historian and philosopher of science, and his use of popular science exposition to reinforce old knowledge and generate new. This paper presents the results of an extensive quantitative content analysis of Gould's 22 books, 101 book reviews, 479 scientific papers, and 300 Natural History essays, in terms of their subject matter (Evolutionary Theory, History and Philosophy of Science, Natural History, Paleontology/Geology, Social Science/Commentary), and thematic dichotomies (Theory-Data, Time's Arrow-Time's Cycle, Adaptationism- Nonadaptationalism, Punctuationism-Gradualism, Contingency-Necessity). Special emphasis is placed on the interaction between the subjects and themata, how Gould has used the history of science to reinforce his evolutionary theory (and vice versa), and how his philosophy of science has influenced both his evolutionary theory and his historiography. That philosophy can best be summed up in a quotation from Charles Darwin, frequently cited by Gould: 'All observation must be for or against some view if it is to be of any service'. Gould followed Darwin's advice throughout his career, including his extensive writings on the history and philosophy of science.

  15. This View of Science: Stephen Jay Gould as Historian of Science and Scientific Historian, Popular Scientist and Scientific Popularizer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermer, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    Presents the results of an extensive quantitative content analysis of Gould's 22 books, 101 book reviews, 479 scientific papers, and 300 Natural History essays, in terms of subject matter, and thematic dichotomies. Emphasizes the interaction between the subjects and themata, how Gould has used the history of science to reinforce his evolutionary…

  16. Stephen Jay Kline on systems, or physics, complex systems, and the gap between.

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Philip LaRoche

    2011-06-01

    At the end of his life, Stephen Jay Kline, longtime professor of mechanical engineering at Stanford University, completed a book on how to address complex systems. The title of the book is 'Conceptual Foundations of Multi-Disciplinary Thinking' (1995), but the topic of the book is systems. Kline first establishes certain limits that are characteristic of our conscious minds. Kline then establishes a complexity measure for systems and uses that complexity measure to develop a hierarchy of systems. Kline then argues that our minds, due to their characteristic limitations, are unable to model the complex systems in that hierarchy. Computers are of no help to us here. Our attempts at modeling these complex systems are based on the way we successfully model some simple systems, in particular, 'inert, naturally-occurring' objects and processes, such as what is the focus of physics. But complex systems overwhelm such attempts. As a result, the best we can do in working with these complex systems is to use a heuristic, what Kline calls the 'Guideline for Complex Systems.' Kline documents the problems that have developed due to 'oversimple' system models and from the inappropriate application of a system model from one domain to another. One prominent such problem is the Procrustean attempt to make the disciplines that deal with complex systems be 'physics-like.' Physics deals with simple systems, not complex ones, using Kline's complexity measure. The models that physics has developed are inappropriate for complex systems. Kline documents a number of the wasteful and dangerous fallacies of this type.

  17. Gould on species, metaphysics and macroevolution: A critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Sandy C

    2017-04-01

    Stephen Jay Gould's views on the ontology of species were an important plank of his revisionist program in evolutionary theory. In this paper I cast a critical eye over those views. I focus on three central aspects of Gould's views on species: the relation between the Darwinian and the metaphysical notions of individuality, the relation between the ontology of species and macroevolution, and the issue of contextualism and conventionalism about the metaphysics of species.

  18. Many ways of being human, the Stephen J. Gould's legacy to Palaeo-Anthropology (2002-2012).

    PubMed

    Pievani, Telmo

    2012-01-01

    As an invertebrate palaeontologist and evolutionary theorist, Stephen J. Gould did not publish any direct experimental results in palaeo-anthropology (with the exception of Pilbeam and Gould, 1974), but he did prepare the stage for many debates within the discipline. We argue here that his scientific legacy in the anthropological fields has a clear and coherent conceptual structure. It is based on four main pillars: (1) the famed deconstruction of the "ladder of progress" as an influential metaphor in human evolution; (2) Punctuated Equilibria and their significance in human macro-evolution viewed as a directionless "bushy tree" of species; (3) the trade-offs between functional and structural factors in evolution and the notion of exaptation; (4) delayed growth, or neoteny, as an evidence in human evolution. These keystones should be considered as consequences of the enduring theoretical legacy of the eminent Harvard evolutionist: the proposal of an extended and revised Darwinism, coherently outlined in the last twenty years of his life (1982-2002) and set out in 2002 in his final work, The Structure of Evolutionary Theory. It is in the light of his "Darwinian pluralism", able to integrate in a new frame the multiplicity of explanatory patterns emerging from different evolutionary fields, that we understand Stephen J. Gould's legacy in palaeo-anthropology today, both in terms of provocative shocks to comfortable visions of human evolution and, above all, in terms of specific scientific predictions about future research.

  19. Gould talking past Dawkins on the unit of selection issue.

    PubMed

    Istvan, M A

    2013-09-01

    My general aim is to clarify the foundational difference between Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Dawkins concerning what biological entities are the units of selection in the process of evolution by natural selection. First, I recapitulate Gould's central objection to Dawkins's view that genes are the exclusive units of selection. According to Gould, it is absurd for Dawkins to think that genes are the exclusive units of selection when, after all, genes are not the exclusive interactors: those agents directly engaged with, directly impacted by, environmental pressures. Second, I argue that Gould's objection still goes through even when we take into consideration Sterelny and Kitcher's defense of gene selectionism in their admirable paper "The Return of the Gene." Third, I propose a strategy for defending Dawkins that I believe obviates Gould's objection. Drawing upon Elisabeth Lloyd's careful taxonomy of the various understandings of the unit of selection at play in the philosophy of biology literature, my proposal involves realizing that Dawkins endorses a different understanding of the unit of selection than Gould holds him to, an understanding that does not require genes to be the exclusive interactors.

  20. The rhetorical construction of Eldredge and Gould's article on the theory of punctuated equilibria in 1972.

    PubMed

    Cachón, Vladimir; Barahona, Ana; Ayala, Francisco J

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to show how several rhetorical tools were used and, in fact, played a central role in the argumentation advanced by Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould in their 1972 seminal article on the theory of Punctuated Equilibria. It is analyzed how Eldredge and Gould proceeded through three steps that, sequentially integrated, made their argument compelling. It is shown how they made use of analogies, metaphors and other rhetorical tools. It is sustained that they began by priming the reader to distrust the current interpretation of the fossil record offered by most paleontologists and then, in a second step, they used specific visual representations in order to suggest that the competitor theory was committed to the idea of an even and slow evolution at a constant rate, an image utilized by them as straw man. Finally, it is analyzed how, in their third step, Eldredge and Gould made use of several rhetorical arguments to present their theory as new for paleontology while, at the same time, placing it well inside the frame of the modern synthesis, and how they also managed to present their theory as more promising and capable of making predictions for future researches than the competitor theory.

  1. Jay B. Nash.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jable, J. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Jay B. Nash's accomplishments and professional service have long been recognized by physical educators. This article examines the major forces and events that made him one of the most important leaders in American physical education. (MT)

  2. Gould's NCLIS Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2000-01-01

    Describes Martha B. Gould's agenda for the United States National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS). Highlights include: political savvy and the National Technical Information Service; Internet policy for libraries; her status as the first public librarian to chair NCLIS; library education; federal responsibility in library…

  3. Meet EPA Scientist Jay Garland

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Scientist Jay Garland Ph.D. spent twenty years at NASA trying to figure out how astronauts could stay in outer space for a long time without needing more supplies. Now he is bringing the same concepts of reusing and recovering resources to his research

  4. Blue jays nest in an unusual structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin L.; Lyons, Curtis P.; Sedgwick, James A.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a successful Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata) nest in an unusual structure on the side of a building.  The nest was located near the edge of the species' range along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado.  The nest was completely obvious, suggesting that the structure itself provided adequate cover and sercurity for the jays.  Blue Jays appear to be declining in some areas of the United States such as the Southeast.  Structures such as the one we describe may be more useful in attracting Blue Jays than the nesting platforms available commercially.

  5. Evolving to the Beat of a Different Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents arguments against the recent "punctuated equilibrium" point of view expressed by evolutionists Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge. Reviews evidence for continuous and gradual change, as recently cited by four anthropologists in the July 9 issue of "Nature." (CS)

  6. Stephen Schwandt: "Master of Conversation."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the life and work of Stephen Schwandt, a mystery writer who incorporates elements of the mystery genre into his nonmystery novels. Suggests that the major strength of his novels is the characters. (RS)

  7. The Hopeful Traveler Jay Bryan Nash.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup, Harvey M., Comp.

    This book is one of a series of publications preserving the best writing and speeches of outstanding leaders of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. Jay Bryan Nash was one of the founders of the Alliance. The speeches and essays by Nash in this collection are, for the most part, appearing in published form…

  8. The three faces of Jay S. Rosenblatt.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Alison S

    2007-01-01

    This essay provides an account of the development of Jay S. Rosenblatt's approach and contributions to the study of maternal behavior and the mother-young relationship, focusing on the role in that development of his life as painter, analyst, and scientist. It is personal perspective.

  9. Stephen Hawking's Universe. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Malcolm H.; Rameau, Jonathan D.

    This program guide is meant to help teachers assist their students in viewing the six-part public television series, "Stephen Hawking's Universe." The guide features program summaries that give background information and brief synopses of the programs; previewing activities that familiarize students with the subject; vocabulary that…

  10. A Conversation with Stephen Toulmin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Sheldon

    1997-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stephen Toulmin, recipient of the Jefferson Lecturer in the Humanities, the highest honor bestowed by the federal government for intellectual achievement. Toulmin started out as a physicist but eventually became interested in philosophy. Discusses a broad range of topics including psychotherapy, voter registration, and…

  11. An Interview with Stephen Vitiello

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Stephen Vitiello is a world-renowned contemporary sound artist whom the author has known as a colleague for several years. This article presents an interview about the overall body of Vitiello's work to date, and his thoughts on teaching at Virginia Commonwealth University. The interview explores the creative and noncreative tensions between…

  12. SA Innovation Lecture Stephen Shapiro

    NASA Video Gallery

    Stephen Shapiro, one of America’s foremost innovation advisers, joined us on January 19th to show us how innovation isn’t just about generating occasional new ideas; it’s about making it a re...

  13. The Jay Treaty: Crisis Diplomacy in the New Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammett, Hugh B.

    1974-01-01

    This article discusses the disputes between the United States and Great Britain arising from the Treaty of 1783 and sets the stage for John Jay's diplomatic mission to Great Britain to head off war. The terms of the Jay Treaty and the public furor it caused are commented on. (Author/RM)

  14. Losing Jay: A Meditation on Teaching while Grieving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Blaise Astra

    2009-01-01

    The author's partner Jay died on May 23, 2006. It was sudden and unexpected--he was 31, the author was 30. Her grief was prolonged and agonizing, and she has since learned that doctors refer to her condition as "complicated grief." Truly, she is not sure how she survived the first year after Jay's death. She certainly was not convinced she wanted…

  15. Neo-Lysenkoism, IQ, and the Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Bernard D.

    1983-01-01

    In "The Mismeasure of Man," a history of efforts to measure intelligence, Stephen Jay Gould is highly selective in his account, and tests for scientific truth by the standards of his own social and political convictions. Specifically, to combat racist approaches to theories of intelligence, Gould presses for equal and opposite bias.…

  16. 50 CFR 21.46 - Depredation order for depredating scrub jays and Steller's jays in Washington and Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.46 Depredation order for... to bury or otherwise destroy the carcasses of such birds is permitted: Provided, That the Director of... jays and Steller's jays killed as may be needed for scientific investigations. (c) That such birds...

  17. 50 CFR 21.46 - Depredation order for depredating scrub jays and Steller's jays in Washington and Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section between August 1 and December 1 in any year, in the Washington counties of Clark, Cowlitz, and Lewis; and the Oregon counties of Benton, Clackamas, Lane, Linn, Marion, Multnomah, Polk, Washington, and Yamhill. (b) That scrub jays and Steller's jays taken pursuant to this section shall not...

  18. 50 CFR 21.46 - Depredation order for depredating scrub jays and Steller's jays in Washington and Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.46 Depredation order for... to bury or otherwise destroy the carcasses of such birds is permitted: Provided, That the Director of... jays and Steller's jays killed as may be needed for scientific investigations. (c) That such birds...

  19. 50 CFR 21.46 - Depredation order for depredating scrub jays and Steller's jays in Washington and Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.46 Depredation order for... to bury or otherwise destroy the carcasses of such birds is permitted: Provided, That the Director of... jays and Steller's jays killed as may be needed for scientific investigations. (c) That such birds...

  20. 50 CFR 21.46 - Depredation order for depredating scrub jays and Steller's jays in Washington and Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.46 Depredation order for... to bury or otherwise destroy the carcasses of such birds is permitted: Provided, That the Director of... jays and Steller's jays killed as may be needed for scientific investigations. (c) That such birds...

  1. Benjamin Apthorp Gould and the Founding of the Astronomical Journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, Owen

    1999-01-01

    On the sesquicentennial of the Astronomical Journal, we commemorate the life of its founder, Benjamin Apthorp Gould (1824-1896), and examine the precarious and heroic early days of this pioneering serial. The first six volumes appeared between 1849 November 2 and 1861 February, and after a hiatus of 25 years, Gould resumed the publication on 1886 November 2.

  2. 24. Aerial photograph dated 22 April 1942, showing Gould Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Aerial photograph dated 22 April 1942, showing Gould Island from the northeast. Complex under construction includes shop building (large rectangle at north end of island, and firing pier (at far right). Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  3. 45. 'Replace Starboard Elevator and Repairs, Gould Island, Building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. 'Replace Starboard Elevator and Repairs, Gould Island, Building No. 35,' approved 26 July 1981, NUSC Drawing No. 80-67, NAV. FAC. Drawing No. 2,047,203. Scales as noted. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  4. 30. 'Gould Island Facilities, General Plan,' submitted 29 December 1941 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. 'Gould Island Facilities, General Plan,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3859-46, Y&D Drawing 190833. Scales 1' = 50' and 1' = 10'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  5. Author! Author! Picture Artist: Stephen Gammell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This column presents a brief biography of illustrator Stephen Gammell, well-known for both his black-and-white and his brightly colored children's picture book art. Stephen Gammell has made a long career illustrating children's stories and poems. The first book he illustrated, "A Nutty Business" (written by Ida Chittum), was published in 1973 and…

  6. Stephen Hawking: An Unfettered Mind

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, Kitty

    2012-02-23

    Kitty Ferguson, biographer of physicist Stephen Hawking, will give an informal, nontechnical talk about the experience of writing her two books about the celebrated cosmologist and also of helping Hawking edit his own “The Universe in a Nutshell”. Hawking thinks and works somewhat differently from others because he must work almost entirely in his head, and he has a practice of pulling the rug out from under his own discoveries and assertions. As he has approached his recent 70th birthday, he has devoted an increasing amount of his time in efforts to share his science and particularly the adventure of it with people without a science background and young people who may be scientists of the future. Ferguson will discuss Hawking’s place in the science community (he is not and has never claimed to be on par with Einstein), the unique contributions he is able to make, and what his legacy might be.

  7. Solutions for Jay and Other Underrepresented Gifted Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Jay, an African American male, was placed in the gifted class in fifth grade. He lined up with his new class on the first day of school, but refused to enter the classroom. He was angry that he had been placed in the class with "those kids" and wanted to be in the other class where his friends were. Each day thereafter, Jay struggled with being…

  8. CO depletion in the Gould Belt clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, H.; Viti, S.; Yates, J.; Hatchell, J.; Fuller, G. A.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Sadavoy, S.; Buckle, J. V.; Graves, S.; Roberts, J.; Nutter, D.; Davis, C.; White, G. J.; Hogerheijde, M.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Butner, H.; Richer, J.; Di Francesco, J.

    2012-05-01

    We present a statistical comparison of CO depletion in a set of local molecular clouds within the Gould Belt using Sub-millimetre Common User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) and Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme (HARP) data. This is the most wide-ranging study of depletion thus far within the Gould Belt. We estimate CO column densities assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium and, for a selection of sources, using the radiative transfer code RADEX in order to compare the two column density estimation methods. High levels of depletion are seen in the centres of several dust cores in all the clouds. We find that in the gas surrounding protostars, levels of depletion are somewhat lower than for starless cores with the exception of a few highly depleted protostellar cores in Serpens and NGC 2024. There is a tentative correlation between core mass and core depletion, particularly in Taurus and Serpens. Taurus has, on average, the highest levels of depletion. Ophiuchus has low average levels of depletion which could perhaps be related to the anomalous dust grain size distribution observed in this cloud. High levels of depletion are often seen around the edges of regions of optical emission (Orion) or in more evolved or less dynamic regions such as the bowl of L1495 in Taurus and the north-western region of Serpens.

  9. Benjamin Apthorp Gould and the Founding of The Astronomical Journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.

    1998-05-01

    The origin and vicissitudes of The Astronomical Journal are inextricably bound up with the extraordinary career of Benjamin Apthorp Gould (1824-1896), the first American to obtain a PhD in astronomy (at Gottingen). Returning to Cambridge in 1848, Gould joined an informal group known as the Lazzaroni, who were determined to bring professional standards to American science. Gould devoted much of his life to professionalizing American astronomy, and his founding of the AJ was part of this strategy. Beginning on 2 November 1849, Gould's AJ was issued at irregular intervals, seldom shorter than two weeks and occasionally much longer, such as the two-month gap in 1851 when Gould had gone to the solar eclipse in Europe. About 20% of the space was devoted to asteroids, then the hot topic in astronomy. The 11th issue announced the discovery of the 11th asteroid; by March of 1853, 23 asteroids were known, and Gould editorialized about the "threatened consumption of astronomical energies." In 1856 the trustees of the newly-founded Dudley Observatory agreed to support the financially struggling AJ, and volume 5 (1856-58) bore the Albany dateline though printing continued in Cambridge. Gould's ill-fated directorship of the Dudley Observatory lasted only a year in Albany itself, and volume 6 was again edited in Cambridge. The Civil War then brought a 25-year hiatus to Gould's journal. In 1870 Gould went to Argentina, where he founded the Argentine National Observatory in Cordoba; he returned to Cambridge in 1885, and very shortly thereafter resumed publication of the AJ (in November, 1886). He continued his editorship for a decade, producing volumes 7-16; his last issue, vol. 17, no. 4, is dated just two weeks before his death. As his successor, Seth Chandler wrote, "Of all the great enterprises of his life, this is the one which he has most cherished."

  10. Interview with Stephen B Baylin.

    PubMed

    Baylin, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    Stephen B Baylin is a codirector of the Cancer Biology Program at The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins and the Virginia and DK Ludwig Professor of Oncology and Medicine. Baylin attended Duke University, where he earned his medical degree and completed his internship and first year residency in internal medicine. He then worked for 2 years at the National Heart and Lung Institute of the NIH. In 1971, he joined the departments of oncology and medicine at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. His research interests include cellular biology and genetics of cancer, specifically epigenetics or genetic modifications other than those in DNA that can affect cell behavior, and silencing of tumor suppressor genes and tumor progression. His research has looked at the mechanisms through which variations in tumor cells derive, and cell differentiation in cancers such as medullary thyroid carcinoma and small-cell lung carcinoma. He has served on the American Association for Cancer Research Board of Directors, and is an associate editor of Cancer Research. He has also presented frequently at AACR conferences and chaired the special conference on 'DNA Methylation, Imprinting and the Epigenetics of Cancer'. He has authored or coauthored more than 370 publications.

  11. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Understanding the influence of outflows on Gould Belt clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabek-Maunder, E.; Hatchell, J.; Buckle, J. V.; Di Francesco, J.; Richer, J.

    2016-03-01

    Using James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey data from CO J = 3 → 2 isotopologues, we present a meta-analysis of the outflows and energetics of star-forming regions in several Gould Belt clouds. The majority of the regions are strongly gravitationally bound. There is evidence that molecular outflows transport large quantities of momentum and energy. Outflow energies are at least 20 per cent of the total turbulent kinetic energies in all of the regions studied and greater than the turbulent energy in half of the regions. However, we find no evidence that outflows increase levels of turbulence, and there is no correlation between the outflow and turbulent energies. Even though outflows in some regions contribute significantly to maintaining turbulence levels against dissipation, this relies on outflows efficiently coupling to bulk motions. Other mechanisms (e.g. supernovae) must be the main drivers of turbulence in most if not all of these regions.

  12. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 22 (JAY-TH00400022) on Town Highway 40, crossing Jay Branch, Jay, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Song, Donald L.

    1997-01-01

    8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northern Vermont. The 2.15-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is primarily pasture on the upstream and downstream left overbank while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. The downstream right overbank of the bridge is forested. In the study area, Jay Branch Tributary has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 26 ft and an average bank height of 3 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 40.5 mm (0.133 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 7, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 40 crossing of Jay Branch Tributary is a 27-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 25-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 6, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 23.5 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel skew and the opening-skew-to-roadway are zero degrees. The scour counter-measures at the site included type-2 stone fill (less than 36 inches diameter) at the upstream end of the left and right abutments, at the upstream right wingwall, and at the downstream left

  13. Malleability and Machines: Glenn Gould and the Technological Self.

    PubMed

    Jones-Imhotep, Edward

    2016-04-01

    The Pianist Glenn Gould has often been portrayed as a musical idealist who embraced mundane recording media as a way of escaping the anxiety of the concert hall. In pursuing his musical ideals, however, Gould obsessed over material objects-the qualities of a chair, the action of piano keys, the placement of splices in magnetic tape. This paper argues that for him, the detailed properties of machines and electronic media were crucial, not just as tools for pursuing disembodied aesthetic aims, but as instruments and material sites for a moral project. Locating Gould's concerns among the techniques and technologies that inspired him, the concert hall he despised, and the jazz and chance music he tolerated, the paper explores how Gould's famed philosophy of technology was rooted in a "technological self" that tied morality and aesthetics, and intimacy and isolation, to concrete ideals for the kinds of people we ought to be.

  14. 2. Historical American Buildings Survey W. Gould White, Photographer April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historical American Buildings Survey W. Gould White, Photographer April 29, 1936 DETAIL OF GARDEN ENTRANCE (Brock stoop and exterior door trim and pediment) (not original) - Mordington, Canterbury-Milford Road, Frederica, Kent County, DE

  15. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey W. Gould White, Photographer April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey W. Gould White, Photographer April 14, 1936 SOUTH ELEVATION - Jacob Dingee House, 105 East Seventh Street (moved to 500 Block North Market Street), Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  16. 29. Aerial photograph (1973) looking south across Gould Island. Firing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Aerial photograph (1973) looking south across Gould Island. Firing pier (still possessing third and fourth levels) in foreground. Pitched roof extending from south end of firing pier marks location of frame approach between pier and shop building (center rear) and power plant (to right of shop). Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  17. Encounter with death: The thought of Robert Jay Lifton.

    PubMed

    Lageman, A G

    1987-12-01

    Robert Jay Lifton begins his work in the psychosocial framework that he takes over from Erik Erikson. Lifton's thought is based upon a central paradigm-"death and the continuity of life." Lifton makes important contributions with his five modes of symbolic immortality and with his investigation of the psychological themes in survivors. The origins and limits of Lifton's thought are critically examined.

  18. The Development of a Psychological Aesthetic: Jay Hambidge & Charles Henry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhinnie, Harold J.

    This article reviews several movements in late 19th and early 20th century art and psychological research that are related to the early Greek method of proportional analysis generally known as the Golden Section. The document discusses the work of the artist Jay Hambidge on the nature of Greek art and design and his theory of dynamic symmetry.…

  19. Retrospective Cognition by Food-Caching Western Scrub-Jays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Kort, S.R.; Dickinson, A.; Clayton, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    Episodic-like memory, the retrospective component of cognitive time travel in animals, needs to fulfil three criteria to meet the behavioral properties of episodic memory as defined for humans. Here, we review results obtained with the cache-recovery paradigm with western scrub-jays and conclude that they fulfil these three criteria. The jays…

  20. Testosterone and social and reproductive behaviour in Aphelocoma jays.

    PubMed

    Vleck; Brown

    1999-11-01

    When there is a direct relationship between testosterone level and payoff in reproductive success through aggression, testosterone levels should be elevated. Elevated testosterone, however, has fitness costs, particularly a decreased tendency to display parental care. Thus the pattern of testosterone secretion in males should vary with the social and mating system. Western scrub-jays, Aphelocoma californica woodhouseii, form monogamous pairs on territories during the breeding season. Mexican jays, A. ultramarina, live in large, stable groups and up to five females within a group attempt nesting each spring. In both species, testosterone levels rose rapidly in March and peak levels did not differ. Elevated testosterone levels were only observed for about 3 weeks in the monogamous western scrub-jay, but were observed into May in Mexican jays, a reflection of prolonged opportunity for males to mate with multiple females and continual interaction with other competing males. In Mexican jays, nonbreeding yearlings had lower testosterone levels than all other age groups. Testosterone in males owning nests did not differ from that in other adult males, many of whom engage in extrapair fertilizations. Testosterone was elevated throughout the incubation phase, but was significantly lower when chicks were present in any nest in the group. Nearly all birds in the group fed all chicks. These observations support the hypothesis that testosterone is elevated when male-male competition is frequent and mating opportunities depend on the outcome of that competition, and testosterone is decreased when the necessity for parental or alloparental care would make its effects deleterious. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  1. Arboviral infection in two species of wild jays (Aves: Corvidae): evidence for population impacts.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Mary C; Tarvin, Keith A; Stark, Lillian M; Woolfenden, Glen E; Fitzpatrick, John W; Day, Jonathan F

    2004-03-01

    We examined the prevalence of antibodies to three mosquito-borne arboviruses in blue jays, Cyanocitta cristata, and Florida scrub-jays, Aphelocoma coerulescens, to identify the effects on host survival, the influence of sex and age on infection, and the temporal patterns of antibody prevalence. Blood samples from 306 blue jays and 219 Florida scrub-jays were collected at Archbold Biological Station (Lake Placid, FL) from April 1994 through December 1995. Sera were analyzed for hemagglutination-inhibition antibody to eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses, and neutralizing antibodies to EEE, Highlands J (HJ), and SLE viruses. Overall, 31.4% of blue jay samples and 22.1% of scrub-jay samples had antibodies to EEE. Antibodies to HJ were detected in slightly >15% of samples in each jay species, and SLE was detected in <3% of the samples in each jay species. A single EEE virus isolation was made from the blood of an 11-d-old scrub-jay nestling. Survival of adult blue jays seropositive to EEE was significantly lower than that of seronegative birds based on resight rates, but infection did not seem to affect survival of adult or juvenile Florida scrub-jays.

  2. A Tribute to Stephen A. Benton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    This is a collection of tributes to Stephen A. Benton. Some of the tributes were presented at a special celebration of his life and works on Wednesday, 21 January 2004 at the IS&T/SPIE 16th Annual Symposium on Electronic Imaging. Other tributes included were collected in writing after the celebration.

  3. The domain specificity of intertemporal choice in pinyon jays.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jeffrey R; Kennedy, Bryce A; Morales, Dina; Burks, Marianna

    2016-06-01

    When choosing between a piece of cake now versus a slimmer waistline in the future, many of us have difficulty with self-control. Food-caching species, however, regularly hide food for later recovery, sometimes waiting months before retrieving their caches. It remains unclear whether these long-term choices generalize outside of the caching domain. We hypothesized that the ability to save for the future is a general tendency that cuts across different situations. To test this hypothesis, we measured and experimentally manipulated caching to evaluate its relationship with operant measures of self-control in pinyon jays (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus). We found no correlation between caching and self-control at the individual level, and experimentally increasing caching did not influence self-control. The self-control required for caching food, therefore, does not carry over to other foraging tasks, suggesting that it is domain specific in pinyon jays.

  4. Jay Haley's Supervision of a Case of Dissociative.

    PubMed

    Haley, Jay

    2015-01-01

    This is a transcript of a supervision session with a young therapist caught in the complex world of a woman with multiple personality. Occurring very early in the written literature about treating multiple personalities, the highlight of this paper is the supervision style and technique of Jay Haley. His approach to supervision will make the reader wish that he or she could be in the room during this session.

  5. Molecular systematics and evolution of the Cyanocorax jays.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorso, Elisa; Peterson, A Townsend; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G; Fleischer, Robert C

    2010-03-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were studied in the genus Cyanocorax (Aves: Corvidae) and related genera, Psilorhinus and Calocitta, a diverse group of New World jays distributed from the southern United States south to Argentina. Although the ecology and behavior of some species in the group have been studied extensively, lack of a molecular phylogeny has precluded rigorous interpretations in an evolutionary framework. Given the diverse combinations of plumage coloration, size, and morphology, the taxonomy of the group has been inconsistent and understanding of biogeographic patterns problematic. Moreover, plumage similarity between two geographically disjuct species, the Tufted jay (Cyanocorax dickeyi) from western Mexico and the White-tailed jay (C. mystacalis) from western Ecuador and Peru, has puzzled ornithologists for decades. Here, a phylogeny of all species in the three genera is presented, based on study of two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes. Phylogenetic trees revealed the non-monophyly of Cyanocorax, and the division of the whole assemblage in two groups: "Clade A" containing Psilorhinus morio, both species in Calocitta,Cyanocorax violaceus, C. caeruleus, C. cristatellus, and C. cyanomelas, and "Clade B" consisting of the remaining species in Cyanocorax. Relationships among species in Clade A were ambiguous and, in general, not well resolved. Within Clade B, analyses revealed the monophyly of the "Cissilopha" jays and showed no evidence for a sister relationship between C. mystacalis and C. dickeyi. The phylogenetic complexity of lineages in the group suggests several complications for the understanding biogeographic patterns, as well as for proposing a taxonomy that is consistent with morphological variation. Although multiple taxonomic arrangements are possible, recommendations are for recognizing only one genus, Cyanocorax, with Psilorhinus and Calocitta as synonyms.

  6. YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE GOULD BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, Michael M.; Allen, Lori E.; Evans II, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul M.; Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Cieza, Lucas A.; Di Francesco, James; Johnstone, Doug; Matthews, Brenda C.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Hatchell, Jennifer; Heiderman, Amanda; Huard, Tracy L.; Kirk, Jason M.; Miller, Jennifer F.; Peterson, Dawn E.; Young, Kaisa E.

    2015-09-15

    We present the full catalog of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) identified in the 18 molecular clouds surveyed by the Spitzer Space Telescope “cores to disks” (c2d) and “Gould Belt” (GB) Legacy surveys. Using standard techniques developed by the c2d project, we identify 3239 candidate YSOs in the 18 clouds, 2966 of which survive visual inspection and form our final catalog of YSOs in the GB. We compile extinction corrected spectral energy distributions for all 2966 YSOs and calculate and tabulate the infrared spectral index, bolometric luminosity, and bolometric temperature for each object. We find that 326 (11%), 210 (7%), 1248 (42%), and 1182 (40%) are classified as Class 0 + I, Flat-spectrum, Class II, and Class III, respectively, and show that the Class III sample suffers from an overall contamination rate by background Asymptotic Giant Branch stars between 25% and 90%. Adopting standard assumptions, we derive durations of 0.40–0.78 Myr for Class 0 + I YSOs and 0.26–0.50 Myr for Flat-spectrum YSOs, where the ranges encompass uncertainties in the adopted assumptions. Including information from (sub)millimeter wavelengths, one-third of the Class 0 + I sample is classified as Class 0, leading to durations of 0.13–0.26 Myr (Class 0) and 0.27–0.52 Myr (Class I). We revisit infrared color–color diagrams used in the literature to classify YSOs and propose minor revisions to classification boundaries in these diagrams. Finally, we show that the bolometric temperature is a poor discriminator between Class II and Class III YSOs.

  7. Dr. John J. Stephens, Jr., metallurgist extraordinaire.

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, Floyd Michael

    2010-10-01

    The organizers of the Dr. John J. Stephens, Jr. Memorial Symposium: Deformation and Interfacial Phenomena in Advanced High-Temperature Materials are honoring the memory of Dr. Stephens and his many technical contributions that were accomplished over a relatively brief twenty year career. His research spanned the areas of creep and deformation of metals, dispersion-strengthened alloys and their properties, metal matrix composite materials, processing and properties of refractory metals, joining of ceramic-ceramic and metal-ceramic systems, active braze alloy development, and mechanical modeling of soldered and brazed assemblies. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight his research and engineering accomplishments, particularly during his professional career at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM.

  8. 8. VIEW OF COMBINATION GEAR HOBBING MACHINE (Gould & Eberhardt, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF COMBINATION GEAR HOBBING MACHINE (Gould & Eberhardt, Newark, New Jersey. Patented No. 2103) AND LATHE (W.E. Shipley Machiner Co. Metal Working Machinery, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1913). - Juniata Shops, Machine Shop No. 1, East of Fourth Avenue at Third Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  9. 4. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF DITCH OVERLOOKING THE GOULD RANCH SITE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF DITCH OVERLOOKING THE GOULD RANCH SITE, HIGHWAY 50'S OVERPASS FOR THE R/R & OLD PLACERVILLE ROAD ON LEFT. EAST BIDWELL STREET APPROACHES TO HIGHWAY 50 ON RIGHT; VIEW TO SOUTH. - Keefe-McDerby Mine Ditch, East of East Bidwell Street between Clarksville Road & Highway 50, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  10. Mind the Gap (or Mending It): Qualitative Research and Interdisciplinarity in Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vertinsky, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the perceived gap between the humanities and social sciences, and the sciences in kinesiology faculties and departments as interdisciplinary pressures mount in an increasingly complex world. I use an historical lens to highlight past difficulties in working across the two solitudes and describe Stephen Jay Gould's efforts to…

  11. The Trying Out of the Essay: How Scientific Essayists Compose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, Diane

    Six scientific essayists were interviewed to gain some understanding of their writing processes. The writers were Roger Sawin, who writes for "Horticulture"; Harold Morowitz who writes for "Hospital Practices,""Science 82" and "Science 83"; Stephen Jay Gould who writes for "Natural History"; Jeremy…

  12. Grade Inflation and the Extinction of the .400 Hitter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1998-01-01

    In "Full House: The Spread of Excellence from Plato to Darwin," Stephen Jay Gould swats at nostalgia over extinction of the .400 batter--due more to game improvements than slumping batters. The better the averages, the harder it is to be a standout. As for grade inflation, today's students are studying harder subjects, and general…

  13. Darwin's Revolution in Thought: An Illustrated Lecture. Teaching Guide and Videotape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Stephen Jay

    "Darwin's Revolution in Thought" is Stephen Jay Gould's definitive treatise on Charles Darwin. This 50-minute classroom edition videotaped lecture is structured in the form of a paradox and three riddles about Darwin's life. Each is designed to shed light on one of the key features of the theory of natural selection, its philosophical…

  14. Better than Ever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1998-01-01

    Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould contends that .400 hitter in baseball is thing of past because game has gotten better. The higher average, the harder to stand out from that average. Applies concept to education by comparing students' SAT scores over almost 20 years with grade-point averages. Students with highest grades received highest SAT…

  15. The scientific legacy of Stephen Rothman.

    PubMed

    Burgdorf, Walter H C; Bickers, David R

    2015-04-01

    The year 2014 marks the centennial of events that led to the First World War ("the war to end all wars") following the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of the crumbling Austro-Hungarian Empire. It also marks the 120th anniversary of the birth of Stephen Rothman and the 60th anniversary of the publication of his epic textbook The Physiology and Biochemistry of the Skin. In this review, we document our belief that Rothman had a seismic impact on moving investigative dermatology from a medical backwater to a scientific discipline that can hold its own with any other specialty.

  16. Stephen J. Burges—New WRR editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The ‘tower of Babel syndrome’ is the most important problem facing water-resources researchers, says Stephen J. Burges, the new coeditor for hydrology and physical, chemical, and biological sciences for Water Resources Research (WRR). Burges was appointed to a 4-year term which began November 1. He succeeds R. Allan Freeze.Specialized research that lacks a sense of connection to other aspects of hydrology characterizes the syndrome, Burges explained. He traces this scattering of interests back to 1966 with the ‘evolution’ of the third-generation computer.

  17. The Scientific Legacy of Stephen Rothman

    PubMed Central

    Burgdorf, Walter H. C.; Bickers, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The year 2014 marks the centennial of events that led to World War 1 (“the war to end all wars”) following the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of the crumbling Austro-Hungarian Empire. It also marks the 120th anniversary of the birth of Stephen Rothman and the 60th anniversary of the publication of his epic textbook The Physiology and Biochemistry of the Skin. In this review we document our belief that Rothman had a seismic impact on moving investigative dermatology from a medical backwater to a scientific discipline that can hold its own with that of any other specialty. PMID:25373439

  18. Kindness in the Art Classroom: Kind Thoughts on Stephen Rowland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This article is a response to Stephen Rowland's article, "Kindness," which appeared in "London Review of Education," November 2009. Much to my amazement, Stephen Rowland's article was the only one I found when I did a global database search on "kindness in education". I had thought that I would find reams of information in the databases on the…

  19. 77 FR 61003 - Stephen C. Delaney, Jr.: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Stephen C. Delaney, Jr.: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and... order under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) debarring Stephen C. Delaney, Jr...-796-4640. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Section 306(b)(1)(C) of the FD&C Act (21...

  20. STS-114 Crew Interview: Stephen Robinson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Stephen Robinson, Mission Specialist 2 (MS2), of the STS-114 space mission is seen during a prelaunch interview. He discusses his duties as flight engineer, Extravehicular Activity 2 (EVA 2) spacewalker, and medical officer. Robinson answers questions about his interests in spaceflight and the specific goals of the mission. He identifies this mission as the International Space Station Resupply Mission because supplies and experiments are brought to the International Space Station and Expedition 6 crew of Commander Kenneth Bowersox, and Flight Engineers Donald Pettit and Nikolai Budarin are returning to Earth. Lastly, he talks about the docking of the Space Shuttle Atlantis with the International Space Station. He looks forward to this experience in space.

  1. STS-110 Crew Interview: Stephen Frick

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 Pilot Stephen Frick is seen during this preflight interview, where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. Frick outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically during the docking and extravehicular activities (EVAs). He describes the payload (S0 Truss and Mobile Transporter) and the dry run installation of the S0 truss that will take place the day before the EVA for the actual installation. Frick discusses the planned EVAs in detail and outlines what supplies will be left for the resident crew of the International Space Station (ISS). He ends with his thoughts on the most valuable aspect of the ISS.

  2. New Burgess shale type fauna in the Middle Cambrian Stephen Formation on Mt. Stephen, British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Excavation of a fossil locality discovered in 1981 on Mount Stephen, 5 km south of the Burgess shale site on Mount Wapta, has yielded about 1000 specimens of a new soft-bodied and lightly-sclerotized fauna. The fauna includes the trilobite, Glossopleura, which is characteristic of the lower part of the Stephen Formation, 100 m or more stratigraphically below the level of the Burgess shale fauna. The arthropod, Alalcomenaeus, a genus extremely rare in the Burgess shale, is by far the most numerous, followed by a new, fishlike arthropod with prominent eyes, and Branchiocaris, another extremely rare Burgess shale arthropod. Many Burgess shale animals are present, although the most common, Marrella, is absent. They include the arthropods Canadaspis, Naraoia, Plenocaris and Tuzoia, the worms Ottoia and Burgessochaeta, the onychophoran Aysheaia, the sponge Leptomitus, Wiwaxia of unknown affinities, and Fasciculus, a possible ctenophore. The Glossopleura fauna thus adds extant and extinct invertebrate groups to those already known in the Middle Cambrian epoch, mostly from the Burgess shale. It also demonstrates that the animals preserved in the Stephen Formation are evolutionarily stable.

  3. A Response to Elizabeth Gould, "Nomadic Turns: Epistemology, Experience, and Women University Band Directors"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koza, Julia, Eklund

    2005-01-01

    In this response to Gould, the author has two goals: first, to forward another, not necessarily competing, postmodern understanding of feminism and power; and second, to expand Gould's project of examining professional climate. Koza defines feminism as a constellation of dynamic political positions that address and attempt to change the unequal…

  4. A Response to Elizabeth Gould, "Nomadic Turns: Epistemology, Experience and Women University Band Directors"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdzinski, Stephen, F.

    2005-01-01

    In this response to Gould, the author, a music education professor, acknowledges both the significant challenges that need to be overcome for future women university band directors, and the need to continue to encourage instrumental music education students (both male and female) to pursue their professional dreams and goals. He thanks Gould for…

  5. Remeasuring man.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Samuel George Morton (1799-1851) was the most highly regarded American scientist of the early and middle 19th century. Thanks largely to Stephen Jay Gould's book The Mismeasure of Man, Morton's cranial capacity measurements of different races is now held up as a prime example of and cautionary tale against scientific racism. A team of anthropologists recently reevaluated Morton's work and argued that it was Gould, not Morton, who was biased in his analysis. This article is a reexamination of the Morton and Gould controversy. It argues that most of Gould's arguments against Morton are sound. Although Gould made some errors and overstated his case in a number of places, he provided prima facia evidence, as yet unrefuted, that Morton did indeed mismeasure his skulls in ways that conformed to 19th century racial biases. Gould's critique of Morton ought to remain as an illustration of implicit bias in science.

  6. Habitat model for the Florida Scrub Jay on John F. Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.

    1992-01-01

    The Florida Scrub Jay is endemic to Florida. The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) provides habitat for one of the three largest populations of the Florida Scrub Jay. This threatened bird occupies scrub, slash pine flatwoods, disturbed scrub, and coastal strand on KSC. Densities of Florida Scrub Jays were shown to vary with habitat characteristics but not necessarily with vegetation type. Relationships between Florida Scrub Jay densities and habitat characteristics were used to develop a habitat model to provide a tool to compare alternative sites for new facilities and to quantify environmental impacts. This model is being tested using long term demographic studies of colorbanded Florida Scrub Jays. Optimal habitat predicted by the model has greater than or equal to 50 percent of the shrub canopy comprised of scrub oaks, 20-50 percent open space or scrub oak vegetation within 100 m of a ruderal edge, less than or equal to 15 percent pine canopy cover, a shrub height of 120-170 cm, and is greater than or equal to 100 m from a forest. This document reviews life history, social behavior, food, foraging habitat, cover requirements, characteristics of habitat on KSC, and habitat preferences of the Florida Scrub Jay. Construction of the model and its limitations are discussed.

  7. A multilocus phylogeny of New World jay genera.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorso, Elisa; Peterson, A Townsend

    2007-02-01

    We studied phylogenetic relationships of the New World Jays (NWJs) based on DNA sequences from three mitochondrial and two nuclear loci. Sampling included at least two individuals from each of the seven NWJ genera and four outgroups of closely related corvids, as well as six of the 16 Cyanocorax species (including two representatives of the previously recognized "Cissilopha"). Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses for individual genes and a combined dataset. The combined phylogenetic analysis supports the basal position of Cyanolyca to all other NWJs, a (Cyanocorax (Calocitta, Psilorhinus)) clade, and a ((Cyanocitta, Aphelocoma) Gymnorhinus) clade that agrees with a novel morphological synapomorphy uniting Cyanocitta and Aphelocoma. Within Cyanocorax, C. yncas (former "Xanthoura") is basal to a split among former "Cyssilopha" species and the rest of the Cyanocorax species. To explore implications for the historical biogeography of the NJWs, we used Dispersal-Vicariance Analysis, which indicated that NWJs originated either in Mesoamerica or North America+Mesoamerica, with South American NWJs dispersing three times independently from Mesoamerica.

  8. Sculpture, cast iron lamps at northeast corner of Stephen Sitter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sculpture, cast iron lamps at northeast corner of Stephen Sitter Avenue and Forney road, with scale - National Park Seminary, Bounded by Capitol Beltway (I-495), Linden Lane, Woodstove Avenue, & Smith Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  9. Apparent predation by Gray Jays, Perisoreus canadensis, on Long-toed Salamanders, Ambystoma macrodactylum, in the Oregon Cascade Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, M.P.; Pearl, C.A.; Bury, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    We report observations of Gray Jays (Perisoreus canadensis) appearing to consume larval Long-toed Salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) in a drying subalpine pond in Oregon, USA. Corvids are known to prey upon a variety of anuran amphibians, but to our knowledge, this is the first report of predation by any corvid on aquatic salamanders. Long-toed Salamanders appear palatable to Gray Jays, and may provide a food resource to Gray Jays when salamander larvae are concentrated in drying temporary ponds.

  10. Time Restored - The Harrison Timekeepers and R.T. Gould, the Man Who Knew (Almost) Everything

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Jonathan

    2006-09-01

    This is the story of Rupert T. Gould (1890-1948), the polymath and horologist. A remarkable man, Lt Cmdr Gould made important contributions in an extraordinary range of subject areas throughout his relatively short and dramatically troubled life. From antique clocks to scientific mysteries, from typewriters to the first systematic study of the Loch Ness Monster, Gould studied and published on them all. With the title The Stargazer, Gould was an early broadcaster on the BBC's Children's Hour when, with his encyclopaedic knowledge, he became known as The Man Who Knew Everything. Not surprisingly, he was also part of that elite group on BBC radio who formed The Brains Trust, giving on-the-spot answers to all manner of wide ranging and difficult questions. With his wide learning and photographic memory, Gould awed a national audience, becoming one of the era's radio celebrities. During the 1920s Gould restored the complex and highly significant marine timekeepers constructed by John Harrison (1693-1776), and wrote the unsurpassed classic, The Marine Chronometer, its History and Development . Today he is virtually unknown, his horological contributions scarcely mentioned in Dava Sobel's bestseller Longitude. The TV version of Longitude, in which Jeremy Irons played Rupert Gould, did at least introduce Gould's name to a wider public. Gould suffered terrible bouts of depression, resulting in a number of nervous breakdowns. These, coupled with his obsessive and pedantic nature, led to a scandalously-reported separation from his wife and cost him his family, his home, his job, and his closest friends. In this first-ever biography of Rupert Gould, Jonathan Betts, the Royal Observatory Greenwich's Senior Horologist, has given us a compelling account of a talented but flawed individual. Using hitherto unknown personal journals, the family's extensive collection of photographs, and the polymath's surviving records and notes, Betts tells the story of how Gould's early life, his

  11. Uranium occurrences on the Blue Jay Claim, White Signal District, Grant County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granger, Harry C.; Bauer, Herman L.

    1951-01-01

    A discovery of secondary uranium minerals on the Blue Jay claim was reported in 1949 and the occurrence was examined by the authors in March 1950, The Blue Jay claim is about three-fourths of a mile south of White Signal, Grant County, N. Mex. in sees, 23 and 26, T. 20 3., R. 15 W. , New Mexico principal meridian. The Blue Jay claim is underlain by a pre-Cambrian granite mass that was intruded by numerous dikes ranging from rhyolite to basalt in composition. Abnormal radioactivity and secondary uranium minerals occur in altered rocks near oxidized quart z-pyrite veins. Forty-four samples ranged in grade from 0.001 to 0.11 percent uranium. The intermediate and basic rocks seem to have been the more favorable host rocks for the deposition of secondary uranium minerals, possibly because of their higher phosphate content.

  12. Not only size matters: Acorn selection by the European jay ( Garrulus glandarius)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, Josep; Pausas, Juli G.

