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Sample records for stephen jay gould

  1. Stephen Jay Gould on intelligence.

    PubMed

    Korb, K B

    1994-08-01

    In The Mismeasure of Man (1981) Stephen Jay Gould provides a typically readable history of one of our most vexatious intellectual enterprises: the scientific study of intelligence. Gould is successful, as always, in rendering the relevant scientific debates accessible to general readers. What Gould does less well is to carry through his attack on prior attempts to understand natural intelligence scientifically: attempting to muster all possible arguments against such science, he conjures up a variety of impossible arguments as well. One such argument urges that Gould's predecessors are not to be taken seriously because they are racists and have let their racism influence their scientific practice. Gould has no difficulty in demonstrating the influence of racism; where he goes astray is in his dismissal of such prior work as simply unscientific because the racist conclusions preceded the collection of data. Advancing hypotheses prior to experimentation is how all of science proceeds, and is no mark of inferior work. And no science is immune to influences--racist or otherwise--from the culture in which it is embedded, as Gould elsewhere readily acknowledges. Another failed argument claims that all of the factor analysts studying intelligence have committed the intellectual sin of reifying the factors uncovered in IQ tests--concluding that the factors are real solely on the basis of how a factor analysis summarizes IQ data. Gould concludes that factor analysis is worthless for the study of intelligence. However: (1) contrary to what Gould suggests, the factor analysts themselves warned against concluding that the factors "discovered" are physiologically real merely on the basis of a factor analysis; and (2) factor analysis nevertheless remains a strong candidate technique for developing causal models worth investigating subsequently by other means.

  2. Stephen Jay Gould on Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korb, Kevin B.

    1994-01-01

    Critiques ideas expressed by Gould in "The Mismeasure of Man." Agrees with Gould that many scientists who studied human intelligence were racist, but disagrees that their work must therefore necessarily be dismissed. Disputes Gould's claim that factor analysts who study human intelligence have reified their factors and that factor analysis is…

  3. Stephen Jay Gould as a political theorist.

    PubMed

    Prindle, David

    2006-01-01

    Before his death in 2002, paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould elaborated a large and inclusive theory of life's change. In this essay I concentrate on the aspects of Gould's vast theory that have the most direct political relevance. I briefly discuss his views on the philosophy of science. I examine the way he combined political values and methodology in a seamless, critical analysis of intelligence-testing and sociobiology. I concentrate most extensively on the impact his "punctuated equilibria" concept has made on contemporary political analysis, and I demonstrate that in their appropriation of this concept political scientists have violated the rules that Gould himself articulated for its use. In closing, I consider the possibility that a comprehensive theory of life, a theory that must include political values, might approach traditional questions of political thought more satisfyingly than has conventional philosophy.

  4. Science and the Humanities: Stephen Jay Gould's Quest to Join the High Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruse, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Stephen Jay Gould was a scientist, a paleobiologist, who was also a professional-level historian of science. This essay explores Gould's work, showing how he used the history of science to further his agenda as a working scientist.

  5. Joltin' Joe and the Pursuit of Excellence: An Interview with Stephen Jay Gould.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Mark F.

    1997-01-01

    Award-winning science author and Harvard professor Stephen Jay Gould shares some views on education and contemporary American culture. Gould's most enthusiastic school memory is singing in an all-city chorus. Harvard students are bright and motivated but have no shared culture, historical perspective, or foreign language proficiency. Gould favors…

  6. Science and the Humanities: Stephen Jay Gould's Quest to Join the High Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruse, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Stephen Jay Gould was a scientist, a paleobiologist, who was also a professional-level historian of science. This essay explores Gould's work, showing how he used the history of science to further his agenda as a working scientist.

  7. Reflections on Stephen Jay Gould's "The Mismeasure of Man" (1981): A Retrospective Review. Book Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John B.

    1995-01-01

    It is argued that the statements and accusations made by Stephen Jay Gould about the use of factor analysis are incorrect and unjustified and that tests properly designed for the purpose can adequately measure a "general" or "g" factor of intelligence, particularly in view of the developments in testing since "The Mismeasure of Man" was written.…

  8. The History of Nature and the Nature of History: Stephen Jay Gould on Science, Philosophy, and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaser, Kent

    1999-01-01

    Considers Stephen Jay Gould's writings on the nature of history, specifically on the relationship between science and history. Addresses the scientific method, the foundations and procedures of historical explanation in science, history as contingency, and evolution as history. (CMK)

  9. Claiming Darwin: Stephen Jay Gould in contests over evolutionary orthodoxy and public perception, 1977-2002.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Myrna Perez

    2014-03-01

    This article analyzes the impact of the resurgence of American creationism in the early 1980s on debates within post-synthesis evolutionary biology. During this period, many evolutionists criticized Harvard biologist Stephen Jay Gould for publicizing his revisions to traditional Darwinian theory and opening evolution to criticism by creationists. Gould's theory of punctuated equilibrium was a significant source of contention in these disputes. Both he and his critics, including Richard Dawkins, claimed to be carrying the mantle of Darwinian evolution. By the end of the 1990s, the debate over which evolutionary thinkers were the rightful heirs to Darwin's evolutionary theory was also a conversation over whether Darwinism could be defended against creationists in the broader cultural context. Gould and others' claims to Darwin shaped the contours of a political, religious and scientific controversy. PMID:24457049

  10. Claiming Darwin: Stephen Jay Gould in contests over evolutionary orthodoxy and public perception, 1977-2002.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Myrna Perez

    2014-03-01

    This article analyzes the impact of the resurgence of American creationism in the early 1980s on debates within post-synthesis evolutionary biology. During this period, many evolutionists criticized Harvard biologist Stephen Jay Gould for publicizing his revisions to traditional Darwinian theory and opening evolution to criticism by creationists. Gould's theory of punctuated equilibrium was a significant source of contention in these disputes. Both he and his critics, including Richard Dawkins, claimed to be carrying the mantle of Darwinian evolution. By the end of the 1990s, the debate over which evolutionary thinkers were the rightful heirs to Darwin's evolutionary theory was also a conversation over whether Darwinism could be defended against creationists in the broader cultural context. Gould and others' claims to Darwin shaped the contours of a political, religious and scientific controversy.

  11. "Replaying Life's Tape": Simulations, metaphors, and historicity in Stephen Jay Gould's view of life.

    PubMed

    Sepkoski, David

    2016-08-01

    In a famous thought experiment, Stephen Jay Gould asked whether, if one could somehow rewind the history of life back to its initial starting point, the same results would obtain when the "tape" was run forward again. This hypothetical experiment is generally understood as a metaphor supporting Gould's philosophy of evolutionary contingency, which he developed and promoted from the late 1980s until his death in 2002. However, there was a very literal, non-metaphorical inspiration for Gould's thought experiment: since the early 1970s, Gould, along with a group of other paleontologists, was actively engaged in attempts to model and reconstruct the history of life using computer simulations and database analysis. These simulation projects not only demonstrate the impact that computers had on data analysis in paleontology, but also shed light on the close relationship between models and empirical data in data-oriented science. In a sense, I will argue, the models developed by paleontologists through simulation and quantitative analysis of the empirical fossil record in the 1970s and beyond were literal attempts to "replay life's tape" by reconstructing the history of life as data.

  12. Science, Intelligence, and Educational Policy: The Mismeasure of Frankenstein (with Apologies to Mary Shelley and Stephen Jay Gould).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zappardino, Pamela

    Stephen Jay Gould points out in "The Mismeasure of Man" (1981), "Science, since people must do it, is a socially embedded activity. It progresses by hunch, vision, and intuition." The legacy of the traditional construct of intelligence and its measurement through intelligence quotient (IQ) tests has not been educational improvement. Its legacy in…

  13. This view of science: Stephen Jay Gould as historian of science and scientific historian, popular scientist and scientific popularizer.

    PubMed

    Shermer, Michael B

    2002-08-01

    Science historian Ronald Numbers once remarked that the two most influential historians of science of the 20th century were Thomas Kuhn and Stephen Jay Gould. All historians are deeply familiar with Kuhn's work and influence, and most know of the remarkable impact Gould has had on evolutionary theory through both his professional and popular works. But little attention has been paid to the depth, scope, and importance of Gould's rôle as historian and philosopher of science, and his use of popular science exposition to reinforce old knowledge and generate new. This paper presents the results of an extensive quantitative content analysis of Gould's 22 books, 101 book reviews, 479 scientific papers, and 300 Natural History essays, in terms of their subject matter (Evolutionary Theory, History and Philosophy of Science, Natural History, Paleontology/Geology, Social Science/Commentary), and thematic dichotomies (Theory-Data, Time's Arrow-Time's Cycle, Adaptationism- Nonadaptationalism, Punctuationism-Gradualism, Contingency-Necessity). Special emphasis is placed on the interaction between the subjects and themata, how Gould has used the history of science to reinforce his evolutionary theory (and vice versa), and how his philosophy of science has influenced both his evolutionary theory and his historiography. That philosophy can best be summed up in a quotation from Charles Darwin, frequently cited by Gould: 'All observation must be for or against some view if it is to be of any service'. Gould followed Darwin's advice throughout his career, including his extensive writings on the history and philosophy of science.

  14. This View of Science: Stephen Jay Gould as Historian of Science and Scientific Historian, Popular Scientist and Scientific Popularizer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermer, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    Presents the results of an extensive quantitative content analysis of Gould's 22 books, 101 book reviews, 479 scientific papers, and 300 Natural History essays, in terms of subject matter, and thematic dichotomies. Emphasizes the interaction between the subjects and themata, how Gould has used the history of science to reinforce his evolutionary…

  15. Stephen Jay Kline on systems, or physics, complex systems, and the gap between.

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Philip LaRoche

    2011-06-01

    At the end of his life, Stephen Jay Kline, longtime professor of mechanical engineering at Stanford University, completed a book on how to address complex systems. The title of the book is 'Conceptual Foundations of Multi-Disciplinary Thinking' (1995), but the topic of the book is systems. Kline first establishes certain limits that are characteristic of our conscious minds. Kline then establishes a complexity measure for systems and uses that complexity measure to develop a hierarchy of systems. Kline then argues that our minds, due to their characteristic limitations, are unable to model the complex systems in that hierarchy. Computers are of no help to us here. Our attempts at modeling these complex systems are based on the way we successfully model some simple systems, in particular, 'inert, naturally-occurring' objects and processes, such as what is the focus of physics. But complex systems overwhelm such attempts. As a result, the best we can do in working with these complex systems is to use a heuristic, what Kline calls the 'Guideline for Complex Systems.' Kline documents the problems that have developed due to 'oversimple' system models and from the inappropriate application of a system model from one domain to another. One prominent such problem is the Procrustean attempt to make the disciplines that deal with complex systems be 'physics-like.' Physics deals with simple systems, not complex ones, using Kline's complexity measure. The models that physics has developed are inappropriate for complex systems. Kline documents a number of the wasteful and dangerous fallacies of this type.

  16. Many ways of being human, the Stephen J. Gould's legacy to Palaeo-Anthropology (2002-2012).

    PubMed

    Pievani, Telmo

    2012-01-01

    As an invertebrate palaeontologist and evolutionary theorist, Stephen J. Gould did not publish any direct experimental results in palaeo-anthropology (with the exception of Pilbeam and Gould, 1974), but he did prepare the stage for many debates within the discipline. We argue here that his scientific legacy in the anthropological fields has a clear and coherent conceptual structure. It is based on four main pillars: (1) the famed deconstruction of the "ladder of progress" as an influential metaphor in human evolution; (2) Punctuated Equilibria and their significance in human macro-evolution viewed as a directionless "bushy tree" of species; (3) the trade-offs between functional and structural factors in evolution and the notion of exaptation; (4) delayed growth, or neoteny, as an evidence in human evolution. These keystones should be considered as consequences of the enduring theoretical legacy of the eminent Harvard evolutionist: the proposal of an extended and revised Darwinism, coherently outlined in the last twenty years of his life (1982-2002) and set out in 2002 in his final work, The Structure of Evolutionary Theory. It is in the light of his "Darwinian pluralism", able to integrate in a new frame the multiplicity of explanatory patterns emerging from different evolutionary fields, that we understand Stephen J. Gould's legacy in palaeo-anthropology today, both in terms of provocative shocks to comfortable visions of human evolution and, above all, in terms of specific scientific predictions about future research.

  17. Gould talking past Dawkins on the unit of selection issue.

    PubMed

    Istvan, M A

    2013-09-01

    My general aim is to clarify the foundational difference between Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Dawkins concerning what biological entities are the units of selection in the process of evolution by natural selection. First, I recapitulate Gould's central objection to Dawkins's view that genes are the exclusive units of selection. According to Gould, it is absurd for Dawkins to think that genes are the exclusive units of selection when, after all, genes are not the exclusive interactors: those agents directly engaged with, directly impacted by, environmental pressures. Second, I argue that Gould's objection still goes through even when we take into consideration Sterelny and Kitcher's defense of gene selectionism in their admirable paper "The Return of the Gene." Third, I propose a strategy for defending Dawkins that I believe obviates Gould's objection. Drawing upon Elisabeth Lloyd's careful taxonomy of the various understandings of the unit of selection at play in the philosophy of biology literature, my proposal involves realizing that Dawkins endorses a different understanding of the unit of selection than Gould holds him to, an understanding that does not require genes to be the exclusive interactors.

  18. Gould talking past Dawkins on the unit of selection issue.

    PubMed

    Istvan, M A

    2013-09-01

    My general aim is to clarify the foundational difference between Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Dawkins concerning what biological entities are the units of selection in the process of evolution by natural selection. First, I recapitulate Gould's central objection to Dawkins's view that genes are the exclusive units of selection. According to Gould, it is absurd for Dawkins to think that genes are the exclusive units of selection when, after all, genes are not the exclusive interactors: those agents directly engaged with, directly impacted by, environmental pressures. Second, I argue that Gould's objection still goes through even when we take into consideration Sterelny and Kitcher's defense of gene selectionism in their admirable paper "The Return of the Gene." Third, I propose a strategy for defending Dawkins that I believe obviates Gould's objection. Drawing upon Elisabeth Lloyd's careful taxonomy of the various understandings of the unit of selection at play in the philosophy of biology literature, my proposal involves realizing that Dawkins endorses a different understanding of the unit of selection than Gould holds him to, an understanding that does not require genes to be the exclusive interactors. PMID:23806523

  19. Karla jay.

    PubMed

    Jay, K

    2000-01-01

    SUMMARY Karla Jay discusses Tales of the Lavender Menace: A Memoir of Liberation (published in 1999). She engages the connections between the personal and the political in her memoir. The reception by readers, family relations, the history of the feminist movement, racism, and homophobia are also deliberated in relation to the writing "process" and the motivations to write.

  20. The rhetorical construction of Eldredge and Gould's article on the theory of punctuated equilibria in 1972.

    PubMed

    Cachón, Vladimir; Barahona, Ana; Ayala, Francisco J

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to show how several rhetorical tools were used and, in fact, played a central role in the argumentation advanced by Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould in their 1972 seminal article on the theory of Punctuated Equilibria. It is analyzed how Eldredge and Gould proceeded through three steps that, sequentially integrated, made their argument compelling. It is shown how they made use of analogies, metaphors and other rhetorical tools. It is sustained that they began by priming the reader to distrust the current interpretation of the fossil record offered by most paleontologists and then, in a second step, they used specific visual representations in order to suggest that the competitor theory was committed to the idea of an even and slow evolution at a constant rate, an image utilized by them as straw man. Finally, it is analyzed how, in their third step, Eldredge and Gould made use of several rhetorical arguments to present their theory as new for paleontology while, at the same time, placing it well inside the frame of the modern synthesis, and how they also managed to present their theory as more promising and capable of making predictions for future researches than the competitor theory.

  1. Gould Belt Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Leticia; Loinard, Laurent; Dzib, Sergio

    2013-07-01

    Using archive VLA data and recent observations on the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array it is worked on a semi-automatic python/CASA code to select, reduce and plot several young stars belonging to the Ophiuchus core. This code mean to help to select observations made along the 30 years of the VLA done in the selected area with the wide configurations A and B, and in the X and C band, to determine their position and compare it with the most recent ones. In this way it is possible to determinate their proper motion with very high precision. It is presented the phases of the process and our first results worked on three well know stars: S1, DoAr 21 and VLA1623. This is the tip of a bigger work that includes Taurus molecular cloud and other important recent star formation regions belonging to the Gould Belt. Our goal is to support the most suitable among several theories about Gould Belt origin or provide a new one taking in count the dynamics of those regions.

  2. Blue jays nest in an unusual structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin L.; Lyons, Curtis P.; Sedgwick, James A.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a successful Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata) nest in an unusual structure on the side of a building.  The nest was located near the edge of the species' range along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado.  The nest was completely obvious, suggesting that the structure itself provided adequate cover and sercurity for the jays.  Blue Jays appear to be declining in some areas of the United States such as the Southeast.  Structures such as the one we describe may be more useful in attracting Blue Jays than the nesting platforms available commercially.

  3. Evolving to the Beat of a Different Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents arguments against the recent "punctuated equilibrium" point of view expressed by evolutionists Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge. Reviews evidence for continuous and gradual change, as recently cited by four anthropologists in the July 9 issue of "Nature." (CS)

  4. Weight for Stephen Finlay.

    PubMed

    Evers, Daan

    2013-04-01

    According to Stephen Finlay, 'A ought to X' means that X-ing is more conducive to contextually salient ends than relevant alternatives. This in turn is analysed in terms of probability. I show why this theory of 'ought' is hard to square with a theory of a reason's weight which could explain why 'A ought to X' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X-es. I develop two theories of weight to illustrate my point. I first look at the prospects of a theory of weight based on expected utility theory. I then suggest a simpler theory. Although neither allows that 'A ought to X' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X-es, this price may be accepted. For there remains a strong pragmatic relation between these claims. PMID:23576822

  5. Stephen Hawking's Universe. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Malcolm H.; Rameau, Jonathan D.

    This program guide is meant to help teachers assist their students in viewing the six-part public television series, "Stephen Hawking's Universe." The guide features program summaries that give background information and brief synopses of the programs; previewing activities that familiarize students with the subject; vocabulary that gives…

  6. SA Innovation Lecture Stephen Shapiro

    NASA Video Gallery

    Stephen Shapiro, one of America’s foremost innovation advisers, joined us on January 19th to show us how innovation isn’t just about generating occasional new ideas; it’s about making it a re...

  7. An Interview with Stephen Vitiello

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Stephen Vitiello is a world-renowned contemporary sound artist whom the author has known as a colleague for several years. This article presents an interview about the overall body of Vitiello's work to date, and his thoughts on teaching at Virginia Commonwealth University. The interview explores the creative and noncreative tensions between…

  8. Losing Jay: A Meditation on Teaching while Grieving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Blaise Astra

    2009-01-01

    The author's partner Jay died on May 23, 2006. It was sudden and unexpected--he was 31, the author was 30. Her grief was prolonged and agonizing, and she has since learned that doctors refer to her condition as "complicated grief." Truly, she is not sure how she survived the first year after Jay's death. She certainly was not convinced she wanted…

  9. 50 CFR 21.46 - Depredation order for depredating scrub jays and Steller's jays in Washington and Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.46 Depredation order for... to bury or otherwise destroy the carcasses of such birds is permitted: Provided, That the Director of... jays and Steller's jays killed as may be needed for scientific investigations. (c) That such birds...

  10. 50 CFR 21.46 - Depredation order for depredating scrub jays and Steller's jays in Washington and Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.46 Depredation order for... to bury or otherwise destroy the carcasses of such birds is permitted: Provided, That the Director of... jays and Steller's jays killed as may be needed for scientific investigations. (c) That such birds...

  11. 50 CFR 21.46 - Depredation order for depredating scrub jays and Steller's jays in Washington and Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.46 Depredation order for... to bury or otherwise destroy the carcasses of such birds is permitted: Provided, That the Director of... jays and Steller's jays killed as may be needed for scientific investigations. (c) That such birds...

  12. 50 CFR 21.46 - Depredation order for depredating scrub jays and Steller's jays in Washington and Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.46 Depredation order for... to bury or otherwise destroy the carcasses of such birds is permitted: Provided, That the Director of... jays and Steller's jays killed as may be needed for scientific investigations. (c) That such birds...

  13. Neo-Lysenkoism, IQ, and the Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Bernard D.

    1983-01-01

    In "The Mismeasure of Man," a history of efforts to measure intelligence, Stephen Jay Gould is highly selective in his account, and tests for scientific truth by the standards of his own social and political convictions. Specifically, to combat racist approaches to theories of intelligence, Gould presses for equal and opposite bias. (Author/GC)

  14. 24. Aerial photograph dated 22 April 1942, showing Gould Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Aerial photograph dated 22 April 1942, showing Gould Island from the northeast. Complex under construction includes shop building (large rectangle at north end of island, and firing pier (at far right). Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  15. 45. 'Replace Starboard Elevator and Repairs, Gould Island, Building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. 'Replace Starboard Elevator and Repairs, Gould Island, Building No. 35,' approved 26 July 1981, NUSC Drawing No. 80-67, NAV. FAC. Drawing No. 2,047,203. Scales as noted. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  16. 30. 'Gould Island Facilities, General Plan,' submitted 29 December 1941 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. 'Gould Island Facilities, General Plan,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3859-46, Y&D Drawing 190833. Scales 1' = 50' and 1' = 10'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  17. Author! Author! Picture Artist: Stephen Gammell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This column presents a brief biography of illustrator Stephen Gammell, well-known for both his black-and-white and his brightly colored children's picture book art. Stephen Gammell has made a long career illustrating children's stories and poems. The first book he illustrated, "A Nutty Business" (written by Ida Chittum), was published in 1973 and…

  18. Stephen Hawking: An Unfettered Mind

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, Kitty

    2012-02-23

    Kitty Ferguson, biographer of physicist Stephen Hawking, will give an informal, nontechnical talk about the experience of writing her two books about the celebrated cosmologist and also of helping Hawking edit his own “The Universe in a Nutshell”. Hawking thinks and works somewhat differently from others because he must work almost entirely in his head, and he has a practice of pulling the rug out from under his own discoveries and assertions. As he has approached his recent 70th birthday, he has devoted an increasing amount of his time in efforts to share his science and particularly the adventure of it with people without a science background and young people who may be scientists of the future. Ferguson will discuss Hawking’s place in the science community (he is not and has never claimed to be on par with Einstein), the unique contributions he is able to make, and what his legacy might be.

  19. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 22 (JAY-TH00400022) on Town Highway 40, crossing Jay Branch, Jay, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Song, Donald L.

    1997-01-01

    8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northern Vermont. The 2.15-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is primarily pasture on the upstream and downstream left overbank while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. The downstream right overbank of the bridge is forested. In the study area, Jay Branch Tributary has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 26 ft and an average bank height of 3 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 40.5 mm (0.133 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 7, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 40 crossing of Jay Branch Tributary is a 27-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 25-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 6, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 23.5 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel skew and the opening-skew-to-roadway are zero degrees. The scour counter-measures at the site included type-2 stone fill (less than 36 inches diameter) at the upstream end of the left and right abutments, at the upstream right wingwall, and at the downstream left

  20. CO depletion in the Gould Belt clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, H.; Viti, S.; Yates, J.; Hatchell, J.; Fuller, G. A.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Sadavoy, S.; Buckle, J. V.; Graves, S.; Roberts, J.; Nutter, D.; Davis, C.; White, G. J.; Hogerheijde, M.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Butner, H.; Richer, J.; Di Francesco, J.

    2012-05-01

    We present a statistical comparison of CO depletion in a set of local molecular clouds within the Gould Belt using Sub-millimetre Common User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) and Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme (HARP) data. This is the most wide-ranging study of depletion thus far within the Gould Belt. We estimate CO column densities assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium and, for a selection of sources, using the radiative transfer code RADEX in order to compare the two column density estimation methods. High levels of depletion are seen in the centres of several dust cores in all the clouds. We find that in the gas surrounding protostars, levels of depletion are somewhat lower than for starless cores with the exception of a few highly depleted protostellar cores in Serpens and NGC 2024. There is a tentative correlation between core mass and core depletion, particularly in Taurus and Serpens. Taurus has, on average, the highest levels of depletion. Ophiuchus has low average levels of depletion which could perhaps be related to the anomalous dust grain size distribution observed in this cloud. High levels of depletion are often seen around the edges of regions of optical emission (Orion) or in more evolved or less dynamic regions such as the bowl of L1495 in Taurus and the north-western region of Serpens.

  1. Benjamin Apthorp Gould and the Founding of The Astronomical Journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.

    1998-05-01

    The origin and vicissitudes of The Astronomical Journal are inextricably bound up with the extraordinary career of Benjamin Apthorp Gould (1824-1896), the first American to obtain a PhD in astronomy (at Gottingen). Returning to Cambridge in 1848, Gould joined an informal group known as the Lazzaroni, who were determined to bring professional standards to American science. Gould devoted much of his life to professionalizing American astronomy, and his founding of the AJ was part of this strategy. Beginning on 2 November 1849, Gould's AJ was issued at irregular intervals, seldom shorter than two weeks and occasionally much longer, such as the two-month gap in 1851 when Gould had gone to the solar eclipse in Europe. About 20% of the space was devoted to asteroids, then the hot topic in astronomy. The 11th issue announced the discovery of the 11th asteroid; by March of 1853, 23 asteroids were known, and Gould editorialized about the "threatened consumption of astronomical energies." In 1856 the trustees of the newly-founded Dudley Observatory agreed to support the financially struggling AJ, and volume 5 (1856-58) bore the Albany dateline though printing continued in Cambridge. Gould's ill-fated directorship of the Dudley Observatory lasted only a year in Albany itself, and volume 6 was again edited in Cambridge. The Civil War then brought a 25-year hiatus to Gould's journal. In 1870 Gould went to Argentina, where he founded the Argentine National Observatory in Cordoba; he returned to Cambridge in 1885, and very shortly thereafter resumed publication of the AJ (in November, 1886). He continued his editorship for a decade, producing volumes 7-16; his last issue, vol. 17, no. 4, is dated just two weeks before his death. As his successor, Seth Chandler wrote, "Of all the great enterprises of his life, this is the one which he has most cherished."

  2. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Understanding the influence of outflows on Gould Belt clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabek-Maunder, E.; Hatchell, J.; Buckle, J. V.; Di Francesco, J.; Richer, J.

    2016-03-01

    Using James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey data from CO J = 3 → 2 isotopologues, we present a meta-analysis of the outflows and energetics of star-forming regions in several Gould Belt clouds. The majority of the regions are strongly gravitationally bound. There is evidence that molecular outflows transport large quantities of momentum and energy. Outflow energies are at least 20 per cent of the total turbulent kinetic energies in all of the regions studied and greater than the turbulent energy in half of the regions. However, we find no evidence that outflows increase levels of turbulence, and there is no correlation between the outflow and turbulent energies. Even though outflows in some regions contribute significantly to maintaining turbulence levels against dissipation, this relies on outflows efficiently coupling to bulk motions. Other mechanisms (e.g. supernovae) must be the main drivers of turbulence in most if not all of these regions.

  3. VIP interview: John D. (Jay) Rockefeller IV, United States Senator.

    PubMed

    Rockefeller, J D

    1994-01-01

    John D. (Jay) Rockefeller IV has proudly served the people of West Virginia for nearly 30 years. After coming to the town of Emmons in 1964 as a VISTA worker, Jay Rockefeller made the Mountain State his home. In 1966, he was elected to a two-year term in the West Virginia House of Delegates. He then served four years as Secretary of State, three years as President of West Virginia Wesleyan College, and eight years as Governor of West Virginia. In 1984, he was elected to the United States Senate and was reelected in 1990.

  4. Stephen Hales: neglected respiratory physiologist.

    PubMed

    West, J B

    1984-09-01

    Stephen Hales was an eminent early 18th century scientist and minister of the parish of Teddington near London. He is well known for his early work on blood pressure. However, he made many contributions to respiratory physiology. He clarified the nature of the respiratory gases, distinguishing between their free (gaseous) and fixed (chemically combined) forms, demonstrated that rebreathing from a closed circuit could be extended if suitable gas absorbers were included (to remove carbon dioxide), suggested a similar device as a respirator for noxious atmospheres, invented the pneumatic trough for collecting gases, measured the size of the alveoli, calculated the surface area of the interior of the lung, calculated the time spent by the blood in a pulmonary capillary, invented the U-tube manometer, and measured intrathoracic pressures during normal and forced breathing. Hale's work is remarkable for its emphasis on the "statical" method, i.e., meticulous attention to detail in measurement and careful calculations. In his later life he made important contributions in the area of public health. He was a trustee of the new colony of Georgia and willed his own library of books to the colony though their whereabouts is unknown. He deserves more recognition in the history of respiratory physiology. PMID:6386767

  5. Malleability and Machines: Glenn Gould and the Technological Self.

    PubMed

    Jones-Imhotep, Edward

    2016-04-01

    The Pianist Glenn Gould has often been portrayed as a musical idealist who embraced mundane recording media as a way of escaping the anxiety of the concert hall. In pursuing his musical ideals, however, Gould obsessed over material objects-the qualities of a chair, the action of piano keys, the placement of splices in magnetic tape. This paper argues that for him, the detailed properties of machines and electronic media were crucial, not just as tools for pursuing disembodied aesthetic aims, but as instruments and material sites for a moral project. Locating Gould's concerns among the techniques and technologies that inspired him, the concert hall he despised, and the jazz and chance music he tolerated, the paper explores how Gould's famed philosophy of technology was rooted in a "technological self" that tied morality and aesthetics, and intimacy and isolation, to concrete ideals for the kinds of people we ought to be.

  6. Malleability and Machines: Glenn Gould and the Technological Self.

    PubMed

    Jones-Imhotep, Edward

    2016-04-01

    The Pianist Glenn Gould has often been portrayed as a musical idealist who embraced mundane recording media as a way of escaping the anxiety of the concert hall. In pursuing his musical ideals, however, Gould obsessed over material objects-the qualities of a chair, the action of piano keys, the placement of splices in magnetic tape. This paper argues that for him, the detailed properties of machines and electronic media were crucial, not just as tools for pursuing disembodied aesthetic aims, but as instruments and material sites for a moral project. Locating Gould's concerns among the techniques and technologies that inspired him, the concert hall he despised, and the jazz and chance music he tolerated, the paper explores how Gould's famed philosophy of technology was rooted in a "technological self" that tied morality and aesthetics, and intimacy and isolation, to concrete ideals for the kinds of people we ought to be. PMID:27237066

  7. 29. Aerial photograph (1973) looking south across Gould Island. Firing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Aerial photograph (1973) looking south across Gould Island. Firing pier (still possessing third and fourth levels) in foreground. Pitched roof extending from south end of firing pier marks location of frame approach between pier and shop building (center rear) and power plant (to right of shop). Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  8. Retrospective Cognition by Food-Caching Western Scrub-Jays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Kort, S.R.; Dickinson, A.; Clayton, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    Episodic-like memory, the retrospective component of cognitive time travel in animals, needs to fulfil three criteria to meet the behavioral properties of episodic memory as defined for humans. Here, we review results obtained with the cache-recovery paradigm with western scrub-jays and conclude that they fulfil these three criteria. The jays…

  9. Encounter with death: The thought of Robert Jay Lifton.

    PubMed

    Lageman, A G

    1987-12-01

    Robert Jay Lifton begins his work in the psychosocial framework that he takes over from Erik Erikson. Lifton's thought is based upon a central paradigm-"death and the continuity of life." Lifton makes important contributions with his five modes of symbolic immortality and with his investigation of the psychological themes in survivors. The origins and limits of Lifton's thought are critically examined.

  10. The domain specificity of intertemporal choice in pinyon jays.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jeffrey R; Kennedy, Bryce A; Morales, Dina; Burks, Marianna

    2016-06-01

    When choosing between a piece of cake now versus a slimmer waistline in the future, many of us have difficulty with self-control. Food-caching species, however, regularly hide food for later recovery, sometimes waiting months before retrieving their caches. It remains unclear whether these long-term choices generalize outside of the caching domain. We hypothesized that the ability to save for the future is a general tendency that cuts across different situations. To test this hypothesis, we measured and experimentally manipulated caching to evaluate its relationship with operant measures of self-control in pinyon jays (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus). We found no correlation between caching and self-control at the individual level, and experimentally increasing caching did not influence self-control. The self-control required for caching food, therefore, does not carry over to other foraging tasks, suggesting that it is domain specific in pinyon jays. PMID:26620957

  11. Jay Haley's Supervision of a Case of Dissociative.

    PubMed

    Haley, Jay

    2015-01-01

    This is a transcript of a supervision session with a young therapist caught in the complex world of a woman with multiple personality. Occurring very early in the written literature about treating multiple personalities, the highlight of this paper is the supervision style and technique of Jay Haley. His approach to supervision will make the reader wish that he or she could be in the room during this session.

  12. Encounter with death: The thought of Robert Jay Lifton.

    PubMed

    Lageman, A G

    1987-12-01

    Robert Jay Lifton begins his work in the psychosocial framework that he takes over from Erik Erikson. Lifton's thought is based upon a central paradigm-"death and the continuity of life." Lifton makes important contributions with his five modes of symbolic immortality and with his investigation of the psychological themes in survivors. The origins and limits of Lifton's thought are critically examined. PMID:24302069

  13. Why Compare? A Response to Stephen Lawton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Liz; Pearce, Diane

    1993-01-01

    Aims to stimulate interest in comparative education policy analysis by critiquing a paper by Stephen Lawton. Such comparative analysis is important in understanding neoliberal education reforms, but more work is needed to provide adequate categories for analysis. Lawton's categories, reformulated here as efficiency, managing and provider capture,…

  14. YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE GOULD BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, Michael M.; Allen, Lori E.; Evans II, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul M.; Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Cieza, Lucas A.; Di Francesco, James; Johnstone, Doug; Matthews, Brenda C.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Hatchell, Jennifer; Heiderman, Amanda; Huard, Tracy L.; Kirk, Jason M.; Miller, Jennifer F.; Peterson, Dawn E.; Young, Kaisa E.

    2015-09-15

    We present the full catalog of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) identified in the 18 molecular clouds surveyed by the Spitzer Space Telescope “cores to disks” (c2d) and “Gould Belt” (GB) Legacy surveys. Using standard techniques developed by the c2d project, we identify 3239 candidate YSOs in the 18 clouds, 2966 of which survive visual inspection and form our final catalog of YSOs in the GB. We compile extinction corrected spectral energy distributions for all 2966 YSOs and calculate and tabulate the infrared spectral index, bolometric luminosity, and bolometric temperature for each object. We find that 326 (11%), 210 (7%), 1248 (42%), and 1182 (40%) are classified as Class 0 + I, Flat-spectrum, Class II, and Class III, respectively, and show that the Class III sample suffers from an overall contamination rate by background Asymptotic Giant Branch stars between 25% and 90%. Adopting standard assumptions, we derive durations of 0.40–0.78 Myr for Class 0 + I YSOs and 0.26–0.50 Myr for Flat-spectrum YSOs, where the ranges encompass uncertainties in the adopted assumptions. Including information from (sub)millimeter wavelengths, one-third of the Class 0 + I sample is classified as Class 0, leading to durations of 0.13–0.26 Myr (Class 0) and 0.27–0.52 Myr (Class I). We revisit infrared color–color diagrams used in the literature to classify YSOs and propose minor revisions to classification boundaries in these diagrams. Finally, we show that the bolometric temperature is a poor discriminator between Class II and Class III YSOs.

  15. 77 FR 10533 - Stephen L. Marks: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Stephen L. Marks: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and Drug... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) permanently debarring Stephen L. Marks from..., under authority delegated to the Director (Staff Manual Guide 1410.35), finds that Stephen L. Marks...

  16. 8. VIEW OF COMBINATION GEAR HOBBING MACHINE (Gould & Eberhardt, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF COMBINATION GEAR HOBBING MACHINE (Gould & Eberhardt, Newark, New Jersey. Patented No. 2103) AND LATHE (W.E. Shipley Machiner Co. Metal Working Machinery, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1913). - Juniata Shops, Machine Shop No. 1, East of Fourth Avenue at Third Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  17. 4. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF DITCH OVERLOOKING THE GOULD RANCH SITE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF DITCH OVERLOOKING THE GOULD RANCH SITE, HIGHWAY 50'S OVERPASS FOR THE R/R & OLD PLACERVILLE ROAD ON LEFT. EAST BIDWELL STREET APPROACHES TO HIGHWAY 50 ON RIGHT; VIEW TO SOUTH. - Keefe-McDerby Mine Ditch, East of East Bidwell Street between Clarksville Road & Highway 50, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  18. 13. DETAIL OF DITCH ALIGNMENT NEAR THE OLD GOULD RANCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF DITCH ALIGNMENT NEAR THE OLD GOULD RANCH SITE. HIGHWAY 50 BRIDGE CROSSING OLD PLACERVILLE ROAD AND THE R/R ON RIGHT; VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Keefe-McDerby Mine Ditch, East of East Bidwell Street between Clarksville Road & Highway 50, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  19. Jay Lloyd Ankeney, June 7, 1921-December 24, 2014.

    PubMed

    Snow, Norman J; Rainer, W Gerald

    2015-11-01

    Jay Ankeney, the 16th President of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, was an early pioneer in adult and pediatric cardiac operations, a prescient advocate of off-bypass coronary revascularization, and a strong champion of cardiothoracic recertification. He was among the first to endorse the need to provide practicing cardiothoracic surgeons the means for self-assessment and improvement. He led the development of Coordinating Committee for Continuing Education in Thoracic Surgery and inaugurated the self-education/self assessment syllabus for this purpose. Under his leadership he persuaded the vast majority of cardiothoracic surgeons to embrace recertification and by this means provide reassurance and accountability to their patients.

  20. Stephen H. Watts: A disciple of Halsted.

    PubMed

    Chitwood, W R

    1976-03-01

    Stephen Watts was one of Dr. William S. Halsted's 17 resident surgeons. He contributed much to experimental, clinical, and didactic surgery during his lifetime. Primarily, his experimental work was in vascular and transplant surgery modeled after Alexis Carrel's efforts. Clinically, he maintained the diversity and expertise propagated by Dr. Halsted. As a teacher he continued the education of young surgeons in the spirit of a true academician. PMID:769215

  1. The Trying Out of the Essay: How Scientific Essayists Compose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, Diane

    Six scientific essayists were interviewed to gain some understanding of their writing processes. The writers were Roger Sawin, who writes for "Horticulture"; Harold Morowitz who writes for "Hospital Practices,""Science 82" and "Science 83"; Stephen Jay Gould who writes for "Natural History"; Jeremy Bernstein who writes for the "New Yorker" and…

  2. Better than Ever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1998-01-01

    Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould contends that .400 hitter in baseball is thing of past because game has gotten better. The higher average, the harder to stand out from that average. Applies concept to education by comparing students' SAT scores over almost 20 years with grade-point averages. Students with highest grades received highest SAT…

  3. Grade Inflation and the Extinction of the .400 Hitter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1998-01-01

    In "Full House: The Spread of Excellence from Plato to Darwin," Stephen Jay Gould swats at nostalgia over extinction of the .400 batter--due more to game improvements than slumping batters. The better the averages, the harder it is to be a standout. As for grade inflation, today's students are studying harder subjects, and general achievement…

  4. Darwin's Revolution in Thought: An Illustrated Lecture. Teaching Guide and Videotape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Stephen Jay

    "Darwin's Revolution in Thought" is Stephen Jay Gould's definitive treatise on Charles Darwin. This 50-minute classroom edition videotaped lecture is structured in the form of a paradox and three riddles about Darwin's life. Each is designed to shed light on one of the key features of the theory of natural selection, its philosophical radicalism,…

  5. Mind the Gap (or Mending It): Qualitative Research and Interdisciplinarity in Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vertinsky, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the perceived gap between the humanities and social sciences, and the sciences in kinesiology faculties and departments as interdisciplinary pressures mount in an increasingly complex world. I use an historical lens to highlight past difficulties in working across the two solitudes and describe Stephen Jay Gould's efforts to…

  6. Diagenesis of Jurassic Smackover Formation, Jay field, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, J.M.; Ragland, P.C.; Ragland, J.M.; Parker, W.C.

    1986-09-01

    The Jay field Smackover Formation (Oxfordian) produces oil from a complex network of dolomite zones. Petrography and geochemistry indicate multiple generations of diagenetic alteration, including dolomitization, within the Smackover. Calcium, magnesium, and five trace elements - iron, manganese, strontium, sodium, and potassium - were analyzed in duplicate by atomic absorption spectrometry. Mineralogy exerts the strongest control on the distribution of these trace elements, i.e., percent dolomite, calcite, and to a lesser extent, insoluble residue most strongly affect trace-element distribution. To negate these effects, elemental ratios were used. It is apparent that diagenesis results in observable trace-element trends; extensive diagenesis masks any trends that may have been due to original environmental differences. Indeed, certain trace elements may be useful as tracers for particular diagenetic processes but not for particular depositional environments in altered carbonates.

  7. Review of Gould Dincer reservoir storage yield reliability estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Thomas A.; Pegram, Geoffrey G. S.; Vogel, Richard M.; Peel, Murray C.

    2007-09-01

    The Gould-Dincer suite of techniques (normal, log-normal and Gamma), which is used to estimate the reservoir capacity-yield-reliability ( S-Y-R) relationship, is the only known available procedure in the form of a simple formula, based on annual streamflow statistics, that allows one to compute the S-Y-R relationship for a single storage capacity across the range of annual streamflow characteristics observed globally. Several other techniques are available but they are inadequate because of the restricted range of flows on which they were developed or because they are based on the Sequent Peak Algorithm or are not suitable to compute steady-state reliability values. This paper examines the theoretical basis of the Gould-Dincer approach and applies the three models to annual streamflow data for 729 rivers distributed world-wide. The reservoir capacities estimated by the models are compared with equivalent estimates based on the Extended Deficit Analysis, Behaviour analysis and the Sequent Peak Algorithm. The results suggest that, in the context of preliminary water resources planning, the Gould-Dincer Gamma model provides reliable estimates of the mean first passage time from a full to empty condition for single reservoirs. Furthermore, the storage estimates are equivalent to deficits computed using the Extended Deficit Analysis for values of drift between 0.4 and 1.0 and the values are consistent with those computed using a Behaviour simulation or a Sequent Peak Algorithm. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of the effect on storage of the four main streamflow statistics confirms that the influential ones are mean and standard deviation, while effects of skew and serial correlation are orders of magnitude lower. This finding suggests that the simple reduced form of the Gould-Dincer equation may profitably be used for regional studies of reservoir reliability subject to climate change scenarios based on regional statistics, without having to perform calculations based

  8. The Scientific Legacy of Stephen Rothman

    PubMed Central

    Burgdorf, Walter H. C.; Bickers, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The year 2014 marks the centennial of events that led to World War 1 (“the war to end all wars”) following the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of the crumbling Austro-Hungarian Empire. It also marks the 120th anniversary of the birth of Stephen Rothman and the 60th anniversary of the publication of his epic textbook The Physiology and Biochemistry of the Skin. In this review we document our belief that Rothman had a seismic impact on moving investigative dermatology from a medical backwater to a scientific discipline that can hold its own with that of any other specialty. PMID:25373439

  9. John Lloyd Stephens and Frederick Catherwood: Mayan Explorers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Michael

    This mini-unit focuses on the lives and accomplishments of John Lloyd Stephens and Frederick Catherwood and their contacts with the Maya. This project deals specifically with how Stephens' published accounts and Catherwood's drawings became the basis from which all further Mayan research developed. These two explorers were the first to describe…

  10. 77 FR 61003 - Stephen C. Delaney, Jr.: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Stephen C. Delaney, Jr.: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and... order under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) debarring Stephen C. Delaney, Jr...-796-4640. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Section 306(b)(1)(C) of the FD&C Act (21...

  11. Kindness in the Art Classroom: Kind Thoughts on Stephen Rowland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This article is a response to Stephen Rowland's article, "Kindness," which appeared in "London Review of Education," November 2009. Much to my amazement, Stephen Rowland's article was the only one I found when I did a global database search on "kindness in education". I had thought that I would find reams of information in the databases on the…

  12. A Response to Elizabeth Gould, "Nomadic Turns: Epistemology, Experience, and Women University Band Directors"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koza, Julia, Eklund

    2005-01-01

    In this response to Gould, the author has two goals: first, to forward another, not necessarily competing, postmodern understanding of feminism and power; and second, to expand Gould's project of examining professional climate. Koza defines feminism as a constellation of dynamic political positions that address and attempt to change the unequal…

  13. STS-114 Crew Interview: Stephen Robinson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Stephen Robinson, Mission Specialist 2 (MS2), of the STS-114 space mission is seen during a prelaunch interview. He discusses his duties as flight engineer, Extravehicular Activity 2 (EVA 2) spacewalker, and medical officer. Robinson answers questions about his interests in spaceflight and the specific goals of the mission. He identifies this mission as the International Space Station Resupply Mission because supplies and experiments are brought to the International Space Station and Expedition 6 crew of Commander Kenneth Bowersox, and Flight Engineers Donald Pettit and Nikolai Budarin are returning to Earth. Lastly, he talks about the docking of the Space Shuttle Atlantis with the International Space Station. He looks forward to this experience in space.

  14. Remeasuring man.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Samuel George Morton (1799-1851) was the most highly regarded American scientist of the early and middle 19th century. Thanks largely to Stephen Jay Gould's book The Mismeasure of Man, Morton's cranial capacity measurements of different races is now held up as a prime example of and cautionary tale against scientific racism. A team of anthropologists recently reevaluated Morton's work and argued that it was Gould, not Morton, who was biased in his analysis. This article is a reexamination of the Morton and Gould controversy. It argues that most of Gould's arguments against Morton are sound. Although Gould made some errors and overstated his case in a number of places, he provided prima facia evidence, as yet unrefuted, that Morton did indeed mismeasure his skulls in ways that conformed to 19th century racial biases. Gould's critique of Morton ought to remain as an illustration of implicit bias in science. PMID:24761929

  15. Remeasuring man.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Samuel George Morton (1799-1851) was the most highly regarded American scientist of the early and middle 19th century. Thanks largely to Stephen Jay Gould's book The Mismeasure of Man, Morton's cranial capacity measurements of different races is now held up as a prime example of and cautionary tale against scientific racism. A team of anthropologists recently reevaluated Morton's work and argued that it was Gould, not Morton, who was biased in his analysis. This article is a reexamination of the Morton and Gould controversy. It argues that most of Gould's arguments against Morton are sound. Although Gould made some errors and overstated his case in a number of places, he provided prima facia evidence, as yet unrefuted, that Morton did indeed mismeasure his skulls in ways that conformed to 19th century racial biases. Gould's critique of Morton ought to remain as an illustration of implicit bias in science.

  16. Thoughts after reading Robert Jay Lifton's 'The Nazi Doctors'.

    PubMed

    Bruwer, A

    1989-01-01

    Robert Jay Lifton's remarkable book The Nazi Doctors and its tragic subject matter provided an opportunity to try and place the complicity of doctors in such barbarity in historical perspective. Massive episodes of killing of human beings by other human beings have been an ongoing saga for centuries. Misguided belief and misguided science, and the abuse of constantly advancing technology in the name of one or other nation-state, have made possible the acceleration of megadeath. The Nazi concentration and death camps were a particularly vicious manifestation within the spectrum of killing. Modern weaponry makes omnicide quite feasible. Our urgent need is to learn the lesson and to cultivate and promote planetary patriotism as promptly as possible. Adherence to an international code of human ethics is a compelling requirement. The origin of the International Committee of the Red Cross in 1863 was an inspiring and promising beginning. The formulation of the Declaration of Geneva by the World Medical Association in 1947 profoundly enhanced the value of the Hippocratic Oath and provides a sound ethical basis for the national and international guidance of the medical profession today. The International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War establishes another firm step in the right direction. PMID:2695805

  17. Habitat model for the Florida Scrub Jay on John F. Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.

    1992-01-01

    The Florida Scrub Jay is endemic to Florida. The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) provides habitat for one of the three largest populations of the Florida Scrub Jay. This threatened bird occupies scrub, slash pine flatwoods, disturbed scrub, and coastal strand on KSC. Densities of Florida Scrub Jays were shown to vary with habitat characteristics but not necessarily with vegetation type. Relationships between Florida Scrub Jay densities and habitat characteristics were used to develop a habitat model to provide a tool to compare alternative sites for new facilities and to quantify environmental impacts. This model is being tested using long term demographic studies of colorbanded Florida Scrub Jays. Optimal habitat predicted by the model has greater than or equal to 50 percent of the shrub canopy comprised of scrub oaks, 20-50 percent open space or scrub oak vegetation within 100 m of a ruderal edge, less than or equal to 15 percent pine canopy cover, a shrub height of 120-170 cm, and is greater than or equal to 100 m from a forest. This document reviews life history, social behavior, food, foraging habitat, cover requirements, characteristics of habitat on KSC, and habitat preferences of the Florida Scrub Jay. Construction of the model and its limitations are discussed.

  18. Trivelpiece-Gould modes in a uniform unbounded plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) modes originally described electrostatic surface waves on an axially magnetized cylindrical plasma column. Subsequent studies of electromagnetic waves in such plasma columns revealed two modes, a predominantly magnetic helicon mode (H) and the mixed magnetic and electrostatic Trivelpiece-Gould modes (TG). The latter are similar to whistler modes near the oblique cyclotron resonance in unbounded plasmas. The wave propagation in cylindrical geometry is assumed to be paraxial while the modes exhibit radial standing waves. The present work shows that TG modes also arise in a uniform plasma without radial standing waves. It is shown experimentally that oblique cyclotron resonance arises in large mode number helicons. Their azimuthal wave number far exceeds the axial wave number which creates whistlers near the oblique cyclotron resonance. Cyclotron damping absorbs the TG mode and can energize electrons in the center of a plasma column rather than the edge of conventional TG modes. The angular orbital field momentum can produce new perpendicular wave-particle interactions.