    2007-05-01

    A strong selection for acorn characteristics is expected to have evolved in the mutualistic relationship between the European jay ( Garrulus glandarius) and the oak ( Quercus spp.). Bossema's pioneer work suggested that jays do not select acorns randomly, but rather they preferentially select some size and species. Preference for some seeds over others may have implications on plant community dynamics by conferring advantages (or disadvantages) on the selected (avoided) seed characteristics. In this paper we test to what extent jays select acorns by species and/or by size and the relation between these two traits in Mediterranean oak species. The experiments consist of a set of field tests in which acorns from four different coexisting Mediterranean oak species ( Quercus ilex, Quercus faginea, Quercus suber, and Quercus coccifera) were placed in artificial feeders accessible to wild jays. The acorns were previously measured to control individual acorn characteristics. Using video-recording techniques, we followed jay activity and the fate of each acorn (sequence of acorn selection and method of transport). Q. ilex acorns were preferred over other acorns, and Q. coccifera acorns were avoided when other acorns were available. Preference for Q. faginea and Q. suber acorns was intermediate, that is, they were preferred over Q. coccifera acorns but not over Q. ilex acorns. Large acorns were also preferred although acorn species selection was stronger than size selection. Jays selected species and size both by visual means and by using acorn area as an indicator of size. Acorns wider than 17-19 mm were carried in the bill because of throat limitation. Our results confirm Bossema's study on temperate oaks and extend it to Mediterranean oak species, revealing implications on mixed oak forest dynamics.

  13. Does multiple seed loading in Blue Jays result in selective dispersal of smaller acorns?

    PubMed

    Bartlow, Andrew W; Kachmar, Michael; Lichti, Nathanael; Swihart, Robert K; Stratford, Jeffrey A; Steele, Michael A

    2011-09-01

    Studies from both tropical and temperate systems show that scatter-hoarding rodents selectively disperse larger seeds farther from their source than smaller seeds, potentially increasing seedling establishment in larger-seeded plants. Size-biased dispersal is evident in many oaks (Quercus) and is true both across and within species. Here, we predict that intraspecifc variation in seed size also influences acorn dispersal by the Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata Linnaeus), but in an opposite manner. Blue Jays are gape-limited and selectively disperse smaller acorn species (e.g. pin oaks [Quercus palustris Münchh]), but often carry several acorns in their crop during a single dispersal event. We predict that jays foraging on smaller acorns will load more seeds per trip and disperse seeds to greater distances than when single acorns are carried in the bill. To test this, we presented free-ranging Blue Jays with pin oak acorns of different sizes over a 2-year period. In each of 16 experimental trials, we monitored the birds at a feeding station with remote cameras and determined the number of acorns removed and the distance acorns were dispersed when cached. Jays were significantly more likely to engage in multiple seed loading with smaller seeds in both years of the study. During the second year, these smaller acorns were dispersed farther than larger acorns, and during the first year, larger acorns were dispersed farther, revealing an inconsistent response to seed size during our study. We suggest that in some circumstances, multiple seed loading by Blue Jays may favor dispersal in some plant species.

  14. A New Population Estimate for the Florida Scrub Jay on Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.

    1989-01-01

    The variable circular plot method was used to sample avifauna within different vegetation types determined from aerial imagery. The Florida Scrub Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens coerulescens) population was estimated to range between 1,415 and 3,603 birds. Approximately half of the scrub and slash pine habitat appeared to be unused by Florida Scrub Jay, probably because the slash pine cover was too dense or the oak cover was too sparse. Results from the study suggest that the entire state population may be much lower than believed because the size of two of the three largest populations may have been overestimated.

  15. Obituary: Andrew Stephen Wilson, 1947-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    On 24 May 2008, Andrew Stephen Wilson passed away at the age of 61, in his home in Silver Spring, Maryland, from complications resulting from a painful spinal illness. Andrew was arguably one of the first truly multi-wavelength astronomers of his generation. His scientific work on active galactic nuclei [AGN] spanned the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the radio to the X-rays. Andrew was born in Doncaster, Yorkshire, England, on 26 March 1947. He was the younger of two brothers whose births were separated by the Second World War. His father, Norman, came from a relatively affluent family who were coal merchants. His mother, Mary, came from a less comfortable background, one of seven children, daughter of a skilled cabinet maker/French polisher, who went through a very hard time during the depression. As a teacher, she placed enormous value on hard work and education as a way of gaining advancement in life. When Andrew was four, the family moved to Skipton, a nice market town in the Yorkshire dales. Andrew went to a small village school until age eleven when he entered Ermysted's Grammar School. He was an enthusiastic soccer and cricket player. He never lost his enthusiasm for soccer and supported the local soccer team, Leeds United, for all his life. Andrew also followed the Yorkshire county cricket team. Andrew's interest in astronomy stemmed from the fact that at Ermysted's Grammar School someone donated a four-inch refracting telescope, so he and his friends used to go back in the evenings to investigate the rings of Saturn, the moons of Jupiter, and various nebulae. While an undergraduate at Cambridge, Andrew joined the astronomy club and ground an 8-inch mirror by hand as a part of a telescope that he set up in the backyard of his parents' house. Andrew spent hours observing with this telescope, and it was the wonder of the family. At Cambridge, Andrew obtained his bachelor's degree with first-class honors in 1969. During a short visit in London with his

  16. SR-71 Pilot Stephen (Steve) D. Ishmael

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA research pilot Stephen D. Ishmael is pictured here in front of an SR-71 Blackbird on the ramp at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Ishmael was one of two NASA research pilots assigned to the SR-71 high speed research program in the early 1990s at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Facility (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994), Edwards, California. Ishmael became a NASA research pilot in 1977. Data from the SR-71 program will be used to aid designers of future supersonic aircraft and propulsion systems. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and

  17. The Politics of Reform at Stephen K. Hayt School, Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joravsky, Ben

    1991-01-01

    Three years after the passage of the Chicago Public Schools Reform Act, Stephen K. Hayt School in Chicago (Illinois) has shown some successes, but neighborhood politics have hampered progress as ethnic groups and others dispute issues. In addition, cuts in the citywide school budget left teachers scrambling for supplies. (JB)

  18. Toward Valid Measurement of Stephen Pepper's World Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, John A.

    Two measures of the "world hypotheses" of Stephen Pepper were mailed to 100 sociobiologists, 87 behaviorists, 79 personality psychologists, and 45 human developmentalists. The World Hypothesis Scale (WHS) was designed to measure Pepper's four world views: (1) formism; (2) mechanism; (3) organicism; and (4) contextualism. The…

  19. Reconsidering the Role of Stephen Foster in the Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The place of Stephen Foster and the music of American minstrelsy should be reconsidered for the music classroom. Some of this repertoire can be offensive because of its historical context and racially insensitive language. Critical theory can provide a framework for choosing repertoire that creates dialogue about racial structures in music. The…

  20. Stephen Hawking bags big new 3m physics prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    A massive 3m in prize money has gone to the British cosmologist Stephen Hawking for his work on black holes, quantum gravity and the early universe. The award is one of two "special fundamental physics prizes" from the Fundamental Physics Prize Foundation, which was set up earlier this year by the Russian physicist-turned-entrepreneur Yuri Milner.

  1. Between Traditions: Stephen Ball and the Critical Sociology of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Stephen Ball's work has deservedly received a good deal of attention. In this article, I detail a number of tasks in which the critical sociologist of education--as a "public intellectual"--should engage. I then place Ball's work within these tasks and evaluate his contributions to them. In the process, I show that one of the…

  2. Stephen Baylin, M.D., Explains Genetics and Epigenetics - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    Stephen Baylin, M.D., at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center discusses the how alterations in the DNA code are deciphered in a combined effort with The Cancer Genome Atlas at the National Cancer Institute to decode the brain cancer genome.

  3. Using Stephen Crane's "Maggie" To Teach the Progressive Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerwin, David; Manolios, Vassilios; Popodopoulos, Lia

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a lesson plan designed for an eleventh-grade U.S. history class in which the students learn about the Progressive Era by reading Stephen Crane's "Maggie: A Girl of the Streets." Explains that students analyze point of view, role play a talk show, write an essay, and complete a long-term research project. (CMK)

  4. John Jay High School. Project RESCATE. O.E.E. Evaluation Report, 1981-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rima; And Others

    This is a second-year evaluation report for Project RESCATE, a bilingual education program for 285 Spanish and Haitian Creole speaking students at John Jay High School, Brooklyn, New York. The program provided bilingual instructional services in language and content area courses to Spanish dominant students, ESL and native language instruction to…

  5. Hint-seeking behaviour of western scrub-jays in a metacognition task.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Arii; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-01-01

    Metacognitive processes during memory retrieval can be tested by examining whether or not animals can assess their knowledge state when they are faced with a memory test. In a typical foraging task, food is hidden in one of the multiple tubes and the subjects are given an opportunity to check the contents of the tubes before choosing the one that they thought contained food. Following the findings from our previous study that western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) can make prospective metacognition judgements, this study tested the scrub-jays' concurrent metacognition judgements. In a series of experiments, uncertainty about the food location was induced in three ways: by making the baiting process visibly unavailable, by inserting a delay between the baiting and food retrieval, and by moving the location of the bait. The jays looked into the tubes more often during the conditions that were consistent with high uncertainty. In addition, their looking behaviour was associated not with the sight of food but with information about the location of the food. These findings suggest that the jays can differentiate the states of knowing and not knowing about certain information and take appropriate action to complement their missing knowledge.

  6. Fisher Ames and Political Judgment: Reason, Passion, and Vehement Style in the Jay Treaty Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, James M.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes Fisher Ames' fiery speech of 1796 on the Jay Treaty. Demonstrates the influence of Scottish enlightenment thinkers (particularly in moral sense philosophy and faculty psychology) on Ames and his rhetoric. Demonstrates how Ames made a compelling case to shift the standard of political judgment from reason to passion. (SR)

  7. The Contradictions of Contemporary Culture: A Tribute to Norman Jay Levitt (1943-2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Norman Jay Levitt was the author's good friend, collaborator, and co-author. He was--above, before, and after politics--an honest inquirer. His socio-cultural views evolved continuously. Levitt, truth-seeker and liberal, was impatient with, and a devastating critic of, the political correctness and--even worse--the philosophic triviality that…

  8. Radio-Loud and Radio-Quiet Gamma-Ray Pulsars from the Galactic Plane and the Gould Belt

    SciTech Connect

    Gonthier, P. L.

    2005-03-17

    We present recent results of a pulsar population synthesis study in the polar cap model that includes the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey, realistic beam geometries for radio and {gamma}-ray emission from neutron stars born in the Galactic disc as well as the local Gould Belt. We include nine radio surveys to normalize the simulated results from the Galactic disc to the number of radio pulsars observed by the group of selected surveys. In normalizing the contribution of the Gould Belt, we use results from a recent study that indicates a supernova rate in the Gould Belt of 3 to 5 times that of the local region of the Galactic plane leading to {approx}100 neutron stars born in the Gould Belt during the last 5 Myr. Our simulations include the dynamical evolution of the Gould Belt where neutron stars are produced in the plane of the Gould Belt during the past 5 Myr. We discuss the simulated numbers of radio-quiet (those below flux threshold of radio surveys) and radio-loud, {gamma}-ray pulsars from the Galactic disc and the Gould belt observed by {gamma}-ray telescopes EGRET, AGILE and GLAST. They suggest that about 35 of the unidentified EGRET sources could be (mostly radio-loud) {gamma}-ray pulsars with 2/3 of them born in the Galactic disc and 1/3 in the Gould Belt.

  9. Could the Unidentified EGRET Sources in the Gould Belt be of Pulsar Origin?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Bing; Harding, Alice K.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We explore the possibility, within the polar cap model, that at least some of the recently identified new population of Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) sources in the Gould Belt sources are gamma-ray pulsars, viewed at large angles to the magnetic axis, such that the line-of-sight misses both the bright gamma-ray double cone and the radio beam. We estimate that the detectability of such off-beam gamma-ray sources is about a factor of 4-5 times higher than that of the on-beam sources. The off-beam gamma-ray pulsars also have a faint, soft nature, which is consistent with the observed properties of the Gould Belt sources. We conclude that at least some of the middle latitude sources might be such off-beam gamma-ray pulsars if they are indeed in the Gould Belt.

  10. Crossing the Gould Belt in the Orion vicinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biazzo, K.; Alcalá, J. M.; Covino, E.; Sterzik, M. F.; Guillout, P.; Chavarría-K., C.; Frasca, A.; Raddi, R.

    2012-06-01

    Context. The recent star formation history in the solar vicinity is not yet well constrained, and the real nature of the so-called Gould Belt is still unclear. Aims: We present a study of the large-scale spatial distribution of 6482 ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) X-ray sources in approximately 5000 deg2 in the general direction of Orion. We examine the astrophysical properties of a sub-sample of ~100 optical counterparts, using optical spectroscopy. This sub-sample is then used to investigate the space density of the RASS young star candidates by comparing X-ray number counts with Galactic model predictions. Methods: The young star candidates were selected from the RASS using X-ray criteria. We characterize the observed sub-sample in terms of spectral type, lithium content, radial and rotational velocities, and iron abundance. A population synthesis model is then applied to analyze the stellar content of the RASS in the studied area. Results: We find that stars associated with the Orion star-forming region, as expected, do show a high lithium content. As in previous RASS studies, a population of late-type stars with lithium equivalent widths larger than that of the Pleiades stars of the same spectral type (hence younger than ~70-100 Myr) is found widely spread over the studied area. Two new young stellar aggregates, namely "X-ray Clump 0534+22" (age ~ 2-10 Myr) and "X-ray Clump 0430-08" (age ~ 2-20 Myr), are also identified. Conclusions: The spectroscopic follow-up and comparison with Galactic model predictions reveal that the X-ray selected stellar population in the general direction of Orion is characterized by three distinct components, namely the clustered, the young dispersed, and the widespread field populations. The clustered population is mainly associated with regions of recent or ongoing star formation and correlates spatially with molecular clouds. The dispersed young population follows a broad lane that apparently coincides spatially with the Gould Belt

  11. Astronaut Stephen Oswald and fellow crew members on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut Stephen S. Oswald (center), STS-67 mission commander, is seen with two of his fellow crew members and an experiment which required a great deal of his time on the middeck of the Earth orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. Astronaut John M. Grunsfeld inputs mission data on a computer while listening to a cassette. Astronaut William G. Gregory (right edge of frame), pilot, consults a check list. The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE), not in use here, can be seen in upper center.

  12. Top scientists join Stephen Hawking at Perimeter Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Nine leading researchers are to join Stephen Hawking as visiting fellows at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Ontario, Canada. The researchers, who include string theorists Leonard Susskind from Stanford University and Asoka Sen from the Harisch-Chandra Research Institute in India, will each spend a few months of the year at the institute as "distinguished research chairs". They will be joined by another 30 scientists to be announced at a later date.

  13. Strategic Decision Games: Improving Strategic Intuition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-23

    this is useful and enlightening , the truly powerful method of learning mathematical techniques is to work through many and various problems using...about, and approaches to, that new world. - General Tony Zinni, The Battle for Peace In 1972, evolutionary scientists Stephen Jay Gould and Niles... neurology and cognitive science, has identified a phenomenon similar to intuition that he calls “Intelligent Memory.” Dr. Gordon describes

  14. Teaching the Classics: The Origin of Species as a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruse, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Many (including the author) argue that reading the classics in the field should be part of a scientist's education. However, how you read the classics can be very different depending on whether you read them as a historian or as a practicing scientist. This point will be made by comparing two readings of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species, and by looking at the use that Stephen Jay Gould made of the history of science in his quest to promote his scientific ideas.

  15. The NOMA of Yishayahu Leibowitz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    Stephen Jay Gould presented his position on science and religion - Non-Overlapping Magisteria (NOMA) - without justification. A detailed justification of the NOMA position can be found in the earlier work of scientist and philosopher Yishayahu Leibowitz; his work is especially interesting because it comes from a religious person. This paper summarizes Leibowitz's philosophical and theological position, and claims that his version of NOMA, and by implication similar versions of NOMA, are not applicable in science education.

  16. Predation risk induces changes in nest-site selection and clutch size in the Siberian jay

    PubMed Central

    Eggers, Sönke; Griesser, Michael; Nystrand, Magdalena; Ekman, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that an individual should reduce its reproductive efforts by laying a smaller clutch size when high risk of nest predation reduces the value of current reproduction. Evidence in favour of this ‘nest predation hypothesis’, however, is scarce and based largely on correlative analyses. Here, we manipulated perceived risk of nest predation in the Siberian jay Perisoreus infaustus using playback involving a mixture of calls by corvid nest predators in the vicinity of nest sites. In response to being exposed to this acoustic cue simulating increased risk of nest predation, the jays chose a nest site offering more protective covering and reduced clutch size. This is the first experimental demonstration of clutch size adjustment and nest site selection as a result of phenotypic plasticity in an open nesting passerine reflecting a facultative response to the perceived risk of nest predation. PMID:16608689

  17. Rapid divergence and postglacial colonization in western North American Steller's jays (Cyanocitta stelleri).

    PubMed

    Burg, Theresa M; Gaston, Anthony J; Winker, Kevin; Friesen, Vicki L

    2005-10-01

    Post-Pleistocene avian colonization of deglaciated North America occurred from multiple refugia, including a coastal refugium in the northwest. The location of a Pacific Coastal refugium is controversial; however, multiple lines of evidence suggest that it was located near the Queen Charlotte Islands (also known as Haida Gwaii). The Queen Charlotte Islands contain a disproportionately large number of endemic plants and animals including the Steller's jay Cyanocitta stelleri carlottae. Using five highly variable microsatellite markers, we studied population structure among eight populations of Steller's jay (N = 150) from geographical areas representing three subspecies in western North America: C. s. carlottae, C. s. stelleri and C. s. annectens. Microsatellite analyses revealed genetic differentiation between each of the three subspecies, although more extensive sampling of additional C. s. annectens populations is needed to clarify the level of subspecies differentiation. High levels of population structure were found among C. s. stelleri populations with significant differences in all but two pairwise comparisons. A significant isolation by distance pattern was observed amongst populations in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska. In the C. s. carlottae population, there was evidence of reduced genetic variation, higher number of private alleles than northern C. s. stelleri populations and higher levels of divergence between Queen Charlotte Island and other populations. We were unable to reject the hypothesis that the Queen Charlotte Islands served as a refugium during the Pleistocene. Steller's jay may have colonized the Queen Charlotte Islands near the end of the last glaciation or persisted throughout the Pleistocene, and this subspecies may thus represent a glacial relic. The larger number of private alleles, despite reduced genetic variation, morphological distinctiveness and high divergence from other populations suggests that the Queen Charlotte Island

  18. Western scrub-jays allocate longer observation time to more valuable information.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Arii; Grodzinski, Uri; Clayton, Nicola S

    2014-07-01

    When humans mentally reconstruct past events and imagine future scenarios, their subjective experience of mentally time travelling is accompanied by the awareness of doing so. Despite recent popularity of studying episodic memory in animals, such phenomenological consciousness has been extremely difficult to demonstrate without agreed behavioural markers of consciousness in non-linguistic subjects. We presented western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) with a task requiring them to allocate observing time between two peepholes to see food being hidden in either of two compartments, one where observing the hiding location was necessary to later relocate the food, and another where food could easily be found without watching. Jays first separately experienced these consequences of possessing information in each compartment and subsequently, once given a choice, made more looks and spent more time looking into the compartment where information was necessary than into the compartment where it was unnecessary. Thus, the jays can collect information to solve a future problem. Moreover, they can differentiate sources of information according to their potential value and modify behaviour to efficiently collect important, usable information. This is the first evidence of metacognition in a species that passes the behavioural criteria for both retrospective and prospective mental time travel.

  19. [Poisoning caused by the pyrethroid compound deltamethrin in Gould's amadines (Chloebia gouldiae). Description of a case].

    PubMed

    Zwart, P

    1988-09-15

    Within approximately ten minutes after Gould's amadines had been returned to an aviary which had been treated with the pyrethroid compound deltamethrin, the birds showed restlessness and sat pecking between their feathers, making abrupt movements. The birds ate less and declined perceptibly. Experimental exposure gave rise to identical symptoms and there were marked differences in sensitivity between species of bird.

  20. 'Filling Bellies and Brains': The Educational and Political Thought of Frederick James Gould.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manton, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the pioneering efforts concerning moral education and educational reform by British educator Frederick James Gould. Discusses the application of his socialistic ideas to further three causes: (1) socialism and secularism; (2) positivism; and (3) a form of middle class radicalism. (KDR)

  1. A Markov decision process for managing habitat for Florida scrub-jays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Breininger, David R.; Duncan, Brean W.; Nichols, James D.; Runge, Michael C.; Williams, B. Ken

    2011-01-01

    Florida scrub-jays Aphelocoma coerulescens are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act due to loss and degradation of scrub habitat. This study concerned the development of an optimal strategy for the restoration and management of scrub habitat at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which contains one of the few remaining large populations of scrub-jays in Florida. There are documented differences in the reproductive and survival rates of scrubjays among discrete classes of scrub height (<120 cm or "short"; 120-170 cm or "optimal"; .170 cm or "tall"; and a combination of tall and optimal or "mixed"), and our objective was to calculate a state-dependent management strategy that would maximize the long-term growth rate of the resident scrub-jay population. We used aerial imagery with multistate Markov models to estimate annual transition probabilities among the four scrub-height classes under three possible management actions: scrub restoration (mechanical cutting followed by burning), a prescribed burn, or no intervention. A strategy prescribing the optimal management action for management units exhibiting different proportions of scrub-height classes was derived using dynamic programming. Scrub restoration was the optimal management action only in units dominated by mixed and tall scrub, and burning tended to be the optimal action for intermediate levels of short scrub. The optimal action was to do nothing when the amount of short scrub was greater than 30%, because short scrub mostly transitions to optimal height scrub (i.e., that state with the highest demographic success of scrub-jays) in the absence of intervention. Monte Carlo simulation of the optimal policy suggested that some form of management would be required every year. We note, however, that estimates of scrub-height transition probabilities were subject to several sources of uncertainty, and so we explored the management implications of alternative sets of transition probabilities

  2. Eurasian jays do not copy the choices of conspecifics, but they do show evidence of stimulus enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Rachael; Lister, Katherine; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2016-01-01

    Corvids (birds in the crow family) are hypothesised to have a general cognitive tool-kit because they show a wide range of transferrable skills across social, physical and temporal tasks, despite differences in socioecology. However, it is unknown whether relatively asocial corvids differ from social corvids in their use of social information in the context of copying the choices of others, because only one such test has been conducted in a relatively asocial corvid. We investigated whether relatively asocial Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) use social information (i.e., information made available by others). Previous studies have indicated that jays attend to social context in their caching and mate provisioning behaviour; however, it is unknown whether jays copy the choices of others. We tested the jays in two different tasks varying in difficulty, where social corvid species have demonstrated social information use in both tasks. Firstly, an object-dropping task was conducted requiring objects to be dropped down a tube to release a food reward from a collapsible platform, which corvids can learn through explicit training. Only one rook and one New Caledonian crow have learned the task using social information from a demonstrator. Secondly, we tested the birds on a simple colour discrimination task, which should be easy to solve, because it has been shown that corvids can make colour discriminations. Using the same colour discrimination task in a previous study, all common ravens and carrion crows copied the demonstrator. After observing a conspecific demonstrator, none of the jays solved the object-dropping task, though all jays were subsequently able to learn to solve the task in a non-social situation through explicit training, and jays chose the demonstrated colour at chance levels. Our results suggest that social and relatively asocial corvids differ in social information use, indicating that relatively asocial species may have secondarily lost this

  3. Reconciling the Census of Forming Stars in Gould's Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutermath, Robert

    We seek funding to construct a set of new, publicly available, value-enhanced data products for the 37 deg2 of archival Spitzer IRAC 3-8 micron and MIPS 24 micron imaging from the Spitzer Legacy surveys From Molecular Cores to Planet-forming Disks (PI Evans) and the subsequent Gould's Belt: Star Formation in the Solar Neighborhood (PI Allen; c2d/GB hereafter). These surveys comprise our canonical view of low-mass star formation, encompassing most of the nearest (<400pc) molecular clouds other than Taurus. From the proposed c2d/GB reprocessing, we will produce and deliver the following products to the Infrared Science Archive (IRSA) at IPAC for community access: - Artifact-mitigated, astrometrically-refined Spitzer mosaics at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 microns for all 18 clouds in c2d/GB; - Complete, band-merged, point source catalogs in all five Spitzer bands considered, combined with 2MASS and WISE photometry where available, and a census of young stellar objects (YSOs) with excess infrared emission that are selected via the Gutermuth et al. (2009; G09) YSO identification and classification techniques from the full catalogs; - Point source completeness decay data cubes at 30'' resolution for all Spitzer mosaics, and midIR luminosity completeness images built from the five-band completeness cubes for a wide range of mid-IR spectral energy distribution (SED) shapes. Our overarching goal is to provide a precise observational product that contains the means to test ever more detailed simulations of star formation and guide and supplement future observations of nearby star-forming regions and clouds at all wavelengths. A complete, internally consistent census of all YSOs exhibiting excess infrared emission and a detailed mapping of the limits of non-detections by YSO evolutionary stage for all molecular clouds and star-forming complexes observed by Spitzer within 2 kpc will have incredible value for both goals. With a full YSO census and a clearer understanding of how

  4. Habitat-specific breeder survival of Florida Scrub-Jays: Inferences from multistate models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breininger, D.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Carter, G.M.; Oddy, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying habitat-specific survival and changes in habitat quality within disturbance-prone habitats is critical for understanding population dynamics and variation in fitness, and for managing degraded ecosystems. We used 18 years of color-banding data and multistate capture-recapture models to test whether habitat quality within territories influences survival and detection probability of breeding Florida Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) and to estimate bird transition probabilities from one territory quality state to another. Our study sites were along central Florida's Atlantic coast and included two of the four largest metapopulations within the species range. We developed Markov models for habitat transitions and compared these to bird transition probabilities. Florida Scrub-Jay detection probabilities ranged from 0.88 in the tall territory state to 0.99 in the optimal state; detection probabilities were intermediate in the short state. Transition probabilities were similar for birds and habitat in grid cells mapped independently of birds. Thus, bird transitions resulted primarily from habitat transitions between states over time and not from bird movement. Survival ranged from 0.71 in the short state to 0.82 in the optimal state, with tall states being intermediate. We conclude that average Florida Scrub-Jay survival will remain at levels that lead to continued population declines because most current habitat quality is only marginally suitable across most of the species range. Improvements in habitat are likely to be slow and difficult because tall states are resistant to change and the optimal state represents an intermediate transitional stage. The multistate modeling approach to quantifying survival and habitat transition probabilities is useful for quantifying habitat transition probabilities and comparing them to bird transition probabilities to test for habitat selection in dynamic environments. ?? 2009 by the Ecological society ot America.

  5. STS-79 Commander Readdy, Pilot Wilcutt and MS Jay Apt at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 Commander William F. Readdy (left), Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt and Mission Specialist Jay Apt chat after the six-member flight crew arrived at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. The astronauts' return to KSC coincides with the beginning of a three-day launch countdown that will culminate in the Sept. 16 liftoff of the Space Shuttle Atlantis on Mission STS-79. The 79th Shuttle flight will be highlighted by the fourth docking between the U.S. Shuttle and Russian Space Station Mir and the first U.S. crew exchange on the station. Launch from Pad 39A is set for about 4:54 a.m. EDT.

  6. STS-90 Payload Specialist Jay Buckey is suited up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Payload Specialist Jay Buckey, M.D., prepares for launch during suit-up activities in KSC's Operations and Checkout Building. Buckey and the rest of the STS-90 crew will shortly depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits a second liftoff attempt at 2:19 p.m. EDT. His first trip into space, Buckey is participating in a life sciences research flight that will focus on the most complex and least understood part of the human body -- the nervous system. Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  7. The Gould's Belt very large array survey. III. The Orion region

    SciTech Connect

    Kounkel, Marina; Hartmann, Lee; Loinard, Laurent; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Dzib, Sergio A.; Torres, Rosa M.; Boden, Andrew F.; Evans, Neal J. II; Briceño, Cesar; Tobin, John

    2014-07-20

    We present results from a high-sensitivity (60 μJy), large-scale (2.26 deg{sup 2}) survey obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array as part of the Gould's Belt Survey program. We detected 374 and 354 sources at 4.5 and 7.5 GHz, respectively. Of these, 148 are associated with previously known young stellar objects (YSOs). Another 86 sources previously unclassified at either optical or infrared wavelengths exhibit radio properties that are consistent with those of young stars. The overall properties of our sources at radio wavelengths such as their variability and radio to X-ray luminosity relation are consistent with previous results from the Gould's Belt Survey. Our detections provide target lists for follow-up Very Long Baseline Array radio observations to determine their distances as YSOs are located in regions of high nebulosity and extinction, making it difficult to measure optical parallaxes.

  8. Goulds Belt, Interstellar Clouds, and the Eocene-Oligocene Helium-3 Spike

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2015-01-01

    Drag from hydrogen in the interstellar cloud which formed Gould's Belt may have sent small meteoroids with embedded helium to the Earth, perhaps explaining part or all of the (sup 3) He spike seen in the sedimentary record at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Assuming the Solar System passed through part of the cloud, meteoroids in the asteroid belt up to centimeter size may have been dragged to the resonances, where their orbital eccentricities were pumped up into Earth-crossing orbits.

  9. Western scrub-jays do not appear to attend to functionality in Aesop’s Fable experiments

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Brigit D.; Schlinger, Barney A.; Rensel, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Western scrub-jays are known for their highly discriminatory and flexible behaviors in a caching (food storing) context. However, it is unknown whether their cognitive abilities are restricted to a caching context. To explore this question, we tested scrub-jays in a non-caching context using the Aesop’s Fable paradigm, where a partially filled tube of water contains a floating food reward and objects must be inserted to displace the water and bring the food within reach. We tested four birds, but only two learned to drop stones proficiently. Of these, one bird participated in 4/5 experiments and one in 2/5 experiments. Both birds passed one experiment, but without attending to the functional differences of the objects, and failed the other experiments. Scrub-jays were not motivated to participate in these experiments, suggesting that either this paradigm was ecologically irrelevant or perhaps their flexibility is restricted to a caching context. PMID:26925331

  10. A Corrupt Medium: Stephen Burroughs and the Bridgehampton, New York, Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Susanna

    2003-01-01

    Discusses criminal Stephen Burroughs'"The Memoirs of Stephen Burroughs", a well-known rogue narrative of the 19th century, and his campaign to establish a library in Bridgehampton, New York. Topics include rationalism; the role of reading; the growth of libraries following the American Revolution; and the role of individual…

  11. Reading Stephen King: Issues of Censorship, Student Choice, and Popular Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Brenda Miller, Ed.; Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.; Chandler, Kelly, Ed.

    This collection of essays grew out of the "Reading Stephen King Conference" held at the University of Maine in 1996. Stephen King's books have become a lightning rod for the tensions around issues of including "mass market" popular literature in middle and high school English classes and of who chooses what students read.…

  12. Dynamics and phylogenetic implications of MtDNA control region sequences in New World Jays (Aves: Corvidae).

    PubMed

    Saunders, M A; Edwards, S V

    2000-08-01

    To study the evolution of mtDNA and the intergeneric relationships of New World Jays (Aves: Corvidae), we sequenced the entire mitochondrial DNA control region (CR) from 21 species representing all genera of New World jays, an Old World jay, crows, and a magpie. Using maximum likelihood methods, we found that both the transition/transversion ratio (kappa) and among site rate variation (alpha) were higher in flanking domains I and II than in the conserved central domain and that the frequency of indels was highest in domain II. Estimates of kappa and alpha were much more influenced by the density of taxon sampling than by alternative optimal tree topologies. We implemented a successive approximation method incorporating these parameters into phylogenetic analysis. In addition we compared our study in detail to a previous study using cytochrome b and morphology to examine the effect of taxon sampling, evolutionary rates of genes, and combined data on tree resolution. We found that the particular weighting scheme used had no effect on tree topology and little effect on tree robustness. Taxon sampling had a significant effect on tree robustness but little effect on the topology of the best tree. The CR data set differed nonsignificantly from the tree derived from the cytochrome b/morphological data set primarily in the placement of the genus Gymnorhinus, which is near the base of the CR tree. However, contrary to conventional taxonomy, the CR data set suggested that blue and black jays (Cyanocorax sensu lato) might be paraphyletic and that the brown jay Psilorhinus (=Cyanocorax) morio is the sister group to magpie jays (Calocitta), a phylogenetic hypothesis that is likely as parsimonious with regard to nonmolecular characters as monophyly of Cyanocorax. The CR tree also suggests that the common ancestor of NWJs was likely a cooperative breeder. Consistent with recent systematic theory, our data suggest that DNA sequences with high substitution rates such as the CR may

  13. Jay's Collectibles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappel, James J.; Gillman, Jason R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in collectibles of many types, as indicated by the popularity of television programs such as the History Channel's "Pawn Stars" and "American Pickers" and the Public Broadcasting Service's "Antiques Road Show." The availability of online auction sites such as eBay has enabled many people to collect items of interest as a…

  14. 75 FR 8741 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Stephen F. Austin State University... to repatriate cultural items in the control of Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX... under contract with Stephen F. Austin State University. In 1957, 15 cultural items were removed from...

  15. Efficacy of Three Vaccines in Protecting Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) from Experimental Infection with West Nile Virus: Implications for Vaccination of Island Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma insularis)

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Sarah S.; Langevin, Stanley; Woods, Leslie; Carroll, Brian D.; Vickers, Winston; Morrison, Scott A.; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.; Reisen, William K.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The devastating effect of West Nile virus (WNV) on the avifauna of North America has led zoo managers and conservationists to attempt to protect vulnerable species through vaccination. The Island Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma insularis) is one such species, being a corvid with a highly restricted insular range. Herein, we used congeneric Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) to test the efficacy of three WNV vaccines in protecting jays from an experimental challenge with WNV: (1) the Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator® DNA equine vaccine, (2) an experimental DNA plasmid vaccine, pCBWN, and (3) the Merial Recombitek® equine vaccine. Vaccine efficacy after challenge was compared with naïve and nonvaccinated positive controls and a group of naturally immune jays. Overall, vaccination lowered peak viremia compared with nonvaccinated positive controls, but some WNV-related pathology persisted and the viremia was sufficient to possibly infect susceptible vector mosquitoes. The Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator DNA equine vaccine and the pCBWN vaccine provided humoral immune priming and limited side effects. Five of the six birds vaccinated with the Merial Recombitek vaccine, including a vaccinated, non-WNV challenged control, developed extensive necrotic lesions in the pectoral muscle at the vaccine inoculation sites, which were attributed to the Merial vaccine. In light of the well-documented devastating effects of high morbidity and mortality associated with WNV infection in corvids, vaccination of Island Scrub-Jays with either the Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator DNA vaccine or the pCBWN vaccine may increase the numbers of birds that would survive an epizootic should WNV become established on Santa Cruz Island. PMID:21438693

  16. The Lloyd Sealy Library of John Jay College of Criminal Justice: Academic Library, Special Library, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The Lloyd Sealy Library of John Jay College of Criminal Justice started as a small collection of books in the corner of the New York City Police Academy. A little over four decades later, it now contains one of the best collections of criminal justice materials in the world. Despite fiscal setbacks and tough times for the University and the…

  17. John Jay High School Project "Rescate." E.S.E.A. Title VII. Final Evaluation Report, 1980-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Educational Evaluation.

    This report describes and presents 1980-81 evaluation results for Project Rescate at John Jay High School in New York City. The project, which was funded under Title VII of the Elementary Secondary Education Act, provided instruction in English as a Second Language and in native language skills for limited proficient students. Bilingual…

  18. John Jay High School Project "RESCATE." O.E.E. Evaluation Report, 1982-1983. [Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Grace Ibanez; Schulman, Robert

    Project RESCATE, in its third and final year of funding, provided instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL) and native language skills, as well as bilingual instruction in science, mathematics, and social studies, to 185 Spanish-speaking students of limited English proficiency (LEP) at John Jay High School in Brooklyn, New York. In…

  19. Effective Integration of Technology and Instruction. Q&A with Michael Jay. REL Mid-Atlantic Educator Effectiveness Webinar Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In this webinar, long-time educator and developer of education technology Michael Jay discussed the importance of using technology to support learning and gave examples of how teachers can integrate technology into their instruction based on the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards. The PowerPoint presentation and…

  20. The Jay Baum Rich telescope: a Centurion 28 at the Wise Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosch, Noah; Kaspi, Shai; Niv, Saar; Manulis, Ilan

    2015-10-01

    We describe the third telescope of the Wise Observatory, a 0.70-m Centurion 28 (C28IL) installed in 2013 and named the Jay Baum Rich telescope to enhance significantly the wide-field imaging possibilities of the observatory. The telescope operates from a 5.5-m diameter dome and is equipped with a large-format red-sensitive CCD camera, offering a ˜one square degree imaged field sampled at . The telescope was acquired to provide an alternative to the existing 1-m telescope for studies such as microlensing, photometry of transiting exo-planets, the follow-up of supernovae and other optical transients, and the detection of very low surface brightness extended features around galaxies.

  1. Laparoscopic one-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy preserving gubernaculum

    PubMed Central

    Naycı, Ali; Bahadır, Gökhan Berktuğ; Erdoğan, Cankat; Taşkınlar, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess gubernaculum-sparing laparoscopic one-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy (FSO), in the management of high intrapelvic testis. Material and methods Medical reports of boys who underwent laparoscopic one-stage FSO were retrospectively reviewed. High intrapelvic testis was defined as testis ≥3 cm away from ipsilateral internal ring. Testes were evaluated on physical examination at 3rd, 6th and 18th months after surgery. Children were evaluated as for their demographic data, operative findings, interventional details and outcomes. Results Seven patients met inclusion criteria of the study. Six of 7 testis were small and had abnormal appearance, compared with the contralateral testis. Average distance of the testes from the internal ring was 4.2±1.1 cm (3 to 6). Average age at surgery was 6.1±4.2 years (2 to 12). Average follow-up period was 14±5.8 months (8 to 20), and 5 testis (71.4%) were considered to be normal in volume and scrotal location. Two testes were relatively atrophic and underwent orchiectomy. Conclusion Our preliminary results shows a good testicular survival rate for one-stage laparoscopic FSO. Sparing collateral vasculature of the gubernaculum is important. PMID:28270955

  2. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.; Orchiston, Wayne

    2011-11-01

    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, which Herschel rejected. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston, FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston - not Herschel - who coined the term 'asteroid' to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  3. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.

    2011-01-01

    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, most of which sound quite ludicrous. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston- not Herschel- who coined the term "asteroid" to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: JCMT Gould Belt Survey: dense cores in Orion B (Kirk+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, H.; Di Francesco, J.; Johnstone, D.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Sadavoy, S.; Hatchell, J.; Mottram, J. C.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2016-04-01

    Orion B was observed with SCUBA-2 at 850 and 450um as part of the JCMT Gould Belt Survey (Ward-Thompson et al. 2007PASP..119..855W). Three separate regions were observed: the areas around L1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, as illustrated in Figure 1. The SCUBA-2 observations were obtained between 2012 February and 2014 November with some initial science verification data taken in 2011 October and November. Portions of the NGC 2023/2024 and NGC 2068/2071 regions were also observed by the Gould Belt Survey (GBS) in 12CO(3-2) with HARP. (1 data file).

  5. Goulds Belt, Interstellar Clouds, and the Eocene Oligocene Helium-3 Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2015-01-01

    Drag from hydrogen in the interstellar cloud which formed Gould's Belt may have sent interplanetary dust particle (IDPs) and small meteoroids with embedded helium to the Earth, perhaps explaining part the helium-3 flux increase seen in the sedimentary record near the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Assuming the Solar System passed through part of the cloud, IDPs in the inner Solar System may have been dragged to Earth, while dust and small meteoroids in the asteroid belt up to centimeter size may have been dragged to the resonances, where their orbital eccentricities were pumped up into Earth-crossing orbits; however, this hypotheses does not explain the Popigai and Chesapeake Bay impacts.

  6. Phylogeny mandalas of birds using the lithographs of John Gould's folio bird books.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Masami; Kuroda, Sayako

    2016-12-09

    The phylogeny mandala, which is a circular phylogeny with photos or drawings of species, is a suitable way to show visually how the biodiversity has developed in the course of evolution as clarified by the molecular phylogenetics. In this article, in order to demonstrate the recent progress of avian molecular phylogenetics, six phylogeny mandalas of various taxonomic groups of birds are presented with the lithographs of John Gould's folio bird books; i.e., (1) whole Aves, (2) Passeriformes, (3) Paradisaeidae in Corvoidea (Passeriformes), (4) Meliphagoidea (Passeriformes), (5) Trochili in Apodiformes, and (6) Galliformes.

  7. Desire-state attribution: Benefits of a novel paradigm using the food-sharing behavior of Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius).

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Ljerka; Cheke, Lucy G; Shaw, Rachael C; Legg, Edward W; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have investigated the possibility that Eurasian jay food sharing might rely on desire-state attribution. The female's desire for a particular type of food can be decreased by sating her on it (specific satiety) and the food sharing paradigm can be used to test whether the male's sharing pattern reflects the female's current desire. Our previous findings show that the male shares the food that the female currently wants. Here, we consider 3 simpler mechanisms that might explain the male's behavior: behavior reading, lack of self-other differentiation and behavioral rules. We illustrate how we have already addressed these issues and how our food sharing paradigm can be further adapted to answer outstanding questions. The flexibility with which the food sharing paradigm can be applied to rule out alternative mechanisms makes it a useful tool to study desire-state attribution in jays and other species that share food.

  8. Health assessment for NL/Gould NPL (National Priorities List) Site, Portland, Oregon, Region 10. CERCLIS No. ORD095003687. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-29

    The NL/Gould National Priorities List (NPL) site is situated near the banks of the Williamette River in the Doane Lake area of Portland, Oregon. Past lead reclamation operations and disposal practices on and around the NL/Gould facility have resulted in the contamination of on-site surface and subsurface soil, lake sediment, and ground water with lead, arsenic, cadmium, and chromium. The NL/Gould NPL site currently poses a threat to public health as a result of the potential for direct ingestion of lead-contaminated soil and direct contact exposure to lead-contaminated soil, sediment, and ground water.

  9. Uncertainty-based grade modelling of kimberlite: A case study of the Jay kimberlite pipe, EKATI Diamond Mine, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Sara; Leuangthong, Oy; Crawford, Barbara; Oshust, Peter

    2009-11-01

    Understanding uncertainty in resource models is a significant requirement of mineral resource evaluation. Geostatistical simulation is one method that can be used to quantify uncertainty and Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) is one of the easiest techniques to understand and implement. Using SGS provides both a spatial model of a given variable and the ranges around that variable at any number of scales. The Jay kimberlite pipe is located in the southeastern quadrant of the EKATI property. Drilling to date has identified three kimberlitic domains characterized by varying lithological properties. These domains are not separated by hard contacts, but rather by boundaries that are transitional. Within these domains, vertical trends exist; in particular, diamond grade increases with depth. For these reasons, Jay required an in-depth investigation of the best uncertainty-based grade modelling method to use. Grade was modelled by organic SGS and by using the stepwise conditional transform (SCT) to incorporate a trend into the simulation routine. Although the SGS results were valid, they did not fully reproduce the trend and therefore, the results did not fully match the geological interpretation of the deposit. The SCT results reproduced the trend, however, did not correspond to the variability of the data and therefore under-represented the actual uncertainty in the model. This was confirmed through detailed uncertainty calculation and probabilistic resource classification. Therefore, the SGS model was chosen as the preferred uncertainty-based grade model for the Jay pipe.

  10. Nutritional quality of prebreeding diet influences breeding performance of the Florida scrub-jay.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, S James; Schoech, Stephan J; Bowman, Reed

    2003-02-01

    Food supplementation studies of breeding birds have traditionally concentrated on energetic constraints on breeding performance. It is only recently that the nutritional quality of the prebreeding diet has also been considered influential. We examined the importance of specific nutrients in the prebreeding diet of the Florida scrub-jay ( Aphelocoma coerulescens). Birds were provided with one of two supplements (rich in protein and fat or rich in fat only) prior to breeding in 2000 and 2001 and their breeding performance, in relation to unsupplemented (control) birds, was examined. Birds receiving both supplements significantly advanced laying in both years, and increased clutch size in 2000 but not in 2001. Laying date explained variation in clutch size in birds on dietary supplements. Egg mass and volume declined with laying order, irrespective of dietary treatment, but birds on the high fat, high protein diet laid heavier third eggs than controls and this was independent of laying date. Laboratory analysis of 14 abandoned and unhatched eggs revealed that as egg mass increased so did the absolute amount of protein and water while fat content remained relatively fixed. Using these relationships between the masses of egg components and fresh egg mass, we calculated that heavier third eggs laid by birds on high fat and high protein, compared with those laid by controls, contained more water that may be fundamental to chick growth and survival. This is the first demonstration for an avian species that nutritional quality of prebreeding diet can simultaneously influence laying date, clutch size, and egg size and composition.

  11. Henry Knowles Beecher, Jay Katz, and the Transformation of Research with Human Beings.

    PubMed

    Capron, Alexander Morgan

    2016-01-01

    The modern history of experimentation with human beings is notable for its ethical lacunae, when even the clearest directives fail to prevent violations of subjects' rights and welfare. One such lacuna occurred during the 25 years between 1947, when the Nuremberg Code was articulated in the judgment passed on the men who had performed medical experiments in the Nazi concentration camps, and 1972, when the revelation of the 40-year-long Tuskegee Syphilis Study shocked the public and pushed Congress to adopt legislation that eventually transformed the governance of human subjects research. The work that Henry Beecher and Jay Katz did on the ethics of human experimentation beginning in 1964-which was mutually supportive but also divergent in its premises and prescriptions-played a prominent role in the policy-making processes. Beecher, whose detailed disclosure of the ethical lapses of leading researchers in his renowned 1966 New England Journal of Medicine article initiated the policy reform process, proved less influential in shaping those reforms than Katz. Ultimately, Beecher was one of the last and best exemplars of "medical ethics," while Katz-in his service on the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Ad Hoc Advisory Panel and in his testimony before, and work with, the Senate Health subcommittee-was an early practitioner of bioethics, a field in which the rules are not all written and applied by the medical profession but arise through a messier process involving outsiders and formal regulatory decisions.

  12. Calibrating divergence times on species trees versus gene trees: implications for speciation history of Aphelocoma jays.

    PubMed

    McCormack, John E; Heled, Joseph; Delaney, Kathleen S; Peterson, A Townsend; Knowles, L Lacey

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the timing of divergence are central to testing the underlying causes of speciation. Relaxed molecular clocks and fossil calibration have improved these estimates; however, these advances are implemented in the context of gene trees, which can overestimate divergence times. Here we couple recent innovations for dating speciation events with the analytical power of species trees, where multilocus data are considered in a coalescent context. Divergence times are estimated in the bird genus Aphelocoma to test whether speciation in these jays coincided with mountain uplift or glacial cycles. Gene trees and species trees show general agreement that diversification began in the Miocene amid mountain uplift. However, dates from the multilocus species tree are more recent, occurring predominately in the Pleistocene, consistent with theory that divergence times can be significantly overestimated with gene-tree based approaches that do not correct for genetic divergence that predates speciation. In addition to coalescent stochasticity, Haldane's rule could account for some differences in timing estimates between mitochondrial DNA and nuclear genes. By incorporating a fossil calibration applied to the species tree, in addition to the process of gene lineage coalescence, the present approach provides a more biologically realistic framework for dating speciation events, and hence for testing the links between diversification and specific biogeographic and geologic events.