  19. Apparent predation by Gray Jays, Perisoreus canadensis, on Long-toed Salamanders, Ambystoma macrodactylum, in the Oregon Cascade Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, M.P.; Pearl, C.A.; Bury, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    We report observations of Gray Jays (Perisoreus canadensis) appearing to consume larval Long-toed Salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) in a drying subalpine pond in Oregon, USA. Corvids are known to prey upon a variety of anuran amphibians, but to our knowledge, this is the first report of predation by any corvid on aquatic salamanders. Long-toed Salamanders appear palatable to Gray Jays, and may provide a food resource to Gray Jays when salamander larvae are concentrated in drying temporary ponds.

  20. Contrasting genetic structures in sister species of North American scrub-jays

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, D. B.; Potts, W. K.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Woolfenden, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    Threatened Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens breed communally, are restricted to xeric sandy scrub habitat, generally disperse fewer than three territory diameters. Closely related Western scrub-jays (A. californica) do not breed communally, have a broader habitat range, disperse greater distances, and are not threatened. We compared the genetic structure of 445 individuals in 11 populations in Florida with 157 individuals in eight populations of Western scrub-jays. At ten microsatellite loci, Florida had 24 out of 47 total alleles, while Western scrub-jays had 44. The Florida populations were more differentiated (GST = 0.048) than were a set of five California populations (GST = 0.015). A randomization extension of a Mantel test showed a stronger correlation between geographic and Cavalli-Sforza genetic distances among Western than Florida populations. Neighbour-joining trees clustered Florida populations from the same sandy ridge systems, suggesting that habitat continuity is more important than geographic proximity in allowing gene flow and preventing differentiation. For Western populations, isolation by distance appears to be the major determinant of genetic structure. Our results suggest that contrasting genetic structures may arise between closely related species, as a result of differences in ecology and social system. Conserving extant genetic variation in Florida jays will require maintaining viable populations in each of the major sandy ridge systems.

  1. Western scrub-jays do not appear to attend to functionality in Aesop's Fable experiments.

    PubMed

    Logan, Corina J; Harvey, Brigit D; Schlinger, Barney A; Rensel, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Western scrub-jays are known for their highly discriminatory and flexible behaviors in a caching (food storing) context. However, it is unknown whether their cognitive abilities are restricted to a caching context. To explore this question, we tested scrub-jays in a non-caching context using the Aesop's Fable paradigm, where a partially filled tube of water contains a floating food reward and objects must be inserted to displace the water and bring the food within reach. We tested four birds, but only two learned to drop stones proficiently. Of these, one bird participated in 4/5 experiments and one in 2/5 experiments. Both birds passed one experiment, but without attending to the functional differences of the objects, and failed the other experiments. Scrub-jays were not motivated to participate in these experiments, suggesting that either this paradigm was ecologically irrelevant or perhaps their flexibility is restricted to a caching context.

  2. No evidence of temporal preferences in caching by Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica)☆

    PubMed Central

    Thom, James M.; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2014-01-01

    Humans and other animals often favour immediate gratification over long-term gain. Primates, including humans, appear more willing to wait for rewards than other animals, such as rats or pigeons. Another group displaying impressive patience are the corvids, which possess large brains and show sophisticated cognitive abilities. Here, we assess intertemporal choice in one corvid species, the Western scrub-jay (Aphelocoma californica). These birds cache food for future consumption and respond flexibly to future needs. Cache-theft and cache-degradation are time-dependent processes in scrub-jay ecology that might necessitate sensitivity to delays between caching and retrieval. We adopt a caching paradigm with delays of up to 49 h. Across two experiments we find no evidence of a preference for earlier recovery. We highlight the possibility that, although scrub-jays can discriminate between the present and the future, they may not understand how far into the future an event will occur. PMID:24378212

  3. Time Restored - The Harrison Timekeepers and R.T. Gould, the Man Who Knew (Almost) Everything

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Jonathan

    2006-09-01

    This is the story of Rupert T. Gould (1890-1948), the polymath and horologist. A remarkable man, Lt Cmdr Gould made important contributions in an extraordinary range of subject areas throughout his relatively short and dramatically troubled life. From antique clocks to scientific mysteries, from typewriters to the first systematic study of the Loch Ness Monster, Gould studied and published on them all. With the title The Stargazer, Gould was an early broadcaster on the BBC's Children's Hour when, with his encyclopaedic knowledge, he became known as The Man Who Knew Everything. Not surprisingly, he was also part of that elite group on BBC radio who formed The Brains Trust, giving on-the-spot answers to all manner of wide ranging and difficult questions. With his wide learning and photographic memory, Gould awed a national audience, becoming one of the era's radio celebrities. During the 1920s Gould restored the complex and highly significant marine timekeepers constructed by John Harrison (1693-1776), and wrote the unsurpassed classic, The Marine Chronometer, its History and Development . Today he is virtually unknown, his horological contributions scarcely mentioned in Dava Sobel's bestseller Longitude. The TV version of Longitude, in which Jeremy Irons played Rupert Gould, did at least introduce Gould's name to a wider public. Gould suffered terrible bouts of depression, resulting in a number of nervous breakdowns. These, coupled with his obsessive and pedantic nature, led to a scandalously-reported separation from his wife and cost him his family, his home, his job, and his closest friends. In this first-ever biography of Rupert Gould, Jonathan Betts, the Royal Observatory Greenwich's Senior Horologist, has given us a compelling account of a talented but flawed individual. Using hitherto unknown personal journals, the family's extensive collection of photographs, and the polymath's surviving records and notes, Betts tells the story of how Gould's early life, his

  4. Does multiple seed loading in Blue Jays result in selective dispersal of smaller acorns?

    PubMed

    Bartlow, Andrew W; Kachmar, Michael; Lichti, Nathanael; Swihart, Robert K; Stratford, Jeffrey A; Steele, Michael A

    2011-09-01

    Studies from both tropical and temperate systems show that scatter-hoarding rodents selectively disperse larger seeds farther from their source than smaller seeds, potentially increasing seedling establishment in larger-seeded plants. Size-biased dispersal is evident in many oaks (Quercus) and is true both across and within species. Here, we predict that intraspecifc variation in seed size also influences acorn dispersal by the Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata Linnaeus), but in an opposite manner. Blue Jays are gape-limited and selectively disperse smaller acorn species (e.g. pin oaks [Quercus palustris Münchh]), but often carry several acorns in their crop during a single dispersal event. We predict that jays foraging on smaller acorns will load more seeds per trip and disperse seeds to greater distances than when single acorns are carried in the bill. To test this, we presented free-ranging Blue Jays with pin oak acorns of different sizes over a 2-year period. In each of 16 experimental trials, we monitored the birds at a feeding station with remote cameras and determined the number of acorns removed and the distance acorns were dispersed when cached. Jays were significantly more likely to engage in multiple seed loading with smaller seeds in both years of the study. During the second year, these smaller acorns were dispersed farther than larger acorns, and during the first year, larger acorns were dispersed farther, revealing an inconsistent response to seed size during our study. We suggest that in some circumstances, multiple seed loading by Blue Jays may favor dispersal in some plant species.

  5. A New Population Estimate for the Florida Scrub Jay on Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.

    1989-01-01

    The variable circular plot method was used to sample avifauna within different vegetation types determined from aerial imagery. The Florida Scrub Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens coerulescens) population was estimated to range between 1,415 and 3,603 birds. Approximately half of the scrub and slash pine habitat appeared to be unused by Florida Scrub Jay, probably because the slash pine cover was too dense or the oak cover was too sparse. Results from the study suggest that the entire state population may be much lower than believed because the size of two of the three largest populations may have been overestimated.

  6. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 1 (JAY-TH00040001) on Town Highway 4, crossing Crook Brook, Jay, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure JAY-TH00040001 on Town Highway 4 crossing Crook Brook, Jay, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northern Vermont. The 20.7-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is thick woody vegetation and/or forest except for the upstream right bank and overbank which is pasture. In the study area, Crook Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 86 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 48.7 mm (0.160 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 5, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 4 crossing of Crook Brook is a 49-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 45-foot concrete span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 6, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 42 ft.The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 5 degrees to the opening. The opening-skew-to-roadway is also 5 degrees. Channel scour is present along the left abutment. The scoured area was 1.5 ft deeper

  7. Jay Melosh was right! Earthquake acoustics can trigger fault rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSaveney, M. J.; Davies, T. R.

    2009-12-01

    We insert dynamic fragmentation into Jay Melosh’s acoustic fluidization hypothesis as the mechanism for providing sufficient energy in a granular material to cause it to become a dense granular flow with low strength and resistance. A defect in previous analyses of acoustic fluidization was in treating it only as pressure-wave propagation, and finding that too much energy was required to maintain collisional grain flow. This defect vanishes if both pressure and shear waves are considered, and fluidization becomes much less energy demanding as induced transient Mohr-Coulomb frictional slip in a dense granular flow. Our earlier analyses of dynamic fragmentation lacked detail of the mechanism by which the effect of fracturing an individual grain was transmitted to the wider granular mass. This is now seen as release of elastic-strain energy when a grain’s elastic limit is reached and it fails by brittle fracture. Suddenly released elastic-strain energy is propagated through the rest of the grain mass as elastic-strain energy (“rock noise” and seismic energy). Its passing between grains at contacts results in fluctuations of existing grain-contact forces. As shear and normal components of each contact force vary independently, their ratio also varies. Whenever the ratio of shear to normal forces at a contact exceeds its static friction coefficient, the contact slips; a simple application of the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion (under ambient pore-fluid pressure and any cohesion). The closer that static forces are to inducing motion in the grain mass (general Mohr-Coulomb failure), the smaller the transient changes are needed to induce relative grain motion. Hence, the energy requirements of the transient forces need not be large, and decrease as the externally applied static force increases. The net effect of induced transient slip between grains that would not otherwise have slipped is a cumulative grain-mass deformation at lower overall load than would

  8. The Contradictions of Contemporary Culture: A Tribute to Norman Jay Levitt (1943-2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Norman Jay Levitt was the author's good friend, collaborator, and co-author. He was--above, before, and after politics--an honest inquirer. His socio-cultural views evolved continuously. Levitt, truth-seeker and liberal, was impatient with, and a devastating critic of, the political correctness and--even worse--the philosophic triviality that…

  9. Hint-seeking behaviour of western scrub-jays in a metacognition task.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Arii; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-01-01

    Metacognitive processes during memory retrieval can be tested by examining whether or not animals can assess their knowledge state when they are faced with a memory test. In a typical foraging task, food is hidden in one of the multiple tubes and the subjects are given an opportunity to check the contents of the tubes before choosing the one that they thought contained food. Following the findings from our previous study that western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) can make prospective metacognition judgements, this study tested the scrub-jays' concurrent metacognition judgements. In a series of experiments, uncertainty about the food location was induced in three ways: by making the baiting process visibly unavailable, by inserting a delay between the baiting and food retrieval, and by moving the location of the bait. The jays looked into the tubes more often during the conditions that were consistent with high uncertainty. In addition, their looking behaviour was associated not with the sight of food but with information about the location of the food. These findings suggest that the jays can differentiate the states of knowing and not knowing about certain information and take appropriate action to complement their missing knowledge.

  10. Interruptions improve choice performance in gray jays: prolonged information processing versus minimization of costly errors.

    PubMed

    Waite, Thomas A

    2002-12-01

    Under the assumption that selection favors minimization of costly errors, erroneous choice may be common when its fitness cost is low. According to an adaptive-choice model, this cost depends on the rate at which an animal encounters the choice: the higher this rate, the smaller the cost of choosing a less valuable option. Errors should thus be more common when interruptions to foraging are shorter. A previous experiment supported this prediction: gray jays, Perisoreus canadensis, were more error prone when subjected to shorter delays to access to food rewards. This pattern, though, is also predicted by an attentional-constraints model. Because the subjects were able to inspect the rewards during delays, their improved performance when subjected to longer delays could have been a byproduct of the experimentally prolonged opportunity for information processing. To evaluate this possibility, a follow-up experiment manipulated both delay to access and whether rewards could be inspected during delays. Depriving jays of the opportunity to inspect rewards (using opaque lids) induced only a small, nonsignificant increase in error rate. This effect was independent of length of delay and so the jays' improved performance when subjected to longer delays was not simply a byproduct of prolonged information processing. More definitively, even when the jays were prevented from inspecting rewards during delays, their performance improved when subjected to longer delays. The findings are thus consistent with the adaptive-choice model.

  11. Caching at a distance: a cache protection strategy in Eurasian jays.

    PubMed

    Legg, Edward W; Ostojić, Ljerka; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-07-01

    A fundamental question about the complexity of corvid social cognition is whether behaviours exhibited when caching in front of potential pilferers represent specific attempts to prevent cache loss (cache protection hypothesis) or whether they are by-products of other behaviours (by-product hypothesis). Here, we demonstrate that Eurasian jays preferentially cache at a distance when observed by conspecifics. This preference for a 'far' location could be either a by-product of a general preference for caching at that specific location regardless of the risk of cache loss or a by-product of a general preference to be far away from conspecifics due to low intra-species tolerance. Critically, we found that neither by-product account explains the jays' behaviour: the preference for the 'far' location was not shown when caching in private or when eating in front of a conspecific. In line with the cache protection hypothesis we found that jays preferred the distant location only when caching in front of a conspecific. Thus, it seems likely that for Eurasian jays, caching at a distance from an observer is a specific cache protection strategy. PMID:26984123

  12. Obituary: Andrew Stephen Wilson, 1947-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    On 24 May 2008, Andrew Stephen Wilson passed away at the age of 61, in his home in Silver Spring, Maryland, from complications resulting from a painful spinal illness. Andrew was arguably one of the first truly multi-wavelength astronomers of his generation. His scientific work on active galactic nuclei [AGN] spanned the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the radio to the X-rays. Andrew was born in Doncaster, Yorkshire, England, on 26 March 1947. He was the younger of two brothers whose births were separated by the Second World War. His father, Norman, came from a relatively affluent family who were coal merchants. His mother, Mary, came from a less comfortable background, one of seven children, daughter of a skilled cabinet maker/French polisher, who went through a very hard time during the depression. As a teacher, she placed enormous value on hard work and education as a way of gaining advancement in life. When Andrew was four, the family moved to Skipton, a nice market town in the Yorkshire dales. Andrew went to a small village school until age eleven when he entered Ermysted's Grammar School. He was an enthusiastic soccer and cricket player. He never lost his enthusiasm for soccer and supported the local soccer team, Leeds United, for all his life. Andrew also followed the Yorkshire county cricket team. Andrew's interest in astronomy stemmed from the fact that at Ermysted's Grammar School someone donated a four-inch refracting telescope, so he and his friends used to go back in the evenings to investigate the rings of Saturn, the moons of Jupiter, and various nebulae. While an undergraduate at Cambridge, Andrew joined the astronomy club and ground an 8-inch mirror by hand as a part of a telescope that he set up in the backyard of his parents' house. Andrew spent hours observing with this telescope, and it was the wonder of the family. At Cambridge, Andrew obtained his bachelor's degree with first-class honors in 1969. During a short visit in London with his

  13. SR-71 Pilot Stephen (Steve) D. Ishmael

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA research pilot Stephen D. Ishmael is pictured here in front of an SR-71 Blackbird on the ramp at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Ishmael was one of two NASA research pilots assigned to the SR-71 high speed research program in the early 1990s at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Facility (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994), Edwards, California. Ishmael became a NASA research pilot in 1977. Data from the SR-71 program will be used to aid designers of future supersonic aircraft and propulsion systems. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and

  14. Obituary: Andrew Stephen Wilson, 1947-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    On 24 May 2008, Andrew Stephen Wilson passed away at the age of 61, in his home in Silver Spring, Maryland, from complications resulting from a painful spinal illness. Andrew was arguably one of the first truly multi-wavelength astronomers of his generation. His scientific work on active galactic nuclei [AGN] spanned the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the radio to the X-rays. Andrew was born in Doncaster, Yorkshire, England, on 26 March 1947. He was the younger of two brothers whose births were separated by the Second World War. His father, Norman, came from a relatively affluent family who were coal merchants. His mother, Mary, came from a less comfortable background, one of seven children, daughter of a skilled cabinet maker/French polisher, who went through a very hard time during the depression. As a teacher, she placed enormous value on hard work and education as a way of gaining advancement in life. When Andrew was four, the family moved to Skipton, a nice market town in the Yorkshire dales. Andrew went to a small village school until age eleven when he entered Ermysted's Grammar School. He was an enthusiastic soccer and cricket player. He never lost his enthusiasm for soccer and supported the local soccer team, Leeds United, for all his life. Andrew also followed the Yorkshire county cricket team. Andrew's interest in astronomy stemmed from the fact that at Ermysted's Grammar School someone donated a four-inch refracting telescope, so he and his friends used to go back in the evenings to investigate the rings of Saturn, the moons of Jupiter, and various nebulae. While an undergraduate at Cambridge, Andrew joined the astronomy club and ground an 8-inch mirror by hand as a part of a telescope that he set up in the backyard of his parents' house. Andrew spent hours observing with this telescope, and it was the wonder of the family. At Cambridge, Andrew obtained his bachelor's degree with first-class honors in 1969. During a short visit in London with his

  15. Nonlinear Trivelpiece-Gould Waves: Frequency, Functional Form, and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubin, Daniel H. E.

    2015-11-01

    This poster considers the frequency, spatial form, and stability, of nonlinear Trivelpiece- Gould (TG) waves on a cylindrical plasma column of length L and radius rp, treating both traveling and standing waves, and focussing on the regime of experimental interest in which L/rp >> 1. In this regime TG waves are weakly dispersive, allowing strong mode-coupling between Fourier harmonics. The mode coupling implies that linear theory for such waves is a poor approximation even at fairly small amplitudes, and nonlinear theories that include only a small number of harmonics (such as 3-wave parametric resonance theory) fail to fully capture the stability properties of the system. We find that nonlinear standing waves suffer jumps in their functional form as their amplitude is varied continuously. The jumps are caused by nonlinear resonances between the standing wave and nearly linear waves whose frequencies and wave numbers are harmonics of the standing wave. Also, the standing waves are found to be unstable to a multi-wave version of 3-wave parametric resonance, with an amplitude required for instability onset that is much larger than expected from three wave theory. For traveling wave, linearly stability is found for all amplitudes that could be studied, in contradiction to 3-wave theory. Supported by National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1414570, Department of Energy Grants DE-SC0002451and DE-SC0008693.

  16. Using Stephen Crane's "Maggie" To Teach the Progressive Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerwin, David; Manolios, Vassilios; Popodopoulos, Lia

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a lesson plan designed for an eleventh-grade U.S. history class in which the students learn about the Progressive Era by reading Stephen Crane's "Maggie: A Girl of the Streets." Explains that students analyze point of view, role play a talk show, write an essay, and complete a long-term research project. (CMK)

  17. Toward Valid Measurement of Stephen Pepper's World Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, John A.

    Two measures of the "world hypotheses" of Stephen Pepper were mailed to 100 sociobiologists, 87 behaviorists, 79 personality psychologists, and 45 human developmentalists. The World Hypothesis Scale (WHS) was designed to measure Pepper's four world views: (1) formism; (2) mechanism; (3) organicism; and (4) contextualism. The Organicism-Mechanism…

  18. Between Traditions: Stephen Ball and the Critical Sociology of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Stephen Ball's work has deservedly received a good deal of attention. In this article, I detail a number of tasks in which the critical sociologist of education--as a "public intellectual"--should engage. I then place Ball's work within these tasks and evaluate his contributions to them. In the process, I show that one of the…

  19. THE JAMES MADISON WOOD QUADRANGLE, STEPHENS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA, MISSOURI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCBRIDE, WILMA

    THE JAMES MADISON WOOD QUADRANGLE AT STEPHENS COLLEGE IS A COMPLEX OF BUILDINGS DESIGNED TO MAKE POSSIBLE A FLEXIBLE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT. A LIBRARY HOUSES A GREAT VARIETY OF AUDIO-VISUAL RESOURCES AND BOOKS. A COMMUNICATION CENTER INCORPORATES TELEVISION AND RADIO FACILITIES, A FILM PRODUCTION STUDIO, AND AUDIO-VISUAL FACILITIES. THE LEARNING…

  20. Stephen Hawking bags big new 3m physics prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    A massive 3m in prize money has gone to the British cosmologist Stephen Hawking for his work on black holes, quantum gravity and the early universe. The award is one of two "special fundamental physics prizes" from the Fundamental Physics Prize Foundation, which was set up earlier this year by the Russian physicist-turned-entrepreneur Yuri Milner.

  1. Mapping Florida Scrub Jay habitat for purposes of land-use management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.; Provancha, Mark J.; Smith, Rebecca B.

    1991-01-01

    Geographical information system (GIS) applications were used to map areas of primary and secondary Florida Scrub Jay habitat on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) using vegetation and soils maps. Data from field studies were used for accuracy assessment and evaluating the importance of mapping classes. Primary habitat accounts for 15 percent of the potential habitat and contained 57 percent of the Florida Scrub Jay population on KSC. Proximity analysis identified potential population centers, which were 44 percent of the potential habitat and contained 86 percent of the population. This study is an example of how remote sensing and GIS applications can provide information for land-use planning, habitat management, and the evaluation of cumulative impacts.

  2. Performance of Jay/LEC Fields Unit under mature waterflood and early tertiary operations

    SciTech Connect

    Langston, E.P.; Shirer, J.A.

    1983-10-01

    Secondary oil recovery for the Jay/Little Escambia Creek (LEC) Fields Unit will exceed initial estimates by 27 MMB (4.3 x 10 m) due to innovative reservoir management based on a comprehensive surveillance program and detailed reservoir description data. The mature waterflood was phased-in to a tertiary recovery project in 1981 and early performance is generally consistent with the planning study which predicted that 47 MMB (7.5 x 10 m) of tertiary oil will be recovered.

  3. Performance of Jay/LEC fields unit under mature waterflood and early tertiary operations

    SciTech Connect

    Langston, E.P.; Shirer, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Secondary oil recovery for the Jay/Little Escambia Creek (LEC) fields unit will exceed initial estimates by 27 million bbl due to innovative reservoir management based on a comprehensive surveillance program and detailed reservoir description data. The mature waterflood was phased-in to a tertiary recovery project in 1981 and early performance is generally consistent with the planning study which predicted that 47 million bbl of tertiary oil will be recovered.

  4. Teaching the Classics: The Origin of Species as a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruse, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Many (including the author) argue that reading the classics in the field should be part of a scientist's education. However, how you read the classics can be very different depending on whether you read them as a historian or as a practicing scientist. This point will be made by comparing two readings of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species, and by looking at the use that Stephen Jay Gould made of the history of science in his quest to promote his scientific ideas.

  5. The NOMA of Yishayahu Leibowitz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    Stephen Jay Gould presented his position on science and religion - Non-Overlapping Magisteria (NOMA) - without justification. A detailed justification of the NOMA position can be found in the earlier work of scientist and philosopher Yishayahu Leibowitz; his work is especially interesting because it comes from a religious person. This paper summarizes Leibowitz's philosophical and theological position, and claims that his version of NOMA, and by implication similar versions of NOMA, are not applicable in science education.

  6. A Markov decision process for managing habitat for Florida scrub-jays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Breininger, David R.; Duncan, Brean W.; Nichols, James D.; Runge, Michael C.; Williams, B. Ken

    2011-01-01

    Florida scrub-jays Aphelocoma coerulescens are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act due to loss and degradation of scrub habitat. This study concerned the development of an optimal strategy for the restoration and management of scrub habitat at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which contains one of the few remaining large populations of scrub-jays in Florida. There are documented differences in the reproductive and survival rates of scrubjays among discrete classes of scrub height (<120 cm or "short"; 120-170 cm or "optimal"; .170 cm or "tall"; and a combination of tall and optimal or "mixed"), and our objective was to calculate a state-dependent management strategy that would maximize the long-term growth rate of the resident scrub-jay population. We used aerial imagery with multistate Markov models to estimate annual transition probabilities among the four scrub-height classes under three possible management actions: scrub restoration (mechanical cutting followed by burning), a prescribed burn, or no intervention. A strategy prescribing the optimal management action for management units exhibiting different proportions of scrub-height classes was derived using dynamic programming. Scrub restoration was the optimal management action only in units dominated by mixed and tall scrub, and burning tended to be the optimal action for intermediate levels of short scrub. The optimal action was to do nothing when the amount of short scrub was greater than 30%, because short scrub mostly transitions to optimal height scrub (i.e., that state with the highest demographic success of scrub-jays) in the absence of intervention. Monte Carlo simulation of the optimal policy suggested that some form of management would be required every year. We note, however, that estimates of scrub-height transition probabilities were subject to several sources of uncertainty, and so we explored the management implications of alternative sets of transition probabilities

  7. Astronaut Stephen Oswald and fellow crew members on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut Stephen S. Oswald (center), STS-67 mission commander, is seen with two of his fellow crew members and an experiment which required a great deal of his time on the middeck of the Earth orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. Astronaut John M. Grunsfeld inputs mission data on a computer while listening to a cassette. Astronaut William G. Gregory (right edge of frame), pilot, consults a check list. The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE), not in use here, can be seen in upper center.

  8. Top scientists join Stephen Hawking at Perimeter Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Nine leading researchers are to join Stephen Hawking as visiting fellows at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Ontario, Canada. The researchers, who include string theorists Leonard Susskind from Stanford University and Asoka Sen from the Harisch-Chandra Research Institute in India, will each spend a few months of the year at the institute as "distinguished research chairs". They will be joined by another 30 scientists to be announced at a later date.

  9. 'Filling Bellies and Brains': The Educational and Political Thought of Frederick James Gould.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manton, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the pioneering efforts concerning moral education and educational reform by British educator Frederick James Gould. Discusses the application of his socialistic ideas to further three causes: (1) socialism and secularism; (2) positivism; and (3) a form of middle class radicalism. (KDR)

  10. STS-90 Payload Specialist Jay Buckey is suited up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Payload Specialist Jay Buckey, M.D., prepares for launch during suit-up activities in KSC's Operations and Checkout Building. Buckey and the rest of the STS-90 crew will shortly depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits a second liftoff attempt at 2:19 p.m. EDT. His first trip into space, Buckey is participating in a life sciences research flight that will focus on the most complex and least understood part of the human body -- the nervous system. Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  11. Mycoplasma sturni from blue jays and northern mockingbirds with conjunctivitis in Florida.

    PubMed

    Ley, D H; Geary, S J; Berkhoff, J E; McLaren, J M; Levisohn, S

    1998-04-01

    Northern mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos) and blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) in a Florida (USA) wildlife care facility developed clinical signs and gross lesions suggestive of the ongoing outbreak of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) conjunctivitis in house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) and American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis). Mycoplasmal organisms were cultured from conjunctival/corneal swabs of birds with sinusitis, conjunctivitis, and/or epiphora. All of the isolates tested were identified as Mycoplasma sturni by indirect immunofluorescence. Mycoplasma sturni as well as MG should be considered in the differential diagnosis of songbirds with conjunctivitis.

  12. Stephen Hales and the measurement of blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Lewis, O

    1994-12-01

    Natural philosopher and inventor, Stephen Hales (1677-1761), undertook a lengthy series of experiments on animals described in Haemastaticks (1733) which led to the first direct measurement of blood pressure. Hales retained his interest in health and disease throughout his life, and this prompted what he regarded as his most important work: the invention of ventilation systems for use in ships or prisons. Hales was the 'perpetual curate' of Teddington, Middlesex, and he combined a mechanistic, quantitative approach to his experimental work with a need and, as he saw it, a duty to discover and wonder at the wisdom and goodness of God by studying His creation. PMID:7884783

  13. Jay's Collectibles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappel, James J.; Gillman, Jason R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in collectibles of many types, as indicated by the popularity of television programs such as the History Channel's "Pawn Stars" and "American Pickers" and the Public Broadcasting Service's "Antiques Road Show." The availability of online auction sites such as eBay has enabled many people to collect items of interest as a…

  14. Western scrub-jays do not appear to attend to functionality in Aesop’s Fable experiments

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Brigit D.; Schlinger, Barney A.; Rensel, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Western scrub-jays are known for their highly discriminatory and flexible behaviors in a caching (food storing) context. However, it is unknown whether their cognitive abilities are restricted to a caching context. To explore this question, we tested scrub-jays in a non-caching context using the Aesop’s Fable paradigm, where a partially filled tube of water contains a floating food reward and objects must be inserted to displace the water and bring the food within reach. We tested four birds, but only two learned to drop stones proficiently. Of these, one bird participated in 4/5 experiments and one in 2/5 experiments. Both birds passed one experiment, but without attending to the functional differences of the objects, and failed the other experiments. Scrub-jays were not motivated to participate in these experiments, suggesting that either this paradigm was ecologically irrelevant or perhaps their flexibility is restricted to a caching context. PMID:26925331

  15. Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) infestation on medium-sized mammals and blue jays in northwestern Illinois.

    PubMed

    Mannelli, A; Kitron, U; Jones, C J; Slajchert, T L

    1993-09-01

    High prevalence of infestation of five species of medium-sized mammals and blue jays, Cyanocitta cristata (L.), by immature Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman and Corwin was found in Castle Rock State Park in northwestern Illinois during May-August 1991. Raccoons, Procyon lotor L., and opossums, Didelphis virginiana Kerr, were infested with the highest larval densities and were trapped primarily in bottomland forest and ecotone habitats. All species had similar nymphal densities, except the eastern cottontails, Sylvilagus floridanus Allen, which were infested with fewer nymphs. Infestation by I. dammini is reported for the first time for fox squirrels, Sciurus niger E. G. St. Hilaire, and for the first time in the midwestern United States for blue jays, C. cristata. These two species were hosts for nymphs in upland forest habitat. Molting rates varied among ticks that fed on different host species and among larvae that fed on individuals of the same species. Molting rate is proposed as an important factor in determining the relative importance of a host species to I. dammini population dynamics. PMID:8254647

  16. Historical biogeography and speciation in the neotropical highlands: molecular phylogenetics of the jay genus Cyanolyca.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorso, Elisa

    2009-03-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were studied in the genus Cyanolyca, an assemblage of jays distributed from Mexico south to Bolivia. Given its fragmented distribution along the humid forests of the Neotropics, the genus Cyanolyca is a model group for exploring hypotheses on biogeography and speciation. Phylogenetic analyses were based on two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci; taxon sampling includes all species in the genus and most subspecies. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses produced trees that were congruent and highly robust at both terminal and deep nodes of the phylogeny. Cyanolyca comprises two major clades: one contains the Mesoamerican "dwarf" jays, and the other consists of two main groups--C. cucullata+C. pulchra and the "core" South American species. Prior hypotheses of relationships were explored statistically using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian approaches. Dispersal-Vicariance analysis revealed the importance of the Northern Andes as a major center for biological diversification, and the effects of dispersal across the Panamanian Land Bridge in the composition of South American and Mesoamerican avifaunas. Phylogenetic patterns are highly congruent with an allopatric mode of speciation. Implications of these results are discussed in the context of the biogeography of Neotropical montane forests.

  17. Analytic wave solution with helicon and Trivelpiece-Gould modes in an annular plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsson, Johan; Pavarin, Daniele; Walker, Mitchell

    2009-11-01

    Helicon sources in an annular configuration have applications for plasma thrusters. The theory of Klozenberg et al. [J. P. Klozenberg B. McNamara and P. C. Thonemann, J. Fluid Mech. 21 (1965) 545-563] for the propagation and absorption of helicon and Trivelpiece-Gould modes in a cylindrical plasma has been generalized for annular plasmas. Analytic solutions are found also in the annular case, but in the presence of both helicon and Trivelpiece-Gould modes, a heterogeneous linear system of equations must be solved to match the plasma and inner and outer vacuum solutions. The linear system can be ill-conditioned or even exactly singular, leading to a dispersion relation with a discrete set of discontinuities. The coefficients for the analytic solution are calculated by solving the linear system with singular-value decomposition.

  18. Analytic wave solution with helicon and Trivelpiece-Gould modes in an annular plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsson, Johan; Pavarin, Daniele; Walker, Mitchell

    2009-11-26

    Helicon sources in an annular configuration have applications for plasma thrusters. The theory of Klozenberg et al.[J. P. Klozenberg B. McNamara and P. C. Thonemann, J. Fluid Mech. 21(1965) 545-563] for the propagation and absorption of helicon and Trivelpiece-Gould modes in a cylindrical plasma has been generalized for annular plasmas. Analytic solutions are found also in the annular case, but in the presence of both helicon and Trivelpiece-Gould modes, a heterogeneous linear system of equations must be solved to match the plasma and inner and outer vacuum solutions. The linear system can be ill-conditioned or even exactly singular, leading to a dispersion relation with a discrete set of discontinuities. The coefficients for the analytic solution are calculated by solving the linear system with singular-value decomposition.

  19. The Gould's Belt very large array survey. III. The Orion region

    SciTech Connect

    Kounkel, Marina; Hartmann, Lee; Loinard, Laurent; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Dzib, Sergio A.; Torres, Rosa M.; Boden, Andrew F.; Evans, Neal J. II; Briceño, Cesar; Tobin, John

    2014-07-20

    We present results from a high-sensitivity (60 μJy), large-scale (2.26 deg{sup 2}) survey obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array as part of the Gould's Belt Survey program. We detected 374 and 354 sources at 4.5 and 7.5 GHz, respectively. Of these, 148 are associated with previously known young stellar objects (YSOs). Another 86 sources previously unclassified at either optical or infrared wavelengths exhibit radio properties that are consistent with those of young stars. The overall properties of our sources at radio wavelengths such as their variability and radio to X-ray luminosity relation are consistent with previous results from the Gould's Belt Survey. Our detections provide target lists for follow-up Very Long Baseline Array radio observations to determine their distances as YSOs are located in regions of high nebulosity and extinction, making it difficult to measure optical parallaxes.

  20. Goulds Belt, Interstellar Clouds, and the Eocene-Oligocene Helium-3 Spike

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2015-01-01

    Drag from hydrogen in the interstellar cloud which formed Gould's Belt may have sent small meteoroids with embedded helium to the Earth, perhaps explaining part or all of the (sup 3) He spike seen in the sedimentary record at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Assuming the Solar System passed through part of the cloud, meteoroids in the asteroid belt up to centimeter size may have been dragged to the resonances, where their orbital eccentricities were pumped up into Earth-crossing orbits.

  1. Reading Stephen King: Issues of Censorship, Student Choice, and Popular Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Brenda Miller, Ed.; Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.; Chandler, Kelly, Ed.

    This collection of essays grew out of the "Reading Stephen King Conference" held at the University of Maine in 1996. Stephen King's books have become a lightning rod for the tensions around issues of including "mass market" popular literature in middle and high school English classes and of who chooses what students read. King's fiction is among…

  2. A Corrupt Medium: Stephen Burroughs and the Bridgehampton, New York, Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Susanna

    2003-01-01

    Discusses criminal Stephen Burroughs'"The Memoirs of Stephen Burroughs", a well-known rogue narrative of the 19th century, and his campaign to establish a library in Bridgehampton, New York. Topics include rationalism; the role of reading; the growth of libraries following the American Revolution; and the role of individual interpretations and…

  3. 76 FR 60889 - Stephen L. Reitman, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Enforcement Administration Stephen L. Reitman, M.D.; Decision and Order On July 20, 2010, Administrative Law... January 19, 2011. In re Stephen Lee Reitman, M.D., Decision at 1 (Cal. Med. Bd. Dec. 20, 2010). I take... substances properly if entrusted with a DEA registration.''' Id. (quoting Leonardo v. Lopez, M.D., 54...

  4. Effective Integration of Technology and Instruction. Q&A with Michael Jay. REL Mid-Atlantic Educator Effectiveness Webinar Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In this webinar, long-time educator and developer of education technology Michael Jay discussed the importance of using technology to support learning and gave examples of how teachers can integrate technology into their instruction based on the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards. The PowerPoint presentation and…

  5. The Lloyd Sealy Library of John Jay College of Criminal Justice: Academic Library, Special Library, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The Lloyd Sealy Library of John Jay College of Criminal Justice started as a small collection of books in the corner of the New York City Police Academy. A little over four decades later, it now contains one of the best collections of criminal justice materials in the world. Despite fiscal setbacks and tough times for the University and the…

  6. STS-85 Mission Specialist Stephen Robinson suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-85 Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson smiles as he is assisted with his ascent/reentry flight suit by a suit technician in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. He has been a NASA employee since 1975 and has worked at Ames and Langley Research Centers. Robinson holds a doctorate in mechanical engineering and is a licensed pilot. He will assist Mission Specialist Robert L. Curbeam, Jr. with the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2 (CRISTA- SPAS-2) free-flyer and conduct Comet Hale-Bopp observations with the Southwest Ultraviolet Imaging System. Robinson will also coordinate photo and television data operations during the mission. The primary payload aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery is the CRISTA-SPAS- 2. Other payloads on the 11-day mission include the Manipulator Flight Demonstration (MFD), and Technology Applications and Science-1 (TAS-1) and International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker-2 (IEH-2) experiments.

  7. Performance of Jay/LEC fields unit under mature waterflood and early tertiary operations

    SciTech Connect

    Langston, E.P.; Shirer, J.A.

    1985-02-01

    Secondary oil recovery for the Jay/Little Escambia Creek (LEC) Fields Unit will exceed initial estimates by 27 X 10/sup 6/ bbl (4.3 X 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/) because of innovative reservoir management based on a comprehensive surveillance program and detailed reservoir description data. Infill drill wells have accounted for 76 X 10/sup 6/ bbl (12 X 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/) of oil production. The mature waterflood was phased into a tertiary recovery project in 1981, and early performance is generally consistent with the planning study, which predicted that 47 X 10/sup 6/ bbl (7.5 X 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/) of tertiary oil will be recovered.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: JCMT Gould Belt Survey: dense cores in Orion B (Kirk+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, H.; di, Francesco J.; Johnstone, D.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Sadavoy, S.; Hatchell, J.; Mottram, J. C.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2016-04-01

    Orion B was observed with SCUBA-2 at 850 and 450um as part of the JCMT Gould Belt Survey (Ward-Thompson et al. 2007PASP..119..855W). Three separate regions were observed: the areas around L1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, as illustrated in Figure 1. The SCUBA-2 observations were obtained between 2012 February and 2014 November with some initial science verification data taken in 2011 October and November. Portions of the NGC 2023/2024 and NGC 2068/2071 regions were also observed by the Gould Belt Survey (GBS) in 12CO(3-2) with HARP. (1 data file).

  9. Laboratory observations of electron energization and associated lower-hybrid and Trivelpiece-Gould wave turbulence during magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, W.; Porkolab, M.; Egedal, J.; Katz, N.; Le, A.

    2010-07-15

    This work presents an experimental study of current-driven turbulence in a plasma undergoing magnetic reconnection in a low-beta, strong-guide-field regime. Electrostatic fluctuations are observed by small, high-bandwidth, and impedance-matched Langmuir probes. The observed modes, identified by their characteristic frequency and wavelength, include lower-hybrid fluctuations and high-frequency Trivelpiece-Gould modes. The observed waves are believed to arise from electrons energized by the reconnection process via direct bump-on-tail instability (Trivelpiece-Gould) or gradients in the fast electron population (lower-hybrid).

  10. Gould's Belt, interstellar clouds, and the Eocene-Oligocene helium-3 enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2016-01-01

    Drag from hydrogen in the interstellar cloud which formed Gould's Belt may have sent interplanetary dust particle (IDPs) and small meteoroids with embedded helium to the Earth, perhaps explaining part the helium-3 flux increase seen in the sedimentary record near the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Assuming the Solar System passed through part of the cloud, IDPs in the inner Solar System may have been dragged to Earth, while dust and small meteoroids in the asteroid belt up to centimeter size may have been dragged to the resonances, where their orbital eccentricities were pumped up into Earth-crossing orbits; however, this hypotheses does not explain the Popigai and Chesapeake Bay impacts.

  11. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.

    2011-01-01

    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, most of which sound quite ludicrous. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston- not Herschel- who coined the term "asteroid" to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  12. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.; Orchiston, Wayne

    2011-11-01

    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, which Herschel rejected. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston, FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston - not Herschel - who coined the term 'asteroid' to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  13. Desire-state attribution: Benefits of a novel paradigm using the food-sharing behavior of Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius).

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Ljerka; Cheke, Lucy G; Shaw, Rachael C; Legg, Edward W; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have investigated the possibility that Eurasian jay food sharing might rely on desire-state attribution. The female's desire for a particular type of food can be decreased by sating her on it (specific satiety) and the food sharing paradigm can be used to test whether the male's sharing pattern reflects the female's current desire. Our previous findings show that the male shares the food that the female currently wants. Here, we consider 3 simpler mechanisms that might explain the male's behavior: behavior reading, lack of self-other differentiation and behavioral rules. We illustrate how we have already addressed these issues and how our food sharing paradigm can be further adapted to answer outstanding questions. The flexibility with which the food sharing paradigm can be applied to rule out alternative mechanisms makes it a useful tool to study desire-state attribution in jays and other species that share food. PMID:27195059

  14. Desire-state attribution: Benefits of a novel paradigm using the food-sharing behavior of Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius)

    PubMed Central

    Ostojić, Ljerka; Cheke, Lucy G.; Shaw, Rachael C.; Legg, Edward W.; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In recent years, we have investigated the possibility that Eurasian jay food sharing might rely on desire-state attribution. The female's desire for a particular type of food can be decreased by sating her on it (specific satiety) and the food sharing paradigm can be used to test whether the male's sharing pattern reflects the female's current desire. Our previous findings show that the male shares the food that the female currently wants. Here, we consider 3 simpler mechanisms that might explain the male's behavior: behavior reading, lack of self-other differentiation and behavioral rules. We illustrate how we have already addressed these issues and how our food sharing paradigm can be further adapted to answer outstanding questions. The flexibility with which the food sharing paradigm can be applied to rule out alternative mechanisms makes it a useful tool to study desire-state attribution in jays and other species that share food. PMID:27195059

  15. Can male Eurasian jays disengage from their own current desire to feed the female what she wants?

    PubMed Central

    Ostojić, Ljerka; Legg, Edward W.; Shaw, Rachael C.; Cheke, Lucy G.; Mendl, Michael; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2014-01-01

    Humans' predictions of another person's behaviour are regularly influenced by what they themselves might know or want. In a previous study, we found that male Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) could cater for their female partner's current desire when sharing food with her. Here, we tested the extent to which the males' decisions are influenced by their own current desire. When the males' and female's desires matched, males correctly shared the food that was desired by both. When the female's desire differed from their own, the males' decisions were not entirely driven by their own desires, suggesting that males also took the female's desire into account. Thus, the male jays' decisions about their mates' desires are partially biased by their own desire and might be based upon similar processes as those found in humans. PMID:24671829

  16. Corticosterone administration does not affect timing of breeding in Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens).

    PubMed

    Schoech, Stephan J; Bowman, Reed; Bridge, Eli S; Morgan, Gina M; Rensel, Michelle A; Wilcoxen, Travis E; Boughton, Raoul K

    2007-08-01

    Providing supplemental food to Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) causes a reliable advance in clutch initiation of 1 to 2 weeks. In some years, supplemental food appeared to not only advance laying date but also decrease baseline concentrations of corticosterone (CORT) relative to controls. The coincidence of low CORT levels and early breeding led us to hypothesize that CORT serves to communicate information about environmental conditions to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, which ultimately influences the timing of breeding. To test this hypothesis, we administered small oral doses of CORT three times each day to female breeders that were provisioned with supplemental food. We compared clutch initiation dates of the CORT-dosed females to females with supplementation but no exogenous CORT and to females with neither CORT nor supplemental food. CORT administration had a strong temporary effect on circulating CORT concentrations but clutch initiation did not differ between the two groups of supplemented birds, both of which laid eggs approximately 10 days earlier than nonsupplemented birds. Furthermore, during the year of our study we found no reduction in baseline CORT concentrations in our undosed supplemental groups, as had been observed in past studies.

  17. Henry Knowles Beecher, Jay Katz, and the Transformation of Research with Human Beings.

    PubMed

    Capron, Alexander Morgan

    2016-01-01

    The modern history of experimentation with human beings is notable for its ethical lacunae, when even the clearest directives fail to prevent violations of subjects' rights and welfare. One such lacuna occurred during the 25 years between 1947, when the Nuremberg Code was articulated in the judgment passed on the men who had performed medical experiments in the Nazi concentration camps, and 1972, when the revelation of the 40-year-long Tuskegee Syphilis Study shocked the public and pushed Congress to adopt legislation that eventually transformed the governance of human subjects research. The work that Henry Beecher and Jay Katz did on the ethics of human experimentation beginning in 1964-which was mutually supportive but also divergent in its premises and prescriptions-played a prominent role in the policy-making processes. Beecher, whose detailed disclosure of the ethical lapses of leading researchers in his renowned 1966 New England Journal of Medicine article initiated the policy reform process, proved less influential in shaping those reforms than Katz. Ultimately, Beecher was one of the last and best exemplars of "medical ethics," while Katz-in his service on the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Ad Hoc Advisory Panel and in his testimony before, and work with, the Senate Health subcommittee-was an early practitioner of bioethics, a field in which the rules are not all written and applied by the medical profession but arise through a messier process involving outsiders and formal regulatory decisions.

  18. Disentangling plastic and genetic changes in body mass of Siberian jays.

    PubMed

    Gienapp, P; Merilä, J

    2014-09-01

    Spatial and temporal phenotypic differentiation in mean body size is of commonplace occurrence, but the underlying causes remain often unclear: both genetic differentiation in response to selection (or drift) and environmentally induced plasticity can create similar phenotypic patterns. Studying changes in body mass in Siberian jays (Perisoreus infaustus) over three decades, we discovered that mean body mass declined drastically (ca. 10%) over the first two decades, but increased markedly thereafter back to almost the initial level. Quantitative genetic analyses revealed that although body mass was heritable (h(2) = 0.46), the pronounced temporal decrease in body mass was mainly a product of phenotypic plasticity. However, a concomitant and statistically significant decrease in predicted breeding values suggests a genetic component to this change. The subsequent increase in mean body mass was indicated to be entirely due to plasticity. Selection on body mass was estimated to be too weak to fully account for the observed genetic decline in body mass, but bias in selection differential estimates due to environmental covariance between body mass and fitness is possible. Hence, the observed body mass changes appear to be driven mainly by phenotypic plasticity. Although we were not able to identify the ecological driver of the observed plastic changes, the results highlight the utility of quantitative genetic approaches in disentangling genetic and phenotypic changes in natural populations.

  19. Signaling for food and sex? Begging by reproductive female white-throated magpie-jays

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Jesse M. S.; Langen, Tom A.; Berg, Elena C.

    2012-01-01

    Food begging is common in nutritionally dependent young of many animals, but structurally homologous calls recur in adult signal repertoires of many species. We propose eight functional hypotheses for begging in adults; these stem from observations in birds but apply broadly to other taxa in which begging occurs. Adult cooperatively-breeding white-throated magpie-jays (Calocitta formosa) use loud begging vocalizations, particularly near the nest site during reproduction. We analysed the social context and behavioural phenology of loud calling and allofeeding in this species and compared these with predictions from each functional hypothesis. We found that reproductive females are the primary producers of beg calls, and their begging peaks during the fertile period when reproductive conflict among males and females was highest. Loud begging rates correlated positively with provisioning rates, but females called more in the pre-incubation fertile period than after they initiated incubation. Based on the context, phenology and active space of the signal, we conclude that female loud begging vocalizations function to signal nutritional need to group members, but also have been evolutionarily co-opted to advertise fertility to potential extra-pair partners. The location of calling is likely a consequence of nest guarding by breeding females to prevent intraspecific brood parasitism. PMID:23293376

  20. Henry Knowles Beecher, Jay Katz, and the Transformation of Research with Human Beings.

    PubMed

    Capron, Alexander Morgan

    2016-01-01

    The modern history of experimentation with human beings is notable for its ethical lacunae, when even the clearest directives fail to prevent violations of subjects' rights and welfare. One such lacuna occurred during the 25 years between 1947, when the Nuremberg Code was articulated in the judgment passed on the men who had performed medical experiments in the Nazi concentration camps, and 1972, when the revelation of the 40-year-long Tuskegee Syphilis Study shocked the public and pushed Congress to adopt legislation that eventually transformed the governance of human subjects research. The work that Henry Beecher and Jay Katz did on the ethics of human experimentation beginning in 1964-which was mutually supportive but also divergent in its premises and prescriptions-played a prominent role in the policy-making processes. Beecher, whose detailed disclosure of the ethical lapses of leading researchers in his renowned 1966 New England Journal of Medicine article initiated the policy reform process, proved less influential in shaping those reforms than Katz. Ultimately, Beecher was one of the last and best exemplars of "medical ethics," while Katz-in his service on the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Ad Hoc Advisory Panel and in his testimony before, and work with, the Senate Health subcommittee-was an early practitioner of bioethics, a field in which the rules are not all written and applied by the medical profession but arise through a messier process involving outsiders and formal regulatory decisions. PMID:27499485

  1. Autecology of the tailed jay butterfly Graphium agamemnon (Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera : Papilionidae).