  13. The development of support intuitions and object causality in juvenile Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius)

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Gabrielle; Miller, Rachael; Loissel, Elsa; Cheke, Lucy G.; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about the causal relationship between objects has been studied extensively in human infants, and more recently in adult animals using differential looking time experiments. How knowledge about object support develops in non-human animals has yet to be explored. Here, we studied the ontogeny of support relations in Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius), a bird species known for its sophisticated cognitive abilities. Using an expectancy violation paradigm, we measured looking time responses to possible and impossible video and image stimuli. We also controlled for experience with different support types to determine whether the emergence of support intuitions is dependent upon specific interactions with objects, or if reasoning develops independently. At age 9 months, birds looked more at a tool moving a piece of cheese that was not in contact than one that was in direct contact. By the age of 6 months, birds that had not experienced string as a support to hold up objects looked more at impossible images with string hanging from below (unsupported), rather than above (supported). The development of support intuitions may be independent of direct experience with specific support, or knowledge gained from interactions with other objects may be generalised across contexts. PMID:28053306

  14. Genomic Consequences of Population Decline in the Endangered Florida Scrub-Jay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nancy; Cosgrove, Elissa J; Bowman, Reed; Fitzpatrick, John W; Clark, Andrew G

    2016-11-07

    Understanding the population genetic consequences of declining population size is important for conserving the many species worldwide facing severe decline [1]. Thorough empirical studies on the impacts of population reduction at a genome-wide scale in the wild are scarce because they demand huge field and laboratory investments [1, 2]. Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of gene flow in introducing genetic variation to small populations [3], but few have documented both genetic and fitness consequences of decreased immigration through time in a natural population [4-6]. Here we assess temporal variation in gene flow, inbreeding, and fitness using longitudinal genomic, demographic, and phenotypic data from a long-studied population of federally Threatened Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens). We exhaustively sampled and genotyped the study population over two decades, providing one of the most detailed longitudinal investigations of genetics in a wild animal population to date. Immigrants were less heterozygous than residents but still introduced genetic variation into our study population. Owing to regional population declines, immigration into the study population declined from 1995-2013, resulting in increased levels of inbreeding and reduced fitness via inbreeding depression, even as the population remained demographically stable. Our results show that, contrary to conventional wisdom, small peripheral populations that already have undergone a genetic bottleneck may play a vital role in preserving genetic diversity of larger and seemingly stable populations. These findings underscore the importance of investing in the persistence of small populations and maintaining population connectivity in conservation of fragmented species.

  15. Signaling for food and sex? Begging by reproductive female white-throated magpie-jays

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Jesse M. S.; Langen, Tom A.; Berg, Elena C.

    2012-01-01

    Food begging is common in nutritionally dependent young of many animals, but structurally homologous calls recur in adult signal repertoires of many species. We propose eight functional hypotheses for begging in adults; these stem from observations in birds but apply broadly to other taxa in which begging occurs. Adult cooperatively-breeding white-throated magpie-jays (Calocitta formosa) use loud begging vocalizations, particularly near the nest site during reproduction. We analysed the social context and behavioural phenology of loud calling and allofeeding in this species and compared these with predictions from each functional hypothesis. We found that reproductive females are the primary producers of beg calls, and their begging peaks during the fertile period when reproductive conflict among males and females was highest. Loud begging rates correlated positively with provisioning rates, but females called more in the pre-incubation fertile period than after they initiated incubation. Based on the context, phenology and active space of the signal, we conclude that female loud begging vocalizations function to signal nutritional need to group members, but also have been evolutionarily co-opted to advertise fertility to potential extra-pair partners. The location of calling is likely a consequence of nest guarding by breeding females to prevent intraspecific brood parasitism. PMID:23293376

  16. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Dense Core Clusters in Orion B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Di Francesco, J.; Lane, J.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; The JCMT Gould Belt Survey Team

    2016-04-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Gould Belt Legacy Survey obtained SCUBA-2 observations of dense cores within three sub-regions of Orion B: LDN 1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, all of which contain clusters of cores. We present an analysis of the clustering properties of these cores, including the two-point correlation function and Cartwright’s Q parameter. We identify individual clusters of dense cores across all three regions using a minimal spanning tree technique, and find that in each cluster, the most massive cores tend to be centrally located. We also apply the independent M-Σ technique and find a strong correlation between core mass and the local surface density of cores. These two lines of evidence jointly suggest that some amount of mass segregation in clusters has happened already at the dense core stage.

  17. Preliminary Results of the Herschel Gould Belt Survey in the Orion B Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könyves, Vera; André, Philippe; Palmeirim, Pedro; Schneider, Nicola; Arzoumanian, Doris; Men'shchikov, Alexander

    As a preliminary result of the Herschel Gould Belt survey (André et al. 2010) in the Orion B cloud complex we find a clear connection between the locations of the detected prestellar cores and the column density values. We find that the vast majority of the gravitationally bound prestellar cores are detected above a high column density of about 6-7 × 1021 cm-2 (A V ˜ 6-7). This is in very good agreement with dense core formation thresholds found in other regions. For Orion B, a similar limit appears both in the distribution of background column density values of the prestellar cores, and in the column density PDF of the region. Within our core formation scenario, the found threshold can be translated as the column density above which the filaments become gravitationally unstable and fragment into cores.

  18. The imprint of Gould's belt on the local cosmic ray electron spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, M.; Perrot, C.; Grenier, I.

    2001-08-01

    In a recent paper Pohl and Esposito (1998) demonstrated that if the sources of cosmic-rays are discrete, as are Supernova Remnants (SNR), then the spectra of cosmic-ray electrons largely vary with location and time and the locally measured electron spectrum may not be representative of the electron spectra elsewhere in the Galaxy, which could be substantially harder than the local one. They have shown that the observed excess of γ-ray emission above 1 GeV can in fact be partially explained as a correspondingly hard inverse Compton component, provided the bulk of cosmic-ray electrons is produced in SNR. As part of a program to model the Galactic γ-ray foreground we have continued the earlier studies by investigating the impact of the star forming region Gould's Belt on the local electron spectrum. If the electron sources in Gould's Belt were continous, the local electron spectrum would be slightly hardened. If the electron sources are discrete, which is the more probable case, the variation in the local electron spectrum found by Pohl & Esposito persists. 1 The local cosmic-ray electron spectrum The recent detections of non-thermal X-ray synchrotron radiation from the supernova remnants SN1006 (Koyama et al., 1995), RX J1713.7-3946 (Koyama et al., 1997), IC443 (Keohane et al., 1997; Slane et al., 1999), Cas A (Allen et al., 1997), and RCW86 (Borkowski et al., 2001) and the subsequent detections of SN1006 (Tanimori et al., 1998), RX J1713.7-3946 (Muraishi et al., 2000), and Cas A (Aharonian et al., 2001) at TeV energies support the hypothesis that at least Galactic cosmic-ray electrons are accelerated predominantly in SNR. The Galactic distribution and spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons are intimately linked to the distribution and nature of their sources. Supernovae and hence their remnants are tran-

  19. Results from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey in the Ophiuchus Main Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladjelate, Bilal; André, Philippe; Könyves, Vera; Men'shchikov, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Results from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey in the Ophiuchus Main CloudThe Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud is a well documented star-forming cloud located ~140 pc from the Sun. It is therefore an excellent laboratory for dense core search and classification. Harbouring low-mass star formation, its protostellar population have been studied for about three decades from the near infrared to the millimeter and radio range.As part of the Herschel Gould Belt Survey (http://www.herschel.fr/cea/gouldbelt/), extensive submillimeter images of the Ophiuchus Main Cloud (L1688) were produced and a deep census of both prestellar cores and young protostars was obtained using the multi-scale, multi-wavelength source extraction algorithm, getsources (Mensh'chikov et al. 2012).About 300 starless cores were extracted, including ~100 candidates gravitationally bound prestellar cores. The prestellar cores are primarily found in high column density filamentary structures above AV~7. Based on these data we discuss, the properties of the prestellar core mass function (CMF) as well as its variations in the various clumps of the cloud. The peak of the prestellar CMF appears to be close to 0.3 Solar masses in L1688.Conceptually, the low-mass end of the prestellar CMF is populated by pre-brown dwarf cores, the prototype of which is Oph-B11, a 20 Jovian masses object identified with SCUBA and IRAM (Greaves et al. 2003, André et al. 2012). Our Herschel census of dense cores in L1688 contains a few other candidate ultra low-mass cores under the hydrogen-burning limit (0.08 M⊙) which will be discussed.

  20. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: first results from SCUBA-2 observations of the Cepheus Flare region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattle, K.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Kirk, J. M.; Di Francesco, J.; Kirk, H.; Mottram, J. C.; Keown, J.; Buckle, J.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Nutter, D.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coudé, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2017-02-01

    We present observations of the Cepheus Flare obtained as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Legacy Survey (GBLS) with the SCUBA-2 instrument. We produce a catalogue of sources found by SCUBA-2, and separate these into starless cores and protostars. We determine masses and densities for each of our sources, using source temperatures determined by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. We compare the properties of starless cores in four different molecular clouds: L1147/58, L1172/74, L1251 and L1228. We find that the core mass functions for each region typically show shallower-than-Salpeter behaviour. We find that L1147/58 and L1228 have a high ratio of starless cores to Class II protostars, while L1251 and L1174 have a low ratio, consistent with the latter regions being more active sites of current star formation, while the former are forming stars less actively. We determine that if modelled as thermally supported Bonnor-Ebert spheres, most of our cores have stable configurations accessible to them. We estimate the external pressures on our cores using archival 13CO velocity dispersion measurements and find that our cores are typically pressure confined, rather than gravitationally bound. We perform a virial analysis on our cores, and find that they typically cannot be supported against collapse by internal thermal energy alone, due primarily to the measured external pressures. This suggests that the dominant mode of internal support in starless cores in the Cepheus Flare is either non-thermal motions or internal magnetic fields.

  1. Autecology of the tailed jay butterfly Graphium agamemnon (Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera : Papilionidae).

    PubMed

    Ramana, S P Venkata; Atluri, J B; Reddi, C Subba

    2003-07-01

    The Tailed Jay Graphium agamemnon is one of the attractive papilionid butterflies that enliven the environment of Visakhapatnam. It occurs throughout the year. It lays eggs singly on young leaves of the mast tree Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula (Annonaceae). The eggs take 3-4 days to hatch. The larvae go through 5 instars over a period of 15-16 days. The pupal period is 13-14 days. The total period from egg to adult emergence spans over 33-36 days. Based on this short life cycle, and larval and pupal development success studied every month, this butterfly can be multivoltine with a minimum of 7-8 broods in a year. Both CI and GR decreased with the age of larva, their average figures being 3.78 and 0.43 respectively. AD values are high (average 92%) and decreased through successive instars. Both ECD and ECI followed a similar pattern with an increase from instar I up to II, then a decrease up to IV and again an increase in instar V and the highest value is with fifth instar. Adults frequently visited flowers (12-35 flowers in a min) spending 1.0 to 3.2 seconds on a flower. The nectar concentration ranged between 16 and 58%. Peak foraging activity mostly fell between 0900-1000 h. The proboscis received pollen in most of the floral species visited, thus satisfying one of the characteristics of butterfly pollination. Being a fast and strong flier it is treated as "high energy" pollinator promoting cross-pollination.

  2. An example of phenotypic adherence to the island rule? – Anticosti gray jays are heavier but not structurally larger than mainland conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Dan; Norris, D Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The island rule refers to the tendency of small vertebrates to become larger when isolated on islands and the frequent dwarfing of large forms. It implies genetic control, and a necessary linkage, of size and body-mass differences between insular and mainland populations. To examine the island rule, we compared body size and mass of gray jays (Perisoreus canadensis) on Anticosti Island, Québec, located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, with three mainland populations (2 in Québec and 1 in Ontario). Although gray jays on Anticosti Island were ca 10% heavier, they were not structurally larger, than the three mainland populations. This suggests that Anticosti jays are not necessarily genetically distinct from mainland gray jays and that they may have achieved their greater body masses solely through packing more mass onto mainland-sized body frames. As such, they may be the first-known example of a proposed, purely phenotypic initial step in the adherence to the island rule by an insular population. Greater jay body mass is probably advantageous in Anticosti's high-density, intensely competitive social environment that may have resulted from the island's lack of mammalian nest predators. PMID:26380697

  3. June 6, 2011 Letter from Shelley Lucas to Stephen Smith and Melissa Waters

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    June 6, 2011 Letter from Shelley Lucas to Stephen Smith and Melissa Waters, USEPA, Subject: Response to Information Request Under 92 U.S.C. 9604 to Gannett Co., Inc., Dated March 24, 2011, Regarding Capitol City Plume Site, Montgomery, AL

  4. Contributions of Stephen J. Ball to the Research on Educational and Curriculum Policies in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainardes, Jefferson; Gandin, Luis Armando

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at showcasing the main contributions of Stephen J. Ball to educational research in Brazil, particularly to the study of educational and curriculum policies. We also highlight some of the limitations in the incorporation of Ball's ideas in Brazil as well as some of the challenges that these author's ideas pose to Brazilian…

  5. The Penetration of Educational Leadership Texts by Revelation and Prophecy: The Case of Stephen R. Covey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Fenwick W.

    2002-01-01

    Argues that the uncritical citation of Stephen R. Covey's book, "The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People," in educational administration texts undermines the social-scientific foundation of university-based administrator preparation. Asserts that the Covey's book is based on Mormon metaphysics, not social science. (Contains 41…

  6. What's So Funny about Stephen Toulmin?: Using Cartoons to Teach the Toulmin Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunk-Chavez, Beth L.

    2004-01-01

    The Toulmin model of argument was introduced in 1958 by British philosopher Stephen Toulmin in "The Uses of Argument" and adapted by compositionists in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Consisting of six parts--claim, support, warrant, backing, rebuttal, and qualifiers--the model provides a means for composition students "to describe the process by…

  7. A Study Guide for Stephen B. Oates' "The Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner's Fierce Rebellion"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ron

    2006-01-01

    This document is a study guide for Stephen B. Oates biography of Nat Turner, "The Fires of Jubilee." The book is a practical reading vehicle for introducing Nat Turner to secondary students in grades 11 and 12. Oates divides his work into four parts, which could provide the basis for four reading assignments, although the sections are…

  8. A Book Discussion Guide for "The Obnoxious Jerks" by Stephen Manes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesesne, Teri S.

    This paper offers 9 teaching questions to be used with Stephen Manes', "The Obnoxious Jerks," a humorous novel in which students challenge school rules in high school. The paper also provides a brief description of the novel, a biographical sketch of the author, and a selected bibliography of 21 related works. (PRA)

  9. Tripping with Stephen Gaskin: An Exploration of a Hippy Adult Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Gabriel Patrick

    2012-01-01

    For the last 40 years, Stephen Gaskin has been an adult educator on the fringe, working with tens of thousands of adults in the counterculture movement in pursuit of social change regarding marijuana legalization, women's rights, environmental justice issues and beyond. Gaskin has written 11 books about his experiences teaching and learning…

  10. Stephen Schneider and the "Double Ethical Bind" of Climate Change Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russill, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Stephen Schneider's perspective on climate change communication is distinguished by its longevity, a keen anticipation of research findings, historical understanding, and grounding in first-person experience. In this article, the author elaborates Schneider's work in terms of its key claims, suggestive research directions, and lessons for…

  11. The Humanities and Interrater Reliability: A Response to R. Stephen RiCharde

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flick, Arend

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's critique of R. Stephen RiCharde's argument in his essay on the humanities and interrater reliability in the July-August 2008 issue of "Assessment Update." RiCharde suggests that the humanities' historical commitment to a dialectical pedagogy, a "nonlinear" process that values disagreement and debate, is at odds…

  12. The Compleat Teacher-Scholar: An Interview with Stephen F. Davis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskist, William

    2009-01-01

    Stephen F. Davis is Emeritus Professor of Psychology at Emporia State University. He served as the 2002-2003 Knapp Distinguished Professor of Arts and Sciences at the University of San Diego. Currently, he is Distinguished Guest Professor at Morningside College and Visiting Distinguished Professor of Psychology at Texas Wesleyan University. Since…

  13. School Choice Research in Five European Countries: The Circulation of Stephen Ball's Concepts and Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zanten, Agnès; Kosunen, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the influence of Stephen Ball's work on research on markets and school choice in five European countries (Finland, France, Norway, Spain, and Sweden). The main focus is on the intellectual circulation of ideas, but the authors also take into account the relationship between ideas and social and political changes, as well as…

  14. Creative Cognition, Conceptual Combination, and the Creative Writing of Stephen R. Donaldson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Thomas B.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the use of conceptual combination in Stephen Donaldson's development of ideas for his fantasy books. Uses Donaldson's own account to illustrate the general principles of a creative cognition approach to understanding creativity and the role of the process of conceptual combination. Assesses links between Donaldson's and others' anecdotal…

  15. Wrestling with Stephen and Matilda: Planning Challenging Enquiries to Engage Year 7 in Medieval Anarchy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    McDougall found learning about Stephen and Matilda fascinating, was sure that her pupils would also and designed an enquiry to engage them in "the anarchy" of 1139-1153 AD. Pupils enjoyed exploring "the anarchy" and learning about it enhanced their knowledge and understanding of the medieval period considerably. However,…

  16. Power/Knowledge for Educational Theory: Stephen Ball and the Reception of Foucault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Ling

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the significance of the concept of power/knowledge in educational theory. The argument proceeds in two main parts. In the first, I consider aspects of Stephen J. Ball's highly influential work in educational theory. I examine his reception of Foucault's concept of power/knowledge and suggest that there are problems in his…

  17. Gaze Step Distributions Reflect Fixations and Saccades: A Comment on Stephen and Mirman (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogartz, Richard S.; Staub, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    In three experimental tasks Stephen and Mirman (2010) measured gaze steps, the distance in pixels between gaze positions on successive samples from an eyetracker. They argued that the distribution of gaze steps is best fit by the lognormal distribution, and based on this analysis they concluded that interactive cognitive processes underlie eye…

  18. Writing Centers and the Politics of Location: A Response to Terrance Riley and Stephen M. North.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ede, Lisa

    1996-01-01

    Critiques Terrance Riley's "The Uncompromising Future of Writing Centers" and Stephen M. North's "Revisiting 'The Idea of a Writing Center'"--two articles that upset assumptions about writing centers. Suggests that while the vision of these writers may strike some as harsh, readers should turn toward rather than away from the important questions…

  19. Effects of fouling on the Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis (Jay) in Peter the Great Bay (Sea of Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabaev, D. D.

    2013-03-01

    A valuable mariculture object, the Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten (= Patinopevten) yessoensis (Jay), after six hours long transportation by air and sowing on the bottom is fouled greater by epi- and endolythical organisms than the members of the native population. It is likely that the fouling negatively affects the specimens, those that were the largest before the sowing at the bottom were not found among those that reached puberty. The results of the effects of the endolythic polychaete Polydora brevipalpa and the barnacle Hesperibalanus hesperius on the growth rate of the Japanese scallop cultivated on the bottom of Peter the Great Bay (Sea of Japan) are provided in this paper.

  20. Treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability using the Broström-Gould procedure in athletes: long-term results

    PubMed Central

    RUSSO, ADRIANO; GIACCHÈ, PAOLO; MARCANTONI, ENRICO; ARRIGHI, ANNALISA; MOLFETTA, LUIGI

    2016-01-01

    Purpose this study was conducted to evaluate long-term results following treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability using the Broström-Gould technique in athletes. Methods eighteen athletes involved in competitive sports at different levels, who suffered from chronic lateral ankle instability, underwent Broström-Gould ligamentoplasty between 2000 and 2005. The results of the surgery were evaluated using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scale. Results the results at 10–15 years of follow-up were excellent in 94.5% of these cases and good in the remaining 5.5%. An increase of 31.2 points in the AOFAS scale score was recorded at follow-up (with the score rising to 98.8, from 67.6 preoperatively). All the athletes returned to their respective sports at the same level as prior to the surgery. Imaging at long-term follow-up showed no signs of arthritic degeneration. Conclusions the results of this study show that the Broström-Gould technique is an effective procedure for the treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability in the athlete, giving excellent long-term results. Level of evidence therapeutic case series, level IV. PMID:27602349

  1. Speciation in Western Scrub-Jays, Haldane’s rule, and genetic clines in secondary contact

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Haldane’s Rule, the tendency for the heterogametic sex to show reduced fertility in hybrid crosses, can obscure the signal of gene flow in mtDNA between species where females are heterogametic. Therefore, it is important when studying speciation and species limits in female-heterogametic species like birds to assess the signature of gene flow in the nuclear genome as well. We studied introgression of microsatellites and mtDNA across a secondary contact zone between coastal and interior lineages of Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) to test for a signature of Haldane’s Rule: a narrower cline of introgression in mtDNA compared to nuclear markers. Results Our initial phylogeographic analysis revealed that there is only one major area of contact between coastal and interior lineages and identified five genetic clusters with strong spatial structuring: Pacific Slope, Interior US, Edwards Plateau (Texas), Northern Mexico, and Southern Mexico. Consistent with predictions from Haldane’s Rule, mtDNA showed a narrower cline than nuclear markers across a transect through the hybrid zone. This result is not being driven by female-biased dispersal because neutral diffusion analysis, which included estimates of sex-specific dispersal rates, also showed less diffusion of mtDNA. Lineage-specific plumage traits were associated with nuclear genetic profiles for individuals in the hybrid zone, indicating that these differences are under genetic control. Conclusions This study adds to a growing list of studies that support predictions of Haldane’s Rule using cline analysis of multiple loci of differing inheritance modes, although alternate hypotheses like selection on different mtDNA types cannot be ruled out. That Haldane’s Rule appears to be operating in this system suggests a measure of reproductive isolation between the Pacific Slope and interior lineages. Based on a variety of evidence from the phenotype, ecology, and genetics, we recommend elevating

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Uranometria Argentina catalog of bright southern stars (Gould, 1879)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, B. G.

    2010-07-01

    In 1879 Benjamin Apthorp Gould published in Buenos Aires, Argentina, the Uranometria Argentina catalog of 7756 stars south of declination +10 degrees. This included all those stars he considered magnitude 7 or brighter and some fainter stars which are close companions to brighter stars or to each other and have combined magnitude 7 or brighter. Star positions are in 1875 coordinates, and constellation boundaries also in 1875 coordinates were defined within the aforementioned declination range. With only a few small changes these were incorporated into the boundaries adopted by the IAU in 1930 and subsequently universally accepted. In terms of accurate photoelectric magnitude measurements the Uranometria Argentina is nearly complete to magnitude 6.5 in its declination range. In each constellation the individual stars considered to be magnitude 7 and brighter were numbered in sequence of increasing right ascension in 1875 coordinates, except that in a few cases this sequence was somewhat adjusted so that stars close together could be listed on adjacent lines of text. The numbering system is analogous to that in the Flamsteed Catalogus Brittanicus and now widely used. Star numbers from the Uranometria Argentina rarely appear in the 21st century despite the potential utility of their use. They were included in the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac until 1978, and in the FK5 catalog until 1999, always with the letter G following the number in the Uranometria Argentina catalog. This serves to distinguish Flamsteed numbers with no following letters from Gould numbers, and is utilized in this presentation and recommended for general use. The file catalog.dat includes every star in the original Uranometria Argentina. In the original the constellations were presented in sequence of increasing distance from the south pole and numbered accordingly. For the convenience of 21st century astronomers the constellations are presented here by alphabetical sequence in

  3. The Frenkel Kontorova Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floría, L. M.; Baesens, C.; Gómez-Gardeñes, J.

    In the preface to his monograph on the structure of Evolutionary Theory [1], the late professor Stephen Jay Gould attributes to the philosopher Immanuel Kant the following aphorism in Science Philosophy: "Percepts without concepts are blind; concepts without percepts are empty". Using with a bit of freedom these Kantian terms, one would say that a scientific model is a framework (or network) of interrelated concepts and percepts where experts build up scientific consistent explanations of a given set of observations. Good models are those which are both, conceptually simple and universal in their perceptions. Let us illustrate with examples the meaning of this statement.

  4. Fine-scale kin recognition in the absence of social familiarity in the Siberian jay, a monogamous bird species.

    PubMed

    Griesser, Michael; Halvarsson, Peter; Drobniak, Szymon M; Vilà, Carles

    2015-11-01

    Kin recognition is a critical element to kin cooperation, and in vertebrates, it is primarily based on associative learning. Recognition of socially unfamiliar kin occurs rarely, and it is reported only in vertebrate species where promiscuity prevents recognition of first-order relatives. However, it is unknown whether the recognition of socially unfamiliar kin can evolve in monogamous species. Here, we investigate whether genetic relatedness modulates aggression among group members in Siberian jays (Perisoreus infaustus). This bird species is genetically and socially monogamous and lives in groups that are formed through the retention of offspring beyond independence, and the immigration of socially unfamiliar nonbreeders. Observations on feeders showed that genetic relatedness modulated aggression of breeders towards immigrants in a graded manner, in that they chased most intensely the immigrant group members that were genetically the least related. However, cross-fostering experiments showed that breeders were equally tolerant towards their own and cross-fostered young swapped as nestlings. Thus, breeders seem to use different mechanisms to recognize socially unfamiliar individuals and own offspring. As Siberian jays show a high degree of nepotism during foraging and predator encounters, inclusive fitness benefits may play a role for the evolution of fine-scale kin recognition. More generally, our results suggest that fine-graded kin recognition can evolve independently of social familiarity, highlighting the evolutionary importance of kin recognition for social species.

  5. Neurogenesis in the mossy chiton, Mopalia muscosa (Gould) (Polyplacophora): evidence against molluscan metamerism.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Stefan; Wanninger, Andreas; Brückner, Martin; Haszprunar, Gerhard

    2002-08-01

    Neurogenesis in the chiton Mopalia muscosa (Gould, 1846) was investigated by applying differential interference contrast microscopy, semithin serial sectioning combined with reconstruction techniques, as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy for the detection of fluorescence-conjugated antibodies against serotonin and FMRFamide. The ontogeny of serotonergic nervous structures starts with cells of the apical organ followed by those of the cerebral commissure, whereas the serotonergic prototroch innervation, pedal system, and the lateral cords develop later. In addition, there are eight symmetrically arranged serotonergic sensory cells in the dorsal pretrochal area of the larva. FMRFamide-positive neural elements include the cerebral commissure, specific "ampullary" sensory cells in the pretrochal region, as well as the larval lateral and pedal system. In the early juvenile the cerebral system no longer stains with either of the two antibodies and the pedal system lacks anti-FMRFamide immunoreactivity. Outgroup comparison with all other molluscan classes and related phyla suggests that the cord-like, nonganglionized cerebral system in the Polyplacophora is a reduced condition rather than a primitive molluscan condition. The immunosensitivity of the pedal commissures develops from posterior to anterior, suggesting independent serial repetition rather than annelid-like conditions and there is no trace of true segmentation during nervous system development. Polyplacophoran neurogenesis and all other available data on the subject contradict the idea of a segmented molluscan stem species.

  6. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: SCUBA-2 observations of circumstellar discs in L 1495

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckle, J. V.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Greaves, J.; Richer, J. S.; Matthews, B. C.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Francesco, J. Di; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Rawlings, J.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wilson, C. D.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-05-01

    We present 850 and 450 μm data from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey obtained with Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) and characterize the dust attributes of Class I, Class II and Class III disc sources in L 1495. We detect 23 per cent of the sample at both wavelengths, with the detection rate decreasing through the Classes from I to III. The median disc mask is 1.6 × 10-3 M⊙, and only 7 per cent of Class II sources have disc masses larger than 20 Jupiter masses. We detect a higher proportion of discs towards sources with stellar hosts of spectral type K than spectral type M. Class II discs with single stellar hosts of spectral type K have higher masses than those of spectral type M, supporting the hypothesis that higher mass stars have more massive discs. Variations in disc masses calculated at the two wavelengths suggest that there may be differences in dust opacity and/or dust temperature between discs with hosts of spectral types K to those with spectral type M.

  7. The JCMT Legacy Survey of the Gould Belt: a first look at Orion B with HARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckle, J. V.; Curtis, E. I.; Roberts, J. F.; White, G. J.; Hatchell, J.; Brunt, C.; Butner, H. M.; Cavanagh, B.; Chrysostomou, A.; Davis, C. J.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Etxaluze, M.; di Francesco, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J. S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Matthews, B.; Matthews, H.; Nutter, D.; Rawlings, J. M. C.; Richer, J. S.; Sadavoy, S.; Simpson, R. J.; Tothill, N. F. H.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Viti, S.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Wouterloot, J. G. A.; Yates, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Gould Belt Legacy Survey will survey nearby star-forming regions (within 500 pc), using Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme (HARP), Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 and Polarimeter 2 on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. This paper describes the initial data obtained using HARP to observe 12CO, 13CO and C18O J = 3 -> 2 towards two regions in Orion B, NGC 2024 and NGC 2071. We describe the physical characteristics of the two clouds, calculating temperatures and opacities utilizing all the three isotopologues. We find good agreement between temperatures calculated from CO and from dust emission in the dense, energetic regions. We determine the mass and energetics of the clouds, and of the high-velocity material seen in 12CO emission, and compare the relative energetics of the high- and low-velocity material in the two clouds. We present a CLUMPFIND analysis of the 13CO condensations. The slope of the condensation mass functions, at the high-mass ends, is similar to the slope of the initial mass function.

  8. Growing evidence for a core formation threshold traced in Herschel Gould Belt survey clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könyves , V.; André, Ph.; Schneider, N.; Palmeirim, P.; Arzoumanian, D.; Men'shchikov, A.

    2013-11-01

    It has already been suggested that a threshold in column density - or in visual extinction - may need to be exceeded to form dense cores and then protostars. Based on Herschel Gould Belt survey results in the Aquila and Orion B molecular cloud complexes we observe clear connection between the locations of the detected prestellar cores and their background column density values. This finding appears to support a core formation scenario where such threshold corresponds to the extinction above which interstellar filaments become gravitationally unstable and fragment into cores. In these two actively star-forming regions we find the vast majority of the gravitationally bound prestellar cores above a high column density of about (6-7) × 1021 cm-2 (AV ˜ 6-7). This limit similarly appears in the column density probability distribution function (PDF) of the regions as well. The spatial distribution of the protostars and young stellar objects (YSOs) also shows a tight connection with the densest sites of both clouds, as more than 70 % of them appear above the mentioned AV thresholds. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  9. Congressional Testimony: Statement of Stephen J. Nesbitt Before the Committee on Environment and Public Works United States Senate

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Statement of Stephen J. Nesbitt Assistant Inspector General for Investigations Office of Inspector General U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Before the Committee on Environment and Public Works United States Senate

  10. Telling It Like It Is--And Like It Is Not: Fiction in the Service of Science in Jay Hosler's "The Sandwalk Adventures"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porat, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Biologist and graphic novelist Jay Hosler has long been introducing young readers to biological subjects through entertaining narratives combining strongly fictional elements with nonfictional ones. Extensive application of fiction to nonfictional subject matter is uncommon, even in graphic novels, but Hosler's "The Sandwalk Adventures"…

  11. A Conservation Strategy for the Florida Scrub-Jay on John F. Kennedy Space Center/Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge: An Initial Scientific Basis for Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, D. R.; Larson, V. L.; Schaub, R.; Duncan, B. W.; Schmalzer, P. A.; Oddy, D. M.; Smith, R. B.; Adrian, F.; Hill, H., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) is an indicator of ecosystem integrity of Florida scrub, an endangered ecosystem that requires frequent fire. One of the largest populations of this federally threatened species occurs on John F. Kennedy Space Center/Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. Population trends were predicted using population modeling and field data on reproduction and survival of Florida Scrub-Jays collected from 1988 - 1995. Analyses of historical photography indicated that habitat suitability has been declining for 30 years. Field data and computer simulations suggested that the population declined by at least 40% and will decline by another 40% in 1 0 years, if habitat management is not greatly intensified. Data and computer simulations suggest that habitat suitability cannot deviate greatly from optimal for the jay population to persist. Landscape trajectories of vegetation structure, responsible for declining habitat suitability, are associated with the disruption of natural fire regimes. Prescribed fire alone can not reverse the trajectories. A recovery strategy was developed, based on studies of Florida Scrub-Jays and scrub vegetation. A reserve design was formulated based on conservation science principles for scrub ecosystems. The strategy emphasizes frequent fire to restore habitat, but includes mechanical tree cutting for severely degraded areas. Pine thinning across large areas can produce rapid increases in habitat quality. Site-specific strategies will need to be developed, monitored, and modified to achieve conditions suitable for population persistence.

  12. Virginia Woolf and Leslie Stephen: a father's contribution to psychosis and genius.

    PubMed

    Bond, A H

    1986-10-01

    Leslie Stephen, the father of Virginia Woolf, was a cacophony of contradictions. From all accounts, he was a bully, a manipulator, and a blustering, pessimistic, emotionally dishonest man. Although he could be lovable, charming, whimsical, encouraging, and deeply devoted to his family, he subjugated the adult women in his household and at least one son to exploitation and abuse, demanding (and receiving from his wife and step-daughter) almost total abnegation of self. Julia Stephen, in contrast, was an optimistic, seemingly selfless person, who characteristically presented herself in an "up" mood to the world. Virginia incorporated both parental moods into her character structure, as have a number of the author's cyclothymic patients. Therefore, it is postulated that pessimism and habitual deflating affronts on the part of one parent, in combination with a compulsive "good mood" on the part of the second parent, are a particularly lethal combination of character traits, which in their offspring may contribute to the rapid mood shifting characteristic of manic depression. In contrast to Julie, Stephen was a presence who could not be side-stepped. This combination of sweet and monstrous attributes in her father's nature, and again in the contrasting temperaments of the parental couple, must have been impossible to integrate for the small Virginia, who already was desperately engaged in the struggle for selfhood. She could not complete her development on the oedipal level, although she loved her father dearly, because identification with her mother meant further threat to an identity already weakened at the separation-individuation phase of development. Virginia's solution was to identify with her father in his character, his sexual identity, and his profession. Stephen, who was particularly devoted to Virginia, whom he regarded as an extension of himself, encouraged this identification, and served as her teacher and mentor. In that sense, he truly was the captain of

  13. The Effect of Modified Brostrom-Gould Repair for Lateral Ankle Instability on In Vivo Tibiotalar Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Wainright, William B; Spritzer, Charles E.; Lee, Jun Young; Easley, Mark E.; DeOrio, James K.; Nunley, James A.; DeFrate, Louis E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Lateral ankle instability leads to an increased risk of tibiotalar joint osteoarthritis. Previous studies have found abnormal tibiotalar joint motions with lateral ankle instability that may contribute to this increased incidence of osteoarthritis, including increased anterior translation and internal rotation of the talus under weight-bearing loading. Surgical repairs for lateral ankle instability have shown good clinical results, but the effects of repair on in vivo ankle motion are not well understood. Hypothesis The modified Broström-Gould lateral ligament reconstruction decreases anterior translation and internal rotation of the talus under in vivo weight-bearing loading conditions. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Seven patients underwent modified Brostöm-Gould repair for unilateral lateral ankle instability. Ankle joint kinematics as a function of increasing body weight were studied with magnetic resonance imaging and biplanar fluoroscopy. Tibiotalar kinematics were measured in unstable ankles preoperatively and postoperatively at a mean follow-up of 12 months, as well as in the uninjured contralateral ankles of the same individuals. Results Surgical repair resulted in statistically significant decreases in anterior translation of the talus (0.9±0.3mm, p=0.018) at 100% bodyweight and internal rotation of the talus at 75% (2.6±0.8°, p=0.019) and 100% (2.7±0.8°, p=0.013) bodyweight compared to ankle kinematics measured before repair. No statistically significant differences were detected between repaired ankles and contralateral normal ankles. Conclusion The modified Broström-Gould repair improved the abnormal joint motion observed in patients with lateral ankle instability, decreasing anterior translation and internal rotation of the talus. Clinical Relevance Altered kinematics may contribute to the tibiotalar joint degeneration that occurs with chronic lateral ankle instability. The findings of the current study support

  14. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: A First Look at Dense Cores in Orion B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, H.; Di Francesco, J.; Johnstone, D.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Sadavoy, S.; Hatchell, J.; Mottram, J. C.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2016-02-01

    We present a first look at the SCUBA-2 observations of three sub-regions of the Orion B molecular cloud: LDN 1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify 29, 564, and 322 dense cores in L1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071 respectively, using the SCUBA-2 850 μm map, and present their basic properties, including their peak fluxes, total fluxes, and sizes, and an estimate of the corresponding 450 μm peak fluxes and total fluxes, using the FellWalker source extraction algorithm. Assuming a constant temperature of 20 K, the starless dense cores have a mass function similar to that found in previous dense core analyses, with a Salpeter-like slope at the high-mass end. The majority of cores appear stable to gravitational collapse when considering only thermal pressure; indeed, most of the cores which have masses above the thermal Jeans mass are already associated with at least one protostar. At higher cloud column densities, above 1-2 × 1023 cm-2, most of the mass is found within dense cores, while at lower cloud column densities, below 1 × 1023 cm-2, this fraction drops to 10% or lower. Overall, the fraction of dense cores associated with a protostar is quite small (<8%), but becomes larger for the densest and most centrally concentrated cores. NGC 2023/2024 and NGC 2068/2071 appear to be on the path to forming a significant number of stars in the future, while L1622 has little additional mass in dense cores to form many new stars.

  15. Insights into the earliest stages of star cluster formationfrom Herschel Gould Belt survey observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Philippe; Ladjelate, Bilal; Könyves, Vera

    2015-08-01

    For a long time, the conventional wisdom has been that "clustered star formation" and "isolated (or distributed) star formation" represent two fundamentally distinct modes of the star formation process. Recent detailed infrared studies of the spatial distribution of young stellar objects (YSOs) in the solar neighborhood, however, suggest that there is a continuous distribution of YSO surface densities from a diffuse population to the densest groups or clusters, with no evidence for discrete modes of star formation (e.g. Bressert et al. 2010). Based on the results of the Herschel Gould Belt survey (http://gouldbelt-herschel.cea.fr) toward the nearest regions of "clustered" and "distributed" star formation, including the Ophiuchus and Taurus clouds, we will show how these two seemingly opposing views can be reconciled.The Herschel results point to the key role of the quasi-universal filamentary structure pervading the cold ISM (cf. André et al. 2014, Protostars and Planets VI). Indeed, a large fraction of the dense molecular gas is found to be in the form of filaments and most prestellar cores are located within dense, "supercritical" filaments. To a large extent, therefore, the spatial distribution of YSOs is inherited from the filamentary texture of molecular clouds, which is partly hierarchical and shaped by a combination of turbulent, magnetic, and gravitational effects. Wherever gravity dominates on large scales, a "hub-filament" system develops (cf. Myers 2009) and a protocluster is generated at the "hub" or junction of a converging network of filaments. More distributed star formation occurs along individual filaments with marginally supercritical masses per unit length.

  16. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: evidence for radiative heating and contamination in the W40 complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumble, D.; Hatchell, J.; Pattle, K.; Kirk, H.; Wilson, T.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; Francesco, J. Di; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2016-08-01

    We present SCUBA-2 450 μm and 850 μm observations of the W40 complex in the Serpens-Aquila region as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey (GBS) of nearby star-forming regions. We investigate radiative heating by constructing temperature maps from the ratio of SCUBA-2 fluxes using a fixed dust opacity spectral index, β = 1.8, and a beam convolution kernel to achieve a common 14.8 arcsec resolution. We identify 82 clumps ranging between 10 and 36 K with a mean temperature of 20 ± 3 K. Clump temperature is strongly correlated with proximity to the external OB association and there is no evidence that the embedded protostars significantly heat the dust. We identify 31 clumps that have cores with densities greater than 105cm-3. 13 of these cores contain embedded Class 0/I protostars. Many cores are associated with bright-rimmed clouds seen in Herschel 70 μm images. From JCMT HARP observations of the 12CO 3-2 line, we find contamination of the 850 μm band of up to 20 per cent. We investigate the free-free contribution to SCUBA-2 bands from large-scale and ultracompact H II regions using archival VLA data and find the contribution is limited to individual stars, accounting for 9 per cent of flux per beam at 450 μm or 12 per cent at 850 μm in these cases. We conclude that radiative heating has potentially influenced the formation of stars in the Dust Arc sub-region, favouring Jeans stable clouds in the warm east and fragmentation in the cool west.

  17. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: a quantitative comparison between SCUBA-2 data reduction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mairs, S.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Graves, S.; Buckle, J.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Salji, C.; Francesco, J. Di; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; JCMT Gould Belt survey Team

    2015-12-01

    Performing ground-based submillimetre observations is a difficult task as the measurements are subject to absorption and emission from water vapour in the Earth's atmosphere and time variation in weather and instrument stability. Removing these features and other artefacts from the data is a vital process which affects the characteristics of the recovered astronomical structure we seek to study. In this paper, we explore two data reduction methods for data taken with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array-2 (SCUBA-2) at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). The JCMT Legacy Reduction 1 (JCMT LR1) and The Gould Belt Legacy Survey Legacy Release 1 (GBS LR1) reduction both use the same software (STARLINK) but differ in their choice of data reduction parameters. We find that the JCMT LR1 reduction is suitable for determining whether or not compact emission is present in a given region and the GBS LR1 reduction is tuned in a robust way to uncover more extended emission, which better serves more in-depth physical analyses of star-forming regions. Using the GBS LR1 method, we find that compact sources are recovered well, even at a peak brightness of only three times the noise, whereas the reconstruction of larger objects requires much care when drawing boundaries around the expected astronomical signal in the data reduction process. Incorrect boundaries can lead to false structure identification or it can cause structure to be missed. In the JCMT LR1 reduction, the extent of the true structure of objects larger than a point source is never fully recovered.

  18. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: A First Look at IC 5146

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, D.; Ciccone, S.; Kirk, H.; Mairs, S.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Pattle, K.; Tisi, S.; Di Francesco, J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coudé, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fich, M.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Nutter, D.; Pineda, J. E.; Salji, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2017-02-01

    We present 450 and 850 μm submillimeter continuum observations of the IC 5146 star-forming region taken as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Gould Belt Survey. We investigate the location of bright submillimeter (clumped) emission with the larger-scale molecular cloud through comparison with extinction maps, and find that these denser structures correlate with higher cloud column density. Ninety-six individual submillimeter clumps are identified using FellWalker, and their physical properties are examined. These clumps are found to be relatively massive, ranging from 0.5 {M}ȯ to 116 {M}ȯ with a mean mass of 8 {M}ȯ and a median mass of 3.7 {M}ȯ . A stability analysis for the clumps suggests that the majority are (thermally) Jeans stable, with M/{M}J< 1. We further compare the locations of known protostars with the observed submillimeter emission, finding that younger protostars, i.e., Class 0 and I sources, are strongly correlated with submillimeter peaks and that the clumps with protostars are among the most Jeans unstable. Finally, we contrast the evolutionary conditions in the two major star-forming regions within IC 5146: the young cluster associated with the Cocoon Nebula and the more distributed star formation associated with the Northern Streamer filaments. The Cocoon Nebula appears to have converted a higher fraction of its mass into dense clumps and protostars, the clumps are more likely to be Jeans unstable, and a larger fraction of these remaining clumps contain embedded protostars. The Northern Streamer, however, has a larger number of clumps in total and a larger fraction of the known protostars are still embedded within these clumps.

  19. THE JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEY: A FIRST LOOK AT DENSE CORES IN ORION B

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, H.; Francesco, J. Di; Johnstone, D.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Hatchell, J.; Sadavoy, S.; Mottram, J. C.; Buckle, J.; Salji, C.; Berry, D. S.; Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Fich, M.; Tisi, S.; Nutter, D.; Quinn, C.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; and others

    2016-02-01

    We present a first look at the SCUBA-2 observations of three sub-regions of the Orion B molecular cloud: LDN 1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify 29, 564, and 322 dense cores in L1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071 respectively, using the SCUBA-2 850 μm map, and present their basic properties, including their peak fluxes, total fluxes, and sizes, and an estimate of the corresponding 450 μm peak fluxes and total fluxes, using the FellWalker source extraction algorithm. Assuming a constant temperature of 20 K, the starless dense cores have a mass function similar to that found in previous dense core analyses, with a Salpeter-like slope at the high-mass end. The majority of cores appear stable to gravitational collapse when considering only thermal pressure; indeed, most of the cores which have masses above the thermal Jeans mass are already associated with at least one protostar. At higher cloud column densities, above 1–2 × 10{sup 23} cm{sup −2}, most of the mass is found within dense cores, while at lower cloud column densities, below 1 × 10{sup 23} cm{sup −2}, this fraction drops to 10% or lower. Overall, the fraction of dense cores associated with a protostar is quite small (<8%), but becomes larger for the densest and most centrally concentrated cores. NGC 2023/2024 and NGC 2068/2071 appear to be on the path to forming a significant number of stars in the future, while L1622 has little additional mass in dense cores to form many new stars.

  20. Festschrift in the Honor of Stephen H. White’s 70th Birthday

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The Symposium ‘Frontiers in membrane and membrane protein biophysics: experiments and theory’, held this year at the University of California, Irvine (August 19–20), celebrated the 70th Birthday of Stephen H. White by bringing together distinguished experimentalists and theoreticians to discuss the state of the art and future challenges in the field of membrane and membrane protein biophysics. The meeting and this special issue highlight the highly interdisciplinary nature of membrane and membrane protein biophysics, and the tremendous contributions that S. H. White and his lab have brought to the field. PMID:21191785

  1. Understanding the Snake Venom Metalloproteinases: An Interview with Jay Fox and José María Gutiérrez.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jay W; Gutiérrez, José María

    2017-01-16

    Jay W. Fox and José María Gutiérrez recently finished editing a Special Issue on the topic "Snake Venom Metalloproteinases" in Toxins. The Special Issue covers a wide range of topics, including the molecular evolution and structure of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs), the mechanisms involved in the generation of diversity of SVMPs, the mechanism of action of SVMPs, and their role in the pathophysiology of envenomings, with implications for improving the therapy of envenomings. In this interview, we discussed with Jay W. Fox and José María Gutiérrez their research on the SVMPs and their perspectives on the future trends and challenges for studying snake venoms.

  2. Understanding the Snake Venom Metalloproteinases: An Interview with Jay Fox and José María Gutiérrez

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Jay W.; Gutiérrez, José María

    2017-01-01

    Jay W. Fox and José María Gutiérrez recently finished editing a Special Issue on the topic “Snake Venom Metalloproteinases” in Toxins. The Special Issue covers a wide range of topics, including the molecular evolution and structure of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs), the mechanisms involved in the generation of diversity of SVMPs, the mechanism of action of SVMPs, and their role in the pathophysiology of envenomings, with implications for improving the therapy of envenomings. In this interview, we discussed with Jay W. Fox and José María Gutiérrez their research on the SVMPs and their perspectives on the future trends and challenges for studying snake venoms. PMID:28275208

  3. Stephen Neidle on cancer therapy and G-quadruplex inhibitors. Interview by Joanna De Souza.

    PubMed

    Neidle, Stephen

    2004-09-15

    Stephen Neidle was educated at Imperial College, London, where he graduated in chemistry and then proceeded to do a PhD in crystallography. After a period as an ICI Fellow, he joined the Biophysics Department at King's College, which ignited his interest in nucleic acid structural studies. He was appointed as one of the first Cancer Research Campaign Career Development Awardees, becoming a Life Fellow on moving to the Institute of Cancer Research. He was appointed to the Chair of Biophysics at the Institute of Cancer Research in 1990, and moved to the new Chair of Chemical Biology at the School of Pharmacy in the University of London in 2002, where he also directs the Cancer Research UK Biomolecular Structure Group. He is currently Chairman of the Chemical Biology Forum of the Royal Society of Chemistry, which is involved in developing the interface between chemistry and the life sciences. He will shortly assume the Directorship of the newly-established Centre for Cancer Medicines at the School. Stephen Neidle has received several awards for his work on drug-nucleic acid recognition and drug design, including the 2000 prize of the Biological and Medicinal Chemistry Sector of the Royal Society of Chemistry, and its 2002 Interdisciplinary Award. He was the 2004 Paul Ehrlich Lecturer of the French Societé de Chimie Therapeutique, and was recently awarded the 2004 Aventis Prize in Medicinal Chemistry.

  4. Estuarine foraminiferal biofacies pattern compared to the brackish ichnofacies model: Port Stephens, southeast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder-Adams, Claudia J.; Boyd, Ron L.; Tran, Tanya

    2014-02-01

    Port Stephens, located in SE Australia, is a shallow estuary with an outer and inner basin separated by a narrow channel. Foraminiferal biofacies distribution reveals this complex physical environment. The flood-tide delta forms a transition between the wave-dominated open coast and the microtide-dominated estuary. Sand wave dynamics cause a shifting substrate, resulting in allochthonous assemblages of calcareous shelf species transported into the bay through a wide entrance. The muddy central basin is heavily bioturbated, and allows for an in-situ, mixed calcareous and agglutinated assemblage of a progressively more estuarine character. Burial of organic matter and increased bioturbation permits infaunal species to increase in abundance, but promotes calcium carbonate dissolution. The bayhead delta of the Karuah River is characterized by lithic-rich substrates that are associated with robust calcareous species. Tidal cycles, combined with low river-flux, provide nearly fully marine conditions far upstream into the Karuah River. Marginal regions, from sandy/muddy tidal flats to marsh, show distinct assemblages of opportunistic species that respond to tidal exposure, substrate variations, organic matter flux and salinities. Early diagenetic taphonomic loss, closely linked with bioturbation, needs to be considered in interpretations of microfossil assemblages. Foraminiferal biofacies analysis, in combination with the brackish-water ichnology model, is a powerful tool for recognizing Mesozoic marginal marine environments. Port Stephens, with its environmental complexity, offers a valuable modern analogue for estuarine deposits of the geological past.

  5. In the matter of Stephen Dawson: right v. duty of health care.

    PubMed Central

    Kluge, E. H.

    1983-01-01

    In cases like that of Stephen Dawson the ethics of proxy decision-making are at stake. As long as patients are persons they have rights, the incompetent ones no less than those who are competent. The only difference is that in the case of incompetent persons the rights must be exercised by proxy. The import of the Stephen Dawson case is that by this precedent Canadian law now radically alters the status of incompetent minors in such a way that their rights are curtailed in two fundamental ways. First, the parameter of qualitative considerations that is available to any other person is removed from the armory of the decision-making criteria of incompetent minors and can no longer be employed by the proxy decision-makers. Second, what are rights in the case of competent individuals--the right to life and the right to health care--become duties. Ethically this dénouement is deplorable. The medical profession now not only faces the pragmatically unenviable task of having to save or sustain all incompetent minors so long as medical science will permit but will have to do so even at the cost of quality of life. I shall pass over in silence the ethics of the resource-allocation problem that now arises. As a medical ethicist I can only hope that the medical profession will soon see fit to challenge this decision on a formal basis. PMID:6225505

  6. The Development of Caching and Object Permanence in Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica): Which Emerges First?

    PubMed Central

    Salwiczek, Lucie H.; Schlinger, Barney; Emery, Nathan J.; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies on the food-caching behavior of corvids have revealed complex physical and social skills, yet little is known about the ontogeny of food caching in relation to the development of cognitive capacities. Piagetian object permanence is the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible. Here, the authors focus on Piagetian Stages 3 and 4, because they are hallmarks in the cognitive development of both young children and animals. Our aim is to determine in a food-caching corvid, the Western scrub-jay, whether (1) Piagetian Stage 4 competence and tentative caching (i.e., hiding an item invisibly and retrieving it without delay), emerge concomitantly or consecutively; (2) whether experiencing the reappearance of hidden objects enhances the timing of the appearance of object permanence; and (3) discuss how the development of object permanence is related to behavioral development and sensorimotor intelligence. Our findings suggest that object permanence Stage 4 emerges before tentative caching, and independent of environmental influences, but that once the birds have developed simple object-permanence, then social learning might advance the interval after which tentative caching commences. PMID:19685971

  7. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: A First Look at SCUBA-2 Observations of the Lupus I Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mowat, C.; Hatchell, J.; Rumble, D.; Kirk, H.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Pattle, K.; Tisi, S.; Francesco, J. Di; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coudé, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fich, M.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Rawlings, J.; Retter, B.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents observations of the Lupus I molecular cloud at 450 and 850 µm with SCUBA-2 as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Gould Belt Survey (JCMT GBS). Nine compact sources, assumed to be the disks of young stellar objects (YSOs), twelve extended protostellar, pre-stellar and starless cores, and one isolated, low luminosity protostar, are detected in the region. Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs), including submillimetre fluxes, are produced for 15 YSOs, and each is fitted with the models of Robitaille et al. (2006). The proportion of Class 0 / I protostars is higher than that seen in other Gould Belt regions such as Ophiuchus and Serpens. Circumstellar disk masses are calculated for more evolved sources, while protostellar envelope masses are calculated for protostars. Up to four Very Low Luminosity Objects are found, a large fraction when compared to other Spitzer c2d regions. One YSO has a disk mass greater than the minimum mass solar nebula (MMSN). Twelve starless / protostellar cores are detected by SCUBA-2, and their masses are calculated. The stability of these cores is examined using both the thermal Jeans mass and a turbulent virial mass when possible. Two cores in Lupus I are super-Jeans and contain no known YSOs. One of these cores has a virial parameter of 1.1 ± 0.4, and could therefore be prestellar. The high ratio of Class 0 / I to Class III YSOs (1:1), and the presence of a prestellar core candidate, provides support for the hypothesis that a shock recently triggered star formation in Lupus I.

  8. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: evidence for radiative heating in Serpens MWC 297 and its influence on local star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumble, D.; Hatchell, J.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Kirk, H.; Buckle, J.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; Francesco, J. Di; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Allen, L. E.; Cieza, L. A.; Dunham, M. M.; Harvey, P. M.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Bastien, P.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wilson, C. D.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-04-01

    We present SCUBA-2 450 and 850 μm observations of the Serpens MWC 297 region, part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey of nearby star-forming regions. Simulations suggest that radiative feedback influences the star formation process and we investigate observational evidence for this by constructing temperature maps. Maps are derived from the ratio of SCUBA-2 fluxes and a two-component model of the JCMT beam for a fixed dust opacity spectral index of β = 1.8. Within 40 arcsec of the B1.5Ve Herbig star MWC 297, the submillimetre fluxes are contaminated by free-free emission with a spectral index of 1.03 ± 0.02, consistent with an ultracompact H II region and polar winds/jets. Contamination accounts for 73 ± 5 per cent and 82 ± 4 per cent of peak flux at 450 μm and 850 μm, respectively. The residual thermal disc of the star is almost undetectable at these wavelengths. Young stellar objects (YSOs) are confirmed where SCUBA-2 850 μm clumps identified by the FELLWALKER algorithm coincide with Spitzer Gould Belt Survey detections. We identify 23 objects and use Tbol to classify nine YSOs with masses 0.09 to 5.1 M⊙. We find two Class 0, one Class 0/I, three Class I and three Class II sources. The mean temperature is 15 ± 2 K for the nine YSOs and 32 ± 4 K for the 14 starless clumps. We observe a starless clump with an abnormally high mean temperature of 46 ± 2 K and conclude that it is radiatively heated by the star MWC 297. Jeans stability provides evidence that radiative heating by the star MWC 297 may be suppressing clump collapse.

  9. Solar space heating for the Visitors Center, Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at the Visitors' Center on the Stephens College Campus, Columbia, Missouri is discussed. The system is installed in a four-story, 15,000 square foot building. The solar energy system is an integral design of the building and utilizes 176 hydronic flat plate collectors which use a 50 percent water ethylene blycol solution and water-to-water heat exchanger. Solar heated water is stored in a 5,000 gallon water storage tank located in the basement equipment room. A natural gas fired hot water boiler supplies hot water when the solar energy heat supply fails to meet the demand. The designed solar contribution is 71 percent of the heating load.

  10. Stephen K. Robinson arrives at KSC for the STS-95 launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, arrives at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility aboard a T-38 jet as part of final preparations for launch. The STS-95 mission, targeted for liftoff at 2 p.m. on Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. The mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and return to KSC on Nov. 7. The other STS-95 crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA), and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA).

  11. Stephen Hall Receives 2012 Walter Sullivan Award for Excellence in Science Journalism-Features: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Stephen Hall, a freelance science writer and science-communication teacher, received the Walter Sullivan Award for Excellence in Science Journalism-Features at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 5 December 2012 in San Francisco, Calif. Hall was honored for the article "At Fault?" published 15 September 2011 in Nature. The article examines the legal, personal, and political repercussions from a 2009 earthquake in L'Aquila, Italy for seismologists who had attempted to convey seismic risk assessments to the public. The 6.3 magnitude quake devastated the medieval town and caused more than 300 deaths. Six scientists and one government official were subsequently convicted of manslaughter and sentenced to prison for inadequately assessing and mischaracterizing the risks to city residents, despite the inexact nature of seismic risk assessment. The Sullivan award is for work published with a deadline pressure of more than 1 week.

  12. New species and records of Ischnosoma Stephens (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Tachyporinae) from China.

    PubMed

    Kocian, Matúš; Schülke, Michael

    2016-04-21

    More than 1100 specimens of the genus Ischnosoma Stephens, 1829, from China and Taiwan are revised. In all, 29 species and one subspecies are recognized. Seven new species are described and illustrated: Ischnosoma zipapertum sp. n., I. vicinum sp. n., I. foedum sp. n., I. involutum sp. n., I. yunnanum sp. n., I. abstrusum sp. n., and I. gemellum sp. n. Additional records of previously described species are reported. The distributions of all the species are mapped. Four species, Ischnosoma dicoidale discoidale (Sharp, 1888), I. faciatocolle (Champion, 1922), I. hieroboam Kocian, 2003, and I. rosti (Bernhauer, 1923), are recorded from China for the first time. A revised key to the Ischnosoma species of China and Taiwan is presented.

  13. All of Us Are Present. The Stephens College Symposium. Women's Education: The Future (Columbia, Missouri, February 15-18, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Eleanor M., Ed.; And Others

    Women's education and the future are considered in 10 papers/summaries from a 1983 symposium at Stephens College. Four basic themes are addressed: effects of social change on women's lives; the diversity of women students (in age, racial/ethnic background, economic level); structure/content of the college curriculum; and the necessity to make…

  14. A Historical Analysis of the Leadership and Strategic Plan of Chancellor Stephen R. Portch in the University System of Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild-Pierce, Jennifer Elis

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation provides historical insight into the design and implementation of one strategic plan of a public higher education system in an effort to inform future similar strategic planning processes. On July 1, 1994, the Board of Regents appointed Stephen R. Portch the ninth Chancellor of the University System of Georgia. The timing was…

  15. Chief Stephen's Parky: One Year in the Life of an Athapascan Girl. The Council for Indian Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandonnet, Ann

    This book tells the fictional story of Olga, the wife of Chief Stephen, leader of a Tanaina Athapascan village on Cook Inlet, northwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Olga works for one full year with great courage and independence trapping ground squirrels and gathering materials needed to tan, dye, and sew furs to make a parka for her husband. She uses…

  16. Globalization, Edu-Business and Network Governance: The Policy Sociology of Stephen J. Ball and Rethinking Education Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam

    2013-01-01

    This paper traces developments across Stephen J. Ball's policy sociology in education "oeuvre" and considers their implications for doing research on education policy today. It begins with an account of his policy sociology trilogy from the 1990s, which outlined his conception of the policy cycle consisting of the contexts of influence,…

  17. The Importance of Critical Reflection in College Teaching: Two Reviews of Stephen Brookfield's Book, Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Rosalyn M.; Hibbison, Eric P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses Stephen Brookfield's book, Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. Presents three categories of assumptions he believes teachers must make about their teaching: paradigmatic, prescriptive, and causal. States that Brookfield encourages engaging in critical conversation with peers in order to improve teaching methods. Provides strategies…

  18. Characterization of bacterial communities associating with larval development of Yesso Scallop ( Patinopecten yessoensisis Jay, 1857) by high-throughput sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xueying; Liu, Jichen; Li, Ming; Zhao, Xuewei; Liang, Jun; Sun, Pihai; Ma, Yuexin

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial community presumably plays an essential role in inhibiting pathogen colonization and maintaining the health of scallop larvae, but limiting data are available for Yesso scallop ( Patinopecten yessoensisis Jay, 1857) larval development stages. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the bacterial communities associating with Yesso scallop larval development at fertilized egg S1, trochophora S2, D-shaped larvae S3, umbo larvae S4, and juvenile scallop S5 stages by Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Genomic DNA was extracted from the larvae and their associating bactera, and a gene segment covering V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced using an Illumina Miseq sequencer. Overall, 106760 qualified sequences with an average length of 449 bp were obtained. Sequences were compared with those retrieved from 16S rRNA gene databases, and 4 phyla, 7 classes, 15 orders, 21 families, 31 genera were identified. Proteobacteria was predominant phylum, accounting for more than 99%, at all 5 larval development stages. At genus level, Pseudomonas was dominant at stages S1 (80.60%), S2 (87.77%) and S5 (68.71%), followed by Photobacterium (17.06%) and Aeromonas (1.64%) at stage S1, Serratia (6.94%), Stenotrophomonas (3.08%) and Acinetobacter (1.2%) at stage S2, Shewanella (25.95%) and Pseudoalteromonas (4.57%) at stage S5. Moreover, genus Pseudoalteromonas became dominant at stages S3 (44.85%) and S4 (56.02%), followed by Photobacterium (29.82%), Pseudomonas (11.86%), Aliivibrio (8.60%) and Shewanella (3.39%) at stage S3, Pseudomonas (18.16%), Aliivibrio (14.29%), Shewanella (4.11%), Psychromonas (4.04%) and Psychrobacter (1.81%) at stage S4. From the results, we concluded that the bacterial community changed significantly at different development stages of Yesso Scallop larvae.

  19. Out of Gondwanaland; the evolutionary history of cooperative breeding and social behaviour among crows, magpies, jays and allies

    PubMed Central

    Ekman, Jan; Ericson, Per G.P

    2006-01-01

    Cooperative breeding is comparatively rare among birds in the mainly temperate and boreal Northern Hemisphere. Here we test if the distribution of breeding systems reflects a response to latitude by means of a phylogenetic analysis using correlates with geographical range among the corvids (crows, jays, magpies and allied groups). The corvids trace their ancestry to the predominantly cooperative ‘Corvida’ branch of oscine passerines from the Australo-Papuan region on the ancient Gondwanaland supercontinent, but we could not confirm the ancestral state of the breeding system within the family, while family cohesion may be ancestral. Initial diversification among pair-breeding taxa that are basal in the corvid phylogeny, represented by genera such as Pyrrhocorax and Dendrocitta, indicates that the corvid family in its current form could have evolved from pair-breeding ancestors only after they had escaped the Australo-Papuan shield. Within the family, cooperative breeding (alloparental care/family cohesion) is strongly correlated to latitude and its predominance in species maintaining a southerly distribution indicates a secondary evolution of cooperative breeding in the lineage leading away from the basal corvids. Multiple transitions show plasticity in the breeding system, indicating a response to latitude rather than evolutionary inertia. The evolutionary background to the loss of cooperative breeding among species with a northerly distribution is complex and differs between species, indicating a response to a variety of selection forces. Family cohesion where the offspring provide alloparental care is a main route to cooperatively breeding groups among corvids. Some corvid species lost only alloparental care, while maintaining coherent family groups. Other species lost family cohesion and, as a corollary, they also lost the behaviour where retained offspring provide alloparental care. PMID:16600890

  20. Out of Gondwanaland; the evolutionary history of cooperative breeding and social behaviour among crows, magpies, jays and allies.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Jan; Ericson, Per G P

    2006-05-07

    Cooperative breeding is comparatively rare among birds in the mainly temperate and boreal Northern Hemisphere. Here we test if the distribution of breeding systems reflects a response to latitude by means of a phylogenetic analysis using correlates with geographical range among the corvids (crows, jays, magpies and allied groups). The corvids trace their ancestry to the predominantly cooperative 'Corvida' branch of oscine passerines from the Australo-Papuan region on the ancient Gondwanaland supercontinent, but we could not confirm the ancestral state of the breeding system within the family, while family cohesion may be ancestral. Initial diversification among pair-breeding taxa that are basal in the corvid phylogeny, represented by genera such as Pyrrhocorax and Dendrocitta, indicates that the corvid family in its current form could have evolved from pair-breeding ancestors only after they had escaped the Australo-Papuan shield. Within the family, cooperative breeding (alloparental care/family cohesion) is strongly correlated to latitude and its predominance in species maintaining a southerly distribution indicates a secondary evolution of cooperative breeding in the lineage leading away from the basal corvids. Multiple transitions show plasticity in the breeding system, indicating a response to latitude rather than evolutionary inertia. The evolutionary background to the loss of cooperative breeding among species with a northerly distribution is complex and differs between species, indicating a response to a variety of selection forces. Family cohesion where the offspring provide alloparental care is a main route to cooperatively breeding groups among corvids. Some corvid species lost only alloparental care, while maintaining coherent family groups. Other species lost family cohesion and, as a corollary, they also lost the behaviour where retained offspring provide alloparental care.

  1. Stephen J. Kramer: The Effects of Two Different Music Programs on Third and Fourth Grade Children's Ability to Match Pitches Vocally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apfelstadt, Hilary

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes and critiques Kramer's dissertation which compared the Gould Specialized Program in Singing with the New Providence K-5 Music Curriculum Guide on the premise that various types of imagery (aural, visual, and kinesthetic) play a vital role in developing vocal accuracy. States that despite complexity, the topic and Kramer's…

  2. Congruent population structure inferred from dispersal behaviour and intensive genetic surveys of the threatened Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma cœrulescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coulon, A.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Bowman, R.; Stith, B.M.; Makarewich, C.A.; Stenzler, L.M.; Lovette, I.J.

    2008-01-01

    The delimitation of populations, defined as groups of individuals linked by gene flow, is possible by the analysis of genetic markers and also by spatial models based on dispersal probabilities across a landscape. We combined these two complimentary methods to define the spatial pattern of genetic structure among remaining populations of the threatened Florida scrub-jay, a species for which dispersal ability is unusually well-characterized. The range-wide population was intensively censused in the 1990s, and a metapopulation model defined population boundaries based on predicted dispersal-mediated demographic connectivity. We subjected genotypes from more than 1000 individual jays screened at 20 microsatellite loci to two Bayesian clustering methods. We describe a consensus method for identifying common features across many replicated clustering runs. Ten genetically differentiated groups exist across the present-day range of the Florida scrub-jay. These groups are largely consistent with the dispersal-defined metapopulations, which assume very limited dispersal ability. Some genetic groups comprise more than one metapopulation, likely because these genetically similar metapopulations were sundered only recently by habitat alteration. The combined reconstructions of population structure based on genetics and dispersal-mediated demographic connectivity provide a robust depiction of the current genetic and demographic organization of this species, reflecting past and present levels of dispersal among occupied habitat patches. The differentiation of populations into 10 genetic groups adds urgency to management efforts aimed at preserving what remains of genetic variation in this dwindling species, by maintaining viable populations of all genetically differentiated and geographically isolated populations.

  3. Abraham Lincoln loses a medical malpractice case, debates Stephen A. Douglas, and secures two murder acquittals.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Allen D; Kavaler, Florence

    2004-02-01

    An improperly healed fracture was the most common reason for the medical malpractice crisis between the 1830s and 1860s in the United States. As a practicing lawyer in Illinois, Abraham Lincoln defended physicians in medical malpractice law suits. One of these was Dr. Powers Ritchey, who was sued for malpractice in 1855. Lincoln agreed to represent Dr. Ritchey in 1858 as the case was appealed to the supreme court of Illinois. In the interim, Lincoln defended two indicted murderers and won acquittals for both. Between the two murder trials, Lincoln debated Stephen A. Douglas while running for U.S. Senator from Illinois. Lincoln believed that Ritchey's case was poorly represented in the lower court. Ritchey's prior attorneys did not file a bill of exceptions to the testimony of the plaintiff's expert medical witnesses. Lincoln attempted to rebut the allegation of a lack of reasonable medical care and diligence by Ritchey, and he sought to secure a new trial for his client. In its decision, the supreme court of Illinois did not find any error and affirmed the lower court's judgment.

  4. Solar space heating for the visitors' center, Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, Marion

    1980-06-01

    This document is the final report of the solar energy system located at the Visitors' Center on the Stephens College Campus, Columbia, Missouri. The system is installed in a four-story, 15,000 square foot building designed to include the college's Admission Office, nine guest rooms for overnight lodging for official guests of the college, a two-story art gallery, and a Faculty Lounge. The solar energy system is an integral design of the building and utilizes 176 Honeywell/Lennox hydronic flat-plate collectors which use a 50% water-ethylene glycol solution and water-to-water heat exchanger. Solar heated water is stored in a 5000 gallon water storage tank located in the basement equipment room. A natural gas fired hot water boiler supplies hot water when the solar energy heat supply fails to meet the demand. The designed solar contribution is 71% of the heating load. The demonstration period for this project ends June 30, 1984.

  5. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: low-mass protoplanetary discs from a SCUBA-2 census of NGC 1333

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodds, P.; Greaves, J. S.; Scholz, A.; Hatchell, J.; Holland, W. S.; JCMT Gould Belt Survey Team

    2015-02-01

    NGC 1333 is a 1-2 Myr old cluster of stars in the Perseus molecular cloud. We used 850 μm data from the Gould Belt Survey with SCUBA-2 on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope to measure or place limits on disc masses for 82 Class II sources in this cluster. Eight disc candidates were detected; one is estimated to have mass of about 9 MJup in dust plus gas, while the others host only 2-4 MJup of circumstellar material. None of these discs exceeds the threshold for the `minimum mass solar nebula' (MMSN). This reinforces previous claims that only a small fraction of Class II sources at an age of 1-2 Myr have discs exceeding the MMSN threshold and thus can form a planetary system like our own. However, other regions with similarly low fractions of MMSN discs (IC 348, UpSco, σ Ori) are thought to be older than NGC 1333. Compared with coeval regions, the exceptionally low fraction of massive discs in NGC 1333 cannot easily be explained by the effects of UV radiation or stellar encounters. Our results indicate that additional environmental factors significantly affect disc evolution and the outcome of planet formation by core accretion.

  6. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-01-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  7. THE SPITZER SURVEY OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS IN THE GOULD BELT. II. THE CEPHEUS FLARE OBSERVED WITH IRAC AND MIPS

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Jason M.; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Di Francesco, James E-mail: derek.ward-thompson@astro.cf.ac.uk

    2009-11-01

    We present Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC; {approx}2 deg{sup 2}) and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS; {approx}8 deg{sup 2}) observations of the Cepheus Flare, which is associated with the Gould Belt, at an approximate distance of {approx}300 pc. Around 6500 sources are detected in all four IRAC bands, of which {approx}900 have MIPS 24 {mu}m detections. We identify 133 young stellar object (YSO) candidates using color-magnitude diagram techniques, and a large number of the YSO candidates are associated with the NGC 7023 reflection nebula. Cross-identifications were made with the Guide Star Catalog II and the IRAS Faint Source Catalog, and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) were constructed. SED modeling was conducted to estimate the degree of infrared excess. It was found that a large majority of disks were optically thick accreting disks, suggesting that there has been little disk evolution in these sources. Nearest-neighbor clustering analysis identified four small protostellar groups (L1228, L1228N, L1251A, and L1251B) with 5-15 members each and the larger NGC 7023 association with 32 YSO members. The star-formation efficiency for cores with clusters of protostars and for those without clusters was found to be {approx}8% and {approx}1%, respectively. The cores L1155, L1241, and L1247 are confirmed to be starless down to our luminosity limit of L {sub bol} = 0.06 L {sub sun}.

  8. Payer Perspectives on PCSK9 Inhibitors: A Conversation with Stephen Gorshow, MD, and James T. Kenney, RPh, MBA

    PubMed Central

    Mehr, Stanton R.

    2016-01-01

    The new proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors can have significant budget effects, depending on the breadth of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s approved labeling. American Health & Drug Benefits asked Stephen Gorshow, MD, Regional Medical Director, UnitedHealthcare, and James T. Kenney, RPh, MBA, Manager, Specialty and Pharmacy Contracts, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, to participate in a teleconference to better understand how payers are approaching the management of these agents. PMID:27066194

  9. [Book review] Conservation and Management of Neotropical Migrant Landbirds in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains, by David S. Dobkin, R. Gerald Wright, and Stephen C. Bunting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    Review of: Conservation and management of neotropical migrant landbirds in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains. Northwest Naturalist Books. David S. Dobkin, R. Gerald Wright, Stephen C. Bunting. University of Idaho Press, 1994. ISBN: 0893011681, 9780893011680.

  10. ITER Plasma at Electron Cyclotron Frequency Domain: Stimulated Raman Scattering off Gould-Trivelpiece Modes and Generation of Suprathermal Electrons and Energetic Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering in the electron cyclotron frequency range of the X-Mode and O-Mode driver with the ITER plasma leads to the ``tail heating'' via the generation of suprathermal electrons and energetic ions. The scattering off Trivelpiece-Gould (T-G) modes is studied for the gyrotron frequency of 170GHz; X-Mode and O-Mode power of 24 MW CW; on-axis B-field of 10T. The synergy between the two-plasmon decay and Raman scattering is analyzed in reference to the bulk plasma heating. Supported in part by Nikola TESLA Labs, La Jolla, CA

  11. THE SPITZER SURVEY OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS IN THE GOULD BELT. IV. LUPUS V AND VI OBSERVED WITH IRAC AND MIPS

    SciTech Connect

    Spezzi, Loredana; Vernazza, Pierre; Merin, Bruno; Allen, Lori E.; Evans, Neal J. II; Harvey, Paul M.; Joergensen, Jes K.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Peterson, Dawn; Cieza, Lucas A.; Dunham, Michael M.; Huard, Tracy L.; Tothill, Nick F. H.

    2011-04-01

    We present Gould's Belt (GB) Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations of the Lupus V and VI clouds and discuss them in combination with near-infrared (2MASS) data. Our observations complement those obtained for other Lupus clouds within the frame of the Spitzer 'Core to Disk' (c2d) Legacy Survey. We found 43 young stellar object (YSO) candidates in Lupus V and 45 in Lupus VI, including two transition disks, using the standard c2d/GB selection method. None of these sources was classified as a pre-main-sequence star from previous optical, near-IR, and X-ray surveys. A large majority of these YSO candidates appear to be surrounded by thin disks (Class III; {approx}79% in Lupus V and {approx}87% in Lupus VI). These Class III abundances differ significantly from those observed for the other Lupus clouds and c2d/GB surveyed star-forming regions, where objects with optically thick disks (Class II) dominate the young population. We investigate various scenarios that can explain this discrepancy. In particular, we show that disk photoevaporation due to nearby OB stars is not responsible for the high fraction of Class III objects. The gas surface densities measured for Lupus V and VI lie below the star formation threshold (A{sub V} {approx} 8.6 mag), while this is not the case for other Lupus clouds. Thus, few Myr older age for the YSOs in Lupus V and VI with respect to other Lupus clouds is the most likely explanation of the high fraction of Class III objects in these clouds, while a higher characteristic stellar mass might be a contributing factor. Better constraints on the age and binary fraction of the Lupus clouds might solve the puzzle but require further observations.

  12. Test series 1: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E Gould NCX-2250 battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L. L.; Hente, D. B.; Kukreti, B. M.; Schendel, J. S.; Tulk, J. D.; Janis, W. J.; Black, D A; Paulsen, G. D.; Aucoin, B. D.

    1984-09-01

    The seismic-fragility response of naturally-aged, nuclear station, safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and thresholds; and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the end-of-life of a battery, given a seismic event. This report covers the first test series of an extensive program using 12-year old, lead-calcium, Gould NCX-2250 cells, from the James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Station operated by the New York Power Authority. Seismic tests with three cell configurations were performed using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; multi-cell (three) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack; and single-cell tests specifically aimed towards examining propagation of pre-existing case cracks. In general the test philosophy was to monitor the electrical properties including discharge capacity of cells through a graduated series of g-level step increases until either the shake-table limits were reached or until electrical failure of the cells occurred. Of nine electrically active cells, six failed during seismic testing over a range of imposed g-level loads in excess of a 1-g ZPA. Post-test examination revealed a common failure mode, the cracking at the abnormally brittle, positive lead bus-bar/post interface; further examination showed that the failure zone was extremely coarse grained and extensively corroded. Presently accepted accelerated-aging methods for qualifying batteries, per IEEE Std. 535-1979, are based on plate growth, but these naturally-aged 12-year old cells showed no significant plate growth.

  13. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: the effect of molecular contamination in SCUBA-2 observations of Orion A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coudé, S.; Bastien, P.; Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Graves, S.; Hatchell, J.; Chapin, E. L.; Gibb, A. G.; Matthews, B.; JCMT Gould Belt Survey Team

    2016-04-01

    Thermal emission from cold dust grains in giant molecular clouds can be used to probe the physical properties, such as density, temperature and emissivity in star-forming regions. We present the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA-2) shared-risk observations at 450 and 850 μm of the Orion A molecular cloud complex taken at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Previous studies showed that molecular emission lines can contribute significantly to the measured fluxes in those continuum bands. We use the Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme 12CO J = 3-2 integrated intensity map for Orion A in order to evaluate the molecular line contamination and its effects on the SCUBA-2 maps. With the corrected fluxes, we have obtained a new spectral index α map for the thermal emission of dust in the well-known integral-shaped filament. Furthermore, we compare a sample of 33 sources, selected over the Orion A molecular cloud complex for their high 12CO J = 3-2 line contamination, to 27 previously identified clumps in OMC 4. This allows us to quantify the effect of line contamination on the ratio of 850-450 μm flux densities and how it modifies the deduced spectral index of emissivity β for the dust grains. We also show that at least one Spitzer-identified protostellar core in OMC 5 has a 12CO J = 3-2 contamination level of 16 per cent. Furthermore, we find the strongest contamination level (44 per cent) towards a young star with disc near OMC 2. This work is part of the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey.

  14. THE SPITZER SURVEY OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS IN THE GOULD BELT. V. OPHIUCHUS NORTH OBSERVED WITH IRAC AND MIPS

    SciTech Connect

    Hatchell, J.; Terebey, S.; Huard, T.; Mamajek, E. E. E-mail: sterebe@calstatela.edu; and others

    2012-08-01

    We present Spitzer IRAC (2.1 deg{sup 2}) and MIPS (6.5 deg{sup 2}) observations of star formation in the Ophiuchus North (Oph N) molecular clouds. This fragmentary cloud complex lies on the edge of the Sco-Cen OB association, several degrees to the north of the well-known {rho} Oph star-forming region, at an approximate distance of 130 pc. The Oph N clouds were mapped as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt project under the working name 'Scorpius'. In the regions mapped, selected to encompass all the cloud with visual extinction A{sub V} > 3, 11 young stellar object (YSO) candidates are identified, 8 from IRAC/MIPS color-based selection and 3 from Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) K{sub S} /MIPS colors. Adding to one source previously identified in L43, this increases the number of YSOcs identified in Oph N to 12. During the selection process, four color-based YSOcs were rejected as probable asymptotic giant branch stars and one as a known galaxy. The sources span the full range of YSOc classifications from Class 0/1 to Class III, and starless cores are also present. Twelve high extinction (A{sub V} > 10) cores are identified with a total mass of {approx}100 M{sub Sun }. These results confirm that there is little ongoing star formation in this region (instantaneous star formation efficiency <0.34%) and that the bottleneck lies in the formation of dense cores. The influence of the nearby Upper Sco OB association, including the 09V star {zeta} Oph, is seen in dynamical interactions and raised dust temperatures but has not enhanced levels of star formation in Oph N.

  15. Baseline and acute levels of corticosterone in Florida Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens): effects of food supplementation, suburban habitat, and year.

    PubMed

    Schoech, Stephan J; Bowman, Reed; Bridge, Eli S; Boughton, Raoul K

    2007-01-01

    Recent work has shown that Florida Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) living in suburban habitats, as well as birds that reside in a natural habitat (hereafter referred to as wildland birds) provided supplemental food during the pre-breeding period, have lower baseline corticosterone (CORT) levels than nonsupplemented wildland birds, suggesting that predictable and abundant foods can lower stress levels. Here, we investigate whether the acute CORT response to capture stress reflects our earlier findings. During the pre-breeding seasons in 2004 and 2005 we captured over 200 Florida Scrub-Jays and collected four blood samples from each bird over a 30 min time period. We compared hormonal and morphometric data from birds in four treatment groups: wildland birds that were provided with supplemental food during the pre-breeding period, wildland birds that were provided with supplemental food during the winter and pre-breeding period, nonsupplemented wildland birds, and suburban birds that effectively have access to ad libitum human-source food year-round. Suburban birds had lower baseline levels, and a more acute initial CORT response (i.e., rate of increase) than wildland birds, but we did not observe any differences among the treatment groups of wildland birds. Baseline CORT concentrations were unusually low across treatments in 2005, a year that was characterized by increased adult body mass, superior body condition, and a high fledgling success rate, all of which suggest favorable environmental conditions. Thus, abundant or more reliable food sources in 2005 may have overwhelmed any potential benefits of supplemental feeding and explain the absence of any strong experimental effects on CORT for that year.

  16. The Spitzer Survey of Interstellar Clouds in the Gould Belt. VI. The Auriga-California Molecular Cloud Observed with IRAC and MIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Harvey, Paul M.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Huard, Tracy L.; Tothill, Nicholas F. H.; Nutter, David; Bourke, Tyler L.; DiFrancesco, James; Jorgensen, Jes K.; Allen, Lori E.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Dunham, Michael M.; Merin, Bruno; Miller, Jennifer F.; Terebey, Susan; Peterson, Dawn E.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.

    2014-01-01

    We present observations of the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud (AMC) at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70 and 160 micrometers observed with the IRAC and MIPS detectors as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey. The total mapped areas are 2.5 deg(exp 2) with IRAC and 10.47 deg2 with MIPS. This giant molecular cloud is one of two in the nearby Gould Belt of star-forming regions, the other being the Orion A Molecular Cloud (OMC). We compare source counts, colors and magnitudes in our observed region to a subset of the SWIRE data that was processed through our pipeline. Using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we find evidence for a substantial population of 166 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud, many of which were previously unknown. Most of this population is concentrated around the LkH(alpha) 101 cluster and the filament extending from it. We present a quantitative description of the degree of clustering and discuss the fraction of YSOs in the region with disks relative to an estimate of the diskless YSO population. Although the AMC is similar in mass, size and distance to the OMC, it is forming about 15 - 20 times fewer stars.

  17. The Spitzer survey of interstellar clouds in the gould belt. VI. The Auriga-California molecular cloud observed with IRAC and MIPS

    SciTech Connect

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Harvey, Paul M.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Huard, Tracy L.; Miller, Jennifer F.; Tothill, Nicholas F. H.; Nutter, David; Bourke, Tyler L.; DiFrancesco, James; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Allen, Lori E.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Dunham, Michael M.; Merín, Bruno; Terebey, Susan; Peterson, Dawn E.; and others

    2014-05-01

    We present observations of the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud (AMC) at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70, and 160 μm observed with the IRAC and MIPS detectors as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey. The total mapped areas are 2.5 deg{sup 2} with IRAC and 10.47 deg{sup 2} with MIPS. This giant molecular cloud is one of two in the nearby Gould Belt of star-forming regions, the other being the Orion A Molecular Cloud (OMC). We compare source counts, colors, and magnitudes in our observed region to a subset of the SWIRE data that was processed through our pipeline. Using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we find evidence for a substantial population of 166 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud, many of which were previously unknown. Most of this population is concentrated around the LkHα 101 cluster and the filament extending from it. We present a quantitative description of the degree of clustering and discuss the relative fraction of YSOs in earlier (Class I and F) and later (Class II) classes compared to other clouds. We perform simple SED modeling of the YSOs with disks to compare the mid-IR properties to disks in other clouds and identify 14 classical transition disk candidates. Although the AMC is similar in mass, size, and distance to the OMC, it is forming about 15-20 times fewer stars.

  18. Conservation as virtue: a scientific and social process for conservation ethics.

    PubMed

    Van Houtan, Kyle S

    2006-10-01

    Most scientists take ethical arguments for conservation as given and focus on scientific or economic questions. Although nature conservation is often considered a just cause, it is given little further consideration. A lack of attention to ethical theory raises serious concerns for how conservation scientists conceive and practice ethics. I contrast two common ways scientists approach ethics, as demonstrated in the writings of Stephen Jay Gould and E. O. Wilson. Gould casts severe doubt as to whether any ethics are possible from science, whereas Wilson proposes science as the only path to ethics. I argue these two methods ultimately limit popular support for conservation and offer Alasdair MacIntyre's "virtue ethics" as an alternative. Unlike Gould and Wilson, MacIntyre provides an ethical theory that reconciles scientific inquiry and social traditions. Recent studies of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States affirm MacIntyre's claims and provide important insights for conservation today. These accounts argue that social solidarity and political success against segregation were possible only as rooted in the particular language, logic, and practices of a robust cultural tradition. If correct, conservation science should attend to several questions. On what basis can conservation achieve widespread cultural legitimacy? What are the particular social currencies for a conservation ethic? What role does science play in such a scheme? MacIntyre's careful positioning of scientific and social traditions provides a hopeful ethical direction for conservation.

  19. The JCMT Legacy Survey of the Gould Belt: mapping 13CO and C18O in Orion A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckle, J. V.; Davis, C. J.; Francesco, J. Di; Graves, S. F.; Nutter, D.; Richer, J. S.; Roberts, J. F.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G. J.; Brunt, C.; Butner, H. M.; Cavanagh, B.; Chrysostomou, A.; Curtis, E. I.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Etxaluze, M.; Fich, M.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Greaves, J. S.; Hatchell, J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Matthews, B.; Matthews, H.; Rawlings, J. M. C.; Sadavoy, S.; Simpson, R. J.; Tothill, N. F. H.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Viti, S.; Wouterloot, J. G. A.; Yates, J.

    2012-05-01

    The Gould Belt Legacy Survey will map star-forming regions within 500 pc, using Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme (HARP), Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) and Polarimeter 2 (POL-2) on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). This paper describes HARP observations of the J= 3 → 2 transitions of 13CO and C18O towards Orion A. The 15 arcsec resolution observations cover 5 pc of the Orion filament, including OMC 1 (including BN-KL and Orion bar), OMC 2/3 and OMC 4, and allow a comparative study of the molecular gas properties throughout the star-forming cloud. The filament shows a velocity gradient of ˜1 km s-1 pc-1 between OMC 1, 2 and 3, and high-velocity emission is detected in both isotopologues. The Orion Nebula and Bar have the largest masses and linewidths, and dominate the mass and energetics of the high-velocity material. Compact, spatially resolved emission from CH3CN, 13CH3OH, SO, HCOOCH3, CH3CHO and CH3OCHO is detected towards the Orion Hot Core. The cloud is warm, with a median excitation temperature of ˜24 K; the Orion Bar has the highest excitation temperature gas, at >80 K. The C18O excitation temperature correlates well with the dust temperature (to within 40 per cent). The C18O emission is optically thin, and the 13CO emission is marginally optically thick; despite its high mass, OMC 1 shows the lowest opacities. A virial analysis indicates that Orion A is too massive for thermal or turbulent support, but is consistent with a model of a filamentary cloud that is threaded by helical magnetic fields. The variation of physical conditions across the cloud is reflected in the physical characteristics of the dust cores. We find similar core properties between starless and protostellar cores, but variations in core properties with position in the filament. The OMC 1 cores have the highest velocity dispersions and masses, followed by OMC 2/3 and OMC 4. The differing fragmentation of these cores may explain why OMC 1 has formed

  20. The Ascent of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Brian L.

    2000-04-01

    From the revolutionary discoveries of Galileo and Newton to the mind-bending theories of Einstein and Heisenberg, from plate tectonics to particle physics, from the origin of life to universal entropy, and from biology to cosmology, here is a sweeping, readable, and dynamic account of the whole of Western science.In the approachable manner and method of Stephen Jay Gould and Carl Sagan, the late Brian L. Silver translates our most important, and often most obscure, scientific developments into a vernacular that is not only accessible and illuminating but also enjoyable. Silver makes his comprehensive case with much clarity and insight; his book aptly locates science as the apex of human reason, and reason as our best path to the truth. For all readers curious about--or else perhaps intimidated by--what Silver calls "the scientific campaign up to now", The Ascent of Science will be fresh, vivid, and fascinating reading.

  1. The Scala naturae revisited: evolutionary scales and anagenesis in comparative psychology.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C B; Hodos, W

    1991-09-01

    Recent suggestions that evolutionary scales have a place in theorization about the evolution of behavior have been based on the concept of anagenesis, formerly associated with notions of biological progress. An associated concept is that of grades, often used as units of anagenetic advance. Advocates of anagenetic analysis in comparative psychology cite the writings of biologists Bernard Rensch, Julian Huxley, George Gaylord Simpson, and Stephen Jay Gould to support the usefulness of anagenesis but treat the positions of each of these theorists as if they were the same. In fact, they differ considerably in their definition of anagenesis and in its application to specific issues in evolution. The anagenetic approach is criticized as axiological and frequently anthropocentric. Although the formation of grades can be useful, a sequence of grades must not be assumed to represent historical stages in the evolution of specific structures or behaviors.

  2. Self-organized criticality and punctuated equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Per; Boettcher, Stefan

    1997-02-01

    Many natural phenomena evolve intermittently, with periods of tranquillity interrupted by bursts of activity, rather than following a smooth gradual path. Examples include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, solar flares, gamma-ray bursts, and biological evolution. Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge have coined the term “punctuated equilibria” for this behavior. We argue that punctuated equilibria reflects the tendency of dynamical systems to evolve towards a critical state, and review recent work on simple models. A good metaphoric picture is one where the systems are temporarily trapped in valleys of deformable, interacting landscapes. Similarities with spin glasses are pointed out. Punctuated equilibria are essential for the emergence of complex phenomena. The periods of stasis allow the system to remember its past history; yet the intermittent events permit further change.

  3. Counterfactuals and history: Contingency and convergence in histories of science and life.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, Ian

    2016-08-01

    This article examines a series of recent histories of science that have attempted to consider how science may have developed in slightly altered historical realities. These works have, moreover, been influenced by debates in evolutionary science about the opposing forces of contingency and convergence in regard to Stephen Jay Gould's notion of "replaying life's tape." The article argues that while the historians under analysis seem to embrace contingency in order to present their counterfactual narratives, for the sake of historical plausibility they are forced to accept a fairly weak role for contingency in shaping the development of science. It is therefore argued that Simon Conway Morris's theory of evolutionary convergence comes closer to describing the restrained counterfactual worlds imagined by these historians of science than does contingency.

  4. [Interactions between genetics and environment].

    PubMed

    Vineis, P

    1998-01-01

    From a scientific point of view, the idea that genes exert an important role in explaining human pathology has gained much popularity in recent decades. However, according to Stephen Jay Gould, the "genetic fallacy" has been repeatedly used to avoid environmental action. In the case of occupational cancer, genetic screening of workers for their susceptibility to the action of chemical carcinogens, on the basis of "metabolic polymorphisms", would be unacceptable because of racial discrimination, related to uneven racial distribution of most polymorphisms, for example, 90% of Africans and 10% of Asians have the "slow" acetylator genotype. Therefore, not only technical and scientific aspects of genetic susceptibility to cancer, but also ethical and social implication have to be considered.

  5. Behaviour and stability of Trivelpiece-Gould modes in non-neutral plasma containing small density fraction of background gas ions

    SciTech Connect

    Yeliseyev, Y. N.

    2013-03-19

    It is shown that the frequencies of Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) modes in non-neutral plasma can get into the low-frequency range due to the Doppler shift caused by plasma rotation in crossed fields. TG modes interact with the ion modes that leads to plasma instability. In paper the frequency spectrum of 'cold' electron plasma completely filling a waveguide and containing small density fraction of ions of background gas is determined numerically. For ions the kinetic description is used. Oscillations having azimuthal number m= 2 are considered. In this case both low- and upper-hybrid TG modes get into the low-frequency range. The spectrum consists of families of 'modified' ion cyclotron (MIC) modes and electron TG modes with the frequencies equal to hybrid frequencies with the Doppler shift. The growth rates of upper-hybrid modes are much faster than the growth rates of low-hybrid and MIC modes.

  6. Social influence of a religious hero: the late Cardinal Stephen Kim Sou-hwan's effect on cornea donation and volunteerism.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyuhn-Suhck; Brown, William J; Kang, Seok

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the mediated influence of a celebrated religious hero in South Korea, Cardinal Stephen Kim, through two forms of involvement--parasocial interaction and identification--on intention toward cornea donation and volunteerism, and it investigated how the news media diffused of his death. A structural equation modeling analysis with a Web-based voluntary survey of more than 1,200 people in South Korea revealed a multistep social influence process, beginning with parasocial interaction with Cardinal Kim, leading to identification with him, which predicted intention toward cornea donation and volunteerism. Additional investigations found that news of Cardinal Kim's death diffused rapidly through media and interpersonal communication. Results of this study demonstrate that religious leaders who achieve a celebrity hero status can prompt public discussion of important issues rather quickly through extensive media coverage, enabling them to promote prosocial behavior and positively affect public health.

  7. A census of dense cores in the Aquila cloud complex: SPIRE/PACS observations from the Herschel Gould Belt survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könyves, V.; André, Ph.; Men'shchikov, A.; Palmeirim, P.; Arzoumanian, D.; Schneider, N.; Roy, A.; Didelon, P.; Maury, A.; Shimajiri, Y.; Di Francesco, J.; Bontemps, S.; Peretto, N.; Benedettini, M.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Elia, D.; Griffin, M. J.; Hill, T.; Kirk, J.; Ladjelate, B.; Marsh, K.; Martin, P. G.; Motte, F.; Nguyên Luong, Q.; Pezzuto, S.; Roussel, H.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Sadavoy, S. I.; Schisano, E.; Spinoglio, L.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    We present and discuss the results of the Herschel Gould Belt survey (HGBS) observations in an 11 deg2 area of the Aquila molecular cloud complex at d 260 pc, imaged with the SPIRE and PACS photometric cameras in parallel mode from 70 μm to 500 μm. Using the multi-scale, multi-wavelength source extraction algorithm getsources, we identify a complete sample of starless dense cores and embedded (Class 0-I) protostars in this region, and analyze their global properties and spatial distributions. We find a total of 651 starless cores, 60% ± 10% of which are gravitationally bound prestellar cores, and they will likely form stars inthe future. We also detect 58 protostellar cores. The core mass function (CMF) derived for the large population of prestellar cores is very similar in shape to the stellar initial mass function (IMF), confirming earlier findings on a much stronger statistical basis and supporting the view that there is a close physical link between the stellar IMF and the prestellar CMF. The global shift in mass scale observed between the CMF and the IMF is consistent with a typical star formation efficiency of 40% at the level of an individual core. By comparing the numbers of starless cores in various density bins to the number of young stellar objects (YSOs), we estimate that the lifetime of prestellar cores is 1 Myr, which is typically 4 times longer than the core free-fall time, and that it decreases with average core density. We find a strong correlation between the spatial distribution of prestellar cores and the densest filaments observed in the Aquila complex. About 90% of the Herschel-identified prestellar cores are located above a background column density corresponding to AV 7, and 75% of them lie within filamentary structures with supercritical masses per unit length ≳16 M⊙/pc. These findings support a picture wherein the cores making up the peak of the CMF (and probably responsible for the base of the IMF) result primarily from the

  8. Six new species of Myrsidea Waterston, 1915 (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from New World jays of the genus Cyanocorax Boie (Passeriformes: Corvidae), with notes on the chorionic structure of eggs.