    PubMed

    Ramana, S P Venkata; Atluri, J B; Reddi, C Subba

    2003-07-01

    The Tailed Jay Graphium agamemnon is one of the attractive papilionid butterflies that enliven the environment of Visakhapatnam. It occurs throughout the year. It lays eggs singly on young leaves of the mast tree Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula (Annonaceae). The eggs take 3-4 days to hatch. The larvae go through 5 instars over a period of 15-16 days. The pupal period is 13-14 days. The total period from egg to adult emergence spans over 33-36 days. Based on this short life cycle, and larval and pupal development success studied every month, this butterfly can be multivoltine with a minimum of 7-8 broods in a year. Both CI and GR decreased with the age of larva, their average figures being 3.78 and 0.43 respectively. AD values are high (average 92%) and decreased through successive instars. Both ECD and ECI followed a similar pattern with an increase from instar I up to II, then a decrease up to IV and again an increase in instar V and the highest value is with fifth instar. Adults frequently visited flowers (12-35 flowers in a min) spending 1.0 to 3.2 seconds on a flower. The nectar concentration ranged between 16 and 58%. Peak foraging activity mostly fell between 0900-1000 h. The proboscis received pollen in most of the floral species visited, thus satisfying one of the characteristics of butterfly pollination. Being a fast and strong flier it is treated as "high energy" pollinator promoting cross-pollination.

  2. Comparison of Porter-Gould Constitutive Model with Compression Test Data for Htpb/sugar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, R.; Porter, D.; Church, P.; Gould, P.; Andrews, T.; Proud, B.; Drodge, D.; Siviour, C.

    2007-12-01

    We have been developing the physically based QinetiQ Porter-Gould (P-G) model for the mechanical response of PBXs over a number of years and applying it to the solution of real scenarios involving impact and blast. The main difficulty with these models is predicting the intermediate strain rate regime where the relaxation time for the polymer is of the same order as the duration of the loading (e.g. as in a Hopkinson bar test). The other main issue is the ability of the model to predict the stress/strain data as a function of temperature up to and through the glass transition temperature. The paper presents predictions from the QinetiQ P-G model compared to quasi-static compression and Hopkinson bar compression test data and discusses the results in terms of requirements for future developments of the model.

  3. Comparison of Porter-Gould constitutive model with Compression Test data for HTPB/Sugar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Philip; Gould, Peter; Huntington-Thresher, William; Drodge, Daniel; Proud, William

    2007-06-01

    QinetiQ has been developing the physically based QinetiQ Porter-Gould (P-G) model for the mechanical response of PBXs over a number of years and applying to solving real scenarios involving impact and blast. The main difficulty with these models is predicting the intermediate strain rate regime where the relaxation time for the polymer is of the same order as the duration of the Hopkinson bar test. The other main issue is the ability of the model to predict the stress/strain data as a function of temperature up to and through the glass transition temperature. The paper presents predictions from the QinetiQ P-G model compared to quasi-static compression and Hopkinson bar compression test data and discusses the results in terms of requirements for future developments of the model.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Serpens MWC 297 (Rumble+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumble, D.; Hatchell, J.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Kirk, H.; Buckle, J.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; Di, Francesco J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-thompson, D.; Allen, L. E.; Cieza, L. A.; Dunham, M. M.; Harvey, P. M.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Bastien, P.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wilson, C. D.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-09-01

    Serpens MWC 297 was observed with SCUBA-2 on the 2012 July 5 and 8 as part of the JCMT GBS MJLSG33 SCUBA-2 Serpens Campaign. Continuum observations at 850 and 450um were made using fully sampled 30 arcmin diameter circular regions centered on RA=18:28:13.8, DE=-03:44:01.7 (J2000). The MWC 297 region was observed twice by Spitzer in the mid-infrared, first as part of the Spitzer Young Clusters Survey (SYC; Gutermuth et al., 2009, Cat. J/ApJS/184/18) and secondly as part of the Spitzer legacy programme 'Gould's Belt: star formation in the solar neighbourhood' (SGBS, PID: 30574). In both surveys, mapping observations were taken at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0um with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and at 24um with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). (3 data files).

  5. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Dense Core Clusters in Orion B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Di Francesco, J.; Lane, J.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; The JCMT Gould Belt Survey team

    2016-04-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Gould Belt Legacy Survey obtained SCUBA-2 observations of dense cores within three sub-regions of Orion B: LDN 1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, all of which contain clusters of cores. We present an analysis of the clustering properties of these cores, including the two-point correlation function and Cartwright’s Q parameter. We identify individual clusters of dense cores across all three regions using a minimal spanning tree technique, and find that in each cluster, the most massive cores tend to be centrally located. We also apply the independent M–Σ technique and find a strong correlation between core mass and the local surface density of cores. These two lines of evidence jointly suggest that some amount of mass segregation in clusters has happened already at the dense core stage.

  6. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Dense Core Clusters in Orion B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Di Francesco, J.; Lane, J.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; The JCMT Gould Belt Survey Team

    2016-04-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Gould Belt Legacy Survey obtained SCUBA-2 observations of dense cores within three sub-regions of Orion B: LDN 1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, all of which contain clusters of cores. We present an analysis of the clustering properties of these cores, including the two-point correlation function and Cartwright’s Q parameter. We identify individual clusters of dense cores across all three regions using a minimal spanning tree technique, and find that in each cluster, the most massive cores tend to be centrally located. We also apply the independent M-Σ technique and find a strong correlation between core mass and the local surface density of cores. These two lines of evidence jointly suggest that some amount of mass segregation in clusters has happened already at the dense core stage.

  7. The imprint of Gould's belt on the local cosmic ray electron spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, M.; Perrot, C.; Grenier, I.

    2001-08-01

    In a recent paper Pohl and Esposito (1998) demonstrated that if the sources of cosmic-rays are discrete, as are Supernova Remnants (SNR), then the spectra of cosmic-ray electrons largely vary with location and time and the locally measured electron spectrum may not be representative of the electron spectra elsewhere in the Galaxy, which could be substantially harder than the local one. They have shown that the observed excess of γ-ray emission above 1 GeV can in fact be partially explained as a correspondingly hard inverse Compton component, provided the bulk of cosmic-ray electrons is produced in SNR. As part of a program to model the Galactic γ-ray foreground we have continued the earlier studies by investigating the impact of the star forming region Gould's Belt on the local electron spectrum. If the electron sources in Gould's Belt were continous, the local electron spectrum would be slightly hardened. If the electron sources are discrete, which is the more probable case, the variation in the local electron spectrum found by Pohl & Esposito persists. 1 The local cosmic-ray electron spectrum The recent detections of non-thermal X-ray synchrotron radiation from the supernova remnants SN1006 (Koyama et al., 1995), RX J1713.7-3946 (Koyama et al., 1997), IC443 (Keohane et al., 1997; Slane et al., 1999), Cas A (Allen et al., 1997), and RCW86 (Borkowski et al., 2001) and the subsequent detections of SN1006 (Tanimori et al., 1998), RX J1713.7-3946 (Muraishi et al., 2000), and Cas A (Aharonian et al., 2001) at TeV energies support the hypothesis that at least Galactic cosmic-ray electrons are accelerated predominantly in SNR. The Galactic distribution and spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons are intimately linked to the distribution and nature of their sources. Supernovae and hence their remnants are tran-

  8. An example of phenotypic adherence to the island rule? – Anticosti gray jays are heavier but not structurally larger than mainland conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Dan; Norris, D Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The island rule refers to the tendency of small vertebrates to become larger when isolated on islands and the frequent dwarfing of large forms. It implies genetic control, and a necessary linkage, of size and body-mass differences between insular and mainland populations. To examine the island rule, we compared body size and mass of gray jays (Perisoreus canadensis) on Anticosti Island, Québec, located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, with three mainland populations (2 in Québec and 1 in Ontario). Although gray jays on Anticosti Island were ca 10% heavier, they were not structurally larger, than the three mainland populations. This suggests that Anticosti jays are not necessarily genetically distinct from mainland gray jays and that they may have achieved their greater body masses solely through packing more mass onto mainland-sized body frames. As such, they may be the first-known example of a proposed, purely phenotypic initial step in the adherence to the island rule by an insular population. Greater jay body mass is probably advantageous in Anticosti's high-density, intensely competitive social environment that may have resulted from the island's lack of mammalian nest predators. PMID:26380697

  9. An example of phenotypic adherence to the island rule? - Anticosti gray jays are heavier but not structurally larger than mainland conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Dan; Norris, D Ryan

    2015-09-01

    The island rule refers to the tendency of small vertebrates to become larger when isolated on islands and the frequent dwarfing of large forms. It implies genetic control, and a necessary linkage, of size and body-mass differences between insular and mainland populations. To examine the island rule, we compared body size and mass of gray jays (Perisoreus canadensis) on Anticosti Island, Québec, located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, with three mainland populations (2 in Québec and 1 in Ontario). Although gray jays on Anticosti Island were ca 10% heavier, they were not structurally larger, than the three mainland populations. This suggests that Anticosti jays are not necessarily genetically distinct from mainland gray jays and that they may have achieved their greater body masses solely through packing more mass onto mainland-sized body frames. As such, they may be the first-known example of a proposed, purely phenotypic initial step in the adherence to the island rule by an insular population. Greater jay body mass is probably advantageous in Anticosti's high-density, intensely competitive social environment that may have resulted from the island's lack of mammalian nest predators.

  10. Habitat-specific demography and source-sink dynamics in a population of Siberian jays.

    PubMed

    Nystrand, Magdalena; Griesser, Michael; Eggers, Sönke; Ekman, Jan

    2010-01-01

    1. There are a number of models describing population structure, many of which have the capacity to incorporate spatial habitat effects. One such model is the source-sink model, that describes a system where some habitats have a natality that is higher than mortality (source) and others have a mortality that exceeds natality (sink). A source can be maintained in the absence of migration, whereas a sink will go extinct. 2. However, the interaction between population dynamics and habitat quality is complex, and concerns have been raised about the validity of published empirical studies addressing source-sink dynamics. In particular, some of these studies fail to provide data on survival, a significant component in disentangling a sink from a low quality source. Moreover, failing to account for a density-dependent increase in mortality, or decrease in fecundity, can result in a territory being falsely assigned as a sink, when in fact, this density-dependent suppression only decreases the population size to a lower level, hence indicating a 'pseudo-sink'. 3. In this study, we investigate a long-term data set for key components of territory-specific demography (mortality and reproduction) and their relationship to habitat characteristics in the territorial, group-living Siberian jay (Perisoreus infaustus). We also assess territory-specific population growth rates (r), to test whether spatial population dynamics are consistent with the ideas of source-sink dynamics. 4. Although average mortality did not differ between sexes, habitat-specific mortality did. Female mortality was higher in older forests, a pattern not observed in males. Male mortality only increased with an increasing amount of open areas. Moreover, reproductive success was higher further away from human settlement, indicating a strong effect of human-associated nest predators. 5. Averaged over all years, 76% of the territories were sources. These territories generally consisted of less open areas, and were

  11. Speciation in Western Scrub-Jays, Haldane’s rule, and genetic clines in secondary contact

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Haldane’s Rule, the tendency for the heterogametic sex to show reduced fertility in hybrid crosses, can obscure the signal of gene flow in mtDNA between species where females are heterogametic. Therefore, it is important when studying speciation and species limits in female-heterogametic species like birds to assess the signature of gene flow in the nuclear genome as well. We studied introgression of microsatellites and mtDNA across a secondary contact zone between coastal and interior lineages of Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) to test for a signature of Haldane’s Rule: a narrower cline of introgression in mtDNA compared to nuclear markers. Results Our initial phylogeographic analysis revealed that there is only one major area of contact between coastal and interior lineages and identified five genetic clusters with strong spatial structuring: Pacific Slope, Interior US, Edwards Plateau (Texas), Northern Mexico, and Southern Mexico. Consistent with predictions from Haldane’s Rule, mtDNA showed a narrower cline than nuclear markers across a transect through the hybrid zone. This result is not being driven by female-biased dispersal because neutral diffusion analysis, which included estimates of sex-specific dispersal rates, also showed less diffusion of mtDNA. Lineage-specific plumage traits were associated with nuclear genetic profiles for individuals in the hybrid zone, indicating that these differences are under genetic control. Conclusions This study adds to a growing list of studies that support predictions of Haldane’s Rule using cline analysis of multiple loci of differing inheritance modes, although alternate hypotheses like selection on different mtDNA types cannot be ruled out. That Haldane’s Rule appears to be operating in this system suggests a measure of reproductive isolation between the Pacific Slope and interior lineages. Based on a variety of evidence from the phenotype, ecology, and genetics, we recommend elevating

  12. Treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability using the Broström-Gould procedure in athletes: long-term results

    PubMed Central

    RUSSO, ADRIANO; GIACCHÈ, PAOLO; MARCANTONI, ENRICO; ARRIGHI, ANNALISA; MOLFETTA, LUIGI

    2016-01-01

    Purpose this study was conducted to evaluate long-term results following treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability using the Broström-Gould technique in athletes. Methods eighteen athletes involved in competitive sports at different levels, who suffered from chronic lateral ankle instability, underwent Broström-Gould ligamentoplasty between 2000 and 2005. The results of the surgery were evaluated using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scale. Results the results at 10–15 years of follow-up were excellent in 94.5% of these cases and good in the remaining 5.5%. An increase of 31.2 points in the AOFAS scale score was recorded at follow-up (with the score rising to 98.8, from 67.6 preoperatively). All the athletes returned to their respective sports at the same level as prior to the surgery. Imaging at long-term follow-up showed no signs of arthritic degeneration. Conclusions the results of this study show that the Broström-Gould technique is an effective procedure for the treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability in the athlete, giving excellent long-term results. Level of evidence therapeutic case series, level IV.

  13. Histology, ultrastructure, and morphogenesis of a rickettsia-like organism causing disease in the oyster, Crassostrea ariakensis Gould.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingfeng; Wu, Xinzhong

    2004-07-01

    Moribund specimens of the oyster, Crassostrea ariakensis Gould, aged 2-3 years were collected from Hailing Bay in Yangxi County of Guangdong Province from February to May and November to December in the years 2001, 2002, and 2003. A massive infection by an obligate intracellular prokaryote, specifically a rickettsia-like organism (RLO), was found. Here we report investigations of this RLO in the tissues of the oyster C. ariakensis Gould and describe the histology, ultrastructure, and morphogenesis of this pathogen in C. ariakensis Gould. Light microscopic observations of stained tissues revealed cytoplasmic inclusion bodies typical of prokaryote infection in about 87% (26/30) of the oysters. Most inclusions were observed in epithelial cells and connective tissues of the gill, mantle, and digestive gland of most of the infected oysters. The shape, size, and color of inclusions from different tissues were polymorphic. Electron microscopic examination of digestive gland, gill, and mantle tissues showed that the RLOs were intracytoplasmic. RLOs were often round, dumb-bell-shaped (undergoing binary fission), or occasionally rod-shaped and ranged from approximately 0.58 to 1.20microm in size. The organisms exhibited an ultrastructure characteristic of prokaryotic bacteria-like cells, including a trilaminar cell wall, electron-dense periplasmic ribosome zone, and a DNA nucleoid. Reproductive stages, including transverse binary fission, were observed by TEM. These stages were frequently observed within membrane-bound cytoplasmic vacuoles. Hexagonal phage-like particles in the cytoplasm of RLOs were also observed. PMID:15261771

  14. Treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability using the Broström-Gould procedure in athletes: long-term results

    PubMed Central

    RUSSO, ADRIANO; GIACCHÈ, PAOLO; MARCANTONI, ENRICO; ARRIGHI, ANNALISA; MOLFETTA, LUIGI

    2016-01-01

    Purpose this study was conducted to evaluate long-term results following treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability using the Broström-Gould technique in athletes. Methods eighteen athletes involved in competitive sports at different levels, who suffered from chronic lateral ankle instability, underwent Broström-Gould ligamentoplasty between 2000 and 2005. The results of the surgery were evaluated using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scale. Results the results at 10–15 years of follow-up were excellent in 94.5% of these cases and good in the remaining 5.5%. An increase of 31.2 points in the AOFAS scale score was recorded at follow-up (with the score rising to 98.8, from 67.6 preoperatively). All the athletes returned to their respective sports at the same level as prior to the surgery. Imaging at long-term follow-up showed no signs of arthritic degeneration. Conclusions the results of this study show that the Broström-Gould technique is an effective procedure for the treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability in the athlete, giving excellent long-term results. Level of evidence therapeutic case series, level IV. PMID:27602349

  15. Histology, ultrastructure, and morphogenesis of a rickettsia-like organism causing disease in the oyster, Crassostrea ariakensis Gould.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingfeng; Wu, Xinzhong

    2004-07-01

    Moribund specimens of the oyster, Crassostrea ariakensis Gould, aged 2-3 years were collected from Hailing Bay in Yangxi County of Guangdong Province from February to May and November to December in the years 2001, 2002, and 2003. A massive infection by an obligate intracellular prokaryote, specifically a rickettsia-like organism (RLO), was found. Here we report investigations of this RLO in the tissues of the oyster C. ariakensis Gould and describe the histology, ultrastructure, and morphogenesis of this pathogen in C. ariakensis Gould. Light microscopic observations of stained tissues revealed cytoplasmic inclusion bodies typical of prokaryote infection in about 87% (26/30) of the oysters. Most inclusions were observed in epithelial cells and connective tissues of the gill, mantle, and digestive gland of most of the infected oysters. The shape, size, and color of inclusions from different tissues were polymorphic. Electron microscopic examination of digestive gland, gill, and mantle tissues showed that the RLOs were intracytoplasmic. RLOs were often round, dumb-bell-shaped (undergoing binary fission), or occasionally rod-shaped and ranged from approximately 0.58 to 1.20microm in size. The organisms exhibited an ultrastructure characteristic of prokaryotic bacteria-like cells, including a trilaminar cell wall, electron-dense periplasmic ribosome zone, and a DNA nucleoid. Reproductive stages, including transverse binary fission, were observed by TEM. These stages were frequently observed within membrane-bound cytoplasmic vacuoles. Hexagonal phage-like particles in the cytoplasm of RLOs were also observed.

  16. Fine-scale kin recognition in the absence of social familiarity in the Siberian jay, a monogamous bird species.

    PubMed

    Griesser, Michael; Halvarsson, Peter; Drobniak, Szymon M; Vilà, Carles

    2015-11-01

    Kin recognition is a critical element to kin cooperation, and in vertebrates, it is primarily based on associative learning. Recognition of socially unfamiliar kin occurs rarely, and it is reported only in vertebrate species where promiscuity prevents recognition of first-order relatives. However, it is unknown whether the recognition of socially unfamiliar kin can evolve in monogamous species. Here, we investigate whether genetic relatedness modulates aggression among group members in Siberian jays (Perisoreus infaustus). This bird species is genetically and socially monogamous and lives in groups that are formed through the retention of offspring beyond independence, and the immigration of socially unfamiliar nonbreeders. Observations on feeders showed that genetic relatedness modulated aggression of breeders towards immigrants in a graded manner, in that they chased most intensely the immigrant group members that were genetically the least related. However, cross-fostering experiments showed that breeders were equally tolerant towards their own and cross-fostered young swapped as nestlings. Thus, breeders seem to use different mechanisms to recognize socially unfamiliar individuals and own offspring. As Siberian jays show a high degree of nepotism during foraging and predator encounters, inclusive fitness benefits may play a role for the evolution of fine-scale kin recognition. More generally, our results suggest that fine-graded kin recognition can evolve independently of social familiarity, highlighting the evolutionary importance of kin recognition for social species. PMID:26460512

  17. High latitudes and high genetic diversity: phylogeography of a widespread boreal bird, the gray jay (Perisoreus canadensis).

    PubMed

    van Els, Paul; Cicero, Carla; Klicka, John

    2012-05-01

    We describe range-wide phylogeographic variation in gray jays (Perisoreus canadensis), a boreal Nearctic corvid that occurs today primarily in recently glaciated regions. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA (1041 base pairs ND2 gene; N=205, 50 localities) revealed four reciprocally monophyletic groups. One widespread clade occurs across the North American boreal zone, from Newfoundland to Alaska and southwest into Utah. Three other clades occur at lower latitudes in the montane West in Colorado, the northern Rocky Mountains, and the Pacific Northwest respectively. The geographic distribution of clades in gray jays corresponds with a general pattern that is emerging for boreal taxa, having one widespread northern clade and one or more geographically restricted southwestern clades. Population genetic analyses indicate that the larger boreal clade is genetically structured and harbors significantly more genetic diversity than those clades occurring at lower latitudes. Species distribution modeling (SDM) revealed multiple putative Pleistocene refugia including several occurring at higher latitudes. We suggest that multiple post-glacial colonization routes, some of which originate from these northern refugia, are responsible for the relatively high genetic diversity at high latitudes. Conversely, lower latitude clades show little variation, probably as a result of historical restriction to smaller geographical areas with smaller long-term population sizes. This 'upside-down' pattern of genetic diversity contrasts with the conventional view that populations of north-temperate species occupying previously glaciated habitats should possess lower levels of diversity than their southern counterparts. PMID:22321688

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Uranometria Argentina catalog of bright southern stars (Gould, 1879)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, B. G.

    2010-07-01

    In 1879 Benjamin Apthorp Gould published in Buenos Aires, Argentina, the Uranometria Argentina catalog of 7756 stars south of declination +10 degrees. This included all those stars he considered magnitude 7 or brighter and some fainter stars which are close companions to brighter stars or to each other and have combined magnitude 7 or brighter. Star positions are in 1875 coordinates, and constellation boundaries also in 1875 coordinates were defined within the aforementioned declination range. With only a few small changes these were incorporated into the boundaries adopted by the IAU in 1930 and subsequently universally accepted. In terms of accurate photoelectric magnitude measurements the Uranometria Argentina is nearly complete to magnitude 6.5 in its declination range. In each constellation the individual stars considered to be magnitude 7 and brighter were numbered in sequence of increasing right ascension in 1875 coordinates, except that in a few cases this sequence was somewhat adjusted so that stars close together could be listed on adjacent lines of text. The numbering system is analogous to that in the Flamsteed Catalogus Brittanicus and now widely used. Star numbers from the Uranometria Argentina rarely appear in the 21st century despite the potential utility of their use. They were included in the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac until 1978, and in the FK5 catalog until 1999, always with the letter G following the number in the Uranometria Argentina catalog. This serves to distinguish Flamsteed numbers with no following letters from Gould numbers, and is utilized in this presentation and recommended for general use. The file catalog.dat includes every star in the original Uranometria Argentina. In the original the constellations were presented in sequence of increasing distance from the south pole and numbered accordingly. For the convenience of 21st century astronomers the constellations are presented here by alphabetical sequence in

  19. The Humanities and Interrater Reliability: A Response to R. Stephen RiCharde

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flick, Arend

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's critique of R. Stephen RiCharde's argument in his essay on the humanities and interrater reliability in the July-August 2008 issue of "Assessment Update." RiCharde suggests that the humanities' historical commitment to a dialectical pedagogy, a "nonlinear" process that values disagreement and debate, is at odds…

  20. STEPHEN CRANE'S "THE O'RUDDY"--A PROBLEM IN AUTHORSHIP DISCRIMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'DONNELL, BERNARD

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS ANALYSIS WAS TO DISCOVER CERTAIN ASPECTS OF STYLE (BOTH LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL) WHICH COULD BE COUNTED AND WHICH WOULD, WHEN COMPARED, DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN THE WRITTEN PROSE OF TWO AUTHORS. THE SUBJECT SELECTED FOR ANALYSIS WAS "THE O'RUDDY," BEGUN BY STEPHEN CRANE AND COMPLETED BY ROBERT BARR. SINCE THERE WAS NO RECORD OF…

  1. Wrestling with Stephen and Matilda: Planning Challenging Enquiries to Engage Year 7 in Medieval Anarchy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    McDougall found learning about Stephen and Matilda fascinating, was sure that her pupils would also and designed an enquiry to engage them in "the anarchy" of 1139-1153 AD. Pupils enjoyed exploring "the anarchy" and learning about it enhanced their knowledge and understanding of the medieval period considerably. However, McDougall argues, story…

  2. Creative Cognition, Conceptual Combination, and the Creative Writing of Stephen R. Donaldson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Thomas B.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the use of conceptual combination in Stephen Donaldson's development of ideas for his fantasy books. Uses Donaldson's own account to illustrate the general principles of a creative cognition approach to understanding creativity and the role of the process of conceptual combination. Assesses links between Donaldson's and others' anecdotal…

  3. 78 FR 6321 - Stephen Phillips, Brentwood Dam Ventures, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Stephen Phillips, Brentwood Dam Ventures, LLC; Notice of Transfer of... Brentwood Dam Ventures, LLC informed the Commission that the exemption from ] licensing for the Exeter River... Dam Ventures, LLC. The project is located on the Exeter River in Rockingham County, New Hampshire....

  4. Tripping with Stephen Gaskin: An Exploration of a Hippy Adult Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Gabriel Patrick

    2012-01-01

    For the last 40 years, Stephen Gaskin has been an adult educator on the fringe, working with tens of thousands of adults in the counterculture movement in pursuit of social change regarding marijuana legalization, women's rights, environmental justice issues and beyond. Gaskin has written 11 books about his experiences teaching and learning…

  5. Contributions of Stephen J. Ball to the Research on Educational and Curriculum Policies in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainardes, Jefferson; Gandin, Luis Armando

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at showcasing the main contributions of Stephen J. Ball to educational research in Brazil, particularly to the study of educational and curriculum policies. We also highlight some of the limitations in the incorporation of Ball's ideas in Brazil as well as some of the challenges that these author's ideas pose to…

  6. Power/Knowledge for Educational Theory: Stephen Ball and the Reception of Foucault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Ling

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the significance of the concept of power/knowledge in educational theory. The argument proceeds in two main parts. In the first, I consider aspects of Stephen J. Ball's highly influential work in educational theory. I examine his reception of Foucault's concept of power/knowledge and suggest that there are problems in his…

  7. The Compleat Teacher-Scholar: An Interview with Stephen F. Davis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskist, William

    2009-01-01

    Stephen F. Davis is Emeritus Professor of Psychology at Emporia State University. He served as the 2002-2003 Knapp Distinguished Professor of Arts and Sciences at the University of San Diego. Currently, he is Distinguished Guest Professor at Morningside College and Visiting Distinguished Professor of Psychology at Texas Wesleyan University. Since…

  8. Stephen Schneider and the "Double Ethical Bind" of Climate Change Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russill, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Stephen Schneider's perspective on climate change communication is distinguished by its longevity, a keen anticipation of research findings, historical understanding, and grounding in first-person experience. In this article, the author elaborates Schneider's work in terms of its key claims, suggestive research directions, and lessons for…

  9. A Study Guide for Stephen B. Oates' "The Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner's Fierce Rebellion"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ron

    2006-01-01

    This document is a study guide for Stephen B. Oates biography of Nat Turner, "The Fires of Jubilee." The book is a practical reading vehicle for introducing Nat Turner to secondary students in grades 11 and 12. Oates divides his work into four parts, which could provide the basis for four reading assignments, although the sections are not of equal…

  10. The Penetration of Educational Leadership Texts by Revelation and Prophecy: The Case of Stephen R. Covey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Fenwick W.

    2002-01-01

    Argues that the uncritical citation of Stephen R. Covey's book, "The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People," in educational administration texts undermines the social-scientific foundation of university-based administrator preparation. Asserts that the Covey's book is based on Mormon metaphysics, not social science. (Contains 41 references.) (PKP)

  11. The Frenkel Kontorova Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floría, L. M.; Baesens, C.; Gómez-Gardeñes, J.

    In the preface to his monograph on the structure of Evolutionary Theory [1], the late professor Stephen Jay Gould attributes to the philosopher Immanuel Kant the following aphorism in Science Philosophy: "Percepts without concepts are blind; concepts without percepts are empty". Using with a bit of freedom these Kantian terms, one would say that a scientific model is a framework (or network) of interrelated concepts and percepts where experts build up scientific consistent explanations of a given set of observations. Good models are those which are both, conceptually simple and universal in their perceptions. Let us illustrate with examples the meaning of this statement.

  12. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: SCUBA-2 observations of circumstellar discs in L 1495

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckle, J. V.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Greaves, J.; Richer, J. S.; Matthews, B. C.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Francesco, J. Di; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Rawlings, J.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wilson, C. D.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-05-01

    We present 850 and 450 μm data from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey obtained with Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) and characterize the dust attributes of Class I, Class II and Class III disc sources in L 1495. We detect 23 per cent of the sample at both wavelengths, with the detection rate decreasing through the Classes from I to III. The median disc mask is 1.6 × 10-3 M⊙, and only 7 per cent of Class II sources have disc masses larger than 20 Jupiter masses. We detect a higher proportion of discs towards sources with stellar hosts of spectral type K than spectral type M. Class II discs with single stellar hosts of spectral type K have higher masses than those of spectral type M, supporting the hypothesis that higher mass stars have more massive discs. Variations in disc masses calculated at the two wavelengths suggest that there may be differences in dust opacity and/or dust temperature between discs with hosts of spectral types K to those with spectral type M.

  13. Neurogenesis in the mossy chiton, Mopalia muscosa (Gould) (Polyplacophora): evidence against molluscan metamerism.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Stefan; Wanninger, Andreas; Brückner, Martin; Haszprunar, Gerhard

    2002-08-01

    Neurogenesis in the chiton Mopalia muscosa (Gould, 1846) was investigated by applying differential interference contrast microscopy, semithin serial sectioning combined with reconstruction techniques, as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy for the detection of fluorescence-conjugated antibodies against serotonin and FMRFamide. The ontogeny of serotonergic nervous structures starts with cells of the apical organ followed by those of the cerebral commissure, whereas the serotonergic prototroch innervation, pedal system, and the lateral cords develop later. In addition, there are eight symmetrically arranged serotonergic sensory cells in the dorsal pretrochal area of the larva. FMRFamide-positive neural elements include the cerebral commissure, specific "ampullary" sensory cells in the pretrochal region, as well as the larval lateral and pedal system. In the early juvenile the cerebral system no longer stains with either of the two antibodies and the pedal system lacks anti-FMRFamide immunoreactivity. Outgroup comparison with all other molluscan classes and related phyla suggests that the cord-like, nonganglionized cerebral system in the Polyplacophora is a reduced condition rather than a primitive molluscan condition. The immunosensitivity of the pedal commissures develops from posterior to anterior, suggesting independent serial repetition rather than annelid-like conditions and there is no trace of true segmentation during nervous system development. Polyplacophoran neurogenesis and all other available data on the subject contradict the idea of a segmented molluscan stem species.

  14. Wave electric field measurements of Trivelpiece-Gould waves in a helicon discharge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Christian; Scime, Earl; Kline, John; Klinger, Thomas

    2000-10-01

    A new type of measurement for the detection of Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) modes in a helicon discharge is proposed and tested. TG modes are one of the many candidates for explaining the surprisingly efficient transfer of helicon wave energy into the plasma. Recent research efforts have been made to detect TG-modes in helicon discharges, but wavefield structure measurements have been equivocal. Skiff(F. Skiff and F. Anderegg, PRL 59, 896 (1987).) proposed a method for determining the wavenumber of an electrostatic wave in a collisionless plasma by measuring the perturbed ion distribution function (f_1) with laser induced fluorenscence (LIF). This method has already been succesfully applied in studies of ion cyclotron waves in helicon sources(J. Kline, E. Scime, et.al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 4767 (1999).). We have non-invasively measured the wavelength of electrostatic oscillations in a helicon discharge directly with LIF. The perturbed part f_1, due to the wave electric fields, is obtained if the LIF measurements are phase-correlated with the driving antenna signal. Theoretical calculations show that clearly identifiable perturbation f1 is expected for TG-waves in the plasma. We will present the theoretical calculations with our initial measurements.

  15. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: SCUBA-2 observations of radiative feedback in NGC 1333

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatchell, J.; Wilson, T.; Drabek, E.; Curtis, E.; Richer, J.; Nutter, D.; Di Francesco, J.; Ward-Thompson, D.; JCMT GBS Consortium

    2013-02-01

    We present observations of NGC 1333 from SCUBA-2 on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), observed as a JCMT Gould Belt Survey pilot project during the shared risk campaign when the first of four arrays was installed at each of 450 and 850 μm. Temperature maps are derived from 450 and 850 μm ratios under the assumption of constant dust opacity spectral index β = 1.8. Temperatures indicate that the dust in the northern (IRAS 6/8) region of NGC 1333 is hot, 20-40 K, due to heating by the B star SVS3, other young stars in the IR/optically visible cluster and embedded protostars. Other luminous protostars are also identified by temperature rises at the 17 arcsec resolution of the ratio maps (0.02 pc assuming a distance of 250 pc for Perseus). The extensive heating raises the possibility that the radiative feedback may lead to increased masses for the next generation of stars.

  16. Telling It Like It Is--And Like It Is Not: Fiction in the Service of Science in Jay Hosler's "The Sandwalk Adventures"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porat, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Biologist and graphic novelist Jay Hosler has long been introducing young readers to biological subjects through entertaining narratives combining strongly fictional elements with nonfictional ones. Extensive application of fiction to nonfictional subject matter is uncommon, even in graphic novels, but Hosler's "The Sandwalk Adventures"…

  17. A Conservation Strategy for the Florida Scrub-Jay on John F. Kennedy Space Center/Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge: An Initial Scientific Basis for Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, D. R.; Larson, V. L.; Schaub, R.; Duncan, B. W.; Schmalzer, P. A.; Oddy, D. M.; Smith, R. B.; Adrian, F.; Hill, H., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) is an indicator of ecosystem integrity of Florida scrub, an endangered ecosystem that requires frequent fire. One of the largest populations of this federally threatened species occurs on John F. Kennedy Space Center/Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. Population trends were predicted using population modeling and field data on reproduction and survival of Florida Scrub-Jays collected from 1988 - 1995. Analyses of historical photography indicated that habitat suitability has been declining for 30 years. Field data and computer simulations suggested that the population declined by at least 40% and will decline by another 40% in 1 0 years, if habitat management is not greatly intensified. Data and computer simulations suggest that habitat suitability cannot deviate greatly from optimal for the jay population to persist. Landscape trajectories of vegetation structure, responsible for declining habitat suitability, are associated with the disruption of natural fire regimes. Prescribed fire alone can not reverse the trajectories. A recovery strategy was developed, based on studies of Florida Scrub-Jays and scrub vegetation. A reserve design was formulated based on conservation science principles for scrub ecosystems. The strategy emphasizes frequent fire to restore habitat, but includes mechanical tree cutting for severely degraded areas. Pine thinning across large areas can produce rapid increases in habitat quality. Site-specific strategies will need to be developed, monitored, and modified to achieve conditions suitable for population persistence.

  18. Translational research into intertemporal choice: the Western scrub-jay as an animal model for future-thinking.

    PubMed

    Thom, James M; Clayton, Nicola S

    2015-03-01

    Decisions often involve outcomes that will not materialise until later, and choices between immediate gratification and future consequences are thought to be important for human health and welfare. Combined human and animal research has identified impulsive intertemporal choice as an important factor in drug-taking and pathological gambling. In this paper, we give an overview of recent research into intertemporal choice in non-human animals, and argue that this work could offer insight into human behaviour through the development of animal models. As an example, we discuss the role of future-thinking in intertemporal choice, and review the case for the Western scrub-jay (Aphelocoma californica) as an animal model of such prospective cognition. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall.

  19. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: a quantitative comparison between SCUBA-2 data reduction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mairs, S.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Graves, S.; Buckle, J.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Salji, C.; Francesco, J. Di; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; JCMT Gould Belt survey Team

    2015-12-01

    Performing ground-based submillimetre observations is a difficult task as the measurements are subject to absorption and emission from water vapour in the Earth's atmosphere and time variation in weather and instrument stability. Removing these features and other artefacts from the data is a vital process which affects the characteristics of the recovered astronomical structure we seek to study. In this paper, we explore two data reduction methods for data taken with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array-2 (SCUBA-2) at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). The JCMT Legacy Reduction 1 (JCMT LR1) and The Gould Belt Legacy Survey Legacy Release 1 (GBS LR1) reduction both use the same software (STARLINK) but differ in their choice of data reduction parameters. We find that the JCMT LR1 reduction is suitable for determining whether or not compact emission is present in a given region and the GBS LR1 reduction is tuned in a robust way to uncover more extended emission, which better serves more in-depth physical analyses of star-forming regions. Using the GBS LR1 method, we find that compact sources are recovered well, even at a peak brightness of only three times the noise, whereas the reconstruction of larger objects requires much care when drawing boundaries around the expected astronomical signal in the data reduction process. Incorrect boundaries can lead to false structure identification or it can cause structure to be missed. In the JCMT LR1 reduction, the extent of the true structure of objects larger than a point source is never fully recovered.

  20. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: a first look at Southern Orion A with SCUBA-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mairs, S.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Graves, S.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Salji, C.; Di Francesco, J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coudé, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2016-10-01

    We present the JCMT Gould Belt Survey's first look results of the southern extent of the Orion A Molecular Cloud (δ ≤ -5:31:27.5). Employing a two-step structure identification process, we construct individual catalogues for large-scale regions of significant emission labelled as islands and smaller-scale subregions called fragments using the 850 μm continuum maps obtained using SCUBA-2. We calculate object masses, sizes, column densities, and concentrations. We discuss fragmentation in terms of a Jeans instability analysis and highlight interesting structures as candidates for follow-up studies. Furthermore, we associate the detected emission with young stellar objects (YSOs) identified by Spitzer and Herschel. We find that although the population of active star-forming regions contains a wide variety of sizes and morphologies, there is a strong positive correlation between the concentration of an emission region and its calculated Jeans instability. There are, however, a number of highly unstable subregions in dense areas of the map that show no evidence of star formation. We find that only ˜72 per cent of the YSOs defined as Class 0+I and flat-spectrum protostars coincide with dense 850 μm emission structures (column densities >3.7 × 1021 cm-2). The remaining 28 per cent of these objects, which are expected to be embedded in dust and gas, may be misclassified. Finally, we suggest that there is an evolution in the velocity dispersion of YSOs such that sources which are more evolved are associated with higher velocities.

  1. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: evidence for radiative heating and contamination in the W40 complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumble, D.; Hatchell, J.; Pattle, K.; Kirk, H.; Wilson, T.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; Francesco, J. Di; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2016-08-01

    We present SCUBA-2 450 μm and 850 μm observations of the W40 complex in the Serpens-Aquila region as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey (GBS) of nearby star-forming regions. We investigate radiative heating by constructing temperature maps from the ratio of SCUBA-2 fluxes using a fixed dust opacity spectral index, β = 1.8, and a beam convolution kernel to achieve a common 14.8 arcsec resolution. We identify 82 clumps ranging between 10 and 36 K with a mean temperature of 20 ± 3 K. Clump temperature is strongly correlated with proximity to the external OB association and there is no evidence that the embedded protostars significantly heat the dust. We identify 31 clumps that have cores with densities greater than 105cm-3. 13 of these cores contain embedded Class 0/I protostars. Many cores are associated with bright-rimmed clouds seen in Herschel 70 μm images. From JCMT HARP observations of the 12CO 3-2 line, we find contamination of the 850 μm band of up to 20 per cent. We investigate the free-free contribution to SCUBA-2 bands from large-scale and ultracompact H II regions using archival VLA data and find the contribution is limited to individual stars, accounting for 9 per cent of flux per beam at 450 μm or 12 per cent at 850 μm in these cases. We conclude that radiative heating has potentially influenced the formation of stars in the Dust Arc sub-region, favouring Jeans stable clouds in the warm east and fragmentation in the cool west.

  2. The JCMT Legacy Survey of the Gould Belt: a first look at Taurus with HARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, C. J.; Chrysostomou, A.; Hatchell, J.; Wouterloot, J. G. A.; Buckle, J. V.; Nutter, D.; Fich, M.; Brunt, C.; Butner, H.; Cavanagh, B.; Curtis, E. I.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; di Francesco, J.; Etxaluze, M.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J. S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Matthews, B.; Matthews, H.; Rawlings, J. M. C.; Richer, J. S.; Roberts, J.; Sadavoy, S.; Simpson, R. J.; Tothill, N.; Tsamis, Y.; Viti, S.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, Glenn J.; Yates, J.

    2010-06-01

    As part of a James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Legacy Survey of star formation in the Gould Belt, we present early science results for Taurus. CO J = 3 -2 maps have been secured along the north-west ridge and bowl, collectively known as L 1495, along with deep 13CO and C18O J = 3 -2 maps in two subregions. With these data, we search for molecular outflows, and use the distribution of flows, Herbig-Haro (HH) objects and shocked H2 line-emission features, together with the population of young stars, protostellar cores and starless condensations to map star formation across this extensive region. In total, 21 outflows are identified. It is clear that the bowl is more evolved than the ridge, harbouring a greater population of T Tauri stars and a more diffuse, more turbulent ambient medium. By comparison, the ridge contains a much younger, less widely distributed population of protostars which, in turn, is associated with a greater number of molecular outflows. We estimate the ratio of the numbers of pre-stellar to protostellar cores in L 1495 to be ~1.3-2.3, and of gravitationally unbound starless cores to (gravitationally bound) pre-stellar cores to be ~1. If we take previous estimates of the protostellar lifetime of ~5 × 105 yr, this indicates a pre-stellar lifetime of 9(+/-3) × 105 yr. From the number of outflows, we also crudely estimate the star formation efficiency in L 1495, finding it to be compatible with a canonical value of 10-15 per cent. We note that molecular outflow-driving sources have redder near-infrared colours than their HH jet-driving counterparts. We also find that the smaller, denser cores are associated with the more massive outflows, as one might expect if mass build-up in the flow increases with the collapse and contraction of the protostellar envelope.

  3. A Search for Very Low-luminosity Objects in Gould Belt Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mi-Ryang; Lee, Chang Won; Dunham, Michael M.; Evans, Neal J., II; Kim, Gwanjeong; Allen, Lori E.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of a search for Very Low-Luminosity Objects (VeLLOs) in the Gould Belt (GB) clouds using infrared and sub-millimeter (sub-mm) data from 1.25 to 850 μm and our {{{N}}}2{{{H}}}+ (J = 1‑0) observations. We modified the criteria by Dunham et al. to select the VeLLOs in the GB clouds, finding 95 VeLLO candidates, 79 of which are newly identified in this study. Out of 95 sources, 44 were detected in both sub-mm continuum and {{{N}}}2{{{H}}}+ emission and were classified as Group A (the VeLLOs), and 51 sources detected in either sub-mm emission or {{{N}}}2{{{H}}}+ emission were classified with Group B as candidate VeLLOs. We find that these VeLLOs and the candidates are forming in environments different from those of the likely VeLLOs. Seventy-eight sources are embedded within their molecular clouds, and thus are likely VeLLOs forming in a dense environment. The remaining 17 sources are located in low-level extinction regions ({A}V\\lt 1) connected to the clouds, and can be either background sources or candidate substellar objects forming in an isolated mode. The VeLLOs and the candidates are likely more luminous and their envelopes tend to be more massive in denser environments. The VeLLOs and the candidates are more populous in the clouds where more YSOs form, indicating that they form in a manner similar to that of normal YSOs. The bolometric luminosities and temperatures of the VeLLOs are compared to predictions of episodic accretion models, showing that the low luminosities for most VeLLOs can be well explained by their status in the quiescent phases of a cycle of episodic mass accretion.

  4. Insights into the earliest stages of star cluster formationfrom Herschel Gould Belt survey observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Philippe; Ladjelate, Bilal; Könyves, Vera

    2015-08-01

    For a long time, the conventional wisdom has been that "clustered star formation" and "isolated (or distributed) star formation" represent two fundamentally distinct modes of the star formation process. Recent detailed infrared studies of the spatial distribution of young stellar objects (YSOs) in the solar neighborhood, however, suggest that there is a continuous distribution of YSO surface densities from a diffuse population to the densest groups or clusters, with no evidence for discrete modes of star formation (e.g. Bressert et al. 2010). Based on the results of the Herschel Gould Belt survey (http://gouldbelt-herschel.cea.fr) toward the nearest regions of "clustered" and "distributed" star formation, including the Ophiuchus and Taurus clouds, we will show how these two seemingly opposing views can be reconciled.The Herschel results point to the key role of the quasi-universal filamentary structure pervading the cold ISM (cf. André et al. 2014, Protostars and Planets VI). Indeed, a large fraction of the dense molecular gas is found to be in the form of filaments and most prestellar cores are located within dense, "supercritical" filaments. To a large extent, therefore, the spatial distribution of YSOs is inherited from the filamentary texture of molecular clouds, which is partly hierarchical and shaped by a combination of turbulent, magnetic, and gravitational effects. Wherever gravity dominates on large scales, a "hub-filament" system develops (cf. Myers 2009) and a protocluster is generated at the "hub" or junction of a converging network of filaments. More distributed star formation occurs along individual filaments with marginally supercritical masses per unit length.

  5. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: A First Look at Dense Cores in Orion B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, H.; Di Francesco, J.; Johnstone, D.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Sadavoy, S.; Hatchell, J.; Mottram, J. C.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2016-02-01

    We present a first look at the SCUBA-2 observations of three sub-regions of the Orion B molecular cloud: LDN 1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify 29, 564, and 322 dense cores in L1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071 respectively, using the SCUBA-2 850 μm map, and present their basic properties, including their peak fluxes, total fluxes, and sizes, and an estimate of the corresponding 450 μm peak fluxes and total fluxes, using the FellWalker source extraction algorithm. Assuming a constant temperature of 20 K, the starless dense cores have a mass function similar to that found in previous dense core analyses, with a Salpeter-like slope at the high-mass end. The majority of cores appear stable to gravitational collapse when considering only thermal pressure; indeed, most of the cores which have masses above the thermal Jeans mass are already associated with at least one protostar. At higher cloud column densities, above 1-2 × 1023 cm-2, most of the mass is found within dense cores, while at lower cloud column densities, below 1 × 1023 cm-2, this fraction drops to 10% or lower. Overall, the fraction of dense cores associated with a protostar is quite small (<8%), but becomes larger for the densest and most centrally concentrated cores. NGC 2023/2024 and NGC 2068/2071 appear to be on the path to forming a significant number of stars in the future, while L1622 has little additional mass in dense cores to form many new stars.

  6. Sex differences in the long-term repeatability of the acute stress response in long-lived, free-living Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens).

    PubMed

    Small, Thomas W; Schoech, Stephan J

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that individual differences in the physiological stress response are persistent traits in many animals. To test the hypothesis that the stress-induced CORT (SI-CORT) response is repeatable over the adult life span of Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens), we sampled 32 male and 25 female free-living scrub-jays (aged 2-13 years) during a 9-year period (2004-2012). Each individual was sampled two to five times and samples were collected one or more years apart during the pre-breeding season (Jan-March). In addition, individuals sampled over the greatest time period (6-8 years) were analyzed separately to more closely assess long-term repeatability. SI-CORT was repeatable in females, but not males, when values were not corrected for confounding variables (agreement repeatability). However, when the year and time of day of sample collection were controlled (adjusted repeatability), SI-CORT was repeatable in both sexes. SI-CORT was also repeatable in the males and females sampled 6-8 years apart. Finally, baseline CORT levels of males, but not females, exhibited low but significant repeatability when adjusted for year. The results of this study demonstrate that differences in SI-CORT levels were repeatable within adult scrub-jays sampled up to 8 years apart. Further, the female SI-CORT response was more consistent between pre-breeding seasons than males, which may have resulted from males having higher SI-CORT plasticity in response to environmental conditions. These data support the hypothesis that the SI-CORT response of Florida scrub-jays develops before adulthood and persists throughout much, if not all, of their natural adult life span.

  7. Chromosomal mapping of tandem repeats in the Yesso Scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis (Jay, 1857), utilizing fluorescence in situ hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Yang, Zujing; Liao, Huan; Zhang, Zhengrui; Huang, Xiaoting; Bao, Zhenmin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Construction of cytogenetic maps can provide important information for chromosome identification, chromosome evolution and genomic research. However, it hasn’t been conducted in many scallop species yet. In the present study, we attempted to map 12 fosmid clones containing tandem repeats by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the Yesso scallop Patinopecten yessoensis (Jay, 1857). The results showed 6 fosmid clones were successfully mapped and distributed in 6 different pairs of chromosomes. Three clones were respectively assigned to a pair of metacentric chromosomes, a pair of submetacentric chromosomes and a pair of telocentric chromosomes and the remaining 3 clones showed their loci on three different pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes by co-hybridization. In summary, totally 8 pairs of chromosomes of the Yesso scallop were identified by 6 fosmid clones and two rDNA probes. Furthermore, 6 tandem repeats of 5 clones were sequenced and could be developed as chromosome specific markers for the Yesso scallop. The successful localization of fosmid clones will undoubtedly facilitate the integration of linkage groups with cytogenetic map and genomic research for the Yesso scallop. PMID:27186345

  8. Geologic map of the Stephens City quadrangle, Clark, Frederick, and Warren Counties, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weary, D.J.; Orndorff, R.C.; Aleman-Gonzalez, W.

    2006-01-01

    The Stephens City 1:24,000-scale quadrangle is one of several quadrangles in Frederick County, Virginia being mapped by geologists from the U.S. Geological Survey in Reston, VA with funding from the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program. This work is part of a project being lead by the U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Discipline, Virginia District, to investigate the geologic framework and groundwater resources of Frederick County as well as other areas in the northern Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and West Virginia.