    PubMed

    Valim, Michel P; Cicchino, Armando C

    2015-02-01

    The only species of previously named Myrsidea Waterston, 1915 from Neotropical jays of the genus Cyanocorax Boie (Passeriformes: Corvidae), Myrsidea fallax Kéler, 1938 (type-host Cyanocorax cyanomelas Vieillot), is redescribed and six new species of lice in the genus Myrsidea are described: Myrsidea pseudofallax n. sp. [type-host C. c. chrysops (Vieillot)]; M. moriona n. sp. [type-host C. m. morio (Wagler)]; Myrsidea daleclaytoni n. sp. [type-host C. v. violaceus Du Bus de Gisignies]; Myrsidea lindolphoi n. sp. [type-host C. caeruleus (Vieillot)]; Myrsidea melanocyanei n. sp. [type-host C. melanocyaneus chavezi (Miller & Griscom)]; and Myrsidea cristatelli n. sp. [type-host C. cristatellus (Temminck)]. A key to the identification of both sexes of these seven species is provided. Immature stages of M. daleclaytoni n. sp. (all instars) and M. cristatelli n. sp. (nymph III) are described. External chorionic architecture of the eggs is described and illustrated for six Myrsidea spp. from corvine birds: M. picae (Linnaeus, 1758) ex Pica p. pica L.; M. cornicis (DeGeer, 1778) ex Corvus c. corone L.; M. isostoma (Nitzsch in Giebel, 1866) ex Co. f. frugilegus L.; M. interrupta (Osborn, 1896) ex Co. brachyrhynchus Brehm; M. fallax ex Cy. cyanomelas; and M. moriona n. sp. ex Cy. m. morio. This is the first review of the data on Myrsidea spp. infesting Neotropical Corvidae.

  9. Diet and feeding behavior of the White-naped Jay, Cyanocorax cyanopogon (Wied, 1821) (Aves, Passeriformes, Corvidae) in a disturbed environment in central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, R A M; Costa, C A; Pascotto, M C

    2014-11-01

    The White-naped Jay Cyanocorax cyanopogon (Wied, 1821) is an omnivorous and opportunistic species, with a multifarious diet. In view of the scarcity of available data in the literature, the aim was to investigate and describe the bird's diet, location of food items, foraging tactics, actual feeding behavior and intraspecific interactions, as a means of defining the items consumed. The study was carried out in a Cerrado area in the Araguaia Campus of the Federal University of Mato Grosso - UFMT, in Pontal do Araguaia, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, from August to December, 2006, and from April to October, 2010. All the feeding events were recorded through 136 hours of animal focal sampling, whereby it was shown that these birds predominantly consume animal nutrients, replenished by vegetable items and human food-waste. Arthropods were predominant in the diet, with ants as the most abundant and frequent item. The fruits, flowers and seeds of eleven plant species were also consumed. Food-waste, representing about 1/10 of the total, was constantly consumed even when other food sources were available. Although active among the various strata, foraging is mainly on the ground. In the event of food-scarcity, the strategy employed is the hierarchical deployment of the members of various-sized groups, with the avoidance of direct competition. This versatility during all seasons, confirms total adaptation to the anthropic environment surrounded by native habitats that characterized the study site.

  10. Reproductive Ecology Of The Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma Coerulescens) On John F. Kennedy Space Center/Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge: A Long-Term Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Geoffry M.; Breininger, David R.; Larson, Vicky L.; Oddy, Donna M.; Smith, Rebecca B.; Stolen, Eric D.

    2005-01-01

    From 1988 to 2002 we studied the breeding ecology of Florida Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) on John F. Kennedy Space Center/Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. We examined phenology, clutch size, hatching failure rates, fledgling production, nest success, predation rates, sources egg and nestling mortality, and the effects of helpers on these measures. Nesting phenology was similar among sites. Mean clutch size at Titan was significantly larger than at HC or T4. Pairs with helpers did not produce larger clutches than pairs without helpers. Fledgling production at T4 was significantly greater than at HC and similar to Titan. Pairs with helpers at HC produced significantly more fledglings than pairs without helpers; helpers did not influence fledgling production at the other sites. Nest success at HC and Titan was low, 19% and 32% respectively. Nest success at T4 was 48% and was significantly greater than at HC. Average predation rates at all sites increased with season progression. Predation rates at all sight rose sharply by early June. The main cause of nest failure at all sites was predation, 93%.

  11. Surveillance for West Nile Virus and Vaccination of Free-Ranging Island Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma insularis) on Santa Cruz Island, California

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Winston; Morrison, Scott A.; Sillett, T. Scott; Caldwell, Luke; Wheeler, Sarah S.; Barker, Christopher M.; Cummings, Robert; Reisen, William K.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) on mainland California poses an ongoing threat to the island scrub-jay (ISSJ, Aphelocoma insularis), a species that occurs only on Santa Cruz Island, California, and whose total population numbers <5000. Our report describes the surveillance and management efforts conducted since 2006 that are designed to understand and mitigate for the consequences of WNV introduction into the ISSJ population. We suspect that WNV would most likely be introduced to the island via the movement of infected birds from the mainland. However, antibody testing of >750 migrating and resident birds on the island from 2006 to 2009 indicated that WNV had not become established by the end of 2009. Several species of competent mosquito vectors were collected at very low abundance on the island, including the important mainland vectors Culex tarsalis and Culex quinquefasciatus. However, the island was generally cooler than areas of mainland California that experienced intense WNV transmission, and these lower temperatures may have reduced the likelihood of WNV becoming established because they do not support efficient virus replication in mosquitoes. A vaccination program was initiated in 2008 to create a rescue population of ISSJ that would be more likely to survive a catastrophic outbreak. To further that goal, we recommend managers vaccinate >100 ISSJ each year as part of ongoing research and monitoring efforts. PMID:21438695

  12. Three who made an association: I. Sir William Osler, 1849-1919. II. George Milbry Gould, 1848-1922. III. Margaret Ridley Charlton, 1858-1931 and the founding of the Medical Library Association, Philadelphia, 1898.

    PubMed Central

    Groen, F K

    1998-01-01

    The careers and personalities of the three founders of the Medical Library Association, Sir William Osler, George Milbry Gould, and Margaret Ridley Charlton are outlined, followed by a review of their role in the founding of the association. The career of Sir William Osler is well documented in existing literature, both in medical history and medical librarianship; the biographies of George Milbry Gould and Margaret Ridley Charlton are less known, and this article describes their lives in relation to the founding of the association. The issue of responsibility for the association's founding is explored, and primary recognition is attributed to Margaret Charlton. The author attempts to follow the tradition of Harvey Cushing in his The Life of Sir William Osler in allowing the characters to speak in their own words as much as possible. Images PMID:9578937

  13. Three who made an association: I. Sir William Osler, 1849-1919 II. George Milbry Gould, 1848-1922 III. Margaret Ridley Charlton, 1858-1931 and the founding of the Medical Library Association, Philadelphia, 1898.

    PubMed Central

    Groen, F K

    1996-01-01

    The careers and personalities of the three founders of the Medical Library Association, Sir William Osler, George Milbry Gould, and Margaret Ridley Charlton are outlined, followed by a review of their role in the founding of the association. The career of Sir William Osler is well documented in existing literature, both in medical history and medical librarianship; the biographies of George Milbry Gould and Margaret Ridley Charlton are less known, and this article describes their lives in relation to the founding of the association. The issue of responsibility for the association's founding is explored, and primary recognition is attributed to Margaret Charlton. The author attempts to follow the tradition of Harvey Cushing in his The Life of Sir William Osler in allowing the characters to speak in their own words as much as possible. Images PMID:8883979

  14. Cytotoxic effects of Jay Amin hydroxamic acid (JAHA), a ferrocene-based class I histone deacetylase inhibitor, on triple-negative MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Librizzi, Mariangela; Longo, Alessandra; Chiarelli, Roberto; Amin, Jahanghir; Spencer, John; Luparello, Claudio

    2012-11-19

    The histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are a class of chemically heterogeneous anticancer agents of which suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a prototypical member. SAHA derivatives may be obtained by three-dimensional manipulation of SAHA aryl cap, such as the incorporation of a ferrocene unit like that present in Jay Amin hydroxamic acid (JAHA) and homo-JAHA [ Spencer , et al. ( 2011 ) ACS Med. Chem. Lett. 2 , 358 - 362 ]. These metal-based SAHA analogues have been tested for their cytotoxic activity toward triple-negative MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells. The results obtained indicate that of the two compounds tested, only JAHA was prominently active on breast cancer cells with an IC(50) of 8.45 μM at 72 h of treatment. Biological assays showed that exposure of MDA-MB231 cells to the HDACi resulted in cell cycle perturbation with an alteration of S phase entry and a delay at G(2)/M transition and in an early reactive oxygen species production followed by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) dissipation and autophagy inhibition. No annexin binding was observed after short- (5 h) and longer (24 and 48 h) term incubation with JAHA, thereby excluding the promotion of apoptosis by the HDACi. Although caution must be exercised in extrapolation of in vitro results to the in vivo situation for which research on animals and human trials are needed, nevertheless JAHA treatment possesses the potential for its development as an agent for prevention and/or therapy of "aggressive" breast carcinoma, thus prompting us to get more insight into the molecular basis of its antibreast cancer activity.

  15. Stephen Hales: the contributions of an Enlightenment physiologist to the study of the kidney in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2016-02-01

    Stephen Hales (1677-1761) was an English clergyman who made major contributions to a wide range of scientific topics such as botany, chemistry, pneumatics, and physiology. Early in his career he developed a keen interest in medicine through his association with his younger physician friend at Cambridge, William Stukeley (1687-1765), with whom he dissected animals and attended experiments in the laboratory of Isaac Newton. His fame as a scientist grew and by the end of his life he had achieved an international reputation as a major scientist of the Enlightenment. He is best known for his 1733 Statical Essays, in the second part of which he describes his studies in animal physiology. Most famous amongst those are his assessments of the force of the blood, which he measured in horses and dogs. Less well known and often unrecognized are his studies on the kidney in health and disease, which are the focus of this review. Amongst others Hales described the effects of hemorrhagic shock which he observed as he bled his animals while measuring their blood pressure; he then studied the effect of increasing saline perfusion pressures on the renal secretion of urine; and delved into biochemistry in exploring the composition of and solutions to dissolve bladder stones. His 1733 statement in the introduction to his hemodynamic studies that the healthy State of the Animal principally consists, in the maintaining of a due Equilibrium between the body solids and fluids literally predicts the milieu intrieur that would ultimately be formulated in 1854 by Claude Bernard (1813-1878).

  16. Biodiversity of Spongosorites coralliophaga (Stephens, 1915) on coral rubble at two contrasting cold-water coral reef settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazanidis, Georgios; Henry, Lea-Anne; Roberts, J. Murray; Witte, Ursula F. M.

    2016-03-01

    Cold-water coral reefs (CWRs) in the northeast Atlantic harbor diverse sponge communities. Knowledge of deep-sea sponge ecology is limited and this leaves us with a fragmented understanding of the ecological roles that sponges play in CWR ecosystems. We present the first study of faunal biodiversity associated with the massive demosponge Spongosorites coralliophaga (Stephens, 1915) that typically colonizes coral debris fields of CWRs. Our study focused on the sessile fauna inhabiting sponges mixed with coral rubble at two contrasting settings in the northeast Atlantic: the shallow inshore (120-190 m water depth) Mingulay Reef Complex (MRC) and the deep offshore (500-1200 m) Logachev Mound (LM) coral province. MRC is dominated by the scleractinian Lophelia pertusa, while LM is dominated by L. pertusa and Madrepora oculata. Nine sponge-coral rubble associations were collected from MRC and four from LM. Measurements of abundance, species richness, diversity, evenness, dry biomass, and composition of sessile fauna on sponge and coral rubble microhabitats were undertaken. Differences in community composition between the two regions were mainly a response to changes in fauna with depth. Fauna composition was also different between sponge and coral rubble within each region. Infauna constituted a minor component of the sponge-associated fauna in MRC but had a higher contribution in LM. Sponge and coral rubble sessile fauna in both regions was mainly composed of cnidarians and molluscs, similarly to some previous studies. Sponges' outer surfaces at MRC were colonized by a species-rich community with high abundance and biomass suggesting that S. coralliophaga at MRC acts as a settlement surface for various organisms but such a role is not the case at LM. This difference in the role of S. coralliophaga as a biological structure is probably related to differences in fauna composition with depth, bottom current speed, and the quantity/quality of food supplied to the benthos.

  17. Resistance of green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens to nitenpyram: Cross-resistance patterns, mechanism, stability, and realized heritability.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Muhammad Mudassir; Raza, Abu Bakar Muhammad; Abbas, Naeem; Aqueel, Muhammad Anjum; Afzal, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    The green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) is a major generalist predator employed in integrated pest management (IPM) plans for pest control on many crops. Nitenpyram, a neonicotinoid insecticide has widely been used against the sucking pests of cotton in Pakistan. Therefore, a field green lacewing strain was exposed to nitenpyram for five generations to investigate resistance evolution, cross-resistance pattern, stability, realized heritability, and mechanisms of resistance. Before starting the selection with nitenpyram, a field collected strain showed 22.08-, 23.09-, 484.69- and 602.90-fold resistance to nitenpyram, buprofezin, spinosad and acetamiprid, respectively compared with the Susceptible strain. After continuous selection for five generations (G1-G5) with nitenpyram in the laboratory, the Field strain (Niten-SEL) developed a resistance ratio of 423.95 at G6. The Niten-SEL strain at G6 showed no cross-resistance to buprofezin and acetamiprid and negative cross-resistance to spinosad compared with the Field strain (G1). For resistance stability, the Niten-SEL strain was left unexposed to any insecticide for four generations (G6-G9) and bioassay results at G10 showed that resistance to nitenpyram, buprofezin and spinosad was stable, while resistance to acetamiprid was unstable. The realized heritability values were 0.97, 0.16, 0.03, and -0.16 to nitenpyram, buprofezin, acetamiprid and spinosad, respectively, after five generations of selection. Moreover, the enzyme inhibitors (PBO or DEF) significantly decreased the nitenpyram resistance in the resistant strain, suggesting that resistance was due to microsomal oxidases and esterases. These results are very helpful for integration of green lacewings in IPM programs.

  18. Convergent evolution as natural experiment: the tape of life reconsidered

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Russell; Mariscal, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Stephen Jay Gould argued that replaying the ‘tape of life’ would result in radically different evolutionary outcomes. Recently, biologists and philosophers of science have paid increasing attention to the theoretical importance of convergent evolution—the independent origination of similar biological forms and functions—which many interpret as evidence against Gould's thesis. In this paper, we examine the evidentiary relevance of convergent evolution for the radical contingency debate. We show that under the right conditions, episodes of convergent evolution can constitute valid natural experiments that support inferences regarding the deep counterfactual stability of macroevolutionary outcomes. However, we argue that proponents of convergence have problematically lumped causally heterogeneous phenomena into a single evidentiary basket, in effect treating all convergent events as if they are of equivalent theoretical import. As a result, the ‘critique from convergent evolution’ fails to engage with key claims of the radical contingency thesis. To remedy this, we develop ways to break down the heterogeneous set of convergent events based on the nature of the generalizations they support. Adopting this more nuanced approach to convergent evolution allows us to differentiate iterated evolutionary outcomes that are probably common among alternative evolutionary histories and subject to law-like generalizations, from those that do little to undermine and may even support, the Gouldian view of life. PMID:26640647

  19. Paleontology at the "high table"? Popularization and disciplinary status in recent paleontology.

    PubMed

    Sepkoski, David

    2014-03-01

    This paper examines the way in which paleontologists used "popular books" to call for a broader "expanded synthesis" of evolutionary biology. Beginning in the 1970s, a group of influential paleontologists, including Stephen Jay Gould, Niles Eldredge, David Raup, Steven Stanley, and others, aggressively promoted a new theoretical, evolutionary approach to the fossil record as an important revision of the existing synthetic view of Darwinism. This work had a transformative effect within the discipline of paleontology. However, by the 1980s, paleontologists began making their case to a wider audience, both within evolutionary biology, and to the general public. Many of their books-for example, Eldredge's provocatively-titled Unfinished Synthesis-explicitly argued that the received synthetic view of Darwinian evolution was incomplete, and that paleontological contributions such as punctuated equilibria, the hierarchical model of macroevolution, and the study of mass extinction dynamics offered a substantial corrective to evolutionary theory. This paper argues that books-far from being "mere popularizations" of scientific ideas-played an important role in disciplinary debates surrounding evolutionary theory during the 1980s, and in particular that paleontologists like Gould and Eldredge self-consciously adopted the book format because of the importance of that genre in the history of evolutionary biology.

  20. From weird wonders to stem lineages: the second reclassification of the Burgess Shale fauna.

    PubMed

    Brysse, Keynyn

    2008-09-01

    The Burgess Shale, a set of fossil beds containing the exquisitely preserved remains of marine invertebrate organisms from shortly after the Cambrian explosion, was discovered in 1909, and first brought to widespread popular attention by Stephen Jay Gould in his 1989 bestseller Wonderful life: The Burgess Shale and the nature of history. Gould contrasted the initial interpretation of these fossils, in which they were 'shoehorned' into modern groups, with the first major reexamination begun in the 1960s, when the creatures were perceived as 'weird wonders', possessing unique body plans and unrelated to modern organisms. More recently, a third phase of Burgess Shale studies has arisen, which has not yet been historically examined. This third phase represents a revolutionary new understanding, brought about, I believe, by a change in taxonomic methodology that led to a new perception of the Burgess creatures, and a new way to comprehend their relationships with modern organisms. The adoption of cladistics, and its corollary, the stem group concept, has forged a new understanding of the Burgess Shale ... but has it also changed the questions we are allowed to ask about evolution?

  1. Convergent evolution as natural experiment: the tape of life reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Powell, Russell; Mariscal, Carlos

    2015-12-06

    Stephen Jay Gould argued that replaying the 'tape of life' would result in radically different evolutionary outcomes. Recently, biologists and philosophers of science have paid increasing attention to the theoretical importance of convergent evolution-the independent origination of similar biological forms and functions-which many interpret as evidence against Gould's thesis. In this paper, we examine the evidentiary relevance of convergent evolution for the radical contingency debate. We show that under the right conditions, episodes of convergent evolution can constitute valid natural experiments that support inferences regarding the deep counterfactual stability of macroevolutionary outcomes. However, we argue that proponents of convergence have problematically lumped causally heterogeneous phenomena into a single evidentiary basket, in effect treating all convergent events as if they are of equivalent theoretical import. As a result, the 'critique from convergent evolution' fails to engage with key claims of the radical contingency thesis. To remedy this, we develop ways to break down the heterogeneous set of convergent events based on the nature of the generalizations they support. Adopting this more nuanced approach to convergent evolution allows us to differentiate iterated evolutionary outcomes that are probably common among alternative evolutionary histories and subject to law-like generalizations, from those that do little to undermine and may even support, the Gouldian view of life.

  2. Why don't zebras have machine guns? Adaptation, selection, and constraints in evolutionary theory.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Timothy

    2008-03-01

    In an influential paper, Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Lewontin (1979) contrasted selection-driven adaptation with phylogenetic, architectural, and developmental constraints as distinct causes of phenotypic evolution. In subsequent publications Gould (e.g., 1997a,b, 2002) has elaborated this distinction into one between a narrow "Darwinian Fundamentalist" emphasis on "external functionalist" processes, and a more inclusive "pluralist" emphasis on "internal structuralist" principles. Although theoretical integration of functionalist and structuralist explanations is the ultimate aim, natural selection and internal constraints are treated as distinct causes of evolutionary change. This distinction is now routinely taken for granted in the literature in evolutionary biology. I argue that this distinction is problematic because the effects attributed to non-selective constraints are more parsimoniously explained as the ordinary effects of selection itself. Although it may still be a useful shorthand to speak of phylogenetic, architectural, and developmental constraints on phenotypic evolution, it is important to understand that such "constraints" do not constitute an alternative set of causes of evolutionary change. The result of this analysis is a clearer understanding of the relationship between adaptation, selection and constraints as explanatory concepts in evolutionary theory.

  3. Stephen's Second Birthday

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Catherine C.

    1977-01-01

    A mother relates the first 2 years of development and treatment of her son with cystic hygroma, a rare condition which affects the lymph glands and causes tumors in the neck, tongue, and in more serious cases, the lungs. (SBH)

  4. Hawking, Stephen W (1942-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Cosmologist and theoretical astrophysicist, born in Oxford, England, where he studied physics at University College. Moved to Cambridge to take up research in general relativity and cosmology, became Lucasian professor (an appointment earlier held by ISAAC NEWTON, with whom Hawking has been compared). Hawking worked to develop a valid mathematical treatment of the `singularities' in the theor...

  5. Pheromone specificity inEriocrania semipurpurella (Stephens) andE. sangii (Wood) (Lepidoptera: Eriocraniidae) based on chirality of semiochemicals.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, M V; Zhu, J; Philipp, P; Francke, W; Zvereva, E L; Hansson, B S; Löfstedt, C

    1996-03-01

    The fifth abdominal segment of femaleEriocrania semipurpurella (Stephens) andE. sangii (Wood) contains a pair of exocrine glands. Hexane extracts of this segment were prepared from both species and analyzed by gas chromatography with simultaneous flame ionization and electroantennographic detection (EAD). For both species, the EAD active peaks were identified as nonan-2-one, (Z)-6-nonen-2-one, and (Z)-6-nonen-2-ol by means of mass spectrometry and comparison of retention indices with those of synthetic standards. Enantiomeric separation of chiral alcohols from the female extracts was achieved by gas chromatographic analysis on a cyclodextrin column. InE. semipurpurella, a mixture of (2S,6Z)-nonen-2-ol and (2R,6Z)-nonen-2-ol (2: I) was found, whereas inE. sangii (2S,6Z)-nonen-2-ol was the predominant enantiomer and only traces of theR enantiomer were indicated by the antennal response. In field tests, a blend of the three compounds was not attractive to conspecific males. A subtractive assay showed that the alcohol in various enantiomeric mixtures was the only attractive compound, whereas addition of (Z)-6-nonen-2-one to the alcohol completely inhibited the attraction of both species. A trapping experiment including a wide range of ratios between theR andS enantiomers showed that baits containing 95-100% of theS enantiomer were attractive to maleE. sangii, whereas males ofE. semipurpurella were attracted to all tested ratios of the enantiomers. However, the response profiles of maleE. semipurpurella differed between populations from southern Sweden, south Finland, and the Kola Peninsula in Russia. In south Sweden males were maximally attracted to a racemic mixture of the alcohols. At the Kola PeninsulaE. semipurpurella was attracted to baits containing 95-100% of theR enantiomer. In south Finland all tested ratios between 0 and 100%R enantiomer trappedE. semipurpurella, but the trap catches appeared to be bimodally distributed with peaks around 15 and 70%R

  6. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: first results from the SCUBA-2 observations of the Ophiuchus molecular cloud and a virial analysis of its prestellar core population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattle, K.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Kirk, J. M.; White, G. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Buckle, J.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Kirk, H.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; Francesco, J. Di; Hogerheijde, M. R.; André, Ph.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Griffin, M. J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Knee, L. B. G.; Könyves, V.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Spinoglio, L.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present the first observations of the Ophiuchus molecular cloud performed as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey (GBS) with the SCUBA-2 instrument. We demonstrate methods for combining these data with previous HARP CO, Herschel, and IRAM N2H+ observations in order to accurately quantify the properties of the SCUBA-2 sources in Ophiuchus. We produce a catalogue of all of the sources found by SCUBA-2. We separate these into protostars and starless cores. We list all of the starless cores and perform a full virial analysis, including external pressure. This is the first time that external pressure has been included in this level of detail. We find that the majority of our cores are either bound or virialized. Gravitational energy and external pressure are on average of a similar order of magnitude, but with some variation from region to region. We find that cores in the Oph A region are gravitationally bound prestellar cores, while cores in the Oph C and E regions are pressure-confined. We determine that N2H+ is a good tracer of the bound material of prestellar cores, although we find some evidence for N2H+ freeze-out at the very highest core densities. We find that non-thermal linewidths decrease substantially between the gas traced by C18O and that traced by N2H+, indicating the dissipation of turbulence at higher densities. We find that the critical Bonnor-Ebert stability criterion is not a good indicator of the boundedness of our cores. We detect the pre-brown dwarf candidate Oph B-11 and find a flux density and mass consistent with previous work. We discuss regional variations in the nature of the cores and find further support for our previous hypothesis of a global evolutionary gradient across the cloud from south-west to north-east, indicating sequential star formation across the region.

  7. The JCMT and Herschel Gould Belt Surveys: a comparison of SCUBA-2 and Herschel data of dense cores in the Taurus dark cloud L1495

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward-Thompson, D.; Pattle, K.; Kirk, J. M.; Marsh, K.; Buckle, J.; Hatchell, J.; Nutter, D. J.; Griffin, M. J.; Di Francesco, J.; André, P.; Beaulieu, S.; Berry, D.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Mottram, J.; Pineda, J.; Quinn, C.; Sadavoy, S.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; White, G.; Hill, T.; Könyves, V.; Palmeirim, P.; Pezzuto, S.

    2016-11-01

    We present a comparison of Submillimetre Common User Bolometer Array-2 (SCUBA-2) 850-μm and Herschel 70-500-μm observations of the L1495 filament in the Taurus Molecular Cloud with the goal of characterizing the SCUBA-2 Gould Belt Survey (GBS) data set. We identify and characterize starless cores in three data sets: SCUBA-2 850-μm, Herschel 250-μm, and Herschel 250-μm spatially filtered to mimic the SCUBA-2 data. SCUBA-2 detects only the highest-surface-brightness sources, principally detecting protostellar sources and starless cores embedded in filaments, while Herschel is sensitive to most of the cloud structure, including extended low-surface-brightness emission. Herschel detects considerably more sources than SCUBA-2 even after spatial filtering. We investigate which properties of a starless core detected by Herschel determine its detectability by SCUBA-2, and find that they are the core's temperature and column density (for given dust properties). For similar-temperature cores, such as those seen in L1495, the surface brightnesses of the cores are determined by their column densities, with the highest-column-density cores being detected by SCUBA-2. For roughly spherical geometries, column density corresponds to volume density, and so SCUBA-2 selects the densest cores from a population at a given temperature. This selection effect, which we quantify as a function of distance, makes SCUBA-2 ideal for identifying those cores in Herschel catalogues that are closest to forming stars. Our results can now be used by anyone wishing to use the SCUBA-2 GBS data set.

  8. Ecological effects of the harvest phase of geoduck clam (Panopea generosa Gould, 1850) aquaculture on infaunal communities in southern Puget Sound, Washington USA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vanblaricom, Glenn R.; Eccles, Jennifer L.; Olden, Julian D.; Mcdonald, P. Sean

    2015-01-01

    Intertidal aquaculture for geoducks (Panopea generosa Gould, 1850) is expanding in southern Puget Sound, Washington, where gently sloping sandy beaches are used for field culture. Geoduck aquaculture contributes significantly to the regional economy, but has become controversial because of a range of unresolved questions involving potential biological impacts on marine ecosystems. From 2008 through 2012, the authors used a “before-after-control-impact” experimental design, emphasizing spatial scales comparable with those used by geoduck culturists to evaluate the effects of harvesting market-ready geoducks on associated benthic infaunal communities. Infauna were sampled at three different study locations in southern Puget Sound at monthly intervals before, during, and after harvests of clams, and along extralimital transects extending away from the edges of cultured plots to assess the effects of harvest activities in adjacent uncultured habitat. Using multivariate statistical approaches, strong seasonal and spatial signals in patterns of abundance were found, but there was scant evidence of effects on the community structure associated with geoduck harvest disturbances within cultured plots. Likewise, no indications of significant “spillover” effects of harvest on uncultured habitat adjacent to cultured plots were noted. Complementary univariate approaches revealed little evidence of harvest effects on infaunal biodiversity and indications of modest effects on populations of individual infaunal taxa. Of 10 common taxa analyzed, only three showed evidence of reduced densities, although minor, after harvests whereas the remaining seven taxa indicated either neutral responses to harvest disturbances or increased abundance either during or in the months after harvest events. It is suggested that a relatively active natural disturbance regime, including both small-scale and large-scale events that occur with comparable intensity but more frequently than

  9. HMGB in Mollusk Crassostrea ariakensis Gould: Structure, Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Function Characterization and Anti-Infection Role of Its Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ting; Ye, Shigen; Luo, Ming; Zhu, Zewen; Wu, Xinzhong

    2012-01-01

    Background Crassostrea ariakensis Gould is a representative bivalve species and an economically important oyster in China, but suffers severe mortalities in recent years that are caused by rickettsia-like organism (RLO). Prevention and control of this disease is a priority for the development of oyster aquaculture. It has been proven that mammalian HMGB (high mobility group box) can be released extracellularly and acts as an important pro-inflammatory cytokine and late mediator of inflammatory reactions. In vertebrates, HMGB’s antibody (anti-HMGB) has been shown to confer significant protection against certain local and systemic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated the functions of Ca-HMGB (oyster HMGB) and anti-CaHMGB (Ca-HMGB’s antibody) in oyster RLO/LPS (RLO or LPS)-induced disease or inflammation. Methodology/Principal Findings Sequencing analysis revealed Ca-HMGB shares conserved structures with mammalians. Tissue-specific expression indicates that Ca-HMGB has higher relative expression in hemocytes. Significant continuous up-regulation of Ca-HMGB was detected when the hemocytes were stimulated with RLO/LPS. Recombinant Ca-HMGB protein significantly up-regulated the expression levels of some cytokines. Indirect immunofluorescence study revealed that Ca-HMGB localized both in the hemocyte nucleus and cytoplasm before RLO challenge, but mainly in the cytoplasm 12 h after challenge. Western blot analysis demonstrated Ca-HMGB was released extracellularly 4–12 h after RLO challenge. Anti-CaHMGB was added to the RLO/LPS-challenged hemocyte monolayer and real-time RT-PCR showed that administration of anti-CaHMGB dramatically reduced the rate of RLO/LPS-induced up-regulation of LITAF at 4–12 h after treatment. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that administration of anti-CaHMGB reduced RLO/LPS-induced hemocyte apoptosis and necrosis rates. Conclusions/Significance Ca-HMGB can be released extracellularly and its subcellular localization varies

  10. Post-exposure temperature influence on the toxicity of conventional and new chemistry insecticides to green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Muhammad Mudassir; Afzal, Muhammad; Raza, Abu Bakar M; Akram, Zeeshan; Waqar, Adil; Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad

    2015-05-01

    Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) is an important biological control agent currently being used in many integrated pest management (IPM) programs to control insect pests. The effect of post-treatment temperature on insecticide toxicity of a spinosyn (spinosad), pyrethroid (lambda cyhalothrin), organophosphate (chlorpyrifos) and new chemistry (acetamiprid) to C. carnea larvae was investigated under laboratory conditions. Temperature coefficients of each insecticide tested were evaluated. From 20 to 40 °C, toxicity of lambda cyhalothrin and spinosad decreased by 2.15- and 1.87-fold while toxicity of acetamiprid and chlorpyrifos increased by 2.00 and 1.79-fold, respectively. The study demonstrates that pesticide effectiveness may vary according to environmental conditions. In cropping systems where multiple insecticide products are used, attention should be given to temperature variation as a key factor in making pest management strategies safer for biological control agents. Insecticides with a negative temperature coefficient may play a constructive role to conserve C. carnea populations.

  11. The description of Centrorhynchus globirostris n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) from the pheasant crow, Centropus sinensis (Stephens) in Pakistan, with gene sequence analysis and emendation of the family diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Wilson, Eric; Keele, Brianna; Khan, Aly

    2015-06-01

    A new species of Centrorhynchus (Centrorhynchidae) with receptacle insertion at the posterior third of the proboscis is described from the pheasant crow Centropus sinensis (Stephens) (Cuculidae) in Pakistan. Centrorhynchu sglobirostris n. sp. is similar to the 98 other known species of Centrorhynchus Lühe, 1911 in having long cylindrical trunk with anterior dilation and transverse anastomoses of the secondary lacunar vessels. However, specimens of C. globirostris differ from all other species of the genus by having a unique globular proboscis not divided into anterior proboscis with rooted hooks and posterior proboscis with rootless spines. Posterior hooks of C. globirostris emerge at the level of the receptacle insertion and are uniquely fully rooted. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of C. globirostris 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes reveals the genetic and evolutionary relationships between C. globirostris and other members of Centrorhynchidae which have representative orthologs in public databases. Comparison to known acanthocephalans confirms appropriate inclusion in the genus Centrorhynchus.

  12. Local knowledge, environmental politics, and the founding of ecology in the United States. Stephen Forbes and "The Lake as a Microcosm" (1887).

    PubMed

    Schneider, D W

    2000-12-01

    Stephen Forbes's "The Lake as a Microcosm" is one of the founding documents of the science of ecology in the United States. By tracing the connections between scientists and local fishermen underlying the research on floodplain lakes presented in "The Lake as a Microcosm," this essay shows how the birth of ecology was tied to local knowledge and the local politics of environmental transformation. Forbes and the other scientists of the Illinois Natural History Survey relied on fishermen for manual labor, expertise in catching fish, and knowledge of the natural history of the fishes. As Forbes and his colleagues worked in close contact with fishermen, they also adopted many of their political concerns over the privatization of the floodplain and became politically active in supporting their interests. The close connection between scientists and local knowledge forced the ecologists to reframe the boundaries of ecology as objective or political, pure or applied, local or scientific.

  13. "The Role of the Unit in Physics and Psychometrics" by Stephen Humphry--One Small Step for the Rasch Model, but Possibly One Giant Leap for Measurement in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzberger, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Compared to traditional test theory, where person measures are typically referenced to the distribution of a population, item response theory allows for a much more meaningful interpretation of measures as they can be directly compared to item locations. However, Stephen Humphry shows that the crucial role of the unit of measurement has been…

  14. 77 FR 66183 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    .../17/2012, Contact: Randy Gould 541-820-3800. EIS No. 20120348, Draft EIS, USFS, AZ, Show Low South...: Stephen James 928-333-6266. EIS No. 20120349, Draft EIS, FHWA, VA, Interstate 64 Peninsula,...

  15. Post-exposure temperature influence on the toxicity of conventional and new chemistry insecticides to green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mansoor, Muhammad Mudassir; Afzal, Muhammad; Raza, Abu Bakar M.; Akram, Zeeshan; Waqar, Adil; Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad

    2014-01-01

    Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) is an important biological control agent currently being used in many integrated pest management (IPM) programs to control insect pests. The effect of post-treatment temperature on insecticide toxicity of a spinosyn (spinosad), pyrethroid (lambda cyhalothrin), organophosphate (chlorpyrifos) and new chemistry (acetamiprid) to C. carnea larvae was investigated under laboratory conditions. Temperature coefficients of each insecticide tested were evaluated. From 20 to 40 °C, toxicity of lambda cyhalothrin and spinosad decreased by 2.15- and 1.87-fold while toxicity of acetamiprid and chlorpyrifos increased by 2.00 and 1.79-fold, respectively. The study demonstrates that pesticide effectiveness may vary according to environmental conditions. In cropping systems where multiple insecticide products are used, attention should be given to temperature variation as a key factor in making pest management strategies safer for biological control agents. Insecticides with a negative temperature coefficient may play a constructive role to conserve C. carnea populations. PMID:25972753

  16. My Most Memorable AAS Meeting, or How Stephen Hawking's Chauffeur and Chubby Wise's Fiddle Are Related to the Hubble Deep Field (At Least In My Mind and Experience!)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, R. A.

    1999-05-01

    Sometimes, in the most extraordinary conditions and times, strange things happen which remind us of just how small a world we really inhabit, and how so many varied things may suddenly be juxtaposed in our lives, and in the lives of others. My most memorable AAS meeting involves not only the meeting but events while getting there. It was January 1996, and we had just finished our observations and initial data reduction of the Hubble Deep Field, the members of the HDF working group doggedly coming in to the STScI by various means over the December holidays and the New Year, in the midst of several blizzards which even closed STScI for a number of days. Not surprisingly, work on the HDF AAS presentations was ongoing until the last minute, until people left snowy Baltimore for sunny San Antonio. My street was plowed for the first time in a week a few hours before my 6AM flight, so after digging out my car, with no time for sleep, between 3AM and 6AM on the morning I left, I soon discovered my own surprising connections between Stephen Hawking's chauffeur, Chubby Wise's fiddle, and the Hubble Deep Field. I'll elaborate in this paper if you're curious!

  17. An Interview with Stephen King.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janeczko, Paul

    1980-01-01

    The author of five best-selling novels, including "Carrie,""Salem's Lot,""The Shining,""The Stand," and "The Dead Zone," discusses the teaching of creative writing at high school and college levels. (DF)

  18. Antievolutionism in the Antipodes: from protesting evolution to promoting creationism in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Numbers, R L; Stenhouse, J

    2000-09-01

    Like other English-speaking peoples around the world, New Zealanders began debating Darwinism in the early 1860s, shortly after the publication of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species. Despite the opposition of some religious and political leaders - and even the odd scientist - biological evolution made deep inroads in a culture that increasingly identified itself as secular. The introduction of pro-evolution curricula and radio broadcasts provoked occasional antievolution outbursts, but creationism remained more an object of ridicule than a threat until the last decades of the twentieth century, when first American and then Australian creationists began fomenting antievolutionism among New Zealanders. Although Stephen Jay Gould assured them in 1986 that they had little to fear from so-called scientific creationism, because it was a 'peculiarly American' phenomenon, scientific creationism by the mid-1990s had captured the allegiance of an estimated five per cent of the country and proved especially attractive to Maori and Pacific Islanders. In 1992 New Zealand creationists formed their own antievolution society, Creation Science (NZ).

  19. Franz Samelson (1923-2015).

    PubMed

    Harris, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Franz Samelson, social psychologist and historian of psychology, died in Manhattan, Kansas, on March 16, 2015. Franz joined the Psychology Department at Kansas State University (KSU) in 1957 and rose through the ranks to retire as Professor in 1990. At KSU he taught social psychology informed by his dislike of narrow empiricism and a growing interest in historical topics. The history of social psychology, Franz believed, was distorted by post-World War II desires for value-free empiricism. Gordon Allport, he showed, created an origin myth for the field that suited his values, obscuring the ideological diversity of his predecessors. Turning to intelligence and intelligence testing, Franz's research again altered the scholarly landscape. Although it was long believed that psychologists' testing in World War I demonstrated the usefulness of their young science, Franz revealed this to be another disciplinary myth. Next, Franz showed that a popular history of IQ testing (Stephen Jay Gould's Mismeasure of Man) was distorted by the author's liberal enthusiasm-again showing his willingness to take on the political left as well as the right.

  20. Toward a general theory of adaptive radiation: insights from microbial experimental evolution.

    PubMed

    Kassen, Rees

    2009-06-01

    The history of life has been punctuated by unusually spectacular periods of evolutionary diversification called adaptive radiation. Darwin's finches in the Galapagos, cichlid fishes in African Rift and Nicaraguan crater lakes, and the emergence of mammals at the end of the Cretaceous are hallmark examples. Although we have learned much from these and other case studies about the mechanisms thought to drive adaptive radiations, convincing experimental tests of theory are often lacking for the simple reason that it is usually impossible to "rewind the tape of life," as Stephen Jay Gould was fond of saying, and run it again. This situation has changed dramatically in recent years with the increasing emphasis on the use of microbial populations which, because of their small size and rapid generation times, make possible the construction of replicated, manipulative experiments to study evolution in the laboratory. Here I review the contributions that microbial experimental evolution has made to our understanding of the ecological and genetic mechanisms underlying adaptive radiation. I focus on three major gaps in the theory of adaptive radiation--the paucity of direct tests of mechanism, the genetics of diversification, and the limits and constraints on the progress of radiations--with the aim of pointing the way toward the development of a more general theory of adaptive radiation.

  1. French tradition and the rise of Evo-devo.

    PubMed

    Morange, Michel

    2007-12-01

    The limited value most French biologists attributed to Darwinism and Mendelism in the first half of the twentieth century, and their conviction that these theories were at best insufficient to explain evolution and development, probably created conditions propitious to the development of Evo-devo at the end of the century. The separation between embryology and evolution did not exist in French biology as it did in American genetics: explanations for these two phenomena were sought equally in the "organization" of the egg. The major contribution of French biologists to Evo-devo was clearly the invention of the notion of the regulatory gene by Jacob and Monod; not the operon model per se, but the introduction of a hierarchy between two different kinds of genes. The consequence, the rise of the developmental gene concept, was not immediate, and required the active role of other biologists such as Antonio Garcia-Bellido, Allan Wilson and Stephen Jay Gould. Various obstacles had to be overcome for this concept of developmental gene to be fully accepted.

  2. Synthetic biology: a challenge to mechanical explanations in biology?

    PubMed

    Morange, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In their plans to modify organisms, synthetic biologists have contrasted engineering and tinkering. By drawing this contrast between their endeavors and what has happened during the evolution of organisms by natural selection, they underline the novelty of their projects and justify their ambitions. Synthetic biologists are at odds with a long tradition that has considered organisms as "perfect machines." This tradition had already been questioned by Stephen Jay Gould in the 1970s and received a major blow with the comparison made by François Jacob between organisms and the results of "bricolage" (tinkering). These contrasts between engineering and tinkering, synthetic biology and evolution, have no raison d'être. Machines built by humans are increasingly inspired by observations made on organisms. This is not a simple reversal of the previous trend-the mechanical conception of organisms-in which the characteristics of the latter were explained by comparison with human-built machines. Relations between organisms and machines have always been complex and ambiguous.

  3. Seeing Jay-Z in Taipei.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hua

    2011-01-01

    How does the newly arrived immigrant respond to the news that an identity already awaits him? How does an African American hip-hop artist translate his struggles and triumphs across oceanic divides? What significance do American demographic shifts have in a global context? Hsu's essay examines what happens once individuals or identities migrate beyond the contexts that first produced them. He explores a variety of circuits: the satellite communities of Asian immigrant students who arrived on American university campuses in the late 1960s; enduring debates about a "post-city" identity, spurred by advances in cheap, efficient, world-shrinking communication technologies; and the new affinities and categories of self-identification made possible by a present-day culture that prizes interactivity and participation.

  4. Interview with Jay O'Callahan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Don

    2008-01-01

    Usually stories have elements of risk, trouble, challenge, adventure. These elements are universal because they're part of life. A story gets exciting when someone takes a risk. With risk there's tension and with tension there's energy, and the energy draws us into who the story. NASA's work involves great risk. Sometimes, as with Challenger and Columbia, the result is tragedy. I had a sense the astronauts were invulnerable. They were so well trained, and the engineers behind them were superb. Nothing was going to go wrong. That's one of the reasons the Challenger crew's death moved people so deeply. Christa McAuliffe was not an engineer; she was a teacher and she died, and the whole space enterprise became very human. The Challenger lifted off and in seventy-three seconds the Space Shuttle disintegrated. Seventy-three seconds. That's a day I'll remember, like the day of Kennedy's death. The danger was there, but we were lulled into thinking the space flight was routine. My firm: job would be to talk with MAS people-scientists, engineers, astronauts. I'm sure that underneath the whole NASA enterprise there is a sense of wonder. Perhaps science and myth are coming together in NASA. The myths of old were often stories about the sun, the stars, and the moon. Now with NASA, we're going out there. NASA is turning our eyes heavenward just as the ancients did.

  5. Meet the GPM Team: Jay Parker

    NASA Video Gallery

    It takes hundreds of designers, engineers and technicians to build the largest spacecraft ever assembled at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, the GPM Core Observatory. Check out a few of the team...

  6. Jay Carter Enterprises, Incorporated steam engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Small Community Solar Thermal Power Experiment (SCSE) selected an organic rankine cycle (ORC) engine driving a high speed permanent magnet alternator (PMA) as the baseline power conversion subsystem (PCS) design. The back-up conceptual PCS design is a steam engine driving an induction alternator delivering power directly to the grid. The development of the automotive reciprocating simple rankine cycle steam engine and how an engine of similar design might be incorporated into the SCSE is discussed. A description of the third generation automotive engine is included along with some preliminary test data. Tests were conducted with the third generation engine driving an induction alternator delivering power directly to the grid. The purpose of these tests is to further verify the effects of expander inlet temperature, input thermal power level, expansion ratio, and other parameters affecting engine performance to aid in the development of an SCSE PCS.

  7. Statement of Stephen S. Trott, Associate Attorney General, United States Department of Justice before the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control. House of Representatives concerning the Federal Government's Present and Future Efforts in Eradication, Interdiction, Law Enforcement, Education and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    Testimony of Associate Attorney General Stephen S. Trott on the federal government's present and future efforts in drug law enforcement before the Congressional Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control is presented in this document. Three topic areas are included in the testimony. The first topic of management initiatives discusses…

  8. The Stephen H. Long Expedition (1819?1820), Titian R. Peale?s field illustrations, and the lost holotypes of the North American shrews Sorex brevicaudus Say and Sorex parvus Say (Mammalia: Soricidae) from the Philadelphia Museum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.

    2009-01-01

    While encamped for the winter of 1819?1820 at Engineer Cantonment along the Missouri River in present-day eastern Nebraska, members of Major Stephen Harriman Long?s Expedition to the Rocky Mountains collected a number of animals that were previously unknown. Among the mammals were two soricids that were subsequently described by Thomas Say as Sorex brevicaudus (Northern Short-tailed Shrew, Blarina brevicauda) and Sorex parvus (Least Shrew, Cryptotis parvus). The holotypes of these species were deposited and placed on public exhibit in the Philadelphia Museum, the predominant North American systematic collection of the early nineteenth century. Like most private museums of that era, the Philadelphia Museum eventually went out of business, and its collections were dispersed and, for the most part, lost. Fortunately, Titian R. Peale made a detailed field sketch of the two specimens soon after their capture and subsequently executed a watercolor based on that sketch. In addition, an engraving of the holotypes was published in the decade following the discovery of the two species. Illustrations of holotypes are taxonomically useful when they depict diagnostic characters of species. They take on added taxonomic significance in the absence of the holotypes. In the cases of Sorex brevicaudus and Sorex parvus, pictures provide strong confirmation of the taxonomic identities of these two species, as well as recording the early history of the specimens.