  9. The genus Alphitobius Stephens (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Alphitobiini) in Africa and adjacent islands

    PubMed Central

    Schawaller, Wolfgang; Grimm, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Abstract All species of the genus Alphitobius Stephens, 1829 (Alphitobiini Reitter, 1917, subfamily Tenebrioninae Latreille, 1802) from Africa and adjacent islands are revised. New species: Alphitobius capitaneus sp. n. from Kenya. New synonyms: Cryptops ulomoides Solier, 1851, syn. n. of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1796); Alphitobius rufus Ardoin, 1976, syn. n. of Alphitobius hobohmi Koch, 1953); Peltoides (Micropeltoides) crypticoides Pic, 1916, syn. n. of Peltoides (Micropeltoides) opacus (Gerstaecker, 1871), comb. n. Homonym: Alphitobius ulomoides Koch, 1953 = Alphitobius arnoldi nom. n. New combinations from Alphitobius: Ulomoides basilewskyi (Ardoin, 1969), comb. n.; Peltoides (Micropeltoides) opacus (Gerstaecker, 1871), comb. n. Figures of all examined species are added and a species key is compiled. PMID:25009427

  10. Star Formation in the Gould Belt: Star Formation Rates, Evolutionary Timescales, and Implications for Star Formation Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Neal J.

    2014-06-01

    Results from the c2d and Gould Belt Spitzer Legacy and Herschel Key Programs provide the most complete and accurate information on star formation in nearby molecular clouds. Complementary and follow-up studies add crucial information on the nature of star forming gas and the evolution of matter as it moves from core to disk to planets. The star formation rates and gas properties provide tests of star formation laws used by extragalactic researchers and of theories of large scale star formation. The durations in the stages of star formation (envelope infall, exposed star and disk, etc.) have been refined. The data are consistent with models in which accretion onto the forming star is episodic, with possible consequences for the initial conditions in planet-forming disks. The evolution of these disks, including dustsettling, volatile evolution, and gap-clearing, has been clarified.

  11. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: evidence for radiative heating in Serpens MWC 297 and its influence on local star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumble, D.; Hatchell, J.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Kirk, H.; Buckle, J.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; Francesco, J. Di; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Allen, L. E.; Cieza, L. A.; Dunham, M. M.; Harvey, P. M.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Bastien, P.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wilson, C. D.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-04-01

    We present SCUBA-2 450 and 850 μm observations of the Serpens MWC 297 region, part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey of nearby star-forming regions. Simulations suggest that radiative feedback influences the star formation process and we investigate observational evidence for this by constructing temperature maps. Maps are derived from the ratio of SCUBA-2 fluxes and a two-component model of the JCMT beam for a fixed dust opacity spectral index of β = 1.8. Within 40 arcsec of the B1.5Ve Herbig star MWC 297, the submillimetre fluxes are contaminated by free-free emission with a spectral index of 1.03 ± 0.02, consistent with an ultracompact H II region and polar winds/jets. Contamination accounts for 73 ± 5 per cent and 82 ± 4 per cent of peak flux at 450 μm and 850 μm, respectively. The residual thermal disc of the star is almost undetectable at these wavelengths. Young stellar objects (YSOs) are confirmed where SCUBA-2 850 μm clumps identified by the FELLWALKER algorithm coincide with Spitzer Gould Belt Survey detections. We identify 23 objects and use Tbol to classify nine YSOs with masses 0.09 to 5.1 M⊙. We find two Class 0, one Class 0/I, three Class I and three Class II sources. The mean temperature is 15 ± 2 K for the nine YSOs and 32 ± 4 K for the 14 starless clumps. We observe a starless clump with an abnormally high mean temperature of 46 ± 2 K and conclude that it is radiatively heated by the star MWC 297. Jeans stability provides evidence that radiative heating by the star MWC 297 may be suppressing clump collapse.

  12. Congruent population structure inferred from dispersal behaviour and intensive genetic surveys of the threatened Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma cœrulescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coulon, A.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Bowman, R.; Stith, B.M.; Makarewich, C.A.; Stenzler, L.M.; Lovette, I.J.

    2008-01-01

    The delimitation of populations, defined as groups of individuals linked by gene flow, is possible by the analysis of genetic markers and also by spatial models based on dispersal probabilities across a landscape. We combined these two complimentary methods to define the spatial pattern of genetic structure among remaining populations of the threatened Florida scrub-jay, a species for which dispersal ability is unusually well-characterized. The range-wide population was intensively censused in the 1990s, and a metapopulation model defined population boundaries based on predicted dispersal-mediated demographic connectivity. We subjected genotypes from more than 1000 individual jays screened at 20 microsatellite loci to two Bayesian clustering methods. We describe a consensus method for identifying common features across many replicated clustering runs. Ten genetically differentiated groups exist across the present-day range of the Florida scrub-jay. These groups are largely consistent with the dispersal-defined metapopulations, which assume very limited dispersal ability. Some genetic groups comprise more than one metapopulation, likely because these genetically similar metapopulations were sundered only recently by habitat alteration. The combined reconstructions of population structure based on genetics and dispersal-mediated demographic connectivity provide a robust depiction of the current genetic and demographic organization of this species, reflecting past and present levels of dispersal among occupied habitat patches. The differentiation of populations into 10 genetic groups adds urgency to management efforts aimed at preserving what remains of genetic variation in this dwindling species, by maintaining viable populations of all genetically differentiated and geographically isolated populations.

  13. Solar space heating for the Visitors Center, Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-06-01

    The solar energy system located at the Visitors' Center on the Stephens College Campus, Columbia, Missouri is discussed. The system is installed in a four-story, 15,000 square foot building. The solar energy system is an integral design of the building and utilizes 176 hydronic flat plate collectors which use a 50 percent water ethylene blycol solution and water-to-water heat exchanger. Solar heated water is stored in a 5,000 gallon water storage tank located in the basement equipment room. A natural gas fired hot water boiler supplies hot water when the solar energy heat supply fails to meet the demand. The designed solar contribution is 71 percent of the heating load.

  14. Solar space heating for the Visitors Center, Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at the Visitors' Center on the Stephens College Campus, Columbia, Missouri is discussed. The system is installed in a four-story, 15,000 square foot building. The solar energy system is an integral design of the building and utilizes 176 hydronic flat plate collectors which use a 50 percent water ethylene blycol solution and water-to-water heat exchanger. Solar heated water is stored in a 5,000 gallon water storage tank located in the basement equipment room. A natural gas fired hot water boiler supplies hot water when the solar energy heat supply fails to meet the demand. The designed solar contribution is 71 percent of the heating load.

  15. Stephen Hall Receives 2012 Walter Sullivan Award for Excellence in Science Journalism-Features: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Stephen Hall, a freelance science writer and science-communication teacher, received the Walter Sullivan Award for Excellence in Science Journalism-Features at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 5 December 2012 in San Francisco, Calif. Hall was honored for the article "At Fault?" published 15 September 2011 in Nature. The article examines the legal, personal, and political repercussions from a 2009 earthquake in L'Aquila, Italy for seismologists who had attempted to convey seismic risk assessments to the public. The 6.3 magnitude quake devastated the medieval town and caused more than 300 deaths. Six scientists and one government official were subsequently convicted of manslaughter and sentenced to prison for inadequately assessing and mischaracterizing the risks to city residents, despite the inexact nature of seismic risk assessment. The Sullivan award is for work published with a deadline pressure of more than 1 week.

  16. The Importance of Critical Reflection in College Teaching: Two Reviews of Stephen Brookfield's Book, Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Rosalyn M.; Hibbison, Eric P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses Stephen Brookfield's book, Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. Presents three categories of assumptions he believes teachers must make about their teaching: paradigmatic, prescriptive, and causal. States that Brookfield encourages engaging in critical conversation with peers in order to improve teaching methods. Provides strategies…

  17. A Historical Analysis of the Leadership and Strategic Plan of Chancellor Stephen R. Portch in the University System of Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild-Pierce, Jennifer Elis

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation provides historical insight into the design and implementation of one strategic plan of a public higher education system in an effort to inform future similar strategic planning processes. On July 1, 1994, the Board of Regents appointed Stephen R. Portch the ninth Chancellor of the University System of Georgia. The timing was…

  18. Chief Stephen's Parky: One Year in the Life of an Athapascan Girl. The Council for Indian Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandonnet, Ann

    This book tells the fictional story of Olga, the wife of Chief Stephen, leader of a Tanaina Athapascan village on Cook Inlet, northwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Olga works for one full year with great courage and independence trapping ground squirrels and gathering materials needed to tan, dye, and sew furs to make a parka for her husband. She uses…

  19. Using H. Stephen Glenn's Developing Capable People Program with Adults in Montana: How Effective Is the Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Lorbeer, Scott

    1998-01-01

    Pre/posttest scores of 30 participants in H. Stephen Glenn's Developing Capable People (DCP) program offered by Montana Extension showed that DCP effectively increased the use of positive behaviors and decreased negative behaviors in adults interacting with youth. These changes were sustained over 18 months after program completion. (SK)

  20. Globalization, Edu-Business and Network Governance: The Policy Sociology of Stephen J. Ball and Rethinking Education Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam

    2013-01-01

    This paper traces developments across Stephen J. Ball's policy sociology in education "oeuvre" and considers their implications for doing research on education policy today. It begins with an account of his policy sociology trilogy from the 1990s, which outlined his conception of the policy cycle consisting of the contexts of…

  1. School Choice Research in Five European Countries: The Circulation of Stephen Ball's Concepts and Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zanten, Agnès; Kosunen, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the influence of Stephen Ball's work on research on markets and school choice in five European countries (Finland, France, Norway, Spain, and Sweden). The main focus is on the intellectual circulation of ideas, but the authors also take into account the relationship between ideas and social and political changes, as well…

  2. On the Relationship Between Welfare and Marital Stability: A Research Note with Reply by Stephen J. Bahr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Thomas W.

    1981-01-01

    Data analyzed from the National Longtitudinal Surveys, female responses (N=3,690), indicated that marital instability increases the need for welfare, AFDC and food stamps. In response, Stephen Bahr questions the conclusions of this study by identifying its methodological limitations. (Author/RC)

  3. All of Us Are Present. The Stephens College Symposium. Women's Education: The Future (Columbia, Missouri, February 15-18, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Eleanor M., Ed.; And Others

    Women's education and the future are considered in 10 papers/summaries from a 1983 symposium at Stephens College. Four basic themes are addressed: effects of social change on women's lives; the diversity of women students (in age, racial/ethnic background, economic level); structure/content of the college curriculum; and the necessity to make…

  4. Stephen J. Kramer: The Effects of Two Different Music Programs on Third and Fourth Grade Children's Ability to Match Pitches Vocally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apfelstadt, Hilary

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes and critiques Kramer's dissertation which compared the Gould Specialized Program in Singing with the New Providence K-5 Music Curriculum Guide on the premise that various types of imagery (aural, visual, and kinesthetic) play a vital role in developing vocal accuracy. States that despite complexity, the topic and Kramer's…

  5. Road load simulator tests of the Gould Phase I functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gourash, F.

    1984-02-01

    This report presents the test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  6. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: low-mass protoplanetary discs from a SCUBA-2 census of NGC 1333

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodds, P.; Greaves, J. S.; Scholz, A.; Hatchell, J.; Holland, W. S.; JCMT Gould Belt Survey Team

    2015-02-01

    NGC 1333 is a 1-2 Myr old cluster of stars in the Perseus molecular cloud. We used 850 μm data from the Gould Belt Survey with SCUBA-2 on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope to measure or place limits on disc masses for 82 Class II sources in this cluster. Eight disc candidates were detected; one is estimated to have mass of about 9 MJup in dust plus gas, while the others host only 2-4 MJup of circumstellar material. None of these discs exceeds the threshold for the `minimum mass solar nebula' (MMSN). This reinforces previous claims that only a small fraction of Class II sources at an age of 1-2 Myr have discs exceeding the MMSN threshold and thus can form a planetary system like our own. However, other regions with similarly low fractions of MMSN discs (IC 348, UpSco, σ Ori) are thought to be older than NGC 1333. Compared with coeval regions, the exceptionally low fraction of massive discs in NGC 1333 cannot easily be explained by the effects of UV radiation or stellar encounters. Our results indicate that additional environmental factors significantly affect disc evolution and the outcome of planet formation by core accretion.

  7. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-01-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  8. Model study of St. Stephen powerhouse fish passage facilities, Cooper River rediversion project, South Carolina. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hite, J.E.; Murphy, T.E.

    1998-09-01

    This report documents a model study of the St. Stephen Power Plant, located in Berkely County, South Carolina. A previous model study revealed that the fish lift at the powerhouse could be improved by providing auxiliary attraction flows to the fish entrances. An auxiliary attraction flow (AAF) system was proposed that uses a siphon to obtain the auxiliary attraction water from the reservoir. The model investigations reported herein address the flow conditions at the discharge end of the siphon; the hydraulic aspects of the siphon are not addressed. Three different models were used to evaluate flow conditions at the discharge end of the AAF system. A 1:25-scale model of the St. Stephen powerhouse was used to improve the fish entrance conditions and to evaluate the outlet conditions for the initial AAF system. As the investigations progressed, the design of the siphon discharge system was modified to include downstream fish migration and debris passage.

  9. Straight talk with...Stephen O'Brien. Interviewed by Elie Dolgin.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Stephen O'Brien joined the US National Cancer Institute as a post doc in 1971 and climbed the ranks to become head of the institute's Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, a position he held for 25 years. But, after four decades at the government agency, O'Brien was ready for something new. In December 2011, he stepped down and took up a three-year, $5 million 'megagrant' in Russia through a program started a year earlier by the Russian Ministry of Education and Science to attract big-name researchers to work at least part-time in that country. O'Brien used his money to help launch the Theodosius Dobzhansky Center for Genome Bioinformatics at Saint Petersburg State University. Although O'Brien is a cancer researcher, he has diverse scientific interests. He led the team that discovered the CCR5-Δ32 mutation that confers resistance to HIV, and he has helped document the remarkable genetic uniformity of African cheetahs. Recently, he and two California scientists started the Genome 10K project, which aims to sequence the genetic blueprints of 10,000 vertebrate species. On a trip back to the US, O'Brien spoke with Elie Dolgin about how comparative genomics and his new Russian center will help advance the search for new therapeutics. PMID:23295996

  10. Solar space heating for the visitors' center, Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, Marion

    1980-06-01

    This document is the final report of the solar energy system located at the Visitors' Center on the Stephens College Campus, Columbia, Missouri. The system is installed in a four-story, 15,000 square foot building designed to include the college's Admission Office, nine guest rooms for overnight lodging for official guests of the college, a two-story art gallery, and a Faculty Lounge. The solar energy system is an integral design of the building and utilizes 176 Honeywell/Lennox hydronic flat-plate collectors which use a 50% water-ethylene glycol solution and water-to-water heat exchanger. Solar heated water is stored in a 5000 gallon water storage tank located in the basement equipment room. A natural gas fired hot water boiler supplies hot water when the solar energy heat supply fails to meet the demand. The designed solar contribution is 71% of the heating load. The demonstration period for this project ends June 30, 1984.

  11. Abraham Lincoln loses a medical malpractice case, debates Stephen A. Douglas, and secures two murder acquittals.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Allen D; Kavaler, Florence

    2004-02-01

    An improperly healed fracture was the most common reason for the medical malpractice crisis between the 1830s and 1860s in the United States. As a practicing lawyer in Illinois, Abraham Lincoln defended physicians in medical malpractice law suits. One of these was Dr. Powers Ritchey, who was sued for malpractice in 1855. Lincoln agreed to represent Dr. Ritchey in 1858 as the case was appealed to the supreme court of Illinois. In the interim, Lincoln defended two indicted murderers and won acquittals for both. Between the two murder trials, Lincoln debated Stephen A. Douglas while running for U.S. Senator from Illinois. Lincoln believed that Ritchey's case was poorly represented in the lower court. Ritchey's prior attorneys did not file a bill of exceptions to the testimony of the plaintiff's expert medical witnesses. Lincoln attempted to rebut the allegation of a lack of reasonable medical care and diligence by Ritchey, and he sought to secure a new trial for his client. In its decision, the supreme court of Illinois did not find any error and affirmed the lower court's judgment.

  12. Payer Perspectives on PCSK9 Inhibitors: A Conversation with Stephen Gorshow, MD, and James T. Kenney, RPh, MBA.

    PubMed

    Mehr, Stanton R

    2016-02-01

    The new proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors can have significant budget effects, depending on the breadth of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s approved labeling. American Health & Drug Benefits asked Stephen Gorshow, MD, Regional Medical Director, UnitedHealthcare, and James T. Kenney, RPh, MBA, Manager, Specialty and Pharmacy Contracts, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, to participate in a teleconference to better understand how payers are approaching the management of these agents.

  13. Payer Perspectives on PCSK9 Inhibitors: A Conversation with Stephen Gorshow, MD, and James T. Kenney, RPh, MBA

    PubMed Central

    Mehr, Stanton R.

    2016-01-01

    The new proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors can have significant budget effects, depending on the breadth of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s approved labeling. American Health & Drug Benefits asked Stephen Gorshow, MD, Regional Medical Director, UnitedHealthcare, and James T. Kenney, RPh, MBA, Manager, Specialty and Pharmacy Contracts, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, to participate in a teleconference to better understand how payers are approaching the management of these agents. PMID:27066194

  14. Payer Perspectives on PCSK9 Inhibitors: A Conversation with Stephen Gorshow, MD, and James T. Kenney, RPh, MBA.

    PubMed

    Mehr, Stanton R

    2016-02-01

    The new proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors can have significant budget effects, depending on the breadth of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s approved labeling. American Health & Drug Benefits asked Stephen Gorshow, MD, Regional Medical Director, UnitedHealthcare, and James T. Kenney, RPh, MBA, Manager, Specialty and Pharmacy Contracts, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, to participate in a teleconference to better understand how payers are approaching the management of these agents. PMID:27066194

  15. ITER Plasma at Electron Cyclotron Frequency Domain: Stimulated Raman Scattering off Gould-Trivelpiece Modes and Generation of Suprathermal Electrons and Energetic Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering in the electron cyclotron frequency range of the X-Mode and O-Mode driver with the ITER plasma leads to the ``tail heating'' via the generation of suprathermal electrons and energetic ions. The scattering off Trivelpiece-Gould (T-G) modes is studied for the gyrotron frequency of 170GHz; X-Mode and O-Mode power of 24 MW CW; on-axis B-field of 10T. The synergy between the two-plasmon decay and Raman scattering is analyzed in reference to the bulk plasma heating. Supported in part by Nikola TESLA Labs, La Jolla, CA

  16. Test series 1: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E Gould NCX-2250 battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L. L.; Hente, D. B.; Kukreti, B. M.; Schendel, J. S.; Tulk, J. D.; Janis, W. J.; Black, D A; Paulsen, G. D.; Aucoin, B. D.

    1984-09-01

    The seismic-fragility response of naturally-aged, nuclear station, safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and thresholds; and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the end-of-life of a battery, given a seismic event. This report covers the first test series of an extensive program using 12-year old, lead-calcium, Gould NCX-2250 cells, from the James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Station operated by the New York Power Authority. Seismic tests with three cell configurations were performed using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; multi-cell (three) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack; and single-cell tests specifically aimed towards examining propagation of pre-existing case cracks. In general the test philosophy was to monitor the electrical properties including discharge capacity of cells through a graduated series of g-level step increases until either the shake-table limits were reached or until electrical failure of the cells occurred. Of nine electrically active cells, six failed during seismic testing over a range of imposed g-level loads in excess of a 1-g ZPA. Post-test examination revealed a common failure mode, the cracking at the abnormally brittle, positive lead bus-bar/post interface; further examination showed that the failure zone was extremely coarse grained and extensively corroded. Presently accepted accelerated-aging methods for qualifying batteries, per IEEE Std. 535-1979, are based on plate growth, but these naturally-aged 12-year old cells showed no significant plate growth.

  17. THE SPITZER SURVEY OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS IN THE GOULD BELT. IV. LUPUS V AND VI OBSERVED WITH IRAC AND MIPS

    SciTech Connect

    Spezzi, Loredana; Vernazza, Pierre; Merin, Bruno; Allen, Lori E.; Evans, Neal J. II; Harvey, Paul M.; Joergensen, Jes K.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Peterson, Dawn; Cieza, Lucas A.; Dunham, Michael M.; Huard, Tracy L.; Tothill, Nick F. H.

    2011-04-01

    We present Gould's Belt (GB) Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations of the Lupus V and VI clouds and discuss them in combination with near-infrared (2MASS) data. Our observations complement those obtained for other Lupus clouds within the frame of the Spitzer 'Core to Disk' (c2d) Legacy Survey. We found 43 young stellar object (YSO) candidates in Lupus V and 45 in Lupus VI, including two transition disks, using the standard c2d/GB selection method. None of these sources was classified as a pre-main-sequence star from previous optical, near-IR, and X-ray surveys. A large majority of these YSO candidates appear to be surrounded by thin disks (Class III; {approx}79% in Lupus V and {approx}87% in Lupus VI). These Class III abundances differ significantly from those observed for the other Lupus clouds and c2d/GB surveyed star-forming regions, where objects with optically thick disks (Class II) dominate the young population. We investigate various scenarios that can explain this discrepancy. In particular, we show that disk photoevaporation due to nearby OB stars is not responsible for the high fraction of Class III objects. The gas surface densities measured for Lupus V and VI lie below the star formation threshold (A{sub V} {approx} 8.6 mag), while this is not the case for other Lupus clouds. Thus, few Myr older age for the YSOs in Lupus V and VI with respect to other Lupus clouds is the most likely explanation of the high fraction of Class III objects in these clouds, while a higher characteristic stellar mass might be a contributing factor. Better constraints on the age and binary fraction of the Lupus clouds might solve the puzzle but require further observations.

  18. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: the effect of molecular contamination in SCUBA-2 observations of Orion A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coudé, S.; Bastien, P.; Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Graves, S.; Hatchell, J.; Chapin, E. L.; Gibb, A. G.; Matthews, B.; JCMT Gould Belt Survey Team

    2016-04-01

    Thermal emission from cold dust grains in giant molecular clouds can be used to probe the physical properties, such as density, temperature and emissivity in star-forming regions. We present the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA-2) shared-risk observations at 450 and 850 μm of the Orion A molecular cloud complex taken at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Previous studies showed that molecular emission lines can contribute significantly to the measured fluxes in those continuum bands. We use the Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme 12CO J = 3-2 integrated intensity map for Orion A in order to evaluate the molecular line contamination and its effects on the SCUBA-2 maps. With the corrected fluxes, we have obtained a new spectral index α map for the thermal emission of dust in the well-known integral-shaped filament. Furthermore, we compare a sample of 33 sources, selected over the Orion A molecular cloud complex for their high 12CO J = 3-2 line contamination, to 27 previously identified clumps in OMC 4. This allows us to quantify the effect of line contamination on the ratio of 850-450 μm flux densities and how it modifies the deduced spectral index of emissivity β for the dust grains. We also show that at least one Spitzer-identified protostellar core in OMC 5 has a 12CO J = 3-2 contamination level of 16 per cent. Furthermore, we find the strongest contamination level (44 per cent) towards a young star with disc near OMC 2. This work is part of the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey.

  19. THE HERSCHEL AND JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEYS: CONSTRAINING DUST PROPERTIES IN THE PERSEUS B1 CLUMP WITH PACS, SPIRE, AND SCUBA-2

    SciTech Connect

    Sadavoy, S. I.; Di Francesco, J.; Johnstone, D.; Fallscheer, C.; Matthews, B.; Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T.; Drabek, E.; Hatchell, J.; Nutter, D.; Andre, Ph.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Koenyves, V.; Benedettini, M.; Bernard, J.-P.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Friesen, R.; Greaves, J.; Collaboration: JCMT and Herschel Gould Belt Survey teams; and others

    2013-04-20

    We present Herschel observations from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey and SCUBA-2 science verification observations from the JCMT Gould Belt Survey of the B1 clump in the Perseus molecular cloud. We determined the dust emissivity index using four different techniques to combine the Herschel PACS+SPIRE data at 160-500 {mu}m with the SCUBA-2 data at 450 {mu}m and 850 {mu}m. Of our four techniques, we found that the most robust method was filtering out the large-scale emission in the Herschel bands to match the spatial scales recovered by the SCUBA-2 reduction pipeline. Using this method, we find {beta} Almost-Equal-To 2 toward the filament region and moderately dense material and lower {beta} values ({beta} {approx}> 1.6) toward the dense protostellar cores, possibly due to dust grain growth. We find that {beta} and temperature are more robust with the inclusion of the SCUBA-2 data, improving estimates from Herschel data alone by factors of {approx}2 for {beta} and by {approx}40% for temperature. Furthermore, we find core mass differences of {approx}< 30% compared to Herschel-only estimates with an adopted {beta} = 2, highlighting the necessity of long-wavelength submillimeter data for deriving accurate masses of prestellar and protostellar cores.

  20. The Herschel and JCMT Gould Belt Surveys: Constraining Dust Properties in the Perseus B1 Clump with PACS, SPIRE, and SCUBA-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadavoy, S. I.; Di Francesco, J.; Johnstone, D.; Currie, M. J.; Drabek, E.; Hatchell, J.; Nutter, D.; André, Ph.; Arzoumanian, D.; Benedettini, M.; Bernard, J.-P.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fallscheer, C.; Friesen, R.; Greaves, J.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Jenness, T.; Könyves, V.; Matthews, B.; Mottram, J. C.; Pezzuto, S.; Roy, A.; Rygl, K.; Schneider-Bontemps, N.; Spinoglio, L.; Testi, L.; Tothill, N.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G.; JCMT, the; Herschel Gould Belt Survey Teams

    2013-04-01

    We present Herschel observations from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey and SCUBA-2 science verification observations from the JCMT Gould Belt Survey of the B1 clump in the Perseus molecular cloud. We determined the dust emissivity index using four different techniques to combine the Herschel PACS+SPIRE data at 160-500 μm with the SCUBA-2 data at 450 μm and 850 μm. Of our four techniques, we found that the most robust method was filtering out the large-scale emission in the Herschel bands to match the spatial scales recovered by the SCUBA-2 reduction pipeline. Using this method, we find β ≈ 2 toward the filament region and moderately dense material and lower β values (β >~ 1.6) toward the dense protostellar cores, possibly due to dust grain growth. We find that β and temperature are more robust with the inclusion of the SCUBA-2 data, improving estimates from Herschel data alone by factors of ~2 for β and by ~40% for temperature. Furthermore, we find core mass differences of <~ 30% compared to Herschel-only estimates with an adopted β = 2, highlighting the necessity of long-wavelength submillimeter data for deriving accurate masses of prestellar and protostellar cores.

  1. The Spitzer Survey of Interstellar Clouds in the Gould Belt. VI. The Auriga-California Molecular Cloud Observed with IRAC and MIPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Harvey, Paul M.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Huard, Tracy L.; Tothill, Nicholas F. H.; Nutter, David; Bourke, Tyler L.; DiFrancesco, James; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Allen, Lori E.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Dunham, Michael M.; Merín, Bruno; Miller, Jennifer F.; Terebey, Susan; Peterson, Dawn E.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.

    2014-05-01

    We present observations of the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud (AMC) at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70, and 160 μm observed with the IRAC and MIPS detectors as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey. The total mapped areas are 2.5 deg2 with IRAC and 10.47 deg2 with MIPS. This giant molecular cloud is one of two in the nearby Gould Belt of star-forming regions, the other being the Orion A Molecular Cloud (OMC). We compare source counts, colors, and magnitudes in our observed region to a subset of the SWIRE data that was processed through our pipeline. Using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we find evidence for a substantial population of 166 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud, many of which were previously unknown. Most of this population is concentrated around the LkHα 101 cluster and the filament extending from it. We present a quantitative description of the degree of clustering and discuss the relative fraction of YSOs in earlier (Class I and F) and later (Class II) classes compared to other clouds. We perform simple SED modeling of the YSOs with disks to compare the mid-IR properties to disks in other clouds and identify 14 classical transition disk candidates. Although the AMC is similar in mass, size, and distance to the OMC, it is forming about 15-20 times fewer stars.

  2. The Spitzer survey of interstellar clouds in the gould belt. VI. The Auriga-California molecular cloud observed with IRAC and MIPS

    SciTech Connect

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Harvey, Paul M.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Huard, Tracy L.; Miller, Jennifer F.; Tothill, Nicholas F. H.; Nutter, David; Bourke, Tyler L.; DiFrancesco, James; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Allen, Lori E.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Dunham, Michael M.; Merín, Bruno; Terebey, Susan; Peterson, Dawn E.; and others

    2014-05-01

    We present observations of the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud (AMC) at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70, and 160 μm observed with the IRAC and MIPS detectors as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey. The total mapped areas are 2.5 deg{sup 2} with IRAC and 10.47 deg{sup 2} with MIPS. This giant molecular cloud is one of two in the nearby Gould Belt of star-forming regions, the other being the Orion A Molecular Cloud (OMC). We compare source counts, colors, and magnitudes in our observed region to a subset of the SWIRE data that was processed through our pipeline. Using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we find evidence for a substantial population of 166 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud, many of which were previously unknown. Most of this population is concentrated around the LkHα 101 cluster and the filament extending from it. We present a quantitative description of the degree of clustering and discuss the relative fraction of YSOs in earlier (Class I and F) and later (Class II) classes compared to other clouds. We perform simple SED modeling of the YSOs with disks to compare the mid-IR properties to disks in other clouds and identify 14 classical transition disk candidates. Although the AMC is similar in mass, size, and distance to the OMC, it is forming about 15-20 times fewer stars.

  3. The Spitzer Survey of Interstellar Clouds in the Gould Belt. VI. The Auriga-California Molecular Cloud Observed with IRAC and MIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Harvey, Paul M.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Huard, Tracy L.; Tothill, Nicholas F. H.; Nutter, David; Bourke, Tyler L.; DiFrancesco, James; Jorgensen, Jes K.; Allen, Lori E.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Dunham, Michael M.; Merin, Bruno; Miller, Jennifer F.; Terebey, Susan; Peterson, Dawn E.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.

    2014-01-01

    We present observations of the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud (AMC) at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70 and 160 micrometers observed with the IRAC and MIPS detectors as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey. The total mapped areas are 2.5 deg(exp 2) with IRAC and 10.47 deg2 with MIPS. This giant molecular cloud is one of two in the nearby Gould Belt of star-forming regions, the other being the Orion A Molecular Cloud (OMC). We compare source counts, colors and magnitudes in our observed region to a subset of the SWIRE data that was processed through our pipeline. Using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we find evidence for a substantial population of 166 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud, many of which were previously unknown. Most of this population is concentrated around the LkH(alpha) 101 cluster and the filament extending from it. We present a quantitative description of the degree of clustering and discuss the fraction of YSOs in the region with disks relative to an estimate of the diskless YSO population. Although the AMC is similar in mass, size and distance to the OMC, it is forming about 15 - 20 times fewer stars.

  4. Conservation as virtue: a scientific and social process for conservation ethics.

    PubMed

    Van Houtan, Kyle S

    2006-10-01

    Most scientists take ethical arguments for conservation as given and focus on scientific or economic questions. Although nature conservation is often considered a just cause, it is given little further consideration. A lack of attention to ethical theory raises serious concerns for how conservation scientists conceive and practice ethics. I contrast two common ways scientists approach ethics, as demonstrated in the writings of Stephen Jay Gould and E. O. Wilson. Gould casts severe doubt as to whether any ethics are possible from science, whereas Wilson proposes science as the only path to ethics. I argue these two methods ultimately limit popular support for conservation and offer Alasdair MacIntyre's "virtue ethics" as an alternative. Unlike Gould and Wilson, MacIntyre provides an ethical theory that reconciles scientific inquiry and social traditions. Recent studies of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States affirm MacIntyre's claims and provide important insights for conservation today. These accounts argue that social solidarity and political success against segregation were possible only as rooted in the particular language, logic, and practices of a robust cultural tradition. If correct, conservation science should attend to several questions. On what basis can conservation achieve widespread cultural legitimacy? What are the particular social currencies for a conservation ethic? What role does science play in such a scheme? MacIntyre's careful positioning of scientific and social traditions provides a hopeful ethical direction for conservation.

  5. Four new species of Meligethes Stephens from China and additional data on other species of the genus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae: Meligethinae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Meike; Yang, Xingke; Huang, Min; Jelínek, Josef; Audisio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Four new species of Meligethes Stephens, 1830, M. (s.str.) macrofemoratus (Shaanxi, Ningxia), M. (s.str.) yak (NW Sichuan), M. (s.str.) auropilosus (Tibet) and M. (Odontogethes) aurorugosus (Tibet) spp. nov., are described and illustrated from China. Diagnostic characters distinguishing these new species from closely related taxa are discussed. The previously unknown male of Meligethes (s.str.) aureolineatus Audisio, Sabatelli & Jelínek, 2015 from Sichuan and the previously unknown female of M. (Odontogethes) scrobescens Chen, Lin, Huang & Yang, 2015 from Sichuan are also described. Additional data are also presented on the geographic distribution and life history of other Chinese Meligethes species. PMID:27395211

  6. Four new species of Meligethes Stephens from China and additional data on other species of the genus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae: Meligethinae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Meike; Yang, Xingke; Huang, Min; Jelínek, Josef; Audisio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Four new species of Meligethes Stephens, 1830, M. (s.str.) macrofemoratus (Shaanxi, Ningxia), M. (s.str.) yak (NW Sichuan), M. (s.str.) auropilosus (Tibet) and M. (Odontogethes) aurorugosus (Tibet) spp. nov., are described and illustrated from China. Diagnostic characters distinguishing these new species from closely related taxa are discussed. The previously unknown male of Meligethes (s.str.) aureolineatus Audisio, Sabatelli & Jelínek, 2015 from Sichuan and the previously unknown female of M. (Odontogethes) scrobescens Chen, Lin, Huang & Yang, 2015 from Sichuan are also described. Additional data are also presented on the geographic distribution and life history of other Chinese Meligethes species.

  7. The JCMT Legacy Survey of the Gould Belt: mapping 13CO and C18O in Orion A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckle, J. V.; Davis, C. J.; Francesco, J. Di; Graves, S. F.; Nutter, D.; Richer, J. S.; Roberts, J. F.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G. J.; Brunt, C.; Butner, H. M.; Cavanagh, B.; Chrysostomou, A.; Curtis, E. I.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Etxaluze, M.; Fich, M.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Greaves, J. S.; Hatchell, J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Matthews, B.; Matthews, H.; Rawlings, J. M. C.; Sadavoy, S.; Simpson, R. J.; Tothill, N. F. H.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Viti, S.; Wouterloot, J. G. A.; Yates, J.

    2012-05-01

    The Gould Belt Legacy Survey will map star-forming regions within 500 pc, using Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme (HARP), Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) and Polarimeter 2 (POL-2) on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). This paper describes HARP observations of the J= 3 → 2 transitions of 13CO and C18O towards Orion A. The 15 arcsec resolution observations cover 5 pc of the Orion filament, including OMC 1 (including BN-KL and Orion bar), OMC 2/3 and OMC 4, and allow a comparative study of the molecular gas properties throughout the star-forming cloud. The filament shows a velocity gradient of ˜1 km s-1 pc-1 between OMC 1, 2 and 3, and high-velocity emission is detected in both isotopologues. The Orion Nebula and Bar have the largest masses and linewidths, and dominate the mass and energetics of the high-velocity material. Compact, spatially resolved emission from CH3CN, 13CH3OH, SO, HCOOCH3, CH3CHO and CH3OCHO is detected towards the Orion Hot Core. The cloud is warm, with a median excitation temperature of ˜24 K; the Orion Bar has the highest excitation temperature gas, at >80 K. The C18O excitation temperature correlates well with the dust temperature (to within 40 per cent). The C18O emission is optically thin, and the 13CO emission is marginally optically thick; despite its high mass, OMC 1 shows the lowest opacities. A virial analysis indicates that Orion A is too massive for thermal or turbulent support, but is consistent with a model of a filamentary cloud that is threaded by helical magnetic fields. The variation of physical conditions across the cloud is reflected in the physical characteristics of the dust cores. We find similar core properties between starless and protostellar cores, but variations in core properties with position in the filament. The OMC 1 cores have the highest velocity dispersions and masses, followed by OMC 2/3 and OMC 4. The differing fragmentation of these cores may explain why OMC 1 has formed

  8. Counterfactuals and history: Contingency and convergence in histories of science and life.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, Ian

    2016-08-01

    This article examines a series of recent histories of science that have attempted to consider how science may have developed in slightly altered historical realities. These works have, moreover, been influenced by debates in evolutionary science about the opposing forces of contingency and convergence in regard to Stephen Jay Gould's notion of "replaying life's tape." The article argues that while the historians under analysis seem to embrace contingency in order to present their counterfactual narratives, for the sake of historical plausibility they are forced to accept a fairly weak role for contingency in shaping the development of science. It is therefore argued that Simon Conway Morris's theory of evolutionary convergence comes closer to describing the restrained counterfactual worlds imagined by these historians of science than does contingency. PMID:26791094

  9. The Scala naturae revisited: evolutionary scales and anagenesis in comparative psychology.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C B; Hodos, W

    1991-09-01

    Recent suggestions that evolutionary scales have a place in theorization about the evolution of behavior have been based on the concept of anagenesis, formerly associated with notions of biological progress. An associated concept is that of grades, often used as units of anagenetic advance. Advocates of anagenetic analysis in comparative psychology cite the writings of biologists Bernard Rensch, Julian Huxley, George Gaylord Simpson, and Stephen Jay Gould to support the usefulness of anagenesis but treat the positions of each of these theorists as if they were the same. In fact, they differ considerably in their definition of anagenesis and in its application to specific issues in evolution. The anagenetic approach is criticized as axiological and frequently anthropocentric. Although the formation of grades can be useful, a sequence of grades must not be assumed to represent historical stages in the evolution of specific structures or behaviors.

  10. Self-organized criticality and punctuated equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Per; Boettcher, Stefan

    1997-02-01

    Many natural phenomena evolve intermittently, with periods of tranquillity interrupted by bursts of activity, rather than following a smooth gradual path. Examples include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, solar flares, gamma-ray bursts, and biological evolution. Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge have coined the term “punctuated equilibria” for this behavior. We argue that punctuated equilibria reflects the tendency of dynamical systems to evolve towards a critical state, and review recent work on simple models. A good metaphoric picture is one where the systems are temporarily trapped in valleys of deformable, interacting landscapes. Similarities with spin glasses are pointed out. Punctuated equilibria are essential for the emergence of complex phenomena. The periods of stasis allow the system to remember its past history; yet the intermittent events permit further change.

  11. [Interactions between genetics and environment].

    PubMed

    Vineis, P

    1998-01-01

    From a scientific point of view, the idea that genes exert an important role in explaining human pathology has gained much popularity in recent decades. However, according to Stephen Jay Gould, the "genetic fallacy" has been repeatedly used to avoid environmental action. In the case of occupational cancer, genetic screening of workers for their susceptibility to the action of chemical carcinogens, on the basis of "metabolic polymorphisms", would be unacceptable because of racial discrimination, related to uneven racial distribution of most polymorphisms, for example, 90% of Africans and 10% of Asians have the "slow" acetylator genotype. Therefore, not only technical and scientific aspects of genetic susceptibility to cancer, but also ethical and social implication have to be considered.

  12. The Ascent of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Brian L.

    2000-04-01

    From the revolutionary discoveries of Galileo and Newton to the mind-bending theories of Einstein and Heisenberg, from plate tectonics to particle physics, from the origin of life to universal entropy, and from biology to cosmology, here is a sweeping, readable, and dynamic account of the whole of Western science.In the approachable manner and method of Stephen Jay Gould and Carl Sagan, the late Brian L. Silver translates our most important, and often most obscure, scientific developments into a vernacular that is not only accessible and illuminating but also enjoyable. Silver makes his comprehensive case with much clarity and insight; his book aptly locates science as the apex of human reason, and reason as our best path to the truth. For all readers curious about--or else perhaps intimidated by--what Silver calls "the scientific campaign up to now", The Ascent of Science will be fresh, vivid, and fascinating reading.

  13. Counterfactuals and history: Contingency and convergence in histories of science and life.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, Ian

    2016-08-01

    This article examines a series of recent histories of science that have attempted to consider how science may have developed in slightly altered historical realities. These works have, moreover, been influenced by debates in evolutionary science about the opposing forces of contingency and convergence in regard to Stephen Jay Gould's notion of "replaying life's tape." The article argues that while the historians under analysis seem to embrace contingency in order to present their counterfactual narratives, for the sake of historical plausibility they are forced to accept a fairly weak role for contingency in shaping the development of science. It is therefore argued that Simon Conway Morris's theory of evolutionary convergence comes closer to describing the restrained counterfactual worlds imagined by these historians of science than does contingency.

  14. Quantification of in situ nutrient and heavy metal remediation by a small pearl oyster (Pinctada imbricata) farm at Port Stephens, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gifford, S; Dunstan, H; O'Connor, W; Macfarlane, G R

    2005-04-01

    The use of pearl oysters has recently been proposed as an environmental remediation tool in coastal ecosystems. This study quantified the nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metal content of the tissue and shell of pearl oysters harvested from a small pearl oyster farm at Port Stephens, Australia. Each tonne of pearl oyster material harvested resulted in approximately 703 g metals, 7452 g nitrogen, and 545 g phosphorus being removed from the waters of Port Stephens. Increasing current farm production of 9.8 tyr(-1) to 499 tyr(-1) would balance current nitrogen loads entering Port Stephens from a small Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) located on its southern shores. Furthermore, manipulation of harvest dates to coincide with oyster condition would likely remove substantially greater quantities of nutrients. This study demonstrates that pearl aquaculture may be used to assist in the removal of pollutants from coastal waters while producing a commercially profitable commodity. PMID:15823303

  15. Reproductive Ecology Of The Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma Coerulescens) On John F. Kennedy Space Center/Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge: A Long-Term Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Geoffry M.; Breininger, David R.; Larson, Vicky L.; Oddy, Donna M.; Smith, Rebecca B.; Stolen, Eric D.

    2005-01-01

    From 1988 to 2002 we studied the breeding ecology of Florida Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) on John F. Kennedy Space Center/Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. We examined phenology, clutch size, hatching failure rates, fledgling production, nest success, predation rates, sources egg and nestling mortality, and the effects of helpers on these measures. Nesting phenology was similar among sites. Mean clutch size at Titan was significantly larger than at HC or T4. Pairs with helpers did not produce larger clutches than pairs without helpers. Fledgling production at T4 was significantly greater than at HC and similar to Titan. Pairs with helpers at HC produced significantly more fledglings than pairs without helpers; helpers did not influence fledgling production at the other sites. Nest success at HC and Titan was low, 19% and 32% respectively. Nest success at T4 was 48% and was significantly greater than at HC. Average predation rates at all sites increased with season progression. Predation rates at all sight rose sharply by early June. The main cause of nest failure at all sites was predation, 93%.

  16. Six new species of Myrsidea Waterston, 1915 (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from New World jays of the genus Cyanocorax Boie (Passeriformes: Corvidae), with notes on the chorionic structure of eggs.

    PubMed

    Valim, Michel P; Cicchino, Armando C

    2015-02-01

    The only species of previously named Myrsidea Waterston, 1915 from Neotropical jays of the genus Cyanocorax Boie (Passeriformes: Corvidae), Myrsidea fallax Kéler, 1938 (type-host Cyanocorax cyanomelas Vieillot), is redescribed and six new species of lice in the genus Myrsidea are described: Myrsidea pseudofallax n. sp. [type-host C. c. chrysops (Vieillot)]; M. moriona n. sp. [type-host C. m. morio (Wagler)]; Myrsidea daleclaytoni n. sp. [type-host C. v. violaceus Du Bus de Gisignies]; Myrsidea lindolphoi n. sp. [type-host C. caeruleus (Vieillot)]; Myrsidea melanocyanei n. sp. [type-host C. melanocyaneus chavezi (Miller & Griscom)]; and Myrsidea cristatelli n. sp. [type-host C. cristatellus (Temminck)]. A key to the identification of both sexes of these seven species is provided. Immature stages of M. daleclaytoni n. sp. (all instars) and M. cristatelli n. sp. (nymph III) are described. External chorionic architecture of the eggs is described and illustrated for six Myrsidea spp. from corvine birds: M. picae (Linnaeus, 1758) ex Pica p. pica L.; M. cornicis (DeGeer, 1778) ex Corvus c. corone L.; M. isostoma (Nitzsch in Giebel, 1866) ex Co. f. frugilegus L.; M. interrupta (Osborn, 1896) ex Co. brachyrhynchus Brehm; M. fallax ex Cy. cyanomelas; and M. moriona n. sp. ex Cy. m. morio. This is the first review of the data on Myrsidea spp. infesting Neotropical Corvidae.

  17. Surveillance for West Nile Virus and Vaccination of Free-Ranging Island Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma insularis) on Santa Cruz Island, California

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Winston; Morrison, Scott A.; Sillett, T. Scott; Caldwell, Luke; Wheeler, Sarah S.; Barker, Christopher M.; Cummings, Robert; Reisen, William K.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) on mainland California poses an ongoing threat to the island scrub-jay (ISSJ, Aphelocoma insularis), a species that occurs only on Santa Cruz Island, California, and whose total population numbers <5000. Our report describes the surveillance and management efforts conducted since 2006 that are designed to understand and mitigate for the consequences of WNV introduction into the ISSJ population. We suspect that WNV would most likely be introduced to the island via the movement of infected birds from the mainland. However, antibody testing of >750 migrating and resident birds on the island from 2006 to 2009 indicated that WNV had not become established by the end of 2009. Several species of competent mosquito vectors were collected at very low abundance on the island, including the important mainland vectors Culex tarsalis and Culex quinquefasciatus. However, the island was generally cooler than areas of mainland California that experienced intense WNV transmission, and these lower temperatures may have reduced the likelihood of WNV becoming established because they do not support efficient virus replication in mosquitoes. A vaccination program was initiated in 2008 to create a rescue population of ISSJ that would be more likely to survive a catastrophic outbreak. To further that goal, we recommend managers vaccinate >100 ISSJ each year as part of ongoing research and monitoring efforts. PMID:21438695

  18. Behaviour and stability of Trivelpiece-Gould modes in non-neutral plasma containing small density fraction of background gas ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeliseyev, Y. N.

    2013-03-01

    It is shown that the frequencies of Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) modes in non-neutral plasma can get into the low-frequency range due to the Doppler shift caused by plasma rotation in crossed fields. TG modes interact with the ion modes that leads to plasma instability. In paper the frequency spectrum of "cold" electron plasma completely filling a waveguide and containing small density fraction of ions of background gas is determined numerically. For ions the kinetic description is used. Oscillations having azimuthal number m = 2 are considered. In this case both low- and upper-hybrid TG modes get into the low-frequency range. The spectrum consists of families of "modified" ion cyclotron (MIC) modes and electron TG modes with the frequencies equal to hybrid frequencies with the Doppler shift. The growth rates of upper-hybrid modes are much faster than the growth rates of low-hybrid and MIC modes.

  19. Behaviour and stability of Trivelpiece-Gould modes in non-neutral plasma containing small density fraction of background gas ions

    SciTech Connect

    Yeliseyev, Y. N.

    2013-03-19

    It is shown that the frequencies of Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) modes in non-neutral plasma can get into the low-frequency range due to the Doppler shift caused by plasma rotation in crossed fields. TG modes interact with the ion modes that leads to plasma instability. In paper the frequency spectrum of 'cold' electron plasma completely filling a waveguide and containing small density fraction of ions of background gas is determined numerically. For ions the kinetic description is used. Oscillations having azimuthal number m= 2 are considered. In this case both low- and upper-hybrid TG modes get into the low-frequency range. The spectrum consists of families of 'modified' ion cyclotron (MIC) modes and electron TG modes with the frequencies equal to hybrid frequencies with the Doppler shift. The growth rates of upper-hybrid modes are much faster than the growth rates of low-hybrid and MIC modes.

  20. A census of dense cores in the Aquila cloud complex: SPIRE/PACS observations from the Herschel Gould Belt survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könyves, V.; André, Ph.; Men'shchikov, A.; Palmeirim, P.; Arzoumanian, D.; Schneider, N.; Roy, A.; Didelon, P.; Maury, A.; Shimajiri, Y.; Di Francesco, J.; Bontemps, S.; Peretto, N.; Benedettini, M.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Elia, D.; Griffin, M. J.; Hill, T.; Kirk, J.; Ladjelate, B.; Marsh, K.; Martin, P. G.; Motte, F.; Nguyên Luong, Q.; Pezzuto, S.; Roussel, H.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Sadavoy, S. I.; Schisano, E.; Spinoglio, L.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    We present and discuss the results of the Herschel Gould Belt survey (HGBS) observations in an 11 deg2 area of the Aquila molecular cloud complex at d 260 pc, imaged with the SPIRE and PACS photometric cameras in parallel mode from 70 μm to 500 μm. Using the multi-scale, multi-wavelength source extraction algorithm getsources, we identify a complete sample of starless dense cores and embedded (Class 0-I) protostars in this region, and analyze their global properties and spatial distributions. We find a total of 651 starless cores, 60% ± 10% of which are gravitationally bound prestellar cores, and they will likely form stars inthe future. We also detect 58 protostellar cores. The core mass function (CMF) derived for the large population of prestellar cores is very similar in shape to the stellar initial mass function (IMF), confirming earlier findings on a much stronger statistical basis and supporting the view that there is a close physical link between the stellar IMF and the prestellar CMF. The global shift in mass scale observed between the CMF and the IMF is consistent with a typical star formation efficiency of 40% at the level of an individual core. By comparing the numbers of starless cores in various density bins to the number of young stellar objects (YSOs), we estimate that the lifetime of prestellar cores is 1 Myr, which is typically 4 times longer than the core free-fall time, and that it decreases with average core density. We find a strong correlation between the spatial distribution of prestellar cores and the densest filaments observed in the Aquila complex. About 90% of the Herschel-identified prestellar cores are located above a background column density corresponding to AV 7, and 75% of them lie within filamentary structures with supercritical masses per unit length ≳16 M⊙/pc. These findings support a picture wherein the cores making up the peak of the CMF (and probably responsible for the base of the IMF) result primarily from the

  1. Singing from the Grave: DNA from a 180 Year Old Type Specimen Confirms the Identity of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens)

    PubMed Central

    Price, Ben W.; Henry, Charles S.; Hall, Andie C.; Mochizuki, Atsushi; Duelli, Peter; Brooks, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Historically serving as repositories for morphologically-based taxonomic research, natural history collections are now increasingly being targeted in studies utilizing DNA data. The development of advanced molecular techniques has facilitated extraction of useable DNA from old specimens, including type material. Sequencing diagnostic molecular markers from type material enables accurate species designation, especially where modern taxonomic hypotheses confirm morphologically cryptic species complexes. One such example is Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), which belongs to a complex of about 20 cryptic species, most of which can only be reliably distinguished by their pre-mating courtship songs or by DNA analysis. The subtle morphological variation in the group has led to disagreement over the previous designation of the lectotype for C. carnea, an issue that has been further compounded because Chrysoperla carnea is a highly valued biological control agent in arable crops. Archival DNA extraction and sequencing from the 180 year old lectotype specimen, combined with Bayesian and Likelihood based phylogenetic analyses of modern specimens from the entire complex, were used to establish unambiguously the true identity of Chrysoperla carnea. PMID:25853856

  2. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gourash, F.