  9. Book Review: The future of spacetime. Stephen William Hawking (ed.); Kip S. Thorne, Igor Novikov, Timothy Ferris, Alan Lightman, and Richard Price, W.W. Norton & Company, 2002, 224 pp., US 25.95, ISBN 0393020223

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeenk, Chris

    The study of Einstein's theory of general relativity experienced a renaissance beginning in the early 1960s. Prior to this resurgence of interest, general relativity was isolated from mainstream physics-admired for its elegance, perhaps, but only from a distance. The generation of students who risked their careers by entering this neglected field has now reached the age of festschrifts. In June of 2000, Caltech hosted "Kipfest," a conference in honor of Kip Thorne's 60th birthday. Thorne started graduate school at Princeton in 1962 and began research in general relativity under John Wheeler's guidance in the heady early days of the renaissance. Since then, he has played a prominent role in general relativity: as co-author of the influential textbook Gravitation, as a leader in research regarding astrophysical applications of Einstein's theory, and as a co-founder and chief advocate for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), to mention a few aspects of his far-reaching work. "Kipfest" included 14 speakers discussing fields to which Thorne has contributed. But the conference also reflected Thorne's long-standing commitment to communicating science to a general audience: Igor Novikov, Stephen Hawking, Timothy Ferris, and Alan Lightman gave popular talks at "Kipfest," with Thorne himself tricked into delivering a fifth. The Future of Spacetime gathers adaptations of these five lectures, along with a lengthy introductory essay by Richard Price.

  10. Relativistic four-component DFT calculations of 1H NMR chemical shifts in transition-metal hydride complexes: unusual high-field shifts beyond the Buckingham-Stephens model.

    PubMed

    Hrobárik, Peter; Hrobáriková, Veronika; Meier, Florian; Repiský, Michal; Komorovský, Stanislav; Kaupp, Martin

    2011-06-09

    State-of-the-art relativistic four-component DFT-GIAO-based calculations of (1)H NMR chemical shifts of a series of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition-metal hydrides have revealed significant spin-orbit-induced heavy atom effects on the hydride shifts, in particular for several 4d and 5d complexes. The spin-orbit (SO) effects provide substantial, in some cases even the dominant, contributions to the well-known characteristic high-field hydride shifts of complexes with a partially filled d-shell, and thereby augment the Buckingham-Stephens model of off-center paramagnetic ring currents. In contrast, complexes with a 4d(10) and 5d(10) configuration exhibit large deshielding SO effects on their hydride (1)H NMR shifts. The differences between the two classes of complexes are attributed to the dominance of π-type d-orbitals for the true transition-metal systems compared to σ-type orbitals for the d(10) systems.

  11. Effects of pressure reductions in a proposed siphon water lift system at St. Stephen Dam, South Carolina, on mortality rates of juvenile American shad and blueback herring. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Nestler, J.M.; Schilt, C.R.; Jones, D.P.

    1998-09-01

    This report presents results of studies to predict the mortality rate of juvenile blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis) and American shad (A. sapidissima) associated with reduced pressure as they pass downstream through a proposed siphon water lift system at St. Stephen Dam, South Carolina. The primary function of the siphon is to increase attracting flow to better guide upstream migrating adult herring of both species into the existing fish lift for upstream passage. The US Army Engineer District, Charleston, wishes to consider the siphon as an alternative bypass route through the dam for downstream migrating juvenile and adult herring. A pressure-reduction testing system that emulates some of the pressure characteristics of the siphon was used to determine the approximate percentage of juvenile fishes that could be reasonably expected to be killed passing through the reduced pressures anticipated for the siphon water lift system. The testing system could duplicate the range of pressure change anticipated for the siphon lift system but could not obtain pressures lower than 4.1 psi, whereas pressures for some design alternatives may approach the theoretical minimum pressure of 0.0 psi. Study results indicate that the mortality rate is probably about 20 percent. Power analysis indicates that mortality rate above 30 percent is unlikely. Conducting additional mortality studies is recommended to refine predicted mortality rates. Measures should be taken to prevent juvenile fish from entering the siphon lift system if excessive mortality rates are observed.

  12. [The Roots of Idiographic Paleontology: Karl Alfred von Zittel's Methodology and Conception of the Fossil Record].

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Marco

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines Karl Alfred von Zittel’s practice in order to uncover the roots of so-called idiographic paleontology.The great American paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould (1941–2002) defined the discipline of idiographic paleontology as illustration and description of the morphological features of extinct species. However, this approach does not investigate macroevolutionary patterns and processes. On the contrary, the paleobiological revolution of the 1970s implemented an epistemic methodology that illustrates macrovelutionary patterns and laws by combining idiographic data with a nomothetic form of explanation. This article elucidates the features of the idiographic data as well as the acquired knowledge coupled with this approach. First of all, Heinrich G. Bronn’s (1800–1862) statistical method is analyzed. Zittel’s practice arose as a reaction against the approximate conclusions reached by Bronn’s quantitative approach. Second, the details of Zittel’s methodology are described in order to bring out its peculiarities.The microscope played a pivotal role in creating and forming Zittel’s morphological data. This analysis sheds new light on the reasons behind the so-called ideographic paleontology, thus revising Gould’s historical reconstruction, as well as on the notion of paleontological data. However, even though Zittel aimed at reaching precise and stable conclusions,his data cannot be used for elucidating evolutionary mechanisms: they are scientific in a purely descriptive sense, but completely useless for biological investigations. Finally, this paper examines how Zittel’s methodology affects the contemporary paleobiological enterprise and thereby reflects upon the notion of natural history.

  13. Goethe's phenomenology of nature: a juvenilization of science.

    PubMed

    Skaftnesmo, Trond

    2009-01-01

    Empirical science is not a mere collection of facts. It builds theories and frames hypotheses within those theories. Empirical theories are stated as plausible answers to questions we pose to nature. According to the Galilean-Baconian tradition within science, these questions should basically explore the causes of observed phenomena, and further be restricted to the measurable and quantitative realm. Thus, the answers are generally expected to explain the effective causes behind the actual phenomena. By framing falsifiable hypotheses, the theories are tested against the empirical foundation on which they rest. In this way we try to relieve science from false theories. Thus, we have two epistemological levels: First, the theoretical level; the scientific theory explaining the phenomena, and second, the empirical level; the phenomena or facts verifying or falsifying those theories. According to the poet and multi-scientist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), there is however another way of science, namely an approach where these two levels fuse and become one. Goethe intended this approach to be a complementation of the Galilean-Baconian method, more than an alternative. He considered his "hypothesis-free method" to be a more comprehensive and secure way to understand nature. Whereas the Galilean-Baconian method aimed at explaining the effective causes of natural phenomena, in order to control and exploit nature for technical and industrial purposes, Goethe aimed at an exposition of the inherent meaning of the phenomena.We will explore, exemplify and discuss this approach with reference to the inherently Goethean phenomenology of evolution credited to the Dutch anatomist Louis Bolk (1866-1930), later commented and complemented by Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002) and Jos Verhulst (1949 ). In the course of this presentation we will outline the Goethean approach as a method representing a juvenilization or in Bolk's terms, a fetalization of science.

  14. Spanish flu and early 20th-century expansion of a coronary heart disease-prone subpopulation.

    PubMed

    Azambuja, Maria Inês Reinert

    2004-01-01

    According to Stephen Jay Gould, "we have a strong preference for seeing trends as entities moving somewhere." However, trends may instead be the product of relative expansions and contractions of different subpopulations constituting the system. Variation in attributes of coronary heart disease cases during the decline in coronary heart disease mortality suggests a change in the primary source-subpopulation of cases over time. It is proposed that an early 20th-century expansion of a coronary heart disease-prone subpopulation, characterized by high serum-cholesterol phenotype and high case-fatality--which contributed to most of the coronary heart disease cases and deaths during the 1960s--may have been a late result of the 1918 influenza pandemic. The same unusual immune response to infection that in 1918 killed preferentially men, whites, and those born from 1880 to 1900 (20-40 years old) may have "primed" survivors of those birth cohorts to late coronary heart disease mortality. Ecologic evidence in favor of a birth cohort and geographic association between both epidemics is presented. Cross-reactive auto-immune response upon reinfection could explain the excess coronary heart disease deaths reported during influenza epidemics from the late 1920s onward. Mimicry between the viral hemagglutinin and the apolipoprotein B or the low-density lipoprotein receptor could be the link between infection and hypercholesterolemia. The extinction of those birth cohorts would result in a relative increase in cases coming from a 2nd subpopulation, which was characterized by insulin resistance and chronic expression of low-grade inflammation markers and was comparatively less vulnerable to die acutely from coronary heart disease.

  15. Trust: Implications for the Army Profession

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    soldiers to get out,” Army Times (23 May 2011), 16-17; Michelle Tan and John Gould . Toxic Leadership: Army wants to rid top ranks of toxic leaders. Army...US Federal News Service (Wash- ington, DC: HT Media Ltd, 2011). 44. Poppo and Schepker, 132. 45. See intro, in Charles D. Allen and Stephen J. Gerras

  16. The Division General Staff: Can It Employ the Objective Force?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Design and Fluid and Transitory Design. The former mandates that 23 Stephen P . Borgatti , Bureaucracy...Books, Inc., 1971. Borgatti , Stephen P . Bureaucracy. Copyright 1996, available from http://www.analytictech.com. mb021/bureau.htm; Internet; accessed 1...understood. Bureaucracies excel at businesses involving routine tasks that can be well-specified in writing and don’t change quickly. 24 Borgatti . 25 Jay R

  17. Stephen Marc: Photographer for Our Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Toni M. Shorter

    2012-01-01

    It is said that "a picture is worth a thousand words" as visual images can express complex and multilayered ideas. Sometimes photographic imagery is so strong and resonant of certain success, struggles, or events that it becomes key to a community or generation. As historic records, photographs are uniquely able to present not only success and…

  18. L'univers clos de Stephen Hawking.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrillat, H.

    Einstein had curved space, Hawking will curve time. Hawking's universe is a closed model, a 4-sphere, which encloses its own space and its own time. Nothing exists outside and without any time overlapping this 4-sphere, it cannot have a beginning, an evolution or an end. It only is. But such an absolute existence of this type of universe implies that its 3-dimensional sclices - which are our physical space - cannot have the same absolute state of being. Thus, they are necessarily transitory, with a beginning and an end, in time which is the 4th remaining dimension of the 4-sphere. Hawking absolute universe is the cause of time.

  19. IN MY OPINION: Is Physics debatable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    2000-01-01

    Stephen Jay Gould is, unfortunately, a palaeontologist. I write unfortunately because if he were a physicist we would all have benefited from his innumerable entertaining and informative essays [1]. His steady theme involves an obscure subject like palaeontology and why the subject links so strongly with the human condition. The key, of course, is evolution, and the light it sheds on what it means to be human. The new National Curriculum for England (and probably Wales) requires that pupils be taught: * how scientific controversies can arise from different ways of interpreting empirical evidence and models based on this evidence, and * ways in which scientific ideas may be affected by the context in which they develop, e.g. social, historical, moral and spiritual , and how these contexts may affect whether or not the ideas are accepted. Stephen Jay Gould produces an essay a month (in the US Natural History magazine) and so seems to have few problems in finding topics to write about that would fit well into one or both of the National Curriculum requirements. Good for biologists, but it doesn't seem to be so easy in physics. Admittedly Gould has to have recourse to a great number of historical cases - but he usually manages to link these with up-to-date issues. After all, he comes from a country where several states put `creation science' on a par with the Darwinian model of Earth history, so he has not only scope but need for encouraging some humane rationality. Can the history of physics provide such relevance? Does physics provide nice meaty controversies that might tempt the adolescent to think? We might be able to tell some stories with some level of drama, but it is hard for teachers to produce much enthusiasm in ordinary students at age 14 to 16 for controversies between Newton and Hooke, or Newton and Leibnitz (or Newton and most of his contemporaries, to be honest). They might be made to sympathize with Thomas Young, agonize over Boltzmann, celebrate with

  20. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Jay Keasling: Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Jay Keasling

    2010-02-16

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  1. Teaching Difficult Students: Blue Jays in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnezda, Nicole M.

    2004-01-01

    Here is an easy-to-read and inspiring text that explores the nature of young people and the effects traditional discipline strategies have on them. The author recommends humanistic approaches that promote personal growth in students rather than the common system of reward and punishment that aggravates underlying psychological issues and…

  2. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Jay Keasling: Biofuels

    ScienceCinema

    Jay Keasling

    2016-07-12

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  3. Reinventing richard goldschmidt: reputation, memory, and biography.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Richard Goldschmidt was one of the most controversial biologists of the mid-twentieth century. Rather than fade from view, Goldschmidt's work and reputation has persisted in the biological community long after he has. Goldschmidt's longevity is due in large part to how he was represented by Stephen J. Gould. When viewed from the perspective of the biographer, Gould's revival of Goldschmidt as an evolutionary heretic in the 1970s and 1980s represents a selective reinvention of Goldschmidt that provides a contrast to other kinds of biographical commemorations by scientists.

  4. Larval biology of the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould): a synthesis.

    PubMed

    Forward, Richard B

    2009-06-01

    This synthesis reviews the physiological ecology and behavior of larvae of the benthic crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii, which occurs in low-salinity areas of estuaries. Larvae are released rhythmically around the time of high tide in tidal estuaries and in the 2-h interval after sunset in nontidal estuaries. As in most subtidal crustaceans, the timing of larval release is controlled by the developing embryos, which release peptide pheromones that stimulate larval release behavior by the female to synchronize the time of egg hatching. Larvae pass through four zoeal stages and a postlarval or megalopal stage that are planktonic before metamorphosis. They are retained near the adult population by means of an endogenous tidal rhythm in vertical migration. Larvae have several safeguards against predation: they undergo nocturnal diel vertical migration (DVM) and have a shadow response to avoid encountering predators, and they bear long spines as a deterrent. Photoresponses during DVM and the shadow response are enhanced by exposure to chemical cues from the mucus of predator fishes and ctenophores. The primary visual pigment has a spectral sensitivity maximum at about 500 nm, which is typical for zooplankton and matches the ambient spectrum at twilight. Larvae can detect vertical gradients in temperature, salinity, and hydrostatic pressure, which are used for depth regulation and avoidance of adverse environmental conditions. Characteristics that are related to the larval habitat and are common to other crab larval species are considered.

  5. Ada (trademark) Compiler Validation Summary Report. Gould, Inc. APLEX Ada Compiler, Version 1.0 Gould CONCEPT/32 Model 9780.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-25

    Y" A7n illegal- ext-ernal file name that either contains invalid characters, or is too long if no invalid characters exist. $FILE NAME WITH WILD CARD CHAR...34XYZ*" An external file name that either contains a wild card character, or is too long if no wild card character exists. $GFEATER THAN DURATION

  6. A Study of Strategic Lessons Learned in Vietnam. Volume III. US Foreign Policy and Vietnam 1945-1975

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-15

    Stanford: Hoo-er Institution Press,1978. Goold-Adams, Richard. John Foster Dulles: A Reappraisal. New York: Applet~n-Century Crofts , 1962. Goulding...should consider that the American commitment is not worth anything, then the world would face dangers of which we have not yet dreamed . And so it is...Walter La Feber, America, Russia and the Cold War 1945-1975, 3rd ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, l96); see also Stephen E. Ambrose, Rise to

  7. Dealing with the Elephant in the Corner; or, You Can't Avoid Religion If You Want to Teach the History of Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J.

    2001-05-01

    Public expressions of the science and religion relationship are often that of conflict. In contrast many, if not most, Americans today privately hold that science and religion are, to use Stephen Jay Gould's phrase, "Non-overlapping Magisteria (NOMA);" that is, both may be valuable but they occupy fully separate and autonomous spheres of influence. This private view has contributed to the fact that efforts to guard public science education from the encroachment of anti-evolution interests have been argued largely on constitutional or "separation of church and state" grounds. As a consequence support within the religious communities for teaching the sciences of the history of nature has had little to do with those sciences themselves and instead has been based on political, namely first amendment, principles. In the past century historical studies of the science and religion relationship in Western culture indicate that the two have a much richer and more complex form of interaction than is recognized in the separatist or NOMA idea. It appears that the relationship is such that the scientific and the religious can not be effectively isolated (or insulated) from one another without both being distorted in some manner. This presentation will discuss how the development of the "Intelligent Design" movement represents a more profound challenge to public science education precisely because of its appeal to folk in religious communities that value both science and religion, and have an intuition of their more complex relationship. These are folk who are not religious "fundamentalists" or "biblical literalists," they do not expect that science must conform to religious doctrine. But they are open to so-called "scientific findings" that have apparent positive implications for their religious convictions. It will be argued that an effective response to the ID challenge in public science education will not be based primarily on a "separation of church and state" argument. It

  8. Education and Training of Women in the United States Military: A Study of Primary Leadership Institutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    woman somewhere behind, not up there in the same fox hole with him. It tramples the male ego. When you get right down to it, you’ve got to protect the...resolve. Second, the policy of the Woman’s Armed Services Integration Act of 1948 contained no provision prohibiting the assignment of woman to...12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Jay W. Gould III 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month , Day) 1 S. PAGE COUNT FROM TO Fall 1992

  9. Seismic Stability of St. Stephen Hydropower Plant, South Carolina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    that collapse of the structure be prevented regardless of the level of damage . Resistance can decrease with increasing displacements provided the... elastoplastic load/displacement characteristics for a ductile structure. Point A represents the earthquake demand assuming the structure remains elastic, with...the line OA representing the linear elastic response. Point B represents the earthquake demands for elastoplastic behavior with the line OBC

  10. God's Turnstile: The Work of John Wheeler and Stephen Hawking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overbye, Dennis

    1991-01-01

    Presents an excerpt from the book entitled "Lonely Hearts of the Cosmos." Provides narration of behind-the-scenes events in the lives, the scientific debates, and the intellectual triumphs of the two physicists responsible for inventing the concept of the black hole. (JJK)

  11. 76 FR 30947 - Stephen Lee Seldon: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... District of Nevada, and elsewhere Dr. Seldon and his wife, aided and abetted by each other, devised a scheme and artifice to fraudulently obtain money from patients by substituting cheaper, non- FDA approved product marketed by Toxin Research International, Inc. (TRI-toxin) in treatments provided to patients at...

  12. 77 FR 10533 - Stephen L. Marks: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... businesses that used telemarketers and Web sites to market, sell, and distribute controlled substances, including pain medications and stimulants, to individuals throughout the United States. From on or...

  13. Interview Redux: An Intraview with Stephen M. North.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Steve

    1997-01-01

    Represents an educator interviewing himself, with the help of an imaginary Jacques Derrida and quotes from the film "The Commitments." Ranges over many issues, including thoughts about rhetoric, composition, and U.S. culture. (PA)

  14. Reading Relationships: Parents, Adolescents, and Popular Fiction by Stephen King.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Kelly

    1999-01-01

    Describes a collective case study of 12 high school juniors who identified themselves as avid readers of popular fiction. Finds strong reading relationships between parents and high school students. Describes the different roles that parents played in their adolescent children's reading lives. Looks at implications for secondary English classrooms…

  15. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 9 (JAYVT02420009) on Vermont Highway 242, crossing the Jay Branch of the Missisquoi River, Jay, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.; Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Contraction scour for all modelled flows ranged from 0.0 to 0.6 ft. The worst-case contraction scour occurred at the 100-year discharge. Abutment scour ranged from 0.8 to 5.6 ft. The worst-case abutment scour occurred at the 500-year discharge. Additional information on scour depths and depths to armoring are included in the section titled “Scour Results”. Scoured streambed elevations, based on the calculated scour depths, are presented in tables 1 and 2. A cross-section of the scour computed at the bridge is presented in figure 8. Scour depths were calculated assuming an infinite depth of erosive material and a homogeneous particle-size distribution. It is generally accepted that the Froehlich equation (abutment scour) gives “excessively conservative estimates of scour depths” (Richardson and others, 1995, p. 47). Usually, computed scour depths are evaluated in combination with other information including (but not limited to) historical performance during flood events, the geomorphic stability assessment, existing scour protection measures, and the results of the hydraulic analyses. Therefore, scour depths adopted by VTAOT may differ from the computed values documented herein.

  16. Simulated effects of water-level changes in the Mississippi River and Pokegama Reservoir on ground-water levels, Grand Rapids area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Perry M.

    2005-01-01

    The extent of aquifer water-level changes resulting from these river, wetland, and lake water-level changes varied because of the complex hydrogeology of the study area. A 1.00-foot decline in reservoir/river water levels caused a maximum simulated ground-water-level decline in the middle aquifer near Jay Gould and Little Jay Gould Lakes of 1.09 feet and a maximum simulated ground-water-level decline of 1.00 foot in the lower aquifer near Cut-off and Blackwater Lakes. The amount and extent of ground-water-level changes in the middle and lower aquifers can be explained by the thickness, extent, and connectivity of the aquifers. Surface-water/ground-water interactions near wetlands and lakes with water levels unchanged from the calibrated model resulted in small water-table altitude differences among the simulations. Results of the ground-water modeling indicate that lowering of the reservoir and river water levels by 1.00 foot likely will not substantially affect water levels in the middle and lower aquifers.

  17. Music and eJay: An Opportunity for Creative Collaborations in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gall, Marina; Breeze, Nick

    2008-01-01

    This paper draws on results of a research project InterActive Education: Teaching and Learning in the Information Age (see www.interactiveeducation.ac.uk). The overall aim of the project was to examine ways in which new technologies can be used in educational settings to enhance learning. Research was carried out across a range of school subjects:…

  18. I1A~lJay k4~~b

    NASA Website

    INca TERMS 1: FOB INCO TERMS 2: Destination ~~~;i:E~o~~~~'''''FOB: Destination Q{~ ~"n~~~i::r~i~~3:~~~1(, InIQ Base Period 12/1/2010 thru 9/30/2013

  19. Orion: Exploration Flight Test-1 Animation (with narration by Jay Estes)

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the proposed test flight of the Orion spacecraft in 2014. During the test, which is called Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1), Orion will launch from Cape Canaveral, Fla., per...

  20. What is Radical Behaviorism? A Review of Jay Moore's Conceptual Foundations of Radical Behaviorism

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M

    2011-01-01

    B. F. Skinner founded both radical behaviorism and behavior analysis. His founding innovations included: a versatile preparation for studying behavior; explicating the generic nature of stimulus and response; a pragmatic criterion for defining behavioral units; response rate as a datum; the concept of stimulus control; the concept of verbal behavior; and explicating the explanatory power of contingencies. Besides these achievements, however, Skinner also made some mistakes. Subsequent developments in radical behaviorist thought have attempted to remedy these mistakes. Moore's book presents a “party line” version of radical behaviorism. It focuses narrowly on a few of Skinner's concepts (mostly mentalism and verbal behavior) and contains no criticism of his mistakes. In fact, Moore adds a few mistakes of his own manufacture; for example, he insists that the mental realm does not exist—an unprovable and distracting assertion. The book's portrayal of behavior analysis would have been current around 1960; it mentions almost none of the developments since then. It also includes almost no developments in radical behaviorism since Skinner. Moore's book would give an unwary reader a highly distorted picture of contemporary behavior analysis and radical behaviorism.

  1. Serendipity: translational research, high quality care, and the children's hospital. Jay and Margie Grosfeld Lecture.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Jessica J

    2014-01-01

    The word "serendipity" was coined by Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford, in a letter he wrote in January 1754. He defined serendipity as the making of "….discoveries, by accidents and sagacity, of things which [you] were not in quest of….you must observe that no discovery of a thing you are looking for comes under this description." I would like to make the case that a children's hospital can be a superb setting in which to attempt this feat-to generate Serendipity. I would also like to convince you that this attribute is absolutely essential to providing the very best care for children.

  2. Ultrastructure of the abdominal sense organ of the scallop Mizuchopecten yessoensis (Jay).

    PubMed

    Zhadan, Peter M; Sizov, Alexander V; Dautov, Salim S

    2004-12-01

    The sensory epithelium of the abdominal sense organ (ASO) of the scallop Mizuchopecten yessoensis is composed of three cell types, sensory cells, mucous cells, and multiciliated cells. Sensory cells bear a single long (up to 250 microm) cilium surrounded by an inner ring of nine modified microvilli and an outer ring of ordinary microvilli paired with modified microvilli. Sensory cells make up about 90% of the total number of cells in the sensory epithelium. Mucous cells, which are much wider than sensory cells, bear only ordinary microvilli on their apical surface. Rare multiciliated cells with short (4-6 microm) cilia are scattered in the periphery of the sensory epithelium sheet. All hairs, cilium, and microvilli of each sensory cell are interconnected by a fibrous network. Nine modified microvilli of a single cell are interconnected by prominent laterally running fibrous links. Membrane-associated electron-dense material of modified microvilli is connected to the ciliary membrane-associated electron-dense material by fine string-like links. These links mechanically bridge the space between the cilium and modified microvilli, as do mechanical links, described for the stereocilia and kinocilium of vertebrate vestibular and cochlear hair cells. The proximal portion of a sensory cilium is about 100 microm long and has a typical 9 x 2+2 axoneme arrangement. The distal portion of a cilium is approximately 2 times thinner than the proximal one and is filled with homogeneous electron-dense material. Along the distal portion, diffuse material associated with the external surface of the membrane is found. The rigidity of distal portion of a cilium is much less than that of the proximal one.

  3. Time’s Cycle and National Military Strategy: The Case for Continuity in a Time of Change.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-06-01

    changed world order, basic principles of international relations still apply, and the United States would be ill-served by abandoning those principles ...behind us,” John Lewis Gaddis points out in this regard, “that we do not also jettison those principles and procedures that allowed it to evolve into...we should want to do, in tossing the parent onto the ash heap of history , is to toss the child as well.”2 Time’s Arrow, Time’s Cycle. Stephen Jay

  4. Is There Really A North American Plate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krill, A.

    2011-12-01

    elsewhere, such as S.J. Shand (1933), E.B. Bailey (1939), and Arthur Holmes (1944), presented continental drift as a working hypothesis that could elegantly solve important geological problems. Americans were preconditioned to dislike continental drift theory, ever since James Dwight Dana taught in his Manual of Geology (1863...1895) that North America was the type continent of the world, and that it had stood alone since earliest time. Such beliefs sometimes trump geologic evidence. As noted by Stephen Jay Gould (1999) Sigmund Freud had much insight into the psychology of scientific revolutions: they involve a scientific development that shows humans to have lesser status than previously perceived. In the Copernican revolution (geocentrism vs. heliocentrism) humans no longer inhabited the center of the universe. In the Darwinian revolution (creationism vs. evolutionism) humans were no longer uniquely created. In the Wegenerian revolution (fixism vs. mobilism) North America was no longer uniquely created; it was just other fragment from Pangaea. North American geologists were pleased when Press & Siever gave them their own lithospheric plate. Being a global-tectonic killjoy, I would like to take away that small consolation as well. Or at least pose the question: Is there really a North American Plate?

  5. At Home in the Universe - The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, Stuart

    1995-09-01

    basic insight of "order for free" to illuminate a staggering range of phenomena. We see how a single-celled embryo can grow to a highly complex organism with over two hundred different cell types. We learn how the science of complexity extends Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection: that self-organization, selection, and chance are the engines of the biosphere. And we gain insights into biotechnology, the stunning magic of the new frontier of genetic engineering--generating trillions of novel molecules to find new drugs, vaccines, enzymes, biosensors, and more. Indeed, Kauffman shows that ecosystems, economic systems, and even cultural systems may all evolve according to similar general laws, that tissues and terra cotta evolve in similar ways. And finally, there is a profoundly spiritual element to Kauffman's thought. If, as he argues, life were bound to arise, not as an incalculably improbable accident, but as an expected fulfillment of the natural order, then we truly are at home in the universe. Kauffman's earlier volume, The Origins of Order , written for specialists, received lavish praise. Stephen Jay Gould called it "a landmark and a classic." And Nobel Laureate Philip Anderson wrote that "there are few people in this world who ever ask the right questions of science, and they are the ones who affect its future most profoundly. Stuart Kauffman is one of these." In At Home in the Universe , this visionary thinker takes you along as he explores new insights into the nature of life.

  6. The insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP) superfamily.

    PubMed

    Hwa, V; Oh, Y; Rosenfeld, R G

    1999-12-01

    multiple names already associated with each IGFBP related protein, and reinforces the concept of a relationship with the IGFBPs. Beyond the N-terminal domain, there is a lack of structural similarity between the IGFBP-rPs and IGFBPs. The C-terminal domains do share similarities to other internal domains found in numerous other proteins. For example, the similarity of the IGFBP C terminus to the thyroglobulin type-I domain shows that the IGFBPs are also structurally related to numerous other proteins carrying the same domain (87). Interestingly, the functions of the different C-terminal domains in members of the IGFBP superfamily include interactions with the cell surface or ECM, suggesting that, even if they share little sequence similarities, the C-terminal domains may be functionally related. The evolutionary conservation of the N-terminal domain and functional studies support the notion that IGFBPs and IGFBP-rPs together form an IGFBP superfamily. A superfamily delineates between closely related (classified as a family) and distantly related proteins. The IGFBP superfamily is therefore composed of distantly related families. The modular nature of the constituents of the IGFBP superfamily, particularly their preservation of an highly conserved N-terminal domain, seems best explained by the process of exon shuffling of an ancestral gene encoding this domain. Over the course of evolution, some members evolved into high-affinity IGF binders and others into low-affinity IGF binders, thereby conferring on the IGFBP superfamily the ability to influence cell growth by both IGF-dependent and IGF-independent means (Fig. 10). A final word, from Stephen Jay Gould (218): "But classifications are not passive ordering devices in a world objectively divided into obvious categories. Taxonomies are human decisions imposed upon nature--theories about the causes of nature's order. The chronicle of historical changes in classification provides our finest insight into conceptual revolutions

  7. Exaptation in human evolution: how to test adaptive vs exaptive evolutionary hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Pievani, Telmo; Serrelli, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    Palaeontologists, Stephen J. Gould and Elisabeth Vrba, introduced the term "ex-aptation" with the aim of improving and enlarging the scientific language available to researchers studying the evolution of any useful character, instead of calling it an "adaptation" by default, coming up with what Gould named an "extended taxonomy of fitness". With the extension to functional co-optations from non-adaptive structures ("spandrels"), the notion of exaptation expanded and revised the neo-Darwinian concept of "pre-adaptation" (which was misleading, for Gould and Vrba, suggesting foreordination). Exaptation is neither a "saltationist" nor an "anti-Darwinian" concept and, since 1982, has been adopted by many researchers in evolutionary and molecular biology, and particularly in human evolution. Exaptation has also been contested. Objections include the "non-operationality objection".We analyze the possible operationalization of this concept in two recent studies, and identify six directions of empirical research, which are necessary to test "adaptive vs. exaptive" evolutionary hypotheses. We then comment on a comprehensive survey of literature (available online), and on the basis of this we make a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the adoption of the term among scientists who study human evolution. We discuss the epistemic conditions that may have influenced the adoption and appropriate use of exaptation, and comment on the benefits of an "extended taxonomy of fitness" in present and future studies concerning human evolution.

  8. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: properties of star-forming filaments in Orion A North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salji, C. J.; Richer, J. S.; Buckle, J. V.; Francesco, J. Di; Hatchell, J.; Hogerheijde, M.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Ward-Thompson, D.; JCMT GBS Consortium

    2015-05-01

    We develop and apply a Hessian-based filament detection algorithm to submillimetre continuum observations of Orion A North. The resultant filament radial density profiles are fitted with beam-convolved line-of-sight Plummer-profiles using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. The posterior distribution of the radial decay parameter demonstrates that the majority of filaments exhibit p = 1.5-3, with a mode at p = 2.2, suggesting deviation from the Ostriker p = 4 isothermal, equilibrium, self-gravitating cylinder. The spatial distribution of young stellar objects relative to the high column density filaments is investigated, yielding a lower limit on the star-forming age of the integral-shaped filament ˜1.4 Myr. Additionally, inferred lifetimes of filaments are examined which suggest long-term filament accretion, varying rates of star formation, or both. Theoretical filament stability measures are determined with the aid of HARP C18O J = 3-2 observations and indicate that the majority of filaments are gravitationally subcritical, despite the presence of young protostars. The results from this investigation are consistent with the one-dimensional accretion flow filament model recently observed in numerical simulations.

  9. THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF STARLESS AND PROTOSTELLAR CORES IN GOULD BELT CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Sadavoy, Sarah I.; Di Francesco, James; Bontemps, Sylvain; Megeath, S. Thomas; Allgaier, Erin; Rebull, Luisa M.; Carey, Sean; McCabe, Caer-Eve; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Padgett, Deborah; Gutermuth, Robert; Hora, Joe; Huard, Tracy; Muzerolle, James; Terebey, Susan

    2010-02-20

    Using data from the SCUBA Legacy Catalogue (850 {mu}m) and Spitzer Space Telescope (3.6-70 {mu}m), we explore dense cores in the Ophiuchus, Taurus, Perseus, Serpens, and Orion molecular clouds. We develop a new method to discriminate submillimeter cores found by Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) as starless or protostellar, using point source photometry from Spitzer wide field surveys. First, we identify infrared sources with red colors associated with embedded young stellar objects (YSOs). Second, we compare the positions of these YSO candidates to our submillimeter cores. With these identifications, we construct new, self-consistent starless and protostellar core mass functions (CMFs) for the five clouds. We find best-fit slopes to the high-mass end of the CMFs of -1.26 +- 0.20, -1.22 +- 0.06, -0.95 +- 0.20, and -1.67 +- 0.72 for Ophiuchus, Taurus, Perseus, and Orion, respectively. Broadly, these slopes are each consistent with the -1.35 power-law slope of the Salpeter initial mass function at higher masses, but suggest some differences. We examine a variety of trends between these CMF shapes and their parent cloud properties, potentially finding a correlation between the high-mass slope and core temperature. We also find a trend between core mass and effective size, but we are very limited by sensitivity. We make similar comparisons between core mass and size with visual extinction (for A{sub V} >= 3) and find no obvious trends. We also predict the numbers and mass distributions of cores that future surveys with SCUBA-2 may detect in each of these clouds.

  10. THE GOULD'S BELT VERY LARGE ARRAY SURVEY. IV. THE TAURUS-AURIGA COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Kounkel, Marina A.; Hartmann, Lee; Torres, Rosa M.; Boden, Andrew F.; Evans II, Neal J.; Briceño, Cesar; Tobin, John

    2015-03-10

    We present a multi-epoch radio study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming complex made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at frequencies of 4.5 GHz and 7.5 GHz. We detect a total of 610 sources, 59 of which are related to young stellar objects (YSOs) and 18 to field stars. The properties of 56% of the young stars are compatible with non-thermal radio emission. We also show that the radio emission of more evolved YSOs tends to be more non-thermal in origin and, in general, that their radio properties are compatible with those found in other star-forming regions. By comparing our results with previously reported X-ray observations, we notice that YSOs in Taurus-Auriga follow a Güdel-Benz relation with κ = 0.03, as we previously suggested for other regions of star formation. In general, YSOs in Taurus-Auriga and in all the previous studied regions seem to follow this relation with a dispersion of ∼1 dex. Finally, we propose that most of the remaining sources are related with extragalactic objects but provide a list of 46 unidentified radio sources whose radio properties are compatible with a YSO nature.

  11. THE LUMINOSITIES OF PROTOSTARS IN THE SPITZER c2d AND GOULD BELT LEGACY CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, Michael M.; Arce, Hector G.; Allen, Lori E.; Evans II, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul M.; Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Cieza, Lucas A.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Hatchell, Jennifer; Huard, Tracy L.; Miller, Jennifer F.; Kirk, Jason M.; Merin, Bruno; Peterson, Dawn E.; Spezzi, Loredana

    2013-04-15

    Motivated by the long-standing 'luminosity problem' in low-mass star formation whereby protostars are underluminous compared to theoretical expectations, we identify 230 protostars in 18 molecular clouds observed by two Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy surveys of nearby star-forming regions. We compile complete spectral energy distributions, calculate L{sub bol} for each source, and study the protostellar luminosity distribution. This distribution extends over three orders of magnitude, from 0.01 L{sub Sun} to 69 L{sub Sun }, and has a mean and median of 4.3 L{sub Sun} and 1.3 L{sub Sun }, respectively. The distributions are very similar for Class 0 and Class I sources except for an excess of low luminosity (L{sub bol} {approx}< 0.5 L{sub Sun }) Class I sources compared to Class 0. 100 out of the 230 protostars (43%) lack any available data in the far-infrared and submillimeter (70 {mu}m <{lambda} < 850 {mu}m) and have L{sub bol} underestimated by factors of 2.5 on average, and up to factors of 8-10 in extreme cases. Correcting these underestimates for each source individually once additional data becomes available will likely increase both the mean and median of the sample by 35%-40%. We discuss and compare our results to several recent theoretical studies of protostellar luminosities and show that our new results do not invalidate the conclusions of any of these studies. As these studies demonstrate that there is more than one plausible accretion scenario that can match observations, future attention is clearly needed. The better statistics provided by our increased data set should aid such future work.

  12. THE GOULD's BELT VERY LARGE ARRAY SURVEY. I. THE OPHIUCHUS COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Torres, Rosa M.; Boden, Andrew F.; Hartmann, Lee; Evans, Neal J. II; Briceño, Cesar; Tobin, John

    2013-09-20

    We present large-scale (∼2000 arcmin{sup 2}), deep (∼20 μJy), high-resolution (∼1'') radio observations of the Ophiuchus star-forming complex obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at λ = 4 and 6 cm. In total, 189 sources were detected, 56 of them associated with known young stellar sources, and 4 with known extragalactic objects; the other 129 remain unclassified, but most of them are most probably background quasars. The vast majority of the young stars detected at radio wavelengths have spectral types K or M, although we also detect four objects of A/F/B types and two brown dwarf candidates. At least half of these young stars are non-thermal (gyrosynchrotron) sources, with active coronas characterized by high levels of variability, negative spectral indices, and (in some cases) significant circular polarization. As expected, there is a clear tendency for the fraction of non-thermal sources to increase from the younger (Class 0/I or flat spectrum) to the more evolved (Class III or weak line T Tauri) stars. The young stars detected both in X-rays and at radio wavelengths broadly follow a Güdel-Benz relation, but with a different normalization than the most radioactive types of stars. Finally, we detect a ∼70 mJy compact extragalactic source near the center of the Ophiuchus core, which should be used as gain calibrator for any future radio observations of this region.

  13. Climatic, biological, and strategic effects of nuclear war. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Natural Resources, Agriculture Research and Environment of the Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session, September 12, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    A panel of experts, including Carl Sagan, Jay Gould, and Edward Teller, testified along with climate and atmospheric science experts from the Soviet Union on the long-term effects of a nuclear war. The scientists warned that such an event could repeat the biological and climatic disruption that ended the age of dinosaurs 65 million years ago. The purpose of the hearing was to inform committee members about the nature and outcome of a nuclear winter. The scientists also described international research programs designed to ascertain these long-term effects. They pointed out that, while the effects of a single explosion are well known, little is known of overlapping effects from multiple explosions. Two appendices with additional material submitted for the record and additional questions and answers follows the testimony.

  14. 78 FR 18340 - The Neiman Marcus Group, Inc.; Dr.Jays.com, Inc., Eminent, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... in mail, catalog, or Internet advertisements that the fur in any product is faux or fake or... advertised products containing real fur as containing ``faux fur'' on its Internet site. The proposed... and fake fur products (Paragraph III); and provide certain notices and compliance reports to...

  15. Build Your Own Playground! A Sourcebook of Play Sculptures, Designs, and Concepts from the Work of Jay Beckwith.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Jeremy Joan

    A discussion of the reasons for communities to work together in planning and building a playground opens this resource guide. Following are practical considerations involving dealing with bureaucracies, acquiring playground space, raising funds, locating materials, and beginning construction. In the nuts-and-bolts sections of the book the options…

  16. The Curriculum for Children with Severe and Profound Learning Difficulties at Stephen Hawking School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The increasing number of children with profound and multiple learning difficulties means that many schools for children with severe learning difficulties are having to review the curriculum that they offer. In addition, these schools are continuing to question whether a subject-based approach, in line with the National Curriculum, is the most…

  17. THE MOTT FOUNDATION CHILDREN'S HEALTH CENTER--THE WORLD OF STEPHEN SHAKER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint Board of Education, MI.

    THE C.S. MOTT FOUNDATION CHILDREN'S HEALTH CENTER WAS BUILT TO SERVE CHILDREN OF THOSE BORDERLINE FAMILIES WHOSE INCOMES PROHIBIT PRIVATE MEDICAL CARE YET MAKE THEM INELIGIBLE FOR DIRECT RELIEF OF ANY KIND. THE NEED FOR SUCH A CENTER WAS PROVED BY THE CHILDREN'S 18,000 VISITS ANNUALLY FOR HEALTH CARE. WHILE PROVIDING CARE FOR CHILDREN WAS THE MAIN…

  18. Development of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) on pollen from Bt-transgenic and conventional maize

    PubMed Central

    Meissle, Michael; Zünd, Jan; Waldburger, Mario; Romeis, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) pollen is highly nutritious and can be used by predatory arthropods to supplement or replace a carnivorous diet. We demonstrate that maize pollen can be utilized by larvae of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) under laboratory conditions. Complete development on maize pollen was not possible, but 25% of neonates reached the third instar. When only one instar was fed with pollen and the other two instars with eggs of Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), 58–87% of the larvae reached the pupal stage. The experiments included pollen produced by nine cultivars: three genetically modified (GM) cultivars expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis proteins Cry1Ab or Cry3Bb1, their corresponding non-transformed near-isolines, and three conventional cultivars. Maize cultivars were grown in two batches in a glasshouse. Their pollen differed by up to 59% in total protein content, 25% in C:N ratio, and 14% in grain diameter, but the differences were inconsistent and depended on the batch. Lacewing performance was not affected by maize cultivar. For environmental risk assessment of GM plants, in planta studies must consider the variability among conventional cultivars, individual plants, batches, and environmental conditions when evaluating the ecological significance of differences observed between GM and near-isolines. PMID:25082074

  19. Want to Teach about SuperPACs? What We Can Learn from Stephen Colbert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of the SuperPACs in American politics is a major issue in the current election. SuperPACs, and the media campaigns they fund, also present a major challenge for media and democratic education. This article explores the issues surrounding SuperPACs and the rise of media in elections and politics in general, and presents some starting…

  20. A new species of the genus Acria Stephens, 1834 (Lepidoptera: Depressariidae: Acriinae) from India.

    PubMed

    Shashank, P R; Saravanan, L; Kalidas, P; Phanikumar, T; Ramamurthy, V V; Chandra Bose, N S

    2015-05-14

    A new species, Acria meyricki sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Depressariidae: Acriinae) occurring on oil palm, is described from India. The status and nomenclature of the genus is reviewed and an annotated checklist of species is given. A key to the seven species known so far from the Indian subcontinent is provided.

  1. 75 FR 8742 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... individual were removed from an airport west of Tyler in Smith County, TX, by ``Red'' McFarland, a private... Kickapoo River, Smith County, TX, by ``Red'' McFarland, a private citizen. The human remains are located in... marine shell beads and fragments; 1 fragmented marine shell pendant; 3 deer teeth; 9 pigment samples;...

  2. "Gulliver's Travels" by Alfred Silver with Music by Stephen Naylor. Cue Sheet for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterfall, Milde; Flynn, Rosalind, Ed.

    Designed to be used before and after attending a musical adaptation of Jonathan's Swift's "Gulliver's Travels" (performed by the Mermaid Theatre of Nova Scotia), this cue sheet presents information about the performance and suggests activities that can be done with classmates, friends, or family members. Beginning with an illustration of…

  3. The Science-Technology-Engineering-Mathematics (STEM) Initiative at Stephen F Austin State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruebel, Robert W.; Childs, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    The Texas statewide assessment of academic skills in 1997 indicated that >55 % of the student population failed to master the mathematics objectives set by the test criteria and 42 % of the mathematics teachers at the secondary level in the East Texas region were categorized as underqualified to teach mathematics at that level. The issue of…

  4. Stephen Hall Receives 2012 Walter Sullivan Award for Excellence in Science Journalism-Features: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The 2009 L'Aquila earthquake was, and continues to be, a tragedy of enormous proportions. It was obviously a tragedy for the 309 people who perished in the event and for their loved ones, along with the many thousands rendered homeless by the event. It continues to be a civic tragedy for this medieval jewel of a city in the heart of the Abruzzo, which is still crippled nearly four years after the event. And it has been a tragic episode for the scientific community, which has seen seven Italian colleagues convicted of manslaughter and facing serious jail time if their appeals are unsuccessful.

  5. Larval morphology of selected Quedius Stephens, 1829 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Staphylinini) with comments on their subgeneric affiliation.

    PubMed

    Pietrykowska-Tudruj, Ewa; Czepiel-Mil, Katarzyna; Staniec, Bernard

    2014-07-07

    The study concerns the larval morphology of eight Quedius species from four subgenera: Distichalius, Microsaurus, Quedius, and Raphirus. Mature larvae of three species: Q. (Microsaurus) brevis, Q. (M.) cruentus, and Q. (M.) microps are newly described. The hitherto poorly known larvae of five species: Q. (Raphirus) boops, Q. (Distichalius) cinctus, Q. (s. str.) fuliginosus, Q. (s. str.) molochinus and Q. (M.) mesomelinus, are redescribed. Illustrations of structural features are provided. The combination of characters that allow for distinguishing the known mature larvae of Quedius from closely related genera within the subtribe Quediina is specified. Diagnostic larval morphological characters for each of the subgenera are proposed. The analysis of morphological features within the genus Quedius, with the application of the Multi-Variate Statistic Package (MVSP), showed high distinctiveness of the subgenus Quedius and low coherence among species within the subgenus Microsaurus. The intraspecific variation in the number of bifurcate setae and their spacing on fore tibiae of Q. cinctus is presented.

  6. 75 FR 49994 - James Stephen Ferguson, D.M.D.; Revocation of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... practitioner, BF6211762, on the ground that Respondent's ``license to practice dentistry in the state of... dentistry,'' and therefore, he is not entitled to hold a DEA registration. Gov't Mot. Summ. Disp., at 1-2.... Burns, Board Administrator, Pennsylvania State Board of Dentistry, Bureau of Professional...

  7. Interview: Mr. Stephen Chee, team leader, UNFPA country support team (CST) for the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    1993-09-01

    The UNFPA country support team (CST) for the South Pacific is the action-arm at the regional level of the new Technical Support Services arrangement introduced by the agency. Operational since April 1993, the CST currently covers the following Pacific island countries or territories: the Cook Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. The CST office is located in Suva, Fiji, with the main goal of strengthening national capacity and building self-reliance in the countries of the region. The office in Suva is currently staffed by six highly qualified advisors with extensive experience in the population and related fields; two more advisors are expected to join the Team in early 1994. The Team is well equipped to provide countries and territories of the region with a wide range of technical support services ranging from ad hoc technical advisory services to the conceptualization and development of comprehensive population policies and programs. Services are offered in the areas of basic data collection, processing, and research in population dynamics; population policy formulation, evaluation, and implementation; family planning and maternal-child health; information, education, and communication; women in population and development; and population program management. The team also plays an advocacy role in mainstreaming population concerns into the programs and activities of international, regional, and national organizations. The team leader responds to questions about population problems experienced by the countries served, the scope of UNFPA assistance to country governments in the subregion, the importance of population information in the subregion, and how Asia-Pacific POPIN may help the team and countries served.

  8. Coaching Ourselves to Perform Multiplicity and Advocacy: A Response to Stephens and Mills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahnmann-Taylor, Melisa

    2014-01-01

    Cahnmann-Taylor draws on Boalian Theatre of the Oppressed to offer a practice for literacy teachers and coaches that can open up multiple perspectives and multiple levels of intentions and motivations for a teacher's decision making. She challenges coaches and teachers to engage in artistic examinations of multiplicity to move toward performing…

  9. 76 FR 60889 - Stephen L. Reitman, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... spoken with his attorney. . Investigator Rudy stated that she did not think it was unusual for Dr. Reitman to want to speak to an attorney and that he had a right to do so. [Tr. 43- 44]. 18. However... that he did tell Dr. William Friedel on the night of July 8, 2009. Dr. Friedel recommended he...

  10. 78 FR 6321 - Stephen Phillips, Brentwood Dam Ventures, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... Exemption From Licensing of a Small Hydroelectric Project of 5 Megawatts or Less. 2. Brentwood Dam Ventures... Hydro 1 Project, FERC No. 4254, originally issued December 1, 1981,\\1\\ has been transferred to Brentwood Dam Ventures, LLC. The project is located on the Exeter River in Rockingham County, New Hampshire....

  11. Ambassador Stephen Krasner’s Orienting Principle for Foreign Policy (and Military Management) - Responsible Sovereignty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    i.e., independent variables) of moral 10 legitimacy that must be implemented by virtually any political actor facing the nontraditional and...in many countries and regions to- day. These kinds of destabilizing situations become opportunities for exploitation by virtually any politi- cal...and 3) direct and sometimes conduct political actions, which can range from bombing train stations or discos , to funding schools or electioneering

  12. Ada (Trade Name) Compiler Validation Summary Report: TeleSoft, Inc. TeleSoft Ada, Version 2.39 Gould PS3000 Host, Gould CONCEPT/32 (Trade Name) Model 6750 Target.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-08

    B38103C3 315H.E / B35A01ATS P 310C C3570D5K-.DEP N/A B3 610IA- ABADA P B38103C2BAD C C35 705J-B.DEP N/A B35A03A.ADA P B38iO5kBAD~A P C3570514...C1432111C-B.ADA P 8115207U- ABADA P C141303C-B.ADA P C�-B.ADA P D- 7 COMPLETE LIST OF TESTS AND RESULTS C11321’E-B.ADA P C45241X-B.DEP N/A C1151...B58003B-AB.AflA P B52002B-AB.ADA P B511B040-AB.ADA P B59001A-AB.ADA P B52002C- ABADA P B54B05A-AB.ADA P B59001C-AB.ADA P B52002D- ABADA P B55AOlA

  13. Extraordinary fossils reveal the nature of Cambrian life: a commentary on Whittington (1975) 'The enigmatic animal Opabinia regalis, Middle Cambrian, Burgess Shale, British Columbia'.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Derek E G

    2015-04-19

    Harry Whittington's 1975 monograph on Opabinia was the first to highlight how some of the Burgess Shale animals differ markedly from those that populate today's oceans. Categorized by Stephen J. Gould as a 'weird wonder' (Wonderful life, 1989) Opabinia, together with other unusual Burgess Shale fossils, stimulated ongoing debates about the early evolution of the major animal groups and the nature of the Cambrian explosion. The subsequent discovery of a number of other exceptionally preserved fossil faunas of Cambrian and early Ordovician age has significantly augmented the information available on this critical interval in the history of life. Although Opabinia initially defied assignment to any group of modern animals, it is now interpreted as lying below anomalocaridids on the stem leading to the living arthropods. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  14. Extraordinary fossils reveal the nature of Cambrian life: a commentary on Whittington (1975) ‘The enigmatic animal Opabinia regalis, Middle Cambrian, Burgess Shale, British Columbia’

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Derek E. G.

    2015-01-01

    Harry Whittington's 1975 monograph on Opabinia was the first to highlight how some of the Burgess Shale animals differ markedly from those that populate today's oceans. Categorized by Stephen J. Gould as a ‘weird wonder’ (Wonderful life, 1989) Opabinia, together with other unusual Burgess Shale fossils, stimulated ongoing debates about the early evolution of the major animal groups and the nature of the Cambrian explosion. The subsequent discovery of a number of other exceptionally preserved fossil faunas of Cambrian and early Ordovician age has significantly augmented the information available on this critical interval in the history of life. Although Opabinia initially defied assignment to any group of modern animals, it is now interpreted as lying below anomalocaridids on the stem leading to the living arthropods. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750235

  15. [Currently available classifications of lymphoid neoplasia and their clinical applicability].

    PubMed

    Nakamine, H; Nanba, K

    1996-11-01

    Controversy and confusion in the classification of lymphoid neoplasia have long been sources of frustration as exemplifed by the statement of Rupert A. Willis in 1948, that "Nowhere in pathology has a chaos of names so clouded clear concept as in the subject of lymphoid tumors." Taxonomically, "Classifications are theories about the basis of natural order, not dull catalogues compiled only to avoid chaos." (Stephen J. Gould, 1989), but this definition can not always be applicable to the classifications of human diseases, even though they themselves are also biologic phenomena. The International Lymphoma Study Group has recently proposed "a revised European-American classification of lymphoid neoplasms", which has again resulted in the time of "the great debate". The major purpose of this article is, therefore, to assess the above classification.

  16. THE SPITZER SURVEY OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS IN THE GOULD BELT. III. A MULTI-WAVELENGTH VIEW OF CORONA AUSTRALIS

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Dawn E.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Forbrich, Jan; Patten, Brian M.; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Joergensen, Jes K.; Allen, Lori E.; Dunham, Michael M.; Harvey, Paul M.; Evans, Neal J.; MerIn, Bruno; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Cieza, Lucas A.; Huard, Tracy L.; Knez, Claudia; Prager, Brian

    2011-06-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC and MIPS observations of a 0.85 deg{sup 2} field including the Corona Australis (CrA) star-forming region. At a distance of 130 pc, CrA is one of the closest regions known to be actively forming stars, particularly within its embedded association, the Coronet. Using the Spitzer data, we identify 51 young stellar objects (YSOs) in CrA which include sources in the well-studied Coronet cluster as well as sources distributed throughout the molecular cloud. Twelve of the YSOs discussed are new candidates, one of which is located in the Coronet. Known YSOs retrieved from the literature are also added to the list, and a total of 116 candidate YSOs in CrA are compiled. Based on these YSO candidates, the star formation rate is computed to be 12 M{sub sun} Myr{sup -1}, similar to that of the Lupus clouds. A clustering analysis was also performed, finding that the main cluster core, consisting of 68 members, is elongated (having an aspect ratio of 2.36), with a circular radius of 0.59 pc and mean surface density of 150 pc{sup -2}. In addition, we analyze outflows and jets in CrA by means of new CO and H{sub 2} data. We present 1.3 mm interferometric continuum observations made with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) covering R CrA, IRS 5, IRS 7, and IRAS 18595-3712 (IRAS 32). We also present multi-epoch H{sub 2} maps and detect jets and outflows, study their proper motions, and identify exciting sources. The Spitzer and ISAAC/VLT observations of IRAS 32 show a bipolar precessing jet, which drives a CO(2-1) outflow detected in the SMA observations. There is also clear evidence for a parsec-scale precessing outflow, which is east-west oriented and originates in the SMA 2 region and likely driven by SMA 2 or IRS 7A.

  17. Genetic, Ecological and Morphological Distinctness of the Blue Mussels Mytilus trossulus Gould and M. edulis L. in the White Sea.

    PubMed

    Katolikova, Marina; Khaitov, Vadim; Väinölä, Risto; Gantsevich, Michael; Strelkov, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Two blue mussel lineages of Pliocene origin, Mytilus edulis (ME) and M. trossulus (MT), co-occur and hybridize in several regions on the shores of the North Atlantic. The two species were distinguished from each other by molecular methods in the 1980s, and a large amount of comparative data on them has been accumulated since that time. However, while ME and MT are now routinely distinguished by various genetic markers, they tend to be overlooked in ecological studies since morphological characters for taxonomic identification have been lacking, and no consistent habitat differences between lineages have been reported. Surveying a recently discovered area of ME and MT co-occurrence in the White Sea and employing a set of allozyme markers for identification, we address the issue whether ME and MT are true biological species with distinct ecological characteristics or just virtual genetic entities with no matching morphological and ecological identities. We find that: (1) in the White Sea, the occurrence of MT is largely concentrated in harbors, in line with observations from other subarctic regions of Europe; (2) mixed populations of ME and MT are always dominated by purebred individuals, animals classified as hybrids constituting only ca. 18%; (3) in terms of shell morphology, 80% of MT bear a distinct uninterrupted dark prismatic strip under the ligament while 97% of ME lack this character; (4) at sites of sympatry MT is more common on algal substrates while ME mostly lives directly on the bottom. This segregation by the substrate may contribute to maintaining reproductive isolation and decreasing competition between taxa. We conclude that while ME and MT are not fully reproductively isolated, they do represent clearly distinguishable biological, ecological and morphological entities in the White Sea. It remains to be documented whether the observed morphological and ecological differences are of a local character, or whether they have simply been overlooked in other contact zones.

  18. Differential expression of genes encoding anti-oxidant enzymes in Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata (Gould) selected for disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Green, Timothy J; Dixon, Tom J; Devic, Emilie; Adlard, Robert D; Barnes, Andrew C

    2009-05-01

    Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) selectively bred for disease resistance (R) and wild-caught control oysters (W) were exposed to a field infection of disseminating neoplasia. Cumulative mortality of W oysters (31.7%) was significantly greater than R oysters (0.0%) over the 118 days of the experiment. In an attempt to understand the biochemical and molecular pathways involved in disease resistance, differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) between R and W S. glomerata hemocytes were identified using the PCR technique, suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH). Sequencing of 300 clones from two SSH libraries revealed 183 distinct sequences of which 113 shared high similarity to sequences in the public databases. Putative function could be assigned to 64 of the sequences. Expression of nine ESTs homologous to genes previously shown to be involved in bivalve immunity was further studied using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). The base-line expression of an extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) and a small heat shock protein (sHsP) were significantly increased, whilst peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6) and interferon inhibiting cytokine factor (IK) were significantly decreased in R oysters. From these results it was hypothesised that R oysters would be able to generate the anti-parasitic compound, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) faster and to higher concentrations during respiratory burst due to the differential expression of genes for the two anti-oxidant enzymes of ecSOD and Prx6. To investigate this hypothesis, protein extracts from hemolymph were analysed for oxidative burst enzyme activity. Analysis of the cell free hemolymph proteins separated by native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) failed to detect true superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity by assaying dismutation of superoxide anion in zymograms. However, the ecSOD enzyme appears to generate hydrogen peroxide, presumably via another process, which is yet to be elucidated. This corroborates our hypothesis, whilst phylogenetic analysis of the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the S. glomerata ecSOD gene is supportive of the atypical nature of the ecSOD enzyme. Results obtained from this work further the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in resistance to disease in this economically important bivalve, and shed further light on the anomalous oxidative processes involved.

  19. The James Clerk Maxwell telescope Legacy Survey of the Gould Belt: a molecular line study of the Ophiuchus molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Glenn J.; Drabek-Maunder, Emily; Rosolowsky, Erik; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Davis, C. J.; Gregson, Jon; Hatchell, Jenny; Etxaluze, Mireya; Stickler, Sarah; Buckle, Jane; Johnstone, Doug; Friesen, Rachel; Sadavoy, Sarah; Natt, Kieran. V.; Currie, Malcolm; Richer, J. S.; Pattle, Kate; Spaans, Marco; Francesco, James Di; Hogerheijde, M. R.

    2015-02-01

    CO, 13CO, and C18O J = 3-2 observations are presented of the Ophiuchus molecular cloud. The 13CO and C18O emission is dominated by the Oph A clump, and the Oph B1, B2, C, E, F, and J regions. The optically thin(ner) C18O line is used as a column density tracer, from which the gravitational binding energy is estimated to be 4.5 × 1039 J (2282 M⊙ km2 s-2). The turbulent kinetic energy is 6.3 × 1038 J (320 M⊙ km2 s-2), or seven times less than this, and therefore the Oph cloud as a whole is gravitationally bound. 30 protostars were searched for high-velocity gas, with 8 showing outflows, and 20 more having evidence of high-velocity gas along their lines of sight. The total outflow kinetic energy is 1.3 × 1038 J (67 M⊙ km2 s-2), corresponding to 21 per cent of the cloud's turbulent kinetic energy. Although turbulent injection by outflows is significant, but does not appear to be the dominant source of turbulence in the cloud. 105 dense molecular clumplets were identified, which had radii ˜0.01-0.05 pc, virial masses ˜0.1-12 M⊙, luminosities ˜0.001-0.1 K km s-1 pc-2, and excitation temperatures ˜10-50 K. These are consistent with the standard Giant Molecular Cloud (GMC) based size-linewidth relationships, showing that the scaling laws extend down to size scales of hundredths of a parsec, and to subsolar-mass condensations. There is however no compelling evidence that the majority of clumplets are undergoing free-fall collapse, nor that they are pressure confined.

  20. The W40 region in the gould belt: An embedded cluster and H II region at the junction of filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Samal, M. R.; Pirogov, L.

    2013-12-20

    We present a multiwavelength study of the W40 star-forming region using infrared (IR) observations in the UKIRT JHK bands, Spitzer Infrared Array Camera bands, and Herschel PACS bands, 2.12 μm H{sub 2} narrowband imaging, and radio continuum observations from GMRT (610 and 1280 MHz), in a field of view (FoV) of ∼34' × 40'. Archival Spitzer observations in conjunction with near-IR observations are used to identify 1162 Class II/III and 40 Class I sources in the FoV. The nearest-neighbor stellar surface density analysis shows that the majority of these young stellar objects (YSOs) constitute the embedded cluster centered on the high-mass source IRS 1A South. Some YSOs, predominantly the younger population, are distributed along and trace the filamentary structures at lower stellar surface density. The cluster radius is measured to be 0.44 pc—matching well with the extent of radio emission—with a peak density of 650 pc{sup –2}. The JHK data are used to map the extinction in the region, which is subsequently used to compute the cloud mass—126 M {sub ☉} and 71 M {sub ☉} for the central cluster and the northern IRS 5 region, respectively. H{sub 2} narrowband imaging shows significant emission, which prominently resembles fluorescent emission arising at the borders of dense regions. Radio continuum analysis shows that this region has a blister morphology, with the radio peak coinciding with a protostellar source. Free-free emission spectral energy distribution analysis is used to obtain physical parameters of the overall photoionized region and the IRS 5 sub-region. This multiwavelength scenario is suggestive of star formation having resulted from the merging of multiple filaments to form a hub. Star formation seems to have taken place in two successive epochs, with the first epoch traced by the central cluster and the high-mass star(s)—followed by a second epoch that is spreading into the filaments as uncovered by the Class I sources and even younger protostellar sources along the filaments. The IRS 5 H II region displays indications of swept-up material that has possibly led to the formation of protostars.

  1. Genetic, Ecological and Morphological Distinctness of the Blue Mussels Mytilus trossulus Gould and M. edulis L. in the White Sea

    PubMed Central

    Katolikova, Marina; Khaitov, Vadim; Väinölä, Risto; Gantsevich, Michael; Strelkov, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Two blue mussel lineages of Pliocene origin, Mytilus edulis (ME) and M. trossulus (MT), co-occur and hybridize in several regions on the shores of the North Atlantic. The two species were distinguished from each other by molecular methods in the 1980s, and a large amount of comparative data on them has been accumulated since that time. However, while ME and MT are now routinely distinguished by various genetic markers, they tend to be overlooked in ecological studies since morphological characters for taxonomic identification have been lacking, and no consistent habitat differences between lineages have been reported. Surveying a recently discovered area of ME and MT co-occurrence in the White Sea and employing a set of allozyme markers for identification, we address the issue whether ME and MT are true biological species with distinct ecological characteristics or just virtual genetic entities with no matching morphological and ecological identities. We find that: (1) in the White Sea, the occurrence of MT is largely concentrated in harbors, in line with observations from other subarctic regions of Europe; (2) mixed populations of ME and MT are always dominated by purebred individuals, animals classified as hybrids constituting only ca. 18%; (3) in terms of shell morphology, 80% of MT bear a distinct uninterrupted dark prismatic strip under the ligament while 97% of ME lack this character; (4) at sites of sympatry MT is more common on algal substrates while ME mostly lives directly on the bottom. This segregation by the substrate may contribute to maintaining reproductive isolation and decreasing competition between taxa. We conclude that while ME and MT are not fully reproductively isolated, they do represent clearly distinguishable biological, ecological and morphological entities in the White Sea. It remains to be documented whether the observed morphological and ecological differences are of a local character, or whether they have simply been overlooked in other contact zones. PMID:27044013

  2. Construction of cDNA subtractive library from pearl oyster ( Pinctada fucata Gould) with red color shell by SSH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yunyan; Huang, Liangmin; He, Maoxian

    2011-05-01

    The molecular basis of color polymorphism in the shells of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata is largely unknown. We developed a red-shelled family line and used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to screen for differentially expressed genes in red- and non-red-shelled pearl oysters. We constructed forward and reverse cDNA subtractive libraries consisting of 2 506 and 797 clones, respectively. Among 343 randomly selected clones in the forward library, 304 sequences were identified in GenBank using BLASTx and BLASTn. Of the 304 sequences, 13 showed no similarity to known sequences and 291 were matched with known genes of the pearl oyster, including shematrin-1, shematrin-2, shematrin-6, shematrin-7, nacrein, nacrein-like protein, aspein for shell matrix protein, glycine-rich protein, mantle gene 5, 28S, EST00031, EST00036, 16S, and COI. In the reverse library, 7 clones were sequenced and analyzed by BLAST. Two sequences shared similarity with EST00036 from the P. fucata subtraction cDNA library, four with the P. fucata mitochondrial gene for 16S rRNA and 1 with P. fucata shematrin-2. We evaluated the expression of 12 genes from the forward library using RT PCR. Two sequences matched with 16S and COI so were considered to be false positives. The remaining 10 sequences were differentially expression in the red-shelled pearl oysters. Our results suggest that differential expression of these genes may be related to color variation in the red-shelled family line of the pearl oyster.

  3. Ada (Trade Name) Compiler Validation Summary Report: Irvine Compiler Corporation, ICC Ada Compiler, Release 4.0, Gould 6060

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-29

    external file name that either contains invalid characters, or is too long if no invalid characters exist. $FILE NAME WITH WILD CARD CHAR / / / * An...external file name that either contains a wild card character, or is too long if no wild card character exists. $GREATER THAN DURATION 524_287.5 A

  4. Interactions between the Avian Parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae) and the Galapagos Flycatcher, Myiarchus magnirostris Gould (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae).

    PubMed

    Lincango, Piedad; Causton, Charlotte; Cedeño, Daniel; Castañeda, Johanna; Hillstrom, Alexandra; Freund, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    An incidental observation of the fly Philornis downsi parasitizing a Galapagos Flycatcher (Myiarchus magnirostris) nest has revealed new insights into the searching behavior and biology of this invasive fly parasite and its interactions with endemic landbirds in the Galapagos Islands. Observations suggest that P. downsi relies on olfactory cues, or olfactory cues combined with the activity of adult birds, to locate nests and that flies continue to visit nests when chicks are >3 d old. At least 200 eggs were laid by P. downsi in different parts of the nest and >40 early-instar larvae were found inside the head of one chick, with additional larvae found in the base of the nest. Parasitism was the likely cause of mortality of both chicks found in or near the nest. This description of P. downsi parasitizing chicks of M. magnirostris highlights the vulnerability of this endemic bird species to this invasive fly.

  5. Adaptationism--how to carry out an exaptationist program.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Paul W; Gangestad, Steven W; Matthews, Dan

    2002-08-01

    Adaptationism is a research strategy that seeks to identify adaptations and the specific selective forces that drove their evolution in past environments. Since the mid-1970s, paleontologist Stephen J. Gould and geneticist Richard Lewontin have been critical of adaptationism, especially as applied toward understanding human behavior and cognition. Perhaps the most prominent criticism they made was that adaptationist explanations were analogous to Rudyard Kipling's Just So Stories (outlandish explanations for questions such as how the elephant got its trunk). Since storytelling (through the generation of hypotheses and the making of inferences) is an inherent part of science, the criticism refers to the acceptance of stories without sufficient empirical evidence. In particular, Gould, Lewontin, and their colleagues argue that adaptationists often use inappropriate evidentiary standards for identifying adaptations and their functions, and that they often fail to consider alternative hypotheses to adaptation. Playing prominently in both of these criticisms are the concepts of constraint, spandrel, and exaptation. In this article we discuss the standards of evidence that could be used to identify adaptations and when and how they may be appropriately used. Moreover, building an empirical case that certain features of a trait are best explained by exaptation, spandrel, or constraint requires demonstrating that the trait's features cannot be better accounted for by adaptationist hypotheses. Thus, we argue that the testing of alternatives requires the consideration, testing, and systematic rejection of adaptationist hypotheses. Where possible, we illustrate our points with examples taken from human behavior and cognition.

  6. 78 FR 59962 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ..., 2013. ADDRESSES: Rae Gould, Repatriation Coordinator, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department... information in support of the request to Rae Gould, Repatriation Coordinator, University of...

  7. Reaching the Next Stephen Hawking: Five Ways to Help Students with Disabilities in Advanced Placement Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Lori A.; Potts, Elizabeth A.; Linz, Ed

    2013-01-01

    As the federal government encourages all students to attempt advanced math and science courses, more students with disabilities are enrolling in Advanced Placement (AP) science classes. AP science teachers can better serve these students by understanding the various types of disabilities (whether physical, learning, emotional, or behavioral),…

  8. Operational Art in the Campaign of Stephen Watts Kearny to Conquer New Mexico and California, 1846-7

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    business was to seize control of Santa Fe and California.43 Mexico had all but abandoned New Mexico because of the prevalence of raiding Indians, its...from Mexico with even more troops. Contrasting those rumors were indications that “a year before, the Mexican government had virtually abandoned ... Arkansas River distinguished each from the others, but all the routes eventually came together on the Cimarron River near the Cimarron Spring.79 Kearny

  9. Comment on "Symplectic integration of magnetic systems" by Stephen D. Webb [J. Comput. Phys. 270 (2014) 570-576

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuangxi; Jia, Yuesong; Sun, Qizhi

    2015-02-01

    Webb [1] proposed a method to get symplectic integrators of magnetic systems by Taylor expanding the discrete Euler-Lagrangian equations (DEL) which resulted from variational symplectic method by making the variation of the discrete action [2], and approximating the results to the order of O (h2), where h is the time step. And in that paper, Webb thought that the integrators obtained by that method are symplectic ones, especially, he treated Boris integrator (BI) as the symplectic one. However, we have questions about Webb's results. Theoretically the transformation of phase-space coordinates between two adjacent points induced by symplectic algorithm should conserve a symplectic 2-form [2-5]. As proved in Refs. [2,3], the transformations induced by the standard symplectic integrator derived from Hamilton and the variational symplectic integrator (VSI) [2,6] from Lagrangian should conserve a symplectic 2-forms. But the approximation of VSI to O (h2) obtained by that paper is hard to conserve a symplectic 2-form, contrary to the claim of [1]. In the next section, we will use BI as an example to support our point and will prove BI not to be a symplectic one but an integrator conserving discrete phase-space volume.

  10. Progress of the Regiment: A Framework for Understanding Stephen Crane’s The Red Badge of Courage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    have been thoroughly familiar with" (61). Wertheim contends that Crane "originally conceived of Th Red., dm as an outgrowth of this genre " [of...drawing not from a single source, but from a genre of narratives which showed the experiences of a Civil War recruit. Pizer agrees, observing that the...of the popular Civil War romance " ("Review of Scholarship" 136). From this it seems likely that Crane drew many of his plot elements from Civil War

  11. The iPod Experiments: Michael Stephens Investigates Ways that Librarians Are Using This Popular Consumer Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Michael

    2005-01-01

    No other consumer electronic device has created such an impact on popular culture in recent years as the Apple iPod. Since iPod's release in November 2001, music fans have been able to carry upwards of 15,000 song files on those sleek devices with their trendy white headphones. Over ten million iPods have been sold--nearly half of them in the last…

  12. Study of "Stephen Dedalus," the Main Protagonist of "A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azizmohammadi, Fatemeh; Kamarzade, Sepide

    2014-01-01

    "A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man," written in 1916, is an autobiography and the first novel of the great Irish writer, James Joyce. It's written in Modernist style. So it can be contain of some category of realism, naturalism, and Marxism which aroused in mid-to late nineteenth century. But it mostly included realistic style…

  13. Development and evaluation of sequential sampling plans for Cryptolestes ferrungineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) infesting farm-stored wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development and evaluation of appropriate sampling plans are needed for cost-effective management of stored-product insects. Sequential sampling plans, which are based on a variable sample size, are generally more cost effective than plans based on a fixed sample size. For adults of the rusty gr...

  14. Geographic patterns of genetic differentiation within the restricted range of the endangered Stephens' kangaroo rat Dipodomys stephensi.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, A E; Nunney, L; Hyman, B C

    2001-06-01

    Using mtDNA variation in the kangaroo rat Dipodomys stephensi, we found no support for the hypothesis that a species with an historically restricted range will exhibit low levels of genetic polymorphism and little genetic structure. Dipodomys stephensi has long been restricted to a few interior coastal valleys in southern California encompassing an area of approximately 70 x 40 km; however, we found high levels of genetic variation over much of its range and significant genetic structure both within and between regions. We also found evidence for a recent range expansion. Dipodomys stephensi is a federally endangered species that is separated from D. panamintinus, its presumed sister taxon, by a mountain range to the north. We assessed genetic variation by sequencing 645 bases of the mitochondrial d-loop from 61 individuals sampled from 16 locations across the species range and rooted their relationship using two D. panamintinus individuals. Despite its limited geographic range, the level of mtDNA variation in D. stephensi is comparable to that of other rodents, including that of the more widely distributed D. panamintinus. This variation revealed significant regional differentiation. The northern, central, and southern regions of the range differ in both the level and the distribution of genetic variation. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the center of the range contains the most diversity of lineages, including the most basal. In this region and in the north, most haplotypes were found at only a single location (25/29), or at a pair of nearby locations (3/29). In addition, related haplotypes clustered geographically. These results are consistent with long-term demographic stability characterized by limited dispersal and high local effective population size. Further support for this conclusion is the finding of unique diversity in two northern peripheral populations, Norco and Potrero Creek (PC). However, in sharp contrast, one haplotype (CC) was found at five of 11 central and northern locations and comprised 18% of individuals sampled. The atypical distribution of the CC haplotype reflected a pattern seen more strongly in the southern region. Here the CC haplotype comprised 69% of the sample and was found at all five sampling locations. Consequently, the southern region had very low genetic variability. We propose that this dominance of CC was probably due to a local population bottleneck that occurred during a recent range expansion into the southern region.

  15. Evaluation of the Sho-Vel-Tum Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) Oil Recovery Project - Stephens County, OK

    SciTech Connect

    French, Troy

    1999-08-16

    Le Norman Energy Company conducted research on field application of alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding as a part of the U.S. Department of Energy's plan to maximize the production of our domestic oil resources. In addition to having substantial technical merit, the process uses chemicals that are environmentally acceptable. Le Norman's field project is located in the Sho-Vel-Tum (OK) oil field, which was a major producer of crude oil in past years, but has since been extensively waterflooded. This reservoir in this portion of the field is typical of many shallow reservoirs in the Oklahoma-Kansas area and is a good demonstration site for that area. The pay zones are located approximately 700 ft. deep, and this project is the shallowest field test for ASP flooding.

  16. 78 FR 49469 - Stephen Glen Guerra, Inmate #98595-279, FCI Yazoo City Medium, Federal Correctional Institution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... Correctional Institution, P.O. Box 5888, Yazoo City, MS 39194; Order Denying Export Privileges On February 6...-279, FCI Yazoo City Medium, Federal Correctional Institution, P.O. Box 5888, Yazoo City, MS 39194,...

  17. Rethinking the Reading-Writing Workshop: Tensions and Negotiations between a Stephen King Reader and Her Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Kelly

    2000-01-01

    Explores the participation in reading-writing workshops of students who consider reading to be an important part of their lives. Finds students who are engaged readers of fiction bring a set of expectations that differ from their teachers' and from students who do not read regularly for pleasure. (NH)

  18. Comment on "The reduction of friction in long-runout landslides as an emergent phenomenon" by Brandon C. Johnson, Charles S. Campbell, and H. Jay Melosh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louge, M. Y.

    2016-05-01

    Johnson et al. (2016) use numerical simulations of disks to revisit the mystery of the struzstrom, a kind of landslide that travels an unexpectedly long distance on flat land, far beyond the mountain slope on which it initially accelerated.

  19. Jay L. King, Joseph D. Huxman, and Orion D. Billeter Assist Pilot Milt Thompson into the M2-F2 Attac

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    NASA research pilot Milt Thompson is helped into the cockpit of the M2-F2 lifting body research aircraft at NASA's Flight Research Center (now the Dryden Flight Research Center). The M2-F2 is attached to a wing pylon under the wing of NASA's B-52 mothership. The flight was a captive flight with the pilot on-board. Milt Thompson flew in the lifting body throughout the flight, but it was never dropped from the mothership. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster casings. It also supported eight orbiter (space shuttle) drag chute tests in 1990. In addition, the B-52 served as the air launch platform for the first six Pegasus space boosters. During its many years of service, the B-52 has undergone several modifications. The first major modification was made by North American Aviation (now part of Boeing) in support of the X-15 program. This involved creating a launch-panel-operator station for monitoring the status of the test vehicle being carried, cutting a large notch in the right inboard wing flap to accommodate the vertical tail of the X-15 aircraft, and installing a wing pylon that enables the B-52 to carry research vehicles and test articles to be air-launched/dropped. Located on the right wing, between the inboard engine pylon and the fuselage, this wing pylon was subjected to extensive testing prior to its use. For each test vehicle the B-52 carried, minor changes were made to the launch-panel operator's station. Built originally by the Boeing Company, the NASA B-52 is powered by eight Pratt & Whitney J57-19 turbojet engines, each of which produce 12,000 pounds of thrust. The aircraft's normal launch speed has been Mach 0.8 (about 530 miles per hour) and its normal drop altitude has been 40,000 to 45,000 feet.. It is 156 feet long and has a wing span of 185 feet. The heaviest load it has carried was the No. 2 X-15 aircraft at 53,100 pounds. Project manager for the aircraft is Roy Bryant.

  20. Equal Opportunity Programming and Optimistic Program Assessment: First-Year Writing Program Design and Assessment at John Jay College of Criminal Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Tim; McBeth, Mark

    2016-01-01

    As Brian Huot and Ellen E. Schendel assert, when assessment has more than validation in mind, it "can become a means for proactive change" (208). In response to this idea of assessment as an optimistic and opportunistic enterprise, this article describes how the structural design of our "equal opportunity" writing program and…

  1. Theory and operation of the Gould 32/27 programs ABLE-2A and EBLE for the tropospheric air motion measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C.

    1986-01-01

    Software development for the Trospheric Air Motion Measurement Systems (TAMMS) is documented. In July/August the TAMMS was flown on the NASA/Goddard Flight Center Electra aircraft for 19 mission for the ABLE-2A (Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment) in Brazil. In December 1985, several flights were performed to assess the contamination and boundary layer of the Electra. Position data, flow angles, pressure transducer measurements were recorded. The programs written for the ABLE-2A were modified due to timing considerations for this particular program. The 3-step programs written for EBLE (Electra Boundary Layer Experiment) are described. Power up and log-on procedures are discussed. A few editing techniques are described for modification of the programs.

  2. Preliminary Investigation of the Supersonic Flow Field Downstream of Wire-mesh Nozzles in a Constant-area Duct / Lawrence I. Gould

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, Lawrence I

    1951-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in a 3.4- by 3.4-inch duct to determine the characteristics of the supersonic flow downstream of four wire-mesh screen nozzles with nominal design Mach numbers in the range between 1.97 and 2.58. Two types of disturbances were observed in the flow field: a fine network of interacting expansion and compression waves which were formed immediately downstream of the screens and appeared to dissipate within 25 to 40 wave intersections; and relatively strong oblique shock waves that originated at the junctions of the screens and the walls and were reflected throughout the length of the duct. Regions of fairly uniform flow were found to exist. The total-pressure loss across the screens varied from 22 percent at Mach number 1.58 to 43 percent at Mach number 2.06.

  3. Fenitrothion, an organophosphorous insecticide, impairs locomotory function and alters body temperatures in Sminthopsis macroura (Gould 1845) without reducing metabolic rates during running endurance and thermogenic performance tests.

    PubMed

    Story, Paul G; French, Kris; Astheimer, Lee B; Buttemer, William A

    2016-01-01

    Endemic Australian mammal species are exposed to pesticides used for locust control as they occupy the same habitat as the target insect. The authors examined the impact of an ultra-low volume formulation of the organophosphorous insecticide fenitrothion (O,O-dimethyl-O-[3-methyl-4-nitrophenol]-phosphorothioate) on a suite of physiological measures that affect the ability of animals to survive in free-living conditions: locomotory and thermogenic functions, metabolic performance, body mass, and hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. Plasma and brain cholinesterase activity in relation to time since exposure to pesticide were also determined. An orally applied dose of 90 mg kg(-1) fenitrothion reduced running endurance in the stripe-faced dunnart, Sminthopsis macroura, by 80% the day after exposure concomitantly with a reduction of approximately 50% in plasma and 45% in brain acetylcholinesterase activity. These adverse effects disappeared by 10 d postexposure. Maximal metabolic rates reached during running were unaffected by pesticide, as were body mass and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Maximal cold-induced metabolic rate (measured as peak 2 min metabolic rate attained during cold exposure), time taken to reach peak metabolic rate on cold exposure, cumulative total oxygen consumed during shivering thermogenesis, and body temperature before and after cold exposure were unaffected by fenitrothion. Dunnart rectal temperatures showed a reduction of up to 5 °C after exposure to fenitrothion but returned to pre-exposure levels by 10 d postdose. Such physiological compromises in otherwise asymptomatic animals demonstrate the importance of considering performance-based measures in pesticide risk assessments.

  4. Gene capture from across the grass family in the allohexaploid Elymus repens (L.) Gould (Poaceae, Triticeae) as evidenced by ITS, GBSSI, and molecular cytogenetics.

    PubMed

    Mahelka, Václav; Kopecký, David

    2010-06-01

    Four accessions of hexaploid Elymus repens from its native Central European distribution area were analyzed using sequencing of multicopy (internal transcribed spacer, ITS) and single-copy (granule-bound starch synthase I, GBSSI) DNA in concert with genomic and fluorescent in situ hybridization (GISH and FISH) to disentangle its allopolyploid origin. Despite extensive ITS homogenization, nrDNA in E. repens allowed us to identify at least four distinct lineages. Apart from Pseudoroegneria and Hordeum, representing the major genome constituents, the presence of further unexpected alien genetic material, originating from species outside the Triticeae and close to Panicum (Paniceae) and Bromus (Bromeae), was revealed. GBSSI sequences provided information complementary to the ITS. Apart from Pseudoroegneria and Hordeum, two additional gene variants from within the Triticeae were discovered: One was Taeniatherum-like, but the other did not have a close relationship with any of the diploids sampled. GISH results were largely congruent with the sequence-based markers. GISH clearly confirmed Pseudoroegneria and Hordeum as major genome constituents and further showed the presence of a small chromosome segment corresponding to Panicum. It resided in the Hordeum subgenome and probably represents an old acquisition of a Hordeum progenitor. Spotty hybridization signals across all chromosomes after GISH with Taeniatherum and Bromus probes suggested that gene acquisition from these species is more likely due to common ancestry of the grasses or early introgression than to recent hybridization or allopolyploid origin of E. repens. Physical mapping of rDNA loci using FISH revealed that all rDNA loci except one minor were located on Pseudoroegneria-derived chromosomes, which suggests the loss of all Hordeum-derived loci but one. Because homogenization mechanisms seem to operate effectively among Pseudoroegneria-like copies in this species, incomplete ITS homogenization in our samples is probably due to an interstitial position of an individual minor rDNA locus located within the Hordeum-derived subgenome.

  5. Laboratory analysis of the habitat occupancy of the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould) in an invaded ecosystem: The north-eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurkse, Kristiina; Kotta, Jonne; Orav-Kotta, Helen; Pärnoja, Merli; Kuprijanov, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    The Harris mud crab (Rhithropanopeus harrisii) arrived to the Baltic Sea in 1936. It was not until the late 2000es when the species considerably expanded its distribution area towards the northern Baltic Sea and formed a viable and expanding population. This introduction represents an appearance of a completely new function, as such larger epibenthic predators were previously missing from north-eastern Baltic Sea. In order to assess potential impacts of the crab to the invaded ecosystem, knowledge of the crab habitat preferences is required. This study experimentally evaluated the habitat occupancy of the Harris mud crab. The crab stayed more in vegetated boulders compared to unvegetated boulders or sandy habitats. There was an interactive effect between the presence of prey and crab population density with prey availability increasing the crab's affinity towards less favored habitats when population densities were low. Increased aggression between crab individuals increased their affinity towards otherwise less occupied habitats. Less favored habitats were typically inhabited by smaller individuals and presence of prey increased occupancy of some habitats for larger crabs. The experiment demonstrated that the crab may inhabit a large variety of habitats with stronger affinity towards boulder fields covered with the brown macroalga Fucus vesiculosus. This implies stronger impact of crab in such habitats in the invaded ecosystem.

  6. VARIATION IN GROWTH, LIPID CLASS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF THE MUD CRAB, RHITHROPANOPEUS HARRISII (GOULD) DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO AN INSECT JUVENILE HORMONE ANALOG (FENOXYCARB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the effects of fenoxycarb?, an insect juvenile hormone analog, on larval growth, and lipid class and fatty acid composition in first crabs of the mud crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii reared through total larval development in nominal water concentrations from 1 ...

  7. Morphological and molecular characterization of Eimeria paludosa coccidian parasite (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) in a dusky moorhen (Gallinula tenebrosa, Gould, 1846) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Elloit, Aileen; Lee, Elvina; Ryan, Una

    2014-12-01

    An Eimeria species is described from a dusky moorhen (Gallinula tenebrosa). Sporulated oocysts (n = 40) are ovoid, with a pitted single-layered oocyst wall in young oocysts and a relatively smooth wall in the mature oocysts. Oocyst wall was 1.0 µm thick, oocysts measured 17.3 × 13.3 (16.3-17.9 × 12.7-13.9) µm, oocyst length/width (L/W) ratio, 1.3. Oocyst residuum was absent. A large polar granule was always observed in the centre of the micropyle and many small polar granules were observed when the focus was on the wall. Sporocysts are elongate-ovoid, 8.4 × 5.1 (8.0-8.9 × 4.9-5.5) µm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 1.6 (1.5-1.8), sporocyst residuum was present, composed of numerous granules in a spherical or ovoid mass. Each sporocyst contained 2 elongate sporozoites, 7.7 × 2.6 (7-10 × 2.2-3) µm. A spherical-ellipsoid posterior refractile body was found in the sporozoites. A nucleus is located immediately anterior to the posterior refractile body. When the oocyst measurements and features were compared with valid Eimeria species from hosts in the Rallidae family, this Eimeria species was identified as E. paludosa. This is the first report of E. paludosa in Australia and the dusky moorhen (Gallinula tenebrosa) in a new host for this species. Molecular analysis was conducted at three loci; the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (COI). At the 18 S locus, E. paludosa shared 97.3% genetic similarity with Eimeria gruis (GenBank accession number: AB544336). It also shared 99.2% genetic similarity with Eimeria crecis (GenBank accession numbers: HE653904 and HE653905) and 98.5% similarity with Eimeria nenei (GenBank accession numbers: HE653906), both of which were identified from a corncrake (Crex crex) in the United Kingdom. At the 28S locus, E. paludosa shared 91.4% similarity with E. papillata from a chicken (Gallus gallus) in the USA. At COI locus, E. paludosa was in a clade by itself and shared 87.2% similarity with E. irresidua, from a European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from the Czech Republic. This is the first molecular characterization of E. paludosa.

  8. 77 FR 74868 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... Committee Chair, telephone (413) 545-2221, or Rae Gould, Repatriation Coordinator, telephone (413) 545-2702..., telephone (413) 545-2221, or Rae Gould, Repatriation Coordinator, telephone (413) 545-2702, University...

  9. 77 FR 5841 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... Committee Chair, telephone (413) 545-2221, or Rae Gould, Repatriation Coordinator, telephone (413) 545-2702..., Repatriation Committee Chair, telephone (413) 545-2221, or Rae Gould, Repatriation Coordinator, ]...

  10. HAVE YOU READ THIS?: Life, the universe(s) and everything

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-09-01

    philosophical for some (see the review by B Carr in Physics World 10 December 1997, p 39) but don't be put off by his adoration of Leibnitz compared, say, with Newton. He is strongly critical of a `mechanical' world view, and a major strand in the book is that physics may be more like biology than most of us might like to think. Smolin's key idea is that universes are created in black holes, a basis on which he builds a cosmology in which relationships are more important than abstract concepts like space and time. When a new universe forms from a black hole the laws and constants are changed: G, e, h and the critical things like the fine-structure constant that cosmic anthropicists put forward as evidence for a purposive universe get changed. Sometimes they change a lot, sometimes in ways too small to have much effect. A kind of Darwinian survival effect takes over: successful universes are good at producing black holes and mature stars that can build up the heavy elements which allow life to develop. So our values of G, e, h etc have evolved. The more black holes they produce, the more likely it is that some of the baby universes are reasonably successful. So our universe is not unique, but just one of a set that has cosmological and physical properties that allow people like us to develop. The improbably anthropic universe we live in is as improbable as an eye or a peacock's tail. Just as Stephen Jay Gould teaches us that life as we know it is not designed but the result of more or less simple rules applied in an accidental, contingent history, so Smolin considers the universe(s). Galaxies have ecologies: `... our life is situated inside a nested hierarchy of self-organized systems that begin with our local ecologies and extend upwards at least to the galaxy.' Our universe is really very young - not much older than a typical star. The theory has testable predictions, to do with the formation of spiral arms in galaxies, supernovae and the rate of production of black holes

  11. The Creativity of Natural Selection? Part I: Darwin, Darwinism, and the Mutationists.

    PubMed

    Beatty, John

    2016-12-01

    This is the first of a two-part essay on the history of debates concerning the creativity of natural selection, from Darwin through the evolutionary synthesis and up to the present. Here I focus on the mid-late nineteenth century to the early twentieth, with special emphasis on early Darwinism and its critics, the self-styled "mutationists." The second part focuses on the evolutionary synthesis and some of its critics, especially the "neutralists" and "neo-mutationists." Like Stephen Gould, I consider the creativity of natural selection to be a key component of what has traditionally counted as "Darwinism." I argue that the creativity of natural selection is best understood in terms of (1) selection initiating evolutionary change, and (2) selection being responsible for the presence of the variation it acts upon, for example by directing the course of variation. I consider the respects in which both of these claims sound non-Darwinian, even though they have long been understood by supporters and critics alike to be virtually constitutive of Darwinism.

  12. Radical revisions to the ruler of deep time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kenneth G.

    Stephen J. Gould [1987] argued that one of the greatest scientific realizations was the concept of “deep time,” a phrase coined by John McPhee to encompass the breadth of geological time. We rely on measurements of geological time to provide rates of geological and geophysical processes and a chronology for the evolution of the Earth. Geological measurements of deep time rely on a limited number of radiometric ages that provide the only true clocks. Our chronometer is the geological time scale, and it is based on these ages and interpolations between them. The most precise ruler for these interpolations is provided by minor variations in the Earth's orbit, which control solar insolation and global climate changes; this “astronomical pacemaker” has provided a precise chronology (one with 5,000-year resolution) for the past few million years. It has proven difficult to extend this astronomical time scale to the geological record older than about 5 m.y. However, for the Late Cretaceous to Pleistocene (approximately the last 150 m.y.), another ruler is available: reversals of the Earth's magnetic field provide a Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) that serves as a framework for a limited number of radiometric ages.

  13. An Efficient Trap of ^221Fr Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z. T.; Corwin, K. L.; Vogel, K. R.; Wieman, C. E.; Dinneen, T. P.; Maddi, J. A.; Gould, H.

    1997-04-01

    Francium, the heaviest alkali, is the ideal candidate for the next generation of experiments that study atomic parity non-conservation (PNC) effects or search for a CP-violating permanent atomic electric dipole moment (EDM). Since all francium isotopes are radioactive and have half-lives of 22 minutes or less, a highly efficient atom trap is needed to provide a sufficient sample for PNC or EDM experiments. Using an improved vapor cell magneto-optical trap, we have demonstrated an efficient trap of ^221Fr(t_1/2=5min) atoms. Over 20% of the ^221Fr atoms entering the cell are loaded into the trap. The 4cm cube cell has a geometry optimized for a high trap loading rate and its walls are coated with dryfilm to slow the loss of francium atoms to the walls (M.Stephens and C.Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3787 (1994).). Produced from the decay of ^225Ac(t_1/2=10d), the francium atoms are efficiently transferred into the cell using a novel orthotropic oven (T.Dinneen, A.Ghiorso, and H.Gould, Rev. Sci. Inst. 67, 752 (1996).). Work supported by NSF, ONR,and U.S.DOE under contract number DE-AC-76SF00098.

  14. Discussion of "Aeration, flow instabilities, and residual energy on pooled stepped spillways of embankment dams" by Stephen Felder and Hubert Chanson

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stepped spillways applied to embankment dams provide overtopping protection and address a common deficiency in aging dams by providing increased spillway capacity. Pooled-stepped spillways offer a design alternative to the traditional flat-stepped spillways. Researchers from the University of Quee...

  15. Toxicity and sublethal effects of six insecticides to last instar larvae and adults of the biocontrol agents Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Garzón, A; Medina, P; Amor, F; Viñuela, E; Budia, F

    2015-08-01

    To further develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies against crop pests, it is important to evaluate the effects of insecticides on biological control agents. Therefore, we tested the toxicity and sublethal effects (fecundity and fertility) of flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin on the natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea and Adalia bipunctata. The side effects of the active ingredients of the insecticides were evaluated with residual contact tests for the larvae and adults of these predators in the laboratory. Flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat were innocuous to last instar larvae and adults of C. carnea and A. bipunctata. Sulfoxaflor was slightly toxic to adults of C. carnea and was highly toxic to the L4 larvae of A. bipunctata. For A. bipunctata, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin were the most damaging compounds with a cumulative larval mortality of 100%. Deltamethrin was also the most toxic compound to larvae and adults of C. carnea. In accordance with the results obtained, the compounds flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat might be incorporated into IPM programs in combination with these natural enemies for the control of particular greenhouse pests. Nevertheless, the use of sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin in IPM strategies should be taken into consideration when releasing either of these biological control agents, due to the toxic behavior observed under laboratory conditions. The need for developing sustainable approaches to combine the use of these insecticides and natural enemies within an IPM framework is discussed.

  16. First hand accounts of events in the laboratory of Prof. Eduard Pernkopf. Interviews by Seyed Hossein Aharinejad and Stephen W Carmichael.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Walter; Gisel, Alfred; Platzer, Werner

    2013-04-01

    Eduard Pernkopf was responsible for one of the best anatomy atlases of all time. He was also an active National Socialist during the Third Reich. Some have questioned whether his political affiliation influenced the procurement of anatomic specimens for his Atlas. Profs. Walter Kraus, Alfred Gisel, and Werner Platzer, who worked directly or indirectly with Pernkopf, were interviewed in 2006. We present transcripts of those interviews. The reader may evaluate their recollections in light of the political and social forces active in that period of history.