    1984-02-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  3. Identification and mapping QTL for high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar 'Stephens'.

    PubMed

    Santra, D K; Chen, X M; Santra, M; Campbell, K G; Kidwell, K K

    2008-09-01

    High-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance from the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar 'Stephens' has protected wheat crops from stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici for 30 years. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for HTAP resistance in Stephens through genetic linkage analysis and identify DNA markers linked to the QTL for use in marker-assisted breeding. Mapping populations consisted of 101 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) through single-seed descent from 'Stephens' (resistant) x 'Michigan Amber' (susceptible). F(5), F(6) and F(7) RILs were evaluated for stripe rust resistance at Pullman, WA in 1996, 1997 and 1998, respectively, whereas F(8) RILs were evaluated at Mt Vernon, WA, USA in 2005. The 101 F(8) RILs were evaluated with 250 resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP), 245 simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 1 sequence tagged site (STS) markers for genetic linkage map construction. Two QTL, which explained 48-61% of the total phenotypic variation of the HTAP resistance in Stephens, were identified. QYrst.wgp-6BS.1 was within a 3.9-cM region flanked by Xbarc101 and Xbarc136. QYrst.wgp-6BS.2 was mapped in a 17.5-cM region flanked by Xgwm132 and Xgdm113. Both two QTL were physically mapped to the short arm of chromosome 6B, but in different bins. Validation and polymorphism tests of the flanking markers in 43 wheat genotypes indicated that the molecular markers associated with these QTL should be useful in marker-assisted breeding programs to efficiently incorporate HTAP resistance into new wheat cultivars.

  4. From weird wonders to stem lineages: the second reclassification of the Burgess Shale fauna.

    PubMed

    Brysse, Keynyn

    2008-09-01

    The Burgess Shale, a set of fossil beds containing the exquisitely preserved remains of marine invertebrate organisms from shortly after the Cambrian explosion, was discovered in 1909, and first brought to widespread popular attention by Stephen Jay Gould in his 1989 bestseller Wonderful life: The Burgess Shale and the nature of history. Gould contrasted the initial interpretation of these fossils, in which they were 'shoehorned' into modern groups, with the first major reexamination begun in the 1960s, when the creatures were perceived as 'weird wonders', possessing unique body plans and unrelated to modern organisms. More recently, a third phase of Burgess Shale studies has arisen, which has not yet been historically examined. This third phase represents a revolutionary new understanding, brought about, I believe, by a change in taxonomic methodology that led to a new perception of the Burgess creatures, and a new way to comprehend their relationships with modern organisms. The adoption of cladistics, and its corollary, the stem group concept, has forged a new understanding of the Burgess Shale ... but has it also changed the questions we are allowed to ask about evolution? PMID:18761282

  5. From weird wonders to stem lineages: the second reclassification of the Burgess Shale fauna.

    PubMed

    Brysse, Keynyn

    2008-09-01

    The Burgess Shale, a set of fossil beds containing the exquisitely preserved remains of marine invertebrate organisms from shortly after the Cambrian explosion, was discovered in 1909, and first brought to widespread popular attention by Stephen Jay Gould in his 1989 bestseller Wonderful life: The Burgess Shale and the nature of history. Gould contrasted the initial interpretation of these fossils, in which they were 'shoehorned' into modern groups, with the first major reexamination begun in the 1960s, when the creatures were perceived as 'weird wonders', possessing unique body plans and unrelated to modern organisms. More recently, a third phase of Burgess Shale studies has arisen, which has not yet been historically examined. This third phase represents a revolutionary new understanding, brought about, I believe, by a change in taxonomic methodology that led to a new perception of the Burgess creatures, and a new way to comprehend their relationships with modern organisms. The adoption of cladistics, and its corollary, the stem group concept, has forged a new understanding of the Burgess Shale ... but has it also changed the questions we are allowed to ask about evolution?

  6. Convergent evolution as natural experiment: the tape of life reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Powell, Russell; Mariscal, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Stephen Jay Gould argued that replaying the 'tape of life' would result in radically different evolutionary outcomes. Recently, biologists and philosophers of science have paid increasing attention to the theoretical importance of convergent evolution-the independent origination of similar biological forms and functions-which many interpret as evidence against Gould's thesis. In this paper, we examine the evidentiary relevance of convergent evolution for the radical contingency debate. We show that under the right conditions, episodes of convergent evolution can constitute valid natural experiments that support inferences regarding the deep counterfactual stability of macroevolutionary outcomes. However, we argue that proponents of convergence have problematically lumped causally heterogeneous phenomena into a single evidentiary basket, in effect treating all convergent events as if they are of equivalent theoretical import. As a result, the 'critique from convergent evolution' fails to engage with key claims of the radical contingency thesis. To remedy this, we develop ways to break down the heterogeneous set of convergent events based on the nature of the generalizations they support. Adopting this more nuanced approach to convergent evolution allows us to differentiate iterated evolutionary outcomes that are probably common among alternative evolutionary histories and subject to law-like generalizations, from those that do little to undermine and may even support, the Gouldian view of life.

  7. Paleontology at the "high table"? Popularization and disciplinary status in recent paleontology.

    PubMed

    Sepkoski, David

    2014-03-01

    This paper examines the way in which paleontologists used "popular books" to call for a broader "expanded synthesis" of evolutionary biology. Beginning in the 1970s, a group of influential paleontologists, including Stephen Jay Gould, Niles Eldredge, David Raup, Steven Stanley, and others, aggressively promoted a new theoretical, evolutionary approach to the fossil record as an important revision of the existing synthetic view of Darwinism. This work had a transformative effect within the discipline of paleontology. However, by the 1980s, paleontologists began making their case to a wider audience, both within evolutionary biology, and to the general public. Many of their books-for example, Eldredge's provocatively-titled Unfinished Synthesis-explicitly argued that the received synthetic view of Darwinian evolution was incomplete, and that paleontological contributions such as punctuated equilibria, the hierarchical model of macroevolution, and the study of mass extinction dynamics offered a substantial corrective to evolutionary theory. This paper argues that books-far from being "mere popularizations" of scientific ideas-played an important role in disciplinary debates surrounding evolutionary theory during the 1980s, and in particular that paleontologists like Gould and Eldredge self-consciously adopted the book format because of the importance of that genre in the history of evolutionary biology.

  8. Why don't zebras have machine guns? Adaptation, selection, and constraints in evolutionary theory.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Timothy

    2008-03-01

    In an influential paper, Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Lewontin (1979) contrasted selection-driven adaptation with phylogenetic, architectural, and developmental constraints as distinct causes of phenotypic evolution. In subsequent publications Gould (e.g., 1997a,b, 2002) has elaborated this distinction into one between a narrow "Darwinian Fundamentalist" emphasis on "external functionalist" processes, and a more inclusive "pluralist" emphasis on "internal structuralist" principles. Although theoretical integration of functionalist and structuralist explanations is the ultimate aim, natural selection and internal constraints are treated as distinct causes of evolutionary change. This distinction is now routinely taken for granted in the literature in evolutionary biology. I argue that this distinction is problematic because the effects attributed to non-selective constraints are more parsimoniously explained as the ordinary effects of selection itself. Although it may still be a useful shorthand to speak of phylogenetic, architectural, and developmental constraints on phenotypic evolution, it is important to understand that such "constraints" do not constitute an alternative set of causes of evolutionary change. The result of this analysis is a clearer understanding of the relationship between adaptation, selection and constraints as explanatory concepts in evolutionary theory.

  9. Stephen Hales: the contributions of an Enlightenment physiologist to the study of the kidney in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2016-02-01

    Stephen Hales (1677-1761) was an English clergyman who made major contributions to a wide range of scientific topics such as botany, chemistry, pneumatics, and physiology. Early in his career he developed a keen interest in medicine through his association with his younger physician friend at Cambridge, William Stukeley (1687-1765), with whom he dissected animals and attended experiments in the laboratory of Isaac Newton. His fame as a scientist grew and by the end of his life he had achieved an international reputation as a major scientist of the Enlightenment. He is best known for his 1733 Statical Essays, in the second part of which he describes his studies in animal physiology. Most famous amongst those are his assessments of the force of the blood, which he measured in horses and dogs. Less well known and often unrecognized are his studies on the kidney in health and disease, which are the focus of this review. Amongst others Hales described the effects of hemorrhagic shock which he observed as he bled his animals while measuring their blood pressure; he then studied the effect of increasing saline perfusion pressures on the renal secretion of urine; and delved into biochemistry in exploring the composition of and solutions to dissolve bladder stones. His 1733 statement in the introduction to his hemodynamic studies that the healthy State of the Animal principally consists, in the maintaining of a due Equilibrium between the body solids and fluids literally predicts the milieu intrieur that would ultimately be formulated in 1854 by Claude Bernard (1813-1878).

  10. Biodiversity of Spongosorites coralliophaga (Stephens, 1915) on coral rubble at two contrasting cold-water coral reef settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazanidis, Georgios; Henry, Lea-Anne; Roberts, J. Murray; Witte, Ursula F. M.

    2016-03-01

    Cold-water coral reefs (CWRs) in the northeast Atlantic harbor diverse sponge communities. Knowledge of deep-sea sponge ecology is limited and this leaves us with a fragmented understanding of the ecological roles that sponges play in CWR ecosystems. We present the first study of faunal biodiversity associated with the massive demosponge Spongosorites coralliophaga (Stephens, 1915) that typically colonizes coral debris fields of CWRs. Our study focused on the sessile fauna inhabiting sponges mixed with coral rubble at two contrasting settings in the northeast Atlantic: the shallow inshore (120-190 m water depth) Mingulay Reef Complex (MRC) and the deep offshore (500-1200 m) Logachev Mound (LM) coral province. MRC is dominated by the scleractinian Lophelia pertusa, while LM is dominated by L. pertusa and Madrepora oculata. Nine sponge-coral rubble associations were collected from MRC and four from LM. Measurements of abundance, species richness, diversity, evenness, dry biomass, and composition of sessile fauna on sponge and coral rubble microhabitats were undertaken. Differences in community composition between the two regions were mainly a response to changes in fauna with depth. Fauna composition was also different between sponge and coral rubble within each region. Infauna constituted a minor component of the sponge-associated fauna in MRC but had a higher contribution in LM. Sponge and coral rubble sessile fauna in both regions was mainly composed of cnidarians and molluscs, similarly to some previous studies. Sponges' outer surfaces at MRC were colonized by a species-rich community with high abundance and biomass suggesting that S. coralliophaga at MRC acts as a settlement surface for various organisms but such a role is not the case at LM. This difference in the role of S. coralliophaga as a biological structure is probably related to differences in fauna composition with depth, bottom current speed, and the quantity/quality of food supplied to the benthos.

  11. Stephen Hales: the contributions of an Enlightenment physiologist to the study of the kidney in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2016-02-01

    Stephen Hales (1677-1761) was an English clergyman who made major contributions to a wide range of scientific topics such as botany, chemistry, pneumatics, and physiology. Early in his career he developed a keen interest in medicine through his association with his younger physician friend at Cambridge, William Stukeley (1687-1765), with whom he dissected animals and attended experiments in the laboratory of Isaac Newton. His fame as a scientist grew and by the end of his life he had achieved an international reputation as a major scientist of the Enlightenment. He is best known for his 1733 Statical Essays, in the second part of which he describes his studies in animal physiology. Most famous amongst those are his assessments of the force of the blood, which he measured in horses and dogs. Less well known and often unrecognized are his studies on the kidney in health and disease, which are the focus of this review. Amongst others Hales described the effects of hemorrhagic shock which he observed as he bled his animals while measuring their blood pressure; he then studied the effect of increasing saline perfusion pressures on the renal secretion of urine; and delved into biochemistry in exploring the composition of and solutions to dissolve bladder stones. His 1733 statement in the introduction to his hemodynamic studies that the healthy State of the Animal principally consists, in the maintaining of a due Equilibrium between the body solids and fluids literally predicts the milieu intrieur that would ultimately be formulated in 1854 by Claude Bernard (1813-1878). PMID:26913873

  12. Laparoscopy-assisted orchiopexy versus laparoscopic two-stage fowler stephens orchiopexy for nonpalpable testes: Comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Alzahem, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    Background/Purpose: To assess the outcome of the primary laparoscopy-assisted orchiopexy (LAO) and the laparoscopic two-stage Fowler Stephens orchiopexy (FSO) for managing patients with nonpalpable testis in terms of safety, feasibility and efficacy. Materials and Methods: This study included 94 patients (110 nonpalpable testes) who underwent laparoscopy at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh between July 1998 and June 2012. Patients were evaluated postoperatively to check the location and size of testes and to exclude any other complications. Results: Mean age at presentation was 24+/−19 months (9-96 months). Orchiectomy was done for 5 atrophic testes. 36 open orchiopexy was done for 29 canalicular testes and 7 peeping testes. 35 LAO were done for 1 canalicular testis, 5 peeping testes, 16 low intraabdominal testes and 13 high intraabdominal testes. 34 FSO were done for 23 high intraabdominal testes, 9 low intraabdominal testes and 2 peeping testes. Median follow up was 12 months (1-84 months) and 6 patients were lost to follow up. The overall success rates for LAO and FSO were 88% and 63%, respectively. Overall testicular atrophy rates were 3% and 30% for LAO and FSO, respectively (OR 0.08 [95% CI, 0.01-0.69], P = 0.006). For high intraabdominal testes, the atrophy rates were 3% and 20% for LAO and FSO, respectively (OR 0.14 [95% CI, 0.02-1.21, P = 0.049).Testicular displacement rates were 9% and 7% for LAO and FSO, respectively (OR 1.5, 95% CI, 0.24-9.59, P = 0.514). Conclusions: Laparoscopy provides a safe and accurate modality for diagnosing and managing patients with nonpalpable testes. LAO appears to be feasible and effective in management of high intraabdominal testes. Further well-conducted comparative studies are needed. PMID:23798870

  13. The JCMT and Herschel Gould Belt Surveys: A comparison of SCUBA-2 and Herschel data of dense cores in the Taurus dark cloud L1495

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward-Thompson, D.; Pattle, K.; Kirk, J. M.; Marsh, K.; Buckle, J.; Hatchell, J.; Nutter, D. J.; Griffin, M. J.; Di Francesco, J.; André, P.; Beaulieu, S.; Berry, D.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Mottram, J.; Pineda, J.; Quinn, C.; Sadavoy, S.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; White, G.; Hill, T.; Könyves, V.; Palmeirim, P.; Pezzuto, S.

    2016-08-01

    We present a comparison of SCUBA-2 850-μm and Herschel 70-500-μm observations of the L1495 filament in the Taurus Molecular Cloud with the goal of characterising the SCUBA-2 Gould Belt Survey (GBS) data set. We identify and characterise starless cores in three data sets: SCUBA-2 850-μm, Herschel 250-μm, and Herschel 250-μm spatially filtered to mimic the SCUBA-2 data. SCUBA-2 detects only the highest-surface-brightness sources, principally detecting protostellar sources and starless cores embedded in filaments, while Herschel is sensitive to most of the cloud structure, including extended low-surface-brightness emission. Herschel detects considerably more sources than SCUBA-2 even after spatial filtering. We investigate which properties of a starless core detected by Herschel determine its detectability by SCUBA-2, and find that they are the core's temperature and column density (for given dust properties). For similar-temperature cores, such as those seen in L1495, the surface brightnesses of the cores are determined by their column densities, with the highest-column-density cores being detected by SCUBA-2. For roughly spherical geometries, column density corresponds to volume density, and so SCUBA-2 selects the densest cores from a population at a given temperature. This selection effect, which we quantify as a function of distance, makes SCUBA-2 ideal for identifying those cores in Herschel catalogues that are closest to forming stars. Our results can now be used by anyone wishing to use the SCUBA-2 GBS data set.

  14. The JCMT and Herschel Gould Belt Surveys: a comparison of SCUBA-2 and Herschel data of dense cores in the Taurus dark cloud L1495

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward-Thompson, D.; Pattle, K.; Kirk, J. M.; Marsh, K.; Buckle, J.; Hatchell, J.; Nutter, D. J.; Griffin, M. J.; Di Francesco, J.; André, P.; Beaulieu, S.; Berry, D.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Mottram, J.; Pineda, J.; Quinn, C.; Sadavoy, S.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; White, G.; Hill, T.; Könyves, V.; Palmeirim, P.; Pezzuto, S.

    2016-11-01

    We present a comparison of Submillimetre Common User Bolometer Array-2 (SCUBA-2) 850-μm and Herschel 70-500-μm observations of the L1495 filament in the Taurus Molecular Cloud with the goal of characterizing the SCUBA-2 Gould Belt Survey (GBS) data set. We identify and characterize starless cores in three data sets: SCUBA-2 850-μm, Herschel 250-μm, and Herschel 250-μm spatially filtered to mimic the SCUBA-2 data. SCUBA-2 detects only the highest-surface-brightness sources, principally detecting protostellar sources and starless cores embedded in filaments, while Herschel is sensitive to most of the cloud structure, including extended low-surface-brightness emission. Herschel detects considerably more sources than SCUBA-2 even after spatial filtering. We investigate which properties of a starless core detected by Herschel determine its detectability by SCUBA-2, and find that they are the core's temperature and column density (for given dust properties). For similar-temperature cores, such as those seen in L1495, the surface brightnesses of the cores are determined by their column densities, with the highest-column-density cores being detected by SCUBA-2. For roughly spherical geometries, column density corresponds to volume density, and so SCUBA-2 selects the densest cores from a population at a given temperature. This selection effect, which we quantify as a function of distance, makes SCUBA-2 ideal for identifying those cores in Herschel catalogues that are closest to forming stars. Our results can now be used by anyone wishing to use the SCUBA-2 GBS data set.

  15. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: first results from the SCUBA-2 observations of the Ophiuchus molecular cloud and a virial analysis of its prestellar core population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattle, K.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Kirk, J. M.; White, G. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Buckle, J.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Kirk, H.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; Francesco, J. Di; Hogerheijde, M. R.; André, Ph.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Griffin, M. J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Knee, L. B. G.; Könyves, V.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Spinoglio, L.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present the first observations of the Ophiuchus molecular cloud performed as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey (GBS) with the SCUBA-2 instrument. We demonstrate methods for combining these data with previous HARP CO, Herschel, and IRAM N2H+ observations in order to accurately quantify the properties of the SCUBA-2 sources in Ophiuchus. We produce a catalogue of all of the sources found by SCUBA-2. We separate these into protostars and starless cores. We list all of the starless cores and perform a full virial analysis, including external pressure. This is the first time that external pressure has been included in this level of detail. We find that the majority of our cores are either bound or virialized. Gravitational energy and external pressure are on average of a similar order of magnitude, but with some variation from region to region. We find that cores in the Oph A region are gravitationally bound prestellar cores, while cores in the Oph C and E regions are pressure-confined. We determine that N2H+ is a good tracer of the bound material of prestellar cores, although we find some evidence for N2H+ freeze-out at the very highest core densities. We find that non-thermal linewidths decrease substantially between the gas traced by C18O and that traced by N2H+, indicating the dissipation of turbulence at higher densities. We find that the critical Bonnor-Ebert stability criterion is not a good indicator of the boundedness of our cores. We detect the pre-brown dwarf candidate Oph B-11 and find a flux density and mass consistent with previous work. We discuss regional variations in the nature of the cores and find further support for our previous hypothesis of a global evolutionary gradient across the cloud from south-west to north-east, indicating sequential star formation across the region.

  16. Ecological effects of the harvest phase of geoduck clam (Panopea generosa Gould, 1850) aquaculture on infaunal communities in southern Puget Sound, Washington USA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vanblaricom, Glenn R.; Eccles, Jennifer L.; Olden, Julian D.; Mcdonald, P. Sean

    2015-01-01

    Intertidal aquaculture for geoducks (Panopea generosa Gould, 1850) is expanding in southern Puget Sound, Washington, where gently sloping sandy beaches are used for field culture. Geoduck aquaculture contributes significantly to the regional economy, but has become controversial because of a range of unresolved questions involving potential biological impacts on marine ecosystems. From 2008 through 2012, the authors used a “before-after-control-impact” experimental design, emphasizing spatial scales comparable with those used by geoduck culturists to evaluate the effects of harvesting market-ready geoducks on associated benthic infaunal communities. Infauna were sampled at three different study locations in southern Puget Sound at monthly intervals before, during, and after harvests of clams, and along extralimital transects extending away from the edges of cultured plots to assess the effects of harvest activities in adjacent uncultured habitat. Using multivariate statistical approaches, strong seasonal and spatial signals in patterns of abundance were found, but there was scant evidence of effects on the community structure associated with geoduck harvest disturbances within cultured plots. Likewise, no indications of significant “spillover” effects of harvest on uncultured habitat adjacent to cultured plots were noted. Complementary univariate approaches revealed little evidence of harvest effects on infaunal biodiversity and indications of modest effects on populations of individual infaunal taxa. Of 10 common taxa analyzed, only three showed evidence of reduced densities, although minor, after harvests whereas the remaining seven taxa indicated either neutral responses to harvest disturbances or increased abundance either during or in the months after harvest events. It is suggested that a relatively active natural disturbance regime, including both small-scale and large-scale events that occur with comparable intensity but more frequently than

  17. Stephen's Second Birthday

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Catherine C.

    1977-01-01

    A mother relates the first 2 years of development and treatment of her son with cystic hygroma, a rare condition which affects the lymph glands and causes tumors in the neck, tongue, and in more serious cases, the lungs. (SBH)

  18. Hawking, Stephen W (1942-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Cosmologist and theoretical astrophysicist, born in Oxford, England, where he studied physics at University College. Moved to Cambridge to take up research in general relativity and cosmology, became Lucasian professor (an appointment earlier held by ISAAC NEWTON, with whom Hawking has been compared). Hawking worked to develop a valid mathematical treatment of the `singularities' in the theor...

  19. Unravelling dropsy: from Marcello Malpighi's discovery of the capillaries (1661) to Stephen Hales' production of oedema in an experimental model (1733).

    PubMed

    Andreae, L; Fine, L G

    1997-01-01

    A modern understanding of oedema formation traditionally begins with Starling's description in 1898 of hydrostatic and oncotic forces acting on the capillary membrane. Clearly, hypotheses of oedema formation predating the knowledge of the existence of capillaries must have been incomplete. Marcello Malpighi first described capillaries in 1661, but although he displayed a good grasp of the principles of the Harveian circulation and believed that oedema fluid (the clinical entity dropsy) was derived from the blood rather than the tissues, we have found no evidence that he realised the central role played by his discovery. However, only 60 years later, Stephen Hales' Haemastaticks reveals the creation of an experimental model for dropsy which led him towards an understanding of oedema formation not far behind Starling.

  20. The description of Centrorhynchus globirostris n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) from the pheasant crow, Centropus sinensis (Stephens) in Pakistan, with gene sequence analysis and emendation of the family diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Wilson, Eric; Keele, Brianna; Khan, Aly

    2015-06-01

    A new species of Centrorhynchus (Centrorhynchidae) with receptacle insertion at the posterior third of the proboscis is described from the pheasant crow Centropus sinensis (Stephens) (Cuculidae) in Pakistan. Centrorhynchu sglobirostris n. sp. is similar to the 98 other known species of Centrorhynchus Lühe, 1911 in having long cylindrical trunk with anterior dilation and transverse anastomoses of the secondary lacunar vessels. However, specimens of C. globirostris differ from all other species of the genus by having a unique globular proboscis not divided into anterior proboscis with rooted hooks and posterior proboscis with rootless spines. Posterior hooks of C. globirostris emerge at the level of the receptacle insertion and are uniquely fully rooted. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of C. globirostris 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes reveals the genetic and evolutionary relationships between C. globirostris and other members of Centrorhynchidae which have representative orthologs in public databases. Comparison to known acanthocephalans confirms appropriate inclusion in the genus Centrorhynchus. PMID:25804972

  1. Post-exposure temperature influence on the toxicity of conventional and new chemistry insecticides to green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Muhammad Mudassir; Afzal, Muhammad; Raza, Abu Bakar M; Akram, Zeeshan; Waqar, Adil; Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad

    2015-05-01

    Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) is an important biological control agent currently being used in many integrated pest management (IPM) programs to control insect pests. The effect of post-treatment temperature on insecticide toxicity of a spinosyn (spinosad), pyrethroid (lambda cyhalothrin), organophosphate (chlorpyrifos) and new chemistry (acetamiprid) to C. carnea larvae was investigated under laboratory conditions. Temperature coefficients of each insecticide tested were evaluated. From 20 to 40 °C, toxicity of lambda cyhalothrin and spinosad decreased by 2.15- and 1.87-fold while toxicity of acetamiprid and chlorpyrifos increased by 2.00 and 1.79-fold, respectively. The study demonstrates that pesticide effectiveness may vary according to environmental conditions. In cropping systems where multiple insecticide products are used, attention should be given to temperature variation as a key factor in making pest management strategies safer for biological control agents. Insecticides with a negative temperature coefficient may play a constructive role to conserve C. carnea populations.

  2. Local knowledge, environmental politics, and the founding of ecology in the United States. Stephen Forbes and "The Lake as a Microcosm" (1887).

    PubMed

    Schneider, D W

    2000-12-01

    Stephen Forbes's "The Lake as a Microcosm" is one of the founding documents of the science of ecology in the United States. By tracing the connections between scientists and local fishermen underlying the research on floodplain lakes presented in "The Lake as a Microcosm," this essay shows how the birth of ecology was tied to local knowledge and the local politics of environmental transformation. Forbes and the other scientists of the Illinois Natural History Survey relied on fishermen for manual labor, expertise in catching fish, and knowledge of the natural history of the fishes. As Forbes and his colleagues worked in close contact with fishermen, they also adopted many of their political concerns over the privatization of the floodplain and became politically active in supporting their interests. The close connection between scientists and local knowledge forced the ecologists to reframe the boundaries of ecology as objective or political, pure or applied, local or scientific.

  3. Unravelling dropsy: from Marcello Malpighi's discovery of the capillaries (1661) to Stephen Hales' production of oedema in an experimental model (1733).

    PubMed

    Andreae, L; Fine, L G

    1997-01-01

    A modern understanding of oedema formation traditionally begins with Starling's description in 1898 of hydrostatic and oncotic forces acting on the capillary membrane. Clearly, hypotheses of oedema formation predating the knowledge of the existence of capillaries must have been incomplete. Marcello Malpighi first described capillaries in 1661, but although he displayed a good grasp of the principles of the Harveian circulation and believed that oedema fluid (the clinical entity dropsy) was derived from the blood rather than the tissues, we have found no evidence that he realised the central role played by his discovery. However, only 60 years later, Stephen Hales' Haemastaticks reveals the creation of an experimental model for dropsy which led him towards an understanding of oedema formation not far behind Starling. PMID:9189256

  4. The description of Centrorhynchus globirostris n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) from the pheasant crow, Centropus sinensis (Stephens) in Pakistan, with gene sequence analysis and emendation of the family diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Wilson, Eric; Keele, Brianna; Khan, Aly

    2015-06-01

    A new species of Centrorhynchus (Centrorhynchidae) with receptacle insertion at the posterior third of the proboscis is described from the pheasant crow Centropus sinensis (Stephens) (Cuculidae) in Pakistan. Centrorhynchu sglobirostris n. sp. is similar to the 98 other known species of Centrorhynchus Lühe, 1911 in having long cylindrical trunk with anterior dilation and transverse anastomoses of the secondary lacunar vessels. However, specimens of C. globirostris differ from all other species of the genus by having a unique globular proboscis not divided into anterior proboscis with rooted hooks and posterior proboscis with rootless spines. Posterior hooks of C. globirostris emerge at the level of the receptacle insertion and are uniquely fully rooted. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of C. globirostris 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes reveals the genetic and evolutionary relationships between C. globirostris and other members of Centrorhynchidae which have representative orthologs in public databases. Comparison to known acanthocephalans confirms appropriate inclusion in the genus Centrorhynchus.

  5. "The Role of the Unit in Physics and Psychometrics" by Stephen Humphry--One Small Step for the Rasch Model, but Possibly One Giant Leap for Measurement in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzberger, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Compared to traditional test theory, where person measures are typically referenced to the distribution of a population, item response theory allows for a much more meaningful interpretation of measures as they can be directly compared to item locations. However, Stephen Humphry shows that the crucial role of the unit of measurement has been…

  6. Post-exposure temperature influence on the toxicity of conventional and new chemistry insecticides to green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Muhammad Mudassir; Afzal, Muhammad; Raza, Abu Bakar M; Akram, Zeeshan; Waqar, Adil; Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad

    2015-05-01

    Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) is an important biological control agent currently being used in many integrated pest management (IPM) programs to control insect pests. The effect of post-treatment temperature on insecticide toxicity of a spinosyn (spinosad), pyrethroid (lambda cyhalothrin), organophosphate (chlorpyrifos) and new chemistry (acetamiprid) to C. carnea larvae was investigated under laboratory conditions. Temperature coefficients of each insecticide tested were evaluated. From 20 to 40 °C, toxicity of lambda cyhalothrin and spinosad decreased by 2.15- and 1.87-fold while toxicity of acetamiprid and chlorpyrifos increased by 2.00 and 1.79-fold, respectively. The study demonstrates that pesticide effectiveness may vary according to environmental conditions. In cropping systems where multiple insecticide products are used, attention should be given to temperature variation as a key factor in making pest management strategies safer for biological control agents. Insecticides with a negative temperature coefficient may play a constructive role to conserve C. carnea populations. PMID:25972753

  7. Post-exposure temperature influence on the toxicity of conventional and new chemistry insecticides to green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mansoor, Muhammad Mudassir; Afzal, Muhammad; Raza, Abu Bakar M.; Akram, Zeeshan; Waqar, Adil; Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad

    2014-01-01

    Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) is an important biological control agent currently being used in many integrated pest management (IPM) programs to control insect pests. The effect of post-treatment temperature on insecticide toxicity of a spinosyn (spinosad), pyrethroid (lambda cyhalothrin), organophosphate (chlorpyrifos) and new chemistry (acetamiprid) to C. carnea larvae was investigated under laboratory conditions. Temperature coefficients of each insecticide tested were evaluated. From 20 to 40 °C, toxicity of lambda cyhalothrin and spinosad decreased by 2.15- and 1.87-fold while toxicity of acetamiprid and chlorpyrifos increased by 2.00 and 1.79-fold, respectively. The study demonstrates that pesticide effectiveness may vary according to environmental conditions. In cropping systems where multiple insecticide products are used, attention should be given to temperature variation as a key factor in making pest management strategies safer for biological control agents. Insecticides with a negative temperature coefficient may play a constructive role to conserve C. carnea populations. PMID:25972753

  8. My Most Memorable AAS Meeting, or How Stephen Hawking's Chauffeur and Chubby Wise's Fiddle Are Related to the Hubble Deep Field (At Least In My Mind and Experience!)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, R. A.

    1999-05-01

    Sometimes, in the most extraordinary conditions and times, strange things happen which remind us of just how small a world we really inhabit, and how so many varied things may suddenly be juxtaposed in our lives, and in the lives of others. My most memorable AAS meeting involves not only the meeting but events while getting there. It was January 1996, and we had just finished our observations and initial data reduction of the Hubble Deep Field, the members of the HDF working group doggedly coming in to the STScI by various means over the December holidays and the New Year, in the midst of several blizzards which even closed STScI for a number of days. Not surprisingly, work on the HDF AAS presentations was ongoing until the last minute, until people left snowy Baltimore for sunny San Antonio. My street was plowed for the first time in a week a few hours before my 6AM flight, so after digging out my car, with no time for sleep, between 3AM and 6AM on the morning I left, I soon discovered my own surprising connections between Stephen Hawking's chauffeur, Chubby Wise's fiddle, and the Hubble Deep Field. I'll elaborate in this paper if you're curious!

  9. Interview with Jay O'Callahan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Don

    2008-01-01

    Usually stories have elements of risk, trouble, challenge, adventure. These elements are universal because they're part of life. A story gets exciting when someone takes a risk. With risk there's tension and with tension there's energy, and the energy draws us into who the story. NASA's work involves great risk. Sometimes, as with Challenger and Columbia, the result is tragedy. I had a sense the astronauts were invulnerable. They were so well trained, and the engineers behind them were superb. Nothing was going to go wrong. That's one of the reasons the Challenger crew's death moved people so deeply. Christa McAuliffe was not an engineer; she was a teacher and she died, and the whole space enterprise became very human. The Challenger lifted off and in seventy-three seconds the Space Shuttle disintegrated. Seventy-three seconds. That's a day I'll remember, like the day of Kennedy's death. The danger was there, but we were lulled into thinking the space flight was routine. My firm: job would be to talk with MAS people-scientists, engineers, astronauts. I'm sure that underneath the whole NASA enterprise there is a sense of wonder. Perhaps science and myth are coming together in NASA. The myths of old were often stories about the sun, the stars, and the moon. Now with NASA, we're going out there. NASA is turning our eyes heavenward just as the ancients did.

  10. Meet the GPM Team: Jay Parker

    NASA Video Gallery

    It takes hundreds of designers, engineers and technicians to build the largest spacecraft ever assembled at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, the GPM Core Observatory. Check out a few of the team...

  11. Jay Carter Enterprises, Incorporated steam engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Small Community Solar Thermal Power Experiment (SCSE) selected an organic rankine cycle (ORC) engine driving a high speed permanent magnet alternator (PMA) as the baseline power conversion subsystem (PCS) design. The back-up conceptual PCS design is a steam engine driving an induction alternator delivering power directly to the grid. The development of the automotive reciprocating simple rankine cycle steam engine and how an engine of similar design might be incorporated into the SCSE is discussed. A description of the third generation automotive engine is included along with some preliminary test data. Tests were conducted with the third generation engine driving an induction alternator delivering power directly to the grid. The purpose of these tests is to further verify the effects of expander inlet temperature, input thermal power level, expansion ratio, and other parameters affecting engine performance to aid in the development of an SCSE PCS.

  12. Seeing Jay-Z in Taipei.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hua

    2011-01-01

    How does the newly arrived immigrant respond to the news that an identity already awaits him? How does an African American hip-hop artist translate his struggles and triumphs across oceanic divides? What significance do American demographic shifts have in a global context? Hsu's essay examines what happens once individuals or identities migrate beyond the contexts that first produced them. He explores a variety of circuits: the satellite communities of Asian immigrant students who arrived on American university campuses in the late 1960s; enduring debates about a "post-city" identity, spurred by advances in cheap, efficient, world-shrinking communication technologies; and the new affinities and categories of self-identification made possible by a present-day culture that prizes interactivity and participation. PMID:21473166

  13. Use of organic petrology in sequence stratigraphic interpretations: Example from the Eocene-Oligocene boundary section, St. Stephens Quarry, Washington County, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Pasley, M.A.; Hazel, J.E. )

    1990-09-01

    The type and preservation of organic matter is related to the depositional systems tract in which the sediments were deposited. Shelf sediments in the transgressive systems tract contain sparse, highly degraded phytoclasts whereas organic matter in the highstand systems tract is dominated by well-preserved phytoclasts introduced to the shelf during progradation. Because of this relationship, integration of data from organic petrology with sedimentologic and biostratigraphic results provides greater resolution in locating critical surfaces (sequence boundaries, transgressive surfaces, and surfaces of maximum starvation) that bound depositional systems tracts within the depositional sequence. The Eocene Oligocene shelf sediments exposed in St. Stephens Quarry provide an excellent example of the relationship between depositional systems tract and organic matter deposition. Deposition of the Shubuta Clay in the transgressive systems tract terminated with the surface of maximum starvation. This surface is marked by a thin (<2 cm), laterally extensive, phosphate-rich shell lag that contains only minor amounts of highly degraded phytoclasts. Graphic correlation of biostratigraphic data reveals a marine hiatus (120,000 years) within the shell lag. Deposition in the subsequent highstand systems tract resulted in an increase in well-preserved phytoclasts in the overlying Bumpnose Limestone and Red Bluff Clay. A transgressive surface forms the contact between the Red Bluff Clay and the Mint Springs Marl. Phytoclasts are less common and more degraded in the Mint Springs above the transgressive surface than in the Red Bluff below. No hiatus is observed at this surface, suggesting that the type 2 sequence boundary is conformable at this section and may exist in the Red Bluff below the transgressive surface. This integrated approach confirms and refines previous sequence stratigraphic work performed on this important Gulf Coast section.

  14. Toward a general theory of adaptive radiation: insights from microbial experimental evolution.

    PubMed

    Kassen, Rees

    2009-06-01

    The history of life has been punctuated by unusually spectacular periods of evolutionary diversification called adaptive radiation. Darwin's finches in the Galapagos, cichlid fishes in African Rift and Nicaraguan crater lakes, and the emergence of mammals at the end of the Cretaceous are hallmark examples. Although we have learned much from these and other case studies about the mechanisms thought to drive adaptive radiations, convincing experimental tests of theory are often lacking for the simple reason that it is usually impossible to "rewind the tape of life," as Stephen Jay Gould was fond of saying, and run it again. This situation has changed dramatically in recent years with the increasing emphasis on the use of microbial populations which, because of their small size and rapid generation times, make possible the construction of replicated, manipulative experiments to study evolution in the laboratory. Here I review the contributions that microbial experimental evolution has made to our understanding of the ecological and genetic mechanisms underlying adaptive radiation. I focus on three major gaps in the theory of adaptive radiation--the paucity of direct tests of mechanism, the genetics of diversification, and the limits and constraints on the progress of radiations--with the aim of pointing the way toward the development of a more general theory of adaptive radiation.

  15. Synthetic biology: a challenge to mechanical explanations in biology?

    PubMed

    Morange, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In their plans to modify organisms, synthetic biologists have contrasted engineering and tinkering. By drawing this contrast between their endeavors and what has happened during the evolution of organisms by natural selection, they underline the novelty of their projects and justify their ambitions. Synthetic biologists are at odds with a long tradition that has considered organisms as "perfect machines." This tradition had already been questioned by Stephen Jay Gould in the 1970s and received a major blow with the comparison made by François Jacob between organisms and the results of "bricolage" (tinkering). These contrasts between engineering and tinkering, synthetic biology and evolution, have no raison d'être. Machines built by humans are increasingly inspired by observations made on organisms. This is not a simple reversal of the previous trend-the mechanical conception of organisms-in which the characteristics of the latter were explained by comparison with human-built machines. Relations between organisms and machines have always been complex and ambiguous.

  16. French tradition and the rise of Evo-devo.

    PubMed

    Morange, Michel

    2007-12-01

    The limited value most French biologists attributed to Darwinism and Mendelism in the first half of the twentieth century, and their conviction that these theories were at best insufficient to explain evolution and development, probably created conditions propitious to the development of Evo-devo at the end of the century. The separation between embryology and evolution did not exist in French biology as it did in American genetics: explanations for these two phenomena were sought equally in the "organization" of the egg. The major contribution of French biologists to Evo-devo was clearly the invention of the notion of the regulatory gene by Jacob and Monod; not the operon model per se, but the introduction of a hierarchy between two different kinds of genes. The consequence, the rise of the developmental gene concept, was not immediate, and required the active role of other biologists such as Antonio Garcia-Bellido, Allan Wilson and Stephen Jay Gould. Various obstacles had to be overcome for this concept of developmental gene to be fully accepted.

  17. Antievolutionism in the Antipodes: from protesting evolution to promoting creationism in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Numbers, R L; Stenhouse, J

    2000-09-01

    Like other English-speaking peoples around the world, New Zealanders began debating Darwinism in the early 1860s, shortly after the publication of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species. Despite the opposition of some religious and political leaders - and even the odd scientist - biological evolution made deep inroads in a culture that increasingly identified itself as secular. The introduction of pro-evolution curricula and radio broadcasts provoked occasional antievolution outbursts, but creationism remained more an object of ridicule than a threat until the last decades of the twentieth century, when first American and then Australian creationists began fomenting antievolutionism among New Zealanders. Although Stephen Jay Gould assured them in 1986 that they had little to fear from so-called scientific creationism, because it was a 'peculiarly American' phenomenon, scientific creationism by the mid-1990s had captured the allegiance of an estimated five per cent of the country and proved especially attractive to Maori and Pacific Islanders. In 1992 New Zealand creationists formed their own antievolution society, Creation Science (NZ). PMID:11624666

  18. Antievolutionism in the Antipodes: from protesting evolution to promoting creationism in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Numbers, R L; Stenhouse, J

    2000-09-01

    Like other English-speaking peoples around the world, New Zealanders began debating Darwinism in the early 1860s, shortly after the publication of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species. Despite the opposition of some religious and political leaders - and even the odd scientist - biological evolution made deep inroads in a culture that increasingly identified itself as secular. The introduction of pro-evolution curricula and radio broadcasts provoked occasional antievolution outbursts, but creationism remained more an object of ridicule than a threat until the last decades of the twentieth century, when first American and then Australian creationists began fomenting antievolutionism among New Zealanders. Although Stephen Jay Gould assured them in 1986 that they had little to fear from so-called scientific creationism, because it was a 'peculiarly American' phenomenon, scientific creationism by the mid-1990s had captured the allegiance of an estimated five per cent of the country and proved especially attractive to Maori and Pacific Islanders. In 1992 New Zealand creationists formed their own antievolution society, Creation Science (NZ).

  19. Franz Samelson (1923-2015).

    PubMed

    Harris, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Franz Samelson, social psychologist and historian of psychology, died in Manhattan, Kansas, on March 16, 2015. Franz joined the Psychology Department at Kansas State University (KSU) in 1957 and rose through the ranks to retire as Professor in 1990. At KSU he taught social psychology informed by his dislike of narrow empiricism and a growing interest in historical topics. The history of social psychology, Franz believed, was distorted by post-World War II desires for value-free empiricism. Gordon Allport, he showed, created an origin myth for the field that suited his values, obscuring the ideological diversity of his predecessors. Turning to intelligence and intelligence testing, Franz's research again altered the scholarly landscape. Although it was long believed that psychologists' testing in World War I demonstrated the usefulness of their young science, Franz revealed this to be another disciplinary myth. Next, Franz showed that a popular history of IQ testing (Stephen Jay Gould's Mismeasure of Man) was distorted by the author's liberal enthusiasm-again showing his willingness to take on the political left as well as the right.

  20. Franz Samelson (1923-2015).

    PubMed

    Harris, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Franz Samelson, social psychologist and historian of psychology, died in Manhattan, Kansas, on March 16, 2015. Franz joined the Psychology Department at Kansas State University (KSU) in 1957 and rose through the ranks to retire as Professor in 1990. At KSU he taught social psychology informed by his dislike of narrow empiricism and a growing interest in historical topics. The history of social psychology, Franz believed, was distorted by post-World War II desires for value-free empiricism. Gordon Allport, he showed, created an origin myth for the field that suited his values, obscuring the ideological diversity of his predecessors. Turning to intelligence and intelligence testing, Franz's research again altered the scholarly landscape. Although it was long believed that psychologists' testing in World War I demonstrated the usefulness of their young science, Franz revealed this to be another disciplinary myth. Next, Franz showed that a popular history of IQ testing (Stephen Jay Gould's Mismeasure of Man) was distorted by the author's liberal enthusiasm-again showing his willingness to take on the political left as well as the right. PMID:26766769

  1. An Interview with Stephen King.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janeczko, Paul

    1980-01-01

    The author of five best-selling novels, including "Carrie,""Salem's Lot,""The Shining,""The Stand," and "The Dead Zone," discusses the teaching of creative writing at high school and college levels. (DF)

  2. Ultrastructure and molecular characterization of the microsporidium, Nosema chrysoperlae sp. nov., from the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) used for biological pest control.

    PubMed

    Bjørnson, S; Steele, T; Hu, Q; Ellis, B; Saito, T

    2013-09-01

    Lacewing larvae are generalist predators that are commercially available for aphid control on a variety of crops in both Europe and North America. Although lacewings are known for their symbiotic association with yeasts and bacteria, there are few reports of microsporidia in these natural enemies. An undescribed microsporidium was found in Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) during the routine examination of specimens that were obtained from a commercial insectary for biological pest control. The objective of this study was to describe the pathogen by means of ultrastructure, molecular characterization and tissue pathology. All stages of the microsporidium were diplokaryotic and developed in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm. Merogony and sporogony were not observed. Mature spores measured 3.49±0.10×1.52±0.05μm and had an isofilar polar filament with 8-10 coils that were frequently arranged in a single row, although double rows were also observed. Spores contained a lamellar polaroplast and a relatively small and inconspicuous polar vacuole was observed in the posterior region of about half of the spores that were examined. Tubular structures, similar in appearance to those in Nosema granulosis were observed in both sporonts and in spores. A cluster of small tubules was also observed in the posterior region of some spores. Microsporidian spores were observed in cells of the proventriculus, diverticulum and in epithelial cells of the posterior midgut. The Malpighian tubules, ileum, and rectum were heavily infected. Spores were also observed in the fat body, peripheral region of the ganglia, within and between the flight muscles, and beneath the cuticle. Although the tissues adjacent to the ovaries were heavily infected, microsporidian spores were not observed within the developing eggs. Pathogen transmission was not studied directly because it was difficult to maintain microsporidia-infected C. carnea in the laboratory. The presence of microsporidian spores

  3. ‘Primum non nocere’: A review of Taking America off Drugs: Why Behavioral Therapy is More Effective for Treating ADHD, OCD, Depression and Other Psychological Problems by Stephen Ray Flora

    PubMed Central

    van Haaren, Frans

    2009-01-01

    Taking America off Drugs by Stephen Ray Flora provides an overview of effective behavioral interventions to treat a variety of mental health concerns, including depression and phobias. These disorders are better treated with behavioral than psychopharmacological interventions. Yet, the latter prevail in today's society. Taking America off Drugs provides the background to help us understand why, as it puts the treatment of behavioral disorders in the context of modern psychiatry and its relationship with the pharmaceutical industry. This review provides an overview and critical evaluation of the book, but it also extends its context by discussing the history of the treatment of mental illness and practices of the pharmaceutical-medical complex and by offering an optimistic scenario by which psychopharmacological agents will ultimately be replaced by interventions based on the principles of applied behavior analysis. PMID:22477708

  4. Statement of Stephen S. Trott, Associate Attorney General, United States Department of Justice before the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control. House of Representatives concerning the Federal Government's Present and Future Efforts in Eradication, Interdiction, Law Enforcement, Education and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    Testimony of Associate Attorney General Stephen S. Trott on the federal government's present and future efforts in drug law enforcement before the Congressional Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control is presented in this document. Three topic areas are included in the testimony. The first topic of management initiatives discusses…

  5. Effects of pressure reductions in a proposed siphon water lift system at St. Stephen Dam, South Carolina, on mortality rates of juvenile American shad and blueback herring. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Nestler, J.M.; Schilt, C.R.; Jones, D.P.

    1998-09-01

    This report presents results of studies to predict the mortality rate of juvenile blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis) and American shad (A. sapidissima) associated with reduced pressure as they pass downstream through a proposed siphon water lift system at St. Stephen Dam, South Carolina. The primary function of the siphon is to increase attracting flow to better guide upstream migrating adult herring of both species into the existing fish lift for upstream passage. The US Army Engineer District, Charleston, wishes to consider the siphon as an alternative bypass route through the dam for downstream migrating juvenile and adult herring. A pressure-reduction testing system that emulates some of the pressure characteristics of the siphon was used to determine the approximate percentage of juvenile fishes that could be reasonably expected to be killed passing through the reduced pressures anticipated for the siphon water lift system. The testing system could duplicate the range of pressure change anticipated for the siphon lift system but could not obtain pressures lower than 4.1 psi, whereas pressures for some design alternatives may approach the theoretical minimum pressure of 0.0 psi. Study results indicate that the mortality rate is probably about 20 percent. Power analysis indicates that mortality rate above 30 percent is unlikely. Conducting additional mortality studies is recommended to refine predicted mortality rates. Measures should be taken to prevent juvenile fish from entering the siphon lift system if excessive mortality rates are observed.

  6. Book Review: The future of spacetime. Stephen William Hawking (ed.); Kip S. Thorne, Igor Novikov, Timothy Ferris, Alan Lightman, and Richard Price, W.W. Norton & Company, 2002, 224 pp., US 25.95, ISBN 0393020223

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeenk, Chris

    The study of Einstein's theory of general relativity experienced a renaissance beginning in the early 1960s. Prior to this resurgence of interest, general relativity was isolated from mainstream physics-admired for its elegance, perhaps, but only from a distance. The generation of students who risked their careers by entering this neglected field has now reached the age of festschrifts. In June of 2000, Caltech hosted "Kipfest," a conference in honor of Kip Thorne's 60th birthday. Thorne started graduate school at Princeton in 1962 and began research in general relativity under John Wheeler's guidance in the heady early days of the renaissance. Since then, he has played a prominent role in general relativity: as co-author of the influential textbook Gravitation, as a leader in research regarding astrophysical applications of Einstein's theory, and as a co-founder and chief advocate for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), to mention a few aspects of his far-reaching work. "Kipfest" included 14 speakers discussing fields to which Thorne has contributed. But the conference also reflected Thorne's long-standing commitment to communicating science to a general audience: Igor Novikov, Stephen Hawking, Timothy Ferris, and Alan Lightman gave popular talks at "Kipfest," with Thorne himself tricked into delivering a fifth. The Future of Spacetime gathers adaptations of these five lectures, along with a lengthy introductory essay by Richard Price.

  7. The Stephen H. Long Expedition (1819?1820), Titian R. Peale?s field illustrations, and the lost holotypes of the North American shrews Sorex brevicaudus Say and Sorex parvus Say (Mammalia: Soricidae) from the Philadelphia Museum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.

    2009-01-01

    While encamped for the winter of 1819?1820 at Engineer Cantonment along the Missouri River in present-day eastern Nebraska, members of Major Stephen Harriman Long?s Expedition to the Rocky Mountains collected a number of animals that were previously unknown. Among the mammals were two soricids that were subsequently described by Thomas Say as Sorex brevicaudus (Northern Short-tailed Shrew, Blarina brevicauda) and Sorex parvus (Least Shrew, Cryptotis parvus). The holotypes of these species were deposited and placed on public exhibit in the Philadelphia Museum, the predominant North American systematic collection of the early nineteenth century. Like most private museums of that era, the Philadelphia Museum eventually went out of business, and its collections were dispersed and, for the most part, lost. Fortunately, Titian R. Peale made a detailed field sketch of the two specimens soon after their capture and subsequently executed a watercolor based on that sketch. In addition, an engraving of the holotypes was published in the decade following the discovery of the two species. Illustrations of holotypes are taxonomically useful when they depict diagnostic characters of species. They take on added taxonomic significance in the absence of the holotypes. In the cases of Sorex brevicaudus and Sorex parvus, pictures provide strong confirmation of the taxonomic identities of these two species, as well as recording the early history of the specimens.

  8. Goethe's phenomenology of nature: a juvenilization of science.

    PubMed

    Skaftnesmo, Trond

    2009-01-01

    Empirical science is not a mere collection of facts. It builds theories and frames hypotheses within those theories. Empirical theories are stated as plausible answers to questions we pose to nature. According to the Galilean-Baconian tradition within science, these questions should basically explore the causes of observed phenomena, and further be restricted to the measurable and quantitative realm. Thus, the answers are generally expected to explain the effective causes behind the actual phenomena. By framing falsifiable hypotheses, the theories are tested against the empirical foundation on which they rest. In this way we try to relieve science from false theories. Thus, we have two epistemological levels: First, the theoretical level; the scientific theory explaining the phenomena, and second, the empirical level; the phenomena or facts verifying or falsifying those theories. According to the poet and multi-scientist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), there is however another way of science, namely an approach where these two levels fuse and become one. Goethe intended this approach to be a complementation of the Galilean-Baconian method, more than an alternative. He considered his "hypothesis-free method" to be a more comprehensive and secure way to understand nature. Whereas the Galilean-Baconian method aimed at explaining the effective causes of natural phenomena, in order to control and exploit nature for technical and industrial purposes, Goethe aimed at an exposition of the inherent meaning of the phenomena.We will explore, exemplify and discuss this approach with reference to the inherently Goethean phenomenology of evolution credited to the Dutch anatomist Louis Bolk (1866-1930), later commented and complemented by Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002) and Jos Verhulst (1949 ). In the course of this presentation we will outline the Goethean approach as a method representing a juvenilization or in Bolk's terms, a fetalization of science.

  9. Spanish flu and early 20th-century expansion of a coronary heart disease-prone subpopulation.

    PubMed

    Azambuja, Maria Inês Reinert

    2004-01-01

    According to Stephen Jay Gould, "we have a strong preference for seeing trends as entities moving somewhere." However, trends may instead be the product of relative expansions and contractions of different subpopulations constituting the system. Variation in attributes of coronary heart disease cases during the decline in coronary heart disease mortality suggests a change in the primary source-subpopulation of cases over time. It is proposed that an early 20th-century expansion of a coronary heart disease-prone subpopulation, characterized by high serum-cholesterol phenotype and high case-fatality--which contributed to most of the coronary heart disease cases and deaths during the 1960s--may have been a late result of the 1918 influenza pandemic. The same unusual immune response to infection that in 1918 killed preferentially men, whites, and those born from 1880 to 1900 (20-40 years old) may have "primed" survivors of those birth cohorts to late coronary heart disease mortality. Ecologic evidence in favor of a birth cohort and geographic association between both epidemics is presented. Cross-reactive auto-immune response upon reinfection could explain the excess coronary heart disease deaths reported during influenza epidemics from the late 1920s onward. Mimicry between the viral hemagglutinin and the apolipoprotein B or the low-density lipoprotein receptor could be the link between infection and hypercholesterolemia. The extinction of those birth cohorts would result in a relative increase in cases coming from a 2nd subpopulation, which was characterized by insulin resistance and chronic expression of low-grade inflammation markers and was comparatively less vulnerable to die acutely from coronary heart disease.

  10. [The Roots of Idiographic Paleontology: Karl Alfred von Zittel's Methodology and Conception of the Fossil Record].

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Marco

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines Karl Alfred von Zittel’s practice in order to uncover the roots of so-called idiographic paleontology.The great American paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould (1941–2002) defined the discipline of idiographic paleontology as illustration and description of the morphological features of extinct species. However, this approach does not investigate macroevolutionary patterns and processes. On the contrary, the paleobiological revolution of the 1970s implemented an epistemic methodology that illustrates macrovelutionary patterns and laws by combining idiographic data with a nomothetic form of explanation. This article elucidates the features of the idiographic data as well as the acquired knowledge coupled with this approach. First of all, Heinrich G. Bronn’s (1800–1862) statistical method is analyzed. Zittel’s practice arose as a reaction against the approximate conclusions reached by Bronn’s quantitative approach. Second, the details of Zittel’s methodology are described in order to bring out its peculiarities.The microscope played a pivotal role in creating and forming Zittel’s morphological data. This analysis sheds new light on the reasons behind the so-called ideographic paleontology, thus revising Gould’s historical reconstruction, as well as on the notion of paleontological data. However, even though Zittel aimed at reaching precise and stable conclusions,his data cannot be used for elucidating evolutionary mechanisms: they are scientific in a purely descriptive sense, but completely useless for biological investigations. Finally, this paper examines how Zittel’s methodology affects the contemporary paleobiological enterprise and thereby reflects upon the notion of natural history.

  11. [The Roots of Idiographic Paleontology: Karl Alfred von Zittel's Methodology and Conception of the Fossil Record].

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Marco

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines Karl Alfred von Zittel’s practice in order to uncover the roots of so-called idiographic paleontology.The great American paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould (1941–2002) defined the discipline of idiographic paleontology as illustration and description of the morphological features of extinct species. However, this approach does not investigate macroevolutionary patterns and processes. On the contrary, the paleobiological revolution of the 1970s implemented an epistemic methodology that illustrates macrovelutionary patterns and laws by combining idiographic data with a nomothetic form of explanation. This article elucidates the features of the idiographic data as well as the acquired knowledge coupled with this approach. First of all, Heinrich G. Bronn’s (1800–1862) statistical method is analyzed. Zittel’s practice arose as a reaction against the approximate conclusions reached by Bronn’s quantitative approach. Second, the details of Zittel’s methodology are described in order to bring out its peculiarities.The microscope played a pivotal role in creating and forming Zittel’s morphological data. This analysis sheds new light on the reasons behind the so-called ideographic paleontology, thus revising Gould’s historical reconstruction, as well as on the notion of paleontological data. However, even though Zittel aimed at reaching precise and stable conclusions,his data cannot be used for elucidating evolutionary mechanisms: they are scientific in a purely descriptive sense, but completely useless for biological investigations. Finally, this paper examines how Zittel’s methodology affects the contemporary paleobiological enterprise and thereby reflects upon the notion of natural history. PMID:26507378

  12. IN MY OPINION: Is Physics debatable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    2000-01-01

    Stephen Jay Gould is, unfortunately, a palaeontologist. I write unfortunately because if he were a physicist we would all have benefited from his innumerable entertaining and informative essays [1]. His steady theme involves an obscure subject like palaeontology and why the subject links so strongly with the human condition. The key, of course, is evolution, and the light it sheds on what it means to be human. The new National Curriculum for England (and probably Wales) requires that pupils be taught: * how scientific controversies can arise from different ways of interpreting empirical evidence and models based on this evidence, and * ways in which scientific ideas may be affected by the context in which they develop, e.g. social, historical, moral and spiritual , and how these contexts may affect whether or not the ideas are accepted. Stephen Jay Gould produces an essay a month (in the US Natural History magazine) and so seems to have few problems in finding topics to write about that would fit well into one or both of the National Curriculum requirements. Good for biologists, but it doesn't seem to be so easy in physics. Admittedly Gould has to have recourse to a great number of historical cases - but he usually manages to link these with up-to-date issues. After all, he comes from a country where several states put `creation science' on a par with the Darwinian model of Earth history, so he has not only scope but need for encouraging some humane rationality. Can the history of physics provide such relevance? Does physics provide nice meaty controversies that might tempt the adolescent to think? We might be able to tell some stories with some level of drama, but it is hard for teachers to produce much enthusiasm in ordinary students at age 14 to 16 for controversies between Newton and Hooke, or Newton and Leibnitz (or Newton and most of his contemporaries, to be honest). They might be made to sympathize with Thomas Young, agonize over Boltzmann, celebrate with

  13. Stephen Marc: Photographer for Our Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Toni M. Shorter

    2012-01-01

    It is said that "a picture is worth a thousand words" as visual images can express complex and multilayered ideas. Sometimes photographic imagery is so strong and resonant of certain success, struggles, or events that it becomes key to a community or generation. As historic records, photographs are uniquely able to present not only success and…

  14. Stephen C. Woods: a precocious scientist.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gerard P

    2011-04-18

    To investigate the early scientific development of Steve Woods, I reviewed his research during the first decade after he received his doctoral degree in 1970. The main parts of his research program were conditioned insulin secretion and hypoglycemia, Pavlovian conditioning of insulin secretion before a scheduled access to food, and basal insulin as a negative-feedback signal from fat mass to the brain. These topics were pursued with experimental ingenuity; the resulting publications were interesting, clear, and rhetorically effective. Although the theoretical framework for his experiments with insulin was homeostatic, by the end of the decade he suggested that classic negative-feedback homeostasis needed to be revised to include learning acquired by lifestyle. Thus, Woods functioned as a mature scientist from the beginning of his research-he was very precocious. This precocity also characterized his teaching and mentoring as recalled by two of his students during that time, Joseph Vasselli and Paul Kulkosky. The most unusual and exemplary aspect of his precocity is that the outstanding performance of his first decade was maintained during the subsequent 30years.

  15. Stephen C. Woods: a precocious scientist.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gerard P

    2011-04-18

    To investigate the early scientific development of Steve Woods, I reviewed his research during the first decade after he received his doctoral degree in 1970. The main parts of his research program were conditioned insulin secretion and hypoglycemia, Pavlovian conditioning of insulin secretion before a scheduled access to food, and basal insulin as a negative-feedback signal from fat mass to the brain. These topics were pursued with experimental ingenuity; the resulting publications were interesting, clear, and rhetorically effective. Although the theoretical framework for his experiments with insulin was homeostatic, by the end of the decade he suggested that classic negative-feedback homeostasis needed to be revised to include learning acquired by lifestyle. Thus, Woods functioned as a mature scientist from the beginning of his research-he was very precocious. This precocity also characterized his teaching and mentoring as recalled by two of his students during that time, Joseph Vasselli and Paul Kulkosky. The most unusual and exemplary aspect of his precocity is that the outstanding performance of his first decade was maintained during the subsequent 30years. PMID:21232549

  16. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Jay Keasling: Biofuels

    ScienceCinema

    Jay Keasling

    2016-07-12

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  17. Teaching Difficult Students: Blue Jays in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnezda, Nicole M.

    2004-01-01

    Here is an easy-to-read and inspiring text that explores the nature of young people and the effects traditional discipline strategies have on them. The author recommends humanistic approaches that promote personal growth in students rather than the common system of reward and punishment that aggravates underlying psychological issues and…

  18. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Jay Keasling: Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Jay Keasling

    2010-02-16

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  19. Introduction to special issue: Robert Jay Kastenbaum (1932-2013).

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert; Klass, Dennis; Doka, Kenneth J; Kastenbaum, Beatrice

    The three pieces in this section introduce the Festschrift celebrating the works and influence of Omega: Journal of Death and Dying's founding editor, Robert Kastenbaum. Robert Fulton, an early Associate Editor of the Journal begins with some personal reflections on Kastenbaum. Klass and Doka then describe the nature of the Festschrift. A closing coda by Robert Kastenbaum's wife, Beatrice Kastenbaum, reminds us of the person behind the work. PMID:25351586

  20. Advising Jay: A Case Study Using a Situational Leadership Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerstrom, Alan C.

    2008-01-01

    Through a case study, I address the position that academic advising can be viewed as a developmental process. I present my specific experiences in applying Hersey and Blanchard's model of situational leadership (1969) during academic advising sessions. The model demonstrates that effective leadership is based on the appropriate balance of a…

  1. The system of molecular clouds in the Gould Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobylev, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    Based on high-latitude molecular clouds with highly accurate distance estimates taken from the literature, we have redetermined the parameters of their spatial orientation. This systemcan be approximated by a 350 × 235 × 140 pc ellipsoid inclined by the angle i = 17° ± 2° to the Galactic plane with the longitude of the ascending node l Ω = 337° ± 1°. Based on the radial velocities of the clouds, we have found their group velocity relative to the Sun to be ( u 0, v 0, w 0) = (10.6, 18.2, 6.8) ± (0.9, 1.7, 1.5) km s-1. The trajectory of the center of the molecular cloud system in the past in a time interval of ~60 Myr has been constructed. Using data on masers associated with low-mass protostars, we have calculated the space velocities of the molecular complexes in Orion, Taurus, Perseus, and Ophiuchus. Their motion in the past is shown to be not random.

  2. Morphological and AFLP variation of Elymus repens (L.) Gould (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Szczepaniak, Magdalena; Cieślak, Elzbieta; Bednarek, Piotr Tomasz

    2002-01-01

    Combined morphological and molecular techniques were used to characterize variation in Elymus repens. We studied the morphological variability of E. repens in relation to the degree of its genetic differentiation, in order to unravel the causes of conspicuous intraspecific morphological variation. Four populations of E. repens from different habitats were analyzed for 35 morphological characters, and their genetic differentiation was assessed by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP). Four pairs of selective primers were used to detect a total of 279 AFLP bands, of which 104 (37.28%) were polymorphic between populations. Cluster analysis based on AFLP fingerprint data showed that individuals were arranged in population-specific groups. The analyses of variance (ANOVA and AMOVA) indicated significant morphological and genetic differentiation among populations (P<0.01). This study revealed low levels of AFLP variation, which suggests that conspicuous morphological variation of E. repens is caused by plasticity. E. repens is an evolutionarily young species, of hybrid origin, in which microevolutionary processes continue. This study showed that common analysis of genetic diversity and morphology is a powerful tool in low-level taxonomy.

  3. Dealing with the Elephant in the Corner; or, You Can't Avoid Religion If You Want to Teach the History of Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J.

    2001-05-01

    Public expressions of the science and religion relationship are often that of conflict. In contrast many, if not most, Americans today privately hold that science and religion are, to use Stephen Jay Gould's phrase, "Non-overlapping Magisteria (NOMA);" that is, both may be valuable but they occupy fully separate and autonomous spheres of influence. This private view has contributed to the fact that efforts to guard public science education from the encroachment of anti-evolution interests have been argued largely on constitutional or "separation of church and state" grounds. As a consequence support within the religious communities for teaching the sciences of the history of nature has had little to do with those sciences themselves and instead has been based on political, namely first amendment, principles. In the past century historical studies of the science and religion relationship in Western culture indicate that the two have a much richer and more complex form of interaction than is recognized in the separatist or NOMA idea. It appears that the relationship is such that the scientific and the religious can not be effectively isolated (or insulated) from one another without both being distorted in some manner. This presentation will discuss how the development of the "Intelligent Design" movement represents a more profound challenge to public science education precisely because of its appeal to folk in religious communities that value both science and religion, and have an intuition of their more complex relationship. These are folk who are not religious "fundamentalists" or "biblical literalists," they do not expect that science must conform to religious doctrine. But they are open to so-called "scientific findings" that have apparent positive implications for their religious convictions. It will be argued that an effective response to the ID challenge in public science education will not be based primarily on a "separation of church and state" argument. It

  4. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 9 (JAYVT02420009) on Vermont Highway 242, crossing the Jay Branch of the Missisquoi River, Jay, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.; Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Contraction scour for all modelled flows ranged from 0.0 to 0.6 ft. The worst-case contraction scour occurred at the 100-year discharge. Abutment scour ranged from 0.8 to 5.6 ft. The worst-case abutment scour occurred at the 500-year discharge. Additional information on scour depths and depths to armoring are included in the section titled “Scour Results”. Scoured streambed elevations, based on the calculated scour depths, are presented in tables 1 and 2. A cross-section of the scour computed at the bridge is presented in figure 8. Scour depths were calculated assuming an infinite depth of erosive material and a homogeneous particle-size distribution. It is generally accepted that the Froehlich equation (abutment scour) gives “excessively conservative estimates of scour depths” (Richardson and others, 1995, p. 47). Usually, computed scour depths are evaluated in combination with other information including (but not limited to) historical performance during flood events, the geomorphic stability assessment, existing scour protection measures, and the results of the hydraulic analyses. Therefore, scour depths adopted by VTAOT may differ from the computed values documented herein.

  5. God's Turnstile: The Work of John Wheeler and Stephen Hawking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overbye, Dennis

    1991-01-01

    Presents an excerpt from the book entitled "Lonely Hearts of the Cosmos." Provides narration of behind-the-scenes events in the lives, the scientific debates, and the intellectual triumphs of the two physicists responsible for inventing the concept of the black hole. (JJK)

  6. Stephen Leacock Educational Complex for the Scarborough Board of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abram and Ingleson, Architects, Don Mills (Ontario).

    The first Canadian attempt to provide a comprehensive educational environment to satisfy the demands for "flexibility" in the educational continuum from kindergarten to grade 13 is discussed. The complex integrates three levels of learning into one campus, providing facilities for collegiate pupils, senior school students, and junior school…

  7. Reading Relationships: Parents, Adolescents, and Popular Fiction by Stephen King.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Kelly

    1999-01-01

    Describes a collective case study of 12 high school juniors who identified themselves as avid readers of popular fiction. Finds strong reading relationships between parents and high school students. Describes the different roles that parents played in their adolescent children's reading lives. Looks at implications for secondary English classrooms…

  8. Review of Stephen Arons's "Short Route to Chaos."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Charles L.

    1998-01-01

    "Short Route to Chaos" criticizes the Goals 2000 program, related educational reforms, and the agenda of the Religious Right from the viewpoint of the secular Left. Arons supports school choice, school and teacher independence from government regulation of instructional content, publicly funded schools, and equity in funding. (SLD)

  9. 76 FR 30947 - Stephen Lee Seldon: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... product marketed by Toxin Research International, Inc. (TRI-toxin) in treatments provided to patients at A... scheme, Dr. Seldon ordered and caused to be ordered 38 vials of TRI-toxin between October 2003 and... scheme, Dr. Seldon spoke at a seminar in Scottsdale, Arizona, in September 2004, sponsored by...

  10. Sex Pheromone of Agriotes acuminatus (Stephens, 1830) (Coleoptera: Elateridae).

    PubMed

    Tolasch, Till; von Fragstein, Maximilian; Steidle, Johannes L M

    2010-03-01

    The click beetle species Agriotes acuminatus is distributed in open deciduous forests throughout a large area in Europe. In order to identify its sex pheromone, gland extracts of female beetles were investigated by using GC/MS. Neryl butanoate and 2,6-dimethyl-(Z,E)-2,6-octadien-1,8-diol dihexanoate, in a ratio of approximately 1:5, were the only volatile compounds present in the extracts. Structures of both esters were confirmed by synthesis. Field experiments revealed a strong attraction of A. acuminatus males towards neryl butanoate, which could be synergistically enhanced by addition of 2,6-dimethyl-(Z,E)-2,6-octadien-1,8-diol dihexanoate. The latter compound alone did not show any attractive effect. While all Agriotes spp. investigated to date use geranyl and/or (E,E)-farnesyl esters as sex pheromones, the nerol derivatives of A. acuminatus are the first (Z)-2-configurated pheromones within this genus.

  11. Serendipity: translational research, high quality care, and the children's hospital. Jay and Margie Grosfeld Lecture.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Jessica J

    2014-01-01

    The word "serendipity" was coined by Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford, in a letter he wrote in January 1754. He defined serendipity as the making of "….discoveries, by accidents and sagacity, of things which [you] were not in quest of….you must observe that no discovery of a thing you are looking for comes under this description." I would like to make the case that a children's hospital can be a superb setting in which to attempt this feat-to generate Serendipity. I would also like to convince you that this attribute is absolutely essential to providing the very best care for children. PMID:24439574

  12. Orion: Exploration Flight Test-1 Animation (with narration by Jay Estes)

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the proposed test flight of the Orion spacecraft in 2014. During the test, which is called Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1), Orion will launch from Cape Canaveral, Fla., per...

  13. What is Radical Behaviorism? A Review of Jay Moore's Conceptual Foundations of Radical Behaviorism

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M

    2011-01-01

    B. F. Skinner founded both radical behaviorism and behavior analysis. His founding innovations included: a versatile preparation for studying behavior; explicating the generic nature of stimulus and response; a pragmatic criterion for defining behavioral units; response rate as a datum; the concept of stimulus control; the concept of verbal behavior; and explicating the explanatory power of contingencies. Besides these achievements, however, Skinner also made some mistakes. Subsequent developments in radical behaviorist thought have attempted to remedy these mistakes. Moore's book presents a “party line” version of radical behaviorism. It focuses narrowly on a few of Skinner's concepts (mostly mentalism and verbal behavior) and contains no criticism of his mistakes. In fact, Moore adds a few mistakes of his own manufacture; for example, he insists that the mental realm does not exist—an unprovable and distracting assertion. The book's portrayal of behavior analysis would have been current around 1960; it mentions almost none of the developments since then. It also includes almost no developments in radical behaviorism since Skinner. Moore's book would give an unwary reader a highly distorted picture of contemporary behavior analysis and radical behaviorism.

  14. Arrested Development: Revising Remediation at John Jay College of Criminal Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBeth, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Basic writing has played a large role in the history and institutional identity of the City University of New York (CUNY). From the Open Admissions era of Mina Shaughnessy to the present day, "remedial courses" at CUNY have been revised in response to different colleges' missions, curricular initiatives, university policies, and public opinion.…

  15. Music and eJay: An Opportunity for Creative Collaborations in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gall, Marina; Breeze, Nick

    2008-01-01

    This paper draws on results of a research project InterActive Education: Teaching and Learning in the Information Age (see www.interactiveeducation.ac.uk). The overall aim of the project was to examine ways in which new technologies can be used in educational settings to enhance learning. Research was carried out across a range of school subjects:…

  16. The insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP) superfamily.

    PubMed

    Hwa, V; Oh, Y; Rosenfeld, R G

    1999-12-01

    multiple names already associated with each IGFBP related protein, and reinforces the concept of a relationship with the IGFBPs. Beyond the N-terminal domain, there is a lack of structural similarity between the IGFBP-rPs and IGFBPs. The C-terminal domains do share similarities to other internal domains found in numerous other proteins. For example, the similarity of the IGFBP C terminus to the thyroglobulin type-I domain shows that the IGFBPs are also structurally related to numerous other proteins carrying the same domain (87). Interestingly, the functions of the different C-terminal domains in members of the IGFBP superfamily include interactions with the cell surface or ECM, suggesting that, even if they share little sequence similarities, the C-terminal domains may be functionally related. The evolutionary conservation of the N-terminal domain and functional studies support the notion that IGFBPs and IGFBP-rPs together form an IGFBP superfamily. A superfamily delineates between closely related (classified as a family) and distantly related proteins. The IGFBP superfamily is therefore composed of distantly related families. The modular nature of the constituents of the IGFBP superfamily, particularly their preservation of an highly conserved N-terminal domain, seems best explained by the process of exon shuffling of an ancestral gene encoding this domain. Over the course of evolution, some members evolved into high-affinity IGF binders and others into low-affinity IGF binders, thereby conferring on the IGFBP superfamily the ability to influence cell growth by both IGF-dependent and IGF-independent means (Fig. 10). A final word, from Stephen Jay Gould (218): "But classifications are not passive ordering devices in a world objectively divided into obvious categories. Taxonomies are human decisions imposed upon nature--theories about the causes of nature's order. The chronicle of historical changes in classification provides our finest insight into conceptual revolutions

  17. Is There Really A North American Plate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krill, A.

    2011-12-01

    elsewhere, such as S.J. Shand (1933), E.B. Bailey (1939), and Arthur Holmes (1944), presented continental drift as a working hypothesis that could elegantly solve important geological problems. Americans were preconditioned to dislike continental drift theory, ever since James Dwight Dana taught in his Manual of Geology (1863...1895) that North America was the type continent of the world, and that it had stood alone since earliest time. Such beliefs sometimes trump geologic evidence. As noted by Stephen Jay Gould (1999) Sigmund Freud had much insight into the psychology of scientific revolutions: they involve a scientific development that shows humans to have lesser status than previously perceived. In the Copernican revolution (geocentrism vs. heliocentrism) humans no longer inhabited the center of the universe. In the Darwinian revolution (creationism vs. evolutionism) humans were no longer uniquely created. In the Wegenerian revolution (fixism vs. mobilism) North America was no longer uniquely created; it was just other fragment from Pangaea. North American geologists were pleased when Press & Siever gave them their own lithospheric plate. Being a global-tectonic killjoy, I would like to take away that small consolation as well. Or at least pose the question: Is there really a North American Plate?

  18. At Home in the Universe - The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, Stuart

    1995-09-01

    basic insight of "order for free" to illuminate a staggering range of phenomena. We see how a single-celled embryo can grow to a highly complex organism with over two hundred different cell types. We learn how the science of complexity extends Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection: that self-organization, selection, and chance are the engines of the biosphere. And we gain insights into biotechnology, the stunning magic of the new frontier of genetic engineering--generating trillions of novel molecules to find new drugs, vaccines, enzymes, biosensors, and more. Indeed, Kauffman shows that ecosystems, economic systems, and even cultural systems may all evolve according to similar general laws, that tissues and terra cotta evolve in similar ways. And finally, there is a profoundly spiritual element to Kauffman's thought. If, as he argues, life were bound to arise, not as an incalculably improbable accident, but as an expected fulfillment of the natural order, then we truly are at home in the universe. Kauffman's earlier volume, The Origins of Order , written for specialists, received lavish praise. Stephen Jay Gould called it "a landmark and a classic." And Nobel Laureate Philip Anderson wrote that "there are few people in this world who ever ask the right questions of science, and they are the ones who affect its future most profoundly. Stuart Kauffman is one of these." In At Home in the Universe , this visionary thinker takes you along as he explores new insights into the nature of life.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radio pulsars multifrequency polarimetry (Gould+, 1998)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, D. M.; Lyne, A. G.

    2000-06-01

    Polarimetric observations of 300 pulsars have been conducted with the 76-m Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank at radio frequencies centred around 230, 400, 600, 920, 1400 and 1600MHz. More than half of the pulsars have no previously published polarization profiles and this compilation represents about three times the sum of all previously published pulsar polarization data. A selection of integrated polarization profiles is provided. Tables of pulse widths and the degree of both linear and circular polarization are given for all pulsars, and these act as an index for all the data, which are available by anonymous ftp in numerical and graphical form. (3 data files).

  20. THE GOULD's BELT VERY LARGE ARRAY SURVEY. I. THE OPHIUCHUS COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Torres, Rosa M.; Boden, Andrew F.; Hartmann, Lee; Evans, Neal J. II; Briceño, Cesar; Tobin, John

    2013-09-20

    We present large-scale (∼2000 arcmin{sup 2}), deep (∼20 μJy), high-resolution (∼1'') radio observations of the Ophiuchus star-forming complex obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at λ = 4 and 6 cm. In total, 189 sources were detected, 56 of them associated with known young stellar sources, and 4 with known extragalactic objects; the other 129 remain unclassified, but most of them are most probably background quasars. The vast majority of the young stars detected at radio wavelengths have spectral types K or M, although we also detect four objects of A/F/B types and two brown dwarf candidates. At least half of these young stars are non-thermal (gyrosynchrotron) sources, with active coronas characterized by high levels of variability, negative spectral indices, and (in some cases) significant circular polarization. As expected, there is a clear tendency for the fraction of non-thermal sources to increase from the younger (Class 0/I or flat spectrum) to the more evolved (Class III or weak line T Tauri) stars. The young stars detected both in X-rays and at radio wavelengths broadly follow a Güdel-Benz relation, but with a different normalization than the most radioactive types of stars. Finally, we detect a ∼70 mJy compact extragalactic source near the center of the Ophiuchus core, which should be used as gain calibrator for any future radio observations of this region.

  1. THE GOULD'S BELT VERY LARGE ARRAY SURVEY. IV. THE TAURUS-AURIGA COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Kounkel, Marina A.; Hartmann, Lee; Torres, Rosa M.; Boden, Andrew F.; Evans II, Neal J.; Briceño, Cesar; Tobin, John

    2015-03-10

    We present a multi-epoch radio study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming complex made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at frequencies of 4.5 GHz and 7.5 GHz. We detect a total of 610 sources, 59 of which are related to young stellar objects (YSOs) and 18 to field stars. The properties of 56% of the young stars are compatible with non-thermal radio emission. We also show that the radio emission of more evolved YSOs tends to be more non-thermal in origin and, in general, that their radio properties are compatible with those found in other star-forming regions. By comparing our results with previously reported X-ray observations, we notice that YSOs in Taurus-Auriga follow a Güdel-Benz relation with κ = 0.03, as we previously suggested for other regions of star formation. In general, YSOs in Taurus-Auriga and in all the previous studied regions seem to follow this relation with a dispersion of ∼1 dex. Finally, we propose that most of the remaining sources are related with extragalactic objects but provide a list of 46 unidentified radio sources whose radio properties are compatible with a YSO nature.

  2. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: constraints on prestellar core properties in Orion A North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salji, C. J.; Richer, J. S.; Buckle, J. V.; Hatchell, J.; Kirk, H.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; Francesco, J. Di; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Rawlings, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wilson, C. D.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-05-01

    We employ SCUBA-2 (Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2) observations of the Orion A North molecular cloud to derive column density and temperature maps. We apply a novel, Hessian-based structural identification algorithm for detection of prestellar cores to these data, allowing for automated generation of the prestellar mass function. The resulting mass function is observed to peak at 1.39^{+0.18}_{-0.19} M⊙, indicating a star-forming efficiency lower limit of ˜14 per cent when compared with the Orion nebula Cluster initial mass function (IMF) peak. Additionally, the prestellar mass function is observed to decay with a high-mass power-law exponent α =2.53^{+0.16}_{-0.14}, indicating approximate functional similarity with the Salpeter IMF (α = 2.35). This result, when combined with the results of previous investigations suggests a regional dependence of the star-forming efficiency.

  3. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Evidence for Dust Grain Evolution in Perseus Star-forming Clumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Michael Chun-Yuan; Di Francesco, J.; Johnstone, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Hatchell, J.; Mottram, J. C.; Kirk, H.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Pezzuto, S.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Schneider-Bontemps, N.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2016-07-01

    The dust emissivity spectral index, β, is a critical parameter for deriving the mass and temperature of star-forming structures and, consequently, their gravitational stability. The β value is dependent on various dust grain properties, such as size, porosity, and surface composition, and is expected to vary as dust grains evolve. Here we present β, dust temperature, and optical depth maps of the star-forming clumps in the Perseus Molecular Cloud determined from fitting spectral energy distributions to combined Herschel and JCMT observations in the 160, 250, 350, 500, and 850 μm bands. Most of the derived β and dust temperature values fall within the ranges of 1.0-2.7 and 8-20 K, respectively. In Perseus, we find the β distribution differs significantly from clump to clump, indicative of grain growth. Furthermore, we also see significant localized β variations within individual clumps and find low-β regions correlate with local temperature peaks, hinting at the possible origins of low-β grains. Throughout Perseus, we also see indications of heating from B stars and embedded protostars, as well evidence of outflows shaping the local landscape.

  4. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: properties of star-forming filaments in Orion A North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salji, C. J.; Richer, J. S.; Buckle, J. V.; Francesco, J. Di; Hatchell, J.; Hogerheijde, M.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Ward-Thompson, D.; JCMT GBS Consortium

    2015-05-01

    We develop and apply a Hessian-based filament detection algorithm to submillimetre continuum observations of Orion A North. The resultant filament radial density profiles are fitted with beam-convolved line-of-sight Plummer-profiles using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. The posterior distribution of the radial decay parameter demonstrates that the majority of filaments exhibit p = 1.5-3, with a mode at p = 2.2, suggesting deviation from the Ostriker p = 4 isothermal, equilibrium, self-gravitating cylinder. The spatial distribution of young stellar objects relative to the high column density filaments is investigated, yielding a lower limit on the star-forming age of the integral-shaped filament ˜1.4 Myr. Additionally, inferred lifetimes of filaments are examined which suggest long-term filament accretion, varying rates of star formation, or both. Theoretical filament stability measures are determined with the aid of HARP C18O J = 3-2 observations and indicate that the majority of filaments are gravitationally subcritical, despite the presence of young protostars. The results from this investigation are consistent with the one-dimensional accretion flow filament model recently observed in numerical simulations.

  5. THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF STARLESS AND PROTOSTELLAR CORES IN GOULD BELT CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Sadavoy, Sarah I.; Di Francesco, James; Bontemps, Sylvain; Megeath, S. Thomas; Allgaier, Erin; Rebull, Luisa M.; Carey, Sean; McCabe, Caer-Eve; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Padgett, Deborah; Gutermuth, Robert; Hora, Joe; Huard, Tracy; Muzerolle, James; Terebey, Susan

    2010-02-20

    Using data from the SCUBA Legacy Catalogue (850 {mu}m) and Spitzer Space Telescope (3.6-70 {mu}m), we explore dense cores in the Ophiuchus, Taurus, Perseus, Serpens, and Orion molecular clouds. We develop a new method to discriminate submillimeter cores found by Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) as starless or protostellar, using point source photometry from Spitzer wide field surveys. First, we identify infrared sources with red colors associated with embedded young stellar objects (YSOs). Second, we compare the positions of these YSO candidates to our submillimeter cores. With these identifications, we construct new, self-consistent starless and protostellar core mass functions (CMFs) for the five clouds. We find best-fit slopes to the high-mass end of the CMFs of -1.26 +- 0.20, -1.22 +- 0.06, -0.95 +- 0.20, and -1.67 +- 0.72 for Ophiuchus, Taurus, Perseus, and Orion, respectively. Broadly, these slopes are each consistent with the -1.35 power-law slope of the Salpeter initial mass function at higher masses, but suggest some differences. We examine a variety of trends between these CMF shapes and their parent cloud properties, potentially finding a correlation between the high-mass slope and core temperature. We also find a trend between core mass and effective size, but we are very limited by sensitivity. We make similar comparisons between core mass and size with visual extinction (for A{sub V} >= 3) and find no obvious trends. We also predict the numbers and mass distributions of cores that future surveys with SCUBA-2 may detect in each of these clouds.

  6. Climatic, biological, and strategic effects of nuclear war. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Natural Resources, Agriculture Research and Environment of the Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session, September 12, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    A panel of experts, including Carl Sagan, Jay Gould, and Edward Teller, testified along with climate and atmospheric science experts from the Soviet Union on the long-term effects of a nuclear war. The scientists warned that such an event could repeat the biological and climatic disruption that ended the age of dinosaurs 65 million years ago. The purpose of the hearing was to inform committee members about the nature and outcome of a nuclear winter. The scientists also described international research programs designed to ascertain these long-term effects. They pointed out that, while the effects of a single explosion are well known, little is known of overlapping effects from multiple explosions. Two appendices with additional material submitted for the record and additional questions and answers follows the testimony.

  7. 78 FR 18340 - The Neiman Marcus Group, Inc.; Dr.Jays.com, Inc., Eminent, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... permit the collection of public comments to consider and use in this proceeding as appropriate. The..., 2013. You can find more information, including routine uses permitted by the Privacy Act, in the... in mail, catalog, or Internet advertisements that the fur in any product is faux or fake...

  8. History repeats itself: genomic divergence in copepods.

    PubMed

    Renaut, Sébastien; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie

    2016-04-01

    Press stop, erase everything from now till some arbitrary time in the past and start recording life as it evolves once again. Would you see the same tape of life playing itself over and over, or would a different story unfold every time? The late Steven Jay Gould called this experiment replaying the tape of life and argued that any replay of the tape would lead evolution down a pathway radically different from the road actually taken (Gould 1989). This thought experiment has puzzled evolutionary biologists for a long time: how repeatable are evolutionary events? And if history does indeed repeat itself, what are the factors that may help us predict the path taken? A powerful means to address these questions at a small evolutionary scale is to study closely related populations that have evolved independently, under similar environmental conditions. This is precisely what Pereira et al. (2016) set out to do using marine copepods Tigriopus californicus, and present their results in this issue of Molecular Ecology. They show that evolution can be repeatable and even partly predictable, at least at the molecular level. As expected from theory, patterns of divergence were shaped by natural selection. At the same time, strong genetic drift due to small population sizes also constrained evolution down a similar evolutionary road, and probably contributed to repeatable patterns of genomic divergence. PMID:27012819

  9. Caveat Emptor: A De-Constructive Reading of the Stealth Metaphysics of Stephen R. Covey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Fenwick W.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the works of popular business and self-help gurus, focusing on the book The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. Argues that such works fail to meet minimal academic and research standards and questions their efficacy as instructional materials for educational-leadership training. (Contains 1 table and 54 references.) (WFA)

  10. A new species of the genus Acria Stephens, 1834 (Lepidoptera: Depressariidae: Acriinae) from India.

    PubMed

    Shashank, P R; Saravanan, L; Kalidas, P; Phanikumar, T; Ramamurthy, V V; Chandra Bose, N S

    2015-05-14

    A new species, Acria meyricki sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Depressariidae: Acriinae) occurring on oil palm, is described from India. The status and nomenclature of the genus is reviewed and an annotated checklist of species is given. A key to the seven species known so far from the Indian subcontinent is provided.

  11. A Commentary on "The Role of the Unit in Physics and Psychometrics" by Stephen Humphry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David

    2011-01-01

    This commentary examines the role of the unit from the perspective of the definition of measurement in physics as the ratio of two magnitudes, one of which is defined as the unit; it is an important and timely contribution to measurement in the social sciences. There are many different points that could be commented upon, but the author will…

  12. 75 FR 8742 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ..., ``. . . the bones of human beings are being found in almost every cart load of dirt . . .'' (Star News... marine shell beads and fragments; 1 fragmented marine shell pendant; 3 deer teeth; 9 pigment samples;...

  13. "...Separated by a Common Language": Reflections on Reading Tony Harland and Stephen Rowland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harland, Janice

    2011-01-01

    When the author writes, her intention is to inform readers and to invite debate and discussion (or at least individual reflection) that continues after the work has been read and put aside. As a scientist with an interest in education, the author now feels able to submit some writings to a non-science educational journal, such as "Teaching in…

  14. Want to Teach about SuperPACs? What We Can Learn from Stephen Colbert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of the SuperPACs in American politics is a major issue in the current election. SuperPACs, and the media campaigns they fund, also present a major challenge for media and democratic education. This article explores the issues surrounding SuperPACs and the rise of media in elections and politics in general, and presents some starting…

  15. 75 FR 49994 - James Stephen Ferguson, D.M.D.; Revocation of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Investigators searched his office, Respondent ``could not explain the fact that did not have a patient file'' on.... Burns, Board Administrator, Pennsylvania State Board of Dentistry, Bureau of Professional and Occupational Affairs. Therein, Ms. Burns stated that Respondent's license to practice dentistry in...

  16. Coaching Ourselves to Perform Multiplicity and Advocacy: A Response to Stephens and Mills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahnmann-Taylor, Melisa

    2014-01-01

    Cahnmann-Taylor draws on Boalian Theatre of the Oppressed to offer a practice for literacy teachers and coaches that can open up multiple perspectives and multiple levels of intentions and motivations for a teacher's decision making. She challenges coaches and teachers to engage in artistic examinations of multiplicity to move toward…

  17. Development of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) on pollen from Bt-transgenic and conventional maize.

    PubMed

    Meissle, Michael; Zünd, Jan; Waldburger, Mario; Romeis, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) pollen is highly nutritious and can be used by predatory arthropods to supplement or replace a carnivorous diet. We demonstrate that maize pollen can be utilized by larvae of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) under laboratory conditions. Complete development on maize pollen was not possible, but 25% of neonates reached the third instar. When only one instar was fed with pollen and the other two instars with eggs of Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), 58-87% of the larvae reached the pupal stage. The experiments included pollen produced by nine cultivars: three genetically modified (GM) cultivars expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis proteins Cry1Ab or Cry3Bb1, their corresponding non-transformed near-isolines, and three conventional cultivars. Maize cultivars were grown in two batches in a glasshouse. Their pollen differed by up to 59% in total protein content, 25% in C:N ratio, and 14% in grain diameter, but the differences were inconsistent and depended on the batch. Lacewing performance was not affected by maize cultivar. For environmental risk assessment of GM plants, in planta studies must consider the variability among conventional cultivars, individual plants, batches, and environmental conditions when evaluating the ecological significance of differences observed between GM and near-isolines. PMID:25082074

  18. The Science-Technology-Engineering-Mathematics (STEM) Initiative at Stephen F Austin State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruebel, Robert W.; Childs, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    The Texas statewide assessment of academic skills in 1997 indicated that >55 % of the student population failed to master the mathematics objectives set by the test criteria and 42 % of the mathematics teachers at the secondary level in the East Texas region were categorized as underqualified to teach mathematics at that level. The issue of…

  19. The Curriculum for Children with Severe and Profound Learning Difficulties at Stephen Hawking School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The increasing number of children with profound and multiple learning difficulties means that many schools for children with severe learning difficulties are having to review the curriculum that they offer. In addition, these schools are continuing to question whether a subject-based approach, in line with the National Curriculum, is the most…

  20. THE MOTT FOUNDATION CHILDREN'S HEALTH CENTER--THE WORLD OF STEPHEN SHAKER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint Board of Education, MI.

    THE C.S. MOTT FOUNDATION CHILDREN'S HEALTH CENTER WAS BUILT TO SERVE CHILDREN OF THOSE BORDERLINE FAMILIES WHOSE INCOMES PROHIBIT PRIVATE MEDICAL CARE YET MAKE THEM INELIGIBLE FOR DIRECT RELIEF OF ANY KIND. THE NEED FOR SUCH A CENTER WAS PROVED BY THE CHILDREN'S 18,000 VISITS ANNUALLY FOR HEALTH CARE. WHILE PROVIDING CARE FOR CHILDREN WAS THE MAIN…

  1. "Gulliver's Travels" by Alfred Silver with Music by Stephen Naylor. Cue Sheet for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterfall, Milde; Flynn, Rosalind, Ed.

    Designed to be used before and after attending a musical adaptation of Jonathan's Swift's "Gulliver's Travels" (performed by the Mermaid Theatre of Nova Scotia), this cue sheet presents information about the performance and suggests activities that can be done with classmates, friends, or family members. Beginning with an illustration of aspects…

  2. Extraordinary fossils reveal the nature of Cambrian life: a commentary on Whittington (1975) ‘The enigmatic animal Opabinia regalis, Middle Cambrian, Burgess Shale, British Columbia’

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Derek E. G.

    2015-01-01

    Harry Whittington's 1975 monograph on Opabinia was the first to highlight how some of the Burgess Shale animals differ markedly from those that populate today's oceans. Categorized by Stephen J. Gould as a ‘weird wonder’ (Wonderful life, 1989) Opabinia, together with other unusual Burgess Shale fossils, stimulated ongoing debates about the early evolution of the major animal groups and the nature of the Cambrian explosion. The subsequent discovery of a number of other exceptionally preserved fossil faunas of Cambrian and early Ordovician age has significantly augmented the information available on this critical interval in the history of life. Although Opabinia initially defied assignment to any group of modern animals, it is now interpreted as lying below anomalocaridids on the stem leading to the living arthropods. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750235

  3. Extraordinary fossils reveal the nature of Cambrian life: a commentary on Whittington (1975) 'The enigmatic animal Opabinia regalis, Middle Cambrian, Burgess Shale, British Columbia'.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Derek E G

    2015-04-19

    Harry Whittington's 1975 monograph on Opabinia was the first to highlight how some of the Burgess Shale animals differ markedly from those that populate today's oceans. Categorized by Stephen J. Gould as a 'weird wonder' (Wonderful life, 1989) Opabinia, together with other unusual Burgess Shale fossils, stimulated ongoing debates about the early evolution of the major animal groups and the nature of the Cambrian explosion. The subsequent discovery of a number of other exceptionally preserved fossil faunas of Cambrian and early Ordovician age has significantly augmented the information available on this critical interval in the history of life. Although Opabinia initially defied assignment to any group of modern animals, it is now interpreted as lying below anomalocaridids on the stem leading to the living arthropods. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  4. The W40 region in the gould belt: An embedded cluster and H II region at the junction of filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Samal, M. R.; Pirogov, L.

    2013-12-20

    We present a multiwavelength study of the W40 star-forming region using infrared (IR) observations in the UKIRT JHK bands, Spitzer Infrared Array Camera bands, and Herschel PACS bands, 2.12 μm H{sub 2} narrowband imaging, and radio continuum observations from GMRT (610 and 1280 MHz), in a field of view (FoV) of ∼34' × 40'. Archival Spitzer observations in conjunction with near-IR observations are used to identify 1162 Class II/III and 40 Class I sources in the FoV. The nearest-neighbor stellar surface density analysis shows that the majority of these young stellar objects (YSOs) constitute the embedded cluster centered on the high-mass source IRS 1A South. Some YSOs, predominantly the younger population, are distributed along and trace the filamentary structures at lower stellar surface density. The cluster radius is measured to be 0.44 pc—matching well with the extent of radio emission—with a peak density of 650 pc{sup –2}. The JHK data are used to map the extinction in the region, which is subsequently used to compute the cloud mass—126 M {sub ☉} and 71 M {sub ☉} for the central cluster and the northern IRS 5 region, respectively. H{sub 2} narrowband imaging shows significant emission, which prominently resembles fluorescent emission arising at the borders of dense regions. Radio continuum analysis shows that this region has a blister morphology, with the radio peak coinciding with a protostellar source. Free-free emission spectral energy distribution analysis is used to obtain physical parameters of the overall photoionized region and the IRS 5 sub-region. This multiwavelength scenario is suggestive of star formation having resulted from the merging of multiple filaments to form a hub. Star formation seems to have taken place in two successive epochs, with the first epoch traced by the central cluster and the high-mass star(s)—followed by a second epoch that is spreading into the filaments as uncovered by the Class I sources and even younger protostellar sources along the filaments. The IRS 5 H II region displays indications of swept-up material that has possibly led to the formation of protostars.

  5. Genetic, Ecological and Morphological Distinctness of the Blue Mussels Mytilus trossulus Gould and M. edulis L. in the White Sea.