  17. Providing for the appointment of Stephen M. Case as a citizen regent of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Johnson, Sam [R-TX-3

    2011-02-16

    02/16/2011 Referred to the House Committee on House Administration. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.J.RES.8, which became Public Law 112-12 on 4/25/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Effects of Pressure Reductions in a Proposed Siphon Water Lift System at St. Stephen Dam, South Carolina, on Mortality Rates of Juvenile American Shad and Blueback Herring.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    unlikely. Conducting additional mortality studies is recommended to refine predicted mortality rates . Measures should be taken to prevent juvenile fish...from entering the siphon lift system if excessive mortality rates are observed.

  19. A comment on: `TitaniQ under pressure: the effect of pressure and temperature on the solubility of Ti in quartz', by Jay B. Thomas, E. Bruce Watson, Frank S. Spear, Philip T. Shemella, Saroj K. Nayak and Antonio Lanzirotti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Colin J. N.; Seward, Terry M.; Allan, Aidan S. R.; Charlier, Bruce L. A.; Bello, Léa

    2012-08-01

    Trace concentrations of Ti in quartz are used to indicate the pressure and temperature conditions of crystallization in the `TitaniQ' geothermobarometer of Thomas et al. (Contrib Miner Petrol 160:743-759, 2010). It utilises the partitioning of Ti into quartz as an indicator of the pressures and/or temperatures of crystal growth. For a given value of TiO2 activity in the system, if temperatures are inferred to ±20 °C, pressure is constrained to ±1 kbar and vice versa. There are significant contrasts, however, between the conclusions from TitaniQ and those for natural quartz (as well as other mineral phases) in volcanic rocks. Application of the TitaniQ model to quartz from the 27 ka Oruanui and 760 ka Bishop high-silica rhyolites, where the values of T, P and TiO2 activity are constrained by other means (Fe-Ti oxide equilibria, melt inclusion entrapment pressures in gas-saturated melts, melt and amphibole compositions), yields inconsistent results. If realistic values are given to any two of these three parameters, then the value of the third is wholly unrealistic. The model yields growth temperatures at or below the granite solidus, pressures in the lower crust or upper mantle, or TiO2 activities inconsistent with the mineralogical and chemical compositions of the magmas. CL imagery and measurements of Ti (and other elements) in quartz are of great value in showing the growth histories and changes in conditions experienced by crystals, but direct linkages to P, T conditions during crystal growth cannot be achieved.

  20. 40 CFR 81.315 - Indiana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Jackson County Unclassifiable/Attainment Jasper County Unclassifiable/Attainment Jay County Unclassifiable... Jackson County Unclassifiable/Attainment Jasper County Unclassifiable/Attainment Jay County Unclassifiable.../Attainment Howard County Unclassifiable/Attainment Huntington County Unclassifiable/Attainment Jasper...

  1. 40 CFR 81.315 - Indiana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Jasper County Unclassifiable/Attainment Jay County Unclassifiable/Attainment Jefferson County... Jackson County Unclassifiable/Attainment Jasper County Unclassifiable/Attainment Jay County Unclassifiable.../Attainment Howard County Unclassifiable/Attainment Huntington County Unclassifiable/Attainment Jasper...

  2. 40 CFR 81.315 - Indiana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Jasper County Unclassifiable/Attainment Jay County Unclassifiable/Attainment Jefferson County... Jasper County Unclassifiable/Attainment Jay County Unclassifiable/Attainment Jefferson County.../Attainment Howard County Unclassifiable/Attainment Huntington County Unclassifiable/Attainment Jasper...

  3. 40 CFR 81.315 - Indiana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Jasper County Unclassifiable/Attainment Jay County Unclassifiable/Attainment Jefferson County... Jackson County Unclassifiable/Attainment Jasper County Unclassifiable/Attainment Jay County Unclassifiable.../Attainment Howard County Unclassifiable/Attainment Huntington County Unclassifiable/Attainment Jasper...

  4. 76 FR 37142 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Incidental Take Permit Application; Proposed Low...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... about 0.23 acre of Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) (scrub-jay) breeding, feeding, and... breeding, feeding, and sheltering habitat incidental to land preparation for construction of a...

  5. Gout: Personal Stories | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Detecting and Treating Gout Gout: Personal Stories Past Issues / Winter 2012 Table of ... Jay Hobby Jay Hobby’s Tips for Taking on Gout Somewhere high over the Atlantic on a flight ...

  6. Longitudinal Study of the Programs and the Organization of a Division of the Corps of Engineers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    Michel, The Bureaucratic Phenomenon, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill., 1964. 11. Dalton, Gene W., Paul R. Lawrence and Jay W. Lorsch ...571-597. 27. Lawrence, Paul R. and Jay W. Lorsch , Organizations, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, Mass., 1969. 28. Lawrence, Paul R. and Jay ...Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1967. 29. Lawrence, Paul R. and Jay W. Lorsch , Studies In organization Design, Irwin-Dorsey Limited, Georgetown

  7. Building a Planning Transition Capability into the New American Way of War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-14

    information wasn’t processed by the driver.14 American organization theorists Paul Lawrence and Jay Lorsch , in their book, Organization and Environment...Organization Theory, Modern Symboic and Postmodern Perspectives. Lawrence, Paul R. and Jay W. Lorsch , Organization and Environment: Managing...Paul R Lawrence and Jay W. Lorsch , Organization and Environment: Managing Differentiation and Integration (Boston: Harvard Business School, 1967

  8. Ada (Trade Name) Compiler Validation Summary Report: TeleSoft, Inc. TeleSoft Ada Compiler, Version 2.3C3 for the Gould CONCEPT/32 (Trade Name) Model 9750 under MPX, Version 3.2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-06

    ACCESSION NO .I 1 RE.CIP)IErN-S C-A A-INJBIE I; A~ -- .T .’.. a TTLE ivdS.1" h I YPL OF REPORT b PERIOD COVERED Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report...3 2-, . . h ~ .. " ." ~~.* .*..2. TEST RESULTS 2.1.7 Support Units Three units (REPORT package, CHECKFILE procedure, and VARSTRINGS package) support...needed to complete the block for case H beginning at line 389. 2-9 2-9 "’ II . .- .... > ....-. .i + -.. ’-.- .i

  9. VARIATION IN GROWTH, LIPID CLASS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF THE MUD CRAB, RHITHROPANOPEUS HARRISII (GOULD) DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO AN INSECT JUVENILE HORMONE ANALOG (FENOXYCARB(R))

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the effects of fenoxycarb?, an insect juvenile hormone (JH) analog, on larval growth, and lipid class and fatty acid composition in first crabs of the mud crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii reared through total larval development in nominal water concentrations fr...

  10. The Origin Billions Star Survey: Galactic Explorer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-18

    orbital distances of the satellites vary with the general location of the asteroid in the solar system (near- Earth, main belt , or Kuiper Belt ...not necessarily have the same kinematics. 3.2.7. The Gould Belt The Gould Belt is a disk-shaped structure that includes most of the stars younger than...the Pleiades within ∼700 pc of the Sun, which is situated inside the belt . The Gould Belt is de- lineated on the sky by major concentrations of

  11. Proceedings of a Colloquium on Total Force Management Held in Santa Monica, California on 27-28 September 1989,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Budgeting . . . . . . . . 35 The Basic Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Four Life Cycles...91 XIV. IDA DEFENSE PLANNING MODEL by Phil Gould...Defense Planning Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Features of the Cost Model

  12. 78 FR 23934 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ..., individually, with Stephen L. LaFrance, Jr., Little Rock, Arkansas, as the sole manager, and LAF-GW and Stephen... liability company, with Stephen L. LaFrance, Jr., Jason P. LaFrance, and Joe Courtright, both of Little Rock, Arkansas, as managers, LAF Brothers Properties, LLC, an Arkansas limited liability company, with Stephen...

  13. COMMITTEES: LISA 7 Science Organizing Committee and Local Organizing Committee LISA 7 Science Organizing Committee and Local Organizing Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    Science Organising Committee (SOC) Pierre Binetruy, APC - College de France Massimo Cerdonio, University of Padova Karsten Danzmann, AEI/University of Hannover Mike Cruise, University of Birmingham Jim Hough, University of Glasgow Oliver Jennrich, ESTEC Philippe Jetzer, University Zurich Alberto Lobo (Chair), ICE-CSIC and IEEC Yannick Mellier, IAP, Paris Bernard Schutz, AEI Potsdam Tim Sumner, Imperial College, London Jean-Yves Vinet, OCA, Nice Stefano Vitale, University of Trento Peter Bender, University of Colorado Sasha Buchman, Stanford University Joan Centrella, NASA/Goddard Neil Cornish, Montana State University Curt Cutler, NASA/JPL Sam Finn, Penn State University Jens Gundlach, NPL Craig Hogan, University of Washington Scott Hughes, MIT Piero Madau, Lick Observatory Tom Prince, NASA/JPL Sterl Phinney, Caltech Doug Richstone, University of Michigan Tuck Stebbins, NASA/Goddard Kip Thorne, Caltech Roger Blandford, Stanford University Eugenio Coccia, University of Roma-2 Carlos F Sopuerta,ICE-CSIC and IEEC Enrique Garcia-Berro, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona Seiji Kawamura, National Observatory, Japan Jay Marx, LIGO Laboratory Stephen Merkowitz, NASA/Goddard Benoit Mours, Laboratoire d'Annec Gijs Nelemans, IMAPP, Nijmegen Enric Verdaguer, University of Barcelona Clifford M Will, Washington University, St Louis Local Organising Committee (LOC) Anna Bertolín (IEEC) Priscilla Cañizares (ICE-CSIC and IEEC) Carlos F Sopuerta (ICE-CSIC and IEEC) Ivan Lloro (ICE-CSIC and IEEC),Chair Alberto Lobo (ICE-CSIC and IEEC) Nacho Mateos (ICE-CSIC and IEEC) Pilar Montes (IEEC) Miquel Nofrarias (IEEC) Juan Ramos-Castro (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya) Josep Sanjuán (IEEC)

  14. Asteroids to Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugger, Phyllis M.

    2004-12-01

    Asteroid dedication; William Liller: Biographical Sketch; William Liller: Autobiographical Meanderings; Preface; List of Participants; Conference Photo; Part I. 1. Solar System Astronomy: Asteroids Joseph Veverka; 2. Sixteen years of stellar occultations James Elliott; 3. Comets to Quasars: Surface photometry from standard stars and the morphology of the galaxy-quasar interface Peter Usher; 4. Observing Solar Eclipses Jay Pasachoff; Part II. 5. Planetary Nebulae: new insights and opportunities Lawrence Aller; 6. Studies of planetary nebulae at radio wavelengths Yervant Terzian; 7. Optical identifications of compact galactic X-ray sources: Liller Lore Jonathan Grindlay; 8. Ages of globular clusters derived from BVRI CCD photometry Gonzalo Alcaino; 9. Stellar spectrum synthesis Jun Jugaku; 10. Mass exchange and stellar abundance anomalies Benjamin Peery; Part III. Extragalactic Astronomy: 11. The M31 globular cluster system John Huchra; 12. Spiral structure and star formation in galaxies Debra Elmegreen; 13. The discovery of hot coronae around early type galaxies William Forman and Christine Jones; 14. The morphology of clusters of galaxies, the formation efficiency of galaxies and the origin of the intracluster medium Christine Jones and William Forman; 15. Testing models for the dynamical evolution of clusters of galaxies Phyllis Lugger; 16. What is in the X-ray sky? Rudolph Schild; 17. Einstein deep surveys Stephen Murray, Christine Jones and William Forman; Part IV. History, Lore and Archaeoastronomy: 18. Robert Wheeler Willson: His Life and Legacy Barbara Welther; 19. The great mnemonics contest Owen Gingerich; 20. Hetu'u Rapanui: The archaeoastronomy of Easter Island William Liller; Indexes; Names; Objects; Subjects.

  15. A chromosomal analysis of some water beetle species recently transferred from Agabus Leach to Ilybius Erichson, with particular reference to the variation in chromosome number shown by I. montanus Stephens (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    PubMed

    Aradottir, G I; Angus, R B

    2004-01-01

    The karyotypes of seven Ilybius species are described and illustrated. All except I. wasastjernae have a basic karyotype of 34 autosomes plus sex chromosomes which are X0 ( male symbol ), XX ( female symbol ), with the X chromosome among the largest in the nucleus. This karyotype appears to be the norm for Ilybius and supports the transfer of the species concerned from Agabus to Ilybius. I. wasastjernae has 36 autosomes and the X chromosome is the smallest in the nucleus and its karyotype is unlike any other known karyotype in either Ilybius or Agabus. In most of the species studied no intraspecific variation has been detected. Exceptions are I. chalconatus, where there is one inversion polymorphism in one of the autosomes, and I. montanus whose autosome number has been found to vary from 29 to 34. Such variation is highly unusual among Coleoptera. The variation results from fusion-fission polymorphisms involving three different pairs of autosomes. In each case the fusions may be homozygous, heterozygous or absent. All populations investigated were polymorphic for some of the fusions, but only one (La Salceda, Spain) included individuals lacking all fusions. The frequencies of fused and unfused chromosomes were analysed in three English populations. In only one case was there a departure from the values expected from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and this population also showed a significant difference from the other two. Meiosis in males heterozygous for fusions involves the production of trivalents in first division, but results in the production of abundant sperm, with no evidence of chromosomal abnormalities in second metaphase, or of degenerating cells as a result of failed meiosis. The three fusions sites are consistent in all the populations studied, and it is concluded that these fusions represent unique historical events rather than current chromosomal instability.

  16. Public Health and Primary Care - Partners in Population Health Griffiths Siân Gillam Stephen Hill Alison Public Health and Primary Care - Partners in Population Health 217 Oxford University Press 9780198508533 0198508530.

    PubMed

    2007-10-24

    An interesting book, it seeks to help the reader to understand the complexity of health improvement, health care and health protection - and provides a practical public health toolkit. The first chapter, 'What is public health?', provides an excellent introduction to the subject, with a brief history lesson and connections to recent white papers and relevant government reports.

  17. High-precision R-branch transition frequencies in the ν2 fundamental band of H 3+ %A Perry, Adam J.; Hodges, James N.; Markus, Charles R.; Kocheril, G. Stephen; McCall, Benjamin J.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-11-01

    The H 3+molecular ion has served as a long-standing benchmark for state-of-the-art ab initio calculations of molecular potentials and variational calculations of rovibrational energy levels. However, the accuracy of such calculations would not have been confirmed if not for the wealth of spectroscopic data that has been made available for this molecule. Recently, a new high-precision ion spectroscopy technique was demonstrated by Hodges et al., which led to the first highly accurate and precise (∼MHz) H 3+transition frequencies. As an extension of this work, we present ten additional R-branch transitions measured to similar precision as a next step toward the ultimate goal of producing a comprehensive high-precision survey of this molecule, from which rovibrational energy levels can be calculated.

  18. Creating a multi-gas proxy for Delta 14C and atmospheric fossil fuel-CO2. Kevin Coakley, John Miller , Scott Lehman, Stephen Montzka, Colm Sweeney, Arlyn Andrews , Ben Miller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coakley, K. J.; Miller, J. B.; Lehman, S.; Montzka, S. A.; Andrews, A. E.; Miller, B. R.

    2013-12-01

    The C14:C12 ratio of atmospheric CO2 (expressed as Delta 14C) is the gold standard measurement to derive the portion of observed atmospheric CO2 gradients resulting from combustion of fossil fuels (CO2-ff). This is because fossil fuels are devoid of 14C, unlike all other sources and sinks that impact atmospheric Delta14C. With enough 14C measurements, independent, 'top-down', estimation of US fossil fuel-CO2 emissions should be possible. However, our ability to make carbon-14 measurements is severely constrained by cost, accessibility to accelerator mass spectrometers (AMS) and the volume of air required to make high precision (~0.2 %) measurements of 14CO2 (mixing ratio is ~ 4e-16 mol/mol). Thus, Delta 14C is currently measured in only a small subset of NOAA/ESRL Global Monitoring Division (GMD) tall-tower and aircraft air samples. Here, we present a Projection Pursuit Regression (PPR) model to predict CO2-ff measured at different times and altitudes in terms of surrogate gases that are more widespread and relatively inexpensive to measure. This method would, in effect, allow expansion of Delta 14C measurements by factor of ~3 or 4 throughout North America. To create a proxy for CO2-ff, we take advantage of the observed correlations between (Delta 14C-derrived) CO2-ff and regional-scale enhancements of a wide array of anthropogenic gases, like CO, SF6, and halo- and hydro-carbons. We select the complexity and form of the PPR model by cross validation where validation data prediction error is minimized. In cross validation, the prediction model is based on the training data and not the validation data. We quantify prediction model performance with test data excluded from the model development process. According to cross validation, the PPR model is superior to a simpler linear model. Comparison with test CO2-ff data shows that CO2-ff can be predicted with a root mean square error of 1.1 ppm, only slightly higher than the Delta 14C-precision limit for CO2-ff of 1 ppm. Applying the PPR model to the large NOAA/ESRL/GMD database of surrogate gases, we can create a large set of synthetic CO2-ff data for the US. Finally, we will discuss the application of this large data set of lower-precision CO2-ff to top down determination of US fossil fuel CO2 emissions by presenting results from an Observation System Simulation Experiment (OSSE).

  19. A resolution offering deepest condolences to the family and friends of Officer Stephen T. Johns and calling on the leaders of all Nations to speak out against the manifestations of anti-Semitism, bigotry, and hatred.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Cardin, Benjamin L. [D-MD

    2009-06-11

    06/11/2009 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S6570-6571; text as passed Senate: CR S6571; text of measure as introduced: CR S6568) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Pacific Northwest (U.S.) In: Conversion to Sustainable Agriculture: Principles, Processes, and Practices. Stephen R. Gliessman, Martha Rosemeyer, and Sean Swezey (Editors). CRC Press Advances in Agroecology Series

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture represents a critical land use throughout the Pacific Northwest (PNW). It makes important contributions to the region’s economy, the nation’s food supply and to regional ecosystem services including air, water, and soil quality. As in many other regions of the U.S., adverse environmental...

  1. 9. Photographic copy of photocopy of bridge drawing, situation plan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photographic copy of photocopy of bridge drawing, situation plan and profile on center line (June 12, 1937, original drawing on file in Structures Section, Utah Department of Transportation, Salt Lake City, Utah). SHEET NO. 1 OF 6 SHEETS. - Gould Wash Bridge, Spanning Gould Wash at State Route 9, Hurricane, Washington County, UT

  2. 12. Photographic copy of photocopy of bridge drawing, half plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of photocopy of bridge drawing, half plans and abutment elevation (June 12, 1937, original drawing on file in Structures Section, Utah Department of Transportation, Salt Lake City, Utah). SHEET NO. 4 OF 6 SHEETS. - Gould Wash Bridge, Spanning Gould Wash at State Route 9, Hurricane, Washington County, UT

  3. 11. Photographic copy of photocopy of bridge drawing, half plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of photocopy of bridge drawing, half plans and footings (June 12, 1937, original drawing on file in Structures Section, Utah Department of Transportation, Salt Lake City, Utah). SHEET NO. 3 OF 6 SHEETS. - Gould Wash Bridge, Spanning Gould Wash at State Route 9, Hurricane, Washington County, UT

  4. 10. Photographic copy of photocopy of bridge drawing, half plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photographic copy of photocopy of bridge drawing, half plans and elevation (June 12, 1937, original drawing on file in Structures Section, Utah Department of Transportation, Salt Lake City, Utah). SHEET NO. 2 OF 6 SHEETS. - Gould Wash Bridge, Spanning Gould Wash at State Route 9, Hurricane, Washington County, UT

  5. 13. Photographic copy of photocopy of bridge drawing, plans and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photographic copy of photocopy of bridge drawing, plans and elevations (June 12, 1937, original drawing on file in Structures Section, Utah Department of Transportation, Salt Lake City, Utah). SHEET NO. 5 OF 6 SHEETS. - Gould Wash Bridge, Spanning Gould Wash at State Route 9, Hurricane, Washington County, UT

  6. 14. Photographic copy of photocopy of bridge drawing, reinforced rod ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photographic copy of photocopy of bridge drawing, reinforced rod specifications (June 12, 1937, original drawing on file in Structures Section, Utah Department of Transportation, Salt Lake City, Utah). SHEET NO. 6 OF 6 SHEETS. - Gould Wash Bridge, Spanning Gould Wash at State Route 9, Hurricane, Washington County, UT

  7. 26. Aerial photograph dated 20 June 1942, showing north end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Aerial photograph dated 20 June 1942, showing north end of Gould Island from the southwest. At upper left is firing pier. Shop building and power plant under construction at center. Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  8. Exercises for Keeping Pianists' Hands in Top Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Some pianists have idiosyncratic ways of keeping their hands and fingers relaxed. Glenn Gould, for example, religiously soaked his digits in hot water before performing or recording. While the jury is still out on the effectiveness of Gould's routine, there are plenty of other exercises and practices that will keep a pianist's fingers limber.…

  9. Mapping Mammary Carcinoma Suppressor Genes in the Laboratory Rat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    AD GRANT NUMBER DAMDI7-94-J-4040 TITLE: Mapping Mammary Carcinoma Suppressor Genes in the Laboratory Rat PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michael Gould, Ph.D...Carcinoma Suppressor Genes in the Laboratory Rat DAMDI7-94-J-4040 6. AUTHOR(S) Michael Gould, Ph.D. Hong Lan, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  10. The first records of quill mites of the family Syringophilidae (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea) from trogoniform birds (Aves: Trogoniformes).

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of quill mites of the family Syringophilidae parasitising trogoniform birds (Trogoniformes: Trogonidae) are described: Syringophiloidus quetzali sp. nov. from Pharomachrus mocinno Llave and Ph. antisianus (Orbigny); and Syringophilopsis trogoni sp. nov. from Trogon citreolus Gould and T. melanocephalus Gould. These findings are the first records of syringophilids associated with trogoniform birds.

  11. Issues and Challenges in Self-Sustaining Response Supply Chains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Supply Chains Aruna Apte, John Khawam, Eva Regnier, Jay Simon, and Daniel Nussbaum Naval Postgraduate School Published April 1, 2013 Approved for...Fully-Burdened Cost of Supply in Self-Sustaining Logistics Networks Eva Regnier, Jay Simon, Daniel Nussbaum, Aruna Apte, and John Khawam Naval...Response Supply Chains Aruna Apte, John Khawam, Eva Regnier, Jay Simon, and Daniel Nussbaum Naval Postgraduate School Lead Time Demand Modeling in

  12. Fully-Burdened Cost of Supply in Self-Sustaining Logistics Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Logistics Networks Eva Regnier, Jay Simon, Daniel Nussbaum, Aruna Apte, and John Khawam Naval Postgraduate School Published April 1, 2013 Approved for...Networks Eva Regnier, Jay Simon, Daniel Nussbaum, Aruna Apte, and John Khawam Naval Postgraduate School Platform Design for Fleet-Level Efficiency...Çeven and Kevin Gue Auburn University Issues and Challenges in Self-Sustaining Response Supply Chains Aruna Apte, John Khawam, Eva Regnier, Jay

  13. 75 FR 48895 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; MN AGENCY...) 629-2054. 4. Mail: Jay Bortzer, Chief, Air Programs Branch (AR-18J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois 60604. 5. Hand Delivery: Jay Bortzer, Chief,...

  14. Develop a General Framework for Estimating Cetacean Density from Data Collected by Slow-Moving Autonomous Ocean Vehicles, Investigating Key Aspects of Survey Design, Data Collection, and Data Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Studies Oregon State University Award Number: N00014-15-1-2142 Also in collaboration with: Jay Barlow (Southwest Fisheries Science Center) LONG...drifting hydrophones, which have been developed by Jay Barlow’s team at NOAA/NMFS Southwest Fisheries Science Center. We will co- deploy these sets of

  15. Weighing Photons Using Bathroom Scales: A Thought Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2010-01-01

    Jay Orear, in his introductory physics text, defined the weight of a person as the reading one gets when standing on a (properly calibrated) bathroom scale. Here we will use Jay's definition of weight in a thought experiment to measure the weight of a photon. The thought experiment uses the results of the Pound-Rebka-Snider experiments, Compton…

  16. 75 FR 31413 - Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... following methods: By Mail to: David Wiggins or Jay Howard-Brock, Civil Rights and Community Outreach, USDA.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Contact David Wiggins or Jay Howard- Brock, Civil Rights and... Corporation administers cooperative agreements that will be used to provide outreach and assistance to...

  17. Modeling the Structure and Effectiveness of Intelligence Organizations: Dynamic Information Flow Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    World Policy. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. [Lawrence and Lorsch , 1969] Lawrence, Paul R.; and Lorsch , Jay W. (1969... Lorsch , 1969). Though all of these assumptions lend themselves to sensitivity analysis over multiple simulation runs (DIFS saves random number seeds...Terry; Conlon, Edward J.; Deutsch, Stuart Jay ; “Organizational Effectiveness: A Multiple-Constituency Approach.” Academy of Management Review

  18. Restructuring for Homeland Security - What is Really Necessary?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-16

    Action: Social Science Bases of Administrative Theory. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967), 23-28. 7 Paul Lawrence and Jay Lorsch , Organizations and Environment...Can Meet Them. Boston: Little Brown, 2000. Lawrence, Paul and Jay Lorsch . Organizations and Environment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1967

  19. Headquarters Air Weather Service Reorganization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    Cambridge, Massachusetts: Winthrop Publishers, Inc., 1981), p. 72. 2. J. W. Lorsch , "Organization Design: A Situational Perspective," Organizational...William B. Public Organization Behavior and Development. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Winthrop Publishers, Inc., 1981. Galbraith, Jay .R. Designing...Complex Organizations. Reading, Ma.: Addison-Wesley, 1973. Galbraith, Jay R. Organization Design. Reading, Ma.: Addison-Wesley, 1977. Gardner, John W. "How

  20. Motivation and Job Satisfaction for Middle Level Career Army Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-06

    Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1959. Just, Ward. Military Men. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1970. Lawrence, Paul R. and Jay W, Lorsch ...Morse, John J. and Jay W. Lcrsch. "Beyond Theory Y." Harvard Business Review, Vol 48, No. 3, (May-June, 1970). 61-68. Business ^mitari1^’ MTW^8 IttP

  1. An Organizational Analysis Model for Navy Field-Level Comptrollership.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    Dealing With and Three of the Unit Characteristics Along Which Dif- ferentiation Is Measured Source: Jay W. Lorsch , Organizational Structure and Design...Lawrence, Paul R., and Lorsch , Jay W., (ed.), Organizational Structure andDesign, p. 2, Irwin, 1970. 26. Ullrich, Robert A. and Wieland, George F...Perrow ....... .................. .51 f. Lawrence and Lorsch ... ........... .54 g. Summary ...... ................. .58 3. Leadership Style

  2. Organizational Context of Human Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    There are other varieties in what has come to be called "contingency theory" (after the seminal work of Paul Lawrence and Jay Lorsch , 1967) reflecting...contingencies theory of intra-organizational power." ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCE QUARTERLY, 16:2 (June. 1971). 216-229. Lawrence, Paul, and Jay Lorsch . ORGANIZATIONS

  3. Determining Logistics Ground Support Manpower Requirements for a Reusable Military Launch Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    facts.asp. 1 February 2007. Walker, Arthur H. and Jay W. Lorsch . “Organizational Choice: Product versus Function,” in Classics of Organization...Theory (6th Edition). Ed. Jay M. Shafritz, J. Steven Ott, and Yong Suk Jang. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadworth, 2005. 235 West, John E

  4. Regional Education Profile: Asia. China, Hong Kong, Macau, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    Developments in international education in Asia during 1985 are considered in three essays presented in the Biennial International Education Seminars conducted by the Institute of International Education. Countries covered by the essays and the authors are: China, Hong Kong, and Thailand (Jay Henderson); Macau (Josef Silny and Jay Henderson); and…

  5. From the Classroom to the Community: Exploring the Role of Education during Incarceration and Reentry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazzell, Diana; Crayton, Anna; Mukamal, Debbie A.; Solomon, Amy L.; Lindahl, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing the pressing need to explore the issues surrounding education, incarceration, and reentry, the Prisoner Reentry Institute at John Jay College of Criminal Justice and the Urban Institute hosted the Reentry Roundtable on Education on March 31 and April 1, 2008, at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York City. The two-day…

  6. Liberty and Order in Constitutional Government: Ideas and Issues in "The Federalist Papers."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    This publication provides a brief introduction to core ideas of constitutional government in the United State as presented in "The Federalist" by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. The first of "The Federalists" papers was written by Hamilton, who joined with Jay and Madison in this series of essays to refute the…

  7. Wave Release Strategies to Improve Service in Order Fulfillment Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Logistics Management Fully-Burdened Cost of Supply in Self-Sustaining Logistics Networks Eva Regnier, Jay Simon, Daniel Nussbaum, Aruna Apte...Challenges in Self-Sustaining Response Supply Chains Aruna Apte, John Khawam, Eva Regnier, Jay Simon, and Daniel Nussbaum Naval Postgraduate School Lead

  8. Addressing Counterfeit Parts in the DoD Supply Chain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    465 - = Logistics Management Fully-Burdened Cost of Supply in Self-Sustaining Logistics Networks Eva Regnier, Jay Simon, Daniel Nussbaum, Aruna ...Challenges in Self-Sustaining Response Supply Chains Aruna Apte, John Khawam, Eva Regnier, Jay Simon, and Daniel Nussbaum Naval Postgraduate School

  9. Lead Time Demand Modeling in Continuous Review Supply Chain Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Jay Simon, Daniel Nussbaum, Aruna Apte, and John Khawam Naval Postgraduate School Platform Design for Fleet-Level Efficiency: Application for Air...Gue Auburn University Issues and Challenges in Self-Sustaining Response Supply Chains Aruna Apte, John Khawam, Eva Regnier, Jay Simon, and Daniel

  10. Brain cholinesterase inhibition in songbirds from pecan groves sprayed with phosaline and disulfoton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Seginak, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    Disulfoton at 0.83 kg/ha caused moderate to severe brain cholinesterase (ChE) depression in 11 of 15 blue jays collected in pecan groves 6-7 hr after the application. Phosalone at 0.83 kg/ha to pecan groves caused only slight ChE inhibition in a few blue jays and red-bellied woodpeckers.

  11. The Geologic Story of Arches National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lohman, Stanley William

    1975-01-01

    According to former Superintendent Bates Wilson (1956), Prof. Lawrence M. Gould, of the University of Michigan, was the first to recognize the geologic and scenic values of the Arches area in eastern Utah and to urge its creation as a national monument. Mrs. Faun McConkie Tanner told me that Professor Gould, who had done a thesis problem in the nearby La Sal Mountains, was first taken through the area by Marv Turnbow, third owner of Wolfe cabin. (See p. 12.) When Professor Gould went into ecstasy over the beautiful scenery, Turnbow replied, 'I didn't know there was anything unusual about it.'

  12. Signs of Drug Use and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts ... Antonio_Diaz Matt's brother Stephen is addicted to meth. Matt wants to help Stephen, but he isn' ...

  13. Letters in this Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    Reforming the General Chemistry Textbook individual letters by Edward T. Samulski; Stephen J. Hawkes; Stephen J. Fisher; J. Stephen Hartman; A. R. H. Cole; Stanley Pine, Ronald Archer, and Herbert Kaesz; Jimmy Reeves; Robert Hill; and Brock Spencer, C. Bradley Moore and Nedah Rose. Re: article by R. J. Gillespie The author replies

  14. 78 FR 35930 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... of Atlanta (Chapelle Davis, Assistant Vice President) 1000 Peachtree Street NE., Atlanta, Georgia 30309: 1. Charles P. Stephens, Atlanta, Georgia, individually and as trustee of MAD Trust for S.D... D. Stephens, Atlanta, Georgia, individually and as trustee of MAD Trust for S.D. Stephens, MAD...

  15. 76 FR 22879 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Update of the Shoreline Management Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... should be addressed to Mr. Stephen L. Nolen, Chief, Environmental Analysis and Compliance Branch, Tulsa... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Stephen L. Nolen, (918) 669-7660, fax: (918) 669-7546, e-mail: Stephen.L...) infrastructure, (8) lake water quality, (9) traffic patterns, (10) terrestrial and aquatic fish and...

  16. 77 FR 63329 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submitted for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ..._Docket@omb.eop.gov . Also, please send a copy of your comments to Stephen Chubb, Regulatory Specialist... ICR 1012-0004 in your comments. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Stephen Chubb, Regulatory Specialist, email Stephen.Chubb@onrr.gov . You may also contact Mr. Chubb to obtain copies, at no cost, of (1)...

  17. Autism and mental health: your guide to today's mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Gould, Judith

    Autism is not a mental health disorder, but it sometimes is misdiagnosed as one--and can bring its own mental health issues. Dr Judith Gould explains how a mental health problem may mask an undiagnosed autistic spectrum disorder.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Manitoba oculotrichoanal syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sources for This Page GeneReview: Manitoba Oculotrichoanal Syndrome Li C, Marles SL, Greenberg CR, Chodirker BN, van ... Maga AM, Hassan MG, Gould DB, Madireddy L, Li C, Cox TC, Smyth I, Chudley AE, Zenker ...

  19. 17. Interior first level view looking north within forward (north) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Interior first level view looking north within forward (north) section of firing pier. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  20. 18. Interior first level view looking northnortheast within forward (north) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Interior first level view looking north-northeast within forward (north) section of firing pier, with office module toward foreground. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  1. 75 FR 72784 - Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail, the Helmville-Gould trail, grizzly bear, elk, and bull trout habitat and conflicts with motorized and non-motorized uses. These topics generated the...

  2. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  3. 11. Submersible torpedo tube mounted on platform of elevator at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Submersible torpedo tube mounted on platform of elevator at northeast (starboard) elevator tower. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  4. Review of the dWind Model Conceptual Results

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, Ian; Gleason, Michael; Preus, Robert; Sigrin, Ben

    2015-09-16

    This presentation provides an overview of the dWind model, including its purpose, background, and current status. Baring-Gould presented this material as part of the September 2015 WINDExchange webinar.

  5. 53. DETAIL OF HONEYWELL PROPELLANT UTILIZATION TEST SET (RIGHT); ASSOCIATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. DETAIL OF HONEYWELL PROPELLANT UTILIZATION TEST SET (RIGHT); ASSOCIATED GOULD BRUSH CHART RECORDER (LEFT) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 12. View to north along recovery dock along east side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View to north along recovery dock along east side of firing pier. Steel brackets originally supported a sheltering canopy over the dock. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  7. 44. 'Submarine Torpedo Tube Foundation and Towers,' Y&D Drawing 226855, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. 'Submarine Torpedo Tube Foundation and Towers,' Y&D Drawing 226855, approved by Bureau of Ordnance. Dated 20 October 1943. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  8. Approaching Adult Education Literature Using the Donlevy Template of Perspectives: A Focus on the Psychological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlevy, James G.; Donlevy, Tia Rice

    1998-01-01

    Provides brief descriptions of adult education from technological, psychological, ideological, and sociological perspectives. Author examines the psychological perspective, highlighting the work of Jack Mezirow (transformation theory), Roger Gould (seven-step adult development process), Patricia Cranton (Understanding and Promoting Transformative…

  9. Identification and Validation of New Anthropometric Techniques for Quantifying Body Composition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-16

    estimates of the true values for measures of body size, shape, composition and function . If equipment is manufactured properly, is well maintained and...State University using a Gould MlOOB Pulmonary Function Analyser. For this procedure, the participant sat in a chair alongside the Gould machine in a... ovulation could have been a random effect without biological significance. Nevertheless, the findings from this pilot study warranted obtaining serial data

  10. 27. Aerial photograph dated 14 October 1943 taken directly over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Aerial photograph dated 14 October 1943 taken directly over Gould Island. Completed complex shown at north end of the island (to right in photograph), including power plant, shop, frame approach, firing pier, and small harbor formed by finger pier off east side of firing pier. Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  11. 25. Aerial photograph dated 20 June 1942, showing north end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Aerial photograph dated 20 June 1942, showing north end of Gould Island from the northeast (caption on photo is in error). Shop and power plant under construction at left, firing pier under construction at far right. Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  12. The Eleventh Quadrennial Review of Military Compensation. Main Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    skills involve the ability to read ( R ), listen (L), and speak (S) a particular language. Proficiency levels are measured on a federal govern- ment...overwhelming majority of World War II casualties. 62. The history of combat pay provided here is based on the in-depth historical review in Brandon R . Gould...member’s presence within a defined “combat 63. The historical information provided here on the CZTE is drawn from Brandon R . Gould and Stanley A

  13. Enhancing Productivity through Feedback and Goal Setting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    techniques. Special appreciation is expressed to Dr. William Alley, Dr. Joe T. Hazel, and Dr. Raymond E. Christal who provided sustained interest and support...research ( Christal , 1973; Gould, 1976; Tuttle, Gould, & Hazel, 1975) which has investigated job satisfaction, retention, motivation, rewards, and...likelihood decision strategy. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1970, 86, 393-397. Christal , R.E. The United States Air Force occupational research proj

  14. Investigation of Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Battery Safety Hazards.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE BATTERY SAFETY HAZARDS(U) GOULD RESEARCH CENTER ROLLING MEADOWS IL MATERIALS LAB A I ATTIA ET...838-012 7 ontract No. 60921-81-C-0363 6// Investigation of Lithium - Thionyl Chloride Battery Safety Hazards AD A 1 T 2 , Alan I. Attia Gould Research...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Investigation of Lithium - Thionyl Chloride Final Report Battery Safety Hazards 9/28/81 - 12/31/82 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT

  15. Novel Cytochrome P45OlBl as a Mammary Cancer Risk Factor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    initiation of the cancer process results from a mutational event that requires replication of DNA which has been modified by the metabolite. The...surveillance processes typically prevent this event by preventing replication [cell cycle arrest], by stimulating repair, and by diverting damaged cells...Gould and the UW Comprehensive Cancer Center Cell Bank. The mammary tissue was processed and organoids isolated in the Gould laboratory, according to

  16. A Compilation Catalog in the Direction of the Galactic Center.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-18

    and Argelander 1890) 3) Catalogo de Zonas Estrellas (GA; Gould 1884a, b) 4) Catalogue of 12441 Stars for the Epoch 1880 (Cp 80; Stone 1881) 2 5... Catalogo General Argentino (Gou; Gould 1886) 6) Catalogo de 15200 Estrellas (Cord B; Perrine 1914) 7) Albany Zone Catalogue of 8276 Stars Between -200 and...410 for the Epoch 1900 (Alb00 ; Boss 1918) 8) San Luis Catalogue of 15333 Stars for the Epcoh 1910 (SL; Tucker, Roy, and Varnum 1928) 9) Catalogo

  17. Ada (Trade name) Validation Summary Report: TeleSoft, Inc., TeleSoft Ada Compiler, Version 2.3C3 for the Gould CONCEPT/32 (Trade name) Model 6750 under MPX, Version 3.2. Completion of On-Site Validation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-06

    B.ADA P B62001E-B.ADA P C62003B-B.ADA P C65003A-B.ADA P B63006P-B.ADA P c63004A-AB.ADA P C65003B-B.ADA P B63005A- ABADA P C62006A-B.ADA P C66002DA...B.ADA P B63005B-AB.ADA P C63004A-AB.ADA P C66002C-AB.ADA P B63005A-AB.ADA P c6�B-B.ADA P C66002D- ABADA P% B63005B-AB.ADA P C64OO0IG-B.ADA P C66002E

  18. Comment on "Conformational analysis of triphenylphosphine ligands in stereogenic monometallic complexes: tools for predicting the preferred configuration of the triphenylphosphine rotor" by J. F. Costello, S. G. Davies, E. T. F. Gould and J. E. Thomson, Dalton Trans., 2015, 44, 5451.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Henri; Tsuno, Takashi

    2017-03-27

    In half-sandwich compounds of the type [Cp*ML(1)L(2)PPh3] the PPh3 propeller is stabilized by attractive CH/π interactions in which Co-H bonds specifically interact with the Ci and Co atoms of neighbouring phenyl rings, as in the T-shaped benzene dimer (i/o = ipso/ortho). This stabilization was not taken into account in a recent conformational analysis based on van der Waals energy calculations and minimization of steric compression (Dalton Trans., 2015, 44, 5451-5466). It is shown that in all 116 structures discussed in this analysis the CoH-Ci/o distances fall below the sum of the van der Waals radii, establishing attractive CH/π interactions, although the short contacts could easily be avoided by phenyl rotation to relieve steric strain. In 53 of the described structures there are acyl substituents which form conformation-determining Co-HO(acyl) hydrogen bonds that are not taken into account in the recent analysis. The steric-only model is not an adequate description of M-PPh3 complexes.

  19. Renewable Energy System Feasibility Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    estimate of economic feasibility. The machines, representing a wide range of rated output, were: Aerowat 4.1 kw, Millville 10 kw, Jay Carter 25 kw...Mehrkam 100 kw 2" Jay Carter 25 kw Aerowatt 4.1 kw Millville 10 kw 22 01 04 07 10 13 16 19 22 Time of Day Figure B-1. Average Expected Power 74 20 /18 1...Mehrkam 225 kw 16 152 13i :3 0 S 10- 0 9- o " 8 4Mehrkam 100 kw> 7 6 5 4 13 Jay Carter 25 k, 2 Aerowatt 4.1 kw l Millville 10 kw JAN FEB MAR APR MAY

  20. 76 FR 43691 - Unique Device Identification for Postmarket Surveillance and Enforcement; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ...-mail, and telephone number. For those without Internet access, please contact Jay Crowley (see Contact..., information about lodging, and other relevant information on the Internet at http://www.fda.gov/UDI . Comments... Sentinel Initiative, on the Internet at...

  1. "The 'Effects' of Infant Day Care Reconsidered" Reconsidered: Risks for Parents, Children, and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison

    1988-01-01

    Reviews Jay Belsky's "The 'Effects' of Infant Day Care Reconsidered," and offers a different conclusion: that the mother's attitudes toward the infant and toward her employment status may mediate day care effects on attachment and aggression. (SKC)

  2. Organizing on the Edge: Appreciation and Critique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Philadelphia: Temple University Press. 16 Lawrence, Paul R., and Jay Lorsch 1967. Organization and Environment: Managing Differentiation and...meet varying circumstances (chap. 6). The arguments are fundamentally based on a contingency theoretic view of organizations (Lawrence and Lorsch

  3. A potpourri of practical (or not) projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riendeau, Diane

    2010-11-01

    Special thanks to Frank Noschese, John Jay High School, and Karen Boone, Hallettsville High School. If you have a favorite video, please send the link and a brief description to: Diane Riendeau at driendeau@dist113.org.

  4. 2. VIEW SOUTH, LOCK ENTRANCE Bald Eagle CrossCut Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH, LOCK ENTRANCE - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  5. 17. DETAIL OF FRAGMENTS FROM WEST GATE (off site) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF FRAGMENTS FROM WEST GATE (off site) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  6. 5. VIEW SOUTHWEST, INTERIOR CANAL WALL (Original Fabric) Bald ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SOUTHWEST, INTERIOR CANAL WALL (Original Fabric) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  7. West Branch Pennsylvania Canal, Lock No. 34 Lock Keeper's House, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West Branch Pennsylvania Canal, Lock No. 34 Lock Keeper's House, South of State Route 664 along North bank of West Branch of Susquehanna River, 2,000 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  8. Panel and Audience Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Helen; Alberts, Bruce; Stith, James H.; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Orpwood, Graham

    1997-04-01

    Participating Panelists: Bruce Alberts, National Academy of Sciences James H. Stith, Department of Physics, Ohio State University Jay M. Pasachoff, Astronomy Department, Williams College Graham Orpwood, Faculty of Education, York University

  9. Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Colaptes auratus American crow Corvus brachyrhynchos blue jay Cyanocitta cristata yellow warbler Dendroica petechia wood thrush Hylocichla...22192-5073 Attn: Sandra Oliver Central Rappahannock Regional Library 1201 Caroline Street Fredericksburg,VA 22401 Attn: Ann Haley

  10. J. E. McPherson, educator and researcher extraordinaire: Biographical sketch and list of publications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biographical sketch of Dr. John E. (Jay) McPherson, emeritus professor at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, highlighting his teaching and research career is presented and a list of his 183 publications is provided....

  11. Infant Constipation: How Is It Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. References Sood MR. Functional constipation in infants and children: Clinical features ... uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 21, 2016. Sood MR. Prevention and treatment of acute constipation in infants ...

  12. Men and Sexual Trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Longer: Men Recovering from Incest and Other Sexual Child Abuse by Mike Lew, Foreword by Ellen Bass. (1990). ... Heroic Men: A Man's Guide to Recovering from Child Abuse by Daniel Jay Sonkin and Lenore E. A. ...

  13. Explorations Precursor Robotic Missions (xPRM)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Jay Jenkins delivers a presentation from the Exploration Precursor Robotic Missions (xPRM) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose...

  14. 78 FR 52965 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Incidental Take Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... anticipates taking about 1.49 acres of foraging, breeding, and sheltering habitat used by the Florida scrub... anticipates taking 1.49 acre of Florida scrub-jay breeding, feeding, and sheltering habitat for...

  15. 78 FR 10202 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of an Application for an Incidental Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... anticipates taking about 2.99 acres of foraging, breeding, and sheltering habitat used by the Florida scrub... acres of scrub-jay, indigo snake, and gopher tortoise breeding, feeding, and sheltering...

  16. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... cleaners, unused medicines, motor oil, and certain lightbulbs. Algae blooms. Too much harmful algae (say: AL-jay) in freshwater or seawater can make beaches unsafe for people. Algae are very small plants that are usually in ...

  17. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy of ca. 1915 view. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy of ca. 1915 view. Courtesy Jay R. L. de Sibour, 1972 MASSACHUSETTS AVENUE FACADE - Clarence Moore House, 1746 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Explorer in Hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Haley, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Written in 1957, this paper was Jay Haley's first attempt to organize his impressions of Milton Erickson. The article captures the essence of Erickson: the man, his early concepts of the trance state, his flexibility in trance induction, and his delight in working with those considered "resistant subjects." In this early paper, Jay Haley clearly recognizes Erickson's potential impact on therapy and clinicians around the world. This paper reminds readers of the importance of therapeutic relationship and the power of effective communication.

  19. Decision Support Systems in the Public Sector; A Cybernetic Model for the Proactive Organization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    Revolutions, 2nd edition, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press). Lawrence, Paul R. and Jay W. Lorsch (196 7a) "Differentiation and Integration in Complex...Organizations," in Litterer (1969) pp. 229- 253. Lawrence, Paul R. and Jay W. Lorsch (1967b) Organization and Environment, 1985 reprint, (Boston...price cutting by competitors.) (1970:18) Lawrence and Lorsch : ... an organization is an active system which tends to reach out and order its otherwise

  20. Standing Combined Arms for the Heavy Brigade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Complexity: The Emerging Science at the Edge of Order and Chaos. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992. Walker, Arthur H. and Jay W. Lorsch . “Organizational...For a succinct but illustrative survey see Jay M. Shaffritz and Philip H. Whitbeck, eds., Classics of Organizational Theory (Oak Park, IL: Moore...under its various factory managers groups along product lines. Walker and Lorsch argued that what should drive the design of the organization is the