    PubMed

    Katolikova, Marina; Khaitov, Vadim; Väinölä, Risto; Gantsevich, Michael; Strelkov, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Two blue mussel lineages of Pliocene origin, Mytilus edulis (ME) and M. trossulus (MT), co-occur and hybridize in several regions on the shores of the North Atlantic. The two species were distinguished from each other by molecular methods in the 1980s, and a large amount of comparative data on them has been accumulated since that time. However, while ME and MT are now routinely distinguished by various genetic markers, they tend to be overlooked in ecological studies since morphological characters for taxonomic identification have been lacking, and no consistent habitat differences between lineages have been reported. Surveying a recently discovered area of ME and MT co-occurrence in the White Sea and employing a set of allozyme markers for identification, we address the issue whether ME and MT are true biological species with distinct ecological characteristics or just virtual genetic entities with no matching morphological and ecological identities. We find that: (1) in the White Sea, the occurrence of MT is largely concentrated in harbors, in line with observations from other subarctic regions of Europe; (2) mixed populations of ME and MT are always dominated by purebred individuals, animals classified as hybrids constituting only ca. 18%; (3) in terms of shell morphology, 80% of MT bear a distinct uninterrupted dark prismatic strip under the ligament while 97% of ME lack this character; (4) at sites of sympatry MT is more common on algal substrates while ME mostly lives directly on the bottom. This segregation by the substrate may contribute to maintaining reproductive isolation and decreasing competition between taxa. We conclude that while ME and MT are not fully reproductively isolated, they do represent clearly distinguishable biological, ecological and morphological entities in the White Sea. It remains to be documented whether the observed morphological and ecological differences are of a local character, or whether they have simply been overlooked in other contact zones. PMID:27044013

  6. THE SPITZER SURVEY OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS IN THE GOULD BELT. III. A MULTI-WAVELENGTH VIEW OF CORONA AUSTRALIS

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Dawn E.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Forbrich, Jan; Patten, Brian M.; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Joergensen, Jes K.; Allen, Lori E.; Dunham, Michael M.; Harvey, Paul M.; Evans, Neal J.; MerIn, Bruno; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Cieza, Lucas A.; Huard, Tracy L.; Knez, Claudia; Prager, Brian

    2011-06-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC and MIPS observations of a 0.85 deg{sup 2} field including the Corona Australis (CrA) star-forming region. At a distance of 130 pc, CrA is one of the closest regions known to be actively forming stars, particularly within its embedded association, the Coronet. Using the Spitzer data, we identify 51 young stellar objects (YSOs) in CrA which include sources in the well-studied Coronet cluster as well as sources distributed throughout the molecular cloud. Twelve of the YSOs discussed are new candidates, one of which is located in the Coronet. Known YSOs retrieved from the literature are also added to the list, and a total of 116 candidate YSOs in CrA are compiled. Based on these YSO candidates, the star formation rate is computed to be 12 M{sub sun} Myr{sup -1}, similar to that of the Lupus clouds. A clustering analysis was also performed, finding that the main cluster core, consisting of 68 members, is elongated (having an aspect ratio of 2.36), with a circular radius of 0.59 pc and mean surface density of 150 pc{sup -2}. In addition, we analyze outflows and jets in CrA by means of new CO and H{sub 2} data. We present 1.3 mm interferometric continuum observations made with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) covering R CrA, IRS 5, IRS 7, and IRAS 18595-3712 (IRAS 32). We also present multi-epoch H{sub 2} maps and detect jets and outflows, study their proper motions, and identify exciting sources. The Spitzer and ISAAC/VLT observations of IRAS 32 show a bipolar precessing jet, which drives a CO(2-1) outflow detected in the SMA observations. There is also clear evidence for a parsec-scale precessing outflow, which is east-west oriented and originates in the SMA 2 region and likely driven by SMA 2 or IRS 7A.

  7. Genetic, Ecological and Morphological Distinctness of the Blue Mussels Mytilus trossulus Gould and M. edulis L. in the White Sea.

    PubMed

    Katolikova, Marina; Khaitov, Vadim; Väinölä, Risto; Gantsevich, Michael; Strelkov, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Two blue mussel lineages of Pliocene origin, Mytilus edulis (ME) and M. trossulus (MT), co-occur and hybridize in several regions on the shores of the North Atlantic. The two species were distinguished from each other by molecular methods in the 1980s, and a large amount of comparative data on them has been accumulated since that time. However, while ME and MT are now routinely distinguished by various genetic markers, they tend to be overlooked in ecological studies since morphological characters for taxonomic identification have been lacking, and no consistent habitat differences between lineages have been reported. Surveying a recently discovered area of ME and MT co-occurrence in the White Sea and employing a set of allozyme markers for identification, we address the issue whether ME and MT are true biological species with distinct ecological characteristics or just virtual genetic entities with no matching morphological and ecological identities. We find that: (1) in the White Sea, the occurrence of MT is largely concentrated in harbors, in line with observations from other subarctic regions of Europe; (2) mixed populations of ME and MT are always dominated by purebred individuals, animals classified as hybrids constituting only ca. 18%; (3) in terms of shell morphology, 80% of MT bear a distinct uninterrupted dark prismatic strip under the ligament while 97% of ME lack this character; (4) at sites of sympatry MT is more common on algal substrates while ME mostly lives directly on the bottom. This segregation by the substrate may contribute to maintaining reproductive isolation and decreasing competition between taxa. We conclude that while ME and MT are not fully reproductively isolated, they do represent clearly distinguishable biological, ecological and morphological entities in the White Sea. It remains to be documented whether the observed morphological and ecological differences are of a local character, or whether they have simply been overlooked in other contact zones.

  8. Embryonic development in culture of two dasyurid marsupials, Sminthopsis crassicaudata (Gould) and Sminthopsis macroura (Spencer), during cleavage and blastocyst formation.

    PubMed

    Selwood, L

    1987-04-01

    Embryos of Sminthopsis crassicaudata and Sminthopsis macroura were cultured for up to 96 hours during cleavage and early expansion of the blastocyst in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEG), DMEG containing 2.76 gm/liter sodium lactate (DMEGL), DMEG containing 3.5 gm/liter galactose (DMEGAL), DMEG containing 15 ng/ml progesterone (DMEGP) or 150 ng/ml progesterone (DMEGP10), and DMEGL containing 15 ng/ml progesterone (DMEGLP). The disappearance of sperm was used to indicate the time of ovulation (day 0). Fertilized eggs were found in the uterus at the end of day 1, four-cell stages at the end of day 2, and embryos completing the fourth division by the end of day 3 in S. macroura and day 4 in S. crassicaudata. Estimated developmental times in culture were similar to those obtained in vivo. In both species, the first two divisions take about 24 hours, cleavage is arrested for 24 hours or longer at the rounded four-cell stage, and the third and fourth divisions take a further 24 hours. The blastocyst expands during the next 24 hours in which time the fifth and sixth divisions occur. It was possible to culture embryos from S. macroura but not S. crassicaudata over the four-cell stage to early expanding blastocysts. DMEGAL did not support cleavage in culture. DMEG, DMEGL, DMEGP, DMEGP10, and DMEGLP all supported culture during cleavage and early blastocyst expansion. Blastocyst expansion was slightly enhanced using media containing sodium lactate. More embryos completed the fifth division and formed expanding blastocysts in DMEG, DMEGL, and DMEGLP.

  9. Interactions between the Avian Parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae) and the Galapagos Flycatcher, Myiarchus magnirostris Gould (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae).

    PubMed

    Lincango, Piedad; Causton, Charlotte; Cedeño, Daniel; Castañeda, Johanna; Hillstrom, Alexandra; Freund, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    An incidental observation of the fly Philornis downsi parasitizing a Galapagos Flycatcher (Myiarchus magnirostris) nest has revealed new insights into the searching behavior and biology of this invasive fly parasite and its interactions with endemic landbirds in the Galapagos Islands. Observations suggest that P. downsi relies on olfactory cues, or olfactory cues combined with the activity of adult birds, to locate nests and that flies continue to visit nests when chicks are >3 d old. At least 200 eggs were laid by P. downsi in different parts of the nest and >40 early-instar larvae were found inside the head of one chick, with additional larvae found in the base of the nest. Parasitism was the likely cause of mortality of both chicks found in or near the nest. This description of P. downsi parasitizing chicks of M. magnirostris highlights the vulnerability of this endemic bird species to this invasive fly.

  10. Genetic, Ecological and Morphological Distinctness of the Blue Mussels Mytilus trossulus Gould and M. edulis L. in the White Sea

    PubMed Central

    Katolikova, Marina; Khaitov, Vadim; Väinölä, Risto; Gantsevich, Michael; Strelkov, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Two blue mussel lineages of Pliocene origin, Mytilus edulis (ME) and M. trossulus (MT), co-occur and hybridize in several regions on the shores of the North Atlantic. The two species were distinguished from each other by molecular methods in the 1980s, and a large amount of comparative data on them has been accumulated since that time. However, while ME and MT are now routinely distinguished by various genetic markers, they tend to be overlooked in ecological studies since morphological characters for taxonomic identification have been lacking, and no consistent habitat differences between lineages have been reported. Surveying a recently discovered area of ME and MT co-occurrence in the White Sea and employing a set of allozyme markers for identification, we address the issue whether ME and MT are true biological species with distinct ecological characteristics or just virtual genetic entities with no matching morphological and ecological identities. We find that: (1) in the White Sea, the occurrence of MT is largely concentrated in harbors, in line with observations from other subarctic regions of Europe; (2) mixed populations of ME and MT are always dominated by purebred individuals, animals classified as hybrids constituting only ca. 18%; (3) in terms of shell morphology, 80% of MT bear a distinct uninterrupted dark prismatic strip under the ligament while 97% of ME lack this character; (4) at sites of sympatry MT is more common on algal substrates while ME mostly lives directly on the bottom. This segregation by the substrate may contribute to maintaining reproductive isolation and decreasing competition between taxa. We conclude that while ME and MT are not fully reproductively isolated, they do represent clearly distinguishable biological, ecological and morphological entities in the White Sea. It remains to be documented whether the observed morphological and ecological differences are of a local character, or whether they have simply been overlooked in other contact zones. PMID:27044013

  11. Morphological and molecular characterization of Isospora manorinae n. sp. in a yellow-throated miner (Manorina flavigula wayensis) (Gould, 1840).

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Jian, Fuchun; Ryan, Una

    2016-04-01

    A new Isospora (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) species is described from a single yellow-throated miner bird (Manorina flavigula) (subspecies M. f. wayensis) in Western Australia. Sporulated oocysts (n = 32) of this isolate are spherical to subspherical, 22.8 (20.3-23.8) × 18.3 (17.7-18.7) μm, with a shape index (length/width) of 1.25 (1.2-1.3); and a smooth and bilayered oocyst wall, 1.3 μm thick (outer layer 0.9 μm, inner 0.4 μm). A polar granule is present, but the micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent. The sporocysts are lemon-shaped, 15.5 (14.6-15.8) × 9.5 (9.5-10.2) μm, with a shape index of 1.6. Stieda and substieda bodies are present, the Stieda body being knob-like and the substieda body being subspherical-shaped. A sporocyst residuum is present and composed of numerous granules of different size scattered among the sporozoites, a spheroid or subspheroid refractile body is present in the sporozoite. Morphologically, the oocysts from this isolate are different from those of all known valid Isospora spp. Molecular analysis was conducted at 3 loci; the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) gene. At the 18S locus, this new isolate exhibited 99.2% similarity to Isospora gryphoni and three other Isospora spp. Further analysis of a subgroup of 300 bp long 18S sequences (8), including Isospora anthochaerae was conducted. This new isolate grouped in a clade with I. anthochaerae and exhibited 99.3% similarity. At the 28S locus, this new isolate grouped with I. anthochaerae with which it shared 99.1% similarity. At the COI locus, this new isolate exhibited 96.8% similarity to Isospora sp. JCI-2015 from a spectacled warbler (Sylvia conspicillata) in Spain. Further analysis from a subgroup of shorter COI sequences (n = 13) was performed and this new isolate exhibited 99.1% similarity to I. anthochaerae. Based on morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new species of Isospora, which is named Isospora manorinae n. sp. after its host, the yellow-throated miner (Manorina flavigula wayensis). PMID:26821297

  12. The James Clerk Maxwell telescope Legacy Survey of the Gould Belt: a molecular line study of the Ophiuchus molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Glenn J.; Drabek-Maunder, Emily; Rosolowsky, Erik; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Davis, C. J.; Gregson, Jon; Hatchell, Jenny; Etxaluze, Mireya; Stickler, Sarah; Buckle, Jane; Johnstone, Doug; Friesen, Rachel; Sadavoy, Sarah; Natt, Kieran. V.; Currie, Malcolm; Richer, J. S.; Pattle, Kate; Spaans, Marco; Francesco, James Di; Hogerheijde, M. R.

    2015-02-01

    CO, 13CO, and C18O J = 3-2 observations are presented of the Ophiuchus molecular cloud. The 13CO and C18O emission is dominated by the Oph A clump, and the Oph B1, B2, C, E, F, and J regions. The optically thin(ner) C18O line is used as a column density tracer, from which the gravitational binding energy is estimated to be 4.5 × 1039 J (2282 M⊙ km2 s-2). The turbulent kinetic energy is 6.3 × 1038 J (320 M⊙ km2 s-2), or seven times less than this, and therefore the Oph cloud as a whole is gravitationally bound. 30 protostars were searched for high-velocity gas, with 8 showing outflows, and 20 more having evidence of high-velocity gas along their lines of sight. The total outflow kinetic energy is 1.3 × 1038 J (67 M⊙ km2 s-2), corresponding to 21 per cent of the cloud's turbulent kinetic energy. Although turbulent injection by outflows is significant, but does not appear to be the dominant source of turbulence in the cloud. 105 dense molecular clumplets were identified, which had radii ˜0.01-0.05 pc, virial masses ˜0.1-12 M⊙, luminosities ˜0.001-0.1 K km s-1 pc-2, and excitation temperatures ˜10-50 K. These are consistent with the standard Giant Molecular Cloud (GMC) based size-linewidth relationships, showing that the scaling laws extend down to size scales of hundredths of a parsec, and to subsolar-mass condensations. There is however no compelling evidence that the majority of clumplets are undergoing free-fall collapse, nor that they are pressure confined.

  13. Differential expression of genes encoding anti-oxidant enzymes in Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata (Gould) selected for disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Green, Timothy J; Dixon, Tom J; Devic, Emilie; Adlard, Robert D; Barnes, Andrew C

    2009-05-01

    Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) selectively bred for disease resistance (R) and wild-caught control oysters (W) were exposed to a field infection of disseminating neoplasia. Cumulative mortality of W oysters (31.7%) was significantly greater than R oysters (0.0%) over the 118 days of the experiment. In an attempt to understand the biochemical and molecular pathways involved in disease resistance, differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) between R and W S. glomerata hemocytes were identified using the PCR technique, suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH). Sequencing of 300 clones from two SSH libraries revealed 183 distinct sequences of which 113 shared high similarity to sequences in the public databases. Putative function could be assigned to 64 of the sequences. Expression of nine ESTs homologous to genes previously shown to be involved in bivalve immunity was further studied using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). The base-line expression of an extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) and a small heat shock protein (sHsP) were significantly increased, whilst peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6) and interferon inhibiting cytokine factor (IK) were significantly decreased in R oysters. From these results it was hypothesised that R oysters would be able to generate the anti-parasitic compound, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) faster and to higher concentrations during respiratory burst due to the differential expression of genes for the two anti-oxidant enzymes of ecSOD and Prx6. To investigate this hypothesis, protein extracts from hemolymph were analysed for oxidative burst enzyme activity. Analysis of the cell free hemolymph proteins separated by native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) failed to detect true superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity by assaying dismutation of superoxide anion in zymograms. However, the ecSOD enzyme appears to generate hydrogen peroxide, presumably via another process, which is yet to be elucidated. This corroborates our hypothesis, whilst phylogenetic analysis of the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the S. glomerata ecSOD gene is supportive of the atypical nature of the ecSOD enzyme. Results obtained from this work further the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in resistance to disease in this economically important bivalve, and shed further light on the anomalous oxidative processes involved. PMID:19332130

  14. Cloning and expression of an actin gene in the haemocytes of pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata, Gould 1850).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongliang; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang; Lu, Yishan

    2008-06-01

    An actin gene (designated pfact1) of pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata, was cloned from haemocytes by the techniques of homological cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full length of Pfact1 cDNA was 1608 bp in length, having a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 82 bp, a 3' UTR of 395 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1131 bp encoding a polypeptide of 376 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 41.76 kDa and an estimated isoelectric point of 5.29. Sequence analysis revealed that Pfact1 shared high similarity with other actins and was more closely related to vertebrate cytoplastic actins than muscle types. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that molluscan actins could also be generally grouped into two classes: muscle type and cytoplasmic type, although both are similar to vertebrate cytoplastic actins. Fluorescent real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine the expression level of Pfact1 in haemocytes of P. fucata after the challenge of Vibrio alginolyticus, and results showed that Pfact1 exhibited stable expression in all time points, indicating that Pfact1 could be a suitable internal control for gene expression analysis in haemocytes of P. fucata.

  15. Equal Opportunity Programming and Optimistic Program Assessment: First-Year Writing Program Design and Assessment at John Jay College of Criminal Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Tim; McBeth, Mark

    2016-01-01

    As Brian Huot and Ellen E. Schendel assert, when assessment has more than validation in mind, it "can become a means for proactive change" (208). In response to this idea of assessment as an optimistic and opportunistic enterprise, this article describes how the structural design of our "equal opportunity" writing program and…

  16. HAVE YOU READ THIS?: Life, the universe(s) and everything

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-09-01

    philosophical for some (see the review by B Carr in Physics World 10 December 1997, p 39) but don't be put off by his adoration of Leibnitz compared, say, with Newton. He is strongly critical of a `mechanical' world view, and a major strand in the book is that physics may be more like biology than most of us might like to think. Smolin's key idea is that universes are created in black holes, a basis on which he builds a cosmology in which relationships are more important than abstract concepts like space and time. When a new universe forms from a black hole the laws and constants are changed: G, e, h and the critical things like the fine-structure constant that cosmic anthropicists put forward as evidence for a purposive universe get changed. Sometimes they change a lot, sometimes in ways too small to have much effect. A kind of Darwinian survival effect takes over: successful universes are good at producing black holes and mature stars that can build up the heavy elements which allow life to develop. So our values of G, e, h etc have evolved. The more black holes they produce, the more likely it is that some of the baby universes are reasonably successful. So our universe is not unique, but just one of a set that has cosmological and physical properties that allow people like us to develop. The improbably anthropic universe we live in is as improbable as an eye or a peacock's tail. Just as Stephen Jay Gould teaches us that life as we know it is not designed but the result of more or less simple rules applied in an accidental, contingent history, so Smolin considers the universe(s). Galaxies have ecologies: `... our life is situated inside a nested hierarchy of self-organized systems that begin with our local ecologies and extend upwards at least to the galaxy.' Our universe is really very young - not much older than a typical star. The theory has testable predictions, to do with the formation of spiral arms in galaxies, supernovae and the rate of production of black holes

  17. Comment on "Symplectic integration of magnetic systems" by Stephen D. Webb [J. Comput. Phys. 270 (2014) 570-576

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuangxi; Jia, Yuesong; Sun, Qizhi

    2015-02-01

    Webb [1] proposed a method to get symplectic integrators of magnetic systems by Taylor expanding the discrete Euler-Lagrangian equations (DEL) which resulted from variational symplectic method by making the variation of the discrete action [2], and approximating the results to the order of O (h2), where h is the time step. And in that paper, Webb thought that the integrators obtained by that method are symplectic ones, especially, he treated Boris integrator (BI) as the symplectic one. However, we have questions about Webb's results. Theoretically the transformation of phase-space coordinates between two adjacent points induced by symplectic algorithm should conserve a symplectic 2-form [2-5]. As proved in Refs. [2,3], the transformations induced by the standard symplectic integrator derived from Hamilton and the variational symplectic integrator (VSI) [2,6] from Lagrangian should conserve a symplectic 2-forms. But the approximation of VSI to O (h2) obtained by that paper is hard to conserve a symplectic 2-form, contrary to the claim of [1]. In the next section, we will use BI as an example to support our point and will prove BI not to be a symplectic one but an integrator conserving discrete phase-space volume.

  18. The iPod Experiments: Michael Stephens Investigates Ways that Librarians Are Using This Popular Consumer Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Michael

    2005-01-01

    No other consumer electronic device has created such an impact on popular culture in recent years as the Apple iPod. Since iPod's release in November 2001, music fans have been able to carry upwards of 15,000 song files on those sleek devices with their trendy white headphones. Over ten million iPods have been sold--nearly half of them in the last…

  19. Evaluation of the Sho-Vel-Tum Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) Oil Recovery Project - Stephens County, OK

    SciTech Connect

    French, Troy

    1999-08-16

    Le Norman Energy Company conducted research on field application of alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding as a part of the U.S. Department of Energy's plan to maximize the production of our domestic oil resources. In addition to having substantial technical merit, the process uses chemicals that are environmentally acceptable. Le Norman's field project is located in the Sho-Vel-Tum (OK) oil field, which was a major producer of crude oil in past years, but has since been extensively waterflooded. This reservoir in this portion of the field is typical of many shallow reservoirs in the Oklahoma-Kansas area and is a good demonstration site for that area. The pay zones are located approximately 700 ft. deep, and this project is the shallowest field test for ASP flooding.

  20. Rethinking the Reading-Writing Workshop: Tensions and Negotiations between a Stephen King Reader and Her Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Kelly

    2000-01-01

    Explores the participation in reading-writing workshops of students who consider reading to be an important part of their lives. Finds students who are engaged readers of fiction bring a set of expectations that differ from their teachers' and from students who do not read regularly for pleasure. (NH)

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ATLASGAL clumps with IRAS flux and MALT90 data (Stephens+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, I. W.; Jackson, J. M.; Whitaker, J. S.; Contreras, Y.; Guzman, A. E.; Sanhueza, P.; Foster, J. B.; Rathborne, J. M.

    2016-08-01

    The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90GHz (MALT90) survey (Foster+ 2011, J/ApJS/197/25; 2013PASA...30...38F; Jackson+ 2013PASA...30...57J) mapped 16 lines for 3246 clumps, primarily high-mass star-forming clumps that are >200Mȯ, as identified from the ATLASGAL 870um survey (Schuller et al. 2009A&A...504..415S). In order to compare luminosities derived from IRAS (LIR) to molecular line luminosities from MALT90 (Lmolecule), we first matched the MALT90 clumps to the IRAS Point Source Catalog v2.1 (PSC; see Cat. II/125). See section 2.1 for further explanations. (1 data file).

  2. 78 FR 49469 - Stephen Glen Guerra, Inmate #98595-279, FCI Yazoo City Medium, Federal Correctional Institution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... Notices, the most recent being that of August 15, 2012 (77 FR 49699 (August 16, 2012)), has continued the... Correctional Institution, P.O. Box 5888, Yazoo City, MS 39194; Order Denying Export Privileges On February 6...-279, FCI Yazoo City Medium, Federal Correctional Institution, P.O. Box 5888, Yazoo City, MS 39194,...

  3. Comment on 'Compositional convection in a reactive crystalline mush and melt differentiation' by Stephen Tait and Claude Jaupart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoon, Roger N.

    1994-06-01

    At the end of their analysis of convection in magma chambers, Tait and Jaupart (1992) 'speculated' that the platiniferous dunitic pipes in the Bushveld Complex, South Africa, are 'fossil chimney structure', which developed by a process of 'compositional convection.' A hypothesis that accounts for all of the characteristics of the platiniferous dunitis pipes has not been establihsed, bu the evidence against Tait and Jaupart's suggestions is considerable: (1) a two-stage hypotheis should by entrained; (2) the magneusium dunites are primitive rocks that are unlikely to be related to residual liquids; (3) residual liquids evolved from the Lower Zone (LZ) - Lower Critical Zone (LCZ) would not be sufficiently differentiated to account for the iron-rich assemblages; (4) suitably iron-rich residual melts may be derived from the Upper Critical Zone (UCZ), but they would be extremely dense amd liable to drain downward; and (5) the absence of plagioclase is not compatible with 'typical' interstitial liquids.

  4. 75 FR 8741 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... State University anthropology lab after 1975. The 15 unassociated funerary objects are 1 ceramic vessel... with the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma. The ceramic and arrow point styles were identified as Caddo, dating... unassociated funerary objects are two ceramic vessels, one long Olivella shell bead with a...

  5. Development and evaluation of sequential sampling plans for Cryptolestes ferrungineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) infesting farm-stored wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development and evaluation of appropriate sampling plans are needed for cost-effective management of stored-product insects. Sequential sampling plans, which are based on a variable sample size, are generally more cost effective than plans based on a fixed sample size. For adults of the rusty gr...

  6. Reaching the Next Stephen Hawking: Five Ways to Help Students with Disabilities in Advanced Placement Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Lori A.; Potts, Elizabeth A.; Linz, Ed

    2013-01-01

    As the federal government encourages all students to attempt advanced math and science courses, more students with disabilities are enrolling in Advanced Placement (AP) science classes. AP science teachers can better serve these students by understanding the various types of disabilities (whether physical, learning, emotional, or behavioral),…

  7. Geographic patterns of genetic differentiation within the restricted range of the endangered Stephens' kangaroo rat Dipodomys stephensi.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, A E; Nunney, L; Hyman, B C

    2001-06-01

    Using mtDNA variation in the kangaroo rat Dipodomys stephensi, we found no support for the hypothesis that a species with an historically restricted range will exhibit low levels of genetic polymorphism and little genetic structure. Dipodomys stephensi has long been restricted to a few interior coastal valleys in southern California encompassing an area of approximately 70 x 40 km; however, we found high levels of genetic variation over much of its range and significant genetic structure both within and between regions. We also found evidence for a recent range expansion. Dipodomys stephensi is a federally endangered species that is separated from D. panamintinus, its presumed sister taxon, by a mountain range to the north. We assessed genetic variation by sequencing 645 bases of the mitochondrial d-loop from 61 individuals sampled from 16 locations across the species range and rooted their relationship using two D. panamintinus individuals. Despite its limited geographic range, the level of mtDNA variation in D. stephensi is comparable to that of other rodents, including that of the more widely distributed D. panamintinus. This variation revealed significant regional differentiation. The northern, central, and southern regions of the range differ in both the level and the distribution of genetic variation. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the center of the range contains the most diversity of lineages, including the most basal. In this region and in the north, most haplotypes were found at only a single location (25/29), or at a pair of nearby locations (3/29). In addition, related haplotypes clustered geographically. These results are consistent with long-term demographic stability characterized by limited dispersal and high local effective population size. Further support for this conclusion is the finding of unique diversity in two northern peripheral populations, Norco and Potrero Creek (PC). However, in sharp contrast, one haplotype (CC) was found at five of 11 central and northern locations and comprised 18% of individuals sampled. The atypical distribution of the CC haplotype reflected a pattern seen more strongly in the southern region. Here the CC haplotype comprised 69% of the sample and was found at all five sampling locations. Consequently, the southern region had very low genetic variability. We propose that this dominance of CC was probably due to a local population bottleneck that occurred during a recent range expansion into the southern region.

  8. NIMH during the tenure of Director Lewis L. Judd, M.D. (1987-1990): the decade of the brain and the four national research plans.

    PubMed

    Judd, L L

    1998-09-01

    My tenure at NIMH was an exhilarating, heady time of great satisfaction and achievement for all of us at the Institute. I have great affection and loyalty for NIMH, but my fondest memories are of the individuals who led and staffed the Institute's programs while I was there. One of the most gratifying aspects of my tenure was the opportunity to recruit and appoint people to new responsibilities and to interact with and support them as they grew into and beyond their positions of leadership within NIMH. When I left NIMH, I felt that the Institute's managers and staff were unparalleled in their creativity, competence, commitment, loyalty, and sheer hard work on behalf of the Institute and our field. My thanks and deep gratitude genuinely go out to the entire staff at NIMH during my tenure. However, a special debt of gratitude is owed to a group of colleagues and friends who, at my request, carried very heavy responsibilities and excelled in meeting them: Dr. Alan Leshner (Deputy Director of NIMH, now Director of NIDA); Dr. Stephen Koslow, Dr. Stephen Paul, Dr. Jack "Jay" Burke, Dr. David Segal, Dr. Ira Glick, Dr. Ellen Stover, Dr. Irene Levine, Dr. Daryl Kirsch, Dr. Rex Cowdry, Dr. Sam Keith, Dr. Delores Paron, Leroy Goldman, Richard Pine, William Fitzsimmons, Gordon Seidenberg, Lewis Steinberg, Gemma Weiblinger, George Halter, and my invaluable assistant, Margaret Shanley. PMID:9736861

  9. NIMH during the tenure of Director Lewis L. Judd, M.D. (1987-1990): the decade of the brain and the four national research plans.

    PubMed

    Judd, L L

    1998-09-01

    My tenure at NIMH was an exhilarating, heady time of great satisfaction and achievement for all of us at the Institute. I have great affection and loyalty for NIMH, but my fondest memories are of the individuals who led and staffed the Institute's programs while I was there. One of the most gratifying aspects of my tenure was the opportunity to recruit and appoint people to new responsibilities and to interact with and support them as they grew into and beyond their positions of leadership within NIMH. When I left NIMH, I felt that the Institute's managers and staff were unparalleled in their creativity, competence, commitment, loyalty, and sheer hard work on behalf of the Institute and our field. My thanks and deep gratitude genuinely go out to the entire staff at NIMH during my tenure. However, a special debt of gratitude is owed to a group of colleagues and friends who, at my request, carried very heavy responsibilities and excelled in meeting them: Dr. Alan Leshner (Deputy Director of NIMH, now Director of NIDA); Dr. Stephen Koslow, Dr. Stephen Paul, Dr. Jack "Jay" Burke, Dr. David Segal, Dr. Ira Glick, Dr. Ellen Stover, Dr. Irene Levine, Dr. Daryl Kirsch, Dr. Rex Cowdry, Dr. Sam Keith, Dr. Delores Paron, Leroy Goldman, Richard Pine, William Fitzsimmons, Gordon Seidenberg, Lewis Steinberg, Gemma Weiblinger, George Halter, and my invaluable assistant, Margaret Shanley.

  10. VARIATION IN GROWTH, LIPID CLASS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF THE MUD CRAB, RHITHROPANOPEUS HARRISII (GOULD) DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO AN INSECT JUVENILE HORMONE ANALOG (FENOXYCARB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the effects of fenoxycarb?, an insect juvenile hormone analog, on larval growth, and lipid class and fatty acid composition in first crabs of the mud crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii reared through total larval development in nominal water concentrations from 1 ...

  11. Theory and operation of the Gould 32/27 programs ABLE-2A and EBLE for the tropospheric air motion measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C.

    1986-01-01

    Software development for the Trospheric Air Motion Measurement Systems (TAMMS) is documented. In July/August the TAMMS was flown on the NASA/Goddard Flight Center Electra aircraft for 19 mission for the ABLE-2A (Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment) in Brazil. In December 1985, several flights were performed to assess the contamination and boundary layer of the Electra. Position data, flow angles, pressure transducer measurements were recorded. The programs written for the ABLE-2A were modified due to timing considerations for this particular program. The 3-step programs written for EBLE (Electra Boundary Layer Experiment) are described. Power up and log-on procedures are discussed. A few editing techniques are described for modification of the programs.

  12. Fenitrothion, an organophosphorous insecticide, impairs locomotory function and alters body temperatures in Sminthopsis macroura (Gould 1845) without reducing metabolic rates during running endurance and thermogenic performance tests.

    PubMed

    Story, Paul G; French, Kris; Astheimer, Lee B; Buttemer, William A

    2016-01-01

    Endemic Australian mammal species are exposed to pesticides used for locust control as they occupy the same habitat as the target insect. The authors examined the impact of an ultra-low volume formulation of the organophosphorous insecticide fenitrothion (O,O-dimethyl-O-[3-methyl-4-nitrophenol]-phosphorothioate) on a suite of physiological measures that affect the ability of animals to survive in free-living conditions: locomotory and thermogenic functions, metabolic performance, body mass, and hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. Plasma and brain cholinesterase activity in relation to time since exposure to pesticide were also determined. An orally applied dose of 90 mg kg(-1) fenitrothion reduced running endurance in the stripe-faced dunnart, Sminthopsis macroura, by 80% the day after exposure concomitantly with a reduction of approximately 50% in plasma and 45% in brain acetylcholinesterase activity. These adverse effects disappeared by 10 d postexposure. Maximal metabolic rates reached during running were unaffected by pesticide, as were body mass and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Maximal cold-induced metabolic rate (measured as peak 2 min metabolic rate attained during cold exposure), time taken to reach peak metabolic rate on cold exposure, cumulative total oxygen consumed during shivering thermogenesis, and body temperature before and after cold exposure were unaffected by fenitrothion. Dunnart rectal temperatures showed a reduction of up to 5 °C after exposure to fenitrothion but returned to pre-exposure levels by 10 d postdose. Such physiological compromises in otherwise asymptomatic animals demonstrate the importance of considering performance-based measures in pesticide risk assessments. PMID:26184692

  13. Gene capture from across the grass family in the allohexaploid Elymus repens (L.) Gould (Poaceae, Triticeae) as evidenced by ITS, GBSSI, and molecular cytogenetics.

    PubMed

    Mahelka, Václav; Kopecký, David

    2010-06-01

    Four accessions of hexaploid Elymus repens from its native Central European distribution area were analyzed using sequencing of multicopy (internal transcribed spacer, ITS) and single-copy (granule-bound starch synthase I, GBSSI) DNA in concert with genomic and fluorescent in situ hybridization (GISH and FISH) to disentangle its allopolyploid origin. Despite extensive ITS homogenization, nrDNA in E. repens allowed us to identify at least four distinct lineages. Apart from Pseudoroegneria and Hordeum, representing the major genome constituents, the presence of further unexpected alien genetic material, originating from species outside the Triticeae and close to Panicum (Paniceae) and Bromus (Bromeae), was revealed. GBSSI sequences provided information complementary to the ITS. Apart from Pseudoroegneria and Hordeum, two additional gene variants from within the Triticeae were discovered: One was Taeniatherum-like, but the other did not have a close relationship with any of the diploids sampled. GISH results were largely congruent with the sequence-based markers. GISH clearly confirmed Pseudoroegneria and Hordeum as major genome constituents and further showed the presence of a small chromosome segment corresponding to Panicum. It resided in the Hordeum subgenome and probably represents an old acquisition of a Hordeum progenitor. Spotty hybridization signals across all chromosomes after GISH with Taeniatherum and Bromus probes suggested that gene acquisition from these species is more likely due to common ancestry of the grasses or early introgression than to recent hybridization or allopolyploid origin of E. repens. Physical mapping of rDNA loci using FISH revealed that all rDNA loci except one minor were located on Pseudoroegneria-derived chromosomes, which suggests the loss of all Hordeum-derived loci but one. Because homogenization mechanisms seem to operate effectively among Pseudoroegneria-like copies in this species, incomplete ITS homogenization in our samples is probably due to an interstitial position of an individual minor rDNA locus located within the Hordeum-derived subgenome.

  14. Large-Scale Simulation of the Effects of Climate Change on Runoff Erosion Following Extreme Wildfire Events Authors: Gould, Adam, Warren, Barber, Wagenbrenner, Robichaud, Wang, Cherkauer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, G.; Adam, J. C.; Barber, M. E.; Wagenbrenner, J. W.; Robichaud, P. R.; Wang, L.; Cherkauer, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Across the western U.S., there is clear concern for increases in wildfire occurrence, severity, and post-fire runoff erosion due to projected climate changes. The aim of this study was to advance our capability to simulate post-fire runoff erosion at scales larger than a single hillslope to examine the relative contribution of sediment being released to larger streams and rivers in response to wildfire. We applied the Variable Capacity Infiltration-Water Erosion Prediction Project (VIC-WEPP), a newly-developed physically-based modeling framework that combines large-scale hydrology with hillslope-scale runoff erosion, over the Salmon River basin (SRB) in central Idaho. We selected the SRB for this study because of recent research that suggested that forest wildfires are likely contributing the majority of coarser sands that settle in downstream navigation channels and in reservoirs, causing adverse impacts to aquatic life, navigation, and flood storage. Using the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), burn intensity and severity maps show the regularity of wildfire occurrence in the SRB. These maps compare pre-fire images to next growing season images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper multispectral scanning sensor. Rather than implementing WEPP over all hillslopes within the SRB, we applied a representative hillslope approach. A monofractal scaling method downscales globally available 30 arc second digital elevation model (DEM) data to a 30 m resolution for simulations. This information determined the distribution of slope gradients within each VIC grid cell. This study applied VIC-WEPP over the 1979-2010 period and compared an ensemble of future climate simulations for the period of 2041-2070. For future scenarios, we only considered meteorological impacts on post-fire erosion and did not incorporate changes in future fire occurrence or severity. We ran scenarios for a variety of land cover and soil parameter sets, particularly those that relate to pre and post-fire characteristics, such as vegetative cover, interrill and rill erodibility factors, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Evaluation of runoff erosion at experimental sites, observed by the U.S. Forest Service, involved using Disturbed WEPP which showed reasonable first post-fire year annual erosion predictions. We evaluated VIC-WEPP by comparing sediment observations downstream of the SRB with simulated yields for both pre and post-fire conditions. Generation of maps showing erosion over the SRB for each of the scenarios show specific areas within the SRB to be high, moderate, or low runoff-induced post-fire erosion regions. Our methodology will enable forest managers in the region to incorporate the impacts of changes in meteorological events on runoff erosion into their strategic management plans.

  15. A contribution to characterisation of genetic variation in some natural Polish populations of Elymus repens (L.) Gould and Elymus hispidus (Opiz) Melderis (Poaceae) as revealed by RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Szczepaniak, M; Bieniek, W; Boroń, P; Szklarczyk, M; Mizianty, M

    2009-09-01

    To determine the relative importance of clonal growth and sexual reproduction, the Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was used to study genetic diversity and clonal structure of six populations of Elymus repens and four populations of Elymus hispidus from Poland. These outbreeding species are virtually self-sterile and form widely spreading and long-lived rhizomes. Using 12 primers, a total of 150 unambiguous RAPD fragments were amplified and scored. Results of AMOVA showed no significant genetic distinction between morphologically distinguished varieties of E. repens and E. hispidus. E. repens had slightly higher intra-specific genetic polymorphism than E. hispidus; the percentage of polymorphic bands per population ranged from 38 to 49 and from 19 to 38 respectively. Clonal diversity measured using the Simpson diversity index (D) indicated different contributions of clonal reproduction in particular populations of E. repens (D: 0.20-0.72). Populations of E. hispidus were dominated by one or a few clones, which were generally restricted to a single population (D: 0.00-0.22). RAPD revealed that most genetic diversity resided within populations of the two studied species, suggesting that, despite their clonal character, propagation by seeds contributes considerably to reproduction of E. repens and E. hispidus.

  16. Cloning and expression of heat shock protein 70 gene in the haemocytes of pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata, Gould 1850) responding to bacterial challenge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongliang; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang; Lu, Yishan

    2009-04-01

    The cDNA of pearl oyster Pinctada fucata Hsp70 (designated PFHsp70) was cloned by EST and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques. The full length of PFHsp70 cDNA was 2376 bp, consisting of a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 89 bp, a 3' terminal UTR of 328 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1959 bp encoding a polypeptide of 652 amino acids with a theoretical molecular weight of 71.42 kDa and an estimated isoelectric point of 5.18. BLAST analysis revealed that the PFHsp70 gene shared high similarity with other Hsp70 genes. PFHsp70 contained all the three classical Hsp70 family signatures. The results indicated that the PFHsp70 was a member of the heat shock protein 70 family. Fluorescent real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine the expression of PFHsp70 gene in haemocytes of P. fucata after the challenge of bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus. There was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of PFHsp70 after bacterial challenge, and the mRNA expression reached a maximum level at 4 h post-challenge, which returned to control level after 32 h. The up-regulated mRNA expression of PFHsp70 in P. fucata after bacterial challenge indicates that the Hsp70 gene is inducible and involved in immune response.

  17. HAVE YOU READ THIS?: Life, the universe(s) and everything

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-09-01

    philosophical for some (see the review by B Carr in Physics World 10 December 1997, p 39) but don't be put off by his adoration of Leibnitz compared, say, with Newton. He is strongly critical of a `mechanical' world view, and a major strand in the book is that physics may be more like biology than most of us might like to think. Smolin's key idea is that universes are created in black holes, a basis on which he builds a cosmology in which relationships are more important than abstract concepts like space and time. When a new universe forms from a black hole the laws and constants are changed: G, e, h and the critical things like the fine-structure constant that cosmic anthropicists put forward as evidence for a purposive universe get changed. Sometimes they change a lot, sometimes in ways too small to have much effect. A kind of Darwinian survival effect takes over: successful universes are good at producing black holes and mature stars that can build up the heavy elements which allow life to develop. So our values of G, e, h etc have evolved. The more black holes they produce, the more likely it is that some of the baby universes are reasonably successful. So our universe is not unique, but just one of a set that has cosmological and physical properties that allow people like us to develop. The improbably anthropic universe we live in is as improbable as an eye or a peacock's tail. Just as Stephen Jay Gould teaches us that life as we know it is not designed but the result of more or less simple rules applied in an accidental, contingent history, so Smolin considers the universe(s). Galaxies have ecologies: `... our life is situated inside a nested hierarchy of self-organized systems that begin with our local ecologies and extend upwards at least to the galaxy.' Our universe is really very young - not much older than a typical star. The theory has testable predictions, to do with the formation of spiral arms in galaxies, supernovae and the rate of production of black holes

  18. Radical revisions to the ruler of deep time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kenneth G.

    Stephen J. Gould [1987] argued that one of the greatest scientific realizations was the concept of “deep time,” a phrase coined by John McPhee to encompass the breadth of geological time. We rely on measurements of geological time to provide rates of geological and geophysical processes and a chronology for the evolution of the Earth. Geological measurements of deep time rely on a limited number of radiometric ages that provide the only true clocks. Our chronometer is the geological time scale, and it is based on these ages and interpolations between them. The most precise ruler for these interpolations is provided by minor variations in the Earth's orbit, which control solar insolation and global climate changes; this “astronomical pacemaker” has provided a precise chronology (one with 5,000-year resolution) for the past few million years. It has proven difficult to extend this astronomical time scale to the geological record older than about 5 m.y. However, for the Late Cretaceous to Pleistocene (approximately the last 150 m.y.), another ruler is available: reversals of the Earth's magnetic field provide a Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) that serves as a framework for a limited number of radiometric ages.

  19. Providing for the appointment of Stephen M. Case as a citizen regent of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Johnson, Sam [R-TX-3

    2011-02-16

    02/16/2011 Referred to the House Committee on House Administration. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.J.RES.8, which became Public Law 112-12 on 4/25/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Toxicity and sublethal effects of six insecticides to last instar larvae and adults of the biocontrol agents Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Garzón, A; Medina, P; Amor, F; Viñuela, E; Budia, F

    2015-08-01

    To further develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies against crop pests, it is important to evaluate the effects of insecticides on biological control agents. Therefore, we tested the toxicity and sublethal effects (fecundity and fertility) of flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin on the natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea and Adalia bipunctata. The side effects of the active ingredients of the insecticides were evaluated with residual contact tests for the larvae and adults of these predators in the laboratory. Flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat were innocuous to last instar larvae and adults of C. carnea and A. bipunctata. Sulfoxaflor was slightly toxic to adults of C. carnea and was highly toxic to the L4 larvae of A. bipunctata. For A. bipunctata, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin were the most damaging compounds with a cumulative larval mortality of 100%. Deltamethrin was also the most toxic compound to larvae and adults of C. carnea. In accordance with the results obtained, the compounds flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat might be incorporated into IPM programs in combination with these natural enemies for the control of particular greenhouse pests. Nevertheless, the use of sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin in IPM strategies should be taken into consideration when releasing either of these biological control agents, due to the toxic behavior observed under laboratory conditions. The need for developing sustainable approaches to combine the use of these insecticides and natural enemies within an IPM framework is discussed.

  1. Discussion of "Aeration, flow instabilities, and residual energy on pooled stepped spillways of embankment dams" by Stephen Felder and Hubert Chanson

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stepped spillways applied to embankment dams provide overtopping protection and address a common deficiency in aging dams by providing increased spillway capacity. Pooled-stepped spillways offer a design alternative to the traditional flat-stepped spillways. Researchers from the University of Quee...

  2. Wrongful death claims. Harriton v Stephens. [2002] NSWSC 461. Edwards v Blomeley. [2002] NSWSC 460. Waller v James [2002] NSWSC 462.

    PubMed

    Devereux, John

    2002-11-01

    Studdert J in all three cases went to great length to summarise the global judicial position of "wrongful life" claims. He did not, however, examine in great length how or whether "wrongful life" claims or "wrongful birth" claims are reconcilable with tort and common law principles. Although the cases identify the difficulty in assessing and quantifying damages, they do not directly address the strict legal principles which apply in the assessment of damages. The main conclusion of the three judgments was that no duty of care is owed to the plaintiff in these circumstances and, even if a duty could be established, the impossibility of quantifying damages and public policy considerations warrant the rejection of such a claim: "thus conscience does make cowards of us all." The significance of the decisions cannot be understand. The decisions deny recognition of "wrongful life" claims in circumstances where a disabled person has incurred injuries en ventre sa mere (in the mother's womb) as a result of infections contracted by a plaintiff's mother or genetic material passed on by a plaintiff's parents. Some countries have now legislated for the abolition of "wrongful life and birth" suits. In January 2002 the French legislature passed a Bill overturning the "wrongful life" decision of the Cour de Cassation in Perruche (17 November 2000). As the issue now falls for ultimate determination by the French Senate, the French pro-life movement continues to lobby for the prohibition of "wrongful birth" suits as well. Furthermore, eight States in the United States have prohibited either one or both actions and the State of Michigan prohibited both actions in 2001. It is likely that all three cases will be appealed. The appeal in Harriton will re-examine the viability of a "wrongful life" claim in Australia whereas the cases of Edwards and Waller still need to determine the "wrongful birth" claims brought by the plaintiffs' parents. It is likely that the latter two cases will not be determined until the High Court has considered the Queensland "wrongful birth" case of Melchior v Cattanach, expected to be late in 2002.

  3. Wrongful death claims. Harriton v Stephens. [2002] NSWSC 461. Edwards v Blomeley. [2002] NSWSC 460. Waller v James [2002] NSWSC 462.

    PubMed

    Devereux, John

    2002-11-01

    Studdert J in all three cases went to great length to summarise the global judicial position of "wrongful life" claims. He did not, however, examine in great length how or whether "wrongful life" claims or "wrongful birth" claims are reconcilable with tort and common law principles. Although the cases identify the difficulty in assessing and quantifying damages, they do not directly address the strict legal principles which apply in the assessment of damages. The main conclusion of the three judgments was that no duty of care is owed to the plaintiff in these circumstances and, even if a duty could be established, the impossibility of quantifying damages and public policy considerations warrant the rejection of such a claim: "thus conscience does make cowards of us all." The significance of the decisions cannot be understand. The decisions deny recognition of "wrongful life" claims in circumstances where a disabled person has incurred injuries en ventre sa mere (in the mother's womb) as a result of infections contracted by a plaintiff's mother or genetic material passed on by a plaintiff's parents. Some countries have now legislated for the abolition of "wrongful life and birth" suits. In January 2002 the French legislature passed a Bill overturning the "wrongful life" decision of the Cour de Cassation in Perruche (17 November 2000). As the issue now falls for ultimate determination by the French Senate, the French pro-life movement continues to lobby for the prohibition of "wrongful birth" suits as well. Furthermore, eight States in the United States have prohibited either one or both actions and the State of Michigan prohibited both actions in 2001. It is likely that all three cases will be appealed. The appeal in Harriton will re-examine the viability of a "wrongful life" claim in Australia whereas the cases of Edwards and Waller still need to determine the "wrongful birth" claims brought by the plaintiffs' parents. It is likely that the latter two cases will not be determined until the High Court has considered the Queensland "wrongful birth" case of Melchior v Cattanach, expected to be late in 2002. PMID:12497731

  4. First hand accounts of events in the laboratory of Prof. Eduard Pernkopf. Interviews by Seyed Hossein Aharinejad and Stephen W Carmichael.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Walter; Gisel, Alfred; Platzer, Werner

    2013-04-01

    Eduard Pernkopf was responsible for one of the best anatomy atlases of all time. He was also an active National Socialist during the Third Reich. Some have questioned whether his political affiliation influenced the procurement of anatomic specimens for his Atlas. Profs. Walter Kraus, Alfred Gisel, and Werner Platzer, who worked directly or indirectly with Pernkopf, were interviewed in 2006. We present transcripts of those interviews. The reader may evaluate their recollections in light of the political and social forces active in that period of history.

  5. 75 FR 4839 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, St. Lucie County, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ..., Florida. In 1987, we listed this species as threatened (June 3, 1987; 52 FR 20715). The listing became... of Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) (scrub-jay) breeding, feeding, and sheltering habitat... anticipates taking approximately 1 acre (0.4 hectares (ha)) of Florida scrub-jay breeding, feeding...

  6. 76 FR 12751 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Applications for Incidental Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ...; 52 FR 20715). The listing became effective July 6, 1987. The applicants propose to mitigate the... Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) (scrub- jay) breeding, feeding, and sheltering habitat... approximately 1.75 acres (0.71 hectares (ha)) of scrub-jay breeding, feeding, and sheltering habitat...

  7. 76 FR 36559 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ..., Nowata, Okmulgee, Osage, Ottawa, Pawnee, Pottawatomie, Rogers, Stephens, Tulsa, Wagoner, and Washington..., Nowata, Okmulgee, Osage, Ottawa, Pawnee, Pottawatomie, Stephens, Wagoner, and Washington Counties...

  8. VARIATION IN GROWTH, LIPID CLASS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF THE MUD CRAB, RHITHROPANOPEUS HARRISII (GOULD) DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO AN INSECT JUVENILE HORMONE ANALOG (FENOXYCARB(R))

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the effects of fenoxycarb?, an insect juvenile hormone (JH) analog, on larval growth, and lipid class and fatty acid composition in first crabs of the mud crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii reared through total larval development in nominal water concentrations fr...

  9. 27. VIEW SHOWING SOUTH ELEVATION OF NOTRE DAM BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW SHOWING SOUTH ELEVATION OF NOTRE DAM BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST Ernest Gould, photographer, 1987 - Notre Dame Bridge, Spanning Merrimack River on Bridge Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

  10. 75 FR 30405 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ..., Trustee; Robert Stephen Ukrop; The Amended and Restated Robert Stephen Ukrop Revocable Trust, Robert Stephen Ukrop, Trustee; Robert Scott Ukrop; The Amendment and Restatement of the Robert Scott Ukrop Revocable Declaration of Trust, Robert Scott Ukrop, Trustee; Joseph E. Ukrop; The Robert Stephen...

  11. 78 FR 23934 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ..., individually, with Stephen L. LaFrance, Jr., Little Rock, Arkansas, as the sole manager, and LAF-GW and Stephen... liability company, with Stephen L. LaFrance, Jr., Jason P. LaFrance, and Joe Courtright, both of Little Rock, Arkansas, as managers, LAF Brothers Properties, LLC, an Arkansas limited liability company, with Stephen...

  12. Asteroids to Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugger, Phyllis M.

    2004-12-01

    Asteroid dedication; William Liller: Biographical Sketch; William Liller: Autobiographical Meanderings; Preface; List of Participants; Conference Photo; Part I. 1. Solar System Astronomy: Asteroids Joseph Veverka; 2. Sixteen years of stellar occultations James Elliott; 3. Comets to Quasars: Surface photometry from standard stars and the morphology of the galaxy-quasar interface Peter Usher; 4. Observing Solar Eclipses Jay Pasachoff; Part II. 5. Planetary Nebulae: new insights and opportunities Lawrence Aller; 6. Studies of planetary nebulae at radio wavelengths Yervant Terzian; 7. Optical identifications of compact galactic X-ray sources: Liller Lore Jonathan Grindlay; 8. Ages of globular clusters derived from BVRI CCD photometry Gonzalo Alcaino; 9. Stellar spectrum synthesis Jun Jugaku; 10. Mass exchange and stellar abundance anomalies Benjamin Peery; Part III. Extragalactic Astronomy: 11. The M31 globular cluster system John Huchra; 12. Spiral structure and star formation in galaxies Debra Elmegreen; 13. The discovery of hot coronae around early type galaxies William Forman and Christine Jones; 14. The morphology of clusters of galaxies, the formation efficiency of galaxies and the origin of the intracluster medium Christine Jones and William Forman; 15. Testing models for the dynamical evolution of clusters of galaxies Phyllis Lugger; 16. What is in the X-ray sky? Rudolph Schild; 17. Einstein deep surveys Stephen Murray, Christine Jones and William Forman; Part IV. History, Lore and Archaeoastronomy: 18. Robert Wheeler Willson: His Life and Legacy Barbara Welther; 19. The great mnemonics contest Owen Gingerich; 20. Hetu'u Rapanui: The archaeoastronomy of Easter Island William Liller; Indexes; Names; Objects; Subjects.

  13. COMMITTEES: LISA 7 Science Organizing Committee and Local Organizing Committee LISA 7 Science Organizing Committee and Local Organizing Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    Science Organising Committee (SOC) Pierre Binetruy, APC - College de France Massimo Cerdonio, University of Padova Karsten Danzmann, AEI/University of Hannover Mike Cruise, University of Birmingham Jim Hough, University of Glasgow Oliver Jennrich, ESTEC Philippe Jetzer, University Zurich Alberto Lobo (Chair), ICE-CSIC and IEEC Yannick Mellier, IAP, Paris Bernard Schutz, AEI Potsdam Tim Sumner, Imperial College, London Jean-Yves Vinet, OCA, Nice Stefano Vitale, University of Trento Peter Bender, University of Colorado Sasha Buchman, Stanford University Joan Centrella, NASA/Goddard Neil Cornish, Montana State University Curt Cutler, NASA/JPL Sam Finn, Penn State University Jens Gundlach, NPL Craig Hogan, University of Washington Scott Hughes, MIT Piero Madau, Lick Observatory Tom Prince, NASA/JPL Sterl Phinney, Caltech Doug Richstone, University of Michigan Tuck Stebbins, NASA/Goddard Kip Thorne, Caltech Roger Blandford, Stanford University Eugenio Coccia, University of Roma-2 Carlos F Sopuerta,ICE-CSIC and IEEC Enrique Garcia-Berro, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona Seiji Kawamura, National Observatory, Japan Jay Marx, LIGO Laboratory Stephen Merkowitz, NASA/Goddard Benoit Mours, Laboratoire d'Annec Gijs Nelemans, IMAPP, Nijmegen Enric Verdaguer, University of Barcelona Clifford M Will, Washington University, St Louis Local Organising Committee (LOC) Anna Bertolín (IEEC) Priscilla Cañizares (ICE-CSIC and IEEC) Carlos F Sopuerta (ICE-CSIC and IEEC) Ivan Lloro (ICE-CSIC and IEEC),Chair Alberto Lobo (ICE-CSIC and IEEC) Nacho Mateos (ICE-CSIC and IEEC) Pilar Montes (IEEC) Miquel Nofrarias (IEEC) Juan Ramos-Castro (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya) Josep Sanjuán (IEEC)

  14. High-precision R-branch transition frequencies in the ν2 fundamental band of H 3+ %A Perry, Adam J.; Hodges, James N.; Markus, Charles R.; Kocheril, G. Stephen; McCall, Benjamin J.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-11-01

    The H 3+molecular ion has served as a long-standing benchmark for state-of-the-art ab initio calculations of molecular potentials and variational calculations of rovibrational energy levels. However, the accuracy of such calculations would not have been confirmed if not for the wealth of spectroscopic data that has been made available for this molecule. Recently, a new high-precision ion spectroscopy technique was demonstrated by Hodges et al., which led to the first highly accurate and precise (∼MHz) H 3+transition frequencies. As an extension of this work, we present ten additional R-branch transitions measured to similar precision as a next step toward the ultimate goal of producing a comprehensive high-precision survey of this molecule, from which rovibrational energy levels can be calculated.

  15. Pacific Northwest (U.S.) In: Conversion to Sustainable Agriculture: Principles, Processes, and Practices. Stephen R. Gliessman, Martha Rosemeyer, and Sean Swezey (Editors). CRC Press Advances in Agroecology Series

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture represents a critical land use throughout the Pacific Northwest (PNW). It makes important contributions to the region’s economy, the nation’s food supply and to regional ecosystem services including air, water, and soil quality. As in many other regions of the U.S., adverse environmental...

  16. Creating a multi-gas proxy for Delta 14C and atmospheric fossil fuel-CO2. Kevin Coakley, John Miller , Scott Lehman, Stephen Montzka, Colm Sweeney, Arlyn Andrews , Ben Miller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coakley, K. J.; Miller, J. B.; Lehman, S.; Montzka, S. A.; Andrews, A. E.; Miller, B. R.

    2013-12-01

    The C14:C12 ratio of atmospheric CO2 (expressed as Delta 14C) is the gold standard measurement to derive the portion of observed atmospheric CO2 gradients resulting from combustion of fossil fuels (CO2-ff). This is because fossil fuels are devoid of 14C, unlike all other sources and sinks that impact atmospheric Delta14C. With enough 14C measurements, independent, 'top-down', estimation of US fossil fuel-CO2 emissions should be possible. However, our ability to make carbon-14 measurements is severely constrained by cost, accessibility to accelerator mass spectrometers (AMS) and the volume of air required to make high precision (~0.2 %) measurements of 14CO2 (mixing ratio is ~ 4e-16 mol/mol). Thus, Delta 14C is currently measured in only a small subset of NOAA/ESRL Global Monitoring Division (GMD) tall-tower and aircraft air samples. Here, we present a Projection Pursuit Regression (PPR) model to predict CO2-ff measured at different times and altitudes in terms of surrogate gases that are more widespread and relatively inexpensive to measure. This method would, in effect, allow expansion of Delta 14C measurements by factor of ~3 or 4 throughout North America. To create a proxy for CO2-ff, we take advantage of the observed correlations between (Delta 14C-derrived) CO2-ff and regional-scale enhancements of a wide array of anthropogenic gases, like CO, SF6, and halo- and hydro-carbons. We select the complexity and form of the PPR model by cross validation where validation data prediction error is minimized. In cross validation, the prediction model is based on the training data and not the validation data. We quantify prediction model performance with test data excluded from the model development process. According to cross validation, the PPR model is superior to a simpler linear model. Comparison with test CO2-ff data shows that CO2-ff can be predicted with a root mean square error of 1.1 ppm, only slightly higher than the Delta 14C-precision limit for CO2-ff of 1 ppm. Applying the PPR model to the large NOAA/ESRL/GMD database of surrogate gases, we can create a large set of synthetic CO2-ff data for the US. Finally, we will discuss the application of this large data set of lower-precision CO2-ff to top down determination of US fossil fuel CO2 emissions by presenting results from an Observation System Simulation Experiment (OSSE).

  17. 26. Aerial photograph dated 20 June 1942, showing north end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Aerial photograph dated 20 June 1942, showing north end of Gould Island from the southwest. At upper left is firing pier. Shop building and power plant under construction at center. Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  18. Pen and Paper vs. the Machine: Writers Composing in Hard Copy and Computer Conditions. CDC Technical Report No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Christina; Hayes, John R.

    A study was conducted to replicate partially John Gould's study using more advanced machines and editors, and to test several of Colette Daiute's hypotheses about writing with the computer. Gould's study indicated that expert writers using text editors required 50% more time to compose on text editors than on hard copy, and the extra time did not…

  19. 10. Photographic copy of photocopy of bridge drawing, half plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photographic copy of photocopy of bridge drawing, half plans and elevation (June 12, 1937, original drawing on file in Structures Section, Utah Department of Transportation, Salt Lake City, Utah). SHEET NO. 2 OF 6 SHEETS. - Gould Wash Bridge, Spanning Gould Wash at State Route 9, Hurricane, Washington County, UT

  20. 11. Photographic copy of photocopy of bridge drawing, half plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of photocopy of bridge drawing, half plans and footings (June 12, 1937, original drawing on file in Structures Section, Utah Department of Transportation, Salt Lake City, Utah). SHEET NO. 3 OF 6 SHEETS. - Gould Wash Bridge, Spanning Gould Wash at State Route 9, Hurricane, Washington County, UT

  1. 14. Photographic copy of photocopy of bridge drawing, reinforced rod ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photographic copy of photocopy of bridge drawing, reinforced rod specifications (June 12, 1937, original drawing on file in Structures Section, Utah Department of Transportation, Salt Lake City, Utah). SHEET NO. 6 OF 6 SHEETS. - Gould Wash Bridge, Spanning Gould Wash at State Route 9, Hurricane, Washington County, UT

  2. 9. Photographic copy of photocopy of bridge drawing, situation plan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photographic copy of photocopy of bridge drawing, situation plan and profile on center line (June 12, 1937, original drawing on file in Structures Section, Utah Department of Transportation, Salt Lake City, Utah). SHEET NO. 1 OF 6 SHEETS. - Gould Wash Bridge, Spanning Gould Wash at State Route 9, Hurricane, Washington County, UT

  3. 13. Photographic copy of photocopy of bridge drawing, plans and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photographic copy of photocopy of bridge drawing, plans and elevations (June 12, 1937, original drawing on file in Structures Section, Utah Department of Transportation, Salt Lake City, Utah). SHEET NO. 5 OF 6 SHEETS. - Gould Wash Bridge, Spanning Gould Wash at State Route 9, Hurricane, Washington County, UT

  4. 12. Photographic copy of photocopy of bridge drawing, half plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of photocopy of bridge drawing, half plans and abutment elevation (June 12, 1937, original drawing on file in Structures Section, Utah Department of Transportation, Salt Lake City, Utah). SHEET NO. 4 OF 6 SHEETS. - Gould Wash Bridge, Spanning Gould Wash at State Route 9, Hurricane, Washington County, UT

  5. Exercises for Keeping Pianists' Hands in Top Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Some pianists have idiosyncratic ways of keeping their hands and fingers relaxed. Glenn Gould, for example, religiously soaked his digits in hot water before performing or recording. While the jury is still out on the effectiveness of Gould's routine, there are plenty of other exercises and practices that will keep a pianist's fingers limber.…

  6. Weighing Photons Using Bathroom Scales: A Thought Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2010-01-01

    Jay Orear, in his introductory physics text, defined the weight of a person as the reading one gets when standing on a (properly calibrated) bathroom scale. Here we will use Jay's definition of weight in a thought experiment to measure the weight of a photon. The thought experiment uses the results of the Pound-Rebka-Snider experiments, Compton…

  7. Brain cholinesterase inhibition in songbirds from pecan groves sprayed with phosaline and disulfoton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Seginak, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    Disulfoton at 0.83 kg/ha caused moderate to severe brain cholinesterase (ChE) depression in 11 of 15 blue jays collected in pecan groves 6-7 hr after the application. Phosalone at 0.83 kg/ha to pecan groves caused only slight ChE inhibition in a few blue jays and red-bellied woodpeckers.

  8. From the Classroom to the Community: Exploring the Role of Education during Incarceration and Reentry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazzell, Diana; Crayton, Anna; Mukamal, Debbie A.; Solomon, Amy L.; Lindahl, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing the pressing need to explore the issues surrounding education, incarceration, and reentry, the Prisoner Reentry Institute at John Jay College of Criminal Justice and the Urban Institute hosted the Reentry Roundtable on Education on March 31 and April 1, 2008, at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York City. The two-day…

  9. 76 FR 37142 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Incidental Take Permit Application; Proposed Low...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ...; 52 FR 20715). The listing became effective July 6, 1987. The applicant proposes to mitigate for the... about 0.23 acre of Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) (scrub-jay) breeding, feeding, and... breeding, feeding, and sheltering habitat incidental to land preparation for construction of a...

  10. Regional Education Profile: Asia. China, Hong Kong, Macau, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    Developments in international education in Asia during 1985 are considered in three essays presented in the Biennial International Education Seminars conducted by the Institute of International Education. Countries covered by the essays and the authors are: China, Hong Kong, and Thailand (Jay Henderson); Macau (Josef Silny and Jay Henderson); and…

  11. Ozette, a remnant potato variety introduced by Spanish explorers to the Olympic Peninsula of Washington in the 1700’s

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jay Garner, Univ. of Idaho Extension Potato Specialist, obtained a tuber of Ozette (April of 1987) from a rancher on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington, not far from the Makah Indian Reservation. The Makah elders told Jay that Spanish explorers brought the potatoes to Neah Bay. The Spanish left t...

  12. 77 FR 62512 - Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ..., Facility ID 24146, BP-20120921AET, From ST. STEPHEN, SC, To SAINT STEPHEN, SC; OHANA BROADCAST COMPANY LLC... BROADCAST COMPANY LLC, Station KQNG, Facility ID 58938, BP-20120822AAP, From LIHUE, HI, To ELEELE, HI; ROY...

  13. Signs of Drug Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Download "I feel so helpless against his addiction." Matt's brother Stephen is addicted to meth. Matt wants to help Stephen, but he isn't sure how. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  14. The Geologic Story of Arches National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lohman, Stanley William

    1975-01-01

    According to former Superintendent Bates Wilson (1956), Prof. Lawrence M. Gould, of the University of Michigan, was the first to recognize the geologic and scenic values of the Arches area in eastern Utah and to urge its creation as a national monument. Mrs. Faun McConkie Tanner told me that Professor Gould, who had done a thesis problem in the nearby La Sal Mountains, was first taken through the area by Marv Turnbow, third owner of Wolfe cabin. (See p. 12.) When Professor Gould went into ecstasy over the beautiful scenery, Turnbow replied, 'I didn't know there was anything unusual about it.'

  15. Letters in this Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    Reforming the General Chemistry Textbook individual letters by Edward T. Samulski; Stephen J. Hawkes; Stephen J. Fisher; J. Stephen Hartman; A. R. H. Cole; Stanley Pine, Ronald Archer, and Herbert Kaesz; Jimmy Reeves; Robert Hill; and Brock Spencer, C. Bradley Moore and Nedah Rose. Re: article by R. J. Gillespie The author replies

  16. 78 FR 28881 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ..., Wareham, March 15, 2013 255223 1295). 01-2090P). Stephen M. Holmes, MA 02571. Chairman, Town of Wareham... 1295). (12-07-2300P). Stephens, Mayor, Springfield, MO 65801. City of Springfield, 840 Boonville Avenue..., December 27, 2012 290149 1279). (12-07-2301P). Stephens, Mayor, Springfield, MO 65801. City of...

  17. 78 FR 52513 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    .... Jacqueline L. Wicecarver--Assistant Inspector General for Acquisition and Spare Parts. Stephen D. Wilson...-5745. Stephen Hardgrove--Chief of Staff. Kimberly Elmore--Assistant Inspector General for Audits...) 415-5930. David C. Lee--Deputy Inspector General. Stephen D. Dingbaum--Assistant Inspector General...

  18. 77 FR 51523 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ...--Assistant Inspector General for Acquisition and Contract Management. Stephen D. Wilson--Assistant Inspector.... Department of the Interior Phone Number: (202) 208-5745. CIGIE Liaison--Joann Gauzza (202) 208-5745. Stephen.... Lee--Deputy Inspector General. Stephen D. Dingbaum--Assistant Inspector General for Audits. Joseph...

  19. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  20. 11. Submersible torpedo tube mounted on platform of elevator at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Submersible torpedo tube mounted on platform of elevator at northeast (starboard) elevator tower. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  1. 18. Interior first level view looking northnortheast within forward (north) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Interior first level view looking north-northeast within forward (north) section of firing pier, with office module toward foreground. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  2. 17. Interior first level view looking north within forward (north) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Interior first level view looking north within forward (north) section of firing pier. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  3. 78 FR 37539 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ...: 07/15/2013, Contact: Dean A. Gould 559-297-0706. Revision to FR Notice Published 5/31/2013; Change... . EIS No. 20130171, Final EIS, BR, CA, Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside Corona Feeder...

  4. 22. Interior second level view of central corridor between crew ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Interior second level view of central corridor between crew mess and galley, showing representative hallway treatment. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  5. 44. 'Submarine Torpedo Tube Foundation and Towers,' Y&D Drawing 226855, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. 'Submarine Torpedo Tube Foundation and Towers,' Y&D Drawing 226855, approved by Bureau of Ordnance. Dated 20 October 1943. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  6. 20. Interior second level view looking west within officers' wardroom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Interior second level view looking west within officers' wardroom at the north end of this level. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  7. 21. Interior second level view of representative quarters for officers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Interior second level view of representative quarters for officers and Chief Petty Officers. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  8. 77 FR 67020 - Performance Review Board Appointments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ..., Michael Black, Michael Black, Steven Blanchard, Mary Josie Bolton, Hannibal Burden, John Burzyk, Carla..., Jerold Glenn, Douglas Gonzales-Schreiner, Roseann Gould, Gregory Graziano, Angela Gross, Lawrence Gunderson, Linda Haugrud, Kevin Hawbecker, Karen Ishee, Mary Katherine Iudicello, Fay Jackson, Andrew...

  9. Approaching Adult Education Literature Using the Donlevy Template of Perspectives: A Focus on the Psychological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlevy, James G.; Donlevy, Tia Rice

    1998-01-01

    Provides brief descriptions of adult education from technological, psychological, ideological, and sociological perspectives. Author examines the psychological perspective, highlighting the work of Jack Mezirow (transformation theory), Roger Gould (seven-step adult development process), Patricia Cranton (Understanding and Promoting Transformative…

  10. Temperate grass response to timing of grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing management has a significant impact on pasture growth. We determined how timing of grazing influences grass productivity, yield distribution, and persistence. Meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.], orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), quackgrass [Elymus repens (L.) Gould...

  11. Temperate Perennial Grass Response to Defoliation Height and Interval

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frequency and extent to which temperate perennial grasses are defoliated influences their productivity and persistence. Field-grown tillers of meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), common quackgrass [Elymus repens (L.) Gould], and reed canarygrass (Phala...

  12. Review of the dWind Model Conceptual Results

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, Ian; Gleason, Michael; Preus, Robert; Sigrin, Ben

    2015-09-16

    This presentation provides an overview of the dWind model, including its purpose, background, and current status. Baring-Gould presented this material as part of the September 2015 WINDExchange webinar.

  13. 75 FR 66718 - Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Forest Plan and Interagency requirements for grizzly bear security and habitat within the recovery zone... Continental Divide National Scenic Trail, the Helmville-Gould trail, grizzly bear, elk, and bull trout...

  14. 12. View to north along recovery dock along east side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View to north along recovery dock along east side of firing pier. Steel brackets originally supported a sheltering canopy over the dock. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  15. 27. Aerial photograph dated 14 October 1943 taken directly over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Aerial photograph dated 14 October 1943 taken directly over Gould Island. Completed complex shown at north end of the island (to right in photograph), including power plant, shop, frame approach, firing pier, and small harbor formed by finger pier off east side of firing pier. Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  16. 25. Aerial photograph dated 20 June 1942, showing north end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Aerial photograph dated 20 June 1942, showing north end of Gould Island from the northeast (caption on photo is in error). Shop and power plant under construction at left, firing pier under construction at far right. Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  17. Eavesdropping squirrels reduce their future value of food under the perceived presence of cache robbers.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kenneth A; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2008-03-01

    Caching behavior frequently occurs within a social context that may include heterospecific cache pilferers. All else equal, the value of cacheable food should decline as the probability of cache recovering declines. We manipulated gray squirrels' (Sciurus carolinensis) estimate of the probability of cache recovery using experimental playbacks of the vocalizations of a potential cache robber, the blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata). We used giving-up densities (GUDs) to quantify relative changes in squirrels' valuation of cacheable and noncacheable foods. We collected GUDs during playback experiments to test whether squirrels (1) eavesdrop on vocalizations to detect jay presence, (2) devalue cacheable food in the (perceived) presence of jays (i.e., perceive jays as cache pilferers), and (3) are sensitive to distant effects (i.e., lower devaluation of cacheable food at sites far from the perceived location of jays). Consistent with our predictions, squirrels decreased the value of cacheable hazelnuts by two nuts, on average, during jay playbacks, but only at foraging stations near the jay playback sites. We conclude that through eavesdropping, squirrels assess site-specific risks of cache pilfering and alter their caching behavior to reduce the likelihood of pilferage. Evidence suggests that tree seed consumers in eastern deciduous forests exist within a complex communication network. PMID:18220481

  18. Eavesdropping squirrels reduce their future value of food under the perceived presence of cache robbers.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kenneth A; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2008-03-01

    Caching behavior frequently occurs within a social context that may include heterospecific cache pilferers. All else equal, the value of cacheable food should decline as the probability of cache recovering declines. We manipulated gray squirrels' (Sciurus carolinensis) estimate of the probability of cache recovery using experimental playbacks of the vocalizations of a potential cache robber, the blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata). We used giving-up densities (GUDs) to quantify relative changes in squirrels' valuation of cacheable and noncacheable foods. We collected GUDs during playback experiments to test whether squirrels (1) eavesdrop on vocalizations to detect jay presence, (2) devalue cacheable food in the (perceived) presence of jays (i.e., perceive jays as cache pilferers), and (3) are sensitive to distant effects (i.e., lower devaluation of cacheable food at sites far from the perceived location of jays). Consistent with our predictions, squirrels decreased the value of cacheable hazelnuts by two nuts, on average, during jay playbacks, but only at foraging stations near the jay playback sites. We conclude that through eavesdropping, squirrels assess site-specific risks of cache pilfering and alter their caching behavior to reduce the likelihood of pilferage. Evidence suggests that tree seed consumers in eastern deciduous forests exist within a complex communication network.

  19. Ring Around the Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croswell, Ken

    2005-07-01

    Gould's Belt, the most prominent starry feature in the Sun's neighborhood, is a zone of large supergiant stars including the Orion constellation; the bright stars of Canis Major, the Southern Cross, Centaurus, and Lupus; and the brightest stars of the Pupis, Vela, and Carina constellations. Its most prominent feature is its 20-degree tilt to the plane of the Milky Way. Gould's Belt was first noticed in 1847 by Englishman John F. W. Herschel while observing from the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa. Later, Benjamin A. Gould, the first American to earn a doctoral degree in astronomy and the founder of The Astronomical Journal, traced the belt around the entire sky. More recent studies of Gould's Belt show evidence of more than just superstars. When massive stars like those in Gould's Belt explode, they leave behind pulsars and black holes. In the 1990's several dozen gamma-ray sources were discovered to track along the path of Gould's Belt around the sky, possible evidence of the explosion of brilliant stars at an earlier time. X-ray studies suggest that the belt may actually be a disk.

  20. 75 FR 53958 - Meeting of the Board of Advisors to the Presidents of the Naval Postgraduate School and the Naval...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ...), notice is hereby given that the following meeting of the Board of Advisors (BOA) to the Presidents of the... BOA, contact Ms. Jaye Panza, Naval Postgraduate School, 1 University Circle, Monterey, CA...

  1. 7 CFR 301.50-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 301.50-3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in.... Huntington County. The entire county. Jasper County. The entire county. Jay County. The entire...

  2. J. E. McPherson, educator and researcher extraordinaire: Biographical sketch and list of publications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biographical sketch of Dr. John E. (Jay) McPherson, emeritus professor at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, highlighting his teaching and research career is presented and a list of his 183 publications is provided....

  3. 78 FR 26867 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... BEATRICE ] HAGMANN WALTER HAKOZAKI SEIJI HALEY-UHLMANN ALICE HALL KATRINA FAVELL HAMILTON WILLIAM NEILSON... ANN SILVERSTEIN A JAY SIMON DOUGLAS NORMAN SIMONI ANNE WINKLER SIMONI CARLO ALBERTO SLEE...

  4. Explorations Precursor Robotic Missions (xPRM)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Jay Jenkins delivers a presentation from the Exploration Precursor Robotic Missions (xPRM) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose...

  5. 5. VIEW SOUTHWEST, INTERIOR CANAL WALL (Original Fabric) Bald ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SOUTHWEST, INTERIOR CANAL WALL (Original Fabric) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  6. 17. DETAIL OF FRAGMENTS FROM WEST GATE (off site) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF FRAGMENTS FROM WEST GATE (off site) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  7. 2. VIEW SOUTH, LOCK ENTRANCE Bald Eagle CrossCut Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH, LOCK ENTRANCE - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  8. Critical Theory in Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardt, Hanno

    1986-01-01

    Reviews two books by Martin Jay on the intellectual history of Western Marxism and critical theory "in exile" that detail the complex foundations of an ideological critique of culture and society and evaluates their meaning for communications scholarship. (JD)

  9. A potpourri of practical (or not) projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riendeau, Diane

    2010-11-01

    Special thanks to Frank Noschese, John Jay High School, and Karen Boone, Hallettsville High School. If you have a favorite video, please send the link and a brief description to: Diane Riendeau at driendeau@dist113.org.

  10. West Branch Pennsylvania Canal, Lock No. 34 Lock Keeper's House, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West Branch Pennsylvania Canal, Lock No. 34 Lock Keeper's House, South of State Route 664 along North bank of West Branch of Susquehanna River, 2,000 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  11. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... water (like a lake) or to groundwater (the fresh water found under the Earth’s surface that supplies wells ... Too much harmful algae (say: AL-jay) in freshwater or seawater can make beaches unsafe for people. ...

  12. Higher Education in the Eighties: A Review Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Joseph F.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Joseph F. Kauffman, W. Todd Furniss, and Jay L. Chronister review two recently published works that focus on important trends threatening the survival of colleges over the next decade. Fiscal, enrollment, reduction, reallocation, and retrenchment problems are discussed. (SF)

  13. 78 FR 52965 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Incidental Take Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... anticipates taking about 1.49 acres of foraging, breeding, and sheltering habitat used by the Florida scrub... anticipates taking 1.49 acre of Florida scrub-jay breeding, feeding, and sheltering habitat for...

  14. Explorer in Hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Haley, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Written in 1957, this paper was Jay Haley's first attempt to organize his impressions of Milton Erickson. The article captures the essence of Erickson: the man, his early concepts of the trance state, his flexibility in trance induction, and his delight in working with those considered "resistant subjects." In this early paper, Jay Haley clearly recognizes Erickson's potential impact on therapy and clinicians around the world. This paper reminds readers of the importance of therapeutic relationship and the power of effective communication.

  15. Endangered and Threatened Species at Kennedy Space Center Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galdolfi, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Throughout my internship, I assisted with the long-term monitoring of the Florida Scrub- Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a threatened species endemic to Florida. The Florida Scrub Jay diet consists of insects and small vertebrates throughout most of the year; however, during the winter their primary diet is acorns because the insect population is low. Furthermore, the Florida Scrub-Jay is a habitat specialist that lives in a disappearing plant community called the scrub, which consists of sand live oak, myrtle oak and chapman oak. The Florida Scrub-Jay is considered threatened because its numbers are decreasing primarily due to the loss of habitat that it needs to survive. Scrub habitat is highly desirable for human development because it is high, dry, and sandy. Periodic controlled burns maintain the scrub in a low, open condition favored by Scrub-Jays. Florida Scrub-Jays build their nests approximately 3-5 feet (approximately 1.5 m) above the ground in shrubby oaks (Breininger 153), mate for life and are cooperative breeders; which means that the young jays remain in their natal territory for at least a year to help their parents defend their territory, feed the young, and mob predators. (Breininger 152). I assisted in conducting monthly censuses at long-term monitoring sites and a juvenile in July survey to determine reproductive success for the year. In addition, to Scrub-Jay monitoring, I also had the opportunity to assist with some long term monitoring of ecosystem recovery. Scrub is a fire maintained system. Fire maintains the structure of scrub necessary for many of the threatened species that reside in the scrub habitat.

  16. Weighing Photons Using Bathroom Scales: A Thought Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2010-05-01

    Jay Orear, in his introductory physics text, defined the weight of a person as the reading one gets when standing on a (properly calibrated) bathroom scale. Here we will use Jay's definition of weight in a thought experiment to measure the weight of a photon. The thought experiment uses the results of the Pound-Rebka-Snider2,3 experiments, Compton scattering experiments, and the Eötvös experiments.

  17. To authorize the Secretary of the Interior to adjust the boundary of the Stephen Mather Wilderness and the North Cascades National Park in order to allow the rebuilding of a road outside of the floodplain while ensuring that there is no net loss of acreage to the Park or the Wilderness, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Hastings, Doc [R-WA-4

    2009-06-10

    10/27/2009 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Paulo Freire, or Pedagogy as the Space and Time of Possibility. Essay Review of "Reading Freire and Habermas: Critical Pedagogy and Transformative Social Change," by Raymond Morrow and Carlos Alberto Torres; "Reinventing Paulo Freire: A Pedagogy of Love," by Antonia Darder; and "The Freirean Legacy: Educating for Social Justice," edited by Judith J. Slater, Stephen M. Fain, and Cesar A. Rossatto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teodoro, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Three books examine works of Paulo Freire and the concepts of critical pedagogy and emancipatory education as they relate to current world political situations: dominance of neoliberal politics on one hand and Brazil's election of a working-class president on the other. Freire's thinking can be a foundation for a new leftist "common sense" that…

  19. Book Review: Conceptual mathematics: a first introduction to categories. F. William Lawvere and Stephen H. Schanuel, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997 (reprinted with corrections 1998), xvi+358 pp., index, hbk, ISBN 0-521-47249-0, pbk, ISBN 0-521-47817-0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corfield, David

    Casting scientific or mathematical research activity in the form of programmes with a view to gauging its progressiveness is no straightforward business, as Imre Lakatos discovered. The category theory "programme", now over half a century old, has certainly become too large to be judged as a united enterprise whose members share a common mission. Speaking about Bayesian statistics, Edwin Jaynes could imagine a time when its methods had become so pervasive that its practitioners found their common interests insufficiently extensive to cause them to gather together for conferences, just as the time when researchers could meet up to discuss the uses of Fourier transforms is long past. Well, category theory has already progressed a certain way towards this stage. Its penetration into the various branches of mathematics has been uneven, but in some cases it has been profound. For instance, any algebraic topologist or algebraic geometer just must use a considerable amount of category theory as part of their job. It has also made inroads into logic and, from there, to theoretical computer science (see e.g., Taylor, 1999). Its reach even extends to mathematical physics where, for example, we find topological quantum field theories defined in terms of functors between categories (Atiyah, 1988), and the intriguing prospect that higher-dimensional categories will feature in subsequent developments.

  20. 76 FR 33337 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... (capture, handle, and release) the Stephens' kangaroo rat (Dipodomys stephensi) in conjunction with surveys... of Land Management in Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, Tulare, Kings, Fresno, and Kern...

  1. 76 FR 44028 - Texas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ..., Dawson, Duval, Eastland, Garza, Glasscock, Hall, Hemphill, Hockley, Irion, Kent, King, Lynn, Martin, Mason, Mitchell, Moore, Motley, Pecos, Presidio, Scurry, Stephens, Sterling, Sutton, Terrell,...

  2. 75 FR 62109 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (Council); Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Avenue, Suite 1100, Tampa, FL 33607. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Stephen Bortone, Executive....--The Mackerel Management Committee will discuss the scoping document for King Mackerel Latent...

  3. 77 FR 21559 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Agent. Application Type: New NVO & OFF License. American Red Ball International, Inc. (NVO & OFF), 9750...: Stephen R. Halder, Vice President (Qualifying Individual). Valerio Shaha, Director/Vice...

  4. 40 CFR 81.237 - Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of..., Newton County, Oconee County, Oglethorpe County, Rabun County, Stephens County, Towns County,...

  5. 40 CFR 81.237 - Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of..., Newton County, Oconee County, Oglethorpe County, Rabun County, Stephens County, Towns County,...

  6. 40 CFR 81.237 - Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of..., Newton County, Oconee County, Oglethorpe County, Rabun County, Stephens County, Towns County,...

  7. 40 CFR 81.237 - Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of..., Newton County, Oconee County, Oglethorpe County, Rabun County, Stephens County, Towns County,...

  8. 40 CFR 81.237 - Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of..., Newton County, Oconee County, Oglethorpe County, Rabun County, Stephens County, Towns County,...

  9. 14. SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHSOUTHEAST AT CABINETS CONTAINING HIGH VOLTAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST AT CABINETS CONTAINING HIGH VOLTAGE EQUIPMENT - Portland General Electric Company, Stephens Substation, 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  10. Descriptions of eight new species of feather lice in the genus Columbicola (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae), with a comprehensive world checklist.

    PubMed

    Bush, Sarah E; Price, Roger D; Clayton, Dale H

    2009-04-01

    Eight new species of lice in the genus Columbicola Ewing are described: C. harbisoni (type host: Phaps histrionica (Gould)), C. koopae (type host: Geophaps scripta (Temminck)), C. eowilsoni (type host: Geophaps smithii (Jardine and Selby), C. wombeyi (type host: Geophaps plumnifera Gould), C. masoni (type host: Petrophassa rufipennis Collett), C. waiteae (type host: Columba leucomela Temminck), C. rodmani (type host: Geopelia humeralis (Temminck)), and C. smithae (type host: Turtur brehmeri (Hartlaub)). Also, we provide a comprehensive checklist for the 88 known species of Columbicola (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) and their pigeon and dove hosts (Aves: Columbiformes).

  11. Dimensions of Locus of Control: Impact of Early Educational Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Mark W.

    A study was conducted to: (1) assess the equivalence of the Nowicki Strickland Locus of Control Scale for Children, the Stephens-Delys Reinforcement Contingency Interview, and the Gruen-Korte-Stephens test and the construct validity of each; and (2) investigate the impact on IE of the open classroom Follow Through program sponsored by the…

  12. TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER DERIVED FROM THE DESTRUCTION OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    May 15, 2002
    Abstract submitted by Stephen H. Gavett for American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR) annual meeting October 7-11, 2002 in Charlotte, NC.

    TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER DERIVED FROM THE DESTRUCTION OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER
    Stephen H ...

  13. 76 FR 57947 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ...-5745. CIGIE Liaison--Deborah Holmes (202) 208-5745. Stephen Hardgrove--Chief of Staff. Kimberly Elmore.... Hampton--Deputy Assistant Inspector General for Aviation and Special Program Audits. Louis King--Assistant... Investigations. Wade Najjum--Assistant Inspector General for Program Evaluation. Stephen...

  14. 76 FR 44914 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... County Bank, Lincoln, Illinois. C. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis (Jacqueline G. King, Community Affairs Officer) 90 Hennepin Avenue, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55480-0291: 1. Stephen L. Grobel, Tabb... thereby indirectly acquire voting shares of First Community Bank, Glasgow, Montana. In addition, Stephen...

  15. 78 FR 10195 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ...). Stephen M. Wareham, MA 02571. team.com/starr/ Holmes, RegionalWorkspaces/ Chairman, Town RegionI/pages/ of... 840 Boonville Avenue, http://www.starr- March 29, 2013 290149 Springfield (12- Bob Stephens... Enginnering Martin Luther Division, 210 Martin King Jr. Luther King Junior Boulevard, Room Boulevard, Room...

  16. 75 FR 51518 - Office of the Secretary: Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ..., Anthony T. Gee, King W. Gibbs, David C. Griffith, Michael S. Holian, Thomas P. Horne, Dwight A. Johnson.... John Geraci, Michael Guerci, Lloyd S. Harris, Claude Kratzke, Stephen R. Maddox, John M. Markison... Saul, Roger Simons, James F. Smith, Daniel C. Walter, Gregory A. Wood, Stephen Office of...

  17. Rethinking Interventions To Combat Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhavnani, Reena

    This book arose as a result of the findings of the Stephen Lawrence murder inquiry, particularly the relationship to education and training about racism. Sir William Macpherson began his inquiry in 1998 following the racially motivated murder of Stephen Lawrence. The inquiry examined the causes of Lawrence's death, lessons to be learned from it,…

  18. Reply to Humphreys' and Parsons'"Piagetian Tasks Measure Intelligence and Intelligence Tests Assess Cognitive Development."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V.; Stephens, Beth

    1980-01-01

    Relationships among Piagetian reasoning assessments and standard measures of intelligence and achievement were determined in 1972 by Stephens, McLaughlin, Miller, and Glass (EJ 055 112). The data were reanalyzed by Humphreys and Parsons in 1979 (EJ 218 642). In reply, Glass and Stephens note fallacies in Humphreys' and Parsons' reasoning.…

  19. 77 FR 61753 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Stephen A. Wynn; Wynn Resorts, Limited; Stephen A. Wynn. 20121345 G GS Apple Investors 2011, LLC; AmRest Holdings SE; GS Apple Investors 2011, LLC. 20121350 G Olympus Growth Fund V, L.P.; Seven Mile Capital...; Johnson & Johnson. 20121347 G DCP Funding LLC; Red Zone Capital Partners II, L.P.; DCP Funding...

  20. Interview: Pathways to discovery: making the translational leap.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Stephen G

    2012-03-01

    Stephen G Waxman speaks to Roshaine Gunawardana, Commissioning Editor: Stephen G Waxman is the Bridget Marie Flaherty Professor of Neurology, Neurobiology and Pharmacology; Director, Center for Neuroscience and Regeneration/Neurorehabilitation Research, Yale University School of Medicine and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, CT, USA.

  1. 75 FR 51204 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To Remove the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... Stephens' kangaroo rat as endangered on September 30, 1988 (53 FR 38465). We published a draft recovery plan for the Stephens' kangaroo rat on June 23, 1997 (62 FR 33799; Service 1997, pp. 1-71), but it has... substantial information to indicate that the petitioned action may be warranted (69 FR 21567), and...

  2. 76 FR 4649 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ..., Filing of Pre-Application Document (PAD), Commencement of Pre-Filing Process, and Scoping; Request for Comments on the PAD and Scoping Document, and Identification of Issues and Associated Study Requests..., Langley, OK 74350-0070. i. FERC Contact: Stephen Bowler at (202) 502- 6861, stephen.bowler@ferc.gov ;...

  3. Work Papers of the Summer Intitute of Linguistics, 1993. University of North Dakota Session, Volume 37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, Robert A., Ed.; Meyer, Jim, Ed.

    This volume of work papers from the Summer Institute of Linguistics includes the following: "Goals and Indirect Objects in Seri" (Stephen A. Marlett); "Seri Kinship Terminology" (Mary B. Moser and Stephen A. Marlett); "Quiegolani Zapotec Phonology" (Sue Regnier); "Role and Reference Grammar" (Robert D. Van Valin, Jr.); "The Binding Properties of…

  4. Facing a Clever Predator Demands Clever Responses - Red-Backed Shrikes (Lanius collurio) vs. Eurasian Magpies (Pica pica)

    PubMed Central

    Syrová, Michaela; Němec, Michal; Veselý, Petr; Landová, Eva; Fuchs, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Red-backed shrikes (Lanius collurio) behave quite differently towards two common nest predators. While the European jay (Garrulus glandarius) is commonly attacked, in the presence of the Eurasian magpie (Pica pica), shrikes stay fully passive. We tested the hypotheses that this passive response to the magpie is an alternative defense strategy. Nesting shrikes were exposed to the commonly attacked European kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) in a situation in which i) a harmless domestic pigeon, ii) a commonly attacked European jay, and iii) a non-attacked black-billed magpie are (separately) presented nearby. The kestrel dummy presented together with the magpie dummy was attacked with a significantly lower intensity than when it was presented with the other intruders (pigeon, jay) or alone. This means that the presence of the magpie inhibited the shrike’s defense response towards the other intruder. These results support our previous hypotheses that shrikes use an alternative defense strategy in the magpie’s presence. We hypothesize that the magpie is able to associate the active defense of the shrikes with the close proximity of a nest and that shrikes try not to draw the magpie’s attention to the nest. The reason why this strategy is not used against the jay remains unanswered as jays as well as magpies show very similar cognitive and foraging skills enabling them to individuate the nest presence according to active parental defense. PMID:27454122

  5. Fatal hemoprotozoal infections in multiple avian species in a zoological park.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, Shannon T; Snowden, Karen; Marlar, Annajane B; Garner, Michael; Lung, Nancy P

    2007-06-01

    Over a 3-yr span, two juvenile lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor), two green jays (Cyanocorax yncas glaucescens), and two Montezuma oropendolas (Psarocolius montezuma) died peracutely with no premonitory signs at a zoological park in the southern United States. At necropsy, the birds were in excellent body condition. Except for one green jay, the coelomic cavities were filled with a dark serosanguineous fluid. Splenomegaly and hepatomegaly were present. The livers were tan to purple with numerous, randomly distributed red-to-black foci, ranging in size from 1 to 4 mm. The predominant histopathologic finding, except in one green jay, was large protozoal cysts in the hepatic parenchyma. Histologically, the protozoal cysts were restricted to the liver, and none were identified in the skeletal muscle, spleen, or other tissues. Frozen tissue samples harvested at necropsy had a nested polymerase chain reaction assay performed to amplify the mitochondrial cytochrome B gene of the protozoa. The amplified gene sequences were compared with reference cytochrome B gene sequences for avian Plasmodium spp., Haemoproteus spp., and Leucocytozoon spp. The protozoal parasite within the hepatic parenchyma from the Montezuma oropendolas and the lesser flamingos was identified as Haemoproteus spp. Both green jays had Plasmodium spp. isolated from the submitted tissue samples. The peracute nature of the infections precluded any successful medical intervention, making prevention by exclusion the principal means to control hemoprotozoal transmission. There are no reports in the literature documenting identified fatal hemoprotozoal infections in oropendolas, green jays, or lesser flamingos.

  6. Mobbing calls signal predator category in a kin group-living bird species.

    PubMed

    Griesser, Michael

    2009-08-22

    Many prey species gather together to approach and harass their predators despite the associated risks. While mobbing, prey usually utter calls and previous experiments have demonstrated that mobbing calls can convey information about risk to conspecifics. However, the risk posed by predators also differs between predator categories. The ability to communicate predator category would be adaptive because it would allow other mobbers to adjust their risk taking. I tested this idea in Siberian jays Perisoreus infaustus, a group-living bird species, by exposing jay groups to mounts of three hawk and three owl species of varying risks. Groups immediately approached to mob the mount and uttered up to 14 different call types. Jays gave more calls when mobbing a more dangerous predator and when in the presence of kin. Five call types were predator-category-specific and jays uttered two hawk-specific and three owl-specific call types. Thus, this is one of the first studies to demonstrate that mobbing calls can simultaneously encode information about both predator category and the risk posed by a predator. Since antipredator calls of Siberian jays are known to specifically aim at reducing the risk to relatives, kin-based sociality could be an important factor in facilitating the evolution of predator-category-specific mobbing calls. PMID:19474047

  7. Detection of Persistent West Nile Virus RNA in Experimentally and Naturally Infected Avian Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Sarah S.; Langevin, Stanley A.; Brault, Aaron C.; Woods, Leslie; Carroll, Brian D.; Reisen, William K.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether West Nile virus (WNV) persistent infection in avian hosts may potentially serve as an overwintering mechanism, House Sparrows and House Finches, experimentally and naturally infected with several strains of WNV, and two naturally infected Western Scrub-Jays were held in mosquito-proof outdoor aviaries from 2007–March 2008. Overall, 94% (n = 36) of House Sparrows, 100% (n = 14) of House Finches and 2 Western Scrub-Jays remained WNV antibody positive. When combined by species, 37% of the House Sparrows, 50% of the House Finches, and 2 Western Scrub-Jays were WNV RNA positive at necropsy, up to 36 weeks post-infection. Infectious WNV was not detected. Our study supports the hypothesis that some avian hosts support the long-term persistence of WNV RNA, but it remains unresolved whether these infections relapse to restart an avian-arthropod transmission cycle and thereby serve as an overwintering mechanism for WNV. PMID:22826479

  8. Ramsey patterns for multiquantum transitions in fountain experiments

    SciTech Connect

    McColm, D. |

    1996-12-01

    Ramsey patterns for radio-frequency multiquantum transitions among Zeeman levels of the ground state of thallium, cesium, and francium have been calculated. The narrowing of these patterns observed earlier by Gould is predicted to occur only when both static electric and magnetic fields are present. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  9. Report on Teaching: Analysis of Some of the Most Notable Improvements in Amesican Undergraduate Teaching. No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Change Magazine, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The fourth in a series of reports on undergraduate teaching contains articles on three disciplines: (1) geography (William D. Pattison, Salvatore J. Natoli, Peter Binzen, Charles J. Sugnet, Edwin Kiester, Jr., Sally Valente Kiester, Evan Jenkins, Peter Kakela, David Lanegran, Paul W. English, Peter Gould, and Alan DeLucia); (2) music (Theodore A.…

  10. 11. MODEL 200 CRANE, GENERAL ARRANGEMENT & CLEARANCES. Colby Steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. MODEL 200 CRANE, GENERAL ARRANGEMENT & CLEARANCES. Colby Steel & Engineering Company, Vancouver B.C., Seattle, New York. Two elevations and cab plan. No architect noted, drawn by "Gould." Sheet A2, No. 6365. Scale not given. August 10, 1942. "Proposal no. 318." blueline print - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Crane, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  11. Notice of release of 'Bannock II' thickspike wheatgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) announces the cultivar release of 'Bannock II' thickspike wheatgrass [Elymus lanceolatus (Scribn. & J.G. Sm.) Gould]. 'Bannock II', a five clone synthetic, is the result of hybridization among selected genotypes from thickspike wheatgrass cultivars 'Bann...

  12. The Scientific Method: Is It Still Useful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Scott B.; James, Linda

    2004-01-01

    While the scientific method is a logical, orderly way to solve a problem or answer a question, it is not a magical formula that is too complicated for nonscientists to comprehend (Keeton and Gould 1986). The scientific method may include a variety of steps, processes, and definitions. It should not be seen as a single series of steps, with no…

  13. Quality of Life for the Camberwell Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beadle-Brown, Julie; Murphy, Glynis; DiTerlizzi, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Background: Despite the acknowledged difficulties of measuring satisfaction for people with intellectual disabilities, the current study examined the quality of life (QoL) of the Camberwell Cohort, a total population sample of people with severe intellectual disability and/or autism [Wing & Gould, "Epidemiology and Classification," 9, 1979, 11].…

  14. 54. DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC AIRBORNE BEACON EQUIPMENT TEST SET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC AIRBORNE BEACON EQUIPMENT TEST SET (LEFT) AND ASSOCIATED GOULD BRUSH CHART RECORDERS (RIGHT). ELAPSED TIME COUNTER SITS ATOP AIRBORNE BEACON EQUIPMENT TEST SET. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. 75 FR 15725 - Termination of Royalty-in-Kind (RIK) Eligible Refiner Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ...: March 18, 2010. Gregory J. Gould, Associate Director for Minerals Revenue Management. BILLING CODE 4310... Minerals Management Service Termination of Royalty-in-Kind (RIK) Eligible Refiner Program AGENCY: Minerals Management Service, Interior. ACTION: Advance notice for the termination of the RIK Eligible Refiner...

  16. Effective Communication in the Autobiographical Narratives of Two Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Christopher

    For a composition teacher--comparing a passage from his Caucasian grandmother's (May Blossom Gould's) diary with the autobiographical narrative dictated by an African-American student's great-great grandmother (Violet McNeil) to a literate member of her family--racial politics and the privileges afforded by literacy irrevocably separate the two…

  17. 41. 'Firing Pier, Second Floor Plan, Section No. 2,' submitted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. 'Firing Pier, Second Floor Plan, Section No. 2,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3867-46, Y&D Drawing 190841. Scale 1/4' = 1'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  18. 19. Interior first level view looking north within forward (north) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Interior first level view looking north within forward (north) section of firing pier. Objects pictured include torpedo cart (left), floor-mounted roller tray (extending to lower right), and (at center rear), deck-type firing tube. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  19. 14. View south from first level roof of firing pier. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View south from first level roof of firing pier. Pitched corrugated metal roof marks location of the frame approach connecting the firing pier to the shop (shown in left distance). - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  20. 40. 'Firing Pier, Second Floor Plan, Section No. 1,' submitted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. 'Firing Pier, Second Floor Plan, Section No. 1,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3866-46, Y&D Drawing 190840. Scale 1/4' = 1'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI